WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydroelectric power stations

  1. Effect of time lag upon the economical operation of cascade hydroelectric power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, X.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper we discretize the state parameter - flow of cascade hydroelectric power stations - into the step function of time variable, and use constrained nonlinear programming to establish a mathematical model of economical operation which is universally applicable for general cascade hydroelectic power stations, and then the primary factors which affect the value of the time lag are discussed. According to each case of different values of the time lag, the formulas for calculating the gradient of augmented objective functions and other important formulas which will be used in SUMT for optimization are derived. Furthermore, the functional relation between the time lag and the state of operation of cascade hydroelectric power stations is derived. The situations in which the time lag will cause the mutual relation between hydroelectric power stations to change were studied. Finally, the affect that time lag will have on the economical operation of cascade hydroelectric power stations is discussed.

  2. The Victoria Project, Sri Lanka: Victoria Power-Station. [Hydroelectric power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creber, B. (Sir Alexander Gibb and Partners (GB))

    1991-04-01

    The Victoria Hydroelectric Power-Station forms part of the Victoria Project on the Mahaweli Ganga in Sri Lanka and it provides the country's largest single power source. The Paper describes the planning, design and construction of the civil engineering works, including problems encountered, and also describes, in outline, the electrical and mechanical works. (Author).

  3. Counter rotating type hydroelectric unit suitable for tidal power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanemoto, T [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Sensui 1-1, Tobata, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Suzuki, T, E-mail: turbo@tobata.isc.kyutech.ac.j [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Sensui 1-1, Tobata, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    The counter rotating type hydroelectric unit, which is composed of the axial flow type tandem runners and the peculiar generator with double rotational armatures,was proposed to utilize effectively the tidal power. In the unit, the front and the rear runners counter drive the inner and the outer armatures of the generator, respectively. Besides, the flow direction at the rear runner outlet must coincide with the flow direction at the front runner inlet, because the angular momentum through the rear runner must coincides with that through the front runner. That is, the flow runs in the axial direction at the rear runner outlet while the axial inflow at the front runner inlet. Such operations are suitable for working at the seashore with rising and falling tidal flows, and the unit may be able to take place of the traditional bulb type turbines. The tandem runners were operated at the on-cam conditions, in keeping the induced frequency constant. The output and the hydraulic efficiency are affected by the adjustment of the front and the blade setting angles. The both optimum angles giving the maximum output and/or efficiency were presented at the various discharges/heads. To promote more the tidal power generation by this type unit, the runners were also modified so as to be suitable for both rising and falling flows. The hydraulic performances are acceptable while the output is determined mainly by the trailing edge profiles of the runner blades.

  4. Development of an HTS hydroelectric power generator for the hirschaid power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, Ruben; Lewis, Clive; Eugene, Joseph; Ingles, Martin, E-mail: ruben.fair@converteam.co [Advanced Technology Group, Converteam, Rugby, CV21 1BD (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the development and manufacture of a 1.7MW, 5.25kV, 28pole, 214rpm hydroelectric power generator consisting of superconducting HTS field coils and a conventional stator. The generator is to be installed at a hydro power station in Hirschaid, Germany and is intended to be a technology demonstrator for the practical application of superconducting technology for sustainable and renewable power generation. The generator is intended to replace and uprate an existing conventional generator and will be connected directly to the German grid. The HTS field winding uses Bi-2223 tape conductor cooled to about 30K using high pressure helium gas which is transferred from static cryocoolers to the rotor via a bespoke rotating coupling. The coils are insulated with multi-layer insulation and positioned over laminated iron rotor poles which are at room temperature. The rotor is enclosed within a vacuum chamber and the complete assembly rotates at 214rpm. The challenges have been significant but have allowed Converteam to develop key technology building blocks which can be applied to future HTS related projects. The design challenges, electromagnetic, mechanical and thermal tests and results are presented and discussed together with applied solutions.

  5. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B Labruna

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paraná river, between the states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species, Boophilus (1 and Anocentor (1. A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  6. Diversion at small hydro-electric power stations; Forbislipping ved smaa vannkraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noren, Knut E.; Elstad, Ivar K.

    2008-07-01

    At a shut down caused by, for instance, a power shortage at a power station, the electric aggregate will stop and there will be a quick change in the flow of water downstream of the power station. This situation gives undesirable environmental effects, especially with regards to fish. The fish must have the opportunity to withdraw to deep pools, to avoid running aground. The goal of this report is to present good ideas to design diversion stations that reduce the environmental effects to an acceptable level, which is especially important in anadromous waterways, simultaneously not costing too much. The demand for diversion should be clarified with the authorities as soon as possible. By taking into account the power stations dimensions and foundation needs early on in the planning phase, the cost will be minimized. As a rule NVE currently demand that a diversion installation must have a capacity of 50 % of the turbines full flow of water. This is to avoid large changes in the flow of water downstream of the power station. In addition to the demand on the maximum capacity of the diversion installation, there should also be posed a demand that the calculation of the rate of flow should be kept within 50 % of the total rate of flow before the shut down. This is possible to achieve with the help of software control without the operational drawbacks caused by slow regulation being too great. Calculations carried out show that also with loading operation after shut down should have a relatively slow rate of flow. It is recommended that the short term rate of flow increase should be no more than 50 % of the rate of flow before the shut down or the stationary rate of flow before the turbines are started. To ensure the diversion with loading operation at small power stations it is recommended to use standard valves as much as possible, possibly with an energy dissipater that often can be manufactured locally. The installation should be arranged in such a way that the

  7. Improvement of hydroelectric power generation using pumped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding the dynamics of these variables, and the correlation b etween them are core to proper planning and management of a hydroelectric power station. In this Study, simple mathematical methods that include linear programming and statistical analysis based on simulation techniques were used to evaluate vital ...

  8. [Hygienic characteristics of work conditions at large Hydroelectric Power Plants with mechanization and automatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakimova, L D

    1997-01-01

    The article touches upon hygienic problems associated with mechanization and automation of major hydroelectric power stations. The authors present criteria to evaluate work conditions of the main occupations participating in the technologic process of hydroelectric power stations.

  9. Construction and environmental aspects of hydroelectric power stations; Bauliche Gestaltung und Umweltaspekte von Wasserkraftanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesecke, J. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasserbau

    1997-12-31

    In terms of environmental-friendliness, inexhaustibility, availability, non-pollution and cost conditions, hydro power is the most obvious renewable energy source. Harnessing of hydro power does interfere with nature. But there are ways of reconciling economic and ecological concerns. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Hinblick auf Umweltfreundlichkeit, Unerschoepflichkeit, Verfuegbarkeit, Schadstofffreiheit und Kostenlage stellt die Wasserkraft die vorrangige erneuerbare Energiequelle dar. Ihre Nutzung fuehrt zu Eingriffen in die Natur. Es gibt jedoch Wege, die Belange der Oekonomie und der Oekologie ausgewogen aufeinander abzustimmen. (orig.)

  10. An Implementation of Estimation Techniques to a Hydrological Model for Prediction of Runoff to a Hydroelectric Power-Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magne Fjeld

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Parameter and state estimation algorithms have been applied to a hydrological model of a catchment area in southern Norway to yield improved control of the household of water resources and better economy and efficiency in the running of the power station, as experience proves since the system was installed on-line in the summer of 1978.

  11. Aquatic biology and hydroelectric power development in New Zealand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henriques, P. R

    1987-01-01

    .... The first section summarizes the country's hydroelectric resources and their utilization. The legal and planning framework associated with hydroelectric power development and the environment is covered in the second section...

  12. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleeson, L.

    1991-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

  13. Methodology for maintenance analysis based on hydroelectric power stations reliability; Metodologia para realizar analisis de mantenimiento basado en confiabilidad en centrales hidroelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rea Soto, Rogelio; Calixto Rodriguez, Roberto; Sandoval Valenzuela, Salvador; Velasco Flores, Rocio; Garcia Lizarraga, Maria del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    A methodology to carry out Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) studies for hydroelectric power plants is presented. The methodology is an implantation/extension of the guidelines proposed by the Engineering Society for Advanced Mobility Land, Sea and Space in the SAE-JA1012 standard. With the purpose of answering the first five questions, that are set out in that standard, the use of standard ISO14224 is strongly recommended. This approach standardizes failure mechanisms and homogenizes RCM studies with the process of collecting failure and maintenance data. The use of risk matrixes to rank the importance of each failure based on a risk criteria is also proposed. [Spanish] Se presenta una metodologia para realizar estudios de mantenimiento Basado en Confiabilidad (RCM) aplicados a la industria hidroelectrica. La metodologia es una implantacion/ extension realizada por los autores de este trabajo, de los lineamientos propuestos por la Engineering Society for Advanced Mobility Land, Sea and Space en el estandar SAE-JA1012. Para contestar las primeras cinco preguntas del estandar se propone tomar como base los modos y mecanismos de fallas de componentes documentados en la guia para recopilar datos de falla en el estandar ISO-14224. Este enfoque permite estandarizar la descripcion de mecanismos de fallas de los equipos, tanto en el estudio RCM como en el proceso de recopilacion de datos de falla y de mantenimiento, lo que permite retroalimentar el ciclo de mejora continua de los procesos RCM. Tambien se propone el uso de matrices de riesgo para jerarquizar la importancia de los mecanismos de falla con base en el nivel de riesgo.

  14. Utilization of hydraulic mini-power stations in rural zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontier, R. (Societe Neyrpic, 38 - Grenoble (France))

    1982-10-01

    It is explained on a specific case how hydroelectric mini-power stations can be associated to a hydraulic dam to feed electric power to the water treatment works and to supply peak load power to the grid.

  15. FORESIGHT - ECOSUSTAINABLE DETERMINANTS OF STRATEGIC MODERNIZATION OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dovgan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the foresight methodology as an ecosustainable determinants of strategic modernization of hydroelectric power plants in the conditions of the external challenges and threats is revealed. The strategic concepts of modernization and a mechanism of strategic modernization of hydroelectric power plants on the principles of public-private partnerships is allocated. Recommendations on the implementation of the results of the strategic foresight to the modernization of hydroelectric power plants in the interaction of public and private agents are formulated.

  16. National Hydroelectric Power Resources Study. Preliminary Inventory of Hydropower Resources. Volume 3. Mid-Continent Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    utilizing water pumped into a storage reservoir, usually during off—peak hours. SMALL—SCALE HYDROELECTR IC POWER PLANT: A hydroelect r ic generating station ...inventory . In particular , the supplemental data included the designation of a U.S. Geological Survey (U.s.G.S.) reference gaging station ; a refined...maximum load which a generator, generating station , or other electrical apparatus can supply under specified conditions for a given period of time

  17. Recuperação em área de empréstimo usada para construção de usina hidrelétrica Recovery of nativa area used for construction of hydroelectric power station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene C. Alves

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A recuperação de áreas de empréstimo usada para construção de hidrelétricas é um processo lento que requer o uso de plantas de cobertura, como fonte de matéria orgânica e a aplicação de nutrientes e corretivos como condicionadores dos atributos do solo. Portanto, objetivou-se, com este trabalho, estudar a recuperação de atributos físicos do subsolo de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, utilizado no terrapleno e fundação da Usina Hidrelétrica de Ilha Solteira, SP. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com oito tratamentos e quatro repetições. A pesquisa foi implantada em 1992. Os tratamentos se constituíram do uso de adubos verdes, braquiária e correção do solo. Após 13 anos foram avaliados: porosidade total do solo, macroporosidade, microporosidade, densidade do solo, estabilidade de agregados, resistência do solo à penetração, teor de matéria orgânica e produção de matéria seca da braquiária. Os tratamentos adotados estão recuperando, de forma lenta, os atributos físicos do subsolo exposto. Os efeitos da recuperação do solo estão atingindo a profundidade de 0-0,10 m.The recovery of native area used in hydroelectric power station construction is a slow process, and it requires the use of covering plant as a source of organic matter, application of nutrients and amendments as soil conditioner. Thus, this study has the objective to study the recovery of physical attribute of subsoil in a distrophic Red Latosol, used in the embankment and foundation of Hydroelectric Power Station, Ilha Solteira, São Paulo, Brazil. The design used was randomized blocks with eight treatments and four replications. The research started in 1992. The treatments consisted of green manure, pasture and soil amendment. After 13 years, total porosity, macroporosity, microporosity, bulk density, aggregate stability, resistance to penetration, organic matter of soil and dry matter of pasture production were evaluated. The

  18. Hydroelectric power plant with variable flow on drinking water adduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaconu, S. I.; Babău, R.; Popa, G. N.; Gherman, P. L.

    2018-01-01

    The water feeding system of the urban and rural localities is mainly collected with feed pipes which can have different lengths and different levels. Before using, water must be treated. Since the treatment take place in the tanks, the pressure in the inlet of the station must be diminished. Many times the pressure must be reduced with 5-15 Barr and this is possible using valves, cavils, and so on. The flow capacity of the water consumption is highly fluctuating during one day, depending on the season, etc. This paper presents a method to use the hydroelectric potential of the feed pipes using a hydraulic turbine instead of the classical methods for decreasing the pressure. To avoid the dissipation of water and a good behavior of the power parameters it is used an asynchronous generator (AG) which is coupled at the electrical distribution network through a static frequency converter (SFC). The turbine has a simple structure without the classical devices (used to regulate the turbine blades). The speed of rotation is variable, depending on the necessary flow capacity in the outlet of the treatment station. The most important element of the automation is the static frequency converter (SFC) which allows speeds between 0 and 1.5 of the rated speed of rotation and the flow capacity varies accordingly with it.

  19. State of the arch dam and foundation of the Inguri Hydroelectric Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronshtein, V.I.

    1994-08-01

    The Inguri hydroelectric station (HES) is a cascade of hydroelectric stations including, in addition to the dam - diversion installation of the Inguri HES proper, the near-dam installation of the Perepad HES-1 and three similar channel installations of the Perepad HESs-2, -3, and -4 located on the tailrace emptying into the Black Sea. The HESs of the cascade use the fall of two rivers, the Inguri and Eristskali, by diverting the waters of the Inguri into the Eristskali.

  20. micro hydroelectric power plant development in the west region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    Introduction about hydroelectric powers plants (small scale). May 2000,. Yaoundé, Cameroun. 51pp. Lejeune A. et Toplicéanu I., 2004. Energie. Renouvelables et Cogénération pour le. Développement Durable en Afrique. Colloque. International, ENSP Université de Yaoundé I. 246pp. Linsley R. K. and Franzini J.B., 1972.

  1. Micro hydroelectric power plant development in the west region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present work is to characterise the state of ten Micro Hydroelectric Power Plants (MHPPs) installed in the west region of Cameroon, in preparation for their modernization. The work was carried out between January 2006 and December 2008. Each site was visited at least once a month. During these ...

  2. improvement of hydroelectric power generation using pumped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    conservation of energy where kinetic energy that resulted from the movement of the mass of water from the river is translated into electricity, the .... build–up of the models and solution contained therein are based. System dynamics (SD) is a ..... Reclamation Power Resources Office, July 2005, demand for electrical power ...

  3. Hekinan thermal power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Hekinan thermal power station is situated at the port of Kinuura in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Unit 1 began commercial operation in October 1991, Unit 2 in June 1992 and Unit 3 in April 1993. This brochure gives the specification of the main facilities of the power station, shows its layout; illustrates its pollution control equipment, gives specifications of its flue gas treatment systems and of its large steam turbine, describes its coal handling facilities and gives their specifications, and mentions the power station`s automated control system.

  4. 33 CFR 209.141 - Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... power operations with power marketing agencies. 209.141 Section 209.141 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies. (a) Purpose. This regulation... generating facilities with the power marketing agencies. (b) Applicability. This regulation applies to all...

  5. Feasibility study for Boardman River hydroelectric power. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-02-22

    The feasibility of generating additional hydroelectric power from five consecutive existing dams located on the Boardman River in Grand Traverse County and Traverse City, Michigan, was investigated. The potential hydropower production capabilities, in terms of base load power and peak load power, the legal-institutional-environmental constraints, and the economic feasibility, including capital investment, operating costs and maintenance costs, were evaluated for each of the five dam sites individually and as a series of co-dependent facilities. The impact of installing fish passages at each site was analyzed separately. The feasibility assessment utilized the present worth analytical method, considering revenue based on thirty mills/kWh for power, 0.4% general economy escalation rate, and a 6% net income to the municipal utility. The sensitivity of fuel costs increasing at a different rate than the general price-escalation was tested by allowing the increase in fuel costs to vary from 3 to 8% per year. Assuming fuel costs increase at the same rate as the general economy, it is feasible to update, retrofit, renovate, and install hydroelectric generating capacity at Sabin, Boardman and Brown Bridge. Rehabilitation of Union Street and Keystone is also feasible but somewhat less attractive. Operating the dams as a co-dependent system has environmental advantages and can provide additional revenue through peak load power rates. A development plan to implement the above is outlined utilizing an ownership arrangement whereby Grand Traverse County provides easements for Sabin and Boardman Dams. The plan calls for operation of the system by Traverse City.

  6. Woodruff Narrows low head hydroelectric power plant feasibility determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    Woodruff Narrows Reservoir, owned by the State of Utah, was built in 1961 as an irrigation reservoir. The reservoir outlet works and spillway are in need of repair, and plans have been made to enlarge the reservoir from its present capacity of 28,000 acre-feet to 53,200 acre-feet when these repairs are made. The purpose of this study was to determine if it is feasible to add hydropower facilities when the reservoir is repaired and enlarged. A computer simulation model based on mean monthly values, utilizing 26 years of recorded streamflow into the reservoir, was used to determine the mean annual energy potential for the following configurations: (1) present dam, (2) the proposed enlarged dam, (3) a new dam at the lower site with a maximum head of 65 feet, and (4) a new dam at the lower site which would store water to the same elevation as the proposed enlarged dam. Results of the simulation study show that maximum power capacities are respectively 2.1, 3.0, 3.9, and 4.5 megawatts. The marketing potential for this electric power, cost estimates and financial analysis, and environmental, social, and regulatory aspects of the proposed hydropower facilities were evaluated. The results showed the addition of hydroelectric power development at the Woodruff Narrows site would have minimal social and environmental effects on the area, would result in little or no changes in the present patterns of water and land use, income, population, and employment and would not result in any significant changes of the social structure or characteristics of the area. However, hydroelectric power development at the Woodruff Narrows site is not economically feasible at the present time. (LCL)

  7. Structure of a tropical island forest area directly affected by the hydroelectric power station of Pilar, Guaraciaba County, Minas Gerais; Estrutura de uma floresta estacional semidecidual insular em area diretamente afetada pela Usina Hidreletrica de Pilar, Guaraciaba, Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meira-Neto, Joao Augusto Alves; Silva, Alexandre Francisco da [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Vegetal; Souza, Agostinho Lopes de [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal; Paula, Alessandro de [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Botanica

    1998-12-31

    Electrical energy consumption in Brazil is increasing and new hydroelectric power stations are required. This work was carried out at a semi deciduous tropical island forest in Guaraciaba, MG to look for composition peculiarities and to provide a structural model which could be applied to reduce environmental damages caused by Pilar HPS. The point-centered quarter method was applied totalizing 50 sample units. Fifty five species were sampled and a Shannon diversity index (H) of 3.429 nats/individual found. The most important species were longiracemosus, Tapirira guianensis, Pera glabrata, Copaifera langsdorffii, Callophyllum brasiliensis and Guapira opposita. The Guaraciaba island forest presented the peculiarity of Podocarpus sellowii occurrence sellowii occurrence, a rare gymnosperm species that does not occur at nearby forests. The Guaraciaba island forest is probably representative of an original alluvial forest at Piranga valley. (author) 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Influence of the Amazon Hydrological Regime on Eutrophication Indicators of a Hydroelectric Power Plant Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Jean Carlos A; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; da Costa Lobato, Tarcísio; de Morais, Jefferson M; de Oliveira, Terezinha F; F Saraiva, Augusto Cesar

    2017-05-01

    Dam constructions in the Amazon have increased exponentially in the last decades, causing several environmental impacts and serious anthropogenic impacts in certain hydroelectric power plant reservoirs in the region have been identified. The assessment of the trophic status of these reservoirs is of interest to indicate man-made changes in the environment, but must take into account the hydrological cycle of the area. This can be relevant for environmental management actions, aiding in the identification of the ecological status of water bodies. In this context, physico-chemical parameters and eutrophication indicators were determined in a hydroelectric power plant reservoir in the Brazilian Amazon to assess trophic variations during the regional hydrological regime phases on the reservoir, namely dry, filling, full and emptying stages. The local hydrological regimes were shown to significantly influence TSS and turbidity, as well as NH 4 , NO 3 , PO 4 , with higher values consistently observed during the filling stage of the reservoir. In addition, differences among the sampling stations regarding land use, population and anthropogenic activities were reflected in the PO 4 3- values during the different hydrological phases.

  9. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project. Pennsylvania Hydroelectric Development Corporation Flat Rock Dam: Project summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleeson, L.

    1991-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

  10. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in New Jersey are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is discussed. New Jersey follows the riparian theory of water law. Following an extensive discussion of the New Jersey water law, New Jersey regulatory law and financial considerations regarding hydroelectric power development are discussed.

  11. Development of Newfoundland Power`s Rose Blanche hydroelectric power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, M.C.

    1999-08-01

    The 6.0 Mw Rose Blanche hydroelectric development is located on the southwest portion of the island of Newfoundland. This is the first new development by Newfoundland Power since 1983 and was a learning experience because of changes in regulatory requirements, available technologies and the working relationships between suppliers and contractors. Environmental issues dealt with included a five year assessment process, fisheries compensation/enhancement, minimum streamflow requirements, and construction and emergency preparedness plans. Technical issues included the use of spiral welded steel penstock, design and construction of an earthfill concrete face dam, and turbine generator design and control systems. There was a necessity to build the plant in one construction season and the plant was synchronized to the system in December 1998. The approach taken by the design and construction team was cooperative as they worked together with suppliers and contractors to develop the most expedient and cost effective methods of construction.

  12. Stanwell power station project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, David R; J Dey, Christopher [University of Sidney, Sidney (Australia); Morrison, Graham L [University of New South Wales, Sidney (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector (CLFR) being developed for installation at the Stanwell power station in Queensland Australia. Stanwell Corporation Limited (SCL). Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd. And the universities of Sidney and New South Wales are cooperating in the project, and this first plant being partly funded by the Australian Greenhouse Office. The solar plant will be attached to a 1440 MW(e) coal fired plant. The 17000 m{sup 2} array will be the largest array in Australia, producing a peak of 13 MW of thermal energy which will offset the use of coal in the generation of electricity. It will use direct steam generation and will feed either steam or hot water at 265 Celsius degrees directly into the power station preheating cycle. The CLFR system, first developed by the University of Sidney and Solsearch Pty. Ltd., is simple and offers small reflector size, low structural cost, fixed receiver geometry. Initial installed plant costs are approximately US$1000 per kWe, but this includes the effect of high up-front design costs and the cost should drop substantially in the second and subsequent plants. [Spanish] Proyecto de la Planta Electrica Stanwell este articulo describe el Reflector Lineal Compacto Fresnel (CLFR, siglas en ingles) que se esta desarrollando para la instalacion de la planta electrica Stanwell en Queensland, Australia. La Corporacion Stanwell Limited (SCL), Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd., las universidades de Sidney y de New South Wales estan cooperando en este proyecto, y esta primera planta esta parcialmente auspiciada por la Australian Greenhouse Office. La planta solar sera anexa a una planta de carbon de 1440 MW(e). Este arreglo de 17000 m{sup 2} sera el mayor en Australia y producira un maximo de 13 MW en energia termica la cual contrarrestara el uso del carbon en la generacion de electricidad. Utilizara generacion con vapor directo y alimentara ya sea vapor o agua caliente a 265 grados

  13. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are examined. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. Additional sections cover acquisition; liability; Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection; energy utilities; local regulations; incidental impacts; financial considerations; and sources of information. In Kentucky, many of the impacts have not been implemented with regard to small-scale hydroelectric energy, since in Kentucky most electricity is coal-generated and any hydroelectric power that does exist, is derived from TVA or the Army Corp of Engineer projects.

  14. Small scale hydroelectric power potential in Nevada: a preliminary reconnaissance survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, G.F.; Fordham, J.W.; Richard, K.; Loux, R.

    1981-04-01

    This preliminary reconnaissance survey is intended to: develop a first estimate as to the potential number, location and characteristics of small-scale (50 kW to 15 MW) hydroelectric sites in Nevada; provide a compilation of various Federal and state laws and regulations, including tax and financing regulations, that affect small-scale hydroelectric development and provide information on sources of small-scale hydroelectric generation hardware and consultants/ contractors who do small scale hydroelectric work. The entire survey has been conducted in the office working with various available data bases. The site survey and site evaluation methods used are described, and data are tabulated on the flow, power potential, predicted capital expenditures required, etc. for 61 potential sites with measured flows and for 77 sites with derived flows. A map showing potential site locations is included. (LCL)

  15. Prediction of Francis Turbine Prototype Part Load Pressure and Output Power Fluctuations with Hydroelectric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alligné, S.; Nicolet, C.; Béguin, A.; Landry, C.; Gomes, J.; Avellan, F.

    2017-04-01

    The prediction of pressure and output power fluctuations amplitudes on Francis turbine prototype is a challenge for hydro-equipment industry since it is subjected to guarantees to ensure smooth and reliable operation of the hydro units. The European FP7 research project Hyperbole aims to setup a methodology to transpose the pressure fluctuations induced by the cavitation vortex rope from the reduced scale model to the prototype generating units. A Francis turbine unit of 444MW with a specific speed value of ν = 0.29, is considered as case study. A SIMSEN model of the power station including electrical system, controllers, rotating train and hydraulic system with transposed draft tube excitation sources is setup. Based on this model, a frequency analysis of the hydroelectric system is performed for all technologies to analyse potential interactions between hydraulic excitation sources and electrical components. Three technologies have been compared: the classical fixed speed configuration with Synchronous Machine (SM) and the two variable speed technologies which are Doubly Fed Induction Machine (DFIM) and Full Size Frequency Converter (FSFC).

  16. Feasibility study for the retrofitting a small hydroelectric power station at the mill of Noiraigue, Switzerland; Projet de rehabilitation d'une centrale hydro-electrique au moulin de Noiraigue. Etude de faisabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choulot, A.; Chenal, R.; Denis, V. [MHyLab, Montcherand (Switzerland); Chuat, O. [RWB SA, Cernier (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    For the time being, the old mill on the left bank of the river Noiraigue, Switzerland is equipped with a small turbine of only a few kW. The present study investigates the technical and economical possibilities for maximizing the electric power production at the site. Two variants were studied: variant A retains the existing construction at the site and comprises a single turbine with a maximum electric power output of 70 kW. The annual energy production would be 348'300 kWh and the production cost 0.13 CHF/kWh. Variant B includes important modifications in the construction - especially the dam and the channels. Two turbines with a total maximum power output of 118 kW are foreseen. The annual energy production would be 448'500 kWh and the production cost 0.15 CHF/kWh. Due to these findings, variant A is preferred and proposed for realization.

  17. Least cost addition of power from hydroelectrical developments: Maximizing existing assets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Lafontant; Briand, Marie-Helene; Veilleux, Rheaume

    2010-09-15

    Hydroelectric developments built in the early 1900's are nearing their useful lifespan and require significant rehabilitation in order to meet modern safety and performance criteria. Also, global increasing energy costs represent a strong incentive for operators to find low-cost, environment-friendly solutions while increasing energy generation at existing facilities. Projects promoting innovative ways of recycling existing developments are great examples of sustainable development and represent win-win solutions for population and hydropower industry alike. The proposed presentation describes successful projects consisting in the rehabilitation or addition of power to existing hydroelectric. These recycling projects are very attractive from both economic and environmental.

  18. Analysis of synchronous and induction generators used at hydroelectric power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniş, C. M.; Popa, G. N.; lagăr, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper is presented an analysis of the operating electric generators (synchronous and induction) within a small capacity hydroelectric power plant. Such is treated the problem of monitoring and control hydropower plant using SCADA systems. Have been carried an experimental measurements in small hydropower plant for different levels of water in the lake and various settings of the operating parameters.

  19. Determining generator parameters of Camargos hydroelectric power plant through frequency response measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Sebastiao E.M. de; Padua Guarini, Antonio de [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Joao A. de; Valgas, Helio M.; Pinto, Roberto del Giudice R. [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This work describes the results of the set frequency response tests performed in the generator number 2, 6.9 kV, 25 MVA, of Camargos hydroelectric power plant, CEMIG, and the parameters relatives to determined structures of model. This tests are unpublished in Brazil. (author) 7 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Solar photovoltaic power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowaniec, C. R.; Pittman, P. F.; Ferber, R. R.; Marshall, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    The subsystems of a solar photovoltaic central power system are identified and the cost of major components are estimated. The central power system, which would have a peak power capability in the range of 50 to 1000 MW, utilizes two types of subsystems - a power conditioner and a solar array. Despite differences in costs of inverters, the overall cost of the total power conditioning subsystem is about the same for all approaches considered. A combination of two inverters operating from balanced dc buses as a pair of 6-pulse groups is recommended. A number of different solar cell modules and tracking array structures were analyzed. It is concluded that when solar cell costs are high (greater than $500/kW), high concentration modules are more cost effective than those with low concentration. Vertical-axis tracking is the most effective of the studied tracking modes. For less expensive solar cells (less than $400/kW), fixed tilt collector/reflector modules are more cost effective than those which track.

  1. Package power stations for export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The cheap and efficient generation of power is an essential requirement for the success and prosperity of any community and is especially important to third world countries. It is therefore logical that the more technologically advanced nations should seek to produce power stations for the developing countries. Power plant can now be designed into a packaged form that may be readily exported and commissioned. This valuable and interesting collection of papers were originally presented at a seminar organised by the Power Industries Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Topics considered include the developing world market for packaged power stations using indigenous fuels; multi-fuel systems for power generation; packaging, modularisation, and containerisation of equipment for power boilers for export; compact coal-fired industrial plant; rural woodburning power stations; biomass gasification based power generation technology and potential; gas fed reciprocating engine development; packaged heavy duty gas turbines for power generation; and criteria for assessing the appropriateness of package power technologies in developing countries.

  2. Station normal : the power of the Stave River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, M.; Wilson, H. [BC Hydro, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This book documented the history of power development along the Stave River and Stave Falls in British Columbia. The book was compiled from memories of employees and retired employees who helped to build the power station along the Stave River. The book provided details of the technical achievements accomplished during the construction of the hydro-electric project, and described the roles and functions of BC Hydro workers at the plant. The book also chronicled the project's growth over time, and discussed its impact on communities in the region. The book included over 100 photographs, as well as a chronology. refs., tabs., figs.

  3. Hydroelectric power in Westphalia - inventory taking. Vol. 1. The Guetersloh district. Wasserkraft in Westfalen. Bestandsaufnahme. Bd. 1. Kreis Guetersloh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoebel, C.; Brepohl, W.

    1986-11-01

    The hydroelectric power plants located in the Guetersloh district were recorded and entered in standard forms to compile data informing about their sites, technical status, suitability for energy utilization, hydrological aspects, and entitlement to preservation. The records and inventories filed will be serving to compare the technical and structural historical value of different plants throughout North-Rhine Westphalia (e.g. corn mills, oil mills, fulling mills, iron mills, hydroelectric power plants), and help to select plants to be considered ancient monuments in the sense of the law. Retrofitting and restoration programs are about to be developed for some of the Guetersloh hydroelectric power plants identified as being worth preserving. (BR).

  4. Space Station Electrical Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labus, Thomas L.; Cochran, Thomas H.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of the Space Station Electrical Power System. This includes the Photovoltaic and Solar Dynamic Power Modules as well as the Power Management and Distribution System (PMAD). In addition, two programmatic options for developing the Electrical Power System will be presented. One approach is defined as the Enhanced Configuration and represents the results of the Phase B studies conducted by the NASA Lewis Research Center over the last two years. Another option, the Phased Program, represents a more measured approach to reaching about the same capability as the Enhanced Configuration.

  5. NEURAL CASCADED WITH FUZZY SCHEME FOR CONTROL OF A HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    A. Selwin Mich Priyadharson; T. Ramesh Kumar; M. S. Saravanan; C. ThilipKumar; D. Dileepan

    2014-01-01

    A novel design for flow and level control in a hydroelectric power plant using Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)-Human Machine Interface (HMI) and neural cascaded with fuzzy scheme is proposed. This project will focus on design and development of flow and level controller for small scale hydro generating units by implementing gate control based on PLC-HMI with the proposed scheme. The existing control schemes have so many difficulties to manage intrinsic time delay, nonlinearity due to unce...

  6. Herpetofauna, Espora Hydroelectric Power Plant, state of Goiás, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz-Silva, W.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a checklist of the herpetofaunal assemblage from Espora Hydroelectric Power Plant region(UHE Espora, southwestern of the state of Goiás, Brazil. Representatives of 32 amphibian and 71 reptile species wereobtained during faunal monitoring and faunal rescue programs carried out in the study area. The obtained species listand distribution records are here discussed in an attempt to improve the still limited knowledge on Cerradoherpetofaunal assemblages.

  7. National Hydroelectric Power Resources Study: Environmental Assessment. Volume 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    bioaccumulation related to pesticides and industrial chemicals in the Great Lakes region and other areas. In addition, anoxic conditions from thermal... hydrothermal power program." DOE/EIS-0066. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of Energy, January 1979a. "A Review of State

  8. Final Technical Report. Upgrades to Alabama Power Company Hydroelectric Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crew, James F. [Southern Company Generation, Birmingham, AL (United States). Hydro Services; Johnson, Herbie N. [Southern Company Generation, Birmingham, AL (United States). Hydro Services

    2015-03-31

    From 2010 to 2014, Alabama Power Company (“Alabama Power”) performed upgrades on four units at three of the hydropower developments it operates in east-central Alabama under licenses issued by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (“FERC”). These three hydropower developments are located on the Coosa River in Coosa, Chilton, and Elmore counties in east-central Alabama.

  9. Wind energy and Swiss hydroelectric power; Windenergie und schweizerischer Wasserkraftpark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J. [Consentec GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T. [Institut fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Energiewirtschaft RWTH Aachen (IAEW), Aachen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to analyse the possible changes in the European electricity supply system, in particular with reference to the increasing amount of wind-generated electricity. Also, the role of peak-power and the optimisation potential for Swiss hydropower was examined. The part to be played by Swiss wind power in the future and the government's sustainability strategy is also looked at. The report looks at electricity dealing in the European context and introduces a method of assessment for Swiss hydropower. The report's conclusions and recommendations cover the increasing importance of energy storage in hydropower schemes, the question if grid capacity is sufficient under the new conditions, the market liberalisation question and possible ecological problems that may be encountered.

  10. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the Pacific Northwest: new impetus for an old energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Energy supply is one of the most important issues facing Northwestern legislators today. To meet the challenge, state legislatures must address the development of alternative energy sources. The Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Policy Project of the National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL) was designed to assist state legislators in looking at the benefits of one alternative, small-scale hydro. Because of the need for state legislative support in the development of small-scale hydroelectric, NCSL, as part of its contract with the Department of Energy, conducted the following conference on small-scale hydro in the Pacific Northwest. The conference was designed to identify state obstacles to development and to explore options for change available to policymakers. A summary of the conference proceedings is presented.

  11. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 3. Mid-Continent region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    The US Corps of Engineers' assessment of the nation's hydroelectric resources provides a current and comprehensive estimate of the potential for incremental or new generation at existing dams and other water resource projects, as well as for undeveloped sites in the US. The demand for hydroelectric power is addressed and various related policy and technical considerations are investigated to determine the incentives, constraints, and impacts of developing hydropower to meet a portion of the future energy demands. The comprehensive data represent the effort of the Corps of Engineers based on site-specific analysis and evaluation. Summary tables include estimates of the potential capacity and energy at each site in the inventory. The number of sites and potential capacity in each state are identified, but specific detailed information is included for sites in Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming.

  12. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric power in Connecticut are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area and this dual system is examined from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. Connecticut follows the riparian theory of water law. Under this theory of the water law, private rights in rivers and streams are confined to the use of flowing water. A riparian proprietor does not own the water that flows by his estate. Licensing, permitting, and review procedures are discussed followed by discussion on public utilities regulation and indirect considerations.

  13. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level is described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The introductory section examines the regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. A developer must obtain title or interest to a streambed from the proper riparian owners. Ohio provides assistance to an electric company in this undertaking by providing it with the power of eminent domain in the event it is unable to reach a purchase agreement with the riparian proprietors. The Ohio Water Law is discussed in detail, followed by discussions: Licensing, Permitting, and Review Procedures; Indirect Considerations; Ohio Public Utilities Commission; Ohio Department of Energy; Incidental Provision; and Financial Considerations.

  14. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric in West Virginia at the state level are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by FERC. The development of small-scale hydroelectric energy depends on the selection of a site which will produce sufficient water power capacity to make the project economically attractive to a developer. In West Virginia, the right to use the flowing waters of a stream, creek, or river is appurtenant to the ownership of the lands bordering the watercourse. The lands are known as riparian lands. The water rights are known as riparian rights. Thus, the first obstacle a developer faces involves the acquisition of riparian lands and the subsequent right to the use of the water. The water law in West Virginia is discussed in detail followed by discussions on direct and indirect regulations; continuing obligations; financial considerations; and interstate organizations.

  15. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. The first step the small scale hydroelectric developer must take is that of acquiring title to the real property comprising the development site. The real estate parcel must include the requisite interest in the land adjacent to the watercourse, access to the underlying streambed and where needed, the land necessary for an upstream impoundment area. Land acquisition may be effectuated by purchase, lease, or grant by the state. In addition to these methods, New York permits the use of the eminent domain power of the state for public utilities under certain circumstances.

  16. Environmental Impact Assessment: Uri hydroelectric power project on River Jhelum in Kashmir, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, L.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an Initial Aquatic Environmental Impact Assessment of the Uri Hydroelectric Power Project on River Jhelum in Kashmir, India. It includes the Terms of Reference of the assessment, a discussion on biodiversity and threats to it, the environmental indicators used to monitor and predict the impacts, a description of the physical, chemical and biological prerequisites of the River Jhelum ecosystem, a description of the survey sites chosen, and an overview of the present fish and bottom fauna. Finally, there are sections on the potential impacts on biota of the Uri Project and a list of proposals for how mitigating and enhancing measures could be enforced

  17. Monitoring headloss caused by debris on hydro-electric power intake trashracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelnour, R.; Gong, Y.; Comfort, G. [Fleet Technology Ltd., Kanata, ON (Canada)

    1996-06-01

    The importance of power generation losses at hydro-electric power dams from debris (mostly logs) and ice accumulation was discussed. A system which could monitor headlosses due to debris accumulation at water intake trashracks, was described. Two systems were used at the Chelsea power plant in Quebec. The systems consisted of measuring the water levels of the reservoir and the tailrace. The amount of power generated and the turbine rating curves were used to determine the headlosses. The headlosses due to trash were calculated in real time. Results demonstrated the reliability of the system and showed that it could be implemented at most low head dams in Canada at a reasonable cost. 4 refs., 7 tabs., 6 figs.

  18. Impact of High Wind Power Penetration on Hydroelectric Unit Operations in the WWSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, B.-M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2011-07-01

    This report examines the impact of this large amount of wind penetration on hydroelectric unit operations. Changes in hydroelectric unit operating patterns are examined both for an aggregation of all hydro generators and for select individual plants.

  19. Impact of High Wind Power Penetration on Hydroelectric Unit Operations: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, B. M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2011-10-01

    This paper examines the impact of this large amount of wind penetration on hydroelectric unit operations. Changes in hydroelectric unit operating unit patterns are examined for an aggregation of all hydro generators.

  20. Open system architecture for condition based maintenance applied to a hydroelectric power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, E.J.; Alvares, A.J. [University of Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Mechanical and Mechatronic Dept.], Emails: eamaya@unb.br, alvares@AlvaresTech.com; Gudwin, R.R. [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Computer Engineering and Industrial Automation Dept.], E-mail: gudwin@dca.fee.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    The hydroelectric power plant of Balbina is implementing a condition based maintenance system applying an open, modular and scalable integrated architecture to provide comprehensive solutions and support to the end users like operational and maintenance team. The system called SIMPREBAL (Predictive Maintenance System of Balbina) is advocate of open standards, in particular through collaborative research programmers. In the developing is clearly understands the need for both, industry standards and a simple to use software development tool chain, supporting the development of complex condition based maintenance systems with multiple partners. The Open System Architecture for Condition Based Maintenance (OSA-CBM) is a standard that consider seven hierarchic layers that represent a logic transition or performed data flow from the data acquisition layer, through the intermediates layers as signal processing, condition monitor, health assessment, prognostics and decision support, to arrive to the presentation layer. SIMPREBAL is being implementing as an OSA-CBM software framework and tool set that allows the creation of truly integrated, comprehensive maintenance solutions through the internet. This paper identifies specific benefits of the application of the OSA-CBM in comprehensive solutions of condition based maintenance for a hydroelectric power plant. (author)

  1. Small hydroelectric power plant St. Marienthal Monastery, Ostritz; Kleinwasserkraftanlage Kloster St. Marienthal, Ostritz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubens, C. [KUBENS Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Nuernberg (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The hydroelectric power plant St. Marienthal Monastery on the river Lausitzer Neisse, which forms part of the border between Poland and Germany, was rehabilitated and modernized in the period between October 1999 and September 2000. The scheme to reactivate this plant was implemented as an external EXPO 2000 project for renewable energy production and sustainable management. On 6 October 2000, the hydroelectric power plant was officially put back into operation by Steffen Flath, Minister for the Environment and Agriculture in the German state of Saxony. The paper describes the special planning factors involved and the execution of construction work. (orig.) [German] Die Erneuerung der Wasserkraftanlage Kloster St. Marienthal an der Lausitzer Neisse, dem Grenzgewaesser zwischen Polen und Deutschland erfolgte als externes EXPO 2000-Projekt fuer alternative Energiegewinnung und nachhaltiges Wirtschaften von Oktober 1999 bis September 2000. Am 6. Oktober 2000 konnte die Wasserkraftanlage vom Saechsischen Staatsminister fuer Umwelt und Landwirtschaft Steffen Flath nach kirchlicher Weihe in Betrieb genommen werden. Ueber die Besonderheiten der Planung sowie die Bauausfuehrung wird berichtet. (orig.)

  2. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 5. Southeast region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    In the Southeast region, the maximum physical potential for all sites exceeds 48,000 MW with an estimated average annual energy of more than 137,000 GWH. By comparison, these values represent about 9% of both the total potential capacity and hydroelectric energy estimated for the entire US. Of the total capacity estimated for the region, 11,800 MW has been installed. The remainder (36,200 MW) is the maximum which could be developed by upgrading and expanding existing projects (13,000 MW), and by installing new hydroelectric power capacity at all potentially feasible, undeveloped sites (23,200 MW). Small-scale facilities account for some 2% of the region's total installed capacity, but another 700 MW could be added to these and other small water-resource projects. In addition, 1100 MW could be installed at potentially feasible, undeveloped small-scale sites. The small-scale resource varies considerably, with the states of North Carolina and South Carolina having the largest potential for incremental development at existing projects in the Southeast region. The Southeast region is composed of Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia.

  3. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 6. Northeast region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    In the Northeast region, the physical potential for all sites exceeds 33,000 MW of capacity with an estimated average annual energy of some 153,000 GWH. By comparison, the available data represent about 6% of the total capacity and 11% of the hydroelectric energy potential estimated for the entire US. Of the total capacity estimated for the region, 6100 MW has been installed. The remainder (27,200 MW, excluding the undeveloped capacity in the New England States) is the maximum which could be developed by upgrading and expanding existing projects (18,700 MW), and by installing new hydroelectric power capacity at all potentially feasible, undeveloped sites (8500 MW). Small-scale facilities account for about 15% of the region's total installed capacity, but another 1800 MW could be added to these and other small water-resource projects. In addition, 500 MW could be installed at potentially feasible, undeveloped small-scale sites. The small-scale resource varies considerably, with the states of New York, Maine, and New Hampshire having the largest potential for incremental development at existing projects in the Northeast region. West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Vermont, and Maine comprise the Northeast region.

  4. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 4. Lake Central region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    The estimates of existing, incremental and the undeveloped hydropower potential for all states in the various regions of the country are presented. In the Lake Central region, the maximum physical potential for all sites exceeds 26,000 MW with an estimated average annual energy of more than 75,000 GWH. By comparison, these values represent about 5% of both the total potential capacity and hydroelectric energy estimated for the entire US. Of the total capacity estimated for the region, 2600 MW has been installed. The remainder (23,600 MW) is the maximum which could be developed by upgrading and expanding existing projects (15,800 MW), and by installing new hydroelectric power capacity at all potentially feasible, undeveloped sites (7800 MW). Small-scale facilities account for some 24% of the region's total installed capacity, but another 900 MW could be added to these and other small water-resource projects. In addition, 900 MW could be installed at potentially feasible, undeveloped small-scale sites. The small-scale resource varies considerably, with the states of Michigan and Wisconsin having the largest potential for incremental development at existing projects in the Lake Central region. This Lake Central region is composed of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, and Iowa.

  5. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 2. Pacific Southwest region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    The estimates of existing, incremental, and the undeveloped hydropower potential for all states in the various regions of the country are presented. In the Pacific Southwest region, the maximum physical potential for all sites exceeds 33,000 MW of capacity with an estimated average annual energy greater than 85,000 GWH. By comparison, these values represent about 6% of the total potential capacity and hydroelectric energy generation estimated for the entire US. Of the total capacity estimated for the region, 9900 MW has been installed. The remainder (23,200 MW) is the maximum which could be developed by upgrading and expanding existing projects (6000 MW) and by installing new hydroelectric power capacity at all potentially feasible, undeveloped sites (17,200 MW). Small-scale facilities account for less than 4% of the region's total installed capacity, but another 600 MW could be added to these and other small water resource projects. In addition, 600 MW could be installed at potentially feasible, undeveloped small-scale sites. The small-scale resource varies considerably, with the states of California and Utah having the largest potential for incremental development at existing projects in the Pacific Southwest region. States comprising the Southwest are Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, and Utah.

  6. Project final report: Energetic planning focusing small scale hydroelectric power plants; Relatorio final. Projeto planejamento energetico com enfase em pequenas centrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Yara dos Santos

    1994-12-31

    Considering the increasing need for a better utilization of the Brazilian hydric resources, a deeper analysis of small scale hydroelectric power plants has been demanding. This work presents a case study of energetic planning based upon small scale hydroelectric power plants in a district of Amazon state - North Brazil 8 refs., 11 figs., 19 tabs.

  7. Sediment management of run-of-river hydroelectric power project in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. NEENA ISAAC1 2 T I ELDHO1. Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076, India; Central Water and Power Research Station, Khadakwasla, Pune 411024, India ...

  8. Feasibility determination of low head hydroelectric power development at existing sites: Mousam River Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of low head hydroelectric power development at existing sites along the Mousam River in southeastern Maine was studied. The following areas were investigated: determination of available energy; development of restoration concepts; environmental studies; historical and archeological studies; assessment of civil construction requirements; geotechnical and geologic assessment of existing dams; assessment of turbine alternatives; assessment of generator and utility interface alternatives; economic analysis; and restoration concept evaluation and selection. The results of the hydropower evaluation showed that: of the seven sites evaluated, only four can be considered economically feasible for refurbishment at this time; the use of used and/or rebuilt equipment is more economically attractive than new equipment; the cost of equipment at each site was of the same order as the cost of the dam reconstruction; and the cost of fuel prices will be the determining feature of whether the sites should be reconstructed.

  9. Herpetofauna, Santa Edwiges I and II hydroelectric power plants, state of Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintra, C. E. D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a check list of amphibians and reptiles of the area under the influence of Santa Edwiges I and IIsmall hydroelectric power plants on Rio Buritis, state of Goiás, Brazil. The list was the result of faunal rescueoperations carried out between 31 August and 29 September 2005 (Santa Edwiges II and between 30 July and 12September 2006 (Santa Edwiges I. The list comprises 30 species of amphibians belonging to 16 genera and 8 families(Caeciliidae, Bufonidae, Cycloramphidae, Hylidae, Brachycephalidae, Leiuperidae, Leptodactylidae, andMicrohylidae, and 45 species of reptiles belonging to 38 genera and 16 families (Amphisbaenidae, Anguidae,Gekkonidae, Gymnophtalmidae, Polychrotidae, Scincidae, Teiidae, Tropiduridae, Anomalepididae, Leptotyphlopidae,Typhlopidae, Boidae, Colubridae, Dipsadidae, Elapidae, and Viperidae.

  10. Feasibility of determination of low-head hydroelectric power development at existing sites. Big Blue River Co-dependent Hydroelectric Development: feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wacker, H. Steve; Feuerberg, Stan; Lawrence, John D.; Pal, Parimal C.; Trick, Dr., William T.

    1979-03-01

    The technical, economic, environmental, safety, and financial aspects of redeveloping 7 dam sites in Nebraska for hydroelectric power generation were studied. The Big Blue River Co-dependent Hydroelectric Development was found to be a technically feasible concept, for both redevelopment and in some cases rehabilitation of seven existing sites. The proposed redevelopment project will include seven installations with a recommended nominally rated redeveloped capacity of 3920 kW ranging from 120 kW at the northernmost site in Seward County to 1500 kW at Barneston. The average annual gross generation expected from the seven redeveloped sites totals 11,555,000 kWh. It is estimated that the total cost of redevelopment of these seven sites will be $14,090,000 at 1979 price levels, providing power at an average levelized cost of about 5.3 cents per kWh based on 7% cost of money, a mid-1983 commissioning date, and allowing for funds during construction and cost escalation over a 30-year period. Rehabilitation of original installations at Crete, Dewitt, Blue Springs and Barneston is technically feasible for a total installed capacity of 1415 kW with annual average gross generation of 6,675,000 kWh. The total cost of this rehabilitation is estimated as $3,372,000 at 1979 price levels, or about 2.4 cents per kWh, levelized on a similar basis. Rehabilitation of the Barneston site alone for an installed capacity of 760 kW and annual generation of 3,581,000 kWh is both technically and economically feasible. The total estimated cost of this alternative is $668,000, providing power at a cost of about 1.9 cents per kWh at 1979 price levels. The benefit-cost ratio for Barneston rehabilitation is estimated as 1.23.

