WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrodynamical simulations performed

  1. Numerical simulation of hydrodynamic performance of ship under oblique conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Zhiming

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] This paper is intended to study the viscous flow field around a ship under oblique conditions and provide a research basis for ship maneuverability. [Methods] Using commercial software STRA-CCM+, the SST k-ω turbulence model is selected to predict the hydrodynamic performance of the KVLCC2 model at different drift angles, and predict the hull flow field. The pressure distribution of the ship model at different drift angles is observed and the vortex shedding of the ship's hull and constraint streamlines on the hull's surface are also observed. [Results] The results show that numerical simulation can satisfy the demands of engineering application in the prediction of the lateral force, yaw moment and hull surface pressure distribution of a ship. [Conclusions] The research results of this paper can provide valuable references for the study of the flow separation phenomenon under oblique conditions.

  2. Computational performance of a smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation for shared-memory parallel computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Daisuke; Furuichi, Mikito; Sakaguchi, Hide

    2015-09-01

    The computational performance of a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulation is investigated for three types of current shared-memory parallel computer devices: many integrated core (MIC) processors, graphics processing units (GPUs), and multi-core CPUs. We are especially interested in efficient shared-memory allocation methods for each chipset, because the efficient data access patterns differ between compute unified device architecture (CUDA) programming for GPUs and OpenMP programming for MIC processors and multi-core CPUs. We first introduce several parallel implementation techniques for the SPH code, and then examine these on our target computer architectures to determine the most effective algorithms for each processor unit. In addition, we evaluate the effective computing performance and power efficiency of the SPH simulation on each architecture, as these are critical metrics for overall performance in a multi-device environment. In our benchmark test, the GPU is found to produce the best arithmetic performance as a standalone device unit, and gives the most efficient power consumption. The multi-core CPU obtains the most effective computing performance. The computational speed of the MIC processor on Xeon Phi approached that of two Xeon CPUs. This indicates that using MICs is an attractive choice for existing SPH codes on multi-core CPUs parallelized by OpenMP, as it gains computational acceleration without the need for significant changes to the source code.

  3. Hydrodynamic simulations of expanding shells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wünsch, Richard; Palouš, Jan; Ehlerová, Soňa

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 289, 3-4 (2004), s. 35-36 ISSN 0004-640X. [From observation to self-consistent modelling of the ISM in galaxies. Porto, 03.09.2002-05.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1048102 Keywords : hydrodynamic simulations * ISM * star formation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.597, year: 2004

  4. A web portal for hydrodynamical, cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragagnin, A.; Dolag, K.; Biffi, V.; Cadolle Bel, M.; Hammer, N. J.; Krukau, A.; Petkova, M.; Steinborn, D.

    2017-07-01

    This article describes a data centre hosting a web portal for accessing and sharing the output of large, cosmological, hydro-dynamical simulations with a broad scientific community. It also allows users to receive related scientific data products by directly processing the raw simulation data on a remote computing cluster. The data centre has a multi-layer structure: a web portal, a job control layer, a computing cluster and a HPC storage system. The outer layer enables users to choose an object from the simulations. Objects can be selected by visually inspecting 2D maps of the simulation data, by performing highly compounded and elaborated queries or graphically by plotting arbitrary combinations of properties. The user can run analysis tools on a chosen object. These services allow users to run analysis tools on the raw simulation data. The job control layer is responsible for handling and performing the analysis jobs, which are executed on a computing cluster. The innermost layer is formed by a HPC storage system which hosts the large, raw simulation data. The following services are available for the users: (I) CLUSTERINSPECT visualizes properties of member galaxies of a selected galaxy cluster; (II) SIMCUT returns the raw data of a sub-volume around a selected object from a simulation, containing all the original, hydro-dynamical quantities; (III) SMAC creates idealized 2D maps of various, physical quantities and observables of a selected object; (IV) PHOX generates virtual X-ray observations with specifications of various current and upcoming instruments.

  5. Hydrodynamic simulation of elliptic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Kolb, P F; Ruuskanen, P V; Heinz, Ulrich W

    1999-01-01

    We use a hydrodynamic model to study the space-time evolution transverse to the beam direction in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions with nonzero impact parameters. We focus on the influence of early pressure on the development of radial and elliptic flow. We show that at high energies elliptic flow is generated only during the initial stages of the expansion while radial flow continues to grow until freeze-out. Quantitative comparisons with SPS data from semiperipheral Pb+Pb collisions suggest the applicability of hydrodynamical concepts already $\\approx$ 1 fm/c after impact.

  6. Hydrodynamic analysis and simulation of a flow cell ammonia electrolyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Luis A.; Botte, Gerardine G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • NH_3 electrooxidation mechanism was validated in a bench scale electrolyzer. • All kinetic parameters for NH_3 electro-oxidation were calculated and verified. • Hydrodynamic behavior of the NH_3 electrolyzer was properly described as a CSTR. • CSTR model was successfully applied to simulate a flow ammonia electrolyzer. - Abstract: The hydrodynamic analysis and simulation of a non-ideal single pass flow cell alkaline ammonia electrolyzer was performed after the scale-up of a well-characterized deposited polycrystalline Pt on Ni anode. The hydrodynamic analysis was performed using the residence time distribution (RTD) test. The results of the hydrodynamic investigation provide additional insights for the kinetic analysis of the ammonia electrooxidation reaction on polycrystalline Pt electrocatalysts -which are typically obtained under controlled flow regime, e.g., rotating disk electrode- by including the flow non-uniformity present in the electrolyzer. Based on the RTD function, the ammonia electrolyzer performance was simulated as a non-steady stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and the unknown kinetic parameters were obtained by fitting the simulation results with an experimental current profile, obtaining an adequate prediction of the ammonia conversion. This simplified approach for the simulation of the ammonia electrolyzer could be implemented in process simulation packages and could be used for the design and scale-up of the process for hydrogen production and wastewater remediation.

  7. Mesoscale simulations of hydrodynamic squirmer interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, Ingo O; Gompper, Gerhard

    2010-10-01

    The swimming behavior of self-propelled microorganisms is studied by particle-based mesoscale simulations. The simulation technique includes both hydrodynamics and thermal fluctuations that are both essential for the dynamics of microswimmers. The swimmers are modeled as squirmers, i.e., spherical objects with a prescribed tangential surface velocity, where the focus of thrust generation can be tuned from pushers to pullers. For passive squirmers (colloids), we show that the velocity autocorrelation function agrees quantitatively with the Boussinesq approximation. Single active squirmers show a persistent random-walk behavior, determined by forward motion, lateral diffusion, and orientational fluctuations, in agreement with theoretical predictions. For pairs of squirmers, which are initially swimming in parallel, we find an attraction for pushers and a repulsion for pullers, as expected. The hydrodynamic force between squirmer pairs is calculated as a function of the center-to-center distances d(cm) and is found to be consistent with a logarithmic distance dependence for d(cm) less than about two sphere diameters; here, the force is considerably stronger than expected from the far-field expansion. The dependence of the force strength on the asymmetry of the polar surface velocity is obtained. During the collision process, thermal fluctuations turn out to be very important and to strongly affect the postcollision velocity directions of both squirmers.

  8. Computer simulation of the fire-tube boiler hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaustov Sergei A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element method was used for simulating the hydrodynamics of fire-tube boiler with the ANSYS Fluent 12.1.4 engineering simulation software. Hydrodynamic structure and volumetric temperature distribution were calculated. The results are presented in graphical form. Complete geometric model of the fire-tube boiler based on boiler drawings was considered. Obtained results are suitable for qualitative analysis of hydrodynamics and singularities identification in fire-tube boiler water shell.

  9. Hydrodynamic Simulations of Kepler's Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jessica; Blondin, John; Borkowski, Kazik; Reynolds, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Kepler’s supernova remnant contains unusual features that strongly suggest an origin in a single-degenerate Type Ia explosion, including anisotropic circumstellar medium (CSM), a strong brightness gradient, and spatially varying expansion proper motions. We present 3Dhydrodynamic simulations to test a picture in which Kepler's progenitor binary emitted a strong asymmetric wind, densest in the orbital plane, while the system moved at high velocity through the ISM. We simulate the creation of the presupernova environment as well as the supernova blast wave, using the VH-1 grid-based hydrodynamics code. We first modeled an anisotropic wind to create an asymmetric bowshock around the progenitor, then the blast wave from thesupernova. The final simulation places both previous model pieces onto a single grid and allows the blast wave to expand into the bowshock. Models were completed on a Yin-Yang grids with matching angular resolutions. By manipulating parameters that control the asymmetry of the system, we attempted to find conditions that recreated the current state of Kepler. We analyzed these models by comparing images of Kepler from the Chandra X-ray Observatory to line-of-sight projections from the model results. We also present comparisons of simulated expansion velocities with recent observations of X-ray proper motions from Chandra images. We were able to produce models that contained similar features to those seen in Kepler. We find the greatest resemblance to Kepler images with a presupernova wind with an equator-to-pole density contrast of 3 and a moderately disk-like CSM at a 5° angle between equatorial plane and system motion.

  10. 3D hydrodynamic simulations of carbon burning in massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristini, A.; Meakin, C.; Hirschi, R.; Arnett, D.; Georgy, C.; Viallet, M.; Walkington, I.

    2017-10-01

    We present the first detailed 3D hydrodynamic implicit large eddy simulations of turbulent convection of carbon burning in massive stars. Simulations begin with radial profiles mapped from a carbon-burning shell within a 15 M⊙ 1D stellar evolution model. We consider models with 1283, 2563, 5123, and 10243 zones. The turbulent flow properties of these carbon-burning simulations are very similar to the oxygen-burning case. We performed a mean field analysis of the kinetic energy budgets within the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes framework. For the upper convective boundary region, we find that the numerical dissipation is insensitive to resolution for linear mesh resolutions above 512 grid points. For the stiffer, more stratified lower boundary, our highest resolution model still shows signs of decreasing sub-grid dissipation suggesting it is not yet numerically converged. We find that the widths of the upper and lower boundaries are roughly 30 per cent and 10 per cent of the local pressure scaleheights, respectively. The shape of the boundaries is significantly different from those used in stellar evolution models. As in past oxygen-shell-burning simulations, we observe entrainment at both boundaries in our carbon-shell-burning simulations. In the large Péclet number regime found in the advanced phases, the entrainment rate is roughly inversely proportional to the bulk Richardson number, RiB (∝RiB-α, 0.5 ≲ α ≲ 1.0). We thus suggest the use of RiB as a means to take into account the results of 3D hydrodynamics simulations in new 1D prescriptions of convective boundary mixing.

  11. Detailed simulation of morphodynamics : 1. Hydrodynamic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabi, M.; De Vriend, H.J.; Mosselman, E.; Sloff, C.J.; Shimizu, Y.

    2012-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional high-resolution hydrodynamic model for unsteady incompressible flow over an evolving bed topography. This is achieved by using a multilevel Cartesian grid technique that allows the grid to be refined in high-gradient regions and in the vicinity of the river bed. The

  12. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of OMEGA implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igumenshchev, I. V.; Michel, D. T.; Shah, R. C.; Campbell, E. M.; Epstein, R.; Forrest, C. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Goncharov, V. N.; Knauer, J. P.; Marshall, F. J.; McCrory, R. L.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.; Schmitt, A. J.; Obenschain, S.

    2017-05-01

    The effects of large-scale (with Legendre modes ≲ 10) asymmetries in OMEGA direct-drive implosions caused by laser illumination nonuniformities (beam-power imbalance and beam mispointing and mistiming), target offset, and variation in target-layer thickness were investigated using the low-noise, three-dimensional Eulerian hydrodynamic code ASTER. Simulations indicate that these asymmetries can significantly degrade the implosion performance. The most important sources of the asymmetries are the target offsets ( ˜10 to 20 μm), beam-power imbalance ( σrms˜10 %), and variations ( ˜5 %) in target-layer thickness. Large-scale asymmetries distort implosion cores, resulting in a reduced hot-spot confinement and an increased residual kinetic energy of implosion targets. The ion temperature inferred from the width of simulated neutron spectra is influenced by bulk fuel motion in the distorted hot spot and can result in up to an ˜1 -keV increase in apparent temperature. Similar temperature variations along different lines of sight are observed. Demonstrating hydrodynamic equivalence to ignition designs on OMEGA requires a reduction in large-scale target and laser-imposed nonuniformities, minimizing target offset, and employing highly efficient mid-adiabat (α = 4) implosion designs, which mitigate cross-beam energy transfer and suppress short-wavelength Rayleigh-Taylor growth.

  13. Large eddy simulation of hydrodynamic cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Mrugank; Mahesh, Krishnan

    2017-11-01

    Large eddy simulation is used to study sheet to cloud cavitation over a wedge. The mixture of water and water vapor is represented using a homogeneous mixture model. Compressible Navier-Stokes equations for mixture quantities along with transport equation for vapor mass fraction employing finite rate mass transfer between the two phases, are solved using the numerical method of Gnanaskandan and Mahesh. The method is implemented on unstructured grid with parallel MPI capabilities. Flow over a wedge is simulated at Re = 200 , 000 and the performance of the homogeneous mixture model is analyzed in predicting different regimes of sheet to cloud cavitation; namely, incipient, transitory and periodic, as observed in the experimental investigation of Harish et al.. This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  14. Star Formation History of Dwarf Galaxies in Cosmological Hydrodynamic Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Nagamine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the past and current work on the star formation (SF histories of dwarf galaxies in cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. The results obtained from different numerical methods are still somewhat mixed, but the differences are understandable if we consider the numerical and resolution effects. It remains a challenge to simulate the episodic nature of SF history in dwarf galaxies at late times within the cosmological context of a cold dark matter model. More work is needed to solve the mysteries of SF history of dwarf galaxies employing large-scale hydrodynamic simulations on the next generation of supercomputers.

  15. Launch Environment Water Flow Simulations Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Bruce T.; Berg, Jared J.; Harris, Michael F.; Crespo, Alejandro C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the use of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to simulate the water flow from the rainbird nozzle system used in the sound suppression system during pad abort and nominal launch. The simulations help determine if water from rainbird nozzles will impinge on the rocket nozzles and other sensitive ground support elements.

  16. The frontal method in hydrodynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The frontal solution method has proven to be an effective means of solving the matrix equations resulting from the application of the finite element method to a variety of problems. In this study, several versions of the frontal method were compared in efficiency for several hydrodynamics problems. Three basic modifications were shown to be of value: 1. Elimination of equations with boundary conditions beforehand, 2. Modification of the pivoting procedures to allow dynamic management of the equation size, and 3. Storage of the eliminated equations in a vector. These modifications are sufficiently general to be applied to other classes of problems. ?? 1980.

  17. Water Flow Simulation using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Bruce; Berg, Jared; Harris, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Simulation of water flow from the rainbird nozzles has been accomplished using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). The advantage of using SPH is that no meshing is required, thus the grid quality is no longer an issue and accuracy can be improved.

  18. Simulating Magnetized Laboratory Plasmas with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jeffrey N. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The creation of plasmas in the laboratory continues to generate excitement in the physics community. Despite the best efforts of the intrepid plasma diagnostics community, the dynamics of these plasmas remains a difficult challenge to both the theorist and the experimentalist. This dissertation describes the simulation of strongly magnetized laboratory plasmas with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), a method born of astrophysics but gaining broad support in the engineering community. We describe the mathematical formulation that best characterizes a strongly magnetized plasma under our circumstances of interest, and we review the SPH method and its application to astrophysical plasmas based on research by Phillips [1], Buerve [2], and Price and Monaghan [3]. Some modifications and extensions to this method are necessary to simulate terrestrial plasmas, such as a treatment of magnetic diffusion based on work by Brookshaw [4] and by Atluri [5]; we describe these changes as we turn our attention toward laboratory experiments. Test problems that verify the method are provided throughout the discussion. Finally, we apply our method to the compression of a magnetized plasma performed by the Compact Toroid Injection eXperiment (CTIX) [6] and show that the experimental results support our computed predictions.

  19. Simulation of Tailrace Hydrodynamics Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Christopher B.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2001-05-01

    This report investigates the feasibility of using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools to investigate hydrodynamic flow fields surrounding the tailrace zone below large hydraulic structures. Previous and ongoing studies using CFD tools to simulate gradually varied flow with multiple constituents and forebay/intake hydrodynamics have shown that CFD tools can provide valuable information for hydraulic and biological evaluation of fish passage near hydraulic structures. These studies however are incapable of simulating the rapidly varying flow fields that involving breakup of the free-surface, such as those through and below high flow outfalls and spillways. Although the use of CFD tools for these types of flow are still an active area of research, initial applications discussed in this report show that these tools are capable of simulating the primary features of these highly transient flow fields.

  20. Simulating colloid hydrodynamics with lattice Boltzmann methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cates, M E; Stratford, K; Adhikari, R; Stansell, P; Desplat, J-C; Pagonabarraga, I; Wagner, A J

    2004-01-01

    We present a progress report on our work on lattice Boltzmann methods for colloidal suspensions. We focus on the treatment of colloidal particles in binary solvents and on the inclusion of thermal noise. For a benchmark problem of colloids sedimenting and becoming trapped by capillary forces at a horizontal interface between two fluids, we discuss the criteria for parameter selection, and address the inevitable compromise between computational resources and simulation accuracy

  1. An iterative method for hydrodynamic interactions in Brownian dynamics simulations of polymer dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Linling; Young, Charles D.; Sing, Charles E.

    2017-07-01

    Brownian Dynamics (BD) simulations are a standard tool for understanding the dynamics of polymers in and out of equilibrium. Quantitative comparison can be made to rheological measurements of dilute polymer solutions, as well as direct visual observations of fluorescently labeled DNA. The primary computational challenge with BD is the expensive calculation of hydrodynamic interactions (HI), which are necessary to capture physically realistic dynamics. The full HI calculation, performed via a Cholesky decomposition every time step, scales with the length of the polymer as O(N3). This limits the calculation to a few hundred simulated particles. A number of approximations in the literature can lower this scaling to O(N2 - N2.25), and explicit solvent methods scale as O(N); however both incur a significant constant per-time step computational cost. Despite this progress, there remains a need for new or alternative methods of calculating hydrodynamic interactions; large polymer chains or semidilute polymer solutions remain computationally expensive. In this paper, we introduce an alternative method for calculating approximate hydrodynamic interactions. Our method relies on an iterative scheme to establish self-consistency between a hydrodynamic matrix that is averaged over simulation and the hydrodynamic matrix used to run the simulation. Comparison to standard BD simulation and polymer theory results demonstrates that this method quantitatively captures both equilibrium and steady-state dynamics after only a few iterations. The use of an averaged hydrodynamic matrix allows the computationally expensive Brownian noise calculation to be performed infrequently, so that it is no longer the bottleneck of the simulation calculations. We also investigate limitations of this conformational averaging approach in ring polymers.

  2. Numerical simulation of the cavitation's hydrodynamic excitement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassis, H.; Dueymes, E.; Lauro, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    First, we study the motion, the velocity, the phases plane and the acoustic sources associated to a spherical bubble in a compressible or incompressible medium. The bubble can be excited by periodic or random excitements. We study the parameters which influence their behaviour: periodicity or not of motion, implosion and explosion or oscillation of bubble. We take into account this behaviour in a model of cavitation: it is a numerical simulation using population of bubbles which are with positions (in the cavitation volume) and sizes are random. These bubbles are excited by a random excitement: a model of turbulent flow or implosion and explosion of bubble. (author)

  3. Improved Swimming Performance in Hydrodynamically- coupled Airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Sina; Shelley, Michael J.; Kanso, Eva

    2017-11-01

    Collective motion is a widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom from fish schools to bird flocks. Half of the known fish species are thought to exhibit schooling behavior during some phase of their life cycle. Schooling likely occurs to serve multiple purposes, including foraging for resources and protection from predators. Growing experimental and theoretical evidence supports the hypothesis that fish can benefit from the hydrodynamic interactions with their neighbors, but it is unclear whether this requires particular configurations or regulations. Here, we propose a physics-based approach that account for hydrodynamic interactions among swimmers based on the vortex sheet model. The benefit of this model is that it is scalable to a large number of swimmers. We start by examining the case of two swimmers, heaving plates, moving in parallel and in tandem. We find that for the same heaving amplitude and frequency, the coupled-swimmers move faster and more efficiently. This increase in velocity depends strongly on the configuration and separation distance between the swimmers. Our results are consistent with recent experimental findings on heaving airfoils and underline the role of fluid dynamic interactions in the collective behavior of swimmers.

  4. Hydrodynamics in adaptive resolution particle simulations: Multiparticle collision dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseeva, Uliana, E-mail: Alekseeva@itc.rwth-aachen.de [Jülich Supercomputing Centre (JSC), Institute for Advanced Simulation (IAS), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); German Research School for Simulation Sciences (GRS), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Winkler, Roland G., E-mail: r.winkler@fz-juelich.de [Theoretical Soft Matter and Biophysics, Institute for Advanced Simulation (IAS), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Sutmann, Godehard, E-mail: g.sutmann@fz-juelich.de [Jülich Supercomputing Centre (JSC), Institute for Advanced Simulation (IAS), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); ICAMS, Ruhr-University Bochum, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2016-06-01

    A new adaptive resolution technique for particle-based multi-level simulations of fluids is presented. In the approach, the representation of fluid and solvent particles is changed on the fly between an atomistic and a coarse-grained description. The present approach is based on a hybrid coupling of the multiparticle collision dynamics (MPC) method and molecular dynamics (MD), thereby coupling stochastic and deterministic particle-based methods. Hydrodynamics is examined by calculating velocity and current correlation functions for various mixed and coupled systems. We demonstrate that hydrodynamic properties of the mixed fluid are conserved by a suitable coupling of the two particle methods, and that the simulation results agree well with theoretical expectations.

  5. Hydrodynamic simulations of microjetting from shock-loaded grooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, C.; de Rességuier, T.; Sollier, A.; Lescoute, E.; Soulard, L.; Loison, D.

    2017-01-01

    The interaction of a shock wave with a free surface which has geometrical defects, such as cavities or grooves, may lead to the ejection of micrometric debris at velocities of km/s. This process can be involved in many applications, like pyrotechnics or industrial safety. Recent laser shock experiments reported elsewhere in this conference have provided some insight into jet formation as well as jet tip velocities for various groove angles and shock pressures. Here, we present hydrodynamic simulations of these experiments, in both 2D and 3D geometries, using both finite element method and smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Numerical results are compared to several theoretical predictions including the Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities. The role of the elastic-plastic behavior on jet formation is illustrated. Finally, the possibility to simulate the late stage of jet expansion and fragmentation is explored, to evaluate the mass distribution of the ejecta and their ballistic properties, still essentially unknown in the experiments.

  6. Can numerical simulations accurately predict hydrodynamic instabilities in liquid films?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denner, Fabian; Charogiannis, Alexandros; Pradas, Marc; van Wachem, Berend G. M.; Markides, Christos N.; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the dynamics of hydrodynamic instabilities in liquid film flows is an active field of research in fluid dynamics and non-linear science in general. Numerical simulations offer a powerful tool to study hydrodynamic instabilities in film flows and can provide deep insights into the underlying physical phenomena. However, the direct comparison of numerical results and experimental results is often hampered by several reasons. For instance, in numerical simulations the interface representation is problematic and the governing equations and boundary conditions may be oversimplified, whereas in experiments it is often difficult to extract accurate information on the fluid and its behavior, e.g. determine the fluid properties when the liquid contains particles for PIV measurements. In this contribution we present the latest results of our on-going, extensive study on hydrodynamic instabilities in liquid film flows, which includes direct numerical simulations, low-dimensional modelling as well as experiments. The major focus is on wave regimes, wave height and wave celerity as a function of Reynolds number and forcing frequency of a falling liquid film. Specific attention is paid to the differences in numerical and experimental results and the reasons for these differences. The authors are grateful to the EPSRC for their financial support (Grant EP/K008595/1).

  7. Simulation of seismic signals from asymmetric LANL hydrodynamic calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, J.L.; Rimer, N.; Halda, E.J.; Barker, T.G.; Davis, C.G.; Johnson, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrodynamic calculations of an asymmetric nuclear explosion source were propagated to teleseismic distances to investigate the effects of the asymmetric source on seismic signals. The source is an explosion in a 12 meter long canister with the device at one end of the canister and a metal plate adjacent to the explosion. This produces a strongly asymmetric two-lobed source in the hydrodynamic region. The hydrodynamic source is propagated to the far field using a three-step process. The Eulerian hydrodynamic code SOIL was used by LANL to calculate the material velocity, density, and internal energy up to a time of 8.9 milliseconds after the explosion. These quantities were then transferred to an initial grid for the Lagrangian elastic/plastic finite difference code CRAM, which was used by S-CUBED to propagate the signal through the region of nonlinear deformation into the external elastic region. The cavity size and shape at the time of the overlay were determined by searching for a rapid density change in the SOIL grid, and this interior region was then rezoned into a single zone. The CRAM calculation includes material strength and gravity, and includes the effect of the free surface above the explosion. Finally, far field body waves were calculated by integrating over a closed surface in the elastic region and using the representation theorem. A second calculation was performed using an initially spherical source for comparison with the asymmetric calculation

  8. TOWARD END-TO-END MODELING FOR NUCLEAR EXPLOSION MONITORING: SIMULATION OF UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND EARTHQUAKES USING HYDRODYNAMIC AND ANELASTIC SIMULATIONS, HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL EARTH MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A; Vorobiev, O; Petersson, A; Sjogreen, B

    2009-07-06

    This paper describes new research being performed to improve understanding of seismic waves generated by underground nuclear explosions (UNE) by using full waveform simulation, high-performance computing and three-dimensional (3D) earth models. The goal of this effort is to develop an end-to-end modeling capability to cover the range of wave propagation required for nuclear explosion monitoring (NEM) from the buried nuclear device to the seismic sensor. The goal of this work is to improve understanding of the physical basis and prediction capabilities of seismic observables for NEM including source and path-propagation effects. We are pursuing research along three main thrusts. Firstly, we are modeling the non-linear hydrodynamic response of geologic materials to underground explosions in order to better understand how source emplacement conditions impact the seismic waves that emerge from the source region and are ultimately observed hundreds or thousands of kilometers away. Empirical evidence shows that the amplitudes and frequency content of seismic waves at all distances are strongly impacted by the physical properties of the source region (e.g. density, strength, porosity). To model the near-source shock-wave motions of an UNE, we use GEODYN, an Eulerian Godunov (finite volume) code incorporating thermodynamically consistent non-linear constitutive relations, including cavity formation, yielding, porous compaction, tensile failure, bulking and damage. In order to propagate motions to seismic distances we are developing a one-way coupling method to pass motions to WPP (a Cartesian anelastic finite difference code). Preliminary investigations of UNE's in canonical materials (granite, tuff and alluvium) confirm that emplacement conditions have a strong effect on seismic amplitudes and the generation of shear waves. Specifically, we find that motions from an explosion in high-strength, low-porosity granite have high compressional wave amplitudes and weak

  9. Smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of expanding HII regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisbas, Thomas G.

    2009-09-01

    This thesis deals with numerical simulations of expanding ionized regions, known as HII regions. We implement a new three dimensional algorithm in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics for including the dynamical effects of the interaction between ionizing radiation and the interstellar medium. This interaction plays a crucial role in star formation at all epochs. We study the influence of ionizing radiation in spherically symmetric clouds. In particular, we study the spherically symmetric expansion of an HII region inside a uniform-density, non-self-gravitating cloud. We examine the ability of our algorithm to reproduce the known theoretical solution and we find that the agreement is very good. We also study the spherically symmetric expansion inside a uniform-density, self-gravitating cloud. We propose a new differential equation of motion for the expanding shell that includes the effects of gravity. Comparing its numerical solution with the simulations, we find that the equation predicts the position of the shell accurately. We also study the expansion of an off-centre HII region inside a uniform-density, non- self-gravitating cloud. This results in an evolution known as the rocket effect, where the ionizing radiation pushes and accelerates the cloud away from the exciting star leading to its dispersal. During this evolution, cometary knots appear as a result of Rayleigh-Taylor and Vishniac instabilities. The knots are composed of a dense head with a conic tail behind them, a structure that points towards the ionizing source. Our simulations show that these knots are very reminiscent of the observed structures in planetary nebula, such as in the Helix nebula. The last part of this thesis is dedicated to the study of cores ionized by an exciting source which is placed outside and far away from them. The evolution of these cores is known as radiation driven compression (or implosion). We perform simulations and compare our findings with results of other workers and we

  10. Rippled shock front solutions for testing hydrodynamic stability simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    The response of a shock front to arbitrary small perturbations can be calculated analytically. Such rippled shock front solutions are useful for determining the accuracy of hydrodynamic simulation codes such as LASNEX [Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 2, 51 (1977)], which are used to compute perturbation growth in inertial fusion targets. The LASNEX fractional errors are of order κ 2 L 2 , where κ is the transverse wavenumber of the perturbation, and L is the largest zone dimension. Numerical errors are about 25% for a calculation using 26 zones per transverse wavelength

  11. CHOLLA: A NEW MASSIVELY PARALLEL HYDRODYNAMICS CODE FOR ASTROPHYSICAL SIMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Evan E.; Robertson, Brant E. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    We present Computational Hydrodynamics On ParaLLel Architectures (Cholla ), a new three-dimensional hydrodynamics code that harnesses the power of graphics processing units (GPUs) to accelerate astrophysical simulations. Cholla models the Euler equations on a static mesh using state-of-the-art techniques, including the unsplit Corner Transport Upwind algorithm, a variety of exact and approximate Riemann solvers, and multiple spatial reconstruction techniques including the piecewise parabolic method (PPM). Using GPUs, Cholla evolves the fluid properties of thousands of cells simultaneously and can update over 10 million cells per GPU-second while using an exact Riemann solver and PPM reconstruction. Owing to the massively parallel architecture of GPUs and the design of the Cholla code, astrophysical simulations with physically interesting grid resolutions (≳256{sup 3}) can easily be computed on a single device. We use the Message Passing Interface library to extend calculations onto multiple devices and demonstrate nearly ideal scaling beyond 64 GPUs. A suite of test problems highlights the physical accuracy of our modeling and provides a useful comparison to other codes. We then use Cholla to simulate the interaction of a shock wave with a gas cloud in the interstellar medium, showing that the evolution of the cloud is highly dependent on its density structure. We reconcile the computed mixing time of a turbulent cloud with a realistic density distribution destroyed by a strong shock with the existing analytic theory for spherical cloud destruction by describing the system in terms of its median gas density.

  12. CHOLLA: A NEW MASSIVELY PARALLEL HYDRODYNAMICS CODE FOR ASTROPHYSICAL SIMULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Evan E.; Robertson, Brant E.

    2015-01-01

    We present Computational Hydrodynamics On ParaLLel Architectures (Cholla ), a new three-dimensional hydrodynamics code that harnesses the power of graphics processing units (GPUs) to accelerate astrophysical simulations. Cholla models the Euler equations on a static mesh using state-of-the-art techniques, including the unsplit Corner Transport Upwind algorithm, a variety of exact and approximate Riemann solvers, and multiple spatial reconstruction techniques including the piecewise parabolic method (PPM). Using GPUs, Cholla evolves the fluid properties of thousands of cells simultaneously and can update over 10 million cells per GPU-second while using an exact Riemann solver and PPM reconstruction. Owing to the massively parallel architecture of GPUs and the design of the Cholla code, astrophysical simulations with physically interesting grid resolutions (≳256 3 ) can easily be computed on a single device. We use the Message Passing Interface library to extend calculations onto multiple devices and demonstrate nearly ideal scaling beyond 64 GPUs. A suite of test problems highlights the physical accuracy of our modeling and provides a useful comparison to other codes. We then use Cholla to simulate the interaction of a shock wave with a gas cloud in the interstellar medium, showing that the evolution of the cloud is highly dependent on its density structure. We reconcile the computed mixing time of a turbulent cloud with a realistic density distribution destroyed by a strong shock with the existing analytic theory for spherical cloud destruction by describing the system in terms of its median gas density

  13. New Star-Like Surfacetexture for Enhanced Hydrodynamic Lubrication Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uddin M.S.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical modelling and optimization of a new ‘star-like’ geometric texture shape with an aim to improve tribological performance. Initial studies showed that the triangle effect is the most dominant in reducing the friction. Motivated with this, a ‘star-like’ texture shape consisting of a series of triangular spikes around the centre of the texture is proposed. It is hypothesised that by increasing the triangular effect on a texture shape, the converging micro-wedge effect is expected to increase, hence increasing the film pressure and reducing the friction. Using the well-known Reynolds boundary conditions, numerical modelling of surface texturing is implemented via finite difference method. Simulation results showed that the number of apex points of the new ‘star-like’ texture has a significant effect on the film pressure and the friction coefficient. A 6-pointed texture at a texture density of 0.4 is shown to be the optimum shape. The new optimum star-like texture reduces the friction coefficient by 80%, 64.39%, 19.32% and 16.14%, as compared to ellipse, chevron, triangle and circle, respectively. This indicates the potential benefit of the proposed new shape in further enhancing the hydrodynamic lubrication performance of slider bearing contacts.

  14. Biodiesel production through hydrodynamic cavitation and performance testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Amit; Verma, Ashish; Kachhwaha, S.S.; Maji, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi College of Engineering, Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India)

    2010-03-15

    This paper presents the details of development of a biodiesel production test rig based on hydrodynamic cavitation followed by results of experimental investigation carried out on a four cylinder, direct injection water cooled diesel engine operating on diesel and biodiesel blend of Citrullus colocyntis (Thumba) oil. The experiment covers a wide range of engine rpm. Results show that biodiesel of Thumba oil produced through hydrodynamic cavitation technique can be used as an alternative fuel with better performance and lower emissions compared to diesel. The most significant conclusions are that (1) Biodiesel production through hydrodynamic cavitation technique seems to be a simple, efficient, time saving, eco-friendly and industrially viable process. (2) 30% biodiesel blend of Thumba oil shows relatively higher brake power, brake thermal efficiency, reduced bsfc and smoke opacity with favourable p-{theta} diagram as compared to diesel. (author)

  15. Resolution convergence in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations using adaptive mesh refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snaith, Owain N.; Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan; Rosdahl, Joakim

    2018-06-01

    We have explored the evolution of gas distributions from cosmological simulations carried out using the RAMSES adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code, to explore the effects of resolution on cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. It is vital to understand the effect of both the resolution of initial conditions (ICs) and the final resolution of the simulation. Lower initial resolution simulations tend to produce smaller numbers of low-mass structures. This will strongly affect the assembly history of objects, and has the same effect of simulating different cosmologies. The resolution of ICs is an important factor in simulations, even with a fixed maximum spatial resolution. The power spectrum of gas in simulations using AMR diverges strongly from the fixed grid approach - with more power on small scales in the AMR simulations - even at fixed physical resolution and also produces offsets in the star formation at specific epochs. This is because before certain times the upper grid levels are held back to maintain approximately fixed physical resolution, and to mimic the natural evolution of dark matter only simulations. Although the impact of hold-back falls with increasing spatial and IC resolutions, the offsets in the star formation remain down to a spatial resolution of 1 kpc. These offsets are of the order of 10-20 per cent, which is below the uncertainty in the implemented physics but are expected to affect the detailed properties of galaxies. We have implemented a new grid-hold-back approach to minimize the impact of hold-back on the star formation rate.

  16. Theoretical and simulation research of hydrodynamic instabilities in inertial-confinement fusion implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, LiFeng; Ye, WenHua; He, XianTu; Wu, JunFeng; Fan, ZhengFeng; Xue, Chuang; Guo, HongYu; Miao, WenYong; Yuan, YongTeng; Dong, JiaQin; Jia, Guo; Zhang, Jing; Li, YingJun; Liu, Jie; Wang, Min; Ding, YongKun; Zhang, WeiYan

    2017-05-01

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) has been considered a promising, nearly inexhaustible source of sustainable carbon-free power for the world's energy future. It has long been recognized that the control of hydrodynamic instabilities is of critical importance for ignition and high-gain in the inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) hot-spot ignition scheme. In this mini-review, we summarize the progress of theoretical and simulation research of hydrodynamic instabilities in the ICF central hot-spot implosion in our group over the past decade. In order to obtain sufficient understanding of the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities in ICF, we first decompose the problem into different stages according to the implosion physics processes. The decomposed essential physics pro- cesses that are associated with ICF implosions, such as Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI), Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI), Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI), convergent geometry effects, as well as perturbation feed-through are reviewed. Analyti- cal models in planar, cylindrical, and spherical geometries have been established to study different physical aspects, including density-gradient, interface-coupling, geometry, and convergent effects. The influence of ablation in the presence of preheating on the RTI has been extensively studied by numerical simulations. The KHI considering the ablation effect has been discussed in detail for the first time. A series of single-mode ablative RTI experiments has been performed on the Shenguang-II laser facility. The theoretical and simulation research provides us the physical insights of linear and weakly nonlinear growths, and nonlinear evolutions of the hydrodynamic instabilities in ICF implosions, which has directly supported the research of ICF ignition target design. The ICF hot-spot ignition implosion design that uses several controlling features, based on our current understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities, to address shell implosion stability, has

  17. Simulations of reactive transport and precipitation with smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Meakin, Paul; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Eichler West, Rogene M.

    2007-03-01

    A numerical model based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) was developed for reactive transport and mineral precipitation in fractured and porous materials. Because of its Lagrangian particle nature, SPH has several advantages for modeling Navier-Stokes flow and reactive transport including: (1) in a Lagrangian framework there is no non-linear term in the momentum conservation equation, so that accurate solutions can be obtained for momentum dominated flows and; (2) complicated physical and chemical processes such as surface growth due to precipitation/dissolution and chemical reactions are easy to implement. In addition, SPH simulations explicitly conserve mass and linear momentum. The SPH solution of the diffusion equation with fixed and moving reactive solid-fluid boundaries was compared with analytical solutions, Lattice Boltzmann [Q. Kang, D. Zhang, P. Lichtner, I. Tsimpanogiannis, Lattice Boltzmann model for crystal growth from supersaturated solution, Geophysical Research Letters, 31 (2004) L21604] simulations and diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) [P. Meakin, Fractals, scaling and far from equilibrium. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1998] model simulations. To illustrate the capabilities of the model, coupled three-dimensional flow, reactive transport and precipitation in a fracture aperture with a complex geometry were simulated.

  18. Dynamics and Chemistry in Jovian Atmospheres: 2D Hydrodynamical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordwell, B. R.; Brown, B. P.; Oishi, J.

    2016-12-01

    A key component of our understanding of the formation and evolution of planetary systems is chemical composition. Problematically, however, in the atmospheres of cooler gas giants, dynamics on the same timescale as chemical reactions pull molecular abundances out of thermochemical equilibrium. These disequilibrium abundances are treated using what is known as the "quench" approximation, based upon the mixing length theory of convection. The validity of this approximation is questionable, though, as the atmospheres of gas giants encompass two distinct dynamic regimes: convective and radiative. To resolve this issue, we conduct 2D hydrodynamical simulations using the state-of-the-art pseudospectral simulation framework Dedalus. In these simulations, we solve the fully compressible equations of fluid motion in a local slab geometry that mimics the structure of a planetary atmosphere (convective zone underlying a radiative zone). Through the inclusion of passive tracers, we explore the transport properties of both regimes, and assess the validity of the classical eddy diffusion parameterization. With the addition of active tracers, we examine the interactions between dynamical and chemical processes, and generate prescriptions for the observational community. By providing insight into mixing and feedback mechanisms in Jovian atmospheres, this research lays a solid foundation for future global simulations and the construction of physically-sound models for current and future observations.

  19. D Hydrodynamics Simulation of Amazonian Seasonally Flooded Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinel, S. S.; Bonnet, M. P.; Da Silva, J. S.; Cavalcanti, R., Sr.; Calmant, S.

    2016-12-01

    In the low Amazonian basin, interactions between floodplains and river channels are important in terms of water exchanges, sediments, or nutrients. These wetlands are considered as hotspot of biodiversity and are among the most productive in the world. However, they are threatened by climatic changes and anthropic activities. Hence, considering the implications for predicting inundation status of floodplain habitats, the strong interactions between water circulation, energy fluxes, biogeochemical and ecological processes, detailed analyses of flooding dynamics are useful and needed. Numerical inundation models offer means to study the interactions among different water sources. Modeling floods events in this area is challenging because flows respond to dynamic hydraulic controls coming from several water sources, complex geomorphology, and vegetation. In addition, due to the difficulty of access, there is a lack of existing hydrological data. In this context, the use of monitoring systems by remote sensing is a good option. In this study, we simulated filling and drainage processes of an Amazon floodplain (Janauacá Lake, AM, Brazil) over a 6 years period (2006-2012). Common approaches of flow modeling in the Amazon region consist of coupling a 1D simulation of the main channel flood wave to a 2D simulation of the inundation of the floodplain. Here, our approach differs as the floodplain is fully simulated. Model used is the 3D model IPH-ECO, which consists of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic module coupled with an ecosystem module. The IPH-ECO hydrodynamic module solves the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations using a semi-implicit discretization. After having calibrated the simulation against roughness coefficients, we validated the model in terms of vertical accuracy against water levels (daily in situ and altimetrics data), in terms of flood extent against inundation maps deduced from available remote-sensed product imagery (ALOS-1/PALSAR.), and in terms

  20. Hydrodynamic modeling of petroleum reservoirs using simulator MUFITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasyev, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    MUFITS is new noncommercial software for numerical modeling of subsurface processes in various applications (www.mufits.imec.msu.ru). To this point, the simulator was used for modeling nonisothermal flows in geothermal reservoirs and for modeling underground carbon dioxide storage. In this work, we present recent extension of the code to petroleum reservoirs. The simulator can be applied in conventional black oil modeling, but it also utilizes a more complicated models for volatile oil and gas condensate reservoirs as well as for oil rim fields. We give a brief overview of the code by providing the description of internal representation of reservoir models, which are constructed of grid blocks, interfaces, stock tanks as well as of pipe segments and pipe junctions for modeling wells and surface networks. For conventional black oil approach, we present the simulation results for SPE comparative tests. We propose an accelerated compositional modeling method for sub- and supercritical flows subjected to various phase equilibria, particularly to three-phase equilibria of vapour-liquid-liquid type. The method is based on the calculation of the thermodynamic potential of reservoir fluid as a function of pressure, total enthalpy and total composition and storing its values as a spline table, which is used in hydrodynamic simulation for accelerated PVT properties prediction. We provide the description of both the spline calculation procedure and the flashing algorithm. We evaluate the thermodynamic potential for a mixture of two pseudo-components modeling the heavy and light hydrocarbon fractions. We develop a technique for converting black oil PVT tables to the potential, which can be used for in-situ hydrocarbons multiphase equilibria prediction under sub- and supercritical conditions, particularly, in gas condensate and volatile oil reservoirs. We simulate recovery from a reservoir subject to near-critical initial conditions for hydrocarbon mixture. We acknowledge

  1. Simulations of Model Microswimmers with Fully Resolved Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Norihiro; Molina, John J.; Yamamoto, Ryoichi

    2017-10-01

    Swimming microorganisms, which include bacteria, algae, and spermatozoa, play a fundamental role in most biological processes. These swimmers are a special type of active particle, that continuously convert local energy into propulsive forces, thereby allowing them to move through their surrounding fluid medium. While the size, shape, and propulsion mechanism vary from one organism to the next, they share certain general characteristics: they exhibit force-free motion and they swim at a small Reynolds number. To study the dynamics of such systems, we use the squirmer model, which provides an ideal representation of swimmers as spheroidal particles that propel owing to a modified boundary condition at their surface. We have considered the single-particle and many-particle dynamics of swimmers in bulk and confined systems using the smoothed profile method, which allows us to efficiently solve the coupled particle-fluid problem. For the single-particle dynamics, we studied the diffusive behavior caused by the swimming of the particles. At short-time scales, the diffusion is caused by the hydrodynamic interactions, whereas at long-time scales, it is determined by the particle-particle collisions. Thus, the short-time diffusion will be the same for both swimmers and inert tracer particles. We then investigated the dynamics of confined microswimmers using cylindrical and parallel-plate confining walls. For the cylindrical confinement, we find evidence of an order/disorder phase transition which depends on the specific type of swimmers and the size of the cylinder. Under parallel-plane walls, some swimmers exhibit wavelike modes, which lead to traveling density waves that bounce back and forth between the walls. From an analysis of the bulk systems, we can show that this wavelike motion can be understood as a pseudoacoustic mode and is a consequence of the intrinsic swimming properties of the particles. The results presented here, together with the simulation method that

  2. Simulating sympathetic detonation using the hydrodynamic models and constitutive equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Hoon; Kim, Min Sung; Yoh, Jack J. [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sun, Tae Boo [Hanwha Corporation Defense Rand D Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    A Sympathetic detonation (SD) is a detonation of an explosive charge by a nearby explosion. Most of times it is unintended while the impact of blast fragments or strong shock waves from the initiating donor explosive is the cause of SD. We investigate the SD of a cylindrical explosive charge (64 % RDX, 20 % Al, 16 % HTPB) contained in a steel casing. The constitutive relations for high explosive are obtained from a thermo-chemical code that provides the size effect data without the rate stick data typically used for building the rate law and equation of state. A full size SD test of eight pallet-packaged artillery shells is performed that provides the pressure data while the hydrodynamic model with proper constitutive relations for reactive materials and the fragmentation model for steel casing is conducted to replicate the experimental findings. The work presents a novel effort to accurately model and reproduce the sympathetic detonation event with a reduced experimental effort.

  3. AXISYMMETRIC SIMULATIONS OF HOT JUPITER–STELLAR WIND HYDRODYNAMIC INTERACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, Duncan; Arras, Phil; Li, Zhi-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Gas giant exoplanets orbiting at close distances to the parent star are subjected to large radiation and stellar wind fluxes. In this paper, hydrodynamic simulations of the planetary upper atmosphere and its interaction with the stellar wind are carried out to understand the possible flow regimes and how they affect the Lyα transmission spectrum. Following Tremblin and Chiang, charge exchange reactions are included to explore the role of energetic atoms as compared to thermal particles. In order to understand the role of the tail as compared to the leading edge of the planetary gas, the simulations were carried out under axisymmetry, and photoionization and stellar wind electron impact ionization reactions were included to limit the extent of the neutrals away from the planet. By varying the planetary gas temperature, two regimes are found. At high temperature, a supersonic planetary wind is found, which is turned around by the stellar wind and forms a tail behind the planet. At lower temperatures, the planetary wind is shut off when the stellar wind penetrates inside where the sonic point would have been. In this regime mass is lost by viscous interaction at the boundary between planetary and stellar wind gases. Absorption by cold hydrogen atoms is large near the planetary surface, and decreases away from the planet as expected. The hot hydrogen absorption is in an annulus and typically dominated by the tail, at large impact parameter, rather than by the thin leading edge of the mixing layer near the substellar point

  4. AXISYMMETRIC SIMULATIONS OF HOT JUPITER–STELLAR WIND HYDRODYNAMIC INTERACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christie, Duncan; Arras, Phil; Li, Zhi-Yun [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    Gas giant exoplanets orbiting at close distances to the parent star are subjected to large radiation and stellar wind fluxes. In this paper, hydrodynamic simulations of the planetary upper atmosphere and its interaction with the stellar wind are carried out to understand the possible flow regimes and how they affect the Lyα transmission spectrum. Following Tremblin and Chiang, charge exchange reactions are included to explore the role of energetic atoms as compared to thermal particles. In order to understand the role of the tail as compared to the leading edge of the planetary gas, the simulations were carried out under axisymmetry, and photoionization and stellar wind electron impact ionization reactions were included to limit the extent of the neutrals away from the planet. By varying the planetary gas temperature, two regimes are found. At high temperature, a supersonic planetary wind is found, which is turned around by the stellar wind and forms a tail behind the planet. At lower temperatures, the planetary wind is shut off when the stellar wind penetrates inside where the sonic point would have been. In this regime mass is lost by viscous interaction at the boundary between planetary and stellar wind gases. Absorption by cold hydrogen atoms is large near the planetary surface, and decreases away from the planet as expected. The hot hydrogen absorption is in an annulus and typically dominated by the tail, at large impact parameter, rather than by the thin leading edge of the mixing layer near the substellar point.

