Sample records for hydrogel lens dehydration

  1. Fabricating customized hydrogel contact lens


    Andre Childs; Hao Li; Daniella M. Lewittes; Biqin Dong; Wenzhong Liu; Xiao Shu; Cheng Sun; Zhang, Hao F.


    Contact lenses are increasingly used in laboratories for in vivo animal retinal imaging and pre-clinical studies. The lens shapes often need modification to optimally fit corneas of individual test subjects. However, the choices from commercially available contact lenses are rather limited. Here, we report a flexible method to fabricate customized hydrogel contact lenses. We showed that the fabricated hydrogel is highly transparent, with refractive indices ranging from 1.42 to 1.45 in the spe...

  2. Fabricating customized hydrogel contact lens (United States)

    Childs, Andre; Li, Hao; Lewittes, Daniella M.; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Wenzhong; Shu, Xiao; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.


    Contact lenses are increasingly used in laboratories for in vivo animal retinal imaging and pre-clinical studies. The lens shapes often need modification to optimally fit corneas of individual test subjects. However, the choices from commercially available contact lenses are rather limited. Here, we report a flexible method to fabricate customized hydrogel contact lenses. We showed that the fabricated hydrogel is highly transparent, with refractive indices ranging from 1.42 to 1.45 in the spectra range from 400 nm to 800 nm. The Young’s modulus (1.47 MPa) and hydrophobicity (with a sessile drop contact angle of 40.5°) have also been characterized experimentally. Retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography in rats wearing our customized contact lenses has the quality comparable to the control case without the contact lens. Our method could significantly reduce the cost and the lead time for fabricating soft contact lenses with customized shapes, and benefit the laboratorial-used contact lenses in pre-clinical studies.

  3. Injectable Intraocular lens materials based upon hydrogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, JH; van Beijma, FJ; Haitjema, HJ; Dillingham, KA; Hodd, KA; Koopmans, SA; Norrby, S


    The possibilities to develop an injectable hydrogel lens were investigated. Aqueous solutions of reactive polymers in combination with a water-soluble blue light photoinitiator were transformed into hydrogels by irradiation with blue light. Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylates (PEGDA) with low

  4. Dynamic in vitro dehydration patterns of unworn and worn silicone hydrogel contact lenses. (United States)

    González-Méijome, J M; López-Alemany, A; Almeida, J B; Parafita, M A


    To evaluate the effect of wear on dynamic in vitro dehydration of silicone hydrogel (Si-Hi) contact lens (CL) using a previously described gravimetric procedure. Five different silicone hydrogel (Si-Hi) contact lenses (CL) were evaluated after being worn by patients under daily wear conditions for 15 days to 1 month. Lenses were conditioned and disinfected with a multipurpose solution after each day of wear. Lenses were left to dehydrate in an analytical balance under controlled conditions of temperature and relative humidity and the results compared with data from new lens samples of the same power and material. Several quantitative parameters were obtained and compared between worn and unworn samples. The quantitative parameters derived from the dehydration curves showed statistically significant differences between worn and unworn lenses regarding the initial dehydration rate and ability to maintain their original hydration. Worn lenses showed shorter phase I duration (decreased by 30 to 60% compared to unworn samples), a significantly faster initial dehydration rate (increased by about 1%/minute), and lower water retention index (decreased by 10 to 20%) as derived from the initial cumulative dehydration. All the differences were statistically significant for all lenses (p lenses had been equilibrated in saline solution for several days, the materials lose their ability to retain water. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Qualitative and quantitative characterization of the in vitro dehydration process of hydrogel contact lenses. (United States)

    González-Méijome, José M; López-Alemany, Antonio; Almeida, José B; Parafita, Manuel A; Refojo, Miguel F


    To investigate the in vitro dehydration process of conventional hydrogel and silicone-hydrogel contact lens materials. Eight conventional hydrogel and five silicone-hydrogel contact lenses were dehydrated under controlled environmental conditions on an analytical balance. Data were taken at 1-min intervals and dehydration curves of cumulative dehydration (CD), valid dehydration (VD), and dehydration rate (DR) were obtained. Several quantitative descriptors of the dehydration process were obtained by further processing of the information. Duration of phase I (r(2) = 0.921), CD at end of phase I (r(2) = 0.971), time to achieve a DR of -1%/min (r(2) = 0.946) were strongly correlated with equilibrium water content (EWC) of the materials. For each individual sample, the VD at different time intervals can be accurately determined using a 2nd order regression equation (r(2) > 0.99 for all samples). The first 5 min of the dehydration process show a relatively uniform average CD of about -1.5%/min. After that, there was a trend towards higher average CD for the following 15 min as the EWC of the material increases (r(2) = 0.701). As a consequence, average VD for the first 5 min displayed a negative correlation with EWC (r(2) = 0.835), and a trend towards uniformization among CL materials for the following periods (r(2) = 0.014). Overall, silicone-hydrogel materials display a lower dehydration, but this seems to be primarily due to their lower EWC. DR curves under the conditions of the present study can be described as a three-phase process. Phase I consists of a relatively uniform DR with a duration that ranges from 10 to almost 60 min and is strongly correlated with the EWC of the polymer as it is the CD during this phase. Overall, HEMA-based hydrogels dehydrate to a greater extent and faster than silicone-hydrogel materials. There are differences in water retention between lenses of similar water content and thickness that should be further investigated.

  6. Comparation of effectiveness of silicone hydrogel contact lens and hydrogel contact lens in patients after LASEK. (United States)

    Xie, Wen-Juan; Zeng, Jin; Cui, Ying; Li, Juan; Li, Zhong-Ming; Liao, Wei-Xiong; Yang, Xiao-Hong


    To conduct a comparative study of effectiveness of silicone hydrogel contact lens and hydrogel contact lens, which are used in patients after laser-assisted subepithelial keratomileusis (LASEK). Sixty-three patients (121 eyes) with a spherical equivalent ≤-5.0 D were chosen after undergoing LASEK in 2012 at Guangdong General Hospital. They were randomly divided into 2 groups. The silicone hydrogel group included 32 cases (61 eyes) that wore silicone hydrogel contact lenses for 4-6d after the operation, while the hydrogel group included 31 cases (60 eyes) who wore hydrogel contact lenses for 4-6d after the operation. Patients' self-reported postoperative symptoms (including pain, photophobia, tears, and foreign body sensation) were evaluated. The healing time of the corneal epithelium, the visual acuity of patients without contact lens after epithelial healing, and the incidence of delayed corneal epithelial shedding were also assessed. The follow-up time was 1mo. Postoperative symptoms were milder in the silicone hydrogel group than in the hydrogel group. There were significant differences in pain, foreign body sensation, and photophobia between the 2 groups (P0.05). The healing time of the corneal epithelium in the silicone hydrogel lens group was markedly shorter than that in the hydrogel group (4.07±0.25 vs 4.33±0.82d, t=2.43, P=0.02). Visual acuity without contact lenses after healing of the corneal epithelium was better in the silicone hydrogel group compared with the hydrogel group (χ (2)=7.76, P=0.02). There was no significant difference in the occurrence of delayed corneal epithelial shedding between the 2 groups (P>0.05). Patients with LASEK using silicon hydrogel contact lenses had less discomfort and shorter corneal epithelial healing time compared with those using hydrogel contact lenses, suggesting that silicon hydrogel contact lenses may be considered to be a better choice of bandage contact lens after LASEK.

  7. Comparation of effectiveness of silicone hydrogel contact lens and hydrogel contact lens in patients after LASEK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Juan Xie


    Full Text Available AIM: To conduct a comparative study of effectiveness of silicone hydrogel contact lens and hydrogel contact lens, which are used in patients after laser-assisted subepithelial keratomileusis (LASEK. METHODS: Sixty-three patients (121 eyes with a spherical equivalent ≤-5.0 D were chosen after undergoing LASEK in 2012 at Guangdong General Hospital. They were randomly divided into 2 groups. The silicone hydrogel group included 32 cases (61 eyes that wore silicone hydrogel contact lenses for 4-6d after the operation, while the hydrogel group included 31 cases (60 eyes who wore hydrogel contact lenses for 4-6d after the operation. Patients’ self-reported postoperative symptoms (including pain, photophobia, tears, and foreign body sensation were evaluated. The healing time of the corneal epithelium, the visual acuity of patients without contact lens after epithelial healing, and the incidence of delayed corneal epithelial shedding were also assessed. The follow-up time was 1mo. RESULTS: Postoperative symptoms were milder in the silicone hydrogel group than in the hydrogel group. There were significant differences in pain, foreign body sensation, and photophobia between the 2 groups (P0.05. The healing time of the corneal epithelium in the silicone hydrogel lens group was markedly shorter than that in the hydrogel group (4.07±0.25 vs 4.33±0.82d, t=2.43, P=0.02. Visual acuity without contact lenses after healing of the corneal epithelium was better in the silicone hydrogel group compared with the hydrogel group (χ2=7.76, P=0.02. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of delayed corneal epithelial shedding between the 2 groups (P>0.05. CONCLUSION: Patients with LASEK using silicon hydrogel contact lenses had less discomfort and shorter corneal epithelial healing time compared with those using hydrogel contact lenses, suggesting that silicon hydrogel contact lenses may be considered to be a better choice of bandage contact lens after

  8. Hydrogels for an accommodating intraocular lens. An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, JH; Spaans, CJ; van Calck, RV; van Beijma, FJ; Norrby, S; Pennings, AJ


    In this study it was investigated whether hydrogels could be used for an accommodating lens. The requirements of such a hydrogels are a low modulus, high refractive index, transparency, and strength. Since conventional hydrogels do not possess this combination of properties, a novel preparation

  9. Dynamic contour tonometry over silicone hydrogel contact lens. (United States)

    Lam, Andrew K C; Tse, Jimmy S H


    This study compared the measurements of intraocular pressure (IOP) and ocular pulse amplitude (OPA) using the Dynamic Contour Tonometry (DCT) over silicone hydrogel contact lenses of different modulus. Corneal biomechanics were also measured using the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA). Forty-seven young (mean age 22.3 years, standard deviation 1.2 years) subjects had IOP, OPA, corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) measured without lens and with two brands of silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Each eye wore one brand followed by another, randomly assigned, and then the lenses switched over. Difference and agreement of IOP and OPA with and without silicone hydrogel contact lens were studied. The right and left eyes had similar corneal curvatures, central corneal thicknesses, IOP, OPA and corneal biomechanics at baseline. No significant difference was found in CH and CRF when they were measured over different contact lenses. IOP demonstrated a greater difference (95% limits of agreement: 2.73mmHg) compared with no lens when it was measured over high modulus silicone hydrogel lenses. Agreement improved over low lens modulus silicone hydrogel lenses (95% limits of agreement: 2.2-2.4mmHg). 95% limits of agreement were within 1.0mmHg for OPA. This study demonstrated the feasibility of DCT over silicone hydrogel lenses. Low lens modulus silicone hydrogel contact lens in situ has no clinical effect on DCT. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of the post-lens tear film in the mechanism of inferior arcuate staining with ultrathin hydrogel lenses. (United States)

    Little, S A; Bruce, A S


    We studied the depletion of the post-lens tear film as contributing to inferior arcuate staining with ultrathin high water content hydrogel lenses. We monitored the post-lens tear film specular reflection of hydrogel lenses (0.04 mm center thickness, 67% nominal water content), which caused inferior arcuate staining. A standard thickness (0.12 mm) lens was worn in the contralateral eye as a control condition. Lenses were worn for a 2 hour period by 20 subjects. Post-lens tear film appearances were categorized as amorphous, faint colored, or colored, where the colored patterns represented a relatively depleted post-lens tear film. We also measured lens dehydration, lens adherence, and pre-lens tear film stability in order to evaluate their role in inferior arcuate staining. The ultrathin and standard lenses caused staining in 100 and 75% of subjects, respectively; the severity of staining was much greater with the ultrathin lenses (Wilcoxon signed ranks test, P = 0.0004). The ultrathin lenses were associated with a higher incidence of post-lens tear film depletion (P = 0.018), had greater front surface dehydration (P = 0.0004), and were more adherent to the eye (paired t-test, P = 0.001). However, pre-lens tear thinning times were not significantly different between the two lens types (Wilcoxon signed ranks test, P > 0.05). These findings support the contention that post-lens tear film depletion is a component of a lens adherence or lens dehydration mediated mechanism of inferior arcuate staining.

  11. Lubricant effects on low Dk and silicone hydrogel lens comfort. (United States)

    Ozkan, Jerome; Papas, Eric


    To investigate the influence of three lubricants of varying viscosity, on postinsertion and 6 h comfort with contact lens wear. Comfort and associated symptoms of dryness were assessed in 15 experienced contact lens wearers. Subjects wore a low Dk lens in one eye and a silicone hydrogel in the other and participated in four separate trials involving no lubricant (baseline), saline, and two commercially available lubricants of differing viscosity. The in-eye lubricants were used immediately following lens insertion and every 2 h postinsertion for a 6 h wear period. Postlens insertion comfort was significantly better for both lens types when lubricants or saline were used compared with no lubricant use. After 6 h lens wear, comfort was influenced by lens type and not by in-eye lubricant or saline use. Also after 6 h lens wear, less dryness sensation was reported for silicone hydrogel lenses when using lubricants but not saline. Although lubricant use does help reduce dryness symptoms with silicone hydrogel lens wear, there appears to be minimal longer-term benefit to comfort. Furthermore, increased lubricant viscosity did not lead to improved longer-term comfort.

  12. Risk factors for contact lens-induced papillary conjunctivitis associated with silicone hydrogel contact lens wear. (United States)

    Tagliaferri, Angela; Love, Thomas E; Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta B


    Contact lens-induced papillary conjunctivitis (CLPC) continues to be a major cause of dropout during extended wear of contact lenses. This retrospective study explores risk factors for the development of CLPC during extended wear of silicone hydrogel lenses. Data from 205 subjects enrolled in the Longitudinal Analysis of Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lens study wearing lotrafilcon A silicone hydrogel lenses for up to 30 days of continuous wear were used to determine risk factors for CLPC in this secondary analysis of the main cohort. The main covariates of interest included substantial lens-associated bacterial bioburden and topographically determined lens base curve-to-cornea fitting relationships. Additional covariates of interest included history of adverse events, time of year, race, education level, gender, and other subject demographics. Statistical analyses included univariate logistic regression to assess the impact of potential risk factors on the binary CLPC outcome and Cox proportional hazards regression to describe the impact of those factors on time-to-CLPC diagnosis. Across 12 months of follow-up, 52 subjects (25%) experienced CLPC. No associations were found between the CLPC development and the presence of bacterial bioburden, lens-to-cornea fitting relationships, history of adverse events, gender, or race. Contact lens-induced papillary conjunctivitis development followed the same seasonal trends as the local peaks in environmental allergens. Lens fit and biodeposits, in the form of lens-associated bacterial bioburden, were not associated with the development of CLPC during extended wear with lotrafilcon A silicone hydrogel lenses.

  13. Comparation of effectiveness of silicone hydrogel contact lens and hydrogel contact lens in patients after LASEK

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wen-Juan Xie Jin Zeng Ying Cui Juan Li Zhong-Ming Li Wei-Xiong Liao Xiao-Hong Yang


    .... They were randomly divided into 2 groups. The silicone hydrogel group included 32 cases(61 eyes) that wore silicone hydrogel contact lenses for 4-6d after the operation, while the hydrogel group included 31 cases(60 eyes...

  14. Comparison of Development of Dry Eye in Conventional Hydrogel and Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lens Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukiye Aydın


    Full Text Available Pur po se: To compare the level and severity of dry eye between conventional hydrogel and silicone hydrogel contact lens users by using dry eye questionnaires and clinical tests. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Forty-two contact lens users who attended the Cornea and Contact Lens Unit, Department of Ophthalmology at Dokuz Eylül University, were included in this study. The first group consisted of subjects who have used conventional hydrogel (CHL contact lens for minimum one year and maximum five years. The second group consisted of subjects who have used silicone hydrogel (SHL contact lens for minimum one year and maximum 5 years. Twenty healthy individuals with no history of contact lens use were included in the control group. OSDI (Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire was performed to all patients. The tear function was determined by Schirmer’s test and tear break-up time in all three groups. Re sults: There was no statistically significant OSDI score differences between CHL and SHL users. Nevertheless, it was noted that OSDI score in both groups was statistically higher than in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference in tear break-up time between CHL and SHL users. On the other hand, tear break-up time was significantly lower in both groups when compared to the control group. There was no significant difference among the groups for Schirmer scoring. Dis cus si on: The use of conventional hydrogel and silicone hydrogel lenses causes a decline in tear break-up time leading to dry eye symptoms. However, no differences were determined between CHL and SHL users with regard to the severity of dry eye symptoms. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 7-14

  15. [Now soft toric contact lenses; silicone hydrogel lens for astigmatism]. (United States)

    Radu, Simona


    Soft toric contact lenses are a good alternative for the optical correction of astigmatism. They provide a wide visual field, quick adaptation process, negligible aniseikonia, together with enhanced comfort and reduced incidence of complications introduced by the lenses for frequent replacement. Still practitioners do not recommend them proactively and the satisfaction obtained by the patients is not high enough. This paper presents two recent studies that investigate the opinions of specialists and contact lens wearers and introduce a new contact lens, with an original design, born after 30 years of domination of only 2 modalities of rotational stabilization: prism ballast and dual thin zones. The lens is manufactured using a silicon-hydrogel material of 2-nd generation that provides sustained comfort and better oxygenation.

  16. The effect of lens wear on refractive index of conventional hydrogel and silicone-hydrogel contact lenses: a comparative study. (United States)

    Lira, M; Santos, L; Azeredo, J; Yebra-Pimentel, E; Real Oliveira, M E C D


    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the ability of four silicone-hydrogel contact lenses (galyfilcon A, balafilcon A, lotrafilcon A and lotrafilcon B) to retain their equilibrium water content before and after wear, through measurements of refractive index and compare with that of a conventional disposable hydrogel contact lens (etafilcon A). The refractive indices of 115 contact lenses were measured using an automated refractometer (CLR 12-70, Index Instruments, Cambridge, U.K.) before and after a schedule of daily wear by 58 patients for 30 days in the case of silicone-hydrogel lenses and 15 days for the conventional contact lenses. In the silicone-hydrogel contact lenses the changes on the refractive indices were not statistically significant, however after being worn the refractive index of the conventional etalfilcon A hydrogel contact lens increased significantly (psilicone-hydrogel contact lens, show more capacity to retain or to reach their initial equilibrium water content than conventional hydrogel contact lenses. This suggests that the silicone-hydrogel contact lenses are less susceptible to spoilation over time maintaining its biocompatibility and contributing to the clinical success of lens performance.

  17. Nanoscale Observation of Dehydration Process in PHEMA Hydrogel Structure (United States)

    Chamerski, Kordian; Korzekwa, Witold; Filipecki, Jacek; Shpotyuk, Olha; Stopa, Marcin; Jeleń, Piotr; Sitarz, Maciej


    One of the most important field of interest in respect to hydrogel materials is their capability to water storage. The problem mentioned above plays an important role regarding to diffusion of fluid media containing nanoparticles, what is very useful in biomedical applications, such as artificial polymeric implants, drug delivery systems or tissue engineering.

  18. Elemental Composition at Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lens Surfaces. (United States)

    Rex, Jessica; Knowles, Timothy; Zhao, Xueying; Lemp, Jessie; Maissa, Cecile; Perry, Scott S


    The outermost surface composition of 11 silicone hydrogel (SiHy) lenses was measured using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to understand differences in wettability and potential interactions within an ocular environment. The SiHy lenses tested included balafilcon A, lotrafilcon A, lotrafilcon B, senofilcon A, comfilcon A, and somofilcon A reusable 2-week or monthly replacement lenses and delefilcon A, samfilcon A, narafilcon A, stenfilcon A, and somofilcon A daily disposable lenses. All lenses were soaked for 24 hr in phosphate-buffered saline to remove all packaging solution and dried under vacuum overnight before analysis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were performed at 2 take-off angles, 55° and 75°, to evaluate changes in elemental composition as a function of depth from the surface. Detailed analysis of the XPS data revealed distinct differences in the chemical makeup of the different lens types. For all lenses, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen were observed in varying quantities. In addition, fluorine was detected at the outermost surface region of comfilcon A (3.4%) and lotrafilcon A and B (silicon content of the near-surface region analyzed varied among lens types, ranging from a low of 1.6% (lotrafilcon B) to a high of 16.5% (comfilcon A). In most instances, silicon enrichment at the outermost surface was observed, resulting from differences in lens formulation and design. Lenses differed most in their surface silicon concentration, with lotrafilcon B and delefilcon A exhibiting the lowest silicon contents and comfilcon A lens exhibiting the highest. Silicon has hydrophobic properties, which, when found at the surface, may influence the wettability of the contact lenses and their interaction with the tear film and ocular tissues. Higher surface silicon contents have been previously correlated with adverse effects, such as enhanced lipid uptake, thus underscoring the importance of monitoring their presence.

  19. Lens epithelial cell layer formation related to hydrogel foldable intraocular lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, M.W.; Kalicharan, D; van der Want, JJL


    Purpose: To determine the incidence of postoperative lens epithelial cel (LEC) layer formation anterior to the Hydroview hydrogel foldable intraocular lens (IOL), the effect on vision, and the appearance under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Setting: Eye Unit of district general hospital,

  20. Lens adherence and postlens tear film changes in closed-eye wear of hydrogel lenses. (United States)

    Bruce, A S; Mainstone, J C


    Lens adherence and a reduced postlens tear film circulation have been suggested as factors contributing to some adverse reactions in extended wear of hydrogel contact lenses. In this study, we determined lens fitting and postlens tear film characteristics during closed-eye wear. Twenty subjects wore hydrogel lenses for 3 h of eye closure, followed by 30 min of open-eye wear. Lens movement was measured with a video biomicroscope. Postlens tear film appearances in specular reflection were classified as either amorphous, or as one of four color intensity grades, where a colored appearance was taken as indicative of a depleted postlens tear film. All subjects showed lens adherence (movement colored postlens tear film patterns of any intensity. Closed-eye wear was invariably associated with the onset of lens adherence and postlens tear film depletion. This finding emphasizes the need for adequate lens movement during the open-eye phase of extended wear.

  1. Dehydration (United States)

    ... chronic illness have a greater risk. Signs of dehydration in adults include Being thirsty Urinating less often ... skin Feeling tired Dizziness and fainting Signs of dehydration in babies and young children include a dry ...

  2. The efficiency of contact lens care regimens on protein removal from hydrogel and silicone hydrogel lenses (United States)

    Heynen, Miriam; Liu, Lina; Sheardown, Heather; Jones, Lyndon


    Purpose To investigate the efficiency of lysozyme and albumin removal from silicone hydrogel and conventional contact lenses, using a polyhexamethylene biguanide multipurpose solution (MPS) in a soaking or rubbing/soaking application and a hydrogen peroxide system (H2O2). Methods Etafilcon A, lotrafilcon B and balafilcon A materials were incubated in protein solutions for up to 14 days. Lenses were either placed in radiolabeled protein to quantify the amount deposited or in fluorescent-conjugated protein to identify its location, using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Lenses were either rinsed with PBS or soaked overnight in H2O2 or MPS with and without lens rubbing. Results After 14 days lysozyme was highest on etafilcon A (2,200 μg) >balafilcon A (50 µg) >lotrafilcon B (9.7 µg) and albumin was highest on balafilcon A (1.9 µg) =lotrafilcon B (1.8 µg) >etafilcon A (0.2 µg). Lysozyme removal was greatest for balafilcon A >etafilcon A >lotrafilcon B, with etafilcon A showing the most change in protein distribution. Albumin removal was highest from etafilcon A >balafilcon A >lotrafilcon B. H2O2 exhibited greater lysozyme removal from etafilcon A compared to both MPS procedures (plenses (p>0.62). Albumin removal was solely material specific, while all care regimens performed to a similar degree (p>0.69). Conclusions Protein removal efficiency for the regimens evaluated depended on the lens material and protein type. Overall, lens rubbing with MPS before soaking did not reduce the protein content on the lenses compared to nonrubbed lenses (p=0.89). PMID:20098668

  3. Exploring pH-Sensitive Hydrogels Using an Ionic Soft Contact Lens: An Activity Using Common Household Materials (United States)

    Chen, Yueh-Huey; He, Yu-Chi; Yaung, Jing-Fun


    Hydrogels of the so-called smart polymers or environment-sensitive polymers are important modern biomaterials. Herein, we describe a hands-on activity to explore the pH-responsive characteristics of hydrogels using a commercially available ionic soft contact lens that is a hydrogel of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-"co"-methacrylic…

  4. A silicone hydrogel contact lens after 7 years of continuous wear. (United States)

    Yesilirmak, Nilufer; Altınors, Dilek D


    To report an unusual case with a bandage silicone hydrogel lens that was applied over cyanoacrylate glue application for corneal perforation. Retrospective, interventional case report. A 67-year-old woman with a history of corneal trauma experienced spontaneous corneal perforation in her left eye. Upon arrival, her anterior chamber was flat and Seidel test was positive. After initial treatment with cyanoacrylate adhesive and a bandage silicone hydrogel contact lens, there was no leakage and the anterior chamber was formed at the follow-up period. She was started topical antibiotics. After 7 years, she came back with the complaint of permanent redness in her left eye with the same silicone hydrogel lens in her eye. Corneal healing may occur under cyanoacrylate adhesive glue with therapeutic contact lenses and with proper antibiotic application. Silicone hydrogel contact lenses exhibit good efficacy and safety when utilized as a continuous wear therapeutic lens with antibiotics. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Proteoglycan 4 and hyaluronan as boundary lubricants for model contact lens hydrogels. (United States)

    Samsom, Michael; Iwabuchi, Yuno; Sheardown, Heather; Schmidt, Tannin A


    Clinical data show that in vitro contact lens friction is related to in vivo comfort. Solutions of biological lubricants hyaluronan (HA) and proteoglycan 4 (PRG4, also known as lubricin) reduce friction at a cornea-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) interface. The purpose of this study was to (1) determine if PRG4 can sorb to and lubricate model contact lens materials and (2) assess the boundary lubricating ability of PRG4 and HA compared to saline on model contact lens materials. PRG4 was obtained from bovine cartilage culture and suspended in saline at 300 µg/mL. N,N-Dimethylacrylamidetris (trimethylsiloxy) silane, (DMAA/TRIS) and methacryloxypropyltris (trimethylsiloxy) silane (pHEMA/TRIS) silicone hydrogels were prepared. A previously described in vitro eyelid-hydrogel and cornea-hydrogel biomechanical friction test was used to determine boundary lubricant effect. PRG4 sorption to the hydrogels was assessed using a soak-rinse protocol and western blotting. PRG4 effectively lubricated both silicone hydrogel materials and HA effectively lubricated pHEMA/TRIS, as indicated by a statistically significant reduction in friction compared to the saline control lubricant. An HA and PRG4 combination showed a synergistic effect for pHEMA/TRIS and effectively lubricated DMAA/TRIS. Biological boundary lubricants HA and PRG4 were shown to effectively lubricate silicone hydrogels when in solution. Additionally, HA and PRG4 showed synergistic lubrication for pHEMA/TRIS. The purpose of this study was not to replicate the friction coefficients of contact lenses, but rather to investigate lubricant-surface interactions for common contact lens constituents. These findings contribute to the potential development of biomolecule based lubricant drops for contact lens wearers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Dehydration (United States)

    ... dehydration: Not urinating, or very dark yellow or amber-colored urine Dry, shriveled skin Irritability or confusion Dizziness or light-headedness Rapid heartbeat Rapid breathing Sunken eyes Listlessness Shock (not enough blood flow through the ...

  7. Preparation, characterization and antimicrobial study of a hydrogel (soft contact lens) material impregnated with silver nanoparticles. (United States)

    Fazly Bazzaz, Bibi Sedigheh; Khameneh, Bahman; Jalili-Behabadi, Mohammad-mehdi; Malaekeh-Nikouei, Bizhan; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad


    Contact lenses that incorporate antimicrobial properties may reduce the risk for microbial-associated adverse events for lens wearers. The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles (NP) when impregnated in a hydrogel material. Hydrogel disks, used as a proxy for soft contact lenses, were prepared with silver NPs to add an antimicrobial effect to the polymer. Six groups of disks were created, each with a different concentration of silver NPs. The antimicrobial effect of the hydrogels against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC15442) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC6538) was evaluated at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h. Silver NP concentrations ranged from 20.71 to 98.06 μg/disk. All groups demonstrated excellent antibacterial effects against P. aeruginosa at each time point. After 6h all disks didn't exhibit desirable antibacterial activity against S. aureus; whereas except those with 20.71 μg silver NPs showed antibacterial activity at 24h and only the disks with 57.13 and 98.06 μg silver NPs showed antimicrobial activity at 48 and 72 h. The development of contact lenses made of a silver NP-impregnated hydrogel material may bring antimicrobial effects sufficient to decrease the risk of microbial-related adverse events for lens wearers. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cyclodextrin-containing hydrogels as an intraocular lens for sustained drug release (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Kaijie; Yang, Xiaohui; Zhu, Siquan


    To improve the efficacy of anti-inflammatory factors in patients who undergo cataract surgery, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) (p(HEMA-co-MMA)) hydrogels containing β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) (pHEMA/MMA/β-CD) were designed and prepared as intraocular lens (IOLs) biomaterials that could be loaded with and achieve the sustained release of dexamethasone. A series of pHEMA/MMA/β-CD copolymers containing different ratios of β-CD (range, 2.77 to 10.24 wt.%) were obtained using thermal polymerization. The polymers had high transmittance at visible wavelengths and good biocompatibility with mouse connective tissue fibroblasts. Drug loading and release studies demonstrated that introducing β-CD into hydrogels increased loading efficiency and achieved the sustained release of the drug. Administering β-CD via hydrogels increased the equilibrium swelling ratio, elastic modulus and tensile strength. In addition, β-CD increased the hydrophilicity of the hydrogels, resulting in a lower water contact angle and higher cellular adhesion to the hydrogels. In summary, pHEMA/MMA/β-CD hydrogels show great potential as IOL biomaterials that are capable of maintaining the sustained release of anti-inflammatory drugs after cataract surgery. PMID:29244868

  9. Effect of controlled adverse chamber environment exposure on tear functions in silicon hydrogel and hydrogel soft contact lens wearers. (United States)

    Kojima, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Ibrahim, Osama M A; Wakamatsu, Tais Hitomi; Uchino, Miki; Fukagawa, Kazumi; Ogawa, Junko; Dogru, Murat; Negishi, Kazuno; Tsubota, Kazuo


    To prospectively evaluate the effect of controlled adverse chamber environment (CACE) exposure on tear function, including tear osmolarity, in subjects wearing narafilcon A versus those wearing etafilcon A soft contact lens (SCL). Thirty-one healthy subjects with no history of contact lens wear (13 women, 18 men; average age, 30.5 ± 6.5 years) were randomly divided into age- and sex-matched groups (15 subjects wearing narafilcon A SCL; 16 subjects wearing etafilcon A SCL) and entered a CACE for 20 minutes. All subjects underwent tear osmolarity, tear evaporation rate, strip meniscometry, tear film breakup time, fluorescein vital staining, and functional visual acuity measurement before and after exposure to the controlled adverse chamber. The mean blink rate increased with significant deteriorations in the mean symptom VAS scores, mean tear osmolarity, tear evaporation rate, strip meniscometry score, and tear stability with CACE exposure along with a decrease in visual maintenance ratio in functional visual acuity testing in etafilcon A wearers. The mean symptom VAS scores, mean tear evaporation rate, tear stability, blink rates, and visual maintenance ratios did not change significantly in narafilcon A wearers after CACE exposure. This study suggested marked tear instability, higher tear osmolarity, and increased tear evaporation with marked dry eye and visual symptomatology in nonadapted hydrogel SCL wearers, suggesting that silicone hydrogel SCLs may be suitable for persons who live and work in cool, low-humidity, and windy environments, as tested in this study.

  10. Corneal cell adhesion to contact lens hydrogel materials enhanced via tear film protein deposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Elkins

    Full Text Available Tear film protein deposition on contact lens hydrogels has been well characterized from the perspective of bacterial adhesion and viability. However, the effect of protein deposition on lens interactions with the corneal epithelium remains largely unexplored. The current study employs a live cell rheometer to quantify human corneal epithelial cell adhesion to soft contact lenses fouled with the tear film protein lysozyme. PureVision balafilcon A and AirOptix lotrafilcon B lenses were soaked for five days in either phosphate buffered saline (PBS, borate buffered saline (BBS, or Sensitive Eyes Plus Saline Solution (Sensitive Eyes, either pure or in the presence of lysozyme. Treated contact lenses were then contacted to a live monolayer of corneal epithelial cells for two hours, after which the contact lens was sheared laterally. The apparent cell monolayer relaxation modulus was then used to quantify the extent of cell adhesion to the contact lens surface. For both lens types, lysozyme increased corneal cell adhesion to the contact lens, with the apparent cell monolayer relaxation modulus increasing up to an order of magnitude in the presence of protein. The magnitude of this increase depended on the identity of the soaking solution: lenses soaked in borate-buffered solutions (BBS, Sensitive Eyes exhibited a much greater increase in cell attachment upon protein addition than those soaked in PBS. Significantly, all measurements were conducted while subjecting the cells to moderate surface pressures and shear rates, similar to those experienced by corneal cells in vivo.

  11. Ethylene oxide-block-butylene oxide copolymer uptake by silicone hydrogel contact lens materials

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    Huo, Yuchen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Rhines Hall 100, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Ketelson, Howard [Alcon Inc., Research and Development, Vision Care, 6201 South Freeway, Fort Worth, TX 76134 (United States); Perry, Scott S., E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Rhines Hall 100, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)


    Four major types of silicone hydrogel contact lens material have been investigated following treatments in aqueous solutions containing poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(butylenes oxide) block copolymer (EO–BO). The extent of lens surface modification by EO–BO and the degree of bulk uptake were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), respectively. The experimental results suggest that different interaction models exist for the lenses, highlighting the influence of both surface and bulk composition, which greatly differs between the lenses examined. Specifically, lenses with hydrophilic surface treatments, i.e., PureVision{sup ®} (balafilcon A) and O{sub 2}OPTIX (lotrafilcon B), demonstrated strong evidence of preferential surface adsorption within the near-surface region. In comparison, surface adsorption on ACUVUE{sup ®} Oasys{sup ®} (senofilcon A) and Biofinity{sup ®} (comfilcon A) was limited. As for bulk absorption, the amount of EO–BO uptake was the greatest for balafilcon A and comfilcon A, and least for lotrafilcon B. These findings confirm the presence of molecular concentration gradients within the silicone hydrogel lenses following exposure to EO–BO solutions, with the nature of such concentration gradients found to be lens-specific. Together, the results suggest opportunities for compositional modifications of lenses for improved performance via solution treatments containing surface-active agents.

  12. Ethylene oxide-block-butylene oxide copolymer uptake by silicone hydrogel contact lens materials (United States)

    Huo, Yuchen; Ketelson, Howard; Perry, Scott S.


    Four major types of silicone hydrogel contact lens material have been investigated following treatments in aqueous solutions containing poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(butylenes oxide) block copolymer (EO-BO). The extent of lens surface modification by EO-BO and the degree of bulk uptake were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), respectively. The experimental results suggest that different interaction models exist for the lenses, highlighting the influence of both surface and bulk composition, which greatly differs between the lenses examined. Specifically, lenses with hydrophilic surface treatments, i.e., PureVision® (balafilcon A) and O2OPTIX (lotrafilcon B), demonstrated strong evidence of preferential surface adsorption within the near-surface region. In comparison, surface adsorption on ACUVUE® Oasys® (senofilcon A) and Biofinity® (comfilcon A) was limited. As for bulk absorption, the amount of EO-BO uptake was the greatest for balafilcon A and comfilcon A, and least for lotrafilcon B. These findings confirm the presence of molecular concentration gradients within the silicone hydrogel lenses following exposure to EO-BO solutions, with the nature of such concentration gradients found to be lens-specific. Together, the results suggest opportunities for compositional modifications of lenses for improved performance via solution treatments containing surface-active agents.

  13. Selectivity and localization of lysozyme uptake in contemporary hydrogel contact lens materials. (United States)

    Heynen, Miriam; Babaei Omali, Negar; Fadli, Zohra; Coles-Brennan, Chantal; Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Jones, Lyndon


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the early and selective uptake of lysozyme and the location of deposited lysozyme on contemporary hydrogel contact lens (CL) materials after exposure to an artificial tear solution (ATS) for 16 h. Seven different hydrogel CL materials [polymacon, omafilcon A, nelfilcon A, nesofilcon A, ocufilcon B, etafilcon A (Acuvue Moist), and etafilcon A (Acuvue Define)] were incubated in an ATS for various times. Total protein deposition was determined using a modified Bradford technique. Lysozyme, lactoferrin, and albumin deposition on CLs were determined using (125)I-radiolabeling method. A confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) technique was utilized to map the location of lysozyme uptake in an asymmetric environment. All lens materials had significant amounts of lysozyme after 1 min of exposure to ATS. After 16 h of incubation, higher levels of total protein deposited on the two etafilcon A-based lenses (Moist and Define), followed by ocufilcon B and both were significantly higher than all other CLs tested (p = 0.0001). The two etafilcon A materials (Moist and Define) also deposited the highest amounts of lysozyme (514.8 ± 28.4 and 527.1 ± 14.7 μg/lens respectively) when compared to other test CLs (p = 0.0001). The CLSM technique revealed that the non-ionic CLs tended to have symmetric distribution of lysozyme throughout the lens materials, while the ionic CLs had an asymmetric distribution, with the highest concentration of lysozyme on and near the exposed surface. The quantity and nature of proteins deposited on CLs varies, depending upon the chemical composition of the material. Among the various lenses tested, etafilcon A deposited the highest amount of total protein, most of it represented by lysozyme, which was largely located near the surface of the lens.

  14. Rat silicone hydrogel contact lens model: effects of high- versus low-Dk lens wear. (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfan; Gabriel, Manal M; Mowrey-McKee, Mary F; Barrett, Ronald P; McClellan, Sharon; Hazlett, Linda D


    This study used a rat contact lens (CL) model to test if high- versus low-Dk lens wear caused changes in (1) conjunctival Langerhans cell (LC) number or location; (2) Bcl-2 expression; and (3) infection risk. Female, Lewis rats wore a high- or low-Dk CL continuously for 2 weeks. Afterward, corneas were harvested and processed for ADPase activity to identify LCs, for immunostaining and for real time-polymerase chain reaction. Contact lens-wearing rats also were challenged with Pseudomonas aeruginosa by placing a bacterial-soaked CL on the eye followed by topical delivery of bacteria. After 48 hrs, slit lamp examination and real time-polymerase chain reaction were used to evaluate the corneal response. Conjunctival LC were significantly increased after low- versus high-Dk CL wear (PDk lens wearing group. Bcl-2 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in low- versus high-Dk CL wearing rats, while Bax, FasL, caspase 3, and caspase 9 levels were unchanged. Immunostaining for Bcl-2 showed fewer positively stained epithelial cells in the low- versus high-Dk lens wearing group. After bacterial challenge, 30% of low- versus none of the high-Dk CL wearing corneas became infected and showed increased mRNA levels for several proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Low- versus high-Dk or non-CL wear led to an increased number of conjunctival LC, decreased Bcl-2 levels, and increased the risk of bacterial infection.

  15. Therapeutic use of a lotrafilcon A silicone hydrogel soft contact lens as a bandage after LASEK surgery. (United States)

    Szaflik, Jacek P; Ambroziak, Anna M; Szaflik, Jerzy


    Soft contact lenses may be used as a bandage after corneal refractive surgery. Silicone hydrogel contact lenses offer the advantage of increased oxygen permeability over conventional hydrogel lenses for this application. To evaluate a silicone hydrogel contact lens as a continuous wear bandage applied after laser-assisted sub-epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK). We conducted a prospective, open-label, non-randomized clinical trial involving thirty patients treated with unilateral LASEK. Patients were fitted with a lotrafilcon A (Focus NIGHT & DAY; CIBA Vision, Duluth, GA) silicone hydrogel soft contact lens that was worn continuously for 3 to 4 days post-operatively. Lens movement and slitlamp evaluations of conjunctival hyperemia 1, 2, and 3 days after surgery (DAS) were recorded, as was the condition of the corneal epithelium after lens removal. Subjective comfort was rated by the patients along with the presence of symptoms or pain. Post-blink lens movement was evaluated by investigators as "very good" or "good" in 87% of eyes at 1 DAS, in 73% at 2 DAS, and in 60% at 3 DAS. Conjunctival hyperemia was assessed as normal or trace in 96% of eyes at 1 DAS, in 76% at 2 DAS, and in 67% at 3 DAS. An average of 80% of eyes showed normal or trace conjunctival hyperemia during the trial. The condition of the corneal epithelium after contact lens removal was rated as "very good" in 13% or "good" in 73% of eyes. An average of 77% of subjects reported "very good" or "good" comfort during the trial. Symptoms or pain were rated as "absent" or "mild" by all subjects at 1 DAS and 2 DAS and by 96% at 3 DAS. An average of 99% rated symptoms or pain as either "absent" or "mild" during the trial. The lotrafilcon A lens was found to be an effective and well-tolerated bandage lens after LASEK.

  16. Silicone hydrogel contact lens surface analysis by atomic force microscopy: shape parameters (United States)

    Giraldez, M. J.; Garcia-Resua, C.; Lira, M.; Sánchez-Sellero, C.; Yebra-Pimentel, E.


    Purpose: Average roughness (Ra) is generally used to quantify roughness; however it makes no distinction between spikes and troughs. Shape parameters as kurtosis (Rku) and skewness (Rsk) serve to distinguish between two profiles with the same Ra. They have been reported in many biomedical fields, but they were no applied to contact lenses before. The aim of this study is to analyze surface properties of four silicone hydrogel contact lenses (CL) by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) evaluating Ra, Rku and Rsk. Methods: CL used in this study were disposable silicone hydrogel senofilcon A, comfilcon A, balafilcon A and lotrafilcon B. Unworn CL surfaces roughness and topography were measured by AFM (Veeco, multimode-nanoscope V) in tapping modeTM. Ra, Rku and Rsk for 25 and 196 μm2 areas were determined. Results: Surface topography and parameters showed different characteristics depending on the own nature of the contact lens (Ra/Rku/Rsk for 25 and 196 μm2 areas were: senofilcon A 3,33/3,74/0,74 and 3,76/18,16/1,75; comfilcon A: 1,56/31,09/2,93 and 2,76/45,82/3,60; balafilcon A: 2,01/33,62/-2,14 and 2,54/23,36/-1,96; lotrafilcon B: 26,97/4,11/-0,34 and 29,25/2,82/-0,23). In lotrafilcon B, with the highest Ra, Rku showed a lower degree of peakedness of its distribution. Negative Rsk value obtained for balafilcon A showed a clear predominance of valleys in this lens. Conclusions: Kku and Rsk are two statistical parameters useful to analyse CL surfaces, which complete information from Ra. Differences in values distribution and symmetry were observed between CL.

  17. Oxygen permeability and water content of silicone hydrogel contact lens materials. (United States)

    Efron, Nathan; Morgan, Philip B; Cameron, Ian D; Brennan, Noel A; Goodwin, Marie


    To measure the oxygen permeability (Dk) and water content (WC) of silicone hydrogel (Si-Hy) contact lens materials. Randomized and masked determinations of the Dk of 5 Si-Hy and two hydrogel materials were made using a modified version of the polarographic measurement method described in ISO 9913-1. Stacks of one to six parallel-sided contact lenses (all -1.00 DS) were evaluated, with each stack measured at least twice. The resulting value for t/Dk was plotted against the thickness (t) of each stack, with Dk calculated as the inverse of the gradient of this relationship. This methodology corrects for boundary effects. A mathematical calculation was used to correct for edge effects. Gravimetric determination of lens WC was conducted at room temperature and 35 degrees C. Measured values (+/-95% CI) of Dk, and WC at room temperature, with manufacturer-claimed values in parentheses, were Focus Night and Day: Dk 162.0 +/- 9.8 (140), WC 23.0 +/- 3.2 (24); Acuvue Oasys: Dk 107.4 +/- 7.4 (103), WC 36.9 +/- 1.0 (38); O2 Optix: Dk 80.5 +/- 4.9 (110), WC 32.1 +/- 1.2 (33); PureVision: Dk 75.9 +/- 6.6 (91), WC 35.8 +/- 1.3 (36); Acuvue Advance: Dk 75.2 +/- 9.8 (60), WC 46.5 +/- 1.1 (47); 1. Day Acuvue: Dk 21.0 +/- 1.0 (21.4), WC [not measured] (58); and Seequence: Dk 8.2 +/- 0.7 (8.5), WC 36.6 +/- 2.7 (38). Claimed Dk values for Acuvue Oasys and the two reference hydrogel materials fell within the 95% confidence interval of our measured values. Our measurements of Dk for the other four Si-Hy lenses were not in agreement with claimed values. There is a general inverse relation between Dk and WC (both at 35 degrees C) for Si-Hy lenses. Our modified polarographic methodology can be successfully employed for measuring the Dk of Si-Hy materials.

  18. The Long-Term Effects of Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lens Wear on Corneal Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelda Yıldız


    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the effects of silicone hydrogel contact lenses (SHCL on central corneal thickness (CCT, corneal endothelial cell morphology, and tear functions. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Fifty-five eyes of 28 SHCL wearers (Group 1 and 52 eyes of 26 healthy subjects (Group 2 were included in this study’. According to their contact lens wearing time, the contact lens wearing subjects were divided into 2 groups: Group 1a - wearing time less than 1 year and Group 1b - wearing time more than 1 year. CCT, epithelial thickness, corneal endothelial cell morphology, ocular surface disease index score (OSDI, and tear break-up time (TBUT were evaluated. Re sults: In Group 1 and Group 2, the mean CCT was 561.85±39.98 µm and 537.25±27.12 µm, respectively (p: 0.001.The epithelial thickness was 50.38±5.41 µm and 55.64±5.32 µm, respectively (p: 0.001. In Group 1a and Group1 b, the mean CCT was 573.39±33.86 µm and 546.96±42.98 µm (p: 0.014 and the epithelial thickness was 49.51±4.78 µm and 51.50±6.04 µm (p>0.05, respectively. In Group 1, the percentage of endothelial cells larger than 700µ was low, while the percentage of endothelial cells between 200 and 400µ was high (p<0,05. Dis cus si on: With SHCL wear, the corneal morphology is more affected in the short-term period. During long-term contact lens wear, the cornea enters an adaptation period and shows near-normal morphology. Tear functions are not affected by short- or long-term SHCL wear. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 91-6

  19. In Vitro Effect of Lysozyme on Albumin Deposition to Hydrogel Contact Lens Materials. (United States)

    Babaei Omali, Negar; Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Heynen, Miriam; Fadli, Zohra; Coles-Brennan, Chantal; Jones, Lyndon W


    Albumin deposition on contact lenses could be detrimental to contact lens (CL) wear because this may increase the risk of bacterial binding and reduce comfort. Lysozyme deposition on selected lens materials would reduce albumin deposition on lenses. This study aims to determine if lysozyme deposition on CLs could act as a barrier against subsequent albumin adsorption, using an in vitro model. Six hydrogel CL materials (etafilcon A, polymacon, nelfilcon A, omafilcon A, ocufilcon B, and nesofilcon A) were evaluated. Four CLs of each type were soaked in lysozyme solution for 16 hours at 37°C. Lysozyme-coated lenses were then placed in vials with 1.5 mL of artificial tear solution containing I-labeled albumin for 16 hours at 37°C with shaking. Four uncoated lenses of each type were used as controls. Lenses soaked in radiolabeled albumin were rinsed in a phosphate-buffered saline solution, and radioactive counts were measured directly on lenses using a gamma counter. Albumin uptake on lenses was measured using a calibration curve by plotting radioactive counts versus protein concentration. Results are reported as mean ± SD. Lysozyme-coated etafilcon A lenses exhibited lower levels of deposited albumin than uncoated etafilcon A lenses (58 ± 12 vs. 84 ± 5 ng/lens; P .05). Uncoated nesofilcon A lenses deposited the highest amount of albumin when compared with other uncoated lenses (P < .05). This study demonstrates that lysozyme deposited onto etafilcon A resists the deposition of albumin, which may potentially be beneficial to CL wearers.

  20. In vivo confocal microscopy: corneal changes of hydrogel contact lens wearers. (United States)

    Yagmur, Meltem; Okay, Okan; Sizmaz, Selcuk; Unal, Ilker; Yar, Kemal


    To evaluate the corneal findings in hydrogel contact lens wearers by in vivo confocal scanning microscopy. One hundred and forty-two eyes of 71 myopic contact lens wearers (group 1) and 142 eyes of 71 non-contact lens wearers (group 2), whose age, gender and refractive error matched, were enrolled in order to detect the corneal changes by in vivo confocal microscopy through the central cornea. The average age was 25.5 ± 5.7 (16-52) and 25.6 ± 5.6 (17-49) in groups 1 and 2, respectively. The mean duration of contact lens wear was 43.9 ± 15.3 (6-240) months. Anterior keratocyte density was 667.5 ± 128.3 cells/mm(2) in group 1 and 821.4 ± 136.7 cells/mm(2) in group 2 (P = 0.001). Posterior keratocyte densities of groups 1 and 2 were 540.2 ± 87.6 cells/mm(2) and 628.2 ± 72.4 cells/mm(2), respectively (P lenses with a mean Dk/t ratio of 26.5 × 10(-9) ± 5.9 (8.9-32 × 10(-9)). Stromal microdots occurred with contact lenses with a mean Dk/t ratio of 13.2 × 10(-9) ± 17.5 × 10(-9) (8.9-20 × 10(-9)). In vivo examination of the cornea with confocal microscopy revealed a number of changes. These changes can be attributed both to the mechanical and the hypoxic effects of soft contact lenses. In soft contact lenses with a high Dk/t ratio, these changes would be less frequent.

  1. Hyaluronan incorporation into model contact lens hydrogels as a built-in lubricant: Effect of hydrogel composition and proteoglycan 4 as a lubricant in solution. (United States)

    Samsom, Michael; Korogiannaki, Myrto; Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Sheardown, Heather; Schmidt, Tannin A


    Contact lens friction significantly correlates with subjective comfort. Hyaluronan (HA) and proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) are natural boundary lubricants present in the body. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of crosslinked HA into the bulk of model contact lens materials pHEMA, pHEMA/TRIS, and DMAA/TRIS on surface wettability, protein sorption, and boundary lubricating properties at a material-cornea biointerface, both alone and synergistically with PRG4 in solution. Surface wettability was assessed by water contact angle measurement, protein sorption by lysozyme sorption assay, and boundary lubricating properties using an in vitro friction test method. HA incorporation (HAinc ) increased the surface wettability of all materials, and reduced protein sorption for pHEMA and DMAA/TRIS. HAinc increased friction for pHEMA, and DMAA/TRIS, whereas a decrease was observed for pHEMA/TRIS. A combination of HAinc and PRG4sol had a synergistic effect of reducing friction only for pHEMA/TRIS. This combination had similar friction reduction compared with PRG4sol alone for DMAA/TRIS. These results indicate HA incorporation could be an effective internal wetting agent, antiadhesive, and boundary lubricant for pHEMA/TRIS silicone hydrogels. In conclusion, HA incorporation can reduce friction of hydrogels alone and in combination with PRG4 in solution, though in a hydrogel composition-dependent (e.g., TRIS) manner. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Characterization and quantitation of PVP content in a silicone hydrogel contact lens produced by dual-phase polymerization processing. (United States)

    Hoteling, Andrew J; Nichols, William F; Harmon, Patricia S; Conlon, Shawn M; Nuñez, Ivan M; Hoff, Joseph W; Cabarcos, Orlando M; Steffen, Robert B; Hook, Daniel J


    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) has been incorporated over the years into numerous hydrogel contact lenses as both a primary matrix component and an internal wetting agent to increase lens wettability. In this study, complementary analytical techniques were used to characterize the PVP wetting agent component of senofilcon A and samfilcon A contact lenses, both in terms of chemical composition and amount present. Photo-differential scanning calorimetry (photo-DSC), gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID), and high-resolution/accurate mass (HR/AM) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques confirmed dual phase reaction and curing of the samfilcon A silicone hydrogel material. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) demonstrated that high molecular weight (HMW) polymer was present in isopropanol (IPA) extracts of both lenses. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) effectively separated hydrophilic PVP from the hydrophobic silicone polymers present in the extracts. Collectively, atmospheric solids analysis probe mass spectrometry (ASAP MS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, GC-FID, and LC-MS analyses of the lens extracts indicated that the majority of NVP is consumed during the second reaction phase of samfilcon A lens polymerization and exists as HMW PVP, similar to the PVP present in senofilcon A. GC-FID analysis of pyrolyzed samfilcon A and senofilcon A indicates fourfold greater PVP in samfilcon A compared with senofilcon A. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Preparation and characterization of protein-resistant hydrogels for soft contact lens applications via radical copolymerization involving a zwitterionic sulfobetaine comonomer. (United States)

    Zhang, Wanlu; Li, Guangji; Lin, Yinlei; Wang, Liying; Wu, Shuqing


    We aimed to introduce hydrophilic sulfobetaine-type zwitterionic groups to macromolecular chains of copolymers to construct novel copolymer hydrogels with anti-protein-fouling performance that could be used as soft contact lens (SCL) materials. Using hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), N-vinyl pyrrolidinone (NVP) and sulfobetaine methacrylate (SBMA) as comonomers, several copolymer hydrogels with different SBMA contents, poly(HEMA-NVP-SBMA), are synthesized via radical copolymerization in an aqueous phase. Surface chemistry, structural morphologies, water contact angle (WCA), equilibrium water content (EWC), visible light transmittance and tensile mechanical properties are investigated. The prepared hydrogels exhibit a closed-type porous structure. With increasing SBMA content in the comonomer mixture, the prepared copolymer hydrogel pore size gradually increases up to the micron level, WCA tends to decrease, EWC tends to increase, and visible light transmittance slightly increases, but their tensile mechanical properties decline. The amounts of protein Lyz and BSA adsorbed on the copolymer hydrogels and on commercially available EASY DAY(®) SCLs as a control are also determined by protein adsorption tests. The amount of protein adsorbed on the copolymer hydrogel decreases with increasing SBMA content. For the hydrogel prepared using the comonomer mixture with 5.0 wt % SBMA, the amount of adsorbed Lyz is 0.91 μg/cm(2), which corresponds to only 56.8% of the amount adsorbed on EASY DAY(®) SCLs. Thus, novel SCL materials with high water content and excellent anti-protein-fouling performance were efficiently constructed by introducing sulfobetaine-type zwitterionic groups into a traditional polymer hydrogel system.

  4. Designing Novel Smart Hydrogel Formulations for the Controlled Delivery of Ocular Therapies in Contact Lens Devices


    Phelan, David


    The major challenge to ocular drug delivery is poor bio-availability of the delivered drug, due to the anatomy of the eye. This work presents an approach to address this problem, using novel contact lens drug delivery vehicles. Antihistamines were used as a model drug due to their physical properties and molecular weight. 15% of the world’s population suffer from allergic reactions confirming antihistamines as a relevant ocular pharmaceutical. A novel pilot scale wet cast moulding proce...

  5. Does the level of available oxygen impact comfort in contact lens wear?: A review of the literature. (United States)

    Dillehay, Sally M


    Wear of low-Dk/t lenses has long been associated with signs and symptoms indicative of hypoxia and with patient symptoms of dryness and discomfort. Although patient discomfort during soft contact lens wear has been generally attributed to lens dehydration, research studies aimed at verifying that connection have been unsuccessful. With the advent of high-Dk/t silicone hydrogel lenses, not only have improvements in clinical signs of hypoxia been documented, but improvements in patient symptoms of dryness and discomfort also have been documented. This literature review was undertaken to examine historic and current literature to determine whether the level of available oxygen is associated with patient symptoms of dryness and discomfort. Literature was reviewed related to soft contact lens dehydration, corneal hypoxia, patient symptoms of dryness and discomfort, and current clinical studies of silicone hydrogel lens wear. Through the years, the body of knowledge has grown supporting a connection between decreased levels of available oxygen to the cornea caused by low-Dk/t contact lens wear and negative impacts on the signs of corneal health and patient symptoms. Available published literature suggests that many of these changes in patient signs and symptoms seen with low-Dk/t lens wear may be related to an inflammatory response. Clinical studies of high-Dk/t silicone hydrogel lenses further support a significant connection between the level of available oxygen during contact lens wear and improved patient symptoms of comfort, including dryness.

  6. Measurement errors related to contact angle analysis of hydrogel and silicone hydrogel contact lenses. (United States)

    Read, Michael L; Morgan, Philip B; Maldonado-Codina, Carole


    This work sought to undertake a comprehensive investigation of the measurement errors associated with contact angle assessment of curved hydrogel contact lens surfaces. The contact angle coefficient of repeatability (COR) associated with three measurement conditions (image analysis COR, intralens COR, and interlens COR) was determined by measuring the contact angles (using both sessile drop and captive bubble methods) for three silicone hydrogel lenses (senofilcon A, balafilcon A, lotrafilcon A) and one conventional hydrogel lens (etafilcon A). Image analysis COR values were about 2 degrees , whereas intralens COR values (95% confidence intervals) ranged from 4.0 degrees (3.3 degrees , 4.7 degrees ) (lotrafilcon A, captive bubble) to 10.2 degrees (8.4 degrees , 12.1 degrees ) (senofilcon A, sessile drop). Interlens COR values ranged from 4.5 degrees (3.7 degrees , 5.2 degrees ) (lotrafilcon A, captive bubble) to 16.5 degrees (13.6 degrees , 19.4 degrees ) (senofilcon A, sessile drop). Measurement error associated with image analysis was shown to be small as an absolute measure, although proportionally more significant for lenses with low contact angle. Sessile drop contact angles were typically less repeatable than captive bubble contact angles. For sessile drop measures, repeatability was poorer with the silicone hydrogel lenses when compared with the conventional hydrogel lens; this phenomenon was not observed for the captive bubble method, suggesting that methodological factors related to the sessile drop technique (such as surface dehydration and blotting) may play a role in the increased variability of contact angle measurements observed with silicone hydrogel contact lenses.

  7. In vitro uptake and release studies of ocular pharmaceutical agents by silicon-containing and p-HEMA hydrogel contact lens materials. (United States)

    Karlgard, C C S; Wong, N S; Jones, L W; Moresoli, C


    The in vitro uptake and release behaviour of cromolyn sodium, ketotifen fumarate, ketorolac tromethamine and dexamethasone sodium phosphate with silicon-containing (lotrafilcon and balafilcon) and p-HEMA-containing (etafilcon, alphafilcon, polymacon, vifilcon and omafilcon) hydrogel contact lenses indicated that both drug and material affected the uptake and release behaviour. Rapid uptake and release (within 50 min) was observed for all drugs except ketotifen fumarate which was more gradual taking approximately 5h. Furthermore, the maximum uptake differed significantly between drugs and materials. The highest average uptake (7879+/-684 microg/lens) was cromolyn sodium and the lowest average uptake (67+/-13 microg/lens) was dexamethasone sodium phosphate. Partial release of the drug taken up was observed for all drugs except dexamethasone sodium phosphate where no release was detected. Sustained release was demonstrated only by ketotifen fumarate. Drug uptake/release appeared to be a function of lens material ionicity, water and silicon content. The silicon-containing materials released less drug than the p-HEMA-containing materials. The lotrafilcon material demonstrated less interactions with the drugs than the balafilcon material which can be explained by their different bulk composition and surface treatment.

  8. The effect of silicone hydrogel bandage soft contact lens base curvature on comfort and outcomes after photorefractive keratectomy. (United States)

    Taylor, Kenneth R; Molchan, Ryan P; Townley, J Richard; Caldwell, Matthew C; Panday, Vasudha A


    To evaluate the relative pain and the relative amount of contact lens loss experienced using two different base curvatures (BCs) of the Acuvue Oasys bandage soft contact lens (BSCL) after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). One hundred forty patients undergoing PRK on either the Allegretto or the VISX laser at the Joint Warfighter Refractive Surgery Center in Lackland AFB, TX, were randomized to one of the two different BCs of the Acuvue Oasys BSCL: 8.4 or 8.8 mm. Patients were evaluated on postoperative days 1 and 4 during which they completed a survey rating absolute pain in each eye on a visual analog pain scale. Lens loss was recorded throughout the study. Patients treated on the Allegretto laser preferred the 8.4-mm BC lens, whereas comfort after treatment on the VISX depended on corneal shape. For VISX, patients with very flat corneas (steep K ≤42 preoperative or ≤38 postoperatively) preferred an 8.8-mm BC lens while patients with very steep corneas (steep K >45 preoperative or >42 postoperative) preferred an 8.4-mm BC lens, though these results were largely not statistically significant. Patients who lost their lenses prematurely tended to be those whose corneal curvature did not match their contact lens BC. Individuals treated with the Allegretto laser or individuals with more prolate corneas should likely be fit with an 8.4-mm BC Acuvue Oasys BSCL while individuals with more oblate corneas should likely be fit with an 8.8-mm BC lens to minimize postoperative pain and premature BSCL loss.