  11. Turbulence at Hydroelectric Power Plants and its Potential Effects on Fish.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, Glenn F.; Odeh, Mufeed

    2001-01-01

    The fundamental influence of fluid dynamics on aquatic organisms is receiving increasing attention among aquatic ecologists. For example, the importance of turbulence to ocean plankton has long been a subject of investigation (Peters and Redondo 1997). More recently, studies have begun to emerge that explicitly consider the effects of shear and turbulence on freshwater invertebrates (Statzner et al. 1988; Hart et al. 1996) and fishes (Pavlov et al. 1994, 1995). Hydraulic shear stress and turbulence are interdependent natural fluid phenomena that are important to fish, and consequently it is important to develop an understanding of how fish sense, react to, and perhaps utilize these phenomena under normal river flows. The appropriate reaction to turbulence may promote movement of migratory fish or prevent displacement of resident fish. It has been suggested that one of the adverse effects of flow regulation by hydroelectric projects is the reduction of normal turbulence, particularly in the headwaters of reservoirs, which can lead to disorientation and slowing of migration (Williams et al. 1996; Coutant et al. 1997; Coutant 1998). On the other hand, greatly elevated levels of shear and turbulence may be injurious to fish; injuries can range from removal of the mucous layer on the body surface to descaling to torn opercula, popped eyes, and decapitation (Neitzel et al. 2000a,b). Damaging levels of fluid stress can occur in a variety of circumstances in both natural and man-made environments. This paper discusses the effects of shear stress and turbulence on fish, with an emphasis on potentially damaging levels in man-made environments. It defines these phenomena, describes studies that have been conducted to understand their effects, and identifies gaps in our knowledge. In particular, this report reviews the available information on the levels of turbulence that can occur within hydroelectric power plants, and the associated biological effects. The final section

  12. Photovoltaic central-station power conditioner subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauthamer, S.; Das, R.; Bahrami, K.; Bulawka, A.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of applying new advanced circuit topologies and semiconductors with improved switching characteristics to the design and development of central-station power conditioning subsystems is assessed. State-of-the-art large power conditioners suitable for photovoltaic central-station application are reviewed. Advanced topology power conditioning subsystems, when compared to available production hardware, promise improved performance, significant cost reduction, and lower cost-to-efficiency ratios.

  13. Space power station. Uchu hatsuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, I. (Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-02-20

    A calculation tells that the amount of electric power the world will use in the future will require 100 to 500 power plants each with an output of 5-GW class. If this conception is true, it is beyond dispute that utilizing nuclear power will constitute a core of the power generation even though the geographical conditions are severe for nuclear power plants. It is also certain that power generation using clean solar energy will play important roles if power supply stability can be achieved. This paper describes plans to develop space solar power generation and space nuclear power generation that can supply power solving problems concerning geographical conditions and power supply stability. The space solar power generation is a system to arrest solar energy on a static orbit. According to a result of discussions in the U.S.A., the plan calls for solar cell sheets spread over the surface of a structure with a size of 5 km [times] 10 km [times] 0.5 km thick, and electric power obtained therefrom is transmitted to a rectenna with a size of 10 km [times] 13 km, a receiving antenna on the ground. The space nuclear power generation will be constructed similarly on a static orbit. Researches on space nuclear reactors have already begun. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Feasibility determination of hydroelectric power generation at Patillas Reservoir, Puerto Rico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huetter, J.J. Jr.

    1979-02-01

    The overall feasibility of retrofit for hydroelectric power generation at the Patillas Reservoir, an existing impoundment located near the town of Patillas, Puerto Rico, was studied. The scope of work and project intent is limited to establishing valid acceptance or non-acceptance criteria for this specific site as an example of power generation potential at existing dams of relatively low head (less than or equal to 20 m) in the United States. Information is included on hydrologic conditions at the site, retrofit plant design, economic analysis, environmental, legal, social and institutional aspects, and availability of plant equipment. It is concluded that generation of hydropower at Patillas is entirely practical and uncomplicated from an engineering viewpoint, has no adverse environmental effects and is economically justifiable for the island of Puerto Rico. The final agency or contractor roles for development are reasonably well-established. There are no prohibitory laws or regulations concerning this development. In fact, according to Puerto Rico legislation, such hydropower developments appear to be mandated. The installed capacity of the site ranges from 665 kW to approximately 1500 kW depending on extent of development of the available options. (LCL)

  15. Decommissioning strategy for Trawsfynydd power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, H.M.; Ellis, A.T. [Nuclear Electric plc, Barnwood (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    Following the decision to close Trawsfynydd power station, Nuclear Electric adapted its generic decommissioning plans to suit the particular local circumstances. This resulted in an early reduced height safestore strategy which is described in the paper. (Author).

  16. Vulnerability of the hydro-electric power plants to the impacts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... sector to the impacts of climate change in Rwanda – a small country in Central Africa. At the community level, the field level intervention being implemented aims at improving management of the watersheds supporting the power stations and would eventually contribute to supporting the communities in poverty alleviation.

  17. The Effect of Hydroelectric Power Plants (hpp) on Agro-Life at Rural Land Regulation in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onursal Denli, G.; Denli, H. H.; Seker, D. Z.; Bitik, E.; Cetin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Turkey is one of the self-sufficient in foodstuffs and globally ranks as 7th significant agricultural exporter in the world. Main trading partners are the European Union, the United States and the Middle East. As known, agricultural production is dependent on factors including efficient and effective use of all inputs ranging from those natural resources as in land and water to well-trained human resources as labour at the production. The socio-economic aspects of this sector take several forms ranging from the incomes of the primary producers. Rural land regulation is a necessity for rural areas and is regarded as a useful instrument for improving farmer's incomes and life standards. The irrigation system, established during the rural regulation/land consolidation period of large-scale farming, is insufficiently adjusted to the new land tenure structures. The government is especially in the process of water management with hydroelectric power plants. This process produces energy that is required but effects negatively the rivers and agricultural, environmental, climatic conditions. Rivers are vessels of the nature. Free flowing rivers give life to all nature. Most of the studies indicate that Hydroelectric Power Plants (HPP) affects the surface and ground-water management, natural life, agricultural productivity, socio-economic situation at agricultural regions and agro-life related with immigration. This study emphasizes the effect of Hydroelectric Power Plants which are used in transformation of water as a renewable natural resource into electricity power from the perspective of environmental policies and rural regulation.

  18. RECOVERY OF AN OXISOL DEGRADED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF A HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseane Carina Borges de Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The removal of thick layers of soil under native scrubland (Cerrado on the right bank of the Paraná River in Selvíria (State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil for construction of the Ilha Solteira Hydroelectric Power Plant caused environmental damage, affecting the revegetation process of the stripped soil. Over the years, various kinds of land use and management systems have been tried, and the aim of this study was to assess the effects of these attempts to restore the structural quality of the soil. The experiment was conducted considering five treatments and thirty replications. The following treatments were applied: stripped soil without anthropic intervention and total absence of plant cover; stripped soil treated with sewage sludge and planted to eucalyptus and grass a year ago; stripped soil developing natural secondary vegetation (capoeira since 1969; pastureland since 1978, replacing the native vegetation; and soil under native vegetation (Cerrado. In the 0.00-0.20 m layer, the soil was chemically characterized for each experimental treatment. A 30-point sampling grid was used to assess soil porosity and bulk density, and to assess aggregate stability in terms of mean weight diameter (MWD and geometric mean diameter (GMD. Aggregate stability was also determined using simulated rainfall. The results show that using sewage sludge incorporated with a rotary hoe improved the chemical fertility of the soil and produced more uniform soil pore size distribution. Leaving the land to develop secondary vegetation or turning it over to pastureland produced an intermediate level of structural soil quality, and these two treatments produced similar results. Stripped soil without anthropic intervention was of the lowest quality, with the lowest values for cation exchange capacity (CEC and macroporosity, as well as the highest values of soil bulk density and percentage of aggregates with diameter size <0.50 mm, corroborated by its lower

  19. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the southeast: new impetus for an old energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The Southeastern conference, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power: New Impetus for an Old Energy Source, was convened to provide a forum for state legislators and other interested persons to discuss the problems facing small-scale hydro developers, and to recommend appropriate solutions to resolve those problems. During the two-day meeting state legislators and their staffs, along with dam developers, utility and industry representatives, environmentalists and federal/state officials examined and discussed the problems impeding small-scale hydro development at the state level. Based upon the problem-oriented discussions, alternative policy options were recommended for consideration by the US Department of Energy, state legislatures and the staff of the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). Emphasis was placed on the legal, institutional, environmental and economic barriers at the state level, as well as the federal delays associated with licensing small-scale hydro projects. Whereas other previously held conferences have emphasized the identification and technology of small-scale hydro as an alternative energy source, this conference stressed legislative resolution of the problems and delays in small-scale hydro licensing and development. Panel discussions and workshops are summarized. Papers on the environmental, economic, and legal aspects of small-scale hydropower development are presented. (LCL)

  20. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 1. Pacific Northwest region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    The preliminary inventory and analysis procedures provide a comprehensive assessment of the undeveloped hydroelectric power potential in the US and determines which sites merit more thorough investigation. Over 5400 existing structures have been identified as having the physical potential to add hydropower plants or increase hydropower output thereby increasing our present hydropower capacity from a total of 64,000 MW to 158,000 MW and our energy from 280,000 GWH to 503,000 GWH. While the physical potential for this increase is clearly available, some of these projects will undoubtedly not satisfy more-detailed economic analysis as well as the institutional and environmental criteria which will be imposed upon them. Summary tables include estimates of the potential capacity and energy at each site in the inventory. In some cases, individual projects may be site alternatives to others in the same general location, when only one can be considered for hydropower development. The number of sites per state is identified, but specific information is included for only the sites in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington in this first volume.

  1. A parallel between the impacts of hydroelectric and thermoelectric power plants; Um paralelo entre os impactos das usinas hidreletricas e termoeletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, Sinclair M.G.; Carvalho, Antomar V. de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica

    1995-07-01

    An evaluation of the environmental impacts of hydroelectric and thermoelectric power plants using the Leopold method is presented. The evaluation includes impacts on the physical, biological and socio-economic sectors. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Silicon solar photovoltaic power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowaniec, C. R.; Ferber, R. R.; Pittman, P. F.; Marshall, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Modular design of components and arrays, cost estimates for modules and support structures, and cost/performance analysis of a central solar photovoltaic power plant are discussed. Costs of collector/reflector arrays are judged the dominant element in the total capital investment. High-concentration solar tracking arrays are recommended as the most economic means for producing solar photovoltaic energy when solar cells costs are high ($500 per kW generated). Capital costs for power conditioning subsystem components are itemized and system busbar energy costs are discussed at length.

  3. Framework of systematic sustainability assessment strategy (FSSAS) for hydroelectric power industry in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johan, Kartina; Turan, Faiz Mohd

    2017-08-01

    Hydroelectric power is an alternative power resource in Malaysia and always associated with negative impact on environmental, social and economy of the surrounding site. The dispute over environmental, societal and economic issues can be minimised if compliance to sustainability development requirement is included in the project as part of the project premises during planning phase. This paper suggests a framework targeted for decision-makers in charge of implementing the projects to produce hydropower the sustainable way in Malaysian context which can mitigate the risks in social, environment and economy. The framework is strategic in nature and based on project management methodology with objective to provide a ‘common language’ by having a project value as measureable for stakeholders to state their mutual agreement of what a sustainable hydropower project in the context of Malaysia and in line with the United Nations (UN) 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The paper discusses how the proposed systematic sustainability assessment strategy (FSSAS) framework support the call for Malaysia to promote meaningful public participation in ensuring land and natural resource decisions and to address citizens’ interests which is the core idea of Environmental Democracy Index established in 2014. The paper argues that, even though it is at present impossible to define precision status of sustainability development with respect to the nature of the multi stakeholders and the lack of systematic assessment the proposed FSSAS framework can be a valuable tool because it tracks the project value as a quantitative deliverable to determine the status of the journey in sustainable development towards accomplishing the SDG under a consensus in hydropower industry of any scale over time.

  4. Nuclear power generation modern power station practice

    CERN Document Server

    1971-01-01

    Nuclear Power Generation focuses on the use of nuclear reactors as heat sources for electricity generation. This volume explains how nuclear energy can be harnessed to produce power by discussing the fundamental physical facts and the properties of matter underlying the operation of a reactor. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with an overview of nuclear physics, first by considering the structure of matter and basic physical concepts such as atomic structure and nuclear reactions. The second chapter deals with the requirements of a reactor as a heat source, along with the diff

  5. Operations research investigations of satellite power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J. W.; Ballard, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    A systems model reflecting the design concepts of Satellite Power Stations (SPS) was developed. The model is of sufficient scope to include the interrelationships of the following major design parameters: the transportation to and between orbits; assembly of the SPS; and maintenance of the SPS. The systems model is composed of a set of equations that are nonlinear with respect to the system parameters and decision variables. The model determines a figure of merit from which alternative concepts concerning transportation, assembly, and maintenance of satellite power stations are studied. A hybrid optimization model was developed to optimize the system's decision variables. The optimization model consists of a random search procedure and the optimal-steepest descent method. A FORTRAN computer program was developed to enable the user to optimize nonlinear functions using the model. Specifically, the computer program was used to optimize Satellite Power Station system components.

  6. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. In Pennsylvania, there are 3 methods by which rights in water may be acquired: riparian ownership, prescription, and condemnation. These are discussed.

  7. Design of a photovoltaic central power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    Photovoltaic central power station designs have been developed for both high-efficiency flat-panel arrays and two-axis tracking concentrator arrays. Both designs are based on a site adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The plants are 100 MW each, made of 5 MW subfields. The site specific designs allow detailed cost estimate for site preparation, installation, and engineering. These designs are summarized and cost estimates analyzed. Provided also are recommendations for future work to reduce system cost for each plant design.

  8. Lunar Base Thermoelectric Power Station Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, Gerhard; Brooks, Michael; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Space Power Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) Task, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing, and promising candidates for the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as a lunar base power station where kilowatts of power would be required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this particular mission concept. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed as well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the

  9. Overhaul of the generator of the hydroelectric central station Ingeniero Carlos Ramirez Ulloa; Rehabilitacion del generador de la unidad 2 de la central hidroelectrica ingeniero Carlos Ramirez Ulloa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles Pimentel, Edgar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Garcia Hernandez, Javier [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In November 1995, the failure of the Unit 2 generator at the hydroelectric central station Ingeniero Carlos Ramirez Ulloa, El Caracol, occurred. The accident forced to carry out its overhaul. Here are presented the technical problems faced during the overhaul of the generator and analyzed the implemented solutions. [Espanol] En noviembre de 1995 ocurrio la falla del generador de la unidad 2 de la central hidroelectrica Ing. Carlos Ramirez Ulloa, El Caracol. El accidente obligo a llevar a cabo su rehabilitacion. Se presentan los problemas tecnicos enfrentados durante la rehabilitacion del generador y se discuten las soluciones implementadas.

  10. MODELING AND STUDY OF HYDROELECTRIC GENERATING SETS OF SMALL HYDRO POWER PLANTS WITH FREQUENCY-CONTROLLED PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Mustafayev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the hydroelectric generating sets of small HPPs with Pelton turbines employ as their generating units conventional synchronous generators with electromagnetic excitation. To deal with the torque pulsatile behaviour, they generally install a supplementary flywheel on the system shaft that levels the pulsations. The Pelton turbine power output is adjusted by the needle changing water flow in the nozzle, whose advancement modifies the nozzle area and eventually – the flow. They limit the needle full stroke time to 20–40 sec. since quick shutting the nozzle for swift water flow reduction may result in pressure surges. For quick power adjustment so-called deflectors are employed, whose task is retraction of water jets from the Pelton turbine buckets. Thus, the mechanical method of power output regulation requires agreement between the needle stroke inside the turbine nozzles and the deflector. The paper offers employing frequency-controlled synchronous machines with permanent magnets qua generating units for the hydroelectric generating sets of small HPPs with Pelton turbines. The developed computer model reveals that this provides a higher level of adjustability towards rapid-changing loads in the grid. Furthermore, this will replace the power output mechanical control involving the valuable deflector drive and the turbine nozzle needles with electrical revolution rate and power output regulation by a frequency converter located in the generator stator circuit. Via frequency start, the controllable synchronous machine ensures stable operation of the hydroelectric generating set with negligibly small amount of water (energy carrier. Finally, in complete absence of water, the frequency-relay start facilitates shifting the generator operation to the synchronous capacitor mode, which the system operating parameter fluctograms obtained through computer modeling prove. 

  11. Feasibility determination of hydroelectric power development at the existing Sewall's Falls Dam and power facilities for the New Hampshire Water Resources Board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of restoring the hydroelectric power generating capacity of the Sewall's Falls facility near Concord, NH was evaluated considering technical, economic, safety and environmental factors. It was concluded that electric power can be generated at the proposed facility at a cost of $0.025 to $0.029 per kWh, and that the construction and operation of the facility is feasible. (LCL)

  12. Sediment management of run-of-river hydroelectric power project in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neena Isaac

    management. This paper presents the drawdown flushing studies of the reservoir of a Himalayan River. Hydroelectric Project called Kotlibhel in Uttarakhand, India. For the ... The model studies show that the sedimentation problem of the reservoir can be ..... [6] Yoon Y N 1992 The state and the perspective of the direct.

  13. 76 FR 72196 - CRD Hydroelectric LLC; Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice of Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... for transfer of license for the Red Rock Hydroelectric Project, No. 12576, located on the Des Monies River in Marion County, Iowa. Applicants seek Commission approval to transfer the license for the Red... Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On October 14, 2011, CRD...

  14. New social movements and political process: The politics of hydroelectric power in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Luzia M.

    This dissertation analyzes the mobilization and impact of the ecology movement mobilizing against and challenging hydroelectric power plants in the Alps. It argues that the political process model is the most fruitful framework for such a study, linking a political system's structural constraints and opportunities to movement action via organizational resources. The mobilization process resulting in movement impact is conceived as an interactive process among social movements, authorities, other opponents, and potential counter movements. The case study method is then used to analyze three action campaigns launched against hydro power plants in Graubunden since the 1970s: Ilanz I and II, Greina, and Curciusa. In terms of the movement's narrow goal of preventing a plant, Ilanz I and II is a failure, Greina a success, and Curciusa ambiguous. Yet the author defines movement impact more broadly, including procedural, reactive and proactive substantive impact, and structural impact, changes in the alliance/conflict system, and social learning. Based on the evidence from the case studies, these factors affect movement outcome positively: visibility in the media and framing the debate, adjusting the target level and movement repertoire to the opportunity structure and the spatial concentration of the issue, proactivity, and organizational resources with a well developed division of labor, internal communication, and a non-partisan alliance system at all levels. There are two main conceptual contributions. First, the author analyzes the political opportunity structure at all levels of the federal polity--the national, cantonal, and communal--as well as the interplay among the levels. The fact that the cantonal and communal levels exhibit more elements of closure than the national level helps explain differences in movements' organizational resources, movement repertoire, targeting of movement action, and thus movement impact. Second, the author develops the spatial

  15. Space Station Freedom primary power wiring requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Thomas J.

    1994-09-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) Program requirements are a 30 year reliable service life in low Earth orbit in hard vacuum or pressurized module service without detrimental degradation. Specific requirements are outlined in this presentation for SSF primary power and cable insulation. The primary power cable status and the WP-4 planned cable test program are also reviewed along with Rocketdyne-WP04 prime insulation candidates.

  16. 75 FR 75706 - Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3 and Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... Power Station, Units 2 and 3 and Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Notice of... Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3, respectively, located in Grundy County, Illinois, and to Renewed Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-29 and DPR-30 for Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

  17. Monitoring of surge tanks in hydroelectric power plants using fuzzy control; Ueberwachung von Wasserschloessern in Wasserkraftwerken mit Fuzzy-Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, J.C.

    2000-07-01

    Surge tanks are used to reduce pressure variations caused by fluid transients in high-head hydroelectric power plants. Occasionally load increases have to be limited to prevent the surge tank from draining due to excessive demands of flow. A control concept based on fuzzy logic was developed for governing the load changes of hydroelectric power plants. In order to achieve an optimal control behaviour and simultaneously to avoid the draining of surge tanks, the speed of load increases is automatically adjusted by a fuzzy conclusion depending on the height and the gradient of the water level in the surge tank, the reservoir level and the sum of load increases. The hydroelectric power plant Achensee of Tiroler Wasserkraftwerke AG in Austria is taken as an example to demonstrate the characteristics of the control concept. In comparison with a conventional control concept, the operation of load increases using the fuzzy concept proves to be more flexible and unrestricted. (orig.) [German] Ein Wasserschloss dient zur Verminderung von Druckschwankungen im Wasserfuehrungssystem von Hochdruckanlagen. Gelegentlich muss man die Lastaufnahme so beschraenken, dass das Wasserschloss nicht durch uebermaessige Wasserentnahme leerlaeuft. Fuer die Leistungsregelung eines Wasserkraftwerks wurde ein Konzept entwickelt, das auf der Fuzzy-Control in Verbindung mit der klassischen Regelung beruht. Um ein optimales Regelverhalten zu erhalten und gleichzeitig das Leerlaufen des Wasserschlosses zu vermeiden, wird die Geschwindigkeit der Lastaufnahme in Abhaengigkeit von der Hoehenkote und dem Gradienten des Wasserschlosspegels, dem Pegel des Oberwassers und der Groesse der geforderten Lasterhoehung automatisch eingestellt. Die Untersuchung erfolgt am Beispiel des Achenseekraftwerkes der Tiroler Wasserkraftwerke AG, Oesterreich. Im Vergleich mit einer konventionellen Regelung ergibt sich mit dem Fuzzy-Konzept eine flexiblere und freizuegigere Lastaufnahme. (orig.)

  18. Toluene stability Space Station Rankine power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, V. N.; Ragaller, D. R.; Sibert, L.; Miller, D.

    1987-01-01

    A dynamic test loop is designed to evaluate the thermal stability of an organic Rankine cycle working fluid, toluene, for potential application to the Space Station power conversion unit. Samples of the noncondensible gases and the liquid toluene were taken periodically during the 3410 hour test at 750 F peak temperature. The results obtained from the toluene stability loop verify that toluene degradation will not lead to a loss of performance over the 30-year Space Station mission life requirement. The identity of the degradation products and the low rates of formation were as expected from toluene capsule test data.

  19. 77 FR 18271 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide (RG) 4.11, ``Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations... environmental studies and analyses supporting licensing decisions for nuclear power reactors. ADDRESSES: Please...

  20. Solar dynamic power for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labus, Thomas L.; Secunde, Richard R.; Lovely, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program is presently planned to consist of two phases. At the completion of Phase 1, Freedom's manned base will consist of a transverse boom with attached manned modules and 75 kW of available electric power supplied by photovoltaic (PV) power sources. In Phase 2, electric power available to the manned base will be increased to 125 kW by the addition of two solar dynamic (SD) power modules, one at each end of the transverse boom. Power for manned base growth beyond Phase 2 will be supplied by additional SD modules. Studies show that SD power for the growth eras will result in life cycle cost savings of $3 to $4 billion when compared to PV-supplied power. In the SD power modules for Space Station Freedom, an offset parabolic concentrator collects and focuses solar energy into a heat receiver. To allow full power operation over the entire orbit, the receiver includes integral thermal energy storage by means of the heat of fusion of a salt mixture. Thermal energy is removed from the receiver and converted to electrical energy by a power conversion unit (PCU) which includes a closed brayton cycle (CBC) heat engine and an alternator. The receiver/PCU/radiator combination will be completely assembled and charged with gas and cooling fluid on earth before launch to orbit. The concentrator subassemblies will be pre-aligned and stowed in the orbiter bay before launch. On orbit, the receiver/PCU/radiator assembly will be installed as a unit. The pre-aligned concentrator panels will then be latched together and the total concentrator attached to the receiver/PCU/radiator by the astronauts. After final electric connections are made and checkout is complete, the SD power module will be ready for operation.

  1. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small-scale hydroelectric power in Rhode Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. In Rhode Island, any private rights in the flowing waters of a river or stream depend upon ownership of the abutting land. It appears Rhode Island follows the reasonable use theory of riparian law. The Department of Environmental Management is the most significant administrative agency with regard to dam construction, alteration, and operation in the state of Rhode Island.

  2. Commentary: childhood cancer near nuclear power stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, Ian

    2009-09-23

    In 2008, the KiKK study in Germany reported a 1.6-fold increase in solid cancers and a 2.2-fold increase in leukemias among children living within 5 km of all German nuclear power stations. The study has triggered debates as to the cause(s) of these increased cancers. This article reports on the findings of the KiKK study; discusses past and more recent epidemiological studies of leukemias near nuclear installations around the world, and outlines a possible biological mechanism to explain the increased cancers. This suggests that the observed high rates of infant leukemias may be a teratogenic effect from incorporated radionuclides. Doses from environmental emissions from nuclear reactors to embryos and fetuses in pregnant women near nuclear power stations may be larger than suspected. Hematopoietic tissues appear to be considerably more radiosensitive in embryos/fetuses than in newborn babies. Recommendations for advice to local residents and for further research are made.

  3. Development of a 1 D hydrodynamic habitat model for the Hippopotamus amphibious as basis for sustainable exploitation of hydroelectric power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manful, D. Y.; Kaule, G.; Wieprecht, S.; Rees, J.; Hu, W.

    2009-12-01

    Hydroelectric Power (HEP) is proving to be a good alternative to carbon based energy. In the past hydropower especially large scale hydro attracted significant criticism as a result of its impact on the environment. A new breed of hydroelectric dam is in the offing. The aim is to have as little a footprint as possible on the environment in both pre and post construction phases and thus minimize impact on biodiversity whilst producing clean renewable energy. The Bui dam is 400 MW scheme currently under development on the Black Volta River in the Bui national park in Ghana. The reservoir created by the Bui barrage is expected to impact (through inundation) the habitat of two species of hippos know to exist in the park, the Hippopotamus amphibius and the Choeropsis liberiensis. Computer-based models present a unique opportunity to assess quantitatively the impact of the new reservoir on the habitat of the target species in this case the H. amphibious. Until this undertaking, there were very few studies documenting the habitat of the H. amphibious let alone model it. The work and subsequent presentation will show the development of a habitat model for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The Habitat Information retrieval Program based on Streamflow Analysis, in short HIPStrA, is a one dimensional (1D) in-stream, spatially explicit hybrid construct that combines physico-chemical evidence and expert knowledge to forecast river habitat suitability (Hs) for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The version of the model presented is specifically developed to assess the impact of a reservoir created by a hydroelectric dam on potential dwelling areas in the Bui gorge for hippos. Accordingly, this version of HIPStrA simulates a special reservoir suitability index (Rsi), a metric that captures the”hippo friendliness” of any lake or reservoir. The impact of measured and simulated flood events as well as low flows, representing extreme events is also assessed. Recommendations are made for the

  4. Hydroelectric power - energy at no cost at all; Wasserkraft - Strom, der vom Himmel faellt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goede, E. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Stroemungsmechanik und Hydraulische Stroemungsmaschinen

    1997-12-31

    The harnessing and enhanced use of renewable energy today is a matter of lively debate and much concern. Amazingly, hydro power is either rarely considered in these discussions or viewed in a negative light. But hydro power continues to be the most important source of renewable energy, and its use potential is considerable and should be taken into account when, for instance, agreeing on or implementing carbon dioxide reduction targets. Small hydro power stations are an effective means of harnessing existing energy potentials. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ueber die Nutzung und den Ausbau regenerativer Energien wird heutzutage lebhaft diskutiert und gerungen. Es mag erstaunen, dass in diesen Diskussionen die Wasserkraft kaum Beachtung findet oder in einem schlechten Licht gesehen wird. Dabei ist die Wasserkraft nach wie vor bei weitem die wichtigsten Quelle regenerativer Energie, und sie besitzt ein beachtliches Ausbaupotential, das man wenigstens ins Kalkuel ziehen sollte, wenn es etwa darum geht, CO{sub 2}-Minderungsziele zu vereinbaren bzw. anzustreben. Die Kleinwasserkraft kann hier als Chance gesehen werden, noch vorhandene Energiepotentiale sinnvoll zu nutzen. (orig.)

  5. Feasibility of determination of low-head hydroelectric power development at existing sites: North Hartland Dam Project. Feasibility report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-03-01

    The feasibility of constructing a low-head hydroelectric power plant at the North Hartland Dam in Vermont was investigated. Evaluation of technical, economic, environmental, safety, and regulatory aspects led to the conclusion that the North Hartland Dam Hydroelectric Project is a technically feasible concept. The proposed project will have a recommended 6000 kW nominally rated capacity at a 52 ft turbine design head and 1680 cfs demand flow. The gross generation expected from the project is 11,980,000 kWh per year. It is estimated that the project will cost $8,997,000 at 1978 price levels, with no allowance for funds during construction. The project will provide peaking power at a levelized cost of about 41 mills per kWh at 1979 price levels, based on 7% cost of money, a 1985 commissioning date, and allowing for funds during construction and cost escalation over a 30 y period. The benefit-cost ratio compared with an equivalent oil-based generation source over a similar period is estimated as 1.06. (LCL)

  6. Waste heat rejection from geothermal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, R.C.

    1978-12-01

    This study of waste heat rejection from geothermal power stations is concerned only with the heat rejected from the power cycle. The heat contained in reinjected or otherwise discharged geothermal fluids is not included with the waste heat considered here. The heat contained in the underflow from the flashtanks in such systems is not considered as part of the heat rejected from the power cycle. By following this definition of the waste heat to be rejected, various methods of waste heat dissipation are discussed without regard for the particular arrangement to obtain heat from the geothermal source. Recent conceptual design studies made for 50-MW(e) geothermal power stations at Heber and Niland, California, are of particular interst. The former uses a flashed-steam system and the latter a binary cycle that uses isopentane. In last-quarter 1976 dollars, the total estimated capital costs were about $750/kW and production costs about 50 mills/kWhr. If wet/dry towers were used to conserve 50% of the water evaporation at Heber, production costs would be about 65 mills/kWhr.

  7. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. In Delaware, a watercourse is not to be confused with surface water. Each gives rise to certain riparian rights, but the law makes certain distinctions between the two. The presence of both surface waters and watercourses give rise to private and public rights related to the presence of the water. Some of these rights are vested in riparian owners. Recent Delaware case law has described the riparian owner as one who owns land on the bank of a river, or who is owner of land along, bordering upon, bounded by, fronting upon, abutting, or adjacent and contiguous to and in contact with a river. But, ownership of the bank does not give the riparian ownership of the water. Some law cases are cited to discuss the laws in Delaware.

  8. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in Maryland are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The dual regulatory system is examined with the aim of creating a more orderly understanding of the vagaries of the system, focusing on the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. In Maryland, by common law rule, title to all navigable waters and to the soil below the high-water mark of those waters is vested in the state as successor to the Lord Proprietary who had received it by grant from the Crown. Rights to non-navigable water, public trust doctrine, and eminent domain are also discussed. Direct and indirect regulations, continuing obligations, loan programs, and regional organizations are described in additional sections.

  9. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in New Hampshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. The first step any developer must take is that of acquiring the real estate parcel. The step involves acquisition in some manner of both river banks, the river bed, and where necessary the land needed for the upstream impoundment area. The developer must acquire the river banks to be considered a riparian owner. Classification as a riparian is important for only a use of water by a riparian owner is deemed a reasonable use and hence legal. Apart from acquisition by sale, lease, or gift, New Hampshire law permits a number of other methods. In part use of these methods will depend on whether the developer is the state, a municipality, a private corporation, or a public utility. Provided the developer avails himself of the five (5) megawatts exemption, his main regulatory agency will be the Water Resources Board. However, the state is not free from the problems of legal uncertainty inherent in determinations of reasonableness.

  10. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small-scale hydroelectric power in Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy in Virginia are described. The state regulatory system does not comprise final authority; the Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. This dual system is a function of the federalist nature of our government. The introductory section examines the dual system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and inquires into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. The use of a natural-surface watercourse in Virginia is governed generally by the doctrine of riparian rights. Riparian rights is a system of water rights based on ownership of land bordering on a natural stream or watercourse. For land to be considered riparian to a stream, that land must be located on the watershed of that portion of the stream. The theory of riparian rights followed in Virginia is one of reasonable use. Under the reasonable-use doctrine, each riparian owner has an equal right to the reasonable use of the water running naturally through or by his land for any useful purpose. The water must continue to run after such use without material diminution or alteration and without pollution.

  11. thermal power stations' reliability evaluation in a hydrothermal system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    A quantitative tool for the evaluation of thermal power stations reliability in a hydrothermal system is presented. A reliable power station is one which would supply the required power within its installed capacity at any time within the specified voltage and frequency limits. Required for this evaluation are the station's installed ...

  12. Electrical Power Station Theory. A Course of Technical Information for Electrical Power Station Wireman Apprentices. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This third-year course for electrical power station wirer apprentices is a foundation for the study of all aspects of installation and maintenance of power station equipment. It also provides a good technical background as well as the general knowledge essential to power station operator trainees. The course is intended to be equivalent to a…

  13. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Vermont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in Vermont are discussed. The dual regulatory system involving state and Federal governments is discussed followed by discussions on property interests; direct regulation by the Public Service Board; indirect regulation; and financial considerations. An initial step required of any developer is that of real property acquisition. Ordinarily this involves acquiring the stream bed, land along the stream banks, and land needed for the impoundment reservoir. Ownership of land along the stream banks places the developer in the position of a riparian owner. This status is important in that only riparian owners are entitled to a reasonable use of the flowing water. In addition to acquisition by sale, lease, or gift, Vermont law allows certain developers to acquire property via eminent domain. Some general rules which have evolved as riparian law and applied in Vermont are discussed.

  14. Assessment of power step performances of variable speed pump-turbine unit by means of hydro-electrical system simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béguin, A.; Nicolet, C.; Hell, J.; Moreira, C.

    2017-04-01

    The paper explores the improvement in ancillary services that variable speed technologies can provide for the case of an existing pumped storage power plant of 2x210 MVA which conversion from fixed speed to variable speed is investigated with a focus on the power step performances of the units. First two motor-generator variable speed technologies are introduced, namely the Doubly Fed Induction Machine (DFIM) and the Full Scale Frequency Converter (FSFC). Then a detailed numerical simulation model of the investigated power plant used to simulate power steps response and comprising the waterways, the pump-turbine unit, the motor-generator, the grid connection and the control systems is presented. Hydroelectric system time domain simulations are performed in order to determine the shortest response time achievable, taking into account the constraints from the maximum penstock pressure and from the rotational speed limits. It is shown that the maximum instantaneous power step response up and down depends on the hydro-mechanical characteristics of the pump-turbine unit and of the motor-generator speed limits. As a results, for the investigated test case, the FSFC solution offer the best power step response performances.

  15. The effects of run-of-river hydroelectric power schemes on invertebrate community composition in temperate streams and rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilotta, Gary S; Burnside, Niall G; Turley, Matthew D; Gray, Jeremy C; Orr, Harriet G

    2017-01-01

    Run-of-river (ROR) hydroelectric power (HEP) schemes are often presumed to be less ecologically damaging than large-scale storage HEP schemes. However, there is currently limited scientific evidence on their ecological impact. The aim of this article is to investigate the effects of ROR HEP schemes on communities of invertebrates in temperate streams and rivers, using a multi-site Before-After, Control-Impact (BACI) study design. The study makes use of routine environmental surveillance data collected as part of long-term national and international monitoring programmes at 22 systematically-selected ROR HEP schemes and 22 systematically-selected paired control sites. Five widely-used family-level invertebrate metrics (richness, evenness, LIFE, E-PSI, WHPT) were analysed using a linear mixed effects model. The analyses showed that there was a statistically significant effect (pstudy design for future invertebrate community impact studies.

  16. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF STRUCTURAL AND GEOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIP ASSESSMENT IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE OMBLA UNDERGROUND HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Buljan

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction design of the underground hydroelectric plant Ombla required geological and structural investigations to he carried out. Due to past earthquakes in the area permanent tectonic movements were inferred. Therefore, in the wider and adjacent surroundings of the Ombla spring it was necessary to analyze the structural fabric and the geodynamic characteristics of the area. The most active zone encountered is the front part of a thrust fault belonging to the Dinaricum regional structural unit. The compressive regime is maintained as a response to the regional stress of an approximately S-N orientation. Different displacements of various parts of the Dinaricum unit are present. Along the rim of the structural blocks, the Hum-Om-bla fault zone extends, accompanied by left transcurrent faults, Through this zone the main groundwater drainage occurs supplying the Ombla spring. In the local Ombla spring area this zone is characterized by three sub-blocks and three major faults. The most important fault for the vital facilities of the Ombla hydroelectric power plant is the Pločice fault which divides the structural sub-blocks. Along this fault zone there are four mutually connected. The lowest two arc active groundwater draining systems supplying the Ombla spring. The data on local stress implies the following deformation of sub-blocks: sub-blocks 2c and 2f are displaced along normal faults from 20° to 30° to the left, downwards, while the sub-block 2 d is displaced along the Pločice thrust fault of 100° to 130° to the left, upwards. The structural data confirmed that the building of an underground dam with a height from 100 to 130 m was feasible. The connection between the caverns and the fault zone was determined. The unfavorable position of the active Pločice fault zone imposes the construction of vital Ombla power plant facilities underground.

  17. Case study analysis of the legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of the hydroelectric power of the Boardman River at Traverse City, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    An analytic description of one decision-making process concerning whether or not to develop the hydroelectric potential of the Boardman River is presented. The focus of the analysis is on the factor that the developers considered, or should consider in making a responsible commitment to small-scale hydroelectric development. Development of the Boardman River would occur at the five dam sites. Two existing dams, owned by the county, previously generated hydroelectricity, as did a third before being washed out. One dam has never been utilized. It is owned by the city which also owns the washed-out area. The study concludes that hydroelectric power is feasible at each. Grand Traverse County and Traverse City would engage in a joint venture in developing the resource. Chapter I presents a detailed description of the developers, the river resource, and the contemplated development. Chapter II is an analysis of the factors affecting the decision making process. Chapter III summarizes the impact of the more significant barriers and incentives and presents recommendations that, if implemented, will favorably affect decisions to develop small-scale hydroelectric generation capability.

  18. Model for analysis and definition of the governor constants in hydroelectric power; Modelo para analise e definicao das constantes do regulador em usinas hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Jose Geraldo Pena de; Koelle, Edmundo; Luvizotto Junior, Edevar [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil. Dept. de Hidraulica e Saneamento

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents a complete mathematical and computer model which allows simulating a generic hydroelectric power plant under steady state and transitory regimes, in the extensive time, and also the analysis of the oscillating flows resulting from excitation sources present in the installation, such as vortices in the suction pipe during partial load operation.

  19. Rescue and preservation of Serra da Mesa hydroelectric power plant flora; Salvamento e conservacao da flora de UHE Serra da Mesa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, H.G.P.; Silva, S.P.C. da [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Walter, B.M.T. [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, (Brazil). CENARGEN

    1993-12-31

    This report shows what is being doing to rescue and preserve the flora affected by the construction of the Serra da Mesa hydroelectric power plant. A survey concerning the existent flora on the area influenced by the undertaking is proceeded and the first results of such survey are here presented 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Childhood cancer near German nuclear power stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, Ian

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, the Kinderkrebs in der Umgebung von Kernkraftwerken (KiKK) study in Germany reported a 60% increase in solid cancers and a 120% increase in leukemias among children living within 5 km of all German nuclear power stations. The study has triggered debates as to the cause(s) of these increased cancers. This article reports on the findings of the KiKK study; discusses past and more recent epidemiological studies of leukemias near nuclear installations around the world, and outlines a possible biological mechanism to explain the increased cancers. This suggests that the observed high rates of infant leukemias may be a teratogenic effect from radionuclides incorporated by pregnant women living near nuclear reactors. Doses and risks from environmental emissions to embryos and fetuses may be larger than suspected. Hematopoietic tissues appear to be considerably more radiosensitive in embryos/fetuses than in newborn babies. Recommendations for advice to local residents and for further research are made.

  1. Decommissioning at Trawsfynydd nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindon, F.J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Trawsfynndd nuclear power station in North Wales was formally closed on July 20th 1993 on economic grounds. Radiation effects in the steel pressure vessels of the two Magnox units required high cost modifications if the reactors were to continue operation. Defuelling of the reactors was completed by August 1995. The Deferred Safestore Strategy has been selected as the decommissioning option. This does not involve any significant active dismantling until about 135 years from shutdown. Three main aspects of the decommissioning are discussed. These are: public consultation which focussed on the socio-economic implications of the reduction in the workforce and the visual impact of the safestore building design which was reduced in height in response to public opinion; technical considerations relating to waste management and electrical plant decommissioning; the conversion of the reactor buildings to provide safe storage for activated and contaminated material for a long period yet requiring only minimal maintenance. (UK).

  2. Coal fired power stations and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, S.H.

    1982-12-01

    Environmental problems resulting from the use of coal in power stations were discussed in a conference in Copenhagen in August, 1982. Topics included: 1) Discussions of the adverse temperature effects of cooling tower water. The pathogenic amoeba Naegleria fowleri has been isolated in two of eight cooling tower systems; 2) Uses of power plant ash. Dense blocks of the ash have been used to build artificial reefs with, as yet, not adverse effects on the marine community; 3) Long-range transport of particulates which bind heavy metals in the ash; and 4) The effects of acid rain. An examination of the fish status of Scandanavian lakes did not reveal a simple relationship between pH and fishlessness. It was concluded that levels of calcium and aluminum, food supply, genetically determined tolerance and ecological factors have also played a part in the fish regime of acid-affected lakes. The Norwegian attitude is that there are good grounds for thinking acid rain is a global problem implicating the discharge of nitrogen and sulfur oxides and either micropollutants. (JMT)

  3. 76 FR 50274 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations.'' This guide provides technical guidance that the NRC staff... nuclear power reactors. DATES: Submit comments by October 11, 2011. Comments received after this date will...

  4. Modern power station practice incorporating modern power system practice

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, PM

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains two additional features which enhance the value of Modern Power Station Practice as a whole: a cumulative subject index and a detailed list of tables of contents for the entire work. The cumulative index provides access to the vast body of information presented in the set, and also indicates at a glance the breadth and depth of the treatment through the use of inclusive page ranges for major topics. In order to allow the reader the greatest flexibility in using the index there are many cross-references. The entries themselves are qualified by up to two descriptive subheadi

  5. Flood Frequency Analysis Under Non-stationarity Conditions: the Case of Southern Brazilian Hydroelectric Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartiko, Daniel; Chaffe, Pedro; Bonumá, Nadia

    2017-04-01

    Floods may be strongly affected by climate, land-use, land-cover and water infrastructure changes. However, it is common to model this process as stationary. This approach has been questioned, especially when it involves estimate of the frequency and magnitude of extreme events for designing and maintaining hydraulic structures, as those responsible for flood control and dams safety. Brazil is the third largest producer of hydroelectricity in the world and many of the country's dams are located in the Southern Region. So, it seems appropriate to investigate the presence of non-stationarity in the affluence in these plants. In our study, we used historical flood data from the Brazilian National Grid Operator (ONS) to explore trends in annual maxima in river flow of the 38 main rivers flowing to Southern Brazilian reservoirs (records range from 43 to 84 years). In the analysis, we assumed a two-parameter log-normal distribution a linear regression model was applied in order to allow for the mean to vary with time. We computed recurrence reduction factors to characterize changes in the return period of an initially estimated 100 year-flood by a log-normal stationary model. To evaluate whether or not a particular site exhibits positive trend, we only considered data series with linear regression slope coefficients that exhibit significance levels (pStudent's test. The trend model residuals were analyzed using the Anderson-Darling normality test, the Durbin-Watson test for the independence and the Breusch-Pagan test for heteroscedasticity. Our results showed that 22 of the 38 data series analyzed have a significant positive trend. The trends were mainly in three large basins: Iguazu, Uruguay and Paranapanema, which suffered changes in land use and flow regularization in the last years. The calculated return period for the series that presented positive trend varied from 50 to 77 years for a 100 year-flood estimated by stationary model when considering a planning horizon

  6. Technology transfer in the field of small hydroelectric power stations; Technologietransfer im Bereich Kleinwasserkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, U. [SKAT-entec, St Gallen (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    The rate at which full-scale technology transfer takes place depends on the quality of the supply companies, i.e. training, organisational development and product infrastructure. These parameters are discussed for the example of a water mill, and a flow diagram is presented. [Deutsch] Wie rasch ein umfassender Transfer in Frage kommt, entscheidet sich mit der Qualitaet und dem Niveau der zuliefernden Betriebe. Hierbei sind Ausbildung, Organisationsentwicklung und Produktionsinfrastruktur besonders angesprochen. Fuer eine Wassermuehle werden diese Parameter konkret eroertert und an Durchlaufdiagrammen erlaeutert. (GL)

  7. Case studies of the legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of small-scale hydroelectric power. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Larry; Wilson, William

    1979-11-01

    This Executive Summary presents observations, conclusions, and recommendations developed from the completion of five (5) case studies of hydroelectric sites at High Falls, Georgia; Traverse City, Michigan; Swanville Lake, Maine; Cornell, Wisconsin; and Maxwell Locks, Pennsylvania. The work was accomplished by the Energy Law Institute of the Franklin Pierce Law Center, Concord, NH, for the National Conference of State Legislatures. The material contained here is, in part, a summary of the five separate reports on the legal and institutional barriers and incentives bearing on the development of each site. It is also a summary of the cumulative impressions of the actual general legal and institutional climate for small-scale hydroelectric development represented by the issues confronting each site. This document provides a general analysis and overview of the significant problems and opportunities for the development of hydroelectric facilities identified in the five full reports. A second Executive Summary is presented on the findings of two case studies of small-scale hydroelectric power at existing dams. The projects reviewed are: six sites in the irrigation system known as the Columbia Basin Project and two sites in the Bull Run watershed which supplies water to the City of Portland, Oregon. Key incentives and impediments are identified in these case studies conducted at the University of Washington.

  8. Power Station. Bio-power plant Schilling at Schwendi; Power Station. Bio-Kraftwerk-Schilling in Schwendi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thun, Matteo [Matteo Thun and Partners, Mailand (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    When wood burns certain natural cycles are naturally completed: chemical energy turns into light and heat, water turns into steam and then rain, mineral salts transform into ashes and fall back down to the ground and carbon dioxide is given off into the air. But when wood burns properly, all this turns into energy which may be used creating less environmental impact than any fossil fuel (either oil or gas). It may seem strange, but burning wood and safeguarding nature are perfectly compatible. This is the underlying philosophy of Schilling Power Station, which, together with the nearby sawmill, turn the woodburning cycle into something genuinely virtuous: wast products from the sawmill in the form of bark and wood chips become combustible biomass serving the power station. In turn, the power station generates energy in the form of heat to cover the sawmill's energy requirements. This completes the circle, and that would be enough in its own right. (orig.)

  9. 76 FR 58837 - Notice of Intent to Accept Proposals, Select Lessee, and Contract for Hydroelectric Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... Western's potential marketing of hydropower. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Technical data may be... marketing of the power may be obtained by contacting Ms. LaVerne Kyriss, CRSP Manager, Western Area Power... management personnel, history of any reorganizations or mergers with other companies, and any other...

  10. Cost basis for hydroelectric power plants. Price level of 01.01.1995; Kostnadsgrunnlag for vannkraftanlegg. Prisnivaa pr 01.01.1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensby, H.; Slapgaard, J.

    1995-08-01

    This publication provides a basis for calculation of expected average construction costs and equipment costs for large hydroelectric power plants in Norway. The publication is not intended to be a tool for projecting with regard to optimization or choice of construction types, but should be useful at an early stage of planning. There is a supplementary publication (Publication no. 20/1995) for small plants. 80 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Integrated environmental action plan for Furnas hydroelectric power plant reservoir and adjacent cities; Plano de acao ambiental integrada do reservatorio da Usina de Furnas e municipios lindeiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taam, Mauricio; Barbosa, Jose Roberto; Costa, Vivaldi Goncalves; Vieira, Jose Henrique; Fonseca, Joao Bosco R.; Dinelli, Ricardo [FURNAS Centrais Eletricas S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This work concerns the integrated environmental action plan - Furnas project, which represents a new philosophy for dealing with environmental issues concerning undertakings in operation. The area of influence of the Furnas hydroelectric power plant reservoir is described and the consequences of the urban and agricultural accelerated growth considering environmental aspects are discussed. Solutions pointing at reforestation and recuperation of eroding areas are suggested 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Potential Hydroelectric Power Upriver Dam: City of Spokane Department of Utilities Water Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The technical, economic, environmental and institutional feasibility of increasing the power generation capacity of the City of Spokane's Upriver Dam Complex by installing additional generating facilities and/or modifying existing facilities were studied. It is proposed that the existing powerhouse be uprated from 3.9 to 4.5 MW and that a new powerhouse be constructed with two 4.5 MW turbines to provide an annual additional energy production of 62.3 million kWh. No adverse environmental or safety effects are foreseen, the socio-institutional impacts will be beneficial, there is a market for the power produced, and the benefit/cost ratio is advantageous. (LCL)

  13. Estimation of small-scale hydroelectric power plant costs; Estimacao de custos de PCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira [MS Consultoria Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil); Silva, Benedito Claudio da [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil); Magalhaes, Ricardo Nogueira [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Changes in Brazilian energy scenario through last years such as increase of demand and search for clean and economically feasible renewable energy sources, has stimulated investors to small hydro power plants (SHP) sector. Such characteristics together with several economic incentives, legal and regulatory mechanisms also, have helped and stimulated building of new plants of this kind and have attracted a great number of investors to this sector. Study of costs analysis and feasibility of investments is a study which has been used since long time in SHP business market as several preliminary studies previous to civil project have significant costs which lead us to count with a feasibility analysis from the very beginning of studies, exactly what is suggested in the present methodology. Such feasibility analysis, in the common patterns where basic unit costs of each input remain outstanding, would be very complex due to great difficulty in obtaining information at initial phase of project. In this direction this study brings a contribution for investors as well as for designers of small hydro power plants since it outlines a link between physical and energetic characteristics of small hydro power plant in its total cost. Such link is based in available physical characteristics in initial phase of the project, making possible a previous comparison between arrangements of a central or even the comparison of return of investment between different plants. The resulting benefit being the possibility of choosing centrals with greater economic feasibility disregarding bad undertakings or arrangements with more expressive cost. Final result gives a better delay in return of investment, helps in power, arrangements more optimized and in saving time as well, reducing costs of undertakings. Due to large number of SHP arrangements, we chose for this study the most common in Brazil, plant of medium and large fall, shunting line balance chimney and low pressure conduit. (author)

  14. Scenery Storage Technology Application in Power Station System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hong; Geng, Hao; Feng, Lei; Xu, Xing

    Scenery storage technology can effectively utilize wind power and photovoltaic power generation in the natural complementary of energy and time, improve the reliability of power supply, has attracted more and more attention. At present, the scenery storage research in the field application of the technology is relatively small, based on the actual substation as the research object, put forward the scenery storage technology as substation load power supply three applications of lighting power, standby power station and DC system, and through the detailed implementation of the program design, investment analysis, research the scenery with the feasibility of electrical energy storage technology system application in station. To solve the weak power grid, substation remote and backward areas should not be from the outside to obtain reliable power supply problems, the station area electric system design provides a new way of thinking, which has important practical engineering value.