  5. Investigating mass transfer in symbiotic systems with hydrodynamic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Val-Borro, Miguel; Karovska, Margarita; Sasselov, Dimitar D.

    2014-06-01

    We investigate gravitationally focused wind accretion in binary systems consisting of an evolved star with a gaseous envelope and a compact accreting companion. We study the mass accretion and formation of an accretion disk around the secondary caused by the strong wind from the primary late-type component using global 2D and 3D hydrodynamic numerical simulations. In particular, the dependence on the mass accretion rate on the mass loss rate, wind temperature and orbital parameters of the system is considered. For a typical slow and massive wind from an evolved star the mass transfer through a focused wind results in rapid infall onto the secondary. A stream flow is created between the stars with accretion rates of a 2-10% percent of the mass loss from the primary. This mechanism could be an important method for explaining periodic modulations in the accretion rates for a broad range of interacting binary systems and fueling of a large population of X-ray binary systems. We test the plausibility of these accretion flows indicated by the simulations by comparing with observations of the symbiotic CH Cyg variable system.

  6. Hydrodynamic Simulation of the Cosmological X-Ray Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Rupert A. C.; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Davé, Romeel; Hernquist, Lars; Katz, Neal; Fardal, Mark A.; Weinberg, David H.

    2001-08-01

    We use a hydrodynamic simulation of an inflationary cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant to predict properties of the extragalactic X-ray background (XRB). We focus on emission from the intergalactic medium (IGM), with particular attention to diffuse emission from warm-hot gas that lies in relatively smooth filamentary structures between galaxies and galaxy clusters. We also include X-rays from point sources associated with galaxies in the simulation, and we make maps of the angular distribution of the emission. Although much of the X-ray luminous gas has a filamentary structure, the filaments are not evident in the simulated maps because of projection effects. In the soft (0.5-2 keV) band, our calculated mean intensity of radiation from intergalactic and cluster gas is 2.3×10-12 ergs-1 cm-2 deg-2, 35% of the total softband emission. This intensity is compatible at the ~1 σ level with estimates of the unresolved soft background intensity from deep ROSAT and Chandra measurements. Only 4% of the hard (2-10 keV) emission is associated with intergalactic gas. Relative to active galactic nuclei flux, the IGM component of the XRB peaks at a lower redshift (median z~0.45) and spans a narrower redshift range, so its clustering makes an important contribution to the angular correlation function of the total emission. The clustering on the scales accessible to our simulation (0.1‧-10') is significant, with an amplitude roughly consistent with an extrapolation of recent ROSAT results to small scales. A cross-correlation analysis of the XRB against nearby galaxies taken from a simulated redshift survey also yields a strong signal from the IGM. Our conclusions about the soft background intensity differ from those of some recent papers that have argued that the expected emission from gas in galaxy, group, and cluster halos would exceed the observed background unless much of the gas is expelled by supernova feedback. We obtain reasonable compatibility with

  7. REIONIZATION ON LARGE SCALES. I. A PARAMETRIC MODEL CONSTRUCTED FROM RADIATION-HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, N.; Trac, H.; Cen, R.; Loeb, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new method for modeling inhomogeneous cosmic reionization on large scales. Utilizing high-resolution radiation-hydrodynamic simulations with 2048 3 dark matter particles, 2048 3 gas cells, and 17 billion adaptive rays in a L = 100 Mpc h –1 box, we show that the density and reionization redshift fields are highly correlated on large scales (∼> 1 Mpc h –1 ). This correlation can be statistically represented by a scale-dependent linear bias. We construct a parametric function for the bias, which is then used to filter any large-scale density field to derive the corresponding spatially varying reionization redshift field. The parametric model has three free parameters that can be reduced to one free parameter when we fit the two bias parameters to simulation results. We can differentiate degenerate combinations of the bias parameters by combining results for the global ionization histories and correlation length between ionized regions. Unlike previous semi-analytic models, the evolution of the reionization redshift field in our model is directly compared cell by cell against simulations and performs well in all tests. Our model maps the high-resolution, intermediate-volume radiation-hydrodynamic simulations onto lower-resolution, larger-volume N-body simulations (∼> 2 Gpc h –1 ) in order to make mock observations and theoretical predictions

  8. Hydrodynamic simulations of accretion disks in cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Masahito; Osaki, Yoji

    1990-01-01

    The tidal effects of secondary stars on accretion disks in cataclysmic variables are studied by two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. The time evolution of an accretion disk under a constant mass supply rate from the secondary is followed until it reaches a quasi-steady state. We have examined various cases of different mass ratios of binary systems. It is found that the accretion disk settles into a steady state of an elongated disk fixed in the rotating frame of the binary in a binary system with comparable masses of component stars. On the other hand, in the case of a low-mass secondary, the accretion disk develops a non-axisymmetric (eccentric) structure and finally settles into a periodically oscillating state in which a non-axisymmetric eccentric disk rotates in the opposite direction to the orbital motion of the binary in the rotating frame of the binary. The period of oscillation is a few percent longer than the orbital period of the binary, and it offers a natural explanation for the ''superhump'' periodicity of SU UMa stars. Our results thus confirm basically those of Whitehurst (1988, AAA 45.064.032) who discovered the tidal instability of an accretion disk in the case of a low-mass secondary. We then discuss the cause of the tidal instability. It is shown that the tidal instability of accretion disks is caused by a parametric resonance between particle orbits and an orbiting secondary star with a 1:3 period ratio. (author)

  9. An Investigation of Intracluster Light Evolution Using Cosmological Hydrodynamical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lin; Lin, Weipeng; Cui, Weiguang; Kang, Xi; Wang, Yang; Contini, E.; Yu, Yu

    2018-06-01

    Intracluster light (ICL) in observations is usually identified through the surface brightness limit (SBL) method. In this paper, for the first time we produce mock images of galaxy groups and clusters, using a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation to investigate the ICL fraction and focus on its dependence on observational parameters, e.g., the SBL, the effects of cosmological redshift-dimming, point-spread function (PSF), and CCD pixel size. Detailed analyses suggest that the width of the PSF has a significant effect on the measured ICL fraction, while the relatively small pixel size shows almost no influence. It is found that the measured ICL fraction depends strongly on the SBL. At a fixed SBL and redshift, the measured ICL fraction decreases with increasing halo mass, while with a much fainter SBL, it does not depend on halo mass at low redshifts. In our work, the measured ICL fraction shows a clear dependence on the cosmological redshift-dimming effect. It is found that there is more mass locked in the ICL component than light, suggesting that the use of a constant mass-to-light ratio at high surface brightness levels will lead to an underestimate of ICL mass. Furthermore, it is found that the radial profile of ICL shows a characteristic radius that is almost independent of halo mass. The current measurement of ICL from observations has a large dispersion due to different methods, and we emphasize the importance of using the same definition when observational results are compared with theoretical predictions.

  10. Simulating Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability using PPM hydrodynamics @scale on Roadrunner (u)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, Paul R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dimonte, Guy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rockefeller, Gabriel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fryer, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dimonte, Guy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dai, W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kares, R. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-05

    The effect of initial conditions on the self-similar growth of the RT instability is investigated using a hydrodynamics code based on the piecewise-parabolic-method (PPM). The PPM code was converted to the hybrid architecture of Roadrunner in order to perform the simulations at extremely high speed and spatial resolution. This paper describes the code conversion to the Cell processor, the scaling studies to 12 CU's on Roadrunner and results on the dependence of the RT growth rate on initial conditions. The relevance of the Roadrunner implementation of this PPM code to other existing and anticipated computer architectures is also discussed.

  11. Prediction of hydrodynamic characteristics of a venturi scrubber by using CFD simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Bal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The filtered containment venting system (FCVS is a safety relevant system, which consists of venturi scrubber and a mesh filter. FCVS needs to be further assessed to improve the existing performance of the venturi scrubber. Therefore, hydrodynamics is an important counter-component needs to be investigated to improve the design of the venturi scrubber. In the present research, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD has been used to predict the hydrodynamic behaviour of a newly designed venturi scrubber. Mesh was developed by gambit 2.4.6 and ansys fluent 15 has been used to predict the pressure drop profile inside the venturi scrubber under various flow conditions. The Reynolds Renormalization Group (RNG k-ε turbulence model and the volume of the fluid (VOF were employed for this simulation. The effect of throat gas velocity, liquid mass flow rate, and liquid loading on pressure drop was studied. Maximum pressure drop 2064.34 pa was achieved at the throat gas velocity of 60 m/s and liquid flow rate of 0.033 kg/s and minimum pressure drop 373.51 pa was achieved at the throat gas velocity of 24 m/s and liquid flow rate of 0.016 kg/s. The results of the present study will assist for proper functioning of venturi scrubber. Keywords: Venturi scrubber, Hydrodynamics, Pressure drop, Computational fluid dynamics, Nuclear power plant safety, Flow prediction

  12. Extended liner performance for hydrodynamics and material properties experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Reinovsky, R E

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. Over the last few years a new application for high performance pulsed power, the production of high energy density environments for the study of material properties under extreme conditions and hydrodynamics in complex geometries has joined the traditional family of radiation source applications. The newly commissioned Atlas pulsed power system at Los Alamos has replaced its predecessor, Pegasus, and joined the Shiva Star system at AFRL, Albuquerque and a variety of flux compression systems, principally at the All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) as ultra high current drivers for the high precision, magnetically imploded, near-solid density liner that is used to create the needed environments. Three families of experiments: the production of ultra strong shocks (>10 Mbar), the production of strongly coupled plasmas by liner compression of an initially dense plasma of a few eV temperature, and the compression of a magnetized plasma for ...

  13. Radio Evolution of Supernova Remnants Including Nonlinear Particle Acceleration: Insights from Hydrodynamic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović, Marko Z.; Urošević, Dejan; Arbutina, Bojan; Orlando, Salvatore; Maxted, Nigel; Filipović, Miroslav D.

    2018-01-01

    We present a model for the radio evolution of supernova remnants (SNRs) obtained by using three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations coupled with nonlinear kinetic theory of cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration in SNRs. We model the radio evolution of SNRs on a global level by performing simulations for a wide range of the relevant physical parameters, such as the ambient density, supernova (SN) explosion energy, acceleration efficiency, and magnetic field amplification (MFA) efficiency. We attribute the observed spread of radio surface brightnesses for corresponding SNR diameters to the spread of these parameters. In addition to our simulations of Type Ia SNRs, we also considered SNR radio evolution in denser, nonuniform circumstellar environments modified by the progenitor star wind. These simulations start with the mass of the ejecta substantially higher than in the case of a Type Ia SN and presumably lower shock speed. The magnetic field is understandably seen as very important for the radio evolution of SNRs. In terms of MFA, we include both resonant and nonresonant modes in our large-scale simulations by implementing models obtained from first-principles, particle-in-cell simulations and nonlinear magnetohydrodynamical simulations. We test the quality and reliability of our models on a sample consisting of Galactic and extragalactic SNRs. Our simulations give Σ ‑ D slopes between ‑4 and ‑6 for the full Sedov regime. Recent empirical slopes obtained for the Galactic samples are around ‑5, while those for the extragalactic samples are around ‑4.

  14. Concatenating algorithms for parallel numerical simulations coupling radiation hydrodynamics with neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo Zeyao

    2004-11-01

    Multiphysics parallel numerical simulations are usually essential to simplify researches on complex physical phenomena in which several physics are tightly coupled. It is very important on how to concatenate those coupled physics for fully scalable parallel simulation. Meanwhile, three objectives should be balanced, the first is efficient data transfer among simulations, the second and the third are efficient parallel executions and simultaneously developments of those simulation codes. Two concatenating algorithms for multiphysics parallel numerical simulations coupling radiation hydrodynamics with neutron transport on unstructured grid are presented. The first algorithm, Fully Loosely Concatenation (FLC), focuses on the independence of code development and the independence running with optimal performance of code. The second algorithm. Two Level Tightly Concatenation (TLTC), focuses on the optimal tradeoffs among above three objectives. Theoretical analyses for communicational complexity and parallel numerical experiments on hundreds of processors on two parallel machines have showed that these two algorithms are efficient and can be generalized to other multiphysics parallel numerical simulations. In especial, algorithm TLTC is linearly scalable and has achieved the optimal parallel performance. (authors)

  15. Monte Carlo closure for moment-based transport schemes in general relativistic radiation hydrodynamic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucart, Francois

    2018-04-01

    General relativistic radiation hydrodynamic simulations are necessary to accurately model a number of astrophysical systems involving black holes and neutron stars. Photon transport plays a crucial role in radiatively dominated accretion discs, while neutrino transport is critical to core-collapse supernovae and to the modelling of electromagnetic transients and nucleosynthesis in neutron star mergers. However, evolving the full Boltzmann equations of radiative transport is extremely expensive. Here, we describe the implementation in the general relativistic SPEC code of a cheaper radiation hydrodynamic method that theoretically converges to a solution of Boltzmann's equation in the limit of infinite numerical resources. The algorithm is based on a grey two-moment scheme, in which we evolve the energy density and momentum density of the radiation. Two-moment schemes require a closure that fills in missing information about the energy spectrum and higher order moments of the radiation. Instead of the approximate analytical closure currently used in core-collapse and merger simulations, we complement the two-moment scheme with a low-accuracy Monte Carlo evolution. The Monte Carlo results can provide any or all of the missing information in the evolution of the moments, as desired by the user. As a first test of our methods, we study a set of idealized problems demonstrating that our algorithm performs significantly better than existing analytical closures. We also discuss the current limitations of our method, in particular open questions regarding the stability of the fully coupled scheme.

  16. Simulation of impact ballistic of Cu-10wt%Sn frangible bullet using smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Mas Irfan P.; Widyastuti, Simaremare, Peniel

    2018-04-01

    Frangible bullet is designed to disintegrate upon impact against a hard target. Understanding the impact response and performance of frangible bullet is therefore of highly interest. In this paper, simulation of impact ballistic of Cu-IOwt%Sn frangible bullet using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method is presented. The frangible bullet is impacted against a hard, cylindrical stainless steel target. Effect of variability of the frangible bullet material properties due to the variation of sintering temperature in its manufacturing process to the bullet frangibility factor (FF) is investigated numerically. In addition, the bullet kinetic energy during impact as well as its ricochet and fragmentation are also examined and simulated. Failure criterion based upon maximum strain is employed in the simulation. It is shown that the SPH simulation can produce good estimation for kinetic energy of bullet after impact, thus giving the FF prediction with respect to the variation of frangible bullet material properties. In comparison to explicit finite element (FE) simulation, in which only material/element deletion is shown, convenience in showing frangible bullet fragmentation is shown using the SPH simulation. As a result, the effect of sintering temperature to the way of the frangible bullet fragmented can be also observed clearly.

  17. Rheology and hydrodynamic properties of Tolypocladium inflatum fermentation broth and its simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchapattarapong, N; Anderson, W A; Bai, F; Moo-Young, M

    2005-07-01

    A physico-chemical, two phase simulated pseudoplastic fermentation (SPF) broth was investigated in which Solka Floc cellulose fibre was used to simulate the filamentous biomass, and a mixture of 0.1% (w/v) carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and 0.15 M aqueous sodium chloride was used to simulate the liquid fraction of the fermentation broth. An investigation of the rheological behaviour and hydrodynamic properties of the SPF broth was carried out, and compared to both a fungal Tolypocladium inflatum fermentation broth and a CMC solution in a 50 L stirred tank bioreactor equipped with conventional Rushton turbines. The experimental data confirmed the ability of the two phase SPF broth to mimic both the T. inflatum broth bulk rheology as well as the mixing and mass transfer behaviour. In contrast, using a homogeneous CMC solution with a similar bulk rheology to simulate the fermentation resulted in a significant underestimation of the mass transfer and mixing times. The presence of the solid phase and its microstructure in the SPF broth appear to play a significant role in gas holdup and bubble size, thus leading to the different behaviours. The SPF broth seems to be a more accurate simulation fluid that can be used to predict the bioreactor mixing and mass transfer performance in filamentous fermentations, in comparison with CMC solutions used in some previous studies.

  18. Numerical simulations of glass impacts using smooth particle hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandell, D.A.; Wingate, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    As part of a program to develop advanced hydrocode design tools, we have implemented a brittle fracture model for glass into the SPHINX smooth particle hydrodynamics code. We have evaluated this model and the code by predicting data from one-dimensional flyer plate impacts into glass. Since fractured glass properties, which are needed in the model, are not available, we did sensitivity studies of these properties, as well as sensitivity studies to determine the number of particles needed in the calculations. The numerical results are in good agreement with the data

  19. Multi-dimensional cubic interpolation for ICF hydrodynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki; Yabe, Takashi.

    1991-04-01

    A new interpolation method is proposed to solve the multi-dimensional hyperbolic equations which appear in describing the hydrodynamics of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosion. The advection phase of the cubic-interpolated pseudo-particle (CIP) is greatly improved, by assuming the continuities of the second and the third spatial derivatives in addition to the physical value and the first derivative. These derivatives are derived from the given physical equation. In order to evaluate the new method, Zalesak's example is tested, and we obtain successfully good results. (author)

  20. Hydrodynamic performance of a biomimetic robotic swimmer actuated by ionic polymer–metal composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Qi; Wang, Tiammiao; Liang, Jianhong; Wen, Li

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the thrust performance of a biomimetic robotic swimmer that uses ionic polymer–metal composite (IPMC) as a flexible actuator in viscous and inertial flow, for a comprehensive understanding of IPMC swimmers at different scales. A hydrodynamic model based on the elongated body theory was developed. Based on image analysis, the parameters of the model were identified and simulation results were obtained. To obtain the hydrodynamic thrust performance of the robotic swimmer, we implemented a novel experimental apparatus. Systematic tests were conducted in the servo towing system to measure the self-propelled speed and thrust efficiency under different actuation of IPMC. The undulatory motions of the IPMC swimmer were identified. Experimental results demonstrated that the theoretical model can accurately predict the speed and thrust efficiency of the robotic swimmer. When the Reynolds number of the robotic swimmer was reduced to approximately 0.1%, its speed and thrust efficiency were reduced by 95.22% and 87.33% respectively. It was concluded that the robotic swimmer has a low speed and thrust efficiency when it swims in a viscous flow. Generally, the thrust performance of the robotic swimmer is determined by the kinematics and Reynolds number. In addition, the optimal actuation frequency for the thrust efficiency is greater in a viscous fluid. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the swimming performance of IPMC actuated swimmers in a distinct flow regime (viscous and inertial regime). (paper)

  1. Iterative linear solvers in a 2D radiation-hydrodynamics code: Methods and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, C.; Brown, P.N.; Falgout, R.; Graziani, F.; Jones, J.

    1999-01-01

    Computer codes containing both hydrodynamics and radiation play a central role in simulating both astrophysical and inertial confinement fusion (ICF) phenomena. A crucial aspect of these codes is that they require an implicit solution of the radiation diffusion equations. The authors present in this paper the results of a comparison of five different linear solvers on a range of complex radiation and radiation-hydrodynamics problems. The linear solvers used are diagonally scaled conjugate gradient, GMRES with incomplete LU preconditioning, conjugate gradient with incomplete Cholesky preconditioning, multigrid, and multigrid-preconditioned conjugate gradient. These problems involve shock propagation, opacities varying over 5--6 orders of magnitude, tabular equations of state, and dynamic ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian) meshes. They perform a problem size scalability study by comparing linear solver performance over a wide range of problem sizes from 1,000 to 100,000 zones. The fundamental question they address in this paper is: Is it more efficient to invert the matrix in many inexpensive steps (like diagonally scaled conjugate gradient) or in fewer expensive steps (like multigrid)? In addition, what is the answer to this question as a function of problem size and is the answer problem dependent? They find that the diagonally scaled conjugate gradient method performs poorly with the growth of problem size, increasing in both iteration count and overall CPU time with the size of the problem and also increasing for larger time steps. For all problems considered, the multigrid algorithms scale almost perfectly (i.e., the iteration count is approximately independent of problem size and problem time step). For pure radiation flow problems (i.e., no hydrodynamics), they see speedups in CPU time of factors of ∼15--30 for the largest problems, when comparing the multigrid solvers relative to diagonal scaled conjugate gradient

  2. Hydrodynamic cavitation in microsystems. II. Simulations and optical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, M.; Pellone, C.; Zermatten, P. J.; Ayela, F.

    2012-04-01

    Numerical calculations in the single liquid phase and optical observations in the two-phase cavitating flow regime have been performed on microdiaphragms and microventuris fed with deionized water. Simulations have confirmed the influence of the shape of the shrinkage upon the contraction of the jet, and so on the localisation of possible cavitating area downstream. Observations of cavitating flow patterns through hybrid silicon-pyrex microdevices have been performed either via a laser excitation with a pulse duration of 6 ns, or with the help of a high-speed camera. Recorded snapshots and movies are presented. Concerning microdiaphragms, it is confirmed that very high shear rates downstream the diaphragms are the cause of bubbly flows. Concerning microventuris, a gaseous cavity forms on a boundary downstream the throat. As a consequence of a microsystem instability, the cavity displays a high frequency pulsation. Low values Strouhal numbers are associated to such a sheet cavitation. Moreover, when the intensity of the cavitating flow is reduced, there is a mismatch between the frequency of the pulsation of the cavity and the frequency of shedded clouds downstream the channel. That may be the consequence of viscous effects limiting the impingement of a re-entrant liquid jet on the attached cavity.

  3. Prediction of hydrodynamic characteristics of a venturi scrubber by using CFD simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Manisha Bal; Bhim Charan Meikap

    2017-01-01

    The filtered containment venting system (FCVS) is a safety relevant system, which consists of venturi scrubber and a mesh filter. FCVS needs to be further assessed to improve the existing performance of the venturi scrubber. Therefore, hydrodynamics is an important counter-component needs to be investigated to improve the design of the venturi scrubber. In the present research, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) has been used to predict the hydrodynamic behaviour of a newly designed venturi sc...

  4. Experimental and numerical simulations of the hydrodynamic dispersion of a pollutant effluent in a estuarine coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gidas, N.K.; Koutitonsky, V.G.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental and numerical study was performed to measure and simulate the hydrodynamic dispersion of a pollutant effluent discharged by an outfall diffuser into an estuarine coastal zone near Rimouski, Canada. Field measurements of currents, tides, salinity, and winds were obtained in the vicinity of the injection site, and two tracer dispersion experiments were carried on in these coastal waters. The measurements were taken before and after the construction of the marine outfall diffuser. The similitude between the plume of a tracer (physical model) released into the coastal waters before construction and that of the real effluent (prototype) discharged at the same site was studied. A new coefficient of similitude was established, which allows to transpose the concentrations of the physical model tracer to the waste water concentrations of the prototype. The numerical simulation (2D) is performed with a hydrodynamic model and an advection-dispersion model of the MIKE21 system from the Danish Hydraulic Institute, using the so-called telescopic approach. The objective of these simulations was to predict, among other things, the pollutant effluent concentrations for critical hydrodynamic conditions relative to the aquatic ecosystem to be protected. The methodology elaborated was used for the management of the coastal environments subjected to pollution. (author). 28 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs

  5. What Controls Thermo-osmosis? Molecular Simulations Show the Critical Role of Interfacial Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Li; Merabia, Samy; Joly, Laurent

    2017-11-01

    Thermo-osmotic and related thermophoretic phenomena can be found in many situations from biology to colloid science, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we measure the thermo-osmosis coefficient by both mechanocaloric and thermo-osmotic routes, for different solid-liquid interfacial energies. The simulations reveal, in particular, the crucial role of nanoscale interfacial hydrodynamics. For nonwetting surfaces, thermo-osmotic transport is largely amplified by hydrodynamic slip at the interface. For wetting surfaces, the position of the hydrodynamic shear plane plays a key role in determining the amplitude and sign of the thermo-osmosis coefficient. Finally, we measure a giant thermo-osmotic response of the water-graphene interface, which we relate to the very low interfacial friction displayed by this system. These results open new perspectives for the design of efficient functional interfaces for, e.g., waste-heat harvesting.

  6. Classifying and modelling spiral structures in hydrodynamic simulations of astrophysical discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgan, D. H.; Ramón-Fox, F. G.; Bonnell, I. A.

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate numerical techniques for automatic identification of individual spiral arms in hydrodynamic simulations of astrophysical discs. Building on our earlier work, which used tensor classification to identify regions that were `spiral-like', we can now obtain fits to spirals for individual arm elements. We show this process can even detect spirals in relatively flocculent spiral patterns, but the resulting fits to logarithmic `grand-design' spirals are less robust. Our methods not only permit the estimation of pitch angles, but also direct measurements of the spiral arm width and pattern speed. In principle, our techniques will allow the tracking of material as it passes through an arm. Our demonstration uses smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations, but we stress that the method is suitable for any finite-element hydrodynamics system. We anticipate our techniques will be essential to studies of star formation in disc galaxies, and attempts to find the origin of recently observed spiral structure in protostellar discs.

  7. What Controls Thermo-osmosis? Molecular Simulations Show the Critical Role of Interfacial Hydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Li; Merabia, Samy; Joly, Laurent

    2017-11-24

    Thermo-osmotic and related thermophoretic phenomena can be found in many situations from biology to colloid science, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we measure the thermo-osmosis coefficient by both mechanocaloric and thermo-osmotic routes, for different solid-liquid interfacial energies. The simulations reveal, in particular, the crucial role of nanoscale interfacial hydrodynamics. For nonwetting surfaces, thermo-osmotic transport is largely amplified by hydrodynamic slip at the interface. For wetting surfaces, the position of the hydrodynamic shear plane plays a key role in determining the amplitude and sign of the thermo-osmosis coefficient. Finally, we measure a giant thermo-osmotic response of the water-graphene interface, which we relate to the very low interfacial friction displayed by this system. These results open new perspectives for the design of efficient functional interfaces for, e.g., waste-heat harvesting.

  8. 3-D CFD simulations of hydrodynamics in the Sulejow dam reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziemińska-Stolarska Aleksandra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the processes by which a single-phase 3-D CFD model of hydrodynamics in a 17-km-long dam reservoir was developed, verified and tested. A simplified VOF model of flow was elaborated to determine the effect of wind on hydrodynamics in the lake. A hexahedral mesh with over 17 million elements and a k-ω SST turbulence model were defined for single-phase simulations in steady-state conditions. The model was verified on the basis of the extensive flow measurements (StreamPro ADCP, USA. Excellent agreement (average error of less than 10% between computed and measured velocity profiles was found. The simulation results proved a strong effect of wind on hydrodynamics in the lake, especially on the development of the water circulation pattern in the lacustrine zone.

  9. A hybrid method for flood simulation in small catchments combining hydrodynamic and hydrological techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellos, Vasilis; Tsakiris, George

    2016-09-01

    The study presents a new hybrid method for the simulation of flood events in small catchments. It combines a physically-based two-dimensional hydrodynamic model and the hydrological unit hydrograph theory. Unit hydrographs are derived using the FLOW-R2D model which is based on the full form of two-dimensional Shallow Water Equations, solved by a modified McCormack numerical scheme. The method is tested at a small catchment in a suburb of Athens-Greece for a storm event which occurred in February 2013. The catchment is divided into three friction zones and unit hydrographs of 15 and 30 min are produced. The infiltration process is simulated by the empirical Kostiakov equation and the Green-Ampt model. The results from the implementation of the proposed hybrid method are compared with recorded data at the hydrometric station at the outlet of the catchment and the results derived from the fully hydrodynamic model FLOW-R2D. It is concluded that for the case studied, the proposed hybrid method produces results close to those of the fully hydrodynamic simulation at substantially shorter computational time. This finding, if further verified in a variety of case studies, can be useful in devising effective hybrid tools for the two-dimensional flood simulations, which are lead to accurate and considerably faster results than those achieved by the fully hydrodynamic simulations.

  10. Cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters: X-ray scaling relations and their evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, N.; Rasia, E.; Mazzotta, P.; Planelles, S.; Biffi, V.; Fabjan, D.; Beck, A. M.; Borgani, S.; Dolag, K.; Gaspari, M.; Granato, G. L.; Murante, G.; Ragone-Figueroa, C.; Steinborn, L. K.

    2018-03-01

    We analyse cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters to study the X-ray scaling relations between total masses and observable quantities such as X-ray luminosity, gas mass, X-ray temperature, and YX. Three sets of simulations are performed with an improved version of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics GADGET-3 code. These consider the following: non-radiative gas, star formation and stellar feedback, and the addition of feedback by active galactic nuclei (AGN). We select clusters with M500 > 1014 M⊙E(z)-1, mimicking the typical selection of Sunyaev-Zeldovich samples. This permits to have a mass range large enough to enable robust fitting of the relations even at z ˜ 2. The results of the analysis show a general agreement with observations. The values of the slope of the mass-gas mass and mass-temperature relations at z = 2 are 10 per cent lower with respect to z = 0 due to the applied mass selection, in the former case, and to the effect of early merger in the latter. We investigate the impact of the slope variation on the study of the evolution of the normalization. We conclude that cosmological studies through scaling relations should be limited to the redshift range z = 0-1, where we find that the slope, the scatter, and the covariance matrix of the relations are stable. The scaling between mass and YX is confirmed to be the most robust relation, being almost independent of the gas physics. At higher redshifts, the scaling relations are sensitive to the inclusion of AGNs which influences low-mass systems. The detailed study of these objects will be crucial to evaluate the AGN effect on the ICM.

  11. Blockage effects on the hydrodynamic performance of a marine cross-flow turbine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consul, Claudio A; Willden, Richard H J; McIntosh, Simon C

    2013-02-28

    This paper explores the influence of blockage and free-surface deformation on the hydrodynamic performance of a generic marine cross-flow turbine. Flows through a three-bladed turbine with solidity 0.125 are simulated at field-test blade Reynolds numbers, O(10(5)-10(6)), for three different cross-stream blockages: 12.5, 25 and 50 per cent. Two representations of the free-surface boundary are considered: rigid lid and deformable free surface. Increasing the blockage is observed to lead to substantial increases in the power coefficient; the highest power coefficient computed is 1.23. Only small differences are observed between the two free-surface representations, with the deforming free-surface turbine out-performing the rigid lid turbine by 6.7 per cent in power at the highest blockage considered. This difference is attributed to the increase in effective blockage owing to the deformation of the free surface. Hydrodynamic efficiency, the ratio of useful power generated to overall power removed from the flow, is found to increase with blockage, which is consistent with the presence of a higher flow velocity through the core of the turbine at higher blockage ratios. Froude number is found to have little effect on thrust and power coefficients, but significant influence on surface elevation drop across the turbine.

  12. Hydrodynamic simulation of X-UV laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, M.; Zeitoun, P.; Gauthier, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    With the construction of novel X-UV sources, such as V-UV FEL's (free-electron lasers), X-UV laser-matter interaction will become available at ultra-high intensities. But even table-top facilities such as X-UV lasers or High Harmonic Generation, are starting to reach intensities high enough to produce dense plasmas. X-UV laser-matter interaction is studied by a 1-dimensional hydrodynamic Lagrangian code with radiative transfer for a range of interesting X-UV sources. Heating is found to be very different for Z=12-14 elements having L-edges around the X-UV laser wavelength. Possible absorption mechanisms were investigated in order to explain this behaviour, and interaction with cold dense matter proved to be dominant. Plasma sensitivity to X-UV laser parameters such as energy, pulse duration, and wavelength was also studied, covering ranges of existing X-UV lasers. We found that X-UV laser-produced plasmas could be studied using table-top lasers, paving the way for future V-UV-FEL high intensity experiments. (authors)

  13. Relativistic (3+1) dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of compact interacting binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, G.J.; Evans, C.R.; Wilson, J.R.

    1986-09-01

    We discuss the development of a relativistic hydrodynamic code for describing the evolution of astrophysical systems in three spatial dimensions. The application of this code to several test problems is presented. Preliminary results from the simulation of the dynamics of accreting binary white dwarf and neutron star systems are discussed. 14 refs., 4 figs

  14. Hydrodynamically Coupled Brownian Dynamics simulations for flow on non-Newtonian fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahuja, Vishal Raju

    2018-01-01

    This thesis deals with model development for particle-based flow simulations of non-Newtonian fluids such as polymer solutions. A novel computational technique called Hydrodynamically Coupled Brownian Dynamics (HCBD) is presented in this thesis. This technique essentially couples the Brownian motion

  15. Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics GPU-Acceleration Tool for Asteroid Fragmentation Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buruchenko, Sergey K.; Schäfer, Christoph M.; Maindl, Thomas I.

    2017-10-01

    The impact threat of near-Earth objects (NEOs) is a concern to the global community, as evidenced by the Chelyabinsk event (caused by a 17-m meteorite) in Russia on February 15, 2013 and a near miss by asteroid 2012 DA14 ( 30 m diameter), on the same day. The expected energy, from either a low-altitude air burst or direct impact, would have severe consequences, especially in populated regions. To mitigate this threat one of the methods is employment of large kinetic-energy impactors (KEIs). The simulation of asteroid target fragmentation is a challenging task which demands efficient and accurate numerical methods with large computational power. Modern graphics processing units (GPUs) lead to a major increase 10 times and more in the performance of the computation of astrophysical and high velocity impacts. The paper presents a new implementation of the numerical method smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) using NVIDIA-GPU and the first astrophysical and high velocity application of the new code. The code allows for a tremendous increase in speed of astrophysical simulations with SPH and self-gravity at low costs for new hardware. We have implemented the SPH equations to model gas, liquids and elastic, and plastic solid bodies and added a fragmentation model for brittle materials. Self-gravity may be optionally included in the simulations.

  16. Numerical simulations for radiation hydrodynamics. 2: Transport limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, W.W.; Woodward, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    A finite difference scheme is proposed for two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamical equations in the transport limit. The scheme is of Godunov-type, in which the set of time-averaged flux needed in the scheme is calculated through Riemann problems solved. In the scheme, flow signals are explicitly treated, while radiation signals are implicitly treated. Flow fields and radiation fields are updated simultaneously. An iterative approach is proposed to solve the set of nonlinear algebraic equations arising from the implicitness of the scheme. The sweeping method used in the scheme significantly reduces the number of iterations or computer CPU time needed. A new approach to further accelerate the convergence is proposed, which further reduces the number of iterations needed by more than one order. No matter how many cells radiation signals propagate in one time step, only an extremely small number of iterations are needed in the scheme, and each iteration costs only about 0.8% of computer CPU time which is needed for one time step of a second order accurate and fully explicit scheme. Two-dimensional problems are treated through a dimensionally split technique. Therefore, iterations for solving the set of algebraic equations are carried out only in each one-dimensional sweep. Through numerical examples it is shown that the scheme keeps the principle advantages of Godunov schemes for flow motion. In the time scale of flow motion numerical results are the same as those obtained from a second order accurate and fully explicit scheme. The acceleration of the convergence proposed in this paper may be directly applied to other hyperbolic systems. This study is important for laser fusion and astrophysics

  17. Hydrodynamics of AHWR gravity driven water pool under simulated LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangamani, I.; Verma, Vishnu; Ali, Seik Mansoor

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) employs a double containment concept with a large inventory of water within the Gravity Driven Water Pool (GDWP) located at a high elevation within the primary containment building. GDWP performs several important safety functions in a passive manner, and hence it is essential to understand the hydrodynamics that this pool will be subjected to in case of an accident such as LOCA. In this paper, a detailed thermal hydraulic analysis for AHWR containment transients is presented for postulated LOCA scenarios involving RIH break sizes ranging from 2% to 50%. The analysis is carried out using in-house containment thermal hydraulics code 'CONTRAN'. The blowdown mass and energy discharge data for each break size, along with the geometrical details of the AHWR containment forms the main input for the analysis. Apart from obtaining the pressure and temperature transients within the containment building, the focus of this work is on simulating the hydrodynamic phenomena of vent clearing and pool swell occurring in the GDWP. The variation of several key parameters such as primary containment V1 and V2 volume pressure, temperature and V1-V2 differential pressure with time, BOP rupture time, vent clearing velocity, effect of pool swell on the V2 air-space pressure, GDWP water level etc. are discussed in detail and important findings are highlighted. Further, the effect of neglecting the pool swell phenomenon on the containment transients is also clearly brought out by a comparative study. The numerical studies presented in this paper give insight into containment transients that would be useful to both the system designer as well as the regulator. (author)

  18. Brownian dynamics simulations of a flexible polymer chain which includes continuous resistance and multibody hydrodynamic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Jason E.; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.

    2005-01-01

    Using methods adapted from the simulation of suspension dynamics, we have developed a Brownian dynamics algorithm with multibody hydrodynamic interactions for simulating the dynamics of polymer molecules. The polymer molecule is modeled as a chain composed of a series of inextensible, rigid rods with constraints at each joint to ensure continuity of the chain. The linear and rotational velocities of each segment of the polymer chain are described by the slender-body theory of Batchelor [J. Fluid Mech. 44, 419 (1970)]. To include hydrodynamic interactions between the segments of the chain, the line distribution of forces on each segment is approximated by making a Legendre polynomial expansion of the disturbance velocity on the segment, where the first two terms of the expansion are retained in the calculation. Thus, the resulting linear force distribution is specified by a center of mass force, couple, and stresslet on each segment. This method for calculating the hydrodynamic interactions has been successfully used to simulate the dynamics of noncolloidal suspensions of rigid fibers [O. G. Harlen, R. R. Sundararajakumar, and D. L. Koch, J. Fluid Mech. 388, 355 (1999); J. E. Butler and E. S. G. Shaqfeh, J. Fluid Mech. 468, 204 (2002)]. The longest relaxation time and center of mass diffusivity are among the quantities calculated with the simulation technique. Comparisons are made for different levels of approximation of the hydrodynamic interactions, including multibody interactions, two-body interactions, and the "freely draining" case with no interactions. For the short polymer chains studied in this paper, the results indicate a difference in the apparent scaling of diffusivity with polymer length for the multibody versus two-body level of approximation for the hydrodynamic interactions.

  19. Accurate simulation dynamics of microscopic filaments using "caterpillar" Oseen hydrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, A.G.; Lowe, C.P.; Pagonabarraga, I.; Cosentino Lagomarsino, M.

    2009-01-01

    Microscopic semiflexible filaments suspended in a viscous fluid are widely encountered in biophysical problems. The classic example is the flagella used by microorganisms to generate propulsion. Simulating the dynamics of these filaments numerically is complicated because of the coupling between the

  20. Simulation and Experimental Characterization of Microscopically Accessible Hydrodynamic Microvortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre R. Meldrum

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Single-cell studies of phenotypic heterogeneity reveal more information about pathogenic processes than conventional bulk-cell analysis methods. By enabling high-resolution structural and functional imaging, a single-cell three-dimensional (3D imaging system can be used to study basic biological processes and to diagnose diseases such as cancer at an early stage. One mechanism that such systems apply to accomplish 3D imaging is rotation of a single cell about a fixed axis. However, many cell rotation mechanisms require intricate and tedious microfabrication, or fail to provide a suitable environment for living cells. To address these and related challenges, we applied numerical simulation methods to design new microfluidic chambers capable of generating fluidic microvortices to rotate suspended cells. We then compared several microfluidic chip designs experimentally in terms of: (1 their ability to rotate biological cells in a stable and precise manner; and (2 their suitability, from a geometric standpoint, for microscopic cell imaging. We selected a design that incorporates a trapezoidal side chamber connected to a main flow channel because it provided well-controlled circulation and met imaging requirements. Micro particle-image velocimetry (micro-PIV was used to provide a detailed characterization of flows in the new design. Simulated and experimental results demonstrate that a trapezoidal side chamber represents a viable option for accomplishing controlled single cell rotation. Further, agreement between experimental and simulated results confirms that numerical simulation is an effective method for chamber design.

  1. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of flow separation at bends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Q.; Kruisbrink, A.C.H.; Pearce, F.R.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Yue, T.

    2014-01-01

    The separated flow in two-dimensional bends is numerically simulated for a right-angled bend with different ratios of the channel widths and for a symmetric bend with different turning angles. Unlike the potential flow solutions that have several restrictive assumptions, the Euler equations are

  2. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of flow separation at bends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Q.; Kruisbrink, A.C.H.; Pearce, F.R.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Yue, T.

    2013-01-01

    The separated flow in two-dimensional bends is numerically simulated for a right-angled bend with different ratios of the channel widths and for a symmetric bend with different turning angles. Unlike the potential flow solutions that have several restrictive assumptions, the Euler equations are

  3. Treatment of compounds and alloys in radiation hydrodynamics simulations of ablative laser loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, Damian C.; Gammel, J. Tinka; Clegg, Samuel M.

    2004-01-01

    Different methods were compared for constructing models of the behavior of a prototype intermetallic compound, nickel aluminide, for use in radiation hydrodynamics simulations of shock wave generation by ablation induced by laser energy. The models included the equation of state, ionization, and radiation opacity. The methods of construction were evaluated by comparing the results of simulations of an ablatively generated shock wave in a sample of the alloy. The most accurate simulations were obtained using the 'constant number density' mixture model to calculate the equation of state and opacity, and Thomas-Fermi ionization. This model is consistent with that found to be most accurate for simulations of ablatively shocked elements

  4. The prediction of the hydrodynamic performance of tidal current turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, B Y; Zhou, L J; Xiao, Y X; Wang, Z W

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays tidal current energy is considered to be one of the most promising alternative green energy resources and tidal current turbines are used for power generation. Prediction of the open water performance around tidal turbines is important for the reason that it can give some advice on installation and array of tidal current turbines. This paper presents numerical computations of tidal current turbines by using a numerical model which is constructed to simulate an isolated turbine. This paper aims at studying the installation of marine current turbine of which the hydro-environmental impacts influence by means of numerical simulation. Such impacts include free-stream velocity magnitude, seabed and inflow direction of velocity. The results of the open water performance prediction show that the power output and efficiency of marine current turbine varies from different marine environments. The velocity distribution should be clearly and the suitable unit installation depth and direction be clearly chosen, which can ensure the most effective strategy for energy capture before installing the marine current turbine. The findings of this paper are expected to be beneficial in developing tidal current turbines and array in the future

  5. Properties of galaxies reproduced by a hydrodynamic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsberger, M.; Genel, S.; Springel, V.; Torrey, P.; Sijacki, D.; Xu, D.; Snyder, G.; Bird, S.; Nelson, D.; Hernquist, L.

    2014-05-01

    Previous simulations of the growth of cosmic structures have broadly reproduced the `cosmic web' of galaxies that we see in the Universe, but failed to create a mixed population of elliptical and spiral galaxies, because of numerical inaccuracies and incomplete physical models. Moreover, they were unable to track the small-scale evolution of gas and stars to the present epoch within a representative portion of the Universe. Here we report a simulation that starts 12 million years after the Big Bang, and traces 13 billion years of cosmic evolution with 12 billion resolution elements in a cube of 106.5 megaparsecs a side. It yields a reasonable population of ellipticals and spirals, reproduces the observed distribution of galaxies in clusters and characteristics of hydrogen on large scales, and at the same time matches the `metal' and hydrogen content of galaxies on small scales.

  6. A detailed framework to incorporate dust in hydrodynamical simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Grassi, Tommaso; Bovino, S.; Haugbølle, Troels; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.

    2017-01-01

    Dust plays a key role in the evolution of the ISM and its correct modelling in numerical simulations is therefore fundamental. We present a new and self-consistent model that treats grain thermal coupling with the gas, radiation balance, and surface chemistry for molecular hydrogen. This method can be applied to any dust distribution with an arbitrary number of grain types without affecting the overall computational cost. In this paper we describe in detail the physics and the algorithm behin...

  7. Fluctuating hydrodynamics for multiscale modeling and simulation: energy and heat transfer in molecular fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Barry Z; Voulgarakis, Nikolaos K; Chu, Jhih-Wei

    2012-07-28

    This work illustrates that fluctuating hydrodynamics (FHD) simulations can be used to capture the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic responses of molecular fluids at the nanoscale, including those associated with energy and heat transfer. Using all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories as the reference data, the atomistic coordinates of each snapshot are mapped onto mass, momentum, and energy density fields on Eulerian grids to generate a corresponding field trajectory. The molecular length-scale associated with finite molecule size is explicitly imposed during this coarse-graining by requiring that the variances of density fields scale inversely with the grid volume. From the fluctuations of field variables, the response functions and transport coefficients encoded in the all-atom MD trajectory are computed. By using the extracted fluid properties in FHD simulations, we show that the fluctuations and relaxation of hydrodynamic fields quantitatively match with those observed in the reference all-atom MD trajectory, hence establishing compatibility between the atomistic and field representations. We also show that inclusion of energy transfer in the FHD equations can more accurately capture the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic responses of molecular fluids. The results indicate that the proposed MD-to-FHD mapping with explicit consideration of finite molecule size provides a robust framework for coarse-graining the solution phase of complex molecular systems.

  8. The early phases of galaxy clusters formation in IR: coupling hydrodynamical simulations with GRASIL-3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gian Luigi; Ragone-Figueroa, Cinthia; Domínguez-Tenreiro, Rosa; Obreja, Aura; Borgani, Stefano; De Lucia, Gabriella; Murante, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    We compute and study the infrared and sub-mm properties of high-redshift (z ≳ 1) simulated clusters and protoclusters. The results of a large set of hydrodynamical zoom-in simulations including active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback, have been treated with the recently developed radiative transfer code GRASIL-3D, which accounts for the effect of dust reprocessing in an arbitrary geometry. Here, we have slightly generalized the code to adapt it to the present purpose. Then we have post-processed boxes of physical size 2 Mpc encompassing each of the 24 most massive clusters identified at z = 0, at several redshifts between 0.5 and 3, producing IR and sub-mm mock images of these regions and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the radiation coming out from them. While this field is in its infancy from the observational point of view, rapid development is expected in the near future thanks to observations performed in the far-IR and sub-mm bands. Notably, we find that in this spectral regime our prediction are little affected by the assumption required by this post-processing, and the emission is mostly powered by star formation (SF) rather than accretion on to super massive black hole (SMBH). The comparison with the little observational information currently available, highlights that the simulated cluster regions never attain the impressive star formation rates suggested by these observations. This problem becomes more intriguing taking into account that the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in the same simulations turn out to be too massive. It seems that the interplay between the feedback schemes and the star formation model should be revised, possibly incorporating a positive feedback mode.