  9. Evaluation of surface water characteristics of novel daily disposable contact lens materials, using refractive index shifts after wear (United States)

    Schafer, Jeffery; Steffen, Robert; Reindel, William; Chinn, Joseph


    Purpose Contact lens wearers today spend much time using digital display devices. Contact lens manufacturers are challenged to develop products that account for longer periods of time where blink rate is reduced and tear-film evaporation rate is increased, affecting both visual acuity and comfort. Two manufacturers recently introduced novel daily disposable contact lenses with high surface water content. The objective of the present study was to compare surface water characteristics before and after initial wear of recently introduced nesofilcon A and delefilcon A high surface water lenses with those of etafilcon A lenses. Patients and methods Twenty healthy subjects wore each of the three lens types studied in a randomly determined order for 15 minutes. After each wearing, lenses were removed and the surface refractive index (RI) of each lens was immediately measured. Results The mean RI of the unworn delefilcon A lens was 1.34, consistent with water content in excess of 80%. After 15 minutes of wear, the surface RI shifted to 1.43, consistent with its reported 33% bulk water content. In contrast, the mean surface RI of the nesofilcon A lens was 1.38, both initially and after 15 minutes of wear, and that of the etafilcon A lens was 1.41 initially and 1.42 after 15 minutes of wear. Conclusion The surface of the delefilcon A lens behaves like a high water hydrogel upon insertion but quickly dehydrates to behave like its low-water silicone-hydrogel bulk material with respect to surface water content during wear, while both nesofilcon A and etafilcon A lenses maintain their water content during initial wear. The nesofilcon A lens appears unique among high water lenses in maintaining high surface and bulk water content during wear. This is important because changes in surface RI due to dehydration are reported to lead to visual aberration affecting user experience. PMID:26543349

  10. Differences in Dry Eye Questionnaire Symptoms in Two Different Modalities of Contact Lens Wear: Silicone-Hydrogel in Daily Wear Basis and Overnight Orthokeratology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nery García-Porta


    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the ocular surface symptoms and signs in an adult population of silicone-hydrogel (Si-Hy contact lens (CL wearers with another modality of CL wear, overnight orthokeratology (OK. Materials and Methods. This was a prospective and comparative study in which 31 myopic subjects were fitted with the same Si-Hy CL and 23 underwent OK treatment for 3 months. Dry eye questionnaire (DEQ was filled in at the beginning of the study and then after 15 days, 1 month, and 3 months using each CL modality. The tear quality was evaluated with noninvasive tear break-up time. Tear production was measured with Schirmer test. Tear samples were collected with Schirmer strips being frozen to analyze the dinucleotide diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A concentration with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Results. After refitting with ortho-k, a reduction in discomfort and dryness symptoms at the end of the day (p<0.05, χ2 was observed. No significant changes were observed in Ap4A concentration in any group. Bulbar redness, limbal redness, and conjunctival staining increased significantly in the Si-Hy group (p<0.05, Kruskal–Wallis test. Conclusion. Discomfort and dryness symptoms at the end of the day are lower in the OK CL group than in the Si-Hy CL group.

  11. Ethanol dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Uyazán


    Full Text Available This review outlines ethanol dehydration processes and their most important characteristics. It also deals with the main operating variables and some criteria used in designing the separation scheme. A differentiation is made between processes involving liquid steam balance in separation operations and those doing it by screening the difference in molecule size. The last part presents a comparison between the three main industrial processes, stressing their stengths and weaknesses from the operational, energy consumption and industrial services points of view.

  12. Ethanol dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Uyazán


    Full Text Available This review outlines ethanol dehydration processes and their most important characteristics. It also deals with the main operating variables and some criteria used in designing the separation scheme. A differentiation is made between processes involving liquid steam balance in separation operations and those doing it by screening the difference in molecule size. The last part presents a comparison between the three main industrial processes, stressing their stengths and weaknesses from the operational, energy consumption and industrial services points of view.

  13. Theoretical fitting characteristics of typical soft contact lens designs. (United States)

    Sulley, Anna; Osborn Lorenz, Kathrine; Wolffsohn, James S; Young, Graeme


    To calculate theoretical fitting success rates (SR) for a range of typical soft contact lens (SCL) designs using a mathematical model. A spreadsheet mathematical model was used to calculate fitting SR for various SCL designs. Designs were evaluated using ocular topography data from 163 subjects. The model calculated SR based on acceptable edge strain (within range 0-6%) and horizontal diameter overlap (range 0.2-1.2mm). Where lenses had multiple base curves (BCs), eyes unsuccessful with the steeper BC were tested with the flatter BC and aggregate SR calculated. Calculations were based on typical, current, hydrogel and silicone hydrogel SCLs and allowed for appropriate on-eye shrinkage (1.0-2.3%). Theoretical results were compared with those from actual clinical trials. Theoretical success rates for one-BC lenses ranged from 60.7% (95% CI 7.2%) to 90.2% (95% CI 3.7%). With two-BC designs, most combinations showed a SR increase with a second BC (84.0%-90.2%). However, one of the two-BC combinations showed only negligible increase with a second BC (72.4%-73.0%). For designs with lower SR, the greatest contributor to failure was inadequate lens diameter. For a given design, differences in shrinkage (i.e. on-eye bulk dehydration) had a significant effect on success rate. In comparison with historical clinical data, there was a positive correlation between small lens fitting prevalence and discomfort reports (r=+0.95, P=<0.001) with a poor correlation between theoretical and actual tight/loose fittings. Mathematical modelling is a useful method for testing SCL design combinations. The results suggest that judicious choice of additional fittings can expand the range of fitting success. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. All rights reserved.

  14. Onion dehydration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, J.W. [Geo-Heat Center Oregon Institute of Technology, Kalamath Falls, OR (United States)


    Onion dehydration consists of a continuous operation, belt conveyor using fairly low-temperature hot air from 38-104{degrees}C (100 to 200{degrees}F). Typical processing plants will handle 4500 kg (10,000 pounds) of raw product per hour (single line), reducing the moisture from around 83 % to 4 % (680 to 820 kg - 1,500 to 1,800 pounds finished product). An example of a geothermal processing plant is Integrate Ingredients at Empire, Nevada, in the San Emidio Desert. A total of 6.3 million kg (14 million pounds) of dry product are produced annually: 60% onion and 40% garlic. A 130{degrees}C (266{degrees}F) well provide the necessary heat for the plant.

  15. Drying methods for XPS analysis of PureVision™, Focus ® Night&Day™ and conventional hydrogel contact lenses (United States)

    Karlgard, Caroline C. S.; Sarkar, Dilip K.; Jones, Lyndon W.; Moresoli, Christine; Leung, K. T.


    The surface composition of hydrogel contact lenses that contain silicon-based monomers, PureVision™ (balafilcon A) and Focus ® Night&Day™ (lotrafilcon A), were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Conventional and daily disposable hydrogel lenses based on hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) were also studied, with the commonly prescribed 1-day Acuvue ® lens (etafilcon A) used as a control. All the lenses were pre-washed and dehydrated by three different methods, including drying in air, drying in nitrogen or freezing with subsequent freeze-drying, before the XPS analysis. The lenses dried in air had more impurities on the surface, and the lenses that were freeze-dried lost transparency, suggesting that drying lenses in nitrogen is the preferred preparation method for XPS analysis. Surface compositions for all lens materials were obtained and this data can be used as a control/base-value for future analysis of the interactions of soft contact lens materials with chemicals such as drugs or tear components.

  16. Rethinking contact lens aftercare. (United States)

    Efron, Nathan; Morgan, Philip B


    The evolution of contact lens technology and clinical practice over the past three decades has been remarkable, with dramatic improvements in material biocompatibility, better lens designs and care systems, and more flexible and convenient modalities of wear. However, our approach to the aftercare examination has remained conservative, with the general modus operandi having not fully evolved from the difficult, early years of fitting non-regular replacement rigid and low water content hydrogel lenses. In this paper, we review current aftercare practice and in particular, the preferred frequency that lens wearers should return for routine visits and the appropriateness of regulations governing contact lens prescription expiry. Four key clinical reasons for conducting a routine aftercare visit are identified: preserving ocular health, maintaining good vision, optimising comfort and ensuring satisfactory lens fitting performance. Commercial reasons for conducting aftercare visits are also considered. A decision matrix is presented to help practitioners decide on an appropriate time interval between routine aftercare visits. The first aftercare visit should always take place within one to two weeks of lens dispensing. After this, the following time intervals between routine aftercare visits are advised as a general guideline: soft daily disposable, 24 months; soft daily reusable and rigid daily wear, 12 months; soft and rigid extended wear, six months. These aftercare visit frequencies may need to be adjusted when rapid rates of refractive change are anticipated, such as every six months during child/teenager myopic progression and every 12 months during the advancement of presbyopia. Numerous clinical caveats for varying these recommended aftercare frequencies are also discussed. Those new to lens wear should be seen within the first two months of lens dispensing. Regulatory authorities charged with the responsibility of stipulating the validity of a contact

  17. Dehydration (For Parents) (United States)

    ... worse. Older kids who are dehydrated can have sports drinks, but oral rehydration solution is best for young ... to Get Medical Care Vomiting Fevers Heat Illness Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them? Dehydration Why Drinking ...

  18. Surface wettability enhancement of silicone hydrogel lenses by processing with polar plastic molds. (United States)

    Lai, Y C; Friends, G D


    In the quest for hydrogel contact lenses with improved extended wear capability, the use of siloxane moieties in the lens materials was investigated. However, the introduction of hydrophobic siloxane groups gave rise to wettability and lipidlike deposit problems. It was found that when polysiloxane-based compositions for hydrogels were processed with polar plastic molds, such as those fabricated from an acrylonitrile-based polymer, the hydrogel lenses fabricated were wettable, with minimized lipidlike deposits. These findings were supported by the wettability of silicone hydrogel films, silicon, and nitrogen element contents near lens surfaces, as well as the results from clinical assessment of silicone hydrogel lenses.

  19. Prolonging contact lens wear and making contact lens wear safer. (United States)

    Foulks, Gary N


    To summarize the present status of safety and efficacy of contact lens wear. Literature review. Ovid Medline searches were performed on records from 1966 through 2005 using keywords: keratitis, contact lens complications, extended-wear contact lenses, and silicone-hydrogel contact lenses. Patients desire comfort, clarity of vision, and prolonged contact lens wear when contact lenses are used to correct refractive error. Practitioners desire patient satisfaction but also require maintenance of the integrity of the eye and no complications that jeopardize vision or health of the eye. Improvements in the oxygen permeability of the contact lens materials, design of the contact lens and its surface, and solutions for the maintenance of the lens have reduced but not eliminated the risks of infection, inflammation, and conjunctival papillary reaction associated with contact lens wear. The lessons of past and recent history suggest that patient education and practitioner participation in the management of contact lens wear continue to be critical factors for patient satisfaction and safety in the extended wear of contact lenses. The availability of highly oxygen permeable contact lenses has increased the tolerance and safety of extended contact lens wear, but patient instruction and education in proper use and care of lenses is required and caution is advised.

  20. Impact of contact lens material and design on the ocular surface. (United States)

    Ruiz-Alcocer, Javier; Monsálvez-Romín, Daniel; García-Lázaro, Santiago; Albarrán-Diego, César; Hernández-Verdejo, José Luis; Madrid-Costa, David


    To evaluate the impact on the ocular surface of a daily disposable hydrogel contact lens with high water content compared with two silicone hydrogel daily disposable lenses of lower water content. The hydrogel lens assessed was made from nesofilcon A and the silicone hydrogel lenses were made of delefilcon A and stenfilcon A. Contact lens thickness was measured to assess material stability during daily wear, and ocular surface parameters such as tear film osmolarity, tear meniscus area and central corneal thickness were also assessed. Optical quality was analysed for all cases by means of wavefront aberrometry. The nesofilcon A was shown to be the thinnest lens (p  0.05). In spite of having the thinnest lens and the highest water content, the hydrogel does not significantly impact on tear film and corneal swelling after one day of use in first-time wearers. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  1. Trends in US Contact Lens Prescribing 2002 to 2014. (United States)

    Efron, Nathan; Nichols, Jason J; Woods, Craig A; Morgan, Philip B


    To document contact lens prescribing patterns in the United States between 2002 and 2014. A survey of contact lens prescribing trends was conducted each year between 2002 and 2014, inclusive. Randomly selected contact lens practitioners were asked to provide information relating to 10 consecutive contact lens fits between January and March each year. Over the 13-year survey period, 1650 survey forms were received from US practitioners representing details of 7702 contact lens fits. The mean (±SD) age of lens wearers was 33.6 (±15.2) years, of whom 65.2% were female. Rigid lens new fits decreased from 13.0% in 2002 to 9.4% in 2014. Across this period, silicone hydrogels have replaced mid water contact lens hydrogels as the soft lens material of choice. Toric lenses represented about 25 to 30% of all soft lens fits. Multifocal soft lenses are generally preferred to monovision. Daily disposable lens fits have recently increased, and in 2014, they represented 27.1% of all soft lens fits. Most lenses are prescribed on 1 to 2 weekly or monthly lens replacement regimen. Extended wear remains a minority lens wearing modality. The vast majority of those wearing reusable lenses use multipurpose lens care solutions. Lenses are mostly worn 7 d/wk. This survey has revealed prescribing trends and preferences in the United States over the past 13 years.

  2. Hydrogel based occlusion systems


    Stam, F.A.; Jackson, N.; Dubruel, P.; Adesanya, K.; Embrechts, A.; Mendes, E.; Neves, H.P.; Herijgers, P.; Verbrugghe, Y.; Shacham, Y.; Engel, L; Krylov, V.


    A hydrogel based occlusion system, a method for occluding vessels, appendages or aneurysms, and a method for hydrogel synthesis are disclosed. The hydrogel based occlusion system includes a hydrogel having a shrunken and a swollen state and a delivery tool configured to deliver the hydrogel to a target occlusion location. The hydrogel is configured to permanently occlude the target occlusion location in the swollen state. The hydrogel may be an electro-activated hydrogel (EAH) which could be ...

  3. Bacterial transmission from lens storage cases to contact lenses - Effects of lens care solutions and silver impregnation of cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeltfoort, Pit B. J.; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Busscher, Henk J.; van der Mei, Henny C.


    The killing efficacies of multipurpose lens care solutions on planktonic and biofilm bacteria grown in polypropylene contact lens storage cases with and without silver impregnation and effects on bacterial transmission from storage cases to silicone hydrogel contact lenses were investigated. For

  4. Pelagic sea snakes dehydrate at sea. (United States)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B; Sheehy, Coleman M; Brischoux, François; Grech, Alana


    Secondarily marine vertebrates are thought to live independently of fresh water. Here, we demonstrate a paradigm shift for the widely distributed pelagic sea snake, Hydrophis (Pelamis) platurus, which dehydrates at sea and spends a significant part of its life in a dehydrated state corresponding to seasonal drought. Snakes that are captured following prolonged periods without rainfall have lower body water content, lower body condition and increased tendencies to drink fresh water than do snakes that are captured following seasonal periods of high rainfall. These animals do not drink seawater and must rehydrate by drinking from a freshwater lens that forms on the ocean surface during heavy precipitation. The new data based on field studies indicate unequivocally that this marine vertebrate dehydrates at sea where individuals may live in a dehydrated state for possibly six to seven months at a time. This information provides new insights for understanding water requirements of sea snakes, reasons for recent declines and extinctions of sea snakes and more accurate prediction for how changing patterns of precipitation might affect these and other secondarily marine vertebrates living in tropical oceans.

  5. Pelagic sea snakes dehydrate at sea (United States)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B.; Sheehy, Coleman M.; Brischoux, François; Grech, Alana


    Secondarily marine vertebrates are thought to live independently of fresh water. Here, we demonstrate a paradigm shift for the widely distributed pelagic sea snake, Hydrophis (Pelamis) platurus, which dehydrates at sea and spends a significant part of its life in a dehydrated state corresponding to seasonal drought. Snakes that are captured following prolonged periods without rainfall have lower body water content, lower body condition and increased tendencies to drink fresh water than do snakes that are captured following seasonal periods of high rainfall. These animals do not drink seawater and must rehydrate by drinking from a freshwater lens that forms on the ocean surface during heavy precipitation. The new data based on field studies indicate unequivocally that this marine vertebrate dehydrates at sea where individuals may live in a dehydrated state for possibly six to seven months at a time. This information provides new insights for understanding water requirements of sea snakes, reasons for recent declines and extinctions of sea snakes and more accurate prediction for how changing patterns of precipitation might affect these and other secondarily marine vertebrates living in tropical oceans. PMID:24648228

  6. Impact of soft contact lens edge design and midperipheral lens shape on the epithelium and its indentation with lens mobility. (United States)

    Wolffsohn, James S; Drew, Thomas; Dhallu, Sandeep; Sheppard, Amy; Hofmann, Greg J; Prince, Mark


    To evaluate the influence of soft contact lens midperipheral shape profile and edge design on the apparent epithelial thickness and indentation of the ocular surface with lens movement. Four soft contact lens designs comprising of two different plano midperipheral shape profiles and two edge designs (chiseled and knife edge) of silicone-hydrogel material were examined in 26 subjects aged 24.7 ± 4.6 years, each worn bilaterally in randomized order. Lens movement was imaged enface on insertion, at 2 and 4 hours with a high-speed, high-resolution camera simultaneous to the cross-section of the edge of the contact lens interaction with the ocular surface captured using optical coherence tomography (OCT) nasally, temporally, and inferiorly. Optical imaging distortions were individually corrected for by imaging the apparent distortion of a glass slide surface by the removed lens. Apparent epithelial thickness varied with edge position (P design. Horizontal and vertical lens movement did not change with time postinsertion. Vertical motion was affected by midperipheral lens shape profile (P design (P designs. Dynamic OCT coupled with high-resolution video demonstrated that soft contact lens movement and image-corrected ocular surface indentation were influenced by both lens edge design and midperipheral lens shape profiles.

  7. Studying functional properties of hydrogel and silicone-hydrogel contact lenses with PALS, MIR and Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Filipecki, J; Sitarz, M; Kocela, A; Kotynia, K; Jelen, P; Filipecka, K; Gaweda, M


    Determination of free volume holes of the hydrogel and silicone-hydrogel polymer contact lenses were investigated. Two types of polymer contact lenses were used as materials: the first is a hydrogel contact lenses Proclear family (Omafilcon A), while the second is a silicone-hydrogel contact lens of the family Biofinity (Comfilcon A). Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy PALS was used to characterize geometrical sizes and fraction of the free volume holes in the investigated samples. There is a clear difference in the free volume sizes and their fractions between silicone-hydrogel and polymer hydrogel contact lenses which in turn are connected with oxygen permeability in these lenses. Apart from that, spectroscopic (middle infrared) MIR and Raman examinations were carried out in order to demonstrate the differences of the water content in the test contact lenses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Studying functional properties of hydrogel and silicone-hydrogel contact lenses with PALS, MIR and Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Filipecki, J.; Sitarz, M.; Kocela, A.; Kotynia, K.; Jelen, P.; Filipecka, K.; Gaweda, M.


    Determination of free volume holes of the hydrogel and silicone-hydrogel polymer contact lenses were investigated. Two types of polymer contact lenses were used as materials: the first is a hydrogel contact lenses Proclear family (Omafilcon A), while the second is a silicone-hydrogel contact lens of the family Biofinity (Comfilcon A). Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy PALS was used to characterize geometrical sizes and fraction of the free volume holes in the investigated samples. There is a clear difference in the free volume sizes and their fractions between silicone-hydrogel and polymer hydrogel contact lenses which in turn are connected with oxygen permeability in these lenses. Apart from that, spectroscopic (middle infrared) MIR and Raman examinations were carried out in order to demonstrate the differences of the water content in the test contact lenses.

  9. Onion dehydration: a review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitra, Jayeeta; Shrivastava, S L; Rao, P S

    .... The various kinds of treatments followed for dehydration of onion such as convective air drying, solar drying, fluidized bed drying, vacuum microwave drying, infrared drying and osmotic drying are reviewed here...

  10. Thermal behavior and properties of chitosan fibers enhanced polysaccharide hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Limei, E-mail: [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Wang, Binghao, E-mail: [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Bai, Tong-chun, E-mail: [School of Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Dong, Bin, E-mail: [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Chitosan, in fiber form, was introduced into polysaccharide hydrogels. • Strong interactions in hybrid hydrogels are systematically investigated. • Dehydration activation energy decreases as the content of CSFs increases. • Chitosan fibers improved hydrogels’ structural stability and storage modulus. - Abstract: Composite hydrogel based on chitosan fibers (CSFs), high- and low-acyl gellan gum (HLG) was fabricated. The strong interactions between CSFs and HLG were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study shows that the dehydration activation energy decreases as the content of CSFs increases. The rheological measurement showed that the storage modulus of 2.0CSF–HLG (where 2.0 represents the mass ratio between CSF and HLG) hydrogels is 48 kPa at regular frequency of 1 rad/s, which is 1.8 times higher than that of HLG hydrogel. In addition, the SEM images demonstrated that 2.0CSF–HLG hydrogel exhibits three dimensional architectures with HLG attaching to CSFs. A weak swelling capacity of CSF–HLG hydrogels was observed, indicating fibroid CSFs would hinder the movement of HLG chain segments in solution.

  11. Electrolyte Concentrates Treat Dehydration (United States)


    Wellness Brands Inc. of Boulder, Colorado, exclusively licensed a unique electrolyte concentrate formula developed by Ames Research Center to treat and prevent dehydration in astronauts returning to Earth. Marketed as The Right Stuff, the company's NASA-derived formula is an ideal measure for athletes looking to combat dehydration and boost performance. Wellness Brands also plans to expand with products that make use of the formula's effective hydration properties to help treat conditions including heat stroke, altitude sickness, jet lag, and disease.

  12. Mechanical Properties of Contact Lens Materials. (United States)

    Kim, Eon; Saha, Mou; Ehrmann, Klaus


    To evaluate the mechanical properties of commonly available soft contact lens materials and compare results using custom-built MicroTensometer. The Young modulus, parameters for stress relaxation, and toughness of 18 types of single vision soft contact lenses were measured using custom-built MicroTensometer. Five lenses of each type were soaked in standard phosphate buffered saline and measured at a temperature of 35°C. Each lens was flattened and sliced into a rectangular strip sample using two parallel blades. The Acuvue Moist 1-Day and SofLens Daily lenses measured lowest moduli, whereas Air Optix Night & Day Aqua and Premio measured the highest. The measured moduli for silicone hydrogel materials were generally higher compared with the hydrogels except for Dailies AquaComfort Plus. The exponential curve fitted over the decay in stress showed a consistent time constant of approximately 10 sec for most lens types measured. However, the amplitude constant varied from 2.84% for SofLens Daily to 22.39% for Acuvue TruEye 1-Day. The toughness results showed that Dailies AquaComfort Plus is strong but not necessarily tough. The mechanical properties of commonly prescribed soft contact lens materials were measured using a dedicated instrument. Its reliability was demonstrated, and modulus results were compared against published data from manufacturers and other research groups. Agreement was generally good, with only a few exceptions exceeding 15% difference. The more recently released silicone hydrogel lens types have reduced modulus, approaching that of medium or high water content hydrogel materials.

  13. Hydrogel based occlusion systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.A.; Jackson, N.; Dubruel, P.; Adesanya, K.; Embrechts, A.; Mendes, E.; Neves, H.P.; Herijgers, P.; Verbrugghe, Y.; Shacham, Y.; Engel, L.; Krylov, V.


    A hydrogel based occlusion system, a method for occluding vessels, appendages or aneurysms, and a method for hydrogel synthesis are disclosed. The hydrogel based occlusion system includes a hydrogel having a shrunken and a swollen state and a delivery tool configured to deliver the hydrogel to a

  14. Smart hydrogel functional materials

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Liang-Yin; Ju, Xiao-Jie


    This book systematically introduces smart hydrogel functional materials with the configurations ranging from hydrogels to microgels. It serves as an excellent reference for designing and fabricating artificial smart hydrogel functional materials.

  15. Trends of contact lens prescribing in Jordan. (United States)

    Haddad, Mera F; Bakkar, May; Gammoh, Yazan; Morgan, Philip


    To evaluate contact lens prescribing trends among optometrists in Jordan. Optometrists from 173 practices in Jordan were surveyed about prescribing contact lenses in their practice. Practitioners were required to record information for the last 10 patients that visited their practice. Demographic data such as age and gender was obtained for each patient. In addition, data relating to lens type, lens design, replacement methods and the care regime advised to each patient were recorded. Practitioners were required to provide information relating to their education and years of experience. The influence of education and experience with respect to lens prescribing trends was explored using linear regression models for the proportions of lens types fitted for patients. A total of 1730 contact lens fits were analyzed. The mean (±SD) age of lens wearers was 26.6 (±7.9) years, of whom 65% were female. Conventional hydrogel lenses were the most prescribed lenses, accounting for 60.3% of the fits, followed by silicone hydrogel lenses (31.3%), and rigid lenses (8.4%). In terms of lens design, spherical lenses appeared to be most commonly prescribed on monthly basis. Daily disposable lenses were second most prescribed lens modality, accounting for 20.4% of the study sample. Multi-purpose solution (MPS) was the preferred care regimen, with a prevalence of 88.1% reported in the study sample, compared to hydrogen peroxide (1-step and 2-step), which represented only 2.8% of the patients in this study. A relationship was established between the two educational groups for rigid lens prescribing (F=17.4, p<0.0001), while the experience of the optometrist was not a significant factor (F=0.4, p=0.54). This work has provides an up-to-date analysis of contact lens prescribing trends among optometrists in Jordan. Contact lens prescribing in terms of lens type, lens design, modality of wear and care regimen agree with global market trends with small variations. This report will help

  16. Objective and subjective assessing efficacy of a lubricating drop in eyes wearing silicone hydrogel contact lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Asharlous


    Conclusion: Our results showed that although the lubricating drop did not improve the tear film stability and optical quality in the silicone hydrogel contact lens wearers, subjects experienced a subjective improvement.

  17. Fitting the post-keratoplasty cornea with hydrogel lenses. (United States)

    Katsoulos, Costas; Nick, Vasileiou; Lefteris, Karageorgiadis; Theodore, Mousafeiropoulos


    We report two cases who have undergone penetrating keratoplasty (three eyes total), and who were fitted with hydrogel lenses. In the first case, a 28-year-old male presented with an interest in contact lens fitting. He had undergone corneal transplantation in both eyes, about 5 years ago. After topographies and trial fitting were performed, it was decided to be fitted with reverse geometry hydrogel lenses, due to the globular geometry of the cornea, the resultant instability of RGPs, and personal preference. In the second case, a 26-year-old female who had also penetrating keratoplasty was fitted with a hydrogel toric lens of high cylinder in the right eye. The final hydrogel lenses for the first subject incorporated a custom tricurve design, in which the second curve was steeper than the base curve and the third curve flatter than the second but still steeper than the first. Visual acuity was 6/7.5 RE and a mediocre 6/15 LE (OU 6/7.5). The second subject achieved 6/4.5 acuity RE with the high cylinder hydrogel toric lens. In corneas exhibiting extreme protrusion, such as keratoglobus and some cases after penetrating keratoplasty, curvatures are so extreme and the cornea so globular leading to specific fitting options: sclerals, small diameter RGPs and reverse geometry hydrogel lenses, in order to improve lens and optical stability. In selected cases such as the above, large diameter inverse geometry RGP may be fitted only if the eyelid shape and tension permits so. The first case demonstrates that the option of hydrogel lenses is viable when the patient has no interest in RGPs and in certain cases can improve vision to satisfactory levels. In other cases, graft toricity might be so high that the practitioner will need to employ hydrogel torics with large amounts of cylinder in order to correct vision. In such cases, the patient should be closely monitored in order to avoid complications from hypoxia.

  18. Material properties that predict preservative uptake for silicone hydrogel contact lenses. (United States)

    Green, J Angelo; Phillips, K Scott; Hitchins, Victoria M; Lucas, Anne D; Shoff, Megan E; Hutter, Joseph C; Rorer, Eva M; Eydelman, Malvina B


    To assess material properties that affect preservative uptake by silicone hydrogel lenses. We evaluated the water content (using differential scanning calorimetry), effective pore size (using probe penetration), and preservative uptake (using high-performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric detection) of silicone and conventional hydrogel soft contact lenses. Lenses grouped similarly based on freezable water content as they did based on total water content. Evaluation of the effective pore size highlighted potential differences between the surface-treated and non-surface-treated materials. The water content of the lens materials and ionic charge are associated with the degree of preservative uptake. The current grouping system for testing contact lens-solution interactions separates all silicone hydrogels from conventional hydrogel contact lenses. However, not all silicone hydrogel lenses interact similarly with the same contact lens solution. Based upon the results of our research, we propose that the same material characteristics used to group conventional hydrogel lenses, water content and ionic charge, can also be used to predict uptake of hydrophilic preservatives for silicone hydrogel lenses. In addition, the hydrophobicity of silicone hydrogel contact lenses, although not investigated here, is a unique contact lens material property that should be evaluated for the uptake of relatively hydrophobic preservatives and tear components.

  19. Hyphal penetration of worn hydrogel contact lenses by Fusarium. (United States)

    Ahearn, Donald G; Zhang, Shangtong; Ward, Michael A; Simmons, Robert B; Stulting, R Doyle


    To determine the relative susceptibility of worn and unworn hydrogel contact lenses to penetration by hyphae of the Fusarium solani-Fusarium oxysporum species complex. Hydrogel contact lenses (lotrafilcon A, balafilcon A, senofilcon A, galyfilcon A, and etafilcon A) were removed from their original packages and placed directly on the eyes of 24 experienced contact lens wearers for 8-9 hours. Lenses were removed, each placed in 3.0 mL sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS), and inoculated with 10 conidia of fusaria. Similar sets of unworn lenses were soaked in Sabouraud's dextrose broth for 2 hours prior to exposure to fusaria conidia in PBS. The entire surface of lenses was examined with microscopy for 14 days for the development of coiled hyphae in the lens matrix (ie, penetration pegs [PP]). A total of 21 of 54 worn hydrogel lenses representing 4 types of silicone hydrogel and one type of hydroxyethylmethacrylate lens were penetrated by the fusaria. Compared to unworn lenses, 9 of the 21 PP-positive worn lenses showed earlier and more extensive penetration than seen with the unworn lenses. Several worn lenses compared to their unworn counterparts showed negligible or delayed penetration. Worn hydrogel contact lenses without a history of exposure to disinfection solutions compared to unworn lenses of similar status may show enhanced or decreased susceptibilities to penetration by Fusarium. This suggests that tear characteristics are an additional factor in the invasive contamination of hydrogel contact lenses by Fusarium.

  20. The physical and chemical properties of the polyvinylalcohol/polyvinylpyrrolidone/hydroxyapatite composite hydrogel. (United States)

    Ma, Yahui; Bai, Tongchun; Wang, Fei


    A hydrogel of polyvinylalcohol (PVA)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/hydroxyapatite (HA) was prepared by a repeated freezing and thawing technique. The effect of HA on the hydrogel was evaluated by comparing the physical and chemical properties of PVA/PVP/HA and PVA/PVP hydrogels. By using theoretical models, the information about the swelling kinetics and the dehydration kinetics have been obtained. From the analysis of structure, mechanical properties, and molecular interaction, the application of PVA/PVP/HA hydrogel as a biomaterial has been evaluated. Relative to PVA/PVP, the PVA/PVP/HA hydrogel is of denser network structure, lower water content, larger storage modulus, and higher dehydration activation energy. These results reveal that, as HA fills in the hydrogel, the molecular interaction is enhanced, the free space of network is compressed, and the diffusion activation energy of water is increased. In spite of its water content being decreased, it is still in the range of meeting the requirement of bio-application. When the hydrogel is subjected to external forces, the matrix will transfer the load to the HA powder, thus enhance the strength of the hydrogel. For application in bio-materials, HA will still have osteoinductivity because its crystalline structure is not interrupted in PVA/PVP/HA hydrogel environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. First Aid: Dehydration (United States)

    ... sips of clear fluids such as an oral electrolyte solution, ice chips, flat non-caffeinated soda, clear broth, or ice pops. Give 1 to 2 tablespoons every 15–20 minutes. Seek Emergency Medical Care If Your Child: shows any sign of severe dehydration is unable ...

  2. Comparison of tear film surface quality measured in vivo on water gradient silicone hydrogel and hydrogel contact lenses. (United States)

    Szczesna-Iskander, Dorota H


    Recently, a new water gradient silicone hydrogel material has been introduced for a daily disposable lens. The aim of this study was to assess, in vivo, the prelens tear film surface quality (TFSQ) of this new lens in comparison with that of another daily disposable lens from the same manufacturer. Eleven subjects wore two pairs of hydrogel nelfilcon A and silicone hydrogel delefilcon A lenses in two nonconsecutive days. The noninvasive lateral shearing interferometry was used to analyze the prelens tear film and distinguish between different contact lens materials. Measurements were taken in natural blinking conditions after 6 hours of wear. Additionally, the subjective comfort was evaluated. The presence of both lenses resulted in a TFSQ reduction as compared with the bare eye condition. Statistically significant (Wilcoxon rank sum test, Pwater gradient material than the high water content material. A statistically significant correlation between the TFSQ results of the two lenses was found (Pearson correlation coefficient R=0.8, Plenses was lower and found to be insignificant (R=0.6, P>0.05). Although the prelens TFSQ is not always directly proportional to the lens water content, the results of the in vivo study showed that the new water gradient silicone hydrogel material impact less TFSQ as compared with its predecessor.

  3. Solute Partitioning and Hindered Diffusion in Hydrogels


    Liu, David Ezra


    Solute uptake and release govern the efficacy of hydrogels in controlled drug delivery, tissue engineering, and chromatographic separations. In soft contact lenses, uptake and release of wetting, packaging, and care-solution agents is extensively employed to improve on-eye lens performance. Key physical parameters are the equilibrium solute partition coefficient and the solute diffusion coefficient in the gel that dictate the amounts and rates of uptake/release, respectively. To investigate t...

  4. Fruits and vegetables dehydration (United States)

    de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.


    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.

  5. The dangers of distilled water in contact lens maintenance. (United States)

    Josephson, J E; Caffery, B E


    The reports of serious corneal infection associated with hydrogel lens wear prompted us to explore the level of sterility of the distilled water used by lens wearers in our practice. Fifty patients supplied samples of their partially-used distilled water for testing. Of the samples, 12% were found to be contaminated. Five samples of previously unopened distilled water were tested and no growth was found. We recommend that patients do not use distilled water for the care of hydrogel contact lenses. Rather, sterile unit dose or multi-dose (aerosol) nonpreserved, or preserved salines can be used.

  6. Onion dehydration: a review


    Mitra, Jayeeta; Shrivastava, S. L.; Rao, P. S.


    Onion (Allium cepa), a very commonly used vegetable, ranks third in the world production of major vegetables. Apart from imparting a delicious taste and flavour due to its pungency in many culinary preparations, it serves several medicinal purposes also. Processing and preservation of onion by suitable means is a major thrust area since a long time. The various kinds of treatments followed for dehydration of onion such as convective air drying, solar drying, fluidized bed drying, vacuum micro...

  7. Osmotic Dehydration of Fruits


    Guiné, Raquel; Barroca, Maria João


    The need for increasing improvements in the quality of food products conducted to an increased interest in osmotic treatment. This technology involves the partial dehydration of a water-rich solid foodstuff, either whole or in pieces, through immersion in an osmotic solution. In fact, osmotic treatment is applied with the goal of modifying the composition of food material through partial water removal and impregnation of solutes, without affecting the structural integrity of products. Three k...

  8. Physiology of wrestlers` dehydration


    Cengiz, Asim; DEMİRHAN, Bilal


    Rapid weight loss via dehydration has profound adverse effects on the wrestler's physiology and muscular endurance even with %1 of body weight loss. Additionally, there is a decline after 4% of weight loss in strength or anaerobic power performance. However, these adverse effects do not seem to impair muscle strength during high-power exertions lasting less than 30 seconds. In fact, for athletes participating in brief-duration, high- power sports, rapid weight loss may give them an advan...



    Patil S.A.; Rane B. R.; Bakliwal S.R.; Pawar S. P.


    Man has always been plagued with many ailments and diseases. The field of pharmaceutical science has today become more invaluable in helping to keep us healthy and prevent disease. The availability of large molecular weight protein and peptide-based drugs due to the recent advances has given us a new ways to treat a number of diseases. I wish to present new and promising techniques for the production of drug and protein delivery formulations that have been developed that is Hydrogel. These ar...

  10. Involuntary dehydration during cricket. (United States)

    Gore, C J; Bourdon, P C; Woolford, S M; Pederson, D G


    The sweat rate, heart rate and core temperature as well as urinary volume, osmolarity, electrolyte concentration and pH of 20 cricketers were measured under cool, warm and hot conditions with wet bulb globe temperature indices of 22.1, 24.5 and 27.1, respectively. Simulated match conditions were used on the cool and warm days, while 3 bowlers were measured under actual match conditions on the hot day. The tendency for higher heart rate, sweat rate and renal conservation of water and sodium on the warm day compared with the cool day is consistent with increasing thermoregulatory stress under relatively moderate environmental conditions. The average dehydration of the three fast bowlers was -4.3% of initial body mass after only two sessions of play, on the hot day. This level of dehydration is sufficient to impair physical performance. These results suggest that the adverse effects of dehydration could be minimised if the rules of cricket were amended to allow players the opportunity to drink as desired when the environmental conditions are extreme.

  11. Sunglass Lens (United States)


    Foster Grant's Space Technology Lens, manufactured under license from NASA, combines NASA technology with Foster Grant's own technology. The NASA contribution was a highly abrasion-resistant coating developed at Ames Research Center as a means of protecting plastic surfaces of aerospace equipment from the sometimes harsh environments to which they are subjected. The Space Tech Lens, now manufactured by Fosta-Tek, surpasses glass in abrasion resistant properties and has five times better scratch resistance than the most popular corrective lenses.

  12. Effects of peptide ratios in nanofibre-based hydrogels for the prevention of capsular opacification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibourg, Lisanne M.; Gelens, Edith; Nibourg, Simone A. F.; de Jong, Menno R.; Kuijer, Roel; van Kooten, Theo G.; Koopmans, Steven A.


    PurposeTo moderate the capsular opacification (CO) response after lens surgery, an experimental study was performed in which nanofibre-based hydrogels (nanogels) with different ratios of attached peptides were applied to provide extracellular matrix-related cues for lens epithelial cells (LECs) in a

  13. Ciprofloxacin interaction with silicon-based and conventional hydrogel contact lenses. (United States)

    Karlgard, C C S; Jones, L W; Moresoli, C


    Hydrogel contact lenses can be used as bandage lenses to protect the corneal surface after injury. The use of novel silicon-based hydrogel lens materials as bandage lenses has not gained widespread acceptance. As a first step toward advocating their usefulness as bandage lenses, their interaction with ocular pharmaceuticals must be understood because topical agents are often administered in conjunction with bandage lenses. The in vitro uptake and release of ciprofloxacin from silicone-based hydrogel (SH) and conventional pHEMA-based (CH) hydrogel contact lenses was examined by spectrophotometric evaluation of the drug concentration in saline solution. The hydrogel contact lenses tested showed similar drug uptake (average 1800 microg/lens) but different levels of drug release. Multiphoton laser microscopy indicated that ciprofloxacin was distributed throughout the lens thickness, with higher levels of drug at the surface owing to drug precipitation. The drug adsorption onto the lenses was partially reversible. The SH lenses released a lower amount of drug than CH lenses (72 vs. 168 microg/lens). Ionic lenses released less drug than non-ionic lenses (127 vs. 151 microg/lens). The differences in ciprofloxacin uptake and release between SH and CH materials may not be clinically significant because the amount of drug released from all lenses would be above the MIC(90) of ciprofloxacin for common ocular pathogens. These results indicate that material properties have a significant impact on drug-lens interactions.

  14. Dehydration in the Older Adult. (United States)

    Miller, Hayley J


    Dehydration affects 20% to 30% of older adults. It has a greater negative outcome in this population than in younger adults and increases mortality, morbidity, and disability. Dehydration is often caused by water deprivation in older adults, although excess water loss may also be a cause. Traditional markers for dehydration do not take into consideration many of the physiological differences present in older adults. Clinical assessment of dehydration in older adults poses different findings, yet is not always diagnostic. Treatment of dehydration should focus on prevention and early diagnosis before it negatively effects health and gives rise to comorbidities. The current article discusses what has most thoroughly been studied; the best strategies and assessment tools for evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of dehydration in older adults; and what needs to be researched further. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 41(9), 8-13.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. An early assessment of silicone hydrogel safety: pearls and pitfalls, and current status. (United States)

    Keay, Lisa; Edwards, Katie; Stapleton, Fiona


    The contact lens industry has evolved and now provides many choices, including continuous wear, overnight orthokeratology, frequent-replacement lenses, daily-disposable lenses, and many alternatives in systems of care and maintenance. Epidemiologic studies to date have shown that how a lens is worn, particularly if worn overnight, can increase the risk of microbial keratitis. However, the risk of silicone hydrogel contact lenses worn on a continuous-wear basis has been evaluated only recently. This article summarizes the recent research data on extended-wear silicone hydrogel lenses and discusses the challenges of early evaluations of silicone hydrogel lens safety. Finally, the relevance of this information is discussed to practitioners and contact lens wearers making choices about the risks and benefits of different products and how they are used.

  16. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Contact Lens Care Solutions Against Neutrophil-Enhanced Bacterial Biofilms. (United States)

    Hinojosa, Jorge A; Patel, Naiya B; Zhu, Meifang; Robertson, Danielle M


    Neutrophil-derived extracellular debris has been shown to accelerate bacterial biofilm formation on hydrogel and silicone hydrogel contact lens surfaces compared to lenses inoculated with bacteria alone. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the disinfection efficacy of four standard commercial contact lens cleaning regimens against neutrophil-enhanced bacterial biofilms formed on silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Four reference strains were used: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Staphylococcus aureus. Human neutrophils were isolated from peripheral blood by venipuncture. Unworn Lotrafilcon B lenses were incubated overnight in each respective strain with stimulated neutrophils. Contact lenses were then cleaned using one of four contact lens care solutions according to manufacturer instructions. Bacterial viability was assessed by colony counts and confocal microscopy. Volume of residual debris on lens surfaces after cleaning was quantified using IMARIS software. All four solutions tested showed effective antimicrobial activity against each bacterial strain; however, substantial amounts of nonviable bacteria and cellular debris remained on the lens surface despite concomitant digital cleaning. Necrotic cellular debris that accumulates under the posterior lens surface during wear of an inoculated contact lens is not fully removed during routine cleaning and disinfection. The accumulation of residual cellular debris on the contact lens surface may contribute to new colonization of the lens and represents a significant risk factor for a contact lens-related adverse event. Additional studies are needed to correlate these findings with risk for corneal infiltrative and/or infectious events in a standard animal model.

  17. Effects of refrigeration on daily microbial bioburden of hydrogel lenses. (United States)

    Lapple, W J; Snyder, A C; Tuovinen, O H


    Microbial bioburden of contact lenses was evaluated in connection with lens care by refrigeration. Subjects wore new hydrogel contact lenses for approximately 8 hours. The microbial bioburden initially and after an overnight refrigeration of the lens was evaluated with the use of viable counts on three different media. No major changes in viable counts were observed resulting from this method of storage. Scanning electron microscopy indicated the presence of foreign material on both new and worn lenses, presumed to be debris from lens manufacture and mucoid deposits from daily wear. Microbial colonization was not apparent and single bacterial cells could not be discerned on the micrographs.

  18. Lens Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William


    Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory of probabil......Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory...... of probabilistic functionalism, and concerns the environment and the mind, and adaptation by the latter to the former. This entry is about the lens model, and probabilistic functionalism more broadly. Focus will mostly be on firms and their employees, but, to fully appreciate the scope, we have to keep in mind...

  19. Impact of Contact Lens Material, Design, and Fitting on Discomfort. (United States)

    Stapleton, Fiona; Tan, Jacqueline


    To review the effect of contact lens (CL) material, design, and fitting characteristics on CL discomfort. A PubMed search identified publications describing subjective comfort and CL material, fitting, and design parameters. The review included clinical signs associated with discomfort that may be a consequence of these parameters. Reduced lens movement or more CL tightness were associated with improved comfort. Increased lens-induced paralimbal conjunctival staining and indentation, considered as quasi-indicators of CL fitting or edge design, were also associated with better comfort. No recent studies have evaluated varying CL design parameters and subjective comfort. Silicone hydrogel CLs are no different in comfort compared with hydrogel CLs. Lower equilibrium water content is associated with improved comfort in hydrogel CL wear. Coefficient of friction shows promise as a material factor potentially associated with comfort. Lid wiper epitheliopathy and lid-parallel conjunctival folds have been linked with comfort in established wearers. Recent studies have confirmed the association between more mobile CLs and more discomfort, whereas closer conformity of the CL to the bulbar conjunctiva improved subjective comfort. There is no evidence to support the perceived comfort difference between silicone hydrogel and hydrogel CL. There has been limited progress in understanding the impact of varying specific CL design parameters. Although specific clinical signs may be predictive of discomfort, their role in the natural history of discomfort remains unclear. A better understanding of the relationship between coefficient of friction and comfort and strategies to improve lubricity may hold promise for limiting CL discomfort.

  20. Natural gas dehydration by desiccant materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A.A. Farag


    Increasing water vapor concentration in inlet feed gas leads to a marked decrease in dehydration efficiency. As expected, a higher inlet flow rate of natural gas decrease dehydration efficiency. Increasing feed pressure leads to higher dehydration efficiency.

  1. Effect of discarded keratin-based biocomposite hydrogels on the wound healing process in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Mira [Department of Organic Materials & Fiber Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561–756 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hye Kyoung [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 100 Inharo, Incheon 402–751 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byoung-Suhk [Department of BIN fusion technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561–756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung Jin; Kim, In-Shik [Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine and Bio-safety Research institute, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561–756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byung-Yong, E-mail: [Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine and Bio-safety Research institute, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561–756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak-Yong, E-mail: [Department of BIN fusion technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561–756 (Korea, Republic of)


    Biocompatible keratin-based hydrogels prepared by electron beam irradiation (EBI) were examined in wound healing. As the EBI dose increased to 60 kGy, the tensile strength of the hydrogels increased, while the percentage of elongation of the hydrogels decreased. After 7 days, the dehydrated wool-based hydrogels show the highest mechanical properties (the % elongation of 1341 and the tensile strength of 6030 g/cm{sup 2} at an EBI dose of 30 kGy). Excision wound models were used to evaluate the effects of human hair-based hydrogels and wool-based hydrogels on various phases of healing. On post-wounding days 7 and 14, wounds treated with either human hair-based or wool-based hydrogels were greatly reduced in size compared to wounds that received other treatments, although the hydrocolloid wound dressing-treated wound also showed a pronounced reduction in size compared to an open wound as measured by a histological assay. On the 14th postoperative day, the cellular appearances were similar in the hydrocolloid wound dressing and wool-based hydrogel-treated wounds, and collagen fibers were substituted with fibroblasts and mixed with fibroblasts in the dermis. Furthermore, the wound treated with a human hair-based hydrogel showed almost complete epithelial regeneration, with the maturation of immature connective tissue and hair follicles and formation of a sebaceous gland. - Highlights: • Biocompatible keratin-based hydrogels were examined for wound healing process. • Human hair-based hydrogel is superior to wool-based hydrogel in wound healing. • Discarded keratin-based hydrogels are expected more eco-friendly therapeutic agents.

  2. Onion dehydration: a review. (United States)

    Mitra, Jayeeta; Shrivastava, S L; Rao, P S


    Onion (Allium cepa), a very commonly used vegetable, ranks third in the world production of major vegetables. Apart from imparting a delicious taste and flavour due to its pungency in many culinary preparations, it serves several medicinal purposes also. Processing and preservation of onion by suitable means is a major thrust area since a long time. The various kinds of treatments followed for dehydration of onion such as convective air drying, solar drying, fluidized bed drying, vacuum microwave drying, infrared drying and osmotic drying are reviewed here. These techniques are mainly used for preservation and value addition of onion. Several researchers have tried for decades to model the drying kinetics and quality parameters, which are also compiled here briefly.

  3. Corneal ring infiltration in contact lens wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Tabatabaei


    Full Text Available To report a case of atypical sterile ring infiltrates during wearing soft silicone hydrogel contact lens due to poor lens care. A 29-year-old woman presented with complaints of pain, redness, and morning discharge. She was wearing soft silicone hydrogel contact lens previously; her current symptoms began 1 week before presentation. On examination, best-corrected visual acuity was 20/40 in that eye. Slit-lamp examination revealed dense, ring-shaped infiltrate involving both the superficial and deep stromal layers with lucid interval to the limbus, edema of the epithelium, epithelial defect, and vascularization of the superior limbus. Cornea-specific in vivo laser confocal microscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 2 Rostock Cornea Module, HRT 2-RCM, Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Dossenheim, Germany revealed Langerhans cells and no sign of Acanthamoeba or fungal features, using lid scraping and anti-inflammatory drops; her vision completely recovered. We reported an atypical case of a sterile corneal ring infiltrate associated with soft contact lens wearing; smear, culture, and confocal microscopy confirmed a sterile inflammatory reaction.

  4. Corneal ring infiltration in contact lens wearers. (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Ali; Soleimani, Mohammad; Johari, Mohammadkarim


    To report a case of atypical sterile ring infiltrates during wearing soft silicone hydrogel contact lens due to poor lens care. A 29-year-old woman presented with complaints of pain, redness, and morning discharge. She was wearing soft silicone hydrogel contact lens previously; her current symptoms began 1 week before presentation. On examination, best-corrected visual acuity was 20/40 in that eye. Slit-lamp examination revealed dense, ring-shaped infiltrate involving both the superficial and deep stromal layers with lucid interval to the limbus, edema of the epithelium, epithelial defect, and vascularization of the superior limbus. Cornea-specific in vivo laser confocal microscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 2 Rostock Cornea Module, HRT 2-RCM, Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Dossenheim, Germany) revealed Langerhans cells and no sign of Acanthamoeba or fungal features, using lid scraping and anti-inflammatory drops; her vision completely recovered. We reported an atypical case of a sterile corneal ring infiltrate associated with soft contact lens wearing; smear, culture, and confocal microscopy confirmed a sterile inflammatory reaction.

  5. Equivalences between refractive index and equilibrium water content of conventional and silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses from automated and manual refractometry. (United States)

    González-Méijome, José M; López-Alemany, Antonio; Lira, Madalena; Almeida, José B; Oliveira, M Elisabete C D Real; Parafita, Manuel A


    The purpose of the present study was to develop mathematical relationships that allow obtaining equilibrium water content and refractive index of conventional and silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses from refractive index measures obtained with automated refractometry or equilibrium water content measures derived from manual refractometry, respectively. Twelve HEMA-based hydrogels of different hydration and four siloxane-based polymers were assayed. A manual refractometer and a digital refractometer were used. Polynomial models obtained from the sucrose curves of equilibrium water content against refractive index and vice-versa were used either considering the whole range of sucrose concentrations (16-100% equilibrium water content) or a range confined to the equilibrium water content of current soft contact lenses (approximately 20-80% equilibrium water content). Values of equilibrium water content measured with the Atago N-2E and those derived from the refractive index measurement with CLR 12-70 by the applications of sucrose-based models displayed a strong linear correlation (r2 = 0.978). The same correlations were obtained when the models are applied to obtain refractive index values from the Atago N-2E and compared with those (values) given by the CLR 12-70 (r2 = 0.978). No significantly different results are obtained between models derived from the whole range of the sucrose solution or the model limited to the normal range of soft contact lens hydration. Present results will have implications for future experimental and clinical research regarding normal hydration and dehydration experiments with hydrogel polymers, and particularly in the field of contact lenses. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Comparison of two hydrogel formulations for drug release in ophthalmic lenses. (United States)

    Paradiso, P; Galante, R; Santos, L; Alves de Matos, A P; Colaço, R; Serro, A P; Saramago, B


    In the present work two types of polymers were investigated as drug releasing contact lens materials: a poly-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (pHEMA) based hydrogel and a silicone hydrogel. The silicone hydrogel resulted from the addition of TRIS, a hydrophobic monomer containing silicon (3-tris(trimethylsilyloxy)silylpropyl 2-methylprop-2-enoate), to pHEMA. Both hydrogels were loaded with an antibiotic (levofloxacin) and an antiseptic (chlorhexidine) by soaking in the drug solutions. The hydrogel properties were determined to be within the range demanded for lens materials. The release profiles of both drugs from the hydrogels were obtained and eventual drug/polymer interactions were assessed with the help of Raman spectra. A mathematical model, developed to mimic the eye conditions, was applied to the experimental results in order to predict the in vivo efficacy of the studied systems. The release profiles were compared with those resulting from the application of commercial eyedrops. The pHEMA based hydrogel demonstrated to be the best material to achieve a controlled release of levofloxacin. In the case of chlorhexidine, the silicone hydrogel seems to lead to better results. In both cases, our results suggest that these materials are adequate for the preparation of daily disposable therapeutic contact lenses. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A small scale honey dehydrator


    Gill, R.S.; Hans, V. S.; Singh, Sukhmeet; Pal Singh, Parm; Dhaliwal, S. S.


    A small scale honey dehydrator has been designed, developed, and tested to reduce moisture content of honey below 17 %. Experiments have been conducted for honey dehydration by using drying air at ambient temperature, 30 and 40 °C and water at 35, 40 and 45 °C. In this dehydrator, hot water has been circulated in a water jacket around the honey container to heat honey. The heated honey has been pumped through a sieve to form honey streams through which drying air passes for moisture removal. ...

  8. Lens material and formulation of multipurpose solutions affects contact lens disinfection. (United States)

    Santos, Lívia; Oliveira, Rosário; Oliveira, M Elisabete C D Real; Azeredo, Joana


    To assess the disinfection efficacy of multipurpose solutions (MPS) against different bacterial species adhered either to silicon hydrogel or to conventional hydrogel contact lenses (CLs). The influences of the MPS formulation and the chemical composition of the lens material were investigated. This investigation followed the standard 14729, which establishes the guidelines for assessing CL disinfecting solutions. Two commercially available (Opti-Free(®) Express(®) and Renu(®) Multiplus) solutions and one recalled solution (Complete(®) MoisturePlus™) were used in this study. After disinfection, the number of survivors was estimated by the colony forming units' method. The lens material appears to influence disinfection. The conventional hydrogel polymacon exhibited the highest disinfection scores, a fact that should be related with the lack of electrostatic attraction towards the biocides and its hydrophilicity. The MPS formulation appears to have influence in disinfection efficacy as well. For most adhered bacteria, Opti-Free(®) was capable of reducing cell concentration in 4-log. Disinfection results from multivariate factors and this study confirmed that the lens material and the MPS play a very important role in the disinfection efficacy of CL. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Nanofiber-based hydrogels with extracellular matrix-based synthetic peptides for the prevention of capsular opacification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibourg, Lisanne M.; Gelens, Edith; de Jong, Menno R.; Kuijer, Roel; van Kooten, Theo G.; Koopmans, Steven A.

    Nanofiber-based hydrogels (nanogels) with different, covalently bound peptides were used as an extracellular environment for lens epithelial cells (LECs) in order to modulate the capsular opacification (CO) response after lens surgery in a porcine eye model. Lenses were divided into 15 groups (n = 4

  10. Risk factors for contact lens bacterial contamination during continuous wear. (United States)

    Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta B; Bajaksouzian, Saralee; Jacobs, Michael R; Rimm, Alfred


    Microbial contamination of contact lenses is associated with corneal infection and inflammation. This study determined the microbiological, clinical, and demographic factors that are associated with bacterial contamination of a silicone hydrogel contact lens when worn for continuous wear (CW). Two hundred five healthy subjects were enrolled in the Longitudinal Analysis of Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lens Study and were fitted with lotrafilcon A lenses for monthly CW and followed for 1 year. Lenses were aseptically removed after 1 week and 4 months of wear and cultured using an agar sandwich technique. Lids and conjunctiva were routinely cultured at baseline and after 1 week and 4 months of CW. Lenses and ocular sites were considered to have substantial microbial bioburden when they harbored pathogenic organisms or high levels of commensal organisms. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine whether substantial conjunctival or lid bioburden, subject demographics, lens-wearing history, symptoms, and biomicroscopic signs were associated with lens bioburden. About one third (32.4%) of subjects had substantial bacterial bioburden in either eye across multiple visits. Over half (53.2%) and about one tenth (11.7%) of subjects had substantial lid and conjunctival bioburden, respectively, and 11.2% discontinued because of discomfort. The adjusted odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) for presence of substantial lens bioburden were 2.49 (1.17-5.30), 4.24 (1.45-12.40), and 4.11 (1.17-14.46) for substantial lid bioburden, substantial conjunctival bioburden, and lens discomfort, respectively. Bacterial contamination of silicone hydrogel contact lenses is common during CW. Substantial lens bioburden is associated with discomfort precluding successful CW. The presence of substantial lid and conjunctival bioburden is associated with a 2.5-fold and more than fourfold greater risk of substantial lens bioburden and is likely the major route

  11. The effect of hydrogel and silicone hydrogel contact lenses on the measurement of intraocular pressure with rebound tonometry. (United States)

    Zeri, Fabrizio; Calcatelli, Paolo; Donini, Bernardo; Lupelli, Luigi; Zarrilli, Luciana; Swann, Peter G


    To assess the accuracy of intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements using rebound tonometry over disposable hydrogel (etafilcon A) and silicone hydrogel (senofilcon A) contact lenses (CLs) of different powers. The experimental group comprised 36 subjects (19 male, 17 female). IOP measurements were undertaken on the subject's right eyes in random order using a rebound tonometer (ICare). The CLs had powers of +2.00D, -2.00D and -6.00D. Six measurements were taken over each contact lens and also before and after the CLs had been worn. A good correlation was found between IOP measurements with and without CLs (all r≥0.80; phydrogel CLs were significant (psilicone hydrogel CLs were not significant. Rebound tonometry can be reliably performed over silicone hydrogel CLs. With hydrogel CLs, the measurements were lower than those without CLs. However, despite the fact that these differences were statistically significant, their clinical significance was minimal. 2011 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Demographic Factors Affect Ocular Comfort Ratings During Contact Lens Wear. (United States)

    Naduvilath, Thomas; Papas, Eric B; Lazon de la Jara, Percy


    To determine if rating of ocular comfort during soft contact lens wear is affected by demographic factors. Retrospective analysis of ocular comfort ratings during soft contact lens wear extracted from 44 nonrandomized similar clinical trials (n = 986). Subjects wore one of seven daily wear silicone hydrogels (SiHy) in combination with one of nine lens care products (LCP), and two daily disposables lenses. The effects on comfort rating of demographic factors were examined after adjusting for lens and LCP effects using general linear model. Males reported lower comfort on insertion than females (7.9 ± 1.6 vs. 8.1 ± 1.6, p = 0.001). Over 45 years old had higher comfort ratings than those between 26 and 45 or gender, lens wear experience, ethnicity, and refractive status can influence the rating of ocular comfort in clinical studies. The confounding effects of such demographic factors can be controlled by implementing randomization and appropriate multivariable statistical analysis.

  13. Non-compliance with lens care and maintenance in diabetic contact lens wearers. (United States)

    O'Donnell, Clare; Efron, Nathan


    We hypothesize that diabetic contact lens wearers may represent a special group displaying higher levels of compliance with their lens care regimens as a result of learned behaviour relating to maintenance of their diabetic condition. To test this hypothesis, a prospective, single centre, controlled, masked study was performed whereby 29 diabetic contact lens patients and 29 non-diabetic control subjects were issued with disposable hydrogel contact lenses and a multipurpose lens care regimen. All participants were given identical instruction on lens care and maintenance. Compliance levels were assessed at a 12-month aftercare appointment by demonstration and questionnaire. Twenty-four different aspects of compliance were scored, 12 by observation and 12 by questionnaire report, of which only two showed a significant difference between the diabetic and control groups. Although the combined population of contact lens wearers was generally compliant, there were examples of non-compliance in both groups. Neither the duration of diabetes nor the degree of metabolic control appeared to have a significant effect on compliance. The results suggest that eye care practitioners cannot assume that diabetic patients will be more compliant with contact lens care and maintenance than non-diabetic patients.