  15. Feasibility determination of low-head hydroelectric power development at existing sites. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polonsky, R.

    1979-01-01

    This report contains the feasibility study, economic analysis, and information relevant to reactivation of the dam in Bethelehem, NH. It outlines a plan of development which calls for sale of the power to a local utility for the first few years of the project and then predominately on-site use of the power in an innovative plan for controlled-environment agriculture. The economic analyses indicate that reactivation of the dam would be a successful venture based on the present market value of 4.5 cents/kWh. The success of the second phase in the dam's use rests on the increasing financial attractiveness of locally grown produce in a state that currently imports over 90% of its food and is experiencing the spiraling costs of food, energy, and inflation. The best-suited turbine package for the site is an Ossberger 750-kW unit which would provide 4,014,000 kWh per year with a plant factor of 61%. The total capital costs of the project are $827,935.

  16. Station planning and design incorporating modern power system practice

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, PC

    1991-01-01

    The planning and design of new power stations can involve complex interaction between the many engineering disciplines involved as well as environmental, planning, economical, political and social pressures. This volume aims to provide a logical review of the procedures involved in power station development. The engineering aspects are outlined in detail, with examples, showing the basis of the relationships involved together with ""non-engineering"" factors so that the engineer can draw on the information provided for specific projects. The civil engineering and building of power stations are

  17. Standardization of electric projects of small hydroelectric power plants; Padronizacao de projetos eletricos de pequenas centrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Roberth dos Santos

    2002-07-01

    This work presents a standardizing proposal for Electrical Projects of small hydroelectric central and it has as objective to optimize some solutions for the most cases, considering the great diversity of options. The development of the dissertation is the result of several real cases of projects of hydroelectric centrals. Besides the projects, several bibliographies about the case which is being studied were researched, taking into consideration the entire proposal presented to the respective authors and, finally, as synthesis to all observations made in that study, the presentation of an optimized solution for the job of the electrical components and a proposal for the estimate of costs of those components. The conclusions of this work present a favorable result because they offer an initial proposal for the standardizing of information considered extremely important for the carrying out of a project of hydroelectric central. (author)

  18. The Effects of Run-of-River Hydroelectric Power Schemes on Fish Community Composition in Temperate Streams and Rivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary S Bilotta

    Full Text Available The potential environmental impacts of large-scale storage hydroelectric power (HEP schemes have been well-documented in the literature. In Europe, awareness of these potential impacts and limited opportunities for politically-acceptable medium- to large-scale schemes, have caused attention to focus on smaller-scale HEP schemes, particularly run-of-river (ROR schemes, to contribute to meeting renewable energy targets. Run-of-river HEP schemes are often presumed to be less environmentally damaging than large-scale storage HEP schemes. However, there is currently a lack of peer-reviewed studies on their physical and ecological impact. The aim of this article was to investigate the effects of ROR HEP schemes on communities of fish in temperate streams and rivers, using a Before-After, Control-Impact (BACI study design. The study makes use of routine environmental surveillance data collected as part of long-term national and international monitoring programmes at 23 systematically-selected ROR HEP schemes and 23 systematically-selected paired control sites. Six area-normalised metrics of fish community composition were analysed using a linear mixed effects model (number of species, number of fish, number of Atlantic salmon-Salmo salar, number of >1 year old Atlantic salmon, number of brown trout-Salmo trutta, and number of >1 year old brown trout. The analyses showed that there was a statistically significant effect (p<0.05 of ROR HEP construction and operation on the number of species. However, no statistically significant effects were detected on the other five metrics of community composition. The implications of these findings are discussed in this article and recommendations are made for best-practice study design for future fish community impact studies.

  19. Soil erosion and sediment delivery issues in a large hydro-electric power reservoir catchment, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebiyu, Amsalu; Dume, Bayu; Bode, Samuel; Ram, Hari; Boeckx, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    restoration and reduction of sediment flux are considered. The long term sustainability of HEP power generation in Ethiopia is evaluated in this context.

  20. The micro power station of Verbois; Ouvrage Micro-centrale de Verbois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quercia, P.; Martinez, J.-L. [Services industriels de Geneve, Service de l' electricite, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    The policy of the public utilities of the City of Geneva includes the promotion of renewable energy and the conservation of the environment. The erection of the most important hydroelectric power plant in the canton of Geneva at Verbois, on the Rhone River dates back to the years 1938 to 1944. Several retrofits have been made since then, the last dating from 1996 to 1998. In 2000, due to ecological considerations, a fish ladder was added, resulting in a loss of generated power equivalent to a water flow of 2 m{sup 3}/s at a height of 18.35 meters. In order to compensate for this energy loss, a micro hydropower station with a maximum output power of 316 kW was added. It is fitted with a Francis turbine with horizontal axis and fixed opening; the rotation speed is 605 rpm. A reduced power output could be traced back to the deposition of solids on the grids upstream of the water supply duct. The necessary modifications are discussed.

  1. Satellite nuclear power station: An engineering analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.; Clement, J. D.; Rosa, R. J.; Kirby, K. D.; Yang, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    A nuclear-MHD power plant system which uses a compact non-breeder reactor to produce power in the multimegawatt range is analyzed. It is shown that, operated in synchronous orbit, the plant would transmit power safely to the ground by a microwave beam. Fuel reprocessing would take place in space, and no radioactive material would be returned to earth. Even the effect of a disastrous accident would have negligible effect on earth. A hydrogen moderated gas core reactor, or a colloid-core, or NERVA type reactor could also be used. The system is shown to approach closely the ideal of economical power without pollution.

  2. Design of photovoltaic central power station concentrator array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    A design for a photovoltaic central power station using tracking concentrators has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes an advanced Martin Marietta two-axis tracking fresnel lens concentrator. The concentrators are arrayed in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic plant output is connected to the existing 115 kV switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

  3. The stakes of the hydroelectric power in the integrated management of the Basins. Which place for the EPTB; Les enjeux de l'hydroelectricite dans la gestion integree des bassins versants. Quelle place pour les EPTB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-01

    In the framework of a sustainable development, the EPTB (Public, Territorial Institutions of Basins) need an evolution of the regulations concerning the management of the hydroelectric power (areas of the Adour, Dordogne, Garonne and Lot). This document presents in two parts the context and the stakes of the hydroelectric concession: the concessions specifications and the analysis of the main articles, the tariffs, taxes and the environment constraints. (A.L.B.)

  4. 78 FR 61400 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Issuance of Director's Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Issuance of Director's Decision... and ML102210411, respectively), concerns the operation of Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim... (non- EQ) inaccessible cables at Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim) are capable of performing...

  5. 75 FR 11205 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Environmental Assessment and... Nuclear Operations, Inc. (Entergy or the licensee), for operation of Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station... Nuclear Power Station,'' NUREG-1437, Supplement 29, published in July 2007 (ADAMS Accession No...

  6. 77 FR 76541 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee), for operation of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim... Renewal of Nuclear Plants Regarding Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Final Report- Appendices,'' published...

  7. Power station automation: A special issue; Stationsautomatisering: Themanummer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zewald, H.F.M. [ed.; Wester, Ph. [Afdeling Hoogspanningsstations, PEN, Bloemendaal (Netherlands); Rijanto, H.; Kersten, W.F.J. [Vakgroep Elektrische Energiesystemen, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Maas, J.H. [Afdeling Studie en Bedrijfsvoering, Delta Nutsbedrijven, Middelburg (Netherlands); Groeman, J.F. [KEMA Transport en Distributie, Arnhem (Netherlands); De Heus, A.A. [Elin Holec High Voltage, Amersfoort (Netherlands); De Bruijn, P. [Smit Transformatoren, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Groot, J.W. [Sector Automatiseringstechniek, Mauell-Nederland, Harderwijk (Netherlands); Zomers, A.N.

    1995-04-01

    Nine articles are presented in this special issue of `Energietechniek` on the subject of power station automation. The first article is an introduction to several articles, which are based on lectures, presented during the bi-annual joint meeting of Study Committees of Cigre (`Conference International des Grands Reseaux Electriques`) in Arnhem, Netherlands, December 16, 1994. The contents of six articles, presented at the Cigre meeting are a summary of the discussions, maintenance, design methods for future power stations, safety and control, a new generation of power substations, and future technological developments. The other two articles deal with operational exploitation calculations of power transformers, and the state of the art regarding the automation of power stations and networks

  8. Erosion Control and Recultivation Measures at a Headrace Channel of a Hydroelectric Power Plant using Different Combined Soil Bioengineering Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obriejetan, M.; Florineth, F.; Rauch, H. P.

    2012-04-01

    vegetation properties are studied by setting up comparative test plots at a field study site located at a headrace channel of a hydroelectric power plant. Different vegetational parameters such as basal coverage, species richness, species composition, abundance/dominance values by using a refined Braun-Blanquet cover estimation scale were collected as well as local environmental properties. Results during the first vegetation period show distinct effects of geotextiles especially on overall vegetation coverage and grasses-herbs-ratio. Geotextile supported plots show 20% higher overall coverage but lower amount of herbs after three months of vegetation growth compared to control plots without installation of auxiliary materials. Furthermore coir blankets reveal higher penetration resistance for seed leaves of herbal plants compared to coir nettings. Hence technical erosion protection products, biological components and it's combination have to be closely coordinated in order to achieve specified revegetation objectives and meet long-term functionality.

  9. The portfolio theory applied to small hydroelectric power plants; Teoria do portfolio aplicada a pequenas centrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, Paulo Roberto Ferreira de Moura

    2002-07-01

    The 'Portfolio Theory' has been largely employed on stock markets, aiming to improve the relation between risk and return. This theory identifies many possible investment combinations once it's associated with the idea that increasing investment diversification can lower risk. The objective is, thus identify the portfolio that offers the most efficient diversification of capital. The reforms on the energy sector in Brazil have made investments on both generation and commercialization of electric energy easier for medium sized investors. There have been economic incentives to the exploration of wind and bio-mass energy, and to the construction of small hydro-electric power plants (in Portuguese, PCH), as well as many legal and regulatory mechanisms pursuing the maintenance of elevate rates of participation of renewable source in the production of electrical energy in Brazil. Between these options, the PCH are a specially good opportunity taking account of its minimum environment impact, low operational costs and total technologic control. The decision concerning investment options has been based on standard economic analysis like 'Net Present Value', 'Payback Time' or 'Cost/Benefit Relations'. Other techniques such as scenario and sensitivity have been incorporated and, more recently, there has been a search for other methods consider the uncertainty of happenings within the horizon of study. This dissertation will analyse six possibilities of PCH with standard techniques. Of them, the four possibilities considered viable will constitute our examples for the application of Portfolio Theory techniques. Once the active portfolio is determined, the best option is identified using the 'mean-variance efficient' developed by Markowitz, concluding that the theory can give better support to the decision-making in future enterprises on the electric sector. After considering the optimal return/risk combinations, there was

  10. Study of Environmental Impact by Coal-Fired Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizumi, Koji; Ogaki, Mituharu; Motonaka, Junko; Yabutani, Tomoki

    The Tachibana-wan coal-fired power station was constructed on land that was reclaimed using the soil that came from cutting through half of a small island while balancing the amount of soil. The power station has been generating for three years. When the electric utility provider projected the power station, it must have conducted an environmental impact assessment, and studied the environmental preservation measures. Moreover, after the power generation began, an environmental investigation was done as a follow up survey to study the environmental impact by the power station based on its construction and use. To study the environmental impact with smoke, the environmental density of sulfur dioxide around the power station was investigated. It fell below the environmental standards at all the environmental measurement points during this investigation. Moreover, a big difference was not seen before and after the beginning of the power generation and the change in these data was in the normal range. As a result of the environmental impact assessment, the contribution density of the power station was near the quantitative limit and a low value. To study the environmental impact with warm wastewater, the water temperature in the bay was investigated. A big difference was not generally seen before and after the beginning of the power generation though the water temperature slowly rose at the discharge point of the warm wastewater but the change of these data was in the normal range. As for the environmental impact, a clear judgment was difficult only from the environmental investigation. It is necessary to set a new environmental indicator to judge the environmental impact. Moreover, as for a new environmental assessment system, it is necessary to introduce a strategic environmental assessment.

  11. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR MULTILEVEL INVERTOR OF SOLAR POWER STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Levitskiy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of control law for network multilevel invertor of solar power station and design device for control law realization. Methodology. At synthesis of control law theory of automatic control, power network engineering and circuit technique are considered. The control law for distributive control over the direct-axis and quadrature-axis currents of invertor after abc-dq transform of three phase current’s momentary value is used. Results. The improved model of regulator of direct-axis invertor’s current is developed and provides the voltage optimization of invertor’s operating both from solar module and from network by means of calculation the reactive power consumption from network, voltage on network and voltage on solar module. The improved model of regulator of quadrature-axis invertor’s current is developed and provides the power and frequency optimization of invertor’s operating by means of calculation ratio of active power consumption and power from solar module. Originality. The offered control law and device, which realize it, is working out on secondary loop from power network smart grid with active and reactive power consumption monitoring. That provides the optimal operation of solar station both from solar module and from power network. Practical value. The proposed control law and structure of the network multilevel invertor for solar power station provide the operate mode of solar module in maximum power point and increasing the solar module’s productivity.

  12. 75 FR 33238 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... turbine set, a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), and a steam turbine generator set. DATES: Written...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY... Basin Electric Power Cooperative's (Basin Electric) application for a RUS loan and a Western...

  13. 75 FR 43915 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... generator, and a steam turbine generator set. ADDRESSES: To obtain copies of the ROD, or for further... Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY: Rural Utilities... environmental impacts of and alternatives to Basin Electric Power Cooperative's (Basin Electric) application for...

  14. case study of afam power station

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    fell to 45.3%. Recommendations include the establishment of a good maintenance work documentation system, increased training programme for local manpower, privatization of the electric power industry among others. INTRODUCTION. The maintenance of any engineering system consists of performing the following.

  15. Environmental impact analysis of the hydroelectric power development sheme in the River Grunnaai in Seljord municipality, Telemark; Konsekvensutredning av kraftutbyggingsprosjekt i Grunnaai i Seljord, Telemark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz, I.P.; Bendiksen, E.; Erikstad, L.; Reitan, O.

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses the possible environmental consequences of a planned hydroelectric power development of the river Grunnaai, Norway. The consequences are found to be small, provided the proper counter measures are taken. Without counter measures, there may be moderate consequences on fish populations and botanical conditions, directly dependent on the changed water flow. The greatest value of the area concerned lies in its unspoiled wilderness character. There are extensive lists of birds and mammals and plant species registered in the river valley. 51 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Mathematical Modeling in Systems for Operational Evaluation of the Stress-Strain State of the Arch-Gravity Dam at the Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellendir, E. N.; Gordon, L. A., E-mail: lev-gordon@mail.ru; Khrapkov, A. A.; Skvortsova, A. E., E-mail: SkvortsovaAE@vniig.ru [B. E. Vedeneev All-Russia Research Institute of Hydraulic Engineering (VNIIG) (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Current studies of the stress-strain state of the dam at the Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Plant at VNIIG based on mathematical modeling including full scale and experimental data are described. Applications and programs intended for automatic operational evaluation of the stress-strain state of the dam for optimizing control of the upper race level in the course of the annual filling-drawdown cycle and during seismic events are examined. Improvements in systems for monitoring the stress-strain state of concrete dams are proposed.

  17. Physics Experiments at the Agesta Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelqvist, G. [State Power Board, Stockholm (Sweden); Bliselius, P. Aa.; Blomberg, P.E.; Jonsson, E.; Aakerhielm, F. [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1966-09-15

    Part A. Dynamic measurements have been performed at the Aagesta reactor at power levels from 0.3 to 65 MW(th). The purposes of the experiments have been both to develop experimental methods and equipment for the dynamic studies and to measure the dynamic characteristics of the reactor in order to check the dynamic model. The experiments have been performed with four different perturbation functions: trapezoidal and step functions and two types of periodic multifrequency signals. Perturbations were introduced in the reactivity and in the load. The recordings were made of the responses of nuclear power, coolant inlet and outlet temperature and control rod position. The results are presented as step responses and transfer functions (Bode diagrams). Inmost cases the relative accuracy is {+-} 0.5 dB in amplitude and {+-} 5 deg in phase. The results from the experiments in general show rather good agreement with the results obtained from a dynamic model, which successively has been improved. Experience on reactor noise analysis based on measurements in the Agesta power reactor is discussed. It is shown that the noise measurements have given complementary dynamic information of the reactor. Part B. Static measurements of the physics parameters in the Agesta reactor are carried out to confirm theoretical methods for reactor calculations and to form a good basis for safe operation of the reactor. The reactivity worth of groups of control rods are determined with different methods and compared with calculations with the three-dimensional code HETERO. The excess reactivity as a function of burn up is obtained from the control rod positions. The temperature coefficient of the moderator is measured by lowering the moderator temperature at constant power and observing the change in control rod insertion. As burn up increases the experiments are repeated in order to follow the changes in the coefficient. The xenon poisoning effects are measured by changing the power level and

  18. Power Factor Improvement for Pumping Stations using Capacitor Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, M. M.; Abd El-gawad, Amal F.; Ramadan, H. S.

    2016-10-01

    One of the fundamental problems affects the performance of pumping stations is its relative high operational cost. As three-phase induction motors are the main prime mover of pumping stations and considered the most widely used electrical motors due to their reliability, ease of maintenance. However, its major problem is the low power factor which results in high electric energy consumption. Energy will be saved when power factor is improved. The main objective of this paper is studying the power factor improvement in El sadaa Pumping Station because of its low operating efficiency which goes from 20 % to 25 %and calculating penalty, ponus and savings in each cases. The correction is achieved by the addition of capacitor banks in parallel with the connected motor circuits and can be applied to the starter, applied at the switchboard or the distribution panel. A model of this station is created using MatlabTM Simulink. Then the determination of induction motor parameters is performed. The station model is discussed. From the simulation results, the power factor enhancement of the pumping station is highlighted.

  19. A UK guide to intake fish-screening regulations, policy and best practice with particular reference to hydroelectric power schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnpenny, A.W.H.; Struthers, G.; Hanson, P.

    1998-07-01

    A review of fish screening regulations in England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland is presented, and a summary of findings on screening legislation is given. The views of hydroelectric scheme developers, owners and operators are considered, and recommendations including the development of a risk assessment procedure are discussed. Fish screening technology, bypasses and other escape routes, and common fault in screen design and operation are examined, and guidance to Best Practice is given. (UK)

  20. The Grossmatt hydro-power station; Wasserkraftwerk Grossmatt. Konzessionsprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hintermann, M.

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the project for a small hydropower station on the Birs river in north-western Switzerland. The report reviews the history of the project, in which a new 385 kW-hydro-power station at the site of an earlier installation is foreseen. Details are presented on the investigations made and on the co-ordination with the owners of the hydro-power station situated up-river, the local power utility and the local authorities. Also, the requirements placed on the project by the fishing authorities are quoted and the solution foreseen is described. Also discussed are the requirements placed on the project by legislation on environmental impact and flood protection. Figures on electrical energy production and building costs are presented.

  1. Focus on coal power station installations and population health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Valenti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage to health associated with emissions from coal power stations can vary greatly from one location to another depending on the size of the plant, location and the characteristics of the population. Population-based studies conducted by independent groups in different locations around the world show effects on health in populations at higher risk, but failed to definitely demonstrate direct effects on morbidity and mortality, to be exclusively attributed to the presence of active power stations. However, evidence on the role of micropollutants from power station activities suggests that a complete and thorough analysis should be made on the environmental cycle. Therefore danger should in any case be assessed as carefully as possible while assuming, at most, that all micropollutants may come into direct contact with man through the various potential pathways throughout their entire lifetime, regardless of the factors that reduce their presence.

  2. Complex Mobile Independent Power Station for Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunik, A. A.; Tolstoy, M. Y.

    2017-11-01

    A new type of a complex mobile independent power station developed in the Department of Engineering Communications and Life-Support Systems of Irkutsk National Research Technical University, is presented in this article. This station contains only solar panel, wind turbine, accumulator, diesel generator and microbial fuel cell for to produce electric energy, heat pump and solar collector to generate heat energy and also wastewater treatment plant and new complex control system. The complex mobile independent power station is intended for full power supply of a different kind of consumers located even in remote areas thus reducing their dependence from centralized energy supply systems, decrease the fossil fuel consumption, improve the environment of urban areas and solve the problems of the purification of industrial and municipal wastewater.

  3. A Renewably Powered Hydrogen Generation and Fueling Station Community Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Sekura, Linda S.; Prokopius, Paul; Theirl, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The proposed project goal is to encourage the use of renewable energy and clean fuel technologies for transportation and other applications while generating economic development. This can be done by creating an incubator for collaborators, and creating a manufacturing hub for the energy economy of the future by training both white- and blue-collar workers for the new energy economy. Hydrogen electrolyzer fueling stations could be mass-produced, shipped and installed in collaboration with renewable energy power stations, or installed connected to the grid with renewable power added later.

  4. Solar Power Station Output Inverter Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bauer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic applications spreads in these days fast, therefore they also undergo great development. Because the amount of the energy obtained from the panel depends on the surrounding conditions, as intensity of the sun exposure or the temperature of the solar array, the converter must be connected to the panel output. The Solar system equipped with inverter can supply small loads like notebooks, mobile chargers etc. in the places where the supplying network is not present. Or the system can be used as a generator and it shall deliver energy to the supply network. Each type of the application has different requirements on the converter and its control algorithm. But for all of them the one thing is common – the maximal efficiency. The paper focuses on design and simulation of the low power inverter that acts as output part of the whole converter. In the paper the design of the control algorithm of the inverter for both types of inverter application – for islanding mode and for operation on the supply grid – is discussed. Attention is also paid to the design of the output filter that should reduce negative side effects of the converter on the supply network.

  5. 47 CFR 74.710 - Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.710 Digital low power TV and TV... protect an authorized digital low power TV or TV translator station or an application for such station...

  6. Project finance of hydroelectric power plants in Brazil; 'Project finance' de usinas hidroeletricas no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro Filho, Valfredo de Assis; Ramos, Maria Olivia de Souza [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the modality of project finance of financing of enterprises, which is the main modality of structuring of hydroelectric projects in Brazil. In the discussion will be highlighted the importance of contracts EPC (Engineering, Search and Construction) in the structuring of project finances. This financing model has particular characteristics related to risk sharing and financial flexibility that enable the financing of projects with long-term capital, however, due to participation of various actors and the nature of the structure of project finance, the negotiation and drafting of contracts are always very complex.

  7. Case study analysis of the legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of the hydroelectric power at the Maxwell locks and dam, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal, institutional and financial obstacles, and incentives to the development of hydroelectric power at the Maxwell locks and dam on the Monongahela River are analyzed. The study is one of five studies prepared by the Energy Law Institute pursuant to a contract with the National Conference of State Legislators. Each of the five studies views dam development by a different category of developer. These categories include a municipality, a public utility, a state, a private developer, and a cooperative. The Maxwell case study concerns potential development by Allegheny Electric Cooperative. Thus, the analysis of obstacles and incentives is focused on those factors which have particular impact on a cooperative. Subjects covered include a description of the site; developer description; the feasibility study; the economic feasibility; financing; Federal licensing by FERC; state licensing; local interest and requirements; the effect of locks and dam operation by the Army Corp of Engineers; and power marketing.

  8. 75 FR 8895 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... include a new natural gas-fired combustion turbine set, a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), and a steam turbine generator set. DATES: With this notice, RUS invites any affected Federal, State, and local...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY...

  9. FUEL CELL OPERATION ON LANDFILL GAS AT PENROSE POWER STATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This demonstration test successfully demonstrated operation of a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell (FC) on landfill gas (LG) at the Penrose Power Station in Sun Valley, CA. Demonstration output included operation up to 137 kW; 37.1% efficiency at 120 kW; exceptionally low sec...

  10. Evaluation for turbine implementation for a micro hydroelectric power plant; Avaliacao para implantacao de uma turbina para uma microcentral hidreletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Gilberto Manoel; Halmeman, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Oliveira, Franciene Gois [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Energia na Agricultura; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dep. de Engenharia Rural

    2008-07-01

    In this work it was analyzed the viability technical and economical of turbines to micro hydroelectric headquarters as an alternative to consumers not served by electric energy in isolated areas. It was used a experimental methods to create an estimative and a evaluation of the hydroelectric potential, through hydrological criteria in the area and, thus, be able to note if there is viability for its use. Some kinds of turbines made by the national industry were verified, analyzing the technical and economical characteristics and in function of the hydro energetic-conditions of the area. The results shoed that a micro-headquarters serves the necessities and expectations of the owner at the electric energy supply. It was noted that the expenses are smaller comparing to the other expenses know in the literature, from national factories. Even though the limiting factor is the distance from the production to the consumer, the potency of 18.4 kw was enough to satisfy the local necessities. The installation of de micro headquarters will bring enhances and facilities by the fact that it represents a big social importance for the area. (author)

  11. The impacts of wind power integration on sub-daily variation in river flows downstream of hydroelectric dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jordan D; Patino-Echeverri, Dalia; Characklis, Gregory W

    2014-08-19

    Due to their operational flexibility, hydroelectric dams are ideal candidates to compensate for the intermittency and unpredictability of wind energy production. However, more coordinated use of wind and hydropower resources may exacerbate the impacts dams have on downstream environmental flows, that is, the timing and magnitude of water flows needed to sustain river ecosystems. In this paper, we examine the effects of increased (i.e., 5%, 15%, and 25%) wind market penetration on prices for electricity and reserves, and assess the potential for altered price dynamics to disrupt reservoir release schedules at a hydroelectric dam and cause more variable and unpredictable hourly flow patterns (measured in terms of the Richards-Baker Flashiness (RBF) index). Results show that the greatest potential for wind energy to impact downstream flows occurs at high (∼25%) wind market penetration, when the dam sells more reserves in order to exploit spikes in real-time electricity prices caused by negative wind forecast errors. Nonetheless, compared to the initial impacts of dam construction (and the dam's subsequent operation as a peaking resource under baseline conditions) the marginal effects of any increased wind market penetration on downstream flows are found to be relatively minor.

  12. Chemical properties of fly ashes produced in the Arcelor Mittal power station and the Třinec ironworks power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulikova, L.

    2017-10-01

    Fly ash is an inorganic secondary material coming from combustion of coal in power stations. Tested fly ashes were produced by different processes. Therefore they have different parameters. Their chemical properties were determined using chemical analyzes and compared. Results of laboratory tests show possibility to use of fly ashes in road construction as binder for soil treatment.

  13. Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station IGCC project: Project status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, J.E.; Carlson, M.R.; Hurd, R.; Pless, D.E.; Grant, M.D. [Tampa Electric Co., FL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station is a nominal 250 MW (net) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant located to the southeast of Tampa, Florida in Polk County, Florida. This project is being partially funded under the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Program pursuant to a Round II award. The Polk Power Station uses oxygen-blown, entrained-flow IGCC technology licensed from Texaco Development Corporation to demonstrate significant reductions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions when compared to existing and future conventional coal-fired power plants. In addition, this project demonstrates the technical feasibility of commercial scale IGCC and Hot Gas Clean Up (HGCU) technology. The Polk Power Station achieved ``first fire`` of the gasification system on schedule in mid-July, 1996. Since that time, significant advances have occurred in the operation of the entire IGCC train. This paper addresses the operating experiences which occurred in the start-up and shakedown phase of the plant. Also, with the plant being declared in commercial operation as of September 30, 1996, the paper discusses the challenges encountered in the early phases of commercial operation. Finally, the future plans for improving the reliability and efficiency of the Unit in the first quarter of 1997 and beyond, as well as plans for future alternate fuel test burns, are detailed. The presentation features an up-to-the-minute update on actual performance parameters achieved by the Polk Power Station. These parameters include overall Unit capacity, heat rate, and availability. In addition, the current status of the start-up activities for the HGCU portion of the plant is discussed.

  14. 47 CFR 74.793 - Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection of broadcast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator station... DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.793 Digital low power TV and TV.... Predictions of interference to co-channel DTV broadcast, digital Class A TV, digital LPTV and digital TV...

  15. Power stations, power plant engineering and power station design in (what was) the German Democratic Republic. Kraftwerke, Kraftwerkstechnik und Kraftwerksplanung in der ehemaligen DDR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, G.; Gernhardt, A. (Vereinigte Kraftwerks-AG, Peitz (Germany, F.R.)); Weidlich, H.G. (Ingenieurunternehmen fuer Kraftwerks-, Energie- und Umwelttechnik, Vetschau (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-12-01

    Using as a basis the capacities available in the field of both engineering and civil construction in the post war years, the existing power stations were recommissioned. Later, continuous development using 100 MW units was attained. Due to the age of these plants and the high incidence of faults which occurred on them, additional solutions were evolved for improving and modernizing the power stations in addition to the repair and maintenance strategy. On the basis of new conditions created under international treaty for the planning of power stations and the solution of ecological problems, a new concept is presented in this paper. (orig.).

  16. 75 FR 39285 - Virginia Electric and Power Company: North Anna Power Station, Unit No. 1 Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... COMMISSION Virginia Electric and Power Company: North Anna Power Station, Unit No. 1 Environmental Assessment...-4, issued to Virginia Electric and Power Company (the licensee), for operation of the North Anna... changes are being made in the types of effluents that may be released offsite. There is no significant...

  17. Methodology to identify the location of shoals of fish downstream from hydroelectric power plant; Metodologia para identificar a locacao de cardumes de peixes a jusante de UHE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, C.B.; Viana, E.M.F.; Faria, M.T.C. de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Hidraulicas e Recursos Hidricos], Emails: martinez@cce.ufmg.br, ednamariafaria@ufmg.br, mtcdf@uol.com.br

    2009-07-01

    The location identification of fish shoals at the downstream of an hydroelectric power plants is a task of importance especially when one takes into account the need to identify possible locations for the deployment of fish transportation mechanism. This paper presents a methodology based on the use of reduced models, which will be operated during the biological testing, under flow and conditions similar to the field where will be included shoals of fish. These groups will be observed during a period of time under varying conditions of discharge of hydraulic turbines. At the end of this observation it can be identified preferential location areas of fish shoals that will be evaluated later in order to install transposition systems in the place.

  18. Ash Deposition Trials at Three Power Stations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karin; Frandsen, Flemming; Larsen, Ole Hede

    1998-01-01

    Six full-scale trials were conducted at three power stations in Denmark: Ensted, Funen, and Vendsyssel power stations. During these trials, pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash, and deposits from cooled probes were sampled and analyzed with various techniques. On the basis of SEM analyses......, the deposits can be grouped into five textural types, which all possess distinct textural and chemical characteristics. Likewise, the deposition mechanisms for these five types are characteristic and they may be used for constructing a model for the buildup and maturation of an ash deposit. The deposits...... collected on the probes were thin (maximum 2 mm after 9 h) and the influence of operational parameters and probe temperatures on the magnitude of the deposits were minor. The probe temperatures had no influence on the composition of the ash deposits for coals with low ash deposition propensities, whereas...

  19. Urban solar irradiance and power prediction from nearby stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zihao Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the proliferation of small-scale solar PV installations, global horizontal irradiance (GHI and power predictions are becoming critical elements in the integration of PV generation into the grid. This paper considers short-term prediction, from 5 minutes to a few hours, based on historical meteorological measurement data from weather and power monitoring stations located in the Canberra (Australia region. The specific objective of this study is to produce skilful forecasts for (a generic target station using a minimal amount of observations from nearby stations. Thus, although a large number of weather and power variables are collected and used for developing and testing the prediction algorithms, the ultimate aim is to rely on a few predictors, mainly meteorologically based. This will allow the identification of critical instruments which would need to be installed in order to provide satisfactory PV power predictions while limiting capital and operating costs of monitoring. Relative mean absolute error (rMAE is used here to indicate prediction performance. Three statistical methods are tested for two different seasons, a winter and a summer. The relative importance of predictors and stations is assessed. A conversion from GHI to global irradiance on tilted surfaces, by means of simple geometry arguments and notion of irradiance components at a nearby site, is also introduced and tested. Finally, the prediction accuracy is categorised according to different clear-sky indices. Results show that when the clear-sky index exceeds 0.9 (near-to-cloudless conditions, the prediction performance is distinctly better than at lower clear sky indices, by at least 0.05 and 0.2 in terms of rMAE in summer and winter, respectively.

  20. 47 CFR 74.707 - Low power TV and TV translator station protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Low power TV and TV translator station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.707 Low power TV and TV translator station protection. (a)(1) A low power TV or TV translator will be protected from interference from other...

  1. 47 CFR 74.792 - Digital low power TV and TV translator station protected contour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.792 Digital low power TV and TV translator station protected contour. (a) A digital low power TV or TV translator will be protected from...

  2. Application of ORC power station to increase electric power of gas compression ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mocarski Szymon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the calculation results of efficiency of the subcritical low temperature ORC power station powered by waste heat resulting from the process of cooling a stationary compression ignition engine. The source of heat to supply the ORC power station is the heat in a form of water jet cooling the engine at a temperature of 92°C, and the exhaust gas stream at a temperature of 420°C. The study considers three variants of systems with the ORC power stations with different ways of using heat source. The first variant assumes using just engine cooling water to power the ORC station. In the second variant the ORC system is powered solely by a heat flux from the combustion gases by means of an intermediary medium - thermal oil, while the third variant provides the simultaneous management of both heat fluxes to heat the water stream as a source of power supply to the ORC station. The calculations were made for the eight working media belonging both to groups of so-called dry media (R218, R1234yf, R227ea and wet media (R32, R161, R152a, R134a, R22.

  3. Analysis of legal obstacles and incentives to the development of low-head hydroelectric power in Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in Maine is discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The dual regulatory system is examined. The first step any developer of small-scale hydropower must take is to acquire right, title, or interest in the real property. In Maine, that step requires acquisition in some form of both river banks, the river bed, and where necessary, the land needed for the upstream impoundment area. The developer must acquire the river banks to be considered a riparian owner. Classification as a riparian is important, for only a use of water by a riparian owner is deemed a reasonable use and hence a legal use. A non-riparian could not draw water from a stream to increase the water level of an impoundment area on another stream. Apart from the usual methods of land acquisition involving sale, lease, or perhaps gift, Maine has two somewhat unique methods a developer may use for property acquisition. These methods, authorized by statute, are use of the abandoned dams law and use of the Mill Dam Act for flowage of upstream impoundment areas.

  4. Station power supply by residual steam of Fugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Y.; Kato, H.; Hattori, S. (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1981-09-01

    In the advanced thermal reactor ''Fugen'', when the sudden decrease of load more than 40% occurs due to the failure of power system, the turbine regulating valve is rapidly shut, and the reactor is brought to scrum. However, the operation of turbo-generators is continued with the residual steam in the reactor, and the power for inside the station is supplied for 30 sec by the limiting timer, then the power-generating plant is automatically stopped. The reasons why such design was adopted are to reduce manual operation at the time of emergency, to continue water supply for cooling the reactor and to maintain the water level in the steam drum, and to reduce steam release from the safety valve and the turbine bypass valve. The output-load unbalance relay prevents the everspeed of the turbo-generator when load decreased suddenly, but when the failure of power system is such that recovers automatically in course of time, it does not work. The calculation for estimating the dynamic characteristics at the time of the sole operation within the station is carried out by the analysis code FATRAC. The input conditions for the calculation and the results are reported. Also the dynamic characteristics were actually tested to confirm the set value of the limiting timer and the safe working of turbine and generator trips. The estimated and tested results were almost in agreement.

  5. The economic feasibility of renewable powered fast charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benger, Ralf; Heyne, Raoul; Wenzl, Heinz; Beck, Hans-Peter

    2011-07-01

    Electric vehicles will make an important contribution for a sustainable energy supply in the public transport sector. Although it is not sure at the moment which role the different vehicle concepts and charging options will play, it is possible to act on following assumptions: There will be purely electrically operated vehicles (EV), which will need a charging infrastructure in the public domain. Even if the number of these vehicles in comparison with hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) or range extended electric vehicles (REV) will be low, in the long run an amount of some million vehicles can be reached (1 0 % of the vehicles in Germany corresponds to round about 4 million vehicles). Charging stations in parking areas, shopping malls, at home or at work do not require high charging power because the time available for charging is relative long. In contrast charging stations beside these in normal parking areas should have the ability to charge the car batteries in a very short time, e.g. 80% of the energy content in 15 minutes or less. Therefore every charging process requires 100-200 kW electric power. Such charging stations are necessary both in rural and in urban regions.

  6. Optimized Envelope Tracking Power Supply for Tetra2 Base Station RF Power Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2008-01-01

    An ultra-fast tracking power supply (UFTPS) for envelope tracking in a 50kHz 64-QAM Tetra2 base station power amplification system is demonstrated. A simple method for optimizing the step response of the PID+PD sliding-mode control system is presented and demonstrated, along with a PLL-based sche...

  7. 75 FR 2164 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Environmental Assessment and...), for operation of Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim), located in Plymouth County, MA. Therefore...

  8. 76 FR 6820 - Contract for Hydroelectric Power Development at the C-Drop, a Feature of the Klamath Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... Power Administration's (Western) purchasing and/or marketing the power, contact Ms. Sonja Anderson, Power Marketing Manager, Western Area Power Administration, Sierra Nevada Region, 114 Parkshore Drive... purchasing and/or marketing considerations. Interested entities are invited to submit a proposal on this...

  9. Design and construction of landslide preventive construction at Yamasubara hydroelectric power plant site. Yamasubata hatsudensho chiten ni okeru jisuberi taisaku koji no sekkei seko ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takase, H.; Ito, M.; Sakata, M. (The Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc., Fukuoka (Japan))

    1993-07-30

    This paper reports the design and construction of landslide preventive construction at the site of the Yamasubara hydroelectric power plant (with a maximum output of 40,700 kW) and the result of slope stability verification after completion of the construction. The moderate slope on top of the primary slide has sands presumed to be colluvial deposit distributed with a depth of 10 m or more, where occurrence of a secondary slip was feared as triggered by the primary slide. The power plant protective constructions consisted of concrete walls to protect the entire power plant including buildings, and falling stone protective fences installed around the surge tanks. The temporary measures were so set that groundwater levels are lowered to a level that can assure the slide safety factor of 1.0 or more by means of drain boring using the down-the-hole hammer type. The permanent protective construction used rock anchors that are superior in constructability and economy. The stability of sliding slope faces was verified to confirm effects of the protective constructions. The verification included observations of groundwater level behavior, water well-up from drain holes, and movements in the slopes. The result showed that the protective constructions have give sufficient effects. Continued slope stability control is important. 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Operating Experience at the Aagesta Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, S. (ed.)

    1966-09-15

    Sweden's first nuclear power reactor Agesta, achieved criticality on July 17, 1963. Full power (65 MW{sub t}) was attained on March 20, 1964. Aagesta is a heavy water cooled and moderated pressure vessel reactor used for production of electricity as well as for district heating. The design, assembly and construction etc, of the reactor was described in detail in a staff report by AB Atomenergi, 'The Aagesta Nuclear Power Station' edited by B McHugh, which was published in September, 1964. In the book experiences from the commissioning and the first operation of the reactor were reported as well as findings from the extensive reactor physics studies made during this period. The report now presented is written by members of the operating team at Aagesta since its start. It reflects in general the experiences up to the end of 1965. The Aagesta Log, however, covers the period up to the normal summer stop 1966. The reactor has hitherto produced 506,000 MWh power of which 48,700 MWh have been electric power. In July 1965 the responsibility for the reactor operation was taken over by the Swedish State Power Board from AB Atomenergi, which company had started the reactor and operated it until the summer break 1965.

  11. Expansion potential for existing nuclear power station sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, D. F.; Bauman, H. F.

    1977-09-26

    This report is a preliminary analysis of the expansion potential of the existing nuclear power sites, in particular their potential for development into nuclear energy centers (NECs) of 10 (GW(e) or greater. The analysis is based primarily on matching the most important physical characteristics of a site against the dominating site criteria. Sites reviewed consist mainly of those in the 1974 through 1976 ERDA Nuclear Power Stations listings without regard to the present status of reactor construction plans. Also a small number of potential NEC sites that are not associated with existing power stations were reviewed. Each site was categorized in terms of its potential as: a dispersed site of 5 GW(e) or less; a mini-NEC of 5 to 10 GW(e); NECs of 10 to 20 GW(e); and large NECs of more than 20 GW(e). The sites were categorized on their ultimate potential without regard to political considerations that might restrain their development. The analysis indicates that nearly 40 percent of existing sites have potential for expansion to nuclear energy centers.

  12. 75 FR 12311 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station Environmental Assessment and... Nuclear Operations, Inc. (Entergy or the licensee), for operation of Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station... Statement for Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Docket No. 50-271, dated July 1972, as supplemented...

  13. 75 FR 38147 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background... No. NFP-3, which authorizes operation of the Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1 (DBNPS). The... regulations. Therefore, the exemption is authorized by law. Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station Exemption...

  14. 78 FR 71675 - License Amendment Application for Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... COMMISSION License Amendment Application for Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Operating License No. DPR-28 for the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station, located in Windham County, VT... proposed amendment to Facility Operating License No. DPR-28 for the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station...

  15. 76 FR 82201 - General Site Suitability Criteria for Nuclear Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide; request for... regulatory guide DG-4021, ``General Site Suitability Criteria for Nuclear Power Stations.'' This guide... for nuclear power stations. DATES: Submit comments by February 25, 2012. Comments received after this...

  16. 77 FR 35080 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Record of Decision and Issuance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Record of Decision and Issuance... Operations Inc. (the licensee), the operator of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (PNPS). Renewed facility... Nuclear Plants Regarding Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station,'' dated July 2007 (ADAMS Accession Nos...

  17. 76 FR 22128 - Notice of Intent To Accept Proposals, Select One Lessee, and Contract for Hydroelectric Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Western's purchasing and/or marketing the power may be obtained at Western Area Power Administration, Rocky Mountain Region, Attn: Dave Neumayer, Power Marketing Manager, 5555 East Crossroads Blvd.../or marketing considerations. Interested entities are invited to submit a proposal on this project...

  18. 76 FR 22143 - Notice of Intent To Accept Proposals, Select One Lessee, and Contract for Hydroelectric Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ...'s purchasing and/or marketing the power may be obtained at Western Area Power Administration, Rocky Mountain Region, Attn: Dave Neumayer, Power Marketing Manager, 5555 East ] Crossroads Blvd., Loveland, CO... marketing considerations. Interested entities are invited to submit a proposal on this project. DATES: A...

  19. The Electric Power System of the International Space Station: A Platform for Power Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gietl, Eric B.; Gholdston, Edward W.; Manners, Bruce A.; Delventhal, Rex A.

    2000-01-01

    The electrical power system developed for the International Space Station represents the largest space-based power system ever designed and, consequently, has driven some key technology aspects and operational challenges. The full U.S.-built system consists of a 160-Volt dc primary network, and a more tightly regulated 120-Volt dc secondary network. Additionally, the U.S. system interfaces with the 28-Volt system in the Russian segment. The international nature of the Station has resulted in modular converters, switchgear, outlet panels, and other components being built by different countries, with the associated interface challenges. This paper provides details of the architecture and unique hardware developed for the Space Station, and examines the opportunities it provides for further long-term space power technology development, such as concentrating solar arrays and flywheel energy storage systems.

  20. Rural electrification in Santarem: contribution of micro hydroelectric power plants; Eletrificacao rural em Santarem: contribuicao das micro centrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Els, Rudi Henri Van; Diniz, Janaina Deane De Abreu Sa; Souza, Josiane do Socorro Aguiar de; Brasil Junior, Antonio Cesar Pinho; Sousa, Antonio Nazareno Almada de [Universidade de Barsilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Lab. de Energia e Ambiente; Kroetz, Jaemir Grasiel [Indalma Industria e Comercio, Santarem, PA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The municipality of Santarem in the lower Amazon river is the main center in the western region of the state of Para with a population of 274.285 inhabitants, with 31.633 of them living in the rural zone, where only 1.060 rural costumers have access to regular electricity service from the utility provider. This incipient coverage of electricity service in the rural zone urged the local population to look for alternatives. This was found in the use of the hydraulic potential of creeks and rivers with rapids and waterfalls to implement pico and micro hydroelectric plants. So since 2001, 44 pico and 12 micro hydropower plants were installed in the municipalities of Santarem, Belterra and Uruara in the state of Para by local entrepreneurs and communities to attend their basic electricity needs. These systems attend approximately 580 families with a total installed capacity of more than 700 kVA. The consolidation of this technological alternative induced the Regional Superintendent of the Institute for Colonization and Land Reform (INCRA) and the Municipality of Santarem to elaborate a project to attend the land reform settlements in the region. This led to the installation of 6 micro hydropower (MHP) with a total installed capacity of 820kVA and a 252 km distribution network to attend 1.630 families in the settlements of Moju and Corta Corda. The purpose of this paper is to present the MHP's installed in the region and to show the contribution of these units in the rural electrification of rural settlements in Santarem. The paper discusses also the management model of these units. The survey's methodology consisted in the systematization of project data from the plant builder, INCRA and the municipality. The information was obtained from the official bibliography from the local actors and complemented by field surveys with interviews and observation. Despite the fact that the MHP's are in operation, they are not yet registered in the data base of the

  1. 75 FR 9449 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (NAPS). The licenses provide, among other things, that the... COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-338 and 50-339; NRC-2010-0026 Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 1.0 Background The Virginia Electric and Power Company, (the licensee...

  2. 75 FR 4591 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ...-7, issued to Virginia Electric and Power Company, (the licensee), for operation of the North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (NAPS). In accordance with 10 CFR 51.21, ``Criteria for and... COMMISSION Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Environmental...

  3. Small hydroelectric engineering practice

    CERN Document Server

    Leyland, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Small Hydroelectric Engineering Practice is a comprehensive reference book covering all aspects of identifying, building, and operating hydroelectric schemes between 500 kW and 50 MW. In this range of outputs there are many options for all aspects of the scheme and it is very important that the best options are chosen.As small hydroelectric schemes are usually built against a limited budget it is extremely important that the concept design is optimum and every component is designed to maximise the benefi t and minimise the cost. As operating costs are often a high proportion of the income it i

  4. 75 FR 19989 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for Drought Management Planning at the Kerr Hydroelectric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Hydroelectric Project (Project) is located at river mile 72.0 on the Flathead River, just downstream from... to, effects on hydroelectric power production, recreation, tourism, irrigation, flooding, treaty...

  5. Optimization and Feasibility Analysis of Satellite Earth Station Power System Using Homer

    OpenAIRE

    Hassen T. Dorrah; Ninet M. A. El-Rahman; Faten H. Fahmy; Hanaa T. El-Madany

    2012-01-01

    Satellite earth stations which located in remote areas are one of many applications powered by the renewable energy sources. Ground system consists of ground station and control centers working together to support the spacecraft and the data user. Earth station consists of major subsystems, transmitter, receiver, antenna, tracking equipment, terrestrial interface equipment and power supply. Power subsystem is an important part that required for supplying the earth station with electrical powe...

  6. Anthropic contribution on pollution in hydroelectric reservoirs: the case of Sao Simao's hydroelectric power plant - GO/MG, Brazil; Contribuicao antropica na poluicao de reservatorios hidreletricos: o caso da Usina Hidreletrica de Sao Simao - GO/MG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Gizele Araujo Borba da

    2010-02-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of anthropogenic pollution in hydroelectric reservoirs through a case study of the Sao Simao Hydropower. The literature relates the problem of eutrophication with the addition of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) in excess, resulting in water pollution. Through data for both tributary rivers and the reservoir, it was found that the Sao Simao dam presents a framework for eutrophication. We made an analysis to see which tributary rivers were the main sources of nutrients released into the waters of the reservoir and a survey of possible human activities that are contributing to the intake of nutrients in these tributaries. (author)

  7. Developing the concept of maintenance and repairs in projects of power units for new-generation nuclear power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinovich, V. D.; Yanchenko, Yu. A.

    2012-05-01

    Results from conceptual elaboration of individual requirements for the system of maintenance and repairs that must be implemented in the projects of new-generation nuclear power stations are presented taking as an example the power unit project for a nuclear power station equipped with a standard optimized VVER reactor with enhanced information support (the so-called VVER TOI reactor). Implementation of these concepts will help to achieve competitiveness of such nuclear power stations in the domestic and international markets.

  8. 78 FR 48185 - Notice of Intent To Contract for Hydroelectric Power Development on the San Juan-Chama Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ...) 756-2175. Information related to Western's purchasing and/or marketing of the power may be obtained by... diversions, and three tunnels. The Azotea Tunnel Outlet empties into Willow Creek and has the capacity to... transmission lines. Estimate and describe installed capacity and the capacity of the power facilities. Also...

  9. Characterization of the Water Quality Status on a Stretch of River Lérez around a Small Hydroelectric Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Valero

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy emerged as a solution to the environmental problems caused by the conventional sources of energy. Small hydropower (SHP is claimed to cause negligible effects on the ecosystem, although some environmental values are threatened and maintenance of an adequate water quality should be ensured. This work provides a characterization of the water quality status in a river stretch around a SHP plant on river Lérez, northwest Spain, for four years after its construction. The ecological and chemical status of the water as well as the ecological quality of the riparian habitat, were used as measures of quality. Data were compared with the water quality requirements. The variations in the quality parameters were analyzed over time and over the river sections with respect to the SHP plant elements. Two years after construction, the temperature and dissolved oxygen values achieved conditions for salmonid water and close to the reference condition, while pH values were low. The Iberian Biological Monitoring Working Party (IBMWP index showed a positive trend from two years after the construction and stabilized at “unpolluted or not considerably altered water”. Quality parameters did not present significant differences between sampling points. The SHP plant construction momentarily altered the quality characteristics of the water.

  10. Water chemistries at thermal and nuclear power stations: A new level of information support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochkov, V. F.

    2011-07-01

    Methods used by the Moscow Power Engineering Institute's Department for Technologies of Water and Fuel in providing information support to the chemical departments of power stations in the field of organizing water chemistry of power units are described. Information is given on a new handbook on water chemistries at thermal and nuclear power stations and on the site supplementing this handbook.

  11. 78 FR 784 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy..., which authorizes operation of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (PNPS). The license provides, among... with the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant and Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, on February 9, 2011 and...