  9. Brownian dynamics simulations of polyelectrolyte adsorption in shear flow with hydrodynamic interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoda, Nazish; Kumar, Satish

    2007-12-01

    The adsorption of single polyelectrolyte molecules in shear flow is studied using Brownian dynamics simulations with hydrodynamic interaction (HI). Simulations are performed with bead-rod and bead-spring chains, and electrostatic interactions are incorporated through a screened Coulombic potential with excluded volume accounted for by the repulsive part of a Lennard-Jones potential. A correction to the Rotne-Prager-Yamakawa tensor is derived that accounts for the presence of a planar wall. The simulations show that migration away from an uncharged wall, which is due to bead-wall HI, is enhanced by increases in the strength of flow and intrachain electrostatic repulsion, consistent with kinetic theory predictions. When the wall and polyelectrolyte are oppositely charged, chain behavior depends on the strength of electrostatic screening. For strong screening, chains get depleted from a region close to the wall and the thickness of this depletion layer scales as N1/3Wi2/3 at high Wi, where N is the chain length and Wi is the Weissenberg number. At intermediate screening, bead-wall electrostatic attraction competes with bead-wall HI, and it is found that there is a critical Weissenberg number for desorption which scales as N-1/2κ-3(lB∣σq∣)3/2, where κ is the inverse screening length, lB is the Bjerrum length, σ is the surface charge density, and q is the bead charge. When the screening is weak, adsorbed chains are observed to align in the vorticity direction at low shear rates due to the effects of repulsive intramolecular interactions. At higher shear rates, the chains align in the flow direction. The simulation method and results of this work are expected to be useful for a number of applications in biophysics and materials science in which polyelectrolyte adsorption plays a key role.

  10. Neutrino radiation-hydrodynamics. General relativistic versus multidimensional supernova simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebendoerfer, Matthias; Fischer, Tobias; Hempel, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Recently, simulations of the collapse of massive stars showed that selected models of the QCD phase transitions to deconfined quarks during the early postbounce phase can trigger the supernova explosion that has been searched for over many years in spherically symmetric supernova models. Using sophisticated general relativistic Boltzmann neutrino transport, it was found that a characteristic neutrino signature is emitted that permits to falsify or identify this scenario in the next Galactic supernova event. On the other hand, more refined observations of past supernovae and progressing theoretical research in different supernova groups demonstrated that the effects of multidimensional fluid instabilities cannot be neglected in global models of the explosions of massive stars. We point to different efforts where neutrino transport and general relativistic effects are combined with multidimensional fluid instabilities in supernovae. With those, it will be possible to explore the gravitational wave emission as a potential second characteristic observable of the presence of quark matter in new-born neutron stars. (author)

  11. Hydrodynamic stability of inverted annular flow in an adiabatic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jarlais, G.; Ishii, M.; Linehan, J.

    1986-01-01

    Inverted annular flow was simulated adiabatically with turbulent water jets, issuing downward from large aspect ratio nozzles, enclosed in gas annuli. Velocities, diameters, and gas species were varied, and core jet length, shape, breakup mode, and dispersed core droplet sizes were recorded at approximately 750 data points. Inverted annular flow destabilization led to inverted slug flow at low relative velocities, and to dispersed droplet flow, core breakup length correlations were developed by extending work on free liquid jets to include this coaxial, jet disintegration phenomenon. The results show length dependence upon D/sub J/, Re/sub J/, We/sub J/, α, and We/sub G/,rel. Correlations for core shape, breakup mechanisms, and dispersed core droplet size were also developed, by extending the results of free jet stability, roll wave entrainment, and churn turbulent droplet stability studies

  12. Study on transient hydrodynamic performance and cavitation characteristic of high-speed mixed-flow pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T; Liu, Y L; Sun, Y B; Wang, L Q; Wu, D Z

    2013-01-01

    In order to analyse the hydrodynamic performance and cavitation characteristic of a high-speed mixed-flow pump during transient operations, experimental studies were carried out. The transient hydrodynamic performance and cavitation characteristics of the mixed-flow pump with guide vane during start-up operation processes were tested on the pump performance test-bed. Performance tests of the pump were carried out under various inlet pressures and speed-changing operations. The real-time instantaneous external characteristics such as rotational speed, hydraulic head, flow rate, suction pressure and discharge pressure of the pump were measured. Based on the experimental results, the effect of fluid acceleration on the hydrodynamic performances and cavitation characteristics of the mixed-flow pump were analysed and evaluated

  13. Hydrodynamic simulation of a lithium chloride salt system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberle, C. S.; Herrmann, S. D.; Knighton, G. C.

    1999-01-01

    A fused lithium chloride salt system's constitutive properties were evaluated and compared to a number of fluid properties, and water was shown to be an excellent simulant of lithium chloride salt. With a simple flow model, the principal scaling term was shown to be a function of the kinematic viscosity. A water mock-up of the molten salt was also shown to be within a ±3% error in the scaling analysis. This made it possible to consider developing water scaled tests of the molten salt system. Accurate flow velocity and pressure measurements were acquired by developing a directional velocity probe. The device was constructed and calibrated with a repeatable accuracy of ±15%. This was verified by a detailed evaluation of the probe. Extensive flow measurements of the engineering scale mockup were conducted, and the results were carefully compared to radial flow patterns of a straight blade stirrer. The flow measurements demonstrated an anti-symmetric nature of the stirring, and many additional effects were also identified. The basket design was shown to prevent fluid penetration into the fuel baskets when external stirring was the flow mechanism

  14. Hydrodynamic simulations of a combined hydrogen, helium thermonuclear runaway on a 10-km neutron star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starrfield, S.; Kenyon, S.; Truran, J.W.; Sparks, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    We have used a Lagrangian, hydrodynamic stellar-evolution computer code to evolve a thermonuclear runaway in the accreted hydrogen rich envelope of a 1.0M, 10-km neutron star. Our simulation produced an outburst which lasted about 2000 sec and peak effective temperature was 3 keV. The peak luminosity exceeded 2 x 10 5 L. A shock wave caused a precursor in the light curve which lasted 10 -5 sec

  15. Cosmological Simulations with Scale-Free Initial Conditions. I. Adiabatic Hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, J.M.; Weinberg, D.H.; Evrard, A.E.; Hernquist, L.; Katz, N.

    1998-01-01

    We analyze hierarchical structure formation based on scale-free initial conditions in an Einstein endash de Sitter universe, including a baryonic component with Ω bary = 0.05. We present three independent, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations, performed at two resolutions (32 3 and 64 3 dark matter and baryonic particles) and with two different SPH codes (TreeSPH and P3MSPH). Each simulation is based on identical initial conditions, which consist of Gaussian-distributed initial density fluctuations that have a power spectrum P(k) ∝ k -1 . The baryonic material is modeled as an ideal gas subject only to shock heating and adiabatic heating and cooling; radiative cooling and photoionization heating are not included. The evolution is expected to be self-similar in time, and under certain restrictions we identify the expected scalings for many properties of the distribution of collapsed objects in all three realizations. The distributions of dark matter masses, baryon masses, and mass- and emission-weighted temperatures scale quite reliably. However, the density estimates in the central regions of these structures are determined by the degree of numerical resolution. As a result, mean gas densities and Bremsstrahlung luminosities obey the expected scalings only when calculated within a limited dynamic range in density contrast. The temperatures and luminosities of the groups show tight correlations with the baryon masses, which we find can be well represented by power laws. The Press-Schechter (PS) approximation predicts the distribution of group dark matter and baryon masses fairly well, though it tends to overestimate the baryon masses. Combining the PS mass distribution with the measured relations for T(M) and L(M) predicts the temperature and luminosity distributions fairly accurately, though there are some discrepancies at high temperatures/luminosities. In general the three simulations agree well for the properties of resolved groups, where a group

  16. Three-dimensional Hydrodynamical Simulations of Mass Transfer in Binary Systems by a Free Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zheng-Wei; Stancliffe, Richard J.; Abate, Carlo; Matrozis, Elvijs, E-mail: zwliu@ynao.ac.cn [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121, Bonn (Germany)

    2017-09-10

    A large fraction of stars in binary systems are expected to undergo mass and angular momentum exchange at some point in their evolution, which can drastically alter the chemical and dynamical properties and fates of the systems. Interaction by stellar wind is an important process in wide binaries. However, the details of wind mass transfer are still not well understood. We perform three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of wind mass transfer in binary systems to explore mass-accretion efficiencies and geometries of mass outflows, for a range of mass ratios from 0.05 to 1.0. In particular, we focus on the case of a free wind, in which some physical mechanism accelerates the expelled wind material balancing the gravity of the mass-losing star with the wind velocity comparable to the orbital velocity of the system. We find that the mass-accretion efficiency and accreted specific angular momentum increase with the mass ratio of the system. For an adiabatic wind, we obtain that the accretion efficiency onto the secondary star varies from about 0.1% to 8% for mass ratios between 0.05 and 1.0.

  17. Simulation of the hydrodynamic behaviour of a Mediterranean reservoir under different climate change and management scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Prats

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important current issues in the management of lakes and reservoirs is the prediction of global climate change effects to determine appropriate mitigation and adaptation actions. In this paper we analyse whether management actions can limit the effects of climate change on water temperatures in a reservoir. For this, we used the model EOLE to simulate the hydrodynamic and thermal behaviour of the reservoir of Bimont (Provence region, France in the medium term (2036-2065 and in the long term (2066-2095 using regionalised projections by the model CNRM-CERFACS-CNRM-CM5 under the emission scenarios RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. Water temperature projections were compared to simulations for the reference period 1993-2013, the longest period for which we had year-long data for both hydrology and meteorology. We calibrated the model using profile measurements for the period 2010-2011 and we carried an extensive validation and assessment of model performance. In fact, we validated the model using profile measurements for 2012-2014, obtaining a root mean square error of 1.08°C and mean bias of -0.11°C, and we assured the consistency of model simulations in the long term by comparing simulated surface temperature to satellite measurements for 1999-2013. We assessed the effect using synthetic input data instead of measured input data by comparing simulations made using both kinds of data for the reference period. Using synthetic data resulted in slightly lower (-0.3°C average and maximum epilimnion temperatures, a somewhat deeper thermocline, and slightly higher evaporation (+7%. To investigate the effect of different management strategies, we considered three management scenarios: i bottom outlet and present water level; ii bottom outlet and elevated water level; and iii surface outlet and elevated water level. According to the simulations, the reservoir of Bimont will have a low rate of warming of the epilimnion of 0.009-0.024 °C·yr-1, but a

  18. Removal of Microcystis aeruginosa using hydrodynamic cavitation: performance and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Song, Yuan; Yu, Shuili

    2014-10-01

    Algal blooms are a seasonal problem in eutrophic water bodies, and novel approaches to algal removal are required. The effect of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) on the removal of Microcystis aeruginosa was investigated using a laboratory scale device. Samples treated by HC were subsequently grown under illuminated culture conditions. The results demonstrated that a short treatment with HC could effectively settle naturally growing M. aeruginosa without breaking cells. Algal cell density and chlorophyll-a of a sample treated for 10 min were significantly decreased by 88% andv 94%, respectively, after 3 days culture. Various HC operating parameters were investigated, showing that inhibition of M. aeruginosa growth mainly depended on treatment time and pump pressure. Electron microscopy confirmed that sedimentation of algae was attributable to the disruption of intracellular gas vesicles. Damage to the photosynthetic apparatus also contributed to the inhibition of algal growth. Free radicals produced by the cavitation process could be as an indirect indicator of the intensity of HC treatment, although they inflicted minimal damage on the algae. In conclusion, we suggest that HC represents a potentially highly effective and sustainable approach to the removal of algae from water systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of hydrodynamic instability growth in hot-spot mass gain and fusion performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2014-01-01

    In an inertial confinement fusion target, energy loss due to thermal conduction from the hot-spot will inevitably ablate fuel ice into the hot-spot, resulting in a more massive but cooler hot-spot, which negatively impacts fusion yield. Hydrodynamic mix due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the gas-ice interface can aggravate the problem via an increased gas-ice interfacial area across which energy transfer from the hot-spot and ice can be enhanced. Here, this mix-enhanced transport effect on hot-spot fusion-performance degradation is quantified using contrasting 1D and 2D hydrodynamic simulations, and its dependence on effective acceleration, Atwood number, and ablation speed is identified

  20. High-resolution Hydrodynamic Simulation of Tidal Detonation of a Helium White Dwarf by an Intermediate Mass Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikawa, Ataru

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate tidal detonation during a tidal disruption event (TDE) of a helium (He) white dwarf (WD) with 0.45 M ⊙ by an intermediate mass black hole using extremely high-resolution simulations. Tanikawa et al. have shown tidal detonation in results of previous studies from unphysical heating due to low-resolution simulations, and such unphysical heating occurs in three-dimensional (3D) smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations even with 10 million SPH particles. In order to avoid such unphysical heating, we perform 3D SPH simulations up to 300 million SPH particles, and 1D mesh simulations using flow structure in the 3D SPH simulations for 1D initial conditions. The 1D mesh simulations have higher resolutions than the 3D SPH simulations. We show that tidal detonation occurs and confirm that this result is perfectly converged with different space resolution in both 3D SPH and 1D mesh simulations. We find that detonation waves independently arise in leading parts of the WD, and yield large amounts of 56Ni. Although detonation waves are not generated in trailing parts of the WD, the trailing parts would receive detonation waves generated in the leading parts and would leave large amounts of Si group elements. Eventually, this He WD TDE would synthesize 56Ni of 0.30 M ⊙ and Si group elements of 0.08 M ⊙, and could be observed as a luminous thermonuclear transient comparable to SNe Ia.

  1. Transient hydrodynamic finite-size effects in simulations under periodic boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asta, Adelchi J.; Levesque, Maximilien; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe; Rotenberg, Benjamin

    2017-06-01

    We use lattice-Boltzmann and analytical calculations to investigate transient hydrodynamic finite-size effects induced by the use of periodic boundary conditions. These effects are inevitable in simulations at the molecular, mesoscopic, or continuum levels of description. We analyze the transient response to a local perturbation in the fluid and obtain the local velocity correlation function via linear response theory. This approach is validated by comparing the finite-size effects on the steady-state velocity with the known results for the diffusion coefficient. We next investigate the full time dependence of the local velocity autocorrelation function. We find at long times a crossover between the expected t-3 /2 hydrodynamic tail and an oscillatory exponential decay, and study the scaling with the system size of the crossover time, exponential rate and amplitude, and oscillation frequency. We interpret these results from the analytic solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equation for the slowest modes, which are set by the system size. The present work not only provides a comprehensive analysis of hydrodynamic finite-size effects in bulk fluids, which arise regardless of the level of description and simulation algorithm, but also establishes the lattice-Boltzmann method as a suitable tool to investigate such effects in general.

  2. A hybrid model for coupling kinetic corrections of fusion reactivity to hydrodynamic implosion simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xian-Zhu; McDevitt, C. J.; Guo, Zehua; Berk, H. L.

    2014-03-01

    Inertial confinement fusion requires an imploded target in which a central hot spot is surrounded by a cold and dense pusher. The hot spot/pusher interface can take complicated shape in three dimensions due to hydrodynamic mix. It is also a transition region where the Knudsen and inverse Knudsen layer effect can significantly modify the fusion reactivity in comparison with the commonly used value evaluated with background Maxwellians. Here, we describe a hybrid model that couples the kinetic correction of fusion reactivity to global hydrodynamic implosion simulations. The key ingredient is a non-perturbative treatment of the tail ions in the interface region where the Gamow ion Knudsen number approaches or surpasses order unity. The accuracy of the coupling scheme is controlled by the precise criteria for matching the non-perturbative kinetic model to perturbative solutions in both configuration space and velocity space.

  3. Numerical simulation of the hydrodynamics within octagonal tanks in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Liu, Baoliang; Lei, Jilin; Guan, Changtao; Huang, Bin

    2017-07-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model was established to simulate the hydrodynamics within an octagonal tank of a recirculating aquaculture system. The realizable k- ɛ turbulence model was applied to describe the flow, the discrete phase model (DPM) was applied to generate particle trajectories, and the governing equations are solved using the finite volume method. To validate this model, the numerical results were compared with data obtained from a full-scale physical model. The results show that: (1) the realizable k- ɛ model applied for turbulence modeling describes well the flow pattern in octagonal tanks, giving an average relative error of velocities between simulated and measured values of 18% from contour maps of velocity magnitudes; (2) the DPM was applied to obtain particle trajectories and to simulate the rate of particle removal from the tank. The average relative error of the removal rates between simulated and measured values was 11%. The DPM can be used to assess the self-cleaning capability of an octagonal tank; (3) a comprehensive account of the hydrodynamics within an octagonal tank can be assessed from simulations. The velocity distribution was uniform with an average velocity of 15 cm/s; the velocity reached 0.8 m/s near the inlet pipe, which can result in energy losses and cause wall abrasion; the velocity in tank corners was more than 15 cm/s, which suggests good water mixing, and there was no particle sedimentation. The percentage of particle removal for octagonal tanks was 90% with the exception of a little accumulation of ≤ 5 mm particle in the area between the inlet pipe and the wall. This study demonstrated a consistent numerical model of the hydrodynamics within octagonal tanks that can be further used in their design and optimization as well as promote the wide use of computational fluid dynamics in aquaculture engineering.

  4. The SELGIFS data challenge: generating synthetic observations of CALIFA galaxies from hydrodynamical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, G.; Casado, J.; Ascasibar, Y.; García-Benito, R.; Galbany, L.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Sánchez, S. F.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Scannapieco, C.

    2018-06-01

    In this work we present a set of synthetic observations that mimic the properties of the Integral Field Spectroscopy (IFS) survey CALIFA, generated using radiative transfer techniques applied to hydrodynamical simulations of galaxies in a cosmological context. The simulated spatially-resolved spectra include stellar and nebular emission, kinematic broadening of the lines, and dust extinction and scattering. The results of the radiative transfer simulations have been post-processed to reproduce the main properties of the CALIFA V500 and V1200 observational setups. The data has been further formatted to mimic the CALIFA survey in terms of field of view size, spectral range and sampling. We have included the effect of the spatial and spectral Point Spread Functions affecting CALIFA observations, and added detector noise after characterizing it on a sample of 367 galaxies. The simulated datacubes are suited to be analysed by the same algorithms used on real IFS data. In order to provide a benchmark to compare the results obtained applying IFS observational techniques to our synthetic datacubes, and test the calibration and accuracy of the analysis tools, we have computed the spatially-resolved properties of the simulations. Hence, we provide maps derived directly from the hydrodynamical snapshots or the noiseless spectra, in a way that is consistent with the values recovered by the observational analysis algorithms. Both the synthetic observations and the product datacubes are public and can be found in the collaboration website http://astro.ft.uam.es/selgifs/data_challenge/.

  5. Preliminary study on performance of a coupled hydrodynamic and sediment transport model on small domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasyif, Teuku M.; Kato, Shigeru; Syamsidik, Okabe, Takumi

    2017-10-01

    Numerical simulation is one of the useful tools to analyze natural phenomena in the earth such as the tsunami disaster. Several numerical models can simulate the tsunami wave from its generation, propagation, and inundation. However, most tsunami models do not include the sediment transport module. The tsunami wave actually induces a lot of sediment during the propagation in the coastal area. In the case of Indian Ocean Tsunami in 2004, massive morphological changes were caused by the tsunami waves around Sumatra coast. In Aceh, some areas eroded by the tsunami wave were living place for a local community. It is indispensable for the resident in the coastal area to estimate the risk of morphological changes due to a tsunami wave. Therefore, a model that can investigate the morphological changes due tsunami wave is necessary. The result of this model can be used to consider a countermeasure for tsunami wave impact in the coastal area, such as land-use management and planning. The COMCOT-SED model had been developed by several researchers. This model combines the hydrodynamic module and the sediment module. The aim of this study is to get general information about performance of the COMCOT-SED model and to modify the model for more accurate results. Firstly, the model was demonstrated in the ideal condition to confirm the model validity. Then, we evaluated the model performance comparing the model results and the laboratory experiment data which was conducted by other researcher. The authors found that the results of water level and bottom profile by the original model in the ideal condition are not suitable. The model modification will give us more suitable results. The modified model will be applied to simulate the tsunami wave and sediment transport in the small area.

  6. A Global Three-Dimensional Radiation Hydrodynamic Simulation of a Self-Gravitating Accretion Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Rebecca; Vogeley, Michael S.; McMillan, Stephen; Boyd, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    We present three-dimensional, radiation hydrodynamic simulations of initially thin accretion disks with self-gravity using the grid-based code PLUTO. We produce simulated light curves and spectral energy distributions and compare to observational data of X-ray binary (XRB) and active galactic nuclei (AGN) variability. These simulations are of interest for modeling the role of radiation in accretion physics across decades of mass and frequency. In particular, the characteristics of the time variability in various bandwidths can probe the timescales over which different physical processes dominate the accretion flow. For example, in the case of some XRBs, superorbital periods much longer than the companion orbital period have been observed. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) calculations have shown that irradiation-driven warping could be the mechanism underlying these long periods. In the case of AGN, irradiation-driven warping is also predicted to occur in addition to strong outflows originating from thermal and radiation pressure driving forces, which are important processes in understanding feedback and star formation in active galaxies. We compare our simulations to various toy models via traditional time series analysis of our synthetic and observed light curves.

  7. SIMULATIONS OF HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUDS. I. HYDRODYNAMICS AND HIGH-VELOCITY HIGH IONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Kyujin; Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.

    2011-01-01

    We present hydrodynamic simulations of high-velocity clouds (HVCs) traveling through the hot, tenuous medium in the Galactic halo. A suite of models was created using the FLASH hydrodynamics code, sampling various cloud sizes, densities, and velocities. In all cases, the cloud-halo interaction ablates material from the clouds. The ablated material falls behind the clouds where it mixes with the ambient medium to produce intermediate-temperature gas, some of which radiatively cools to less than 10,000 K. Using a non-equilibrium ionization algorithm, we track the ionization levels of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in the gas throughout the simulation period. We present observation-related predictions, including the expected H I and high ion (C IV, N V, and O VI) column densities on sightlines through the clouds as functions of evolutionary time and off-center distance. The predicted column densities overlap those observed for Complex C. The observations are best matched by clouds that have interacted with the Galactic environment for tens to hundreds of megayears. Given the large distances across which the clouds would travel during such time, our results are consistent with Complex C having an extragalactic origin. The destruction of HVCs is also of interest; the smallest cloud (initial mass ∼ 120 M sun ) lost most of its mass during the simulation period (60 Myr), while the largest cloud (initial mass ∼ 4 x 10 5 M sun ) remained largely intact, although deformed, during its simulation period (240 Myr).

  8. Comparing semi-analytic particle tagging and hydrodynamical simulations of the Milky Way's stellar halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Andrew P.; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.; Le Bret, Theo; Pontzen, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Particle tagging is an efficient, but approximate, technique for using cosmological N-body simulations to model the phase-space evolution of the stellar populations predicted, for example, by a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. We test the technique developed by Cooper et al. (which we call stings here) by comparing particle tags with stars in a smooth particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulation. We focus on the spherically averaged density profile of stars accreted from satellite galaxies in a Milky Way (MW)-like system. The stellar profile in the SPH simulation can be recovered accurately by tagging dark matter (DM) particles in the same simulation according to a prescription based on the rank order of particle binding energy. Applying the same prescription to an N-body version of this simulation produces a density profile differing from that of the SPH simulation by ≲10 per cent on average between 1 and 200 kpc. This confirms that particle tagging can provide a faithful and robust approximation to a self-consistent hydrodynamical simulation in this regime (in contradiction to previous claims in the literature). We find only one systematic effect, likely due to the collisionless approximation, namely that massive satellites in the SPH simulation are disrupted somewhat earlier than their collisionless counterparts. In most cases, this makes remarkably little difference to the spherically averaged distribution of their stellar debris. We conclude that, for galaxy formation models that do not predict strong baryonic effects on the present-day DM distribution of MW-like galaxies or their satellites, differences in stellar halo predictions associated with the treatment of star formation and feedback are much more important than those associated with the dynamical limitations of collisionless particle tagging.

  9. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Simulations of Dam-Break Flows Around Movable Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Jian, Wei; Liang, Dongfang; Shao, Songdong; Chen, Ridong; Yang, Kejun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, 3D weakly compressible and incompressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (WCSPH & ISPH) models are used to study dam-break flows impacting on either a fixed or a movable structure. First, the two models’ performances are compared in terms of CPU time efficiency and numerical accuracy, as well as the water surface shapes and pressure fields. Then, they are applied to investigate dam-break flow interactions with structures placed in the path of the flood. The study found that th...

  10. Numerical simulations of radiation hydrodynamics and modeling of high temperature hohlraum cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, N.K.; Godwal, B.K.

    2003-10-01

    A summary of our efforts towards the validation of radiation hydrodynamics and opacity models are presented. Effects of various parameters on the radiation temperature inside an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) hohlraum, the effects of non-local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions on emission and absorption, and the hydrodynamics of aluminium and gold foils driven by radiation are studied. LTE and non-LTE predictions for emitted radiation are compared with the experimental results and it is seen that non-LTE simulations show a marked improvement over LTE results. It is shown that the mixing of two high Z materials can lead to an enhancement in the Rosseland mean. An experimental study of soft x-ray emission from laser-irradiated Au-Cu mix-Z targets confirmed these predictions. It is seen that only multi group non-LTE radiation transport is able to explain experimentally observed features in the conversion efficiency of laser light to x-rays. One group radiation transport under predicts the radiation temperature. It is shown that erroneous results can be obtained if the space mesh in the hohlraum wall is not fine enough. Hydrodynamics of a wedge shaped aluminium foil driven by the hohlraum radiation is also presented and results are compared with NOVA laser experiments. Laser driven shock wave EOS and gold hohlraum experiments carried out at CAT are analyzed and they confirmed our theoretical estimates. (author)

  11. EFFECT OF GEOMETRIC CONFIGURATIONS ON HYDRODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF A MARINE PROPELLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir. E. Belhenniche

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the effect of the geometric characteristics on the propeller hydrodynamic performances. Several propeller configurations are created by changing number of blades, expanded area and pitch ratios. The Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations are solved using the commercial code FLUENT 6.3.26. The standard

  12. Hydrodynamic simulations of light ion beam-matter interactions: ablative acceleration of thin foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devore, C.R.; Gardner, J.H.; Boris, J.P.; Mosher, D.

    1984-01-01

    A one-dimensional model is used to study the hydrodynamic response of thin foils to bombardment by an intense proton beam. The beam targets are single- and multilayer planar foils of gold and polystyrene. The main conclusion is that the efficiency of conversion of incident beam energy to directed kinetic energy of the target is maximized by using a multilayer design. For beam parameters associated with the Gamble II device at the Naval Research Laboratory, the simulations yield payload velocities of over 5 cm/μs and energy conversion efficiencies of over 30%. The implications of these results for inertial confinement fusion research are discussed. (author)

  13. Numerical simulation of cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics in the healing process of hydrocephalus patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholampour, S.; Fatouraee, N.; Seddighi, A. S.; Seddighi, A.

    2017-05-01

    Three-dimensional computational models of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and brain tissue are presented for evaluation of their hydrodynamic conditions before and after shunting for seven patients with non-communicating hydrocephalus. One healthy subject is also modeled to compare deviated patients data to normal conditions. The fluid-solid interaction simulation shows the CSF mean pressure and pressure amplitude (the superior index for evaluation of non-communicating hydrocephalus) in patients at a greater point than those in the healthy subject by 5.3 and 2 times, respectively.

  14. Steady-state hydrodynamic instabilities of active liquid crystals: hybrid lattice Boltzmann simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenduzzo, D; Orlandini, E; Cates, M E; Yeomans, J M

    2007-09-01

    We report hybrid lattice Boltzmann (HLB) simulations of the hydrodynamics of an active nematic liquid crystal sandwiched between confining walls with various anchoring conditions. We confirm the existence of a transition between a passive phase and an active phase, in which there is spontaneous flow in the steady state. This transition is attained for sufficiently "extensile" rods, in the case of flow-aligning liquid crystals, and for sufficiently "contractile" ones for flow-tumbling materials. In a quasi-one-dimensional geometry, deep in the active phase of flow-aligning materials, our simulations give evidence of hysteresis and history-dependent steady states, as well as of spontaneous banded flow. Flow-tumbling materials, in contrast, rearrange themselves so that only the two boundary layers flow in steady state. Two-dimensional simulations, with periodic boundary conditions, show additional instabilities, with the spontaneous flow appearing as patterns made up of "convection rolls." These results demonstrate a remarkable richness (including dependence on anchoring conditions) in the steady-state phase behavior of active materials, even in the absence of external forcing; they have no counterpart for passive nematics. Our HLB methodology, which combines lattice Boltzmann for momentum transport with a finite difference scheme for the order parameter dynamics, offers a robust and efficient method for probing the complex hydrodynamic behavior of active nematics.

  15. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Hydrodynamics and Stresses in the PhEur/USP Disintegration Tester Under Fed and Fasted Fluid Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindgen, Sarah; Wachtel, Herbert; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Langguth, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Disintegration of oral solid dosage forms is a prerequisite for drug dissolution and absorption and is to a large extent dependent on the pressures and hydrodynamic conditions in the solution that the dosage form is exposed to. In this work, the hydrodynamics in the PhEur/USP disintegration tester were investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Particle image velocimetry was used to validate the CFD predictions. The CFD simulations were performed with different Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, representing fasted and fed states. The results indicate that the current design and operating conditions of the disintegration test device, given by the pharmacopoeias, are not reproducing the in vivo situation. This holds true for the hydrodynamics in the disintegration tester that generates Reynolds numbers dissimilar to the reported in vivo situation. Also, when using homogenized US FDA meal, representing the fed state, too high viscosities and relative pressures are generated. The forces acting on the dosage form are too small for all fluids compared to the in vivo situation. The lack of peristaltic contractions, which generate hydrodynamics and shear stress in vivo, might be the major drawback of the compendial device resulting in the observed differences between predicted and in vivo measured hydrodynamics. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  16. Computational hydrodynamics and optical performance of inductively-coupled plasma adaptive lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortazavi, M.; Urzay, J., E-mail: jurzay@stanford.edu; Mani, A. [Center for Turbulence Research, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-3024 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    This study addresses the optical performance of a plasma adaptive lens for aero-optical applications by using both axisymmetric and three-dimensional numerical simulations. Plasma adaptive lenses are based on the effects of free electrons on the phase velocity of incident light, which, in theory, can be used as a phase-conjugation mechanism. A closed cylindrical chamber filled with Argon plasma is used as a model lens into which a beam of light is launched. The plasma is sustained by applying a radio-frequency electric current through a coil that envelops the chamber. Four different operating conditions, ranging from low to high powers and induction frequencies, are employed in the simulations. The numerical simulations reveal complex hydrodynamic phenomena related to buoyant and electromagnetic laminar transport, which generate, respectively, large recirculating cells and wall-normal compression stresses in the form of local stagnation-point flows. In the axisymmetric simulations, the plasma motion is coupled with near-wall axial striations in the electron-density field, some of which propagate in the form of low-frequency traveling disturbances adjacent to vortical quadrupoles that are reminiscent of Taylor-Görtler flow structures in centrifugally unstable flows. Although the refractive-index fields obtained from axisymmetric simulations lead to smooth beam wavefronts, they are found to be unstable to azimuthal disturbances in three of the four three-dimensional cases considered. The azimuthal striations are optically detrimental, since they produce high-order angular aberrations that account for most of the beam wavefront error. A fourth case is computed at high input power and high induction frequency, which displays the best optical properties among all the three-dimensional simulations considered. In particular, the increase in induction frequency prevents local thermalization and leads to an axisymmetric distribution of electrons even after introduction of

  17. Floodplain simulation for Musi River using integrated 1D/2D hydrodynamic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Amin Muhammad B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the simulation of floodplain at Musi River using integrated 1D and 2D hydrodynamic model. The 1D flow simulation was applied for the river channel with flow hydrograph as upstream boundary condition. The result of 1D flow simulation was integrated into 2D flow simulation in order to know the area and characteristics of flood inundation. The input data of digital terrain model which was used in this research had grid resolution of 10m×10m, but for 2D simulation the resolution was with grid resolution 50 m × 50 m so as to limit simulation time since the model size was big enough. The result of the simulation showed that the inundated area surrounding Musi River is about 107.44 km2 with maximum flood depth is 3.24 m, water surface velocity ranges from 0.00 to 0.83 m/s. Most of floodplain areas varied from middle to high flood hazard level, and only few areas had very high level of flood hazard especially on river side. The structural flood control measurement to be recommended to Palembang is to construct flood dike and flood gate. The non structural measurement one is to improve watershed management and socialization of flood awareness.

  18. Hydrodynamic and Sensory Factors Governing Response of Copepods to Simulated Predation by Balaenid Whales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Werth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Predator/prey interactions between copepods and balaenid (bowhead and right whales were studied with controlled lab experiments using moving baleen in still water and motionless baleen in flowing water to simulate zooplankton passage toward, into, and through the balaenid oral cavity. Copepods showed a lesser escape response to baleen and to a model head simulating balaenid oral hydrodynamics than to other objects. Copepod escape response increased as water flow and body size increased and was greatest at distances ≥10 cm from baleen and at copepod density = 10,000 m−3. Data from light/dark experiments suggest that escape is based on mechanoreception, not vision. The model head captured 88% of copepods. Results support previous research showing hydrodynamic effects within a whale’s oral cavity create slight suction pressures to draw in prey or at least preclude formation of an anterior compressive bow wave that could scatter or alert prey to the presence of the approaching whale.

  19. Hydrodynamical simulations of the stream-core interaction in the slow merger of massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, N.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Spruit, H.

    2002-08-01

    We present detailed simulations of the interaction of a stream emanating from a mass-losing secondary with the core of a massive supergiant in the slow merger of two stars inside a common envelope. The dynamics of the stream can be divided into a ballistic phase, starting at the L1 point, and a hydrodynamical phase, where the stream interacts strongly with the core. Considering the merger of a 1- and 5-Msolar star with a 20-Msolar evolved supergiant, we present two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations using the PROMETHEUS code to demonstrate how the penetration depth and post-impact conditions depend on the initial properties of the stream material (e.g. entropy, angular momentum, stream width) and the properties of the core (e.g. density structure and rotation rate). Using these results, we present a fitting formula for the entropy generated in the stream-core interaction and a recipe for the determination of the penetration depth based on a modified Bernoulli integral.

  20. Numerical simulations of flares on M dwarf stars. I - Hydrodynamics and coronal X-ray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chung-Chieh; Pallavicini, Roberto

    1991-01-01

    Flare-loop models are utilized to simulate the time evolution and physical characteristics of stellar X-ray flares by varying the values of flare-energy input and loop parameters. The hydrodynamic evolution is studied in terms of changes in the parameters of the mass, energy, and momentum equations within an area bounded by the chromosphere and the corona. The zone supports a magnetically confined loop for which processes are described including the expansion of heated coronal gas, chromospheric evaporation, and plasma compression at loop footpoints. The intensities, time profiles, and average coronal temperatures of X-ray flares are derived from the simulations and compared to observational evidence. Because the amount of evaporated material does not vary linearly with flare-energy input, large loops are required to produce the energy measured from stellar flares.

  1. Coupled hydrodynamic and ecological simulation for prognosticating land reclamation impacts in river estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Cai, Yanpeng; Sun, Tao; Yang, Zhifeng; Hao, Yan

    2018-03-01

    A multiphase finite-element hydrodynamic model and a phytoplankton simulation approach are coupled into a general modeling framework. It can help quantify impacts of land reclamation. Compared with previous studies, it has the following improvements: a) reflection of physical currents and suitable growth areas for phytoplankton, (b) advancement of a simulation method to describe the suitability of phytoplankton in the sea water. As the results, water velocity is 16.7% higher than that of original state without human disturbances. The related filling engineering has shortened sediment settling paths, weakened the vortex flow and reduced the capacity of material exchange. Additionally, coastal reclamation lead to decrease of the growth suitability index (GSI), thus it cut down the stability of phytoplankton species approximately 4-12%. The proposed GSI can be applied to the management of coastal reclamation for minimizing ecological impacts. It will be helpful for facilitating identifying suitable phytoplankton growth areas.

  2. TOUGH2Biot - A simulator for coupled thermal-hydrodynamic-mechanical processes in subsurface flow systems: Application to CO2 geological storage and geothermal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hongwu; Xu, Tianfu; Jin, Guangrong

    2015-04-01

    Coupled thermal-hydrodynamic-mechanical processes have become increasingly important in studying the issues affecting subsurface flow systems, such as CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers and geothermal development. In this study, a mechanical module based on the extended Biot consolidation model was developed and incorporated into the well-established thermal-hydrodynamic simulator TOUGH2, resulting in an integrated numerical THM simulation program TOUGH2Biot. A finite element method was employed to discretize space for rock mechanical calculation and the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was used to determine if the rock undergoes shear-slip failure. Mechanics is partly coupled with the thermal-hydrodynamic processes and gives feedback to flow through stress-dependent porosity and permeability. TOUGH2Biot was verified against analytical solutions for the 1D Terzaghi consolidation and cooling-induced subsidence. TOUGH2Biot was applied to evaluate the thermal, hydrodynamic, and mechanical responses of CO2 geological sequestration at the Ordos CCS Demonstration Project, China and geothermal exploitation at the Geysers geothermal field, California. The results demonstrate that TOUGH2Biot is capable of analyzing change in pressure and temperature, displacement, stress, and potential shear-slip failure caused by large scale underground man-made activity in subsurface flow systems. TOUGH2Biot can also be easily extended for complex coupled process problems in fractured media and be conveniently updated to parallel versions on different platforms to take advantage of high-performance computing.

  3. Comparison of two different methods for evaluating the hydrodynamic performance of an industrial-scale fish-rearing unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; McLean, Ewen

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory-scale physical and mathematical models were evaluated for their utility in examining the hydrodynamic performance of a commercial fish-rearing tank. Each method was appraised with the common objective of predicting characteristic hydrodynamic behaviour of a full-scale tank. The two...

  4. Hydrodynamic Simulations of the Inner Accretion Flow of Sagittarius A* Fueled By Stellar Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressler, S. M.; Quataert, E.; Stone, J. M.

    2018-05-01

    We present Athena++ grid-based, hydrodynamic simulations of accretion onto Sagittarius A* via the stellar winds of the ˜30 Wolf-Rayet stars within the central parsec of the galactic center. These simulations span ˜ 4 orders of magnitude in radius, reaching all the way down to 300 gravitational radii of the black hole, ˜32 times further in than in previous work. We reproduce reasonably well the diffuse thermal X-ray emission observed by Chandra in the central parsec. The resulting accretion flow at small radii is a superposition of two components: 1) a moderately unbound, sub-Keplerian, thick, pressure-supported disc that is at most (but not all) times aligned with the clockwise stellar disc, and 2) a bound, low-angular momentum inflow that proceeds primarily along the southern pole of the disc. We interpret this structure as a natural consequence of a few of the innermost stellar winds dominating accretion, which produces a flow with a broad distribution of angular momentum. Including the star S2 in the simulation has a negligible effect on the flow structure. Extrapolating our results from simulations with different inner radii, we find an accretion rate of ˜ a few × 10-8M⊙/yr at the horizon scale, consistent with constraints based on modeling the observed emission of Sgr A*. The flow structure found here can be used as more realistic initial conditions for horizon scale simulations of Sgr A*.

  5. Numerical analysis of the texture effect on the hydrodynamic performance of a mechanical seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjemout, M.; Brunetiere, N.; Bouyer, J.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of the main geometrical characteristics of texture on the hydrodynamic lubrication of a mechanical seal. A parametric study was carried out in order to improve the performance of a mechanical seal. The numerical model used in this study solves the Reynolds equation coupled with a mass conservative model which takes into account the cavitation phenomenon. It is shown that among the six dimple shapes tested herein, namely cylinder, square, triangle, truncated cone, truncated pyramid, and spherical cap, the triangular dimples placed symmetrically with respect to their bases are more effective for enhancing the hydrodynamic performance of the mechanical seal. The effect of the area and depth ratios is studied and optimized as well. The optimized solution is able to minimize friction and leakage under a range of operating conditions.

  6. Revealing the Physics of Galactic Winds Through Massively-Parallel Hydrodynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Evan Elizabeth

    This thesis documents the hydrodynamics code Cholla and a numerical study of multiphase galactic winds. Cholla is a massively-parallel, GPU-based code designed for astrophysical simulations that is freely available to the astrophysics community. A static-mesh Eulerian code, Cholla is ideally suited to carrying out massive simulations (> 20483 cells) that require very high resolution. The code incorporates state-of-the-art hydrodynamics algorithms including third-order spatial reconstruction, exact and linearized Riemann solvers, and unsplit integration algorithms that account for transverse fluxes on multidimensional grids. Operator-split radiative cooling and a dual-energy formalism for high mach number flows are also included. An extensive test suite demonstrates Cholla's superior ability to model shocks and discontinuities, while the GPU-native design makes the code extremely computationally efficient - speeds of 5-10 million cell updates per GPU-second are typical on current hardware for 3D simulations with all of the aforementioned physics. The latter half of this work comprises a comprehensive study of the mixing between a hot, supernova-driven wind and cooler clouds representative of those observed in multiphase galactic winds. Both adiabatic and radiatively-cooling clouds are investigated. The analytic theory of cloud-crushing is applied to the problem, and adiabatic turbulent clouds are found to be mixed with the hot wind on similar timescales as the classic spherical case (4-5 t cc) with an appropriate rescaling of the cloud-crushing time. Radiatively cooling clouds survive considerably longer, and the differences in evolution between turbulent and spherical clouds cannot be reconciled with a simple rescaling. The rapid incorporation of low-density material into the hot wind implies efficient mass-loading of hot phases of galactic winds. At the same time, the extreme compression of high-density cloud material leads to long-lived but slow-moving clumps

  7. Source characterization of underground explosions from hydrodynamic-to-elastic coupling simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, A.; Pitarka, A.; Ford, S. R.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Vorobiev, O.

    2017-12-01

    A major improvement in ground motion simulation capabilities for underground explosion monitoring during the first phase of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is the development of a wave propagation solver that can propagate explosion generated non-linear near field ground motions to the far-field. The calculation is done using a hybrid modeling approach with a one-way hydrodynamic-to-elastic coupling in three dimensions where near-field motions are computed using GEODYN-L, a Lagrangian hydrodynamics code, and then passed to WPP, an elastic finite-difference code for seismic waveform modeling. The advancement in ground motion simulation capabilities gives us the opportunity to assess moment tensor inversion of a realistic volumetric source with near-field effects in a controlled setting, where we can evaluate the recovered source properties as a function of modeling parameters (i.e. velocity model) and can provide insights into previous source studies on SPE Phase I chemical shots and other historical nuclear explosions. For example the moment tensor inversion of far-field SPE seismic data demonstrated while vertical motions are well-modeled using existing velocity models large misfits still persist in predicting tangential shear wave motions from explosions. One possible explanation we can explore is errors and uncertainties from the underlying Earth model. Here we investigate the recovered moment tensor solution, particularly on the non-volumetric component, by inverting far-field ground motions simulated from physics-based explosion source models in fractured material, where the physics-based source models are based on the modeling of SPE-4P, SPE-5 and SPE-6 near-field data. The hybrid modeling approach provides new prospects in modeling explosion source and understanding the uncertainties associated with it.

  8. Flooding Simulation of Extreme Event on Barnegat Bay by High-Resolution Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Ramaswamy, V.; Saleh, F.

    2017-12-01

    Barnegat Bay located on the east coast of New Jersey, United States and is separated from the Atlantic Ocean by the narrow Barnegat Peninsula which acts as a barrier island. The bay is fed by several rivers which empty through small estuaries along the inner shore. In terms of vulnerability from flooding, the Barnegat Peninsula is under the influence of both coastal storm surge and riverine flooding. Barnegat Bay was hit by Hurricane Sandy causing flood damages with extensive cross-island flow at many streets perpendicular to the shoreline. The objective of this work is to identify and quantify the sources of flooding using a two dimensional inland hydrodynamic model. The hydrodynamic model was forced by three observed coastal boundary conditions, and one hydrologic boundary condition from United States Geological Survey (USGS). The model reliability was evaluated with both FEMA spatial flooding extend and USGS High water marks. Simulated flooding extent showed good agreement with the reanalysis spatial inundation extents. Results offered important perspectives on the flow of the water into the bay, the velocity and the depth of the inundated areas. Using such information can enable emergency managers and decision makers identify evacuation and deploy flood defenses.

  9. Numerical simulation of viscous flow and hydrodynamic noise in surface ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Han

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] The problem of noise caused by an unsteady flow field around a surface ship is a difficulty facing the stealth design of ship hulls, in which the existence of the free surface makes it different from submarine hydrodynamic noise calculation. To solve this problem,[Methods] the Volume of Fluid(VOF method and SST k-ω turbulence model are combined to simulate the unsteady flow field of the hull, and the free surface is given an air acoustic impedance to simulate the absorption boundary. The pulsating pressure of the hull surface is used as the source of the noise, and the underwater radiation noise of the surface ship is calculated with the acoustic finite element method.[Results] The results show high agreement with the experimental results and previous simulation results. The noise sources are mainly concentrated at the bow of the hull.[Conclusions] The results show that this calculation method can accurately simulate the flow field and sound field of a surface ship, and it can provides valuable reference for the acoustic stealth design of surface ships.

  10. Investigation on hydrodynamic performance of a marine propeller in oblique flow by RANS computations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxi Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical study on investigating on hydrodynamic characteristics of a marine propeller in oblique flow. The study is achieved by RANS simulations on an open source platform - OpenFOAM. A sliding grid approach is applied to compute the rotating motion of the propeller. Total force and moment acting on blades, as well as average force distributions in one revolution on propeller disk, are obtained for 70 cases of com- binations of advance ratios and oblique angles. The computed results are compared with available experimental data and discussed.

  11. RPYFMM: Parallel adaptive fast multipole method for Rotne-Prager-Yamakawa tensor in biomolecular hydrodynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, W.; Cheng, X.; Huang, J.; Huber, G.; Li, W.; McCammon, J. A.; Zhang, B.

    2018-06-01

    RPYFMM is a software package for the efficient evaluation of the potential field governed by the Rotne-Prager-Yamakawa (RPY) tensor interactions in biomolecular hydrodynamics simulations. In our algorithm, the RPY tensor is decomposed as a linear combination of four Laplace interactions, each of which is evaluated using the adaptive fast multipole method (FMM) (Greengard and Rokhlin, 1997) where the exponential expansions are applied to diagonalize the multipole-to-local translation operators. RPYFMM offers a unified execution on both shared and distributed memory computers by leveraging the DASHMM library (DeBuhr et al., 2016, 2018). Preliminary numerical results show that the interactions for a molecular system of 15 million particles (beads) can be computed within one second on a Cray XC30 cluster using 12,288 cores, while achieving approximately 54% strong-scaling efficiency.

  12. Linear Simulations of the Cylindrical Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability in Hydrodynamics and MHD

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Song

    2013-05-01

    The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability occurs when density-stratified interfaces are impulsively accelerated, typically by a shock wave. We present a numerical method to simulate the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in cylindrical geometry. The ideal MHD equations are linearized about a time-dependent base state to yield linear partial differential equations governing the perturbed quantities. Convergence tests demonstrate that second order accuracy is achieved for smooth flows, and the order of accuracy is between first and second order for flows with discontinuities. Numerical results are presented for cases of interfaces with positive Atwood number and purely azimuthal perturbations. In hydrodynamics, the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability growth of perturbations is followed by a Rayleigh-Taylor growth phase. In MHD, numerical results indicate that the perturbations can be suppressed for sufficiently large perturbation wavenumbers and magnetic fields.