  14. Clinic study on silicone hydrogel contact lenses used as bandage contact lenses after LASEK surgery. (United States)

    Qu, Xiao-Mei; Dai, Jin-Hui; Jiang, Zhen-Ying; Qian, Yi-Feng


    To compare the clinical performance of two types of silicon hydrogel contact lenses used as bandage lenses after LASEK surgery. A prospective, double-masked study was conducted on 42 eyes of 21 patients who received binocular LASEK surgeries. The interocular difference in spherical equivalent power was less than -1.50D. Patients were randomly assigned to wear Galyfilcon A (Lens A) bandage contact lens in one eye and Balafilcon A (Lens B) in the fellow eye after the surgery. The responses to a subjective questionnaire on comfort of wearing, corneal epithelial status, conjunctival hyperemia, limbal neovascularization, lens fitting and contact lens debris were assessed 1 and 5 days postoperatively. Corneal endothelium was assessed before and 5 days after the surgery upon bandage lens removal. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of conjunctival hyperemia, limbal neovascularization, contact lens fitting, corneal epithelial status, corneal endothelium cell density (CD) and endothelium cell size (CS) at any postoperative visit. Complaints of discomfort, including foreign body sensation, pain and intolerance were statistically more among Lens B wearers at any postoperative visit (Psilicon hydrogel lenses investigated in this study demonstrated similar clinical performance in terms of corneal responses and lens fitting. However, Lens A showed a better performance in terms of comfort of wearing and deposit resistance.

  15. Biomimetic hydrogel materials (United States)

    Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mukkamala, Ravindranath; Chen, Qing; Hu, Hopin; Baude, Dominique


    Novel biomimetic hydrogel materials and methods for their preparation. Hydrogels containing acrylamide-functionalized carbohydrate, sulfoxide, sulfide or sulfone copolymerized with a hydrophilic or hydrophobic copolymerizing material selected from the group consisting of an acrylamide, methacrylamide, acrylate, methacrylate, vinyl and a derivative thereof present in concentration from about 1 to about 99 wt %. and methods for their preparation. The method of use of the new hydrogels for fabrication of soft contact lenses and biomedical implants.

  16. Biomimetic Hydrogel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertozzi, Carolyn (Albany, CA), Mukkamala, Ravindranath (Houston, TX), Chen, Oing (Albany, CA), Hu, Hopin (Albuquerque, NM), Baude, Dominique (Creteil, FR)


    Novel biomimetic hydrogel materials and methods for their preparation. Hydrogels containing acrylamide-functionalized carbohydrate, sulfoxide, sulfide or sulfone copolymerized with a hydrophilic or hydrophobic copolymerizing material selected from the group consisting of an acrylamide, methacrylamide, acrylate, methacrylate, vinyl and a derivative thereof present in concentration from about 1 to about 99 wt %. and methods for their preparation. The method of use of the new hydrogels for fabrication of soft contact lenses and biomedical implants.

  17. Dehydration of gypsum rock by solar energy: preliminary study


    López-Delgado, Aurora; López-Andrés, Sol; Padilla, Isabel; Alvarez, M.; Galindo, R.; Váquez, A. J.


    The dehydration process of gypsum rock was studied under concentrated solar energy by using a Fresnel lens with power density of 260 Wcm-2. Temperatures higher than 700¿C were attained for 1 min of solar exposure. The effect of grain size of sample and radiation exposure time on the formation of bassanite and anhydrite was studied by XRD. The complete transformation of dihydrate into hemihydrate and/or anhydrate phases is complete for the finer size sample. Plaster composed of 92.7% of anhydr...

  18. Antifouling properties of hydrogels. (United States)

    Murosaki, Takayuki; Ahmed, Nafees; Ping Gong, Jian


    Marine sessile organisms easily adhere to submerged solids such as rocks, metals and plastics, but not to seaweeds and fishes, which are covered with soft and wet 'hydrogel'. Inspired by this fact, we have studied long-term antifouling properties of hydrogels against marine sessile organisms. Hydrogels, especially those containing hydroxy group and sulfonic group, show excellent antifouling activity against barnacles both in laboratory assays and in the marine environment. The extreme low settlement on hydrogels in vitro and in vivo is mainly caused by antifouling properties against the barnacle cypris.

  19. Smart Contact Lenses with Graphene Coating for Electromagnetic Interference Shielding and Dehydration Protection. (United States)

    Lee, Sangkyu; Jo, Insu; Kang, Sangmin; Jang, Bongchul; Moon, Joonhee; Park, Jong Bo; Lee, Soochang; Rho, Sichul; Kim, Youngsoo; Hong, Byung Hee


    Recently, smart contact lenses with electronic circuits have been proposed for various sensor and display applications where the use of flexible and biologically stable electrode materials is essential. Graphene is an atomically thin carbon material with a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice that shows outstanding electrical and mechanical properties as well as excellent biocompatibility. In addition, graphene is capable of protecting eyes from electromagnectic (EM) waves that may cause eye diseases such as cataracts. Here, we report a graphene-based highly conducting contact lens platform that reduces the exposure to EM waves and dehydration. The sheet resistance of the graphene on the contact lens is as low as 593 Ω/sq (±9.3%), which persists in an wet environment. The EM wave shielding function of the graphene-coated contact lens was tested on egg whites exposed to strong EM waves inside a microwave oven. The results show that the EM energy is absorbed by graphene and dissipated in the form of thermal radiation so that the damage on the egg whites can be minimized. We also demonstrated the enhanced dehydration protection effect of the graphene-coated lens by monitoring the change in water evaporation rate from the vial capped with the contact lens. Thus, we believe that the graphene-coated contact lens would provide a healthcare and bionic platform for wearable technologies in the future.

  20. Spherical aberration in contact lens wear. (United States)

    Lindskoog Pettersson, A; Jarkö, C; Alvin, A; Unsbo, P; Brautaset, R


    The aim of the present studies was to investigate the effect on spherical aberration of different non custom-made contact lenses, both with and without aberration control. A wavefront analyser (Zywave, Bausch & Lomb) was used to measure the aberrations in each subject's right eye uncorrected and with the different contact lenses. The first study evaluated residual spherical aberration with a standard lens (Focus Dailies Disposable, Ciba Vision) and with an aberration controlled contact lens (ACCL) (Definition AC, Optical Connection Inc.). The second study evaluated the residual spherical aberrations with a monthly disposable silicone hydrogel lens with aberration reduction (PureVision, Bausch & Lomb). Uncorrected spherical aberration was positive for all pupil sizes in both studies. In the first study, residual spherical aberration was close to zero with the standard lens for all pupil sizes whereas the ACCL over-corrected spherical aberration. The results of the second study showed that the monthly disposable lens also over-corrected the aberration making it negative. The changes in aberration were statistically significant (plenses. Since the amount of aberration varies individually we suggest that aberrations should be measured with lenses on the eye if the aim is to change spherical aberration in a certain direction.

  1. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses of contact lens deposition. (United States)

    Green-Church, Kari B; Nichols, Jason J


    The purpose of this report is to describe the contact lens deposition proteome associated with two silicone hydrogel contact lenses and care solutions using a mass spectrometric-based approach. This was a randomized, controlled, examiner-masked crossover clinical trial that included 48 participants. Lenses and no-rub care solutions evaluated included galyfilcon A (Acuvue Advance, Vistakon Inc., Jacksonville, FL), lotrafilcon B (O2 Optix, CIBA Vision Inc., Duluth, GA), AQuify (CIBA Vision Inc.), and ReNu MoistureLoc (Bausch and Lomb Inc., Rochester, NY). After two weeks of daily wear in each lens-solution combination, the left lens was removed by the examiner (using gloves and forceps) and placed in a protein precipitation buffer (acetone). The precipitate was quantitated for total protein concentration (per lens), and proteins were then identified using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS/MS) and peptide sequencing. Between 7.32 and 9.76 microg/lens of protein was observed on average from each lens-solution combination. There were 19 total unique proteins identified across the two lens materials, and six proteins were identified in all four lens-solution combinations including lipocalin, lysozyme, lacritin, lactoferrin, proline rich 4, and Ig Alpha. Lotrafilcon B was associated with 15 individual proteins (across both care solutions), and 53% of these proteins were observed in at least 50% of the analyses. Galyfilcon A was associated with 13 individual proteins, and 38.5% of these proteins were observed in at least 50% of the analyses. There were three unique proteins identified from galyfilcon A and four unique proteins identified from lotrafilcon B. The total amount of proteins identified from silicone hydrogel materials is much less than the amount from traditional soft lens materials. For the most part, the deposition proteome across these lenses is similar, although the different polymer characteristics might be associated with some

  2. Hypoxia-Inducible Hydrogels (United States)

    Park, Kyung Min; Gerecht, Sharon


    Oxygen is vital for the existence of all multicellular organisms, acting as a signaling molecule regulating cellular activities. Specifically, hypoxia, which occurs when the partial pressure of oxygen falls below 5%, plays a pivotal role during development, regeneration, and cancer. Here we report a novel hypoxia-inducible (HI) hydrogel composed of gelatin and ferulic acid that can form hydrogel networks via oxygen consumption in a laccase-mediated reaction. Oxygen levels and gradients within the hydrogels can be accurately controlled and precisely predicted. We demonstrate that HI hydrogels guide vascular morphogenesis in vitro via hypoxia-inducible factors activation of matrix metalloproteinases and promote rapid neovascularization from the host tissue during subcutaneous wound healing. The HI hydrogel is a new class of biomaterials that may prove useful in many applications, ranging from fundamental studies of developmental, regenerative and disease processes through the engineering of healthy and diseased tissue models towards the treatment of hypoxia-regulated disorders. PMID:24909742

  3. Wettability conundrum: Discrepancies of soft contact lens performance in vitro and in vivo (United States)

    Svitova, T. F.; Lin, M. C.


    The recognition and appreciation of soft contact lenses as simple, efficient and aesthetically gratifying vision-correction devices is ever growing, especially among younger population. Stable thin tear film uniformly spread over corrective lens surface is essential for acute vision, and also for comfortable and safe contact lens wear. The significant efforts have been invested by the contact lens industry to develop soft lens surface that is completely wet by tear aqueous in the ocular environment. Number of the publications dedicated to the wettability properties of the soft hydrogel lenses is on the steady rise. However, the clinical results show that no unambiguous correlation emerges when lens surface wettability in vitro is judged against tear film stability evaluated in vivo. This paper assesses and compares the modern techniques used for evaluation of soft contact lens surface wettability and reports some findings regarding relations between lens surface wettability in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Overview of contact lens postmarket surveillance in the United States: system and recent study results. (United States)

    Chalmers, Robin L; Gleason, William


    This is an overview of the US contact lens (CL) postmarket surveillance systems and surveillance study results that include silicone hydrogel CLs. As 30-night continuous wear silicone hydrogel and rigid gas-permeable (RGP) CLs were approved for use in the United States in 2001, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandated large postmarket surveillance studies to assess the risk of microbial keratitis with those products when worn with the 30-night wearing schedule. Since the time of the approvals, RGP 30-night wear has been used sparingly and a shift from 30-night wear has occurred for silicone hydrogel lenses. Several silicone hydrogel lenses have been approved and most of these lenses are being prescribed for daily or flexible wear and not for 30-night wear. With daily wear and less overnight use, silicone hydrogel lenses are regularly exposed to lens care products, lens cases, and improper handling, all of which may introduce sources of microbial contamination that could trigger lens-related complications. This summary of CL postmarket surveillance system and methods gives results of FDA-mandated surveillance and of recent US studies that observed "real-world" populations for safety results outside the bounds of highly controlled prospective clinical trials.

  5. Refractive behavior changes with six months daily wear of high and low oxygen permeability hydrogel contact lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D.H. Gillan


    Full Text Available Introduction: The investigation of myopia and soft contact lenses is not new. Many reports show  that  the  wearing  of  silicone  hydrogel lenses as opposed to conventional disposable hydrogel lenses results in little progression of myopia in the eyes wearing silicone hydrogels. Method: Six subjects wore a silicone hydro-gel lens on one eye while the other eye wore a habitual disposable hydrogel lens for six months of daily wear. Fifty measurements of refractive state in each eye were taken prior to the subjects wearing a silicone lens in one eye and a conven-tional hydrogel lens in the other eye. After six months of daily wear another fifty measurements of refractive state were taken for each subject. Results:  Although  there  is  no  statisti-cal  support  for  the  findings  of  this  study, comet stereo-pairs are used to show the chang-es in refractive state for each subject. Four of  the  six  subjects  showed  an  increase  in myopia in the eye wearing the silicone lens. Discussion:  The  increase  in  myopia in eyes wearing a silicone hydrogel lens is contrary  to  the  findings  of  other  studies.

  6. Dehydration: physiology, assessment, and performance effects. (United States)

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W


    This article provides a comprehensive review of dehydration assessment and presents a unique evaluation of the dehydration and performance literature. The importance of osmolality and volume are emphasized when discussing the physiology, assessment, and performance effects of dehydration. The underappreciated physiologic distinction between a loss of hypo-osmotic body water (intracellular dehydration) and an iso-osmotic loss of body water (extracellular dehydration) is presented and argued as the single most essential aspect of dehydration assessment. The importance of diagnostic and biological variation analyses to dehydration assessment methods is reviewed and their use in gauging the true potential of any dehydration assessment method highlighted. The necessity for establishing proper baselines is discussed, as is the magnitude of dehydration required to elicit reliable and detectable osmotic or volume-mediated compensatory physiologic responses. The discussion of physiologic responses further helps inform and explain our analysis of the literature suggesting a ≥ 2% dehydration threshold for impaired endurance exercise performance mediated by volume loss. In contrast, no clear threshold or plausible mechanism(s) support the marginal, but potentially important, impairment in strength, and power observed with dehydration. Similarly, the potential for dehydration to impair cognition appears small and related primarily to distraction or discomfort. The impact of dehydration on any particular sport skill or task is therefore likely dependent upon the makeup of the task itself (e.g., endurance, strength, cognitive, and motor skill). © 2014 American Physiological Society.

  7. A 1-year prospective clinical trial of balafilcon a (PureVision) silicone-hydrogel contact lenses used on a 30-day continuous wear schedule. (United States)

    Brennan, Noel A; Coles, M L Chantal; Comstock, Timothy L; Levy, Brian


    To evaluate silicone-hydrogel balafilcon A (PureVision, Bausch & Lomb Inc., Rochester, NY) contact lenses worn on a 30-day continuous wear basis when compared with a traditional hydrogel (Acuvue, Vistakon, Johnson and Johnson Vision Products, Inc., Jacksonville, FL) worn on a 7-day extended wear schedule. Prospective, comparative, paired-eye, interventional, multicenter clinical trial. Two hundred twelve ametropes with no significant ocular pathology. Subjects with normal ocular health who conformed to a set of standard criteria were monitored at seven different sites around the globe. Subjects wore both study lenses simultaneously, one on each eye. Lenses were assigned to right and left eyes according to a randomized schedule. The silicone hydrogel was removed and replaced every month and the traditional hydrogel was removed every 7 days and replaced at 14-day intervals. Subjects were followed for up to 1 year with discontinuation on indication divided between lens-related causes, unrelated factors, and loss to follow-up. Discontinuations, symptoms, vision, lens fit, lens surface assessment, slit-lamp assessment, and patient preferences. One hundred twenty three subjects completed the 12-month wearing period. There were no vision-threatening events with either lens type. The silicone-hydrogel lenses showed statistically superior performance in physiologic terms with regard to epithelial microcysts, striae, corneal staining, limbal injection, and bulbar injection. Inflammatory reactions, such as corneal infiltrates and tarsal conjunctival abnormalities occurred at similar rates between the lens types. Visible deposition and postlens debris with associated transient corneal indentation were significantly lower with the traditional hydrogel material at specific time points in the study. Visual acuity was comparable with the two lens types. Subjects rated the silicone-hydrogel material as preferable on subjective scales of dryness, comfort, and lens handling. Overall

  8. Contact lens in keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha M Rathi


    Full Text Available Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL, hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the English language with the keywords keratoconus and various contact lenses such as Rose k lens, RGP lens, hybrid lens, scleral lens and PBCL.

  9. Epidemiology of contact lens-induced infiltrates: an updated review. (United States)

    Steele, Kelsy R; Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta


    Corneal infiltrative events (CIEs) are well established as a risk associated with soft contact lens wear. The incidence of symptomatic CIEs during extended soft lens wear ranges from 2.5 to six per cent; when asymptomatic CIEs are included, the incidence can be as high as 20-25 per cent. In daily soft lens wear, the annual incidence of symptomatic CIEs is about three per cent. There are various accepted methods of categorising CIEs, and a scoring system based on clinical signs and symptoms is a good approach to grade severity. Lens-related risk factors include extended wear, silicone hydrogel material, the use of multipurpose solutions, bacterial bioburden and reusable lenses. Recent studies report that daily disposable lenses reduce the risk of CIEs. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  10. Contact Lens Compliance


    Jinabhai, A.


    Although contact lens-related complications are rare, and most are managed without any lasting side-effects, several reports have identified a variety of risk factors associated with lens wear complications. Among these risk factors, some are unalterable, such as age or gender. Others, however, are modifiable, for example, poor lens case hygiene or hand-washing and, therefore, can be targeted to maximise successful lens wear. This article reviews different aspects of contact lens non-compliance

  11. A small scale honey dehydrator. (United States)

    Gill, R S; Hans, V S; Singh, Sukhmeet; Pal Singh, Parm; Dhaliwal, S S


    A small scale honey dehydrator has been designed, developed, and tested to reduce moisture content of honey below 17 %. Experiments have been conducted for honey dehydration by using drying air at ambient temperature, 30 and 40 °C and water at 35, 40 and 45 °C. In this dehydrator, hot water has been circulated in a water jacket around the honey container to heat honey. The heated honey has been pumped through a sieve to form honey streams through which drying air passes for moisture removal. The honey streams help in increasing the exposed surface area of honey in contact with drying air, thus resulting in faster dehydration of honey. The maximum drying rate per square meter area of honey exposed to drying air was found to be 197.0 g/h-m(2) corresponding to the drying air and water temperature of 40 and 45 °C respectively whereas it was found to be minimum (74.8 g/h-m(2)) corresponding to the drying air at ambient temperature (8-17 °C) and water at 35 °C. The energy cost of honey moisture content reduction from 25.2 to 16.4 % was Rs. 6.20 to Rs. 17.36 (US $ 0.10 to US $ 0.28 (One US $ = 62.00 Indian Rupee on February, 2014) per kilogram of honey.

  12. Breastfeeding-associated hypernatraemic dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Melo Gomes


    Full Text Available Objective: In the last few years there has been an increase in case reports of hypernatraemic dehydration in breastfed newborns. Insufficient intake has an important role in the pathophysiology of this condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate exclusively breastfed neonates admitted for hypernatraemic dehydration. Methods: Retrospective study of breastfed neonates diagnosed with hypernatraemic dehydration, between March 2002 and March 2008, in a level 1 maternity. Rresults: Nineteen cases were identified (0.44% of neonatal intermediate care hospitalizations, 53% of them were male. The annual distribution revealed a higher number of cases in 2008: 26.3% in only three months. Median birth weight was 3,000 g and the median gestational age was 38 weeks. Vaginal delivery was the most frequent form of birth (42%, and 79% of mothers were primiparas. Admissions were made through the emergency department in 68.4%. The main reasons for seeking medical attention were: poor oral intake (32%, weight loss (26%, and jaundice (26%. The median age at admission was four days. Percentage of weight loss: 6.7 to 40%, median was 11%. Dehydration signs were absent in 42% of the patients. Median Na+ values were 152 mEq/l. Jaundice was the most frequent comorbidity found (74%. Intravenous fluids were administered in 89% and acute neurological complications were found in 21%, there were no deaths. Cconclusions: Breastfeeding-associated hypernatraemic dehydration seems to be a consequence of breastfeeding difficulties in inexperienced mothers. Since many cases are paucisymptomatic, there should be a high level of suspicion, especially in those patients with jaundice.

  13. Therapeutic use of silicone hydrogel contact lenses in children. (United States)

    Bendoriene, Jolanta; Vogt, Ursula


    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of silicone hydrogel extended-wear contact lenses when used for therapeutic purposes for children. This was a prospective open-ended nonrandomized study. Twenty-nine consecutive pediatric patients at the Eye Clinic of Kaunas University of Medicine in Lithuania requiring therapeutic contact lens wear for anterior segment disorders were enrolled. In all cases, Focus NIGHT & DAY (CIBA Vision, Duluth, GA) contact lenses were used. Success or failure of specific treatment and the presence of ocular or lens-related complications were noted in each case. Twenty-nine eyes were fitted with Focus NIGHT & DAY contact lenses. The average age at the time of presentation was 9 years (range, 2 months to 17 years). The conditions treated were burn (seven eyes), corneal erosion (three eyes), neurotrophic keratitis (four eyes), descemetocele (one eye), corneal ulcer (one eye), keratouveitis (one eye), exposure keratitis (one eye), vernal keratoconjunctivitis (one eye), herpetic keratitis (one eye), corneal perforation (two eyes), and corneal injury (seven eyes). The mean duration of continuous contact lens wear was 17.8 days (range, 1-131 days). Dry eye was the cause of contact lens loss in one eye. Total bandage contact lens wear was effective in 27 (93%) eyes. Complications related to contact lens wear were limited to one case (increased signs of inflammation in the case of herpetic keratitis) requiring cessation of therapeutic lens wear after 24 hours. Focus NIGHT & DAY silicone hydrogel contact lenses were found to be safe and efficacious for continuous-wear therapeutic use for children.

  14. Hydrogel Biomaterials: A Smart Future? (United States)

    Kopeček, Jindřich


    Hydrogels were the first biomaterials developed for human use. The state-of-the-art and potential for the future are discussed. Recently, new designs have produced mechanically strong synthetic hydrogels. Protein based hydrogels and hybrid hydrogels containing protein domains present a novel advance; such biomaterials may self-assemble from block or graft copolymers containing biorecognition domains. One of the domains, the coiled-coil, ubiquitously found in nature, has been used as an example to demonstrate the developments in the design of smart hydrogels. The application potential of synthetic, protein-based, DNA-based, and hybrid hydrogels bodes well for the future of this class of biomaterials. PMID:17697712

  15. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses of contact lens deposition


    Green-Church, Kari B.; Nichols, Jason J.


    Purpose The purpose of this report is to describe the contact lens deposition proteome associated with two silicone hydrogel contact lenses and care solutions using a mass spectrometric-based approach. Methods This was a randomized, controlled, examiner-masked crossover clinical trial that included 48 participants. Lenses and no-rub care solutions evaluated included galyfilcon A (Acuvue Advance, Vistakon Inc., Jacksonville, FL), lotrafilcon B (O2 Optix, CIBA Vision Inc., Duluth, GA), AQuify (...

  16. Effect of leaf dehydration duration and dehydration degree on PSII photochemical activity of papaya leaves. (United States)

    Liu, Meijun; Zhang, Zishan; Gao, Huiyuan; Yang, Cheng; Fan, Xingli; Cheng, Dandan


    Although the effect of dehydration on photosynthetic apparatus has been widely studied, the respective effect of dehydration duration and dehydration degree was neglected. This study showed that, when leaves dehydrated in air, the PSII activities of leaves decreased with the decline of leaf relative water content (RWC). Unexpectedly, when leaves dehydrated to same RWC, the decreases in Fv/Fm, Ψo and RC/CSm were lower in leaves dehydrating at 43 °C than those at 25 °C. However, to reach the same RWC, leaves dehydrating at 43 °C experienced 1/6 of the dehydration duration for leaves dehydrating at 25 °C. To distinguish the respective effect of dehydration degree and dehydration duration on photosynthetic apparatus, we studied the PSII activities of leaves treated with different concentration of PEG solutions. Increasing dehydration degree aggravated the decline of Fv/Fm, Ψo and RC/CSm in leaves with the same dehydration duration, while prolonging the dehydration duration also exacerbated the decline of Fv/Fm, Ψo and RC/CSm in leaves with identical dehydration degree. With the same dehydration degree and duration, high temperature enhanced the decrease of Fv/Fm, Ψo and RC/CSm in the leaves. When leaves dehydrated in air, the effect of high temperature was underestimated due to reduction of dehydration duration. The results demonstrated that, dehydration degree and duration both play important roles in damage to photosynthetic apparatus. We suggest that, under combined stresses, the effects of dehydration degree and duration on plants should be considered comprehensively, otherwise, partial or incorrect results may be obtained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Overnight corneal swelling with high and low powered silicone hydrogel lenses. (United States)

    Moezzi, Amir M; Fonn, Desmond; Varikooty, Jalaiah; Simpson, Trefford L


    To compare central corneal swelling after eight hours of sleep in eyes wearing four different silicone hydrogel lenses with three different powers. Twenty-nine neophyte subjects wore lotrafilcon A (Dk, 140), balafilcon A (Dk, 91), galyfilcon A (Dk, 60) and senofilcon A (Dk, 103) lenses in powers -3.00, -10.00 and +6.00 D on separate nights, in random order, and on one eye only. The contra-lateral eye (no lens) served as the control. Central corneal thickness was measured using a digital optical pachometer before lens insertion and immediately after lens removal on waking. For the +6.00 D and -10.00 D, lotrafilcon A induced the least swelling and galyfilcon A the most. The +6.00 D power, averaged across lens materials, induced significantly greater central swelling than the -10.00 and -3.00 D (Re-ANOVA, p<0.001), (7.7±2.9% vs. 6.8±2.8% and 6.5±2.5% respectively) but there was no difference between -10.00 and -3.00 D. Averaged for power, lotrafilcon A induced the least (6.2±2.8%) and galyfilcon A the most (7.6±3.0%) swelling at the center (Re-ANOVA, p<0.001). Central corneal swelling with +6.00 D was significantly greater than -10.00 D lens power despite similar levels of average lens transmissibility of these two lens powers. The differences in corneal swelling of the lens wearing eyes are consistent with the differences in oxygen transmission of the silicone hydrogel lenses. In silicone hydrogel lenses central corneal swelling is mainly driven by central lens oxygen transmissibility. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Nanocomposite hydrogels for biomedical applications (United States)

    Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.


    Hydrogels mimic native tissue microenvironment due to their porous and hydrated molecular structure. An emerging approach to reinforce polymeric hydrogels and to include multiple functionalities focuses on incorporating nanoparticles within the hydrogel network. A wide range of nanoparticles, such as carbon-based, polymeric, ceramic, and metallic nanomaterials can be integrated within the hydrogel networks to obtain nanocomposites with superior properties and tailored functionality. Nanocomposite hydrogels can be engineered to possess superior physical, chemical, electrical, and biological properties. This review focuses on the most recent developments in the field of nanocomposite hydrogels with emphasis on biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. In particular, we discuss synthesis and fabrication of nanocomposite hydrogels, examine their current limitations and conclude with future directions in designing more advanced nanocomposite hydrogels for biomedical and biotechnological applications. PMID:24264728

  19. Thermal dehydration kinetics of phosphogypsum


    López, F. A.; Tayibi, H.; García-Díaz, I.; Alguacil, F. J.


    Phsophogypsum is a by-product from the processing phosphate rock. Before the use of it in cement industry such as setting regulator is necessary a study of dehydration reaction of phosphogypsum to avoid the false setting during the milling. The aim is to study the thermal behavior of two different phosphogypsum sources (Spain and Tunisia) under non-isothermal conditions in argon atmosphere by using Thermo-Gravimetriy, Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA) and Differential Scanning Calori...

  20. Contact lens trends over three decades in a hospital-based practice in India. (United States)

    Rajan, Rajni; Mahadevan, Rajeswari; Thomas, Ann Mary; Bhattacharjee, Pradipta


    Contact lens fittings in a hospital-based practice are different from those in private practices because of specialised conditions. Few studies have been published on material preferences of such wearers, especially in long-term wearers. The aim of this study is to document contact lens prescribing trends in a hospital-based practice among long-term lens wearers and to identify their demographic profile. Subjects reporting to a contact lens clinic of a tertiary eye-care centre in India from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014, with a minimum of five years of lens wear, were included in the study. Data were collected retrospectively from the electronic medical charts of these subjects. Three hundred and sixty subjects were included in the study. The average duration of contact lens wear among the subjects was 9 ± 5 years (range: 5-35 years). The average age of the subjects was 31.38 ± 11.75 years (age range: 5-78 years). Hydrogel material and soft spherical type were preferred by most of the soft lens wearers (53 per cent). Eighty per cent of subjects followed hand hygiene and cleaning regimen practices. The preference for monthly replacement lenses and silicone hydrogel material increased over the years. Regular after-care consultations could enforce the need for compliance with hand hygiene and cleaning regimens among lens wearers. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  1. Smart Reinvention of the Contact Lens with Graphene. (United States)

    Choi, Kyoungjun; Park, Hyung Gyu


    With potential benefits to the 71 million contact lens users worldwide, contact lenses are being reinvented in the form of smart wearable electronics. In this issue of ACS Nano, Lee et al. report on the fascinating functions of a graphene-based smart contact lens that is able to protect eyes from electromagnetic waves and dehydration. Graphene and two-dimensional materials can be exploited in many opportunities in the development of smart contact lenses. Here, we briefly review and describe prospects for the future of smart contact lenses that incorporate graphene in their platforms.

  2. Enhancing the Physical Properties and Lifespan of Bacterial Quorum Quenching Media through Combination of Ionic Cross-Linking and Dehydration. (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hyun; Lee, Seonki; Lee, Kibaek; Nahm, Chang Hyun; Jo, Sung-Jun; Lee, Jaewoo; Choo, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Jung-Kee; Lee, Chung-Hak; Park, Pyung-Kyu


    Quorum quenching (QQ) bacteria entrapped in a polymeric composite hydrogel (QQ medium) have been successfully applied in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for effective biofouling control. However, in order to bring QQ technology closer to practice, the physical strength and lifetime of QQ media should be improved. In this study, enforcement of physical strength, as well as an extension of the lifetime of a previously reported QQ bacteria entrapping hollow cylinder (QQ-HC), was sought by adding a dehydration procedure following the cross-linking of the polymeric hydrogel by inorganic compounds like Ca2+ and boric acid. Such prepared medium demonstrated enhanced physical strength possibly through an increased degree of physical cross-linking. As a result, a longer lifetime of QQ-HCs was confirmed, which led to improved biofouling mitigation performance of QQ-HC in an MBR. Furthermore, QQ-HCs stored under dehydrated condition showed higher QQ activity when the storage time lasted more than 90 days owing to enhanced cell viability. In addition, the dormant QQ activity after the dehydration step could be easily restored through reactivation with real wastewater, and the reduced weight of the dehydrated media is expected to make handling and transportation of QQ media highly convenient and economical in practice.

  3. An investigation of the discrete and continuum models of water behavior in hydrogel contact lenses. (United States)

    Maldonado-Codina, Carole; Efron, Nathan


    To investigate the water behavior in hydrogels of differing equilibrium water content (EWC) and to use these results to investigate the opposing discrete model (thermodynamically different classes of water exist in hydrogels) and continuum model (water behaves as a consequence of nonequilibrium conditions) of nonfreezing water in swollen hydrogels. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to obtain melting thermograms for five lenses of each of 12 hydrogel lens types. The gravimetric content of the nonfreezing water was subsequently determined from an integrated endotherm for water. The effect of anneal time on the amount of nonfreezing water obtained in samples was investigated before undertaking these measurements. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of each of the lens types was obtained with DSC to investigate how the Tg was related to the amount of nonfreezing water found in the hydrogels. Melting enthalpy increased with increasing anneal time and leveled off at 6 hours. Low-EWC lenses showed endotherms with a single melting peak at 0 degrees C. Materials with a higher EWC showed more complicated melting endotherms, with a broad shoulder occurring at temperatures below 0 degrees C. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between EWC and freezing water (R=0.95, Pwater was similar for all lens materials. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the Tg of the hydrogels and the theoretically derived weight fraction of nonfreezing water in the hydrogels required to bring the Tg of the gels down to 0 degrees C (R=0.99, Pwater ratios. That the experimentally derived values of nonfreezing water are different from the theoretically derived values creates doubt with the continuum model theory. The best model probably employs a combination of the discrete and continuum theories.

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left her with a corneal abrasion. "I ... lenses? Sep 13, 2017 Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Mar 01, 2017 New Technology Helps the Legally ...

  5. Hydro cone lens visual performance and impact on quality of life in irregular corneas. (United States)

    Ozek, Dilay; Kemer, Ozlem Evren; Bayraktar, Neslihan


    The aim of this study is to evaluate the visual performance (efficiency) of HydroCone (Toris K) soft silicon hydrogel lenses in patients with irregular corneas. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Steady-State Diffusion of Water through Soft-Contact LensMaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornasiero, Francesco; Krull, Florian; Radke, Clayton J.; Prausnitz, JohnM.


    Water transport through soft contact lenses (SCL) is important for acceptable performance on the human eye. Chemical-potential gradient-driven diffusion rates of water through soft-contact-lens materials are measured with an evaporation-cell technique. Water is evaporated from the bottom surface of a lens membrane by impinging air at controlled flow rate and humidity. The resulting weight loss of a water reservoir covering the top surface of the contact-lens material is recorded as a function of time. New results are reported for a conventional hydrogel material (SofLens{trademark} One Day, hilafilcon A, water content at saturation W{sub 10} = 70 weight %) and a silicone hydrogel material (PureVision{trademark}, balafilcon A, W{sub 10} = 36 %), with and without surface oxygen plasma treatment. Also, previously reported data for a conventional HEMA-SCL (W{sub 10} = 38 %) hydrogel are reexamined and compared with those for SofLens{trademark} One Day and PureVision{trademark} hydrogels. Measured steady-state water fluxes are largest for SofLens{trademark} One Day, followed by PureVision{trademark} and HEMA. In some cases, the measured steady-state water fluxes increase with rising relative air humidity. This increase, due to an apparent mass-transfer resistance at the surface (trapping skinning), is associated with formation of a glassy skin at the air/membrane interface when the relative humidity is below 55-75%. Steady-state water-fluxes are interpreted through an extended Maxwell-Stefan diffusion model for a mixture of species starkly different in size. Thermodynamic nonideality is considered through Flory-Rehner polymer-solution theory. Shrinking/swelling is self-consistently modeled by conservation of the total polymer mass. Fitted Maxwell-Stefan diffusivities increase significantly with water concentration in the contact lens.

  7. Impact of Cosmetics on the Surface Properties of Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lenses. (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sruthi; Otchere, Heinz; Yu, Mili; Yang, Jeffery; Luensmann, Doerte; Jones, Lyndon


    This study evaluated the impact of various cosmetics on the surface properties of silicone hydrogel (SiHy) contact lens materials. In this in vitro experiment, 7 SiHy contact lens materials were coated with 1 of 9 cosmetics, including common hand creams (3), eye makeup removers (3), and mascaras (3). Dark-field microscopy images were taken to determine pixel brightness (PB) after cosmetic exposure, which describes the visible surface deposition (n=6 for each lens type), with a higher PB indicating increased deposition. The sessile drop technique was used to determine the advancing contact angle (CA). Measurements were repeated for both methods after a single peroxide-based cleaning cycle. Pixel brightness was significantly higher for mascara-coated lenses compared with the other cosmetic products (Pmascara for 4 lens types, whereas deposits remained relatively unchanged for 1 waterproof mascara (P>0.05). Hand creams and makeup remover had minimal impact on PB. Changes in CA measurements after cosmetic application were highly lens dependent. Hand creams caused primarily a decrease in CA for 5 of the 7 lens types, whereas 1 of the waterproof mascaras caused a significant increase of 30 to 50° for 3 lens types. Some mascara-lens combinations resulted in increased CA and PB, which could have an impact on in vivo lens performance. Nonwaterproof mascara was mostly removed after a cleaning cycle. Further research is needed to understand the clinical implications for SiHy lens wearers using cosmetics.

  8. The impact of contemporary contact lenses on contact lens discontinuation. (United States)

    Dumbleton, Kathy; Woods, Craig A; Jones, Lyndon W; Fonn, Desmond


    Discontinuation or "dropout" from contact lens (CL) wear continues to afflict the CL industry. This study was conducted to determine whether the advent of new CL materials and designs has impacted the dropout rate and the reasons for discontinuation. Current and lapsed CL wearers residing in Canada were recruited using Facebook to take part in an on line survey investigating CL wearing experiences during 2008 to 2010 and to establish the percentage of participants who temporarily and permanently discontinued CL wear during the period surveyed. Four thousand two hundred seven eligible surveys were received (64% female; median age 27 years). Forty percent had lapsed from lens wear for at least 4 months; however, 62% of the lapsed wearers (LWs) resumed wear. There were no differences between LWs and nonlapsed wearers (NLWs) with respect to gender; however, LWs were older, started lens wear when older, and had not worn lenses for as long as NLWs (all Plenses and hydrogel CLs (24% vs. 19% and 22% vs. 18%, respectively, P≤0.001). Primary reasons for discontinuation were discomfort (24%), dryness (20%), red eyes (7%), and expense (7%). Compliance with lens replacement was no different between LWs and NLWs (48% vs. 45%). About 23% of those surveyed had discontinued CL wear permanently. The primary reasons for dropping out continue to be discomfort and dryness. Dropout rates were lower in silicone hydrogel wearers.

  9. Changes in ultraviolet transmittance of hydrogel and silicone-hydrogel contact lenses induced by wear. (United States)

    Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L; Ogbuehi, Kelechi C; Almubrad, Turki M


    To evaluate the ultraviolet (UV) transmittance spectra of different contact lenses and assess the effect of wear on UV transmittance values and ocular protection factor (PF). Transmittance in the UV range (200-400 nm) of 216 contact lenses was measured before and after wear, using a spectrophotometer. The contact lenses used were ACUVUE TruEye, ACUVUE MOIST, ACUVUE OASYS, ACUVUE 2, ACUVUE DEFINE, DAILIES AquaComfort Plus, AIR OPTIX for astigmatism, FreshLook ONE-DAY lens, and Neo Cosmo. This study indicates that the following contact lenses transmitted less than the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) of 5% or less of UVB: ACUVUE DEFINE, ACUVUE MOIST, ACUVUE 2, ACUVUE TruEye, and ACUVUE OASYS. All lenses also met the ANSI standard of less than 30% transmittance of UVA except for AquaComfort Plus, AIR OPTIX for astigmatism, and Neo Cosmo. FreshLook meets the UVA transmission standard but fell short of the UVB transmission standard by 3%. FreshLook and ACUVUE MOIST had the highest calculated PF (3.9) of the hydrogel group and were unaffected after wear. Of the silicone-hydrogels (SiHs), the PF for AIR OPTIX for astigmatism was the highest (10.6) before wear and increased after wear to a PF of 13.3. The results also show that, for the UVC region, significant differences exist in transmittance values before and after wear of all SiH lenses and all hydrogel lenses, except for Neo Cosmo. FreshLook and Neo Cosmo were the only lenses that showed no statistically significant differences in the UVA transmittance after wear. Ultraviolet-blocking contact lenses were effective in blocking ultraviolet radiation to safe levels recommended by ANSI, whereas non-UV blockers such as AquaComfort Plus and AIR OPTIX for astigmatism also showed UV-attenuation capabilities greater than the values previously reported. The Neo Cosmo contact lens transmitted greater than 86% UVB and 89% UVA, making it unsuitable for UV protection seekers. Transmission is modified after contact lens

  10. Comparison of conventional and silicone hydrogel contact lenses for bullous keratoplasty. (United States)

    Lim, Natasha; Vogt, Ursula


    To compare the efficacy and safety of conventional lenses and silicone hydrogel lenses in the treatment of bullous keratopathy. The silicone hydrogel bandage contact lenses used were Focus NIGHT & DAY and PureVision. The conventional lens used was Sauflon 85%. This was a prospective, comparative study of 22 patients with painful bullous keratopathy in one eye. Patients visited a specialty contact lens department and were fitted with all three different lens types in their affected eye for 1 month each, for a total duration of 3 months. The main outcome measures were comfort and pain relief, which patients scored on a scale that ranged from 1 to 5, with 1 being very poor and 5 being excellent. Doctors assessed the fit of the lens, its movement, and any deposit buildup. The statistical tests applied were the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney test. Sixteen of the 22 patients (24 eyes) successfully completed 1 month's wear of all three bandage contact lenses. The median comfort score was 3.9 for PureVision, 3.8 for Focus NIGHT & DAY, and 2.8 for Sauflon 85%; there was a statistical significance among the three groups (P=0.031). Silicone hydrogel lenses performed better than conventional lenses for comfort. The Mann-Whitney test showed that there was no statistically significant difference for comfort scores of Focus NIGHT & DAY versus PureVision (Plenses for pain relief score. All three lens types were similarly good with regard to contact lens fit, movement, and deposit buildup. The use of silicone hydrogel lenses are a safe and effective alternative to conventional contact lenses for the treatment of bullous keratopathy.

  11. Oxygen transport through soft contact lens and cornea: Lens characterization and metabolic modeling (United States)

    Chhabra, Mahendra

    The human cornea requires oxygen to sustain metabolic processes critical for its normal functioning. Any restriction to corneal oxygen supply from the external environment (e.g., by wearing a low oxygen-permeability contact lens) can lead to hypoxia, which may cause corneal edema (swelling), limbal hyperemia, neovascularization, and corneal acidosis. The need for adequate oxygen to the cornea is a major driving force for research and development of hypertransmissible soft contact lenses (SCLs). Currently, there is no standard technique for measuring oxygen permeability (Dk) of hypertransmissible silicone-hydrogel SCLs. In this work, an electrochemistry-based polarographic apparatus was designed, built, and operated to measure oxygen permeability in hypertransmissible SCLs. Unlike conventional methods where a range of lens thickness is needed for determining oxygen permeabilities of SCLs, this apparatus requires only a single lens thickness. The single-lens permeameter provides a reliable, efficient, and economic tool for measuring oxygen permeabilities of commercial hypertransmissible SCLs. The single-lens permeameter measures not only the product Dk, but, following modification, it measures separately diffusivity, D, and solubility, k, of oxygen in hypertransmissible SCLs. These properties are critical for designing better lens materials that ensure sufficient oxygen supply to the cornea. Metabolism of oxygen in the cornea is influenced by contact-lens-induced hypoxia, diseases such as diabetes, surgery, and drug treatment, Thus, estimation of the in-vivo corneal oxygen consumption rate is essential for gauging adequate oxygen supply to the cornea. Therefore, we have developed an unsteady-state reactive-diffusion model for the cornea-contact-lens system to determine in-vivo human corneal oxygen-consumption rate. Finally, a metabolic model was developed to determine the relation between contact-lens oxygen transmissibility (Dk/L) and corneal oxygen deficiency. A

  12. Dehydration (United States)

    ... of certain medications. Older adults also may have mobility problems that limit their ability to obtain water ... quickly as it normally does, and this can lead to an increased body temperature and the need ...

  13. Hydrogels Constructed from Engineered Proteins. (United States)

    Li, Hongbin; Kong, Na; Laver, Bryce; Liu, Junqiu


    Due to their various potential biomedical applications, hydrogels based on engineered proteins have attracted considerable interest. Benefitting from significant progress in recombinant DNA technology and protein engineering/design techniques, the field of protein hydrogels has made amazing progress. The latest progress of hydrogels constructed from engineered recombinant proteins are presented, mainly focused on biorecognition-driven physical hydrogels as well as chemically crosslinked hydrogels. The various bio-recognition based physical crosslinking strategies are discussed, as well as chemical crosslinking chemistries used to engineer protein hydrogels, and protein hydrogels' various biomedical applications. The future perspectives of this fast evolving field of biomaterials are also discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Thermal dehydration kinetics of phosphogypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López, F. A.


    Full Text Available Phsophogypsum is a by-product from the processing phosphate rock. Before the use of it in cement industry such as setting regulator is necessary a study of dehydration reaction of phosphogypsum to avoid the false setting during the milling. The aim is to study the thermal behavior of two different phosphogypsum sources (Spain and Tunisia under non-isothermal conditions in argon atmosphere by using Thermo-Gravimetriy, Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. DSC experiments were carried out at temperatures ranging from ambient to 350 °C at different heating rates. The temperatures of conversion from gypsum to hemihydrate and anhydrite states and heat of dehydration were determined. Various methods were used to analyze the DSC data for reaction kinetics determination. The activation energy and frequency factor were calculated for dehydration of phosphogypsum. Activation energy values of the main dehydration reaction of phosphogypsum were calculated to be approximately 61–118 kJ/mol.El fosfoyeso es un subproducto procedente del procesado de la roca fosfato. Una de las posibles vías de reutilización y revalorización es su uso como regulador del fraguado en la industria cementera. Debido a los posibles problemas de falso fraguado asociado a los procesos de deshidratación que tienen lugar durante la molienda del cemento, esta investigación estudió el comportamiento térmico, bajo condiciones no-isotérmicas en atmósfera de argón, de dos fosfoyesos, mediante TG-DTA y DSC. Los ensayos de DSC se realizaron hasta los 350 °C a diferentes velocidades de calentamiento. La temperatura de conversión del yeso a las formas de hemihidrato y anhidrita y el calor de hidratación fueron determinados. Las cinéticas de reacción fueron obtenidas analizando los datos de DSC mediante varios métodos. Se calculó la energía de activación y el factor de frecuencia para las reacciones de deshidratación del

  15. In situ dehydration of yugawaralite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artioli, G.; Ståhl, Kenny; Cruciani, G.


    The structural response of the natural zeolite yugawaralite (CaAl2Si6O16. 4H(2)O) upon thermally induced dehydration has been studied by Rietveld analysis of temperature-resolved powder diffraction data collected in situ in the temperature range 315-791 K using synchrotron radiation. The room...... of the cell parameters in the measured temperature range. This model involves a sixfold coordination of the Ca cations (five framework O atoms and one water molecule). There is no indication of significant structure changes before collapse, likely occurring when the last water molecule is expelled from...

  16. High Dk piggyback contact lens system for contact lens-intolerant keratoconus patients. (United States)

    Sengor, Tomris; Kurna, Sevda Aydin; Aki, Suat; Ozkurt, Yelda


    The aim of the study was to examine the clinical success of high Dk (oxygen permeability) piggyback contact lens (PBCL) systems for the correction of contact lens intolerant keratoconus patients. Sixteen patients (29 eyes) who were not able to wear gas-permeable rigid lenses were included in this study. Hyper Dk silicone hydrogel (oxygen transmissibility or Dk/t = 150 units) and fluorosilicone methacrylate copolymer (Dk/t = 100 units) lenses were chosen as the PBCL systems. The clinical examinations included visual acuity and corneal observation by biomicroscopy, keratometer reading, and fluorescein staining before and after fitting the PBCL system. INDICATIONS FOR USING PBCL SYSTEM WERE: lens stabilization and comfort, improving comfort, and adding protection to the cone. Visual acuities increased significantly in all of the patients compared with spectacles (P = 0). Improvement in visual acuity compared with rigid lenses alone was recorded in 89.7% of eyes and no alteration of the visual acuity was observed in 10.3% of the eyes. Wearing time of PBCL systems for most of the patients was limited time (mean 6 months, range 3-12 months); thereafter they tolerated rigid lenses alone except for 2 patients. The PBCL system is a safe and effective method to provide centering and corneal protection against mechanical trauma by the rigid lenses for keratoconus patients and may increase contact lens tolerance.

  17. Supramolecular Hydrogelators and Hydrogels: From Soft Matter to Molecular Biomaterials (United States)


    In this review we intend to provide a relatively comprehensive summary of the work of supramolecular hydrogelators after 2004 and to put emphasis particularly on the applications of supramolecular hydrogels/hydrogelators as molecular biomaterials. After a brief introduction of methods for generating supramolecular hydrogels, we discuss supramolecular hydrogelators on the basis of their categories, such as small organic molecules, coordination complexes, peptides, nucleobases, and saccharides. Following molecular design, we focus on various potential applications of supramolecular hydrogels as molecular biomaterials, classified by their applications in cell cultures, tissue engineering, cell behavior, imaging, and unique applications of hydrogelators. Particularly, we discuss the applications of supramolecular hydrogelators after they form supramolecular assemblies but prior to reaching the critical gelation concentration because this subject is less explored but may hold equally great promise for helping address fundamental questions about the mechanisms or the consequences of the self-assembly of molecules, including low molecular weight ones. Finally, we provide a perspective on supramolecular hydrogelators. We hope that this review will serve as an updated introduction and reference for researchers who are interested in exploring supramolecular hydrogelators as molecular biomaterials for addressing the societal needs at various frontiers. PMID:26646318

  18. Pitfalls in aphakic contact lens fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dada Vijay


    Full Text Available We examined 23 consecutive cases of unilateral aphakia reporting to the contact lens office for endothelial count and morphology, corneal thickness and toricity. The fellow eye served as a control in all the cases. It was found that there is a significant drop in the central endothelial cell density, and change in the size and shape of the cells. These observations indicate a thermodynamically unstable state. The aphakic corneas were thicker than the controls but not to a significant extent. The cell count and pachymetry had no statistical correlation. Toricity of the aphakic corneas make successful fitting of a lens difficult. Since prolonged use of extended wear gas permeable as well as hydrogel lenses have a deleterious effect on the endothelium it is suggested that a careful case selection be made and strict monitoting carried out at follow up. These corneas are liable for decompensation with only mild noxious stimuli. This article is intended to acquaint the ophthalmologist with the pitfalls in aphakic contact lens fitting so that a cautious follow up may be planned.

  19. Lens Capsule Perforation Without Inflammation in 4 Rabbits From Intravitreal Injection Studies. (United States)

    Farman, Cindy; Schuetz, Chris; Lorget, Florence; Bantseev, Vladimir; Calise, David; Thackaberry, Evan A


    Historically, it was thought that lens protein was sequestered, and injury to the lens capsule causing release of lens material into the eye would always result in ocular inflammation. Currently, it is believed that lens antigens are recognized as self, subject to normal T-cell tolerance. Three different single-dose intravitreal injection/implantation studies of 4 different test materials, ranging from 4 to 6 weeks in length, were performed in New Zealand White rabbits. The test materials included polymer microspheres, polymer rods, a solvent, and a hydrogel. Intravitreal injection/implantation procedures were performed on day 1, and indirect ophthalmoscopy and slit-lamp biomicroscopy examinations were performed by board-certified veterinary ophthalmologists periodically throughout the course of each study. None of the affected animals received corticosteroids or other immunomodulatory agents during the course of the studies. Four rabbits had perforation of the posterior lens capsule during the injection/implantation procedure on day 1, visible on clinical ophthalmic examination as lens capsule alterations described as "lens hits" and/or incipient posterior cataracts. Findings on slit-lamp biomicroscopy examination were limited to vitreous cells in 2 of the animals, although not centered on the area of lens capsule disturbance. Histologically, there was no evidence of inflammation in association with extruded lens protein material in any of the affected eyes. These results indicate that iatrogenic damage to the lens capsule during aseptically performed intravitreal injections/implantations does not appear to induce inflammation in rabbits.

  20. Piezoelectric Collagen Hydrogels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Piezoelectric Collagen Hydrogels. Stress-induced potential in bone is produced by shear piezoelectricity in collagen fibers and streaming potential in canaliculae. The growth of bone is regulated to best resist external force. Piezo electrical property of collagen has ...

  1. Impact of Cosmetics on the Physical Dimension and Optical Performance of Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lenses. (United States)

    Luensmann, Doerte; Yu, Mili; Yang, Jeffery; Srinivasan, Sruthi; Jones, Lyndon


    To evaluate the impact of cosmetics on silicone hydrogel (SiHy) contact lens shape, lens power, and optical performance. In this in vitro experiment, 7 SiHy materials were coated with 9 marketed brands of cosmetics, including hand creams (HCs) (3), eye makeup removers (MRs) (3), and mascaras (3). Diameter, sagittal depth, and base curve were determined using the Chiltern (Optimec Limited), whereas lens power and optical performance were assessed using the Contest Plus (Rotlex). Six replicates were used for each lens and cosmetic combination. Measurements were repeated after a cleaning cycle using a one-step hydrogen peroxide solution. Makeup removers had the greatest impact on diameter, sagittal depth, and base curve, resulting in changes of up to 0.5, 0.15, and 0.77 mm, respectively. The HCs and mascaras had little impact on these parameters; however, differences were observed between lens types. Optical performance was reduced with all mascaras, and a decrease of greater than 2 units on a 0 to 10 scale (10=uniform power distribution) was seen for 5 lens types exposed to waterproof mascara (P0.05). Lens cleaning resulted in some recovery of the lens parameters, and efficiency varied between cosmetics. Some eye MRs and waterproof mascaras changed the shape and optical performance of some SiHy lenses. Further research is needed to understand the clinical implications for SiHy lens wearers using cosmetics.

  2. Physicochemical characteristics of osmotically dehydrated tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, osmotic dehydration was combined with other drying methods with a view to investigating the method that will produce high quality product. Combination of sucrose and salt solution was used to soak tomato at 400 Brix for 4hours. The osmotically dehydrated samples were subjected to open air (sun), solar ...

  3. Chronic dehydration affects hydroelectrolytic equilibrium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic dehydration affects hydroelectrolytic equilibrium and adrenal gland morphology in wistar rat: comparison with Gerbillus tarabuli. ... given free access to tap water); ii) dehydrated rats (n=8) given 2% NaCl solution ad libitum for 7 days and (iii) G.tarabuli (n=6) given barely seeds ad libitum without access to water.

  4. 7 CFR 993.15 - Dehydrator. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dehydrator. 993.15 Section 993.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... prunes by drying or dehydrating plums by means of sun-drying or artificial heat. ...

  5. Enzymatic quantification of cholesterol and cholesterol esters from silicone hydrogel contact lenses. (United States)

    Pucker, Andrew D; Thangavelu, Mirunalni; Nichols, Jason J


    The purpose of this work was to develop an enzymatic method of quantification of cholesterol and cholesterol esters derived from contact lenses, both in vitro and ex vivo. Lotrafilcon B (O2 Optix; CIBA Vision, Inc., Duluth, GA) and galyfilcon A (Acuvue Advance; Vistakon, Inc., Jacksonville, FL) silicone hydrogel contact lenses were independently incubated in cholesterol oleate solutions varying in concentrations. After incubation, the lenses were removed and underwent two separate 2:1 chloroform-methanol extractions. After in vitro studies, 10 human subjects wore both lotrafilcon B and galyfilcon A contact lenses for 7 days. The lenses also underwent two separate 2:1 chloroform-methanol extractions. All in vitro and ex vivo samples were quantified with a cholesterol esterase enzymatic reaction. Calibration curves from quantifications of in vitro contact lens samples soaked in successively decreasing concentrations of cholesterol oleate yielded coefficients of determination (R(2)) of 0.99 (lotrafilcon B) and 0.97 (galyfilcon A). For in vitro contact lens samples, galyfilcon A was associated with an average cholesterol oleate extraction of 39.85 +/- 48.65 microg/lens, whereas lotrafilcon B was associated with 5.86 +/- 3.36 microg/lens (P = 0.05) across both extractions and all incubation concentrations. For ex vivo contact lens samples, there was significantly more cholesterol and cholesterol esters deposited on galyfilcon A (5.77 +/- 1.87 microg/lens) than on lotrafilcon B (2.03 +/- 1.62 microg/lens; P = 0.0005). This is an efficient and simple method of quantifying total cholesterol extracted from silicone hydrogel contact lenses and, potentially, the meibum and/or tear film. Certain silicone hydrogel materials demonstrate more affinity for cholesterol and its esters than do others.

  6. Dehydration Comes on Fast and Can Be Fatal (United States)

    ... Share this! Home » Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Dehydration comes on fast and can be fatal During ... at a higher risk ofbecoming dehydrated. Causes of Dehydration: Excessive sweating (from heat and/or exercise) with ...

  7. Conjunctival Changes in Wearers of Frequent Replacement Hydrogel and Frequent Replacement Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lenses: Comparison Using Impression Cytology Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukiye Aydın FEBO


    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the level of conjunctival changes using conjunctival impression cytology in wearers of frequent replacement hydrogel (FRHL and frequent replacement silicone hydrogel contact lens FRSHL. Materials and Methods: Forty-two contact lens users who were seen at the Cornea and Contact Lens Unit, Department of Ophthalmology, Dokuz Eylül University were evaluated in this study. The first group consisted of wearers of FRHL used for minimum one year and maximum five years. The second group consisted of wearers who used FRSHL for minimum one year and maximum 5 years. Twenty healthy individuals with no contact lens history were included in the control group. Conjunctival impression cytology was applied to all contact lens users and the control group in order to evaluate the conjunctival changes, and the results of impression cytology were graded by the Nelson’s method. Results: In the comparison of the groups according to impression cytology scoring, there was no difference between the users of FRHL and FRSHL. Similar amounts of squamous metaplasia and goblet cell loss were encountered in both groups. Nonetheless, impression cytology grading was significantly lower in the control group than in the other two groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, the use of FRHL and FRSHL for over a year causes some histological changes in the conjunctiva such as squamous metaplasia and goblet cell loss eventually leading to dry eye symptoms. However, no differences were determined between FRHL and FRSHL users with regard to severity of conjunctival changes. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 47-52

  8. Contact lens in keratoconus


    Rathi, Varsha M; Preeji S Mandathara; Srikanth Dumpati


    Contact lenses are required for the visual improvement in patients with keratoconus. Various contact lens options, such as rigid gas permeable (RGP) lenses, soft and soft toric lenses, piggy back contact lenses (PBCL), hybrid lenses and scleral lenses are availble. This article discusses about selection of a lens depending on the type of keratoconus and the fitting philosophies of various contact lenses including the starting trial lens. A Medline search was carried out for articles in the En...



    Petrov, P. V.; Kolchevsky, N. N.


    Compound concave refractive lenses are used for focusing neutron beam. Investigations of spectral and focusing properties of a refractive neutron lens are presented. Resolution of the imaging system on the base of refractive neutron lenses depends on material properties and parameters of neutron source. Model of refractive neutron lens are proposed. Results of calculation diffraction resolution and focal depth of refractive neutron lens are discussed.

  10. Phosphorylcholine impairs susceptibility to biofilm formation of hydrogel contact lenses. (United States)

    Selan, Laura; Palma, Stefano; Scoarughi, Gian Luca; Papa, Rosanna; Veeh, Richard; Di Clemente, Daniele; Artini, Marco


    To compare silicone-hydrogel, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA), and phosphorylcholine-coated (PC-C) contact lenses in terms of their susceptibility to biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Laboratory investigation. Biofilm formation on colonized test lenses was evaluated with confocal microscopy and in vitro antibiotic susceptibility assays. The results of the latter assays were compared with those performed on planktonic cultures of the same organism. For both microorganisms, sessile colonies on silicone-hydrogel and pHEMA lenses displayed lower antibiotic susceptibility than their planktonic counterparts. In contrast, the susceptibility of cultures growing on PC-C lenses was comparable with that for planktonic cultures. In particular, minimum inhibitory concentration for Tazocin (piperacillin plus tazobactam; Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Aprilia, Italy; S. epidermidis) and gentamicin (P. aeruginosa) was identical, either in the presence of PC-C support or in planktonic cultures (Tazocin, lenses (0.4 mug/ml) with respect to planktonic cultures (0.2 mug/ml). Confocal microscopy of lenses colonized for 24 hours with P. aeruginosa green fluorescent protein-expressing cells revealed a sessile colonization on silicone-hydrogel lens and a few isolated bacterial cells scattered widely over the surface of the PC-C lens. An increase in antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial cultures was associated with diminished bacterial adhesion. Our results indicate that PC-C lenses seem to be more resistant than silicone-hydrogel and pHEMA lenses to bacterial adhesion and colonization. This feature may facilitate their disinfection.