  12. Case studies of the legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of small-scale hydroelectric power: Bull Run, Portland, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    The National Conference of State Legislatures' Small-Scale Hydroelectric Policy Project is designed to assist selected state legislatures in looking at the benefits that a state can derive from the development of small-scale hydro, and in carrying out a review of state laws and regulations that affect the development of the state's small-scale hydro resources. The successful completion of the project should help establish state statutes and regulations that are consistent with the efficient development of small-scale hydro. As part of the project's work with state legislatures, seven case studies of small-scale hydro sites were conducted to provide a general analysis and overview of the significant problems and opportunities for the development of this energy resource. The case study approach was selected to expose the actual difficulties and advantages involved in developing a specific site. Such an examination of real development efforts will clearly reveal the important aspects about small-scale hydro development which could be improved by statutory or regulatory revision. Moreover, the case study format enables the formulation of generalized opportunities for promoting small-scale hydro based on specific development experiences. The case study for small-scale hydro power development at the City of Portland's water reserve in the Bull Run Forest is presented with information included on the Bull Run hydro power potential, current water usage, hydro power regulations and plant licensing, technical and economic aspects of Bull Run project, and the environmental impact. (LCL)

  13. SOARCA Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Long-Term Station Blackout Uncertainty Analysis: Knowledge Advancement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Mattie, Patrick D.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Ross, Kyle W.; Cardoni, Jeffrey N; Kalinich, Donald A.; Osborn, Douglas.; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Ghosh, S. Tina

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes the knowledge advancements from the uncertainty analysis for the State-of- the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses (SOARCA) unmitigated long-term station blackout accident scenario at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. This work assessed key MELCOR and MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2 (MACCS2) modeling uncertainties in an integrated fashion to quantify the relative importance of each uncertain input on potential accident progression, radiological releases, and off-site consequences. This quantitative uncertainty analysis provides measures of the effects on consequences, of each of the selected uncertain parameters both individually and in interaction with other parameters. The results measure the model response (e.g., variance in the output) to uncertainty in the selected input. Investigation into the important uncertain parameters in turn yields insights into important phenomena for accident progression and off-site consequences. This uncertainty analysis confirmed the known importance of some parameters, such as failure rate of the Safety Relief Valve in accident progression modeling and the dry deposition velocity in off-site consequence modeling. The analysis also revealed some new insights, such as dependent effect of cesium chemical form for different accident progressions. (auth)

  14. Baghouse performance and ash characterization at the Arapahoe Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, R.S.; Sears, D.R.; Green, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a field test conducted in March 1981, on the Unit 3 baghouse of the Arapahoe Station of the Public Service Company of Colorado. The unit was burning a subbituminous coal from Routt County, Colorado, and was retrofitted with a baghouse in 1979. Baghouse performance was found to be excellent with an overall mass efficiency of 99.98%. The estimated cumulative collection efficiency of all particles smaller than two microns was 99.92%. The Grand Forks Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy, through its contractor Southern Research Institute, is conducting a series of field tests to study the characteristics and control of fly ash from the combustion of low-rank Western coals. Emphasis is being placed on two types of coal: Western subbituminous coal and Texas lignite. The overall objective of the project is to provide data that will be useful in evaluating particulate control technologies for these coals. To date, two field tests have been performed. The first field test, the subject of this paper, was conducted in march 1981, at Unit 3 of the Arapahoe Power Station of the Public Service Company of Colorado. The unit, retrofitted with a baghouse that was placed in service in May 1979, was burning a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from Routt County, Colorado. The second field test, which was jointly sponsored by DOE and EPRI, was completed in May 1982 at the San Miguel Station of the San Miguel Electric Cooperative located between San Antonio and Corpus Christi, Texas. Results of the San Miguel test will be reported elsewhere.

  15. An analysis on the costs of Belo Monte hydroelectric power plant; Uma analise sobre os custos da hidreletrica Belo Monte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcos Vinicius Miranda da [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PIPGE/USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia], e-mail: energiapara@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    The Belo Monte hydropower plant's low generation cost is among the arguments used by Centrais Eletricas do Norte do Brazil (ELETRONORTE), a Brazilian state electric utility, to make possible its construction. This paper shows that the generation cost presented by ELETROBRAS is very low in relation to the world pattern of cost and probably unrealistic. It also shows that the generation cost cannot be used separately to determine the Belo Monte dam's economic feasibility. There is the need to include other costs, such as: socio environmental degradation and control, financial compensation for using the hydraulic resources, transmission and thermal backup stations, beyond, evidently, generation cost for assuring the credibility of the Belo Monte hydropower plant's economic analysis. (author)

  16. Energy Sharing Framework for Microgrid-Powered Cellular Base Stations

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Muhammad Junaid

    2017-02-07

    Cellular base stations (BSs) are increasingly becoming equipped with renewable energy generators to reduce operational expenditures and carbon footprint of wireless communications. Moreover, advancements in the traditional electricity grid allow two-way power flow and metering that enable the integration of distributed renewable energy generators at BS sites into a microgrid. In this paper, we develop an optimized energy management framework for microgrid-connected cellular BSs that are equipped with renewable energy generators and finite battery storage to minimize energy cost. The BSs share excess renewable energy with others to reduce the dependency on the conventional electricity grid. Three cases are investigated where the renewable energy generation is unknown, perfectly known, and partially known ahead of time. For the partially known case where only the statistics of renewable energy generation are available, stochastic programming is used to achieve a conservative solution. Results show the time varying energy management behaviour of the BSs and the effect of energy sharing between them.

  17. Retrieval of Intermediate Level Waste at Trawsfyndd Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, S.; Shaw, I.

    2002-02-25

    In 1996 RWE NUKEM Limited were awarded two contracts by BNFL Magnox Generation as part of the decommissioning programme for the Trawsfynydd power station. From the normal operations of the two Magnox reactors, intermediate level waste (ILW) had accumulated on site, this was Miscellaneous Activated Components (MAC) and Fuel Element Debris (FED). The objective of these projects is retrieval of the waste from storage vaults, monitoring, packaging and immobilization in a form suitable for on site storage in the medium term and eventual disposal to a waste repository. The projects involve the design, supply, commissioning and operation of equipment to retrieve, pack and immobilize the waste, this includes recovery from vaults in both reactor and pond locations and final decommissioning and removal of plant from site after completion of waste recovery.

  18. Rosegg-St. Jakob run-of-river power station. Status report and future prospects; Flusskraftwerk Rosegg-St. Jakob, Stand und Zukunftsperspektiven der Bewirtschaftung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, H.A.; Leitner, J. [VEG Klagenfurt (Austria)

    1998-07-01

    Rosegg-St. Jakob hydroelectric power station was constructed between 1970 and 1974. It is located on the Drau river in western Carinthia, which has a catchment area of nearly 7,000 m{sup 2}. Since 1997, detailed investigations have been taking place of the aquatic, semi-aquatic and neighbouring terrestrial habitats. The investigations will go on through June 2000 and will provide a basis for a catalogue of measures to ensure future-oriented and ecologically acceptable use of hydroelectric power. [German] Das Kraftwerk Rosegg-St. Jakob wurde 1970 bis 1974 als Ausleitungskraftwerk errichtet. Es nutzt das Wasserdargebot der Drau aus dem Westkaerntner Raum mit einem Einzugsgebiet von rund 7.000 km{sup 2}. Seit 1997 wird nunmehr im Rahmen eines bis Juni 2000 laufenden Forschungsprojektes des Verbund eine wissenschaftliche Grundlagenerhebung des aquatischen, semiaquatischen und angrenzenden terrestrischen Lebensraumes mit dem Ziel verfolgt, ueber die Erstellung eines Leitbildes, Bewertung und Feststellung eines Handlungsbedarfes einen Massnahmenkatalog fuer eine zukunftsorientierte und den oekologischen Gegebenheiten angepasste, konfliktfreie Bewirtschaftungsform fuer die weitere energetische Nutzung der Ressource Wasserkraft auszuarbeiten. (orig.)

  19. Hydroelectricity and ecological considerations. Falsification of the environmental reality by the opponents of hydropower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Giziński

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Opponents of hydroelectricity claim falsely that hydrotechnical development of the Lower Vistula River constitutes implementation of Edward Gierek’s concept of bringing only environmental damage1. Statements on the negative environmental impact of constructing small hydroelectric power stations (SHPS are equally groundless. Permanent protests against the construction of dams and river damming, regardless of the motivations and will of protesters, increase energy dependence on Russia, and preserves the poor, post-Bierut hydrological situation2. The main fallacy made by hydropower opponents is the alternative treatment of power and environmental purposes. Environmental errors consist in continuous omission of even the most obvious positive ecological effects of constructing river dams and – what is especially reprehensible – inventing non-existent threats, e.g. lethal concentration of toxic heavy metals in deposits of the Włocławek Reservoir or the detrimental impact of warming up water in stage of falls on the fish population below the dam.

  20. Small geothermic heat and power station with power plants on organic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, W.; Wos, M. [Szczecin Univ. of Tech. (Poland). Chair of Heat Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The results of the calculations of heat-flow heats and power stations were introduced in the work geothermic with one circulation, with two circulations and with three circulations. They are reinforced network water heated up in the geothermic heat exchanger to temperatures 100 C and stream. In this solution the temperature of water force to the geothermic hest exchanger changes and amount out suitably 39,35 C (one circulation), 49,83 C (two circulations), 58,91 C (three circulations). He results that the solution of heat and power station is the most profitable variant with three circulations from the analysis of the received results of calculations. He keeps the highest power of the circulation C.R. from three considered variants. (orig.)

  1. Power transmission cable development for the Space Station Freedom electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Gregory V.; Biess, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Power transmission cable is presently being evaluated under a NASA Lewis Research Center advanced development contract for application in the Space Station Freedom (SSF) electrical power system (EPS). Evaluation testing has been performed by TRW and NASA Lewis Research Center. The results of this development contract are presented. The primary cable design goals are to provide (1) a low characteristic inductance to minimize line voltage drop at 20 kHz, (2) electromagnetic compatibility control of the 20-kHz ac power current, (3) a physical configuration that minimizes ac resistance and (4) release of trapped air for corona-free operation.

  2. Analysis of the technological innovations acquisition: a comparative case study between a hydroelectric power plant and a thermoelectric plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Baron Mussi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a comparative investigation of the evaluation criteria which determine the decision to adopt new technologies on the part of the environmental management departments in two organizations from the power generation sector. The option for this sector is relevant since it is composed of organizations supervised by regulatory agencies, which apply similar levels of pressure on them. The choice for the studied cases was intentional, and criteria used consisted not only of their access, but also their relevance for the country’s power generation needs. The methodology employed was of a qualitative nature, and represents a comparative case study. It was observed that the financial and operational nature criteria were predominant. Finally, the fact that culture influences attitudes to sustainability and environmental legislation, and that the technical context associated with efficiency and the socio-environmental context in which the power plants operate, interfere in the criteria for selection and acquisition of innovations, was verified. Based on these observations, a conceptual model is tendered.

  3. 75 FR 14209 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background.... DPR-28, which authorizes operation of the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (VY). The license....55, ``Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against...

  4. 75 FR 14208 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy..., which authorizes operation of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim). The license provides, among..., ``Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological...

  5. 76 FR 30204 - Exelon Nuclear, Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... COMMISSION Exelon Nuclear, Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security... issued for Dresden Nuclear Power Station (DNPS), Unit 1, located in Grundy County, Illinois. DNPS Unit 1... ``Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological...

  6. 76 FR 39134 - ZIONSOLUTIONS, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2 Exemption From Recordkeeping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... COMMISSION ZIONSOLUTIONS, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2 Exemption From Recordkeeping Requirements 1.0 Background Zion Nuclear Power Station (ZNPS or Zion), Unit 1, is a Westinghouse 3250 MWt... licensing basis requirements previously applicable to the nuclear power units and associated systems...

  7. 75 FR 16523 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background... No. NFP-3, which authorizes operation of the Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1 (DBNPS). The...,'' section 73.55, ``Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors...

  8. 78 FR 46616 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Surry Power Station...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Evaluation of Radiological Emergency Response Plan and Preparedness in Support of Nuclear Power Plants,'' to... workers and members of the public. No changes will be made to plant buildings or the site property... Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants: Supplements 6 and 7 Regarding Surry and NAPS...

  9. Gas-turbine expander power generating systems for internal needs of compressor stations of gas-main pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimanov, A. A.; Biryuk, V. V.; Sheludko, L. P.; Shabanov, K. Yu.

    2017-08-01

    In the framework of this paper, there have been analyzed power station building methods to construct a power station for utilities for gas-main pipelines compressor stations. The application efficiency of turbo expanders in them to expand the power gas of compressor stations' gas compressor units has been shown. New schemes for gas-turbine expander power generating systems have been proposed.

  10. Monitoring airborne dust in a high density coal-fired power station region in North Yorkshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallack, H W; Chadwick, M J

    1993-01-01

    Concerns about the levels of dust deposition in the vicinity of coal-fired power stations in North Yorkshire, in particular Drax Power Station, prompted the commissioning of a detailed monitoring study in the area. This paper describes the first two years' work. The first 12-month study concentrated on the village of Barlow close to Drax Power Station, whilst in the second 12-month study, monitoring sites were spread along a transect passing through the power station belt formed by Ferrybridge, Eggborough and Drax Power Stations. Two monitoring sites were common to both 12-month studies, thus giving two years of continuous monitoring. Pairs of wet Frisbee dust deposit gauges (based on inverted Frisbees) were located at each site. Undissolved particulate matter from each gauge was weighed and characterized by microscopic examination of individual particles. The first 12-month study revealed a downward gradient in dust deposition rate and cenosphere content with distance from Drax Power Station. The high cenosphere content at Barlow, especially at the eastern end, suggested that there was a significant contribution from coal-fired power stations. In the second year, the overall pattern of dust deposition rate and cenosphere content across the power station belt suggested that power stations were contributing to higher levels. In particular, relatively high levels were again found at Barlow. Wind direction correlations point to the fly-ash tip next to Drax Power Station as being the source of cenospheres arriving at Barlow. It is concluded that in both years the fly-ash tip Drax Power Station was making a significant contribution to higher than expected dust deposition rates at Barlow, particularly its eastern end. Other villages in the area may also have been affected by dust originating from coal-fired power stations.

  11. The Impacts of Wind Speed Trends and 30-Year Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows on Wind Power in the Pacific Northwest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Cross

    Full Text Available In hydroelectric dominated systems, the value and benefits of energy are higher during extended dry periods and lower during extended or extreme wet periods. By accounting for regional and temporal differences in the relationship between wind speed and reservoir inflow behavior during wind farm site selection, the benefits of energy diversification can be maximized. The goal of this work was to help maximize the value of wind power by quantifying the long-term (30-year relationships between wind speed and streamflow behavior, using British Columbia (BC and the Pacific Northwest (PNW as a case study. Clean energy and self-sufficiency policies in British BC make the benefits of increased generation during low streamflow periods particularly large. Wind density (WD estimates from a height of 10m (North American Regional Reanalysis, NARR were correlated with cumulative usable inflows (CUI for BC (collected from BC Hydro for 1979-2010. The strongest WD-CUI correlations were found along the US coast (r ~0.55, whereas generally weaker correlations were found in northern regions, with negative correlations (r ~ -0.25 along BC's North Coast. Furthermore, during the lowest inflow years, WD anomalies increased by up to 40% above average values for the North Coast. Seasonally, high flows during the spring freshet were coincident with widespread negative WD anomalies, with a similar but opposite pattern for low inflow winter months. These poorly or negatively correlated sites could have a moderating influence on climate related variability in provincial electricity supply, by producing greater than average generation in low inflow years and reduced generation in wet years. Wind speed and WD trends were also analyzed for all NARR grid locations, which showed statistically significant positive trends for most of the PNW and the largest increases along the Pacific Coast.

  12. COMPARISON OF CALCULATED AND OBSERVED SEISMIC ACCELERATIONS IN COMPOSITE-TYPE ROCK-FILL DAM OF THE DNESTROVSKAYA HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER PLANT DURING EXPERIMENTAL EXPLOSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Matvienko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A methodology for determination of seismic accelerations in earth dams has been developed within the framework of seismic resistance wave theory. In this case we take into account an influence of the dam foundation and seismic wave emission into it. The methodology is based on numerical solution of the dynamic problem while using a finite difference method. A software program SGD “Determination of seismic acceleration in the earth dam” has been prepared on the basis of the developed methodology. The program allows to evaluate ordinates of calculation orthographic representations for acceleration throughout the dam height for all time moments. Thus, it is possible to obtain the most dangerous acceleration orthographic representations at direct and reverse seismic actions. The papers presents verification (compliance test of calculated and observed seismic accelerations for the rock-fill dam of the Dnestrovskaya Hydro-Electric Power Plant No 1. The observed seismic accelerations have been obtained during experimental explosions. The calculated seismic accelerations have been obtained in accordance with the proposed methodology for determination of seismic accelerations in the earth dams. A comparative analysis of calculation results with the data of field observations has demonstrated that a maximum difference between extreme accelerations obtained by calculation, and during field observations, do not exceed 10.11 % for the dam crest, and 6.56 % for its bottom. The obtained results permit to recommend the developed program for engineering calculations of seismic accelerations in the earth dams. The program application will make it possible to determine seismic acceleration in the earth dam with sufficient reliability.

  13. The Impacts of Wind Speed Trends and 30-Year Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows on Wind Power in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Benjamin D; Kohfeld, Karen E; Bailey, Joseph; Cooper, Andrew B

    2015-01-01

    In hydroelectric dominated systems, the value and benefits of energy are higher during extended dry periods and lower during extended or extreme wet periods. By accounting for regional and temporal differences in the relationship between wind speed and reservoir inflow behavior during wind farm site selection, the benefits of energy diversification can be maximized. The goal of this work was to help maximize the value of wind power by quantifying the long-term (30-year) relationships between wind speed and streamflow behavior, using British Columbia (BC) and the Pacific Northwest (PNW) as a case study. Clean energy and self-sufficiency policies in British BC make the benefits of increased generation during low streamflow periods particularly large. Wind density (WD) estimates from a height of 10m (North American Regional Reanalysis, NARR) were correlated with cumulative usable inflows (CUI) for BC (collected from BC Hydro) for 1979-2010. The strongest WD-CUI correlations were found along the US coast (r ~0.55), whereas generally weaker correlations were found in northern regions, with negative correlations (r ~ -0.25) along BC's North Coast. Furthermore, during the lowest inflow years, WD anomalies increased by up to 40% above average values for the North Coast. Seasonally, high flows during the spring freshet were coincident with widespread negative WD anomalies, with a similar but opposite pattern for low inflow winter months. These poorly or negatively correlated sites could have a moderating influence on climate related variability in provincial electricity supply, by producing greater than average generation in low inflow years and reduced generation in wet years. Wind speed and WD trends were also analyzed for all NARR grid locations, which showed statistically significant positive trends for most of the PNW and the largest increases along the Pacific Coast.

  14. Determination of Technological Electric Power Consumption for Its Transportation while Using Block-Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Pavlovets

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a method for calculation of the technological electric power consumption for its transportation in the elements of power network while using block-stations under conditions of differently-directed electric power transfer.The calculation of technological electric power consumption for its transportation can be applied while supplying several consumers with one element of power network simultaneously with block-station operation. 

  15. Culinary and pressure irrigation water system hydroelectric generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, Cory [Water Works Engineers, Pleasant Grove City, UT (United States)

    2016-01-29

    Pleasant Grove City owns and operates a drinking water system that included pressure reducing stations (PRVs) in various locations and flow conditions. Several of these station are suitable for power generation. The City evaluated their system to identify opportunities for power generation that can be implemented based on the analysis of costs and prediction of power generation and associated revenue. The evaluation led to the selection of the Battle Creek site for development of a hydro-electric power generating system. The Battle Creek site includes a pipeline that carries spring water to storage tanks. The system utilizes a PRV to reduce pressure before the water is introduced into the tanks. The evaluation recommended that the PRV at this location be replaced with a turbine for the generation of electricity. The system will be connected to the utility power grid for use in the community. A pelton turbine was selected for the site, and a turbine building and piping system were constructed to complete a fully functional power generation system. It is anticipated that the system will generate approximately 440,000 kW-hr per year resulting in $40,000 of annual revenue.

  16. Application of multi-model control with fuzzy switching to a micro hydro-electrical power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salhi, Issam; Doubabi, Said [Laboratory of Electric Systems and Telecommunications (LEST), Faculty of Sciences and Technologies of Marrakesh, Cadi Ayyad University, BP 549, Av Abdelkarim Elkhattabi, Gueliz, Marrakesh (Morocco); Essounbouli, Najib; Hamzaoui, Abdelaziz [CReSTIC, Reims University, 9, rue de Quebec B.P. 396, F-10026 Troyes cedex (France)

    2010-09-15

    Modelling hydraulic turbine generating systems is not an easy task because they are non-linear and uncertain where the operating points are time varying. One way to overcome this problem is to use Takagi-Sugeno (TS) models, which offer the possibility to apply some tools from linear control theory, whereas those models are composed of linear models connected by a fuzzy activation function. This paper presents an approach to model and control a micro hydro power plant considered as a non-linear system using TS fuzzy systems. A TS fuzzy system with local models is used to obtain a global model of the studied plant. Then, to combine efficiency and simplicity of design, PI controllers are synthesised for each considered operating point to be used as conclusion of an electrical load TS Fuzzy controller. The latter ensures the global stability and desired performance despite the change of operating point. The proposed approach (model and controller) is tested on a laboratory prototype, where the obtained results show their efficiency and their capability to ensure good performance despite the non-linear nature of the plant. (author)

  17. Ecologically justified regulatory provisions for riverine hydroelectric power plants and minimum instream flow requirements in diverted streams; Oekologisch begruendete, dynamische Mindestwasserregelungen bei Ausleitungskraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorde, K.

    1997-12-31

    The study was intended to develop a model versatile enough to permit quantification of various water demand scenarios in connection with operation of riverine hydroelectric power plants. Specific emphasis was to be placed on defining the minimum instream flow to be maintained in river segments because of the elementary significance to flowing water biocinoses. Based on fictitious minimum water requirements, various scenarious were simulated for flow regimes depending on power plant operation, so as to establish a system for comparative analysis and evaluation of resulting economic effects on power plant efficiency on the one hand, and the ecologic effects on the aquatic habitat. The information derived was to serve as a basis for decision-making for regulatory purposes. For this study, the temporal and spatial variability of the flow regime at the river bed in a river segment was examined for the first time. Based on this information, complemented by information obtained from habitat simulations, a method was derived for determination of ecologic requirements and their incorporation into regulatory water management provisions. The field measurements were carried out with the FST hemisphere as a proven and most efficient and reliable method of assessing flow regimes at river beds. Evaluation of the measured instream flow data characterising three morphologically different segments of diverted rivers was done with the CASIMIR computer code. The ASS models derived were used for comparative assessment of existing regulatory provisions and recommended amendments determining required minimum instream flow in diverted rivers. The requirements were defined taking as a basis data obtained for three different years. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Ziel der Arbeit war die Entwicklung eines Modellverfahrens, das flexibel die Quantifizierung unterschiedlicher Nutzansprueche an Laufwasserkraftanlagen ermoeglicht. Insbesondere der Erhalt einer gewissen Dynamik, die fuer

  18. Daily storage management of hydroelectric facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chappin, E.J.L.; Ferrero, M.; Lazzeroni, P.; Lukszo, Z.; Olivero, M.; Repetto, M.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a management procedure for hydroelectric facilities with daily storage. The water storage gives an additional degree of freedom allowing to shift in time power production when it is more convenient and to work at the maximum efficiency of hydraulic turbine. The management is

  19. Measurements and modelling of base station power consumption under real traffic loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorincz, Josip; Garma, Tonko; Petrovic, Goran

    2012-01-01

    Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile cellular network. Since traffic load in mobile networks significantly varies during a working or weekend day, it is important to quantify the influence of these variations on the base station power consumption. Therefore, this paper investigates changes in the instantaneous power consumption of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) base stations according to their respective traffic load. The real data in terms of the power consumption and traffic load have been obtained from continuous measurements performed on a fully operated base station site. Measurements show the existence of a direct relationship between base station traffic load and power consumption. According to this relationship, we develop a linear power consumption model for base stations of both technologies. This paper also gives an overview of the most important concepts which are being proposed to make cellular networks more energy-efficient.

  20. Measurements and Modelling of Base Station Power Consumption under Real Traffic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Petrovic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile cellular network. Since traffic load in mobile networks significantly varies during a working or weekend day, it is important to quantify the influence of these variations on the base station power consumption. Therefore, this paper investigates changes in the instantaneous power consumption of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System base stations according to their respective traffic load. The real data in terms of the power consumption and traffic load have been obtained from continuous measurements performed on a fully operated base station site. Measurements show the existence of a direct relationship between base station traffic load and power consumption. According to this relationship, we develop a linear power consumption model for base stations of both technologies. This paper also gives an overview of the most important concepts which are being proposed to make cellular networks more energy-efficient.

  1. Recent advances in automated ultrasonic inspection of Magnox power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, A.B. [Magnox Electric Ltd., Gloucestershire (United Kingdom). Oldbury Technical Centre

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes recent advances in automated ultrasonic techniques which have enabled fully effective and qualified inspections to be introduced for nuclear power stations. In the first example, ultrasonic phased arrays have been introduced for inspection of fillet welded structures where physical access for the operator is very awkward and the surface available for probe scanning are very restricted. The system has optimised the depth of field by varying the number of phased array elements fired at a given time and the inspections are substantially faster and more reliable than conventional manual inspection. In the second example, NDT Workbench significantly improves data analysis for complex geometries and defects by using 3D data displays of multiple beams and automated logging of measurements. Both examples have been formally qualified using the ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) Methodology. This was achieved more easily because of the rigorous in-house training programmes and because the Technical Justifications referred to evidence from previous related qualifications whenever appropriate. (orig.)

  2. 76 FR 11680 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... digital Class A TV stations (``Class A''). The Commission addresses important issues such as: (1) The... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 74 Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital Class A Television Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final...

  3. Optimization of the operating conditions of gas-turbine power stations considering the effect of equipment deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Kozhevnikov, A. I.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years in most power systems all over the world, a trend towards the growing nonuniformity of energy consumption and generation schedules has been observed. The increase in the portion of renewable energy sources is one of the important challenges for many countries. The ill-predictable character of such energy sources necessitates a search for practical solutions. Presently, the most efficient method for compensating for nonuniform generation of the electric power by the renewable energy sources—predominantly by the wind and solar energy—is generation of power at conventional fossil-fuel-fired power stations. In Russia, this problem is caused by the increasing portion in the generating capacity structure of the nuclear power stations, which are most efficient when operating under basic conditions. Introduction of hydropower and pumped storage hydroelectric power plants and other energy-storage technologies does not cover the demand for load-following power capacities. Owing to a simple design, low construction costs, and a sufficiently high economic efficiency, gas turbine plants (GTPs) prove to be the most suitable for covering the nonuniform electric-demand schedules. However, when the gas turbines are operated under varying duty conditions, the lifetime of the primary thermostressed components is considerably reduced and, consequently, the repair costs increase. A method is proposed for determination of the total operating costs considering the deterioration of the gas turbine equipment under varying duty and start-stop conditions. A methodology for optimization of the loading modes for the gas turbine equipment is developed. The consideration of the lifetime component allows varying the optimal operating conditions and, in some cases, rejecting short-time stops of the gas turbine plants. The calculations performed in a wide range of varying fuel prices and capital investments per gas turbine equipment unit show that the economic effectiveness can

  4. Optimization and Feasibility Analysis of Satellite Earth Station Power System Using Homer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen T. Dorrah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite earth stations which located in remote areas are one of many applications powered by the renewable energy sources. Ground system consists of ground station and control centers working together to support the spacecraft and the data user. Earth station consists of major subsystems, transmitter, receiver, antenna, tracking equipment, terrestrial interface equipment and power supply. Power subsystem is an important part that required for supplying the earth station with electrical power to continue communicating with its remote sensing satellite. This paper deals with simulation and optimal sizing of earth station power system using HOMER software. A combination of two energy sources (solar, and wind to provide a continuous electric power production is used to determine the optimum system operation. Three system configurations are compared with respect to the total net present cost (NPC and levelized cost of energy (COE. Also, economical study will be analyzed for energy demand and sensitivity analysis will be performed.

  5. Study of wet blasting of components in nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, J

    1999-12-01

    This report looks at the method of wet blasting radioactive components in nuclear power stations. The wet blaster uses pearl shaped glass beads with the dimensions of 150-250 {mu}m mixed with water as blasting media. The improved design, providing outer operator's positions with proper radiation protection and more efficient blasting equipment has resulted in a lesser dose taken by the operators. The main reason to decontaminate components in nuclear power plants is to enable service on these components. On components like valves, pump shafts, pipes etc. oxides form and bind radiation. These components are normally situated at some distance from the reactor core and will mainly suffer from radiation from so called activation products. When a component is to be decontaminated it can be decontaminated to a radioactive level where it will be declassified. This report has found levels ranging from 150-1000 Bq/kg allowing declassification of radioactive materials.This difference is found between different countries and different organisations. The report also looks at the levels of waste generated using wet blasting. This is done by tracking the contamination to determine where it collects. It is either collected in the water treatment plant or collected in the blasting media. At Barsebaeck the waste levels, from de-contaminating nearly 800 components in one year, results in a waste volume of about 0,250 m{sup 3}. This waste consists of low and medium level waste and will cost about 3 600 EURO to store. The conclusions of the report are that wet blasting is an indispensable way to treat contaminated components in modern nuclear power plants. The wet blasting equipment can be improved by using a robot enabling the operators to remotely treat components from the outer operator's positions. There they will benefit from better radiation protection thus further reduce their taken dose. The wet blasting equipment could also be used to better control the levels of

  6. Electronic Shore Power Station Based on Matrix-style Frequency Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia-sheng, Li; Lian-jun, Jiang; Biao, Qiu; Wu-mei, Yang

    The current port power supply to foreign ships, there are two ways power-type for owned diesel-powered and frequency conversion unit,In this paper,Proposed electronic shore power station, put forward electronic shore power station's concepts, and gives a whole building program of electronic shore power station based on matrix conversion algorithm, It will change 10 kV/50 Hz (35Kv/50 Hz) input voltage into 440 V/60 Hz low-voltage, not only eliminating intermediate links, but also simplify the hardware circuit and reduce the production cost and improve the competitiveness of enterprises. Simulation and experimental results show that this program has a built shore power station of high power factor, sinusoidal effective, low distortion, environmental pollution and the advantages,It will be very definite practical significance.

  7. International lunar observatory / power station: from Hawaii to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, S.

    Astronomy's great advantages from the Moon are well known - stable surface, diffuse atmosphere, long cool nights (14 days), low gravity, far side radio frequency silence. A large variety of astronomical instruments and observations are possible - radio, optical and infrared telescopes and interferometers; interferometry for ultra- violet to sub -millimeter wavelengths and for very long baselines, including Earth- Moon VLBI; X-ray, gamma-ray, cosmic ray and neutrino detection; very low frequency radio observation; and more. Unparalleled advantages of lunar observatories for SETI, as well as for local surveillance, Earth observation, and detection of Earth approaching objects add significant utility to lunar astronomy's superlatives. At least nine major conferences in the USA since 1984 and many elsewhere, as well as ILEWG, IAF, IAA, LEDA and other organizations' astronomy-from-the-Moon research indicate a lunar observatory / power station, robotic at first, will be one of the first mission elements for a permanent lunar base. An international lunar observatory will be a transcending enterprise, highly principled, indispensable, soundly and broadly based, and far- seeing. Via Astra - From Hawaii to the Moon: The astronomy and scie nce communities, national space agencies and aerospace consortia, commercial travel and tourist enterprises and those aspiring to advance humanity's best qualities, such as Aloha, will recognize Hawaii in the 21st century as a new major support area and pan- Pacific port of embarkation to space, the Moon and beyond. Astronomical conditions and facilities on Hawaii's Mauna Kea provide experience for construction and operation of observatories on the Moon. Remote and centrally isolated, with diffuse atmosphere, sub-zero temperature and limited working mobility, the Mauna Kea complex atop the 4,206 meter summit of the largest mountain on the planet hosts the greatest collection of large astronomical telescopes on Earth. Lunar, extraterrestrial

  8. 76 FR 72849 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 74 Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend Rules for Digital Class A Television Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications... Rules to Establish Rules for Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster...

  9. 76 FR 44376 - Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to... request of Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (the licensee) to withdraw its August 19, 2010...

  10. 77 FR 47680 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Receipt of Request for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Receipt of Request for Action... (NRC or the Commission) take action with regard to the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim). The...

  11. Construction of a nuclear power station in one's locality: attitudes and salience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.; Eiser, J.R.; Spears, R.

    1986-01-01

    Examined the attitudes toward the building of a nuclear power station in one's locality by surveying 290 residents (mean age 47.5 yrs) of 3 small rural communities that were listed as possible locations for a new nuclear power station. Results show that a large majority of Ss opposed the building of

  12. The Environment Friendly Power Source for Power Supply of Mobile Communication Base Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, N. V.; Ershov, V. V.; Evstafiev, V. V.

    2017-05-01

    The article describes the technical proposals to improve environmental and resource characteristics of the autonomous power supply systems of mobile communication base stations based on renewable energy sources, while ensuring the required reliability and security of power supply. These include: the replacement of diesel-generator with clean energy source - an electrochemical generator based on hydrogen fuel cells; the use of wind turbines with a vertical axis; use of specialized batteries. Based on the analysis of the know technical solutions, the structural circuit diagram of the hybrid solar-wind-hydrogen power plant and the basic principles of the algorithm of its work were proposed. The implementation of these proposals will improve the environmental and resource characteristics.

  13. Canton hydroelectric project: feasibility study. Final report, appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    These appendices contain legal, environmental, regulatory, technical and economic information used in evaluating the feasibility of redeveloping the hydroelectric power generating facilities at the Upper and Lower Dams of the Farmington River at Collinsville, CT. (LCL)

  14. Recent advances in automated ultrasonic inspection of Magnox power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, A.B. [Magnox Electric, South Glos (United Kingdom). Oldbury Training Centre

    2006-07-01

    Magnox Electric operates a number of Magnox nuclear power stations, some of which have presented difficult inspection challenges. This paper will describe recent advances in automated ultrasonic techniques which have enabled additional, fully effective and qualified inspections to be introduced. The examples chosen involve phased array inspection of fillet welds and the introduction of 3D data display and analysis using NDT Workbench. Ultrasonic phased arrays have been optimised for inspection of fillet welded structures where physical access for the operator is very awkward and the surfaces available for probe scanning are very restricted. In addition to controlling the beam direction and focus depth, the systems have also optimised the depth of field by varying the number of phased array elements fired at a given time. These phased array inspections are substantially superior in quality, reliability and speed compared with that achievable by conventional manual inspection. Analysis of automated ultrasonic data can be very time-consuming if defects are complex. NDT Workbench significantly improves data analysis for complex geometries and defects primarily because of the 3D data displays of multiple beams and automated logging of measurements. This system has been used in 2005 for data analysis of complex defects where sizing accuracy was particularly important. Both these inspection procedures have been formally qualified using the ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) Methodology. Such qualification was achieved more easily because of the rigorous in house training programmes established in each case and because the Technical Justifications referred to evidence from previous related qualifications whenever appropriate. The timely achievement of inspection qualification demonstrates that the new systems have reached sufficient maturity to be used with confidence for high quality inspections. (orig.)

  15. FLAME MONITORING IN POWER STATION BOILERS USING IMAGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sujatha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Combustion quality in power station boilers plays an important role in minimizing the flue gas emissions. In the present work various intelligent schemes to infer the flue gas emissions by monitoring the flame colour at the furnace of the boiler are proposed here. Flame image monitoring involves capturing the flame video over a period of time with the measurement of various parameters like Carbon dioxide (CO2, excess oxygen (O2, Nitrogen dioxide (NOx, Sulphur dioxide (SOx and Carbon monoxide (CO emissions plus the flame temperature at the core of the fire ball, air/fuel ratio and the combustion quality. Higher the quality of combustion less will be the flue gases at the exhaust. The flame video was captured using an infrared camera. The flame video is then split up into the frames for further analysis. The video splitter is used for progressive extraction of the flame images from the video. The images of the flame are then pre-processed to reduce noise. The conventional classification and clustering techniques include the Euclidean distance classifier (L2 norm classifier. The intelligent classifier includes the Radial Basis Function Network (RBF, Back Propagation Algorithm (BPA and parallel architecture with RBF and BPA (PRBFBPA. The results of the validation are supported with the above mentioned performance measures whose values are in the optimal range. The values of the temperatures, combustion quality, SOx, NOx, CO, CO2 concentrations, air and fuel supplied corresponding to the images were obtained thereby indicating the necessary control action taken to increase or decrease the air supply so as to ensure complete combustion. In this work, by continuously monitoring the flame images, combustion quality was inferred (complete/partial/incomplete combustion and the air/fuel ratio can be automatically varied. Moreover in the existing set-up, measurements like NOx, CO and CO2 are inferred from the samples that are collected periodically or by

  16. Economic station load distribution in thermal power stations with multi-rated sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagannathan, P.; Murty, N.S.; Dutt, R.V.S.K. [BHEL House, New Delhi (India)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a suitable method developed for arriving at the minimum station heat rate with dynamic heat rate characteristics evaluation for implementation on existing as well as next generation C & I platforms. 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Low tide for tidal power stations? Low capacities of tidal power stations. No breakthrough for wave power stations; Ebbe bei Meereskraftwerken? Bisher nur wenig Strom aus Ebbe und Flut. Kein Durchbruch bei Wellenkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, U. [Verband Schweizerischer Elektrizititaetswerke, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-02-07

    High tide and low tide occur twice a day. They are caused by the gravitational force acting between the Earth and the Moon and by the Earth`s rotation. The difference in the water levels of high and low tide is called tidal rise. The shape of the coastline is very important for constructing a tidal power plant. If the tidal rise is sufficiently high, hydroelectric power can be generated by constructing a dam across a bay. However, there are few regions in the world where this form of renewable energy can be harvested. Positive examples are the existing plants on the Rance River in Brittany and in the Bay of Fundy in Eastern Canada. (orig.) [Deutsch] Auf den Meeren gibt es zweimal taeglich Ebbe und Flut. Dieser Effekt ist auf die Anziehungskraft zwischen Erde und Mond sowie auf die Rotation der Erde zurueckzufuehren. Die Hoehendifferenz zwischen Ebbe und Flut wird als Tidenhub bezeichnet. Dabei spielt die Form der Kuestenlinie eine wesentliche Rolle. Ist der Tidenhub genuegend gross, so laesst sich in einer mit dem Damm absperrbaren Bucht Wasserkraft gewinnen. Nur wenige Kuestengebiete weltweit eignen sich jedoch fuer diese Form von erneuerbarer Energie. Positive Beispiele sind die bestehenden Anlagen an der Rance und in der Bay of Fundy. (orig.)

  18. Environmental impacts of hydroelectric power and other anthropogenic developments on the hydromorphology and ecology of the Durance channel and the Etang de Berre, southeast France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Robin F

    2012-08-15

    The generation of electricity through hydropower can, along with other anthropogenic activities, degrade river hydromorphology and ecosystems. In this case, water for power generation is diverted from the River Durance to a canal, which services a chain of 17 power stations, with the lower three being in the catchment of the Etang de Berre. This means that excess water and sediments are discharged into the salt-water lagoon with enormous consequences for ecosystems there. This paper summarizes the impacts of HEP and other human activities on both the river and lagoonal systems. It also considers agency and government attempts to understand and counter the degradation of these systems, both to date and in the future, with the latter catering for the potential impacts of future human development and global warming. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Innovation in hydroelectric power plant design in early twentieth century. Casto Fernández-Shaw's Engineering Architecture in La Jándula dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Berrocal Menárguez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The power plant location in the first hydroelectrial dams was a relevant issue at the end of XIX century and early XX. Different solutions were tried, some of them with very interesting aesthetics results and hydraulic and structural implications. Such is the case of La Jándula dam, inaugurated in 1930, that includes the power station inside the dam. This article examines the possible national and international inspirations of this singular solution, corroborating the hypothesis of its unprecedented nature. The collaboration of the architect Casto Fernández-Shaw in the design and integration of the engine room was decisive, because it achieved a result of an aesthetic quality and formal expressiveness unprecedented in a work of hydraulic engineering, as well as the birth of a style Shaw himself defined as architectural engineering.

  20. PROSPECTS FOR USAGE OF ALTERNATIVE SOURCES FOR OBTAINING ELECTRIC POWER IN ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Zorov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper briefly describes the current state of power engineering industry  in the  Islamic Republic of Iran, contribution to gross output of electric power of gas turbine  power stations, combined-cycle power stations, hydroelectric power stations, wind power stations and solar power stations.  Substantiation of prospects pertaining to further development of alternative energy sources  in  the  Islamic Republic of Iran  in the context of availability of natural resources, economic efficiency and ecological safety

  1. A Photovoltaic Power Station Equivalent Method Based on Real-Time Digital Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a clean energy power generation technology, photovoltaic generation has the characteristics of low carbon, green and environmental protection. More and more countries pay close attention to it, more than one megawatt demonstration projects of grid photovoltaic power station has been commenced or built. In order to study interconnection characteristics of large-scale photovoltaic power station better, reduce the effects of photovoltaic power station to the grid, we need to set up photovoltaic power station simulation model. However, the model of photovoltaic power station is complex, the speed of system simulation become slow after establish. In this paper, a real-time digital simulator based on the photovoltaic power station equivalent method will be given, through the proposed hierarchical equivalence method can simplify the process of equivalent of photovoltaic power station, shortening the period of equivalent model, and can be carried out in the process of each layer of the equivalent model accuracy validation, improve the accuracy of the equivalent model.

  2. An Electric Power Consumption Analysis System for the Installation of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongpil Cheon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the rising demand for electric vehicles, the number of electric vehicle charging stations is increasing. Therefore, real-time monitoring of how the power consumption by charging stations affects the load on the peripheral power grid is important. However, related organizations generally do not provide actual power consumption data in real time, and only limited information, such as the charging time, is provided. Therefore, it is difficult to calculate and predict the power load in real time. In this paper, we propose a new model for estimating the electric power consumption from the supplied information, i.e., the charging time and the number of charging involved. The experimental results show that by displaying this information on a map, it is possible to visually monitor the electric power consumption of the charging stations with an accuracy rate of about 86%. Finally, the proposed system can be used to relocate and select the location of vehicle charging stations.

  3. Influence of Mobile Users' Density Distribution on the CDMA Base Station Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebl, Aleksandar; Mitić, Dragan; Popović, Miroslav; Markov, Žarko; Mileusnić, Mladen; Matić, Vladimir

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we analyze the influence of users' density distribution in one cell of CDMA mobile network (ie adjusted power control on the forward link) on base station emission power. This influence is analyzed for different circles radii around base station within which same emission power is generated for all mobile users, and for different values of propagation loss coefficient. It is proved that emission power in this cell must be increased comparing to the similar cell, which uses complete power control. The power increase is greater when greater number of users are situated near base station, and for greater values of propagation loss coefficient. The results are presented, illustrated by numerical examples and verified by simulation for three users' density distributions: uniform, decreasing and increasing density from the base station to the cell rim. The simulation process, which is based on random traffic process, is presented briefly.

  4. Application of fuzzy logic in mapping the environmental impacts of hydroelectric power plants; Aplicacao da logica difusa no mapeamento de impactos ambientais em usinas hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, M.N.; Lambert-Torres, G.; Silva, L.E. Borges da [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)], Emails: germanoltorres@gmail.com, leborges@unifei.edu.br; Rissino, S.; Silva, M.F. da [Universidade Federal de Rondonia (UFRO), Porto Velho, RO (Brazil)], e-mails: srissino@gmail.com, felipe@unir.br

    2009-07-01

    During the stages prior to installation of a large enterprise, there is an obligation to obtain an environmental license for its effectiveness. However, defining the relevance of an environmental impact generated by changes elapsed in a region, is something subjective, since some variables present qualitative definitions. Aiming to interrelate the variables that influence the environmental impacts in hydroelectric plants, was made the mapping of terms natural resources and degradation of the environment, and its defining variables, based on the theory of fuzzy logic. The construction of fuzzy propositions was based on the manipulation of a rule base, with the 'if' antecedent 'then' consequent structure. It was concluded that the use of fuzzy propositions for the study of environmental impact is an effective method to map the environmental impact caused by construction of a hydroelectric plant, because it defines the degree of influence of impact on the environment.

  5. Feasibility study for the partial conversion of a hydropower plant into a pumped-storage power plant: a case study of hydroelectric power plant La Barca (Asturias, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Antuña Yudego

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources have reported an unprecedented increase of global installed renewable power capacity. Against the advantages provided by this renewable power generation technology it should be taken into account an important issue: these intermittent energy sources supply a fluctuating output which is difficult to manage. Pumped-storage hydro power plants reappear in these circumstances as an efficient form of energy storage which allows to use reserves when necessary, enabling power generation output to cover continuously this energy demand. The present paper shows a simplified feasibility study of the partial conversion of hydropower plant La Barca, in Asturias, into a reversible storage through the development of an algorithm to simulate its operation according to electricity market prices. For this purpose, the operation in the deviation management market is considered and the technical modifications required for the conversion are shown. The estimation of costs and incomes present a feasible scenario.

  6. TEDS Base Station Power Amplifier using Low-Noise Envelope Tracking Power Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a highly linear and efficient TETRA enhanced data service (TEDS) base-station RF power amplifier (RFPA). Based on the well-known combination of an envelope tracking (ET) power supply and a linear class-A/B RFPA, adequate adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) and wideband noise...... a significant tradeoff between the depth of the ET and open-loop RFPA linearity, as well as overall efficiency. An empirical method for determining the permissible amount of switching ripple on the ET supply is presented, showing very good accuracy. Performance of the prototype RFPA system is verified...... experimentally with a 9.6-dB peak-to-average 50-kHz 16 quadrature amplitude modulation TEDS carrier, the setup providing 44-dBm (25 W) average RF output power at 400 MHz with 44% dc-to-RF efficiency state-of-the-art ACPR of less than ${-}$67 dBc, switching noise artifacts around ${-}$ 85 dBc, and an overall rms...

  7. Key role for virtual power stations; Schluesselrolle fuer virtuelle Kraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finck, Christian

    2011-09-21

    Consequent expansion of power supply from renewable energy sources and high reliability of power supply necessitate intelligent grids and new marketing strategies. Virtual power plants offer a solution; they are currently under investigation in several model regions in Germany, e.g. in the Harz mountain range.

  8. 47 CFR 73.6019 - Digital Class A TV station protection of low power TV, TV translator, digital low power TV and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of low power TV, TV translator, digital low power TV and digital TV translator stations. 73.6019 Section 73... BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6019 Digital Class A TV station protection of...

  9. Experience on decommissioning commercial nuclear power stations in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, G.; Lee, J.C.; Woollam, P.B. [Magnox Electric plc, Gloucestershire (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    Magnox Electric is the U.K. government-owned utility that is responsible for nine commercial Magnox nuclear power stations. The stations were commissioned between 1962 and 1971, each having twin gas-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors. Three stations (Berkeley, Hunterston A, and Trawsfynydd) were shut down between 1989 and 1993, and they are being decommissioned in accordance with the preferred SAFSTOR strategy. The six reactors have been defueled, and extensive dismantling and decontamination have already been carried out.

  10. Mathematical models for long-term management of a hydroelectric power production network. Modeles mathematiques pour la gestion a long terme d'un reseau de production hydro-electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchard, H.

    1993-08-01

    The problem of long-term (5-20 y) management of an electric power producing network where hydroelectric power dominates is analyzed. The various aspects of a computerized system used to aid in the management of a network of hydroelectric reservoirs are studied as well as the different mathematical models which are applicable. An aggregate model is first considered in which the problem of water management in the reservoirs, the key problem in long-term planning, is handled by replacing multiple stocks of water in multiple reservoirs by a single imaginary reservoir. Two aggregation studies are performed: the first examining the hypothesis of independence between the water level in a reservoir and the production factor of the downstream plant, and the second in which the production factor varies with the level of the upstream reservoir. The function of sales profit is then examined in a study of the optimization of short-term profit. Long term management decisions are subsequently studied using discrete stochastic dynamic programming. The matrix-based ARMA model is used to simulate natural inputs to the reservoirs. Four cases of ARMA models are considered: stationary univariant, periodic univariant, stationary multivariant and periodic multivariant. 49 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Harmonic incursion at the point of common coupling due to small grid-connected power stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mumtaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The orthodox electric power distribution systems used to be generally radial and direction of flow of power was often from grid towards consumer. Sometimes, the transmission of power generated from newly set small power stations by using transmission network is not feasible due to the transmission losses, service cost on transmission lines and other related issues. That is why, in many cases, small power stations are connected directly to the local distribution network. These small power stations inject active and reactive power to the existing network, badly disturbing the flow of power hence injecting harmonics in the system at the point of common coupling (PCC. This harmonic injection at PCC due to a direct grid-connection of small power stations to the existing large electric power systems is identified. Also, the impact of harmonic incursion by these small generation units is analysed using a straightforward and an effortless method. This simulation based method uses power system components simplified to basic inductive and capacitive elements and can be very helpful for a fast assessment of harmonic incursion at PCC if extended to the practical large inter-connected electric power systems.

  12. 78 FR 45984 - Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Yankee Nuclear Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... COMMISSION Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Yankee Nuclear Power Station AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... on the site of any nuclear power reactor. In its Statement of Considerations (SOC) for the Final Rule... the site of a nuclear power reactor licensed for operation by the Commission, the emergency plan...

  13. Proceedings on the seminar on small hydroelectric installations: Practice report and current development; Beitraege zum Seminar Kleinwasserkraft: Praxis und aktuelle Entwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This seminar on small hydroelectric installations informs on aspects of construction and administrative aspects. But above all, questions of machinery are dealt with. The book gives an overview of turbine types, topical recent developments in the sector of small hydroelectric power stations, and modern opportunities for fast and inexpensive design of power station components. Beyond the discussion of technical issues, the seminar wants to further contacts between science, turbine manufacturers, consultants and plant operators. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Seminar Kleinwasserkraft gibt eine Uebersicht ueber bauliche Gestaltung und behoerdliche Aspekte. Vorallem behandelt es aber maschinenbauliche Problemstellungen. Es zeigt einen Ueberblick ueber Turbinentypen, aktuelle Neuentwicklungen im Kleinwassersektor, sowie moderne Moeglichkeiten zum schnellen und preiswerten Design von Kraftwerkskomponenten. Neben dem technischen Teil dient das Seminar auch der Foerderung des Kontakts zwischen Wissenschaft, Turbinenherstellern, Consultants und Anlagenbetreibern. (orig.)