  13. Three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of stellar collisions. II. White dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benz, W.; Thielemann, F.K.; Hills, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations are presented for collisions between white dwarfs, using a smooth-particle hydrodynamics code with 5000 particles. The code allows for radiation and degenerate pressure and uses a reduced nuclear network which models the large release of nuclear energy. Two different collision models are considered over a range of impact parameters: between two 0.06 solar-mass C-O white dwarfs and between 0.9 solar-mass and 0.7 solar-mass C-O white dwarfs. In nearly head-on collisions, a very substantial fraction of the mass is lost as a result of a large release of nuclear energy. In grazing collisions, the fraction of mass lost is close to that produced in collisions between main-sequence stars. The quantity of processed elements ejected into the ISM by these collisions does not significantly affect the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. 24 refs

  14. Hydrodynamic Assists Magnetophoreses Rare Cancer cells Separation in Microchannel Simulation and Experimental Verifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, O.; Duru, L.; Yulin, D.

    2018-05-01

    A proposed microfluidic design has been fabricated and simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics software, based on two physical models included in this design. The device’s ability to create a narrow stream of the core sample by controlling the sheath flow rates Qs1 and Qs2 in both peripheral channels was investigated. The main target of this paper is to study the possibility of combing the hydrodynamic and magnetic techniques, in order to achieve a high rate of cancer cells separation from a cell mixture and/or buffer sample. The study has been conducted in two stages, firstly, the effects of the sheath flow rates (Qs1 and Qs2) on the sample stream focusing were studied, to find the proposed device effectiveness optimal conditions and its capability in cell focusing, and then the magnetic mechanism has been utilized to finalize the pre-labelled cells separation process.

  15. Hydrodynamic analysis, performance assessment, and actuator design of a flexible tail propulsor in an artificial alligator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philen, Michael; Neu, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    The overall objective of this research is to develop analysis tools for determining actuator requirements and assessing viable actuator technology for design of a flexible tail propulsor in an artificial alligator. A simple hydrodynamic model that includes both reactive and resistive forces along the tail is proposed and the calculated mean thrust agrees well with conventional estimates of drag. Using the hydrodynamic model forces as an input, studies are performed for an alligator ranging in size from 1 cm to 2 m at swimming speeds of 0.3–1.8 body lengths per second containing five antagonistic pairs of actuators distributed along the length of the tail. Several smart materials are considered for the actuation system, and preliminary analysis results indicate that the acrylic electroactive polymer and the flexible matrix composite actuators are potential artificial muscle technologies for the system

  16. Lasertron performance simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrovin, A.; Coulon, J.P.

    1987-05-01

    This report presents a comparative simulation study of the Lasertron at different frequency and emission conditions, in view to establish choice criteria for future experiments. The RING program for these simulations is an improved version of the one presented in an other report. The self-consistent treatment of the R.F. extraction zone is added to it, together with the possibility to vary initial conditions to better describe the laser illumination and the electron extraction from cathode. Plane or curved cathodes are used [fr

  17. STAR FORMATION AND FEEDBACK IN SMOOTHED PARTICLE HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS. II. RESOLUTION EFFECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, Charlotte R.; Quinn, Thomas; Bellovary, Jillian; Stinson, Gregory; Wadsley, James

    2010-01-01

    We examine the effect of mass and force resolution on a specific star formation (SF) recipe using a set of N-body/smooth particle hydrodynamic simulations of isolated galaxies. Our simulations span halo masses from 10 9 to 10 13 M sun , more than 4 orders of magnitude in mass resolution, and 2 orders of magnitude in the gravitational softening length, ε, representing the force resolution. We examine the total global SF rate, the SF history, and the quantity of stellar feedback and compare the disk structure of the galaxies. Based on our analysis, we recommend using at least 10 4 particles each for the dark matter (DM) and gas component and a force resolution of ε ∼ 10 -3 R vir when studying global SF and feedback. When the spatial distribution of stars is important, the number of gas and DM particles must be increased to at least 10 5 of each. Low-mass resolution simulations with fixed softening lengths show particularly weak stellar disks due to two-body heating. While decreasing spatial resolution in low-mass resolution simulations limits two-body effects, density and potential gradients cannot be sustained. Regardless of the softening, low-mass resolution simulations contain fewer high density regions where SF may occur. Galaxies of approximately 10 10 M sun display unique sensitivity to both mass and force resolution. This mass of galaxy has a shallow potential and is on the verge of forming a disk. The combination of these factors gives this galaxy the potential for strong gas outflows driven by supernova feedback and makes it particularly sensitive to any changes to the simulation parameters.

  18. Global SWOT Data Assimilation of River Hydrodynamic Model; the Twin Simulation Test of CaMa-Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeshima, D.; Yamazaki, D.; Kanae, S.

    2016-12-01

    CaMa-Flood is a global scale model for simulating hydrodynamics in large scale rivers. It can simulate river hydrodynamics such as river discharge, flooded area, water depth and so on by inputting water runoff derived from land surface model. Recently many improvements at parameters or terrestrial data are under process to enhance the reproducibility of true natural phenomena. However, there are still some errors between nature and simulated result due to uncertainties in each model. SWOT (Surface water and Ocean Topography) is a satellite, which is going to be launched in 2021, can measure open water surface elevation. SWOT observed data can be used to calibrate hydrodynamics model at river flow forecasting and is expected to improve model's accuracy. Combining observation data into model to calibrate is called data assimilation. In this research, we developed data-assimilated river flow simulation system in global scale, using CaMa-Flood as river hydrodynamics model and simulated SWOT as observation data. Generally at data assimilation, calibrating "model value" with "observation value" makes "assimilated value". However, the observed data of SWOT satellite will not be available until its launch in 2021. Instead, we simulated the SWOT observed data using CaMa-Flood. Putting "pure input" into CaMa-Flood produce "true water storage". Extracting actual daily swath of SWOT from "true water storage" made simulated observation. For "model value", we made "disturbed water storage" by putting "noise disturbed input" to CaMa-Flood. Since both "model value" and "observation value" are made by same model, we named this twin simulation. At twin simulation, simulated observation of "true water storage" is combined with "disturbed water storage" to make "assimilated value". As the data assimilation method, we used ensemble Kalman filter. If "assimilated value" is closer to "true water storage" than "disturbed water storage", the data assimilation can be marked effective. Also

  19. Topology of Large-Scale Structure by Galaxy Type: Hydrodynamic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gott, J. Richard, III; Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1996-07-01

    The topology of large-scale structure is studied as a function of galaxy type using the genus statistic. In hydrodynamical cosmological cold dark matter simulations, galaxies form on caustic surfaces (Zeldovich pancakes) and then slowly drain onto filaments and clusters. The earliest forming galaxies in the simulations (defined as "ellipticals") are thus seen at the present epoch preferentially in clusters (tending toward a meatball topology), while the latest forming galaxies (defined as "spirals") are seen currently in a spongelike topology. The topology is measured by the genus (number of "doughnut" holes minus number of isolated regions) of the smoothed density-contour surfaces. The measured genus curve for all galaxies as a function of density obeys approximately the theoretical curve expected for random- phase initial conditions, but the early-forming elliptical galaxies show a shift toward a meatball topology relative to the late-forming spirals. Simulations using standard biasing schemes fail to show such an effect. Large observational samples separated by galaxy type could be used to test for this effect.

  20. Mining MaNGA for Merging Galaxies: A New Imaging and Kinematic Technique from Hydrodynamical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, Becky; Comerford, Julia M.; Blecha, Laura

    2018-06-01

    Merging galaxies play a key role in galaxy evolution, and progress in our understanding of galaxy evolution is slowed by the difficulty of making accurate galaxy merger identifications. Mergers are typically identified using imaging alone, which has its limitations and biases. With the growing popularity of integral field spectroscopy (IFS), it is now possible to use kinematic signatures to improve galaxy merger identifications. I use GADGET-3 hydrodynamical simulations of merging galaxies with the radiative transfer code SUNRISE, the later of which enables me to apply the same analysis to simulations and observations. From the simulated galaxies, I have developed the first merging galaxy classification scheme that is based on kinematics and imaging. Utilizing a Linear Discriminant Analysis tool, I have determined which kinematic and imaging predictors are most useful for identifying mergers of various merger parameters (such as orientation, mass ratio, gas fraction, and merger stage). I will discuss the strengths and limitations of the classification technique and then my initial results for applying the classification to the >10,000 observed galaxies in the MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point) IFS survey. Through accurate identification of merging galaxies in the MaNGA survey, I will advance our understanding of supermassive black hole growth in galaxy mergers and other open questions related to galaxy evolution.

  1. Improved non-local electron thermal transport model for two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory; Delettrez, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    An implicit, non-local thermal conduction algorithm based on the algorithm developed by Schurtz, Nicolai, and Busquet (SNB) [Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] for non-local electron transport is presented and has been implemented in the radiation-hydrodynamics code DRACO. To study the model's effect on DRACO's predictive capability, simulations of shot 60 303 from OMEGA are completed using the iSNB model, and the computed shock speed vs. time is compared to experiment. Temperature outputs from the iSNB model are compared with the non-local transport model of Goncharov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 012702 (2006)]. Effects on adiabat are also examined in a polar drive surrogate simulation. Results show that the iSNB model is not only capable of flux-limitation but also preheat prediction while remaining numerically robust and sacrificing little computational speed. Additionally, the results provide strong incentive to further modify key parameters within the SNB theory, namely, the newly introduced non-local mean free path. This research was supported by the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester

  2. Improved non-local electron thermal transport model for two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory [University of Wisconsin—Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Delettrez, Jacques [Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    An implicit, non-local thermal conduction algorithm based on the algorithm developed by Schurtz, Nicolai, and Busquet (SNB) [Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] for non-local electron transport is presented and has been implemented in the radiation-hydrodynamics code DRACO. To study the model's effect on DRACO's predictive capability, simulations of shot 60 303 from OMEGA are completed using the iSNB model, and the computed shock speed vs. time is compared to experiment. Temperature outputs from the iSNB model are compared with the non-local transport model of Goncharov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 012702 (2006)]. Effects on adiabat are also examined in a polar drive surrogate simulation. Results show that the iSNB model is not only capable of flux-limitation but also preheat prediction while remaining numerically robust and sacrificing little computational speed. Additionally, the results provide strong incentive to further modify key parameters within the SNB theory, namely, the newly introduced non-local mean free path. This research was supported by the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester.

  3. MODA: a new algorithm to compute optical depths in multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, Albino; Gafton, Emanuel; Cabezón, Rubén; Rosswog, Stephan; Liebendörfer, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    Aims: We introduce the multidimensional optical depth algorithm (MODA) for the calculation of optical depths in approximate multidimensional radiative transport schemes, equally applicable to neutrinos and photons. Motivated by (but not limited to) neutrino transport in three-dimensional simulations of core-collapse supernovae and neutron star mergers, our method makes no assumptions about the geometry of the matter distribution, apart from expecting optically transparent boundaries. Methods: Based on local information about opacities, the algorithm figures out an escape route that tends to minimize the optical depth without assuming any predefined paths for radiation. Its adaptivity makes it suitable for a variety of astrophysical settings with complicated geometry (e.g., core-collapse supernovae, compact binary mergers, tidal disruptions, star formation, etc.). We implement the MODA algorithm into both a Eulerian hydrodynamics code with a fixed, uniform grid and into an SPH code where we use a tree structure that is otherwise used for searching neighbors and calculating gravity. Results: In a series of numerical experiments, we compare the MODA results with analytically known solutions. We also use snapshots from actual 3D simulations and compare the results of MODA with those obtained with other methods, such as the global and local ray-by-ray method. It turns out that MODA achieves excellent accuracy at a moderate computational cost. In appendix we also discuss implementation details and parallelization strategies.

  4. Improved non-local electron thermal transport model for two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory; Delettrez, Jacques

    2015-08-01

    An implicit, non-local thermal conduction algorithm based on the algorithm developed by Schurtz, Nicolai, and Busquet (SNB) [Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] for non-local electron transport is presented and has been implemented in the radiation-hydrodynamics code DRACO. To study the model's effect on DRACO's predictive capability, simulations of shot 60 303 from OMEGA are completed using the iSNB model, and the computed shock speed vs. time is compared to experiment. Temperature outputs from the iSNB model are compared with the non-local transport model of Goncharov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 012702 (2006)]. Effects on adiabat are also examined in a polar drive surrogate simulation. Results show that the iSNB model is not only capable of flux-limitation but also preheat prediction while remaining numerically robust and sacrificing little computational speed. Additionally, the results provide strong incentive to further modify key parameters within the SNB theory, namely, the newly introduced non-local mean free path. This research was supported by the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester.

  5. Hydrodynamic simulations of integrated experiments planned for OMEGA/OMEGA EP laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delettrez, J. A.; Myatt, J.; Radha, P. B.; Stoeckl, C.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2005-01-01

    Integrated fast-ignition experiments for the combined OMEGA/OMEGA EP laser systems have been simulated with the multidimensional hydrodynamic code DRACO. In the simplified electron transport model included in DRACO, the electrons are introduced at the pole of a 2-D simulation and transported in a straight line toward the target core, depositing their energy according to a recently published slowing-down formula.1 Simulations, including alpha transport, of an OMEGA cryogenic target designed to reach a 1-D fuel R of 500 mg/cm2 have been carried out for 1-D (clean) and, more realistic, 2-D (with nonuniformities) implosions to assess the sensitivity to energy, timing, and irradiance of the Gaussian fast-ignitor beam. The OMEGA laser system provides up to 30 kJ of compression energy, and OMEGA EP will provide two short pulse beams, each with energies up to 2.6 kJ. For the 1-D case, the neutron yield is predicted to be in excess of 1015 (compared to 1014 for no ignitor beam) over a timing range of about 80 ps. This talk will present these results and new 2-D simulation results that include the effects of realistic cryogenic target perturbations on the compressed core. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-92SF19460, the University of Rochester, and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. The support of DOE does not constitute an endorsement by DOE of the views expressed in this article. (Author)

  6. CFD analysis of the hydrodynamic and cavitation performances of modified NACA 4418 hydrofoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, Zoran; Popovski, Predrag; Lipej, Andrej

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of the possibilities of using Computational Fluid Dynamics technology for calculating of the flow parameters in a cavitation tunnel. Different turbulence models are used to perform the calculations. Comparison of the results from the experimental work and the CFD-TASC flow analysis are presented. Cavitation is addressed as a particular phenomenon, but also its influence on the hydrodynamic parameters. Constant enthalpy vaporization model is used for this purpose and the results will be compared with the photos taken during the cavitation investigation in the tunnel. (Original)

  7. Intermediate modeling between kinetic equations and hydrodynamic limits: derivation, analysis and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisot, M.

    2011-01-01

    This work is dedicated study of a problem resulting from plasma physics: the thermal transfer of electrons in a plasma close to equilibrium Maxwellian. Firstly, a dimensional study of the Vlasov-Fokker-Planck-Maxwell system is performed, allowing one hand to identify a physically relevant parameter of scale and also to define mathematically the contours of validity domain. The asymptotic regime called Spitzer-Harm is studied for a relatively general class of collision operator. The following part of this work is devoted to the derivation and study of the hydrodynamic limit of the system of Vlasov-Maxwell-Landau outside the strictly asymptotic. A model proposed by Schurtz and Nicolais located in this context and analyzed. The particularity of this model lies in the application of a delocalization operation in the heat flux. The link with non-local models of Luciani and Mora is established as well as mathematics properties as the principle of maximum and entropy dissipation. Then a formal derivation from the Vlasov equations with a simplified collision operator, is proposed. The derivation, inspired by the recent work of D. Levermore, involves decomposition methods according to the spherical harmonics and methods of closing called diffusion methods. A hierarchy of intermediate models between the kinetic equations and the hydrodynamic limit is described. In particular a new hydrodynamic system integro-differential by nature, is proposed. The Schurtz and Nicolai model appears as a simplification of the system resulting from the derivation, assuming a steady flow of heat. The above results are then generalized to account for the internal energy dependence which appears naturally in the equation establishment. The existence and uniqueness of the solution of the nonstationary system are established in a simplified framework. The last part is devoted was the implementation of a specific numerical scheme to solve these models. We propose a finite volume approach can be

  8. 2D RADIATION-HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF SUPERNOVA SHOCK BREAKOUT IN BIPOLAR EXPLOSIONS OF A BLUE SUPERGIANT PROGENITOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Maeda, Keiichi [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Shigeyama, Toshikazu [Research Center for the Early Universe, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan)

    2016-07-10

    A two-dimensional special relativistic radiation-hydrodynamics code is developed and applied to numerical simulations of supernova shock breakout in bipolar explosions of a blue supergiant. Our calculations successfully simulate the dynamical evolution of a blast wave in the star and its emergence from the surface. Results of the model with spherical energy deposition show a good agreement with previous simulations. Furthermore, we calculate several models with bipolar energy deposition and compare their results with the spherically symmetric model. The bolometric light curves of the shock breakout emission are calculated by a ray-tracing method. Our radiation-hydrodynamic models indicate that the early part of the shock breakout emission can be used to probe the geometry of the blast wave produced as a result of the gravitational collapse of the iron core.

  9. Thermal hydrodynamic modeling and simulation of hot-gas duct for next-generation nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Injun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sungdeok; Kim, Chansoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Bai, Cheolho; Hong, Sungyull [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Jaesool, E-mail: jshim@ynu.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Thermal hydrodynamic nonlinear model is presented to examine a hot gas duct (HGD) used in a fourth-generation nuclear power reactor. • Experiments and simulation were compared to validate the nonlinear porous model. • Natural convection and radiation are considered to study the effect on the surface temperature of the HGD. • Local Nusselt number is obtained for the optimum design of a possible next-generation HGD. - Abstract: A very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) is a fourth-generation nuclear power reactor that requires an intermediate loop that consists of a hot-gas duct (HGD), an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX), and a process heat exchanger for massive hydrogen production. In this study, a mathematical model and simulation were developed for the HGD in a small-scale nitrogen gas loop that was designed and manufactured by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. These were used to investigate the effect of various important factors on the surface of the HGD. In the modeling, a porous model was considered for a Kaowool insulator inside the HGD. The natural convection and radiation are included in the model. For validation, the modeled external surface temperatures are compared with experimental results obtained while changing the inlet temperatures of the nitrogen working fluid. The simulation results show very good agreement with the experiments. The external surface temperatures of the HGD are obtained with respect to the porosity of insulator, emissivity of radiation, and pressure of the working fluid. The local Nusselt number is also obtained for the optimum design of a possible next-generation HGD.

  10. Relativistic, Viscous, Radiation Hydrodynamic Simulations of Geometrically Thin Disks. I. Thermal and Other Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragile, P. Chris; Etheridge, Sarina M.; Anninos, Peter; Mishra, Bhupendra; Kluźniak, Włodek

    2018-04-01

    We present results from two-dimensional, general relativistic, viscous, radiation hydrodynamic numerical simulations of Shakura–Sunyaev thin disks accreting onto stellar-mass Schwarzschild black holes. We consider cases on both the gas- and radiation-pressure-dominated branches of the thermal equilibrium curve, with mass accretion rates spanning the range from \\dot{M}=0.01{L}Edd}/{c}2 to 10L Edd/c 2. The simulations directly test the stability of this standard disk model on the different branches. We find clear evidence of thermal instability for all radiation-pressure-dominated disks, resulting universally in the vertical collapse of the disks, which in some cases then settle onto the stable, gas-pressure-dominated branch. Although these results are consistent with decades-old theoretical predictions, they appear to be in conflict with available observational data from black hole X-ray binaries. We also find evidence for a radiation-pressure-driven instability that breaks the unstable disks up into alternating rings of high and low surface density on a timescale comparable to the thermal collapse. Since radiation is included self-consistently in the simulations, we are able to calculate light curves and power density spectra (PDS). For the most part, we measure radiative efficiencies (ratio of luminosity to mass accretion rate) close to 6%, as expected for a nonrotating black hole. The PDS appear as broken power laws, with a break typically around 100 Hz. There is no evidence of significant excess power at any frequencies, i.e., no quasi-periodic oscillations are observed.

  11. Gamma-Ray Burst Dynamics and Afterglow Radiation from Adaptive Mesh Refinement, Special Relativistic Hydrodynamic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Colle, Fabio; Granot, Jonathan; López-Cámara, Diego; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2012-02-01

    We report on the development of Mezcal-SRHD, a new adaptive mesh refinement, special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) code, developed with the aim of studying the highly relativistic flows in gamma-ray burst sources. The SRHD equations are solved using finite-volume conservative solvers, with second-order interpolation in space and time. The correct implementation of the algorithms is verified by one-dimensional (1D) and multi-dimensional tests. The code is then applied to study the propagation of 1D spherical impulsive blast waves expanding in a stratified medium with ρvpropr -k , bridging between the relativistic and Newtonian phases (which are described by the Blandford-McKee and Sedov-Taylor self-similar solutions, respectively), as well as to a two-dimensional (2D) cylindrically symmetric impulsive jet propagating in a constant density medium. It is shown that the deceleration to nonrelativistic speeds in one dimension occurs on scales significantly larger than the Sedov length. This transition is further delayed with respect to the Sedov length as the degree of stratification of the ambient medium is increased. This result, together with the scaling of position, Lorentz factor, and the shock velocity as a function of time and shock radius, is explained here using a simple analytical model based on energy conservation. The method used for calculating the afterglow radiation by post-processing the results of the simulations is described in detail. The light curves computed using the results of 1D numerical simulations during the relativistic stage correctly reproduce those calculated assuming the self-similar Blandford-McKee solution for the evolution of the flow. The jet dynamics from our 2D simulations and the resulting afterglow light curves, including the jet break, are in good agreement with those presented in previous works. Finally, we show how the details of the dynamics critically depend on properly resolving the structure of the relativistic flow.

  12. GAMMA-RAY BURST DYNAMICS AND AFTERGLOW RADIATION FROM ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT, SPECIAL RELATIVISTIC HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Colle, Fabio; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Granot, Jonathan; López-Cámara, Diego

    2012-01-01

    We report on the development of Mezcal-SRHD, a new adaptive mesh refinement, special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) code, developed with the aim of studying the highly relativistic flows in gamma-ray burst sources. The SRHD equations are solved using finite-volume conservative solvers, with second-order interpolation in space and time. The correct implementation of the algorithms is verified by one-dimensional (1D) and multi-dimensional tests. The code is then applied to study the propagation of 1D spherical impulsive blast waves expanding in a stratified medium with ρ∝r –k , bridging between the relativistic and Newtonian phases (which are described by the Blandford-McKee and Sedov-Taylor self-similar solutions, respectively), as well as to a two-dimensional (2D) cylindrically symmetric impulsive jet propagating in a constant density medium. It is shown that the deceleration to nonrelativistic speeds in one dimension occurs on scales significantly larger than the Sedov length. This transition is further delayed with respect to the Sedov length as the degree of stratification of the ambient medium is increased. This result, together with the scaling of position, Lorentz factor, and the shock velocity as a function of time and shock radius, is explained here using a simple analytical model based on energy conservation. The method used for calculating the afterglow radiation by post-processing the results of the simulations is described in detail. The light curves computed using the results of 1D numerical simulations during the relativistic stage correctly reproduce those calculated assuming the self-similar Blandford-McKee solution for the evolution of the flow. The jet dynamics from our 2D simulations and the resulting afterglow light curves, including the jet break, are in good agreement with those presented in previous works. Finally, we show how the details of the dynamics critically depend on properly resolving the structure of the relativistic flow.

  13. GAMMA-RAY BURST DYNAMICS AND AFTERGLOW RADIATION FROM ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT, SPECIAL RELATIVISTIC HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Colle, Fabio; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico [Astronomy and Astrophysics Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Granot, Jonathan [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Lopez-Camara, Diego [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ap. 70-543, 04510 D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-02-20

    We report on the development of Mezcal-SRHD, a new adaptive mesh refinement, special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) code, developed with the aim of studying the highly relativistic flows in gamma-ray burst sources. The SRHD equations are solved using finite-volume conservative solvers, with second-order interpolation in space and time. The correct implementation of the algorithms is verified by one-dimensional (1D) and multi-dimensional tests. The code is then applied to study the propagation of 1D spherical impulsive blast waves expanding in a stratified medium with {rho}{proportional_to}r{sup -k}, bridging between the relativistic and Newtonian phases (which are described by the Blandford-McKee and Sedov-Taylor self-similar solutions, respectively), as well as to a two-dimensional (2D) cylindrically symmetric impulsive jet propagating in a constant density medium. It is shown that the deceleration to nonrelativistic speeds in one dimension occurs on scales significantly larger than the Sedov length. This transition is further delayed with respect to the Sedov length as the degree of stratification of the ambient medium is increased. This result, together with the scaling of position, Lorentz factor, and the shock velocity as a function of time and shock radius, is explained here using a simple analytical model based on energy conservation. The method used for calculating the afterglow radiation by post-processing the results of the simulations is described in detail. The light curves computed using the results of 1D numerical simulations during the relativistic stage correctly reproduce those calculated assuming the self-similar Blandford-McKee solution for the evolution of the flow. The jet dynamics from our 2D simulations and the resulting afterglow light curves, including the jet break, are in good agreement with those presented in previous works. Finally, we show how the details of the dynamics critically depend on properly resolving the structure of the

  14. Magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of Heavy Ion Collisions with ECHO-QGP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inghirami, G.; Del Zanna, L.; Beraudo, A.; Haddadi Moghaddam, M.; Becattini, F.; Bleicher, M.

    2018-05-01

    It is believed that very strong magnetic fields may induce many interesting physical effects in the Quark Gluon Plasma, like the Chiral Magnetic Effect, the Chiral Separation Effect, a modification of the critical temperature or changes in the collective flow of the emitted particles. However, in the hydrodynamic numerical simulations of Heavy Ion Collisions the magnetic fields have been either neglected or considered as external fields which evolve independently from the dynamics of the fluid. To address this issue, we recently modified the ECHO-QGP code, including for the first time the effects of electromagnetic fields in a consistent way, although in the limit of an infinite electrical conductivity of the plasma (ideal magnetohydrodynamics). In this proceedings paper we illustrate the underlying 3+1 formalisms of the current version of the code and we present the results of its basic preliminary application in a simple case. We conclude with a brief discussion of the possible further developments and future uses of the code, from RHIC to FAIR collision energies.

  15. Numerical simulation of hydrodynamic and water quality effects of shoreline changes in Bohai Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Han; Shen, Yongming; Su, Meirong; Yu, Chunxue

    2018-02-01

    This study uses the HD and Ecolab modules of MIKE to simulate the hydrodynamic and water quality and predict the influence of shoreline changes in Bohai Bay, China. The study shows that shoreline changes weaken the residual current and generate a counter-clockwise circulation south of Huanghua Port, thereby resulting in weak water exchange capacity and low pollutant-diffusing capacity. Shoreline changes reduce the area of Bohai Bay, resulting in a smaller tidal prism and further weakening the water exchange capacity. This situation is not conducive to the diffusion of pollutants, and therefore may lead to increased water pollution in the bay. Shoreline changes hinder the spread of runoff, weaken the dilution effect of the river on seawater, and block the spread of coastal residual current, thereby resulting in increased salinity near the reclamation area. Shoreline changes lead to an increase in PO4-P concentration and decrease in DIN concentration. The value of N/P near the project decreases, thereby weakening the phosphorus-limited effect.

  16. Hydrodynamical simulations of coupled and uncoupled quintessence models - I. Halo properties and the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesi, Edoardo; Knebe, Alexander; Lewis, Geraint F.; Wales, Scott; Yepes, Gustavo

    2014-04-01

    We present the results of a series of adiabatic hydrodynamical simulations of several quintessence models (both with a free and an interacting scalar field) in comparison to a standard Λ cold dark matter cosmology. For each we use 2 × 10243 particles in a 250 h-1 Mpc periodic box assuming 7-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe cosmology. In this work we focus on the properties of haloes in the cosmic web at z = 0. The web is classified into voids, sheets, filaments and knots depending on the eigenvalues of the velocity shear tensor, which are an excellent proxy for the underlying overdensity distribution. We find that the properties of objects classified according to their surrounding environment show a substantial dependence on the underlying cosmology; for example, while Vmax shows average deviations of ≈5 per cent across the different models when considering the full halo sample, comparing objects classified according to their environment, the size of the deviation can be as large as 20 per cent. We also find that halo spin parameters are positively correlated to the coupling, whereas halo concentrations show the opposite behaviour. Furthermore, when studying the concentration-mass relation in different environments, we find that in all cosmologies underdense regions have a larger normalization and a shallower slope. While this behaviour is found to characterize all the models, differences in the best-fitting relations are enhanced in (coupled) dark energy models, thus providing a clearer prediction for this class of models.

  17. Hydrodynamical simulations of coupled and uncoupled quintessence models - II. Galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesi, Edoardo; Knebe, Alexander; Lewis, Geraint F.; Yepes, Gustavo

    2014-04-01

    We study the z = 0 properties of clusters (and large groups) of galaxies within the context of interacting and non-interacting quintessence cosmological models, using a series of adiabatic SPH simulations. Initially, we examine the average properties of groups and clusters, quantifying their differences in ΛCold Dark Matter (ΛCDM), uncoupled Dark Energy (uDE) and coupled Dark Energy (cDE) cosmologies. In particular, we focus upon radial profiles of the gas density, temperature and pressure, and we also investigate how the standard hydrodynamic equilibrium hypothesis holds in quintessence cosmologies. While we are able to confirm previous results about the distribution of baryons, we also find that the main discrepancy (with differences up to 20 per cent) can be seen in cluster pressure profiles. We then switch attention to individual structures, mapping each halo in quintessence cosmology to its ΛCDM counterpart. We are able to identify a series of small correlations between the coupling in the dark sector and halo spin, triaxiality and virialization ratio. When looking at spin and virialization of dark matter haloes, we find a weak (5 per cent) but systematic deviation in fifth force scenarios from ΛCDM.

  18. Particle simulation of 3D galactic hydrodynamics on the ICL DAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, T.C.; Nelson, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    A non-self-gravitating galactic hydrodynamics code based on a quasi-particle technique and making use of a mesh for force evaluation and sorting purposes is described. The short-range nature of the interparticle pressure forces, coupled with the use of a mesh allows a particularly fast algorithm. The 3D representation of the galaxy is mapped onto the ''3D'' main store of ICL DAP in a natural way, the 2 spatial dimensions in the plane of the galaxy becoming the 2 dimensions of the processor plane on the DAP and the third dimension varying within individual processor storage elements. This leads to a fairly straightforward implementation and a high degree of parallelism in the crucial parts of the code. The particle shuffling which is necessary after each timestep is facilitated by the use of a parallel variant of the bitonic sorting algorithm. Some results of simulations using a 63x63x16 mesh and about 50,000 particles to follow the evolution of a model disk galaxy are presented

  19. Optimization of MBR hydrodynamics for cake layer fouling control through CFD simulation and RSM design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Yu, Dawei; Liu, Mengmeng; Zheng, Libing; Zheng, Xiang; Wei, Yuansong; Wang, Fang; Fan, Yaobo

    2017-03-01

    Membrane fouling is an important issue for membrane bioreactor (MBR) operation. This paper aims at the investigation and the controlling of reversible membrane fouling due to cake layer formation and foulants deposition by optimizing MBR hydrodynamics through the combination of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and design of experiment (DOE). The model was validated by comparing simulations with measurements of liquid velocity and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in a lab-scale submerged MBR. The results demonstrated that the sludge concentration is the most influencing for responses including shear stress, particle deposition propensity (PDP), sludge viscosity and strain rate. A medium sludge concentration of 8820mgL -1 is optimal for the reduction of reversible fouling in this submerged MBR. The bubble diameter is more decisive than air flowrate for membrane shear stress due to its role in sludge viscosity. The optimal bubble diameter was at around 4.8mm for both of shear stress and PDP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tracing the Origin of Black Hole Accretion Through Numerical Hydrodynamic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Sandy; Somerville, Rachel; Choi, Ena; Brennan, Ryan

    2018-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that supermassive black holes co-evolve with galaxies, and may play an important role in galaxy evolution. However, the origin of the gas that fuels black hole accretion, and the resulting observable radiation, is not well understood or quantified. We use high-resolution "zoom-in" cosmological numerical hydrodynamic simulations including modeling of black hole accretion and feedback to trace the inflow and outflow of gas within galaxies from the early formation period up to present day. We track gas particles that black holes interact with over time to trace the origin of the gas that feeds supermassive black holes. These gas particles can come from satellite galaxies, cosmological accretion, or be a result of stellar evolution. We aim to track the origin of the gas particles that accrete onto the central black hole as a function of halo mass and cosmic time. Answering these questions will help us understand the connection between galaxy and black hole evolution.

  1. Evolution of N/O ratios in galaxies from cosmological hydrodynamical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenzo, Fiorenzo; Kobayashi, Chiaki

    2018-04-01

    We study the redshift evolution of the gas-phase O/H and N/O abundances, both (i) for individual ISM regions within single spatially-resolved galaxies and (ii) when dealing with average abundances in the whole ISM of many unresolved galaxies. We make use of a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation including detailed chemical enrichment, which properly takes into account the variety of different stellar nucleosynthetic sources of O and N in galaxies. We identify 33 galaxies in the simulation, lying within dark matter halos with virial mass in the range 1011 ≤ MDM ≤ 1013 M⊙ and reconstruct how they evolved with redshift. For the local and global measurements, the observed increasing trend of N/O at high O/H can be explained, respectively, (i) as the consequence of metallicity gradients which have settled in the galaxy interstellar medium, where the innermost galactic regions have the highest O/H abundances and the highest N/O ratios, and (ii) as the consequence of an underlying average mass-metallicity relation that galaxies obey as they evolve across cosmic epochs, where - at any redshift - less massive galaxies have lower average O/H and N/O ratios than the more massive ones. We do not find a strong dependence on the environment. For both local and global relations, the predicted N/O-O/H relation is due to the mostly secondary origin of N in stars. We also predict that the O/H and N/O gradients in the galaxy interstellar medium gradually flatten as functions of redshift, with the average N/O ratios being strictly coupled with the galaxy star formation history. Because N production strongly depends on O abundances, we obtain a universal relation for the N/O-O/H abundance diagram whether we consider average abundances of many unresolved galaxies put together or many abundance measurements within a single spatially-resolved galaxy.

  2. Hydrodynamical simulation of the core helium flash with two-dimensional convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    The thermonuclear runaway of helium reactions under the condition of electron degeneracy in the hot, dense central regions of a low mass Population II red giant is investigated. A two-dimensional finite difference approach to time dependent convection has been applied to a peak energy production model of this phenomenon called the core helium flash. The dynamical conservation equations are integrated in two spatial dimensions and time which allow the horizontal variations of the dynamical variables to be followed explicitly. The unbalanced bouyancy forces in convectively unstable regions lead to mass flow (i.e., convective energy transport) by calculation of the velocity flow patterns produced by the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy without recourse to any phenomenological theory of convection. The initial phase of this hydrodynamical simulation is characterized by a thermal readjustment via downward convective energy transport into the neutrino cooled core in a series of convection modulated thermal pulses. Each of these pulses is driven by the thermal runaway and quenched by the convective energy transport when the actual temperature gradient in the flash region becomes sufficiently superadiabatic. These convection modulated thermal pulses are observed throughout 95% of the calculation, the duration of which is approximately 570,000 cycles or nearly 96,000 seconds of evolution. After this initial thermal restructuring, there ensues in the simulation a dynamic phase in which the thermonuclear runaway becomes violent. The degree of violence, the final composition, and the peak temperature depend sensitively on the nuclear energy generation rates of those reactions involving alpha particle captures

  3. Performance analysis of coupled and uncoupled hydrodynamic and wave models in the northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busca, Claudia; Coluccelli, Alessandro; Valentini, Andrea; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bonaldo, Davide; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Carniel, Sandro; Falcieri, Francesco; Paccagnella, Tiziana; Ravaioli, Mariangela; Riminucci, Francesco; Sclavo, Mauro; Russo, Aniello

    2014-05-01

    The complex dynamics of the Adriatic Sea are the result of geographical position, orography and bathymetry, as well as rivers discharge and meteorological conditions that influence, more strongly, the shallow northern part. Such complexity requires a constant monitoring of marine conditions in order to support several activities (marine resources management, naval operations, emergency management, shipping, tourism, as well as scientific ones). Platforms, buoys and mooring located in Adriatic Sea supply almost continuously real time punctual information, which can be spatially extended, with some limitations, by drifters and remote sensing. Operational forecasting systems represent valid tools to provide a complete tridimensional coverage of the area, with a high spatial and temporal resolution. The Hydro-Meteo-Clima Service of the Emilia-Romagna Environmental Agency (ARPA-SIMC, Bologna, Italy) and the Dept. of Life and Environmental Sciences of Università Politecnica delle Marche (DISVA-UNIVPM, Ancona, Italy), in collaboration with the Institute of Marine Science of the National Research Council (ISMAR-CNR, Italy) operationally run several wave and hydrodynamic models on the Adriatic Sea. The main implementations are based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), the wave model Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), and the coupling of the former two models in the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) system. Horizontal resolutions of the different systems range from the 2 km of AdriaROMS to the 0.5 km of the recently implemented northern Adriatic COAWST. Forecasts are produced every day for the subsequent 72 hour with hourly resolution. All the systems compute the fluxes exchanged through the interface with the atmosphere from the numerical weather prediction system named COSMO-I7, an implementation for Italy of the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO) model, at 7 km horizontal resolution. Considering the several operational

  4. Modeling and simulations for molecular scale hydrodynamics of the moving contact line in immiscible two-phase flows

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Tiezheng

    2009-10-29

    This paper starts with an introduction to the Onsager principle of minimum energy dissipation which governs the optimal paths of deviation and restoration to equilibrium. Then there is a review of the variational approach to moving contact line hydrodynamics. To demonstrate the validity of our continuum hydrodynamic model, numerical results from model calculations and molecular dynamics simulations are presented for immiscible Couette and Poiseuille flows past homogeneous solid surfaces, with remarkable overall agreement. Our continuum model is also used to study the contact line motion on surfaces patterned with stripes of different contact angles (i.e. surfaces of varying wettability). Continuum calculations predict the stick-slip motion for contact lines moving along these patterned surfaces, in quantitative agreement with molecular dynamics simulation results. This periodic motion is tunable through pattern period (geometry) and contrast in wetting property (chemistry). The consequence of stick-slip contact line motion on energy dissipation is discussed. © 2009 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  5. Performance Evaluation of Submerged Floating Tunnel Subjected to Hydrodynamic and Seismic Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naik Muhammad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Submerged floating tunnels (SFTs are innovative structural solutions to waterway crossings, such as sea-straits, fjords and lakes. As the width and depth of straits increase, the conventional structures such as cable-supported bridges, underground tunnels or immersed tunnels become uneconomical alternatives. For the realization of SFT, the structural response under extreme environmental conditions needs to be evaluated properly. This study evaluates the displacements and internal forces of SFT under hydrodynamic and three-dimensional seismic excitations to check the global performance of an SFT in order to conclude on the optimum design. The formulations incorporate modeling of ocean waves, currents and mooring cables. The SFT responses were evaluated using three different mooring cable arrangements to determine the stability of the mooring configuration, and the most promising configuration was then used for further investigations. A comparison of static, hydrodynamic and seismic response envelope curves of the SFT is provided to determine the dominant structural response. The study produces useful conclusions regarding the structural behavior of the SFT using a three-dimensional numerical model.

  6. MAXIMALLY STAR-FORMING GALACTIC DISKS. II. VERTICALLY RESOLVED HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF STARBURST REGULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, Rahul [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Ostriker, Eve C., E-mail: R.Shetty@.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: ostriker@astro.umd.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    We explore the self-regulation of star formation using a large suite of high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations, focusing on molecule-dominated regions (galactic centers and [U]LIRGS) where feedback from star formation drives highly supersonic turbulence. In equilibrium, the total midplane pressure, dominated by turbulence, must balance the vertical weight of the interstellar medium. Under self-regulation, the momentum flux injected by feedback evolves until it matches the vertical weight. We test this flux balance in simulations spanning a wide range of parameters, including surface density {Sigma}, momentum injected per stellar mass formed (p{sub *}/m{sub *}), and angular velocity. The simulations are two-dimensional radial-vertical slices, and include both self-gravity and an external potential that helps to confine gas to the disk midplane. After the simulations reach a steady state in all relevant quantities, including the star formation rate {Sigma}{sub SFR}, there is remarkably good agreement between the vertical weight, the turbulent pressure, and the momentum injection rate from supernovae. Gas velocity dispersions and disk thicknesses increase with p{sub *}/m{sub *}. The efficiency of star formation per free-fall time at the midplane density, {epsilon}{sub ff}(n{sub 0}), is insensitive to the local conditions and to the star formation prescription in very dense gas. We measure {epsilon}{sub ff}(n{sub 0}) {approx} 0.004-0.01, consistent with low and approximately constant efficiencies inferred from observations. For {Sigma} in (100-1000) M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2}, we find {Sigma}{sub SFR} in (0.1-4) M{sub Sun} kpc{sup -2} yr{sup -1}, generally following a {Sigma}{sub SFR} {proportional_to} {Sigma}{sup 2} relationship. The measured relationships agree very well with vertical equilibrium and with turbulent energy replenishment by feedback within a vertical crossing time. These results, along with the observed {Sigma}-{Sigma}{sub SFR} relation in high

  7. A Numerical Simulation of Extratropical Storm Surge and Hydrodynamic Response in the Bohai Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Yumei; Ding, Lei

    2014-01-01

    A hindcast of typical extratropical storm surge occurring in the Bohai Sea in October 2003 is performed using a three-dimensional (3D) Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM). The storm surge model is forced by 10 m winds obtained from the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model simulation. It is shown that the simulated storm surge and tides agree well with the observations. The nonlinear interaction between the surge and astronomical tides, the spatial distribution of the max...

  8. First Constraints on Fuzzy Dark Matter from Lyman-α Forest Data and Hydrodynamical Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iršič, Vid; Viel, Matteo; Haehnelt, Martin G; Bolton, James S; Becker, George D

    2017-07-21

    We present constraints on the masses of extremely light bosons dubbed fuzzy dark matter (FDM) from Lyman-α forest data. Extremely light bosons with a de Broglie wavelength of ∼1  kpc have been suggested as dark matter candidates that may resolve some of the current small scale problems of the cold dark matter model. For the first time, we use hydrodynamical simulations to model the Lyman-α flux power spectrum in these models and compare it to the observed flux power spectrum from two different data sets: the XQ-100 and HIRES/MIKE quasar spectra samples. After marginalization over nuisance and physical parameters and with conservative assumptions for the thermal history of the intergalactic medium (IGM) that allow for jumps in the temperature of up to 5000 K, XQ-100 provides a lower limit of 7.1×10^{-22}  eV, HIRES/MIKE returns a stronger limit of 14.3×10^{-22}  eV, while the combination of both data sets results in a limit of 20×10^{-22}  eV (2σ C.L.). The limits for the analysis of the combined data sets increases to 37.5×10^{-22}  eV (2σ C.L.) when a smoother thermal history is assumed where the temperature of the IGM evolves as a power law in redshift. Light boson masses in the range 1-10×10^{-22}  eV are ruled out at high significance by our analysis, casting strong doubts that FDM helps solve the "small scale crisis" of the cold dark matter models.

  9. Radiative Hydrodynamic Simulations of In Situ Star Formation in the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Chris; Heitsch, Fabian

    2018-01-01

    Many stars observed in the Galactic Center (GC) orbit the supermassive black hole (SMBH), Sagittarius A*, in a region where the extreme gravitational field is expected to inhibit star formation. Yet, many of these stars are young which favors an in situ formation scenario. Previous numerical work on this topic has focused on two possible solutions. First, the tidal capture of a > 10^4 Msun infalling molecular cloud by an SMBH may result in the formation of a surrounding gas disk which then rapidly cools and forms stars. This process results in stellar populations that are consistent with the observed stellar disk in the GC. Second, dense gas clumps of approximately 100 Msun on highly eccentric orbits about an SMBH can experience sparks of star formation via orbital compressions occurring during pericenter passage. In my dissertation, I build upon these models using a series of grid-based radiative hydrodynamic simulations, including the effects of both ionizing ultraviolet light from existing stars as well as X-ray radiation emanating from the central black hole. Radiation is treated with an adaptive ray-tracing routine, including appropriate heating and cooling for both neutral and ionized gas. These models show that ultraviolet radiation is sufficiently strong to heat low mass gas clouds, thus suppressing star formation from clump compression. Gas disks that form from cloud capture become sufficiently dense to provide shielding from the radiation of existing central stars, thus allowing star formation to continue. Conversely, X-rays easily penetrate and heat the potentially star forming gas. For sufficiently high radiation fields, this provides a mechanism to disrupt star formation for both scenarios considered above.

  10. Hydrodynamic Simulations of Classical Novae: Accretion onto CO White Dwarfs as SN Ia Progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrfield, Sumner; Bose, Maitrayee; Iliadis, Christian; Hix, William R.; José, Jordi; Hernanz, Margarita

    2017-06-01

    We have continued our studies of accretion onto white dwarfs by following the evolution of thermonuclear runaways on Carbon Oxygen (CO) white dwarfs. We have varied the mass of the white dwarf and the composition of the accreted material but chosen to keep the mass accretion rate at 2 x 10^{-10} solar masses per year to obtain the largest amount of accreted material possible with rates near to those observed. We assume either 25% core material or 50% core material has been mixed into the accreting material prior to the explosion. We use our 1D, lagrangian, hydrodynamic code: NOVA. We will report on the results of these simulations and compare the ejecta abundances to those measured in pre-solar grains that are thought to arise from classical nova explosions. These results will also be compared to recent results with SHIVA (Jose and Hernanz). We find that in all cases and for all white dwarf masses that less mass is ejected than accreted and, therefore, the white dwarf is growing in mass as a result of the accretion and resulting explosion.This work was supported in part by NASA under the Astrophysics Theory Program grant 14-ATP14-0007 and the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-FG02- 97ER41041. SS acknowledges partial support from NASA, NSF, and HST grants to ASU and WRH is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics. The results reported herein benefitted from collaborations and/or information exchange within NASA’s Nexus for Exoplanet System Science (NExSS) research coordination network sponsored by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate.

  11. 2D hydrodynamic simulations of a variable length gas target for density down-ramp injection of electrons into a laser wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kononenko, O., E-mail: olena.kononenko@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Lopes, N.C.; Cole, J.M.; Kamperidis, C.; Mangles, S.P.D.; Najmudin, Z. [The John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, SW7 2BZ UK (United Kingdom); Osterhoff, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Poder, K. [The John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, SW7 2BZ UK (United Kingdom); Rusby, D.; Symes, D.R. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Warwick, J. [Queens University Belfast, North Ireland (United Kingdom); Wood, J.C. [The John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, SW7 2BZ UK (United Kingdom); Palmer, C.A.J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-09-01

    In this work, two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic simulations of a variable length gas cell were performed using the open source fluid code OpenFOAM. The gas cell was designed to study controlled injection of electrons into a laser-driven wakefield at the Astra Gemini laser facility. The target consists of two compartments: an accelerator and an injector section connected via an aperture. A sharp transition between the peak and plateau density regions in the injector and accelerator compartments, respectively, was observed in simulations with various inlet pressures. The fluid simulations indicate that the length of the down-ramp connecting the sections depends on the aperture diameter, as does the density drop outside the entrance and the exit cones. Further studies showed, that increasing the inlet pressure leads to turbulence and strong fluctuations in density along the axial profile during target filling, and consequently, is expected to negatively impact the accelerator stability.