  11. Impact of contact lens materials on multipurpose contact lens solution disinfection activity against Fusarium solani. (United States)

    Clavet, Charles R; Chaput, Maria P; Silverman, Matthew D; Striplin, Megan; Shoff, Megan E; Lucas, Anne D; Hitchins, Victoria M; Eydelman, Malvina B


    To investigate the effects of eight different soft contact lenses on disinfection efficacy of a multipurpose solution (MPS) containing polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) against Fusarium solani. Six silicone hydrogel lenses (galyfilcon A, senofilcon A, comfilcon A, enfilcon A, balafilcon A, and lotrifilcon B) and two conventional hydrogel lenses (polymacon and etafilcon A) were placed in polypropylene lens cases filled with MPS containing 0.0001% PHMB and soaked for 6, 12, 24, 72, and 168 hours. After each interval, depleted MPS from lens cases were removed and assayed for activity against F. solani according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14729 stand-alone procedure. A portion was aliquoted for chemical analysis. Soaking etafilcon A, balafilcon A, and polymacon lenses for 6 hours reduced the concentration of PHMB in MPS by more than half the stated labeled concentration, with concentrations below the limit of detection for etafilcon A-depleted and balafilcon A-depleted solutions after 12 and 72 hours of soaking, respectively. Except for comfilcon A-depleted solutions, all others failed to consistently obtain one log reduction of F. solani. The solutions soaked with etafilcon A, balafilcon A, and polymacon lenses for 24 hours or more lost all or almost all fungicidal activity against F. solani. Over time, the disinfectant uptake by some lenses can significantly reduce the PHMB concentration and the fungicidal activity of the MPS against F. solani. Current ISO methodology does not address the reduction in microbiocidal efficacy when lenses are soaked in MPS. The ISO committee should consider adding "soaking experiments" to quantify the effect that contact lens materials have on the performance of MPSs.

  12. Controlled Release of Multiple Therapeutics from Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lenses (United States)

    White, Charles J.; DiPasquale, Stephen A.; Byrne, Mark E.


    Purpose The majority of contact lens wearers experience a significant level of ocular discomfort associated with lens wear, often within hours of wear, related to dry lenses, inflammation, protein adhesion to the lens surface, etc. Application of controlled drug release techniques has focused on the incorporation and/or release of a single comfort molecule from a lens including high molecular weight comfort agents or pharmaceutical agents. Previous studies have sought to mitigate the occurrence of only single propagators of discomfort. Clinical studies with eye drop solutions have shown that a mixture of diverse comfort agents selected to address multiple propagators of discomfort provide the greatest and longest lasting sensations of comfort for the patient. In this paper, multiple propagators of discomfort are addressed through the simultaneous release of four molecules from a novel contact lens to ensure high level of lens wear comfort. Methods Silicone hydrogel contact lenses were engineered via molecular imprinting strategies to simultaneously release up to four template molecules including hydropropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), trehalose, ibuprofen, and prednisolone. Results By adjusting the ratio of functional monomer to comfort molecule, a high level of control was demonstrated over the release rate. HPMC, trehalose, ibuprofen, and prednisolone were released at therapeutically relevant concentrations with varying rates from a single lens. Conclusions The results indicate use as daily disposable lenses for single day release or extended-wear lenses with multiple day release. Imprinted lenses are expected to lead to higher efficacy for patients compared to topical eye drops by improving compliance and mitigating concentration peaks and valleys associated with multiple drops. PMID:26945177

  13. Water-loss dehydration and aging. (United States)

    Hooper, Lee; Bunn, Diane; Jimoh, Florence O; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J


    This review defines water-loss and salt-loss dehydration. For older people serum osmolality appears the most appropriate gold standard for diagnosis of water-loss dehydration, but clear signs of early dehydration have not been developed. In older adults, lower muscle mass, reduced kidney function, physical and cognitive disabilities, blunted thirst, and polypharmacy all increase dehydration risk. Cross-sectional studies suggest a water-loss dehydration prevalence of 20-30% in this population. Water-loss dehydration is associated with higher mortality, morbidity and disability in older people, but evidence is still needed that this relationship is causal. There are a variety of ways we may be able to help older people reduce their risk of dehydration by recognising that they are not drinking enough, and being helped to drink more. Strategies to increase fluid intake in residential care homes include identifying and overcoming individual and institutional barriers to drinking, such as being worried about not reaching the toilet in time, physical inability to make or to reach drinks, and reduced social drinking and drinking pleasure. Research needs are discussed, some of which will be addressed by the FP7-funded NU-AGE (New dietary strategies addressing the specific needs of elderly population for a healthy ageing in Europe) trial. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can be purchased over-the-counter ... Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non-Prescription Contact Lens Laura: Vision Loss After Just 10 Hours Robyn: ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lens-Related Eye Infections Mar 01, 2017 New Technology Helps the Legally Blind Be More Independent Oct 31, 2016 What You Should Know About Swimming and Your Eyes Aug 16, 2016 5 Steps to Healthy Contact Lens Use May 31, 2016 More Eye Health News Eyeglasses May One Day Treat Glaucoma JAN 18, ...

  16. Artificial crystalline lens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norrby, S.; Koopmans, S.; Terwee, T.


    Replacement of the crystalline lens with a synthetic soft material (ACL) has been shown to produce 3 to 5 D of accommodation following pharmacologic stimulation in primates for up to 1 year postoperatively. The eyes were relatively clear, suggesting that an injectable synthetic lens is a feasible

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lens-Related Eye Infections Mar 01, 2017 New Technology Helps the Legally Blind Be More Independent Oct 31, 2016 What You Should Know About Swimming and Your Eyes Aug 16, 2016 5 Steps to Healthy Contact Lens Use May 31, 2016 More Eye Health News Top ...

  18. Influence of contact lens power profile on peripheral refractive error. (United States)

    de la Jara, Percy Lazon; Sankaridurg, Padmaja; Ehrmann, Klaus; Holden, Brien A


    To measure the power profile across the optic zone (OZ) of four commercially available soft contact lenses and establish the impact on the peripheral refractive error of the eye. The power profiles of a spherical conventional hydrogel contact lens (etafilcon A, J&J Vistakon, Jacksonville, FL USA) and three spherical silicone hydrogel contact lenses (lotrafilcon A and B, CIBA Vision, Duluth, GA USA; enfilcon A, CooperVision, Pleasanton, CA USA) with a labeled power of -3.00 and -6.00 diopters were measured using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor power mapping device. Central and peripheral refraction across the horizontal meridian (nasal and temporal visual field at 20, 30, and 40 degrees) was measured with an open-field autorefractor (Shin Nippon NVision K5001, Osaka Japan) with and without contact lenses in 26 myopic subjects. The relative peripheral refractive error on the eye was estimated and compared with and without contact lenses and between contact lenses. Differences in the distribution of the power profile across the OZ were apparent between contact lens types and powers. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between contact lens types for their effect on on-axis refraction. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found at all peripheral retinal eccentricities between contact lens types. For a given central power, the four contact lenses exhibited variations in optical power across the OZ of the lens. The distribution of optical power across the OZ has an influence on the peripheral refractive error of the eye.

  19. High Dk piggyback contact lens system for contact lens-intolerant keratoconus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomris Sengor


    Full Text Available Tomris Sengor, Sevda Aydin Kurna, Suat Aki, Yelda ÖzkurtFatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, TurkeyBackground: The aim of the study was to examine the clinical success of high Dk (oxygen permeability piggyback contact lens (PBCL systems for the correction of contact lens intolerant keratoconus patients.Methods: Sixteen patients (29 eyes who were not able to wear gas-permeable rigid lenses were included in this study. Hyper Dk silicone hydrogel (oxygen transmissibility or Dk/t = 150 units and fluorosilicone methacrylate copolymer (Dk/t = 100 units lenses were chosen as the PBCL systems. The clinical examinations included visual acuity and corneal observation by biomicroscopy, keratometer reading, and fluorescein staining before and after fitting the PBCL system.Results: Indications for using PBCL system were: lens stabilization and comfort, improving comfort, and adding protection to the cone. Visual acuities increased significantly in all of the patients compared with spectacles (P = 0. Improvement in visual acuity compared with rigid lenses alone was recorded in 89.7% of eyes and no alteration of the visual acuity was observed in 10.3% of the eyes. Wearing time of PBCL systems for most of the patients was limited time (mean 6 months, range 3–12 months; thereafter they tolerated rigid lenses alone except for 2 patients.Conclusion: The PBCL system is a safe and effective method to provide centering and corneal protection against mechanical trauma by the rigid lenses for keratoconus patients and may increase contact lens tolerance.Keywords: piggyback contact lens, keratoconus, irregular astigmatism

  20. New cellulose-lignin hydrogels and their application in controlled release of polyphenols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciolacu, Diana, E-mail:; Oprea, Ana Maria; Anghel, Narcis; Cazacu, Georgeta; Cazacu, Maria


    Novel superabsorbant cellulose-lignin hydrogels (CL) were prepared by a new two-step procedure consisting in dissolving cellulose in an alkaline solution with further mixing with lignin, followed by the chemical crosslinking with epichlorohydrin. The crosslinking occurrence was verified by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The effect of the structure features of cellulose-lignin hydrogels on their dehydration heat was evaluated by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images reveal some morphological aspects of the hydrogels. The degree as well as the rate of swelling in a mixture of water:ethanol = 19:1 were estimated. The possible application of these hydrogels as controlled release systems was tested. Polyphenols known as having a wide range of biological effects were selected to be incorporated in such hydrogels by an optimal procedure. The extract of grapes seeds from the Chambourcin type was used as a source of polyphenols (PF). The amount of the incorporated polyphenols was estimated by UV-VIS measurements. Characterization of the hydrogels containing polyphenols was performed by FTIR spectroscopy. Some parameters were estimated based on the registered spectra, as H-bond energy (E{sub H}), the asymmetric index (a/b) and the enthalpy of H-bond formation ({Delta}H). The modifications of the thermal behavior and morphology induced by the presence of the polyphenols in hydrogels were highlighted by DSC and SEM, respectively. The release of polyphenols from CL hydrogels depended on the lignin content from matrices, as assessed by spectral studies. Both loading with polyphenols and their release can be controlled by the composition of the hydrogels. The kinetic of polyphenols release was studied. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A unique method to obtain cellulose-lignin hydrogels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The application of these hydrogels as controlled release systems was tested. Black

  1. Long-term clinical results: 3 years of up to 30-night continuous wear of lotrafilcon A silicone hydrogel and daily wear of low-Dk/t hydrogel lenses. (United States)

    Bergenske, Peter; Long, Bill; Dillehay, Sally; Barr, Joseph T; Donshik, Peter; Secor, Glenda; Yoakum, John; Chalmers, Robin L


    To summarize results of a 3-year clinical trial assessing subjective and objective experience with lotrafilcon A silicone hydrogel (SH) lenses for up to 30 nights of continuous wear or low-Dk/t daily-wear (LDW) hydrogel lenses. Nineteen sites dispensed SH lenses to 317 subjects (286 current wearers and 31 new wearers) and 2-week replacement LDW lenses to 81 new wearers in a 3-year study. For the SH cohort, limbal redness, conjunctival redness, and corneal neovascularization improved among 23%, 21%, and 13% of eyes, respectively (PDk/t hydrogel lenses. Many biomicroscopy signs and symptoms worsened among neophytes wearing daily-wear low-Dk/t hydrogel lenses. The use of lotrafilcon A lenses may minimize many ocular changes from soft contact lens wear.

  2. Contact lens hygiene compliance and lens case contamination: A review. (United States)

    Wu, Yvonne Tzu-Ying; Willcox, Mark; Zhu, Hua; Stapleton, Fiona


    A contaminated contact lens case can act as a reservoir for microorganisms that could potentially compromise contact lens wear and lead to sight threatening adverse events. The rate, level and profile of microbial contamination in lens cases, compliance and other risk factors associated with lens case contamination, and the challenges currently faced in this field are discussed. The rate of lens case contamination is commonly over 50%. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens are frequently recovered from lens cases. In addition, we provide suggestions regarding how to clean contact lens cases and improve lens wearers' compliance as well as future lens case design for reducing lens case contamination. This review highlights the challenges in reducing the level of microbial contamination which require an industry wide approach. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enzyme actuated bioresponsive hydrogels (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew Nolan

    Bioresponsive hydrogels are emerging with technological significance in targeted drug delivery, biosensors and regenerative medicine. Conferred with the ability to respond to specific biologically derived stimuli, the design challenge is in effectively linking the conferred biospecificity with an engineered response tailored to the needs of a particular application. Moreover, the fundamental phenomena governing the response must support an appropriate dynamic range and limit of detection. The design of these systems is inherently complicated due to the high interdependency of the governing phenomena that guide the sensing, transduction, and the actuation response of hydrogels. To investigate the dynamics of these materials, model systems may be used which seek to interrogate the system dynamics by uni-variable experimentation and limit confounding phenomena such as: polymer-solute interactions, polymer swelling dynamics and biomolecular reaction-diffusion concerns. To this end, a model system, alpha-chymotrypsin (Cht) (a protease) and a cleavable peptide-chromogen (pro-drug) covalently incorporated into a hydrogel, was investigated to understand the mechanisms of covalent loading and release by enzymatic cleavage in bio-responsive delivery systems. Using EDC and Sulfo-NHS, terminal carboxyl groups of N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe p-nitroanilide, a cleavable chromogen, were conjugated to primary amines of a hydrated poly(HEMA)-based hydrogel. Hydrogel discs were incubated in buffered Cht causing enzyme-mediated cleavage of the peptide and concomitant release of the chromophore for monitoring. To investigate substrate loading and the effects of hydrogel morphology on the system, the concentration of the amino groups (5, 10, 20, and 30 mol%) and the cross-linked density (1, 5, 7, 9 and 12 mol%) were independently varied. Loading-Release Efficiency of the chromogen was shown to exhibit a positive relation to increasing amino groups (AEMA). The release rates demonstrated a

  4. Bioadhesive hydrogels for cosmetic applications. (United States)

    Parente, M E; Ochoa Andrade, A; Ares, G; Russo, F; Jiménez-Kairuz, Á


    The use of bioadhesive hydrogels for skin care presents important advantages such as long residence times on the application site and reduced product administration frequency. The aim of the present work was to develop bioadhesive hydrogels for skin application, using caffeine as a model active ingredient. Eight hydrogels were formulated using binary combinations of a primary polymer (carbomer homopolymer type C (Carbopol(®) 980) or kappa carrageenan potassium salt (Gelcarin(®) GP-812 NF)) and a secondary polymer (carbomer copolymer type B (Pemulen(™) TR-1), xanthan gum or guar gum). Hydrogels were characterized by means of physico-chemical (dynamic rheological measurements, spreadability and adhesion measurements) and sensory methods (projective mapping in combination with a check-all-that-apply (CATA) question). Caffeine hydrogels were formulated using two of the most promising formulations regarding adhesion properties and sensory characteristics. In vitro active ingredient release studies were carried out. Hydrogel formulations showed a prevalently elastic rheological behaviour. Complex viscosity of carbomer homopolymer type C hydrogels was higher than that of the kappa carrageenan hydrogels. Besides, complex viscosity values were dependent on the secondary polymer present in the formulation. Significant differences among hydrogels were found in detachment force, work of adhesion and spreading diameter results. Association of projective mapping with CATA allowed to determine similarities and dissimilarities among samples. Cluster analysis associated the samples in two groups. Two hydrogels were selected to study the release of caffeine. Both hydrogels presented similar release profiles which were well described by the Higuchi model. Caffeine release was exclusively controlled by a diffusive process. Physico-chemical and sensory techniques enabled the identification of bioadhesive hydrogel formulations with positive characteristics for cosmetic applications

  5. Physicochemical characterization of acrylamide/bisacrylamide hydrogels and their application for the conservation of easel paintings. (United States)

    Pizzorusso, Giacomo; Fratini, Emiliano; Eiblmeier, Josef; Giorgi, Rodorico; Chelazzi, David; Chevalier, Aurelia; Baglioni, Piero


    Acrylamide chemical gels have been synthesized to obtain systems with mechanic and hydrophilic properties suitable for the cleaning of works of art. The gel characteristics were tailored by changing the polymer percentage present in the final hydrogel formulation from 2 to 10% w/w. Two different hydrogels have been selected in this interval for an in depth characterization (i.e., S 4% w/w and H 6% w/w). Water retention properties of the gels along with the free water index have been determined by the combination of standard dehydration tests and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. The gels' structure has been determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The water retention capacity of hydrogel, H, was also determined. Cleaning tests on easel painting replicas, performed with both hydrogels loaded with an aqueous detergent system, showed good results in the removal of a widely used synthetic adhesive and hence offered these gels as a real alternative to the widely applied physical gel methodology with the advantage of being a residue-free technique. A preliminary SAXS investigation confirms the persistence of the detergent system nanostructure inside the hydrogel. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  6. Ionic Conductivity of Polyelectrolyte Hydrogels. (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Jung; Wu, Haiyan; Hu, Yang; Young, Megan; Wang, Huifeng; Lynch, Dylan; Xu, Fujian; Cong, Hongbo; Cheng, Gang


    Polyelectrolytes have many important functions in both living organisms and man-made applications. One key property of polyelectrolytes is the ionic conductivity due to their porous networks that allow the transport of water and small molecular solutes. Among polyelectrolytes, zwitterionic polymers have attracted huge attention for applications that involve ion transport in a polyelectrolyte matrix; however, it is still unclear how the functional groups of zwitterionic polymer side chains affect their ion transport and swelling properties. In this study, zwitterionic poly(carboxybetaine acrylamide), poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine), and poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) hydrogels were synthesized and their ionic conductivity was studied and compared to cationic, anionic, and nonionic hydrogels. The change of the ionic conductivity of zwitterionic and nonionic hydrogels in different saline solutions was investigated in detail. Zwitterionic hydrogels showed much higher ionic conductivity than that of the widely used nonionic poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate hydrogel in all tested solutions. For both cationic and anionic hydrogels, the presence of mobile counterions led to high ionic conductivity in low salt solutions; however, the ionic conductivity of zwitterionic hydrogels surpassed that of cationic and ionic hydrogels in high salt solutions. Cationic and anionic hydrogels showed much higher water content than that of zwitterionic hydrogels in deionized water; however, the cationic hydrogels shrank significantly with increasing saline concentration. This work provides insight into the effects of polyelectrolyte side chains on ion transport. This can guide us in choosing better polyelectrolytes for a broad spectrum of applications, including bioelectronics, neural implants, battery, and so on.

  7. Microbial Keratitis: Could Contact Lens Material Affect Disease Pathogenesis? (United States)

    Evans, David J.; Fleiszig, Suzanne M. J.


    Microbial keratitis is a sight-threatening complication associated with contact lenses. The introduction of silicone hydrogel lens materials with increased oxygen transmission to the ocular surface has not significantly altered the incidence of microbial keratitis. These data suggest that alternate, or additional, predisposing factors involving lens wear must be addressed to reduce or eliminate these infections. The contact lens can provide a surface for microbial growth in situ, and can also influence ocular surface homeostasis through effects on the tear fluid and corneal epithelium. Thus, it is intuitive that future contact lens materials could make a significant contribution to preventing microbial keratitis. Design of the “right” material to prevent microbial keratitis requires understanding the effects of current materials on bacterial virulence in the cornea, and on ocular surface innate defenses. Current knowledge in each of these areas will be presented, with a discussion of future directions needed to understand the influence of lens material on the pathogenesis of microbial keratitis. PMID:23266587

  8. Do daily wear opaquely tinted hydrogel soft contact lenses affect contrast sensitivity function at one meter? (United States)

    Ozkagnici, Ahmet; Zengin, Nazmi; Kamiş, Omit; Gündüz, Kemal


    To investigate the effects of daily wear opaquely tinted hydrogel soft contact lenses on contrast sensitivity functions, as measured using the Pelli-Robson chart viewed at 1 meter. Contrast sensitivity was measured in 48 healthy individuals before and 6 hours after soft contact lens wear. Twenty-four subjects used clear soft contact lenses and 24 used tinted soft contact lenses. The contrast sensitivity scores were significantly decreased monocularly and binocularly (P = 0.000 and P = 0.002, respectively) in the colored contact lens group whereas there were no significant changes in the clear contact lens group (P = 0.317 and P = 0.317, respectively). Color-tinted contact lenses were associated with a reduction of contrast sensitivity function. Therefore, those who wear colored contact lenses should be informed about the possible consequences of tinted contact lens wearing.

  9. Rapid self-healing hydrogels (United States)

    Phadke, Ameya; Zhang, Chao; Arman, Bedri; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Mashelkar, Raghunath A.; Lele, Ashish K.; Tauber, Michael J.; Arya, Gaurav; Varghese, Shyni


    Synthetic materials that are capable of autonomous healing upon damage are being developed at a rapid pace because of their many potential applications. Despite these advancements, achieving self-healing in permanently cross-linked hydrogels has remained elusive because of the presence of water and irreversible cross-links. Here, we demonstrate that permanently cross-linked hydrogels can be engineered to exhibit self-healing in an aqueous environment. We achieve this feature by arming the hydrogel network with flexible-pendant side chains carrying an optimal balance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that allows the side chains to mediate hydrogen bonds across the hydrogel interfaces with minimal steric hindrance and hydrophobic collapse. The self-healing reported here is rapid, occurring within seconds of the insertion of a crack into the hydrogel or juxtaposition of two separate hydrogel pieces. The healing is reversible and can be switched on and off via changes in pH, allowing external control over the healing process. Moreover, the hydrogels can sustain multiple cycles of healing and separation without compromising their mechanical properties and healing kinetics. Beyond revealing how secondary interactions could be harnessed to introduce new functions to chemically cross-linked polymeric systems, we also demonstrate various potential applications of such easy-to-synthesize, smart, self-healing hydrogels. PMID:22392977


    Pervaporation has emerged as an economically viable alternative technology for the dehydration of organic solvents, removal of organic compounds from water and organic/organic separations. Development of a membrane system with suitable flux and selectivity characteristics plays a...

  11. Introduction to cell–hydrogel mechanosensing (United States)

    Ahearne, Mark


    The development of hydrogel-based biomaterials represents a promising approach to generating new strategies for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In order to develop more sophisticated cell-seeded hydrogel constructs, it is important to understand how cells mechanically interact with hydrogels. In this paper, we review the mechanisms by which cells remodel hydrogels, the influence that the hydrogel mechanical and structural properties have on cell behaviour and the role of mechanical stimulation in cell-seeded hydrogels. Cell-mediated remodelling of hydrogels is directed by several cellular processes, including adhesion, migration, contraction, degradation and extracellular matrix deposition. Variations in hydrogel stiffness, density, composition, orientation and viscoelastic characteristics all affect cell activity and phenotype. The application of mechanical force on cells encapsulated in hydrogels can also instigate changes in cell behaviour. By improving our understanding of cell–material mechano-interactions in hydrogels, this should enable a new generation of regenerative medical therapies to be developed. PMID:24748951

  12. 7 CFR 929.11 - To can, freeze, or dehydrate. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false To can, freeze, or dehydrate. 929.11 Section 929.11... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.11 To can, freeze, or dehydrate. To can, freeze, or dehydrate means to convert cranberries into canned, frozen, or dehydrated...

  13. Predicting success with silicone-hydrogel contact lenses in new wearers. (United States)

    Best, Nigel; Drury, Laura; Wolffsohn, James S


    to evaluate changes in tear metrics and ocular signs induced by six months of silicone-hydrogel contact lens wear and the difference in baseline characteristics between those who successfully continued in contact lens wear compared to those that did not. Non-invasive Keratograph, Tearscope and fluorescein tear break-up times (TBUTs), tear meniscus height, bulbar and limbal hyperaemia, lid-parallel conjunctival folds (LIPCOF), phenol red thread, fluorescein and lissamine-green staining, and lid wiper epitheliopathy were measured on 60 new contact lens wearers fitted with monthly silicone-hydrogels (average age 36±14 years, 40 females). Symptoms were evaluated by the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). After six months full time contact lens wear the above metrics were re-measured on those patients still in contact lens wear (n=33). The initial measurements were also compared between the group still wearing lenses after six months and those who had ceased lens wear (n=27). There were significant changes in tear meniscus height (p=0.031), bulbar hyperaemia (p=0.011), fluorescein TBUT (p=0.027), corneal (p=0.007) and conjunctival (p=0.009) staining, LIPCOF (p=0.011) and lid wiper epitheliopathy (p=0.002) after six months of silicone-hydrogel wear. Successful wearers had a higher non-invasive (17.0±8.2s vs 12.0±5.6s; p=0.001) and fluorescein (10.7±6.4s vs 7.5±4.7s; p=0.001) TBUT than drop-outs, although OSDI (cut-off 4.2) was also a strong predictor of success. Silicone-hydrogel lenses induced significant changes in the tear film and ocular surface as well as lid margin staining. Wettability of the ocular surface is the main factor affecting contact lens drop-out. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of extracellular dehydration using saliva osmolality. (United States)

    Ely, Brett R; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W; Spitz, Marissa G; Heavens, Kristen R; Walsh, Neil P; Sawka, Michael N


    When substantial solute losses accompany body water an isotonic hypovolemia (extracellular dehydration) results. The potential for using blood or urine to assess extracellular dehydration is generally poor, but saliva is not a simple ultra-filtrate of plasma and the autonomic regulation of salivary gland function suggests the possibility that saliva osmolality (Sosm) may afford detection of extracellular dehydration via the influence of volume-mediated factors. This study aimed to evaluate the assessment of extracellular dehydration using Sosm. In addition, two common saliva collection methods and their effects on Sosm were compared. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected in 24 healthy volunteers during paired euhydration and dehydration trials. Furosemide administration and 12 h fluid restriction were used to produce extracellular dehydration. Expectoration and salivette collection methods were compared in a separate group of eight euhydrated volunteers. All comparisons were made using paired t-tests. The diagnostic potential of body fluids was additionally evaluated. Dehydration (3.1 ± 0.5% loss of body mass) decreased PV (-0.49 ± 0.12 L; -15.12 ± 3.94% change), but Sosm changes were marginal (diagnostic accuracy was poor (AUC = 0.77-0.78) for all body fluids evaluated. Strong agreement was observed between Sosm methods (Expectoration: 61 ± 10 mmol/kg, Salivette: 61 ± 8 mmol/kg, p > 0.05). Extracelluar dehydration was not detectable using plasma, urine, or saliva measures. Salivette and expectoration sampling methods produced similar, consistent results for Sosm, suggesting no methodological influence on Sosm.

  15. Dehydration processes using membranes with hydrophobic coating (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer


    Processes for removing water from organic compounds, especially polar compounds such as alcohols. The processes include a membrane-based dehydration step, using a membrane that has a dioxole-based polymer selective layer or the like and a hydrophilic selective layer, and can operate even when the stream to be treated has a high water content, such as 10 wt % or more. The processes are particularly useful for dehydrating ethanol.

  16. Telescopic vision contact lens (United States)

    Tremblay, Eric J.; Beer, R. Dirk; Arianpour, Ashkan; Ford, Joseph E.


    We present the concept, optical design, and first proof of principle experimental results for a telescopic contact lens intended to become a visual aid for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), providing magnification to the user without surgery or external head-mounted optics. Our contact lens optical system can provide a combination of telescopic and non-magnified vision through two independent optical paths through the contact lens. The magnified optical path incorporates a telescopic arrangement of positive and negative annular concentric reflectors to achieve 2.8x - 3x magnification on the eye, while light passing through a central clear aperture provides unmagnified vision.

  17. Corneal thinning associated with recurrent microbial keratitis resulting from 7-day extended wear of low Dk hydrogel contact lenses: a case report. (United States)

    Cardona, Genís; Saona-Santos, Carlos Luís


    Corneal thinning and an increased risk of corneal perforation, resulting from recurrent episodes of microbial keratitis, required a 38-year-old Caucasian female to undergo bilateral corneal grafting. Although strongly advised otherwise, the patient had been a long time user of low oxygen permeability hydrogel contact lenses in a flexible wear regime, with frequent overnight use. Microbial keratitis is a potentially severe contact lens related complication which, if not properly treated, may lead to permanent visual loss. The introduction of silicone-hydrogel materials and daily replacement modalities has not resulted in a significant decrease in the incidence of microbial keratitis, thus suggesting that the condition is mainly dependent on patient hygiene and wearing habits. Non-compliance, which is endemic in contact lens wear, may be combated by increasing patient awareness of the potential risk factors of contact lens misuse. This is accomplished through constant, rigorous information provided by contact lens practitioners.

  18. Randomized Crossover Trial of Silicone Hydrogel Presbyopic Contact Lenses. (United States)

    Sivardeen, Ahmed; Laughton, Deborah; Wolffsohn, James S


    To assess the performance of four commercially available silicone hydrogel multifocal monthly contact lens designs against monovision. A double-masked randomized crossover trial of Air Optix Aqua multifocal, PureVision 2 for Presbyopia, Acuvue OASYS for Presbyopia, Biofinity multifocal, and monovision with Biofinity contact lenses was conducted on 35 presbyopes (54.3 ± 6.2 years). After 4 weeks of wear, visual performance was quantified by high- and low-contrast visual acuity under photopic and mesopic conditions, reading speed, defocus curves, stereopsis, halometry, aberrometry, Near Activity Visual Questionnaire rating, and subjective quality of vision scoring. Bulbar, limbal, and palpebral hyperemia and corneal staining were graded to monitor the impact of each contact lens on ocular physiology. High-contrast photopic visual acuity (p = 0.102), reading speed (F = 1.082, p = 0.368), and aberrometry (F = 0.855, p = 0.493) were not significantly different between presbyopic lens options. Defocus curve profiles (p lenses. Although ocular aberration variation between individuals largely masks the differences in optics between current multifocal contact lens designs, certain design strategies can outperform monovision, even in early presbyopes.

  19. Extended cyclosporine delivery by silicone-hydrogel contact lenses. (United States)

    Peng, Cheng-Chun; Chauhan, Anuj


    Cyclosporine A (CyA) is effective in treating chronic dry eyes and contact lens mediated dry eyes. CyA is delivered through eye drops of an oil-in-water emulsion, which has a small residence time in the eyes, leading to low bioavailability. Here we explore delivery of CyA from contact lenses to provide controlled and extended drug delivery with an increased bioavailability due to enhanced ocular residence time. Loading and release profiles of CyA from commercial contact lenses are presented to show that 1-DAY ACUVUE® releases CyA for about a day and extended wear silicone hydrogel (SiH) lenses release CyA for about 2-weeks. The longer duration from SiH lenses compared to the 1-DAY ACUVUE®lens is due to larger partition coefficients in the gel. A novel approach is presented for increasing release duration from the SiH lenses to the desired 1-month through incorporation of Vitamin E. The results show that Vitamin E loaded lenses can provide CyA release within the therapeutic window for a period of about a month. This pilot study demonstrates the promising potential of delivering CyA from contact lens for treatment of chromic dry eyes and contact lens mediated dry eyes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Vinyl ether/acrylic acid terpolymer hydrogels synthesized by {gamma}-radiation: characterization, thermosensitivity and pH-sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guemuesderelioglu, Menemse [Hacettepe University, Chemical Engineering Department, Beytepe, Ankara 06532 (Turkey)]. E-mail:; Topal, Ilknur Uysal [Hacettepe University, Chemical Engineering Department, Beytepe, Ankara 06532 (Turkey)


    The radiation copolymerization of hydrophilic ethylene glycol vinyl ether (EGVE), hydrophobic butyl vinyl ether (BVE) and/or acidic comonomer acrylic acid (AA) was realized in the presence of crosslinking agent diethylene glycol divinyl ether (DEGDVE). The swelling studies which were carried out at 4 and 37 deg. C in phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 7.4) showed that equilibrium swelling ratios of the hydrogels (except EGVE homopolymer hydrogel) decreases with increasing temperature and swelling process obeys non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. The pH-dependent swelling behaviour of the hydrogels was examined in buffered solutions at various pHs. The swelling process is reversible and pH-dependent for the AA-containing hydrogel. While this hydrogel shows a fully hydrated form at pH>6; it extensively dehydrates below pH 6. The gels are stable after the repeated swelling experiments. The molecular structure of the hydrogels was studied by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and their thermal behaviour was investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis. The surface and cross-section structures of the gels were examined by a Scanning Electron Microscope.

  1. Contact lens-related acanthamoeba keratitis. (United States)

    Stapleton, Fiona; Ozkan, Jerome; Jalbert, Isabelle; Holden, Brien A; Petsoglou, Con; McClellan, Kathy


    Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare but severe disease, with more than 95% of cases occurring in contact lens wearers. With a worldwide resurgence of contact lens-related disease, this report illustrates the clinical characteristics and treatment challenges representative of this disease. This report describes Acanthamoeba keratitis in a 47-year-old female using extended wear silicone hydrogel contact lenses, with a history of swimming in a home pool and failure to subsequently disinfect the contact lenses. The diagnosis was based on clinical signs, disease course, and confocal microscopy results despite a negative result for corneal smear and culture. The corneal signs included an epithelial defect, epithelial irregularities, anterior stromal infiltrates, perineural infiltrates, an anterior stromal ring infiltrate, and hypopyon. The case was diagnosed as an infective keratitis and treated promptly using intensive topical administration of fortified gentamicin and cephalothin. The high likelihood Acanthamoeba prompted immediate use of polyhexamethylbiguanide and chlorhexidine, with propamide and adjunct treatment using atropine and oral diclofenac. Steroids were added on day 3, and the frequency of administration of antibacterial treatment was gradually reduced and ceased by day 10. The analgesia was stopped at 3 months. The frequency of administration of antiamoeba therapy and steroid treatment was slowly reduced and all treatment was ceased after 18 months. Despite considerable morbidity in terms of the treatment duration, hospitalization, outpatient appointments, and associated disease costs, the final visual outcome (6/6) was excellent.

  2. Effects of Hyperbaric Conditions on Corneal Physiology with Hydrogel Contact Lenses (United States)


    option for improving the vision of divers is to use contact lenses. These include standard hard ( PMMA ), gas permeable rigid, and hydrogel contact...rigid ( PMMA ) lenses after exposures to a hyperbaric environment resulting in corneal edema, dimpling of the corneal epithelium, and reduced visual...environments. Lens displacement, which could result in ocular injury or disruption of vision, is also of concern. 8 ■A Several investigations have

  3. A Long Term Study of the Water Content Changes in Three Types of Hydrogel Contact Lenses. (United States)


    members from wearing contact lenses either on or off the job.10 This regulation was written during the early days of PMMA lenses to avoid problems common to...that subjects were prior hydrogel lens wearers for at least six months preceeding the start of the study, and that their eyes have clear ocular media...and be free of active inflammations and infections. No subjects were selected who had a history of significant ocular surgery or trauna, a tear break

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  1. Limited lateral spread of stromal edema in the human cornea fitted with a ('donut') contact lens with a large central aperture. (United States)

    Holden, B A; McNally, J J; Egan, P


    Topographical corneal thickness changes were monitored in 10 subjects who each wore a hydrogel contact lens with a large central aperture ("donut" lens) for 6 hours. Analysis of local corneal thickness changes indicates that no corneal swelling occurred in the central exposed area of the cornea, but significant swelling occurred in the area of the cornea covered by the lens. The lateral cut-off point of corneal swelling was well-defined, indicating that the contact lens-induced corneal edema did not spread laterally to the exposed area of the cornea over the six-hour wearing period. Swelling of the peripheral cornea covered by the lens was found to be significantly greater with a tightly-fitting, immobile donut lens than with a loosely-fitting lens, suggesting that tear mixing may explain in part the apparent averaging of edema during open-eye wear of hydrogel lenses of varying thickness profile. The possibility that lateral spread of lactate within the stroma may contribute to this apparent averaging of edema was not confirmed in this study. We suggest that rapid metabolism or elimination of lactate in the exposed region of the cornea, or evaporation through the central lens aperture, may have contributed to the maintenance of normal central corneal thickness during open-eye wear of the donut lens.

  2. Viscous froth lens (United States)

    Green, T. E.; Bramley, A.; Lue, L.; Grassia, P.


    Microscale models of foam structure traditionally incorporate a balance between bubble pressures and surface tension forces associated with curvature of bubble films. In particular, models for flowing foam microrheology have assumed this balance is maintained under the action of some externally imposed motion. Recently, however, a dynamic model for foam structure has been proposed, the viscous froth model, which balances the net effect of bubble pressures and surface tension to viscous dissipation forces: this permits the description of fast-flowing foam. This contribution examines the behavior of the viscous froth model when applied to a paradigm problem with a particularly simple geometry: namely, a two-dimensional bubble “lens.” The lens consists of a channel partly filled by a bubble (known as the “lens bubble”) which contacts one channel wall. An additional film (known as the “spanning film”) connects to this bubble spanning the distance from the opposite channel wall. This simple structure can be set in motion and deformed out of equilibrium by applying a pressure across the spanning film: a rich dynamical behavior results. Solutions for the lens structure steadily propagating along the channel can be computed by the viscous froth model. Perturbation solutions are obtained in the limit of a lens structure with weak applied pressures, while numerical solutions are available for higher pressures. These steadily propagating solutions suggest that small lenses move faster than large ones, while both small and large lens bubbles are quite resistant to deformation, at least for weak applied back pressures. As the applied back pressure grows, the structure with the small lens bubble remains relatively stiff, while that with the large lens bubble becomes much more compliant. However, with even further increases in the applied back pressure, a critical pressure appears to exist for which the steady-state structure loses stability and unsteady

  3. Dehydration kinetics of talc at 1 bar (United States)

    Ganguly, J.; Bose, K.


    Experimental results on the dehydration kinetics of talc, which is likely to be a major potential resource for water and hydrogen in carbonaceous chondrites, is presented. The rate of dehydration of an essentially pure Mg-end member natural talc, (Mg(.99)Fe(.01))3Si4O10(OH)2, was studied by measuring in situ weight change under isothermal condition at 1 bar as a function of time in the temperature range 775 to 985 C. The grain size of the starting material was 0.7 to 1 micron. It was found that the data up to 50 to 60 percent dehydration can be fitted by an equation of the form alpha = exp(-Kt(exp n)), where alpha is the weight fraction of talc remaining, K is a rate constant and n is a numerical constant for a given temperature. For any set of isothermal data, there is a major change in the value of n for larger dehydration. For up to approximately 50 percent dehydration, all rate constants can be described by an Arrheniun relation with an activation energy of 432 (+/- 30) kJ/mol; n has a nearly constant value of 0.54 between 775 and 875 C, but increases almost linearly according to n = -10.77 + 0.012T C at T greater than or equal to 875 C.

  4. Dehydration-responsive features of Atrichum undulatum. (United States)

    Hu, Ruoyang; Xiao, Lihong; Bao, Fang; Li, Xuedong; He, Yikun


    Drought is an increasingly important limitation on plant productivity worldwide. Understanding the mechanisms of drought tolerance in plants can lead to new strategies for developing drought-tolerant crops. Many moss species are able to survive desiccation-a more severe state of dehydration than drought. Research into the mechanisms and evolution of desiccation tolerance in basal land plants is of particular significance to both biology and agriculture. In this study, we conducted morphological, cytological, and physiological analyses of gametophytes of the highly desiccation-tolerant bryophyte Atrichum undulatum (Hedw.) P. Beauv during dehydration and rehydration. Our results suggested that the mechanisms underlying the dehydration-recovery cycle in A. undulatum gametophytes include maintenance of membrane stability, cellular structure protection, prevention of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, elimination of ROS, protection against ROS-induced damage, and repair of ROS-induced damage. Our data also indicate that this dehydration-recovery cycle consists not only of the physical removal and addition of water, but also involves a highly organized series of cytological, physiological, and biochemical changes. These attributes are similar to those reported for other drought- and desiccation-tolerant plant species. Our findings provide major insights into the mechanisms of dehydration-tolerance in the moss A. undulatum.

  5. Atropine and Roscovitine Release from Model Silicone Hydrogels. (United States)

    Lasowski, Frances; Sheardown, Heather


    Drug delivery to the anterior eye has a low compliance and results in significant drug losses. In pediatric patients, eye diseases such as myopia and retinoblastoma can potentially be treated pharmacologically, but the risk associated with high drug concentrations coupled with the need for regular dosing limits their effectiveness. The current study examined the feasibility of atropine and roscovitine delivery from model silicone hydrogel materials which could potentially be used to treat myopia and retinoblastoma, respectively. Model silicone hydrogel materials that comprised TRIS and DMA were prepared with the drug incorporated during synthesis. Various materials properties, with and without incorporated drug, were investigated including water uptake, water contact angle, and light transmission. Drug release was evaluated under sink conditions into phosphate buffered saline. The results demonstrate that up to 2 wt% of the drugs can be incorporated into model silicone hydrogel materials without adversely affecting critical materials properties such as water uptake, light transmission, and surface hydrophilicity. Equilibrium water content ranged from 15 to 32% and transmission exceeded 89% for materials with at least 70% DMA. Extended release exceeding 14 days was possible with both drugs, with the total amount of drug released from the materials ranging from 16% to over 76%. Although a burst effect was noted, this was thought to be due to surface-bound drug, and therefore storage in an appropriate packaging solution could be used to overcome this if desired. Silicone hydrogel materials have the potential to deliver drugs for over 2 weeks without compromising lens properties. This could potentially overcome the need for regular drop instillation and allow for the maintenance of drug concentration in the tear film over the period of wear. This represents a potential option for treating a host of ophthalmic disorders in children including myopia and retinoblastoma.

  6. Curative effect assessment of bandage contact lens in neurogenic keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Zhao Sun


    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the curative effect of bandage contact lens in neurogenic keratitis.METHODS:Twenty cases of neurogenic keratitis were studied attheDepartment of Ophthalmology, the first Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, between October 2012 and June 2013. These included 13 males and 7 females, aged from 35 to 88y. Patients were voluntarily divided into an experimental group (lens wearing group, n=10 and control group (drug therapy, n=10. In experimental group patients wore silicone hydrogel bandage soft contact lens. Both groups used the following eyedrops:0.5% levofloxacin TID; 0.5% Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose QID; fibroblast growth factor BID; ganciclovir BID [cases complicated with herpes simplex virus (HSV]; compound tropicamide BID (cases concurrent hypopyon. The healing time of corneal ulcer and complication rates were observed in the two groups.RESULTS: The healing time of corneal ulcer in the experimental group was 10.80±4.44d versus 46.70±13.88d in the control group (P<0.05. No complications occurred in the experimental group, except for the lens falling off twice in one case, the patient recovered eight days after rewearing the lens. While in the control group, all cases vascularized, 2 cases were complicated with descemetocele that recovered with amniotic membrane transplantation and 1 case was complicated with corneal perforation that recovered by autologous conjunctival flap covering.CONCLUSION: Bandage contact lens is a safe and effective method of treating neurogenic keratitis and significantly shortened the healing time of corneal ulcer.

  7. Microglassification™: a Novel Technique for Protein Dehydration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aniket; Gaul, David; Rickard, Deborah


    he dehydration of biologics is commonly employed to achieve solid-dose formulation and enhanced stability during long-term preservation. We have developed a novel process, MicroglassificationTM, which can rapidly and controllably dehydrate protein solutions into solid amorphous microspheres at room...... temperature. Single bovine serum albumin (BSA) microdroplets were suspended in pentanol or decanol using a micropipette, and the dynamic changes in droplet dissolution were observed in real-time and correlated to protein's water of hydration, medium's water activity, and microsphere protein concentration...... time and decreasing water activity. Image analysis at single particle and bulk scale showed the formation of solid BSA microspheres with a maximum protein concentration of 1147 ± 32 mg/mL. The native BSA samples were dehydrated to approximately 450 waters per BSA, which is well below monolayer coverage...

  8. Geothermal demonstration: Zunil food dehydration facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, O. (Consultecnia, Guatemala City (Guatemala)); Altseimer, J.; Thayer, G.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Cooper, L. (Energy Associates International, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Caicedo, A. (Unidad de Desarrollo Geotermico, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion)


    A food dehydration facility was constructed near the town of Zunil, Guatemala, to demonstrate the use of geothermal energy for industrial applications. The facility, with some modifications to the design, was found to work quite satisfactorily. Tests using five different products were completed during the time geothermal energy was used in the plant. During the time the plant was not able to use geothermal energy, a temporary diesel-fueled boiler provided the energy to test dehydration on seven other crops available in this area. The system demonstrates that geothermal heat can be used successfully for dehydrating food products. Many other industrial applications of geothermal energy could be considered for Zunil since a considerable amount of moderate-temperature heat will become available when the planned geothermal electrical facility is constructed there. 6 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Heparin release from thermosensitive hydrogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutowska, Anna; Bae, You Han; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan


    Thermosensitive hydrogels (TSH) were synthesized and investigated as heparin releasing polymers for the prevention of surface induced thrombosis. TSH were synthesized with N-isopropyl acrylamide (NiPAAm) copolymerized with butyl methacrylate (BMA) (hydrophobic) or acrylic acid (AAc) (hydrophilic)

  10. Proteins identified from care solution extractions of silicone hydrogels. (United States)

    Emch, Andrew J; Nichols, Jason J


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quantity and identify the proteins extracted from two different types of silicone hydrogel contact lenses by several multipurpose care solutions after 1 day of wear. Ten subjects were recruited to wear galyfilcon A lenses (Acuvue Advance, Vistakon) followed by lotrafilcon B lenses (O2 Optix, CIBA Vision) each for four consecutive days. Each day, subjects inserted a new pair of lenses for 8 h of wear after which both lenses were removed using forceps (lenses were not rubbed or rinsed after removal). Lenses were pooled in one of four commercially available care solutions for a 24-h soak followed by precipitation, resuspension in water, and quantification by Bradford assay and identification by mass spectrometry. Protein recovery from care solutions was as follows (quantities are in microg/lens): AQuify (galyfilcon A: 0.56, lotrafilcon B: 1.24), Complete MoisturePlus (galyfilcon A: 1.44, lotrafilcon B: 1.47), Opti-Free Express (galyfilcon A: 2.31, lotrafilcon B: 5.67), and ReNu MoistureLoc (galyfilcon A: 1.17, lotrafilcon B: 4.38). For each care solution, greater quantities of protein were removed from lotrafilcon B (3.19 +/- 2.19 microg/lens) than from galyfilcon A (1.37 +/- 0.72 microg/lens). Lactoferrin, lysozyme, and lipocalin were the most commonly identified, whereas various keratin compounds and other unique proteins were also detected. Opti-Free Express was consistently associated with the more efficient removal of proteins from these silicone hydrogels. More total protein was removed from lotrafilcon B than from galyfilcon A (approximately 2 x more protein) for all four care solutions, and 12 total unique protein species were recovered from galyfilcon A, whereas only 10 were recovered from lotrafilcon B. The higher quantities of protein extracted from lotrafilcon B may be due to stronger protein binding with this material and/or to differences in solution efficacy.

  11. Methods for Converter Sludge Dehydration Intensification (United States)

    Vakhromeev, M. I.; Moreva, Y. A.; Starkova, L. G.


    The article considers the intensification methods for converter sludge dehydration exemplified by the sludges of the Oxygen Converter Workshop (OCW) of the Open Joint-Stock Company “Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works” (MMK, OJSC), one of the largest metallurgical companies in the Southern Urals. Converter sludges can contain up to 45-70% of ferrum [21] which is interesting in terms of their use as an addition to a sinter-feed mixture. Sludge intensifies the sintering process. It positively influences pelletizing and fusion mixture melting dynamics at sintering. Over the period of the converter sludge dehydration complex operation at the OCW, MMK, OJSC, it was revealed that processing results in obtaining of high humidity sludge. It causes sludge freezing during the winter period, thus, its transportation involves extra costs for sludge warming up. To resolve the above-mentioned problem, the following works were performed in 2016: - experimental studies of how the application of the low-molecular anionic flocculate “SEURVEY” FL-3 influences sludge humidity reduction. - experimental studies of how the filtering press process operation parameters influence sludge humidity reduction. The new flocculate application didn't lower the dehydrated sludge humidity (the objective was the humidity of not more than 15%). Basing upon the conducted research results, we can make a conclusion that putting into operation the sewage water reactant treatment technology with the use of “SEURVEY”, FL-3 (H-10) is not recommended. The research of the influence the filtering press process parameters have on the dehydration process intensification demonstrated that reaching of the obtained residue humidity value lower than 15% is possible under the reduction of the filtering press chamber depths to 30 mm and with the application of additional operation “Residue drying” with compressed air. This way of the sludge dehydration problem resolving at filtering presses of the

  12. Cytocompatible cellulose hydrogels containing trace lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakasone, Kazuki; Kobayashi, Takaomi, E-mail:


    Sugarcane bagasse was used as a cellulose resource to prepare transparent and flexible cellulose hydrogel films. On the purification process from bagasse to cellulose, the effect of lignin residues in the cellulose was examined for the properties and cytocompatibility of the resultant hydrogel films. The cellulose was dissolved in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide solution and converted to hydrogel films by phase inversion. In the purification process, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment time was changed from 1 to 12 h. This resulted in cellulose hydrogel films having small amounts of lignin from 1.62 to 0.68%. The remaining lignin greatly affected hydrogel properties. Water content of the hydrogel films was increased from 1153 to 1525% with a decrease of lignin content. Moreover, lower lignin content caused weakening of tensile strength from 0.80 to 0.43 N/mm{sup 2} and elongation from 45.2 to 26.5%. Also, similar tendency was observed in viscoelastic behavior of the cellulose hydrogel films. Evidence was shown that the lignin residue was effective for the high strength of the hydrogel films. In addition, scanning probe microscopy in the morphological observation was suggested that the trace lignin in the cellulose hydrogel affected the cellulose fiber aggregation in the hydrogel network. The trace of lignin in the hydrogels also influenced fibroblast cell culture on the hydrogel films. The hydrogel film containing 1.68% lignin showed better fibroblast compatibility as compared to cell culture polystyrene dish used as reference. - Highlights: • Cellulose hydrogel films with trace lignin were obtained from sugarcane bagasse. • Lignin content was found to be in the range of 1.62 − 0.68% by UV–Vis spectroscopy. • Higher lignin content strengthened mechanical properties of the hydrogel films. • Trace lignin affected the hydrogel morphology such as roughness and porosity. • High cell proliferation was observed in the hydrogel containing 1.68% lignin.

  13. Rehydration with soft drink-like beverages exacerbates dehydration and worsens dehydration-associated renal injury. (United States)

    García-Arroyo, Fernando E; Cristóbal, Magdalena; Arellano-Buendía, Abraham S; Osorio, Horacio; Tapia, Edilia; Soto, Virgilia; Madero, Magdalena; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Roncal-Jiménez, Carlos; Bankir, Lise; Johnson, Richard J; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura-Gabriela


    Recurrent dehydration, such as commonly occurs with manual labor in tropical environments, has been recently shown to result in chronic kidney injury, likely through the effects of hyperosmolarity to activate both vasopressin and aldose reductase-fructokinase pathways. The observation that the latter pathway can be directly engaged by simple sugars (glucose and fructose) leads to the hypothesis that soft drinks (which contain these sugars) might worsen rather than benefit dehydration associated kidney disease. Recurrent dehydration was induced in rats by exposure to heat (36°C) for 1 h/24 h followed by access for 2 h to plain water (W), a 11% fructose-glucose solution (FG, same composition as typical soft drinks), or water sweetened with noncaloric stevia (ST). After 4 wk plasma and urine samples were collected, and kidneys were examined for oxidative stress, inflammation, and injury. Recurrent heat-induced dehydration with ad libitum water repletion resulted in plasma and urinary hyperosmolarity with stimulation of the vasopressin (copeptin) levels and resulted in mild tubular injury and renal oxidative stress. Rehydration with 11% FG solution, despite larger total fluid intake, resulted in greater dehydration (higher osmolarity and copeptin levels) and worse renal injury, with activation of aldose reductase and fructokinase, whereas rehydration with stevia water had opposite effects. In animals that are dehydrated, rehydration acutely with soft drinks worsens dehydration and exacerbates dehydration associated renal damage. These studies emphasize the danger of drinking soft drink-like beverages as an attempt to rehydrate following dehydration. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. The reliability and validity of hand-held refractometry water content measures of hydrogel lenses. (United States)

    Nichols, Jason J; Mitchell, G Lynn; Good, Gregory W


    To investigate within- and between-examiner reliability and validity of hand-held refractometry water content measures of hydrogel lenses. Nineteen lenses of various nominal water contents were examined by two examiners on two occasions separated by 1 hour. An Atago N2 hand-held refractometer was used for all water content measures. Lenses were presented in a random order to each examiner by a third party, and examiners were masked to any potential lens identifiers. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), 95% limits of agreement, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to characterize the within- and between-examiner reliability and validity of lens water content measures. Within-examiner reliability was excellent (ICC, 0.97; 95% limits of agreement, -3.6% to +5.7%), and the inter-visit mean difference of 1.1 +/- 2.4% was not biased (p = 0.08). Between-examiner reliability was also excellent (ICC, 0.98; 95% limits of agreement, -4.1% to +3.9%). The mean difference between examiners was -0.1 +/- 2.1% (p = 0.83). The mean difference between the nominally reported water content and our water content measures was -2.1 +/- 1.7% (p water content of hydrogel lenses. However, with our sample of lenses, examiners tended to overestimate the nominal water content of hydrogel lenses. As discussed, this bias may be associated with the Brix scale used in refractometry and is material dependent. Therefore, investigators may need to account for bias when measuring hydrogel lens water content via hand-held refractometry.

  15. Pseudomonas keratitis associated with daily wear of silicone hydrogel contact lenses. (United States)

    Schornack, Muriel M; Faia, Lisa J; Griepentrog, Gregory J


    To report two cases of pseudomonas keratitis associated with daily wear of silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Medical records of two patients who developed pseudomonas keratitis while wearing silicone hydrogel lenses on a daily-wear schedule are reviewed and discussed. A 13-year-old girl who wore ACUVUE Advance lenses (Johnson & Johnson Vision Care, Jacksonville, FL) 12 to 14 hours daily developed a paracentral corneal ulcer in her left eye 4 months after beginning contact lens use. Cultures were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The ulcer responded to fortified antibiotics and resolved in 10 days. Best-corrected visual acuity after resolution of the ulcer was 20/25. A 58-year-old woman with a 30-year history of rigid gas-permeable contact lens wear was refitted with O2 Optix lenses (CIBA Vision, Duluth, GA). Six months later, she had a 4.9 x 4.0 mm epithelial defect with an underlying stromal infiltrate in the right eye. Cultures were positive for P. aeruginosa. The ulcer responded to fortified antibiotics and resolved in 30 days. Best-corrected visual acuity after resolution of the ulcer was 20/30. Increased oxygen permeability associated with silicone hydrogel contact lenses may reduce, but does not eliminate, the risk of pseudomonas keratitis. Studies have yet to quantify the risk of keratitis associated with daily wear of these lens materials. Further study is necessary to identify the risks of complications with daily wear of silicone hydrogel lenses and to determine which factors may contribute to those risks.

  16. Comparison of Gas Dehydration Methods based on Energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Associated. Natural Gas) dehydration to carry out the .... Therefore, due to the conservation law, the increase in potential energy leads to a decrease in kinetic ... Figure 3 depicts an industrial application of dehydration method utilizing the JT effect ...

  17. Alginate-Collagen Fibril Composite Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Baniasadi


    Full Text Available We report on the synthesis and the mechanical characterization of an alginate-collagen fibril composite hydrogel. Native type I collagen fibrils were used to synthesize the fibrous composite hydrogel. We characterized the mechanical properties of the fabricated fibrous hydrogel using tensile testing; rheometry and atomic force microscope (AFM-based nanoindentation experiments. The results show that addition of type I collagen fibrils improves the rheological and indentation properties of the hydrogel.

  18. experimental evaluation of mechanical dehydration of nigerian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    mechanical dehydration" and this paper reports the laboratory studies ... vegetable marrow. It is attached directly to the trunk of its tree, and when ripe for harvest is either completely orange in colour or orange with streaks of green. A cocoa pod ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Words: Cowpea fortification, dehydration method, storability, traditional weaning foods, chemical and functional properties. Effets de l'enrichissement avec du niébé, la méthode de déshydratation et la durée de conservation sur certaines caractéristiques qualitatives des aliments de sevrage traditionnels à base de maïs


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. A. Kadi, A. Mouhous, F. Djellal, T.Gidenne

    1 janv. 2017 ... ISSN 1112-9867. Available online at ndamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCom. License. Libraries Resource Directory. We are listed under Research Associations category. T OF BARLEY GRAINS AND DEHYDRATED ALFALFA BY SU.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Khaliullina


    Full Text Available The article is focused on the main issues of the regulation of water-electrolyte metabolism in children, possible variants of its disorder in acute diarrhoeal diseases. The clinical features of dehydration depending on the severity and qualitative component of losses are described, recommendations on laboratory diagnosis and treatment are provided. 

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact ... After One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter ...

  3. Contact Lens Risks (United States)

    ... any lens solution. Do not expose your contact lenses to any water: tap, bottled, distilled, lake or ocean water. Never ... resistant to treatment and cure. Remove your contact lenses before swimming. ... in swimming pool water, hot tubs, lakes and the ocean Replace your ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the United States. All contact lenses are medical devices that require a prescription and proper fitting by an eye-care professional. ... care professional such as an ophthalmologist — an eye medical doctor — who will ... a valid prescription that includes the brand name, lens measurements, and ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or in beauty salons, novelty shops or in pop-up Halloween stores are not FDA-approved and are ... Lens-Related Eye Infections Mar 01, 2017 New Technology Helps the Legally Blind Be More Independent Oct ...

  6. Magnetically Remanent Hydrogels with Colloidal Crosslinkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkum, S.


    Hydrogels are widely used in biomedical applications such as drug delivery and tissue engineering. In this research, the feasibility of a hydrogel with embedded magnetic nanoparticles, also called a ferrogel, for biosensor applications was tested. A pH sensitive poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel was used

  7. Hydrogels with covalent and noncovalent crosslinks (United States)

    Kilck, Kristi L. (Inventor); Yamaguchi, Nori (Inventor)


    A method for targeted delivery of therapeutic compounds from hydrogels is presented. The method involves administering to a cell a hydrogel in which a therapeutic compound is noncovalently bound to heparin. The hydrogel may contain covalent and non-covalent crosslinks.

  8. Economic burden associated with hospital postadmission dehydration. (United States)

    Pash, Elizabeth; Parikh, Niraj; Hashemi, Lobat


    Development of dehydration after hospital admission can be a measure of quality care, but evidence describing the incidence, economic burden, and outcomes of dehydration in hospitalized patients is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare costs and resource utilization of U.S. patients experiencing postadmission dehydration (PAD) with those who do not in a hospital setting. All adult inpatient discharges, excluding those with suspected dehydration present on admission (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] codes for dehydration: 276.0, 276.1, 276.5), were identified from the Premier database using ICD-9-CM codes. PAD and no-PAD (NPAD) groups were matched on propensity score adjusting for demographics (age, sex, race, medical, elective patients), patient severity (All Patient Refined Diagnosis-Related Groups severity scores), and hospital characteristics (geographic location, bed size, teaching and urban hospital). Costs, length of stay (LOS), and incidence of mortality and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) were compared between groups using the t test for continuous variables and the χ(2) test for categorical variables. In total, 86,398 (2.1%) of all the selected patients experienced PAD. Postmatching mean total costs were significantly higher for the PAD group compared with the NPAD group ($33,945 vs $22,380; P < .0001). Departmental costs were also significantly higher for the PAD group (all P < .0001). Compared with the NPAD group, the PAD group had a higher mean LOS (12.9 vs 8.2 days), a higher incidence of CAUTI (0.6% vs 0.5%), and higher in-hospital mortality (8.6% vs 7.8%) (all P < .05). The results for subgroup analysis also showed significantly higher total cost and longer LOS days for patients with PAD (all P < .05). The economic burden associated with hospital PAD in medical and surgical patients was substantial. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral

  9. Salmonella survival during thermal dehydration of fresh garlic and storage of dehydrated garlic products. (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Qi, Yan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Shaokang; Deng, Xiangyu


    Salmonella survival was characterized and modeled during thermal dehydration of fresh garlic and storage of dehydrated garlic products. In our experiments that simulated commercial dehydration processing at 80±5°C, moderate level of Salmonella contamination (4-5logCFU/g) on fresh garlic was reduced below the enumeration limit (1.7logCFU/g) after 4.5h of dehydration and not detectable by culture enrichment after 7h. With high level of contamination (7-8logCFU/g), the Salmonella population persisted at 3.6logCFU/g after 8h of processing. By increasing the dehydration temperature to 90±5°C, the moderate and high levels of initial Salmonella load on fresh garlic dropped below the enumeration limit after 1.5 and 3.75h of processing and became undetectable by culture enrichment after 2.5 and 6h, respectively. During the storage of dried garlic products, Salmonella was not able to grow under all tested combinations of temperature (25 and 35°C) and water activity (0.56-0.98) levels, suggesting active inhibition. Storage temperature played a primary role in determining Salmonella survival on dehydrated garlic flakes. Under a typical storage condition at 25°C and ambient relative humidity, Salmonella could persist over months with the population gradually declining (4.3 log reduction over 88days). Granular size of dehydrated garlic had an impact on Salmonella survival, with better survival of the pathogen observed in bigger granules. At the early stage of dehydrated garlic storage (until 7days), rising water activity appeared to initially promote but then inhibited Salmonella survival, resulting in a water activity threshold at 0.73 where Salmonella displayed strongest persistence. However, this phenomenon was less apparent during extended storage (after 14days). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of gas dehydration methods based on energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of gas dehydration methods based on energy consumption. ... This study compares three conventional methods of natural gas (Associated Natural Gas) dehydration to carry out the dehydration process and suitability of use on the basis of energy requirement. These methods are Triethylene Glycol (TEG) ...