  14. Refuse-fueled power stations and waste incinerators. Different plant technology?; Ersatzbrennstoffkraftwerke und Abfallverbrennungsanlagen. Unterschiedliche Anlagentechnik?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, H. [umwelttechnik und ingenieure GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The conceptual delimitation of a refuse-fueled power station in relation to a waste incinerator results from the primary setting of tasks for the plant. In the case of waste incinerators, the combustion of solid wastes is the centre of attention. In contrast to this, the production of utilization energy is the centre of interest at refuse-fueled power stations. Accordingly, the refuse-fueled power station is planned under the aspect of power requirement as a function of the production time of the customers. In particular, if there are industrial customers with strong variations in power requirement, then the refuse-derived fuel power station either has to go in part load or has to be able to deal with large quantities of surplus steam. A refuse-fueled power station conceptually differs from a waste incinerator by the priority of the power supply in relation to the aspect of disposal. The power requirement is the crucial fundamental condition for the plant concept. The special characteristics of secondary fuels require adjustments in the equipment technology in order to meet the requirement regarding to energy efficiency and supply security.

  15. Wind-powered electrical systems : highway rest areas, weigh stations, and team section buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    This project considered the use of wind for providing electrical power at Illinois Department of Transportation : (IDOT) highway rest areas, weigh stations, and team section buildings. The goal of the project was to determine : the extent to which wi...

  16. NPDES Permit for Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) Benning Generating Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number DC0000094, the Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) Benning Generating Station is authorized to discharge from from a facility to receiving waters named Anacostia River.

  17. Techno-economic assessments of oxy-fuel technology for South African coal-fired power stations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available at the technical and economic viability of oxy-fuel technology for CO(sub2) capture for South African coal-fired power stations. This study presents a techno-economic analysis for six coal fired power stations in South Africa. Each of these power stations has a...

  18. Preliminary analysis of legal obstacles and incentives to the development of low-head hydroelectric power in the northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    A preliminary analysis of the legal obstacles and incentives to the development of the low-head hydroelectric potential of the 19 northeastern US (Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, and West Virginia) is presented. The statutes and case laws of the 19 states and the Federal government which affect developers of small dams are stressed. The legal uncertainty which confronts the developer of small dams and the regulatory burden to which the developer may be subjected once the uncertainty is resolved are emphasized.

  19. ONE OF THE WAYS TO RISE THE EFFICIENCY OF THE KISHINEV TOWN HEAT AND POWER STATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximuk E.P.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Methods to rise the efficiency of fuel using at town heat and power stations are discussed in detail. It is shown that application of hot water/exhaust absorption chillers allow to use heat energy surplus especially in warm season. As the results, the consumption of heat energy from the power stations is more constant during the year, the efficiency of fuel using is higher, and economics is better. Different technological schemes are discussed in detail.

  20. Design of a photovoltaic central power station: flat-plate array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    A design for a photovoltaic central power station using fixed flat-panel arrays has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes high-efficiency photovoltaic modules using dendritic web cells. The modules are arranged in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic output is connected to the existing 115 kV utility switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

  1. 77 FR 24539 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; Surry Power Station Units 1 and 2; Independent Spent Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... significantly impact the quality of the human environment. The NRC staff concludes that there are no changes... of the environment. The Environmental Assessment and the Finding of No Significant Impact are... COMMISSION Virginia Electric and Power Company; Surry Power Station Units 1 and 2; Independent Spent Fuel...

  2. About Economy of Fuel at Thermal Power Stations due to Optimization of Utilization Diagram of Power-Generating Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Svechko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems of rational fuel utilization becomes more and more significant especially for thermal power stations (TPS. Thermal power stations have complicated starting-up diagrams and utilization modes of their technological equipment. Method of diagram optimization of TPS equipment utilization modes has been developed. The method is based on computer analytical model with application of spline-approximation of power equipment characteristics. The method allows to economize fuel consumption at a rate of 15-20 % with accuracy of the predicted calculation not more than 0.25 %.

  3. On Variable Reverse Power Flow-Part I: Active-Reactive Optimal Power Flow with Reactive Power of Wind Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aouss Gabash

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown that using battery storage systems (BSSs to provide reactive power provision in a medium-voltage (MV active distribution network (ADN with embedded wind stations (WSs can lead to a huge amount of reverse power to an upstream transmission network (TN. However, unity power factors (PFs of WSs were assumed in those studies to analyze the potential of BSSs. Therefore, in this paper (Part-I, we aim to further explore the pure reactive power potential of WSs (i.e., without BSSs by investigating the issue of variable reverse power flow under different limits on PFs in an electricity market model. The main contributions of this work are summarized as follows: (1 Introducing the reactive power capability of WSs in the optimization model of the active-reactive optimal power flow (A-R-OPF and highlighting the benefits/impacts under different limits on PFs. (2 Investigating the impacts of different agreements for variable reverse power flow on the operation of an ADN under different demand scenarios. (3 Derivation of the function of reactive energy losses in the grid with an equivalent-π circuit and comparing its value with active energy losses. (4 Balancing the energy curtailment of wind generation, active-reactive energy losses in the grid and active-reactive energy import-export by a meter-based method. In Part-II, the potential of the developed model is studied through analyzing an electricity market model and a 41-bus network with different locations of WSs.

  4. Mercury emissions from South Africa’s coal-fired power stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda L. Garnham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a persistent and toxic substance that can be bio-accumulated in the food chain. Natural and anthropogenic sources contribute to the mercury emitted in the atmosphere. Eskom’s coal-fired power stations in South Africa contributed just under 93% of the total electricity produced in 2015 (Eskom 2016. Trace amounts of mercury can be found in coal, mostly combined with sulphur, and can be released into the atmosphere upon combustion. Coal-fired electricity generation plants are the highest contributors to mercury emissions in South Africa. A major factor affecting the amount of mercury emitted into the atmosphere is the type and efficiency of emission abatement equipment at a power station. Eskom employs particulate emission control technology at all its coal-fired power stations, and new power stations will also have sulphur dioxide abatement technology. A co-beneficial reduction of mercury emissions exists as a result of emission control technology. The amount of mercury emitted from each of Eskom’s coal-fired power stations is calculated, based on the amount of coal burnt and the mercury content in the coal. Emission Reduction Factors (ERF’s from two sources are taken into consideration to reflect the co-benefit received from the emission control technologies at the stations. Between 17 and 23 tons of mercury is calculated to have been emitted from Eskom’s coal-fired power stations in 2015. On completion of Eskom’s emission reduction plan, which includes fabric filter plant retrofits at two and a half stations and a flue gas desulphurisation retrofit at one power station, total mercury emissions from the fleet will potentially be reduced by 6-13% by 2026 relative to the baseline. Mercury emission reduction is perhaps currently not the most pressing air quality problem in South Africa. While the focus should then be on reducing emissions of other pollutants which have a greater impact on human health, mercury emission reduction

  5. 77 FR 42768 - Central Vermont Public Service Corporation, Millstone Power Station, Unit 3; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... COMMISSION Central Vermont Public Service Corporation, Millstone Power Station, Unit 3; Notice of... Central Vermont Public Service Corporation (CVPS)' interest in the Renewed Facility Operating License (No... Central Vermont Public Service Corporation with Green Mountain Power Corporation, to reflect the proposed...

  6. 75 FR 63766 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ...-transition low power TV signals provided to consumers will be of an estimable quality. If not, we seek... the Commission's burden estimates; (c) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the... Authority to Construct or Make Changes in a Low Power TV, TV Translator or TV Booster Station, FCC Form 346...

  7. 75 FR 14635 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Environmental Assessment...Energy Nuclear Operating Company (FENOC, the licensee), for operation of the Davis-Besse Nuclear Power...

  8. TRIGA OCEANOGRAPHIC POWER SUPPLY FOR A MANNED UNDERWATER STATION. VOLUME I. REFERENCE DESIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The TRIGA Oceanographic Power Supply (TOPS) is designed to provide 100 kw of electrical power for a Manned Underwater Station (MUS). The design is... TRIGA research reactor. It contains the entire pressurized water primary coolant circuit and the steam generator. The U-ZrH-fueled, water-cooled core

  9. Information management for nuclear power stations: project description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halpin, D.W.

    1978-03-01

    A study of the information management structure required to support nuclear power plant construction was performed by a joint university-industry group under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE), formerly the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). The purpose of this study was (1) to study methods for the control of information during the construction and start-up of nuclear power plants, and (2) identify those data elements intrinsic to nuclear power plants which must be maintained in a structured format for quick access and retrieval. Maintenance of the massive amount of data needed for control of a nuclear project during design, procurement, construction, start-up/testing, and operational phases requires a structuring which allows immediate update and retrieval based on a wide variety of access criteria. The objective of the research described has been to identify design concepts which support the development of an information control system responsive to these requirements. A conceptual design of a Management Information Data Base System which can meet the project control and information exchange needs of today's large nuclear power plant construction projects has been completed and an approach recommended for development and implementation of a complete operational system.

  10. Information management for nuclear power stations: System Design Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halpin, D.W.

    1978-03-01

    A study of the information management structure required to support nuclear power plant construction was performed by a joint university-industry group under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE), formerly the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). The purpose of this study was (1) to study methods for the control of information during the construction and start-up of nuclear power plants, and (2) identify those data elements intrinsic to nuclear power plants which must be maintained in a structured format for quick access and retrieval. Maintenance of the massive amount of data needed for control of a nuclear project during design, procurement, construction, start-up/testing, and operational phases requires a structuring which allows immediate update and retrieval based on a wide variety of access criteria. The objective of the research described has been to identify design concepts which support the development of an information control system responsive to these requirements. A conceptual design of a Management Information Data Base System which can meet the project control and information exchange needs of today's large nuclear power plant construction projects has been completed and an approach recommended for development and implementation of a complete operational system.

  11. Transient Processes in Electric Power Supply System for Oil Terminal with Own Gas-Turbine Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Hаshimov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains results of the investigations concerning influence of symmetrical and non-symmetrical short circuits at main power network on electric power supply system of a huge oil terminal which is powered by own gas-turbine power station. Calculations have been made in accordance with the IEC and IEEЕ requirements. Estimations for voltage level and distribution of short circuit current in the electric power supply system of the Sangachal oil terminal being operated in parallel with the AzerEnerji grid are presented in the paper

  12. Efforts toward enhancing seismic safety at Kashiwazaki Kariwa nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Kazuhiko

    2010-09-15

    Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, 8212MW, was struck by M6.8 quakes in July 2007. TEPCO has steadily been conducting restoration and post-earthquake equipment integrity assessment, aiming to make it a disaster-resistant power station. 2 units among 7 resumed commercial operation by June 2010. This earthquake has provided a great deal of knowledge and information useful for nuclear safety improvement. It has also served as a valuable reference for the IAEA in developing earthquake-related guidelines. TEPCO would like to share the knowledge and information thereby contributing to improving the safety of nuclear power generation. We will introduce some of our activities.

  13. Preliminary analysis of legal obstacles and incentives to the development of low-head hydroelectric power in the Northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, P. W.; Buxton, A. W.

    1979-03-12

    This report presents a preliminary analysis of the legal obstacles and incentives to the development of the low-head hydroelectric potential of the nineteen states making up the northeastern quandrant of the U.S. The intended subject matters of the report are the statutes and case laws of the nineteen states and the Federal government which affect developers of small dams. The actual subject matters of this report are the legal uncertainty which confronts the developer of small dams and the regulatory burden to which the developer may be subjected once the uncertainty is resolved. The objective has been to locate and describe the laws and doctrines which directly or indirectly affect developers of small dams. The report reaches no final conclusion concerning the nature or impact of any particular law or doctrine on the developer of small dams. For ease of analysis, the mythical State of Hydrovania is described and its regulatory and legal systems analyzed.

  14. Analysis of environmental studies of the mammals in small hydroelectrics power in the Espirito Santo; Analise dos estudos ambientais da mastofauna em pequenas centrais hidreletricas do Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonesi, Patricia Conde

    2011-10-15

    The hydroelectric projects have been the main form to supply the energy demand in Brazil. Although it has been considered a way of clean generation, it brings many environmental impacts. Due to the fact that inconsistencies in environmental impact studies often occur, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of environmental diagnosis of the mammals in SHP in the Espirito Santo. Therefore, was notice an insufficient data survey, because of the relevance given to the secondary data and the lack of seasonal investigations, bringing damages to the proposals submitted of environmental compensation. This way, manners ware proposed that aim to improve the quality of these studies, which include since environmental awareness programs at the penalizing of those involved in such studies. (author)

  15. Ecological improvements to hydroelectric power plants under EEG. Guidance to environmental verifiers and water rights authorities; Oekologische Verbesserungsmassnahmen an Wasserkraftanlagen gemaess EEG. Leitfaden fuer Umweltgutachter und Wasserrechtsbehoerden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyr, Christoph; Pfeifer, Hansjoerg [EVIT GmbH Ingenieurbuero Unternehmensberatung, Muenchen (Germany); Schnell, Johannes; Hanfland, Sebastian [Landesfischereiverband Bayern e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The use of hydropower as a renewable form of energy is experiencing a renaissance due to the energy transition in Bavaria. The fishery evaluate not uncritically this development, because hydroelectric plants generally normally represent a considerable intervention in water and therefore in the habitat of the fish. In this case it should be noted that just often not even the minimum requirements of ecology are fulfilled at existing plants according to the Federal Water Act. [German] Die Nutzung der Wasserkraft als regenerative Energieform erlebt aufgrund der Energiewende in Bayern derzeit eine Art Renaissance. Die Fischerei bewertet diese Entwicklung nicht unkritisch, stellen Wasserkraftanlagen in der Regel doch einen erheblichen Eingriff in Gewaesser und somit den Lebensraum der Fische dar. Dabei ist festzustellen, dass gerade an bestehenden Anlagen haeufig nicht einmal die Mindestanforderungen der Oekologie erfuellt werden, wie sie das Wasserhaushaltsgesetz vorschreibt.

  16. Noise test system of rotating machinery in nuclear power station based on microphone array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xincai; Guan, Jishi; Qi, Liangcai

    2017-12-01

    Rotating machinery plays an important role in all walks of life. Once the equipment fails, equipment maintenance and shutdown will cause great social harm and economic losses. Equipment safety operations at nuclear power stations have always been of top priority. It is prone to noise when the equipment is out of order or aging. Failure to find or develop equipment at the initial stage of equipment failure or ageing will pose a serious threat to the safety of the plant’s equipment. In this paper, sound imaging diagnosis technology is applied as a supplementary method to the condition monitoring and diagnosis system of rotating machinery in nuclear power stations. It provides a powerful guarantee for the condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery in nuclear power stations.

  17. Optimal control of hydroelectric facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guangzhi

    This thesis considers a simple yet realistic model of pump-assisted hydroelectric facilities operating in a market with time-varying but deterministic power prices. Both deterministic and stochastic water inflows are considered. The fluid mechanical and engineering details of the facility are described by a model containing several parameters. We present a dynamic programming algorithm for optimizing either the total energy produced or the total cash generated by these plants. The algorithm allows us to give the optimal control strategy as a function of time and to see how this strategy, and the associated plant value, varies with water inflow and electricity price. We investigate various cases. For a single pumped storage facility experiencing deterministic power prices and water inflows, we investigate the varying behaviour for an oversimplified constant turbine- and pump-efficiency model with simple reservoir geometries. We then generalize this simple model to include more realistic turbine efficiencies, situations with more complicated reservoir geometry, and the introduction of dissipative switching costs between various control states. We find many results which reinforce our physical intuition about this complicated system as well as results which initially challenge, though later deepen, this intuition. One major lesson of this work is that the optimal control strategy does not differ much between two differing objectives of maximizing energy production and maximizing its cash value. We then turn our attention to the case of stochastic water inflows. We present a stochastic dynamic programming algorithm which can find an on-average optimal control in the face of this randomness. As the operator of a facility must be more cautious when inflows are random, the randomness destroys facility value. Following this insight we quantify exactly how much a perfect hydrological inflow forecast would be worth to a dam operator. In our final chapter we discuss the

  18. Investigations of the vegetation along the river Laagen in connection with expansion of the Lower Vinstra Power Station; Vegetasjonsundersoekelser i Laagen i forbindelse med utvidelse av Nedre Vinstra kraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandrud, T.E.; Mjelde, M [Norsk Inst. for Vannforskning, Oslo (Norway); Bendiksen, E. [Norsk Inst. for Naturforskning, Trondheim (Norway)

    1996-05-01

    To qualify for a licence to expand, the Norwegian hydroelectric power plant Lower Vinstra Power Station had to perform botanical investigations of the aquatic and riverside vegetation (riparian vegetation) along the affected part of the river Gudbrandsdalslaagen, between Harpefoss and Faavang. The investigations took place in 1990-1994 and is described in the present report. The riverside vegetation was stable throughout the entire period, overgrowing weakly. The aquatic vegetation exibited greater fluctuations, including episodic decline in unstable areas. Aquatic vegetation declined and vanished in areas with large as well as with little diurnal variation of the water level, which is primarily due to flooding episods. Erosion or essential changes in aquatic or riverside vegetation caused by increased diurnal regulation (HEP regulations) cannot be demonstrated with any great probability. 13 refs., 14 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Technological characterization of basaltic rocks of Canoas I Hydroelectric Power Plant, Paranapanema river, Sao Paulo - Parana states, Brazil; Caracterizacao tecnologica das rochas basalticas da Usina Hidroeletrica Canoas I, Rio Paranapanema, SP/PR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrano, Antonio

    1997-07-01

    Basaltic litotypes from the rock mass foundation of Canoas I Hydroelectric Power Plant were submitted to technological characterization tests, in order to verify their suitability as construction material. Physical and mechanical properties (density, porosity, water absorption, ultrasonic velocity, compressive and splitting tensile strength, among others) were determined, besides petrographic analyses. Weather ability tests were also performed, not only through wetting-drying cycles and by immersion in ethylene glycol but by outdoor exposure as well, using crushed and core drilled specimens. Detailed procedures for the weather ability test using core specimens from rotary drilling are given. It is analyzed the influence of a geological feature (fault zone, about 10 meters thick and 20 degrees dip), that occurs in the rock mass foundation, on the technological properties of these rocks. Basaltic litotypes selected as construction material are then pointed out. (author)

  20. IMPLEMENTATION OF ENERGY LAW OF HYBRID POWER STATION FOR SOCIAL WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Widowati

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the Implementation of Energy Law of Hybrid Power Station for Social Welfare in Pantai Baru. The problem formulations are the management and utilization of hybrid power station in Pantai Baru and implementation of energy law of hybrid power station for social welfare in the fields of economy and information in Pantai Baru. Based on data analysis it is concluded that the management of hybrid power station in Pantai Baru is performed collaboratively between government and the society. The existence of hybrid power station in pantai baru has positive impacts in economy and information. Penelitian ini meneliti Pelaksanaan Hukum Energi Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Hibrid untuk Kesejahteraan Rakyat di Bidang Ekonomi dan Informasi di Pantai Baru. Masalah yang diteliti adalah bentuk pengelolaan dan pemanfaatan pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid di Pantai Baru dan pelaksanaan hukum energi pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid untuk kesejahteraan rakyat di bidang ekonomi dan informasi di Pantai Baru. Berdasarkan analisis data dapat disimpulkan bahwa pengelolaan pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid yang ada di pantai baru dilakukan secara kolaboratif, antara pemerintah dengan masyarakat. Kehadiran pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid yang ada di pantai baru telah memberikan dampak positif di bidang ekonomi dan informasi.

  1. In situ monitoring of animal micronuclei before the operation of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.N. Cai; H.Y. He; L.M. Qian; G.C. Sun; J.Y. Zhao [Guangzhou College of Education, Guangzhou (China)

    1994-12-31

    Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, a newly-built nuclear power station in southern mainland China, started its operation in 1993. We examined micro-nucleated cells of Invertibrate (Bivalves) and Vertibrate (Fish and Amphibia) in different spots within the 50km surroundings of the Power Station during 1986-1993. This paper reports the results of the investigation carried out in Dong Shan, a place 4.7km to the Power Station:Bivalves; Pteria martensil 5.1(1986),4.8(1988),4.8(1991),5,0(1993),Mytilus smardinus 4.7(1987),4.6(1988); Chamys nobilis 4.9(1987);4.9(1991),4.5(1992),4.5(1993). Fish; Therapon jarbua 0.48(1991),0.67(1992),0.47(1993). Amphibia; Bufo melanostictus 0.29 (1987), 0.34(1988),0.39(1992),0.39(1993). These results showed that the environmental situation, estimated by using the frequencies of micronucleated cells, was stable-there was no obvious chromosome damage in the animals studied. It was found that the incidence of micronucleated cells of Bivalves was higher than that of Fish and Amphibia, suggesting the epithelial cells to be more sensitive than peripheral erythrocytes to environmental genotoxic effects. The results of our studies for other spots will be reported afterward. These data can be used as the original background information to monitor the environment when the Nuclear Power Station is in operation.

  2. Change in runoff characteristics of alpine flowing waters caused by the use of hydroelectric power and its effects on the macro-benthos. Das durch Wasserkraftnutzung veraenderte Abflussregime eines alpinen Fliessgewaessers und dessen Auswirkungen auf das Makrobenthos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammann, M.

    1993-01-01

    A typical form of change in runoff characteristics caused by the widespread use of hydroelectric power in Switzerland is the intermittent draining (torrent operation). It is the aim of the present work to help elucidate possible consequences of these changes in drain onto the benthobiocoenosis. The study was carried through on the Secklisbach at Oberrickenbach (in the semicanton of Nidwalden) and one of its side streamlets (800m above sea level). The macroinvertebrate coenosis was studied at four locations with similar conditions of drainage basin, population density and topography but varying in the degree of impairment to the draining. There were monthly benthos samples taken using a Surber sampling-device. Results show that the locations not only varied in drain, but also in temperature, this being a consequence of water storage by the power plant. The readings pointed out different values for the locations in daily average temperature, day amplitudes and half-yearly temperature sums. The annual average temperatures, however, did hardly differ. With the water, there is warmth being held back as well in the storage basin in summer, which in winter flows off with the process water. The hydroelectric operation with water storage leads to an intermittent drain with ecological consequences. In order to preserve a stretch of water as a biotope for the naturally found lotic organisms a constant minimum drain has to be guaranteed all year long. In order to avoid clogging, the interstitium has to be cleaned regularly by flooding drains. However, the possibility of changes in the development of organisms cannot be excluded, even though they have not been established. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  3. Avian radioecology on a nuclear power station site. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, C.K.; Maletskos, C.J.; Youngstrom, K.A.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of a six-year avian radioecology study at the site of a nuclear power plant in Massachusetts is reported. A completed historical summary is followed by a description of mathematical models developed to calculate the effects on bird body burdens of various changes in environmental radionuclide levels. Examples are presented. Radionuclide metabolism studies in which acute doses of /sup 131/I and /sup 137/Cs were administered to four species of wild birds are presented. Radionuclides were administered both intravenously and orally; no apparent differences in uptake or elimination rates were observed between the two methods.

  4. A study of the transmitting power control for earth stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seta, Mitsuru; Ayukawa, Ichiro

    Various transmitting power control (TPC) methods, particularly for digital data communication systems, are described. Four types of TPC systems are addressed: independent control system, central control system, central pilot system, and pair control system. The detection of rain attenuation and the measurement of signal quality in these systems is examined. Effective TPC methods for three kinds of networks are discussed. For a TDMA network, a central control system with BER detection is effective. A central control system with beacon and pilot is shown to be useful for a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) network, particularly in the Ku-band, and an independent control system is suitable for an SCPC network.

  5. Description of a straw/wood chip system at the power station of Southern Jutland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, N.B. [The power station of Southern Jutland (Denmark)

    1997-10-01

    A project concerning combustion of straw and wood chips in separated boilers designed for parallel operation with large coal-fired boilers is described. The concept includes the construction of a new straw and wood chip-fired system at SH (power station of Southern Jutland) in the existing unit 2 of the Ensted Power Station (EV2). This boiler is designed for parallel operation with the coal-fired boiler in unit 3 of the Ensted Power Station (EV3). The current coal/oil-fired EV2 plant was laid up on 1 April 1995. The project will amount to DKK 400 million and is expected to take 37 months to complete. The project was launched on 15 December 1994. (ln)

  6. Power station coal yards using scraper reclaimers - 25 years of experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G. [Gustav Schade Maschinenfabrik GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    2000-10-01

    25 years ago, the German power station at Scholven became the first in the world to employ a scraper reclaimer for power station coal stockyard duties. Based on experience gained here, many new coal handling systems have been built. The paper describes the current state of development and the different features of each type of today's scraper reclaimer: cantilever, portals, bridge-type and portal bridge scraper reclaimers. Examples are given of their use in linear stockpile systems. Advice is given on how to select a correct stockpile width. The advantages and disadvantages of the recently-introduced circular stockpile systems for power station coal are discussed. Future directions for coaling systems are outlined. 5 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  7. 76 FR 58844 - Virginia Electric and Power Company, Surry Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... included in NUREG-1474, ``Effect of Hurricane Andrew on the Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station from..., ``Effect of Hurricane Andrew on the Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station from August 20-30, 1992.'' Also... severe weather conditions such as tropical storm and hurricane force winds at the Surry 1 and 2 site. A...

  8. Development of a transient stability protection system for Eskom`s Matimba Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coetzee, G.J. [Electricity Supply Commission Engineering Investigations, Johannesburg (South Africa); Wittwer, F. [ABB Power Generation Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the special protection system that was developed for Eskom`s Matimba Power Station. The power transfer of the Matimba IPS is limited to 90% of the station full load output capacity due to the fact that faults on the system will lead to network pole slipping and network breakdown at higher loads. The conventional solution of increasing the tie line strength or installing more lines was very expensive and an alternative solution has to be found. By implementing ``Generator Dropping`` or tripping a generator/s on severe faults, network pole slipping can be prevented. (author)

  9. Automating security monitoring and analysis for Space Station Freedom's electric power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolce, James L.; Sobajic, Dejan J.; Pao, Yoh-Han

    1990-01-01

    Operating a large, space power system requires classifying the system's status and analyzing its security. Conventional algorithms are used by terrestrial electric utilities to provide such information to their dispatchers, but their application aboard Space Station Freedom will consume too much processing time. A new approach for monitoring and analysis using adaptive pattern techniques is presented. This approach yields an on-line security monitoring and analysis algorithm that is accurate and fast; and thus, it can free the Space Station Freedom's power control computers for other tasks.

  10. The Industrial Fluorosis Caused by a Coal-Burning Power Station and its Effects on Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    FİDANCI, Ulvi Reha; SEL, Tevhide

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the industrial fluorosis caused by the coal burning power station in Muğla-Yatağan. Blood and urine samples of sheep, and water, plant and soil samples from around the power station were collected four times throughout the year to cover all four seasons. Fluoride ion concentrations in the water, urine, plant and soil samples were detected potentiometrically using an ion selective electrode. Serum Alkaline phosphatase (ALP-EC 3.1.3.1), Alanine amino...

  11. Static analysis of rectifier cabinet for nuclear power generating stations based on finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qiang; Chen, Tian-jin; Li, Wei-yang; Xiong, Ze-cheng; Ma, Rui

    2017-09-01

    In order to obtain the deformation map and equivalent stress distribution of rectifier cabinet for nuclear power generating stations, the quality distribution of structure and electrical are described, the tensile bond strengths of the rings are checked, and the finite element model of cabinet is set up by ANSYS. The transport conditions of the hoisting state and fork loading state are analyzed. The deformation map and equivalent stress distribution are obtained. The attentive problems are put forward. It is a reference for analysis method and the obtained results for the transport of rectifier cabinet for nuclear power generating stations.

  12. Radioactive contamination of food chain around coal mine and coal-fired power stations

    OpenAIRE

    Vitorović Gordana S.; Mitrović Branislava M.; Andrić Velibor Đ.; Stojanović Mirjana D.; Lazarević-Macanović Mirjana V.; Vitorović Duško P.

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the coal mine in Lazarevac, and the coal-fired power stations in Obrenovac, on the activity concentrations of radionuclides 40K, 238U, 232Th, and 137Cs in some parts of human food chain of people living in the surrounding area. The obtained results showed that natural environment around the examined coal mine and the coal-fired power stations are not significantly affected by the emission of primordial radionuclides. The activi...

  13. The behaviour of coal blends in power station boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, W.R.; Horne, P.A.; McGhee, B.F.; Gibson, J.R. [Mitsui Babcock Energy Ltd., Renfrew (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The milling characteristics of coal blends were studied to provide quantitative information which allows the calculation of the Hardgrove Index (HGI) values of coal blends from those of the constituent coals; to provide data on the power requirement to produce a given mill output fineness, and abrasion rates of mill components when milling coal blends, relative to the behaviour of the constituent coals; to investigate the combustion behaviour of coal blends in pulverized fuel-fired systems by carrying out testwork in a semi-industrial combustion test facility, and to assess the deposition characteristics and the potential for utilization of the ashes produced by the combustion of coal blends. It was found that both the HGI and the Abrasion Index values of coals are additive properties. There were linear correlations between the slope of the Rosin-Rammler plot of the Mini-mill product size distribution and both the blend compositions and the HGI values of the coals and coal blends. Investigations showed that the fusion behaviour of the coal ash blends is rather complex, and that the characteristic ash fusion temperature are not additive in a simple way. A number of correlations were found between the ash fusion temperatures of the coals and coal ash blends. 1 ref., 45 figs., 10 tabs., 1 app.

  14. Comparison between Brazilian and Portuguese energy sceneries considering the importance of small hydroelectric power plants; Comparacao entre os cenarios energeticos brasileiros e portugueses considerando-se a implantacao de PCH's - Pequenas Centrais Hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: cam@fec.unicamp.br; Mauad, Frederico Fabio [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Hidraulica e Saneamento

    2000-07-01

    Both the Brazilian and the Portuguese energy systems have been subject of several transformations along the last years. That happened mainly because the re-definition of the electric sectors what makes possible the flexibility of the energy commercialization. There is another important point to be mentioned what is related to the end of the market monopoly before established by ELETROBRAS - Brazilian Electricity Generation Board and by EDP - Electricity of Portugal, determining a new relationship among the energy produces and consumers. A free market law to the energy sellers and buyers has been introduced. Therefore the businessman have been stimulated to invest in new energy sources and new energy power plants to get bigger profits as well as the consumers have been pushed to fight for lower prices and better qualities. Both the Brazilian and Portuguese Governments must keep the decision power to establish the national energy plans to get the country economic targets and to avoid the economic abuses and cartelization. The discussion presented aims to analyze the importance of the small hydroelectric power plants in both the Brazilian and the Portuguese electric systems considering the economic aspects and the social and environmental impacts. The recent modifications established by both national agencies of energy regulations: ANEEL (Brazil) - National Agency of Electric Power Companies and INAG (Portugal) - National Institute of Water, have been discussed in this paper. (author)

  15. The impact of climate change on hydro-electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musy, A.; Music, B.; Roy, R. [Ouranos, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Hydroelectricity is a clean and renewable energy source for many countries, and is expected to play an important role in future energy supplies. However, the impact of climatic change on hydroelectricity resources is not yet understood. This study provided a critical review of current methods used to determine the potential impacts of climatic change on hydroelectric power production. General circulation models (GCMs) are used to predict future climate conditions under various greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenarios. Statistical techniques are then used to down-scale GCM outputs to the appropriate scales needed for hydrological models, which are then used to simulate the effects of climatic change at regional and local scales. Outputs from the models are then used to develop water management models for hydroelectric power production. Observed linear trends in annual precipitation during the twentieth century were provided. The theoretical advantages and disadvantages of various modelling techniques were reviewed. Risk assessment strategies for Hydro-Quebec were also outlined and results of the study will be used to guide research programs for the hydroelectric power industry. refs., tabs., figs.

  16. 76 FR 72007 - ZionSolutions, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Exemption From Certain Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... COMMISSION ZionSolutions, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Exemption From Certain Security Requirements 1.0 Background Zion Nuclear Power Station (ZNPS or Zion), Unit 1, is a Westinghouse 3250 MWt... activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological sabotage,'' paragraph (b)(1) states, ``The licensee...

  17. Time Averaged Transmitter Power and Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Mobile Phone Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Bürgi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Models for exposure assessment of high frequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations need the technical data of the base stations as input. One of these parameters, the Equivalent Radiated Power (ERP, is a time-varying quantity, depending on communication traffic. In order to determine temporal averages of the exposure, corresponding averages of the ERP have to be available. These can be determined as duty factors, the ratios of the time-averaged power to the maximum output power according to the transmitter setting. We determine duty factors for UMTS from the data of 37 base stations in the Swisscom network. The UMTS base stations sample contains sites from different regions of Switzerland and also different site types (rural/suburban/urban/hotspot. Averaged over all regions and site types, a UMTS duty factor  for the 24 h-average is obtained, i.e., the average output power corresponds to about a third of the maximum power. We also give duty factors for GSM based on simple approximations and a lower limit for LTE estimated from the base load on the signalling channels.

  18. Assessment of spermatogenesis and plasma sex steroids in a seasonal breeding teleost: a comparative study in an area of influence of a tributary, downstream from a hydroelectric power dam, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Fabricio F T; Thomé, Ralph G; Arantes, Fabio P; Castro, Antonio Carlos S; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2012-12-01

    River damming and building of hydroelectric power plants interrupt the reproductive migration routes and change the major physicochemical parameters of water quality, with drastic consequences for populations of migratory fishes. The goal of this study was to evaluate proliferation and cell death during spermatogenesis and serum profiles of sex steroids in Prochilodus argenteus, from the São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias Dam. A total of 257 adult males were caught quarterly during a reproductive cycle in two sites: the first 34 km of the river after the dam (site 1) and the second 34-54 km after the dam (site 2), after the confluence with a tributary, the Abaeté River. Seasonal changes in the testicular activity associated with morphometric analyses of germ cells as well as proliferation and testicular apoptosis support a more active spermatogenesis in fish from site 2, where higher levels of sex steroids and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were also found. In site 1, fish presented low serum levels of testosterone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and a low GSI during gonadal maturation. Spermatogonial proliferation (PCNA) and apoptosis (TUNEL) were more elevated in fish from site 1, but spermatocytes were mainly labelled in fish from site 2. Overall, these data demonstrate changes in testicular activity and plasma sex steroids in a neotropical teleost fish living downstream from a hydroelectric dam, supplying new data on fish reproduction in regulated rivers. Moreover, morphometric analyses associated with sex steroids profiles provide reliable tools to assess fish spermatogenesis under environmental stress conditions.

  19. Implantation of hydroelectric power plants and the environmental licensing: the importance of the articulation among the electrical and environment sectors in Brazil; A implantacao de usinas hidreletricas e o processo de licenciamento ambiental: a importancia da articulacao entre os setores eletrico e de meio ambiente no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facuri, Micheline Ferreira

    2004-07-01

    Hydroelectric power plants stand for the main generation source in Brazil. The basis of the national generator park installed capacity is the exploration of hydraulic potency when the Brazilian energetic die is observed. The atmosphere that the Brazilian electric sector is found now asks for new generator units. In this sense, it would decrease energy offer deficit risk, which collaborates to the electric energy offer expansion effort. This research aims to join and to comment on a group of data and information regarding to the process of implantation of hydroelectric power plants already bid. It includes up to date data on hydroelectric power plants bid since 1996. This data describe the main implications found in the enterprises that are late in their schedules. It shows that the greater the environmental management instruments incorporation in hydroelectric projects planning process, the greater the possibility of new hydraulic generation enterprises with better quality of environmental studies implantation. In this way, it makes even better the process of environmental licensing that could occur in a more adequate deadline. As a result, 28 - out of 54 - enterprises bid are found with environmental problems, which represent 43.30% of bestowed potency. It is possible to infer, thus, that there is a need of more interaction between the electric and the environmental sectors. After analyzing the results, it is concluded that the generation enterprises environmental licensing has been worrying the electric sector agents. This happens due to the need of refinement on environmental studies or due to the need of bureaucracy to get licenses - mainly regarding to judicial actions and environmental issues. Finally, the adequate identification of environmental licensing drags allows a more efficient process to hydroelectric power plants implantation, which generates more consistent and faster results. (author)

  20. Case study analysis of legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of the hydroelectric potential at Goose River, Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The case study is an analysis of the legal, institutional, and financial incentives and obstacles to the development of the hydroelectric potential on the Goose River in Maine. The Goose River project concerns development by a private developer, Maine Hydro-Electric Development Corporation. The project is comprised of a five-dam system, with the first dam located at Swan Lake and the fifth dam about one mile from the sea. It will utilize the 7500 acre-feet of storage capacity of Swan Lake to run the four downstream power stations. The system is designed to generate 430 kWs of total capacity which would be sold to Central Maine Power, the local investor-owned public utility.

  1. Method of statistical data processing safety ecological monitoring combined heat and power station in the megalopolis territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telichenko Valeriy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first developed method allowed to determine the combined effects of emissions of pollutants into the atmospheric air in the city by combined heat and power stations group, as well as to assess the interference impact of combined heat and power station ion the child population in different districts of Moscow. It has been proven emissions of pollutants by combined heat and power station interference are distributed on the territory of the city and does not equally affect the disease incidence of children in different administrative districts with emissions of each of the combined heat and power stations individually and do not exceed maximum allowable concentrations.

  2. Vermont Marble Company, Proctor, Vermont: Otter Creek hydroelectric feasibility report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-02-01

    Vermont Marble Company (VMCO) owns and operates four hydroelectric projects in a 50-mile reach of Otter Creek in west central Vermont. This study concerns three of the installations - Center Rutland, Beldens, and Huntington Falls. The fourth site is known as Proctor and will be studied separately. All four plants operate as run-of-river stations, and the limited reservoir storage capacity places severe limitations on any other type of operation. The plants are presently operating at much lower outputs than can be obtained, because they do not use the available discharge and head. The results show that, under the assumptions made in this study, Beldens and Huntington Falls can be economically improved. The rehabilitation of the Center Rutland plant did not look economically attractive. However, the improvement of Center Rutland should not be eliminated from further consideration, because it could become economically attractive if the cost of energy starts escalating at a rate of around 10% per year. The study included a brief appraisal of the existing generating facilities and condition of existing concrete structures, a geological reconnaissance of the sites, analysis of the power potential, flood studies, technical and economic investigations and comparative evaluations of the alternatives for developing the streamflow for power generation, selection of the most suitable alternative, financial analysis, preparation of drawings, and preparation of detailed quantity and cost estimates.

  3. On the possibility of generation of cold and additional electric energy at thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Agababov, V. S.; Borisova, P. N.

    2017-06-01

    A layout of a cogeneration plant for centralized supply of the users with electricity and cold (ECCG plant) is presented. The basic components of the plant are an expander-generator unit (EGU) and a vapor-compression thermotransformer (VCTT). At the natural-gas-pressure-reducing stations, viz., gas-distribution stations and gas-control units, the plant is connected in parallel to a throttler and replaces the latter completely or partially. The plant operates using only the energy of the natural gas flow without burning the gas; therefore, it can be classified as a fuelless installation. The authors compare the thermodynamic efficiencies of a centralized cold supply system based on the proposed plant integrated into the thermal power station scheme and a decentralized cold supply system in which the cold is generated by electrically driven vapor-compression thermotransformers installed on the user's premises. To perform comparative analysis, the exergy efficiency was taken as the criterion since in one of the systems under investigation the electricity and the cold are generated, which are energies of different kinds. It is shown that the thermodynamic efficiency of the power supply using the proposed plant proves to be higher within the entire range of the parameters under consideration. The article presents the results of investigating the impact of the gas heating temperature upstream from the expander on the electric power of the plant, its total cooling capacity, and the cooling capacities of the heat exchangers installed downstream from the EGU and the evaporator of the VCTT. The results of calculations are discussed that show that the cold generated at the gas-control unit of a powerful thermal power station can be used for the centralized supply of the cold to the ventilation and conditioning systems of both the buildings of the power station and the neighboring dwelling houses, schools, and public facilities during the summer season.

  4. 77 FR 47628 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy... Management Act and the Federal Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project...

  5. 77 FR 43280 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy... Management Act and the Federal Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e. All...

  6. 78 FR 25263 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy... Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e. All local, state, and federal...

  7. Reactive Power Support of Electrical Vehicle Charging Station Upgraded with Flywheel Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SUN, BO; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Electrical vehicles (EVs) are presenting increasingly potential to replace the conventional fossil fuel based vehicles due to environmental friendly characteristic. Accordingly, Charging Stations (CS), as an intermediate between grid and large numbers of EVs, are supposed to have more critical...... influence on future smart transportation network. This paper explores an off-board charging station upgraded with flywheel energy storage system that could provide a reactive power support to the grid utility. A supervisory control scheme based on distributed bus signaling is proposed to coordinate...... the operation of each component in the system. As a result, the charging station could supply the reactive power support to the utility grid without compromising the charging algorithm and preserve the battery’s lifetime. Finally, the real-time simulation results based on dSPACE1006 verifies the proposed...

  8. Heuristic Storage System Sizing for Optimal Operation of Electric Vehicles Powered by Photovoltaic Charging Station

    OpenAIRE

    Blasius, Erik; Federau, Erik; Janik, Przemyslaw; Leonowicz, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the utilisation of PV systems for electric vehicles charging for transportation requirements of smart cities. The gap between PV power output and vehicles charging demand is highly variable. Therefore, there is a need for additional support from a public distribution grid or a storage device in order to handle the residual power. Long term measurement data retrieved from a charging station for 15 vehicles equipped with a PV system were used in the research. Low and high i...

  9. [Risk of electromagnetic fields in electric power stations and substations of a petrochemical plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnoli, A; Fabri, G; Romeo, A

    2003-01-01

    Authors evaluate electromagnetic field exposure in the low-frequency range (5-30,000 Hz) in electric power stations and substations of petroleum processing plant. According to the measured values and the reference exposure limits considered, they conclude that operators should be exposed without adverse effects.

  10. 47 CFR 74.780 - Broadcast regulations applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Broadcast regulations applicable to translators... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.780 Broadcast...

  11. 77 FR 59679 - Central Vermont Public Service Corporation (Millstone Power Station, Unit 3); Order Approving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... COMMISSION Central Vermont Public Service Corporation (Millstone Power Station, Unit 3); Order Approving.... (DNC), Central Vermont Public Service Corporation (CVPS) and Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric... the change of name for the co-owner licensee on the MSP3 license from ``Central Vermont Public Service...

  12. Influence of Frequency Converters on Insulation of Power Supply Cables at Oil-Producing Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Zalizny

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers consequences of negative frequency converter influence on insulation of  power supply cables used for submersible installations of electric-centrifugal pumps at oil-producing stations. The possible approaches to the solution of the problem are proposed on the basis of a harmonic analysis of actually measured voltages and currents in a cable.  

  13. Operating experience with nuclear power stations 1990. Betriebserfahrungen mit Kernkraftwerken 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-04-01

    The exchange of experience within the VGB Specialist Committee 'Exchange of Operational Experience' (ABE) (Nuclear Technology) embraces nuclear power stations in the following countries: Germany, Finland, France, The Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and Spain. This paper reports on the operating results achieved in 1990, incidents relevant to safety technology, important modifications and annual discharge rates of radioactivity. (orig.).

  14. 78 FR 39019 - Omaha Public Power District, Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... nuclear plants around the United States, day-to-day management of FCS by Exelon is likely to worsen FCS... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Omaha Public Power District, Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  15. Implementation of an electronic personal dosimetry system (EPD) at Oldbury-on-Severn power station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, P W; Weeks, A R

    2001-03-01

    This article presents the implementation of an electronic personal dosemeter (EPD) as a film badge replacement at Oldbury-on-Severn power station, which is the first major site to use an approval issued by the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) for dose measurement by an EPD. The practicalities and history behind the introduction of an EPD for personal dosimetry are described.

  16. The Tidal Power Station on the Rance | Gabre - Amlak | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tidal Power Station on the Rance. A Gabre - Amlak. Abstract. No Abstract. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for ...

  17. Evaluation of environmental impact caused by the implementation of small hydroelectric power plants: a study concerning biotic aspects, water quality and public health; Avaliacao de impacto ambiental ocasionado pela implantacao de pequenos aproveitamentos: um estudo sobre aspectos bioticos, qualidade da agua e saude publica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, P.R.F. [Monasa Consultoria e Projetos, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1987-12-31

    This work describes the experience in the environmental impacts evaluation during the implementation phase of small scales hydroelectric power plants in Paraiba River bay, Southeast Brazil, performed by ELETROBRAS, the Brazilian electric power holding company, government owned and controlled. The methodology is described. The main aspects studied were: vegetation; aquatic fauna; terrestrial fauna; water quality, and public health. Results are presented 9 refs., 5 figs.

  18. The AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant innovative features for extended station blackout mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vereb, F.; Winters, J.; Schulz, T.; Cummins, E.; Oriani, L. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Station Blackout (SBO) is defined as 'a condition wherein a nuclear power plant sustains a loss of all offsite electric power system concurrent with turbine trip and unavailability of all onsite emergency alternating current (AC) power system. Station blackout does not include the loss of available AC power to buses fed by station batteries through inverters or by alternate AC sources as defined in this section, nor does it assume a concurrent single failure or design basis accident...' in accordance with Reference 1. In this paper, the innovative features of the AP1000 plant design are described with their operation in the scenario of an extended station blackout event. General operation of the passive safety systems are described as well as the unique features which allow the AP1000 plant to cope for at least 7 days during station blackout. Points of emphasis will include: - Passive safety system operation during SBO - 'Fail-safe' nature of key passive safety system valves; automatically places the valve in a conservatively safe alignment even in case of multiple failures in all power supply systems, including normal AC and battery backup - Passive Spent Fuel Pool cooling and makeup water supply during SBO - Robustness of AP1000 plant due to the location of key systems, structures and components required for Safe Shutdown - Diverse means of supplying makeup water to the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCS) and the Spent Fuel Pool (SFP) through use of an engineered, safety-related piping interface and portable equipment, as well as with permanently installed onsite ancillary equipment. (authors)

  19. Observations of Earth space by self-powered stations in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, S. B.; Rachelson, W.; Sterling, R.; Frey, H. U.; Harris, S. E.; McBride, S.; Rosenberg, T. J.; Detrick, D.; Doolittle, J. L.; Engebretson, M.; Inan, U.; Labelle, J. W.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Weatherwax, A. T.

    2009-12-01

    Coupling of the solar wind to the Earth magnetosphere/ionosphere is primarily through the high latitude regions, and there are distinct advantages in making remote sensing observations of these regions with a network of ground-based observatories over other techniques. The Antarctic continent is ideally situated for such a network, especially for optical studies, because the larger offset between geographic and geomagnetic poles in the south enables optical observations at a larger range of magnetic latitudes during the winter darkness. The greatest challenge for such ground-based observations is the generation of power and heat for a sizable ground station that can accommodate an optical imaging instrument. Under the sponsorship of the National Science Foundation, we have developed suitable automatic observing platforms, the Automatic Geophysical Observatories (AGOs) for a network of six autonomous stations on the Antarctic plateau. Each station housed a suite of science instruments including a dual wavelength intensified all-sky camera that records the auroral activity, an imaging riometer, fluxgate and search-coil magnetometers, and ELF/VLF and LM/MF/HF receivers. Originally these stations were powered by propane fuelled thermoelectric generators with the fuel delivered to the site each Antarctic summer. A by-product of this power generation was a large amount of useful heat, which was applied to maintain the operating temperature of the electronics in the stations. Although a reasonable degree of reliability was achieved with these stations, the high cost of the fuel air lift and some remaining technical issues necessitated the development of a different type of power unit. In the second phase of the project we have developed a power generation system using renewable energy that can operate automatically in the Antarctic winter. The most reliable power system consists of a type of wind turbine using a simple permanent magnet rotor and a new type of power

  20. Self-Oscillating Soft Switching Envelope Tracking Power Supply for Tetra2 Base Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a high-efficiency, high-bandwidth solution to implementing an envelope tracking power supply for the RF power amplifier (RFPA) in a Tetra2 base station. The solution is based on synchronous rectified buck topology, augmented with high-side switch zero-current switching (ZCS) i...... overall solution switching at 1MHz with 88-95% efficiency. In a class-AB RFPA amplifying a 50kHz bandwidth QAM Tetra2 signal at 4.6W average output power, the use of tracking supply voltage reduced power dissipation by 25W.......This paper presents a high-efficiency, high-bandwidth solution to implementing an envelope tracking power supply for the RF power amplifier (RFPA) in a Tetra2 base station. The solution is based on synchronous rectified buck topology, augmented with high-side switch zero-current switching (ZCS......) implemented with a series inductor and an external clamping power supply. Combined with advanced power stage components (die-size MOSFETs), a high-performance fixed-frequency self-oscillating (sliding mode) control strategy and a 4th-order output filter, this leads to a compact, effective and efficient...

  1. A Power Distribution System for the AMS experiment on the International Space Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K S [Department of Physics, EWHA Womans University, Seoul, Korea (Korea, Republic of); Capell, M [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lebedev, A [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Viertel, G M [ETH-Zuerich, Labor fuer Hochenergiephysik, Zurich (Switzerland); Yang, J [Department of Physics, EWHA Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) experiment on the International Space Station (ISS) requires a fully redundant, highly efficient, space qualified power distribution system. The device receives up to 2.8 kW of electrical power from the ISS and distributes it to the various subsystems of the experiment. The majority of these subsystems require the power to be converted from the ISS delivered nominal voltage level of 120 VDC to 28 VDC. The entire system and the individual output channels will be monitored and controlled from the Control Centers on the ground.

  2. About Utilization Efficiency Evaluation of Gas-Expansion and Generator Units at Thermal Power Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Kachan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers methods for determination of gas-expansion and generator unit indices when they are applied at a thermal power station. It is shown, that while relating the effect of additional power-and-heat generation output due to heat taking-off from steam turbines to gas-expansion and generator unit to the operation of this unit a specific fuel consumption of power supply from gas-expansion and generator unit can be lower than fuel equivalent of kilowatt-hour.

  3. Development of a Cost-Effective Solar/Diesel Independent Power Plant for a Remote Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeolu Samuel Omogoye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the design, simulation, and optimization of a solar/diesel hybrid power supply system for a remote station. The design involves determination of the station total energy demand as well as obtaining the station solar radiation data. This information was used to size the components of the hybrid power supply system (HPSS and to determine its configuration. Specifically, an appropriate software package, HOMER, was used to determine the number of solar panels, deep-cycle batteries, and rating of the inverter that comprise the solar section of the HPSS. A suitable diesel generator was also selected for the HPSS after careful technical and cost analysis of those available in the market. The designed system was simulated using the HOMER software package and the simulation results were used to carry out the optimization of the system. The final design adequately meets the station energy requirement. Based on a life expectancy of twenty-five years, a cost-benefit analysis of the HPSS was carried out. This analysis shows that the HPSS has a lower cost as compared to a conventional diesel generator power supply, thus recommending the HPSS as a more cost-effective solution for this application.