  12. A modified compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics method and its application on the numerical simulation of low and high velocity impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amanifard, N.; Haghighat Namini, V.

    2012-01-01

    In this study a Modified Compressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method is introduced which is applicable in problems involving shock wave structures and elastic-plastic deformations of solids. As a matter of fact, algorithm of the method is based on an approach which descritizes the momentum equation into three parts and solves each part separately and calculates their effects on the velocity field and displacement of particles. The most exclusive feature of the method is exactly removing artificial viscosity of the formulations and representing good compatibility with other reasonable numerical methods without any rigorous numerical fractures or tensile instabilities while Modified Compressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics does not use any extra modifications. Two types of problems involving elastic-plastic deformations and shock waves are presented here to demonstrate the capability of Modified Compressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics in simulation of such problems and its ability to capture shock. The problems that are proposed here are low and high velocity impacts between aluminum projectiles and semi infinite aluminum beams. Elastic-perfectly plastic model is chosen for constitutive model of the aluminum and the results of simulations are compared with other reasonable studies in these cases.

  13. A high resolution hydrodynamic 3-D model simulation of the malta shelf area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Drago

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal variability of the water masses and transport in the Malta Channel and proximity of the Maltese Islands have been simulated by a high resolution (1.6 km horizontal grid on average, 15 vertical sigma layers eddy resolving primitive equation shelf model (ROSARIO-I. The numerical simulation was run with climatological forcing and includes thermohaline dynamics with a turbulence scheme for the vertical mixing coefficients on the basis of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM. The model has been coupled by one-way nesting along three lateral boundaries (east, south and west to an intermediate coarser resolution model (5 km implemented over the Sicilian Channel area. The fields at the open boundaries and the atmospheric forcing at the air-sea interface were applied on a repeating "perpetual" year climatological cycle. The ability of the model to reproduce a realistic circulation of the Sicilian-Maltese shelf area has been demonstrated. The skill of the nesting procedure was tested by model-modelc omparisons showing that the major features of the coarse model flow field can be reproduced by the fine model with additional eddy space scale components. The numerical results included upwelling, mainly in summer and early autumn, along the southern coasts of Sicily and Malta; a strong eastward shelf surface flow along shore to Sicily, forming part of the Atlantic Ionian Stream, with a presence throughout the year and with significant seasonal modulation, and a westward winter intensified flow of LIW centered at a depth of around 280 m under the shelf break to the south of Malta. The seasonal variability in the thermohaline structure of the domain and the associated large-scale flow structures can be related to the current knowledge on the observed hydrography of the area. The level of mesoscale resolution achieved by the model allowed the spatial and temporal evolution of the changing flow patterns, triggered by internal dynamics, to be followed in

  14. A high resolution hydrodynamic 3-D model simulation of the malta shelf area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Drago

    Full Text Available The seasonal variability of the water masses and transport in the Malta Channel and proximity of the Maltese Islands have been simulated by a high resolution (1.6 km horizontal grid on average, 15 vertical sigma layers eddy resolving primitive equation shelf model (ROSARIO-I. The numerical simulation was run with climatological forcing and includes thermohaline dynamics with a turbulence scheme for the vertical mixing coefficients on the basis of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM. The model has been coupled by one-way nesting along three lateral boundaries (east, south and west to an intermediate coarser resolution model (5 km implemented over the Sicilian Channel area. The fields at the open boundaries and the atmospheric forcing at the air-sea interface were applied on a repeating "perpetual" year climatological cycle.

    The ability of the model to reproduce a realistic circulation of the Sicilian-Maltese shelf area has been demonstrated. The skill of the nesting procedure was tested by model-modelc omparisons showing that the major features of the coarse model flow field can be reproduced by the fine model with additional eddy space scale components. The numerical results included upwelling, mainly in summer and early autumn, along the southern coasts of Sicily and Malta; a strong eastward shelf surface flow along shore to Sicily, forming part of the Atlantic Ionian Stream, with a presence throughout the year and with significant seasonal modulation, and a westward winter intensified flow of LIW centered at a depth of around 280 m under the shelf break to the south of Malta. The seasonal variability in the thermohaline structure of the domain and the associated large-scale flow structures can be related to the current knowledge on the observed hydrography of the area. The level of mesoscale resolution achieved by the model allowed the spatial and temporal evolution of the changing flow patterns, triggered by

  15. Simulation of coupled geochemical reactions and hydrodynamical processes in porous media - application to CO2 storage and uranium exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagneau, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    This report is a snapshot after sixteen years of research in the field of reactive transport, since the beginning of my Ph.D. in 1997. The research revolves around two poles: on the one hand the development of the reactive transport code Hytec, on the other hand application of the code in different fields of the Earth Sciences. The first two parts of the report detail several key points from this research work, most of them published or being published, following the dual development/application logic. The last part opens towards interesting future work. Development of a reactive transport code: The first part, mostly numeric analysis, details the main features of the code Hytec, in which I have been heavily involved since I joined the laboratory. The underlying equations of the model are given. The resolution methods rely on a finite volume discretization over a Voronoi mesh for the whole hydrodynamic part (flow, transport, heat). Coupling between chemistry and transport is performed through a sequential iterative scheme. Specific developments are then presented. The feedback of chemistry on transport requires specific coupling treatment to ensure convergence to the correct solution: the effects need to be taken care of within the coupling iterations. Dual porosity simulation can be elegantly simulated by duplicating the chemical nodes. Integrating the simulation of gases have implications on the flow (simultaneous resolution of the pressure and saturation equations), and transport-solver (species in the gas phase independently of the water phase), and finally coupling with chemistry and gas-water equilibrium. Applications The Hytec code is used in various domains of the Earth Sciences, in and out our laboratory notably by the members of the consortium Pole Geochimie Transport (Reactive transport group). The document details two families of applications I have been particularly interested in over these years. The geologic storage of CO 2 is a potential technology

  16. Numerical simulation of hydrodynamics in a pump-turbine at off-design operating conditions in turbine mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, J P; Seidel, U; Koutnik, J

    2012-01-01

    The hydrodynamics of a reduced-scaled model of a radial pump-turbine is investigated under off-design operating conditions, involving runaway and 'S-shape' turbine brake curve at low positive discharge. It is a low specific speed pump-turbine machine of Francis type with 9 impeller blades and 20 stay vanes as well as 20 guide vanes. The computational domain includes the entire water passage from the spiral casing inlet to the draft tube outlet. Completely structured hexahedral meshes generated by the commercial software ANSYS-ICEM are employed. The unsteady incompressible simulations are performed using the commercial code ANSYS-CFX13. For turbulence modeling the standard k-ε model is applied. The numerical results at different operating points are compared to the experimental results. The predicted pressure amplitude is in good agreement with the experimental data and the amplitude of normal force on impeller is in reasonable range. The detailed analysis reveals the onset of the flow instabilities when the machine is brought from a regular operating condition to runaway and turbine break mode. Furthermore, the rotating stall phenomena are well captured at runaway condition as well as low discharge operating condition with one stall cell rotating inside and around the impeller with about 70% of its frequency. Moreover, the rotating stall is found to be the effect of rotating flow separations developed in several consecutive impeller channels which lead to their blockage. The reliable simulation of S-curve characteristics in pump-turbines is a basic requirement for design and optimization at off-design operating conditions.

  17. Hydrodynamic Simulation of the Columbia River, Hanford Reach, 1940--2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waichler, Scott R.; Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2005-06-15

    Many hydrological and biological problems in the Columbia River corridor through the Hanford Site require estimates of river stage (water surface elevation) or river flow and velocity. Systematic collection of river stage data at locations in the Hanford Reach began in 1991, but many environmental projects need river stage information at unmeasured locations or over longer time periods. The Modular Aquatic Simulation System 1D (MASS1), a one-dimensional, unsteady hydrodynamic and water quality model, was used to simulate the Columbia River from Priest Rapids Dam to McNary Dam from 1940 to 2004, providing estimates of water surface elevation, volumetric flow rate, and flow velocity at 161 locations on the Hanford Reach. The primary input data were bathymetric/topographic cross sections of the Columbia River channel, flow rates at Priest Rapids Dam, and stage at McNary Dam. Other inputs included Yakima River and Snake River inflows. Available flow data at a gaging station just below Priest Rapids Dam was mean daily flow from 1940 to 1986 and hourly thereafter. McNary dam was completed in 1957, and hourly stage data are available beginning in 1975. MASS1 was run at an hourly timestep and calibrated and tested using 1991--2004 river stage data from six Hanford Reach locations (areas 100B, 100N, 100D, 100H, 100F, and 300). Manning's roughness coefficient in the Reach above each river recorder location was adjusted using an automated genetic algorithm and gradient search technique in three separate calibrations, corresponding to different data subsets, with minimization of mean absolute error as the objective. The primary calibration was based on 1999, a representative year, and included all locations. The first alternative calibration also used all locations but was limited in time to a high-flow period during spring and early summer of 1997. The second alternative calibration was based on 1999 and included only 300 Area stage data. Model goodness-of-fit for all

  18. Many Drops Interactions I: Simulation of Coalescence, Flocculation and Fragmentation of Multiple Colliding Drops with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Acevedo-Malavé

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH is a Lagrangian mesh-free formalism and has been useful to model continuous fluid. This formalism is employed to solve the Navier-Stokes equations by replacing the fluid with a set of particles. These particles are interpolation points from which properties of the fluid can be determined. In this study, the SPH method is applied to simulate the hydrodynamics interaction of many drops, showing some settings for the coalescence, fragmentation and flocculation problem of equally sized liquid drops in three-dimensional spaces. For small velocities the drops interact only through their deformed surfaces and the flocculation of the droplets arises. This result is very different if the collision velocity is large enough for the fragmentation of droplets takes place. We observe that for velocities around 15 mm/ms the coalescence of droplets occurs. The velocity vector fields formed inside the drops during the collision process are shown.

  19. Hydrodynamic simulations of long-scale-length two-plasmon–decay experiments at the Omega Laser Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S. X.; Michel, D. T.; Edgell, D. H.; Froula, D. H.; Follett, R. K.; Goncharov, V. N.; Myatt, J. F.; Skupsky, S.; Yaakobi, B.

    2013-01-01

    Direct-drive–ignition designs with plastic CH ablators create plasmas of long density scale lengths (L n ≥ 500 μm) at the quarter-critical density (N qc ) region of the driving laser. The two-plasmon–decay (TPD) instability can exceed its threshold in such long-scale-length plasmas (LSPs). To investigate the scaling of TPD-induced hot electrons to laser intensity and plasma conditions, a series of planar experiments have been conducted at the Omega Laser Facility with 2-ns square pulses at the maximum laser energies available on OMEGA and OMEGA EP. Radiation–hydrodynamic simulations have been performed for these LSP experiments using the two-dimensional hydrocode draco. The simulated hydrodynamic evolution of such long-scale-length plasmas has been validated with the time-resolved full-aperture backscattering and Thomson-scattering measurements. draco simulations for CH ablator indicate that (1) ignition-relevant long-scale-length plasmas of L n approaching ∼400 μm have been created; (2) the density scale length at N qc scales as L n (μm)≃(R DPP ×I 1/4 /2); and (3) the electron temperature T e at N qc scales as T e (keV)≃0.95×√(I), with the incident intensity (I) measured in 10 14 W/cm 2 for plasmas created on both OMEGA and OMEGA EP configurations with different-sized (R DPP ) distributed phase plates. These intensity scalings are in good agreement with the self-similar model predictions. The measured conversion fraction of laser energy into hot electrons f hot is found to have a similar behavior for both configurations: a rapid growth [f hot ≃f c ×(G c /4) 6 for G c hot ≃f c ×(G c /4) 1.2 for G c ≥ 4, with the common wave gain is defined as G c =3 × 10 −2 ×I qc L n λ 0 /T e , where the laser intensity contributing to common-wave gain I qc , L n , T e at N qc , and the laser wavelength λ 0 are, respectively, measured in [10 14 W/cm 2 ], [μm], [keV], and [μm]. The saturation level f c is observed to be f c ≃ 10 –2 at around

  20. Hydrodynamical simulations and semi-analytic models of galaxy formation: two sides of the same coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neistein, Eyal; Khochfar, Sadegh; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Schaye, Joop

    2012-04-01

    In this work we develop a new method to turn a state-of-the-art hydrodynamical cosmological simulation of galaxy formation (HYD) into a simple semi-analytic model (SAM). This is achieved by summarizing the efficiencies of accretion, cooling, star formation and feedback given by the HYD, as functions of the halo mass and redshift. The SAM then uses these functions to evolve galaxies within merger trees that are extracted from the same HYD. Surprisingly, by turning the HYD into a SAM, we conserve the mass of individual galaxies, with deviations at the level of 0.1 dex, on an object-by-object basis, with no significant systematics. This is true for all redshifts, and for the mass of stars and gas components, although the agreement reaches 0.2 dex for satellite galaxies at low redshift. We show that the same level of accuracy is obtained even in case the SAM uses only one phase of gas within each galaxy. Moreover, we demonstrate that the formation history of one massive galaxy provides sufficient information for the SAM to reproduce the population of galaxies within the entire cosmological box. The reasons for the small scatter between the HYD and SAM galaxies are as follows. (i) The efficiencies are matched as functions of the halo mass and redshift, meaning that the evolution within merger trees agrees on average. (ii) For a given galaxy, efficiencies fluctuate around the mean value on time-scales of 0.2-2 Gyr. (iii) The various mass components of galaxies are obtained by integrating the efficiencies over time, averaging out these fluctuations. We compare the efficiencies found here to standard SAM recipes and find that they often deviate significantly. For example, here the HYD shows smooth accretion that is less effective for low-mass haloes, and is always composed of hot or dilute gas; cooling is less effective at high redshift, and star formation changes only mildly with cosmic time. The method developed here can be applied in general to any HYD, and can thus

  1. Pore-scale simulations to determine the applied hydrodynamic torque and colloid immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of adhesive and diffusion forces on colloid retention is well established, and theory has been developed in the literature to predict these factors. Conversely, the role of hydrodynamic forces and torques on colloid retention has received considerably less attention. Recent research ...

  2. A SWOT analysis of hydrodynamic models with respect to simulating breaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Damme, M.; Visser, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Deriving the bed shear stresses from hydrodynamic models in breach models is challenging due to the continuous changing hydraulic head over the breach in combination with horizontal and vertical flow contractions, and the continuous rapidly changing breach geometry. Three stages can be distinguished

  3. Numerical simulation of the hydrodynamic processes in the Red Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    Madah, Fawaz

    2017-01-01

    The semi-enclosed Red Sea basin presents a unique large marine ecosystem. Therefore it deserves scientific attention. The processes under concern are studied using a combination of very few available observations (water levels and oceanographic data), remotely sensed data as well as numerical modelling approach. The numerical simulations are performed using the three-dimensional modeling system Delft3D, developed by WL | Delft Hydraulics. The first part of the present thesis investigates ...

  4. Comparing a simple methodology to evaluate hydrodynamic parameters with rainfall simulation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Prima, Simone; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Bautista, Inmaculada; Burguet, Maria; Cerdà, Artemi; Iovino, Massimo; Prosdocimi, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Studying soil hydraulic properties is necessary for interpreting and simulating many hydrological processes having environmental and economic importance, such as rainfall partition into infiltration and runoff. The saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, exerts a dominating influence on the partitioning of rainfall in vertical and lateral flow paths. Therefore, estimates of Ks are essential for describing and modeling hydrological processes (Zimmermann et al., 2013). According to several investigations, Ks data collected by ponded infiltration tests could be expected to be unusable for interpreting field hydrological processes, and particularly infiltration. In fact, infiltration measured by ponding give us information about the soil maximum or potential infiltration rate (Cerdà, 1996). Moreover, especially for the hydrodynamic parameters, many replicated measurements have to be carried out to characterize an area of interest since they are known to vary widely both in space and time (Logsdon and Jaynes, 1996; Prieksat et al., 1994). Therefore, the technique to be applied at the near point scale should be simple and rapid. Bagarello et al. (2014) and Alagna et al. (2015) suggested that the Ks values determined by an infiltration experiment carried applying water at a relatively large distance from the soil surface could be more appropriate than those obtained with a low height of water pouring to explain surface runoff generation phenomena during intense rainfall events. These authors used the Beerkan Estimation of Soil Transfer parameters (BEST) procedure for complete soil hydraulic characterization (Lassabatère et al., 2006) to analyze the field infiltration experiment. This methodology, combining low and high height of water pouring, seems appropriate to test the effect of intense and prolonged rainfall events on the hydraulic characteristics of the surface soil layer. In fact, an intense and prolonged rainfall event has a perturbing effect on the soil surface

  5. Mathematical modelling of the performance of hydrodynamic couplings using hybrid models; Mathematische Modellierung des Betriebsverhaltens hydrodynamischer Kupplungen mit hybriden Modellansaetzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaschke, P.

    2000-02-01

    Mathematical models of the dynamic performance of hydrodynamic couplings are developed using hybrid modelling, i.e. a combination of analytical physical modelling and black box identification. The models developed were verified by measurements on a model powertrain. [German] In dieser Arbeit werden mit Hilfe der hybriden Modellierung mathematische Modelle zur Beschreibung des dynamischen Betriebsverhaltens hydrodynamischer Kupplungen ermittelt. Die Hybride Modellierung stellt eine Kombination der analytisch physikalischen Modellierung und der Black-Box-Identifikation dar. Diese Modellierungsart ist ausgewaehlt worden, um die Vorteile der analytisch physikalischen Modellierung und der Black-Box-Identifikation hydrodynamischer Kupplungen zu verbinden und deren Nachteile gering zu halten. Auf dieser Basis ist eine Vorgehensweise vorgestellt worden, die die Ermittlung der Modelle mit wenig Aufwand ermoeglicht. Mit Hilfe der Modelltheorie wird gezeigt, wie die ermittelten mathematischen Modelle zur Simulation des dynamischen Betriebsverhaltens geometrisch aehnlicher Kupplungen unterschiedlicher Baugroessen verwendet werden koennen. Darueber hinaus wird dargelegt, wie die ermittelten Modelle mit Modellen anderer Antriebsstrangelemente gekoppelt werden koennen, um Antriebsstrangsimulationen zu ermoeglichen. Verifikationsmessungen an einem Modellantriebsstrang verdeutlichen die Guete und Verwendbarkeit der mathematischen Modelle. (orig.)

  6. The gravitational interaction between N-body (star clusters) and hydrodynamic (ISM) codes in disk galaxy simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, M.C.; Comins, N.F.

    1986-01-01

    During the past twenty years, three approaches to numerical simulations of the evolution of galaxies have been developed. The first approach, N-body programs, models the motion of clusters of stars as point particles which interact via their gravitational potentials to determine the system dynamics. Some N-body codes model molecular clouds as colliding, inelastic particles. The second approach, hydrodynamic models of galactic dynamics, simulates the activity of the interstellar medium as a compressible gas. These models presently do not include stars, the effect of gravitational fields, or allow for stellar evolution and exchange of mass or angular momentum between stars and the interstellar medium. The third approach, stochastic star formation simulations of disk galaxies, allows for the interaction between stars and interstellar gas, but does not allow the star particles to move under the influence of gravity

  7. High performance electromagnetic simulation tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedney, Stephen D.; Whites, Keith W.

    1994-10-01

    Army Research Office Grant #DAAH04-93-G-0453 has supported the purchase of 24 additional compute nodes that were installed in the Intel iPsC/860 hypercube at the Univesity Of Kentucky (UK), rendering a 32-node multiprocessor. This facility has allowed the investigators to explore and extend the boundaries of electromagnetic simulation for important areas of defense concerns including microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) design/analysis and electromagnetic materials research and development. The iPSC/860 has also provided an ideal platform for MMIC circuit simulations. A number of parallel methods based on direct time-domain solutions of Maxwell's equations have been developed on the iPSC/860, including a parallel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm, and a parallel planar generalized Yee-algorithm (PGY). The iPSC/860 has also provided an ideal platform on which to develop a 'virtual laboratory' to numerically analyze, scientifically study and develop new types of materials with beneficial electromagnetic properties. These materials simulations are capable of assembling hundreds of microscopic inclusions from which an electromagnetic full-wave solution will be obtained in toto. This powerful simulation tool has enabled research of the full-wave analysis of complex multicomponent MMIC devices and the electromagnetic properties of many types of materials to be performed numerically rather than strictly in the laboratory.

  8. On the hydrodynamics of archer fish jumping out of the water: Integrating experiments with numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Angelidis, Dionysios; Mendelson, Leah; Techet, Alexandra

    2017-11-01

    Evolution has enabled fish to develop a range of thrust producing mechanisms to allow skillful movement and give them the ability to catch prey or avoid danger. Several experimental and numerical studies have been performed to investigate how complex maneuvers are executed and develop bioinspired strategies for aquatic robot design. We will discuss recent numerical advances toward the development of a computational framework for performing turbulent, two-phase flow, fluid-structure-interaction (FSI) simulations to investigate the dynamics of aquatic jumpers. We will also discuss the integration of such numerics with high-speed imaging and particle image velocimetry data to reconstruct anatomic fish models and prescribe realistic kinematics of fish motion. The capabilities of our method will be illustrated by applying it to simulate the motion of a small scale archer fish jumping out of the water to capture prey. We will discuss the rich vortex dynamics emerging during the hovering, rapid upward and gliding phases. The simulations will elucidate the thrust production mechanisms by the movement of the pectoral and anal fins and we will show that the fins significantly contribute to the rapid acceleration.

  9. Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Simulations of the Effects of Laser Imprint in OMEGA Implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igumenshchev, I. V.; Campbell, E. M.; Goncharov, V. N.; Regan, S. P.; Shvydky, A.; Schmitt, A. J.

    2017-10-01

    Illumination of direct-drive implosion targets by the OMEGA laser introduces large-amplitude broadband modulations in the absorbed energy from the largest (target size 900- μm) to smallest (speckle size 2- μm) spatial scales. These modulations ``imprint'' perturbations into a target that are amplified because of the secular and Rayleigh-Taylor growths during acceleration and deceleration of the target. The degradation of performance of room-temperature and cryogenic OMEGA implosions caused by these perturbations were simulated in three dimensions using the code ASTER. The highest-resolution simulations resolve perturbation modes as high as l 200 . The high modes l 50to 100 dominate in the perturbation spectrum during the linear growth, while the late-time nonlinear evolution results in domination of modes with l 30to 50 . Smoothing by spectral dispersion reduces the linear-phase mode amplitudes by a factor of 4 and results in substantial improvements in implosion performance that is in good agreement with measurements. The effects of imprint on implosion performance are compared with the effects of other implosion asymmetries, such as those induced because of laser beam imbalance, mistiming and mispointing, and target offset. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  10. Driving Simulator Development and Performance Study

    OpenAIRE

    Juto, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The driving simulator is a vital tool for much of the research performed at theSwedish National Road and Transport Institute (VTI). Currently VTI posses three driving simulators, two high fidelity simulators developed and constructed by VTI, and a medium fidelity simulator from the German company Dr.-Ing. Reiner Foerst GmbH. The two high fidelity simulators run the same simulation software, developed at VTI. The medium fidelity simulator runs a proprietary simulation software. At VTI there is...

  11. Effect of roughness formulation on the performance of a coupled wave, hydrodynamic, and sediment transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganju, Neil K.; Sherwood, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of algorithms are available for parameterizing the hydrodynamic bottom roughness associated with grain size, saltation, bedforms, and wave–current interaction in coastal ocean models. These parameterizations give rise to spatially and temporally variable bottom-drag coefficients that ostensibly provide better representations of physical processes than uniform and constant coefficients. However, few studies have been performed to determine whether improved representation of these variable bottom roughness components translates into measurable improvements in model skill. We test the hypothesis that improved representation of variable bottom roughness improves performance with respect to near-bed circulation, bottom stresses, or turbulence dissipation. The inner shelf south of Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts, is the site of sorted grain-size features which exhibit sharp alongshore variations in grain size and ripple geometry over gentle bathymetric relief; this area provides a suitable testing ground for roughness parameterizations. We first establish the skill of a nested regional model for currents, waves, stresses, and turbulent quantities using a uniform and constant roughness; we then gauge model skill with various parameterization of roughness, which account for the influence of the wave-boundary layer, grain size, saltation, and rippled bedforms. We find that commonly used representations of ripple-induced roughness, when combined with a wave–current interaction routine, do not significantly improve skill for circulation, and significantly decrease skill with respect to stresses and turbulence dissipation. Ripple orientation with respect to dominant currents and ripple shape may be responsible for complicating a straightforward estimate of the roughness contribution from ripples. In addition, sediment-induced stratification may be responsible for lower stresses than predicted by the wave–current interaction model.

  12. The use of games and computer simulation as a learning tool: paper airplanes championship and Hydrodynamic teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericarla de Jesus Souza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a Physics teaching research using as teaching-learning technique a didactic sequence constructed from educational games, experimental activities and computational simulations. The content covered in this work is hydrodynamics and its application in the physical concepts involved in airplane flight. Learning content is reinforced through the use of computer simulation using the software Modellus. The students' evaluation was made with the use of educational games: crosswords, word searches and games of the seven errors. The assessment was carried out through the application of questions that evaluated the students' alternative conceptions. The theoretical framework is based on the theory of mental models of John-Laird and in the theory of meaningful learning of Ausubel. So, the evaluations of previous knowledge of the students were made through evaluation of test type questionnaire.

  13. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of the Hydrodynamic Entrance Region of Rectangular Microchannels in the Slip Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niya Ma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing a three-dimensional laminar flow in the entrance region of rectangular microchannels has been investigated in this paper. When the hydrodynamic development length is the same magnitude as the microchannel length, entrance effects have to be taken into account, especially in relatively short ducts. Simultaneously, there are a variety of non-continuum or rarefaction effects, such as velocity slip and temperature jump. The available data in the literature appearing on this issue is quite limited, the available study is the semi-theoretical approximate model to predict pressure drop of developing slip flow in rectangular microchannels with different aspect ratios. In this paper, we apply the lattice Boltzmann equation method (LBE to investigate the developing slip flow through a rectangular microchannel. The effects of the Reynolds number (1 < Re < 1000, channel aspect ratio (0 < ε < 1, and Knudsen number (0.001 < Kn < 0.1 on the dimensionless hydrodynamic entrance length, and the apparent friction factor, and Reynolds number product, are examined in detail. The numerical solution of LBM can recover excellent agreement with the available data in the literature, which proves its accuracy in capturing fundamental fluid characteristics in the slip-flow regime.

  14. HOTSED: a discrete element model for simulating hydrodynamic conditions and adsorbed and dissolved radioisotope concentrations in estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Hetrick, D.M.

    1978-12-01

    A model has been developed to study the feasibility of simulating one-dimensional transport of radioisotope-tagged sediment in tidal-dominated estuaries. A preliminary one-dimensional model for simulating hydrodynamic, thermal, and dissolved radionuclide concentrations in tidal estuaries was merged with an improved version of the SEDTRN model, a multi-sediment-size class model of bedload and suspended sediment transport. The improved SEDTRN model, which employs a velocity-based rather than an energy-based sediment transport rate calculation and accounts for nonzero channel bed slope, is given credence by comparing its results in stand-alone form to those obtained using the parent model. Results of the latter model have been shown to compare favorably to field measurements. The combined preliminary model is called HOTSED. Details of model modifications, the addition of printer plot output capability, and a discussion of input and output structures are included. The HOTSED model is applied to the Hudson River under tidal-transient conditions and the transport ''tagged'' or radioisotope-bearing sediment is simulated. The code is designed specifically for applications with dominant tidal cycling. It requires, for a 76-element channel system, 270 thousand bytes of storage and, for a simulation of 25 hours, has an execution time of approximately five minutes on the IBM System 360/91 computer

  15. SPIRAL DENSITY WAVES IN M81. II. HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF THE GAS RESPONSE TO STELLAR SPIRAL DENSITY WAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hsiang-Hsu; Lee, Wing-Kit; Taam, Ronald E.; Feng, Chien-Chang; Lin, Lien-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    The gas response to the underlying stellar spirals is explored for M81 using unmagnetized hydrodynamic simulations. Constrained within the uncertainty of observations, 18 simulations are carried out to study the effects of self-gravity and to cover the parameter space comprising three different sound speeds and three different arm strengths. The results are confronted with the data observed at wavelengths of 8 μm and 21 cm. In the outer disk, the ring-like structure observed in the 8 μm image is consistent with the response of cold neutral medium with an effective sound speed 7 km s –1 . For the inner disk, the presence of spiral shocks can be understood as a result of 4:1 resonances associated with the warm neutral medium with an effective sound speed 19 km s –1 . Simulations with a single effective sound speed alone cannot simultaneously explain the structures in the outer and inner disks. Instead this justifies the coexistence of cold and warm neutral media in M81. The anomalously high streaming motions observed in the northeast arm and the outward shifted turning points in the iso-velocity contours seen along the southwest arm are interpreted as signatures of interactions with companion galaxies. The level of simulated streaming motions narrows down the uncertainty of the observed arm strength toward larger amplitudes

  16. SPIRAL DENSITY WAVES IN M81. II. HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF THE GAS RESPONSE TO STELLAR SPIRAL DENSITY WAVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hsiang-Hsu; Lee, Wing-Kit; Taam, Ronald E.; Feng, Chien-Chang; Lin, Lien-Hsuan, E-mail: hhwang@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-02-20

    The gas response to the underlying stellar spirals is explored for M81 using unmagnetized hydrodynamic simulations. Constrained within the uncertainty of observations, 18 simulations are carried out to study the effects of self-gravity and to cover the parameter space comprising three different sound speeds and three different arm strengths. The results are confronted with the data observed at wavelengths of 8 μm and 21 cm. In the outer disk, the ring-like structure observed in the 8 μm image is consistent with the response of cold neutral medium with an effective sound speed 7 km s{sup –1}. For the inner disk, the presence of spiral shocks can be understood as a result of 4:1 resonances associated with the warm neutral medium with an effective sound speed 19 km s{sup –1}. Simulations with a single effective sound speed alone cannot simultaneously explain the structures in the outer and inner disks. Instead this justifies the coexistence of cold and warm neutral media in M81. The anomalously high streaming motions observed in the northeast arm and the outward shifted turning points in the iso-velocity contours seen along the southwest arm are interpreted as signatures of interactions with companion galaxies. The level of simulated streaming motions narrows down the uncertainty of the observed arm strength toward larger amplitudes.

  17. Radionuclide dispersion and hydrodynamics of Ilha Grande Bay (Angra dos Reis, RJ) simulated from hypothetical accidental releases of liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes Filho, Fernando Lamego; Lapa, Celso Marcelo Franklin; Aguiar, Andre Silva; Soares, Abner Duarte

    2011-01-01

    This study has the aim to assess the impact of accidental release of radionuclides postulate from a nuclear power reactor through environmental modeling of aquatic resources. In order to do that it was used computational models of hydrodynamic circulation and transport for the simulation of tritium dispersion caused by an accidental release in Ilha Grande Bay from the site of the future third plant in two circulation scenarios. The main difference between the scenarios is based on the enhancement of dilution of the highest concentrations in the last one. This dilution enhancement resulting in decreasing concentrations was observed only during the first two weeks, when they ranged from 1 x 10 9 to 5 x 10 5 Bq/m³ close to the Itaorna beach spreading just to Sandri Island. After 180 days, the plume could not be detected anymore in the bay, because their activities would be lower than the minimum detectable value (< 11 kBq/m³). (author)

  18. Effects of thermal fluctuations and fluid compressibility on hydrodynamic synchronization of microrotors at finite oscillatory Reynolds number: a multiparticle collision dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theers, Mario; Winkler, Roland G

    2014-08-28

    We investigate the emergent dynamical behavior of hydrodynamically coupled microrotors by means of multiparticle collision dynamics (MPC) simulations. The two rotors are confined in a plane and move along circles driven by active forces. Comparing simulations to theoretical results based on linearized hydrodynamics, we demonstrate that time-dependent hydrodynamic interactions lead to synchronization of the rotational motion. Thermal noise implies large fluctuations of the phase-angle difference between the rotors, but synchronization prevails and the ensemble-averaged time dependence of the phase-angle difference agrees well with analytical predictions. Moreover, we demonstrate that compressibility effects lead to longer synchronization times. In addition, the relevance of the inertia terms of the Navier-Stokes equation are discussed, specifically the linear unsteady acceleration term characterized by the oscillatory Reynolds number ReT. We illustrate the continuous breakdown of synchronization with the Reynolds number ReT, in analogy to the continuous breakdown of the scallop theorem with decreasing Reynolds number.

  19. Hierarchical Statistical 3D ' Atomistic' Simulation of Decanano MOSFETs: Drift-Diffusion, Hydrodynamic and Quantum Mechanical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenov, Asen; Brown, A. R.; Slavcheva, G.; Davies, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    voltage only single solution of the nonlinear Poisson equation is sufficient to extract the current with satisfactory accuracy. A pilot version of a hydrodynamic 'atomistic' simulator has been developed in order to study the effect of the nonequilibrium, non local transport in decanano MOSFETs on the random dopant induced current fluctuations. For the first time we have also applied the density gradient approach in 3D to investigate the effect of the quantum confinement on the threshold voltage fluctuations. The developed 'atomistic' simulation techniques have been applied to study various fluctuation resistant MOSFET architectures including epitaxial and delta doped devices.

  20. A basis for environmental monitoring in the gulf of Batabano applying hydrodynamic simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arriaza Oliveros, L.; Rodas Fernandez, L.; Simanca Cardenas, J.; Milian Lorenz, D.E.; Romero Suarez, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    The spreading of organic compounds and wastes in seawater depend on the space-time distribution of marine currents. Therefore, for the Environmental Monitoring of sea waters in the Cuban shelf it is necessary to include the marine current variable. A hydrodynamic model is applied in the Gulf of Batabano. The model was validated by using marine currents observed. Any organic compound or wastes in the Batabano or La Broa will moved slowly (1 + - 0.0529 cm/s and 4.7 + - 0.0529 cm/s) until the center and southwestern part of the gulf and the western part of the Isla de la Juventud, affecting for a long time period the SW coast of the gulf. Any pollution in ocean waters adjacent to this shelf will go through the open boundary with a mean velocity between 15 + - 0.25 cm/s and 29.5 + - 0.25 cm/s until the northern part of the Isla de la Juventud; it affects quickly this island and the southwestern and southeastern coasts of the gulf; the pollution will go slowly (1 + - 0.0529 cm/s and 3 + - 0.0529 cm/s) until the central and northeastern part of the gulf

  1. Modeling of laser induced air plasma and shock wave dynamics using 2D-hydrodynamic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturi, Prem Kiran; S, Sai Shiva; Chelikani, Leela; Ikkurthi, Venkata Ramana; C. D., Sijoy; Chaturvedi, Shashank; Acrhem, University Of Hyderabad Team; Computational Analysis Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Visakhapatnam Team

    2017-06-01

    The laser induced air plasma dynamics and the SW evolution modeled using the two dimensional hydrodynamic code by considering two different EOS: ideal gas EOS with charge state effects taken into consideration and Chemical Equilibrium applications (CEA) EOS considering the chemical kinetics of different species will be presented. The inverse bremsstrahlung absorption process due to electron-ion and electron-neutrals is considered for the laser-air interaction process for both the models. The numerical results obtained with the two models were compared with that of the experimental observations over the time scales of 200 - 4000 ns at an input laser intensity of 2.3 ×1010 W/cm2. The comparison shows that the plasma and shock dynamics differ significantly for two EOS considered. With the ideas gas EOS the asymmetric expansion and the subsequent plasma dynamics have been well reproduced as observed in the experiments, whereas with the CEA model these processes were not reproduced due to the laser energy absorption occurring mostly at the focal volume. ACRHEM team thank DRDO, India for funding.

  2. Spectroscopic analysis of Cepheid variables with 2D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, Valeriy

    2018-06-01

    The analysis of chemical enrichment history of dwarf galaxies allows to derive constraints on their formation and evolution. In this context, Cepheids play a very important role, as these periodically variable stars provide a means to obtain accurate distances. Besides, chemical composition of Cepheids can provide a strong constraint on the chemical evolution of the system. Standard spectroscopic analysis of Cepheids is based on using one-dimensional (1D) hydrostatic model atmospheres, with convection parametrised using the mixing-length theory. However, this quasi-static approach has theoretically not been validated. In my talk, I will discuss the validity of the quasi-static approximation in spectroscopy of short-periodic Cepheids. I will show the results obtained using a 2D time-dependent envelope model of a pulsating star computed with the radiation-hydrodynamics code CO5BOLD. I will then describe the impact of new models on the spectroscopic diagnostic of the effective temperature, surface gravity, microturbulent velocity, and metallicity. One of the interesting findings of my work is that 1D model atmospheres provide unbiased estimates of stellar parameters and abundances of Cepheid variables for certain phases of their pulsations. Convective inhomogeneities, however, also introduce biases. I will then discuss how these results can be used in a wider parameter space of pulsating stars and present an outlook for the future studies.

  3. The Structure and Dynamics of An Active Galactic Nucleus Torus : CO Line Predictions for ALMA from Three-dimensional Hydrodynamical Simulations with X-ray-driven Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez Beaupuits, J.P.; Wada, K.; Spaans, M.

    2011-01-01

    Several attempts have been made to model the mass distribution and dynamical evolution of the circumnuclear gas in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). However, chemical evolution is not included in detail in three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic simulations. The X-ray radiation from the AGN can drive the

  4. San Francisco Bay nutrients and plankton dynamics as simulated by a coupled hydrodynamic-ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qianqian; Chai, Fei; Dugdale, Richard; Chao, Yi; Xue, Huijie; Rao, Shivanesh; Wilkerson, Frances; Farrara, John; Zhang, Hongchun; Wang, Zhengui; Zhang, Yinglong

    2018-06-01

    An open source coupled physical-biogeochemical model is developed for San Francisco Bay (SFB) to study nutrient cycling and plankton dynamics as well as to assist ecosystem based management and risk assessment. The biogeochemical model in this study is based on the Carbon, Silicate and Nitrogen Ecosystem (CoSiNE) model, and coupled to the unstructured grid, Semi-Implicit Cross-scale Hydroscience Integrated System Model (SCHISM). The SCHISM-CoSiNE model reproduces the spatial and temporal variability in nutrients and plankton biomass, and its physical and biogeochemical performance is successfully tested using comparisons with shipboard and fixed station observations. The biogeochemical characteristics of the SFB during wet and dry years are investigated by changing the input of the major rivers. River discharges from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers affect the phytoplankton biomass in North SFB through both advection and dilution of nutrient (including ammonium, NH4) concentrations in the river. The reduction in residence time caused by increased inflows can result in decreased biomass accumulation, while the corresponding reduction in NH4 concentration favors the growth of biomass. In addition, the model is used to make a series of sensitivity experiments to examine the response of SFB to changes in 1) nutrient loading from rivers and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), 2) a parameter (ψ) defining NH4 inhibition of nitrate (NO3) uptake by phytoplankton, 3) bottom grazing and 4) suspended sediment concentration. The model results show that changes in NH4 input from rivers or WWTPs affect the likelihood of phytoplankton blooms via NH4 inhibition and that the choice of ψ is critical. Bottom grazing simulated here as increased plankton mortality demonstrates the potential for bivalve reduction of chlorophyll biomass and the need to include bivalve grazing in future models. Furthermore, the model demonstrates the need to include sediments and their contribution

  5. Multi-component Lattice Boltzmann simulation of the hydrodynamics in drip emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Falcucci

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a fast and efficient numerical technique based on the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM to model the flow through a reference drip emitter geometry. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the applicability of the LBM as a reliable simulation tool for the hydraulic optimisation of irrigation systems. Results for the water flow through a rectangular drip emitter are in good agreement with literature numerical and experimental data. Furthermore, we demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed model to simulate a multi-component flow that could be used to simulate the presence of additives, contaminants, and suspended particles.

  6. Simulation of laser interaction with ablative plasma and hydrodynamic behavior of laser supported plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong Huifeng; Yuan Hong [Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-101, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Tang Zhiping [CAS Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2013-01-28

    When an intense laser beam irradiates on a solid target, ambient air ionizes and becomes plasma, while part of the target rises in temperature, melts, vaporizes, ionizes, and yet becomes plasma. A general Godunov finite difference scheme WENO (Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Scheme) with fifth-order accuracy is used to simulate 2-dimensional axis symmetrical laser-supported plasma flow field in the process of laser ablation. The model of the calculation of ionization degree of plasma and the interaction between laser beam and plasma are considered in the simulation. The numerical simulations obtain the profiles of temperature, density, and velocity at different times which show the evolvement of the ablative plasma. The simulated results show that the laser energy is strongly absorbed by plasma on target surface and that the velocity of laser supported detonation (LSD) wave is half of the ideal LSD value derived from Chapman-Jouguet detonation theory.

  7. Magneto-Hydrodynamic Simulations of a Magnetic Flux Compression Generator Using ALE3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    3 Fig. 3 Half- plane view of the geometry used in ALE3D simulation showing the materials...to LLNL’s SESAME data.8 Fig. 3 Half- plane view of the geometry used in ALE3D simulation showing the materials There are 2 broad approaches to...of mesh can be time- consuming . Since MFCGs have a cylindrical geometry, a high-resolution mesh is not required; one can use a conformal mesh and

  8. A purely Lagrangian method for simulating the shallow water equations on a sphere using smooth particle hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capecelatro, Jesse

    2018-03-01

    It has long been suggested that a purely Lagrangian solution to global-scale atmospheric/oceanic flows can potentially outperform tradition Eulerian schemes. Meanwhile, a demonstration of a scalable and practical framework remains elusive. Motivated by recent progress in particle-based methods when applied to convection dominated flows, this work presents a fully Lagrangian method for solving the inviscid shallow water equations on a rotating sphere in a smooth particle hydrodynamics framework. To avoid singularities at the poles, the governing equations are solved in Cartesian coordinates, augmented with a Lagrange multiplier to ensure that fluid particles are constrained to the surface of the sphere. An underlying grid in spherical coordinates is used to facilitate efficient neighbor detection and parallelization. The method is applied to a suite of canonical test cases, and conservation, accuracy, and parallel performance are assessed.

  9. A Particular Appetite: Cosmological Hydrodynamic Simulations of Preferential Accretion in the Supermassive Black Holes of Milky Way Size Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Natalie; Bellovary, Jillian M.; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    With the use of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of Milky Way-type galaxies, we identify the preferential source of gas that is accreted by the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) they host. We examine simulations of two Milky Way analogs, each distinguished by a differing merger history. One galaxy is characterized by several major mergers and the other has a more quiescent history. By examining and comparing these two galaxies, which have a similar structure at z=0, we asses the importance of merger history on black hole accretion. This study is an extension of Bellovary et. al. 2013, which studied accretion onto SMBHs in massive, high redshift galaxies. Bellovary found that the fraction of gas accreted by the galaxy was proportional to that which was accreted by its SMBH. Contrary to Bellovary's previous results, we found that though the gas accreted by a quiescent galaxy will mirror the accretion of its central SMBH, a galaxy that is characterized by an active merger history will have a SMBH that preferentially accretes gas gained through mergers. We move forward by examining the angular momentum of the gas accreted by these Milky Way-type galaxies to better understand the mechanisms fueling their central SMBH.

  10. A Coupled Model of the 1D River Network and 3D Estuary Based on Hydrodynamics and Suspended Sediment Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available River networks and estuaries are very common in coastal areas. Runoff from the upper stream interacts with tidal current from open sea in these two systems, leading to a complex hydrodynamics process. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the two systems as a whole to study the flow and suspended sediment transport. Firstly, a 1D model is established in the Pearl River network and a 3D model is applied in its estuary. As sufficient mass exchanges between the river network and its estuary, a strict mathematical relationship of water level at the interfaces can be adopted to couple the 1D model with the 3D model. By doing so, the coupled model does not need to have common nested grids. The river network exchanges the suspended sediment with its estuary by adding the continuity conditions at the interfaces. The coupled model is, respectively, calibrated in the dry season and the wet season. The results demonstrate that the coupled model works excellently in simulating water level and discharge. Although there are more errors in simulating suspended sediment concentration due to some reasons, the coupled model is still good enough to evaluate the suspended sediment transport in river network and estuary systems.

  11. TIDAL BREAKUP OF BINARY STARS AT THE GALACTIC CENTER. II. HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonini, Fabio; Merritt, David; Lombardi, James C. Jr

    2011-01-01

    In Paper I, we followed the evolution of binary stars as they orbited near the supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the Galactic center, noting the cases in which the two stars would come close enough together to collide. In this paper, we replace the point-mass stars by fluid realizations, and use a smoothed-particle hydrodynamics code to follow the close interactions. We model the binary components as main-sequence stars with initial masses of 1, 3, and 6 solar masses, and with chemical composition profiles taken from stellar evolution codes. Outcomes of the close interactions include mergers, collisions that leave both stars intact, and ejection of one star at high velocity accompanied by capture of the other star into a tight orbit around the SMBH. For the first time, we follow the evolution of the collision products for many (∼> 100) orbits around the SMBH. Stars that are initially too small to be tidally disrupted by the SMBH can be puffed up by close encounters or collisions, with the result that tidal stripping occurs in subsequent periapse passages. In these cases, mass loss occurs episodically, sometimes for hundreds of orbits before the star is completely disrupted. Repeated tidal flares, of either increasing or decreasing intensity, are a predicted consequence. In collisions involving a low-mass and a high-mass star, the merger product acquires a high core hydrogen abundance from the smaller star, effectively resetting the nuclear evolution 'clock' to a younger age. Elements like Li, Be, and B that can exist only in the outermost envelope of a star are severely depleted due to envelope ejection during collisions and due to tidal forces from the SMBH. Tidal spin-up can occur due to either a collision or tidal torque by the SMBH at periapsis. However, in the absence of collisions, tidal spin-up of stars is only important in a narrow range of periapse distances, r t /2 ∼ per ∼ t , with r t the tidal disruption radius. We discuss the implications of

  12. Simulating the hydrodynamic response of a floater–net system in current and waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Hao; Christensen, Erik Damgaard

    2018-01-01

    We present a novel numerical model for simulating current and wave interaction with a floater–net system. The main contribution of the paper is the integration of the floater motion and the fluid–structure interaction analysis of the net structure in the same modelling framework via the computati...

  13. Aircraft Performance for Open Air Traffic Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, I.C.; Hoekstra, J.M.; Ellerbroek, J.; Kugler, D.

    2016-01-01

    The BlueSky Open Air Tra_c Simulator developed by the Control & Simulation section of TU Delft aims at supporting research for analysing Air Tra_c Management concepts by providing an open source simulation platform. The goal of this study was to complement BlueSky with aircraft performance

  14. Submarine hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Renilson, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This book adopts a practical approach and presents recent research together with applications in real submarine design and operation. Topics covered include hydrostatics, manoeuvring, resistance and propulsion of submarines. The author briefly reviews basic concepts in ship hydrodynamics and goes on to show how they are applied to submarines, including a look at the use of physical model experiments. The issues associated with manoeuvring in both the horizontal and vertical planes are explained, and readers will discover suggested criteria for stability, along with rudder and hydroplane effectiveness. The book includes a section on appendage design which includes information on sail design, different arrangements of bow planes and alternative stern configurations. Other themes explored in this book include hydro-acoustic performance, the components of resistance and the effect of hull shape. Readers will value the author’s applied experience as well as the empirical expressions that are presented for use a...