  11. Method and apparatus for the continuous dehydration of sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Poppel, E.J.M.; Rem, P.C.


    The invention relates to a method of the continuous dehydration of sludge wherein, prior to dehydration, water is mechanically removed from the sludge and the thus obtained sludge of cutting consistency is mixed with heated spheres. According to the invention dehydration is carried out at reduced

  12. Rigid gas-permeable vs. hydrogel contact lenses for extended wear. (United States)

    Fonn, D; Holden, B A


    A clinical trial was conducted to compare the extended wear performance of rigid gas-permeable (RGP) contact lenses with that of soft lenses. Subjects were fitted with a RGP lens (Boston IV) in one eye and a soft lens (Bausch & Lomb "O" series) in the other eye, and wore them on an extended wear basis for up to 3 months. No subjects developed any acute adverse reactions in the RGP lens-wearing eye. After the initial adaptation period, subject acceptance of RGP extended wear in terms of vision and comfort was superior. The RGP lenses also induced less chronic hypoxic stress than hydrogel lenses of comparable Dk/L, as evidenced by the presence of epithelial microcysts. Several complications of RGP extended wear were observed including lens binding, blepharoptosis, transient pupil size increases, and corneal staining. As hypoxia-induced corneal changes, such as microcysts and striae, were observed in the RGP lens-wearing eyes, we consider that these particular RGP lenses do not have adequate oxygen transmissibility for successful long-term extended wear. However, if RGP lens materials of higher oxygen transmissibility and better designs can be attained, the potential of RGP extended wear would appear promising.

  13. Clinical survey of lens care in contact lens patients. (United States)

    Ky, W; Scherick, K; Stenson, S


    Overall, contact lenses provide a safe and effective modality for vision correction. However, problems do occasionally arise. Up to 80% of contact lens complications can be traced to poor patient compliance with recommended lens care guidelines. We conducted a survey to evaluate the level of patient compliance in specific areas of lens care and maintenance and to assess patient knowledge of basic contact lens information. Patients were asked to complete an anonymous 15 question survey that focused on lens care--specifically the use of contact lens cleaners, methods of disinfection, enzyme treatments, use of rewetting drops, and the frequency of follow-up exams. In addition, the survey included six true/false questions relating to contact lens care and safety. There were a total of 103 participants in the study. Approximately 24% of patients stated they never cleaned their lenses prior to disinfection, and 5% used saline solutions as their primary mode of disinfection. A sizable portion of those surveyed (43% of soft lens wearers and 71% of rigid gas permeable lens wearers) either never used enzyme cleaners or used them less than once a month. Seventy percent of patients either never used rewetting drops or used them less than once a day. Twenty-nine percent of patients consulted their eye care professionals every 2 years and 6% less often than every two years. Six questions assessed patient knowledge of contact lens care safety. Of a possible six out of six correct answers, the mean number of correct responses was 3.74. A sizable proportion of contact lens wearers do not adequately adhere to recommended contact lens care, and many have an inadequate understanding of contact lens care guidelines. Therefore, it is important that practitioners place more emphasis on patient education at the time of initial contact lens fitting and reinforce such instruction during follow-up visits.

  14. Novel Hydrogels from Renewable Resources (United States)

    Karaaslan, Muzafer Ahmet


    The cell wall of most plant biomass from forest and agricultural resources consists of three major polymers, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Of these, hemicelluloses have gained increasing attention as sustainable raw materials. In the first part of this study, novel pH-sensitive semi-IPN hydrogels based on hemicelluloses and chitosan were prepared using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinking agent. The hemicellulose isolated from aspen was analyzed for sugar content by HPLC, and its molecular weight distribution was determined by high performance size exclusion chromatography. Results revealed that hemicellulose had a broad molecular weight distribution with a fair amount of polymeric units, together with xylose, arabinose and glucose. The effect of hemicellulose content on mechanical properties and swelling behavior of hydrogels were investigated. The semi-IPNs hydrogel structure was confirmed by FT-IR, X-ray study and ninhydrin assay method. X-ray analysis showed that higher hemicellulose contents yielded higher crystallinity. Mechanical properties were mainly dependent on the crosslink density and average molecular weight between crosslinks. Swelling ratios increased with increasing hemicellulose content and were high at low pH values due to repulsion between similarly charged groups. In vitro release study of a model drug showed that these semi-IPN hydrogels could be used for controlled drug delivery into gastric fluid. The aim of the second part of this study was to control the crosslink density and the mechanical properties of hemicellulose/chitosan semi-IPN hydrogels by changing the crosslinking sequence. It has been hypothesized that by performing the crosslinking step before introducing hemicellulose, covalent crosslinking of chitosan would not be hindered and therefore more and/or shorter crosslinks could be formed. Furthermore, additional secondary interactions and crystalline domains introduced through hemicellulose could be favorable in terms of

  15. Magnetic hydrogel with high coercivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sözeri, H., E-mail: [TUBITAK-UME, National Metrology Institute, PO Box 54, 41470 Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey); Alveroğlu, E. [Department of Physics, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Maslak-Istanbul (Turkey); Kurtan, U.; Şenel, M.; Baykal, A. [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, 34500 B. Cekmece-Istanbul, (Turkey)


    Highlights: • Polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels containing magnetic BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanoparticles have been prepared. • Magnetization measurements reveal that hydrogels have hard magnetic properties with high coercivity. • Magnetic nanoparticles makes the gel more homogeneous and do not diffuse out of the gel during water intake. • These gels are useful in applications as wastewater treatment once gels are magnetized before its usage. - Abstract: This study investigates the synthesis and characterization of polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels containing magnetic BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanoparticles. Structural, electrical, and magnetic characterization of the gels have been performed with X-ray powder diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, DC conductivity, magnetization and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. The preparation and characterization of polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels that contain 5 and 10 mg BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (16 and 21 nm diameter) nanoparticles are described herein. It is seen from the fluorescence spectra that, nanoparticles surrounded to pyranine molecules so that some of pyranine molecules could not bound to the polymer strands. Electrical measurements show that presence of nanoparticles make the gel more homogeneous. Magnetization measurements reveal that hydrogels have hard magnetic properties with quite high coercivity of 4.2 kOe, which does not change with swelling. This feature makes these gels useful in applications as wastewater treatment if they are magnetized before use.

  16. Microstructured polyacrylamide hydrogels made with hydrophobic nanoparticles. (United States)

    Nuño-Donlucas, S M; Sánchez-Díaz, J C; Rabelero, M; Cortés-Ortega, J; Luhrs-Olmos, C C; Fernández-Escamilla, V V; Mendizábal, E; Puig, J E


    Poly(methyl methacrylate) nanosize particles, made by microemulsion polymerization, were dispersed in an acrylamide aqueous solution, which was polymerized in the presence of a cross-linking agent to yield microstructured hydrogels. The kinetics of swelling and the mechanical properties of these hydrogels were investigated as a function of concentration of particles. The microstructured hydrogels exhibit higher equilibrium swelling and larger Young modulus than conventional (that is, without particles) polyacrylamide hydrogel. The morphology of the microstructured hydrogels was examined by transmission electron microscopy.

  17. Dendritic immune cell densities in the central cornea associated with soft contact lens types and lens care solution types: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindt CW


    Full Text Available Christine W Sindt1, Trudy K Grout1, D Brice Critser1, Jami R Kern2, David L Meadows21University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA; 2Alcon Research Ltd, Fort Worth, TX, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to assess whether differences in central corneal dendritic immune cell densities associated with combinations of soft contact lenses and lens care solutions could be detected by in vivo confocal microscopy.Methods: Participants were adults naïve to contact lens wear (n = 10 or who wore soft contact lenses habitually on a daily-wear schedule (n = 38 or on a study-assigned schedule for 30 days with daily disposable silicone hydrogel lenses (n = 15. Central corneas were scanned using an in vivo confocal microscope. Cell densities were compared among groups by demographic parameters, lens materials, and lens care solutions (polyhexamethylene biguanide [PHMB], polyquaternium-1 and myristamidopropyl dimethylamine [PQ/MAPD], peroxide, or blister pack solution [for daily disposable lenses].Results: Among lens wearers, no associations were observed between immune cell densities and age, gender, or years of lens-wearing experience. Mean cell density was significantly lower (P < 0.01 in nonwearers (29 ± 23 cells/mm2, n = 10 than in lens wearers (64 ± 71 cells/mm2, n = 53. Mean cell density was lower (P = 0.21 with traditional polymer lenses (47 ± 44 cells/mm2, n = 12 than with silicone hydrogel lenses (69 ± 77 cells/mm2, n = 41. Lowest to highest mean density of immune cells among lens wearers was as follows: PQ/MAPD solution (49 ± 28 cells/mm2, blister pack solution (63 ± 81 cells/mm2, PHMB solution (66 ± 44 cells/mm2, and peroxide solution (85 ± 112 cells/mm2.Conclusion: In this pilot study, in vivo confocal microscopy was useful for detecting an elevated immune response associated with soft contact lenses, and for identifying lens-related and solution-related immune responses that merit further research.Keywords: Clear Care


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erizal Erizal


    Full Text Available Interpenetrating networks (IPN crosslinked polymer of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA containing copolymer N-isopropylacryalmide (NIPAAm were fabricated by radiation technique and characterized in terms of their aqueous swelling and critical behaviour. The influence of irradiation dose (> 10 kGy and PVA concentration (5-15%wt on the gel fraction and swelling properties were investigated. With an increase of -γ irradiation dosage, the gel fraction of hydrogels was inclined to increase but the swelling behaviour decreased markedly. The incorporation of PVA into NIPAAm by irradiation led a significant increase in swelling capability when comparing to the pure homopolymer (NIPAAm hydrogels. In addition, the shrinking rate upon heating was significantly improved if the PVA content in poly(PVA-co-NIPAAm hydrogels was less than 15% wt%. at temperature exceeding the collapsed transition point, all copolymer gels collapsed to a state of nearly complete dehydration. Based on its swelling-deswelling properties in the repeated application, the hydrogels are stable and showed a behaviour as matrix pumping system/on-off. The hydrogels would have potential applications in chemistry, pharmacy, and health care purposes.   Keywords: Hydrogel, PVA, Nipaam, radiation, swelling,LCST.

  19. Controlled drug release from hydrogels for contact lenses: Drug partitioning and diffusion. (United States)

    Pimenta, A F R; Ascenso, J; Fernandes, J C S; Colaço, R; Serro, A P; Saramago, B


    Optimization of drug delivery from drug loaded contact lenses assumes understanding the drug transport mechanisms through hydrogels which relies on the knowledge of drug partition and diffusion coefficients. We chose, as model systems, two materials used in contact lens, a poly-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (pHEMA) based hydrogel and a silicone based hydrogel, and three drugs with different sizes and charges: chlorhexidine, levofloxacin and diclofenac. Equilibrium partition coefficients were determined at different ionic strength and pH, using water (pH 5.6) and PBS (pH 7.4). The measured partition coefficients were related with the polymer volume fraction in the hydrogel, through the introduction of an enhancement factor following the approach developed by the group of C. J. Radke (Kotsmar et al., 2012; Liu et al., 2013). This factor may be decomposed in the product of three other factors E HS , E el and E ad which account for, respectively, hard-sphere size exclusion, electrostatic interactions, and specific solute adsorption. While E HS and E el are close to 1, E ad >1 in all cases suggesting strong specific interactions between the drugs and the hydrogels. Adsorption was maximal for chlorhexidine on the silicone based hydrogel, in water, due to strong hydrogen bonding. The effective diffusion coefficients, D e , were determined from the drug release profiles. Estimations of diffusion coefficients of the non-adsorbed solutes D=D e ×E ad allowed comparison with theories for solute diffusion in the absence of specific interaction with the polymeric membrane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the biocompatibility of regenerated cellulose hydrogels with high strength and transparency for ocular applications. (United States)

    Patchan, Marcia W; Chae, J Jeremy; Lee, Justin D; Calderon-Colon, Xiomara; Maranchi, Jeffrey P; McCally, Russell L; Schein, Oliver D; Elisseeff, Jennifer H; Trexler, Morgana M


    Prompt emergency treatment for ocular injury, particularly in a battlefield setting, is essential to preserve vision, reduce pain, and prevent secondary infection. A bandage contact lens that could be applied in the field, at the time of injury, would protect the injured ocular surface until hospital treatment is available. Cellulose, a natural polymer, is widely used in biomedical applications including bandage materials. Hydrogels synthesized from different cellulose sources, such as plants, cotton, and bacteria, can have the optical transparency and mechanical strength of contact lenses, by tailoring synthesis parameters. Thus, we optimized the fabrication of cellulose-based hydrogels and evaluated their in vivo biocompatibility and related physical properties. Our data demonstrate that along with tailorable physical properties, our novel cellulose-based hydrogels could be made with contact lens geometry, exhibit no significant signs of material toxicity after 22 days of in vivo testing, and show significant promise for use as a corneal bandage immediately following ocular trauma. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Morphological effect on swelling behaviour of hydrogel (United States)

    Yacob, Norzita; Hashim, Kamaruddin


    Hydrogels are hydrophilic polymer networks that are capable of imbibing large amounts of water. In this work, hydrogels prepared from natural and synthetic polymers were irradiated by using electron beam irradiation. The morphology of hydrogel inter-polymeric network (IPN) was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The studies reveal correlations between pore sizes of IPN with degree of cross-linking. This relation also has an effect on swelling properties of the hydrogel. The results indicated that hydrogel with smaller pore size, as a result of much dense IPN, would decrease water uptake capacity. Combination of natural and synthetic polymers to form hydrogel affects the pore size and swelling property of the hydrogel as compared to each component of polymer.

  2. Tough photoluminescent hydrogels doped with lanthanide. (United States)

    Wang, Mei Xiang; Yang, Can Hui; Liu, Zhen Qi; Zhou, Jinxiong; Xu, Feng; Suo, Zhigang; Yang, Jian Hai; Chen, Yong Mei


    Photoluminescent hydrogels have emerged as novel soft materials with potential applications in many fields. Although many photoluminescent hydrogels have been fabricated, their scope of usage has been severely limited by their poor mechanical performance. Here, a facile strategy is reported for preparing lanthanide (Ln)-alginate/polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels with both high toughness and photoluminescence, which has been achieved by doping Ln(3+) ions (Ln = Eu, Tb, Eu/Tb) into alginate/PAAm hydrogel networks, where Ln(3+) ions serve as both photoluminescent emitters and physical cross-linkers. The resulting hydrogels exhibit versatile advantages including excellent mechanical properties (∼ MPa strength, ≈ 20 tensile strains, ≈ 10(4) kJ m(-3) energy dissipation), good photoluminescent performance, tunable emission color, excellent processability, and cytocompatibility. The developed tough photoluminescent hydrogels hold great promises for expanding the usage scope of hydrogels. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Morphological effect on swelling behaviour of hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yacob, Norzita; Hashim, Kamaruddin [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NUKLEAR MALAYSIA) Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia)


    Hydrogels are hydrophilic polymer networks that are capable of imbibing large amounts of water. In this work, hydrogels prepared from natural and synthetic polymers were irradiated by using electron beam irradiation. The morphology of hydrogel inter-polymeric network (IPN) was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The studies reveal correlations between pore sizes of IPN with degree of cross-linking. This relation also has an effect on swelling properties of the hydrogel. The results indicated that hydrogel with smaller pore size, as a result of much dense IPN, would decrease water uptake capacity. Combination of natural and synthetic polymers to form hydrogel affects the pore size and swelling property of the hydrogel as compared to each component of polymer.

  4. [Correct contact lens hygiene]. (United States)

    Blümle, S; Kaercher, T; Khaireddin, R


    Although contact lenses have long been established in ophthalmology, practical aspects of handling contact lenses is becoming increasingly less important in the clinical training as specialist for ophthalmology. Simultaneously, for many reasons injuries due to wearing contact lenses are increasing. In order to correct this discrepancy, information on contact lenses and practical experience with them must be substantially increased from a medical perspective. This review article deals with the most important aspects for prevention of complications, i.e. contact lens hygiene.

  5. The use of the SoftPerm lens for the correction of irregular astigmatism. (United States)

    Maguen, E; Caroline, P; Rosner, I R; Macy, J I; Nesburn, A B


    We evaluated the performance of the SoftPerm combined rigid gas permeable (RGP) and hydrogel lens for the visual correction of 49 eyes (30 patients) with irregular astigmatism. Follow-up was up to 15 months. An attempt was also made to compare the SoftPerm lens to its predecessor, the Saturn II lens. The most common etiology for irregular astigmatism was keratoconus. Others etiologies were penetrating keratoplasty and refractive surgery. Visual acuity improved significantly. Only two eyes were best corrected to 20/20 before fitting whereas, 13 eyes saw 20/20 after fitting. The rate of lens replacement was 0.22 lenses per eye per month. A variety of complications occurred, including corneal staining, abrasions, and edema. Complications also reflected the relative difficulty of handling of the lens, yet no vision threatening complications occurred. Overall, the SoftPerm lens is a vast improvement over the Saturn II and is a reasonable means of correction of irregular astigmatism.

  6. Dehydration transformation in Ca-montmorillonite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These investigations revealed that sample underwent transformation from hydrated phase to dehydrated phase at 200°C, and as a consequence, its basal spacing collapsed from 16.02 Å (30°C) to around 10 Å (200°C). This transformation occurred through a wide range of temperature, i.e. within the range 120°–200°C. The ...

  7. Use of silicone hydrogel contact lenses by Australian optometrists. (United States)

    Woods, Craig A; Morgan, Philip B


    Prior to the launch of silicone hydrogel (Si-H) materials in Australia in 1999, only 1.6 per cent of lenses were prescribed on a continuous wear basis. One thousand surveys were distributed randomly to practitioners in Australia during January 2000, 2001 and 2002 (total surveys 3000). Each anonymous survey requested data about the next 10 patients fitted with contact lenses, including date, age, gender, new fitting or refitting, lens material type, lens design, frequency of replacement, modality of wear, uses per week and care regimen. Twenty per cent (599) were returned, reporting data on 5976 fittings. A total of 710 fittings used Si-H contact lenses (11.9 per cent), which represented 18.6 per cent of all soft lens fittings. During the three years, the proportion of practitioners prescribing Si-H lenses increased from 42.2 to 52.5 per cent. In 2000, 43.8 per cent were daily wear, which decreased to 32.2 per cent by 2002. The solution system of choice for daily wear lenses was multipurpose solutions (98.4 per cent); the only alternative was hydrogen peroxide systems. Continuous wear represented 11.7 per cent of all fittings, of which 85.7 per cent were Si-H, 3.0 per cent RGP lenses and 11.3 per cent conventional hydrogels. For continuous wear, 79.0 per cent of fittings were to existing wearers, whereas for daily wear, 59.4 per cent were existing wearers. More males were prescribed Si-H continuous wear contact lenses, while females were more likely to be prescribed Si-H on a daily wear basis. Si-H contact lenses were introduced to the Australian market as a continuous wear contact lens, yet many practitioners use this product for daily wear with multipurpose solutions. By 2002, more practitioners were prescribing Si-H contact lenses for continuous wear than in 2000, suggesting a growing confidence in that product for that mode of wear. A comparison with an earlier survey shows there is an increase in continuous wear from 1.6 per cent to 11.7 per cent over a five

  8. Could Neonatal Hypernatremia Dehydration Influence Hearing Status?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Boskabadi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Neonatal hypernatremia dehydration (NHD is a dangerous condition in neonates, which is accompanied by acute complications (renal failure, cerebral edema, and cerebral hemorrhage and chronic complications (developmental delay. Children begin learning language from birth, and hearing impairment interferes with this process. We assessed the hearing status of infants with hypernatremia dehydration.   Materials and Methods: In a case-control study in 110 infants presenting at the Ghaem Hospital (Mashhad, Iran between 2007 and 2011, we examined the incidence of hearing impairment in infants suffering from hypernatremia dehydration (serum sodium >150 mEq/L in comparison with infants with normal sodium level (serum sodium ≤150 mEq/L.   Results: Three of 110 cases examined in the study group showed a transient hearing impairment. A mean serum sodium level of 173mg/dl was reported among hearing-impaired infants.   Conclusion:  Transient hearing impairment was higher in infants with hypernatremia; although this difference was not significant (P>0.05. Hearing impairment was observed in cases of severe hypernatremia.  

  9. Dehydration and endurance performance in competitive athletes. (United States)

    Goulet, Eric D B


    The field of research examining the link between dehydration and endurance performance is at the dawn of a new era. This article reviews the latest findings describing the relationship between exercise-induced dehydration and endurance performance and provides the knowledge necessary for competitive, endurance-trained athletes to develop a winning hydration strategy. Acute, pre-exercise body weight loss at or above 3% may decrease subsequent endurance performance. Therefore, endurance athletes should strive to start exercise well hydrated, which can be achieved by keeping thirst sensation low and urine color pale and drinking approximately 5-10 mL/kg body weight of water 2 h before exercise. During exercise lasting 1 h or less, dehydration does not decrease endurance performance, but athletes are encouraged to mouth-rinse with sports drinks. During exercise lasting longer than 1 h, in which fluid is readily available, drinking according to the dictates of thirst maximizes endurance performance. In athletes whose thirst sensation is untrustworthy or when external factors such as psychological stress or repeated food intake may blunt thirst sensation, it is recommended to program fluid intake to maintain exercise-induced body weight loss around 2% to 3%. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  10. Dehydration-induced drinking in humans (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.


    The human tendency to experience a delay in rehydration (involuntary dehydration) after fluid loss is considered. The two primary factors contributing to involuntary dehydration are probably upright posture, and extracellular fluid and electrolyte loss by sweating from exercise and heat exposure. First, as the plasma sodium and osmotic concentrations remain virtually unchanged for supine to upright postural changes, the major stimuli for drinking appear to be associated with the hypovolemia and increase in the renin-angiotension system. Second, voluntary drinking during the heat experiments was 146% greater than in cool experiments; drinking increased by 109% with prior dehydration as opposed to normal hydration conditions; and drinking was increased by 41% after exercise as compared with the resting condition. Finally, it is concluded that the rate of sweating and the rate of voluntary fluid intake are highly correlated, and that the dispogenic factors of plasma volume, osmolality, and plasma renin activity are unrelated to sweat rate, but are likely to induce drinking in humans.

  11. Fabrication of keratin-silica hydrogel for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakkar, Prachi; Madhan, Balaraman, E-mail:


    In the recent past, keratin has been fabricated into different forms of biomaterials like scaffold, gel, sponge, film etc. In lieu of the myriad advantages of the hydrogels for biomedical applications, a keratin-silica hydrogel was fabricated using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). Textural analysis shed light on the physical properties of the fabricated hydrogel, inturn enabling the optimization of the hydrogel. The optimized keratin-silica hydrogel was found to exhibit instant springiness, optimum hardness, with ease of spreadability. Moreover, the hydrogel showed excellent swelling with highly porous microarchitecture. MTT assay and DAPI staining revealed that keratin-silica hydrogel was biocompatible with fibroblast cells. Collectively, these properties make the fabricated keratin-silica hydrogel, a suitable dressing material for biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Keratin-silica hydrogel has been fabricated using sol–gel technique. • The hydrogel shows appropriate textural properties. • The hydrogel promotes fibroblast cells proliferation. • The hydrogel has potential soft tissue engineering applications like wound healing.

  12. Efficacy of 2 types of silicone hydrogel bandage contact lenses after photorefractive keratectomy. (United States)

    Grentzelos, Michael A; Plainis, Sotiris; Astyrakakis, Nikolaos I; Diakonis, Vasilios F; Kymionis, George D; Kallinikos, Panagiotis; Pallikaris, Ioannis G


    To compare the efficacy of 2 types of silicone hydrogel bandage contact lenses with high oxygen transmissibility after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Institute of Vision and Optics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. In this prospective study, 1 eye of patients having bilateral PRK was randomly fitted with a bandage contact lens of lotrafilcon A (Night & Day) and the fellow eye, with a bandage contact lens of lotrafilcon B (O(2)Optix). The patients and the examiner were masked to which bandage contact lens type was in which eye. Patients were examined on the day of surgery and 1, 3, and 5 days postoperatively. Postoperative examinations included uncorrected distance visual acuity and slitlamp biomicroscopy to assess epithelial defect size. Subjective evaluation of pain and vision was recorded 1, 2, 3, and 4 days postoperatively. The study enrolled 44 patients (88 eyes). The mean epithelial defect size immediately after surgery was 47.0 mm(2) with both types of bandage contact lenses. There was no statistically significant difference in epithelial defect size between the 2 lenses at any postoperative visit. Three days postoperatively, reepithelialization was complete in 75.0% of eyes in the lotrafilcon A group and 72.7% of the eyes in the lotrafilcon B group. There were no differences in corneal reepithelialization or subjective measurements after PRK between the 2 types of silicone hydrogel bandage contact lenses.

  13. May eclogite dehydration cause slab fracturation ? (United States)

    Loury, Chloé; Lanari, Pierre; Rolland, Yann; Guillot, Stéphane; Ganino, Clément


    Petrological and geophysical evidences strongly indicate that fluids releases play a fundamental role in subduction zones as in subduction-related seismicity and arc magmatism. It is thus important to assess quantitatively their origin and to try to quantify the amount of such fluids. In HP metamorphism, it is well known that pressure-dependent dehydration reactions occur during the prograde path. Many geophysical models show that the variations in slab physical properties along depth could be linked to these fluid occurrences. However it remains tricky to test such models on natural sample, as it is difficult to assess or model the water content evolution in HP metamorphic rocks. This difficulty is bound to the fact that these rocks are generally heterogeneous, with zoned minerals and preservation of different paragenesis reflecting changing P-T conditions. To decipher the P-T-X(H2O) path of such heterogeneous rocks the concept of local effective bulk (LEB) composition is essential. Here we show how standardized X-ray maps can be used to constrain the scale of the equilibration volume of a garnet porphyroblast and to measure its composition. The composition of this equilibrium volume may be seen as the proportion of the rock likely to react at a given time to reach a thermodynamic equilibrium with the growing garnet. The studied sample is an eclogite coming from the carboniferous South-Tianshan suture (Central Asia) (Loury et al. in press). Compositional maps of a garnet and its surrounding matrix were obtained from standardized X-ray maps processed with the program XMapTools (Lanari et al, 2014). The initial equilibration volume was modeled using LEB compositions combined together with Gibbs free energy minimization. P-T sections were calculated for the next stages of garnet growth taking into account the fractionation of the composition at each stage of garnet growth. The modeled P-T-X(H2O) path indicates that the rock progressively dehydrates during the

  14. Downhole dehydration - status report and implementation study; Downhole Dehydration - Statusbericht und Umsetzungsstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, D.; Schmidt, D. [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany)


    Downhole dehydration, i.e. in-situ separation of water and oil, is an interesting new technology. The contribution describes the technology and the results of a field experiment. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Tail-End Foerderphase in der deutschen Erdoelproduktion, welche durch hohe Wasserhebekosten gekennzeichnet ist, erfordert zur Aufrechterhaltung der Wirtschaftlichkeit neue Gedankenansaetze. Ein aus wirtschaftlicher und technischer Sicht reizvoller Optimierungsgedanke ist die untertaegige Wasser/Oel Separation, auch Downhole Dehydration genannt. Unter Downhole Dehydration (DHD) versteht man also die untertaegige (teilweise) Separation des Lagerstaettenwassers vom Nassoel, kurz nachdem das Gemisch untertaegig in das Bohrloch eingetreten ist. Dabei wird das abgetrennte Lagerstaettenwasser untertage in einen geeigneten Horizont unmittelbar wieder injiziert und das Oel (wie bei der konventionellen Foerderung) zutage gepumpt, mit dem Ziel der Nutzung der daraus resultierenden Kosten- und Investitionsersparnis. Ziel dieses Vortrages ist es, einen kurzen Einblick in die erstmalig in Europa angewandte Technik zu geben und von den Erfahrungen des praktizierten Feldversuches zu berichten. (orig.)

  15. Cytocompatible cellulose hydrogels containing trace lignin. (United States)

    Nakasone, Kazuki; Kobayashi, Takaomi


    Sugarcane bagasse was used as a cellulose resource to prepare transparent and flexible cellulose hydrogel films. On the purification process from bagasse to cellulose, the effect of lignin residues in the cellulose was examined for the properties and cytocompatibility of the resultant hydrogel films. The cellulose was dissolved in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide solution and converted to hydrogel films by phase inversion. In the purification process, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment time was changed from 1 to 12h. This resulted in cellulose hydrogel films having small amounts of lignin from 1.62 to 0.68%. The remaining lignin greatly affected hydrogel properties. Water content of the hydrogel films was increased from 1153 to 1525% with a decrease of lignin content. Moreover, lower lignin content caused weakening of tensile strength from 0.80 to 0.43N/mm(2) and elongation from 45.2 to 26.5%. Also, similar tendency was observed in viscoelastic behavior of the cellulose hydrogel films. Evidence was shown that the lignin residue was effective for the high strength of the hydrogel films. In addition, scanning probe microscopy in the morphological observation was suggested that the trace lignin in the cellulose hydrogel affected the cellulose fiber aggregation in the hydrogel network. The trace of lignin in the hydrogels also influenced fibroblast cell culture on the hydrogel films. The hydrogel film containing 1.68% lignin showed better fibroblast compatibility as compared to cell culture polystyrene dish used as reference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of hyaluronic acid incorporated as a wetting agent on lysozyme denaturation in model contact lens materials. (United States)

    Weeks, Andrea; Boone, Adrienne; Luensmann, Doerte; Jones, Lyndon; Sheardown, Heather


    Conventional and silicone hydrogels as models for contact lenses were prepared to determine the effect of the presence of hyaluronic acid on lysozyme sorption and denaturation. Hyaluronic acid was loaded into poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)/TRIS--methacryloxypropyltris (trimethylsiloxy silane) hydrogels, which served as models for conventional and silicone hydrogel contact lens materials. The hyaluronic acid was cross-linked using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide in the presence of dendrimers. Active lysozyme was quantified using a Micrococcus lysodeikticus assay while total lysozyme was determined using 125-I radiolabeled protein. To examine the location of hyaluronic acid in the gels, 6-aminofluorescein labeled hyaluronic acid was incorporated into the gels using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide chemistry and the gels were examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Hyaluronic acid incorporation significantly reduced lysozyme sorption in poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (p denaturation in poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (p denaturation in contact lens applications. The distribution of hyaluronic acid within hydrogels appears to affect denaturation, with more surface mobile, lower molecular weight hyaluronic acid being more effective in preventing denaturation.

  17. Contact lens correction of presbyopia. (United States)

    Morgan, Philip B; Efron, Nathan


    The ageing population highlights the need to provide effective optical solutions for presbyopic contact lens wearers. However, data gathered from annual contact lens fitting surveys demonstrate that fewer than 40% of contact lens wearers over 45 years of age (virtually all of whom can be presumed to suffer a partial or complete loss of accommodation) are prescribed a presbyopic correction. Furthermore, monovision is prescribed as frequently as multifocal lenses. These observations suggest that an optimal solution to the contact lens correction of presbyopia remains elusive.

  18. A novel in-vitro method for assessing contact lens surface dewetting: Non-invasive keratograph dry-up time (NIK-DUT). (United States)

    Marx, Sebastian; Sickenberger, Wolfgang


    This study was designed to develop a novel technique called non-invasive keratograph dry-up time (NIK-DUT), which used an adapted corneal topographer, to analyse in-vitro contact lens surface dewetting and the effects of combinations of lenses and lens care solutions on dewetting. Variables were assessed to optimise sensitivity and reproducibility. To validate the method, in-vitro dewetting of silicone hydrogel contact lenses (balafilcon A, comfilcon A, lotrafilcon A, lotrafilcon B and senofilcon A) was tested. All lens types were soaked in OPTI-FREE(®) PureMoist(®) Multipurpose Disinfecting Solution (OFPM) and Sensitive Eyes(®) Saline Solution. The mean NIK-DUT, defined as drying of 25% of the placido ring measurement segments (NIK-DUT_S25), was calculated for each lens/lens solution combination and a visual map constructed representing the time and location of the dry-up event. Optimal conditions for NIK-DUT measurement included mounting onto a glass stage with a surface geometry of r=8.5mm, e=0, and measuring with high intensity red or white illumination. This method detected significant differences in contact lens dewetting with different lens soaking solutions. NIK-DUT_S25 for all lenses was longer when pre-soaked in OFPM versus saline. Visual analysis showed that dewetting of contact lenses was not uniform across surfaces and differed between test solutions. NIK-DUT is suitable for detecting differences in dewetting among various contact lenses and lens-care combinations. NIK-DUT can quantify the dewetting of large areas of lens surfaces with little subjective influence. Lens care solutions containing surface-active wetting agents were found to delay surface dewetting of silicone hydrogel lenses. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. A decade of silicone hydrogel development: surface properties, mechanical properties, and ocular compatibility. (United States)

    Tighe, Brian J


    Since the initial launch of silicone hydrogel lenses, there has been a considerable broadening in the range of available commercial material properties. The very mobile silicon-oxygen bonds convey distinctive surface and mechanical properties on silicone hydrogels, in which advantages of enhanced oxygen permeability, reduced protein deposition, and modest frictional interaction are balanced by increased lipid and elastic response. There are now some 15 silicone hydrogel material variants available to practitioners; arguably, the changes that have taken place have been strongly influenced by feedback based on clinical experience. Water content is one of the most influential properties, and the decade has seen a progressive rise from lotrafilcon-A (24%) to efrofilcon-A (74%). Moduli have decreased over the same period from 1.4 to 0.3 MPa, but not solely as a result of changes in water content. Surface properties do not correlate directly with water content, and ingenious approaches have been used to achieve desirable improvements (e.g., greater lubricity and lower contact angle hysteresis). This is demonstrated by comparing the hysteresis value of the earliest (lotrafilcon-A, >40°) and most recent (delefilcon-A, silicone hydrogels. Although wettability is important, it is not of itself a good predictor of ocular response because this involves a much wider range of physicochemical and biochemical factors. The interference of the lens with ocular dynamics is complex leading separately to tissue-material interactions involving anterior and posterior lens surfaces. The biochemical consequences of these interactions may hold the key to a greater understanding of ocular incompatibility and end of day discomfort.

  20. The 2014 IODC lens design problem: the Cinderella lens (United States)

    Juergens, Richard C.


    The lens design problem for the 2014 IODC is to design a 100 mm focal length lens in which all the components of the lens can be manufactured from ten Schott N-BK7 lens blanks 100 mm in diameter x 30 mm thick. The lens is used monochromatically at 587.56 nm. The goal of the problem is to maximize the product of the entrance pupil diameter and the semi-field of view while holding the RMS wavefront error to <= 0.070 wave within the field of view. There were 45 entries from 13 different countries. Four different commercial lens design programs were used, along with six custom, in-house programs. The number of lens elements in the entries ranged from 10 to 52. The winning entry from Jon Ehrmann had 25 lens elements, and had an entrance pupil diameter of 33.9 mm and a semi-field of view of 62.5° for a merit function product of 2,119.

  1. Hydrogels for Engineering of Perfusable Vascular Networks (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Zheng, Huaiyuan; Poh, Patrina S. P.; Machens, Hans-Günther; Schilling, Arndt F.


    Hydrogels are commonly used biomaterials for tissue engineering. With their high-water content, good biocompatibility and biodegradability they resemble the natural extracellular environment and have been widely used as scaffolds for 3D cell culture and studies of cell biology. The possible size of such hydrogel constructs with embedded cells is limited by the cellular demand for oxygen and nutrients. For the fabrication of large and complex tissue constructs, vascular structures become necessary within the hydrogels to supply the encapsulated cells. In this review, we discuss the types of hydrogels that are currently used for the fabrication of constructs with embedded vascular networks, the key properties of hydrogels needed for this purpose and current techniques to engineer perfusable vascular structures into these hydrogels. We then discuss directions for future research aimed at engineering of vascularized tissue for implantation. PMID:26184185

  2. Hydrogels for Engineering of Perfusable Vascular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Liu


    Full Text Available Hydrogels are commonly used biomaterials for tissue engineering. With their high-water content, good biocompatibility and biodegradability they resemble the natural extracellular environment and have been widely used as scaffolds for 3D cell culture and studies of cell biology. The possible size of such hydrogel constructs with embedded cells is limited by the cellular demand for oxygen and nutrients. For the fabrication of large and complex tissue constructs, vascular structures become necessary within the hydrogels to supply the encapsulated cells. In this review, we discuss the types of hydrogels that are currently used for the fabrication of constructs with embedded vascular networks, the key properties of hydrogels needed for this purpose and current techniques to engineer perfusable vascular structures into these hydrogels. We then discuss directions for future research aimed at engineering of vascularized tissue for implantation.

  3. Dehydration of football referees during a match. (United States)

    Da Silva, A I; Fernandez, R


    To study hydration status in referees (main) and assistant referees (linesmen) during official football matches. Twelve male football referees were evaluated; all were volunteers. Before and after each match, the referee and one of the assistants were weighed without clothes and a blood sample was taken. Total water loss was determined for each subject from the change in body weight. The main haematological variables were analysed in the blood samples. Total plasma protein concentration and osmolarity were also determined. Variation in plasma volume was determined from changes in packed cell volume and a combination of changes in packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentrations. During a match, total body water loss was 1.60 (0.13) litres, equivalent to 2.05 (0.18)% of body weight. Body weight was reduced by 1.55 (0.12)%, showing that water ingestion during the interval replaces only 24.4% of the body fluids lost during the match. The assistants lost 0.79 (0.19) litre of water, equivalent to 1.05 (0.25)% of body weight. The referees showed a significant decrease in plasma volume of 4.99 (1.33)%. The assistants showed a non-significant increase in plasma volume. The reduction in plasma volume observed in the referees correlated significantly with total body water loss (r = 0.9623). From these data, it is possible to predict that a dehydration of 1% reflects a reduction in plasma volume of nearly 2.5%. Referees are moderately dehydrated after a football match (2%), whereas assistants show a non-significant dehydration of 1% of their body weight.

  4. Reducing dropout of contact lens wear with Biotrue multipurpose solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rah MJ


    Full Text Available Marjorie J Rah, Mohinder M Merchea, Marianne Q DoktorBausch & Lomb Incorporated, Rochester, NY, USAPurpose: To evaluate whether the use of Biotrue multipurpose solution (MPS could significantly reduce the likelihood with which patients drop out of using daily wear contact lenses (CLs amongst 18–44-year-old frequent replacement CL wearers.Methods: Daily wear CL subjects habitually using MPSs (other than Biotrue MPS who reported an intent to imminently drop out of CL wear because of comfort and dryness complaints were recruited to participate in this investigation. Subjects were switched to Biotrue MPS and continued to use habitual CL types with the new MPS for 2 weeks. Subjects completed an online satisfaction questionnaire at baseline and after 2 weeks to assess the change in symptoms and the intent to drop out of CL wear. Six months after completion of the initial study, a follow-up survey was administered to a subset of the initial participants.Results: A total of 153 daily wear (silicone hydrogel and hydrogel subjects completed this 2-week study with Biotrue MPS. When measuring those with the highest propensity to drop out of lens wear (n=93 after switching to Biotrue MPS, 90% of subjects significantly reduced their likelihood of dropping out of CL wear (P<0.0001. Online interviews were conducted with 73 of the study participants 6 months after completion of the initial study. A total of 93% of participants responded that they were still wearing CLs at least once per week. Of the 7% of respondents who were not currently wearing lenses 6 months after the initial study, two had dropped out of lens wear completely, and three still wore lenses less than once per week.Conclusion: Patients intending to drop out of CL wear due to discomfort and dryness significantly reduced their propensity of discontinuing lens wear following use of Biotrue MPS. Six months after completion of the study, 93% of patients were still wearing CLs at least once per

  5. Readmission for dehydration or renal failure after ileostomy creation. (United States)

    Paquette, Ian M; Solan, Patrick; Rafferty, Janice F; Ferguson, Martha A; Davis, Bradley R


    Ileostomy creation is a commonly performed operation in colorectal surgery; however, many patients develop complications such as dehydration postoperatively. Dehydration is often severe enough to warrant hospital readmission and may result in renal failure. The true incidence of this complication has not been well described. The aim of this study was to identify the rate of hospital readmission secondary to dehydration or renal failure within 30 days of ileostomy creation. Retrospective review of all patients undergoing ileostomy creation from 2007 to 2011 in a single colorectal practice of 4 surgeons was performed. Charts were reviewed to identify patients readmitted for dehydration or renal failure within 30 days of operation. Data were then analyzed to identify predictors of readmission, dehydration, and renal failure. Subset analysis compared patients readmitted with simple dehydration versus patients with renal failure. Two hundred one patients undergoing colorectal operations that included ileostomy creation within a 4-year period at a single institution for a variety of indications were included. The primary outcome measured was readmission for dehydration or renal failure. We observed a 17% 30-day readmission rate for dehydration or renal failure following ileostomy creation. Age greater than 50 was identified as an independent predictor of readmission with renal failure, whereas IPAA was predictive of readmission for simple dehydration, but not renal failure. Patients admitted with renal failure had significantly longer hospital stays and median hospital charges after readmission in comparison with patients admitted with simple dehydration. This study was limited by its retrospective nature and its limited sample size. Hospital readmission due to dehydration or renal failure following ileostomy creation is common, with age >50 being the strongest predictor for renal failure. Appropriate strategies to decrease dehydration and renal failure following

  6. Continuous wear contact lens surface chemistry and wearability. (United States)

    Nicolson, Paul C


    Continuous wear (CW) contact lenses are defined as lenses composed of hydrogel polymers containing elements other than carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen that enhance oxygen permeability to an extent greater than water alone. Those elements are silicon and fluorine. Silicon is incorporated as siloxanes, and fluorine is used as fluoroalkyl. Despite the water present in CW lenses, they are not wearable without surface modification because of the tendency of siloxanes and fluoroakyls to move in the soft polymers, orient, and become enriched at the surface. Various methods of surface modification are discussed, with emphasis on the plasma technologies used by the two commercial CW lens products, Focus Night & Day and PureVision. Speculation about future directions in surface chemistry are also presented.

  7. Swelling Properties of Hydrogels Containing Phenylboronic Acids


    Arum Kim; Mujumdar, Siddharthya K.; Siegel, Ronald A.


    Phenylboronic acids are a class of compounds that bind glucose and other sugars. When polymerized into hydrogels, they provide a convenient nonenzymatic means for sensing glucose concentration, provided competing sugars are present at negligible concentrations. In this paper we provide a comprehensive study of swelling of hydrogels containing methacrylamidophenylboronic acid (MPBA), as a function of pH and concentration of either glucose or fructose. In one set of hydrogels, MPBA is substitut...

  8. Physiologic Basis for Understanding Quantitative Dehydration Assessment (United States)


    SPONSORING/ MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) II. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY...Sports Exerc 2004;36:510–7. 58. Cheuvront SN, Fraser CG, Kenefick RW, Ely BR, Sawka MN. Refer- ence change values for monitoring dehydration. Clin Chem...Cold-induced diuresis . A study with special reference to electrolyte excretion, osmolal balance and hormonal changes. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1972;9

  9. Dehydration of plutonium or neptunium trichloride hydrate (United States)

    Foropoulos, J. Jr.; Avens, L.R.; Trujillo, E.A.


    A process is described for preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride.

  10. An aggregate urine analysis tool to detect acute dehydration. (United States)

    Hahn, Robert G; Waldréus, Nana


    Urine sampling has previously been evaluated for detecting dehydration in young male athletes. The present study investigated whether urine analysis can serve as a measure of dehydration in men and women of a wide age span. Urine sampling and body weight measurement were undertaken before and after recreational physical exercise (median time: 90 min) in 57 volunteers age 17-69 years (mean age: 42). Urine analysis included urine color, osmolality, specific gravity, and creatinine. The volunteers' body weight decreased 1.1% (mean) while they exercised. There were strong correlations between all 4 urinary markers of dehydration (r = .73-.84, p dehydration index graded from 1 to 6 based on these markers. This index changed from 2.70 before exercising to 3.55 after exercising, which corresponded to dehydration of 1.0% as given by a preliminary reference curve based on seven previous studies in athletes. Men were slightly dehydrated at baseline (mean: 1.9%) compared with women (mean: 0.7%; p dehydration index1.86. Urine sampling can be used to estimate weight loss due to dehydration in adults up to age 70. A robust dehydration index based on four indicators reduces the influence of confounders.

  11. Compliance among soft contact lens wearers.


    Kuzman, Tomislav; Barišić Kutija, Marija; Masnec, Sanja; Jandroković, Sonja; Mrazovac, Danijela; Jurišić, Darija; Škegro, Ivan; Kalauz, Miro; Kordić, Rajko


    Contact lens compliance is proven to be crucial for preventing lens wear-related complications because of the interdependence of the steps in lens care regime and their influence on lens system microbial contamination. Awareness of the patients' lens handling compliance as well as correct recognition of non-compliant behaviours is the basis for creating more targeted strategies for patient education. The aim of this study was to investigate compliance among soft contact lens (SCL) wearers in ...

  12. Swelling Properties of Hydrogels Containing Phenylboronic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Kim


    Full Text Available Phenylboronic acids are a class of compounds that bind glucose and other sugars. When polymerized into hydrogels, they provide a convenient nonenzymatic means for sensing glucose concentration, provided competing sugars are present at negligible concentrations. In this paper we provide a comprehensive study of swelling of hydrogels containing methacrylamidophenylboronic acid (MPBA, as a function of pH and concentration of either glucose or fructose. In one set of hydrogels, MPBA is substituted at 20 mol·% in a polyacrylamide hydrogel [p(MPBA-co-AAm], while in a second set of hydrogels, 20 mol·% MPBA is supplemented with 20 mol·% of N-3-(dimethylaminopropyl methacrylamide [p(MPBA-co-DMP-co-AAm]. Swelling curves are markedly different for fructose and glucose, and for the two sets of hydrogels. While fructose alters swelling by binding and contributing to the ionization of MPBA, glucose does the same, but it also can form crosslinking bridges between separate chains, leading to hydrogel shrinkage. While the [p(MPBA-co-AAm] hydrogels behaved as polyacids, swelling monotonically with increasing pH, the [p(MPBA-co-DMP-co-AAm] hydrogels exhibited polyampholyte behavior, with swelling minima at intermediate pH values.

  13. Photocrosslinkable Gelatin Hydrogel for Epidermal Tissue Engineering. (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Lang, Qi; Yildirimer, Lara; Lin, Zhi Yuan; Cui, Wenguo; Annabi, Nasim; Ng, Kee Woei; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M; Khademhosseini, Ali


    Natural hydrogels are promising scaffolds to engineer epidermis. Currently, natural hydrogels used to support epidermal regeneration are mainly collagen- or gelatin-based, which mimic the natural dermal extracellular matrix but often suffer from insufficient and uncontrollable mechanical and degradation properties. In this study, a photocrosslinkable gelatin (i.e., gelatin methacrylamide (GelMA)) with tunable mechanical, degradation, and biological properties is used to engineer the epidermis for skin tissue engineering applications. The results reveal that the mechanical and degradation properties of the developed hydrogels can be readily modified by varying the hydrogel concentration, with elastic and compressive moduli tuned from a few kPa to a few hundred kPa, and the degradation times varied from a few days to several months. Additionally, hydrogels of all concentrations displayed excellent cell viability (>90%) with increasing cell adhesion and proliferation corresponding to increases in hydrogel concentrations. Furthermore, the hydrogels are found to support keratinocyte growth, differentiation, and stratification into a reconstructed multilayered epidermis with adequate barrier functions. The robust and tunable properties of GelMA hydrogels suggest that the keratinocyte laden hydrogels can be used as epidermal substitutes, wound dressings, or substrates to construct various in vitro skin models. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Dual focus polarisation splitting lens. (United States)

    Moseley, Paul; Savini, Giorgio; Zhang, Jin; Ade, Peter


    We have successfully designed and measured a unique polarisation splitting lens which focuses the orthogonal linear polarisations side-by-side in the lens focal plane. This concept can find application in situations where there is limited space for the beam splitters and focusing optics that are required for incoherent detectors.

  15. Focusing on Contact Lens Safety (United States)

    ... these solutions require special care. Always remove contact lenses before swimming. Never reuse any lens solution. Always discard all of the used solution after each use, and add fresh solution to your lens case. Do not expose your contacts to any water (which includes lake, pond, and ocean water as ...

  16. Criteria for choosing lens implants. (United States)

    Rado, G; Filip, M; Costea, J; Niculescu, C; Pienaru, M


    Choosing the proper artificial lens can be a problem, especially for the young surgeons, considering the fact that the "market" is so rich in possibilities. The present paper analyses the lens according to their dimension, form and material, in a perspective based on personal experience.

  17. Comparative study of two silicone hydrogel contact lenses used as bandage contact lenses after LASEK. (United States)

    Gil-Cazorla, Raquel; Teus, Miguel A; Hernández-Verdejo, Jose L; De Benito-Llopis, Laura; García-González, Monsterrat


    To evaluate two silicone hydrogel contact lens materials as continuous-wear bandage contact lenses after laser-assisted subepithelial keratomileusis (LASEK). The inclusion criteria were myopia of -6.00 diopters (D) or less, astigmatism lower than -1.5 D, bilateral best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 or better, and candidates for bilateral LASEK. The patients were randomized to be fitted with a Balafilcon A (PureVision) lens in one eye and Galyfilcon A (Acuvue Advance) in the fellow eye. Uncorrected visual acuity, corneal epithelial status, conjunctival and limbal hyperemia, lens movement, contact lens debris, and the responses to a subjective-comfort questionnaire were assessed postoperatively. The parameters were evaluated before and 1 and 5 days after the procedure. A paired Student's t-test and chi-square tests were used when appropriate. We analyzed 44 eyes of 22 consecutive patients who underwent LASEK to correct low-to-moderate myopia. The mean spherical equivalent was -3.25 +/- 2.36 D. There was no difference in conjunctival or limbal hyperemia, lens movement, uncorrected visual acuity, or epithelial healing between the two lenses at any visit. A significant difference was found in lens deposition and discomfort, which were greater with the PureVision lens 5 days postoperatively (p = 0.01 for both comparisons). PureVision and Acuvue Advance contact lenses seem to be useful as continuous wear bandage contact lenses. There is no major clinical difference between the lenses, although patients report greater comfort with Acuvue Advance.

  18. Comparison of clinical and biochemical markers of dehydration with the clinical dehydration scale in children: a case comparison trial. (United States)

    Tam, Ron K; Wong, Hubert; Plint, Amy; Lepage, Nathalie; Filler, Guido


    The clinical dehydration scale (CDS) is a quick, easy-to-use tool with 4 clinical items and a score of 1-8 that serves to classify dehydration in children with gastroenteritis as no, some or moderate/severe dehydration. Studies validating the CDS (Friedman JN) with a comparison group remain elusive. We hypothesized that the CDS correlates with a wide spectrum of established markers of dehydration, making it an appropriate and easy-to-use clinical tool. This study was designed as a prospective double-cohort trial in a single tertiary care center. Children with diarrhea and vomiting, who clinically required intravenous fluids for rehydration, were compared with minor trauma patients who required intravenous needling for conscious sedation. We compared the CDS with clinical and urinary markers (urinary electrolytes, proteins, ratios and fractional excretions) for dehydration in both groups using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to determine the area under the curve (AUC). We enrolled 73 children (male = 36) in the dehydration group and 143 (male = 105) in the comparison group. Median age was 32 months (range 3-214) in the dehydration and 96 months (range 2.6-214 months, p dehydration group and 0 in the comparison group (p dehydrated group: difference in heart rate, diastolic blood pressure, urine sodium/potassium ratio, urine sodium, fractional sodium excretion, serum bicarbonate, and creatinine measurements. The best markers for dehydration were urine Na and serum bicarbonate (ROC AUC = 0.798 and 0.821, respectively). CDS was most closely correlated with serum bicarbonate (Pearson r = -0.3696, p = 0.002). Although serum bicarbonate is not the gold standard for dehydration, this study provides further evidence for the usefulness of the CDS as a dehydration marker in children. Registered at (NCT00462527) on April 18, 2007.

  19. Extended release of hyaluronic acid from hydrogel contact lenses for dry eye syndrome. (United States)

    Maulvi, Furqan A; Soni, Tejal G; Shah, Dinesh O


    Current dry eye treatment includes delivering comfort enhancing agents to the eye via eye drops, but low residence time of eye drops leads to low bioavailability. Frequent administration leads to incompliance in patients, so there is a great need for medical device such as contact lenses to treat dry eye. Studies in the past have demonstrated the efficacy of hyaluronic acid (HA) in the treatment of dry eyes using eye drops. In this paper, we present two methods to load HA in hydrogel contact lenses, soaking method and direct entrapment. The contact lenses were characterized by studying their optical and physical properties to determine their suitability as extended wear contact lenses. HA-laden hydrogel contact lenses prepared by soaking method showed release up to 48 h with acceptable physical and optical properties. Hydrogel contact lenses prepared by direct entrapment method showed significant sustained release in comparison to soaking method. HA entrapped in hydrogels resulted in reduction in % transmittance, sodium ion permeability and surface contact angle, while increase in % swelling. The impact on each of these properties was proportional to HA loading. The batch with 200-μg HA loading showed all acceptable values (parameters) for contact lens use. Results of cytotoxicity study indicated the safety of hydrogel contact lenses. In vivo pharmacokinetics studies in rabbit tear fluid showed dramatic increase in HA mean residence time and area under the curve with lenses in comparison to eye drop treatment. The study demonstrates the promising potential of delivering HA through contact lenses for the treatment of dry eye syndrome.

  20. [Severe rhabdomyolysis secondary to severe hypernatraemic dehydration]. (United States)

    Mastro-Martínez, Ignacio; Montes-Arjona, Ana María; Escudero-Lirio, Margarita; Hernández-García, Bárbara; Fernández-Cantalejo Padial, José


    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare paediatric condition. The case is presented of a patient in whom this developed secondary to severe hypernatraemic dehydration following acute diarrhoea. Infant 11 months of age who presented with vomiting, fever, diarrhoea and anuria for 15 hours. Parents reported adequate preparation of artificial formula and oral rehydration solution. He was admitted with malaise, severe dehydration signs and symptoms, cyanosis, and low reactivity. The laboratory tests highlighted severe metabolic acidosis, hypernatraemia and pre-renal kidney failure (Sodium [Na] plasma 181 mEq/L, urine density> 1030). He was managed in Intensive Care Unit with gradual clinical and renal function improvement. On the third day, slight axial hypotonia and elevated cell lysis enzymes (creatine phosphokinase 75,076 IU/L) were observed, interpreted as rhabdomyolysis. He was treated with intravenous rehydration up to 1.5 times the basal requirements, and he showed a good clinical and biochemical response, being discharged 12 days after admission without motor sequelae. Severe hypernatraemia is described as a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis and renal failure. In critically ill patients, it is important to have a high index of suspicion for rhabdomyolysis and performing serial determinations of creatine phosphokinase for early detection and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Dehydration and rehydration in competative sport. (United States)

    Maughan, R J; Shirreffs, S M


    Dehydration, if sufficiently severe, impairs both physical and mental performance, and performance decrements are greater in hot environments and in long-lasting exercise. Athletes should begin exercise well hydrated and should drink during exercise to limit water and salt deficits. Many athletes are dehydrated to some degree when they begin exercise. During exercise, most drink less than their sweat losses, some drink too much and a few develop hyponatraemia. Athletes should learn to assess their hydration needs and develop a personalized hydration strategy that takes account of exercise, environment and individual needs. Pre-exercise hydration status can be assessed from urine frequency and volume, with additional information from urine color, specific gravity or osmolality. Changes in hydration status during exercise can be estimated from the change in body mass: sweat rate can be estimated if fluid intake and urinary losses are also measured. Sweat salt losses can be determined by collection and analysis of sweat samples. An appropriate, individualized drinking strategy will take account of pre-exercise hydration status and of fluid, electrolyte and substrate needs before, during and after a period of exercise. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. The clinical and cellular basis of contact lens-related corneal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle M Robertson


    Full Text Available Danielle M Robertson, H Dwight CavanaghDepartment of Ophthalmology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USAAbstract: Microbial keratitis (MK is the most visually devastating complication associated with contact lens wear. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA is highly invasive in the corneal epithelium and is responsible for more than half of the reported cases of contact lens-related MK. To protect against Pseudomonas-mediated MK, the corneal epithelium has evolved overlapping defense mechanisms that function to protect the ocular surface from microbial invasion. Research has shown that contact lens wear disrupts these protective mechanisms through breakdown of normal homeostatic surface renewal as well as damaging the corneal surface, exposing underlying cell membrane receptors that bind and internalize PA through the formation of lipid rafts. Human clinical trials have shown that initial adherence of PA with resulting increased risk for microbial infection is mediated in part by contact lens oxygen transmissibility. Recently, chemical preserved multipurpose solutions (MPS have been implicated in increasing PA adherence to corneal epithelial cells, in addition to inducing significant levels of toxic staining when used in conjunction with specific silicone hydrogel lenses. This review summarizes what is currently known about the relationship between contact lenses, the corneal epithelium, MPS, and infection.Keywords: cornea, epithelium, contact lens, microbial keratitis

  3. Corneo-scleral contact lens in a piggyback system for keratoconus: A case report. (United States)

    Porcar, Esteban; Montalt, Juan Carlos; España-Gregori, Enrique; Peris-Martínez, Cristina


    We describe a case of fitting a corneo-scleral contact lens with a multi-aspheric geometry design (MAGD CScL) on top of a daily silicone hydrogel lens (piggyback system) for keratoconus management. A 48-year-old man using soft toric contact lenses required an improvement in the unsatisfactory quality of his vision. He presented with bilateral asymmetric keratoconus with high myopia in the right eye (RE) and severe myopia in the left eye (LE). In addition, he had low vision in his LE because of a maculopathy. He was fitted with MAGD CScL to correct his irregular astigmatism. A diagnostic trial set was used in the fitting process and the patient was assessed according to a standardised fitting methodology. Visual acuity, corneal topography and contrast sensitivity were evaluated. The follow-up period was 1year. The best spectacle-corrected visual acuity was 0.5 logMAR for the RE with -10 D/-5 D×60° and 2 logMAR for the LE with -20 D/-3 D×105°. After fitting MAGD CScL, visual acuity improved significantly to 0.1 logMAR for the RE and 1.3 logMAR for the LE, as well as contrast sensitivity. The fitting parameters of the base curve, diameter, and power were 7.05mm, 12.60mm, -18.50 D and 7.15mm, 12.60mm, -19 D for the RE and LE, respectively. Optimal fitting characteristics were found in terms of lens position and lens movement. To increase the time of MAGD CScL wear, they piggybacked on daily silicone hydrogel lenses of low power (-0.5 D). The patient reported being comfortable with this piggyback system for approximately 15h a day. After 1year of using the piggyback system, visual quality and wearing time were maintained. In addition, no adverse ocular effects were found during this period. This case report shows that in this patient a MAGD CScL could be fitted successfully on a daily silicone hydrogel lens in a piggyback system for keratoconus management, providing good visual quality along with prolonged use times and without adverse effects on the cornea

  4. Scleral buckling with hydrogel implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Taraprasad


    Full Text Available The hydrogel implant for scleral buckling, first developed in 1980, is said to combine the advantages of both solid silicone rubber and silicone sponges. But it is still not widely used. Our clinical experience with the hydrogel implant used in 23 cases of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment is described. It was used both as exoplant and implant. Anatomical success was achieved in 91% of the cases. There was no infection, erosion, migration of extrusion of the buckle. The advantages are that it is soft, elastic, nontoxic, and nonpyogenic; it is devoid of infection and postoperatively it swells up, for additional heightening of the buckle. This new material appears to combine the advantages of both silicone sponge and solid silicon rubber thereby providing an ideal buckling material.

  5. Fewer Bacteria Adhere to Softer Hydrogels (United States)

    Kolewe, Kristopher W.; Peyton, Shelly R.; Schiffman, Jessica D.