  4. The effects of solar-geomagnetically induced currents on electrical systems in nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subudhi, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Carroll, D.P. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States); Kasturi, S. [MOS, Inc., Melville, NY (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to evaluate the potential effects of geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) caused by the solar disturbances on the in-plant electrical distribution system and equipment in nuclear power stations. The plant-specific electrical distribution system for a typical nuclear plant is modeled using the ElectroMagnetic Transient Program (EMTP). The computer model simulates online equipment and loads from the station transformer in the switchyard of the power station to the safety-buses at 120 volts to which all electronic devices are connected for plant monitoring. The analytical model of the plant`s electrical distribution system is studied to identify the transient effects caused by the half-cycle saturation of the station transformers due to GIC. This study provides results of the voltage harmonics levels that have been noted at various electrical buses inside the plant. The emergency circuits appear to be more susceptible to high harmonics due to the normally light load conditions. In addition to steady-state analysis, this model was further analyzed simulating various plant transient conditions (e.g., loss of load or large motor start-up) occurring during GIC events. Detail models of the plant`s protective relaying system employed in bus transfer application were included in this model to study the effects of the harmonic distortion of the voltage input. Potential harmonic effects on the uniterruptable power system (UPS) are qualitatively discussed as well.

  5. The small-scale hydroelectric power plant project 'Les Esserts' in Boudry, Switzerland - Feasibility study and preliminary planning; Centrale des Esserts a Boudry. Etude de faisabilite et avant-projet detaille

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelli, P.; Croci, S.; Ernst, J.-R.

    2004-07-01

    This report describes in details the project of the installation of a small-scale hydroelectric power plant on the river Areuse in Switzerland. Located on a 4 m high waterfall the plant includes a 10-13 m{sup 3}/s Kaplan turbine, which should deliver roughly 1.6 GWh/year for an installed power of about 500 kVA. The authors insist on the ecological aspect of the project. The plant will be built underground; the river track will be practically unchanged and the existing fish ladder maintained. The report includes maps and pictures of the site as well as technical drawings of the installation. An economic analysis of the project is presented and its viability is discussed. Finally, the authors state that the energy produced by this plant will certainly be certified under one of the Swiss labels 'naturemade star' or 'naturemade basic', in the framework of the federal government's promotion of renewable energy sources.

  6. Integration of the hydroelectric power plants of Baixo Xingu, Tapajos and Medio Tocantins rivers to the interconnected Brazilian system; Integracao das UHE`s do Baixo Xingu, Tapajos e Medio Tocantins ao sistema interligado brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, J.A.M.; Abdo, J.M.M.; Vieira Filho, O.; Quijano, J.C.M.; Avila, F.T.; Steiner, A.C. [ELETRONORTE, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    1990-12-31

    Very big hydroelectric resources are placed in the north region of Brazil. Studies accomplished by ELETRONORTE, the utility responsible for the electric power generation and transmission within this region, have shown that the estimated average power available only in some big rivers like Xingu, Tapajos, and Tocantins is 29,500 MW. Even with the perspective of large industries planned to be implemented in the mentioned region, a big part of this available energy would not be absorbed. However, considering the lack of comparative energy sources in the other regions like southeast and northeast, the possibility of exporting electrical energy to these regions should be investigated. This paper deals with the technical and economical feasibility of integrating the north generations to the other electrical systems. The main results shown are the associated transmission evaluation, including the final costs of the energy to be delivered. Many other aspects as environmental impacts along the preionized routes, and undertakings to be held within the evolved regions, are also presented. (author). 4 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  7. The European fossil-fuelled power station database used in the SEI CASM model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, P. [comp.] [Stockholm Environment Inst. at York (United Kingdom)

    1996-06-01

    The database contains details of power stations in Europe that burn fossil-fuels. All countries are covered from Ireland to the European region of Russia as far as the Urals. The following data are given for each station: Location (country and EMEP square), capacity (net MW{sub e} and boiler size), year of commissioning, and fuels burnt. A listing of the database is included in the report. The database is primarily used for estimation of emissions and abatement costs of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in the SEI acid rain model CASM. 24 refs, tabs

  8. Technology for Space Station Evolution. Volume 4: Power Systems/Propulsion/Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) conducted a workshop on technology for space station evolution on 16-19 Jan. 1990. The purpose of this workshop was to collect and clarify Space Station Freedom technology requirements for evolution and to describe technologies that can potentially fill those requirements. These proceedings are organized into an Executive Summary and Overview and five volumes containing the Technology Discipline Presentations. Volume 4 consists of the technology discipline sections for Power, Propulsion, and Robotics. For each technology discipline, there is a Level 3 subsystem description, along with the papers.

  9. Estimation of Power Production Potential from Natural Gas Pressure Reduction Stations in Pakistan Using ASPEN HYSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Nazir Unar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is a gas rich but power poor country. It consumes approximately 1, 559 Billion cubic feet of natural gas annually. Gas is transported around the country in a system of pressurized transmission pipelines under a pressure range of 600-1000 psig exclusively operated by two state owned companies i.e. SNGPL (Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited and SSGCL (Sui Southern Gas Company Limited. The gas is distributed by reducing from the transmission pressure into distribution pressure up to maximum level of 150 psig at the city gate stations normally called SMS (Sales Metering Station. As a normal practice gas pressure reduction at those SMSs is accomplished in pressure regulators (PCVs or in throttle valves where isenthalpic expansion takes place without producing any energy. Pressure potential of natural gas is an untapped energy resource which is currently wasted by its throttling. This pressure reduction at SMS (pressure drop through SMS may also be achieved by expansion of natural gas in TE, which converts its pressure into the mechanical energy, which can be transmitted any loading device for example electric generator. The aim of present paper is to explore the expected power production potential of various Sales Metering Stations of SSGCL company in Pakistan. The model of sales metering station was developed in a standard flow sheeting software Aspen HYSYS®7.1 to calculate power and study other parameters when an expansion turbine is used instead of throttling valves. It was observed from the simulation results that a significant power (more than 140 KW can be produced at pressure reducing stations of SSGC network with gas flows more than 2.2 MMSCFD and pressure ration more than 1.3.

  10. Proceedings of scientific-technical seminar: materials investigation for power stations and power grid; Seminarium naukowo-techniczne: Badania materialowe na potrzeby elektrowni i sieci elektroenergetycznych

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    This report is an assembly of the papers concerning the material problems occurring during the exploitation of power stations as well as power grid. The diagnostic methods are also discussed. (author).

  11. 47 CFR 73.6012 - Protection of Class A TV, low power TV and TV translator stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of Class A TV, low power TV and TV... of Class A TV, low power TV and TV translator stations. An application to change the facilities of an existing Class A TV station will not be accepted if it fails to protect other authorized Class A TV, low...

  12. 76 FR 81542 - In the Matter of ZIONSOLUTIONS, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station; Independent Spent Fuel Storage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of ZIONSOLUTIONS, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station; Independent Spent Fuel Storage..., Licensing and Inspection Directorate, Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation, Office of Nuclear... providing notice, in the matter of Zion Nuclear ] Power Station Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...

  13. 75 FR 10833 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Demand for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Demand for.... The license authorizes the operation of the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (Vermont Yankee) in...

  14. Knowledge Sources and Opinions of Prospective Social Studies Teachers about Possible Risk and Benefit Analysis: Nuclear Energy and Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Hakki; Bulut, Ramazan; Yazici, Sibel

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to determine the trust status of prospective social studies teachers regarding various knowledge sources related to nuclear energy and power stations regarded as a controversial socio-scientific issue and their perceptions on the possible risks and benefits of nuclear energy and power stations. Target population of the…

  15. Low head hydroelectric installation. Installation hydroelectrique de basse chute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megnint, L.

    1987-08-04

    A low head hydroelectric installation, in particular for tidal power plant use, is intended to function at variable head heights which can descend to near-zero values. While the head height is lower than a determined value, inferior to at least half the nominal head, the turbomachinery is made to turn at a speed lower than the synchronizing speed and bringing its output near the middle of the output curve. A frequency converter is inserted between the electric generator and the power network, said converter being constructed for a power in any case inferior to at least half of the nominal power. The invention also concerns a process for obtaining at the outlet of a hydraulic turbine an optimal output under a defined, nominal head or output, corresponding to a nominal power of a low head hydroelectric installation and for a rotation speed corresponding to the speed of synchronization with the frequency of a power network.

  16. Instrumentation and control system for the prototype fast breeder reactor 'MONJU' power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Hiroshi (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Mae, Yoshinori; Ishida, Takayuki; Hashiura, Kazuhiko; Kasai, Shozo; Yamamoto, Hajime

    1989-10-01

    The fast breeder reactor 'Monju' power station is constructed as the nuclear power station of next generation in Tsuruga City, Fukui Prefecture. In order to realize high safety and operational reliability as the newest nuclear power station, the measurement and control system of Monju (electric power output 280 MW) has been designed and manufactured by reflecting the experiences of construction and operation of the experimental FBR 'Joyo' and the results of various research and development of sodium instrumentation and others, and by using the latest digital control technology and multiplexing system technology. In this paper, the results of development of the characteristic measurement and control technology as fast breeder reactors and the state of application to the measurement and control system which was designed and manufactured for Monju are described. Central monitoring panel, plant control system, sodium instrumentation, preheating control system and so on are reported. In the case of Monju, the heat capacity and thermal inertia of the primary and secondary cooling systems are large, and the system comprises three loops. (K.I.).

  17. Modeling of a Photovoltaic-Powered Electric Vehicle Charging Station with Vehicle-to-Grid Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Ul-Haq

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at modelling of a distinct smart charging station for electric vehicles (EVs that is suitable for DC quick EV charging while ensuring minimum stress on the power grid. Operation of the charging station is managed in such a way that it is either supplied by photovoltaic (PV power or the power grid, and the vehicle-to-grid (V2G is also implemented for improving the stability of the grid during peak load hours. The PV interfaced DC/DC converter and grid interfaced DC/AC bidirectional converter share a DC bus. A smooth transition of one operating mode to another demonstrates the effectiveness of the employed control strategy. Modelling and control of the different components are explained and are implemented in Simulink. Simulations illustrate the feasible behaviour of the charging station under all operating modes in terms of the four-way interaction among PV, EVs and the grid along with V2G operation. Additionally, a business model is discussed with comprehensive analysis of cost estimation for the deployment of charging facilities in a residential area. It has been recognized that EVs bring new opportunities in terms of providing regulation services and consumption flexibility by varying the recharging power at a certain time instant. The paper also discusses the potential financial incentives required to inspire EV owners for active participation in the demand response mechanism.

  18. Operation and maintenance of thermal power stations best practices and health monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Chanda, Pradip

    2016-01-01

    This book illustrates operation and maintenance practices/guidelines for economic generation and managing health of a thermal power generator beyond its regulatory life. The book provides knowledge for professionals managing power station operations, through its unique approach to chemical analysis of water, steam, oil etc. to identify malfunctioning/defects in equipment/systems much before the physical manifestation of the problem. The book also contains a detailed procedure for conducting performance evaluation tests on different equipment, and for analyzing test results for predicting maintenance requirements, which has lent a new dimension to power systems operation and maintenance practices. A number of real life case studies also enrich the book. This book will prove particularly useful to power systems operations professionals in the developing economies, and also to researchers and students involved in studying power systems operations and control. .

  19. 76 FR 61689 - Sutton Hydroelectric Company, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sutton Hydroelectric Company, LLC Notice of Site Visit On February 6, 2008, Sutton Hydroelectric Company, LLC (Sutton Hydroelectric) filed a notice of intent and a...

  20. Solar-assisted MED treatment of Eskom power station waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Thomas H.; Rogers, David E. C.; Gericke, Gerhard

    2017-06-01

    The comparative benefits of multi-effect distillation (MED) used in conjunction with Nano Filtration (NF), Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Eutectic Freeze Crystallization (EFC) are determined for waste water minimization for inland coal fired power stations for Zero Liquid Effluent Discharge (ZLED). A sequence of technologies is proposed to achieve maximal water recovery and brine concentration: NF - physico-chemical treatment - MED - EFC. The possibility of extending the concentration of RO reject arising from minewater treatment at the Lethabo power station with MED alone is evaluated with mineral formation modelling using the thermochemical modelling software Phreeq-C. It is shown that pretreatment is essential to extend the amount of water that can be recovered, and this can be beneficially supported by NF.

  1. Augmentation of coal handling plant for Nasik Thermal Power Station, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakkar, M.C.; Bandhu, K.K.; Vyas, M.R.

    1989-08-01

    The augmentation of the coal handling plant at Nasik Thermal Power Station, India, was necessary, because the volume of coal to be handled increased due to the poor coal quality. The Maharashtra State Electricity Board therefore decided to install an additional conveying system consisting of a rotary-type wagon tippler (car dumper), a three-stage crushing plant, stacking and reclaiming equipment, and a motorized tripper bunkering system. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Artificial reefs: Using coal-fired power station wastes constructively for fishery enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, K J; Jensen, A.C.; Lockwood, Apm

    1991-01-01

    Large quantities of pulverised fuel ash (PFA) are produced by coal-fired power stations, some of which is currently dumped into the sea. The planned fitting of flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) plant in the UK would produce comparable quantities of gypsum. While a fraction of both these wastes may be used commercially, an alternative, environmentally acceptable, use for the surplus material, the construction of artificial reefs, is being investigated. Possible leaching of heavy metal ions from ...

  3. An attempt for modeling the atmospheric transport of 3H around Kakrapar Atomic Power Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, A K; Nankar, D P; Joshi, C P; Venkataraman, S; Sundar, D; Hegde, A G

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of downwind tritium air concentrations in the environment around Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) was studied on the basis of Gaussian plume dispersion model. The tritium air concentration by field measurement [measured tritium air concentrations in the areas adjacent to KAPS] were compared with the theoretically calculated values (predicted) to validate the model. This approach will be useful in evaluating environmental radiological impacts due to pressurised heavy water reactors.

  4. [Evaluating psychophysiologic adaptation state in operators of Bilibino nuclear power station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaeva, N A; Torubarov, F S; Denisova, E A; Zvereva, Z F; Koronotova, M A

    2014-01-01

    The study revealed that 60% operators of Bilibino nuclear power station suffer from psychosomatic diseases, 41.7% of them are assigned to occupational group of workers, and major part of the examinees with psychosomatic diseases (45.82%) are aged 41-50, high integral level ofpsychophysiologic adaptation is revealed in 5 examinees (12.5%), medium integral level--in 12 examinees (30%). Lower integral level of psychophysiologic adaptation manifested in decrease in psychophysiologic and physiologic levels.

  5. Generating power stations and optimization energetic of processes; Centrales generadoras y optimacion energetica de procesos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Ramirez, Ranulfo; Fernandez Montiel, Manuel Francisco [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Some recent experiences of the Management of Thermal Processes of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) related to the works on generating power stations of electricity, plants of cogeneration and energy saving are presented. [Spanish] Se presentan algunas experiencias recientes de la Gerencia de Procesos Termicos del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) relacionadas con los trabajos sobre centrales generadoras de electricidad, plantas de cogeneracion y ahorro de energia.

  6. Environmental licensing for the implementation of small hydroelectric power plants: analysis and optimization proposals for Minas Gerais state, Brazil; Licenciamento ambiental para implantacao de pequenas centrais hidreletricas: analise e propostas de otimizacao para Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedreira, Adriana Coli [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia da Energia], e-mail: adriana@unifei.edu.br; Dupas, Francisco Antonio [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Recursos Naturais], e-mail: dupas@unifei.edu.brT

    2004-07-01

    This document presents the legal and institutional aspects of the environmental licensing for the implementation of small hydroelectric power plants (SHPP). Laws and doctrine related to the topic were researched and concluded for Minas Gerais State with the help of a survey with the enterprises and institutions involved in the process to find out the difficulties that influence the delay of the analysis of the SHPP. It also highlights the importance of environmental zoning as a tool of environmental management for the procedure to obtain these licenses. The results show that 80% of the cases, the institutions do not respect the deadlines, 40% of the studies presented by the enterprises are insufficient, 60% there is lack of human resource and technical capacities of the environment institutions, and 80% non-fulfilment of the laws and non-integration of the institutions. Finally, the study concludes that the difficulties to obtain these licenses are based on the facts mentioned which are, the non-integration of the institutions and also, being recent, on the inexperience of the actors involved. Therefore, it is suggested that deadlines should be imposed for the institutions and the enterprises. There should be training, fund raising for the hiring of technicians, fulfillment of the law and above all, transparency in order to supply the electrical energy demand and guarantee the sustainable development. (author)

  7. Analysis of the impact of connecting a larger number of small hydroelectric power plants to the short-circuit currents values and relay protection system of distribution network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sučević Nikola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the influence of a large number of small hydro power plants on the short-circuit currents is analysed, as well as the operation of the relay protection system within the real distribution network in Serbia. The necessary modification of the existing protection functions, as well as the implementation of the new proposed protection functions, are presented and discussed. Network modeling and analysis are performed using the program tool DIgSILENT PowerFactory.

  8. Modelling a reliable wind/PV/storage power system for remote radio base station sites without utility power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterlin, Ian F.

    The development of photovoltaic (PV) cells has made steady progress from the early days, when only the USA space program could afford to deploy them, to now, seeing them applied to roadside applications even in our Northern European climes. The manufacturing cost per watt has fallen and the daylight-to-power conversion efficiency increased. At the same time, the perception that the sun has to be directly shining on it for a PV array to work has faded. On some of those roadside applications, particularly for remote emergency telephones or for temporary roadwork signage where a utility electrical power connection is not practical, the keen observer will spot, usually in addition to a PV array, a small wind-turbine and an electrical cabinet quite obviously (by virtue of its volume) containing a storage battery. In the UK, we have the lions share (>40%) of Europe's entire wind power resource although, despite press coverage of the "anti-wind" lobby to the contrary, we have hardly started to harvest this clean and free energy source. Taking this (established and proven) roadside solution one step further, we will consider higher power applications. A cellular phone system is one where a multitude of remote radio base stations (RBS) are required to provide geographical coverage. With networks developing into the so called "3G" technologies the need for base stations has tripled, as each 3G cell covers only 1/3 the geographical area of its "2G" counterpart. To cover >90% of the UK's topology (>97% population coverage) with 3G cellular technology will requires in excess of 12,000 radio base stations per operator network. In 2001, there were around 25,000 established sites and, with an anticipated degree of collocation by necessity, that figure is forecast to rise to >47,000. Of course, the vast majority of these sites have a convenient grid connection. However, it is easy to see that the combination of wind and PV power generation and an energy storage system may be an

  9. Differential permeability behaviour of P9 and T22 power station Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimian, N., E-mail: Noushin.Karimian@Manchester.ac.uk [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Wilson, J.W.; Peyton, A.J.; Yin, W. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Liu, J.; Davis, C.L. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    Analysis of the electromagnetic (EM) properties of power station steels, measured using a non-contact magnetic sensor, is of significance as such properties are indicative of the microstructure of the material and can be potentially exploited for non-destructive testing. In this paper, we present EM measurements of cylindrical power station steel samples (P9 and T22 grades) with different microstructures: normalised and tempered (representative of the initial condition), as normalised and after service exposure. In order to obtain the magnetic properties the B–H curves of these samples were measured. Cylindrical air-cored and printed circuit board (PCB) coil integrated sensors were used to measure the incremental permeability. Analytical and numerical methods (Finite Elements Methods) were employed to calculate the sensor response of these samples. The electromagnetic properties of the different steels were inferred by fitting the finite element models to the measured results. In addition, sensitivity and error analysis were carried out to evaluate the accuracy of the method. - Highlights: • We analysed the electromagnetic (EM) properties of power station steels. • The B–H curves, differential and incremental permeability were measured. • We established correlations between EM properties and microstructure changes. • This technique will be used to develop a tool for in-situ inspection of steels.

  10. The emissions of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants from modern coal-fired power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meij, Ruud; te Winkel, Henk

    Extensive research for establishing the emissions of heavy metals from coal-fired power stations is performed in the Netherlands for the past 25 years. In the Netherlands coal is fired from all over the world. This means that the emissions are established for coal of various origins. In the eighties, the emissions of installations equipped with ESPs (electrostatic precipitators) were measured. In the nineties, the influence of wet FGD (flue gas desulphurisation) on the emissions was studied. The effect of co-combustion of biomass and other secondary fuels is the main item for the last 10 years. Fifty-five elements were measured in the solid state and eight elements in the gaseous phase. It appeared that at low particulate concentration the influence of calcium containing evaporated water droplets downstream the wet FGD on the emissions of heavy metals is bigger than the composition of the coal. Also it appeared that at modern coal-fired power stations the emissions are hardly influenced by co-combustion of biomass. All the results are used for modelling, resulting in the KEMA TRACE MODEL ®, by which the emissions can be predicted. The established emission factors are for most elements in good agreement with literature values for comparable modern installations. Persistence organic pollutants (POPs) that were detected in the flue gases of coal-fired power stations are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and dioxins/furans. Measurements during full coal-firing and during co-firing of biomass have indicated that these emissions are negligible.

  11. Radioactive contamination of food chain around coal mine and coal-fired power stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitorović Gordana S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the coal mine in Lazarevac, and the coal-fired power stations in Obrenovac, on the activity concentrations of radionuclides 40K, 238U, 232Th, and 137Cs in some parts of human food chain of people living in the surrounding area. The obtained results showed that natural environment around the examined coal mine and the coal-fired power stations are not significantly affected by the emission of primordial radionuclides. The activity concentrations of 238U in the soil around the open coal mine and the coal processing installations (66.4-76.0 Bq/kg and in the soil around the coal-fired power stations (55.5-61.2 Bq/kg were not significantly higher than the average values in Serbia. The significant increase in the activity concentrations of natural radioisotopes in the samples of soil, vegetation, and animal products, was not confirmed. Food of animal origin used in human consumption is safe, i. e. not contaminated by radiation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31003 i br. TR34013

  12. Technical Feasible Study for Future Solar Thermal Steam Power Station in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohari, Z. H.; Atira, N. N.; Jali, M. H.; Sulaima, M. F.; Izzuddin, T. A.; Baharom, M. F.

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposed renewable energy which is potential to be used in Malaysia in generating electricity to innovate and improve current operating systems. Thermal and water act as the resources to replace limited fossil fuels such as coal which is still widely used in energy production nowadays. Thermal is also known as the heat energy while the water absorbs energy from the thermal to produce steam energy. By combining both of the sources, it is known as thermal steam renewable energy. The targeted area to build this power station has constant high temperature and low humidity which can maximize the efficiency of generating power.

  13. Feasibility Study of a Solar-Powered Electric Vehicle Charging Station Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ye

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In China, the power sector is currently the largest carbon emitter and the transportation sector is the fastest-growing carbon emitter. This paper proposes a model of solar-powered charging stations for electric vehicles to mitigate problems encountered in China’s renewable energy utilization processes and to cope with the increasing power demand by electric vehicles for the near future. This study applies the proposed model to Shenzhen City to verify its technical and economic feasibility. Modeling results showed that the total net present value of a photovoltaic power charging station that meets the daily electricity demand of 4500 kWh is $3,579,236 and that the cost of energy of the combined energy system is $0.098/kWh. In addition, the photovoltaic powered electric vehicle model has pollutant reduction potentials of 99.8%, 99.7% and 100% for carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides, respectively, compared with a traditional gasoline-fueled car. Sensitivity analysis results indicated that interest rate has a relatively strong influence on COE (Cost of Energy. An increase in the interest rate from 0% to 6% increases COE from $0.027/kWh to $0.097/kWh. This analysis also suggests that carbon pricing promotes renewable energy only when the price of carbon is above $20/t.

  14. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of a Hydroelectric Installation at the Jeddo Mine Drainage Tunnel. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J. O.; Mosey, G.

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Jeddo Tunnel discharge site for a feasibility study of renewable energy potential. The purpose of this report is to assess technical and economic viability of the site for hydroelectric and geothermal energy production. In addition, the report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system.

  15. Design of an off-grid hybrid PV/wind power system for remote mobile base station: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Mulualem T. Yeshalem; Baseem Khan

    2017-01-01

    There is a clear challenge to provide reliable cellular mobile service at remote locations where a reliable power supply is not available. So, the existing Mobile towers or Base Transceiver Station (BTSs) uses a conventional diesel generator with backup battery banks. This paper presents the solution to utilizing a hybrid of photovoltaic (PV) solar and wind power system with a backup battery bank to provide feasibility and reliable electric power for a specific remote mobile base station loca...

  16. Occurrence of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB associated with biocorrosion on metallic surfaces in a hydroelectric power station in Ibirama (SC - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Dantas Marangoni

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluate, two methods for the detection and identification of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB: ML medium and PCR with specific primers for SRB groups. SRB were detected through the selective medium only on carbon steel, which showed corrosion. Employing specific PCR primer, SBR were detected from all the metallic components assayed, even those that did not present visible corrosion spots, such stainless steel and copper alloys. Despite the presence or absence of corrosion at the later stages effectively by using the selective medium,, the initial stages of the corrosion could only be detected by the amplification of total DNA with SRB specific primers. The early detection of SRB could be employed for preventing the damages on metal surfaces before the installation of corrosion processes. Strategies for reducing the time spent on SRB isolation and identification could be auxiliary tools for controlling the corrosion of materials.

  17. Business Models for Solar Powered Charging Stations to Develop Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Robinson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Electric power must become less dependent on fossil fuels and transportation must become more electric to decrease carbon emissions and mitigate climate change. Increasing availability and accessibility of charging stations is predicted to increase purchases of electric vehicles. In order to address the current inadequate charging infrastructure for electric vehicles, major entities must adopt business models for solar powered charging stations (SPCS. These SPCS should be located in parking lots to produce electricity for the grid and provide an integrated infrastructure for charging electric vehicles. Due to the lack of information related to SPCS business models, this manuscript designs several models for major entities including industry, the federal and state government, utilities, universities, and public parking. A literature review of the available relevant business models and case studies of constructed charging stations was completed to support the proposals. In addition, a survey of a university’s students, staff, and faculty was conducted to provide consumer research on people’s opinion of SPCS construction and preference of business model aspects. Results showed that 69% of respondents would be more willing to invest in an electric vehicle if there was sufficient charging station infrastructure at the university. Among many recommendations, the business models suggest installing level 1 charging for the majority of entities, and to match entities’ current pricing structures for station use. The manuscript discusses the impacts of fossil fuel use, and the benefits of electric car and SPCS use, accommodates for the present gap in available literature on SPCS business models, and provides current consumer data for SPCS and the models proposed.

  18. Reactive power predispatch in the economical dispatch of multimodal hydroelectric systems; Predespacho de potencia reactiva en el despacho economico de sistemas hidrotermicos multinodales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dona, Victor M.; Hoese, Alejandro; Vargas, Alberto [Universidad Nacional de San Juan (Argentina). Instituto de Energia Electrica]. E-mail: vdona@iee.unsj.edu.ar

    2001-07-01

    The reactive power dispatch in generators and compensation equipment is necessary to the effects of maintaining an appropriate voltage level in the entire electric system. The lack of an appropriate dispatch programming for reactive power, can implies in a forced and not programmed operation of generator units. This contemplates in an unfavorable way in the operation costs when an entire optimization period is analyzed. This paper presents an associated predispatch proposal of generator units to the voltage-reactive power control needs, which is accomplished within the economical dispatch calculation during the operation programming process of an electric system. Finally, it is shown the main methodological aspects and results related to a real network.

  19. Stability of large DC power systems using switching converters, with application to the international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manners, B.; Gholdston, E. W.; Karimi, K.; Lee, F. C.; Rajagopalan, J.; Panov, Y.

    1996-01-01

    As space direct current (dc) power systems continue to grow in size, switching power converters are playing an ever larger role in power conditioning and control. When designing a large dc system using power converters of this type, special attention must be placed on the electrical stability of the system and of the individual loads on the system. In the design of the electric power system (EPS) of the International Space Station (ISS), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and its contractor team led by Boeing Defense & Space Group has placed a great deal of emphasis on designing for system and load stability. To achieve this goal, the team has expended considerable effort deriving a dear concept on defining system stability in both a general sense and specifically with respect to the space station. The ISS power system presents numerous challenges with respect to system stability, such as high power, complex sources and undefined loads. To complicate these issues, source and load components have been designed in parallel by three major subcontractors (Boeing, Rocketdyne, and McDonnell Douglas) with interfaces to both sources and loads being designed in different countries (Russia, Japan, Canada, Europe, etc.). These issues, coupled with the program goal of limiting costs, have proven a significant challenge to the program. As a result, the program has derived an impedance specification approach for system stability. This approach is based on the significant relationship between source and load impedances and the effect of this relationship on system stability. This approach is limited in its applicability by the theoretical and practical limits on component designs as presented by each system segment. As a result, the overall approach to system stability implemented by the ISS program consists of specific hardware requirements coupled with extensive system analysis and hardware testing. Following this approach, the ISS program plans to begin

  20. Renewable energy: diagnostic of the small hydroelectric power plants; Energia renovavel: diagnostico da geracao de eletricidade em pequenas centrais hidreletricas no Estado de Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Gustavo Nikolaus Pinto de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico], e-mail: gustavonikolaus@ppe.ufrj.br; Santi, Auxilidadora Maria Moura [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Area de Planejamento Energetico], e-mail: auxiliadora@em.ufop.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a diagnostic of the power generation in small-scale electric power generation at the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, considering the legislation, the environmental aspects, the hydro resources and the agents of the electric sector to which the electricity is destined. The diagnostic turn available important information on the process of implantation of infra-structure which are under development at the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, where the participation of the SHP amounts 402375 k W generated in 78 SHP under operation. There are nine SHP under construction and 48 under granting process.

  1. Simulations of thermal-hydraulic processes in heat exchangers- station of the cogeneration power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studovic, M.; Stevanovic, V.; Ilic, M.; Nedeljkovic, S. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of Belgrade (Croatia)

    1995-12-31

    Design of the long district heating system to Belgrade (base load 580 MJ/s) from Thermal Power Station `Nikola Tesla A`, 30 km southwest from the present gas/oil burning boilers in New Belgrade, is being conducted. The mathematical model and computer code named TRP are developed for the prediction of the design basis parameters of heat exchangers station, as well as for selection of protection devices and formulation of operating procedures. Numerical simulations of heat exchangers station are performed for various transient conditions: up-set and abnormal. Physical model of multi-pass, shell and tube heat exchanger in the station represented is by unique steam volume, and with space discretised nodes both for water volume and tube walls. Heat transfer regimes on steam and water side, as well as hydraulic calculation were performed in accordance with TEMA standards for transient conditions on both sides, and for each node on water side. Mathematical model is based on balance equations: mass and energy for lumped parameters on steam side, and energy balances for tube walls and water in each node. Water mass balance is taken as boundary/initial condition or as specified control function. The physical model is proposed for (s) heat exchangers in the station and (n) water and wall volumes. Therefore, the mathematical model consists of 2ns+2, non-linear differential equations, including equations of state for water, steam and tube material, and constitutive equations for heat transfer on steam and water side, solved by the Runge-Kutt method. Five scenarios of heat exchangers station behavior have been simulated with the TRP code and obtained results are presented. (author)

  2. Feasibility assessment of the water energy resources of the United States for new low power and small hydro classes of hydroelectric plants: Main report and Appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Douglas G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Reeves, Kelly S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brizzee, Julie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lee, Randy D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Carroll, Gregory R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sommers, Garold L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 were evaluated to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MWa) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MWa) projects. The methodologies for performing the feasibility assessment and estimating hydropower potential are described. The results for the country in terms of the number of feasible sites, their total gross power potential, and their total hydropower potential are presented. The spatial distribution of the feasible potential projects is presented on maps of the conterminous U.S. and Alaska and Hawaii. Results summaries for each of the 50 states are presented in an appendix. The results of the study are also viewable using a Virtual Hydropower Prospector geographic information system application accessible on the Internet at: http://hydropower.inl.gov/prospector.

  3. Feasibility Assessment of Water Energy Resources of the United States for New Low Power and Small Hydro Classes of Hydroelectric Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Hall

    2006-01-01

    Water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 were evaluated to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MW) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MW) projects. The methodologies for performing the feasibility assessment and estimating hydropower potential are described. The results for the country in terms of the number of feasible sites, their total gross power potential, and their total hydropower potential are presented. The spatial distribution of the feasible potential projects is presented on maps of the conterminous U.S. and Alaska and Hawaii. Results summaries for each of the 50 states are presented in an appendix. The results of the study are also viewable using a Virtual Hydropower Prospector geographic information system application accessible on the Internet at: http://hydropower.inl.gov/prospector.

  4. Water chemistry of the secondary circuit at a nuclear power station with a VVER power reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyapkov, V. F.; Erpyleva, S. F.

    2017-05-01

    Results of implementation of the secondary circuit organic amine water chemistry at Russian nuclear power plant (NPP) with VVER-1000 reactors are presented. The requirements for improving the reliability, safety, and efficiency of NPPs and for prolonging the service life of main equipment items necessitate the implementation of new technologies, such as new water chemistries. Data are analyzed on the chemical control of power unit coolant for quality after the changeover to operation with the feed of higher amines, such as morpholine and ethanolamine. Power units having equipment containing copper alloy components were converted from the all-volatile water chemistry to the ethanolamine or morpholine water chemistry with no increase in pH of the steam generator feedwater. This enables the iron content in the steam generator feedwater to be decreased from 6-12 to 2.0-2.5 μg/dm3. It is demonstrated that pH of high-temperature water is among the basic factors controlling erosion and corrosion wear of the piping and the ingress of corrosion products into NPP steam generators. For NPP power units having equipment whose construction material does not include copper alloys, the water chemistries with elevated pH of the secondary coolant are adopted. Stable dosing of correction chemicals at these power units maintains pH25 of 9.5 to 9.7 in the steam generator feedwater with a maximum iron content of 2 μg/dm3 in the steam generator feedwater.

  5. System studies of coal fired-closed cycle MHD for central station power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauderer, B.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the closed-cycle MHD results obtained in a recent study of various advanced energy-conversion power systems. The direct coal-fired MHD topping-steam bottoming cycle was established as the current choice for central station power generation. Emphasis is placed on the background assumptions and the conclusions that can be drawn from the closed-cycle MHD analysis. It is concluded that closed-cycle MHD has efficiencies comparable to that of open-cycle MHD. Its cost will possibly be slightly higher than that of the open-cycle MHD system. Also, with reasonable fuel escalation assumptions, both systems can produce lower-cost electricity than conventional steam power plants. Suggestions for further work in closed-cycle MHD components and systems are made.

  6. A study of some features of ac and dc electric power systems for a space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanania, J. I.

    1983-01-01

    This study analyzes certain selected topics in rival dc and high frequency ac electric power systems for a Space Station. The interaction between the Space Station and the plasma environment is analyzed, leading to a limit on the voltage for the solar array and a potential problem with resonance coupling at high frequencies. Certain problems are pointed out in the concept of a rotary transformer, and further development work is indicated in connection with dc circuit switching, special design of a transmission conductor for the ac system, and electric motors. The question of electric shock hazards, particularly at high frequency, is also explored. and a problem with reduced skin resistance and therefore increased hazard with high frequency ac is pointed out. The study concludes with a comparison of the main advantages and disadvantages of the two rival systems, and it is suggested that the choice between the two should be made after further studies and development work are completed.

  7. New generation medium power nuclear station with VPBER-600 passive safety reactor plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitenkov, F.M.; Antonovsky, G.M.; Panov, Yu.K.; Runov, B.I. [OKB Mech. Eng., Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    1997-10-01

    Design principles and the main technical characteristics of a new generation medium size atomic station with passive safety VPBER-600 reactor plant (RP) are considered in the report. RP safety concept, design of the integral reactor and of the reactor unit, description of the principal diagram and plant safety system, layout decisions on reactor building and the concept of architectural-arrangement decisions on the site are given. The results of safety analysis show that the atomic station with VPBER-600 RP is an environmentally clean source of power supply with a minimal radiation impact on the environment. Information is given on the soundness of design solutions and data are presented concerning the respective cost and possible time schedule for the plant construction. (orig.) 4 refs.

  8. Program for the thermal design and simulation of the operation of a steam condenser for thermal and nuclear power stations and its application to the condenser at the Cofrentes nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Bartual, R.; Pallares Huici, E.

    A program is being developed for an IBM-PC or AT computer based on a calculation system which synthesises the heat transfer process which takes place in the steam condensors at conventional thermal power stations. The program incorporates a useful tool capable of representing characteristic operating curves for a given condensor. Describes its application to the steam condenser at the Cofrentes nuclear power station. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs.

  9. 78 FR 33091 - Limitations on the Filing and Processing of Full Power and Class A Television Station...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... 69933 (Nov. 21, 2012),\\2\\ Class A minor change applications to implement the digital transition (flash cut and digital companion channel) may continue to be filed and will be processed subject to the... 73.622(e)(1) (defining ``service area'' of a full power TV broadcast station). As to Class A stations...

  10. Space solar power stations. Problems of energy generation and using its on the earth surface and nearest cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkevich, OA; Gerasimov, DN; Glazkov, VV

    2017-11-01

    Three important physical and technical problems for solar power stations (SPS) are considered: collection of solar energy and effective conversion of this energy to electricity in space power stations, energy transportation by the microwave beam to the Earth surface and direct utilization of the microwave beam energy for global environmental problems. Effectiveness of solar energy conversion into electricity in space power stations using gas and steam turbines plants, and magneto-hydrodynamic generator (MHDG) are analyzed. The closed cycle MHDG working on non–equilibrium magnetized plasmas of inert gases seeded with the alkaline metal vapors are considered. The special emphases are placed on MHDG and gas-turbine installations that are operating without compressor. Also opportunities for using the produced by space power stations energy for ecological needs on Earth and in Space are discussed.

  11. Sustainable Development Commission Scotland response to the Scottish Government 'Consultation on the consenting process for thermal power stations in Scotland'

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission Scotland

    2009-01-01

    This document is the response of the Sustainable Development Commission Scotland to the Scottish Government’s 'Consultation on the consenting process for thermal power stations in Scotland' Publisher PDF

  12. Performance Analyses of Renewable and Fuel Power Supply Systems for Different Base Station Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Lorincz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Base station sites (BSSs powered with renewable energy sources have gained the attention of cellular operators during the last few years. This is because such “green” BSSs impose significant reductions in the operational expenditures (OPEX of telecom operators due to the possibility of on-site renewable energy harvesting. In this paper, the green BSSs power supply system parameters detected through remote and centralized real time sensing are presented. An implemented sensing system based on a wireless sensor network enables reliable collection and post-processing analyses of many parameters, such as: total charging/discharging current of power supply system, battery voltage and temperature, wind speed, etc. As an example, yearly sensing results for three different BSS configurations powered by solar and/or wind energy are discussed in terms of renewable energy supply (RES system performance. In the case of powering those BSS with standalone systems based on a fuel generator, the fuel consumption models expressing interdependence among the generator load and fuel consumption are proposed. This has allowed energy-efficiency comparison of the fuel powered and RES systems, which is presented in terms of the OPEX and carbon dioxide (CO2 reductions. Additionally, approaches based on different BSS air-conditioning systems and the on/off regulation of a daily fuel generator activity are proposed and validated in terms of energy and capital expenditure (CAPEX savings.

  13. Reliability measurement for mixed mode failures of 33/11 kilovolt electric power distribution stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwan, Faris M; Baharum, Adam; Hassan, Geehan S

    2013-01-01

    The reliability of the electrical distribution system is a contemporary research field due to diverse applications of electricity in everyday life and diverse industries. However a few research papers exist in literature. This paper proposes a methodology for assessing the reliability of 33/11 Kilovolt high-power stations based on average time between failures. The objective of this paper is to find the optimal fit for the failure data via time between failures. We determine the parameter estimation for all components of the station. We also estimate the reliability value of each component and the reliability value of the system as a whole. The best fitting distribution for the time between failures is a three parameter Dagum distribution with a scale parameter [Formula: see text] and shape parameters [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Our analysis reveals that the reliability value decreased by 38.2% in each 30 days. We believe that the current paper is the first to address this issue and its analysis. Thus, the results obtained in this research reflect its originality. We also suggest the practicality of using these results for power systems for both the maintenance of power systems models and preventive maintenance models.

  14. Reliability measurement for mixed mode failures of 33/11 kilovolt electric power distribution stations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris M Alwan

    Full Text Available The reliability of the electrical distribution system is a contemporary research field due to diverse applications of electricity in everyday life and diverse industries. However a few research papers exist in literature. This paper proposes a methodology for assessing the reliability of 33/11 Kilovolt high-power stations based on average time between failures. The objective of this paper is to find the optimal fit for the failure data via time between failures. We determine the parameter estimation for all components of the station. We also estimate the reliability value of each component and the reliability value of the system as a whole. The best fitting distribution for the time between failures is a three parameter Dagum distribution with a scale parameter [Formula: see text] and shape parameters [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Our analysis reveals that the reliability value decreased by 38.2% in each 30 days. We believe that the current paper is the first to address this issue and its analysis. Thus, the results obtained in this research reflect its originality. We also suggest the practicality of using these results for power systems for both the maintenance of power systems models and preventive maintenance models.

  15. Improving the efficiency of fine coal grinding circuits - Tarong Power Station sitework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Can Ozer; Frank Shi; Bill Whiten [JKMRC (Australia)

    2009-03-15

    The objective of the research is to improve the efficiency of power station fine coal grinding circuits through the application of modelling and simulation technology. The overall project is expected to complete in 3.5 years as a PhD study program. ACARP funded the first two years (Project C15079) related to the site work conducted at Tarong Power Station, the results of which are presented in this report. A new sampling technique has been developed to collect samples from a fully enclosed vertical spindle ball-race mill and air classifier system and that around the milling circuit. This is crucial in providing reliable data of various streams in the system for model development. Seven surveys on the full scale fine coal grinding operation were conducted at Tarong Power Station using this sampling technique. Extensive sample processing work has been completed. This included size analysis of 217 samples, float-sink tests on 255 samples, and ash content determination on 461 samples. A new float-sink testing technique was developed to process the fine coal samples. Preliminary breakage characterisation using HGI (Hardgrove Grindability Index) tests, DWT (Drop Weight Tester) on single coal particle, and DWT on coal beds of four coal samples was conducted at the JKMRC. This report covers the details of the sampling technique, plant surveys, and preliminary coal breakage characterisation. The observed trends of size distributions, the washability curves, the density - size relation, the density - ash content - size relation, and the correlation among the three breakage characterisation methods are presented and discussed.

  16. Assessment of spatial variation of ambient volatile organic compound levels at a power station in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Ashraf

    2017-11-01

    Twenty-four-hour integrated ambient air samples were collected in canisters at 10 locations within Kuwait's major power station: Doha West Power Station to assess the spatial distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within the perimeter of the station. A total of 30 samples, i.e., three samples per location, were collected during February and March. The samples were analyzed using a gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) system and following the U.S. EPA Method TO-14A with modification. The results reflected the emission activities on the site and the meteorological conditions during sampling. Generally speaking, there was a negative correlation between the ambient temperature and the VOC concentrations, which indicates the sources were local. The halogenated compounds formed the highest proportion (i.e. 50-75 %) of the total VOC concentrations at the ten locations. 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene and Vinyl Chloride concentrations were the highest amongst the other halogenated compounds. The aromatic compounds formed the least proportion (i.e. 1-4%) of the total VOC levels at all locations with Toluene having the highest concentrations amongst the aromatic compounds at seven locations. Propene, which is a major constituent of the fuel used, was the highest amongst the aliphatic compounds. The findings of this study and other relevant work suggests the measured VOC levels were the highest over the year, nevertheless, further work is required to assess the precisely temporal variation of VOC due to change in meteorological conditions and the emission rates. Assessment of VOC concentrations around a power plant in Kuwait during the peak season showed halogenated compounds to be the dominant group. The calculated indoor concentrations were lower than those reported in a residential area about 12 km away.

  17. POLLUTANT EMISSION TO THE ATMOSPHERE AND HIGH-TECHNOLOGY ON THE EX AMPLE OF JAWORZNO III POWER STATION IN JAWORZNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Wierzbińska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper technologies of pollution elimination from waste gases in Jaworzno Power Station III are presented. Mixture of coal and biomass (9:1 is combusted there. In waste gases there are dust and gaseous pollutants which are eliminated using high-technology filters and technologies of desulfurization, NOx elimination and deslagging. Changes in pollution quantities before and after Power Station modernization are presented on graphs.

  18. The possible negative consequences of underground dam and reservoir construction and operation in coastal karst areas: an example of the hydro-electric power plant (HEPP Ombla near Dubrovnik (Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Roje-Bonacci

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ombla Spring represents a typical abundant coastal karst spring located in the vicinity of the town of Dubrovnik (Croatia. Its outlet is at an altitude of 2.5 m above sea level (m a.s.l. and the water from it immediately flows into the Adriatic Sea. The minimum and maximum measured discharges are 3.96 m3 s−1 and 117 m3 s−1, respectively. The Trebišnjica River traverses through its catchment. The mean annual discharge, after the canalization of over 60 km of its watercourse with spray concrete (in the time span 1981–2011, is 24.05 m3 s−1. Before massive civil engineering work which took place during 1968–1980, the mean annual discharge was 28.35 m3 s−1. There is a project for construction of the hydro-electric power plant (HEPP Ombla, which will exclusively use groundwater from the Ombla Spring karst aquifer. The underground dam will be constructed about 200 m behind the existing karst spring outflow in the karst massif, by injecting a grout curtain. The top of the grout curtain is planned to be at an altitude of 130 m a.s.l. This karst system is complex, sensitive, vulnerable and ecologically extremely valuable. The grout curtain, as well as the HEPP Ombla development, could lead to extremely dangerous technical and environmental consequences. In this paper some probable, negative consequences of the HEPP Ombla construction and development are explained. The HEPP Ombla could result in many large and hard-to-predict negative consequences which are specific for this particular HEPP, for example (1 severe spring discharge change; (2 unpredictable regional groundwater redistribution; (3 threatening of endemic fauna; (4 induced seismicity; (5 induced sinkholes; (6 occurrence of landslides; (7 conflict regarding internationally shared karst aquifers; (8 intensification of karst flash floods; (9 sea water intrusion in coastal karst aquifer; etc.

  19. The possible negative consequences of underground dam and reservoir construction and operation in coastal karst areas: an example of the hydro-electric power plant (HEPP) Ombla near Dubrovnik (Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roje-Bonacci, T.; Bonacci, O.

    2013-08-01

    The Ombla Spring represents a typical abundant coastal karst spring located in the vicinity of the town of Dubrovnik (Croatia). Its outlet is at an altitude of 2.5 m above sea level (m a.s.l.) and the water from it immediately flows into the Adriatic Sea. The minimum and maximum measured discharges are 3.96 m3 s-1 and 117 m3 s-1, respectively. The Trebišnjica River traverses through its catchment. The mean annual discharge, after the canalization of over 60 km of its watercourse with spray concrete (in the time span 1981-2011), is 24.05 m3 s-1. Before massive civil engineering work which took place during 1968-1980, the mean annual discharge was 28.35 m3 s-1. There is a project for construction of the hydro-electric power plant (HEPP) Ombla, which will exclusively use groundwater from the Ombla Spring karst aquifer. The underground dam will be constructed about 200 m behind the existing karst spring outflow in the karst massif, by injecting a grout curtain. The top of the grout curtain is planned to be at an altitude of 130 m a.s.l. This karst system is complex, sensitive, vulnerable and ecologically extremely valuable. The grout curtain, as well as the HEPP Ombla development, could lead to extremely dangerous technical and environmental consequences. In this paper some probable, negative consequences of the HEPP Ombla construction and development are explained. The HEPP Ombla could result in many large and hard-to-predict negative consequences which are specific for this particular HEPP, for example (1) severe spring discharge change; (2) unpredictable regional groundwater redistribution; (3) threatening of endemic fauna; (4) induced seismicity; (5) induced sinkholes; (6) occurrence of landslides; (7) conflict regarding internationally shared karst aquifers; (8) intensification of karst flash floods; (9) sea water intrusion in coastal karst aquifer; etc.

  20. Evaluation of the environmental licensing process for small hydroelectric power plants in Minas Gerais state, Brazil; Avaliacao do processo de licenciamento ambiental para pequenas centrais hidreletricas no estado de Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedreira, Adriana Coli

    2004-07-01

    The present situation of the environmental licensing process have been slow and complicated, in relation to the current conception of the sustainable environmental development in the country. The enterprises and impacting activities are being discussed and analysed through a great number of environmental laws and specific laws to each enterprise. These laws along with the inexperience of the enterprises and of the many institutions involved in the process are an obstacle to the development. This document presents the legal and institutional aspects of the environmental licensing for the implementation of small hydroelectric power plants. Laws and doctrine related to the topic were researched and concluded for Minas Gerais State with the help of a survey with the enterprises and institutions involved in the process to find out the difficulties that influence the delay of the analysis of the SHPP. The results show that the main barriers are the non-application of the CONAMA resolution 279/2001 to the SHPP, undetermined inspection criteria, excess of environmental programs, technical incapacity, lack of financial resources, non-integration of the institutional organs, the building of SHPP in permanent preservation area, project interfering in the fish fauna, studies an environmental impact with then reports and public audiences. Finally, concludes that the difficulties are based on the non-integration of the institutions and also, being recent, on the inexperience of the actors involved. Therefore, the study suggests on increase of the technical body in the institutions and training of their analysts; hiring of specialized consultancy, implantation of an environmental integrated system, social communication program in the planning phase, fulfillment of the CONAMA resolution 279/2001; integration of public ministry representatives in the licensing organs; application of planning and zoning, deadlines and legal imposition of these deadlines in order to supply the

  1. Mercury emissions from South Africa’s coal-fired power stations

    OpenAIRE

    Belinda L. Garnham; Kristy E. Langerman

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is a persistent and toxic substance that can be bio-accumulated in the food chain. Natural and anthropogenic sources contribute to the mercury emitted in the atmosphere. Eskom’s coal-fired power stations in South Africa contributed just under 93% of the total electricity produced in 2015 (Eskom 2016). Trace amounts of mercury can be found in coal, mostly combined with sulphur, and can be released into the atmosphere upon combustion. Coal-fired electricity generation plants are the hig...