  15. Surrogate model approach for improving the performance of reactive transport simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatnieks, Janis; De Lucia, Marco; Sips, Mike; Dransch, Doris

    2016-04-01

    Reactive transport models can serve a large number of important geoscientific applications involving underground resources in industry and scientific research. It is common for simulation of reactive transport to consist of at least two coupled simulation models. First is a hydrodynamics simulator that is responsible for simulating the flow of groundwaters and transport of solutes. Hydrodynamics simulators are well established technology and can be very efficient. When hydrodynamics simulations are performed without coupled geochemistry, their spatial geometries can span millions of elements even when running on desktop workstations. Second is a geochemical simulation model that is coupled to the hydrodynamics simulator. Geochemical simulation models are much more computationally costly. This is a problem that makes reactive transport simulations spanning millions of spatial elements very difficult to achieve. To address this problem we propose to replace the coupled geochemical simulation model with a surrogate model. A surrogate is a statistical model created to include only the necessary subset of simulator complexity for a particular scenario. To demonstrate the viability of such an approach we tested it on a popular reactive transport benchmark problem that involves 1D Calcite transport. This is a published benchmark problem (Kolditz, 2012) for simulation models and for this reason we use it to test the surrogate model approach. To do this we tried a number of statistical models available through the caret and DiceEval packages for R, to be used as surrogate models. These were trained on randomly sampled subset of the input-output data from the geochemical simulation model used in the original reactive transport simulation. For validation we use the surrogate model to predict the simulator output using the part of sampled input data that was not used for training the statistical model. For this scenario we find that the multivariate adaptive regression splines

  16. Rip current evidence by hydrodynamic simulations, bathymetric surveys and UAV observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Benassai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of the formation, spacing and location of rip currents is a scientific challenge that can be achieved by means of different complementary methods. In this paper the analysis of numerical and experimental data, including RPAS (remotely piloted aircraft systems observations, allowed us to detect the presence of rip currents and rip channels at the mouth of Sele River, in the Gulf of Salerno, southern Italy. The dataset used to analyze these phenomena consisted of two different bathymetric surveys, a detailed sediment analysis and a set of high-resolution wave numerical simulations, completed with Google EarthTM images and RPAS observations. The grain size trend analysis and the numerical simulations allowed us to identify the rip current occurrence, forced by topographically constrained channels incised on the seabed, which were compared with observations.

  17. Efficient adiabatic hydrodynamical simulations of the high-redshift intergalactic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Prakash; Choudhury, Tirthankar Roy; Srianand, Raghunathan; Khaire, Vikram

    2018-02-01

    We present a post-processing tool for GADGET-2 adiabatic simulations to model various observed properties of the Ly α forest at 2.5 ≤ z ≤ 4 that enables an efficient parameter estimation. In particular, we model the thermal and ionization histories that are not computed self-consistently by default in GADGET-2. We capture the effect of pressure smoothing by running GADGET-2 at an elevated temperature floor and using an appropriate smoothing kernel. We validate our procedure by comparing different statistics derived from our method with those derived using self-consistent simulations with GADGET-3. These statistics are: line-of-sight density field power spectrum, flux probability distribution function, flux power spectrum, wavelet statistics, curvature statistics, H I column density (N_{H I}) distribution function, linewidth (b) distribution and b versus log N_{H I} scatter. For the temperature floor of 104 K and typical signal-to-noise ratio of 25, the results agree well within 20 per cent of the self-consistent GADGET-3 simulation. However, this difference is smaller than the expected 1σ sample variance for an absorption path length of ˜5.35 at z = 3. Moreover for a given cosmology, we gain a factor of ˜N in computing time for modelling the intergalactic medium under N ≫ 1 different thermal histories. In addition, our method allows us to simulate the non-equilibrium evolution of thermal and ionization state of the gas and include heating due to non-standard sources like cosmic rays and high-energy γ-rays from Blazars.

  18. Numerical simulation of the hydrodynamic behavior of fuel rod with longitudinal cooling fins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naot, D.; Emrani, S.

    1982-01-01

    Four processes which considerably affect the distribution of the local shear stress in turbulent cooling flow along a fuel rod with longitudinal fins are discussed. The effect of boundary layers' development, geometry driven secondary currents, roughness induced lateral motion and geometry imperfections were studied and compared. Turbulence was modeled by an energy-dissipation model with an algebraic stress model. The three-dimensional flow was numerically simulated using a parabolic pressure correction algorithm. (orig.)

  19. Appearance of deterministic mixing behavior from ensembles of fluctuating hydrodynamics simulations of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Kiran; Samtaney, Ravi

    2018-04-01

    We obtain numerical solutions of the two-fluid fluctuating compressible Navier-Stokes (FCNS) equations, which consistently account for thermal fluctuations from meso- to macroscales, in order to study the effect of such fluctuations on the mixing behavior in the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI). The numerical method used was successfully verified in two stages: for the deterministic fluxes by comparison against air-SF6 RMI experiment, and for the stochastic terms by comparison against the direct simulation Monte Carlo results for He-Ar RMI. We present results from fluctuating hydrodynamic RMI simulations for three He-Ar systems having length scales with decreasing order of magnitude that span from macroscopic to mesoscopic, with different levels of thermal fluctuations characterized by a nondimensional Boltzmann number (Bo). For a multidimensional FCNS system on a regular Cartesian grid, when using a discretization of a space-time stochastic flux Z (x ,t ) of the form Z (x ,t ) →1 /√{h ▵ t }N (i h ,n Δ t ) for spatial interval h , time interval Δ t , h , and Gaussian noise N should be greater than h0, with h0 corresponding to a cell volume that contains a sufficient number of molecules of the fluid such that the fluctuations are physically meaningful and produce the right equilibrium spectrum. For the mesoscale RMI systems simulated, it was desirable to use a cell size smaller than this limit in order to resolve the viscous shock. This was achieved by using a modified regularization of the noise term via Z (h3,h03)>x ,t →1 /√ ▵ t max(i h ,n Δ t ) , with h0=ξ h ∀h mixing behavior emerges as the ensemble-averaged behavior of several fluctuating instances, whereas when Bo≈1 , a deviation from deterministic behavior is observed. For all cases, the FCNS solution provides bounds on the growth rate of the amplitude of the mixing layer.

  20. Role of biofilm roughness and hydrodynamic conditions in Legionella pneumophila adhesion to and detachment from simulated drinking water biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yun; Monroy, Guillermo L; Derlon, Nicolas; Janjaroen, Dao; Huang, Conghui; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Boppart, Stephen A; Ashbolt, Nicholas J; Liu, Wen-Tso; Nguyen, Thanh H

    2015-04-07

    Biofilms in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) could exacerbate the persistence and associated risks of pathogenic Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila), thus raising human health concerns. However, mechanisms controlling adhesion and subsequent detachment of L. pneumophila associated with biofilms remain unclear. We determined the connection between L. pneumophila adhesion and subsequent detachment with biofilm physical structure characterization using optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging technique. Analysis of the OCT images of multispecies biofilms grown under low nutrient condition up to 34 weeks revealed the lack of biofilm deformation even when these biofilms were exposed to flow velocity of 0.7 m/s, typical flow for DWDS. L. pneumophila adhesion on these biofilm under low flow velocity (0.007 m/s) positively correlated with biofilm roughness due to enlarged biofilm surface area and local flow conditions created by roughness asperities. The preadhered L. pneumophila on selected rough and smooth biofilms were found to detach when these biofilms were subjected to higher flow velocity. At the flow velocity of 0.1 and 0.3 m/s, the ratio of detached cell from the smooth biofilm surface was from 1.3 to 1.4 times higher than that from the rough biofilm surface, presumably because of the low shear stress zones near roughness asperities. This study determined that physical structure and local hydrodynamics control L. pneumophila adhesion to and detachment from simulated drinking water biofilm, thus it is the first step toward reducing the risk of L. pneumophila exposure and subsequent infections.

  1. Advances in radiation-hydrodynamics and atomic physics simulation for current and new neutron-less targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velarde, G.; Minguez, E.; Bravo, E.

    2003-01-01

    We present advances in advanced fusion cycles, atomic physics and radiation hydrodynamics. With ARWEN code we analyze a target design for ICF based on jet production. ARWEN is 2D Adaptive Mesh Refinement fluid dynamic and multigroup radiation transport. We are designing, by using also ARWEN, a target for laboratory simulation of astrophysical phenomena. We feature an experimental device to reproduce collisions of two shock waves, scaled to roughly represent cosmic supernova remnants. Opacity calculations are obtained with ANALOP code, which uses parametric potentials fitting to self-consistent potentials. It includes temperature and density effects by linearized Debye-Hueckel and it treats excited configurations and H+He-like lines. Advanced fusion cycles, as the a neutronic proton-boron 11 reaction, require very high ignition temperatures. Plasma conditions for a fusion-burning wave to propagate at such temperatures are rather extreme and complex, because of the overlapping effects of the main energy transport mechanisms. Calculations on the most appropriate ICF regimes for this purpose are presented. (author)

  2. The FluxCompensator: Making Radiative Transfer Models of Hydrodynamical Simulations Directly Comparable to Real Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koepferl, Christine M.; Robitaille, Thomas P., E-mail: koepferl@usm.lmu.de [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-11-01

    When modeling astronomical objects throughout the universe, it is important to correctly treat the limitations of the data, for instance finite resolution and sensitivity. In order to simulate these effects, and to make radiative transfer models directly comparable to real observations, we have developed an open-source Python package called the FluxCompensator that enables the post-processing of the output of 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer codes, such as Hyperion. With the FluxCompensator, realistic synthetic observations can be generated by modeling the effects of convolution with arbitrary point-spread functions, transmission curves, finite pixel resolution, noise, and reddening. Pipelines can be applied to compute synthetic observations that simulate observatories, such as the Spitzer Space Telescope or the Herschel Space Observatory . Additionally, this tool can read in existing observations (e.g., FITS format) and use the same settings for the synthetic observations. In this paper, we describe the package as well as present examples of such synthetic observations.

  3. The FluxCompensator: Making Radiative Transfer Models of Hydrodynamical Simulations Directly Comparable to Real Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepferl, Christine M.; Robitaille, Thomas P.

    2017-11-01

    When modeling astronomical objects throughout the universe, it is important to correctly treat the limitations of the data, for instance finite resolution and sensitivity. In order to simulate these effects, and to make radiative transfer models directly comparable to real observations, we have developed an open-source Python package called the FluxCompensator that enables the post-processing of the output of 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer codes, such as Hyperion. With the FluxCompensator, realistic synthetic observations can be generated by modeling the effects of convolution with arbitrary point-spread functions, transmission curves, finite pixel resolution, noise, and reddening. Pipelines can be applied to compute synthetic observations that simulate observatories, such as the Spitzer Space Telescope or the Herschel Space Observatory. Additionally, this tool can read in existing observations (e.g., FITS format) and use the same settings for the synthetic observations. In this paper, we describe the package as well as present examples of such synthetic observations.

  4. Photovoltaic array performance simulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menicucci, D. F.

    1986-09-15

    The experience of the solar industry confirms that, despite recent cost reductions, the profitability of photovoltaic (PV) systems is often marginal and the configuration and sizing of a system is a critical problem for the design engineer. Construction and evaluation of experimental systems are expensive and seldom justifiable. A mathematical model or computer-simulation program is a desirable alternative, provided reliable results can be obtained. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), has been studying PV-system modeling techniques in an effort to develop an effective tool to be used by engineers and architects in the design of cost-effective PV systems. This paper reviews two of the sources of error found in previous PV modeling programs, presents the remedies developed to correct these errors, and describes a new program that incorporates these improvements.

  5. Molecular dynamics simulations of elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication and boundary lubrication for automotive tribology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washizu, Hitoshi; Sanda, Shuzo; Hyodo, Shi-aki; Ohmori, Toshihide; Nishino, Noriaki; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2007-01-01

    Friction control of machine elements on a molecular level is a challenging subject in vehicle technology. We describe the molecular dynamics studies of friction in two significant lubrication regimes. As a case of elastohydrodynamic lubrication, we introduce the mechanism of momentum transfer related to the molecular structure of the hydrocarbon fluids, phase transition of the fluids under high pressure, and a submicron thickness simulation of the oil film using a tera-flops computer. For boundary lubrication, the dynamic behavior of water molecules on hydrophilic and hydrophobic silicon surfaces under a shear condition is studied. The dynamic structure of the hydrogen bond network on the hydrophilic surface is related to the low friction of the diamond-like carbon containing silicon (DLC-Si) coating

  6. Experimental study of inverted-annular-flow hydrodynamics utilizing an adiabatic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jarlais, G.

    1983-03-01

    In experiments, inverted annular flow was simulated adiabatically with turbulent water jets, issuing downward from long aspect nozzles, enclosed in gas annuli. Velocities, diameters, and gas species were varied, and core jet length, shape, break-up mode, and dispersed-core droplet sizes were recorded at approximately 750 data points. Inverted annular flow was observed to develop into inverted slug flow at low relative velocities, and into dispersed droplet flow at high relative velocities. For both of the above transitions from inverted annular flow, correlations for core jet length were developed by extending work done on free liquid jets to include this new, coaxial, jet disintegration phenomenon. Jet break-up length is correlated as a function of jet diameter, jet Reynolds number, jet Weber number, void fraction, and gas Weber number. Correlations for core shape, break-up mechanisms and dispersed core droplet size for the case of transition to inverted slug flow were developed

  7. Hall-Effect Thruster Simulations with 2-D Electron Transport and Hydrodynamic Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Hofer, Richard H.; Goebel, Dan M.

    2009-01-01

    A computational approach that has been used extensively in the last two decades for Hall thruster simulations is to solve a diffusion equation and energy conservation law for the electrons in a direction that is perpendicular to the magnetic field, and use discrete-particle methods for the heavy species. This "hybrid" approach has allowed for the capture of bulk plasma phenomena inside these thrusters within reasonable computational times. Regions of the thruster with complex magnetic field arrangements (such as those near eroded walls and magnets) and/or reduced Hall parameter (such as those near the anode and the cathode plume) challenge the validity of the quasi-one-dimensional assumption for the electrons. This paper reports on the development of a computer code that solves numerically the 2-D axisymmetric vector form of Ohm's law, with no assumptions regarding the rate of electron transport in the parallel and perpendicular directions. The numerical challenges related to the large disparity of the transport coefficients in the two directions are met by solving the equations in a computational mesh that is aligned with the magnetic field. The fully-2D approach allows for a large physical domain that extends more than five times the thruster channel length in the axial direction, and encompasses the cathode boundary. Ions are treated as an isothermal, cold (relative to the electrons) fluid, accounting for charge-exchange and multiple-ionization collisions in the momentum equations. A first series of simulations of two Hall thrusters, namely the BPT-4000 and a 6-kW laboratory thruster, quantifies the significance of ion diffusion in the anode region and the importance of the extended physical domain on studies related to the impact of the transport coefficients on the electron flow field.

  8. The origin of ICM enrichment in the outskirts of present-day galaxy clusters from cosmological hydrodynamical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, V.; Planelles, S.; Borgani, S.; Rasia, E.; Murante, G.; Fabjan, D.; Gaspari, M.

    2018-05-01

    The uniformity of the intracluster medium (ICM) enrichment level in the outskirts of nearby galaxy clusters suggests that chemical elements were deposited and widely spread into the intergalactic medium before the cluster formation. This observational evidence is supported by numerical findings from cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, as presented in Biffi et al., including the effect of thermal feedback from active galactic nuclei. Here, we further investigate this picture, by tracing back in time the spatial origin and metallicity evolution of the gas residing at z = 0 in the outskirts of simulated galaxy clusters. In these regions, we find a large distribution of iron abundances, including a component of highly enriched gas, already present at z = 2. At z > 1, the gas in the present-day outskirts was distributed over tens of virial radii from the main cluster and had been already enriched within high-redshift haloes. At z = 2, about 40 {per cent} of the most Fe-rich gas at z = 0 was not residing in any halo more massive than 10^{11} h^{-1} M_{⊙} in the region and yet its average iron abundance was already 0.4, w.r.t. the solar value by Anders & Grevesse. This confirms that the in situ enrichment of the ICM in the outskirts of present-day clusters does not play a significant role, and its uniform metal abundance is rather the consequence of the accretion of both low-metallicity and pre-enriched (at z > 2) gas, from the diffuse component and through merging substructures. These findings do not depend on the mass of the cluster nor on its core properties.

  9. New Constraints on Turbulence and Embedded Planet Mass in the HD 163296 Disk from Planet–Disk Hydrodynamic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shang-Fei; Jin, Sheng; Li, Shengtai; Isella, Andrea; Li, Hui

    2018-04-01

    Recent Atacama Large Millimeter and Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the protoplanetary disk around the Herbig Ae star HD 163296 revealed three depleted dust gaps at 60, 100, and 160 au in the 1.3 mm continuum as well as CO depletion in the middle and outer dust gaps. However, no CO depletion was found in the inner dust gap. To examine the planet–disk interaction model, we present results of 2D two fluid (gas + dust) hydrodynamic simulations coupled with 3D radiative transfer simulations. To fit the high gas-to-dust ratio of the first gap, we find that the Shakura–Sunyaev viscosity parameter α must be very small (≲ {10}-4) in the inner disk. On the other hand, a relatively large α (∼ 7.5× {10}-3) is required to reproduce the dust surface density in the outer disk. We interpret the variation of α as an indicator of the transition from an inner dead zone to the outer magnetorotational instability (MRI) active zone. Within ∼100 au, the HD 163296 disk’s ionization level is low, and non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic effects could suppress the MRI, so the disk can be largely laminar. The disk’s ionization level gradually increases toward larger radii, and the outermost disk (r> 300 au) becomes turbulent due to MRI. Under this condition, we find that the observed dust continuum and CO gas line emissions can be reasonably fit by three half-Jovian-mass planets (0.46, 0.46, and 0.58 {M}{{J}}) at 59, 105, and 160 au, respectively.

  10. 3D RANS simulations of shallow water effects on rudder hydrodynamic characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, J.; Hekkenberg, R.G.

    2016-01-01

    An accurate estimation of the rudder forces and moments is essential for manoeuvrability prediction. Previous research has shown that ships have different manoeuvring performance in deep and shallow water. Before considering the rudder’s contribution to shallow water manoeuvring, it is meaningful to

  11. SNL-EFDC Simulations of Tidal Turbine-Related Changes to Hydrodynamics and Flushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. D.; Johnson, E.; James, S. C.; Barco, J.; Jones, C.

    2012-12-01

    The marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) industry in the United States faces challenges associated with siting, permitting, construction, and operation of pilot- and full-scale facilities that must be addressed to accelerate environmentally sound deployment of these renewable energy technologies. Little is known about the potential effects of MHK device operation in coastal areas, estuaries, or rivers, or of the cumulative impacts of these devices on aquatic ecosystems. This lack of knowledge affects the actions of regulatory agencies, the opinions of stakeholder groups, and the commitment of energy project developers and investors. Two particularly important factors that can be used as a precursor for MHK-driven environmental changes in estuaries are the effect of decreased tidal range and flushing. For example, tidal-range changes could affect wetland systems that are only wetted under the highest of tides. Significant changes in tidal range could completely change the character of the wetlands through long-term drying. Changes to flushing must also be understood, especially when municipal wastewater and other pollutant sources are discharged into a bay. When MHK operation alters flow rates, decreased flushing of an embayment could yield increased residence times, decreased nutrient and contaminant dispersion, and even the possibility of algal blooms. Small changes to the flow could manifest as noticeable changes to sediment transport and water quality. This work provides example assessments of changes to the physical environment (i.e. currents, tidal ranges, water age, and e-folding time) potentially imposed by the operation of MHK turbine arrays in marine estuary environments using the modeling platform SNL-EFDC. Comparing model results with and without an MHK array facilitates an understanding of how an array of turbines might alter the environment. By using models to simulate water circulation, commensurate changes in water quality, benthic habitat quality, and

  12. Merger of white dwarf-neutron star binaries: Prelude to hydrodynamic simulations in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschalidis, Vasileios; MacLeod, Morgan; Baumgarte, Thomas W.; Shapiro, Stuart L.

    2009-01-01

    White dwarf-neutron star binaries generate detectable gravitational radiation. We construct Newtonian equilibrium models of corotational white dwarf-neutron star (WDNS) binaries in circular orbit and find that these models terminate at the Roche limit. At this point the binary will undergo either stable mass transfer (SMT) and evolve on a secular time scale, or unstable mass transfer (UMT), which results in the tidal disruption of the WD. The path a given binary will follow depends primarily on its mass ratio. We analyze the fate of known WDNS binaries and use population synthesis results to estimate the number of LISA-resolved galactic binaries that will undergo either SMT or UMT. We model the quasistationary SMT epoch by solving a set of simple ordinary differential equations and compute the corresponding gravitational waveforms. Finally, we discuss in general terms the possible fate of binaries that undergo UMT and construct approximate Newtonian equilibrium configurations of merged WDNS remnants. We use these configurations to assess plausible outcomes of our future, fully relativistic simulations of these systems. If sufficient WD debris lands on the NS, the remnant may collapse, whereby the gravitational waves from the inspiral, merger, and collapse phases will sweep from LISA through LIGO frequency bands. If the debris forms a disk about the NS, it may fragment and form planets.

  13. Mathematical model and simulation of the hydrodynamic of air-pulsed sieve plate columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannappel, J.; Pfeifer, W.; Rathjen, E.

    1979-02-01

    In this work the dynamic flow events in an air pulsed sieve plate column are described by a simulation model. The model consists of a system of differential equations. The pressure built up by the pulsed air is brought to equilibrium with the pressure losses of the oscillating liquid column in the pulsation tube and in the column. In case of definition of the a) column geometry, b) integral holdup of the column, c) density of the participating phases, d) control times of the pulsed air valves, e) pulse repetition frequency and pulsed air reservoir pressure the height of oscillation and hence the intensity of pulsation are calculated. It is shown by a concrete example that 1) the oscillation of the liquid column in the pulsation tube and in the column is sinusoidal in all cases; 2) generation of a defined pulsation is restricted to the range between 0.3 and 3 Hz; 3) the amount of air needed for pulsation depends on the geometry of the column and in the intensity of pulsation. It can be optimized by appropriate selection of the diameter of the pulsation tube. (orig.) [de

  14. Appearance of deterministic mixing behavior from ensembles of fluctuating hydrodynamics simulations of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

    KAUST Repository

    Narayanan, Kiran

    2018-04-19

    We obtain numerical solutions of the two-fluid fluctuating compressible Navier-Stokes (FCNS) equations, which consistently account for thermal fluctuations from meso- to macroscales, in order to study the effect of such fluctuations on the mixing behavior in the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI). The numerical method used was successfully verified in two stages: for the deterministic fluxes by comparison against air-SF6 RMI experiment, and for the stochastic terms by comparison against the direct simulation Monte Carlo results for He-Ar RMI. We present results from fluctuating hydrodynamic RMI simulations for three He-Ar systems having length scales with decreasing order of magnitude that span from macroscopic to mesoscopic, with different levels of thermal fluctuations characterized by a nondimensional Boltzmann number (Bo). For a multidimensional FCNS system on a regular Cartesian grid, when using a discretization of a space-time stochastic flux Z(x,t) of the form Z(x,t)→1/-tN(ih,nΔt) for spatial interval h, time interval Δt, h, and Gaussian noise N should be greater than h0, with h0 corresponding to a cell volume that contains a sufficient number of molecules of the fluid such that the fluctuations are physically meaningful and produce the right equilibrium spectrum. For the mesoscale RMI systems simulated, it was desirable to use a cell size smaller than this limit in order to resolve the viscous shock. This was achieved by using a modified regularization of the noise term via Zx,t→1/-tmaxh3,h03Nih,nΔt, with h0=ξhsimulations show that for systems with Bo1 deterministic mixing behavior emerges as the ensemble-averaged behavior of several fluctuating instances, whereas when Bo≈1, a deviation from deterministic behavior is observed. For all cases, the FCNS solution provides bounds on the growth rate of the amplitude of the mixing layer.

  15. Appearance of deterministic mixing behavior from ensembles of fluctuating hydrodynamics simulations of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

    KAUST Repository

    Narayanan, Kiran; Samtaney, Ravi

    2018-01-01

    We obtain numerical solutions of the two-fluid fluctuating compressible Navier-Stokes (FCNS) equations, which consistently account for thermal fluctuations from meso- to macroscales, in order to study the effect of such fluctuations on the mixing behavior in the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI). The numerical method used was successfully verified in two stages: for the deterministic fluxes by comparison against air-SF6 RMI experiment, and for the stochastic terms by comparison against the direct simulation Monte Carlo results for He-Ar RMI. We present results from fluctuating hydrodynamic RMI simulations for three He-Ar systems having length scales with decreasing order of magnitude that span from macroscopic to mesoscopic, with different levels of thermal fluctuations characterized by a nondimensional Boltzmann number (Bo). For a multidimensional FCNS system on a regular Cartesian grid, when using a discretization of a space-time stochastic flux Z(x,t) of the form Z(x,t)→1/-tN(ih,nΔt) for spatial interval h, time interval Δt, h, and Gaussian noise N should be greater than h0, with h0 corresponding to a cell volume that contains a sufficient number of molecules of the fluid such that the fluctuations are physically meaningful and produce the right equilibrium spectrum. For the mesoscale RMI systems simulated, it was desirable to use a cell size smaller than this limit in order to resolve the viscous shock. This was achieved by using a modified regularization of the noise term via Zx,t→1/-tmaxh3,h03Nih,nΔt, with h0=ξhsimulations show that for systems with Bo1 deterministic mixing behavior emerges as the ensemble-averaged behavior of several fluctuating instances, whereas when Bo≈1, a deviation from deterministic behavior is observed. For all cases, the FCNS solution provides bounds on the growth rate of the amplitude of the mixing layer.

  16. Ventilation Inception and Washout, Scaling, and Effects on Hydrodynamic Performance of a Surface Piercing Strut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Casey; Young, Yin Lu; Ceccio, Steven

    2014-11-01

    High-lift devices that operate at or near a fluid free surface (such as surface-piercing or shallowly-submerged propellers and hydrofoils) are prone to a multiphase flow phenomenon called ventilation, wherein non-condensable gas is entrained in the low-pressure flow, forming a cavity around the body and dramatically altering the global hydrodynamic forces. Experiments are being conducted at the University of Michigan's towing tank using a canonical surface-piercing strut to investigate atmospheric ventilation. The goals of the work are (i) to gain an understanding of the dominant physics in fully wetted, partially ventilated, and fully ventilated flow regimes, (ii) to quantify the effects of governing dimensionless parameters on the transition between flow regimes, and (iii) to develop scaling relations for the transition between flow regimes. Using theoretical arguments and flow visualization techniques, new criteria are developed for classifying flow regimes and transition mechanisms. Unsteady transition mechanisms are described and mapped as functions of the governing non-dimensional parameters. A theoretical scaling relationship is developed for ventilation washout, which is shown to adequately capture the experimentally-observed washout boundary. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Student Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE 1256260. Support also comes from the Naval Engineering Education Center (Award No. N65540-10-C-003).

  17. Numerical simulation of the hydrodynamical combustion to strange quark matter in the trapped neutrino regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyed, Amir; Ouyed, Rachid; Jaikumar, Prashanth

    2018-02-01

    We simulate and study the microphysics of combustion (flame burning) of two flavored quark matter (u,d) to three flavored quark matter (u,d,s) in a trapped neutrino regime applicable to conditions prevailing in a hot proto-neutron star. The reaction-diffusion-advection equations for (u,d) to (u,d,s) combustion are coupled with neutrino transport, which is modeled through a flux-limited diffusion scheme. The flame speed is proportional to initial lepton fraction because of the release of electron chemical potential as heat, and reaches a steady-state burning speed of (0.001-0.008)c. We find that the burning speed is ultimately driven by the neutrino pressure gradient, given that the pressure gradient induced by quarks is opposed by the pressure gradients induced by electrons. This suggests, somewhat counter-intuitively, that the pressure gradients that drive the interface are controlled primarily by leptonic weak decays rather than by the quark Equation of State (EOS). In other words, the effects of the leptonic weak interaction, including the corresponding weak decay rates and the EOS of electrons and neutrinos, are at least as important as the uncertainties related to the EOS of high density matter. We find that for baryon number densities nB ≤ 0.35 fm-3, strong pressure gradients induced by leptonic weak decays drastically slow down the burning speed, which is thereafter controlled by the much slower burning process driven by backflowing downstream matter. We discuss the implications of our findings to proto-neutron stars.

  18. Key performance indicators for successful simulation projects

    OpenAIRE

    Jahangirian, M; Taylor, SJE; Young, T; Robinson, S

    2016-01-01

    There are many factors that may contribute to the successful delivery of a simulation project. To provide a structured approach to assessing the impact various factors have on project success, we propose a top-down framework whereby 15 Key Performance Indicators (KPI) are developed that represent the level of successfulness of simulation projects from various perspectives. They are linked to a set of Critical Success Factors (CSF) as reported in the simulation literature. A single measure cal...

  19. Large-Scale Description of Interacting One-Dimensional Bose Gases: Generalized Hydrodynamics Supersedes Conventional Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, Benjamin; Dubail, Jérôme; Konik, Robert; Yoshimura, Takato

    2017-11-01

    The theory of generalized hydrodynamics (GHD) was recently developed as a new tool for the study of inhomogeneous time evolution in many-body interacting systems with infinitely many conserved charges. In this Letter, we show that it supersedes the widely used conventional hydrodynamics (CHD) of one-dimensional Bose gases. We illustrate this by studying "nonlinear sound waves" emanating from initial density accumulations in the Lieb-Liniger model. We show that, at zero temperature and in the absence of shocks, GHD reduces to CHD, thus for the first time justifying its use from purely hydrodynamic principles. We show that sharp profiles, which appear in finite times in CHD, immediately dissolve into a higher hierarchy of reductions of GHD, with no sustained shock. CHD thereon fails to capture the correct hydrodynamics. We establish the correct hydrodynamic equations, which are finite-dimensional reductions of GHD characterized by multiple, disjoint Fermi seas. We further verify that at nonzero temperature, CHD fails at all nonzero times. Finally, we numerically confirm the emergence of hydrodynamics at zero temperature by comparing its predictions with a full quantum simulation performed using the NRG-TSA-abacus algorithm. The analysis is performed in the full interaction range, and is not restricted to either weak- or strong-repulsion regimes.

  20. SLC positron source: Simulation and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitthan, R.; Braun, H.; Clendenin, J.E.; Ecklund, S.D.; Helm, R.H.; Kulikov, A.V.; Odian, A.C.; Pei, G.X.; Ross, M.C.; Woodley, M.D.

    1991-06-01

    Performance of the source was found to be in good general agreement with computer simulations with S-band acceleration, and where not, the simulations lead to identification of problems, in particular the underestimated impact of linac misalignments due to the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake. 13 refs., 7 figs

  1. Team Culture and Business Strategy Simulation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, William J.; Fornaciari, Charles J.; Drew, Stephen A. W.; Marlin, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Many capstone strategic management courses use computer-based simulations as core pedagogical tools. Simulations are touted as assisting students in developing much-valued skills in strategy formation, implementation, and team management in the pursuit of superior strategic performance. However, despite their rich nature, little is known regarding…

  2. Building performance simulation for sustainable buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a general view of the background and current state of building performance simulation, which has the potential to deliver, directly or indirectly, substantial benefits to building stakeholders and to the environment. However the building simulation community faces many

  3. A full general relativistic neutrino radiation-hydrodynamics simulation of a collapsing very massive star and the formation of a black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Takami; Kotake, Kei; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl

    2018-06-01

    We study the final fate of a very massive star by performing full general relativistic (GR), three-dimensional (3D) simulation with three-flavour multi-energy neutrino transport. Utilizing a 70 solar mass zero-metallicity progenitor, we self-consistently follow the radiation-hydrodynamics from the onset of gravitational core-collapse until the second collapse of the proto-neutron star (PNS), leading to black hole (BH) formation. Our results show that the BH formation occurs at a post-bounce time of Tpb ˜ 300 ms for the 70 M⊙ star. This is significantly earlier than those in the literature where lower mass progenitors were employed. At a few ˜10 ms before BH formation, we find that the stalled bounce shock is revived by intense neutrino heating from the very hot PNS, which is aided by violent convection behind the shock. In the context of 3D-GR core-collapse modelling with multi-energy neutrino transport, our numerical results present the first evidence to validate a fallback BH formation scenario of the 70 M⊙ star.

  4. A full general relativistic neutrino radiation-hydrodynamics simulation of a collapsing very massive star and the formation of a black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Takami; Kotake, Kei; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl

    2018-04-01

    We study the final fate of a very massive star by performing full general relativistic (GR), three-dimensional (3D) simulation with three-flavor multi-energy neutrino transport. Utilizing a 70 solar mass zero metallicity progenitor, we self-consistently follow the radiation-hydrodynamics from the onset of gravitational core-collapse until the second collapse of the proto-neutron star (PNS), leading to black hole (BH) formation. Our results show that the BH formation occurs at a post-bounce time of Tpb ˜ 300 ms for the 70 M⊙ star. This is significantly earlier than those in the literature where lower mass progenitors were employed. At a few ˜10 ms before BH formation, we find that the stalled bounce shock is revived by intense neutrino heating from the very hot PNS, which is aided by violent convection behind the shock. In the context of 3D-GR core-collapse modeling with multi-energy neutrino transport, our numerical results present the first evidence to validate a fallback BH formation scenario of the 70M⊙ star.

  5. Development and initial validation of a novel smoothed-particle hydrodynamics-based simulation model of trabecular bone penetration by metallic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulper, Sloan A; Fang, Christian X; Ren, Xiaodan; Guo, Margaret; Sze, Kam Y; Leung, Frankie K L; Lu, William W

    2018-04-01

    A novel computational model of implant migration in trabecular bone was developed using smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH), and an initial validation was performed via correlation with experimental data. Six fresh-frozen human cadaveric specimens measuring 10 × 10 × 20 mm were extracted from the proximal femurs of female donors (mean age of 82 years, range 75-90, BV/TV ratios between 17.88% and 30.49%). These specimens were then penetrated under axial loading to a depth of 10 mm with 5 mm diameter cylindrical indenters bearing either flat or sharp/conical tip designs similar to blunt and self-tapping cancellous screws, assigned in a random manner. SPH models were constructed based on microCT scans (17.33 µm) of the cadaveric specimens. Two initial specimens were used for calibration of material model parameters. The remaining four specimens were then simulated in silico using identical material model parameters. Peak forces varied between 92.0 and 365.0 N in the experiments, and 115.5-352.2 N in the SPH simulations. The concordance correlation coefficient between experimental and simulated pairs was 0.888, with a 95%CI of 0.8832-0.8926, a Pearson ρ (precision) value of 0.9396, and a bias correction factor Cb (accuracy) value of 0.945. Patterns of bone compaction were qualitatively similar; both experimental and simulated flat-tipped indenters produced dense regions of compacted material adjacent to the advancing face of the indenter, while sharp-tipped indenters deposited compacted material along their peripheries. Simulations based on SPH can produce accurate predictions of trabecular bone penetration that are useful for characterizing implant performance under high-strain loading conditions. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:1114-1123, 2018. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. X-ray clusters from a high-resolution hydrodynamic PPM simulation of the cold dark matter universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Greg L.; Cen, Renyue; Norman, Michael L.; Ostriker, Jermemiah P.; Stone, James M.

    1994-01-01

    A new three-dimensional hydrodynamic code based on the piecewise parabolic method (PPM) is utilized to compute the distribution of hot gas in the standard Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized cold dark matter (CDM) universe. Utilizing periodic boundary conditions, a box with size 85 h(exp-1) Mpc, having cell size 0.31 h(exp-1) Mpc, is followed in a simulation with 270(exp 3)=10(exp 7.3) cells. Adopting standard parameters determined from COBE and light-element nucleosynthesis, Sigma(sub 8)=1.05, Omega(sub b)=0.06, we find the X-ray-emitting clusters, compute the luminosity function at several wavelengths, the temperature distribution, and estimated sizes, as well as the evolution of these quantities with redshift. The results, which are compared with those obtained in the preceding paper (Kang et al. 1994a), may be used in conjuction with ROSAT and other observational data sets. Overall, the results of the two computations are qualitatively very similar with regard to the trends of cluster properties, i.e., how the number density, radius, and temeprature depend on luminosity and redshift. The total luminosity from clusters is approximately a factor of 2 higher using the PPM code (as compared to the 'total variation diminishing' (TVD) code used in the previous paper) with the number of bright clusters higher by a similar factor. The primary conclusions of the prior paper, with regard to the power spectrum of the primeval density perturbations, are strengthened: the standard CDM model, normalized to the COBE microwave detection, predicts too many bright X-ray emitting clusters, by a factor probably in excess of 5. The comparison between observations and theoretical predictions for the evolution of cluster properties, luminosity functions, and size and temperature distributions should provide an important discriminator among competing scenarios for the development of structure in the universe.

  7. Identifying the subtle signatures of feedback from distant AGN using ALMA observations and the EAGLE hydrodynamical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtz, J.; Alexander, D. M.; Harrison, C. M.; Rosario, D. J.; McAlpine, S.; Mullaney, J. R.; Stanley, F.; Simpson, J.; Theuns, T.; Bower, R. G.; Hickox, R. C.; Santini, P.; Swinbank, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    We present sensitive 870 μm continuum measurements from our ALMA programmes of 114 X-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the Chandra Deep Field-South and Cosmic Evolution Survey fields. We use these observations in combination with data from Spitzer and Herschel to construct a sample of 86 X-ray selected AGN, 63 with ALMA constraints at z = 1.5-3.2 with stellar mass >2 × 1010 M⊙. We constructed broad-band spectral energy distributions in the infrared band (8-1000 μm) and constrain star-formation rates (SFRs) uncontaminated by the AGN. Using a hierarchical Bayesian method that takes into account the information from upper limits, we fit SFR and specific SFR (sSFR) distributions. We explore these distributions as a function of both X-ray luminosity and stellar mass. We compare our measurements to two versions of the Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) hydrodynamical simulations: the reference model with AGN feedback and the model without AGN. We find good agreement between the observations and that predicted by the EAGLE reference model for the modes and widths of the sSFR distributions as a function of both X-ray luminosity and stellar mass; however, we found that the EAGLE model without AGN feedback predicts a significantly narrower width when compared to the data. Overall, from the combination of the observations with the model predictions, we conclude that (1) even with AGN feedback, we expect no strong relationship between the sSFR distribution parameters and instantaneous AGN luminosity and (2) a signature of AGN feedback is a broad distribution of sSFRs for all galaxies (not just those hosting an AGN) with stellar masses above ≈1010 M⊙.

  8. Performance of a process-based hydrodynamic model in predicting shoreline change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, I.; Warner, J. C.; List, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    Shoreline change is controlled by a complex combination of processes that include waves, currents, sediment characteristics and availability, geologic framework, human interventions, and sea level rise. A comprehensive data set of shoreline position (14 shorelines between 1978-2002) along the continuous and relatively non-interrupted North Carolina Coast from Oregon Inlet to Cape Hatteras (65 km) reveals a spatial pattern of alternating erosion and accretion, with an erosional average shoreline change rate of -1.6 m/yr and up to -8 m/yr in some locations. This data set gives a unique opportunity to study long-term shoreline change in an area hit by frequent storm events while relatively uninfluenced by human interventions and the effects of tidal inlets. Accurate predictions of long-term shoreline change may require a model that accurately resolves surf zone processes and sediment transport patterns. Conventional methods for predicting shoreline change such as one-line models and regression of shoreline positions have been designed for computational efficiency. These methods, however, not only have several underlying restrictions (validity for small angle of wave approach, assuming bottom contours and shoreline to be parallel, depth of closure, etc.) but also their empirical estimates of sediment transport rates in the surf zone have been shown to vary greatly from the calculations of process-based hydrodynamic models. We focus on hind-casting long-term shoreline change using components of the process-based, three-dimensional coupled-ocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment transport modeling system (COAWST). COAWST is forced with historical predictions of atmospheric and oceanographic data from public-domain global models. Through a method of coupled concurrent grid-refinement approach in COAWST, the finest grid with resolution of O(10 m) that covers the surf zone along the section of interest is forced at its spatial boundaries with waves and currents computed on the grids

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A HYDRODYNAMIC MODEL OF A HYDROCYCLONE INCLUDING THE SIMULATION OF AIR-CORE EFFECT, USING THE FINITE VOLUME METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Felipe Aguilera

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The hydrocyclone is one of the most used classification equipment in industry, particularly in mineral processing. Maybe its main characteristic is to be a hydrodynamic separation equipment, whereby it has a high production capability and different levels of efficiency are depending on the geometrical configuration, operational parameters and the type of material to be processed. Nevertheless, there are a few successful studies regarding the modelling and simulation of its hydrodynamic principles, because the flow behavior inside is quite complex. Most of the current models are empirical and they are not applicable to all cases and types of minerals. One of the most important problems to be solved, besides the cut size and the effect of the physical properties of the particles, is the distribution of the flow inside the hydrocyclone, because if the work of the equipment is at low slurry densities, very clear for small hydrocyclones, its mechanic behavior is a consequence of the kind of liquid used as continuous phase, being water the most common liquid. This work shows the modelling and simulation of the hydrodynamic behavior of a suspension inside a hydrocyclone, including the air core effect, through the use of finite differences method. For the developing of the model, the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM for the evaluation of turbulence, and the Volume of Fluid (VOF to study the interaction between water and air were used. Finally, the model shows to be significant for experimental data, and for different conditions of an industrial plant.

  10. Fins improve the swimming performance of fish sperm: a hydrodynamic analysis of the Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Eric A; Bondarenko, Volodymyr; Cosson, Jacky; Pacey, Allan A

    2013-02-01

    The flagella of sturgeon sperm have an ultrastructure comprising paddle-like fins extending along most of their length. These fins are seen in several other marine and freshwater fish. The sperm of these fish are fast swimmers and are relatively short lived: it is therefore tempting to think of these fins as having evolved for hydrodynamic advantage, but the actual advantage they impart, at such a small length scale and slow speed, is unclear. The phrase "the fins improve hydrodynamic efficiency" is commonly found in biological literature, yet little hydrodynamic analysis has previously been used to support such conjectures. In this paper, we examine various hydrodynamic models of sturgeon sperm and investigate both swimming velocity and energy expenditure. All of the models indicate a modest hydrodynamic advantage of finned sperm, in both straight line swimming speed and a hydrodynamic efficiency measure. We find a hydrodynamic advantage for a flagellum with fins, over one without fins, of the order of 15-20% in straight line propulsive velocity and 10-15% in a hydrodynamic efficiency measure. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Simulation of hydrodynamics, water quality, and lake sturgeon habitat volumes in Lake St. Croix, Wisconsin and Minnesota, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erik A.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Ziegeweid, Jeffrey R.; Elliott, Sarah M.; Magdalene, Suzanne

    2018-01-05

    Lake St. Croix is a naturally impounded, riverine lake that makes up the last 40 kilometers of the St. Croix River. Substantial land-use changes during the past 150 years, including increased agriculture and urban development, have reduced Lake St. Croix water-quality and increased nutrient loads delivered to Lake St. Croix. A recent (2012–13) total maximum daily load phosphorus-reduction plan set the goal to reduce total phosphorus loads to Lake St. Croix by 20 percent by 2020 and reduce Lake St. Croix algal bloom frequencies. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, developed a two-dimensional, carbon-based, laterally averaged, hydrodynamic and water-quality model, CE–QUAL–W2, that addresses the interaction between nutrient cycling, primary production, and trophic dynamics to predict responses in the distribution of water temperature, oxygen, and chlorophyll a. Distribution is evaluated in the context of habitat for lake sturgeon, including a combination of temperature and dissolved oxygen conditions termed oxy-thermal habitat.The Lake St. Croix CE–QUAL–W2 model successfully reproduced temperature and dissolved oxygen in the lake longitudinally (from upstream to downstream), vertically, and temporally over the seasons. The simulated water temperature profiles closely matched the measured water temperature profiles throughout the year, including the prediction of thermocline transition depths (often within 1 meter), the absolute temperature of the thermocline transitions (often within 1.0 degree Celsius), and profiles without a strong thermocline transition. Simulated dissolved oxygen profiles matched the trajectories of the measured dissolved oxygen concentrations at multiple depths over time, and the simulated concentrations matched the depth and slope of the measured concentrations.Additionally, trends in the measured water-quality data were captured by the model simulation, gaining some potential insights into the

  12. Maintenance Personnel Performance Simulation (MAPPS) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, A.I.; Bartter, W.D.; Wolf, J.J.; Knee, H.E.; Haas, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    A stochastic computer model for simulating the actions and behavior of nuclear power plant maintenance personnel is described. The model considers personnel, environmental, and motivational variables to yield predictions of maintenance performance quality and time to perform. The mode has been fully developed and sensitivity tested. Additional evaluation of the model is now taking place

  13. Relativistic hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Luciano, Rezzolla

    2013-01-01

    Relativistic hydrodynamics is a very successful theoretical framework to describe the dynamics of matter from scales as small as those of colliding elementary particles, up to the largest scales in the universe. This book provides an up-to-date, lively, and approachable introduction to the mathematical formalism, numerical techniques, and applications of relativistic hydrodynamics. The topic is typically covered either by very formal or by very phenomenological books, but is instead presented here in a form that will be appreciated both by students and researchers in the field. The topics covered in the book are the results of work carried out over the last 40 years, which can be found in rather technical research articles with dissimilar notations and styles. The book is not just a collection of scattered information, but a well-organized description of relativistic hydrodynamics, from the basic principles of statistical kinetic theory, down to the technical aspects of numerical methods devised for the solut...

  14. Assessing and Testing Hydrokinetic Turbine Performance and Effects on Open Channel Hydrodynamics: An Irrigation Canal Case Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunawan, Budi [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neary, Vincent Sinclair [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mortensen, Josh [United States Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO (United States); Roberts, Jesse D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Hydrokinetic energy from flowing water in open channels has the potential to support local electricity needs with lower regulatory or capital investment than impounding water with more conventional means. MOU agencies involved in federal hydropower development have identified the need to better understand the opportunities for hydrokinetic (HK) energy development within existing canal systems that may already have integrated hydropower plants. This document provides an overview of the main considerations, tools, and assessment methods, for implementing field tests in an open-channel water system to characterize current energy converter (CEC) device performance and hydrodynamic effects. It describes open channel processes relevant to their HK site and perform pertinent analyses to guide siting and CEC layout design, with the goal of streamlining the evaluation process and reducing the risk of interfering with existing uses of the site. This document outlines key site parameters of interest and effective tools and methods for measurement and analysis with examples drawn from the Roza Main Canal, in Yakima, WA to illustrate a site application.