    Clinically, biofilm-associated infections commonly form on intravascular catheters and other hydrogel surfaces. The overuse of antibiotics to treat these infections has led to the spread of antibiotic resistance and underscores the importance of developing alternative strategies that delay the onset of biofilm formation. Previously, it has been reported that during surface contact, bacteria can detect surfaces through subtle changes in the function of their motors. However, how the stiffness of a polymer hydrogel influences the initial attachment of bacteria is unknown. Systematically, we investigated poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) and agar hydrogels that were twenty times thicker than the cumulative size of bacterial cell appendages, as a function of Young’s moduli. Soft (44.05 – 308.5 kPa), intermediate (1495 – 2877 kPa), and stiff (5152 – 6489 kPa) hydrogels were synthesized. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus attachment onto the hydrogels was analyzed using confocal microscopy after 2 and 24 hr incubation periods. Independent of hydrogel chemistry and incubation time, E. coli and S. aureus attachment correlated positively to increasing hydrogel stiffness. For example, after a 24 hr incubation period, there were 52% and 82% less E. coli adhered to soft PEGDMA hydrogels, than to the intermediate and stiff PEGDMA hydrogels, respectively. A 62% and 79% reduction in the area coverage by the Gram-positive microbe S. aureus occurred after 24 hr incubation on the soft versus intermediate and stiff PEGDMA hydrogels. We suggest that hydrogel stiffness is an easily tunable variable that, potentially, could be used synergistically with traditional antimicrobial strategies to reduce early bacterial adhesion, and therefore the occurrence of biofilm-associated infections. PMID:26291308

  6. Wedged multilayer Laue lens (United States)

    Conley, Ray; Liu, Chian; Qian, Jun; Kewish, Cameron M.; Macrander, Albert T.; Yan, Hanfei; Kang, Hyon Chol; Maser, Jörg; Stephenson, G. Brian


    A multilayer Laue lens (MLL) is an x-ray focusing optic fabricated from a multilayer structure consisting of thousands of layers of two different materials produced by thin-film deposition. The sequence of layer thicknesses is controlled to satisfy the Fresnel zone plate law and the multilayer is sectioned to form the optic. An improved MLL geometry can be created by growing each layer with an in-plane thickness gradient to form a wedge, so that every interface makes the correct angle with the incident beam for symmetric Bragg diffraction. The ultimate hard x-ray focusing performance of a wedged MLL has been predicted to be significantly better than that of a nonwedged MLL, giving subnanometer resolution with high efficiency. Here, we describe a method to deposit the multilayer structure needed for an ideal wedged MLL and report our initial deposition results to produce these structures.

  7. Microelectrofluidic lens for variable curvature (United States)

    Chang, Jong-hyeon; Lee, Eunsung; Jung, Kyu-Dong; Lee, Seungwan; Choi, Minseog; Kim, Woonbae


    This paper presents a tunable liquid lens based on microelectrofluidic technology which integrates electrowetting and microfluidics. In the novel microelectrofluidic lens (MEFL), electrowetting in the hydrophobic surface channel induces the Laplace pressure difference between two fluidic interfaces on the lens aperture and the surface channel. Then, the pressure difference makes the lens curvature tunable. The previous electrowetting lens in which the contact angle changes at the side wall has a certain limitation of the curvature variation because of the contact angle saturation. Although the contact angle saturation also appears in the surface channel of the MEFL, the low surface channel increases the Laplace pressure and it makes the MEFL to have full variation of the optical power possible. The magnitude of the applied voltage determines the lens curvature in the analog mode MEFL as well as the electrowetting lens. Digital operation is also possible when the control electrodes of the MEFL are patterned to have an array. It is expected that the proposed MEFL is able to be widely used because of its full variation of the optical power without the use of oil and digital operation with fast response.

  8. Evaluation of Photocrosslinked Lutrol Hydrogel for Tissue Printing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedorovich, Natalja E.; Swennen, Ives; Girones, Jordi; Moroni, Lorenzo; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Schacht, Etienne; Alblas, Jacqueline; Dhert, Wouter J.A.


    Application of hydrogels in tissue engineering and innovative strategies such as organ printing, which is based on layered 3D deposition of cell-laden hydrogels, requires design of novel hydrogel matrices. Hydrogel demands for 3D printing include: 1) preservation of the printed shape after the

  9. Phase transitions on dehydration of the natural zeolite thomsonite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ståhl, Kenny


    The dehydration of the natural zeolite thomsonite, Na4CasAl20Si20O80 24H(2)O, has been studied using a combination of conventional and synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. A preliminary in situ dehydration study revealed two distinct unit cell changes at approximately 540 and 570 K, respectively...

  10. Retention of nutrients in green leafy vegetables on dehydration. (United States)

    Gupta, Sheetal; Gowri, B S; Lakshmi, A Jyothi; Prakash, Jamuna


    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of dehydration on nutrient composition of Amaranthus gangeticus, Chenopodium album, Centella asiatica, Amaranthus tricolor and Trigonella foenum graecum. The green leafy vegetables (GLV) were steam blanched for 5 min after pretreatment and dried in an oven at 60 °C for 10-12 h. The fresh and dehydrated samples were analyzed for selected proximate constituents, vitamins, minerals, antinutrients and dialyzable minerals. Dehydration seems to have little effect on the proximate, mineral and antinutrient content of the GLV. Among the vitamins, retention of ascorbic acid was 1-14%, thiamine 22-71%, total carotene 49-73% and β-carotene 20-69% respectively, of their initial content. Dialyzable iron and calcium in the fresh vegetables ranged between 0.21-3.5 mg and 15.36-81.33 mg/100 g respectively, which reduced to 0.05-0.53 mg and 6.94-58.15 mg/100 g on dehydration. Dehydration seems to be the simplest convenient technology for preserving these sources of micronutrients, especially when they are abundantly available. Irrespective of the losses of vitamins that take place during dehydration, dehydrated GLV are a concentrated natural source of micronutrients and they can be used in product formulations. Value addition of traditional products with dehydrated GLV can be advocated as a feasible food-based approach to combat micronutrient malnutrition.

  11. Chronic dehydration and symptomatic upper urinary tract stones in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This (uncommon) occurrence of upper tract urolithiasis in young adults in Ibadan maybe related to chronic dehydration exacerbated by religious fasting. Further studies are required to explore this relation- ship,. Keywords: Urolithiasis, Upper Urinary Tract, Young. Adults, Nigeria, Dehydration, Religious fasting.

  12. Production and evaluation of precooked dehydrated unripe banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at developing a process for production of easy to prepare dehydrated banana slices. Steaming unripe bananas for 7 minutes followed by hand peel stripping, slicing and dehydration in air dryers produced slices with better rehydration properties than slices produced without steaming, even when the ...

  13. Ocular physiology and comfort in neophyte subjects fitted with daily disposable silicone hydrogel contact lenses. (United States)

    Morgan, Philip B; Chamberlain, Paul; Moody, Kurt; Maldonado-Codina, Carole


    To evaluate the performance of a silicone hydrogel daily disposable lens in neophyte subjects over 12 months. Seventy four subjects with no previous contact lens experience were randomised to wear narafilcon A (1 DAY ACUVUE(®) TruEye™) lenses (LW group) or to wear no contact lenses (NLW group) for 12 months. Biomicroscopy (performed by a masked investigator), visual acuity and subjective response scores were recorded at an initial visit and six follow-up visits, in addition to lens fit and surface evaluation for the LW group. Comfort was recorded with SMS messaging. Fifteen of the LW group discontinued before the end of the study, compared with six of the NLW group. Measured visual acuity was about half a line better for the NLW group as these subjects were provided with their full sphero-cylindrical over-refraction, compared to the LW group in their best spherical corrected contact lenses; subjective scores for vision were similar for the two groups. Bulbar conjunctival hyperaemia, limbal hyperaemia, corneal staining, conjunctival staining and papillary conjunctivitis were clinically equivalent for the two groups whereas conjunctival staining was higher in the LW group. Comfort scores assessed by SMS were equivalent for the LW and NLW groups; there was a measurable improvement in comfort during the first month of wear for the LW group. This work has demonstrated that modern soft lenses (narafilcon A daily disposable silicone hydrogel lenses) offer an excellent, comfortable form of vision correction, and are able to exhibit minimal alterations to ocular physiology. Copyright © 2012 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Excimer laser micropatterning of freestanding thermo-responsive hydrogel layers for cells-on-chip applications (United States)

    Santaniello, Tommaso; Martello, Federico; Tocchio, Alessandro; Gassa, Federico; Webb, Patrick; Milani, Paolo; Lenardi, Cristina


    We report a novel reliable and repeatable technologic manufacturing protocol for the realization of micro-patterned freestanding hydrogel layers based on thermo-responsive poly-(N-isopropyl)acrylamide (PNIPAAm), which have potential to be employed as temperature-triggered smart surfaces for cells-on-chip applications. PNIPAAm-based films with controlled mechanical properties and different thicknesses (100-300 µm thickness) were prepared by injection compression moulding at room temperature. A 9 × 9 array of 20 µm diameter through-holes is machined by means of the KrF excimer laser on dry PNIPAAm films which are physically attached to flat polyvinyl chloride (PVC) substrates. Machining parameters, such as fluence and number of shots, are optimized in order to achieve highly resolved features. Micro-structured freestanding films are then easily obtained after hydrogels are detached from PVC by gradually promoting the film swelling in ethanol. In the PNIPAAm water-swollen state, the machined holes’ diameter approaches a slight larger value (30 µm) according to the measured hydrogel swelling ratio. Thermo-responsive behaviour and through-hole tapering characterization are carried out by metrology measurements using an optical inverted and confocal microscope setup, respectively. After the temperature of freestanding films is raised above 32 °C, we observe that the shrinkage of the whole through-hole array occurs, thus reducing the holes’ diameter to less than a half its original size (about 15 µm) as a consequence of the film dehydration. Different holes’ diameters (10 and 30 µm) are also obtained on dry hydrogel employing suitable projection masks, showing similar shrinking behaviour when hydrated and undergone thermo-response tests. Thermo-responsive PNIPAAm-based freestanding layers could then be integrated with other suitable micro-fabricated thermoplastic components in order to preliminary test their feasibility in operating as temperature

  15. Synthesis and characterization of carboxymethyl chitosan hydrogel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chitosan, entrapment of drug and its interaction in prepared hydrogels were checked by FTIR, 1H-NMR, DSC and p-XRD studies, which confirmed formation of CMCS from chitosan and absence of any significant chemical change in LERH after being entrapped in crosslinked hydrogel formulations. The surface morphology ...

  16. Soy-based Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications (United States)

    Soy based hydrogels were prepared by ring-opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil, following hydrolysis of formed polymers. The hydrogels were evaluated loading and releasing water-soluble anticancer drug doxorubin (Dox). The results suggest that this new system offers a great potential t...

  17. Thermal Transport in Soft PAAm Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Tang


    Full Text Available As the interface between human and machine becomes blurred, hydrogel incorporated electronics and devices have emerged to be a new class of flexible/stretchable electronic and ionic devices due to their extraordinary properties, such as softness, mechanically robustness, and biocompatibility. However, heat dissipation in these devices could be a critical issue and remains unexplored. Here, we report the experimental measurements and equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of thermal conduction in polyacrylamide (PAAm hydrogels. The thermal conductivity of PAAm hydrogels can be modulated by both the effective crosslinking density and water content in hydrogels. The effective crosslinking density dependent thermal conductivity in hydrogels varies from 0.33 to 0.51 Wm−1K−1, giving a 54% enhancement. We attribute the crosslinking effect to the competition between the increased conduction pathways and the enhanced phonon scattering effect. Moreover, water content can act as filler in polymers which leads to nearly 40% enhancement in thermal conductivity in PAAm hydrogels with water content vary from 23 to 88 wt %. Furthermore, we find the thermal conductivity of PAAm hydrogel is insensitive to temperature in the range of 25–40 °C. Our study offers fundamental understanding of thermal transport in soft materials and provides design guidance for hydrogel-based devices.

  18. Photopatterning of hydrogel microarryas in closed microchips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gümüscü, B.; Bomer, Johan G.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.


    To date, optical lithography has been extensively used for in situ patterning of hydrogel structures in a scale range from hundreds of microns to a few millimeters. The two main limitations which prevent smaller feature sizes of hydrogel structures are (1) the upper glass layer of a microchip

  19. Electrochemical characterization of hydrogels for biomimetic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peláez, L.; Romero, V.; Escalera, S.


    ) or a photoinitiator (P) to encapsulate and stabilize biomimetic membranes for novel separation technologies or biosensor applications. In this paper, we have investigated the electrochemical properties of the hydrogels used for membrane encapsulation. Specifically, we studied the crosslinked hydrogels by using...... for biomimetic membrane encapsulation. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  20. Flexible hydrogel-based functional composite materials (United States)

    Song, Jie; Saiz, Eduardo; Bertozzi, Carolyn R; Tomasia, Antoni P


    A composite having a flexible hydrogel polymer formed by mixing an organic phase with an inorganic composition, the organic phase selected from the group consisting of a hydrogel monomer, a crosslinker, a radical initiator, and/or a solvent. A polymerization mixture is formed and polymerized into a desired shape and size.

  1. Corneal confocal microscopy and dry eye findings in contact lens discomfort patients. (United States)

    Dogan, Aysun Sanal; Gurdal, Canan; Arslan, Nese


    To evaluate the corneal confocal microscopy and dry eye findings in patients with contact lens discomfort. The study included 3 groups of participants: Contact lens wearers using silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses who are symptomatic (CLD, n=15) or asymptomatic (ACL, n=11) and non-wearers as controls (n=14). Duration of contact lens wear, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire responses, fluorescein tear break-uptime (FBUT), and corneal confocal microscopy findings were recorded. Mean age was 25.7±8.2 years and male/female ratio was 7/33. Demographic findings were similar regarding the groups. CLD patients had a longer lens use history than ACL (median 5 vs 2 years, p<0.001). OSDI scores were higher in CLD group than ACL or controls (p<0.001, p=0.002). FBUT was significantly lowest in CLD group, compared to controls and ACL (p<0.001, p=0.039). FBUT was also lower in ACL patients compared to controls (p=0.036). There was no difference between basal epithelium cell counts between all 3 groups. Anterior stromal activated keratocyte numbers were similar between contact lens using groups but was lower in controls (p=0.005). However, dendritiform cells in the sub-basal nerve layer were higher in CLD group compared to controls but similar to ACL (p<0.001, p=0.058). Graded sub-basal nerve tortuosity was more prominent in CLD group than the ACL (p=0.014). Patients with CLD had been wearing contact lenses for longer than those without symptoms. OSDI and FBUT scores were worse in CLD patients. In contact lens discomfort patients, there were increased dendritiform cells, indicating intensified inflammatory status of the cornea. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lens surface roughening for tears invariant contact lens performance (United States)

    Zalevsky, Zeev; Azogui, Jonathan; Limon, Ofer; Rudnitsky, Arkady


    In many extended depth of focus diffractive or interferometry based ophthalmic contact lenses the time varied tears layers affect the ophthalmic functionality of the lens. In this paper we present a new approach involving nano pillars realized inside the grooves of a contact lens aiming to implement any type of extended depth of focus or diffractive optical element for ophthalmic applications in order to solve the micro fluidics layer uncertainty within the micro sag features.

  3. GOHAL!: sustainable membranes for alcohol dehydration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio


    reduction; but stacked layers of reduced GO (rGO) tend to form ordered and compact graphite-like structures, thus preventing permeation. Here, a humic acid-like biopolymer (HAL), extracted from organic compost with a yield of ~ 20%, was used to fabricate composite GO-HAL membranes [1]. Both GO and HAL...... consist of a carbon backbone functionalized with oxygen-containing moieties; but GO dispersions are made of 2D layers with monoatomic thickness, while dispersed HAL macromolecules have a 3D branched structure. We fabricated GO-HAL membranes with HAL contents ranging from 0 to 30 w% by the drop......Treat, H2020-MSCA-RISE-2014 (n. 64555). [1] V. Boffa et. al., Carbon-based building blocks for alcohol dehydration membranes with disorder-enhanced water permeability, Carbon, under review....

  4. Two-stage dehydration of sugars (United States)

    Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA


    The invention includes methods for producing dianhydrosugar alcohol by providing an acid catalyst within a reactor and passing a starting material through the reactor at a first temperature. At least a portion of the staring material is converted to a monoanhydrosugar isomer during the passing through the column. The monoanhydrosugar is subjected to a second temperature which is greater than the first to produce a dianhydrosugar. The invention includes a method of producing isosorbide. An initial feed stream containing sorbitol is fed into a continuous reactor containing an acid catalyst at a temperature of less than C. The residence time for the reactor is less than or equal to about 30 minutes. Sorbitol converted to 1,4-sorbitan in the continuous reactor is subsequently provided to a second reactor and is dehydrated at a temperature of at least C. to produce isosorbide.

  5. The calculation of the relaxation processes during dehydration of fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ershov


    Full Text Available The methods of study of relaxation processes that are applicable during fish dehydration considering the influence of the chemical composition, geometric size of the processing object and regime parameters of the dehydration processes are developed in this work. The usage of the numerical methods of calculation on the basis of solution of the second-order differential equation with boundary conditions of the third kind allow with sufficient accuracy for engineering practice modeling the different conditions of the dehydration process conducting with periodic restoration of hydraulic conductivity properties of the objects of dehydration. The proposed calculation methods applicable to dehydration processes. Which consists of a continuous initial period and the combined periods of drying fish and relaxation dehydration facility. During the relaxation is provided an exposure to a drying agent for dewatering for a certain time. During relaxation stops the supply of electric power to the heating elements. Reduces the rate of circulation of the drying agent. In the drying installation is supplied with air of lower temperature and higher relative humidity than the drying agent. In drier conditions are created that constrain external mass transfer and promotes relaxation of moisture, that is, to its redistribution in the thickness of the fish. During the relaxation of the moisture is gradually shifting from the central layers where dehydration has not yet come to the dehydrated surface layers. The appearance of moisture inside the dehydrated surface area leads to putting up and expansion of capillaries. At the next interval change product moisture re-enters the dehydration process, the high conductive properties throughout its volume.

  6. Thin Hydrogel Films for Optical Biosensor Applications (United States)

    Mateescu, Anca; Wang, Yi; Dostalek, Jakub; Jonas, Ulrich


    Hydrogel materials consisting of water-swollen polymer networks exhibit a large number of specific properties highly attractive for a variety of optical biosensor applications. This properties profile embraces the aqueous swelling medium as the basis of biocompatibility, non-fouling behavior, and being not cell toxic, while providing high optical quality and transparency. The present review focuses on some of the most interesting aspects of surface-attached hydrogel films as active binding matrices in optical biosensors based on surface plasmon resonance and optical waveguide mode spectroscopy. In particular, the chemical nature, specific properties, and applications of such hydrogel surface architectures for highly sensitive affinity biosensors based on evanescent wave optics are discussed. The specific class of responsive hydrogel systems, which can change their physical state in response to externally applied stimuli, have found large interest as sophisticated materials that provide a complex behavior to hydrogel-based sensing devices. PMID:24957962

  7. Polymer-induced compression of biological hydrogels (United States)

    Datta, Sujit; Preska Steinberg, Asher; Ismagilov, Rustem

    Hydrogels - such as mucus, blood clots, and the extracellular matrix - provide critical functions in biological systems. However, little is known about how their structure is influenced by many of the polymeric materials they come into contact with regularly. Here, we focus on one critically important biological hydrogel: colonic mucus. While several biological processes are thought to potentially regulate the mucus hydrogel structure, the polymeric composition of the gut environment has been ignored. We use Flory-Huggins solution theory to characterize polymer-mucus interactions. We find that gut polymers, including those small enough to penetrate the mucus hydrogel, can in fact alter mucus structure, changing its equilibrium degree of swelling and forcing it to compress. The extent of compression increases with increasing polymer concentration and size. We use experiments on mice to verify these predictions with common dietary and therapeutic gut polymers. Our results provide a foundation for investigating similar, previously overlooked, polymer-induced effects in other biological hydrogels.

  8. Contact Allergy To Hard Contact Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Pasricha


    Full Text Available Three patients developed recurrent irritation, redness and watery discharge from their eyes after using hard contact lens. Patch tests were positive with the material of the hard contact lens and negative with teepol, sodium lauryl sulphate and material of the soft contact lens. All the three patients became alright after they stopped,using hard contact lens.

  9. A Prototype Antifungal Contact Lens


    Ciolino, Joseph B; Hudson, Sarah P.; Mobbs, Ashley N.; Hoare, Todd R.; Iwata, Naomi G.; Fink, Gerald R.; Kohane, Daniel S.


    Econazole-eluting contact lenses with a novel design provided extended antifungal activity against the Candida albicans fungus. This drug-eluting contact lens could be used to treat and prevent fungal ocular infections.

  10. Cataract mutations and lens development. (United States)

    Graw, J


    The lens plays an essential role for proper eye development. Mouse mutants affecting lens development are excellent models for corresponding human disorders. Moreover, using mutations in particular genes the process of eye and lens development can be dissected into distinct steps. Therefore, three mouse mutants will be described in detail and discussed affecting three essential stages: formation of the lens vesicle, initiation of secondary lens fiber cell formation, and terminal differentiation of the secondary fiber cells. The mutant aphakia (ak) has been characterized by bilaterally apakic eyes [Varnum and Stevens (1968) J. Hered. 59, 147-150], and the corresponding gene was mapped to chromosome 19 [Varnum and Stevens (1975) Mouse News Letters 53, 35]. Recent investigations in our laboratory refined the linkage 0.6 +/- 0.3 N cm proximal to the microsatellite marker D19Mit10. The linked gene Pax2, responsible for proper development of the posterior part of the eye and the optic nerve, was excluded as candidate gene by sequence analysis. Histological analysis of the homozygous ak mutants revealed a persisting lens stalk and subsequently the formation of lens rudiments. The lens defects led to irregular iris development and retinal folding. Congenital aphakia is known as a rare human anomaly. Besides a corneal dystrophy (CDTB), no corresponding disease is localized at the homologous region of human chromosome 10q23. The Cat3 mutations are characterized by vacuolated lenses caused by alterations in the beginning of secondary lens fiber cell differentiation at embryonic day 12.5. Secondary malformations develop at the cornea and the iris, but the retina remains unaffected. Two mutant alleles of the Cat3 locus have been mapped to mouse chromosome 10 very close to the microsatellite markers D10Mit41 and D10Mit95 (less than 0.3 cM). Since Cat3 is mapped to a position, which is homologous to human chromosome 12q21-24, the disorder cornea plana congenita can be considered

  11. Single lens laser beam shaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chuyu [Newport News, VA; Zhang, Shukui [Yorktown, VA


    A single lens bullet-shaped laser beam shaper capable of redistributing an arbitrary beam profile into any desired output profile comprising a unitary lens comprising: a convex front input surface defining a focal point and a flat output portion at the focal point; and b) a cylindrical core portion having a flat input surface coincident with the flat output portion of the first input portion at the focal point and a convex rear output surface remote from the convex front input surface.

  12. A course in lens design

    CERN Document Server

    Velzel, Chris


    A Course in Lens Design is an instruction in the design of image-forming optical systems. It teaches how a satisfactory design can be obtained in a straightforward way. Theory is limited to a minimum, and used to support the practical design work. The book introduces geometrical optics, optical instruments and aberrations. It gives a description of the process of lens design and of the strategies used in this process. Half of its content is devoted to the design of sixteen types of lenses, described in detail from beginning to end. This book is different from most other books on lens design because it stresses the importance of the initial phases of the design process: (paraxial) lay-out and (thin-lens) pre-design. The argument for this change of accent is that in these phases much information can be obtained about the properties of the lens to be designed. This information can be used in later phases of the design. This makes A Course in Lens Design a useful self-study book, and a suitable basis for an intro...

  13. Comparative Study of Two Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lenses used as Bandage Contact Lenses after Photorefractive Keratectomy. (United States)

    Razmjoo, Hasan; Abdi, Elham; Atashkadi, Sayna; Reza, Akhlaghi M; Reza, Peyman A; Akbari, Mojtaba


    Silicon hydrogel bandage contact lenses are used to enhance epithelial healing, control surface-generated pain, and prevent epithelial erosions after refractive surgery. Considering the importance of faster reepithelialization in preventing complications of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and the fact that the features and specifications of these commercially-available lenses are different and their performance as a postoperative bandage lenses would be different also, the aim of this study was comparison the efficacy of senofilcon A and lotrafilcon A after PRK. In this prospective study, 44 patients with PRK in both eyes randomly received a silicon hydrogel contact lens of senofilcon A in one eye and lotrafilcon A in other eye. Then the epithelial defect size, visual acuity and subjective level of pain and discomfort were measured for both eyes and compared on day 1, 3 and 5 postoperatively. There was no statistical difference in rate of reepithelialization between senofilcon A and lotrafilcon A (P > 0.05). The mean pain and discomfort index was significantly lower in eyes with senofilcon A (P contact lenses (BCLs) (P > 0.05). Silicon hydrogel BCLs are safe and effective for corneal reepithelialization and have great therapeutic outcome on visual outcomes after PRK. But, senofilcon A had better effect on postoperative pain and discomfort which made it superior than lotrafilcon A. However for more conclusive results, it is recommended to study larger sample size with evaluation the possible factors responsible for the obtained findings regarding postoperative pain and discomfort.

  14. Conjunctival epithelial flap in continuous contact lens wear. (United States)

    Graham, Andrew D; Truong, Tan N; Lin, Meng C


    Composed of sheets of cells detached from the underlying conjunctiva, conjunctival epithelial flap (CEF) is a recently reported phenomenon associated with contact lens wear with potential consequences for ocular health. Although CEF is generally asymptomatic, it is not known to what extent it might increase the longer-term risk of discomfort, inflammatory response, or infection. In this study, we use survival analysis methods to obtain unbiased estimates of the probability of developing CEF, the mean survival time free of CEF, and the effects of age, gender, ethnicity, and contact lens type. Two hundred four subjects were recruited for a continuous wear (CW) study of silicone hydrogel (SiH) and gas permeable (GP) contact lenses. Subjects were examined by optometrists throughout contact lens adaptation and CW periods. Statistical methods included the Kaplan-Meier nonparametric estimator of the survival function and the Cox proportional hazards model for estimating the relative effects of covariates. Of the 204 subjects, 72 (35%) developed CEF. In 64% of cases, CEFs were observed bilaterally. The majority of cases (90.3%) presented with CEF in the superior conjunctiva. Mean survival time free of CEF was longer for GP lenses (94.3 days) than for SiH lenses (76.5 days), and the probability of developing CEF was significantly greater for SiH lenses (p = 0.002). Although there was some evidence that women and non-Asians remain free of CEF longer, the effects of age, gender, and ethnicity were not statistically significant. There was a significantly increased risk of CEF in subjects wearing SiH lenses, compared with GP lenses. Subjects wearing SiH lenses remained free of CEF for a shorter time on average. Further study is needed to determine whether the increased incidence of CEF in CW with SiH lenses poses an increased risk of adverse ocular response or infection.

  15. Immobilisation increases yeast cells' resistance to dehydration-rehydration treatment. (United States)

    Borovikova, Diana; Rozenfelde, Linda; Pavlovska, Ilona; Rapoport, Alexander


    This study was performed with the goal of revealing if the dehydration procedure used in our new immobilisation method noticeably decreases the viability of yeast cells in immobilised preparations. Various yeasts were used in this research: Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells that were rather sensitive to dehydration and had been aerobically grown in an ethanol-containing medium, a recombinant strain of S. cerevisiae grown in aerobic conditions which were completely non-resistant to dehydration and an anaerobically grown bakers' yeast strain S. cerevisiae, as well as a fairly resistant Pichia pastoris strain. Experiments performed showed that immobilisation of all these strains essentially increased their resistance to a dehydration-rehydration treatment. The increase of cells' viability (compared with control cells dehydrated in similar conditions) was from 30 to 60%. It is concluded that a new immobilisation method, which includes a dehydration stage, does not lead to an essential loss of yeast cell viability. Correspondingly, there is no risk of losing the biotechnological activities of immobilised preparations. The possibility of producing dry, active yeast preparations is shown, for those strains that are very sensitive to dehydration and which can be used in biotechnology in an immobilised form. Finally, the immobilisation approach can be used for the development of efficient methods for the storage of recombinant yeast strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Parameters Quantifying Dehydration in Canine Vocal Fold Lamina Propria (United States)

    Hanson, Kevin P.; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.


    Objective The goal of this study was to measure the solid and liquid volume and mass of canine vocal fold lamina propria tissue at varying dehydration levels and to calculate parameters to test the biphasic theory of vocal fold physiology and biomechanics. Study Design Open controlled experimental trial Methods The vocal fold lamina propria was dissected from 15 canine larynges, yielding 30 tissue samples. The initial volumes and masses of the tissue samples were measured. The masses of the tissue samples were then measured every 2 minutes during 30%, 50%, and 70% dehydration, with 10 samples subjected to each of the 3 treatments, followed by complete dehydration to yield the solid component of the tissue. The liquid mass and volume fractions and liquid:solid mass and volume ratios of the vocal fold lamina propria samples were calculated. Results The liquid mass and volume fractions and liquid:solid mass and volume ratios were significantly different at each dehydration level, except for the liquid:solid volume ratios at 30% vs. 50% dehydration. Linear regression analysis suggested that all of the solid and liquid parameters measured could be predicted by dehydration level based on inverse, linear relationships. Conclusions These results provide further experimental evidence supporting the biphasic theory and suggest that the extent of vocal fold lamina propria tissue dehydration may be quantified based on the biphasic model parameters. PMID:20564654

  17. Experimental investigation of processes responsible for dehydration weakening and embrittlement (United States)

    Hirth, G.; Okazaki, K.; Proctor, B.


    We have conducted suites of experiments designed to test the efficacy of dehydration embrittlement for inducing intermediate depth earthquakes. Deformation experiments have been conducted in a Griggs apparatus at 1 to 2 GPa on both antigorite and lawsonite gouge. To scale experimental results to natural conditions, we conducted experiments where we use temperature ramps to induce dehydration while the samples deform at a constant strain rate. The weakening rate of the samples scales with the ratio of the temperature ramp rate over the strain rate. We also conducted experiments at these conditions where the pore fluid pressure is either drained or undrained. In this poster, we will describe the following observations: (1) Experiments on antigorite demonstrate that weakening is associated with an increase in pore-fluid pressure. However, weakening is always stable even when the weakening rate is the same as the apparatus stiffness. Strain rate stepping experiments on both antigorite, and dehydrating antigorite indicate velocity strengthening behavior and no AEs are resolvable during the dehydration reaction. (2) Experiments on lawsonite show unstable weakening (i.e. stick slip behavior) at all ratios of temperature ramp rate over strain rate. Experiments within the lawsonite stability field exhibit stick-slip behavior and AEs are detected both during deformation within the lawsonite stability field and during the dehydration reaction. These results indicate that dehydration embrittlement is suppressed when the reacting phase shows velocity strengthening frictional behavior. The results of the experiments on dehydration of antigorite also suggest that embrittlement of the reaction products is suppressed by enhancement of solution-precipitation processes. This observation provides a possible explanation for why dehydration of antigorite induces embrittlement at lower confining pressures (i.e. 200 MPa), where the dehydration temperature is lower and hence the

  18. Rehydration Capacities and Rates for Various Porcine Tissues after Dehydration (United States)

    Meyer, Jacob P.; McAvoy, Kieran E.; Jiang, Jack


    The biphasic effects of liquid on tissue biomechanics are well known in cartilage and vocal folds, yet not extensively in other tissue types. Past studies have shown that tissue dehydration significantly impacts biomechanical properties and that rehydration can restore these properties in certain tissue types. However, these studies failed to consider how temporal exposure to dehydrating or rehydrating agents may alter tissue rehydration capacity, as overexposure to dehydration may permanently prevent rehydration to the initial liquid volume. Select porcine tissues were dehydrated until they reached between 100% and 40% of their initial mass. Each sample was allowed to rehydrate for 5 hours in a 0.9% saline solution, and the percent change between the initial and rehydrated mass values was calculated. Spearman correlation tests indicated a greater loss in mass despite rehydration when tissues were previously exposed to greater levels of dehydration. Additionally, Pearson correlation tests indicated the total liquid mass of samples after complete rehydration decreased when previously exposed to higher levels of dehydration. Rehydration rates were found by dehydrating tissues to 40% of their initial mass followed by rehydration in a 0.9% saline solution for 60 minutes, with mass measurements occurring in 15 minute intervals. All tissues rehydrated nonlinearly, most increasing significantly in mass up to 30 minutes after initial soaking. This study suggests the ability for tissues to rehydrate is dependent on the level of initial dehydration exposure. In vitro rehydration experiments therefore require controlled dosage and temporal exposure to dehydrating and rehydrating agents to avoid incomplete rehydration, and caution should be taken when combining different tissue types in models of hydration. PMID:24023753

  19. Hydrogel networks based on ABA triblock copolymers. (United States)

    Tartivel, Lucile; Behl, Marc; Schroeter, Michael; Lendlein, Andreas


    Triblock copolymers from hydrophilic oligo(ethylene glycol) segment A and oligo(propylene glycol) segment B, providing an ABA structure (OEG-OPG-OEG triblock), are known to be biocompatible and are used as self-solidifying gels in drug depots. A complete removal of these depots would be helpful in cases of undesired side effects of a drug, but this remains a challenge as they liquefy below their transition temperature. Therefore we describe the synthesis of covalently cross-linked hydrogel networks. Triblock copolymer-based hydrogels were created by irradiating aqueous solutions of the corresponding macro-dimethacrylates with UV light. The degree of swelling, swelling kinetics, mechanical properties and morphology of the networks were investigated. Depending on precursor concentration, equilibrium degree of swelling of the films ranged between 500% and 880% and was reached in 1 hour. In addition, values for storage and loss moduli of the hydrogel networks were in the 100 Pa to 10 kPa range. Although OEG-OPG-OEG triblocks are known for their micellization, which could hamper polymer network formation, reactive OEG-OPG-OEG triblock oligomers could be successfully polymerized into hydrogel networks. The degree of swelling of these hydrogels depends on their molecular weight and on the oligomer concentration used for hydrogel preparation. In combination with the temperature sensitivity of the ABA triblock copolymers, it is assumed that such hydrogels might be beneficial for future medical applications - e.g., removable drug release systems.

  20. Electroconductive natural polymer-based hydrogels. (United States)

    Shi, Zhijun; Gao, Xing; Ullah, Muhammad Wajid; Li, Sixiang; Wang, Qun; Yang, Guang


    Hydrogels prepared from natural polymers have received immense considerations over the past decade due to their safe nature, biocompatibility, hydrophilic properties, and biodegradable nature. More recently, when treated with electroactive materials, these hydrogels were endowed with high electrical conductivity, electrochemical redox properties, and electromechanical properties; consequently, forming a smart hydrogel. The biological properties of these smart hydrogels, classified as electroconductive hydrogels, can be combined with electronics. Thus, they are considered as good candidates for some potential uses, which include bioconductors, biosensors, electro-stimulated drug delivery systems, as well as neuron-, muscle-, and skin-tissue engineering. However, there is lacking comprehensive information on the current state of these electroconductive hydrogels which complicates our understanding of this new type of biomaterials as well as their potential applications. Hence, this review provides a summary on the current development of electroconductive natural polymer-based hydrogels (ENPHs). We have introduced various types of ENPHs, with a brief description of their advantages and shortcomings. In addition, emerging technologies regarding their synthesis developed during the past decade are discussed. Finally, two attractive potential applications of ENPHs, cell culture and biomedical devices, are reviewed, along with their current challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. RF-interrogatable hydrogel-actuated biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoel, Z; Wang, A W; Darrow, C B; Lee, A P; McConaghy, C F; Krulevitch, P; Gilman, A; Satcher, J H; Lane, S M


    The authors present a novel micromachined sensor that couples a swellable hydrogel with capacitive detection. The hydrogel swells in response to analyte concentration, exerting contact pressure on a deformable conducting membrane. Results are presented for characterization of a PHEMA hydrogel swelling in response to a calcium nitrate solution. Pressure-deflection measurements are performed on NiTi-based membranes. Hydrogel-actuated deflections of the membranes are measured. These measurements are correlated to determine the pressure generating characteristics of the hydrogel. Membrane deflection techniques have not previously been employed for hydrogel characterization. The PHEMA sample exhibited greatest sensitivity in the pH range of 6.0--6.5 and performed an average of 2.8 Joules of work per m{sup 3} per pH unit in response to ambient conditions over the pH range 3.5--6.5. The membrane deflections correspond to capacitive shifts of about 4 pF per pH unit for a capacitive transducer with initial gap of 100 {micro}m, capacitor plate area of 18.5 mm{sup 2} , and initial hydrogel volume of 11 {micro}L.

  2. Designing hydrogels for controlled drug delivery (United States)

    Li, Jianyu; Mooney, David J.


    Hydrogel delivery systems can leverage therapeutically beneficial outcomes of drug delivery and have found clinical use. Hydrogels can provide spatial and temporal control over the release of various therapeutic agents, including small-molecule drugs, macromolecular drugs and cells. Owing to their tunable physical properties, controllable degradability and capability to protect labile drugs from degradation, hydrogels serve as a platform on which various physiochemical interactions with the encapsulated drugs occur to control drug release. In this Review, we cover multiscale mechanisms underlying the design of hydrogel drug delivery systems, focusing on physical and chemical properties of the hydrogel network and the hydrogel-drug interactions across the network, mesh and molecular (or atomistic) scales. We discuss how different mechanisms interact and can be integrated to exert fine control in time and space over drug presentation. We also collect experimental release data from the literature, review clinical translation to date of these systems and present quantitative comparisons between different systems to provide guidelines for the rational design of hydrogel delivery systems.

  3. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Bagasse Biomass into Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Amiri


    Full Text Available In recent years, the main objective of developing new hydrogel systems has been to convert biomass into environmentally-friendly hydrogels. Hybrid hydrogels are usually prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylic monomers onto natural polymers or biomass. In this study, sugarcane bagasse was used to prepare semi-synthetic hybrid hydrogels without delignification, which is a costly and timeconsuming process. Sugarcane bagasse as a source of polysaccharide was modified using polymer microgels based on acrylic monomers such as acrylic acid, acrylamide and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid which were prepared through inverse emulsion polymerization. By this process, biomass as a low-value by-product was converted into a valuable semi-synthetic hydrogel. In the following, the effect of latex type¸ the aqueous-to-organic phase ratio in the polymer latex, time and temperature of modification reaction on the swelling capacity of the hybrid hydrogel were evaluated. The chemical reaction between sugarcane bagasse and acrylic latex was carried out during heating of the modified bagasse which led to obtain a semisynthetic hydrogel with 60% natural components and 40% synthetic components. Among the latexes with different structures, poly(AA-NaAA-AM-AMPS was the most suitable polymer latex for the conversion of biomass into hydrogel. The bagasse modified with this latex had a water absorption capacity up to 112 g/g, while the water absorption capacity of primary sugarcane bagasse was only equal to 3.6 g/g. The prepared polymer hydrogels were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, dynamic-mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and determination of the amount of swelling capacity.

  4. The diagnostic accuracy of Clinical Dehydration Scale in identifying dehydration in children with acute gastroenteritis: a systematic review. (United States)

    Falszewska, Anna; Dziechciarz, Piotr; Szajewska, Hania


    To systematically update diagnostic accuracy of the Clinical Dehydration Scale (CDS) in clinical recognition of dehydration in children with acute gastroenteritis. Six databases were searched for diagnostic accuracy studies in which population were children aged 1 to 36 months with acute gastroenteritis; index test was the CDS; and reference test was post-illness weight gain. Three studies involving 360 children were included. Limited evidence showed that in high-income countries the CDS provides strong diagnostic accuracy for ruling in moderate and severe (>6%) dehydration (positive likelihood ratio 5.2-6.6), but has limited value for ruling it out (negative likelihood ratio 0.4-0.55). In low-income countries, the CDS has limited value either for ruling moderate or severe dehydration in or out. In both settings, the CDS had limited value for ruling in or out dehydration dehydration 3% to 6%. The CDS can help assess moderate to severe dehydration in high-income settings. Given the limited data, the evidence should be viewed with caution. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. In vitro water wettability of silicone hydrogel contact lenses determined using the sessile drop and captive bubble techniques. (United States)

    Maldonado-Codina, Carole; Morgan, Philip B


    This study investigated the water contact angles of five commercially available silicone hydrogel contact lenses (Acuvue Advance, Acuvue Oasys, Focus Night & Day, O2 Optix, and PureVision) using sessile drop and captive bubble techniques. The only lens type that showed a significant difference in water contact angle when measured by sessile drop direct from the blister compared with after 48 h of soaking/washing in saline was the Acuvue Advance lens (from 66 degrees to 96 degrees, respectively) (p=0.0002), presumably because of surface active agents within the blister solution. The water contact angle data split the lenses into two distinct groups (plenses demonstrated relatively high sessile drop measures and relatively low captive bubble values (thereby displaying significant hysteresis) whereas the Focus Night & Day and O2 Optix lenses showed relatively low sessile drop measures and relatively high captive bubble values (with little hysteresis). Contact angle analysis of hydrogel lens surfaces is highly methodologically dependent and may be able to predict the clinical performance of contact lenses in vivo. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Hydrogels for Hydrophobic Drug Delivery. Classification, Synthesis and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneko Larrañeta


    Full Text Available Hydrogels have been shown to be very useful in the field of drug delivery due to their high biocompatibility and ability to sustain delivery. Therefore, the tuning of their properties should be the focus of study to optimise their potential. Hydrogels have been generally limited to the delivery of hydrophilic drugs. However, as many of the new drugs coming to market are hydrophobic in nature, new approaches for integrating hydrophobic drugs into hydrogels should be developed. This article discusses the possible new ways to incorporate hydrophobic drugs within hydrogel structures that have been developed through research. This review describes hydrogel-based systems for hydrophobic compound delivery included in the literature. The section covers all the main types of hydrogels, including physical hydrogels and chemical hydrogels. Additionally, reported applications of these hydrogels are described in the subsequent sections.

  7. A neutron scattering study of hydrogel surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struth, B.; Vorobiev, A.; Seydel, T.; Wiegart, L.; Major, J


    Hydrogels are jelly-like materials consisting mainly of water (up to 99 wt%) and a small amount of clay mineral gelator. Hydrogel surfaces in many respects resemble to free water surfaces. In particular, they can be as smooth as water surfaces and may serve as a substrate for hydrophilic monolayers such as lipids with polar head groups. Remarkably, gel surfaces may be tilted by a few degrees out of the horizontal plane. Here, we report on a neutron reflectivity study of hydrogel surfaces with a lipid coverage.

  8. Protein-Based Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering. (United States)

    Schloss, Ashley C; Williams, Danielle M; Regan, Lynne J


    The tunable mechanical and structural properties of protein-based hydrogels make them excellent scaffolds for tissue engineering and repair. Moreover, using protein-based components provides the option to insert sequences associated with promoting both cellular adhesion to the substrate and overall cell growth. Protein-based hydrogel components are appealing for their structural designability, specific biological functionality, and stimuli-responsiveness. Here we present highlights in the field of protein-based hydrogels for tissue engineering applications including design requirements, components, and gel types.

  9. The role of Serratia marcescens in soft contact lens associated ocular infections. A review. (United States)

    Parment, P A


    Serratia marcescens is a Gram negative rod which for a century and a half was considered a harmless saphrophyte. However, medical technology and the use of antibacterial agents have created ecological niches for this bacterium, which is now a medical problem. The bacterium is encountered in connection with contact lens keratitis, often associated with contaminated contact lens solutions. The concentrations of chlorhexidin and thiomersal required in contact lens solution to suppress the bacterium have been proved toxic to the eye. Modern contact lens solutions with biguanids have rapid killing kinetics, while in solutions with polyquaternium S. marcescens can survive in reduced numbers for up to 72 hours. The adherence of a specific isolate of Serratia to hydrogel lenses increased with decreased water content of the lenses. However, there has been no correlation between hydrophobicity markers or hemagglutinins and adherence to contact lenses or urinary tract epithelium. When handling medical plastic devices, such as contact lenses, strictly enforced hygiene remains the most important method to combat environmental bacteria such as Serratia marcescens.

  10. Endothelial keratoplasty combined with cataract surgery or alone using polyethylene glycol hydrogel sealant for closure of corneal incisions. (United States)

    Spierer, Oriel; O'Brien, Terrence P


    We present a surgical technique in which polyethylene glycol hydrogel is used to seal corneal incisions and maintain air in the anterior chamber. This technique was used in 11 eyes that had Descemet-stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK). In 2 cases, DSEK was combined with cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation. In all cases, the anterior chamber was well formed with no leakage and the donor graft remained attached following surgery. The use of polyethylene glycol hydrogel in DSEK and combined DSEK-cataract surgery may shorten surgery, decrease suture-induced corneal astigmatism, and prevent the need for suture removal. Neither author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Preparation of osmotic dehydrated ripe banana slices. (United States)

    Chavan, U D; Prabhukhanolkar, A E; Pawar, V D


    Process for preparation of ripe banana slices using osmotic dehydration was standardized. Fully ripe banana fruits were peeled and slices of 8 mm thickness were prepared. The slices were divided into 5 lots and pretreated with sulphur fumigation @ 2 g/kg of slices for 2 h then each lot was soaked in 60 (0)Brix sugar syrup containing 0.1% KMS + 0.1 % citrate, 0.1% KMS + 0.1% citrate + 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% ascorbic acid and control respectively. After 16 h soaking, quick washing, blotting and then cabinet drying at 55 °C for 10 h up to 18% moisture content was done. The dried products were packed in 200 gauge polypropylene bags and stored at ambient condition for 6 months. The chemical, microbial and organoleptic changes were monitored for 6 months. The osmo-dried banana slices prepared with sulphur fumigation @ 2 g /kg slices for 2 h followed by soaking in 60(0)Brix sugar syrup containing 0.1% KMS + 0.1% citrate + 0.2% ascorbic acid were found better with respect to colour and appearance, flavour, texture, taste and overall acceptability with non-stickiness of the product. Storage study showed that there was marginal decrease in moisture content and organoleptic quality and increase in TSS, total sugars and reducing sugars content of osmodried banana slices. The products were found microbiologically safe and sensorily acceptable up to 6 months storage at ambient condition.

  12. Functional Dehydrated Foods for Health Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. S. C. Morais


    Full Text Available The market of functional foods has experienced a huge growth in the last decades due to the increased consumers’ awareness in a healthy lifestyle. Dried fruits constitute good snacks, in alternative to salty or sweet ones, and food ingredients due to their taste and nutritional/health benefits. Bioactive molecules are interesting sources to develop functional foods, as they play a major role in improving the health status and minimizing disease risks. The bioactive compounds most widely discussed in literature are presented in this review, for example, polyphenols, phytosterols, and prebiotics. Different technologies to dry bioproducts for producing functional foods or ingredients are presented. New drying techniques for the preservation of bioactive compounds are proposed, focusing more specifically on dielectric drying. A discussion on the techniques that can be used to optimize drying processes is performed. An overview on dehydrated plant based foods with probiotics is provided. The microorganisms used, impregnation procedures, drying methods, and evaluated parameters are presented and discussed. The principal bioactive compounds responsible for nutritional and health benefits of plant derived dried food products—fruits and vegetables, fruits and vegetables by-products, grains, nuts, and algae—are presented. Phytochemical losses occurring during pretreatments and/or drying processes are also discussed.

  13. Improving the process of dehydration uchuva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Giraldo


    Full Text Available In the drying of food is essential to know the time required to achieve the dry bulb temperature, with the goal of reducing energy consumption without affecting product quality. Appropriate estimate is required to determine in advance the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection between air and product. In this paper we developed a procedure for a drying system in the form of Gooseberry hemispherical and four helmets in a pilot dehydrator trays. The heating time was determined by measuring the moisture loss vs. drying time. Based on statistics reported by the company which conducted the research, significant variables were selected as follows: temperature 58 ° C, inlet velocity 3.55 m / s, presentation of two helmets and a temperature of 62 ° C , velocity of 5.85 m / s presentation at four feet, respectively. These values provided the combinations of different variables and it was concluded by a 23 factorial design as favorable conditions, the presentation in four hooves, a dry bulb temperature of 62°C and inlet velocity of 3.55 m / s.With these results, the drying conditions scaled by a dimensionless analysis on industrial equipment, maintaining the temperature of 62 ° C and the presentation of four feet, giving a result for the air inlet velocity of 8m / s. The above conditions allow to reduce the drying process in 4 hours, with a final moisture content of 13.8% without significantly affecting the quality of the product.

  14. Pervaporation : membranes and models for the dehydration of ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitzen, Johannes Wilhelmus Franciscus


    In this thesis the dehydration of ethanol/water mixtures by pervaporation using homogeneous membranes is studied. Both the general transport mechanism as well as the development of highly selective membranes for ethanol/water separation are investigated.

  15. Survey of quality indicators in commercial dehydrated fruits. (United States)

    Megías-Pérez, Roberto; Gamboa-Santos, Juliana; Soria, Ana Cristina; Villamiel, Mar; Montilla, Antonia


    Physical and chemical quality parameters (dry matter, aw, protein, carbohydrates, vitamin C, 2-furoylmethyl amino acids, rehydration ratio and leaching loss) have been determined in 30 commercial dehydrated fruits (strawberry, blueberry, raspberry, cranberry, cherry, apple, grapefruit, mango, kiwifruit, pineapple, melon, coconut, banana and papaya). For comparison purposes, strawberry samples processed in the laboratory by freeze-drying and by convective drying were used as control samples. Overall quality of dehydrated fruits seemed to be greatly dependent on processing conditions and, in a cluster analysis, samples which were presumably subjected to osmotic dehydration were separated from the rest of fruits. These samples presented the lowest concentration of vitamin C and the highest evolution of Maillard reaction, as evidenced by its high concentration of 2-furoylmethyl amino acids. This is the first study on the usefulness of this combination of chemical and physical indicators to assess the overall quality of commercial dehydrated fruits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Pervaporation has emerged as an economically viable alternative technology for dehydration of organic solvents, removal of organic compounds and organic/organic separations. Development of a membrane system with suitable flux and selectivity characteristics plays a critical role...

  17. [Contact lens care and maintenance]. (United States)

    Bloise, L


    All contact lenses with replacement schedules longer than daily must be maintained. At each step of their use, the lenses may be contaminated. Contact lens solutions perform the essential functions of cleaning, decontaminating and preserving the lenses to prevent infectious problems and improve wearing comfort. Contact lens contamination essentially comes from hands, cleaning solutions, cases, water and the environment. The pathogenic microorganisms are mainly Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and amoebae. Contact lens deposits may or may not have an organic origin. Their presence increases the risk of infection because they serve as a nutrient matrix for microbes, and they are responsible for wearing discomfort. Contact lens solutions differ in their composition, their mechanism of action and the concentration of the various agents. To prescribe the best lens care system to each wearer and for each material, it is necessary to be very familiar with them. Maintenance is the main cause of discomfort with contact lenses, either through improper use, solution-material incompatibility, or a reaction of the wearer to the components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Hypernatremia in the Neonate: Neonatal Hypernatremia and Hypernatremic Dehydration in Neonates Receiving Exclusive Breastfeeding


    Nilofer Salim Mujawar; Archana Nirmal Jaiswal


    Aims and Objectives: Evaluation of neonatal hypernatremia and hypernatremic dehydration in neonates receiving exclusive breastfeeding. Introduction: Neonatal hypernatremia is a serious condition in the newborn period. We present infants with hypernatremic dehydration due to breast milk (BM) hypernatremia. Hypernatremic dehydration in breast-fed newborns is usually secondary to insufficient lactation. We present the neonatal hypernatremia and hypernatremic dehydration encountered between Janua...

  19. Processing silk hydrogel and its applications in biomedical materials. (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Yu-Qing


    This review mainly introduces the types of silk hydrogels, their processing methods, and applications. There are various methods for hydrogel preparation, and many new processes are being developed for various applications. Silk hydrogels can be used in cartilage tissue engineering, drug release materials, 3D scaffolds for cells, and artificial skin, among other applications because of their porous structure and high porosity and the large surface area for growth, migration, adhesion and proliferation of cells that the hydrogels provide. All of these advantages have made silk hydrogels increasingly attractive. In addition, silk hydrogels have wide prospects for application in the field of biomedical materials. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  20. Rationalization of Sucrose Solution Using During the Fruit Osmotic Dehydration


    Babić, Mirko; Babić, Ljiljana; Pavkov, Ivan; Radojčin, Milivoj


    The model of sustainable energy production of dried fruit conducted by using combined technology – the model that has been developed at the Faculty of Agriculture in Novi Sad – includes osmotic dehydration of fruit in sucrose solution. During the process of dehydration the moisture content of the solution is increased due to mass transfer of moisture from fruit. This article examines different models of recycling and concentrating of the solution. Thus, the model for concentrating of the solu...

  1. Fatal cerebral edema and intracranial hemorrhage associated with hypernatremic dehydration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocharla, R. [Department of Radiology, Slot 105, Arkansas Children`s Hospital, 800 Marshall Street, Litte Rock, AR 72202-3591 (United States); Schexnayder, S.M. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States)]|[Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Arkansas Children`s Hospital, Little Rock, AR (United States); Glasier, C.M. [Department of Radiology, Slot 105, Arkansas Children`s Hospital, 800 Marshall Street, Litte Rock, AR 72202-3591 (United States)]|[Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States)


    We report neuroimaging findings of intracranial hemorrhage and cerebral edema in an infant with obtundation and seizures, initially suspected to be secondary to non-accidental trauma but finally attributed to hypernatremic dehydration. Neuroimaging findings due to hypernatremic dehydration have not been previously described in the radiologic literature. Hypernatremia should be included in the differential diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage in the infant without evidence of nonaccidental trauma. (orig.). With 1 fig.

  2. Cryopreservation of coffee zygotic embryos: dehydration and osmotic rehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maísa de Siqueira Pinto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Conservation of plant genetic resources is important to prevent genetic erosion. Seed banks are the most common method of ex situ conservation; however, coffee seeds can not be stored by conventional methods. Cryopreservation is a viable alternative for long-term conservation of species that produce intermediate or recalcitrant seeds, as coffee. The aim of this work was to cryopreserve Coffea arabica L. cv Catuaí Vermelho IAC 144 zygotic embryos, and analyse the effects of dehydration prior cryopreservation and osmotic rehydration after thawing, in embryos germination and seedlings formation after cryopreservation. Prior to cryopreservation, different dehydration times (0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min were tested. Dehydrated embryos were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen for 1 hour, and after thawing were rehydrated by osmotic solutions. Dehydrated and non-cryopreserved embryos were also analysed. The test with 2,3,5 triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC was used to evaluate the embryos viability. Non-dehydrated embryos did not survive after freezing. Embryos that were dehydrated until 20% of the moisture content did not germinate when osmotic rehydration was not performed. In contrast, cryopreserved embryos with the same moisture content presented 98% germination when they were rehydrated slowly in osmotic solution. According to tetrazolium tests, embryos presented maximum viability (75% after dehydration for 60 minutes (23% moisture content. Therefore, coffee zygotic embryos (Coffea arabica L. cv. Catuaí Vermelho can be successfully cryopreserved using physical dehydration in silica gel for 60 minutes (23% moisture content, followed by osmotic rehydration after thawing. This method allowed a germination of 98% of cryopreserved zygotic embryos.

  3. Hyaluronidase-Assisted Resuscitation in Kenya for Severely Dehydrated Children. (United States)

    Zubairi, Hijab; Nelson, Brett D; Tulshian, Priyanka; Fredricks, Karla; Altawil, Zaid; Mireles, Sarah; Odongo, Fred; Burke, Thomas F


    Dehydration, mainly due to diarrheal illnesses, is a leading cause of childhood mortality worldwide. Intravenous (IV) therapy is the standard of care for patients who were unable to tolerate oral rehydration; however, placing IVs in fragile, dehydrated veins can be challenging. Studies in resource-rich settings comparing hyaluronidase-assisted subcutaneous rehydration with standard IV rehydration in children have demonstrated several benefits of subcutaneous rehydration, including time and success of line placement, ease of use, satisfaction, and cost-effectiveness. A single-arm trial assessing the feasibility of hyaluronidase-assisted subcutaneous resuscitation for the treatment of moderately to severely dehydrated individuals in western Kenya was conducted. Children aged 2 months or older who presented with moderately to severely dehydration clinically warranting parenteral rehydration and had at least 2 failed IV attempts were eligible. Study staff received training on standard dehydration management and hyaluronidase infusion processes. Children received all other standards of care. They were monitored from presentation and through discharge, with a 1-week phone follow-up. Predischarge surveys were completed by caregivers, and semistructured interviews with providers were performed. A total of 51 children were enrolled (median age, 13.0 months; interquartile range of 18 months). Fifty-one patients (100%) had severe dehydration. The median length of subcutaneous infusion was 3.0 hours (interquartile range [IQR], 2.95). The median total subcutaneous infusion was 700.0 mL (IQR, 420 mL). Median time to resolution of moderate to severe dehydration symptoms was 3.0 hours (IQR, 2.95 hours). There were no significant complications. Hyaluronidase-assisted subcutaneous resuscitation is a feasible alternative to IV hydration in moderately to severely dehydrated children with difficult to obtain IV access in resource-limited areas.

  4. External validation and comparison of three pediatric clinical dehydration scales. (United States)

    Jauregui, Joshua; Nelson, Daniel; Choo, Esther; Stearns, Branden; Levine, Adam C; Liebmann, Otto; Shah, Sachita P


    To prospectively validate three popular clinical dehydration scales and overall physician gestalt in children with vomiting or diarrhea relative to the criterion standard of percent weight change with rehydration. We prospectively enrolled a non-consecutive cohort of children ≤ 18 years of age with an acute episode of diarrhea or vomiting. Patient weight, clinical scale variables and physician clinical impression, or gestalt, were recorded before and after fluid resuscitation in the emergency department and upon hospital discharge. The percent weight change from presentation to discharge was used to calculate the degree of dehydration, with a weight change of ≥ 5% considered significant dehydration. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed for each of the three clinical scales and physician gestalt. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated based on the best cut-points of the ROC curve. We approached 209 patients, and of those, 148 were enrolled and 113 patients had complete data for analysis. Of these, 10.6% had significant dehydration based on our criterion standard. The Clinical Dehydration Scale (CDS) and Gorelick scales both had an area under the ROC curve (AUC) statistically different from the reference line with AUCs of 0.72 (95% CI 0.60, 0.84) and 0.71 (95% CI 0.57, 0.85) respectively. The World Health Organization (WHO) scale and physician gestalt had AUCs of 0.61 (95% CI 0.45, 0.77) and 0.61 (0.44, 0.78) respectively, which were not statistically significant. The Gorelick scale and Clinical Dehydration Scale were fair predictors of dehydration in children with diarrhea or vomiting. The World Health Organization scale and physician gestalt were not helpful predictors of dehydration in our cohort.

  5. The independent influences of heat strain and dehydration upon cognition. (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Anne M J; Haberley, Benjamin J; Hoyle, David J R; Taylor, Nigel A S; Croft, Rodney J


    Many researchers have addressed the potential effects of hyperthermia and dehydration on cognition, often revealing contradictory outcomes. A possible reason for this inconsistency is that experiments may have been inadequately designed for such effects. In this study, the impact of hyperthermia, dehydration and their combination on cognition were evaluated in eight young males, after accounting for a range of experimental limitations. Passive heating and thermal clamping at two mean body temperatures (36.5, 38.5 °C) were performed under three hydration states (euhydrated, 3 and 5% dehydrated) to assess their effects on difficulty-matched working memory and visual perception tasks, and on a difficulty manipulated perceptual task. Data were analysed according to signal detection theory to isolate changes in response sensitivity, bias and speed. Neither moderate hyperthermia (P = 0.141) nor dehydration (P > 0.604) modified response sensitivity, nor did they significantly interact (P > 0.698). Therefore, the ability to distinguish correct from incorrect responses was unaffected. Nevertheless, hyperthermia, but not dehydration (P = 0.301), reduced the response bias (-0.08 versus 2.2 [normothermia]; P = 0.010) and reaction time (mean reduction 49 ms; P dehydration and their combined effects had insufficient impact to impair cognition within the memory and perceptual domains tested. Nonetheless, moderate hyperthermia elicited more liberal and rapid responses.