  2. Investigation on Main Radiation Source at Operation Floor of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Unit 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Hideo; Kondo, Kenjiro; Suzuki, Seishiro; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Iwanaga, Kohei

    2017-09-01

    Pulse height distributions were measured using a LaBr3 detector set in a 1 cm lead collimator to investigate main radiation source at the operation floor of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Unit 4. It was confirmed that main radiation source above the reactor well was Co-60 from the activated steam dryer in the DS pool (Dryer-Separator pool) and that at the standby area was Cs-134 and Cs-137 from contaminated buildings and debris at the lower floor. Full energy peak count rate of Co-60 was reduced about 1/3 by 12mm lead sheet placed on the floor of the fuel handling machine.

  3. Impact of selected parameters on the behaviour of mercury in pulverised coal-fired power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorwarth, Harald [EnBW Kraftwerke AG, Stuttgart (DE). Process Engineering Operation and Maintenance Services (TQT)

    2010-07-01

    At coal-fired thermal power stations fuel is fed to the system. With the fuel organic but also inorganic substances and trace elements like mercury are fed to the process, too. Mercury can leave the system with the bottom ash or fly ash, with gypsum or waste-water via the flue gas desulphurisation plant or with the clean gas through the stack. The behaviour of mercury in the system is influenced by a number of different parameters, the meaning and influence of which are being presented and discussed. (orig.)

  4. Selection of alternative central-station technologies for the Satellite Power System (SPS) comparative assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsa, M.

    1980-01-01

    An important effort is the Satellite Power System (SPS) comparative Assessment is the selection and characterization of alternative technologies to be compared with the SPS concept. The ground rules, criteria, and screening procedure applied in the selection of those alternative technologies are summarized. The final set of central station alternatives selected for comparison with the SPS concept includes: (1) light water reactor with improved fuel utilization, (2) conventional coal combustion with improved environmental controls, (3) open cycle gas turbine with integral low Btu gasifier, (4) terrestrial photovoltaic, (5) liquid metal fast breeder reactor, and (6) magnetic confinement fusion.

  5. Modern power station practice mechanical boilers, fuel-, and ash-handling plant

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2014-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Second Edition, Volume 2: Mechanical (Boilers, Fuel-, and Ash-Handling Plant) focuses on the design, manufacture and operation of boiler units and fuel-and ash-handling plants.This book is organized into five main topics-furnace and combustion equipment, steam and water circuits, ancillary plant and fittings, dust extraction and draught plant, and fuel-and ash-handling plant.In these topics, this text specifically discusses the influence of nature of coal on choice of firing equipment; oil-burner arrangements, ignition and control; disposition of the heating surf

  6. Component monitoring during operation in nuclear power stations. Betriebsbegleitende Bauteilueberwachung in Kernkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacher, H. (Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Bayern e.V., Muenchen (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-09-01

    In the design of nuclear power stations all stresses on the pressure-bearing enclosure in respect of their effect on component strength and integrity are investigated. In addition, local and global monitoring during operation is carried out, in order to detect also those stresses which have been hitherto unknown or are caused by malfunctions of components. In this way a realistic assessment of the condition of the pressure-bearing enclosure is possible and any irregularities which can imply malfunctions of components or physical effects not hitherto known can be detected early. (orig.).

  7. The closure of Trawsfynydd power station - effects on staff and the local community and identifying a strategy for decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, J.M.; Ellis, A.T.; Williams, T.W. [Nuclear Electric plc, Barnwood (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    The decision to close Trawsfynydd power station had implications for staff and the local community. It was necessary to take immediate steps to prepare for decommissioning the station and to devise an appropriate staff structure. At the same time, there was also a need for Nuclear Electric to adopt a clear and well defined decommissioning strategy. As the station is located within a National Park, as local employment opportunities are very limited and as the nuclear industry was approaching a Government Review, Nuclear Electric took steps to consult the staff and the local public on the options for decommissioning the station. This consultation influenced the decommissioning strategy chosen for Trawsfynydd. (Author).

  8. Use of social communication as a tool for environmental licensing of small-scale hydroelectric power plants; Uso da comunicacao social como instrumento para o licenciamento ambiental de PCH - pequenas centrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiago Filho, Geraldo Lucio [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Recursos Naturais], e-mail: tiago@unifei.edu.br; Galhardo, Camila Rocha [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Pequenas Centrais Hidreletricas (CERPCH), MG (Brazil)], e-mail: pchnoticias@unifei.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    The present work intends to study the process of environmental licensing of the Small ones Central Hydroelectric (PCHs) through the rising of the legal framework of the referred process and to analyze the application of tools of social communication in the mitigation of the social impacts in the zone of influence of the enterprise. Through the analysis of the critical points in the environmental licensing of small hydroelectric uses and evaluation of communication actions taking in consideration the environmental costs for the enterprise. (author)

  9. The counter effects of the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kenta

    2017-01-01

    The counter effects of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station are discussed in this paper. Though decommission and remediation have been conducted in the facility and surrounding area, ninety thousand residences near the facility are still under the evacuation order. Four nuclear power units have already restarted under the new regulatory framework, but two of them in Fukui prefecture stop the operation due to the provisional disposition declared by Ohtsu district court in Shiga prefecture. Reinforcement of the latter layer of the defense in depth has been improved in many ways. The improvement of decision-making process is very important in latter layers of the defense in depth, in contrast the plant behaviors are automatically decided based on their design in the prior layers.

  10. Low speed permanent magnet synchronous generators for wind power stations: comparative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khrisanov, V.I.; Szymczak, P.; Kaminski, W. [Szczecin Univ. of Tech., Inst. of Electrical Engineering, Szczecin (Poland)

    2005-07-01

    The paper is dedicated the problem of gearless turbine - generator module on the base of permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSM). The concrete goal of the paper is the presentation of an engineering method for comparative analysis of two types of PMSM: with cylindrical (radial magnetic flux) and disk (axial magnetic flux) designs intended for wind power stations. The latter type fits to a greatest extent for designing multi pole low speed generators connected directly to turbines. The suggested method is based on the sizing equation when only one but fundamental criterion - torque (power) density is used. It differs from before published papers by the simplicity, a short time of calculation and treatment. New approach derives from the comparison of geometrical dimensions of machines at the similar electromagnetic loads so it may be called as ''geometrical'' and distinct from analytical and digital methods, suggested rather for theoretical and comprehensive than engineering analysis. (orig.)

  11. Optimization Study of Shaft Tubular Turbine in a Bidirectional Tidal Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinfeng Ge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The shaft tubular turbine is a form of tidal power station which can provide bidirectional power. Efficiency is an important turbine performance indicator. To study the influence of runner design parameters on efficiency, a complete 3D flow-channel model of a shaft tubular turbine was developed, which contains the turbine runner, guide vanes, and flow passage and was integrated with hybrid grids calculated by steady-state calculation methods. Three aspects of the core component (turbine runner were optimized by numerical simulation. All the results were then verified by experiments. It was shown that curved-edge blades are much better than straight-edge blades; the optimal blade twist angle is 7°, and the optimal distance between the runner and the blades is 0.75–1.25 times the diameter of the runner. Moreover, the numerical simulation results matched the experimental data very well, which also verified the correctness of the optimal results.

  12. Detailed conceptual designs and economic analyses of a reference Photovoltaic Central Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, D. J.; Heller, B. W.; Stephenson, J. E.

    Detailed conceptual designs and economic analyses of a reference 100MWe Photovoltaic Central Power Station (PV CPS) have been completed. Both flat plate dendritic WEB and point focus fresnel concentrator (100X concentration) arrays were used to develop two individual central station reference designs. Design requirements, detailed drawings and system, subsystem and component specifications form the basis for a plant construction cost estimate. The flat plate array PV CPS costs range from $179M to $483M (1982 U.S. Dollars) for array costs ranging from $1/Wp to $3.50/Wp and power conditioning unit (PCU) costs from $.05/Wp to $.50/Wp. Similar costs for the concentrator PV CPS range from $201M to $505M, respectively. Using representative utility financial parameters, in-house economic models, and a plant performance estimate, levelized busbar energy costs (BBEC) are derived for both flat plate and concentrator designs. BBEC range from $.15/kWh to $.41/kWh for the flat plate PV CPS from $.15/kWh to $.37/kWh for the concentrator PV CPS.

  13. Prefeasibility Study of a Solar Power Plant Project and Optimization of a Meteorological Station Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Derouich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A prefeasibility study of a solar power plant project was carried out in order to study and search the best location to install a concentrated solar power plant according to a tender with the Algerian electricity company “SPE” following a specific criteria and methodology in order to obtain a site with a maximum possible irradiation along with other economic constraints. Normally, eleven years of solar irradiation data from an on-ground weather station is needed for site assessment, such data are not available, hence the typical meteorological year irradiation based on satellite imagery results is needed in order to have the accurate value, therefore we can give the right evaluation for the site candidate. Additionally, an analysis of a weather measurement station was carried out to ensure the proper functioning of the weather data reception and analysis processes, and thus to optimize the algorithm of a data logger in order to get the right measurement with a minimum error. The correction algorithm was developed by weather scientists and was added to the data logger main program.

  14. Differential permeability behaviour of P9 and T22 power station Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, N.; Wilson, J. W.; Peyton, A. J.; Yin, W.; Liu, J.; Davis, C. L.

    2014-02-01

    Analysis of the electromagnetic (EM) properties of power station steels, measured using a non-contact magnetic sensor, is of significance as such properties are indicative of the microstructure of the material and can be potentially exploited for non-destructive testing. In this paper, we present EM measurements of cylindrical power station steel samples (P9 and T22 grades) with different microstructures: normalised and tempered (representative of the initial condition), as normalised and after service exposure. In order to obtain the magnetic properties the B-H curves of these samples were measured. Cylindrical air-cored and printed circuit board (PCB) coil integrated sensors were used to measure the incremental permeability. Analytical and numerical methods (Finite Elements Methods) were employed to calculate the sensor response of these samples. The electromagnetic properties of the different steels were inferred by fitting the finite element models to the measured results. In addition, sensitivity and error analysis were carried out to evaluate the accuracy of the method.

  15. The EURISOL Multi Megawatt Target Station, a liquid metal target for a High Power spallation source.

    CERN Document Server

    Kharoua, C; Blumenfeld, L; Milenkovich, R; Wagner, W; Thomsen, K; Dementjevs, S; Platacis, E; Kravalis, K; Zik, A

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (EURISOL) is set to be the ‘next-generation’ European Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility. It will extend and amplify current research in nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics and fundamental interactions beyond the year 2013.In EURISOL, four target stations are foreseen, three direct targets of approximately 100 kW of beam power and one multi-MW liquid metal proton-to-neutron converter, all driven by a high-power particle accelerator. In the aforementioned multi-MW target assembly, high-intensity RIBs of neutron-rich isotopes will be obtained by inducing fission in several actinide targets surrounding a liquid metal spallation neutron source.This presentation summarises the work carried out for the Multi Megawatt target station of the EURISOL Design Study with particular attention to the coupled neutronic of the liquid converter and the overall performance of the facility, which will sustain fast neutr...

  16. A feasibility assessment of nuclear reactor power system concepts for the NASA Growth Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Heller, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility assessment of the integration of reactor power system concepts with a projected growth Space Station architecture was conducted to address a variety of installation, operational, disposition and safety issues. A previous NASA sponsored study, which showed the advantages of Space Station - attached concepts, served as the basis for this study. A study methodology was defined and implemented to assess compatible combinations of reactor power installation concepts, disposal destinations, and propulsion methods. Three installation concepts that met a set of integration criteria were characterized from a configuration and operational viewpoint, with end-of-life disposal mass identified. Disposal destinations that met current aerospace nuclear safety criteria were identified and characterized from an operational and energy requirements viewpoint, with delta-V energy requirement as a key parameter. Chemical propulsion methods that met current and near-term application criteria were identified and payload mass and delta-V capabilities were characterized. These capabilities were matched against concept disposal mass and destination delta-V requirements to provide a feasibility of each combination.

  17. Year Round Operation of Autonomous, Low Power Geophysical Stations in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, B. C.; White, S.; Bonnett, B.; Parker, T.; Johns, B.; Anderson, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    Year round operation of autonomous, low power geophysical stations in Antarctica presents both technical and logistical challenges. Prior to 2005, few if any autonomous seismic or GPS stations operated continuously throughout the austral winter. There are two basic environmental challenges in Antarctica beyond the logistical challenge: the margins with relatively mild temperatures but extreme winds and the Polar Plateau with extreme temperatures but relatively little wind. Large caches of lead-acid batteries can operate stations on the Antarctic margins where temperatures are relatively high, but are logistically expensive and will not survive the extreme temperatures of the Polar Plateau. Primary lithium thionyl chloride batteries have been proven to be successful and economical for use in the extreme plateau environment. These technical and logistical challenges were the focus of an IRIS/PASSCAL-UNAVCO collaboration to design power and communications for a logistical constrains for increased efficiency in polar operations. These year-round systems can now be deployed in a single twin otter flight. The IRIS/PASSCAL-UNAVCO collaboration has resulted in deployable systems backed by facilities with proven track records of longevity of technical field support. Our expertise and sustained engineering has resulted in a robust community product. We have significantly lowered the barriers of entry to scientists who desire year-round autonomous data collection in the Polar regions. A transparent development process with broad community support and input has resulted in a new generation of GPS and seismic systems fielded on several major IPY projects. The challenge now is how to keep the development and testing effort sustained to take advantage of the evolving renewable energy research.

  18. Artificial neural network application for space station power system fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Oliver, Walter E.; Dias, Lakshman G.

    1995-01-01

    This study presents a methodology for fault diagnosis using a Two-Stage Artificial Neural Network Clustering Algorithm. Previously, SPICE models of a 5-bus DC power distribution system with assumed constant output power during contingencies from the DDCU were used to evaluate the ANN's fault diagnosis capabilities. This on-going study uses EMTP models of the components (distribution lines, SPDU, TPDU, loads) and power sources (DDCU) of Space Station Alpha's electrical Power Distribution System as a basis for the ANN fault diagnostic tool. The results from the two studies are contrasted. In the event of a major fault, ground controllers need the ability to identify the type of fault, isolate the fault to the orbital replaceable unit level and provide the necessary information for the power management expert system to optimally determine a degraded-mode load schedule. To accomplish these goals, the electrical power distribution system's architecture can be subdivided into three major classes: DC-DC converter to loads, DC Switching Unit (DCSU) to Main bus Switching Unit (MBSU), and Power Sources to DCSU. Each class which has its own electrical characteristics and operations, requires a unique fault analysis philosophy. This study identifies these philosophies as Riddles 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The results of the on-going study addresses Riddle-1. It is concluded in this study that the combination of the EMTP models of the DDCU, distribution cables and electrical loads yields a more accurate model of the behavior and in addition yielded more accurate fault diagnosis using ANN versus the results obtained with the SPICE models.

  19. Development of a Power Electronics Unit for the Space Station Plasma Contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamley, John A.; Hill, Gerald M.; Patterson, Michael J.; Saggio, Joseph, Jr.; Terdan, Fred; Mansell, Justin D.

    1994-01-01

    A hollow cathode plasma contactor has been baselined as a charge control device for the Space Station (SS) to prevent deleterious interactions of coated structural components with the ambient plasma. NASA LeRC Work Package 4 initiated the development of a plasma contactor system comprised of a Power Electronics Unit (PEU), an Expellant Management Unit (EMU), a command and data interface, and a Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU). A breadboard PEU was designed and fabricated. The breadboard PEU contains a cathode heater and discharge power supply, which were required to operate the PCU, a control and auxiliary power converter, an EMU interface, a command and telemetry interface, and a controller. The cathode heater and discharge supplies utilized a push-pull topology with a switching frequency of 20 kHz and pulse-width-modulated (PWM) control. A pulse ignition circuit derived from that used in arcjet power processors was incorporated in the discharge supply for discharge ignition. An 8088 based microcontroller was utilized in the breadboard model to provide a flexible platform for controller development with a simple command/data interface incorporating a direct connection to SS Mulitplexer/Demultiplexer (MDM) analog and digital I/O cards. Incorporating this in the flight model would eliminate the hardware and software overhead associated with a 1553 serial interface. The PEU autonomously operated the plasma contactor based on command inputs and was successfully integrated with a prototype plasma contactor unit demonstrating reliable ignition of the discharge and steady-state operation.

  20. Models for the transient stability of conventional power generating stations connected to low inertia systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarifakis, Marios; Coffey, William T.; Kalmykov, Yuri P.; Titov, Sergei V.

    2017-06-01

    An ever-increasing requirement to integrate greater amounts of electrical energy from renewable sources especially from wind turbines and solar photo-voltaic installations exists and recent experience in the island of Ireland demonstrates that this requirement influences the behaviour of conventional generating stations. One observation is the change in the electrical power output of synchronous generators following a transient disturbance especially their oscillatory behaviour accompanied by similar oscillatory behaviour of the grid frequency, both becoming more pronounced with reducing grid inertia. This behaviour cannot be reproduced with existing mathematical models indicating that an understanding of the behaviour of synchronous generators, subjected to various disturbances especially in a system with low inertia requires a new modelling technique. Thus two models of a generating station based on a double pendulum described by a system of coupled nonlinear differential equations and suitable for analysis of its stability corresponding to infinite or finite grid inertia are presented. Formal analytic solutions of the equations of motion are given and compared with numerical solutions. In particular the new finite grid model will allow one to identify limitations to the operational range of the synchronous generators used in conventional power generation and also to identify limits, such as the allowable Rate of Change of Frequency which is currently set to ± 0.5 Hz/s and is a major factor in describing the volatility of a grid as well as identifying requirements to the total inertia necessary, which is currently provided by conventional power generators only, thus allowing one to maximise the usage of grid connected non-synchronous generators, e.g., wind turbines and solar photo-voltaic installations.

  1. Externality costs of the coal-fuel cycle: The case of Kusile Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonophile P. Nkambule

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Coal-based electricity is an integral part of daily life in South Africa and globally. However, the use of coal for electricity generation carries a heavy cost for social and ecological systems that goes far beyond the price we pay for electricity. We developed a model based on a system dynamics approach for understanding the measurable and quantifiable coal-fuel cycle burdens and externality costs, over the lifespan of a supercritical coal-fired power station that is fitted with a flue-gas desulfurisation device (i.e. Kusile Power Station. The total coal-fuel cycle externality cost on both the environment and humans over Kusile's lifespan was estimated at ZAR1 449.9 billion to ZAR3 279 billion or 91c/kWh to 205c/kWh sent out (baseline: ZAR2 172.7 billion or 136c/kWh. Accounting for the life-cycle burdens and damages of coal-derived electricity conservatively, doubles to quadruples the price of electricity, making renewable energy sources such as wind and solar attractive alternatives. Significance: The use of coal for electricity generation carries a heavy cost for social and ecological systems that goes far beyond the price we pay for electricity. The estimation of social costs is particularly important to the electric sector because of non-differentiation of electricity prices produced from a variety of sources with potentially very dissimilar environmental and human health costs. Because all electricity generation technologies are associated with undesirable side effects in their fuelcycle and lifespan, comprehensive comparative analyses of life-cycle costs of all power generation technologies is indispensable to guide the development of future energy policies in South Africa.

  2. 47 CFR 74.789 - Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low power television and television translator stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low... AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.789 Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low power television and television translator...

  3. 78 FR 11904 - Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; ZionSolutions, LLC; Consideration of Indirect Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; ZionSolutions, LLC; Consideration of Indirect Transfer... the indirect transfer of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-39 and DPR-48 for Zion Nuclear Power...

  4. Modern concepts of thermodynamic optimization in Mexican thermoelectric power stations; Conceptos modernos de optimacion termodinamica en centrales termoelectricas mexicanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes de Gortari, J.; Vidal Santo, A.; Mendez Lavielle, F.; Bautista Godinez, O. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-03-01

    In this paper, a summary review of the current thermodynamic concepts to the maximum power generation and minimum entropy production are presented. The results of the analysis are considered in Mexican power stations using conventional cycles and are compared with other power stations around the world. [Spanish] En este trabajo se revisa el analisis de maxima generacion de potencia que implica la minimizacion de la produccion de entropia en centrales generadoras de potencia, de acuerdo con los lineamientos mas recientes publicados en la literatura. Los conceptos y resultados del analisis se aplican a varias centrales mexicanas y se comparan con otras centrales en el mundo.

  5. 75 FR 76495 - Virginia Electric and Power Company North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 Surry Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... Evaluation of Radiological Emergency Response Plan and Preparedness in Support of Nuclear Power Plants,'' to... members of the public. No changes will be made to plant buildings or the site property. Therefore, no... Renewal of Nuclear Plants: Supplements 6 and 7 Regarding Surry and NAPS--Final Report (NUREG-1437...

  6. Characterization of ash cenospheres in fly ash from Australian power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling-ngee Ngu; Hongwei Wu; Dong-ke Zhang [Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia). Centre for Fuels and Energy and Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-12-15

    Ash cenospheres in fly ashes from five Australian power stations have been characterized. The experimental data show that ash cenosphere yield varies across the power stations. Ash partitioning occurred in the process of ash cenosphere formation during combustion. Contradictory to conclusions from the literature, iron does not seem to be essential to ash cenosphere formation in the cases examined in the present work. Further investigation was also undertaken on a series of size-fractioned ash cenosphere samples from Tarong power station. It is found that about 70 wt% of ash cenospheres in the bulk sample have sizes between 45 and 150 {mu}m. There are two different ash cenosphere structures, that is, single-ring structure and network structure. The percentage of ash cenospheres of a network structure increases with increasing ash cenosphere size. Small ash cenospheres (in the size fractions {lt}150 {mu}m) have a high SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio, and the majority of the ash cenospheres are spherical and of a single-ring structure. Large ash cenosphere particles (in the size fractions of 150-250 {mu}m and {gt}250 {mu}m) have a low SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio, and a high proportion of the ash cenospheres are nonspherical and of a network structure. A novel quantitative technique has been developed to measure the diameter and wall thickness of ash cenospheres on a particle-to-particle basis. A monolayer of size-fractioned ash cenospheres was dispersed on a pellet, which was then polished carefully before being examined using a scanning electron microscope and image analysis. The ash cenosphere wall thickness broadly increases with increasing ash cenosphere size. The ratios between wall thickness and diameter of ash cenospheres are limited between an upper bound of about 10.5% and a lower bound of about 2.5%, irrespective of the ash cenosphere size. 52 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETES WITH FLY–ASH OF PRYDNIPROVSK THERMAL POWER STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Netesa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Determination of conformities to law of influence of expense of components of easy concretes, which turn out on the basis of local afterproducts of industry, on their basic properties under conditions of enhanceable efficiency of the use of cement. Methodology. Experimental studies on optimization of structures and properties of concrete were carried out with use of mathematical planning experiments methods. All experiments were carried out on orthogonal design with three variables. Cement, water and additives PLKP-2 consumption were taken as varied factors. Findings. Vast experimental studies on determination of rational compositions of concrete mixtures were conducted with the use as fillers of granulated slag from iron and steel plant named after Petrovskiy and Dnepr sand, as binding agent Krivoy Rog portland-cement II/B-Ш-400, as filler fly-ash of Pridneprovsk Thermal Power Station. Efficiency coefficient of cement use was adopted as basic criterion of concrete composition rationality, it is determined on the relation of the attained durability per unit weight of used cement. For greater efficiency coefficient of cement use regularity of rational grain composition of components previously obtained was adopted, it is provided at a ratio of a large fraction consumption to medium and small 52:23:25, and their sizes are approximately 100:10:1. Experimental studies with use of mathematical planning experiments method were carried out. By results of their processing isofields were constructed according to the strength and effectiveness of the use of cement ratio of the studied factors. Originality. By strength comparative tests of hardened concrete with various local secondary resources, modified with complex plasticizer PLKP-2 additive, it was found that lightweight concrete with the density of 1700…1800 kg/m3 and concrete compressive strength from 5 to 20 MPa on the basis of granulated slag from the iron and steel plant named after

  8. Hydroelectric power in Hawaii: a reconnaissance survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-01

    The major conclusion of this study is that hydropower resources in the State of Hawaii are substantial, and they offer the potential for major increases in hydropower generating capacity. Hydropower resources on all islands total about 50 megawatts of potential generating capacity. Combined with the 18 megawatts of existing hydropower capacity, hydropower resources potentially could generate about 307 million kilowatt-hours of electric energy annually. This represents about 28% of the present combined electricity needs of the Neighbor Islands - Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and the Big Island. Hydropower resources on Kauai equal 72% of that island's electricity needs; on Molokai, 40%; on the Big Island, 20%; and on Maui, 18%. The island of Oahu, however, has only small hydropower resources, and could only generate a negligible portion of its electricity needs from this energy source. Existing and future (potential) hydropower capacities are summarized, and annual outputs for each island are estimated. Future hydropower facilities are subdivided into two categories, which show how much of the potential capacity is being actively considered for development, and how much is only tentatively proposed at the time.

  9. improvement of hydroelectric power generation using pumped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    conversion involves a hydraulic turbine which converts the kinetic energy of the flowing water into mechanical work that produce a torque. A dynamo then converts the torque thus produced into electricity [1]. The operation of a generator is based on Faraday's principle of electromagnetism. Faraday propounded that when a.

  10. Study on the technical and economical viability in the using of the spilled turbinable energy from the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant for the ammonia synthesis of the nitrogen fertilizers; Estudo da viabilidade tecnica e economica do aproveitamento da energia vertida turbinavel da usina hidreletrica de Itaipu para sintese de amonia para fertilizantes nitrogenados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinola, Michel Osvaldo Galeano [Universidade Nacional de Assuncao (Paraguay). Faculdade de Ciencias Quimicas]. E-mail: michelosvaldo@qui.una.py

    2008-07-01

    In many hydroelectric power plants, when the inflows are greater than the demand for energy, a portion of the water that could be used to generate energy is diverted to the spillway and literally wasted. This energy, designated as 'Spilled Turbinable Energy', could be used advantageously to generate other products or an energy vector that could be stored for later use, since in these occasions the dam is full. The present work studies the feasibility of using the spilled turbinable energy of the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant to produce electrolytic hydrogen that, together with the nitrogen from air, is an important feedstock for the ammonia synthesis, used to produce nitrogen fertilizers. The minimum production cost of electrolytic hydrogen was estimated in US$ 0,246/m3 or US$ 2,750/kg, for a plant with capacity of 55 mil m3/h, which correspond to 247,5 MW of electrical power deriving from 82% of spilled turbinable energy and 18% of guaranteed energy. Next to that hydrogen plant it is possible to install an ammonia plant of approximately 500 t/day, operating 350 days/year, with a production cost of approximately US$ 562,81/t. This capacity is enough to supply 38,5% of the ammonia demand estimated for the region focused in the project, 1.300 t/day. Nowadays, ammonia is commercialized in the Brazilian market by approximately US$ 525,60/t. For that reason, it can be concluded that ammonia production through the association of spilled turbinable and guaranteed energy next to Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant is not economically feasible by the moment, mainly due to the high cost of imported electrolysers. Nevertheless, with the installation of an ammonia plant based on water electrolysis next to Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant, it could be avoided an annual carbon emission of 234 thousand tons, even considering methane and carbon dioxide emissions of the Itaipu's reservoir. If such project were approved by the Clean Development Mechanism, that

  11. Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Miller

    2009-03-22

    This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

  12. Engineering work for the Tachibana-Bay Thermal Power Station; Tachibana Wan Karyoku Hatsudensho no doboku koji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, M.; Tada, K. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-25

    The Tachibana-Bay Thermal Power Station is a coal-fired thermal power station of a generated output of 2.8 million kW (two 1.05 million kW plants of Electric Power Development Co., Ltd. and one 0.7 million kW plant of Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc.), constructed by the two companies jointly on Kokatsu-jima Island set in the Tachibana-Bay, in the southeastern part of Tokushima Prefecture, and this power station is scheduled to supply electric power to the western Japan in and after the year 2000. This paper introduces the outline of the plan of the Tachibana-Bay Thermal Power Station and the engineering work being carried out at present. The engineering work started after the preparatory work including the installation of pollution preventing screens was carried out since 1995. The engineering work includes the land developing work comprising the shore protection work, the quay building work, site preparing work and earth dump preparing work, and the construction of the cooling water intake/discharge facility and the coal unloading pier. This coal unloading pier is a berth for coal ships in 140,000-ton class, and has a straight pile type lateral pier structure using steel pipe piles of 1600 mm in maximum diameter. Two coal unloaders of a capacity of about 2700 t/h are scheduled to be installed on the pier. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Study of mercury in by-products from a Dutch co-combustion power station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallo, Manuela; Lopez-Anton, M Antonia; Meij, Ruud; Perry, Ron; Maroto-Valer, M Mercedes

    2010-02-15

    Fly ashes and gypsum are one of the main wastes produced in coal-fired power stations which may be sent to landfills for their disposal. In this work, leaching and speciation of mercury in fly ashes and gypsum from a modern co-combustion power plant equipped with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit in the Netherlands were studied. The mercury leachable contents were checked against different regulations, including Dutch, German and the Council Directive 2003/33/EC. The speciation of mercury in coal combustion products is essential not only to determine the risk when the wastes are finally disposed but also to understand the behaviour of mercury during combustion and therefore to select the appropriate mercury removal technology. A temperature-programmed decomposition technique was used in order to identify and quantify which mercury species are associated with coal combustion products. The main mercury species identified in fly ash samples was mercury sulphate, whereas in the gypsum sample the mercury present was mercury chloride. The quantitative mercury results carried out using the thermal desorption method may be considered accurate. The results obtained show that fly ash and gypsum samples from this power plant can be acceptable at landfills as a non-hazardous waste.

  14. A fault diagnosis system for PV power station based on global partitioned gradually approximation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, X. N.; Gao, D. D.; Liu, H. X.; Ye, J.; Li, L. R.

    2016-08-01

    As the solar photovoltaic (PV) power is applied extensively, more attentions are paid to the maintenance and fault diagnosis of PV power plants. Based on analysis of the structure of PV power station, the global partitioned gradually approximation method is proposed as a fault diagnosis algorithm to determine and locate the fault of PV panels. The PV array is divided into 16x16 blocks and numbered. On the basis of modularly processing of the PV array, the current values of each block are analyzed. The mean current value of each block is used for calculating the fault weigh factor. The fault threshold is defined to determine the fault, and the shade is considered to reduce the probability of misjudgments. A fault diagnosis system is designed and implemented with LabVIEW. And it has some functions including the data realtime display, online check, statistics, real-time prediction and fault diagnosis. Through the data from PV plants, the algorithm is verified. The results show that the fault diagnosis results are accurate, and the system works well. The validity and the possibility of the system are verified by the results as well. The developed system will be benefit for the maintenance and management of large scale PV array.

  15. The Opportunity Analyses of Using Thermosyphons in Cooling Systems of Power Transformers on Thermal Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurpeiis Аtlant

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity analyses of using the thermosyphons as the main elements in the systems of thermal regime supplying has been conducted under the conditions of their usage in power transformers on thermal stations. Mathematical modeling of jointly proceeding processes of conduction, forced convection and phase transitions (evaporation and condensation of coolant in the thermosyphon of rectangular cross section has been carried out. The problem of conjugated conductive-convective heat transfer was formulated in dimensionless variables “vorticity/stream function/temperature” and solved by finite difference method. The effect of the heat flux density supplied to the bottom cover of the thermosyphon from a transformer tank on the temperature drop in the steam channel was shown based on the analysis of numerical simulation results (temperature fields and velocities of steam. The parameters of energy-saturated equipment of thermal stations were found to be controlled by an intensification of heat removal from the top cover surface of the thermosyphon.

  16. Hybrid wind-PV grid connected power station case study: Al Tafila, Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Tous, Yousif [Department of Electrical Engineering/Faculty of Engineering Technology/ Al-Balqa' Applied University, Amman, P.O.Box (15008), Marka Ashamalia (Jordan); Al-Battat, Saleh [Department of substation maintenance and protection, National Electric Power Company (NEPCO), Amman (Jordan); Abdel Hafith, Sandro [Department of technical support and project supervision/Integrated power systems co., Amman (Jordan)

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we are providing an attempt to highlight the importance of renewable energy, more specifically, the one produced from a wind-solar hybrid system. This purpose will be achieved through providing a detailed case study for such system that would be applied in Al-Tafila, Jordan. First and foremost site assessment has been conducted based on an intensive literature review for the data available regarding the availability of wind and solar energy in Jordan and resulted in the selection of Al-Tafila 2 district as the best option among all. Then, the components of the power station and its size have been selected based on specific criteria that make the station as much efficient and competitive as possible. To obtain the output of the different components with respect to the demand for a period of 25 years, a system model was built using HOMER. Finally, the total capital cost of the system was calculated and resulted to be (63400168) $ and with a cost of energy of (0.053) $/kWh which is a very competitive and feasible cost compared to similar international projects and to the conventional energy price.

  17. Trace elements emission from coal-fired power stations in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altamirano-Bedolla, J.A.; Wong-Moreno, A.; Romo-Millares, C.A.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents partial results of work currently in progress to determine trace elements emissions associated with the coal combustion from coal-fired power stations in Mexico. It shows the progress of the first year of a five-year project, supported by the Mexican Ministry of Energy with the aim of developing methods to obtain representative samples, perform reliable analysis and produce accurate quantification and classification of these emissions. A description of the sampling procedures and analysis performed to the coal, bottom ash, fly ash and total suspended particles in flue gas are given. Some results are provided and discussed as an example of the large amount of information that will be analyzed in the future to produce conclusions regarding trace elements from coal fired stations in Mexico. Elements such as Mercury, Arsenic, Lead, Nickel, Chromium, Cadmium, Copper, Zinc, Manganese, Cobalt, Selenium, Atimony, Vanadium, Barium, Strontium, Boron and Molybdenum were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) using Flame AAS, Hydride Generation AAS and Cold Vapor AAS. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron Probe Microanalysis (SEM-EDX) was also used to identify some of the elements.

  18. Optimal Dispatch Strategy of a Virtual Power Plant Containing Battery Switch Stations in a Unified Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Bai; Shihong Miao; Xiaohong Ran; Chang Ye

    2015-01-01

    A virtual power plant takes advantage of interactive communication and energy management systems to optimize and coordinate the dispatch of distributed generation, interruptible loads, energy storage systems and battery switch stations, so as to integrate them as an entity to exchange energy with the power market. This paper studies the optimal dispatch strategy of a virtual power plant, based on a unified electricity market combining day-ahead trading with real-time trading. The operation mo...

  19. Model simulations of the radioactive material plumes in the Fukushima nuclear power station accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Teruyuki; Goto, Daisuke; Morino, Yu; Misawa, Shota; Tsuruta, Haruo; Uchida, Junya; Takemura, Toshihiko; Ohara, Toshimasa; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Satoh, Masaki

    2017-04-01

    We like to present an analysis of a model-simulated and observed data comparison for depiction of the atmospheric transportation of the 137Cs emitted from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident. This method employs a combination of the results of two aerosol model ensembles and the hourly observed atmospheric 137Cs concentration during 14-23 March 2011 at 90 sites in the Suspended Particulate Matter monitoring network. The result elucidates accurate transport routes and the distribution of the surface-level atmospheric 137Cs relevant to eight plume events that were previously identified. The model ensemble simulates the main features of the observed distribution of surface-level atmospheric 137Cs. However, significant differences were found in some cases. Through the analysis we discuss the important processes to control the characteristic shape and movement of each plume. We also report the status of the 2nd international model intercomparison in progress.

  20. Analysis and evaluation of "noise" of occupational hazards in pumped storage power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Yang, Hongjian; Zhang, Huafei; Chen, Tao

    2017-05-01

    Aiming at the influence of "noise" of occupational hazards on the physical health of workers, the noise intensity of a working area of a hydropower station in China was evaluated comprehensively. Under the condition of power generation, noise detection is conducted on the main patrol area of the operator, and the noise samples in different regions are analyzed and processed by the single factor analysis of variance. The results show that the noise intensity of different working areas is significantly different, in which the overall noise level of the turbine layer is the highest and beyond the national standard, the protection measures need to be strengthened and the noise intensity of the rest area is normal

  1. Operating experience with nuclear power stations 1994; Betriebserfahrungen mit Kernkraftwerken 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-04-01

    Within the VGB Technical Committee `Exchange of Operating Experience` - ABE - (Nuclear Engineering), an active exchange of experience has been cultivated over a period of more than 25 years. It embraces 28 nuclear power stations in Germany, Finland, France, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and Spain. This paper reports on operating results obtaned in 1994 and also on safety-related incidents, important rehabilitation measures and annual discharge rates of radio activity. (orig.) [Deutsch] Innerhalb des VGB-Fachausschusses `Austausch von Betriebserfahrungen` - ABE - (Kerntechnik) wird seit mehr als 25 Jahren ein reger Erfahrungsaustausch gepflegt. Er schliesst 28 Kernkraftwerke in Deutschland, Finnland, Frankreich, den Niederlanden, Schweden, der Schweiz und Spanien ein. Ueber die im Jahre 1994 erzielten Betriebsergebnisse sowie ueber sicherheitsrelevante Ereignisse, wichtige Umruestmassnahmen und Jahresabgaberaten an Radioaktivitaet wird berichtet. (orig.)

  2. Operating experience with nuclear power stations 1995; Betriebserfahrungen mit Kernkraftwerken 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-04-01

    For more than 25 years, an active exchange of experience has been cultivated within the VGB Technical Committee `Exchange of Operating Experience` - ABE - (Nuclear Engineering). It embraces 28 nuclear power stations in Germany, Finland, France, The Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and Spain. The paper reports operating results achieved in 1995 and also safety-related incidents, important retrofitting measures and annual emission rates of radioactivity. (orig.) [Deutsch] Innerhalb des VGB-Fachausschusses `Austausch von Betriebserfahrungen` - ABE - (Kerntechnik) wird seit mehr als 25 jahren ein reger Erfahrungsaustausch gepflegt. Er schliesst 36 Kernkraftwerke in Deutschland, Finnland, Frankreich, den Niederlanden, Schweden, der Schweiz und Spanien ein. Ueber die im Jahre 1995 erzielten Betriebsergebnisse sowie ueber sicherheitsrelevante Ereignisse, wichtige Umruestmassnahmen und Jahresabgaberaten an Radioaktivitaet wird berichtet. (orig.)

  3. Concentration of (3)H in plants around Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakiuchi, Hideki; Akata, Naofumi; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Ueda, Shinji; Tokonami, Shinji; Yamada, Masatoshi; Hosoda, Masahiro; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Noda, Kaori; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2012-01-01

    A large amount of radionuclides was released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) following the damage caused by the tsunami due to the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. Although many radionuclides in various environmental samples around the FDNPS have been measured, (3)H in the terrestrial environment has not yet been reported. We present here the first survey results of (3)H concentrations in plant samples collected around the FDNPS in 2011 from shortly after the accident. The free-water (3)H concentrations in herbaceous plant shoots and evergreen tree leaves were considerably higher than the previous background concentration, and diminished with distance from the FDNPS. Although reconstruction of atmospheric (3)H concentrations after the accident is difficult, a rough estimate of the radiation dose due to (3)H inhalation about 20 km from the FDNPS is on the order of a few microsieverts (μSv).

  4. Tampa Electric Company, Polk Power Station Unit No. 1, preliminary public design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    This preliminary Public Design Report (PDR) provides design information about Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit No. 1, which will demonstrate in a commercial 250 MW unit the benefits of the integration of oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification with advanced combined cycle technology. This project is partially funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Round III of its Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program under the provisions of Cooperative Agreement between DOE and Tampa Electric Company, novated on March 5,1992. The project is highlighted by the inclusion of a new hot gas cleanup system. DOE`s project management is based at its Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in West Virginia. This report is preliminary, and the information contained herein is subject to revision. Definitive information will be available in the final PDR, which will be published at the completion of detailed engineering.

  5. The 'Lehn' small hydro-power station; KWKW Lehn Vorprojekt - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruff, H.; Widmer, P.

    2009-02-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the refurbishment of a small hydro-power station in the UNESCO biosphere region in the Entlebuch, Switzerland. The five grounds for the refurbishment are examined - repair of the water intake, flood protection, regulation of residual water, reduction of floating debris and sand and optimisation of the system by using automatic control. Figures on the cost of the refurbishment and electricity production are presented and discussed, as is the economic viability of the project. The existing installations are described and the hydrology of the stream is discussed, as are legal requirements and technical basics. Variants for the refurbishment are examined and operational aspects are looked at. A comprehensive appendix provides details on the proposal in graphical and tabular form.

  6. Structural cost optimization of photovoltaic central power station modules and support structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, P. D.; Stolte, W. J.; Marsh, R. O.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive study of photovoltaic module structural support concepts for photovoltaic central power stations and their associated costs are presented. The objective of the study has been the identification of structural cost drivers. Parametric structural design and cost analyses of complete array systems consisting of modules, primary support structures, and foundations were performed. Area related module cost was found to be constant with design, size, and loading. A curved glass module concept was evaluated and found to have the potential to significantly reduce panel structural costs. Conclusions of the study are: array costs do not vary greatly among the designs evaluated; panel and array costs are strongly dependent on design loading; and the best support configuration is load dependent

  7. Realisation and instrumentation of high current power station for superconducting cables testing; Realisation et instrumentation d'une station fort courant pour le test de cables supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnaud, S

    2000-05-01

    This report deals with the designing of a high current station able to test electric properties of superconductors. This test station will be used for testing the superconducting wires of large hadron collider detectors in CERN. The high current test station will have to generate high intensity continuous current in a magnetic field of 0 to 5 tesla and in temperature conditions of 4.2 K. The length of wire samples submitted to the uniform magnetic field is 300 mm and the installation is fitted with equipment able to measure the magnetic field perpendicular to either faces of the wire. The peculiarity of this station is to use a superconducting transformer in order to generate the high current. The first part of this work recalls important notions concerning superconductivity. The second part presents the high current station by describing the superconducting transformer and the sample-holder. We have studied the designing of a transformer able to yield a secondary current whose intensity reaches 100 kA, such intensity generates powerful electromagnetic forces (566 kN/m) in case of defect, so the sample-holder has to be carefully design to bear them. The third part presents the cryogenic component of the station, the instrumentation of the sample-holder and the method used to measure secondary currents. In the last part we present the performance of a prototype transformer, this prototype is able to deliver a 22 kA secondary current for a 160 A primary current, the uncertainty on the measured value of the secondary current is about 3%.

  8. Adding a small hydroelectric power plant to the drinking water supply of the Liddes community. Feasibility study; Installation d'une petite centrale hydraulique sur le reseau d'eau potable de la commune de Liddes. Etude de faisabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The actual drinking water supply no longer satisfies the needs of the Liddes community (southwestern Switzerland). This final report prepared for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the results of a study for an enhanced water supply system including a small hydroelectric power plant. The authors propose to collect the water of two sources of the mountain torrent Aron and to use the considerable pressure difference for power generation. Four variants have been studied differing in the exact height difference, the flow rate and the location of the turbine building. The recommended variant delivers a nominal flow of 18 l/s at difference in height of 377 m to a Pelton turbine equipped with a single injector, resulting in an electrical power output of 54 kW. Electrical power production would amount to 281,000 kWh/year and the production cost to 0.126 CHF/kWh.

  9. The assessment of external photon dose rate in the vicinity of nuclear power stations. An intercomparison of different monitoring systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, I.M.G.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Lauterbach, U.

    1993-01-01

    to a nuclear power station. The responses of each of these detectors to the natural radiation and to the radiation from the power station are given. Estimations by three of the dose rate instruments of the air kerma from all the radiation components are intercompared with the results from three different types...... of thermoluminescence dosemeter. The results clearly demonstrate that accurate estimations of doses in the environment arising from a nuclear facility can only be obtained if the responses of the detectors used to the different radiation components at that location are accurately evaluated. By correcting the measured...

  10. Radiation situation in Kamchatka after the Fukushima nuclear power station accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorin, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    The chronology of events in Kamchatka related to the threat of radioactive contamination of the territory as a result of the Fukushima-1 nuclear power station (NPS) accident in Japan is briefly reviewed based on the published data. The accident happened on March 11, 2011, after a strong earthquake near the coast of Japan and the giant tsunami followed by the earthquake. The power supply was damaged and, as a result, the cooling system of NPS reactors was destroyed. Although the reactors did not explode, radioactive emissions from the damaged NPS discharged into the atmosphere and spread over large areas by the air flows. Information about the radiation situation in Kamchatka is controversial. Therefore, the author carried out regular monitoring of the radiation background during a hiking trip in Kamchatka in August 2011. The data are presented in this paper. It was concluded that the radiation background along the route of the trip was consistent (within the accuracy of measurement methods) with the normal values of a natural background. A thorough analysis of air, soil, food samples, etc., is required for a more detailed study to identify the presence of radionuclides in the atmospheric emissions from the damaged NPS in Japan.

  11. Evaluation of Lyse wind power station 1992-1995. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thor, S.E. [comp.] [National Defence Research Establishment (Sweden)

    1996-11-01

    The main aim of the project was to test and evaluate a new wind power technique, partly through detailed measurements of the NWP 400 and partly through comparisons with the Danish standard unit. At the same time, it was a demand that the two units of the Power Station could be run as a production plant once the evaluation was complete. The overall conclusion from operation, and from the various measurements and studies carried out, is that the new technique functions as intended and that the calculations and estimates made in connection with design work were largely correct. The evaluation confirms that the unit can meet expected production levels, that it can cope with different operation situations and that it can be expected to meet the demands set for loads and safety with regard to fatigue. The evaluation has also shown that the calculation tools used to design the unit and calculate the production capacity have given correct results and good estimates. Certain sub-systems did not, however, function as intended and modifications were required. Additional modifications may be required in a series production of NWP 400. In its present form the unit has difficulties at high wind speeds due to large teeter movements. According to calculations, it should be possible to further reduce these teeter movements and thus increase the availability. The comparison between the units shows that both of the units have largely achieved the expected production capacity. 83 figs, 17 tabs

  12. Nova Scotia Power shows how to generate electricity from ocean. [Annapolis Tidal Generating station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-02-01

    The first tidal power plant in North America has completed a successful first year of operation, reports Nova Scotia Power Corp., the utility that built it and operates it. Rated at 19 MW, it's the largest tidal generating plant in the world, but the Canadians consider it a pilot-scale installation built to test the feasibility of harnessing the unusually large tides in the Bay of Fundy on Canada's east coast. Called the Annapolis Tidal Generating station it's located on a narrow neck of land separating the Annapolis River from the Bay of Fundy. The tides there range from 15 to 25 feet, averaging 21 feet. In the average tidal cycle the plant generates electricity for about six hours, sluices water into the reservoir for about three hours, and is at a standstill for about three hours. During the first year of operation the plant produced 25 million kWh. Reported availability was 99%. It missed only eight tides out of a possible 728.

  13. Second periodic safety review of Angra Nuclear Power Station, unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Carlos F.O.; Crepaldi, Roberto; Freire, Enio M., E-mail: ottoncf@tecnatom.com.br, E-mail: emfreire46@gmail.com, E-mail: robcrepaldi@hotmail.com [Tecnatom do Brasil Engenharia e Servicos Ltda, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Campello, Sergio A., E-mail: sacampe@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the second Periodic Safety Review (PSR2-A1) of Angra Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1, prepared by Eletrobras Eletronuclear S.A. and Tecnatom do Brasil Engenharia e Servicos Ltda., during Jul.2013-Aug.2014, covering the period of 2004-2013. The site, in Angra dos Reis-RJ, Brazil, comprises: Unit 1, (640 MWe, Westinghouse PWR, operating), Unit 2 (1300 MWe, KWU/Areva, operating) and Unit 3 (1405 MWe, KWU/Areva, construction). The PSR2-A1 attends the Standards 1.26-Safety in Operation of Nuclear Power Plants, Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory Commission (CNEN), and IAEA.SSG.25-Periodic Safety Review of Nuclear Power Plants. Within 18 months after each 10 years operation, the operating organization shall perform a plant safety review, to investigate the evolution consequences of safety code and standards, regarding: Plant design; structure, systems and components behavior; equipment qualification; plant ageing management; deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis; risk analysis; safety performance; operating experience; organization and administration; procedures; human factors; emergency planning; radiation protection and environmental radiological impacts. The Review included 6 Areas and 14 Safety Parameters, covered by 33 Evaluations.After document evaluations and discussions with plant staff, it was generated one General and 33 Specific Guide Procedures, 33 Specific and one Final Report, including: Description, Strengths, Deficiencies, Areas for Improvement and Conclusions. An Action Plan was prepared by Electronuclear for the recommendations. It was concluded that the Unit was operated within safety standards and will attend its designed operational lifetime, including possible life extensions. The Final Report was submitted to CNEN, as one requisite for renewal of the Unit Permanent Operation License. (author)

  14. The monitoring of the terrestrial environment around Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, P.G.; Souza, R.F.; Cardoso, S.N.M., E-mail: pgtares@eletronuclear.gov.b, E-mail: rfsouza@eletronuclear.gov.b, E-mail: sergion@eletronuclear.gov.b [ELETROBRAS Eletronuclear S.A., Paraty, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao Ambiental

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to evaluate the environmental monitoring around Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Station after the beginning the operation of Unit II, in July 2000. The Environmental Monitoring Laboratory (EML) has, for purpose, to monitor the environment around the station to verify if there is a potential impact caused by the operation of the units. The EML collects several environmental samples and analyses radiometrically to determine the presence of artificial radionuclides. The types of the samples are marine samples (sea water, fish, algae, beach sand and sediments), terrestrial (milk, banana, soil, grass, superficial and underground water and river water and sediment) and aerial samples (rain water, airborne for iodine and particulate). This paper only describes the monitoring of terrestrial samples. At the EML, the samples are prepared and analysed following international procedures. The samples of milk, banana, soil, grass, surface and underground water, river water and river sediment are analysed by gamma spectrometry in a multi-channel analyser GENIE-2000 System with High-purity Germanium (HpGe) detectors to determine the activities of the detectable radionuclides. The EML also analyses tritium in surface water by liquid scintillation counting. In addition, analysis of {sup 89}Sr/{sup 90}Sr, by beta counting and {sup 131}I by gamma spectrometry are performed in the processed milk. The results are, then, compared with those obtained in pre-operational time of Angra 1 (1978 - 1982) and those obtained in operational time of the units until 2010. The results show us that, from 1982 until now, there is no impact in terrestrial environment caused by the operation neither of Angra 1 nor both Angra 1 and Angra 2. (author)

  15. Conversion of the lignite-fired power stations of the upper Austrian power station company to bituminous coal-firing; Umruestung der Braunkohle-Kraftwerke der Oberoesterreichischen Kraftwerke AG auf Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttenbrunner, M.; Madlsperger, G [Oberoesterreichische Kraftwerke AG (OKA), Linz (Austria). Abt. Kraftwerkserrichtung; Pfeffer, S. [Oberoesterreichische Kraftwerke AG (OKA), St. Pantaleon (Austria). Kraftwerk Riedersbach; Steiner, H. [Oberoesterreichische Kraftwerke AG (OKA), Timelkam (Austria). Kraftwerk Timelkam

    1998-08-01

    The Upper Austrian Power Station Company operates coal-fired power stations at the Riedersbach and Timelkam sites. Because the adjacent supply sources of the original main fules of lignite had been shut down for economic reasons, the necessity to convert to bituminous coal-firing resulted. This paper quotes characteristic data for the lignite and bituminous coal used in the Upper Austrian Power Stations. It describes the conversion measures taken at each individual Upper Austrian coalfired power station, in which special arrangements and burner designs are represented. The reduction in fuel costs through the utilisation of bituminous coal available at world market prices was advantageous. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Oberoesterreichischen Kraftwerke betreiben an den Standorten Riedersbach und Timelkam kohlebefeuerte Kraftwerke. Weil die nahe gelegenen Foerderstaetten des urspruenglichen Hauptbrennstoffes Braunkohle aus Wirtschaftlichkeitsgruenden eingestellt wurden, ergab sich die Notwendigkeit des Umbaues auf Steinkohlefeuerung. Charakteristische Daten der in den OKA-Kohlekraftwerken eingesetzten Braun- und Steinkohle werden angegeben. Die Umbaumassnahmen jedes einzelnen OKA-Kohlekraftwerkes werden erlaeutert, wobei insbesondere Dispositionen und Brennerausfuehrungen dargestellt werden. Vorteilhaft war die Reduktion der Brennstoffkosten durch den Einsatz der zu Weltmarktpreisen erhaeltlichen Steinkohle. (orig.)