  15. Simulating Performance Risk for Lighting Retrofit Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Hu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In building retrofit projects, dynamic simulations are performed to simulate building performance. Uncertainty may negatively affect model calibration and predicted lighting energy savings, which increases the chance of default on performance-based contracts. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to develop a simulation-based method that can analyze lighting performance risk in lighting retrofit decisions. The model uses a surrogate model, which is constructed by adaptively selecting sample points and generating approximation surfaces with fast computing time. The surrogate model is a replacement of the computation intensive process. A statistical method is developed to generate extreme weather profile based on the 20-year historical weather data. A stochastic occupancy model was created using actual occupancy data to generate realistic occupancy patterns. Energy usage of lighting, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC is simulated using EnergyPlus. The method can evaluate the influence of different risk factors (e.g., variation of luminaire input wattage, varying weather conditions on lighting and HVAC energy consumption and lighting electricity demand. Probability distributions are generated to quantify the risk values. A case study was conducted to demonstrate and validate the methods. The surrogate model is a good solution for quantifying the risk factors and probability distribution of the building performance.

  16. Performance Optimization of the ATLAS Detector Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2091018

    In the thesis at hand the current performance of the ATLAS detector simulation, part of the Athena framework, is analyzed and possible optimizations are examined. For this purpose the event based sampling profiler VTune Amplifier by Intel is utilized. As the most important metric to measure improvements, the total execution time of the simulation of $t\\bar{t}$ events is also considered. All efforts are focused on structural changes, which do not influence the simulation output and can be attributed to CPU specific issues, especially front end stalls and vectorization. The most promising change is the activation of profile guided optimization for Geant4, which is a critical external dependency of the simulation. Profile guided optimization gives an average improvement of $8.9\\%$ and $10.0\\%$ for the two considered cases at the cost of one additional compilation (instrumented binaries) and execution (training to obtain profiling data) at build time.

  17. Experimental investigation on the hydrodynamic performance of a wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiong-bo; Ma, Yong; Zhang, Liang; Jiang, Jin; Liu, Heng-xu

    2017-06-01

    Wave energy is an important type of marine renewable energy. A wave energy converter (WEC) moored with two floating bodies was developed in the present study. To analyze the dynamic performance of the WEC, an experimental device was designed and tested in a tank. The experiment focused on the factors which impact the motion and energy conversion performance of the WEC. Dynamic performance was evaluated by the relative displacements and velocities of the oscillator and carrier which served as the floating bodies of WEC. Four factors were tested, i.e. wave height, wave period, power take-off (PTO) damping, and mass ratio ( R M) of the oscillator and carrier. Experimental results show that these factors greatly affect the energy conversion performance, especially when the wave period matches R M and PTO damping. According to the results, we conclude that: (a) the maximization of the relative displacements and velocities leads to the maximization of the energy conversion efficiency; (b) the larger the wave height, the higher the energy conversion efficiency will be; (c) the relationships of energy conversion efficiency with wave period, PTO damping, and R M are nonlinear, but the maximum efficiency is obtained when these three factors are optimally matched. Experimental results demonstrated that the energy conversion efficiency reached the peak at 28.62% when the wave height was 120 mm, wave period was 1.0 s, R M was 0.21, and the PTO damping was corresponding to the resistance of 100 Ω.

  18. Design procedures for solid-liquid extractors and the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities on extractor performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaninks, J.A.M.

    1979-01-01

    A design method is proposed for countercurrent mass transfer cascades with crossflow stages, and unsteady operated fixed beds in a countercurrent arrangement. The separation performance of these cascades is calculated from mathematical models and compared with a purely countercurrent

  19. Hydrodynamic bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Bonneau, Dominique; Souchet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    This Series provides the necessary elements to the development and validation of numerical prediction models for hydrodynamic bearings. This book describes the rheological models and the equations of lubrication. It also presents the numerical approaches used to solve the above equations by finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements methods.

  20. Hydrodynamic Lubrication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 9. Hydrodynamic Lubrication Experiment with 'Floating' Drops. Jaywant H Arakeri K R Sreenivas. General Article Volume 1 Issue 9 September 1996 pp 51-58. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  1. Theoretical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Milne-Thomson, L M

    2011-01-01

    This classic exposition of the mathematical theory of fluid motion is applicable to both hydrodynamics and aerodynamics. Based on vector methods and notation with their natural consequence in two dimensions - the complex variable - it offers more than 600 exercises and nearly 400 diagrams. Prerequisites include a knowledge of elementary calculus. 1968 edition.

  2. Hydrodynamic disperser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulatov, A.I.; Chernov, V.S.; Prokopov, L.I.; Proselkov, Yu.M.; Tikhonov, Yu.P.

    1980-01-15

    A hydrodynamic disperser is suggested which contains a housing, slit nozzles installed on a circular base arranged opposite from each other, resonators secured opposite the nozzle and outlet sleeve. In order to improve the effectiveness of dispersion by throttling the flow, each resonator is made in the form of a crimped plate with crimpings that decrease in height in a direction towards the nozzle.

  3. Approaching Sentient Building Performance Simulation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negendahl, Kristoffer; Perkov, Thomas; Heller, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    Sentient BPS systems can combine one or more high precision BPS and provide near instantaneous performance feedback directly in the design tool, thus providing speed and precision of building performance in the early design stages. Sentient BPS systems are essentially combining: 1) design tools, 2......) parametric tools, 3) BPS tools, 4) dynamic databases 5) interpolation techniques and 6) prediction techniques as a fast and valid simulation system, in the early design stage....

  4. Hydrodynamic Performance of Aquatic Flapping: Efficiency of Underwater Flight in the Manta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank E. Fish

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The manta is the largest marine organism to swim by dorsoventral oscillation (flapping of the pectoral fins. The manta has been considered to swim with a high efficiency stroke, but this assertion has not been previously examined. The oscillatory swimming strokes of the manta were examined by detailing the kinematics of the pectoral fin movements swimming over a range of speeds and by analyzing simulations based on computational fluid dynamic potential flow and viscous models. These analyses showed that the fin movements are asymmetrical up- and downstrokes with both spanwise and chordwise waves interposed into the flapping motions. These motions produce complex three-dimensional flow patterns. The net thrust for propulsion was produced from the distal half of the fins. The vortex flow pattern and high propulsive efficiency of 89% were associated with Strouhal numbers within the optimal range (0.2–0.4 for rays swimming at routine and high speeds. Analysis of the swimming pattern of the manta provided a baseline for creation of a bio-inspired underwater vehicle, MantaBot.

  5. Simulation of the effects of different inflows on hydrologic conditions in Lake Houston with a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, Houston, Texas, 2009–10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Samuel H.; Lee, Michael T.

    2015-12-08

    Lake Houston, an important water resource for the Houston, Texas, area, receives inflows from seven major tributaries that compose the San Jacinto River Basin upstream from the reservoir. The effects of different inflows from the watersheds drained by these tributaries on the residence time of water in Lake Houston and closely associated physical and chemical properties including lake elevation, salinity, and water temperature are not well known. Accordingly, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Houston, developed a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Lake Houston as a tool for evaluating the effects of different inflows on residence time of water in the lake and associated physical and chemical properties. The Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC), a grid-based, surface-water modeling package for simulating three-dimensional circulation, mass transport, sediments, and biogeochemical processes, was used to develop the model of Lake Houston. The Lake Houston EFDC model was developed and calibrated by using 2009 data and verified by using 2010 data. Three statistics (mean error, root mean square error, and the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient) were used to evaluate how well the Lake Houston EFDC model simulated lake elevation, salinity, and water temperature. The residence time of water in reservoirs is associated with various physical and chemical properties (including lake elevation, salinity, and water temperature). Simulated and measured lake-elevation values were compared at USGS reservoir station 08072000 Lake Houston near Sheldon, Tex. The accuracy of simulated salinity and water temperature values was assessed by using the salinity (computed from measured specific conductance) and water temperature at two USGS monitoring stations: 295826095082200 Lake Houston south Union Pacific Railroad Bridge near Houston, Tex., and 295554095093401 Lake Houston at mouth of Jack’s Ditch near Houston, Tex. Specific conductance

  6. Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Simulation of Surface-Water Flow and Transport to Florida Bay through the Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Eric D.; Wolfert, Melinda A.; Bales, Jerad D.; Goodwin, Carl R.

    2004-01-01

    Successful restoration of the southern Florida ecosystem requires extensive knowledge of the physical characteristics and hydrologic processes controlling water flow and transport of constituents through extremely low-gradient freshwater marshes, shallow mangrove-fringed coastal creeks and tidal embayments, and near-shore marine waters. A sound, physically based numerical model can provide simulations of the differing hydrologic conditions that might result from various ecosystem restoration scenarios. Because hydrology and ecology are closely linked in southern Florida, hydrologic model results also can be used by ecologists to evaluate the degree of ecosystem restoration that could be achieved for various hydrologic conditions. A robust proven model, SWIFT2D, (Surface-Water Integrated Flow and Transport in Two Dimensions), was modified to simulate Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS) hydrodynamics and transport conditions. Modifications include improvements to evapotranspiration and rainfall calculation and to the algorithms that describe flow through coastal creeks. Techniques used in this model should be applicable to other similar low-gradient marsh settings in southern Florida and elsewhere. Numerous investigations were conducted within the SICS area of southeastern Everglades National Park and northeastern Florida Bay to provide data and parameter values for model development and testing. The U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service supported investigations for quantification of evapotranspiration, vegetative resistance to flow, wind-induced flow, land elevations, vegetation classifications, salinity conditions, exchange of ground and surface waters, and flow and transport in coastal creeks and embayments. The good agreement that was achieved between measured and simulated water levels, flows, and salinities through minimal adjustment of empirical coefficients indicates that hydrologic processes within the SICS area are represented properly

  7. Computational modeling and simulation of electro-hydrodynamic (EHD) ion-drag micropump with planar emitter and micropillar collector electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamboh, Shakeel Ahmed; Labadin, Jane; Rigit, Andrew Ragai Henry

    2013-01-01

    Computational models can be used to simulate a prototype of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) ion-drag micropump with planar emitter and micropillar collector electrodes. In this study, a simple and inexpensive design of an ion-drag micropump was modeled and numerically simulated. A three-dimensional segment of the microchannel was simulated by using periodic boundary conditions at the inlet and outlet. The pressure and velocity distribution at the outlet and in the entire domain of the micropump was obtained numerically. The effect of the gap between the emitter and the collector electrode, width and the height of micropillar and flow channel height was analyzed for optimum pressure and output flow rate. The enhanced performance of micropump was compared with existing designs. It was found that the performance of micropump could be improved by decreasing the height of micropillar and the gap between both electrodes. The numerical results also show that a maximum pressure head of about 2350 Pa and maximum mass flow rate 0.4 g min −1 at an applied voltage 1000 V is achievable with the proposed design of micropump. These values of pressure and flow rate can meet the cryogenic cooling requirements for some specific electronic devices.

  8. Hydrodynamic Forces on Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited HYDRODYNAMIC ...Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HYDRODYNAMIC FORCES ON COMPOSITE STRUCTURES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Scott C. Millhouse 7. PERFORMING...angles yields different free surface effects including vortices and the onset of cavitation . 14. SUBJECT TERMS Fluid structure interaction, FSI, finite

  9. Performance and emission characteristics of a stationary diesel engine fuelled by Schleichera Oleosa Oil Methyl Ester (SOME produced through hydrodynamic cavitation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Yadav

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the performance and emission characteristics of biodiesel blends of 10, 20, 30 and 50% from Schleichera Oleosa oil based on hydrodynamic cavitation were compared to diesel fuel, and found to be acceptable according to the EN 14214 and ASTM D 6751 standards. The tests have been performed using a single cylinder four stroke diesel engine at different loading condition with the blended fuel at the rated speed of 1500 rpm. SOME (Schleichera Oleosa Oil Methyl Ester blended with diesel in proportions of 10%, 20%, 30% and 50% by volume and pure diesel was used as fuel. Engine performance (specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency and exhaust emission (CO, CO2 and NOx were measured to evaluate the behaviour of the diesel engine running on biodiesel. The results show that the brake thermal efficiency of diesel is higher and brake specific fuel consumption is lower at all loads followed by blends of SOME and diesel. The performance parameter for B10, B20, B30 and B50 were also closer to diesel and the CO emission was found to be lesser than diesel while there was a slight increase in the CO2 and NOx. SOME produced by using hydrodynamic cavitation seems to be efficient, time saving and industrially viable. The experimental results revel that SOME-diesel blends up to 50% (v/v can be used in a diesel engine without modifications. Keywords: Performance, Emission, Diesel engine, Schleichera Oleosa Oil, Biodiesel hydrodynamic cavitation (HC

  10. Simulating and stimulating performance: Introducing distributed simulation to enhance musical learning and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron eWilliamon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Musicians typically rehearse far away from their audiences and in practice rooms that differ significantly from the concert venues in which they aspire to perform. Due to the high costs and inaccessibility of such venues, much current international music training lacks repeated exposure to realistic performance situations, with students learning all too late (or not at all how to manage performance stress and the demands of their audiences. Virtual environments have been shown to be an effective training tool in the fields of medicine and sport, offering practitioners access to real-life performance scenarios but with lower risk of negative evaluation and outcomes. The aim of this research was to design and test the efficacy of simulated performance environments in which conditions of real performance could be recreated. Advanced violin students (n=11 were recruited to perform in two simulations: a solo recital with a small virtual audience and an audition situation with three expert virtual judges. Each simulation contained back-stage and on-stage areas, life-sized interactive virtual observers, and pre- and post-performance protocols designed to match those found at leading international performance venues. Participants completed a questionnaire on their experiences of using the simulations. Results show that both simulated environments offered realistic experience of performance contexts and were rated particularly useful for developing performance skills. For a subset of 7 violinists, state anxiety and electrocardiographic data were collected during the simulated audition and an actual audition with real judges. Results display comparable levels of reported state anxiety and patterns of heart rate variability in both situations, suggesting that responses to the simulated audition closely approximate those of a real audition. The findings are discussed in relation to their implications, both generalizable and individual-specific, for

  11. Simulating and stimulating performance: introducing distributed simulation to enhance musical learning and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamon, Aaron; Aufegger, Lisa; Eiholzer, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Musicians typically rehearse far away from their audiences and in practice rooms that differ significantly from the concert venues in which they aspire to perform. Due to the high costs and inaccessibility of such venues, much current international music training lacks repeated exposure to realistic performance situations, with students learning all too late (or not at all) how to manage performance stress and the demands of their audiences. Virtual environments have been shown to be an effective training tool in the fields of medicine and sport, offering practitioners access to real-life performance scenarios but with lower risk of negative evaluation and outcomes. The aim of this research was to design and test the efficacy of simulated performance environments in which conditions of "real" performance could be recreated. Advanced violin students (n = 11) were recruited to perform in two simulations: a solo recital with a small virtual audience and an audition situation with three "expert" virtual judges. Each simulation contained back-stage and on-stage areas, life-sized interactive virtual observers, and pre- and post-performance protocols designed to match those found at leading international performance venues. Participants completed a questionnaire on their experiences of using the simulations. Results show that both simulated environments offered realistic experience of performance contexts and were rated particularly useful for developing performance skills. For a subset of 7 violinists, state anxiety and electrocardiographic data were collected during the simulated audition and an actual audition with real judges. Results display comparable levels of reported state anxiety and patterns of heart rate variability in both situations, suggesting that responses to the simulated audition closely approximate those of a real audition. The findings are discussed in relation to their implications, both generalizable and individual-specific, for performance training.

  12. CHASM Challenge Problem: Lagrangian Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornung, R [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Keasler, J [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gokhale, M [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-09-10

    Computer simulations of many science and engineering problems require modeling the equations of hydrodynamics which describe the motion of materials relative to each other induced by various forces. Many important DoD simulation problems involve complex multi-material systems that undergo large deformations. Examples include the analysis of armor defense, penetration mechanics, blast effects, structural integrity, and conventional munitions such as shaped charges and explosively formed projectiles. Indeed, the original motivation for developing codes that solve the equations of hydrodynamics, herein referred to as “hydrocodes”, was to solve problems with defense applications. The FY2010 Requirements Analysis Report issued by the DoD High Performance Computing Modernization Program (HPCMP) Office shows that a major portion of DoD HPC activities involves hydrocodes [HPCMP2010]. The report surveyed 496 projects across the Services and various Agencies, representing 4,050 HPCMP users at more than 125 locations, including government, contractors, and academia, and grouped each project into one of ten categories.

  13. Hydrodynamic interactions in active colloidal crystal microrheology

    OpenAIRE

    Weeber, R; Harting, JDR Jens

    2012-01-01

    In dense colloids it is commonly assumed that hydrodynamic interactions do not play a role. However, a found theoretical quantification is often missing. We present computer simulations that are motivated by experiments where a large colloidal particle is dragged through a colloidal crystal. To qualify the influence of long-ranged hydrodynamics, we model the setup by conventional Langevin dynamics simulations and by an improved scheme with limited hydrodynamic interactions. This scheme signif...

  14. Entropy-limited hydrodynamics: a novel approach to relativistic hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guercilena, Federico; Radice, David; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2017-07-01

    We present entropy-limited hydrodynamics (ELH): a new approach for the computation of numerical fluxes arising in the discretization of hyperbolic equations in conservation form. ELH is based on the hybridisation of an unfiltered high-order scheme with the first-order Lax-Friedrichs method. The activation of the low-order part of the scheme is driven by a measure of the locally generated entropy inspired by the artificial-viscosity method proposed by Guermond et al. (J. Comput. Phys. 230(11):4248-4267, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.jcp.2010.11.043). Here, we present ELH in the context of high-order finite-differencing methods and of the equations of general-relativistic hydrodynamics. We study the performance of ELH in a series of classical astrophysical tests in general relativity involving isolated, rotating and nonrotating neutron stars, and including a case of gravitational collapse to black hole. We present a detailed comparison of ELH with the fifth-order monotonicity preserving method MP5 (Suresh and Huynh in J. Comput. Phys. 136(1):83-99, 1997, doi: 10.1006/jcph.1997.5745), one of the most common high-order schemes currently employed in numerical-relativity simulations. We find that ELH achieves comparable and, in many of the cases studied here, better accuracy than more traditional methods at a fraction of the computational cost (up to {˜}50% speedup). Given its accuracy and its simplicity of implementation, ELH is a promising framework for the development of new special- and general-relativistic hydrodynamics codes well adapted for massively parallel supercomputers.

  15. Brownian dynamics with hydrodynamic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermak, D.L.; McCammon, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A method for simulating the Brownian dynamics of N particles with the inclusion of hydrodynamic interactions is described. The particles may also be subject to the usual interparticle or external forces (e.g., electrostatic) which have been included in previous methods for simulating Brownian dynamics of particles in the absence of hydrodynamic interactions. The present method is derived from the Langevin equations for the N particle assembly, and the results are shown to be consistent with the corresponding Fokker--Planck results. Sample calculations on small systems illustrate the importance of including hydrodynamic interactions in Brownian dynamics simulations. The method should be useful for simulation studies of diffusion limited reactions, polymer dynamics, protein folding, particle coagulation, and other phenomena in solution

  16. Water-base acrylic terpolymer as a corrosion inhibitor for SAE1018 in simulated sour petroleum solution in stagnant and hydrodynamic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakili Azghandi, M.; Davoodi, A.; Farzi, G.A.; Kosari, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Corrosion inhibition of a water-base copolymer, ATP, was studied. ► Efficiency more than 90% was obtained with 0.8 mmol/L ATP in 2000 rpm. ► ATP obeys Langmuir isotherm in static and hydrodynamic conditions. ► With the presence of ATP, OM images showed a decrease in surface attack. - Abstract: The effect of static and hydrodynamic conditions (0–2000 rpm) on corrosion inhibition of a water-base acrylic terpolymer (ATP), methyl methacrylate/butyl acrylate/acrylic acid, for SAE1018 steel in simulated sour petroleum corrosive solution (NACE 1D196) were investigated by AC/DC electrochemical tests. Increase in rotation speed accelerates the corrosion rate; however the corrosion inhibitor efficiency increases. This was attributed to the enhanced mass transport of inhibitor molecules to the metal surface. OM examinations also demonstrate that in presence of ATP, a decrease in corrosion attacks is observed. Thermodynamic calculations also showed that ATP obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm and adsorbs chemically into the surface.

  17. CASTOR detector. Model, objectives and simulated performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelis, A. L. S.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Panagiotou, A. D.; Aslanoglou, X.; Nicolis, N.; Lobanov, M.; Erine, S.; Kharlov, Y. V.; Bogolyubsky, M. Y.; Kurepin, A. B.; Chileev, K.; Wlodarczyk, Z.

    2001-01-01

    It is presented a phenomenological model describing the formation and evolution of a Centauro fireball in the baryon-rich region in nucleus-nucleus interactions in the upper atmosphere and at the LHC. The small particle multiplicity and imbalance of electromagnetic and hadronic content characterizing a Centauro event and also the strongly penetrating particles (assumed to be strangelets) frequently accompanying them can be naturally explained. It is described the CASTOR calorimeter, a sub detector of the ALICE experiment dedicated to the search for Centauro in the very forward, baryon-rich region of central Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC. The basic characteristics and simulated performance of the calorimeter are presented

  18. Problem reporting management system performance simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, David S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper proposes the Problem Reporting Management System (PRMS) model as an effective discrete simulation tool that determines the risks involved during the development phase of a Trouble Tracking Reporting Data Base replacement system. The model considers the type of equipment and networks which will be used in the replacement system as well as varying user loads, size of the database, and expected operational availability. The paper discusses the dynamics, stability, and application of the PRMS and addresses suggested concepts to enhance the service performance and enrich them.

  19. Simulation studies of hydrodynamic aspects of magneto-inertial fusion and high order adaptive algorithms for Maxwell equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingling

    Three-dimensional simulations of the formation and implosion of plasma liners for the Plasma Jet Induced Magneto Inertial Fusion (PJMIF) have been performed using multiscale simulation technique based on the FronTier code. In the PJMIF concept, a plasma liner, formed by merging of a large number of radial, highly supersonic plasma jets, implodes on the target in the form of two compact plasma toroids, and compresses it to conditions of the nuclear fusion ignition. The propagation of a single jet with Mach number 60 from the plasma gun to the merging point was studied using the FronTier code. The simulation result was used as input to the 3D jet merger problem. The merger of 144, 125, and 625 jets and the formation and heating of plasma liner by compression waves have been studied and compared with recent theoretical predictions. The main result of the study is the prediction of the average Mach number reduction and the description of the liner structure and properties. We have also compared the effect of different merging radii. Spherically symmetric simulations of the implosion of plasma liners and compression of plasma targets have also been performed using the method of front tracking. The cases of single deuterium and xenon liners and double layer deuterium - xenon liners compressing various deuterium-tritium targets have been investigated, optimized for maximum fusion energy gains, and compared with theoretical predictions and scaling laws of [P. Parks, On the efficacy of imploding plasma liners for magnetized fusion target compression, Phys. Plasmas 15, 062506 (2008)]. In agreement with the theory, the fusion gain was significantly below unity for deuterium - tritium targets compressed by Mach 60 deuterium liners. In the most optimal setup for a given chamber size that contained a target with the initial radius of 20 cm compressed by 10 cm thick, Mach 60 xenon liner, the target ignition and fusion energy gain of 10 was achieved. Simulations also showed that

  20. Hydrodynamic cavitation for sonochemical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moholkar, V S; Kumar, P S; Pandit, A B

    1999-03-01

    A comparative study of hydrodynamic and acoustic cavitation has been made on the basis of numerical solutions of the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The bubble/cavity behaviour has been studied under both acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation conditions. The effect of varying pressure fields on the collapse of the cavity (sinusoidal for acoustic and linear for hydrodynamic) and also on the latter's dynamic behaviour has been studied. The variations of parameters such as initial cavity size, intensity of the acoustic field and irradiation frequency in the case of acoustic cavitation, and initial cavity size, final recovery pressure and time for pressure recovery in the case of hydrodynamic cavitation, have been found to have significant effects on cavity/bubble dynamics. The simulations reveal that the bubble/cavity collapsing behaviour in the case of hydrodynamic cavitation is accompanied by a large number of pressure pulses of relatively smaller magnitude, compared with just one or two pulses under acoustic cavitation. It has been shown that hydrodynamic cavitation offers greater control over operating parameters and the resultant cavitation intensity. Finally, a brief summary of the experimental results on the oxidation of aqueous KI solution with a hydrodynamic cavitation set-up is given which supports the conclusion of this numerical study. The methodology presented allows one to manipulate and optimise of specific process, either physical or chemical.

  1. Hydrodynamic interactions in active colloidal crystal microrheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeber, R; Harting, J

    2012-11-01

    In dense colloids it is commonly assumed that hydrodynamic interactions do not play a role. However, a found theoretical quantification is often missing. We present computer simulations that are motivated by experiments where a large colloidal particle is dragged through a colloidal crystal. To qualify the influence of long-ranged hydrodynamics, we model the setup by conventional Langevin dynamics simulations and by an improved scheme with limited hydrodynamic interactions. This scheme significantly improves our results and allows to show that hydrodynamics strongly impacts the development of defects, the crystal regeneration, as well as the jamming behavior.

  2. Optimization of a heterogeneous catalytic hydrodynamic cavitation reactor performance in decolorization of Rhodamine B: application of scrap iron sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri Parsa, Jalal; Ebrahimzadeh Zonouzian, Seyyed Alireza

    2013-11-01

    A low pressure pilot scale hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) reactor with 30 L volume, using fixed scrap iron sheets, as the heterogeneous catalyst, with no external source of H2O2 was devised to investigate the effects of operating parameters of the HC reactor performance. In situ generation of Fenton reagents suggested an induced advanced Fenton process (IAFP) to explain the enhancing effect of the used catalyst in the HC process. The reactor optimization was done based upon the extent of decolorization (ED) of aqueous solution of Rhodamine B (RhB). To have a perfect study on the pertinent parameters of the heterogeneous catalyzed HC reactor, the following cases as, the effects of scrap iron sheets, inlet pressure (2.4-5.8 bar), the distance between orifice plates and catalyst sheets (submerged and inline located orifice plates), back-pressure (2-6 bar), orifice plates type (4 various orifice plates), pH (2-10) and initial RhB concentration (2-14 mg L(-1)) have been investigated. The results showed that the highest cavitational yield can be obtained at pH 3 and initial dye concentration of 10 mg L(-1). Also, an increase in the inlet pressure would lead to an increase in the ED. In addition, it was found that using the deeper holes (thicker orifice plates) would lead to lower ED, and holes with larger diameter would lead to the higher ED in the same cross-sectional area, but in the same holes' diameters, higher cross-sectional area leads to the lower ED. The submerged operation mode showed a greater cavitational effects rather than the inline mode. Also, for the inline mode, the optimum value of 3 bar was obtained for the back-pressure condition in the system. Moreover, according to the analysis of changes in the UV-Vis spectra of RhB, both degradation of RhB chromophore structure and N-deethylation were occurred during the catalyzed HC process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Large-eddy simulations of 3D Taylor-Green vortex: comparison of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, Lattice Boltzmann and Finite Volume methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajzer, A; Pozorski, J; Szewc, K

    2014-01-01

    In the paper we present Large-eddy simulation (LES) results of 3D Taylor- Green vortex obtained by the three different computational approaches: Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) and Finite Volume Method (FVM). The Smagorinsky model was chosen as a subgrid-scale closure in LES for all considered methods and a selection of spatial resolutions have been investigated. The SPH and LBM computations have been carried out with the use of the in-house codes executed on GPU and compared, for validation purposes, with the FVM results obtained using the open-source CFD software OpenFOAM. A comparative study in terms of one-point statistics and turbulent energy spectra shows a good agreement of LES results for all methods. An analysis of the GPU code efficiency and implementation difficulties has been made. It is shown that both SPH and LBM may offer a significant advantage over mesh-based CFD methods.

  4. An introduction to relativistic hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font, Jose A [Departamento de AstronomIa y AstrofIsica, Universidad de Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2007-11-15

    We review formulations of the equations of (inviscid) general relativistic hydrodynamics and (ideal) magnetohydrodynamics, along with methods for their numerical solution. Both systems can be cast as first-order, hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, following the explicit choice of an Eulerian observer and suitable fluid and magnetic field variables. During the last fifteen years, the so-called (upwind) high-resolution shock-capturing schemes based on Riemann solvers have been successfully extended from classical to relativistic fluid dynamics, both special and general. Nowadays, general relativistic hydrodynamical simulations in relativistic astrophysics are routinely performed, particularly within the test-fluid approximation but also for dynamical spacetimes. While such advances also hold true in the case of the MHD equations, the astrophysical applications investigated so far are still limited, yet the field is bound to witness major developments in the near future. The article also presents a brief overview of numerical techniques, providing state-of-the-art examples of their applicability to general relativistic fluids and magneto-fluids in characteristic scenarios of relativistic astrophysics.

  5. Final Report. Hydrodynamics by high-energy-density plasma flow and hydrodynamics and radiative hydrodynamics with astrophysical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R Paul Drake

    2004-01-01

    OAK-B135 This is the final report from the project Hydrodynamics by High-Energy-Density Plasma Flow and Hydrodynamics and Radiation Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications. This project supported a group at the University of Michigan in the invention, design, performance, and analysis of experiments using high-energy-density research facilities. The experiments explored compressible nonlinear hydrodynamics, in particular at decelerating interfaces, and the radiation hydrodynamics of strong shock waves. It has application to supernovae, astrophysical jets, shock-cloud interactions, and radiative shock waves

  6. Recent development of hydrodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Tetsufumi

    2014-09-01

    In this talk, I give an overview of recent development in hydrodynamic modeling of high-energy nuclear collisions. First, I briefly discuss about current situation of hydrodynamic modeling by showing results from the integrated dynamical approach in which Monte-Carlo calculation of initial conditions, quark-gluon fluid dynamics and hadronic cascading are combined. In particular, I focus on rescattering effects of strange hadrons on final observables. Next I highlight three topics in recent development in hydrodynamic modeling. These include (1) medium response to jet propagation in di-jet asymmetric events, (2) causal hydrodynamic fluctuation and its application to Bjorken expansion and (3) chiral magnetic wave from anomalous hydrodynamic simulations. (1) Recent CMS data suggest the existence of QGP response to propagation of jets. To investigate this phenomenon, we solve hydrodynamic equations with source term which exhibits deposition of energy and momentum from jets. We find a large number of low momentum particles are emitted at large angle from jet axis. This gives a novel interpretation of the CMS data. (2) It has been claimed that a matter created even in p-p/p-A collisions may behave like a fluid. However, fluctuation effects would be important in such a small system. We formulate relativistic fluctuating hydrodynamics and apply it to Bjorken expansion. We found the final multiplicity fluctuates around the mean value even if initial condition is fixed. This effect is relatively important in peripheral A-A collisions and p-p/p-A collisions. (3) Anomalous transport of the quark-gluon fluid is predicted when extremely high magnetic field is applied. We investigate this possibility by solving anomalous hydrodynamic equations. We found the difference of the elliptic flow parameter between positive and negative particles appears due to the chiral magnetic wave. Finally, I provide some personal perspective of hydrodynamic modeling of high energy nuclear collisions

  7. Supernova hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The explosion of a star supernova occurs at the end of its evolution when the nuclear fuel in its core is almost, or completely, consumed. The star may explode due to a small residual thermonuclear detonation, type I SN or it may collapse, type I and type II SN leaving a neutron star remnant. The type I progenitor should be thought to be an old accreting white dwarf, 1.4 M/sub theta/, with a close companion star. A type II SN is thought to be a massive young star 6 to 10 M/sub theta/. The mechanism of explosion is still a challenge to our ability to model the most extreme conditions of matter and hydrodynamics that occur presently and excessively in the universe. 39 references

  8. Physical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Guyon, Etienne; Petit, Luc; Mitescu, Catalin D

    2015-01-01

    This new edition is an enriched version of the textbook of fluid dynamics published more than 10 years ago. It retains the same physically oriented pedagogical perspective. This book emphasizes, as in the first edition, experimental inductive approaches and relies on the study of the mechanisms at play and on dimensional analysis rather than more formal approaches found in many classical textbooks in the field. The need for a completely new version also originated from the increase, over the last few decades, of the cross-overs between the mechanical and physical approaches, as is visible in international meetings and joint projects. Hydrodynamics is more widely linked today to other fields of experimental sciences: materials, environment, life sciences and earth sciences, as well as engineering sciences.

  9. Introduction to hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of hydrodynamics and elastic--plastic flow are introduced for the purpose of defining hydrodynamic terms and explaining what some of the important hydrodynamic concepts are. The first part covers hydrodynamic theory; and discussed fundamental hydrodynamic equations, discontinuities, and shock, detonation, and elastic--plastic waves. The second part deals with applications of hydrodynamic theory to material equations of state, spall, Taylor instabilities, and detonation pressure measurements

  10. Performance and emission characteristics of a stationary diesel engine fuelled by Schleichera Oleosa Oil Methyl Ester (SOME) produced through hydrodynamic cavitation process

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Kumar Yadav; M. Emran Khan; Amit Pal; Uttam Ghosh

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the performance and emission characteristics of biodiesel blends of 10, 20, 30 and 50% from Schleichera Oleosa oil based on hydrodynamic cavitation were compared to diesel fuel, and found to be acceptable according to the EN 14214 and ASTM D 6751 standards. The tests have been performed using a single cylinder four stroke diesel engine at different loading condition with the blended fuel at the rated speed of 1500 rpm. SOME (Schleichera Oleosa Oil Methyl Ester) blended with die...

  11. Hydrodynamic escape from planetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng

    Hydrodynamic escape is an important process in the formation and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Due to the existence of a singularity point near the transonic point, it is difficult to find transonic steady state solutions by solving the time-independent hydrodynamic equations. In addition to that, most previous works assume that all energy driving the escape flow is deposited in one narrow layer. This assumption not only results in less accurate solutions to the hydrodynamic escape problem, but also makes it difficult to include other chemical and physical processes in the hydrodynamic escape models. In this work, a numerical model describing the transonic hydrodynamic escape from planetary atmospheres is developed. A robust solution technique is used to solve the time dependent hydrodynamic equations. The method has been validated in an isothermal atmosphere where an analytical solution is available. The hydrodynamic model is applied to 3 cases: hydrogen escape from small orbit extrasolar planets, hydrogen escape from a hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere, and nitrogen/methane escape from Pluto's atmosphere. Results of simulations on extrasolar planets are in good agreement with the observations of the transiting extrasolar planet HD209458b. Hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen from other hypothetical close-in extrasolar planets are simulated and the influence of hydrogen escape on the long-term evolution of these extrasolar planets are discussed. Simulations on early Earth suggest that hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen from a hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere is about two orders magnitude slower than the diffusion limited escape rate. A hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere could have been maintained by the balance between the hydrogen escape and the supply of hydrogen into the atmosphere by volcanic outgassing. Origin of life may have occurred in the organic soup ocean created by the efficient formation of prebiotic molecules in the hydrogen rich early

  12. The COD Model: Simulating Workgroup Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggiero, Lucio; Sevi, Enrico

    Though the question of the determinants of workgroup performance is one of the most central in organization science, precise theoretical frameworks and formal demonstrations are still missing. In order to fill in this gap the COD agent-based simulation model is here presented and used to study the effects of task interdependence and bounded rationality on workgroup performance. The first relevant finding is an algorithmic demonstration of the ordering of interdependencies in terms of complexity, showing that the parallel mode is the most simplex, followed by the sequential and then by the reciprocal. This result is far from being new in organization science, but what is remarkable is that now it has the strength of an algorithmic demonstration instead of being based on the authoritativeness of some scholar or on some episodic empirical finding. The second important result is that the progressive introduction of realistic limits to agents' rationality dramatically reduces workgroup performance and addresses to a rather interesting result: when agents' rationality is severely bounded simple norms work better than complex norms. The third main finding is that when the complexity of interdependence is high, then the appropriate coordination mechanism is agents' direct and active collaboration, which means teamwork.

  13. Thermo-hydrodynamic lubrication in hydrodynamic bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Bonneau, Dominique; Souchet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    This Series provides the necessary elements to the development and validation of numerical prediction models for hydrodynamic bearings. This book describes the thermo-hydrodynamic and the thermo-elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication. The algorithms are methodically detailed and each section is thoroughly illustrated.

  14. Conjunction of 2D and 3D modified flow solvers for simulating spatio-temporal wind induced hydrodynamics in the Caspian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zounemat-Kermani, Mohammad; Sabbagh-Yazdi, Saeed-Reza

    2010-06-01

    The main objective of this study is the simulation of flow dynamics in the deep parts of the Caspian Sea, in which the southern and middle deep regions are surrounded by considerable areas of shallow zones. To simulate spatio-temporal wind induced hydrodynamics in deep waters, a conjunctive numerical model consisting of a 2D depth average model and a 3D pseudo compressible model is proposed. The 2D model is applied to determine time dependent free surface oscillations as well as the surface velocity patterns and is conjunct to the 3D flow solver for computing three-dimensional velocity and pressure fields which coverage to steady state for the top boundary condition. The modified 2D and 3D sets of equations are conjunct considering interface shear stresses. Both sets of 2D and 3D equations are solved on unstructured triangular and tetrahedral meshes using the Galerkin Finite Volume Method. The conjunctive model is utilized to investigate the deep currents affected by wind, Coriolis forces and the river inflow conditions of the Caspian Sea. In this study, the simulation of flow field due to major winds as well as transient winds in the Caspian Sea during a period of 6 hours in the winter season has been conducted and the numerical results for water surface level are then compared to the 2D numerical results.

  15. Experimental study of hydrodynamically induced vibrational processes in VVER-440 fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solonin, V.I.; Perevezentsev, V.V.; Rekshnya, N.F.; Krapivtsev, V.G.

    2000-01-01

    Investigations are described of hydrodynamically induced vibrations in a single fuel assembly of a VVER-440 reactor, performed on a full-scale model installed in a closed loop filled with distilled water; the model fuel elements contained simulators of fuel pellets. Data on hydrodynamic loads were obtained by measuring pressure oscillations along the height of the fuel assembly case. Results of the measurements are presented in graphs and are discussed in some detail. (A.K.)

  16. Human Performance in Simulated Reduced Gravity Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently designing a new space suit capable of working in deep space and on Mars. Designing a suit is very difficult and often requires trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. Our current understanding of human performance in reduced gravity in a planetary environment (the moon or Mars) is limited to lunar observations, studies from the Apollo program, and recent suit tests conducted at JSC using reduced gravity simulators. This study will look at our most recent reduced gravity simulations performed on the new Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) compared to the C-9 reduced gravity plane. Methods: Subjects ambulated in reduced gravity analogs to obtain a baseline for human performance. Subjects were tested in lunar gravity (1.6 m/sq s) and Earth gravity (9.8 m/sq s) in shirt-sleeves. Subjects ambulated over ground at prescribed speeds on the ARGOS, but ambulated at a self-selected speed on the C-9 due to time limitations. Subjects on the ARGOS were given over 3 minutes to acclimate to the different conditions before data was collected. Nine healthy subjects were tested in the ARGOS (6 males, 3 females, 79.5 +/- 15.7 kg), while six subjects were tested on the C-9 (6 males, 78.8 +/- 11.2 kg). Data was collected with an optical motion capture system (Vicon, Oxford, UK) and was analyzed using customized analysis scripts in BodyBuilder (Vicon, Oxford, UK) and MATLAB (MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA). Results: In all offloaded conditions, variation between subjects increased compared to 1-g. Kinematics in the ARGOS at lunar gravity resembled earth gravity ambulation more closely than the C-9 ambulation. Toe-off occurred 10% earlier in both reduced gravity environments compared to earth gravity, shortening the stance phase. Likewise, ankle, knee, and hip angles remained consistently flexed and had reduced peaks compared to earth gravity. Ground reaction forces in lunar gravity (normalized to Earth body weight) were 0.4 +/- 0.2 on

  17. Hydrodynamic dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryce, M.H.L.

    1985-01-01

    A dominant mechanism contributing to hydrodynamic dispersion in fluid flow through rocks is variation of travel speeds within the channels carrying the fluid, whether these be interstices between grains, in granular rocks, or cracks in fractured crystalline rocks. The complex interconnections of the channels ensure a mixing of those parts of the fluid which travel more slowly and those which travel faster. On a macroscopic scale this can be treated statistically in terms of the distribution of times taken by a particle of fluid to move from one surface of constant hydraulic potential to another, lower, potential. The distributions in the individual channels are such that very long travel times make a very important contribution. Indeed, while the mean travel time is related to distance by a well-defined transport speed, the mean square is effectively infinite. This results in an asymmetrical plume which differs markedly from a gaussian shape. The distribution of microscopic travel times is related to the distribution of apertures in the interstices, or in the microcracks, which in turn are affected in a complex way by the stresses acting on the rock matrix

  18. Chromatin Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, Robijn; Grosberg, Alexander Y.; Rabin, Yitzhak; Zidovska, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Following recent observations of large scale correlated motion of chromatin inside the nuclei of live differentiated cells, we present a hydrodynamic theory—the two-fluid model—in which the content of a nucleus is described as a chromatin solution with the nucleoplasm playing the role of the solvent and the chromatin fiber that of a solute. This system is subject to both passive thermal fluctuations and active scalar and vector events that are associated with free energy consumption, such as ATP hydrolysis. Scalar events drive the longitudinal viscoelastic modes (where the chromatin fiber moves relative to the solvent) while vector events generate the transverse modes (where the chromatin fiber moves together with the solvent). Using linear response methods, we derive explicit expressions for the response functions that connect the chromatin density and velocity correlation functions to the corresponding correlation functions of the active sources and the complex viscoelastic moduli of the chromatin solution. We then derive general expressions for the flow spectral density of the chromatin velocity field. We use the theory to analyze experimental results recently obtained by one of the present authors and her co-workers. We find that the time dependence of the experimental data for both native and ATP-depleted chromatin can be well-fitted using a simple model—the Maxwell fluid—for the complex modulus, although there is some discrepancy in terms of the wavevector dependence. Thermal fluctuations of ATP-depleted cells are predominantly longitudinal. ATP-active cells exhibit intense transverse long wavelength velocity fluctuations driven by force dipoles. Fluctuations with wavenumbers larger than a few inverse microns are dominated by concentration fluctuations with the same spectrum as thermal fluctuations but with increased intensity. PMID:24806919

  19. Hydrodynamics of insect spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, On Shun; Lauga, Eric

    2010-11-01

    Microorganism motility plays important roles in many biological processes including reproduction. Many microorganisms propel themselves by propagating traveling waves along their flagella. Depending on the species, propagation of planar waves (e.g. Ceratium) and helical waves (e.g. Trichomonas) were observed in eukaryotic flagellar motion, and hydrodynamic models for both were proposed in the past. However, the motility of insect spermatozoa remains largely unexplored. An interesting morphological feature of such cells, first observed in Tenebrio molitor and Bacillus rossius, is the double helical deformation pattern along the flagella, which is characterized by the presence of two superimposed helical flagellar waves (one with a large amplitude and low frequency, and the other with a small amplitude and high frequency). Here we present the first hydrodynamic investigation of the locomotion of insect spermatozoa. The swimming kinematics, trajectories and hydrodynamic efficiency of the swimmer are computed based on the prescribed double helical deformation pattern. We then compare our theoretical predictions with experimental measurements, and explore the dependence of the swimming performance on the geometric and dynamical parameters.

  20. A Velocity Prediction Procedure for Sailing Yachts with a hydrodynamic Model based on integrated fully coupled RANSE-Free-Surface Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boehm, C.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important tools in today's sailing yacht design is the Velocity Prediction Program (VPP). VPPs calculate boat speed from the equilibrium of aero- and hydrodynamic flow forces. Consequently their accuracy is linked to the accuracy of the aero- and hydrodynamic data used to represent a

  1. High-Performance Beam Simulator for the LANSCE Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Xiaoying; Rybarcyk, Lawrence J.; Baily, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    A high performance multiparticle tracking simulator is currently under development at Los Alamos. The heart of the simulator is based upon the beam dynamics simulation algorithms of the PARMILA code, but implemented in C++ on Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) hardware using NVIDIA's CUDA platform. Linac operating set points are provided to the simulator via the EPICS control system so that changes of the real time linac parameters are tracked and the simulation results updated automatically. This simulator will provide valuable insight into the beam dynamics along a linac in pseudo real-time, especially where direct measurements of the beam properties do not exist. Details regarding the approach, benefits and performance are presented.

  2. Numerical Hydrodynamics in General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Font José A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The current status of numerical solutions for the equations of ideal general relativistic hydrodynamics is reviewed. With respect to an earlier version of the article, the present update provides additional information on numerical schemes, and extends the discussion of astrophysical simulations in general relativistic hydrodynamics. Different formulations of the equations are presented, with special mention of conservative and hyperbolic formulations well-adapted to advanced numerical methods. A large sample of available numerical schemes is discussed, paying particular attention to solution procedures based on schemes exploiting the characteristic structure of the equations through linearized Riemann solvers. A comprehensive summary of astrophysical simulations in strong gravitational fields is presented. These include gravitational collapse, accretion onto black holes, and hydrodynamical evolutions of neutron stars. The material contained in these sections highlights the numerical challenges of various representative simulations. It also follows, to some extent, the chronological development of the field, concerning advances on the formulation of the gravitational field and hydrodynamic equations and the numerical methodology designed to solve them.

  3. Application of the High Gradient hydrodynamics code to simulations of a two-dimensional zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Bryan E.; Poroseva, Svetlana V.; Canfield, Jesse M.; Sauer, Jeremy A.; Linn, Rodman R.

    2013-11-01

    The High Gradient hydrodynamics (HIGRAD) code is an atmospheric computational fluid dynamics code created by Los Alamos National Laboratory to accurately represent flows characterized by sharp gradients in velocity, concentration, and temperature. HIGRAD uses a fully compressible finite-volume formulation for explicit Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and features an advection scheme that is second-order accurate in time and space. In the current study, boundary conditions implemented in HIGRAD are varied to find those that better reproduce the reduced physics of a flat plate boundary layer to compare with complex physics of the atmospheric boundary layer. Numerical predictions are compared with available DNS, experimental, and LES data obtained by other researchers. High-order turbulence statistics are collected. The Reynolds number based on the free-stream velocity and the momentum thickness is 120 at the inflow and the Mach number for the flow is 0.2. Results are compared at Reynolds numbers of 670 and 1410. A part of the material is based upon work supported by NASA under award NNX12AJ61A and by the Junior Faculty UNM-LANL Collaborative Research Grant.

  4. Heights integrated model as instrument for simulation of hydrodynamic, radiation transport, and heat conduction phenomena of laser-produced plasma in EUV applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizyuk, V.; Hassanein, A.; Morozov, V.; Sizyuk, T.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2007-01-16

    The HEIGHTS integrated model has been developed as an instrument for simulation and optimization of laser-produced plasma (LPP) sources relevant to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The model combines three general parts: hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and heat conduction. The first part employs a total variation diminishing scheme in the Lax-Friedrich formulation (TVD-LF); the second part, a Monte Carlo model; and the third part, implicit schemes with sparse matrix technology. All model parts consider physical processes in three-dimensional geometry. The influence of a generated magnetic field on laser plasma behavior was estimated, and it was found that this effect could be neglected for laser intensities relevant to EUV (up to {approx}10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}). All applied schemes were tested on analytical problems separately. Benchmark modeling of the full EUV source problem with a planar tin target showed good correspondence with experimental and theoretical data. Preliminary results are presented for tin droplet- and planar-target LPP devices. The influence of three-dimensional effects on EUV properties of source is discussed.