  6. Dehydration and fluid volume kinetics before major open abdominal surgery. (United States)

    Hahn, R G; Bahlmann, H; Nilsson, L


    Assessment of dehydration in the preoperative setting is of potential clinical value. The present study uses urine analysis and plasma volume kinetics, which have both been validated against induced changes in body water in volunteers, to study the incidence and severity of dehydration before open abdominal surgery begins. Thirty patients (mean age 64 years) had their urine analysed before major elective open abdominal surgery for colour, specific weight, osmolality and creatinine. The results were scored and the mean taken to represent a 'dehydration index'. Thereafter, the patients received an infusion of 5 ml/kg of Ringer's acetate intravenously for over 15 min. Blood was sampled for 70 min and the blood haemoglobin concentration used to estimate the plasma volume kinetics. Distribution of fluid occurred more slowly (P dehydrated as compared with euhydrated patients. The dehydration index indicated that the fluid deficit in these patients corresponded to 2.5% of the body weight, whereas the deficit in the others was 1%. In contrast, the 11 patients who later developed postoperative nausea and vomiting had a very short elimination half-life, only 9 min (median, P dehydration before major surgery was modest as evidenced both by urine sampling and volume kinetic analysis. © 2014 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Dehydration in the Elderly: A Review Focused on Economic Burden. (United States)

    Frangeskou, M; Lopez-Valcarcel, B; Serra-Majem, L


    Dehydration is the most common fluid and electrolyte problem among elderly patients. It is reported to be widely prevalent and costly to individuals and to the health care system. The purpose of this review is to summarize the literature on the economic burden of dehydration in the elderly. A comprehensive search of several databases from database inception to November 2013, only in English language, was conducted. The databases included Pubmed and ISI Web of Science. The search terms «dehydration» / "hyponaremia" / "hypernatremia" AND «cost» AND «elderly» were used to search for comparative studies of the economic burden of dehydration. A total of 15 papers were identified. Dehydration in the elderly is an independent factor of higher health care expenditures. It is directly associated with an increase in hospital mortality, as well as with an increase in the utilization of ICU, short and long term care facilities, readmission rates and hospital resources, especially among those with moderate to severe hyponatremia. Dehydration represents a potential target for intervention to reduce healthcare expenditures and improve patients' quality of life.

  8. Fructokinase activity mediates dehydration-induced renal injury. (United States)

    Roncal Jimenez, Carlos A; Ishimoto, Takuji; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Rivard, Christopher J; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Ejaz, A Ahsan; Cicerchi, Christina; Inaba, Shinichiro; Le, MyPhuong; Miyazaki, Makoto; Glaser, Jason; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; González, Marvin A; Aragón, Aurora; Wesseling, Catharina; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura G; Johnson, Richard J


    The epidemic of chronic kidney disease in Nicaragua (Mesoamerican nephropathy) has been linked with recurrent dehydration. Here we tested whether recurrent dehydration may cause renal injury by activation of the polyol pathway, resulting in the generation of endogenous fructose in the kidney that might subsequently induce renal injury via metabolism by fructokinase. Wild-type and fructokinase-deficient mice were subjected to recurrent heat-induced dehydration. One group of each genotype was provided water throughout the day and the other group was hydrated at night, after the dehydration. Both groups received the same total hydration in 24 h. Wild-type mice that received delayed hydration developed renal injury, with elevated serum creatinine, increased urinary NGAL, proximal tubular injury, and renal inflammation and fibrosis. This was associated with activation of the polyol pathway, with increased renal cortical sorbitol and fructose levels. Fructokinase-knockout mice with delayed hydration were protected from renal injury. Thus, recurrent dehydration can induce renal injury via a fructokinase-dependent mechanism, likely from the generation of endogenous fructose via the polyol pathway. Access to sufficient water during the dehydration period can protect mice from developing renal injury. These studies provide a potential mechanism for Mesoamerican nephropathy.

  9. Seawater drinking restores water balance in dehydrated harp seals. (United States)

    How, Ole-Jakob; Nordøy, Erling S


    The purpose of this study was to answer the question of whether dehydrated harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) are able to obtain a net gain of water from the intake of seawater. Following 24 h of fasting, three subadult female harp seals were dehydrated by intravenous administration of the osmotic diuretic, mannitol. After another 24 h of fasting, the seals were given 1,000 ml seawater via a stomach tube. Urine and blood were collected for measurement of osmolality and osmolytes, while total body water (TBW) was determined by injections of tritiated water. In all seals, the maximum urinary concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) were higher than in seawater, reaching 540 and 620 mM, respectively, compared to 444 and 535 mM in seawater. In another experiment, the seals were given ad lib access to seawater for 48 h after mannitol-induced hyper-osmotic dehydration. In animals without access to seawater, the mean blood osmolality increased from 331 to 363 mOsm kg(-1) during dehydration. In contrast, the blood osmolality, hematocrit and TBW returned to normal when the seals were permitted ad lib access to seawater after dehydration. In conclusion, this study shows that harp seals have the capacity to gain net water from mariposa (voluntarily drinking seawater) and are able to restore water balance after profound dehydration by drinking seawater.

  10. A survey of corneal changes caused by daily wear silicone hydrogel contact lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kettesy


    Full Text Available Purpose: The examination of the effects of second generation lotrafilcon B silicone hydrogel (SiH lenses on the cornea when worn for three years of daily wear. Material and Methods: 55 healthy patients were divided into two groups: current hydrogel contact lens wearers refitted with lotrafilcon B lenses (Group 1; 28 patients and neophyte contact lens wearers (Group 2; 27 patients. Each patient's subjective eye comfort was measured with a self-administered questionnaire. The corneas were analyzed using contact specular microscope to measure corneal thickness and the endothelium before the SiH lenses were fitted after four weeks, one month, six months, one year, two years, and three years of lens wear. Results: Subjective complaints of patients in Group 1 were reduced; however patients in Group 2 experienced discomfort during the first two to four weeks of use. In Group 1, objective examinations identified a decrease in endothelial cell density. In Group 2, the endothelial cell density increased slightly in the first two years but decreased after three years. The results indicate that lotrafilcon B slows down the deleterious effects of contact lenses. The coefficient of variation significantly decreased after six months in Group 1 (0.47 vs 0.44; p = 0.049, whereas, in Group 2, the hexagonal cells improved significantly after one month (27.78 vs 28.25; p = 0.025. Conclusion: Based on the subjects involved and the period of time under examination, it can be concluded that high-Dk SiH lenses support the physiological metabolism and functions of the cornea by improving oxygen provision.

  11. Automated Fresnel lens tester system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phipps, G.S.


    An automated data collection system controlled by a desktop computer has been developed for testing Fresnel concentrators (lenses) intended for solar energy applications. The system maps the two-dimensional irradiance pattern (image) formed in a plane parallel to the lens, whereas the lens and detector assembly track the sun. A point detector silicon diode (0.5-mm-dia active area) measures the irradiance at each point of an operator-defined rectilinear grid of data positions. Comparison with a second detector measuring solar insolation levels results in solar concentration ratios over the image plane. Summation of image plane energies allows calculation of lens efficiencies for various solar cell sizes. Various graphical plots of concentration ratio data help to visualize energy distribution patterns.

  12. [Contact lens-related keratitis]. (United States)

    Steiber, Zita; Berta, András; Módis, László


    Nowadays, keratitis, corneal infection due to wearing contact lens means an increasingly serious problem. Neglected cases may lead to corneal damage that can cause blindness in cases of otherwise healthy eyes. Early diagnosis based on the clinical picture and the typical patient history is an important way of prevention. Prophylaxis is substantial to avoid bacterial and viral infection that is highly essential in this group of diseases. Teaching contact lens wearers the proper contact lens care, storage, sterility, and hygiene regulations is of great importance. In case of corneal inflammation early accurate diagnosis supported by microbiological culture from contact lenses, storage boxes or cornea is very useful. Thereafter, targeted drug therapy or in therapy-resistant cases surgical treatment may even be necessary in order to sustain suitable visual acuity.

  13. Compliance among soft contact lens wearers. (United States)

    Kuzman, Tomislav; Kutija, Marija Barisić; Masnec, Sanja; Jandroković, Sonja; Mrazovac, Danijela; Jurisić, Darija; Skegro, Ivan; Kalauz, Miro; Kordić, Rajko


    Contact lens compliance is proven to be crucial for preventing lens wear-related complications because of the interdependence of the steps in lens care regime and their influence on lens system microbial contamination. Awareness of the patients' lens handling compliance as well as correct recognition of non-compliant behaviours is the basis for creating more targeted strategies for patient education. The aim of this study was to investigate compliance among soft contact lens (SCL) wearers in different aspects of lens care handling and wearing habits. In our research 50 asymptomatic lens wearers filled out a questionnaire containing demographic data, lens type, hygiene and wearing habits, lenses and lens care system replacement schedule and self-evaluation of contact lens handling hygiene. We established criteria of compliance according to available manufacturer's recommendations, prior literature and our clinical experience. Only 2 (4%) of patients were fully compliant SCL wearers. The most common non-compliant behaviours were insufficient lens solution soaking time (62%), followed by failure to daily exchange lens case solution and showering while wearing lenses. 44% of patients reported storing lenses in saline solution. Mean lens storage case replacement was 3.6 months, with up to 78% patients replacing lens case at least once in 3 months. Average grade in self evaluating level of compliance was very good (4 +/- 0.78) (from 1-poor level of hygiene to 5-great level of hygiene). Lens wearers who reported excessive daily lens wear and more than 10 years of lens wearing experience were also found to be less compliant with other lens system care procedures. (t = -2.99, df=47, p lens system maintenance steps. Most common non-compliant behaviours were the ones that are crucial for maintaining lens sterility and preventing infection. Despite the low objective compliance rate, self grading was relatively high. Therefore, these results indicate the need for patient

  14. Photocrosslinkable Gelatin Hydrogel for Epidermal Tissue Engineering


    Zhao, Xin; Lang, Qi; Yildirimer, Lara; Lin, Zhi Yuan; Cui, Wenguo; Annabi, Nasim; Ng, Kee Woei; Dokmeci, Mehmet R.; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M.; Khademhosseini, Ali


    Natural hydrogels are promising scaffolds to engineer epidermis. Currently, natural hydrogels used to support epidermal regeneration are mainly collagen- or gelatin-based, which mimic the natural dermal extracellular matrix but often suffer from insufficient and uncontrollable mechanical and degradation properties. In this study, a photocrosslinkable gelatin (i.e., gelatin methacrylamide (GelMA)) with tunable mechanical, degradation, and biological properties is used to engineer the epidermis...

  15. Contact lens care in keratoconus. (United States)

    Zhou, Alana J; Kitamura, Keiko; Weissman, Barry A


    To quantify the complexity involved in fitting contact lenses on the eyes of patients with keratoconus. The contact lens care of one randomly selected eye each of 38 keratoconus patients was retrospectively analyzed and compared to that of 38 gender and age matched controls. We evaluated the number of diagnostic contact lenses used to establish the initial contact lens order, number of ordered rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses needed to complete the fit, number of office visits during the initial 4 months of care, best spectacle and RGP contact lenses corrected Log MAR visual acuities, complications encountered, and whether or not the patient was successful in contact lens wear. Keratoconic eyes statistically used more diagnostic lenses, more ordered lenses, and more office visits than did normal eyes. Visual acuities improved from an average of 20/40 with spectacles to an average of 20/20 by use of RGP contact lenses in keratoconic eyes. Visions were corrected to 20/20 with both spectacles and contact lenses in control eyes. Sixty nine percent (69%) of keratoconic eyes and 95% of controls were successful in contact lens wear. Contact lens care of keratoconic eyes is more challenging than care of normal eyes because of the need for more diagnostic and ordered contact lenses and the use of more professional time. Keratoconic eyes may suffer more complications than normals during contact lens care, but this does not affect the success rates, and such patients benefit from enhanced visual acuity with RGP contact lenses compared to that achieved with spectacles.

  16. Preparation of a self-supporting cell architecture mimic by water channel confined photocrosslinking within a lamellar structured hydrogel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubjesic, S.; Lee, B.; Seifert, S.; Firestone, M. A. (Materials Science Division); ( XSD)


    A self-supporting biomimetic chemical hydrogel that can be reversibly swollen in water is described. An aqueous dispersion of a diacrylate end-derivatized PEO-PPO-PEO macromer, a saturated phospholipid, and a zwitterionic co-surfactant self-assembles into a multilamellar-structured physical gel at room temperature as determined by SAXS. The addition of a water soluble PEGDA co-monomer and photoinitiator within the water layers does not alter the self-assembled structure. ATR/FT-IR spectroscopy reveals that photoirradiation initiates the crosslinking between the acrylate end groups on the macromer with the PEGDA, forming a polymeric network within the aqueous domains. The primitive cytoskeleton mimic serves to stabilize the amphiphile bilayer, converting the physical gel into an elastic self-supporting chemical gel. Storage under ambient conditions causes dehydration of the hydrogel to 5 wt % water which can be reversed by swelling in water. The fully water swollen gel (85 wt % water) remains self-supporting but converts to a non-lamellar structure. As water is lost the chemical gel regains its lamellar structure. Incubation of the hydrogel in nonpolar organic solvents that do not dissolve the uncrosslinked lipid component (hexane) allow for swelling without loss of structural integrity. Chloroform, which readily solubilizes the lipid, causes irreversible loss of the lamellar structure.

  17. A Hydrogel Derived From Decellularized Dermal Extracellular Matrix (United States)

    Wolf, Matthew T.; Daly, Kerry A.; Brennan-Pierce, Ellen P.; Johnson, Scott A.; Carruthers, Christopher; D’Amore, Antonio; Nagarkar, Shailesh P.; Velankar, Sachin S.; Badylak, Stephen F.


    The ECM of mammalian tissues has been used as a scaffold to facilitate the repair and reconstruction of numerous tissues. Such scaffolds are prepared in many forms including sheets, powders, and hydrogels. ECM hydrogels provide advantages such as injectability, the ability to fill an irregularly shaped space, and the inherent bioactivity of native matrix. However, material properties of ECM hydrogels and the effect of these properties upon cell behavior are neither well understood nor controlled. The objective of this study was to prepare and determine the structure, mechanics, and the cell response in vitro and in vivo of ECM hydrogels prepared from decellularized porcine dermis and urinary bladder tissues. Dermal ECM hydrogels were characterized by a more dense fiber architecture and greater mechanical integrity than urinary bladder ECM hydrogels, and showed a dose dependent increase in mechanical properties with ECM concentration. In vitro, dermal ECM hydrogels supported greater C2C12 myoblast fusion, and less fibroblast infiltration and less fibroblast mediated hydrogel contraction than urinary bladder ECM hydrogels. Both hydrogels were rapidly infiltrated by host cells, primarily macrophages, when implanted in a rat abdominal wall defect. Both ECM hydrogels degraded by 35 days in vivo, but UBM hydrogels degraded more quickly, and with greater amounts of myogenesis than dermal ECM. These results show that ECM hydrogel properties can be varied and partially controlled by the scaffold tissue source, and that these properties can markedly affect cell behavior. PMID:22789723

  18. Topological robotics in lens spaces (United States)

    González, Jesús


    Motivated by the work of Farber, Tabachnikov and Yuzvinsky on the motion planning problem for projective spaces, we give an estimate for the topological complexity (TC) of lens spaces in terms of certain generalized “skew” maps between spheres. This last concept turns out to be closely related to that for a generalized axial map developed by Astey, Davis and the author to characterize the smallest Euclidean dimension where (2-torsion) lens spaces can be immersed. As a result, this suggests an alternative simpler “TC-approach” to the classical immersion problem for real projective spaces, whose initial stages we settle by means of techniques in obstruction theory.

  19. Enzymatically degradable mussel-inspired adhesive hydrogel. (United States)

    Brubaker, Carrie E; Messersmith, Phillip B


    Mussel-inspired adhesive hydrogels represent innovative candidate medical sealants or glues. In the present work, we describe an enzyme-degradable mussel-inspired adhesive hydrogel formulation, achieved by incorporating minimal elastase substrate peptide Ala-Ala into the branched poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) macromonomer structure. The system takes advantage of neutrophil elastase expression upregulation and secretion from neutrophils upon recruitment to wounded or inflamed tissue. By integrating adhesive degradation behaviors that respond to cellular cues, we expand the functional range of our mussel-inspired adhesive hydrogel platforms. Rapid (adhesion of the proteolytically active, catechol-terminated precursor macromonomer was achieved by addition of sodium periodate oxidant. Rheological analysis and equilibrium swelling studies demonstrated that the hydrogel is appropriate for soft tissue-contacting applications. Notably, hydrogel storage modulus (G') achieved values on the order of 10 kPa, and strain at failure exceeded 200% strain. Lap shear testing confirmed the material's adhesive behavior (shear strength: 30.4 ± 3.39 kPa). Although adhesive hydrogel degradation was not observed during short-term (27 h) in vitro treatment with neutrophil elastase, in vivo degradation proceeded over several months following dorsal subcutaneous implantation in mice. This work represents the first example of an enzymatically degradable mussel-inspired adhesive and expands the potential biomedical applications of this family of materials.

  20. Development of hydrogels for regenerative engineering. (United States)

    Guan, Xiaofei; Avci-Adali, Meltem; Alarçin, Emine; Cheng, Hao; Kashaf, Sara Saheb; Li, Yuxiao; Chawla, Aditya; Jang, Hae Lin; Khademhosseini, Ali


    The aim of regenerative engineering is to restore complex tissues and biological systems through convergence in the fields of advanced biomaterials, stem cell science, and developmental biology. Hydrogels are one of the most attractive biomaterials for regenerative engineering, since they can be engineered into tissue mimetic 3D scaffolds to support cell growth due to their similarity to native extracellular matrix. Advanced nano- and micro-technologies have dramatically increased the ability to control properties and functionalities of hydrogel materials by facilitating biomimetic fabrication of more sophisticated compositions and architectures, thus extending our understanding of cell-matrix interactions at the nanoscale. With this perspective, this review discusses the most commonly used hydrogel materials and their fabrication strategies for regenerative engineering. We highlight the physical, chemical, and functional modulation of hydrogels to design and engineer biomimetic tissues based on recent achievements in nano- and micro-technologies. In addition, current hydrogel-based regenerative engineering strategies for treating multiple tissues, such as musculoskeletal, nervous and cardiac tissue, are also covered in this review. The interaction of multiple disciplines including materials science, cell biology, and chemistry, will further play an important role in the design of functional hydrogels for the regeneration of complex tissues. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Hydrogel: Preparation, characterization, and applications: A review (United States)

    Ahmed, Enas M.


    Hydrogel products constitute a group of polymeric materials, the hydrophilic structure of which renders them capable of holding large amounts of water in their three-dimensional networks. Extensive employment of these products in a number of industrial and environmental areas of application is considered to be of prime importance. As expected, natural hydrogels were gradually replaced by synthetic types due to their higher water absorption capacity, long service life, and wide varieties of raw chemical resources. Literature on this subject was found to be expanding, especially in the scientific areas of research. However, a number of publications and technical reports dealing with hydrogel products from the engineering points of view were examined to overview technological aspects covering this growing multidisciplinary field of research. The primary objective of this article is to review the literature concerning classification of hydrogels on different bases, physical and chemical characteristics of these products, and technical feasibility of their utilization. It also involved technologies adopted for hydrogel production together with process design implications, block diagrams, and optimized conditions of the preparation process. An innovated category of recent generations of hydrogel materials was also presented in some details. PMID:25750745

  2. Arctic stratospheric dehydration - Part 2: Microphysical modeling (United States)

    Engel, I.; Luo, B. P.; Khaykin, S. M.; Wienhold, F. G.; Vömel, H.; Kivi, R.; Hoyle, C. R.; Grooß, J.-U.; Pitts, M. C.; Peter, T.


    Large areas of synoptic-scale ice PSCs (polar stratospheric clouds) distinguished the Arctic winter 2009/2010 from other years and revealed unprecedented evidence of water redistribution in the stratosphere. A unique snapshot of water vapor repartitioning into ice particles was obtained under extremely cold Arctic conditions with temperatures around 183 K. Balloon-borne, aircraft and satellite-based measurements suggest that synoptic-scale ice PSCs and concurrent reductions and enhancements in water vapor are tightly linked with the observed de- and rehydration signatures, respectively. In a companion paper (Part 1), water vapor and aerosol backscatter measurements from the RECONCILE (Reconciliation of essential process parameters for an enhanced predictability of Arctic stratospheric ozone loss and its climate interactions) and LAPBIAT-II (Lapland Atmosphere-Biosphere Facility) field campaigns have been analyzed in detail. This paper uses a column version of the Zurich Optical and Microphysical box Model (ZOMM) including newly developed NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) and ice nucleation parameterizations. Particle sedimentation is calculated in order to simulate the vertical redistribution of chemical species such as water and nitric acid. Despite limitations given by wind shear and uncertainties in the initial water vapor profile, the column modeling unequivocally shows that (1) accounting for small-scale temperature fluctuations along the trajectories is essential in order to reach agreement between simulated optical cloud properties and observations, and (2) the use of recently developed heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterizations allows the reproduction of the observed signatures of de- and rehydration. Conversely, the vertical redistribution of water measured cannot be explained in terms of homogeneous nucleation of ice clouds, whose particle radii remain too small to cause significant dehydration.


    Watts, Alan G.; Boyle, Christina N.


    The anorexia that accompanies the drinking of hypertonic saline (DE-anorexia) is a critical adaptive behavioral mechanism that helps protect the integrity of fluid compartments during extended periods of cellular dehydration. Feeding is rapidly reinstated once drinking water is made available again. The relative simplicity and reproducibility of these behaviors makes DE-anorexia a very useful model for investigating how the various neural networks that control ingestive behaviors first suppress and then reinstate feeding. We show that DE-anorexia develops primarily because the mechanisms that terminate ongoing meals are upregulated in such a way as to significantly reduce meal size. At the same time however, signals generated by the ensuing negative energy balance appropriately activate neural mechanisms that can increase food intake. But as the output from these two competing processes is integrated, the net result is an increasing reduction of nocturnal food intake, despite the fact that spontaneous meals are initiated with the same frequency as in control animals. Furthermore, hypothalamic NPY injections also stimulate feeding in DE-anorexic animals with the same latency as controls, but again meals are prematurely terminated. Comparing Fos expression patterns across the brain following 2-deoxyglucose administration to control and DE-anorexic animals implicates neurons in the descending part of the parvicellular paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and the lateral hypothalamic areas as key components of the networks that control DE-anorexia. Finally, DE-anorexia generates multiple inhibitory processes to suppress feeding. These are differentially disengaged once drinking water is reinstated. PMID:20399797

  4. The functional architecture of dehydration-anorexia. (United States)

    Watts, Alan G; Boyle, Christina N


    The anorexia that accompanies the drinking of hypertonic saline (DE-anorexia) is a critical adaptive behavioral mechanism that helps protect the integrity of fluid compartments during extended periods of cellular dehydration. Feeding is rapidly reinstated once drinking water is made available again. The relative simplicity and reproducibility of these behaviors makes DE-anorexia a very useful model for investigating how the various neural networks that control ingestive behaviors first suppress and then reinstate feeding. We show that DE-anorexia develops primarily because the mechanisms that terminate ongoing meals are upregulated in such a way as to significantly reduce meal size. At the same time however, signals generated by the ensuing negative energy balance appropriately activate neural mechanisms that can increase food intake. But as the output from these two competing processes is integrated, the net result is an increasing reduction of nocturnal food intake, despite the fact that spontaneous meals are initiated with the same frequency as in control animals. Furthermore, hypothalamic NPY injections also stimulate feeding in DE-anorexic animals with the same latency as controls, but again meals are prematurely terminated. Comparing Fos expression patterns across the brain following 2-deoxyglucose administration to control and DE-anorexic animals implicates neurons in the descending part of the parvicellular paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and the lateral hypothalamic areas as key components of the networks that control DE-anorexia. Finally, DE-anorexia generates multiple inhibitory processes to suppress feeding. These are differentially disengaged once drinking water is reinstated. The paper represents an invited review by a symposium, award winner or keynote speaker at the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior [SSIB] Annual Meeting in Portland, July 2009. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Drying of poloxamer hydrogel films. (United States)

    Gu, Zhiyong; Alexandridis, Paschalis


    The drying of hydrogel films formed by Poloxamer 407 poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) amphiphilic block copolymer was investigated at various air relative humidity (RH) conditions ranging from 11 to 97%. Initially, the amount of water lost increased linearly with the drying time. After this linear region (stage I), a nonlinear behavior was observed (stage II). The drying rate increased with decreasing RH, thus greatly shortening the drying time. A decrease of the film thickness also shortened the drying time; however, the drying mechanism did not change. Three models for one-dimensional water diffusion were used to fit the experimental results at different RH conditions and film thicknesses. Model 1 assumes semi-infinite medium and constant diffusion coefficient, and fits very well the data in stage I of the drying process. The fitted water diffusion coefficient (D) is 5 x 10(-10) m(2)/s, whereas the effects of the RH are captured by a proportionality constant (alpha) that appears in the boundary condition. Model 2 considers a finite (constant) film thickness and captures the experimental observations over the whole drying period for the same D and alpha as in Model 1. The analytical solutions available for Models 1 and 2, used together with the experimentally derived model parameters D and alpha, allow for easy estimation of drying time and water loss from Poloxamer hydrogel films of various compositions and thicknesses and at different relative humidities. Numerical solutions for water diffusion under conditions of decreasing film thickness and diffusion coefficient being a function of concentration are also presented (Model 3). It becomes apparent from the fit of the data to the different models that the drying rate is more sensitive to the boundary condition at the film-air interface (represented by alpha) than to the diffusion in the film. It is notable that the alpha values obtained from the fits of the Poloxamer hydrogel drying

  6. Age and other risk factors for corneal infiltrative and inflammatory events in young soft contact lens wearers from the Contact Lens Assessment in Youth (CLAY) study. (United States)

    Chalmers, Robin L; Wagner, Heidi; Mitchell, G Lynn; Lam, Dawn Y; Kinoshita, Beth T; Jansen, Meredith E; Richdale, Kathryn; Sorbara, Luigina; McMahon, Timothy T


    To describe age and other risk factors for corneal infiltrative and inflammatory events (CIEs) in young, soft contact lens (SCL) wearers and to model the age-related risk. A multicenter, retrospective chart review of 3549 SCL wearers (8-33 years at first observed visit, +8.00 to -12.00D, oversampling lens care products, and SCL wearing history. Event diagnoses were adjudicated to consensus by reviewers masked to wearer identity, age, and SCL parameters. Significant univariate risk factors for CIEs were subsequently tested in multivariate generalized estimating equations. Charts from 14,305 visits observing 4,663 SCL years yielded 187 CIEs in 168 wearers. Age was a significant nonlinear risk factor, peaking between 15 and 25 years (P lens wear, use of multipurpose care products, silicone hydrogels, and extended wear were all significantly associated with CIEs with SCL wear. Use of SCLs in young patients aged 8 to 15 years was associated with a lower risk of infiltrative events compared with teens and young adults. In terms of safety outcomes, SCLs appear to be an acceptable method of delivering optics designed to manage myopia progression in children and young teens in the future.

  7. Depth Profile Assessment of the Early Phase Deposition of Lysozyme on Soft Contact Lens Materials Using a Novel In Vitro Eye Model. (United States)

    Qiao, Han; Phan, Chau-Minh; Walther, Hendrik; Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Jones, Lyndon


    To characterize the location of fluorescently labeled lysozyme on commercial contact lenses (CLs) using an in vitro eye model that simulates tear volume, tear flow, air exposure, and mechanical wear. One commercially available conventional hydrogel CL material (etafilcon A) and three silicone hydrogel CL materials (balafilcon A, lotrafilcon B, and senofilcon A) were evaluated in this study. The CLs were mounted on the in vitro eye model and exposed to artificial tear fluid containing fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled lysozyme for 2 and 10 hrs. After these short incubation periods, circular discs were punched from the CLs at the center and periphery and were prepared for confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The CLSM captured a series of consecutive images spaced 5 μm apart, and the resulting images were rendered into two dimensional cross-sectional views of the CL. The mean fluorescence at each 5 μm slice was used to generate a histogram depicting the penetration of FITC-lysozyme into CLs. For both incubation periods, the CLSM images and histogram of etafilcon A showed that FITC-lysozyme is more concentrated at the lens surface, with a moderate amount of deposition in the lens matrix. For balafilcon A, FITC-lysozyme was evenly distributed throughout the lens. For lotrafilcon B, there was a greater amount of FITC-lysozyme deposition on the surfaces of the lens versus the matrix. Senofilcon A had differential FITC-lysozyme distribution profiles depending on the location of the lens. At the lens periphery, FITC-lysozyme primarily deposited on the surface, whereas FITC-lysozyme was uniformly distributed at the center of the lens. With the use of a sophisticated in vitro eye model, the study revealed a complex deposition pattern of FITC-labeled lysozyme on various CL materials after short periods of exposure. An understanding of the early deposition pattern of lysozyme on different CL material may elucidate new insights into the processes behind CL

  8. Assessment of a modified acoustic lens for electromagnetic shock wave lithotripters in a swine model. (United States)

    Mancini, John G; Neisius, Andreas; Smith, Nathan; Sankin, Georgy; Astroza, Gaston M; Lipkin, Michael E; Simmons, W Neal; Preminger, Glenn M; Zhong, Pei


    The acoustic lens of the Modularis electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter (Siemens, Malvern, Pennsylvania) was modified to produce a pressure waveform and focal zone more closely resembling that of the original HM3 device (Dornier Medtech, Wessling, Germany). We assessed the newly designed acoustic lens in vivo in an animal model. Stone fragmentation and tissue injury produced by the original and modified lenses of the Modularis lithotripter were evaluated in a swine model under equivalent acoustic pulse energy (about 45 mJ) at 1 Hz pulse repetition frequency. Stone fragmentation was determined by the weight percent of stone fragments less than 2 mm. To assess tissue injury, shock wave treated kidneys were perfused, dehydrated, cast in paraffin wax and sectioned. Digital images were captured every 120 μm and processed to determine functional renal volume damage. After 500 shocks, the mean ± SD stone fragmentation efficiency produced by the original and modified lenses was 48% ± 12% and 52% ± 17%, respectively (p = 0.60). However, after 2,000 shocks, the modified lens showed significantly improved stone fragmentation compared to the original lens (mean 86% ± 10% vs 72% ± 12%, p = 0.02). Tissue injury caused by the original and modified lenses was minimal at a mean of 0.57% ± 0.44% and 0.25% ± 0.25%, respectively (p = 0.27). With lens modification the Modularis lithotripter demonstrates significantly improved stone fragmentation with minimal tissue injury at a clinically relevant acoustic pulse energy. This new lens design could potentially be retrofitted to existing lithotripters, improving the effectiveness of electromagnetic lithotripters. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 21 CFR 886.3600 - Intraocular lens. (United States)


    ... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3600 Intraocular lens. (a) Identification. An... the natural lens of an eye. (b) Classification. Class III. (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a...

  10. Histochemical analysis of bandage contact lens precipitates. (United States)

    Nessim, Maged; Pandey, Suresh K; Werner, Liliana; Mohammed, Musadiq; Kumar, Vinod


    Contact lens deposits have been reported previously with extended wear of soft contact lenses, with proteins, lipids, mucous, and various salts such as chloride, potassium and calcium being deposited on the lens surface [1]. We report an unusual case of precipitates on the surface of a bandage contact lens (BCL) following intensive treatment with topical preservative free artificial tears. Evaluation included microscopic and histochemical analysis of the BCL. We have also reviewed the literature for previous reports of contact lens precipitates.

  11. Salicyl-imine-chitosan hydrogels: Supramolecular architecturing as a crosslinking method toward multifunctional hydrogels. (United States)

    Iftime, Manuela-Maria; Morariu, Simona; Marin, Luminita


    Hydrogels based on chitosan and salicyladehyde were obtained by dynamic covalent chemistry. The unusual chitosan gelling in the presence of the monoaldehyde has been deciphered following and correlating data of NMR, FTIR, single crystal and wide angle XRD, POM and optical measurements. Of significant importance in understanding the crosslinking features was the synthesis of a model compound and the successfully growth as single crystal allowing the study of its supramolecular peculiarities. The hydrogels exhibited in SEM a porous or fibrous morphology, in good correlation with the crosslinking degree. They swelled very fast, similar to the superporous hydrogels of third generation and exhibited self-healing properties. Rheological investigation demonstrated good mechanical properties, thermosensitivity and thixotropy. The paper revealed a hydrogel with suitable properties for use in bio-medical applications, and moreover, revealed a new concept of obtaining chitosan hydrogels using monoaldehydes - which are widespread in nature, cheap and beneficial to the human body. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. (PCL/AA) hydrogel for controlled drug delivery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    acrylic acid (PCL/AA) hydrogels have been developed using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a cross-linker and benzoyl peroxide as initiator. For these prepared hydrogels swelling studies, sol–gel fraction analysis and porosity.

  13. Macromolecular diffusion in self-assembling biodegradable thermosensitive hydrogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermonden, T.; Jena, S.S.; Barriet, D.; Censi, R.; Gucht, van der J.; Hennink, W.E.; Siegel, R.A.


    Hydrogel formation triggered by a change in temperature is an attractive mechanism for in situ gelling biomaterials for pharmaceutical applications such as the delivery of therapeutic proteins. In this study, hydrogels were prepared from ABA triblock polymers having thermosensitive

  14. Surface analysis of hydrogel contact lenses by ESCA. (United States)

    Hart, D E; DePaolis, M; Ratner, B D; Mateo, N B


    We used electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) to examine the surface chemistry of polymacon, tefilcon, and bufilcon hydrogel contact lenses. Worn and unworn water-cleaned and surfactant-cleaned lenses were compared. The surface chemistry of unworn lenses, which were used as controls, consisted of approximately 70% carbon, 25% oxygen, and silicon, sulfur, sodium, nitrogen, and zinc). In general, surfactant cleaning removed silicon contamination, but left a residue containing sulfur and zinc. The increase in the nitrogen/carbon (N/C) ratio for worn bufilcon and polymacon lenses was significantly greater than the N/C ratio for unworn bufilcon and polymacon lenses. As a group the worn ionic lenses (bufilcon) showed a greater N/C ratio than the worn nonionic lenses (polymacon, tefilcon). The nitrogen that appears on all worn lenses probably represents adherent as well as adsorbed surface proteins. The highest N/C ratios were found on a pair of pathologically deposited lenses and on the lens with the longest wearing time (2 years). For the bufilcon and polymacon lenses, the differences observed in the ESCA data for the unworn and worn lenses suggest that contact lenses begin interacting with the tear film within 1 minute (the shortest wearing time in this study).

  15. Luneburg modified lens for surface water waves (United States)

    Pichard, Helene; Maurel, Agnes; Petitjeans, Phillipe; Martin, Paul; Pagneux, Vincent


    It is well known that when the waves pass across an elevated bathymetry, refraction often results in amplification of waves behind it. In this sense, focusing of liquid surface waves can be used to enhance the harvest efficiency of ocean power. An ocean wave focusing lens concentrates waves on a certain focal point by transforming straight crest lens of incident waves into circular ones just like an optical lens. These devices have attracted ocean engineers and are promising because they enable the effective utilization of wave energy, the remaining challenge being to increase the harvest efficiency of the lens. In this work, in order to improve well known focusing of surface liquid waves by lens, the propagation of liquid surface waves through a Luneburg modified lens is investigated. The traditional Luneburg lens is a rotationally symmetric lens with a spatially varying refractive-index profile that focuses an incident plane wave on the rim of the lens. The modified Luneburg lens allows to choose the position of the focal point, which can lie inside or outside the lens. This new degree of freedom leads to enhanced focusing and tunable focusing. The focusing of linear surface waves through this lens is investigated and is shown to be more efficient than classical profile lenses.

  16. A microcapillary lens for X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Dudchik, Y I


    A new design of a compound refractive lens for X-rays is proposed. The lens is made as a set of glue microlenses placed in a glass capillary. The technique of lens fabrication is described. Results of ray tracing calculations for 8 and 15 keV photons are represented.

  17. Contact Lens-related Complications: A Review. (United States)

    Alipour, Fateme; Khaheshi, Saeed; Soleimanzadeh, Mahya; Heidarzadeh, Somayeh; Heydarzadeh, Sepideh


    Contact lens-related problems are common and can result in severe sight-threatening complications or contact lens drop out if not addressed properly. We systematically reviewed the most important and the most common contact lens-related complications and their diagnosis, epidemiology, and management according to the literature published in the last 20 years.

  18. Contact lens-related complications: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Alipour


    Full Text Available Contact lens-related problems are common and can result in severe sight-threatening complications or contact lens drop out if not addressed properly. We systematically reviewed the most important and the most common contact lens-related complications and their diagnosis, epidemiology, and management according to the literature published in the last 20 years.

  19. Contact Lens-related Complications: A Review (United States)

    Alipour, Fateme; Khaheshi, Saeed; Soleimanzadeh, Mahya; Heidarzadeh, Somayeh; Heydarzadeh, Sepideh


    Contact lens-related problems are common and can result in severe sight-threatening complications or contact lens drop out if not addressed properly. We systematically reviewed the most important and the most common contact lens-related complications and their diagnosis, epidemiology, and management according to the literature published in the last 20 years. PMID:28540012

  20. Professoren og Ålen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo


    Biolog og havforsker Johannes Schmidt regnes for at være Danmarks mest betydningsfulde havforsker gennem tiderne. Hans mange forskningsbaserede jordomsejlinger bragte ham til eksotiske egne og til opdagelsen af adskillige nye dyrearter. Dog blev særligt ålen og dens gydepladser et hovedfokus...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pfeifer


    Full Text Available Background. Ectopia lentis continues to be a therapeutic challenge for ophthalmologists. It can occur as an isolated condition, after ocular trauma, in association with other ocular disorders, as part of a systemic mesodermal disease or a complication of general metabolic disorders. Minimal subluxation of the lens may cause no visual symptoms, but in more advanced cases serious optical disturbances arise. The most important is amblyopia. Surgical treatment options include iris manipulation, lens discission, aspiration, intracapsular or extracapsular extraction, and pars plana lensectomy. The choice of surgical technique remains controversial, in part because of the historically poor visual results and high rate of perioperative complications, including vitreous loss and retinal detachment.Methods. We describe a surgical technique based on the use of the Cionni endocapsular tension ring, dry irrigation aspiration of lens material, centration of the capsular bag and foldable intraocular lens implantation into the bag. With mentioned surgical technique 8 patients were operated; 4 boys and 4 girls, together 11 eyes.Results. The final BCVA after follow up period improved in 9 eyes and it remained the same as before operation in one eye. Statistical comparison of preoperative and postoperative visual acuities showed significant improvement. On the other hand there was no correlation between preoperative and postoperative visual acuity.Conclusions. This surgical procedure is an alternative approach in solving this challenging cases of ectopia lentis with good postoperative visual rehabilitation.

  2. Femtosecond Kerr-lens autocorrelation. (United States)

    Sheik-Bahae, M


    An autocorrelation measurement of femtosecond laser pulse duration using the Kerr-lens mechanism is demonstrated. This technique can also be used as a sensitive and absolutely calibratable method for measuring ultrafast optical nonlinearities. A method that uses an electronic spectral-filtering scheme is proposed for determining the frequency chirp of pulses by interferometric autocorrelation.

  3. The Ultrawideband Leaky Lens Antenna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruni, S.; Neto, A.; Marliani, F.


    A novel directive and nondispersive antenna is presented: the ultrawideband (UWB) leaky lens. It is based on the broad band Cherenkov radiation occurring at a slot printed between different infinite homogeneous dielectrics. The first part of the paper presents the antenna concept and the UWB design.

  4. Gellan gum microgel-reinforced cell-laden gelatin hydrogels


    Shin, Hyeongho; Olsen, Bradley D.; Khademhosseini, Ali


    The relatively weak mechanical properties of hydrogels remain a major drawback for their application as load-bearing tissue scaffolds. Previously, we developed cell-laden double-network (DN) hydrogels that were composed of photocrosslinkable gellan gum (GG) and gelatin. Further research into the materials as tissue scaffolds determined that the strength of the DN hydrogels decreased when they were prepared at cell-compatible conditions, and the encapsulated cells in the DN hydrogels did not f...

  5. Research on the printability of hydrogels in 3D bioprinting


    Yong He; FeiFei Yang; HaiMing Zhao; Qing Gao; Bing Xia; JianZhong Fu


    As the biocompatible materials, hydrogels have been widely used in three- dimensional (3D) bioprinting/organ printing to load cell for tissue engineering. It is important to precisely control hydrogels deposition during printing the mimic organ structures. However, the printability of hydrogels about printing parameters is seldom addressed. In this paper, we systemically investigated the printability of hydrogels from printing lines (one dimensional, 1D structures) to printing lattices/films ...

  6. Carbopol hydrogels for topical administration: treatment of wounds


    Poorahmary Kermany, Bahador


    The very positive effect of hydrogels on wounds and enhanced wound healing process has been proven. Hydrogels provide a warm, moist environment for wound that makes it heal faster in addition to their useful mucoadhesive properties. Moreover, hydrogels can be used as carriers for liposomes containing variety of drugs, such as antimicrobial drugs. This will provide a depot release of drug to the wound bed. In order to optimize the liposomal hydrogel formulation, texture properties responsible ...

  7. Tube entrance lens focus control (United States)

    Weisser, D. C.; Fifield, L. K.; Kitchen, T. F. G.; Tunningley, T. B.; Lobanov, N. R.; Muirhead, A. G.


    The entrance of the accelerator tube in a large electrostatic accelerator imposes a strong lens that dominates the beam optics. The magnification of the lens is large because of the low injection energy, the high voltage gradient of the acceleration tube and the long distance to the terminal. In the absence of the acceleration, the magnification would produce an unacceptably large beam spot at the terminal. The tyranny of the lens is especially irksome when the accelerator is required to operate at a lower terminal voltage than the one corresponding to the nominal gradient at high voltage. One way around the difficulty, used in NEC Pelletron accelerators, is to insert a series of nylon and steel rods that short together units of the acceleration structure at the terminal leaving the ones near the entrance close to the nominal gradient for optimum transmission. This operation takes time and risks the loss of insulating gas. Another alternative used in the 25URC at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is to focus the beam at the tube entrance, substantially diluting the effect of the entrance lens. The beam then diverges and so requires an additional lens part way to the terminal. This solution is only partially effective and still necessitates use of shorting rods for low voltage operation. The fact that these elaborate strategies are used is evidence that the alternative of lowering the injection energy as the terminal voltage is lowered imposes enough problems that it is not used in practice. We have modeled a solution that controls the voltage gradient at the tube entrance using an external power supply. This not only maintains the focusing effect of the lens but provides the opportunity to tune the beam by adjusting the entrance lens. A 150 kV power supply outside the pressure vessel feeds a controllable voltage through a high voltage feed-through to the fifth electrode of the accelerator tube. Thus 150 kV on this electrode creates the nominal gradient of 30 kV per

  8. Multifocal contact lens myopia control. (United States)

    Walline, Jeffrey J; Greiner, Katie L; McVey, M Elizabeth; Jones-Jordan, Lisa A


    Previous studies on soft multifocal contact lens myopia control published in the peer-reviewed literature reported findings of noncommercial contact lenses worn for 1 year or less. This study sought to determine the progression of myopia and axial elongation of children fitted with commercially available distance center soft multifocal contact lenses for 2 years. Eight- to eleven-year-old children with -1.00 D to -6.00 D spherical component and less than 1.00 D astigmatism were fitted with soft multifocal contact lenses with a +2.00 D add (Proclear Multifocal "D"; CooperVision, Fairport, NY). They were age- and gender-matched to participants from a previous study who were fitted with single-vision contact lenses (1 Day Acuvue; Vistakon, Jacksonville, FL). A-scan ultrasound and cycloplegic autorefraction were performed at baseline, after 1 year, and after 2 years. Multilevel modeling was used to compare the rate of change of myopia and axial length between single-vision and soft multifocal contact lens wearers. Forty participants were fitted with soft multifocal contact lenses, and 13 did not contribute complete data (5 contributed 1 year of data). The adjusted mean ± standard error spherical equivalent progression of myopia at 2 years was -1.03 ± 0.06 D for the single-vision contact lens wearers and -0.51 ± 0.06 for the soft multifocal contact lens wearers (p < 0.0001). The adjusted mean axial elongation was 0.41 ± 0.03 and 0.29 ± 0.03 for the single-vision and soft multifocal contact lens wearers, respectively (p < 0.0016). Soft multifocal contact lens wear resulted in a 50% reduction in the progression of myopia and a 29% reduction in axial elongation during the 2-year treatment period compared to a historical control group. Results from this and other investigations indicate a need for a long-term randomized clinical trial to investigate the potential for soft multifocal contact lens myopia control.

  9. Contact lens wear with the USAF protective integrated hood/mask chemical defense ensemble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, R.J.; Miller, R.E. II; Peterson, R.D.; Jackson, W.G. Jr. (USAF, Armstrong Laboratory, Brooks AFB, TX (United States))


    The Protective Integrated Hood/Mask (PIHM) chemical defense aircrew ensemble blows air from the mask's plenum across the visor at a rate of approximately 15 L/min in order to prevent fogging of the visor and to cool the aircrew member's face. This study was designed to determine the effect of the PIHM airflow on soft contact lens (SCL) dehydration, contact lens comfort, and corneal integrity. There were 26 subjects who participated in this study: 15 SCL wearers, six rigid gas-permeable (RGP) wearers, and five nonspectacle wearing controls. Contrast acuity with the three Regan charts, subjective comfort, and relative humidity (RH) and temperature readings under the PIHM mask were monitored every 0.5 h during 6-h laboratory rides. Slit-lamp examinations and SCL water content measurements with a hand-held Abbe refractometer were made before and after the rides. High RH under the mask may have accounted for the moderate SCL dehydration (8.3 percent), no decrease in contrast acuity for any group, and lack of corneal stress. Although all groups experienced some inferior, epithelial, punctate keratopathy, RGP wearers had the most significant effects. SCLs performed relatively well in the PIHM mask environment. Testing with other parameter designs is necessary before recommending RGPs with the PIHM system. 19 refs.

  10. Is purchasing lenses from the prescriber associated with better habits among soft contact lens wearers? (United States)

    Chalmers, Robin L; Wagner, Heidi; Kinoshita, Beth; Sorbara, Luigina; Mitchell, G Lynn; Lam, Dawn; Richdale, Kathryn; Zimmerman, Aaron


    To compare the habits of United States (US) soft contact lens (SCL) wearers who bought SCLs from their eye care practitioner (ECP), on the internet/telephone, or at retail (not where they were examined) to test the effect of proximity to the prescriber on SCL wear and care practices. Adult SCL wearers completed an adapted Contact Lens Risk Survey (CLRS) online that queried items related to risk factors for SCL-related complications. Responses from subjects who purchased at the ECP, via the internet/telephone, or at a retail store were compared (Chi-Square). Purchase sources were: ECP 646 (67%, 44±12 yrs, 17% male), Retail 104 (11%, 45±13 yrs, 28% male), and Internet/telephone 218 (23%, 45±12 yrs, 18% male); age (p=0.51), gender (p=0.021). Internet purchasers had fewer annual eye exams (79% ECP, 83% retail, 66% internet/telephone, p=0.007), purchased more hydrogel SCLs (34% ECP, 29% retail, 45% internet/telephone, p=0.0034), and paid for SCLs with insurance less often (39% ECP, 29% retail, 19% internet/telephone, p0.05). In this sample, the purchase location of SCL wearers had limited impact on known risk factors for SCL-related complications. Internet purchasers reported less frequent eye exams and were more likely to be wearing hydrogel SCLs. Closer access to the ECP through in-office SCL purchase did not improve SCL habits or reduce the prevalence of risk behaviors. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis and properties of a dual responsive hydrogel by inverse ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Temperature-induced shrinkage range of the dual responsive hydrogels was higher and broader than that of the conventional poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel. ... where W1 and W2 are the weight of the dry and swollen hydrogels, respectively. 2.4 Dynamic viscoelasticity measurements of the dual responsive ...

  12. Polyphenol oxidase-based luminescent enzyme hydrogel: an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Feb 2, 2018 ... The supramolecular hydrogel is prepared according to our previously published literature method [9]. The structural flexibility of the supramolecular hydrogel network [9] directs. Figure 2. TEM analysis of enzyme hydrogel showing microstructure depicting the sea urchin-shaped architecture. Figure 3.

  13. Progress in lignin hydrogels and nanocomposites for water purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamulevicius, Sigitas; Thakur, Sourbh; Govender, Penny P.


    -based hydrogels have shown excellent performance for removal of various pollutants from water. The adsorption properties of lignin based hydrogels can further be improved by using a combination of nanomaterials and lignin that results in promising hydrogel nanocomposites. In nature, the most abundant structures...

  14. Adding chemical cross-links to a physical hydrogel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paradossi, Gaio; Finelli, Ivana; Cerroni, Barbara; Chiessi, Ester


    ... hydrogels. Introduction of chemical cross-links in the 3D structure of the synergistic hydrogel removes this behaviour, adding new features to the swelling and to the viscoelastic properties of the cured hydrogel. The use of epichlorohydrin as low molecular weight cross-linker does not impact unfavourably on the viability of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts.

  15. Lens stem cells may reside outside the lens capsule: an hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Rita A


    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we consider the ocular lens in the context of contemporary developments in biological ideas. We attempt to reconcile lens biology with stem cell concepts and a dearth of lens tumors. Historically, the lens has been viewed as a closed system, in which cells at the periphery of the lens epithelium differentiate into fiber cells. Theoretical considerations led us to question whether the intracapsular lens is indeed self-contained. Since stem cells generate tumors and the lens does not naturally develop tumors, we reasoned that lens stem cells may not be present within the capsule. We hypothesize that lens stem cells reside outside the lens capsule, in the nearby ciliary body. Our ideas challenge the existing lens biology paradigm. We begin our discussion with lens background information, in order to describe our lens stem cell hypothesis in the context of published data. Then we present the ciliary body as a possible source for lens stem cells, and conclude by comparing the ocular lens with the corneal epithelium.

  16. Using Dehydrated Vegetables in Some Brown Bread Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Man


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Expanding the range of bakery products in terms of producing supplemented or dietetic products has been an increasingly important trend in contemporary baking. Bakery products as basic and popular food, could be used in the prevention of nutritive deficiencies of many important nutrients, by supplementing the products with biologically valuable ingredients. Such ingredients are dehydrated vegetables in the form of powder. For establishing the bread quality, a special importance shows it’s chemical composition, because the substances that enter in it’s constitution serve to obtaining the energy necessary to the human body. Beside the chemical composition, the bread quality and alimentary use, respectively, depends a large measure on a series of signs: flavor and taste, external appearance, crumb porosity and texture, breads’ volume. This paper belongs to a more complex study, which aims are obtaining some bread assortments with high nutritional value, and improving their sensorial and rheological features, by adding dehydrated vegetables at different levels 4% potato flakes, 2% dehydrated onion, 0.5% dehydrated garlic and 2% dehydrated leek.

  17. Osmotic dehydration of yellow melon using red grape juice concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulda Noemi Mamani CHAMBI


    Full Text Available Abstract The main objectives of this work were to study the effect of fruit ripening on the melon osmotic dehydration at reduced pressure and to model the mass transfer of moisture during melon dehydration with grape juice concentrate and sucrose solution. The ripening level had no relevant effect over the physical characteristics of the final product, with soluble solids, moisture and water activity without significant differences. Besides, the mass loss and solute gain parameters did not show significant differences, and only the solute gain had few variations. The process of the osmotic dehydration with grape juice concentrate was the most effective one, with higher dehydration and lowest solutes gain compared to the process carried out with sucrose solution. The water effective diffusivity calculated by the Fick’s equation for the process conduced with grape juice was lower than the one obtained for the sucrose solution, according to different equilibrium moisture content calculated by Peleg’s equation. The dehydrated melon with grape juice concentrate showed reduced water activity (~ 0.92 and low moisture content (~ 58%.

  18. Dehydration natriuresis in male rats is mediated by oxytocin. (United States)

    Huang, W; Lee, S L; Arnason, S S; Sjöquist, M


    In a previous study in rats we demonstrated the existence of osmoregulatory natriuretic mechanisms distinct from the natriuretic mechanisms that are dependent on volume stimulation. At the same time, we found that oxytocin (OT) receptors were important mediators of natriuresis induced by hypernatremia but not of that induced by isotonic volume expansion. In the present study, the role of OT in dehydration natriuresis was examined in conscious rats. Dehydration for 24 h caused hypernatremia (from 142.1 +/- 0.4 to 147.7 +/- 0.7 mmol/l) and natriuresis accompanied by an approximately 30% spontaneous reduction of food intake. In conjunction with renal retention of water caused by an increase in circulating vasopressin, the natriuresis and probably the reduction of food intake can help to counteract the rise in body fluid osmolality. This natriuresis could not be fully explained by the reduction in plasma aldosterone. Plasma OT concentration had increased from 15.5 +/- 1.2 to 23.8 +/- 2.0 pg/ml at the end of 24 h of dehydration. Intravenous infusion of a selective OT-receptor antagonist [Mpa1,D-Tyr(Et)2, Thr4, Orn8]-OT using osmotic minipumps prevented dehydration natriuresis. It is concluded that in a dehydration-induced hypernatremic state OT is released, inducing natriuresis and facilitating sodium homeostasis. This mechanism is activated by Na osmoreceptors, but is not primarily dependent on the volume status.

  19. Influences of Different Conditioners on Dehydration Ratio of Activated Sludge (United States)

    Zhuo, Qiongfang; Zheng, Wenli; Yi, Hao; Chen, Sili; Xu, Zhencheng; Jin, Zhong; Lan, Yongzhe; Guo, Qingwei


    Excess sludge contains a large quantity of water with water content reaching about 97%-99%. Besides microorganisms and germs, the sludge is of complicated composition, including heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, PPCPs, endocrine disrupters, etc. It covers a large area with harmfulness, so it needs further treatment. However, due to existence of extracellular polymeric substances in the sludge, the sludge has poor dehydration property, so how to improve dehydration of sludge is a difficult point in water treatment industry. Chemical conditioning—mechanical dehydration method is sludge dehydration technology which has been widely applied in China. Most sludge treatment plants use organic and inorganic conditioners like polyacrylamide (PAM), polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and polymerized ferrous sulfate (PFS), etc. With characteristics of low toxicity and degradation resistance, these conditioners pose potential risks to the environment and they are adverse to follow-up resource utilization. Therefore, influences of 17 conditioners on sludge dehydration ratio were discussed in this paper, expecting to seek for green, environmentally friendly and highly efficient conditioner so as to improve resource utilization ratio of sludge.

  20. Dehydration curve, fungi and mycotoxins in Tifton 85 hay dehydrated in the field and in shed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreno Egidio Taffarel


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the dehydration curve and occurrence of fungi and mycotoxins in Tifton 85 hay. The experimental design was randomized blocks in split plots with four replications and five levels of nitrogen (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 kg ha-1 in the form of urea, two regrowth ages (28 and 35 days and drying hay in the sun and in shed. After harvesting, the grass was sampled four times (0, 8, 23 and 32 hours to dry in the sun and twelve times (0, 3, 18, 27, 42, 51, 66, 75, 90, 99, 114 and 123 hours for drying in shed, turned over daily. The fungi were identified after seeding and growth in three steps of haymaking (cutting, baling and after 30 days of storage. To verify the presence of mycotoxins, 20 samples, composed of hay stored for 30 days, were collected, of which 10 samples were from sun-dried hay and 10 from hay dried in shed. It took 32 hours to produce hay at field conditions, with water loss rates up to 6.10 g g-1 DM-h during the first 8 hours after cutting. The average loss of water in this period was 2.0 g g-1 DM-h. Hays dried in the shed took 123 hours and the dehydration rates were less than 0.5 g g-1 DM-h due to environmental conditions. There was a predominance of three genera of fungi: Fusarium, Penicillium and Aspergillus. The largest population was the Fusarium, followed by Penicillium, at the steps of baling and storage. The fumonisin mycotoxin was found at a higher concentration and there was no difference in fumonisin concentration in the hay dried in the sun and in shed. Although it brings no hazard to animal health, the production of aflatoxin and zearalenone was significantly higher in the samples of sun-dried hay.

  1. Modern lens antennas for communications engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, John


    The aim of this book is to present the modern design principles and analysis of lens antennas. It gives graduates and RF/Microwave professionals the design insights in order to make full use of lens antennas.  Why do we want to write a book in lens antennas? Because this topic has not been thoroughly publicized, its importance is underestimated. As antennas play a key role in communication systems, recent development in wireless communications would indeed benefit from the characteristics of lens antennas: low profile, and low cost etc.  The major advantages of lens antennas are na

  2. Contact lens surface by electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jung Hyuck [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Suk Ju; Hwang, Kwang Ha; Jeon Jin [Dongshin Univ., Naju (Korea, Republic of)


    Contact lens materials needs good biocompatibility, high refractive index, high optical transparency, high water content etc. Surface treat method by using plasma and radiation can modify the physical and/or chemical properties of the contact lens surface. Radiation technology such as electron beam irradiation can apply to polymerization reaction and enhance the functionality of the polymer.The purpose of this study is to modify of contact lens surface by using Eb irradiation technology. Electron beam was irradiated to the contact lens surface which was synthesized thermal polymerization method and commercial contact lens to modify physical and chemical properties. Ft-IR, XP, UV-vis spectrophotometer, water content, oxygen trans-metastability were used to characterize the surface state, physicochemical, and optical property of the contact lens treated with Eb. The water content and oxygen transmissibility of the contact lens treated with Eb were increased due to increase in the hydrophilic group such as O-C=O and OH group on the contact lens surface which could be produced by possible reaction between carbon and oxygen during the Eb irradiation. All of the lenses showed the high optical transmittance above 90%. In this case of B/Es, TES, Ti contact lens, the optical transmittance decreased about 5% with increasing Eb dose in the wavelength of UV-B region. The contact lens modified by Eb irradiation could improve the physical properties of the contact lens such as water content and oxygen transmissibility.

  3. Conjunctival impression cytology in contact lens wearers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Priya


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the cytological changes in conjunctiva following regular contact lens wear and to determine the correlation, if any, between severity of cytological alteration and symptoms related to contact lens wear. METHODS: One hundred eyes (50 normal asymptomatic subjects who served as a control group were studied by conjunctival impression cytology (CIC. These subjects were fitted with rigid gas permeable (RGP or soft contact lenses and were followed up at the end of 3 and 6 months. At each follow-up visit the CIC was repeated. A filter paper with the impression specimen was stained with periodic acid schiff (PAS and haematoxylin stain to study goblet cell loss. Papanicolaou stain was done to study squamous metaplasia. The cytological changes were graded using the system described by Natadisastra et al. RESULTS: Severity of cytological changes increased with the duration of contact lens wear (P = 0.00001. At the end of 6 months, 60% of symptomatic eyes wearing soft contact lens and RGP lens showed abnormal CIC changes. None of the asymptomatic RGP contact lens wearing eyes showed abnormal CIC changes whereas 33.4% of the asymptomatic soft contact lens wearing eyes showed abnormal CIC changes (P = 0.033. Epithelial changes occurred within 3-6 months of contact lens fitting. CONCLUSION: Severity of cytological changes increased with duration of lens wear (P = 0.00001. Prevalence and severity of cytological alteration is more in symptomatic contact lens wearers. Soft contact lens wearers although asymptomatic showed severe CIC changes.