  16. Manitoba Hydro's Aboriginal partnerships : a new business model for developing current and future hydro-electric projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachal, S.; Goulet, R. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Socio-economic as well as environmental considerations have become as important as economic factors when developing hydroelectric power projects. Manitoba Hydro has developed a unique partnership approach to deal more effectively and equitably with the Aboriginal communities of Northern Manitoba who live in proximity to, and are affected by, projects such as the construction of the Wuskwatim3, the Keeyask4 and Conawapa5 generating stations. This paper outlined the genesis of Manitoba Hydro's approach along with the main elements and the expected benefits to both Manitoba Hydro and its partners. Their past approach in dealing with the communities who were in the vicinity of hydro-electric projects was also discussed. Manitoba Hydro's new approach includes the provision of training, employment and business opportunities as well as the possibility of ownership in the project. It is not without challenges, as it increases the costs, adds complexity and slows down the planning process. It also requires much consultation and patience to reconcile different goals and priorities regarding the development of these projects. It can also increase the risks involved by increasing construction or operating costs and even impair the viability of projects. Despite the challenges inherent in such partnerships, Manitoba Hydro sees immediate and long-lasting benefits for itself and the communities involved. 16 refs.

  17. Optimal Dispatch Strategy of a Virtual Power Plant Containing Battery Switch Stations in a Unified Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Bai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A virtual power plant takes advantage of interactive communication and energy management systems to optimize and coordinate the dispatch of distributed generation, interruptible loads, energy storage systems and battery switch stations, so as to integrate them as an entity to exchange energy with the power market. This paper studies the optimal dispatch strategy of a virtual power plant, based on a unified electricity market combining day-ahead trading with real-time trading. The operation models of interruptible loads, energy storage systems and battery switch stations are specifically described in the paper. The virtual power plant applies an optimal dispatch strategy to earn the maximal expected profit under some fluctuating parameters, including market price, retail price and load demand. The presented model is a nonlinear mixed-integer programming with inter-temporal constraints and is solved by the fruit fly algorithm.

  18. Reactivation of small hydroelectric power plant St. Marienthal Monastery, Ostritz. Final report from the 2nd part from planning to achievement; Reaktivierung der Wasserkraftanlage des Klosterstiftes St. Marienthal, Ostritz. Abschlussbericht zum zweiten Teil fuer die Bearbeitungsphasen der Projektierung bis zur Fertigstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, M.

    2001-07-01

    The hydroelectric power plant St. Marienthal Monastery on the river Lausitzer Neisse, which forms part of the border between Poland and Germany, was rehabilitated and modernized in the period between October 1999 and September 2000. The scheme to reactivate this plant was implemented as an external EXPO 2000 project for renewable energy production and sustainable management. On 6 October 2000, the hydroelectric power plant was officially put back into operation by Steffen Flath, Minister for the Environment and Agriculture in the German state of Saxony. The paper describes the special planning factors involved and the execution of construction work. (orig.) [German] Wiederbelebung der 1967 eingestellten Stromerzeugung bei weit hoeherer Effizienz unter Beibehaltung der oertlichen Gegebenheiten, die von den Rahmenbedingungen des Denkmalschutzes vorgegeben werden. Verzicht auf tiefe Eingriffe in den Unterlauf des Flusses, der durch Brueckentruemmer des zweiten Weltkrieges im Ablauf Stoerungen zeigt. Trotz hoeherer Wasserentnahme als bei der historischen Anlage soll die Durchgaengigkeit fuer Fische mittels einer Fischtreppe garantiert werden. Ziel ist es, das Kloster selbst und das auf seinem Territorium eingerichtete Internationale Begenungszentrum St. Marienthal vom Jahresertrag her selbst zu versorgen und ueberschuessigen Strom in das Netz der Energieversorgung Sachsen Ost AG einzuspeisen. Die Besonderheit dieser Anlage besteht darin, schon bestehende Bauwerke wieder zu nutzen, die erzeugte Energie zu demonstrieren, messen und in bei der EXPO 2000 zur energieoekologischen Modellstadt Ostritz darzustellen. (orig.)

  19. Situation and future developments in the power station engineering of the GDR. Situation und kuenftige Entwicklungen bei der Kraftwerkstechnik in der DDR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Effenberger, H.; Weidlich, H.G.

    1990-09-01

    Starting with the present state of power stations in the GDR and their evaluation in respect of energy and ecology, the authors have developed a concept for the future objectives and possibilities of the power stations. With regard to the modification of the power station engineering, considered as urgently required due to reasons of energy and environment, there was suggestions for modern plant conceptions, such as fluidized bed combustors, combined and gas/steam power plants, besides the retrofitting and the new building of proven conventional plants. It includes also the extension of combined heat and power systems, of nuclear energy, and the use of regenerative energy sources as parts of this concept. The power station modifications intended are shown in tables for the various power station locations. (orig.).

  20. 76 FR 19476 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... carts containing new resins in paper or plastic bags. The total weight of the plastic bags is estimated.... Standard-383, ``IEEE Standard For Qualifying Class 1E Electrical Cables And Field Splices for Nuclear Power Generating Stations'' (IEEE 383), or equivalent. Detection, Control, and Extinguishment The licensee stated...

  1. Improved grid operation through power smoothing control strategies utilizing dedicated energy storage at an electric vehicle charging station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Thomas; Holjevac, Ninoslav; Bremdal, Bernt A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the principal service aspects for electric vehicles (EV), as well as issues related to energy storage design, charging station integration into power system and load management issues. It builds on the research conducted in the Flexible Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure...

  2. 78 FR 22347 - GPU Nuclear Inc., Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station, Unit 2, Exemption From Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... COMMISSION GPU Nuclear Inc., Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station, Unit 2, Exemption From Certain Security... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: 1.0 Background GPU Nuclear, Inc. (GPUN, the licensee) is the licensee and holder of... responsibility of the licensee. Therefore, the Commission hereby grants GPU Nuclear, Inc., an exemption from the...

  3. Complex use of waste in wastewater and circulating water treatment from oil in heat power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, L. A.; Iskhakova, R. Ya.

    2017-06-01

    Sewage and circulating water from oil of thermal power plants (TPP) generated in fuel-oil shops during washing of electrical equipment and its running into the storm drainage system from the industrial site has been considered in the paper. It has been suggested to use the carbonate sludge of water treatment modified with hydrophobing emulsion as a sorption material for waste and circulating water treatment in thermal power plants. The carbonate sludge is waste accumulated in clarifiers at the stage of natural water pretreatment. General technical characteristics of the sludge, such as moisture, bulk density, total pore volume, ash, etc., have been determined. It has been found that the sludge without additional treatment is a hydrophilic material that has low adsorption capacity and wettability with nonpolar compounds. Therefore, the sludge is treated with organosilicon compounds to reduce the moisture capacity and increase its floatation. Several types of sorption materials based on the carbonate sludge subjected to surface and volume hydrophobization have been developed. During the volume treatment, the hydrophobing compound has been introduced into the material along with the plastifier. In case of the surface treatment, heat-treated granules have been soaked into hydrophobing emulsion. It has been shown that surface hydrophobization is most economically advantageous, because it reduces the consumption of water-repelling agent, wherein the total pore volume and sorption capacity during surface hydrophobization increase by 45 and 25% compared to that during volume hydrophobization. Based on the obtained results, the most effective sorption material has been chosen. To produce this material, it is necessary to sequentially carry out mixing of carbonate sludge with the binder, granulation, calcination, impregnation with a waterrepellent emulsion, and drying of the finished material. The suggested technology to produce the material and use it as a sorbent allows

  4. Study of atmospheric stagnation, recirculation and ventilation potential at Narora Atomic Power Station NPP site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Kumar, Avinash; Kumar, Vimal; Kumar, Jaivender; Ravi, P M

    2013-04-01

    The atmosphere is an important pathway to be considered in assessment of the environmental impact of radioactivity releases from nuclear facilities. The estimation of concentration of released effluents in air and possible ground contamination needs an understanding of relevant atmospheric dispersion. This paper describes the meteorological characteristics of Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) Nuclear Power Project site by using the integral parameters developed by Allwine and Whiteman (Atmospheric Environment 28(4):713-721, 1994). Meteorological data measured during the period 2006-2010 were analysed. The integral quantities related to the occurrence of stagnation, recirculation and ventilation characteristics were studied for the NAPS site to assess the dilution potential of the atmosphere. Wind run and recirculation factors were calculated for a 24-h transport time using 5 years of hourly surface measurements of wind speed and direction. The occurrence of stagnation, recirculation and ventilation characteristics during 2006-2010 at the NAPS site is observed to be 33.8, 19.5 and 34.7 % of the time, respectively. The presence of strong winds with predominant wind direction NW and WNW during winter and summer seasons leads to higher ventilation (48.1 and 44.3 %) and recirculation (32.6 % of the summer season). The presence of more dispersed light winds during pre-winter season with predominant wind directions W and WNW results in more stagnation (59.7 % of the pre-winter season). Thus, this study will serve as an essential meteorological tool to understand the transport mechanism of atmospheric radioactive effluent release from any nuclear industry during the pre-operational as well as operational phase.

  5. Tuttle Creek Hydroelectric Project feasibility assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-03-01

    The results are presented of a feasibility assessment study to determine if hydroelectric generation could be developed economically at the Corps of Engineers' Tuttle Creek Dam, an existing flood control structure on the Big Blue River near Manhattan, Kansas. The studies and investigations included site reconnaissance, system load characteristics, site hydrology, conceptual project arrangements and layouts, power studies, estimates of construction costs, development of capital costs, economic feasibility, development of a design and construction schedule and preliminary environmental review of the proposed Project. The dependable capacity of the Project as delivered into the existing transmission and distribution network is 12,290 kW and the average annual energy is 56,690 MWh. For the scheduled on-line date of July 1984, the Project is estimated to have a Total Investment Cost of $19,662,000 (equal to $1333/kW installed at that time frame) with an estimated annual cost for the first year of operation of $2,696,000, assuming REA financing at 9.5% interest rate. The Project is considered technically feasible and without any major environmental issues. It shows economic feasibility providing satisfactory financing terms are available. (LCL)

  6. Preliminary study for a drinking-water hydro-power station in Raron, Switzerland; Vorstudie Trinkwasserkraftwerk 'Moos', Gemeinde Raron VS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loretan, F. [Schneider - Bregy und Partner AG, Raron, (Switzerland); Hiller, B. [Ryser Ingenieure AG, Berne (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Small Hydro Programme of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the concept for the augmentation of an existing drinking-water-powered small hydro-electric project with an additional installation that is to use the overflow-water of a reservoir to drive a 75 kW Pelton turbine. The paper discusses the hydraulic situation and describes the installations proposed. Energy production and the costs involved are listed and commented on. Water in drinking-water quality from the Loetschberg railway tunnel is also to be used in the system.

  7. Design of FPGA Based Neural Network Controller for Earth Station Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen T. Dorrah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Automation of generating hardware description language code from neural networks models can highly decrease time of implementation those networks into a digital devices, thus significant money savings. To implement the neural network into hardware designer, it is required to translate generated model into device structure. VHDL language is used to describe those networks into hardware. VHDL code has been proposed to implement ANNs as well as to present simulation results with floating point arithmetic of the earth station and the satellite power systems using ModelSim PE 6.6 simulator tool. Integration between MATLAB and VHDL is used to save execution time of computation. The results shows that a good agreement between MATLAB and VHDL and a fast/flexible feed forward NN which is capable of dealing with floating point arithmetic operations; minimum number of CLB slices; and good speed of performance. FPGA synthesis results are obtained with view RTL schematic and technology schematic from Xilinix tool. Minimum number of utilized resources is obtained by using Xilinix VERTIX5.

  8. Risk Assessment Strategy for Decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yamaguchi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Risk management of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station decommissioning is a great challenge. In the present study, a risk management framework has been developed for the decommissioning work. It is applied to fuel assembly retrieval from Unit 3 spent fuel pool. Whole retrieval work is divided into three phases: preparation, retrieval, and transportation and storage. First of all, the end point has been established and the success path has been developed. Then, possible threats, which are internal/external and technical/societal/management, are identified and selected. “What can go wrong?” is a question about the failure scenario. The likelihoods and consequences for each scenario are roughly estimated. The whole decommissioning project will continue for several decades, i.e., long-term perspective is important. What should be emphasized is that we do not always have enough knowledge and experience of this kind. It is expected that the decommissioning can make steady and good progress in support of the proposed risk management framework. Thus, risk assessment and management are required, and the process needs to be updated in accordance with the most recent information and knowledge on the decommissioning works.

  9. Risk assessment strategy for decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Jang, Sung Hoon [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Hida, Kazuki [Nuclear Damage Compensation and Decommissioning Facilitation Corporation, Tokyo (Japan); Yamanaka, Yasunori [Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Tokyo (Japan); Narumiya, Yoshiyuki [The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    Risk management of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station decommissioning is a great challenge. In the present study, a risk management framework has been developed for the decommissioning work. It is applied to fuel assembly retrieval from Unit 3 spent fuel pool. Whole retrieval work is divided into three phases: preparation, retrieval, and transportation and storage. First of all, the end point has been established and the success path has been developed. Then, possible threats, which are internal/external and technical/societal/management, are identified and selected. “What can go wrong?” is a question about the failure scenario. The likelihoods and consequences for each scenario are roughly estimated. The whole decommissioning project will continue for several decades, i.e., long-term perspective is important. What should be emphasized is that we do not always have enough knowledge and experience of this kind. It is expected that the decommissioning can make steady and good progress in support of the proposed risk management framework. Thus, risk assessment and management are required, and the process needs to be updated in accordance with the most recent information and knowledge on the decommissioning works.

  10. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station recirc pipe dose rates with zinc injection and condenser replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiCello, D.C.; Odell, A.D.; Jackson, T.J. [PECO Energy Co., Delta, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) is located near the town of Delta, Pennsylvania, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River. It is situated approximately 20 miles south of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The site contains two boiling water reactors of General Electric design and each rated at 3,293 megawatts thermal. The units are BWR 4s and went commercial in 1977. There is also a decommissioned high temperature gas-cooled reactor on site, Unit 1. PBAPS Unit 2 recirc pipe was replaced in 1985 and Unit 3 recirc pipes replaced in 1988 with 326 NGSS. The Unit 2 replacement pipe was electropolished, and the Unit 3 pipe was electropolished and passivated. The Unit 2 brass condenser was replaced with a Titanium condenser in the first quarter of 1991, and the Unit 3 condenser was replaced in the fourth quarter of 1991. The admiralty brass condensers were the source of natural zinc in both units. Zinc injection was initiated in Unit 2 in May 1991, and in Unit 3 in May 1992. Contact dose rate measurements were made in standard locations on the 28-inch recirc suction and discharge lines to determine the effectiveness of zinc injection and to monitor radiation build-up in the pipe. Additionally, HPGe gamma scans were performed to determine the isotopic composition of the oxide layer inside the pipe. In particular, the specific ({mu}Ci/cm{sup 2}) of Co-60 and Zn-65 were analyzed.

  11. Tower reflector for focussing solar power stations. Turmreflektor fuer konzentrierende Solarkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, G.

    1983-12-22

    The invention concerns a tower collector for focussing solar power stations according to the method of two stage focussing. The purpose of the invention is to create an efficient tower reflector, which can be built simply and which can guarantee a long life by simple measures, particularly with regard to the mirrors. The problem is solved by building up a reflector structure so that the mirrors are carried on a profile structure, which can be cooled. In a first version of the ideas of the invention, the tower reflector is produced by having the galvanised profile structure consisting of material of high conductivity and making it possible to galvanise the mirrors, that a galvanised covering is deposited on the back forming closed cooling ducts, and by depositing a covering of galvanised armouring of great strength for fixing the supporting element afterwards. This galvanised construction can achieve the required high optical surface accuracy and prolonged use due to the active cooling. The temperature of the mirror surface is always kept low, so that radiation losses are prevented. (orig./BWI).

  12. Tower reflector for focussing solar power stations. Turmreflektor fuer konzentrierende Solarkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, G.

    1978-12-06

    The invention concerns a tower collector for focussing solar power stations according to the method of two stage focussing. The purpose of the invention is to create an efficient tower reflector, which can be built simply and which can guarantee a long life by simple measures, particularly with regard to the mirrors. The problem is solved by building up a reflector structure so that the mirrors are carried on a profile structure, which can be cooled. In a first version of the ideas of the invention, the tower reflector is produced by having the galvanised profile structure consisting of material of high conductivity and making it possible to galvanise the mirrors, so that a galvanised covering is deposited on the back forming closed cooling ducts, and by depositing a covering of galvanised armouring of great strength for fixing the supporting element afterwards. This galvanised construction can achieve the required high optical surface accuracy and prolonged use due to the active cooling. The temperature of the mirror surface is always kept low, so that radiation losses are prevented.

  13. Microbiological Contamination at Workplaces in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Station Processing Plant Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Sulyok, Michael; Gutarowska, Beata

    2017-01-21

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial contamination at a plant biomass processing thermal power station (CHP). We found 2.42 × 10³ CFU/m³ of bacteria and 1.37 × 10⁴ CFU/m³ of fungi in the air; 2.30 × 10⁷ CFU/g of bacteria and 4.46 × 10⁵ CFU/g of fungi in the biomass; and 1.61 × 10² CFU/cm² bacteria and 2.39 × 10¹ CFU/cm² fungi in filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs). Using culture methods, we found 8 genera of mesophilic bacteria and 7 of fungi in the air; 10 genera each of bacteria and fungi in the biomass; and 2 and 5, respectively, on the FFRs. Metagenomic analysis (Illumina MiSeq) revealed the presence of 46 bacterial and 5 fungal genera on the FFRs, including potential pathogens Candida tropicalis, Escherichia coli, Prevotella sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp.). The ability of microorganisms to create a biofilm on the FFRs was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also identified secondary metabolites in the biomass and FFRs, including fumigaclavines, quinocitrinines, sterigmatocistin, and 3-nitropropionic acid, which may be toxic to humans. Due to the presence of potential pathogens and mycotoxins, the level of microbiological contamination at workplaces in CHPs should be monitored.

  14. The internal microstructure and fibrous mineralogy of fly ash from coal-burning power stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick; Jones, Tim; BéruBé, Kelly

    2011-12-01

    Coal fly ash (CFA) is a significant environmental pollutant that presents a respiratory hazard when airborne. Although previous studies have identified the mineral components of CFA, there is a paucity of information on the structural habits of these minerals. Samples from UK, Polish and Chinese power stations were studied to further our understanding of the factors that affect CFA geochemistry and mineralogy. ICP-MS, FE-SEM/EDX, XRD, and laser diffraction were used to study physicochemical characteristics. Analysis revealed important differences in the elemental compositions and particle size distributions of samples between sites. Microscopy of HF acid-etched CFA revealed the mullite present possesses a fibrous habit; fibres ranged in length between 1 and 10 μm. Respirable particles (<10 μm) were frequently observed to contain fibrous mullite. We propose that the biopersistence of these refractory fibres in the lung environment could be contributing towards chronic lung diseases seen in communities and individuals continually exposed to high levels of CFA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental study of properties of heavy concrete with bottom ash from power stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondar Victor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the influence of cement quantity, plasticizing additives and compaction time on the strength and water consumption of concrete during its manufacturing using bottom ash from a thermal power station. The study was carried out using three factorial experiments. Variables varied on three levels. The obtained pattern functions characterize a relationship between strength, water consumption and variable factors. These factors include cement quantity, plasticize additives and compaction time. Compilation of Pareto effect charts allowed estimation of the significance of function indexes. Analysis of surface pattern function has revealed the optimal correlation between additive quantity and compaction time, cement quantity and additive quantity, cement quantity and compaction time. Compression strength of concrete was taken as the pattern in the pattern function. When analyzing the pattern function with water consumption as a pattern, optimal correlations between additive quantity and compaction time, cement quantity and additive quantity, cement quantity and compaction time were revealed. Application of STATISTICA 12 software has specified values of factors when the maximum strength is achieved. Correlations of components which have an impact on water consumption have been determined. The conclusions contain the quantitative findings of the study.

  16. Stress analysis of a repair weld to boiler in a nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinas, G.; Moyes, N.; Laird, A.; Mills, P. [Mitsui Babcock Technology Centre, Renfrew, Scotland (United Kingdom); Pennick, A.; Stewart, G. [BNFL, Reactor Integrity Assessments, R and T, BNFL Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2001-04-01

    A routine inspection on Hex No. 6 boiler at Chapelcross nuclear power station revealed the existence of a crack in the bottom dome of the boiler. To enable continued operation of the boiler, it was required that the crack be repaired. Due to the position of the repair in the boiler it was undesirable to carry out post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) as the process could cause damage to neighbouring components and attachments. MBEL was engaged by BNFL to take part in a programme to investigate a non-PWHT repair methodology which would not compromise the structural integrity of the vessel and would satisfy the stringent safety requirements of the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate. Using the latest finite-element modelling techniques, in conjunction with experimental measurements made both on specimens and on the boiler shell, a full residual stress analysis of the repair was carried out which showed that the tolerable defect size in the repair was increased to a level within the non-destructive testing detection range. The employment of the foregoing methods has enabled the BNFL programme to justify a non-PWHT repair to the boiler. (author)

  17. Radiation dose reduction efficiency of buildings after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Monzen

    Full Text Available Numerous radionuclides were released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (F1-NPS in Japan following the magnitude 9.0 earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011. Local residents have been eager to calculate their individual radiation exposure. Thus, absorbed dose rates in the indoor and outdoor air at evacuation sites in the Fukushima Prefecture were measured using a gamma-ray measuring devices, and individual radiation exposure was calculated by assessing the radiation dose reduction efficiency (defined as the ratio of absorbed dose rate in the indoor air to the absorbed dose rate in the outdoor air of wood, aluminum, and reinforced concrete buildings. Between March 2011 and July 2011, dose reduction efficiencies of wood, aluminum, and reinforced concrete buildings were 0.55 ± 0.04, 0.15 ± 0.02, and 0.19 ± 0.04, respectively. The reduction efficiency of wood structures was 1.4 times higher than that reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The efficiency of reinforced concrete was similar to previously reported values, whereas that of aluminum structures has not been previously reported. Dose reduction efficiency increased in proportion to the distance from F1-NPS at 8 of the 18 evacuation sites. Time variations did not reflect dose reduction efficiencies at evacuation sites although absorbed dose rates in the outdoor air decreased. These data suggest that dose reduction efficiency depends on structure types, levels of contamination, and evacuee behaviors at evacuation sites.

  18. Rancang Bangun Maximum Power Point Tracking pada Panel Photovoltaic Berbasis Logika Fuzzy di Buoy Weather Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Prima Juliansyah Putra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu aplikasi yang sering digunakan dalam bidang energi terbarukan adalah panel photovoltaic. Panel ini memiliki prinsip kerja berdasarkan efek photovoltaic dimana lempengan logam akan menghasilkan energi listrik apabila diberi intensitas cahaya. Untuk menghasilkan daya keluaran panel yang maksimal, maka diperlukan suatu algoritma yang biasa disebut Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT.MPPT yang diterapkan pada sistem photovoltaic berfungsi untuk mengatur nilai tegangan keluaran panel sehingga titik ker-janya beroperasi pada kondisi maksimal. Algoritma MPPT pada panel ini telah dilakukan dengan menggunakan logika fuzzy melalui mikrokontroler Arduino Uno sebagai pem-bangkit sinyal Pulse Width Modulation (PWM yang akan dikirimkan menuju DC-DC Buck Boost Converter. Keluaran dari buck boost converterakan dihubungkan secara langsung dengan buoy weather station untuk menyuplai energi listrik tiap komponen yang berada di dalamnya. Untuk menguji performansi dari algoritma MPPT yang telah dirancang, maka sistem akan diuji menggunakan variasi beban antara metode direct-coupled dengan MPPT menggunakan logika fuzzy. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa MPPT dengan logika fuzzy dapat menghasilkan daya maksimum daripada direct-coupled. Pada sistem panel photovoltaic ini memiliki range efisiensi 33.07589 % hingga 74.25743 %. Daya mak-simal dapat dicapai oleh sistem untuk tiap variasi beban dan efisiensi maksimal dapat dicapai pada beban 20 Ohm dari hasil pengujian sistem MPPT.

  19. A radiological assessment of space nuclear power operations near Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Steve

    1990-01-01

    In order to accomplish NASA's more ambitious exploration goals, nuclear reactors may be used in the vicinity of Space Station Freedom (SSF) either as power sources for coorbiting platforms or as part of the propulsion system for departing and returning personnel or cargo vehicles. This study identifies ranges of operational parameters, such as parking distances and reactor cooldown times, which would reasonably guarantee that doses to the SSF crew from all radiation sources would be below guidelines recently recommended by the National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements. The specific scenarios considered include: (1) the launch and return of a nuclear electric propulsion vehicle, (2) the launch and return of a nuclear thermal rocket vehicle, (3) the operation of an SP-100 class reactor on a coorbiting platform, (4) the activation of materials near operating reactors, (5) the storage and handling of radioisotope thermal generator units, and (6) the storage and handling of fresh and previously operated reactors. Portable reactor shield concepts were examined for relaxing the operational constraints imposed by unshielded (for human proximity operations) reactors and that might also be used to provide additional SSF crew protection from natural background radiation.

  20. Retrieval of intermediate-level waste at Trawsfynydd nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, S.; Shaw, I. [RWE Nukem, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    2002-12-01

    Trawsfynydd nuclear power station has two Magnox-type reactors which were shut down in 1995 at the end of their working life. During normal operations two types of intermediate-level waste (ILW) have accumulated on site namely miscellaneous activated components (MAC) and fuel element debris (FED). MAC is predominantly components which have been activated by the reactor core and then discharged. FED mainly consists of fuel cladding produced when fuel elements were prepared for dispatch to the reprocessing facility. As part of the decommissioning programme for the site, these waste streams are to be retrieved from storage vaults, monitored, packed and immobilised in a form suitable for on-site storage in the medium term and for eventual disposal in the long-term waste repository to be commissioned by Nirex at a later date. In 1996, BNFL Magnox Generation defined the waste storage strategy and awarded two contracts to AEA Technology Nuclear Engineering for the design, supply, commissioning and operation of equipment to retrieve, pack and immobilise the two waste streams. This included waste recovery from vaults in both reactor and pond locations and the final decommissioning and removal of plant from the site after successful completion of the waste recovery programme. This paper describes the technical solutions that were successfully applied to this project. (author)

  1. Weather and Dispersion Modeling of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Thomas; Businger, Steven

    2014-05-01

    The surface deposition of radioactive material from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station was investigated for 11 March to 17 March 2011. A coupled weather and dispersion modeling system was developed and simulations of the accident performed using two independent source terms that differed in emission rate and height and in the total amount of radioactive material released. Observations in Japan during the first week of the accident revealed a natural grouping between periods of dry (12-14 March) and wet (15-17 March) weather. The distinct weather regimes served as convenient validation periods for the model predictions. Results show significant differences in the distribution of cumulative surface deposition of 137Cs due to wet and dry removal processes. A comparison of 137Cs deposition predicted by the model with aircraft observations of surface-deposited gamma radiation showed reasonable agreement in surface contamination patterns during the dry phase of the accident for both source terms. It is suggested that this agreement is because of the weather model's ability to simulate the extent and timing of onshore flow associated with a sea breeze circulation that developed around the time of the first reactor explosion. During the wet phase of the accident the pattern is not as well predicted. It is suggested that this discrepancy is because of differences between model predicted and observed precipitation distributions.

  2. In situ measurement of electrostatic charge and charge distribution on flyash particles in power station exhaust stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guang, D.

    1992-01-01

    The electrostatic charges and charge distributions on individual flyash particles were experimentally measured in situ at four power stations in New South Wales and in the laboratory with an Electrostatic Charge Classifier. The global charge of these flyashes was also measured. The electrostatic charge on flyash particles of four power stations was found to be globally native. The median charge on the flyash particles varies linearly with particle diameter for all four flyashes. The electrostatic charge on the Tallawarra flyash particles was found to increase after passage through the air heater having huge metal surface areas, suggesting that triboelectrification was the primary charging mechanism for flyash particles. Distinctly different characteristics of the electrostatic charge, particle size and particle shape were found between the Eraring and the Tallawarra flyashes. The spherical Eraring ash has the highest proportion of lines and positively charged particles, but the lowest global charge level among the four flyashes. In contrast, the Tallawarra flyash has just the opposite. It is the distinct characteristics of the flyashes from Eraring and Tallawarra power stations that are responsible for the significant differences in their baghouse performance. The napping feature on the surface of the filter bags used in the Eraring and Tallawarra power stations provides an upstream surface of low fibre density above the fabric bulk. This feature presents and advantage to highly charged particles, like the Tallawarra flyash particles. Highly charged particles tend to deposit on such an upstream surface resulting in a porous dust cake with much less contact areas with the fabric medium than would otherwise be formed. This cake is easy to remove and provides less resistance to the gas flow. After singeing the naps on the filter bag surface at the Eraring power station, the problems of high pressure drop and retention of dust cake on the bas surface have been resolved.

  3. Capacity Calculation of Shunt Active Power Filters for Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Based on Harmonic Parameter Estimation and Analytical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niancheng Zhou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of electric vehicle charging stations on power grid harmonics is becoming increasingly significant as their presence continues to grow. This paper studies the operational principles of the charging current in the continuous and discontinuous modes for a three-phase uncontrolled rectification charger with a passive power factor correction link, which is affected by the charging power. A parameter estimation method is proposed for the equivalent circuit of the charger by using the measured characteristic AC (Alternating Current voltage and current data combined with the charging circuit constraints in the conduction process, and this method is verified using an experimental platform. The sensitivity of the current harmonics to the changes in the parameters is analyzed. An analytical harmonic model of the charging station is created by separating the chargers into groups by type. Then, the harmonic current amplification caused by the shunt active power filter is researched, and the analytical formula for the overload factor is derived to further correct the capacity of the shunt active power filter. Finally, this method is validated through a field test of a charging station.

  4. Probabilistic Physics-Based Risk Tools Used to Analyze the International Space Station Electrical Power System Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhogila M.; Hoge, Peter A.; Nagpal, Vinod K.; Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Rusick, Jeffrey J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the methods employed to apply probabilistic modeling techniques to the International Space Station (ISS) power system. These techniques were used to quantify the probabilistic variation in the power output, also called the response variable, due to variations (uncertainties) associated with knowledge of the influencing factors called the random variables. These uncertainties can be due to unknown environmental conditions, variation in the performance of electrical power system components or sensor tolerances. Uncertainties in these variables, cause corresponding variations in the power output, but the magnitude of that effect varies with the ISS operating conditions, e.g. whether or not the solar panels are actively tracking the sun. Therefore, it is important to quantify the influence of these uncertainties on the power output for optimizing the power available for experiments.

  5. Experimental investigations of overvoltages in 6kV station service cable networks of thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukelja, P.I.; Naumov, R.M.; Drobnjak, G.V.; Mrvic, J.D. [Nikola Tesla Inst., Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents the results of experimental investigations of overvoltages on 6kV isolated neutral station service cable networks of thermal power plants. The overvoltages were recorded with capacitive voltage measurement systems made at the Nikola Tesla Institute. Wideband capacitive voltage measurement systems recorded a flat response from below power frequencies to 10MHz. Investigations of overvoltages were performed for appearance and interruption of metal earth faults, intermittent earth faults, switching operation of HV motors switchgear, switching operation of transformers switchgear, and transfer of the network supply from one transformer to another. On the basis of these investigations, certain measures are proposed for limiting overvoltages and for the reliability of station service of thermal power plants.

  6. Application of a hazard and operability study method to hazard evaluation of a chemical unit of the power station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, E; Zare, M; Barkhordari, A; Mirmohammadi, Sj; Halvani, Ghh

    2008-12-28

    The aim of this study was to identify the hazards, evaluate their risk factors and determine the measure for promotion of the process and reduction of accidents in the chemical unit of the power station. In this case and qualitative study, HAZOP technique was used to recognize the hazards and problems of operations on the chemical section at power station. Totally, 126 deviations were documented with various causes and consequences. Ranking and evaluation of identified risks indicate that the majority of deviations were categorized as "acceptable" and less than half of that were "unacceptable". The highest calculated risk level (1B) related to both the interruption of acid entry to the discharge pumps and an increased density of the acid. About 27% of the deviations had the lowest risk level (4B). The identification of hazards by HAZOP indicates that it could, systemically, assess and criticize the process of consumption or production of acid and alkali in the chemical unit of power plant.

  7. Assessing the Integrated Computerized Maintenance Management System of O&M Company for Combined Cycle Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocel D. Gualberto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to describe and assess the integrated Computerized Maintenance Management System applied by an Operation and Management (O&M company to a Combined Cycle Power Station and come up with possible enhancement activities based on the results of the evaluation. The integrated Computerized Maintenance Management System is an electronic database which provides a powerful tool to deal with mechanical maintenance problems. It is a comprehensive approach that directs the maintenance personnel on what specific activity is to be applied on the equipment. The maintenance program was evaluated in terms of the maintenance organization, maintenance activities, spare parts and procurement, management assessment, program review and record keeping. Key performance indicators such as availability, reliability, efficiency and percentage of breakdown maintenance of the combined cycle power station were evaluated and measured the effectiveness of the maintenance program. The proposed enhancement activities would remediate the identified weak points of the maintenance program.

  8. Impact of the construction of a hydroelectric power plant on the land cover and use: study of the basin Lajeado Bonito - RS; Impacto da construcao de uma usina hidreletrica no uso e cobertura da terra: estudo da bacia Lajeado Bonito-RS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tramontina, Juliana; Breunig, Fabio Marcelo [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work aims to analyze the impact of the construction of a hydroelectric power plant on land cover and use in Lajeado Bonito-RS watershed. The study evaluated the temporal evolution of land cover and use in the watershed for the period before and after to installation of hydroelectric plant Foz do Chapeco (2009 to 2010). For temporal analysis, two images were interpreted, one orbital image of High Resolution Camera (HRC) onboard of the CBERS-2B, acquired in December 29, 2009. And a high-resolution image obtained from Google Earth application, acquired at December 26, 2010. The land cover and use maps were generated by vector editing SPRING software. We found that the predominant land use related to agriculture and livestock, including bare soil. In 2009 this class accounted for 70.23% of the total area, while it come to represent 61.8% in 2010. At the same time, there was increase of areas with native forest cover, from 27.49% covered by forest in 2009, to 31% in 2010. The results showed that in both 2009 and 2010 years, approximately 49% of permanent preservation area were used inappropriately. (author)

  9. 77 FR 12885 - Millstone Power Station, Units 1, 2 and 3, Dominion Nuclear Connecticut, Inc.; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ..., ``Effect of Hurricane Andrew on the Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station from August 20-30, 1992... hurricane force winds at the Millstone site. A subsequent response to requests for additional information... hurricane response organization (HRO). The exemption request states that the station HRO typically consists...

  10. OFFSET - RAY TRACING OPTICAL ANALYSIS OF OFFSET SOLAR COLLECTOR FOR SPACE STATION SOLAR DYNAMIC POWER SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, K.

    1994-01-01

    OFFSET is a ray tracing computer code for optical analysis of a solar collector. The code models the flux distributions within the receiver cavity produced by reflections from the solar collector. It was developed to model the offset solar collector of the solar dynamic electric power system being developed for Space Station Freedom. OFFSET has been used to improve the understanding of the collector-receiver interface and to guide the efforts of NASA contractors also researching the optical components of the power system. The collector for Space Station Freedom consists of 19 hexagonal panels each containing 24 triangular, reflective facets. Current research is geared toward optimizing flux distribution inside the receiver via changes in collector design and receiver orientation. OFFSET offers many options for experimenting with the design of the system. The offset parabolic collector model configuration is determined by an input file of facet corner coordinates. The user may choose other configurations by changing this file, but to simulate collectors that have other than 19 groups of 24 triangular facets would require modification of the FORTRAN code. Each of the roughly 500 facets in the assembled collector may be independently aimed to smooth out, or tailor, the flux distribution on the receiver's wall. OFFSET simulates the effects of design changes such as in receiver aperture location, tilt angle, and collector facet contour. Unique features of OFFSET include: 1) equations developed to pseudo-randomly select ray originating sources on the Sun which appear evenly distributed and include solar limb darkening; 2) Cone-optics technique used to add surface specular error to the ray originating sources to determine the apparent ray sources of the reflected sun; 3) choice of facet reflective surface contour -- spherical, ideal parabolic, or toroidal; 4) Gaussian distributions of radial and tangential components of surface slope error added to the surface normals at

  11. Usability value and heavy metals accumulation in forage grasses grown on power station ash deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Aleksandar S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of five forage grasses (Lolium multiflorum, Festuca rubra, Festuca arundinacea, Arrhenatherum elatius and Dactylis glomerata was conducted on an uncontaminated cultivated land, of leached chernozem type, and on “Nikola Tesla A” (TENT A thermal power station ash deposit. The concentrations of: As, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, Fe i Cu in grasses grown on two media were compared. Grass samples have been collected in tillering stage, when they were in full development. During the vegetative period three replications cut was conducted at about 3-5 cm height, imitating mowing and grazing. The concentrations of As and Ni were elevated in media samples collected from TENT A ash deposit, while the level of all studied elements in soil samples collected from cultivated land were within allowed limits. The variance of certain elements amounts in plant material collected from TENT A ash deposit was less homogeneous; the concentrations of As, Fe and Ni were higher in grasses collected from ash deposit, but Pb and Cu concentrations were higher in grasses grown on cultivated land. The concentrations of Zn were approximately the same in plants collected from the sites, whereas Cd concentrations were slightly increased in grasses grown on ash deposit. In general, it can be concluded from the results of this study that the concentrations of heavy metals in plants collected from both sites do not exceed maximal tolerant levels for fodder. The use of grasses grown on ash deposit for forage production should be taken with reserve. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31016: Unapređenje tehnologije gajenja krmnih biljaka na oranicama i travnjacima

  12. Treatment of IGCC power station effluents by physico-chemical and advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, A; Monteagudo, J M; Sanmartín, I; García-Peña, F; Coca, P

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this work was to improve the quality of aqueous effluents coming from the Gasification Unit in an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Thermoelectric Power Station, with the purpose of fulfilling the future more demanding normative. To this end, an integral wastewater treatment including coagulation, flocculation, neutralization, photocatalytic oxidation, and ion-exchange has been studied. A final scheme has been proposed to remove pollutants. All the parameters of the treated wastewater are below pouring specifications. In the first stage, the wastewater was treated with CaCl2 (optimal dose=11 g CaCl2/g F-) as coagulant and a commercial anionic polyelectrolyte (optimal dose=0.02 g/g F-) as flocculant to remove fluoride ions (99%) and suspended solids (92%). The water was then neutralized, improving the degree of transmission of ultraviolet light, allowing the faster photo-degradation of pollutants. The photochemical study included different systems (H2O2, UV/H2O2, Fenton, Fenton-like, UV/Fenton, UV/Fenton-like and UV/H2O2/O2). In the Fenton-like system, the influence of two parameters (initial concentration of H2O2 and amount of Cu(II)) on the degradation of cyanide and formate (taken as the reference of the process) was studied. Experimental results were fit using neural networks (NNs). Results showed that the photocatalytic process was effective for total cyanide destruction after 60 min, while 180 min was needed to remove 80% of formates. However, a more simple system with UV/H2O2/O2 yields similar results and is preferred for industrial application due to fewer complications. Finally, an ion-exchange process with Amberlite IRA-420 was proposed to remove the excess of chlorides added as a consequence of the initial coagulation process.

  13. Comprehensive investigation of the metal in drums of boilers at thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhigov, L. S.; Mitrofanov, A. S.; Tolstolutskaya, G. D.; Vasilenko, R. L.; Rudenko, A. G.; Ruzhytskyi, V. V.; Ribalchenko, N. D.; Shramchenko, S. V.

    2017-05-01

    A comparative investigation of the metal of drums of two TP-100 boilers at the Starobeshevskaya and the Lugansk thermal power stations (TPS) was performed. Their operation time was approximately 300000 hours; the shell of one drum was ruptured during a hydraulic test, and the other drum is in operation. According to the results of the technical diagnostics and a strength analysis, both drums comply with the applicable regulatory requirements. The objects of the investigation were fragments of the ruptured drum and a "plug" cut out of the shell during a scheduled inspection. The investigation was carried out by microscopic metallography methods and the scanning electron microscopy technique. Mechanical tests of metal specimens were performed, and the hydrogen content in these specimens was measured. Prior to the material research, the metal was examined using a magnetic memory method. The investigation yielded specifics of the metal microstructure, mechanical properties, and fracture patterns of the metal specimens at various temperatures. An investigation performed by the method of thermal-desorption mass spectrometry revealed no considerable difference in the hydrogen content in the metal of both drums, thereby excluding the effect of hydrogenation in analyzing the rupture causes. It was established that the drum at the Starobeshevskaya TPS had been damaged due to its low impact strength at room temperature and high brittle-ductile transition point. Comparison of the metallographic study data with the results obtained using the magnetic memory method suggests that the fracture was caused by local formation of the Widmannstatten pattern at points where accessories are welded to the shell. The prospects are demonstrated of the comprehensive approach to nondestructive examination (NDE) of TPS drums using the magnetic memory technique and metallographic methods.

  14. An Adaptive Multivariable Control System for Hydroelectric Generating Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunne J. Hegglid

    1983-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an adaptive multivariable control system for hydroelectric generating units. The system is based on a detailed mathematical model of the synchronous generator, the water turbine, the exiter system and turbine control servo. The models of the water penstock and the connected power system are static. These assumptions are not considered crucial. The system uses a Kalman filter for optimal estimation of the state variables and the parameters of the electric grid equivalent. The multivariable control law is computed from a Riccatti equation and is made adaptive to the generators running condition by means of a least square technique.

  15. Design Optimization of Spillways at Baihetan Hydroelectric Dam

    OpenAIRE

    Lönn, Jack; Dahl, Oskar

    2016-01-01

    China’s economic prosperity has led to a massive development in the hydropower sector. The Baihetan hydropower project is an ongoing construction and will become the third largest hydroelectric power plant in the world in regards to generating capacity and is projected to be finished in the year 2020.For every fault that an investment this massive has, it will lead to enormous cost and safety risks. Therefore the standards for every detail are especially high to ensure the success of its futu...

  16. Conditioning of cooling water in power stations. Feedback from twenty years of experience with acid feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goffin, C.; Duvivier, L.; Girasa, E. [LABORELEC, Chemistry of Water (Belgium); Brognez, J. [ELECTRABEL, TIHANGE Nuclear Power Station (Belgium)

    2002-07-01

    In the late 1970's and early 1980's, with the development of the nuclear programme in many European countries, the recirculation of cooling water in power stations became an issue which required urgent attention. The concentration of several plants of 1000 MW or more on sites along inland waterways actually made simple once-through cooling impossible, owing to the risk of an unacceptable rise in the river's water temperature. The chemical composition of natural freshwater in western European waterways is such that when it becomes slightly concentrated, scale is rapidly formed. The relatively low solubility of calcium carbonate and the degassing of the carbon dioxide during close contact between the water and air in the heat exchangers of the cooling tower explain this precipitation tendency. Fairly soon, experts in the electricity power generation companies highlighted the need for on-site, pilot loop simulations, in order to foresee the physico-chemical phenomena that could arise in industrial installations. The number of financially justifiable processing possibilities could be briefly summarised by the following three solutions: to adapt the concentration factor in order to be under the calcium carbonate solubility limit and thereby avoid the need for any water conditioning; to accept concentration factors of between 1.4 and 1.9 and control the calcium carbonate precipitation through controlled acid injection in the circulation water; to raise the concentration factor over 5 and soften the makeup water through the addition of lime and flocculant. The last of these solutions was rarely ever used in Belgium and France. It was however widely used in Germany. Its application requires a greater investment and leads to higher operating costs than acid injection. Furthermore, it leads to the problem of daily drying and disposal of several dozen tonnes of sludge, which have to be recycled or dumped. In an increasingly stringent environmental context, this

  17. Cogeneration in large processing power stations; Cogeneracion en grandes centrales de proceso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Jose Manuel [Observatorio Ciudadano de la Energia A. C., (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    In this communication it is spoken of the cogeneration in large processing power stations with or without electricity surplus, the characteristics of combined cycle power plants and a comparative analysis in a graph entitled Sale price of electricity in combined cycle and cogeneration power plants. The industrial plants, such as refineries, petrochemical, breweries, paper mills and cellulose plants, among others, with steam necessities for their processes, have the technical and economical conditions to cogenerate, that is, to produce steam and electricity simultaneously. In fact, many of such facilities that exist at the moment in any country, count on cogeneration equipment that allows them to obtain their electricity at a very low cost, taking advantage of the existence steam generators that anyway are indispensable to satisfy their demand. In Mexico, given the existing legal frame, the public services of electricity as well as the oil industry are activities of obligatory character for the State. For these reasons, the subject should be part of the agenda of planning of this power sector. The opportunities to which we are referring to, are valid for the small industries, but from the point of view of the national interest, they are more important for the large size facilities and in that rank, the most numerous are indeed in PEMEX, whereas large energy surplus and capacity would result into cogenerations in refineries and petrochemical facilities and they would be of a high value, precisely for the electricity public service, that is, for the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). [Spanish] En esta ponencia se habla de la cogeneracion en grandes centrales de proceso con o sin excedentes de electricidad, las caracteristicas de plantas de ciclo combinado y se muestra el analisis comparativo en una grafica titulada precio de venta de electricidad en plantas de ciclo combinado y de cogeneracion. Las plantas industriales, tales como refinerias, petroquimicas

  18. Stade nuclear power station (KKS): four giants on tour; Kernkraftwerk Stade - KKS: Vier Riesen gehen auf Reisen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beverungen, M.; Viermann, J. [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2008-04-15

    The Stade nuclear power station was the first nuclear power plant in the Federal Republic of Germany to deliver heat in addition to electricity. Since 1984, district heat was distributed to a saltworks nearby. The power plant, which is situated on the banks of the river Elbe, was commissioned in 1972 after approximately 4 years of construction. Together with the Wuergassen plant, it was among the first commercial nuclear power plants in this country. E.ON Kernkraft holds a 2/3 interest, Vattenfall Europe a 1/3 interest in the nuclear power plant. The Stade nuclear power station was decommissioned on November 14, 2003 for economic reasons which, in part, were also politically motivated. In September 2005, the permit for demolition of the nuclear part was granted. The release from supervision under the Atomic Energy Act is expected for 2014. In the course of demolition, the 4 steam generators of the Stade nuclear power station were removed. These components, which have an aggregate weight of approx. 660 tons, are to be safely re-used in Sweden. In September 2007, the steam generators were loaded on board the Swedish special vessel, MS Sigyn, by means of a floating crane. After shipment to Sweden, heavy-duty trucks carried the components to the processing hall of Studsvik AB for further treatment. After 6 months of treatment, the contaminated inner surfaces of the tube bundles of the steam generators have been decontaminated successfully, among other items. This has increased the volume of material available for recycling and thus decreased the volume of residues. (orig.)

  19. Energy harvesting from hydroelectric systems for remote sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Azevedo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydroelectric systems are well-known for large scale power generation. However, there are virtually no studies on energy harvesting with these systems to produce tens or hundreds of milliwatts. The goal of this work was to study which design parameters from large-scale systems can be applied to small-scale systems. Two types of hydro turbines were evaluated. The first one was a Pelton turbine which is suitable for high heads and low flow rates. The second one was a propeller turbine used for low heads and high flow rates. Several turbine geometries and nozzle diameters were tested for the Pelton system. For the propeller, a three-bladed turbine was tested for different heads and draft tubes. The mechanical power provided by these turbines was measured to evaluate the range of efficiencies of these systems. A small three-phase generator was developed for coupling with the turbines in order to evaluate the generated electric power. Selected turbines were used to test battery charging with hydroelectric systems and a comparison between several efficiencies of the systems was made.

  20. Effects of thermal discharge on marine ecosystems. A case study from a coastal power station in Southern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, G.; De Zio, V.; Pastorelli, A. M.; Rizzi, E.; Rositani, L.; Ungaro, N. [Laboratorio Provinciale di Biologia Marina, Molo Pizzoli, Bari (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Environmental impact of thermal effluent from a fuel power station (potential production 660x4 MW) was monitored during 1998, when the production was 50%; the thermal discharge area was located on the south-western Adriatic coast (Mediterranean Sea) and two sampling surveys were carried out (February and November) in order to analyze the composition and distribution of phytoplankton and macrobenthos communities. The biological assemblages seemed to be poorly influenced by heat diffusion. Some differences were observed among macrozoobenthos species distribution, nearby the discharge point, probably due to the influence of strong water flow coming out of the discharge duct; in fact, the strong flowing current could affect the bottom features (sedimentation) of the nearest areas. Because of the monitoring design (sampling scheme, short and seasonal time period), the reported results have a preliminary character; additional information from other surveys (to be carried out during the hot seasons and at maximum power station capacity) is needed.