  4. Hydrogel Actuation by Electric Field Driven Effects (United States)

    Morales, Daniel Humphrey

    Hydrogels are networks of crosslinked, hydrophilic polymers capable of absorbing and releasing large amounts of water while maintaining their structural integrity. Polyelectrolyte hydrogels are a subset of hydrogels that contain ionizable moieties, which render the network sensitive to the pH and the ionic strength of the media and provide mobile counterions, which impart conductivity. These networks are part of a class of "smart" material systems that can sense and adjust their shape in response to the external environment. Hence, the ability to program and modulate hydrogel shape change has great potential for novel biomaterial and soft robotics applications. We utilized electric field driven effects to manipulate the interaction of ions within polyelectrolyte hydrogels in order to induce controlled deformation and patterning. Additionally, electric fields can be used to promote the interactions of separate gel networks, as modular components, and particle assemblies within gel networks to develop new types of soft composite systems. First, we present and analyze a walking gel actuator comprised of cationic and anionic gel legs attached by electric field-promoted polyion complexation. We characterize the electro-osmotic response of the hydrogels as a function of charge density and external salt concentration. The gel walkers achieve unidirectional motion on flat elastomer substrates and exemplify a simple way to move and manipulate soft matter devices in aqueous solutions. An 'ionoprinting' technique is presented with the capability to topographically structure and actuate hydrated gels in two and three dimensions by locally patterning ions induced by electric fields. The bound charges change the local mechanical properties of the gel to induce relief patterns and evoke localized stress, causing rapid folding in air. The ionically patterned hydrogels exhibit programmable temporal and spatial shape transitions which can be tuned by the duration and/or strength of

  5. Magnetic hyaluronate hydrogels: preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tóth, Ildikó Y., E-mail:; Veress, Gábor; Szekeres, Márta; Illés, Erzsébet; Tombácz, Etelka, E-mail:


    A novel soft way of hyaluronate (HyA) based magnetic hydrogel preparation was revealed. Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by co-precipitation. Since the naked MNPs cannot be dispersed homogenously in HyA-gel, their surface was modified with natural and biocompatible chondroitin-sulfate-A (CSA) to obtain CSA-coated MNPs (CSA@MNPs). The aggregation state of MNPs and that loaded with increasing amount of CSA up to 1 mmol/g was measured by dynamic light scattering at pH~6. Only CSA@MNP with ≥0.2 mmol/g CSA content was suitable for magnetic HyA-gel preparation. Rheological studies showed that the presence of CSA@MNP with up to 2 g/L did not affect the hydrogel's rheological behavior significantly. The results suggest that the HyA-based magnetic hydrogels may be promising formulations for future biomedical applications, e.g. as intra-articular injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis. - Highlights: • Novel hyaluronate(HyA)-based biocompatible magnetic hydrogels were prepared. • Chondroitin-sulfate-A coating is needed to disperse magnetite particles in HyA-gel. • Rheological behavior of hydrogels was independent of the magnetite content (<2 g/L). • Gels remained in stable and homogeneously dispersed state even after 90 days storage. • Magnetic HyA-gels are promising candidates for use as intra-articular injection.

  6. Surface Friction of Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Particles (United States)

    Cuccia, Nicholas; Burton, Justin

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel particles have recently become a popular system for modeling low-friction, granular materials near the jamming transition. Because a gel consists of a polymer network filled with solvent, its frictional behavior is often explained using a combination of hydrodynamic lubrication and polymer-surface interactions. As a result, the frictional coefficient can vary between 0.001 and 0.03 depending on several factors such as contact area, sliding velocity, normal force, and the gel surface chemistry. Most tribological measurements of hydrogels utilize two flat surfaces, where the contact area is not well-defined. We have built a custom, low-force tribometer to measure the single-contact frictional properties of spherical hydrogel particles on flat hydrogel surfaces under a variety of measurement conditions. At high velocities (> 1 cm/s), the friction coefficient depends linearly on velocity, but does not tend to zero at zero velocity. We also compare our measurements to solid particles (steel, glass, etc.) on hydrogel surfaces, which exhibit larger frictional forces, and show less dependence on velocity. A physical model for the friction which includes the lubrication layer between the deformed surfaces will be discussed. National Science Foundation Grant No. 1506446.

  7. Functional and technological potential of dehydrated Phaseolus vulgaris L. flours. (United States)

    Ramírez-Jiménez, A K; Reynoso-Camacho, R; Mendoza-Díaz, S; Loarca-Piña, G


    The effect of cooking followed by dehydration was evaluated on the bioactive composition, antioxidant activity and technological properties of two varieties (Negro 8025 and Bayo Madero) of common beans. Quercetin, rutin, and phenolic acids were the most abundant phenolics found. Cooking processes resulted in decreased values of some phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. A subsequent dehydration increased TEAC values, resistant starch content and decreased starch digestibility. Oligosaccharides and dietary fibre were preserved in both treatments. Variety had a strong impact on phytochemical profile, being Negro 8025 that exhibited the highest content of most of the compounds assessed. Water absorption index (WAI) and oil absorption capacity (OAC) were determined in order to measure technological suitability. Dehydration produced flours with stable WAI and low oil pick up. The results suggest that the flours of Negro 8025 beans have a good potential to be considered as functional ingredient for healthy food products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Controlled dehydration improves the diffraction quality of two RNA crystals. (United States)

    Park, HaJeung; Tran, Tuan; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Park, Hyun; Disney, Matthew D


    Post-crystallization dehydration methods, applying either vapor diffusion or humidity control devices, have been widely used to improve the diffraction quality of protein crystals. Despite the fact that RNA crystals tend to diffract poorly, there is a dearth of reports on the application of dehydration methods to improve the diffraction quality of RNA crystals. We use dehydration techniques with a Free Mounting System (FMS, a humidity control device) to recover the poor diffraction quality of RNA crystals. These approaches were applied to RNA constructs that model various RNA-mediated repeat expansion disorders. The method we describe herein could serve as a general tool to improve diffraction quality of RNA crystals to facilitate structure determinations.

  9. Dehydration of erythromycin dihydrate: a microscopy-FTIR application (United States)

    Smith, M. A.; Chao, Robert S.; Bergren, M. S.; Clark, D. A.


    A novel application of microscopy-FTIR to monitor the dehydration of some hydrate compounds has been established, and some major instrumental parameters are identified. An application to erythromycin dihydrate indicated that the most notable spectral changes before and after dehydration are observed in the carbonyl region, particularly the lactone carbonyl band. Spectral comparison with conventional FTIR preparations, such as Nujol and KBR methods, are pre-sented to demonstrate the dehydration mechanism of erythromycin dihydrate. Also presented are the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and hot stage microscope (HSM) data to support the hypothesis that the FTIR-microscope accessory induces a transformation of erythromycin dihydrate into a metastable anhydrate form which will rehydrate rapidly when water vapor is present. With further thermal treatment the metastable form would convert to a stable anhydrate form via an amorphous form.

  10. Hot air convective dehydration characteristics of Daucus carota var. Nantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raees-ul Haq


    Full Text Available The present work focuses on experimental and theoretical study of air dehydration kinetics of Daucus carota var. Nantes in laboratory scale drying chamber. Steam blanching as a pretreatment was applied prior to dehydration of shreds and the results indicated a gradual decrease in drying time from 2.9 to 5.5% in temperature range of 50–70°C, for steam blanched samples in comparison to untreated carrots. Four different mathematical drying models (Newton, Page, Modified Page and Henderson and Pabis were evaluated for goodness of fit by comparing their respective R2, χ2, and RMSE parameters. Comparison of the statistical parameters led to conclusion that Page model showed a better quality of fit and presents dehydration characteristics in better way to obtain drying curves than any other model.

  11. Isothermal dehydration of thin films of water and sugar solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyd, R. [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Rampino, A. [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Laboratory of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Bellich, B.; Elisei, E. [Laboratory of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Cesàro, A. [Laboratory of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Area Science Park, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Saboungi, M.-L. [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux, et de Cosmochimie (IMPMC), Sorbonne Univ-UPMC, Univ Paris 06, UMR CNRS 7590, Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, IRD UMR 206, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)


    The process of quasi-isothermal dehydration of thin films of pure water and aqueous sugar solutions is investigated with a dual experimental and theoretical approach. A nanoporous paper disk with a homogeneous internal structure was used as a substrate. This experimental set-up makes it possible to gather thermodynamic data under well-defined conditions, develop a numerical model, and extract needed information about the dehydration process, in particular the water activity. It is found that the temperature evolution of the pure water film is not strictly isothermal during the drying process, possibly due to the influence of water diffusion through the cellulose web of the substrate. The role of sugar is clearly detectable and its influence on the dehydration process can be identified. At the end of the drying process, trehalose molecules slow down the diffusion of water molecules through the substrate in a more pronounced way than do the glucose molecules.

  12. Modeling the evaporation of a pre-lens tear film on a contact lens (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel; Talbott, Kevin; Xu, Amber; Seshaiyer, Padmanabhan


    We develop a model for evaporation of a post-blink pre-lens tear film in the presence of a porous contact lens. The tear film is modeled as a Newtonian fluid and the flow in the contact lens is assumed to obey Darcy's law. The evaporation model treats the contact lens as a wetting surface. Evaporative mass flux thins the pre-lens film down to a nonzero steady thickness at which point evaporation continues by drawing fluid up through the contact lens. Both one and two-dimensional models are explored. The post-lens film (between the contact lens and the corneal surface) is not included explicitly in the model but is assumed to act as a reservoir that supplies fluid drawn up through the contact lens. Supported by NSF CSUMS and REU programs.

  13. EPR study on gamma-irradiated fruits dehydrated via osmosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yordanov, N.D. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)]. E-mail:; Aleksieva, K. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)


    The shape and time stability of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of non- and {gamma}-irradiated papaya, melon, cherry and fig samples dehydrated via osmosis are reported. It is shown that non-irradiated samples are generally EPR silent whereas {gamma}-irradiated exhibit 'sugar-like' EPR spectra. The recorded EPR spectra are monitored for a period of 7 months after irradiation (stored at low humidity and in the dark). The results suggest longer period of unambiguous identification of the radiation processing of osmose dehydrated fruits. Therefore, the Protocol EN 13708,2001 issued by CEN is fully applicable for the studied fruit samples.

  14. Determination of terahertz permittivity of dehydrated biological samples (United States)

    He, Yuezhi; Liu, Kai; Au, Corinna; Sun, Qiushuo; Parrott, Edward P. J.; PickWell-MacPherson, Emma


    A key step in transforming terahertz imaging to a practical medical imaging modality lies in understanding the interactions between terahertz (THz) waves and biological tissues. Most of the models in the literature use the permittivity of liquid water to simulate the THz-tissue interactions, but they often neglect contributions from the biological background such as proteins and lipids because dehydrated biological samples are experimentally difficult to prepare. In this work, we present a method to prepare thin and flat dehydrated samples which can be easily handled and measured in a transmission setup. Our results will provide fundamental parameters for modelling THz-tissue interactions.

  15. Dehydration in terminally ill patients. Is it appropriate palliative care? (United States)

    Andrews, M; Bell, E R; Smith, S A; Tischler, J F; Veglia, J M


    Technological advances in artificial feeding and intravenous hydration play an important role in preserving life and facilitating patient recovery. In terminally ill patients, however, many hospice workers have observed that discontinuing artificial nutrition and hydration is more beneficial. This article presents three case reports from a hospice setting that demonstrate the palliative benefits of dehydration. The authors discuss possible physiologic explanations for observed dehydration-related phenomena and offer guidelines for determining when it is appropriate to decrease or discontinue nutritional support and hydration by artificial means.

  16. Osmotic dehydration - a pre-treatment for pineapple drying

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lombard, GE


    Full Text Available Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland 1Email: INTRODUCTION Osmotic dehydration is widely used to remove part of the water content of fruit to obtain a product of intermediate moisture or as a pre-treatment (1). Osmotic.... Osmotic dehydration was considered as a pre-treatment for pineapple with the final aim of obtaining high quality dried fruit products. MATERIALS AND METHODS Pineapple cylinders of 2 cm in diameter and 1 cm thick were cut using a cork borer (Figure 1...

  17. Computational Dehydration of Crystalline Hydrates Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Støttrup; Rantanen, Jukka; Johansson, Kristoffer E


    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have evolved to an increasingly reliable and accessible technique and are today implemented in many areas of biomedical sciences. We present a generally applicable method to study dehydration of hydrates based on MD simulations and apply this approach to the de......Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have evolved to an increasingly reliable and accessible technique and are today implemented in many areas of biomedical sciences. We present a generally applicable method to study dehydration of hydrates based on MD simulations and apply this approach...

  18. Chitosan/alginate based multilayers to control drug release from ophthalmic lens. (United States)

    Silva, Diana; Pinto, Luís F V; Bozukova, Dimitriya; Santos, Luís F; Serro, Ana Paula; Saramago, Benilde


    In this study we investigated the possibility of using layer-by-layer deposition, based in natural polymers (chitosan and alginate), to control the release of different ophthalmic drugs from three types of lens materials: a silicone-based hydrogel recently proposed by our group as drug releasing soft contact lens (SCL) material and two commercially available materials: CI26Y for intraocular lens (IOLs) and Definitive 50 for SCLs. The optimised coating, consisting in one double layer of (alginate - CaCl2)/(chitosan+glyoxal) topped with a final alginate-CaCl2 layer to avoid chitosan degradation by tear fluid proteins, proved to have excellent features to control the release of the anti-inflammatory, diclofenac, while keeping or improving the physical properties of the lenses. The coating leads to a controlled release of diclofenac from SCL and IOL materials for, at least, one week. Due to its high hydrophilicity (water contact angle≈0) and biocompatibility, it should avoid the use of further surface treatments to enhance the useŕs comfort. However, the barrier effect of this coating is specific for diclofenac, giving evidence to the need of optimizing the chemical composition of the layers in view of the desired drug. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Lens Coupled Quantum Cascade Laser (United States)

    Hu, Qing (Inventor); Lee, Alan Wei Min (Inventor)


    Terahertz quantum cascade (QC) devices are disclosed that can operate, e.g., in a range of about 1 THz to about 10 THz. In some embodiments, QC lasers are disclosed in which an optical element (e.g., a lens) is coupled to an output facet of the laser's active region to enhance coupling of the lasing radiation from the active region to an external environment. In other embodiments, terahertz amplifier and tunable terahertz QC lasers are disclosed.

  20. Nanocellulose-alginate hydrogel for cell encapsulation. (United States)

    Park, Minsung; Lee, Dajung; Hyun, Jinho


    TEMPO-oxidized bacterial cellulose (TOBC)-sodium alginate (SA) composites were prepared to improve the properties of hydrogel for cell encapsulation. TOBC fibers were obtained using a TEMPO/NaBr/NaClO system at pH 10 and room temperature. The fibrillated TOBCs mixed with SA were cross-linked in the presence of Ca(2+) solution to form hydrogel composites. The compression strength and chemical stability of the TOBC/SA composites were increased compared with the SA hydrogel, which indicated that TOBC performed an important function in enhancing the structural, mechanical and chemical stability of the composites. Cells were successfully encapsulated in the TOBC/SA composites, and the viability of cells was investigated. TOBC/SA composites can be a potential candidate for cell encapsulation engineering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrical conductivity and impedance behaviour of hydrogels (United States)

    Warren, Holly; in het Panhuis, Marc


    The impedance and electrical conductivity behavior of gellan gum hydrogels containing the conducting fillers poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and vapour grown carbon nanofibers (VGCNF) is presented. Impedance analysis showed that an equivalent circuit consisting of a Warburg element in series with a resistor could be used to model the gels' behavior. It is demonstrated that the addition of the conducting fillers PEDOT:PSS and VGCNFs can result in a measurable improvement in the conductivity of hydrogels with high water content and swelling ratios. Incorporation of combinations of these conducting fillers resulted in an improvement of the conductivity of gellan gum-containing hydrogels with water content (swelling ratio) of at least 97.5% (40) from 1.2 +/- 0.1 mS/cm to 4 +/- 0.6 mS/cm.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of anisotropic magnetic hydrogels (United States)

    Hinrichs, Stephan; Nun, Nils; Fischer, Birgit


    Multiresponsive hydrogels are an interesting new class of materials. They offer the advantage, that they respond to different stimuli like temperature, pH and magnetic fields. By this they can change their properties which makes the hydrogels ideal candidates for many applications in the technical as well as medical field. Here we present the synthesis and characterization of hydrogels - micro- as well as macrogels - which consist of an iron oxide core, varying in phase and morphology, embedded in a thermoresponsive polymer, consisting of poly N-isopropylacrylamide. By using dynamic light scattering we investigated the thermoresponsive properties. In addition we were able to follow the formation of the macrogel by monitoring the shear viscosity.

  3. Hydrogel composite of poly(vinylalcool with unmodified montmorillonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatiha Reguieg


    Full Text Available Crosslinked poly(vinylalcohol (PVA hydrogel composites based on algerian hydrophilic natural Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT nanoclay named Maghnite-Na (Mag-Na were prepared in aqueous media, without utilization of chemical crosslinking agents, by repeated cycles of freezing and thawing. The morphology of hydrogel composites and their swelling in water at different amount of Mag-Na were investigated. The characterization of obtained hydrogel composites by X-ray diffraction (XRD showed a remarkable increase of the basal distance of Mag-Na in PVA hydrogels. Therefore, Intercalated and exfoliated morphology was observed for prepared composites hydrogels of PVA. The infra-red (FTIR characterization results showed that some interactions have been developed between the hydroxyl groups of PVA chains and Mag-Na in composite hydrogels. Introducing Mag-Na into PVA hydrogel affected their swelling. Increased amount of Mag-Na decreased the equilibrium degree of swelling and equilibrium water content.

  4. pH-Sensitive Hydrogel for Micro-Fluidic Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengzhi Yang


    Full Text Available The deformation behavior of a pH-sensitive hydrogel micro-fluidic valve system is investigated using inhomogeneous gel deformation theory, in which the fluid-structure interaction (FSI of the gel solid and fluid flow in the pipe is considered. We use a finite element method with a well adopted hydrogel constitutive equation, which is coded in commercial software, ABAQUS, to simulate the hydrogel valve swelling deformation, while FLUENT is adopted to model the fluid flow in the pipe of the hydrogel valve system. The study demonstrates that FSI significantly affects the gel swelling deformed shapes, fluid flow pressure and velocity patterns. FSI has to be considered in the study on fluid flow regulated by hydrogel microfluidic valve. The study provides a more accurate and adoptable model for future design of new pH-sensitive hydrogel valves, and also gives a useful guideline for further studies on hydrogel fluidic applications.

  5. Bioinspired Adhesive Hydrogel Driven by Adenine and Thymine. (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Qin; Gao, Zijian; Hou, Ruibin; Gao, Guanghui


    Bioinspired strategies have drawn much attention for designing intelligent hydrogels with promising performance. Herein, we present a bioinspired adhesive hydrogel driven by adenine and thymine, which are the basic units of DNA. The adhesive hydrogel exhibited promising adhesive property for the surface of various solid materials, including muscle tissues, plastics, rubbers, glasses, metals, ceramics, carnelians, and woods. The maximum peeling strength of hydrogels was 330 N m-1 on aluminum, superior to that of PAAm hydrogels with 70 N m-1. The strong adhesive behavior remained more than 30 times repeated peeling tests. Moreover, the swelling behavior, morphological structure, mechanical strength, and peeling adhesive strength were also investigated and confirmed the formation and various characteristics of adhesive hydrogels driven by adenine and thymine. Thus, the biomimetic strategy to design promising adhesive hydrogels can provide various opportunities in tissue engineering, such as wound dressing, bioglues, and tissue adhesives.

  6. 3D-Printable Bioactivated Nanocellulose-Alginate Hydrogels. (United States)

    Leppiniemi, Jenni; Lahtinen, Panu; Paajanen, Antti; Mahlberg, Riitta; Metsä-Kortelainen, Sini; Pinomaa, Tatu; Pajari, Heikki; Vikholm-Lundin, Inger; Pursula, Pekka; Hytönen, Vesa P


    We describe herein a nanocellulose-alginate hydrogel suitable for 3D printing. The composition of the hydrogel was optimized based on material characterization methods and 3D printing experiments, and its behavior during the printing process was studied using computational fluid dynamics simulations. The hydrogel was biofunctionalized by the covalent coupling of an enhanced avidin protein to the cellulose nanofibrils. Ionic cross-linking of the hydrogel using calcium ions improved the performance of the material. The resulting hydrogel is suitable for 3D printing, its mechanical properties indicate good tissue compatibility, and the hydrogel absorbs water in moist conditions, suggesting potential in applications such as wound dressings. The biofunctionalization potential was shown by attaching a biotinylated fluorescent protein and a biotinylated fluorescent small molecule via avidin and monitoring the material using confocal microscopy. The 3D-printable bioactivated nanocellulose-alginate hydrogel offers a platform for the development of biomedical devices, wearable sensors, and drug-releasing materials.

  7. Hydrogels: a journey from diapers to gene delivery. (United States)

    Chawla, Pooja; Srivastava, Alok Ranjan; Pandey, Priyanka; Chawla, Viney


    Hydrogels are the biomaterials comprising network of natural or synthetic polymers capable of absorbing large amount of water. Hydrogels are "Smart Gels" or "Intelligent Gels" which can be made to respond to the various environmental conditions like temperature, pH, magnetic/electric field, ionic strength, inflammation, external stress etc. There are numerous potential applications of hydrogels in modern day life ranging from a diaper to gene delivery. This review succinctly describes the classification, properties and preparation methods along with numerous diverse applications of hydrogels like agricultural hydrogels, hydrogel for drug delivery, sensing, dental adhesives, wound healing and tissue regeneration, diet aid and gastric retention and in tissue engineering etc. Hydrogels can be regarded as highly valuable biomaterials for human-beings.

  8. Hydrogel scaffolds for tissue engineering: Progress and challenges (United States)

    El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M.; Yacoub, Magdi H.


    Designing of biologically active scaffolds with optimal characteristics is one of the key factors for successful tissue engineering. Recently, hydrogels have received a considerable interest as leading candidates for engineered tissue scaffolds due to their unique compositional and structural similarities to the natural extracellular matrix, in addition to their desirable framework for cellular proliferation and survival. More recently, the ability to control the shape, porosity, surface morphology, and size of hydrogel scaffolds has created new opportunities to overcome various challenges in tissue engineering such as vascularization, tissue architecture and simultaneous seeding of multiple cells. This review provides an overview of the different types of hydrogels, the approaches that can be used to fabricate hydrogel matrices with specific features and the recent applications of hydrogels in tissue engineering. Special attention was given to the various design considerations for an efficient hydrogel scaffold in tissue engineering. Also, the challenges associated with the use of hydrogel scaffolds were described. PMID:24689032


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A corneal ulcer caused by infection is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. One of the recent health concerns is the increasing incidence of corneal ulcers associated with contact lens user especially if the users fail to follow specific instruction in using their contact lenses. Risk factors associated with increased risk of contact lens related corneal ulcers are:overnight wear, long duration of continuous wear, lower socio-economic classes, smoking, dry eye and poor hygiene. The presenting symptoms of contact lens related corneal ulcers include eye discomfort, foreign body sensation and lacrimation. More serious symptoms are redness (especially circum-corneal injection, severe pain, photophobia, eye discharge and blurring of vision. The diagnosis is established by a thorough slit lamp microscopic examination with fluorescein staining and corneal scraping for Gram stain and culture of the infective organism. Delay in diagnosing and treatment can cause permanent blindness, therefore an early referral to ophthalmologist and commencing of antimicrobial therapy can prevent visual loss.

  10. Evaluation of the Tear Function Tests and the Ocular Surface in First-Time Users of Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lenses. (United States)

    Yildiz Tasci, Yelda; Gürdal, Canan; Sarac, Ozge; Onusever, Aykut


    To evaluate the effects of three different silicone hydrogel contact lenses (SHCL), (balafilcon A, senofilcon A, and comfilcon A) on tear function tests, corneal thickness, and ocular surface cytology in first time contact lens users. In this prospective study, 120 eyes of 60 subjects were evaluated. Balafilcon A users were designated as group 1, senofilcon A users as group 2, and comfilcon A users as group 3. In all cases, before and after 6 months of contact lens wear, ocular surface disease index score (OSDI), tear breakup time (TBUT), Schirmer 1 test, central corneal thickness (CCT), central corneal epithelium thickness (CCET), and conjunctival impression cytology samples were evaluated. In group 1, 40 eyes of the 20 patients, in group 2, 40 eyes of the 20 patients, and in group 3, 40 eyes of the 20 patients were evaluated. The mean OSDI scores did not differ between the three groups after contact lens wear (p > 0.05). In group 1 and group 2, significant decrease was found in the mean TBUT 6 months after contact lens wear (p = 0.04, p contact lens wear, the mean Schirmer 1 tear test was decreased significantly (p = 0.021). In all 3 groups, no significant change was observed in the mean CCT and CCET after contact lens wear (p > 0.05). After 6 months, the morphological changes in temporal and superior conjunctival epithelial cells were found to be significant in all groups (p < 0.001). Six months after SHCL wear, marked morphological changes occurred in the conjunctival epithelium. Tear function tests were also affected, while corneal thickness did not show any significant difference.

  11. Comparative study between microwave and conventional dehydration of okra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shams El Din, M. H. A.


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate different pre-treatments and dehydration methods on the quality of okra. No significant differences were found among pretreatments and dehydration methods for the chemical composition of dehydrated okra samples. Dipping in 0.1 % sodium metabisulphite solution at room temperature and immersion in 0.1 % sodium metabisulphite solution at 92-95 °C improved the retention of ascorbic acid of okra samples after dehydration by either conventional or microwave oven. Also, the reduced dehydration time required for microwave dehydration produced far less destruction of ascorbic acid. The highest rehydration ratio was found in unwashed okra sample and dehydrated by microwave after immersion in 0.1 % sodium metabisulphite solution at 92-95 °C. Dehydrated okra samples by sun drying and conventional oven had lower retention percentages of total chlorophyll and carotenoids than those of dehydrated okra samples by microwave oven. The general appearance and colour scores of dehydrated okra samples by microwave were significantly different from those of conventionally dehydrated or sun dried okra samples.

    Este estudio se ha realizado para evaluar los diferentes pretratamientos y métodos de deshidratación en la calidad del kimbombó. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre ellos respecto a la composición química de las muestras de kimbombó deshidratadas. La inmersión en solución de metabisulfito sódico al 0.1 % a temperatura ambiente y la inmersión en solución de metabisulfito sódico al 0.1 % a 92-95 °C mejoraron la retención de ácido ascórbico de las muestras de kimbombó después de la deshidratación tanto utilizando el homo convencional como el horno microondas. Además el menor tiempo necesario para la deshidratación usando el horno microondas produjo menos destrucción de ácido ascórbico. La mayor relación de rehidratación fue encontrada en muestras de kimbombó no tratadas o

  12. Application of hydrogel system for neutron attenuation

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, S C; Gupta, B P


    Hydrogel sheets based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) have been prepared by the technique of acetalization of PVA using formaldehyde and grafting of acrylic acid onto PVAc by gamma irradiation. PVA hydrogel (PVAB) sheets have been prepared in geometrically stable shapes by compression moulding process and characterised for their thermal properties, geometrical stability on water absorption, and neutron shielding efficiency. The effective protection from fast neutrons can be increased by a factor of 18% by swelling the PVAB sheets to 210% in water. The water intake and subsequent retention of water by the sheet can be tailored as per shielding requirements.

  13. Effect of plasma treatment on the performance of two drug-loaded hydrogel formulations for therapeutic contact lenses. (United States)

    Paradiso, Patrizia; Chu, Virginia; Santos, Luís; Serro, Ana Paula; Colaço, Rogério; Saramago, Benilde


    Although the plasma technology has long been applied to treat contact lenses, the effect of this treatment on the performance of drug-loaded contact lenses is still unclear. The objective of this work is to study the effect of nitrogen plasma treatment on two drug-loaded polymeric formulations which previously demonstrated to be suitable for therapeutic contact lenses: a poly-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (pHEMA) based hydrogel loaded with levofloxacin and a silicone-based hydrogel loaded with chlorhexidine. Modifications of the surface and the optical properties, and alterations in the drug release profiles and possible losses of the antimicrobial activities of the drugs induced by the plasma treatment were assessed. The results showed that, depending on the system and on the processing conditions, the plasma treatment may be beneficial for increasing wettability and refractive index, without degrading the lens surface. From the point of view of drug delivery, plasma irradiation at moderate power (200 W) decreased the initial release rate and the amount of released drug, maintaining the drug activity. For lower (100 W) and higher powers (300 W), almost no effect was detected because the treatment was, respectively, too soft and too aggressive for the lens materials. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Kinetics of Competitive Adsorption between Lysozyme and Lactoferrin on Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lenses and the Effect on Lysozyme Activity. (United States)

    Hall, Brad; Jones, Lyndon; Forrest, James A


    To determine the effect of competitive adsorption between lysozyme and lactoferrin on silicone hydrogel contact lenses and the effect on lysozyme activity. Three commercially available silicone hydrogel contact lens materials (senofilcon A, lotrafilcon B and balafilcon A) were examined, for time points ranging from 10 s to 2 h. Total protein deposition was determined by I(125) radiolabeling of lysozyme and lactoferrin, while the activity of lysozyme was determined by a micrococcal activity assay. Senofilcon A and balafilcon A did not show any relevant competitive adsorption between lysozyme and lactoferrin. Lotrafilcon B showed reduced protein deposition due to competitive adsorption for lactoferrin at all time points and lysozyme after 7.5 min. Co-adsorption of lactoferrin and lysozyme decreased the activity of lysozyme in solution for senofilcon A and lotrafilcon B, but co-adsorption had no effect on the surface activity of lysozyme for all lens types investigated. Competition between lysozyme and lactoferrin is material specific. Co-adsorption of lysozyme and lactoferrin does not affect the activity of surface-bound lysozyme but can reduce the activity of subsequently desorbed lysozyme.

  15. Understanding the surface chemical and mechanical properties of hydrogel materials for contact lens applications (United States)

    Huang, Fu-Chung

    Vision problems such as near-sightedness, far-sightedness, as well as others, are due to optical aberrations in the human eye. These conditions are prevalent, and the population is growing rapidly. Correcting optical aberrations is traditionally done optically using eyeglasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgeries; these are sometime not convenient or not always available to everyone. Furthermore, higher order aberrations are not correctable with eyeglasses. In this work, we introduce a new computation based aberration-correcting light field display: by incorporating the persons own optical aberration into the computation, we alter the content shown on the display, such that he or she will be able to see it in sharp focus without wearing eyewear. We analyze the image formation models; through the retinal light field projection, we find it is possible to compensate for the optical blurring on the target image by prefiltering with the inverse blur. Using off-the-shelf components, we built a light field display prototype that supports our desired inverse light field prefiltering. The results show a significant contrast improvement and resolution enhancement over prior approaches. Finally, we also demonstrate the capability to correct for higher order aberrations.

  16. Control of a catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles embedded in DNA hydrogel by swelling/shrinking the hydrogel's matrix. (United States)

    Che, Yuxin; Zinchenko, Anatoly; Murata, Shizuaki


    By incorporating catalytically active nanoparticles into polymeric hydrogel one can tune the catalytic activity of such a hybrid material by affecting the state of polymer matrix. Herein, hybrid hydrogel was prepared by metallization of DNA cross-liked hydrogel via absorption of gold precursor and reduction by NaBH4, and its catalytic activity under various swelling ratio was studied spectroscopically. Catalytic activity of Au nanoparticles in hydrogel was shown to depend drastically on a swelling degree of hydrogel easily controlled by a change in an ionic strength of solution. Increase of the catalytic reaction rate was proportional to the volume of hybrid hydrogel indicating that diffusion of reactants toward catalytic centers inside hydrogel is crucial for the efficient catalysis by soft-matter-based hybrid material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of Dehydration and Strength in Elite Badminton Players: e37821

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Javier Abián-Vicén; Juan Del Coso; Cristina González-Millán; Juan José Salinero; Pablo Abián


    .... However, it is unknown how dehydration affects intermittent sports performance. The purpose of this study was to identify the level of dehydration in elite badminton players and its relation to muscle strength and power production...

  18. Metal organic framework MIL-101 (Cr) for dehydration reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... at 513 K. Cr-MIL-101 demonstrates superior catalytic activity with conversion of 95% of 1-phenylethanol. Moreover, high surface area and nanocages with coordinated unsaturated sites of Cr-MIL-101 have allowed us to attain higher dehydrated products selectivity than Cr-supported activated carbon (Cr/AC), amberlyst-15 ...

  19. Cranial ultrasound and CT findings in infants with hypernatremic dehydration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Bokyung K. [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Samsung Medical Centre, 50 Irwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-230 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Munhyang [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Samsung Medical Centre, 50 Irwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-230 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Hye Kyung [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Samsung Medical Centre, 50 Irwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-230 (Korea, Republic of)


    We present two newborn infants with hypernatremic dehydration with central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Both patients showed similar imaging findings, demonstrating generalized brain parenchymal abnormality and multifocal areas of hemorrhage or hemorrhagic infarction. These findings are compatible with previously described CNS pathologic findings in hypernatremia. (orig.). With 2 figs.

  20. Reference chart for relative weight change to detect hypernatraemic dehydration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, P. van; Wouwe, J.P. van; Breuning-Boers, J.M.; Buuren, S. van; Verkerk, P.H.


    Objective: The validity of the rule of thumb that infants may have a weight loss of 10% in the first days after birth is unknown. We assessed the validity of this and other rules to detect breast-fed infants with hypernatraemic dehydration. Design: A reference chart for relative weight change was

  1. Impact of osmotic dehydration on the encapsulated apices survival ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Cryopreservation is one of the biotechnological methods currently used for long term conservation of plant genetic resources. It requires many steps such as a pretreatment, which involves cells dehydration in order to make them tolerant to desiccation and freezing in nitrogen liquid using high sucrose ...

  2. Partial dehydration of 'Niagara Rosada' GRAPES ( Vitis labrusca L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The partial dehydration of grapes after harvest and aimed wine-making, has been shown to be a process that brings increased concentration of sugar and phenolic compounds in the must, which results in the quality of the wines produced. However, the works developed so far studied the process for temperatures up to a ...

  3. Dehydrating of flax fiber with microwave heating for biocomposite production. (United States)

    Panigrahi, Satyanarayan; Ghazanfari, Ahmad; Meda, Venkatesh


    The feasibility of microwave dehydrating flax fiber was evaluated using a commercial domestic microwave oven at four power settings representing 200, 300, 400 and 500 Watt (W) power level. Due to the possibility of local heating and consequent fiber degradation, the changes in color of the flax fiber at different levels of temperature were also investigated. The dehydration processes at various power levels were simulated by Page model. Based on visual inspection, color analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the fiber, it was revealed that discoloration of the fiber occurred at about 170 degrees C. At 200 and 300 W power level, after 10 minutes of dehydrating, the moisture content of the fiber reached from initial 7.9% close to 2.0 and 1.0%, respectively. For 400 W power level, the moisture content of the fiber dropped to 0. 10% in about 9.5 minutes. Major discoloration of the fiber was noticed when dehydration was proceed beyond 4.5 minutes for 500 W treatment. The Page model very well fitted the experimental data. The coefficients of determination calculated from the model and the experimental data increased with increase in applied microwave power

  4. Physico-chemical changes during storage of dehydrated plantain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The changes in some physico-chemical properties of dehydrated plantain slices packaged in polyethylene and polypropylene pouches and stored, at 37 oC and 75 per cent RH, for 6 months were studied. Moisture gain, non-enzymatic browning, colour changes, puncture force, pH, ascorbic acid and total acidity were ...

  5. Microfluidic Droplet Dehydration for Concentrating Processes in Biomolecules (United States)

    Anna, Shelley


    Droplets in microfluidic devices have proven useful as picoliter reactors for biochemical processing operations such as polymerase chain reaction, protein crystallization, and the study of enzyme kinetics. Although droplets are typically considered to be self-contained, constant volume reactors, there can be significant transport between the dispersed and continuous phases depending on solubility and other factors. In the present talk, we show that water droplets trapped within a microfluidic device for tens of hours slowly dehydrate, concentrating the contents encapsulated within. We use this slow dehydration along with control of the initial droplet composition to influence gellation, crystallization, and phase separation processes. By examining these concentrating processes in many trapped drops at once we gain insight into the stochastic nature of the events. In one example, we show that dehydration rate impacts the probability of forming a specific crystal habit in a crystallizing amino acid. In another example, we phase separate a common aqueous two-phase system within droplets and use the ensuing two phases to separate DNA from an initial mixture. We further influence wetting conditions between the two aqueous polymer phases and the continuous oil, promoting complete de-wetting and physical separation of the polymer phases. Thus, controlled dehydration of droplets allows for concentration, separation, and purification of important biomolecules on a chip.

  6. Carbon-based building blocks for alcohol dehydration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Mallon, Peter E.; Magnacca, Giuliana

    A biopolymer (HAL), extracted from organic compost with yield ~20%, was used to fabricate composite HAL-graphene oxide (GO) membranes. Upon thermal stabilization, HAL brings high disorder in the membrane structure, thus increasing water permeability. This feature together with the good water/etha....../ethanol perm-selectivity make GO-HAL membranes promising devices for alcohol dehydration....

  7. Mechanisms by Which Dehydration May Lead to Chronic Kidney Disease. (United States)

    Roncal-Jimenez, C; Lanaspa, M A; Jensen, T; Sanchez-Lozada, L G; Johnson, R J


    Dehydration, a condition that characterizes excessive loss of body water, is well known to be associated with acute renal dysfunction; however, it has largely been considered reversible and to be associated with no long-term effects on the kidney. Recently, an epidemic of chronic kidney disease has emerged in Central America in which the major risk factor seems to be recurrent heat-associated dehydration. This has led to studies investigating whether recurrent dehydration may lead to permanent kidney damage. Three major potential mechanisms have been identified, including the effects of vasopressin on the kidney, the activation of the aldose reductase-fructokinase pathway, and the effects of chronic hyperuricemia. The discovery of these pathways has also led to the recognition that mild dehydration may be a risk factor in progression of all types of chronic kidney diseases. Furthermore, there is some evidence that increasing hydration, particularly with water, may actually prevent CKD. Thus, a whole new area of investigation is developing that focuses on the role of water and osmolarity and their influence on kidney function and health. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Dehydration kinetics of Portland cement paste at high temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Ye, G.


    Portland cement paste is a multiphase compound mainly consisting of calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH) gel, calcium hydroxide (CH) crystal, and unhydrated cement core. When cement paste is exposed to high temperature, the dehydration of cement paste leads to not only the decline in strength, but also


    Pervaporation has emerged as an economically viable alternative technology for the dehydration of organic solvents, removal of organic compounds from water and organic/organic separations. Development of a suitable membrane system with high flux and high selectivity plays a criti...


    Pervaporation has emerged as an economically viable alternative technology for the dehydration of organic solvents, removal of organic compounds from water and organic/organic separations. Development of a suitable membrane system with high flux and high selectivity plays a criti...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    A novel histoprocessing method for paraffin and plastic sections is presented in which dehydration of fixed tissue blocks is achieved within 5 minutes by microwaving under vacuum. Exploiting the decrease in boiling temperature under vacuum, we succeed in evaporating liquid molecules in the tissues

  12. Chronic dehydration and symptomatic upper urinary tract stones in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic dehydration and symptomatic upper urinary tract stones in young adults in Ibadan, Nigeria. ... West African Journal of Medicine. Journal Home ... Patients and Methods: We reviewed all cases of renal stones referred to a single Consultant in a Teaching Hospital in Southwestern Nigeria over a two year period.

  13. Science Study Aids 1: Dehydration for Food Preservation. (United States)

    Boeschen, John; And Others

    This publication is the first of a series of seven supplementary investigative materials for use in secondary science classes providing up-to-date research-related investigations. This unit is structured for grades 9 through 12. It is concerned with the osmatic dehydration of fruits. The guide provides students with information about food…

  14. TiO2 nanoparticles for enhancing the refractive index of hydrogels for ophthalmological applications (United States)

    Hampp, Norbert; Dams, Christian; Badur, Thorben; Reinhardt, Hendrik


    Intraocular lenses (IOL) are currently the only treatment for cataract dependent vision impairment and blindness [1]. A polymer suitable for IOL manufacture needs to meet a plurality of properties, biocompatibility, excellent transmission in the visible range, a high flexibility for micro invasive surgery, a high refractive index as well as a good ABBE-number, just to mention the most important ones [2]. We present the use of in situ generated TiO2-nanoparticles to enhance the refractive index of poly-HEMA hydrogels - with are suitable polymers for IOL manufacture[3] - from 1.44 to 1.527 at 589.3 nm combined with an excellent ABBE-number of 54. The nanoparticles were prepared using titaniumdiisopropoxide- bis(acetylacetonate) as a precursor. First the titanium salt was diffused into the poly-HEMA matrix and then it was transformed into TiO2 in boiling water. The resulting pHEMA [TiO2] hydrogel was dried for 10 days under ambient conditions. By lathing these polymers were machined into lens precursors, the so-called Saturn-rings. After reswelling in physiological saline solutions flexible polymer lenses with high surface quality, shape memory and superior optical properties were obtained. The crystal structure of the formed TiO2 nanoparticles was identified as anatase via Xray. No release of titanium ions or TiO2 nanoparticles was observe under physiological conditions. Such hybrid materials of TiO2 nanoparticles and poly-HEMA like hydrogels are promising materials for IOL.

  15. Dehydrated melon containing antioxidants and calcium from grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulda N. M. Chambi


    Full Text Available Background: Grape juice has a high antioxidant potential, capable of fighting oxidative processes in the body. The juice is mainly marketed in its concentrated form, which has a high content of glucose and fructose. The juice concentrate may then be used as an osmotic agent to dehydrated fruit with a relatively short shelf-life at room temperature, such as melon. The osmotic dehydration process can also be combined with conventional drying in order to further reduce the water activity (a w of the product. Finally, the antioxidant-rich melon meets the consumers’ demand for foods which contain ingredients that may impart health benefits. Results: Melon dehydrated by osmotic process at 200, 400 and 600 mbar, using grape juice concentrate (GJC, showed no significant differences in physical characteristics (a w , °Brix, and moisture content. Higher efficiency was observed when dehydration was performed at 200 mbar. After osmotic dehydration with GJC, both plasmolysis of the melon cells and an increase in intercellular spaces were observed by optical microscopy, with no negative impact on the mechanical properties (True stress, Hencky’s strain and deformability modulus. Calcium present in GJC was impregnated into the melon matrix, thus contributing with the mineral composition and mechanical properties of the final product. No significant differences were observed for the antioxidant capacity of melon dehydrated both with GJC and GJC followed by air-drying at 50 and 70°C. This demonstrates that it is possible to combine the two processes to obtain a product with intermediate moisture without decreasing its antioxidant capacity. The samples scored above the acceptable limit (>5 varying between like slightly to like moderately, resulting in a purchase intent with average scores between 3 (maybe/maybe not buy and 4 (probably would buy. Conclusions: A product with intermediate water activity, acidic, firm, high antioxidant capacity, rich in calcium

  16. Hybrid Drying of Carrot Preliminary Processed with Ultrasonically Assisted Osmotic Dehydration


    Mierzwa, Dominik; Kowalski, Stefan Jan; Kroehnke, Joanna


    In this paper the kinetics of osmotic dehydration of carrot and the influence of this pretreatment on the post-drying processes and the quality of obtained products are analysed. Osmotic dehydration was carried out in the aqueous fructose solution in two different ways: with and without ultrasound assistance. In the first part of the research, the kinetics of osmotic dehydration was analysed on the basis of osmotic dewatering rate, water loss and solid gain. Next, the effective time of dehydr...

  17. Properties of hydrogel materials used for entrapment of microbial cells in production of fermented beverages. (United States)

    Navrátil, Marián; Gemeiner, Peter; Klein, Jaroslav; Sturdík, Ernest; Malovíková, Anna; Nahálka, Jozef; Vikartovská, Alica; Dömény, Zoltán; Smogrovicová, Daniela


    Approaches using immobilized biological materials are very promising for application in different branches of the food industry, especially in the production of fermented beverages. Materials tested by our team for the process of entrapment belong to the family of charged polysaccharides able to form beaded hydrogels by ionotropic gelation (e.g. alginate, pectate, kappa-carrageenan) and synthetic polymers (e.g. polyvinyl alcohol) forming bead- and lens-shaped hydrogels by thermal sol/gel transition. Concentration of a gel, conditions and instrumentation of gelation process, bead and size distribution, porosity, diffusion properties, mechanical, storage and operational stability, and many other parameters were followed and optimized. Our work has been oriented especially to practical applications of immobilized cells. Brewing yeast cells were successfully immobilized by entrapment materials and used in a process of batch and continual production of beer, including primary and secondary fermentation of wort. Other applications include continual production of ethanol by fermentation of different saccharide substrates (molasses, glucose syrup, wheat hydrolysate), mead and non-alcoholic beverages production.

  18. Release of betaine and dexpanthenol from vitamin E modified silicone-hydrogel contact lenses. (United States)

    Hsu, Kuan-Hui; de la Jara, Percy Lazon; Ariyavidana, Amali; Watling, Jason; Holden, Brien; Garrett, Qian; Chauhan, Anuj


    To develop a contact lens system that will control the release of an osmoprotectant and a moisturizing agent with the aim to reduce symptoms of ocular dryness. Profiles of the release of osmoprotectant betaine and moisturizing agent dexpanthenol from senofilcon A and narafilcon B contact lenses were determined in vitro under sink conditions. Both types of lenses were also infused with vitamin E to increase the duration of drug release due to the formation of the vitamin E diffusion barriers in the lenses. The release profiles from vitamin E-infused lenses were compared with those from the control lenses. Both dexpanthenol and betaine are released from commercial silicone hydrogel lenses for only about 10 min. Vitamin E loadings into contact lenses at about 20-23% can increase the release times to about 10 h, which is about 60 times larger compared to the control unmodified lenses. Vitamin E-loaded silicone hydrogel contact lenses released betaine and dexpanthenol in a controlled fashion.

  19. Evolution of a pre and post lens tear film with a contact lens (United States)

    Gerhart, Matthew; Anderson, Daniel


    The work is the development, implementation, and analysis of a two-dimensional tear film model including a porous contact lens. The geometry of the problem is: a pre-lens layer that is a thin tear film between the outside air and contact lens, a contact lens that is a rigid but movable porous substrate, and a post-lens layer that is a thin film layer between the contact lens and the cornea. We are looking at short and long term behavior of the evolution of the thin film in the pre-lens layer coupled with the porous layer and the thin squeeze film in the post-lens layer. We model the different behaviors that arise as the Darcy number, evaporation effects, and boundary flux conditions change.

  20. Contact lens fitting after photorefractive keratectomy.


    Astin, C. L.; Gartry, D S; McG Steele, A. D.


    AIMS/BACKGROUND: This study evaluated contact lens fitting and the longer term response of the photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) cornea to lens wear. In PRK for myopia problems such as regression, anterior stromal haze, irregular astigmatism, halo aberration, and anisometropia have been reported. Certain patients therefore require contact lens correction to obtain best corrected visual acuity (BCVA). METHOD: From an original cohort of 80 patients, 15 were dissatisfied with their visual outcom...

  1. Hydrogels in a historical perspective : From simple networks to smart materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, Sytze J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/339146850; Boere, Kristel W M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338018093; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan; Vermonden, Tina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/275124517; Hennink, Wim E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070880409


    Over the past decades, significant progress has been made in the field of hydrogels as functional biomaterials. Biomedical application of hydrogels was initially hindered by the toxicity of crosslinking agents and limitations of hydrogel formation under physiological conditions. Emerging knowledge

  2. Hydrogels in a historical perspective: From simple networks to smart materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, S.J.; Boere, K.W.M.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan; Vermonden, T.; Hennink, W.E.


    Over the past decades, significant progress has been made in the field of hydrogels as functional biomaterials. Biomedical application of hydrogels was initially hindered by the toxicity of crosslinking agents and limitations of hydrogel formation under physiological conditions. Emerging knowledge

  3. Bioinspired, biomimetic, double-enzymatic mineralization of hydrogels for bone regeneration with calcium carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Heredia, Marco A.; Łapa, Agata; Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro


    Hydrogels are popular materials for tissue regeneration. Incorporation of biologically active substances, e.g. enzymes, is straightforward. Hydrogel mineralization is desirable for bone regeneration. Here, hydrogels of Gellan Gum (GG), a biocompatible polysaccharide, were mineralized biomimetically...

  4. mPGES-1-derived PGE2 mediates dehydration natriuresis (United States)

    Jia, Zhanjun; Liu, Gang; Sun, Ying; Kakizoe, Yutaka; Guan, Guangju; Zhang, Aihua; Zhou, Shu-Feng


    PGE2 is a natriuretic factor whose production is elevated after water deprivation (WD) but its role in dehydration natriuresis is not well-defined. The goal of the present study was to investigate the role of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) in dehydration natriuresis. After 24-h WD, wild-type (WT) mice exhibited a significant increase in 24-h urinary Na+ excretion accompanied with normal plasma Na+ concentration and osmolality. In contrast, WD-induced elevation of urinary Na+ excretion was completely abolished in mPGES-1 knockout (KO) mice in parallel with increased plasma Na+ concentration and a trend increase in plasma osmolality. WD induced a 1.8-fold increase in urinary PGE2 output and a 1.6-fold increase in PGE2 content in the renal medulla of WT mice, both of which were completely abolished by mPGES-1 deletion. Similar patterns of changes were observed for urinary nitrate/nitrite and cGMP. The natriuresis in dehydrated WT mice was associated with a significant downregulation of renal medullary epithelial Na channel-α mRNA and protein, contrasting to unaltered expressions in dehydrated KO mice. By quantitative RT-PCR, WD increased the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible NOS, and neuronal NOS expressions in the renal medulla of WT mice by 3.9-, 1.48-, and 2.6-fold, respectively, all of which were significantly blocked in mPGES-1 KO mice. The regulation of eNOS expression was further confirmed by immunoblotting. Taken together, our results suggest that mPGES-1-derived PGE2 contributes to dehydration natriuresis likely via NO/cGMP. PMID:23171554

  5. Dehydration/hydration of granular beds for thermal storage applications: A combined NMR and temperature study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, P.A.J.; Pel, L.; Adan, O.C.G.


    For heat/cold storage systems a granular bed of salt hydrates is studied during dehydration/hydration. The water density in these beds are measured with help of NMR. Diffusion based dehydration of a granular bed of Na2SO4·10H2O is shown to be internally limited as larger grains dehydrate faster than

  6. 40 CFR 63.765 - Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Glycol dehydration unit process vent... Facilities § 63.765 Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards. (a) This section applies to each glycol dehydration unit subject to this subpart with an actual annual average natural gas flowrate equal to or...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1275 - Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Glycol dehydration unit process vent... Facilities § 63.1275 Glycol dehydration unit process vent standards. (a) This section applies to each glycol dehydration unit subject to this subpart with an actual annual average natural gas flowrate equal to or...

  8. Formulation and release of alaptide from cellulose-based hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbyněk Sklenář


    Full Text Available The modern drug alaptide, synthetic dipeptide, shows regenerative effects and effects on the epitelisation process. A commercial product consisting of 1% alaptide hydrophilic cream is authorised for use in veterinary practice. This study focuses on the formulation of alaptide into semi-synthetic polymer-based hydrogels. The aim of the present study is to prepare hydrogels and to evaluate the liberation of alaptide from hydrogels. The hydrogels were prepared on the basis of three gel-producing substances: methylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose and hydroxypropylcellulose. To enhance the drug release from hydrogel humectants, glycerol, propylene glycol and ethanol in various concentrations were evaluated. The permeation of the alaptide from gels into the acceptor solution was evaluated with the use of the permeable membrane neprophane. The amount of drug released from prepared hydrogels was determined spectrophotometrically. Hydrogels with optimal alaptide liberation properties were subjected to the study of rheological properties in the next phase. The optimal composition of hydrogel as established in this study was 1% alaptide + 3% hydroxyethylcellulose with the addition of 10% glycerol as humectant. Due to the advantageous properties of hydrogels in wounds, alaptide could be incorporated into a hydrogel base for use in veterinary medicine.

  9. Swelling kinetics of microgels embedded in a polyacrylamide hydrogel matrix. (United States)

    Huang, Na; Guan, Ying; Zhu, X X; Zhang, Yongjun


    Composite hydrogels--macroscopic hydrogels with embedded microgel particles--are expected to respond to external stimuli quickly because microgels swell much faster than bulky gels. In this work, the kinetics of the pH-induced swelling of a composite hydrogel are studied using turbidity measurements. The embedded microgel is a pH- and thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) microgel and the hydrogel matrix is polyacrylamide. A rapid pH-induced swelling of the embedded microgel particles is observed, confirming that composite hydrogels respond faster than ordinary hydrogels. However, compared with the free microgels, the swelling of the embedded microgel is much slower. Diffusion of OH(-) into the composite hydrogel film is identified as the main reason for the slow swelling of the embedded microgel particles, as the time of the pH-induced swelling of this film is comparable to that of OH(-) diffusion into the film. The composition of the hydrogel matrix does not significantly change the characteristic swelling time of the composite hydrogel film. However, the swelling pattern of the film changes with composition of the hydrogel matrix. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Designing degradable hydrogels for orthogonal control of cell microenvironments (United States)

    Kharkar, Prathamesh M.


    Degradable and cell-compatible hydrogels can be designed to mimic the physical and biochemical characteristics of native extracellular matrices and provide tunability of degradation rates and related properties under physiological conditions. Hence, such hydrogels are finding widespread application in many bioengineering fields, including controlled bioactive molecule delivery, cell encapsulation for controlled three-dimensional culture, and tissue engineering. Cellular processes, such as adhesion, proliferation, spreading, migration, and differentiation, can be controlled within degradable, cell-compatible hydrogels with temporal tuning of biochemical or biophysical cues, such as growth factor presentation or hydrogel stiffness. However, thoughtful selection of hydrogel base materials, formation chemistries, and degradable moieties is necessary to achieve the appropriate level of property control and desired cellular response. In this review, hydrogel design considerations and materials for hydrogel preparation, ranging from natural polymers to synthetic polymers, are overviewed. Recent advances in chemical and physical methods to crosslink hydrogels are highlighted, as well as recent developments in controlling hydrogel degradation rates and modes of degradation. Special attention is given to spatial or temporal presentation of various biochemical and biophysical cues to modulate cell response in static (i.e., non-degradable) or dynamic (i.e., degradable) microenvironments. This review provides insight into the design of new cell-compatible, degradable hydrogels to understand and modulate cellular processes for various biomedical applications. PMID:23609001

  11. Enhancement of Curcumin Bioavailability Using Nanocellulose Reinforced Chitosan Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thennakoon M. Sampath Udeni Gunathilake


    Full Text Available A unique biodegradable, superporous, swellable and pH sensitive nanocellulose reinforced chitosan hydrogel with dynamic mechanical properties was prepared for oral administration of curcumin. Curcumin, a less water-soluble drug was used due to the fact that the fast swellable, superporous hydrogel could release a water-insoluble drug to a great extent. CO2 gas foaming was used to fabricate hydrogel as it eradicates using organic solvents. Field emission scanning electron microscope images revealed that the pore size significantly increased with the formation of widely interconnected porous structure in gas foamed hydrogels. The maximum compression of pure chitosan hydrogel was 25.9 ± 1 kPa and it increased to 38.4 ± 1 kPa with the introduction of 0.5% cellulose nanocrystals. In vitro degradation of hydrogels was found dependent on the swelling ratio and the amount of CNC of the hydrogel. All the hydrogels showed maximum swelling ratios greater than 300%. The 0.5% CNC-chitosan hydrogel showed the highest swelling ratio of 438% ± 11%. FTIR spectrum indicated that there is no interaction between drug and ingredients present in hydrogels. The drug release occurred in non-Fickian (anomalous manner in simulated gastric medium. The drug release profiles of hydrogels are consistent with the data obtained from the swelling studies. After gas foaming of the hydrogel, the drug loading efficiency increased from 41% ± 2.4% to 50% ± 2.0% and release increased from 0.74 to 1.06 mg/L. The drug release data showed good fitting to Ritger-Peppas model. Moreover, the results revealed that the drug maintained its chemical activity after in vitro release. According to the results of this study, CNC reinforced chitosan hydrogel can be suggested to improve the bioavailability of curcumin for the absorption from stomach and upper intestinal tract.

  12. Medical applications of radiation formed hydrogels (United States)

    Rosiak, J. M.; Olejniczak, J.


    Polyvinylpyrrolidone was used as a main component of two new biomaterials: hydrogels wound dressings and therapeutic system for induction of labour. Ionizing radiation was applied as a tool for initiation of crosslinking and sterilization of these materials. Both products successfully passed clinical tests and have been commercialized. Draft of technology and some properties are shortly reviewed in this report.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of carboxymethyl chitosan hydrogel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 35; Issue 7. Synthesis and characterization of carboxymethyl chitosan hydrogel: Application as site specific delivery for lercanidipine hydrochloride. Subhash S Vaghani Madhabhai M Patel C S Satish Kandarp M Patel N P Jivani. Volume 35 Issue 7 December 2012 pp ...

  14. Polymer hydrogels as optimized delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Jorge G.S.; Varca, Gustavo H.C.; Ferraz, Caroline C.; Garrido, Gabriela P.; Diniz, Bruna M.; Carvalho, Vinicius S.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Hydrogels are formed by polymers capable of absorbing large quantities of water. They consist of one or more three-dimensionally structured polymer networks formed by macromolecular chains linked by covalent bonds-crosslinks - and physical interactions. The application of hydrogels, has been widely studied. Biodegradable synthetic or natural polymers such as chitosan, starch and poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid, have properties that allow the development of biodegradable systems for drug and nutraceutics delivery. This study aimed to develop polymeric hydrogels based on polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylamide and polyvinylpyrrolidone using ionizing radiation in order to develop hydrogels for improved loading and release of compounds. Polymer solutions were solubilized in water and poured into thermoformed packages. After sealing, the material was subjected to γ-irradiation at 25kGy. The samples were assayed by means of mechanical properties, gel fraction and swelling degree. Nanostructure characterization was performed using Flory's equation to determine crosslinking density. The systems developed showed swelling degree and adequate mechanical resistance. The nanostructure evaluation showed different results for each system demonstrating the need of choosing the polymer based on the specific properties of each material. (author)

  15. Injectable hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, R.


    Tissue engineering is a promising method for the regeneration of cartilage defects. This approach generally involves the use of a three-dimensional scaffold which can act as a temporary artificial extracellular matrix (ECM) for healthy cartilage cells, chondrocytes. Hydrogels represent a class of

  16. Self-Healing Elastin-Bioglass Hydrogels. (United States)

    Zeng, Qiongyu; Desai, Malav S; Jin, Hyo-Eon; Lee, Ju Hun; Chang, Jiang; Lee, Seung-Wuk


    Tailorable hydrogels that are mechanically robust, injectable, and self-healable, are useful for many biomedical applications including tissue repair and drug delivery. Here we use biological and chemical engineering approaches to develop a novel in situ forming organic/inorganic composite hydrogel with dynamic aldimine cross-links using elastin-like polypeptides (ELP) and bioglass (BG). The resulting ELP/BG biocomposites exhibit tunable gelling behavior and mechanical characteristics in a composition and concentration dependent manner. We also demonstrate self-healing in the ELP/BG hydrogels by successfully reattaching severed pieces as well as through rheology. In addition, we show the strength of genetic engineering to easily customize ELP by fusing cell-stimulating "RGD" peptide motifs. We showed that the resulting composite materials are cytocompatible as they support the cellular growth and attachment. Our robust in situ forming ELP/BG composite hydrogels will be useful as injectable scaffolds for delivering cell and drug molecules to promote soft tissue regeneration in the future.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of superabsorbent hydrogel based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, acrylonitrile (AN) and acrylic acid (AA) monomers were directly grafted onto chitosan using ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator and methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinking agent under an inert atmosphere. The hydrogels structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) ...

  18. Lima Bean Starch-Based Hydrogels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Polymer Technology Department, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi. b ... starch (N-LBS) and hydrogels (L-GA (low glutaraldehyde) and H-GA (high glutaraldehyde)) ..... Vinyl polymers. In: Othmer, K. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Chemical. Technology, John Wiley, New. York, pp 808–821. 14. Adebayo, A.S. and Itiola, O.A.. (1998).

  19. FRET Imaging in Three-dimensional Hydrogels. (United States)

    Donius, Amalie E; Bougoin, Sylvain V; Taboas, Juan M


    Imaging of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful tool for examining cell biology in real-time. Studies utilizing FRET commonly employ two-dimensional (2D) culture, which does not mimic the three-dimensional (3D) cellular microenvironment. A method to perform quenched emission FRET imaging using conventional widefield epifluorescence microscopy of cells within a 3D hydrogel environment is presented. Here an analysis method for ratiometric FRET probes that yields linear ratios over the probe activation range is described. Measurement of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels is demonstrated in chondrocytes under forskolin stimulation using a probe for EPAC1 activation (ICUE1) and the ability to detect differences in cAMP signaling dependent on hydrogel material type, herein a photocrosslinking hydrogel (PC-gel, polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate) and a thermoresponsive hydrogel (TR-gel). Compared with 2D FRET methods, this method requires little additional work. Laboratories already utilizing FRET imaging in 2D can easily adopt this method to perform cellular studies in a 3D microenvironment. It can further be applied to high throughput drug screening in engineered 3D microtissues. Additionally, it is compatible with other forms of FRET imaging, such as anisotropy measurement and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM), and with advanced microscopy platforms using confocal, pulsed, or modulated illumination.

  20. Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Properties for Horticultural Applications (United States)

    Polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels are commonly employed to ensure hydration of the growth media and minimize crop losses during the crop production and postproduction phases in horticulture. However, studies of the effect of these materials have shown that they have a minimal effect on crop life and q...