  5. An efficient and stable hydrodynamic model with novel source term discretization schemes for overland flow and flood simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xilin; Liang, Qiuhua; Ming, Xiaodong; Hou, Jingming

    2017-05-01

    Numerical models solving the full 2-D shallow water equations (SWEs) have been increasingly used to simulate overland flows and better understand the transient flow dynamics of flash floods in a catchment. However, there still exist key challenges that have not yet been resolved for the development of fully dynamic overland flow models, related to (1) the difficulty of maintaining numerical stability and accuracy in the limit of disappearing water depth and (2) inaccurate estimation of velocities and discharges on slopes as a result of strong nonlinearity of friction terms. This paper aims to tackle these key research challenges and present a new numerical scheme for accurately and efficiently modeling large-scale transient overland flows over complex terrains. The proposed scheme features a novel surface reconstruction method (SRM) to correctly compute slope source terms and maintain numerical stability at small water depth, and a new implicit discretization method to handle the highly nonlinear friction terms. The resulting shallow water overland flow model is first validated against analytical and experimental test cases and then applied to simulate a hypothetic rainfall event in the 42 km2 Haltwhistle Burn, UK.

  6. SPECT3D - A multi-dimensional collisional-radiative code for generating diagnostic signatures based on hydrodynamics and PIC simulation output

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, J. J.; Golovkin, I. E.; Wang, P.; Woodruff, P. R.; Pereyra, N. A.

    2007-05-01

    SPECT3D is a multi-dimensional collisional-radiative code used to post-process the output from radiation-hydrodynamics (RH) and particle-in-cell (PIC) codes to generate diagnostic signatures (e.g. images, spectra) that can be compared directly with experimental measurements. This ability to post-process simulation code output plays a pivotal role in assessing the reliability of RH and PIC simulation codes and their physics models. SPECT3D has the capability to operate on plasmas in 1D, 2D, and 3D geometries. It computes a variety of diagnostic signatures that can be compared with experimental measurements, including: time-resolved and time-integrated spectra, space-resolved spectra and streaked spectra; filtered and monochromatic images; and X-ray diode signals. Simulated images and spectra can include the effects of backlighters, as well as the effects of instrumental broadening and time-gating. SPECT3D also includes a drilldown capability that shows where frequency-dependent radiation is emitted and absorbed as it propagates through the plasma towards the detector, thereby providing insights on where the radiation seen by a detector originates within the plasma. SPECT3D has the capability to model a variety of complex atomic and radiative processes that affect the radiation seen by imaging and spectral detectors in high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments. LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) or non-LTE atomic level populations can be computed for plasmas. Photoabsorption rates can be computed using either escape probability models or, for selected 1D and 2D geometries, multi-angle radiative transfer models. The effects of non-thermal (i.e. non-Maxwellian) electron distributions can also be included. To study the influence of energetic particles on spectra and images recorded in intense short-pulse laser experiments, the effects of both relativistic electrons and energetic proton beams can be simulated. SPECT3D is a user-friendly software package that runs

  7. Trickle bed reactor model to simulate the performance of commercial diesel hydrotreating unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Murali; R.K. Voolapalli; N. Ravichander; D.T. Gokak; N.V. Choudary [Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd., Udyog Kendra (India). Corporate R& amp; D Centre

    2007-05-15

    A two phase mathematical model was developed to simulate the performance of bench scale and commercial hydrotreating reactors. Major hydrotreating reactions, namely, hydrodesulphurization, hydrodearomatization and olefins saturation were modeled. Experiments were carried out in a fixed bed reactor to study the effect of different process variables and these results were used for estimating kinetic parameters. Significant amount of feed vaporization (20-50%) was estimated under normal operating conditions of DHDS suggesting the importance of considering feed vaporization in DHDS modeling. The model was validated with plant operating data, under close to ultra low sulphur levels by correctly accounting for feed vaporization in heat balance relations and appropriate use of hydrodynamic correlations. The model could predict the product quality, reactor bed temperature profiles and chemical hydrogen consumption in commercial plant adequately. 14 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. X-ray clusters in a cold dark matter + lambda universe: A direct, large-scale, high-resolution, hydrodynamic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1994-01-01

    A new, three-dimensional, shock-capturing, hydrodynamic code is utilized to determine the distribution of hot gas in a cold dark matter (CDM) + lambda model universe. Periodic boundary conditions are assumed: a box with size 85/h Mpc, having cell size 0.31/h Mpc, is followed in a simulation with 270(exp 3) = 10(exp 7.3) cells. We adopt omega = 0.45, lambda = 0.55, h identically equal to H/100 km/s/Mpc = 0.6, and then, from the cosmic background explorer (COBE) and light element nucleosynthesis, sigma(sub 8) = 0.77, omega(sub b) = 0.043. We identify the X-ray emitting clusters in the simulation box, compute the luminosity function at several wavelength bands, the temperature function and estimated sizes, as well as the evolution of these quantities with redshift. This open model succeeds in matching local observations of clusters in contrast to the standard omega = 1, CDM model, which fails. It predicts an order of magnitude decline in the number density of bright (h nu = 2-10 keV) clusters from z = 0 to z = 2 in contrast to a slight increase in the number density for standard omega = 1, CDM model. This COBE-normalized CDM + lambda model produces approximately the same number of X-ray clusters having L(sub x) greater than 10(exp 43) erg/s as observed. The background radiation field at 1 keV due to clusters is approximately the observed background which, after correction for numerical effects, again indicates that the model is consistent with observations.

  9. Equivalent drawbead performance in deep drawing simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinders, Vincent T.; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Huetink, Han

    1999-01-01

    Drawbeads are applied in the deep drawing process to improve the control of the material flow during the forming operation. In simulations of the deep drawing process these drawbeads can be replaced by an equivalent drawbead model. In this paper the usage of an equivalent drawbead model in the

  10. Electron-capture and Low-mass Iron-core-collapse Supernovae: New Neutrino-radiation-hydrodynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radice, David; Burrows, Adam; Vartanyan, David; Skinner, M. Aaron; Dolence, Joshua C.

    2017-11-01

    We present new 1D (spherical) and 2D (axisymmetric) simulations of electron-capture (EC) and low-mass iron-core-collapse supernovae (SN). We consider six progenitor models: the ECSN progenitor from Nomoto; two ECSN-like low-mass low-metallicity iron-core progenitors from A. Heger (2016, private communication); and the 9, 10, and 11 {M}⊙ (zero-age main-sequence) progenitors from Sukhbold et al. We confirm that the ECSN and ESCN-like progenitors explode easily even in 1D with explosion energies of up to a 0.15 Bethes (1 {{B}}\\equiv {10}51 {erg}), and are a viable mechanism for the production of very-low-mass neutron stars. However, the 9, 10, and 11 {M}⊙ progenitors do not explode in 1D and are not even necessarily easier to explode than higher-mass progenitor stars in 2D. We study the effect of perturbations and of changes to the microphysics and we find that relatively small changes can result in qualitatively different outcomes, even in 1D, for models sufficiently close to the explosion threshold. Finally, we revisit the impact of convection below the protoneutron star (PNS) surface. We analyze 1D and 2D evolutions of PNSs subject to the same boundary conditions. We find that the impact of PNS convection has been underestimated in previous studies and could result in an increase of the neutrino luminosity by up to factors of two.

  11. Signatures of asymmetry in neutron spectra and images predicted by three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations of indirect drive implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chittenden, J. P., E-mail: j.chittenden@imperial.ac.uk; Appelbe, B. D.; Manke, F.; McGlinchey, K.; Niasse, N. P. L. [Centre for Inertial Fusion Studies, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    We present the results of 3D simulations of indirect drive inertial confinement fusion capsules driven by the “high-foot” radiation pulse on the National Ignition Facility. The results are post-processed using a semi-deterministic ray tracing model to generate synthetic deuterium-tritium (DT) and deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutron spectra as well as primary and down scattered neutron images. Results with low-mode asymmetries are used to estimate the magnitude of anisotropy in the neutron spectra shift, width, and shape. Comparisons of primary and down scattered images highlight the lack of alignment between the neutron sources, scatter sites, and detector plane, which limits the ability to infer the ρr of the fuel from a down scattered ratio. Further calculations use high bandwidth multi-mode perturbations to induce multiple short scale length flows in the hotspot. The results indicate that the effect of fluid velocity is to produce a DT neutron spectrum with an apparently higher temperature than that inferred from the DD spectrum and which is also higher than the temperature implied by the DT to DD yield ratio.

  12. Measured displacement coefficients of an adjustable hydrodynamic journal rotor bearing

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    In simulating a proposed machine tool grinding wheel design, a bearing system comprised a stationary spindle or shaft with fluid film bearings supporting a belt driven rotor. Two hydrodynamic bearings acted in parallel, and built into the shaft were the means to effect continuous pro-active adjustments to their performance characteristics during operation, irrespective of load, speed and other running conditions. The design is outlined, as is a specially constructed test rig for evaluating it...

  13. Manufacturing plant performance evaluation by discrete event simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosli Darmawan; Mohd Rasid Osman; Rosnah Mohd Yusuff; Napsiah Ismail; Zulkiflie Leman

    2002-01-01

    A case study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a manufacturing plant using discrete event simulation technique. The study was carried out on animal feed production plant. Sterifeed plant at Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Selangor, Malaysia. The plant was modelled base on the actual manufacturing activities recorded by the operators. The simulation was carried out using a discrete event simulation software. The model was validated by comparing the simulation results with the actual operational data of the plant. The simulation results show some weaknesses with the current plant design and proposals were made to improve the plant performance. (Author)

  14. Modelling and simulating fire tube boiler performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    A model for a flue gas boiler covering the flue gas and the water-/steam side has been formulated. The model has been formulated as a number of sub models that are merged into an overall model for the complete boiler. Sub models have been defined for the furnace, the convection zone (split in 2......: a zone submerged in water and a zone covered by steam), a model for the material in the boiler (the steel) and 2 models for resp. the water/steam zone (the boiling) and the steam. The dynamic model has been developed as a number of Differential-Algebraic-Equation system (DAE). Subsequently Mat......Lab/Simulink has been applied for carrying out the simulations. To be able to verify the simulated results experiments has been carried out on a full scale boiler plant....

  15. Simulated optimization of crop yield through irrigation system design and operation based on the spatial variability of soil hydrodynamic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurovich, L.; Stern, J.; Ramos, R.

    1983-01-01

    Spatial autocorrelation and kriging techniques were applied to soil infiltrability data from a 20 hectare field, to separate homogeneous irrigation units. Border irrigation systems were designed for each unit and combinations of units by using DESIGN, a computer model based on soil infiltrability and hydraulics of surface water flow, which enables optimal irrigation systems to be designed. Water depths effectively infiltrated at different points along the irrigation run were determined, and the agronomic irrigation efficiency of the unit evaluated. A modification of Hanks' evapotranspiration model, PLANTGRO, was used to evaluate plant growth, relative crop yield and soil-water economy throughout the growing season, at several points along each irrigation unit. The effect of different irrigation designs on total field yield and total water used for irrigation was evaluated by integrating yield values corresponding to each point, volume and inflow time during each irrigation. For relevant data from winter wheat grown in the central area of Chile during 1981, simulation by an interactive and sequentially recurrent use of DESIGN and PLANTGRO models, was carried out. The results obtained indicate that, when a field is separated into homogeneous irrigation units on the basis of the spatial variability of soil infiltrability and the border irrigation systems are designed according to soil characteristics, both a significant yield increase and less water use can be obtained by comparison with other criteria of field zonification for irrigation management. The use of neutrometric determinations to assess soil-water content during the growing season, as a validation of the results obtained in this work, is discussed. (author)

  16. Ocean Hydrodynamics Numerical Model in Curvilinear Coordinates for Simulating Circulation of the Global Ocean and its Separate Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Diansky, Nikolay; Zalesny, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    scope of the CMIP-5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project). On the base of the complex proposed the Pacific Ocean circulation eddy-resolving model was realized. The integration domain covers the Pacific from Equator to Bering Strait. The model horizontal resolution is 0.125 degree and it has 20 non-uniform sigma-levels in depth. The model adequately reproduces circulation large-scale structure and its variability: Kuroshio meandering, ocean synoptic eddies, frontal zones, etc. Kuroshio high variability is shown. The distribution of contaminant was simulated that is admittedly wasted near Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. The results demonstrate contaminant distribution structure and provide us understanding of hydrological fields formation processes in the North-West Pacific.

  17. Graph Theory-Based Technique for Isolating Corrupted Boundary Conditions in Continental-Scale River Network Hydrodynamic Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C. W.; Hodges, B. R.; Liu, F.

    2017-12-01

    Development of continental-scale river network models creates challenges where the massive amount of boundary condition data encounters the sensitivity of a dynamic nu- merical model. The topographic data sets used to define the river channel characteristics may include either corrupt data or complex configurations that cause instabilities in a numerical solution of the Saint-Venant equations. For local-scale river models (e.g. HEC- RAS), modelers typically rely on past experience to make ad hoc boundary condition adjustments that ensure a stable solution - the proof of the adjustment is merely the sta- bility of the solution. To date, there do not exist any formal methodologies or automated procedures for a priori detecting/fixing boundary conditions that cause instabilities in a dynamic model. Formal methodologies for data screening and adjustment are a critical need for simulations with a large number of river reaches that draw their boundary con- dition data from a wide variety of sources. At the continental scale, we simply cannot assume that we will have access to river-channel cross-section data that has been ade- quately analyzed and processed. Herein, we argue that problematic boundary condition data for unsteady dynamic modeling can be identified through numerical modeling with the steady-state Saint-Venant equations. The fragility of numerical stability increases with the complexity of branching in river network system and instabilities (even in an unsteady solution) are typically triggered by the nonlinear advection term in Saint-Venant equations. It follows that the behavior of the simpler steady-state equations (which retain the nonlin- ear term) can be used to screen the boundary condition data for problematic regions. In this research, we propose a graph-theory based method to isolate the location of corrupted boundary condition data in a continental-scale river network and demonstrate its utility with a network of O(10^4) elements. Acknowledgement

  18. Simulating Radar Signals for Detection Performance Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    incurring the computation costs usually as- sociated with such simulations. With importance sampling one can modify the probability distribution of the...049.7 0110 IF (N0147-1) ?0Q,7oG.6oSi V4.48 102 61 IrF?=TFACTUIFI*VF1 O. All THryAV.THrTA 1S A I~ THF’r P THF T r/LCAT I IVF /’NF 1204!! %S1PP7FS(T4rTAW

  19. Lotic Water Hydrodynamic Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judi, David Ryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tasseff, Byron Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-23

    Water-related natural disasters, for example, floods and droughts, are among the most frequent and costly natural hazards, both socially and economically. Many of these floods are a result of excess rainfall collecting in streams and rivers, and subsequently overtopping banks and flowing overland into urban environments. Floods can cause physical damage to critical infrastructure and present health risks through the spread of waterborne diseases. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has developed Lotic, a state-of-the-art surface water hydrodynamic model, to simulate propagation of flood waves originating from a variety of events. Lotic is a two-dimensional (2D) flood model that has been used primarily for simulations in which overland water flows are characterized by movement in two dimensions, such as flood waves expected from rainfall-runoff events, storm surge, and tsunamis. In 2013, LANL developers enhanced Lotic through several development efforts. These developments included enhancements to the 2D simulation engine, including numerical formulation, computational efficiency developments, and visualization. Stakeholders can use simulation results to estimate infrastructure damage and cascading consequences within other sets of infrastructure, as well as to inform the development of flood mitigation strategies.

  20. Improving the Performance of the Extreme-scale Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Naughton III, Thomas J [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the performance of parallel applications at scale on future high-performance computing (HPC) architectures and the performance impact of different architecture choices is an important component of HPC hardware/software co-design. The Extreme-scale Simulator (xSim) is a simulation-based toolkit for investigating the performance of parallel applications at scale. xSim scales to millions of simulated Message Passing Interface (MPI) processes. The overhead introduced by a simulation tool is an important performance and productivity aspect. This paper documents two improvements to xSim: (1) a new deadlock resolution protocol to reduce the parallel discrete event simulation management overhead and (2) a new simulated MPI message matching algorithm to reduce the oversubscription management overhead. The results clearly show a significant performance improvement, such as by reducing the simulation overhead for running the NAS Parallel Benchmark suite inside the simulator from 1,020\\% to 238% for the conjugate gradient (CG) benchmark and from 102% to 0% for the embarrassingly parallel (EP) and benchmark, as well as, from 37,511% to 13,808% for CG and from 3,332% to 204% for EP with accurate process failure simulation.

  1. Linking fault permeability, fluid flow, and earthquake triggering in a hydrothermally active tectonic setting: Numerical Simulations of the hydrodynamics in the Tjörnes Fracture Zone, Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, M.; Geiger, S.; Graham, C.; Claesson, L.; Richter, B.

    2007-12-01

    A good insight into the transient fluid flow evolution within a hydrothermal system is of primary importance for the understanding of several geologic processes, for example the hydrodynamic triggering of earthquakes or the formation of mineral deposits. The strong permeability contrast between different crustal layers as well as the high geothermal gradient of these areas are elements that strongly affect the flow behaviour. In addition, the sudden and transient occurrence of joints, faults and magmatic intrusions are likely to change the hydrothermal flow paths in very short time. The Tjörnes Fracture Zone (TFZ) north of Iceland, is such a hydrothermal area where a high geothermal gradient, magmatic bodies, faults, and the strong contrast between sediments and fractured lava layers govern the large-scale fluid flow. The TFZ offsets the Kolbeinsey Ridge and the Northern Rift Zone. It is characterized by km-scale faults that link sub-seafloor sediments and lava layers with deeper crystalline rocks. These structures focus fluid flow and allow for the mixing between cold seawater and deep hydrothermal fluids. A strong seismic activity is present in the TFZ: earthquakes up to magnitude 7 have been recorded over the past years. Hydrogeochemical changes before, during and after a magnitude 5.8 earthquake suggest that the evolving stress state before the earthquake leads to (remote) permeability variations, which alter the fluid flow paths. This is in agreement with recent numerical fluid flow simulations which demonstrate that fluid flow in magmatic- hydrothermal systems is often convective and very sensitive to small variations in permeability. In order to understand the transient fluid flow behaviour in this complex geological environment, we have conducted numerical simulations of heat and mass transport in two geologically realistic cross-sectional models of the TFZ. The geologic models are discretised using finite element and finite volume methods. They hence have

  2. Charge-dependent correlations from event-by-event anomalous hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirono, Yuji [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Hirano, Tetsufumi [Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Kharzeev, Dmitri E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Department of Physics and RIKEN-BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    We report on our recent attempt of quantitative modeling of the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) in heavy-ion collisions. We perform 3+1 dimensional anomalous hydrodynamic simulations on an event-by-event basis, with constitutive equations that contain the anomaly-induced effects. We also develop a model of the initial condition for the axial charge density that captures the statistical nature of random chirality imbalances created by the color flux tubes. Basing on the event-by-event hydrodynamic simulations for hundreds of thousands of collisions, we calculate the correlation functions that are measured in experiments, and discuss how the anomalous transport affects these observables.

  3. Disruptive Innovation in Numerical Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waltz, Jacob I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-06

    We propose the research and development of a high-fidelity hydrodynamic algorithm for tetrahedral meshes that will lead to a disruptive innovation in the numerical modeling of Laboratory problems. Our proposed innovation has the potential to reduce turnaround time by orders of magnitude relative to Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) codes; reduce simulation setup costs by millions of dollars per year; and effectively leverage Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) and future Exascale computing hardware. If successful, this work will lead to a dramatic leap forward in the Laboratory's quest for a predictive simulation capability.

  4. SEAscan 3.5: A simulator performance analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, T.; Eisenmann, S.

    1990-01-01

    SEAscan 3.5 is a personal computer based tool developed to analyze the dynamic performance of nuclear power plant training simulators. The system has integrated features to provide its own human featured performance. In this paper, the program is described as a tool for the analysis of training simulator performance. The structure and operating characteristics of SEAscan 3.5 are described. The hardcopy documents are shown to aid in verification of conformance to ANSI/ANS-3.5-1985

  5. Comparison of multiphase mixing simulations performed on a staggered and a collocated grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, M.

    2000-01-01

    During a severe reactor accident following core meltdown when the molten fuel comes into contact with the coolant water a steam explosion may occur. The premixing phase of a steam explosion covers the interaction of the melt jet or droplets with the water prior to any steam explosion occurrence. To get a better insight of the hydrodynamic processes during the premixing phase beside hot premixing experiments, where the water evaporation is significant, also cold isothermal premixing experiments are performed. To analyze the cold premixing experiments the computer code ESE has been developed. The specialty of ESE is that it uses a combined single-multiphase flow model. Because of problems with the convergence of the momentum equation written in conservative form on a staggered grid, the development of a collocated grid version of ESE was planed. But since we obtained the commercial code CFX-4.3, which uses a collocated variable arrangement, we decided first to test the capabilities of CFX-4.3. With ESE and CFX-4.3 the cold premixing experiment Q08 has been simulated. In the paper the simulation results performed with both codes are presented and commented in comparison to experimental data. (author)

  6. Artificial neural network simulation of battery performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Gorman, C.C.; Ingersoll, D.; Jungst, R.G.; Paez, T.L.

    1998-12-31

    Although they appear deceptively simple, batteries embody a complex set of interacting physical and chemical processes. While the discrete engineering characteristics of a battery such as the physical dimensions of the individual components, are relatively straightforward to define explicitly, their myriad chemical and physical processes, including interactions, are much more difficult to accurately represent. Within this category are the diffusive and solubility characteristics of individual species, reaction kinetics and mechanisms of primary chemical species as well as intermediates, and growth and morphology characteristics of reaction products as influenced by environmental and operational use profiles. For this reason, development of analytical models that can consistently predict the performance of a battery has only been partially successful, even though significant resources have been applied to this problem. As an alternative approach, the authors have begun development of a non-phenomenological model for battery systems based on artificial neural networks. Both recurrent and non-recurrent forms of these networks have been successfully used to develop accurate representations of battery behavior. The connectionist normalized linear spline (CMLS) network has been implemented with a self-organizing layer to model a battery system with the generalized radial basis function net. Concurrently, efforts are under way to use the feedforward back propagation network to map the {open_quotes}state{close_quotes} of a battery system. Because of the complexity of battery systems, accurate representation of the input and output parameters has proven to be very important. This paper describes these initial feasibility studies as well as the current models and makes comparisons between predicted and actual performance.

  7. The influence of hydrodynamic factors, membrane surface properties and channel geometries on membrane performance and fouling mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervov Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern theoretical understanding of colloidal and suspended matter membrane fouling mechanisms are presented and discussed. State-of-the-art simulation models of concentration polarization calculations for different channel conditions are described and influence of the fouling layers on the flux and rejection decrease are evaluated. Results of experimental investigations are presented that suggest a quantitative evaluation of fouling rates and membrane flux prognosis due to colloidal fouling with time. The influence of channel geometry on fouling is demonstrated and discussed. The main disadvantage of spiral wounded membrane modules which is attributed to the presence of a separation spacer mesh in the feed channel is discussed.

  8. Comparison of performance of simulation models for floor heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the comparison of performance of simulation models for floor heating with different level of detail in the modelling process. The models are compared in an otherwise identical simulation model containing room model, walls, windows, ceiling and ventilation system. By exchanging...

  9. Building Performance Simulation for Sustainable Energy Use in Buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a general view of the background and current state of building performance simulation, which has the potential to deliver, directly or indirectly, substantial benefits to building stakeholders and to the environment. However the building simulation community faces many

  10. Building performance simulation for sustainable building design and operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a general view of the background and current state of building performance simulation, which has the potential to deliver, directly or indirectly, substantial benefits to building stakeholders and to the environment. However the building simulation community faces many

  11. Alcohol consumption for simulated driving performance: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saeid Rezaee-Zavareh

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Alcohol consumption may decrease simulated driving performance in alcohol consumed people compared with non-alcohol consumed people via changes in SDSD, LPSD, speed, MLPD, LC and NA. More well-designed randomized controlled clinical trials are recommended.

  12. 20th Joint Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Bez, Wolfgang; Focht, Erich; Patel, Nisarg; Kobayashi, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    The book presents the state of the art in high-performance computing and simulation on modern supercomputer architectures. It explores general trends in hardware and software development, and then focuses specifically on the future of high-performance systems and heterogeneous architectures. It also covers applications such as computational fluid dynamics, material science, medical applications and climate research and discusses innovative fields like coupled multi-physics or multi-scale simulations. The papers included were selected from the presentations given at the 20th Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance at the HLRS, University of Stuttgart, Germany in December 2015, and the subsequent Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance at Tohoku University in February 2016.

  13. Performance analysis and simulation of vertical gallium nitride nanowire transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzigmann, Bernd; Yu, Feng; Frank, Kristian; Strempel, Klaas; Fatahilah, Muhammad Fahlesa; Schumacher, Hans Werner; Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Römer, Friedhard; Waag, Andreas

    2018-06-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanowire transistors are analyzed using hydrodynamic simulation. Both p-body and n-body devices are compared in terms of threshold voltage, saturation behavior and transconductance. The calculations are calibrated using experimental data. The threshold voltage can be tuned from enhancement to depletion mode with wire doping. Surface states cause a shift of threshold voltage and saturation current. The saturation current depends on the gate design, with a composite gate acting as field plate in the p-body device. He joined Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ, as a Technical Staff Member. In October 2001, he joined the Optical Access and Transport Division, Agere Systems, Alhambra, CA. In 2004, he was appointed an Assistant Professor at ETH Zurich,. Since 2008, at the University of Kassel, Kassel, Germany, and he has been a Professor the Head of the Computational Electronics and Photonics Group, and co-director of CINSaT since 2010. His research interests include computational optoelectronics, process and device design of semiconductor photonic devices, microwave components, and electromagnetics modeling for nanophotonics. Dr. Witzigmann is a senior member of the SPIE and IEEE.

  14. 24th & 25th Joint Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Bez, Wolfgang; Focht, Erich; Gienger, Michael; Kobayashi, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art in High Performance Computing on modern supercomputer architectures. It addresses trends in hardware and software development in general, as well as the future of High Performance Computing systems and heterogeneous architectures. The contributions cover a broad range of topics, from improved system management to Computational Fluid Dynamics, High Performance Data Analytics, and novel mathematical approaches for large-scale systems. In addition, they explore innovative fields like coupled multi-physics and multi-scale simulations. All contributions are based on selected papers presented at the 24th Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance, held at the University of Stuttgart’s High Performance Computing Center in Stuttgart, Germany in December 2016 and the subsequent Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance, held at the Cyberscience Center, Tohoku University, Japan in March 2017.

  15. Simulation and performance of brushless DC motor actuators

    OpenAIRE

    Gerba, Alex

    1985-01-01

    The simulation model for a Brushless D.C. Motor and the associated commutation power conditioner transistor model are presented. The necessary conditions for maximum power output while operating at steady-state speed and sinusoidally distributed air-gap flux are developed. Comparisons of simulated model with the measured performance of a typical motor are done both on time response waveforms and on average performance characteristics. These preliminary results indicate good ...

  16. Effect of time step size and turbulence model on the open water hydrodynamic performance prediction of contra-rotating propellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhan-zhi; Xiong, Ying

    2013-04-01

    A growing interest has been devoted to the contra-rotating propellers (CRPs) due to their high propulsive efficiency, torque balance, low fuel consumption, low cavitations, low noise performance and low hull vibration. Compared with the single-screw system, it is more difficult for the open water performance prediction because forward and aft propellers interact with each other and generate a more complicated flow field around the CRPs system. The current work focuses on the open water performance prediction of contra-rotating propellers by RANS and sliding mesh method considering the effect of computational time step size and turbulence model. The validation study has been performed on two sets of contra-rotating propellers developed by David W Taylor Naval Ship R & D center. Compared with the experimental data, it shows that RANS with sliding mesh method and SST k-ω turbulence model has a good precision in the open water performance prediction of contra-rotating propellers, and small time step size can improve the level of accuracy for CRPs with the same blade number of forward and aft propellers, while a relatively large time step size is a better choice for CRPs with different blade numbers.

  17. Elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication

    CERN Document Server

    Dowson, D; Hopkins, D W

    1977-01-01

    Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication deals with the mechanism of elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication, that is, the lubrication regime in operation over the small areas where machine components are in nominal point or line contact. The lubrication of rigid contacts is discussed, along with the effects of high pressure on the lubricant and bounding solids. The governing equations for the solution of elasto-hydrodynamic problems are presented.Comprised of 13 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication and representation of contacts by cylinders, followed by a discussio

  18. Elementary classical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chirgwin, B H; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A; Plumpton, C

    1967-01-01

    Elementary Classical Hydrodynamics deals with the fundamental principles of elementary classical hydrodynamics, with emphasis on the mechanics of inviscid fluids. Topics covered by this book include direct use of the equations of hydrodynamics, potential flows, two-dimensional fluid motion, waves in liquids, and compressible flows. Some general theorems such as Bernoulli's equation are also considered. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental principles of fluid hydrodynamics, with emphasis on ways of studying the motion of a fluid. Basic c

  19. Shadowfax: Moving mesh hydrodynamical integration code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, Bert

    2016-05-01

    Shadowfax simulates galaxy evolution. Written in object-oriented modular C++, it evolves a mixture of gas, subject to the laws of hydrodynamics and gravity, and any collisionless fluid only subject to gravity, such as cold dark matter or stars. For the hydrodynamical integration, it makes use of a (co-) moving Lagrangian mesh. The code has a 2D and 3D version, contains utility programs to generate initial conditions and visualize simulation snapshots, and its input/output is compatible with a number of other simulation codes, e.g. Gadget2 (ascl:0003.001) and GIZMO (ascl:1410.003).

  20. Hydrodynamic effects on coalescence.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimiduk, Thomas G.; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Grillet, Anne Mary; Baer, Thomas A.; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Loewenberg, Michael (Yale University, New Haven, CT); Gorby, Allen D.; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2006-10-01

    The goal of this project was to design, build and test novel diagnostics to probe the effect of hydrodynamic forces on coalescence dynamics. Our investigation focused on how a drop coalesces onto a flat surface which is analogous to two drops coalescing, but more amenable to precise experimental measurements. We designed and built a flow cell to create an axisymmetric compression flow which brings a drop onto a flat surface. A computer-controlled system manipulates the flow to steer the drop and maintain a symmetric flow. Particle image velocimetry was performed to confirm that the control system was delivering a well conditioned flow. To examine the dynamics of the coalescence, we implemented an interferometry capability to measure the drainage of the thin film between the drop and the surface during the coalescence process. A semi-automated analysis routine was developed which converts the dynamic interferogram series into drop shape evolution data.

  1. A Simulation Approach for Performance Validation during Embedded Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhonglei; Haberl, Wolfgang; Herkersdorf, Andreas; Wechs, Martin

    Due to the time-to-market pressure, it is highly desirable to design hardware and software of embedded systems in parallel. However, hardware and software are developed mostly using very different methods, so that performance evaluation and validation of the whole system is not an easy task. In this paper, we propose a simulation approach to bridge the gap between model-driven software development and simulation based hardware design, by merging hardware and software models into a SystemC based simulation environment. An automated procedure has been established to generate software simulation models from formal models, while the hardware design is originally modeled in SystemC. As the simulation models are annotated with timing information, performance issues are tackled in the same pass as system functionality, rather than in a dedicated approach.

  2. Improving the performance of a filling line based on simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek, M.; Bartkowiak, T.

    2016-08-01

    The paper describes the method of improving performance of a filling line based on simulation. This study concerns a production line that is located in a manufacturing centre of a FMCG company. A discrete event simulation model was built using data provided by maintenance data acquisition system. Two types of failures were identified in the system and were approximated using continuous statistical distributions. The model was validated taking into consideration line performance measures. A brief Pareto analysis of line failures was conducted to identify potential areas of improvement. Two improvements scenarios were proposed and tested via simulation. The outcome of the simulations were the bases of financial analysis. NPV and ROI values were calculated taking into account depreciation, profits, losses, current CIT rate and inflation. A validated simulation model can be a useful tool in maintenance decision-making process.

  3. Relating Standardized Visual Perception Measures to Simulator Visual System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Sweet, Barbara T.

    2013-01-01

    Human vision is quantified through the use of standardized clinical vision measurements. These measurements typically include visual acuity (near and far), contrast sensitivity, color vision, stereopsis (a.k.a. stereo acuity), and visual field periphery. Simulator visual system performance is specified in terms such as brightness, contrast, color depth, color gamut, gamma, resolution, and field-of-view. How do these simulator performance characteristics relate to the perceptual experience of the pilot in the simulator? In this paper, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity will be related to simulator visual system resolution, contrast, and dynamic range; similarly, color vision will be related to color depth/color gamut. Finally, we will consider how some characteristics of human vision not typically included in current clinical assessments could be used to better inform simulator requirements (e.g., relating dynamic characteristics of human vision to update rate and other temporal display characteristics).

  4. Predictors of laparoscopic simulation performance among practicing obstetrician gynecologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Shyama; Brodman, Michael; D'Angelo, Debra; Chudnoff, Scott; McGovern, Peter; Kolev, Tamara; Bensinger, Giti; Mudiraj, Santosh; Nemes, Andreea; Feldman, David; Kischak, Patricia; Ascher-Walsh, Charles

    2017-11-01

    While simulation training has been established as an effective method for improving laparoscopic surgical performance in surgical residents, few studies have focused on its use for attending surgeons, particularly in obstetrics and gynecology. Surgical simulation may have a role in improving and maintaining proficiency in the operating room for practicing obstetrician gynecologists. We sought to determine if parameters of performance for validated laparoscopic virtual simulation tasks correlate with surgical volume and characteristics of practicing obstetricians and gynecologists. All gynecologists with laparoscopic privileges (n = 347) from 5 academic medical centers in New York City were required to complete a laparoscopic surgery simulation assessment. The physicians took a presimulation survey gathering physician self-reported characteristics and then performed 3 basic skills tasks (enforced peg transfer, lifting/grasping, and cutting) on the LapSim virtual reality laparoscopic simulator (Surgical Science Ltd, Gothenburg, Sweden). The association between simulation outcome scores (time, efficiency, and errors) and self-rated clinical skills measures (self-rated laparoscopic skill score or surgical volume category) were examined with regression models. The average number of laparoscopic procedures per month was a significant predictor of total time on all 3 tasks (P = .001 for peg transfer; P = .041 for lifting and grasping; P simulation performance as it correlates to active physician practice, further studies may help assess skill and individualize training to maintain skill levels as case volumes fluctuate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Equipment and performance upgrade of compact nuclear simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. C.; Kwon, K. C.; Lee, D. Y.; Hwang, I. K.; Park, W. M.; Cha, K. H.; Song, S. J.; Lee, J. W.; Kim, B. G.; Kim, H. J.

    1999-01-01

    The simulator at Nuclear Training Center in KAERI became old and has not been used effectively for nuclear-related training and researches due to the problems such as aging of the equipment, difficulties in obtaining consumables and their high cost, and less personnel available who can handle the old equipment. To solve the problems, this study was performed for recovering the functions of the simulator through the technical design and replacement of components with new ones. As results of this study, our test after the replacement showed the same simulation status as the previous one, and new graphic displays added to the simulator was effective for the training and easy for maintenance. This study is meaningful as demonstrating the way of upgrading nuclear training simulators that lost their functioning due to the obsolescence of simulators and the unavailability of components

  6. Cost, Schedule, And Performance Elements For Comparison of Hydrodynamic Models of Near-Surface Unmanned Underwater Vehicle Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18 ii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK iii Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. COST ...from the scope of this demonstration due to time constraints. Further study of this software would benefit similar cost , schedule, and performance...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA SYSTEMS ENGINEERING CAPSTONE PROJECT REPORT Approved for public release. Distribution

  7. High performance real-time flight simulation at NASA Langley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Jeff I., II

    1994-01-01

    In order to meet the stringent time-critical requirements for real-time man-in-the-loop flight simulation, computer processing operations must be deterministic and be completed in as short a time as possible. This includes simulation mathematical model computational and data input/output to the simulators. In 1986, in response to increased demands for flight simulation performance, personnel at NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC), working with the contractor, developed extensions to a standard input/output system to provide for high bandwidth, low latency data acquisition and distribution. The Computer Automated Measurement and Control technology (IEEE standard 595) was extended to meet the performance requirements for real-time simulation. This technology extension increased the effective bandwidth by a factor of ten and increased the performance of modules necessary for simulator communications. This technology is being used by more than 80 leading technological developers in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Included among the commercial applications of this technology are nuclear process control, power grid analysis, process monitoring, real-time simulation, and radar data acquisition. Personnel at LaRC have completed the development of the use of supercomputers for simulation mathematical model computational to support real-time flight simulation. This includes the development of a real-time operating system and the development of specialized software and hardware for the CAMAC simulator network. This work, coupled with the use of an open systems software architecture, has advanced the state of the art in real time flight simulation. The data acquisition technology innovation and experience with recent developments in this technology are described.

  8. Numerical Hydrodynamics in Special Relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, José Maria; Müller, Ewald

    2003-01-01

    This review is concerned with a discussion of numerical methods for the solution of the equations of special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD). Particular emphasis is put on a comprehensive review of the application of high-resolution shock-capturing methods in SRHD. Results of a set of demanding test bench simulations obtained with different numerical SRHD methods are compared. Three applications (astrophysical jets, gamma-ray bursts and heavy ion collisions) of relativistic flows are discussed. An evaluation of various SRHD methods is presented, and future developments in SRHD are analyzed involving extension to general relativistic hydrodynamics and relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics. The review further provides FORTRAN programs to compute the exact solution of a 1D relativistic Riemann problem with zero and nonzero tangential velocities, and to simulate 1D relativistic flows in Cartesian Eulerian coordinates using the exact SRHD Riemann solver and PPM reconstruction. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2003-7 and is accessible for authorized users.

  9. Virtual reality simulation training of mastoidectomy - studies on novice performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts

    2016-08-01

    Virtual reality (VR) simulation-based training is increasingly used in surgical technical skills training including in temporal bone surgery. The potential of VR simulation in enabling high-quality surgical training is great and VR simulation allows high-stakes and complex procedures such as mastoidectomy to be trained repeatedly, independent of patients and surgical tutors, outside traditional learning environments such as the OR or the temporal bone lab, and with fewer of the constraints of traditional training. This thesis aims to increase the evidence-base of VR simulation training of mastoidectomy and, by studying the final-product performances of novices, investigates the transfer of skills to the current gold-standard training modality of cadaveric dissection, the effect of different practice conditions and simulator-integrated tutoring on performance and retention of skills, and the role of directed, self-regulated learning. Technical skills in mastoidectomy were transferable from the VR simulation environment to cadaveric dissection with significant improvement in performance after directed, self-regulated training in the VR temporal bone simulator. Distributed practice led to a better learning outcome and more consolidated skills than massed practice and also resulted in a more consistent performance after three months of non-practice. Simulator-integrated tutoring accelerated the initial learning curve but also caused over-reliance on tutoring, which resulted in a drop in performance when the simulator-integrated tutor-function was discontinued. The learning curves were highly individual but often plateaued early and at an inadequate level, which related to issues concerning both the procedure and the VR simulator, over-reliance on the tutor function and poor self-assessment skills. Future simulator-integrated automated assessment could potentially resolve some of these issues and provide trainees with both feedback during the procedure and immediate

  10. Three-Dimensional Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Modeling of Preferential Flow Dynamics at Fracture Intersections on a High-Performance Computing Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordilla, J.; Bresinsky, L. T.

    2017-12-01

    The physical mechanisms that govern preferential flow dynamics in unsaturated fractured rock formations are complex and not well understood. Fracture intersections may act as an integrator of unsaturated flow, leading to temporal delay, intermittent flow and partitioning dynamics. In this work, a three-dimensional Pairwise-Force Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (PF-SPH) model is being applied in order to simulate gravity-driven multiphase flow at synthetic fracture intersections. SPH, as a meshless Lagrangian method, is particularly suitable for modeling deformable interfaces, such as three-phase contact dynamics of droplets, rivulets and free-surface films. The static and dynamic contact angle can be recognized as the most important parameter of gravity-driven free-surface flow. In SPH, surface tension and adhesion naturally emerges from the implemented pairwise fluid-fluid (sff) and solid-fluid (ssf) interaction force. The model was calibrated to a contact angle of 65°, which corresponds to the wetting properties of water on Poly(methyl methacrylate). The accuracy of the SPH simulations were validated against an analytical solution of Poiseuille flow between two parallel plates and against laboratory experiments. Using the SPH model, the complex flow mode transitions from droplet to rivulet flow of an experimental study were reproduced. Additionally, laboratory dimensionless scaling experiments of water droplets were successfully replicated in SPH. Finally, SPH simulations were used to investigate the partitioning dynamics of single droplets into synthetic horizontal fractures with various apertures (Δdf = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 mm) and offsets (Δdoff = -1.5, -1.0, -0.5, 0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 mm). Fluid masses were measured in the domains R1, R2 and R3. The perfect conditions of ideally smooth surfaces and the SPH inherent advantage of particle tracking allow the recognition of small scale partitioning mechanisms and its importance for bulk flow

  11. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Building Energy Performance Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Tryggvason, Tryggvi

    An interconnection between a building energy performance simulation program and a Computational Fluid Dynamics program (CFD) for room air distribution will be introduced for improvement of the predictions of both the energy consumption and the indoor environment. The building energy performance...

  12. Impact of reactive settler models on simulated WWTP performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Jeppsson, Ulf; Batstone, Damien J.

    2006-01-01

    for an ASM1 case study. Simulations with a whole plant model including the non-reactive Takacs settler model are used as a reference, and are compared to simulation results considering two reactive settler models. The first is a return sludge model block removing oxygen and a user-defined fraction of nitrate......, combined with a non-reactive Takacs settler. The second is a fully reactive ASM1 Takacs settler model. Simulations with the ASM1 reactive settler model predicted a 15.3% and 7.4% improvement of the simulated N removal performance, for constant (steady-state) and dynamic influent conditions respectively....... The oxygen/nitrate return sludge model block predicts a 10% improvement of N removal performance under dynamic conditions, and might be the better modelling option for ASM1 plants: it is computationally more efficient and it will not overrate the importance of decay processes in the settler....

  13. High performance stream computing for particle beam transport simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleby, R; Bailey, D; Higham, J; Salt, M

    2008-01-01

    Understanding modern particle accelerators requires simulating charged particle transport through the machine elements. These simulations can be very time consuming due to the large number of particles and the need to consider many turns of a circular machine. Stream computing offers an attractive way to dramatically improve the performance of such simulations by calculating the simultaneous transport of many particles using dedicated hardware. Modern Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) are powerful and affordable stream computing devices. The results of simulations of particle transport through the booster-to-storage-ring transfer line of the DIAMOND synchrotron light source using an NVidia GeForce 7900 GPU are compared to the standard transport code MAD. It is found that particle transport calculations are suitable for stream processing and large performance increases are possible. The accuracy and potential speed gains are compared and the prospects for future work in the area are discussed

  14. Distributed dynamic simulations of networked control and building performance applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahiaoui, Azzedine

    2018-02-01

    The use of computer-based automation and control systems for smart sustainable buildings, often so-called Automated Buildings (ABs), has become an effective way to automatically control, optimize, and supervise a wide range of building performance applications over a network while achieving the minimum energy consumption possible, and in doing so generally refers to Building Automation and Control Systems (BACS) architecture. Instead of costly and time-consuming experiments, this paper focuses on using distributed dynamic simulations to analyze the real-time performance of network-based building control systems in ABs and improve the functions of the BACS technology. The paper also presents the development and design of a distributed dynamic simulation environment with the capability of representing the BACS architecture in simulation by run-time coupling two or more different software tools over a network. The application and capability of this new dynamic simulation environment are demonstrated by an experimental design in this paper.

  15. Investigation of TiO2 photocatalyst performance for decolorization in the presence of hydrodynamic cavitation as hybrid AOP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethi, Bhaskar; Sonawane, S H; Rohit, G S; Holkar, C R; Pinjari, D V; Bhanvase, B A; Pandit, A B

    2016-01-01

    In this article, an acoustic cavitation engineered novel approach for the synthesis of TiO2, cerium and Fe doped TiO2 nanophotocatalysts is reported. The prepared TiO2, cerium and Fe doped TiO2 nanophotocatalysts were characterized by XRD and TEM analysis to evaluate its structure and morphology. Photo catalytic performance of undoped TiO2 catalyst was investigated for the decolorization of crystal violet dye in aqueous solution at pH of 6.5 in the presence of hydro dynamic cavitation. Effect of catalyst doping with Fe and Ce was also studied for the decolorization of crystal violet dye. The results shows that, 0.8% of Fe-doped TiO2 exhibits maximum photocatalytic activity in the decolorization study of crystal violet dye due to the presence of Fe in the TiO2 and it may acts as a fenton reagent. Kinetic studies have also been reported for the hybrid AOP (HAOP) that followed the pseudo first-order reaction kinetics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comprehensive Simulation Lifecycle Management for High Performance Computing Modeling and Simulation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There are significant logistical barriers to entry-level high performance computing (HPC) modeling and simulation (M IllinoisRocstar) sets up the infrastructure for...

  17. MODELING SIMULATION AND PERFORMANCE STUDY OF GRIDCONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Nagendra K; Karthik J; Keerthi Rao C; Kumar Raja Pemmadi

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents Modeling Simulation of grid connected Photovoltaic Energy System and performance study using MATLAB/Simulink. The Photovoltaic energy system is considered in three main parts PV Model, Power conditioning System and Grid interface. The Photovoltaic Model is inter-connected with grid through full scale power electronic devices. The simulation is conducted on the PV energy system at normal temperature and at constant load by using MATLAB.

  18. Computer Simulation Performed for Columbia Project Cooling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Jasim

    2005-01-01

    This demo shows a high-fidelity simulation of the air flow in the main computer room housing the Columbia (10,024 intel titanium processors) system. The simulation asseses the performance of the cooling system and identified deficiencies, and recommended modifications to eliminate them. It used two in house software packages on NAS supercomputers: Chimera Grid tools to generate a geometric model of the computer room, OVERFLOW-2 code for fluid and thermal simulation. This state-of-the-art technology can be easily extended to provide a general capability for air flow analyses on any modern computer room. Columbia_CFD_black.tiff

  19. Simulator experiments: effects of NPP operator experience on performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beare, A.N.; Gray, L.H.

    1984-01-01

    During the FY83 research, a simulator experiment was conducted at the control room simulator for a GE Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) NPP. The research subjects were licensed operators undergoing requalification training and shift technical advisors (STAs). This experiment was designed to investigate the effects of senior reactor operator (SRO) experience, operating crew augmentation with an STA and practice, as a crew, upon crew and individual operator performance, in response to anticipated plant transients. Sixteen two-man crews of licensed operators were employed in a 2 x 2 factorial design. The SROs leading the crews were split into high and low experience groups on the basis of their years of experience as an SRO. One half of the high- and low-SRO experience groups were assisted by an STA. The crews responded to four simulated plant casualties. A five-variable set of content-referenced performance measures was derived from task analyses of the procedurally correct responses to the four casualties. System parameters and control manipulations were recorded by the computer controlling the simulator. Data on communications and procedure use were obtained from analysis of videotapes of the exercises. Questionnaires were used to collect subject biographical information and data on subjective workload during each simulated casualty. For four of the five performance measures, no significant differences were found between groups led by high (25 to 114 months) and low (1 to 17 months as an SRO) experience SROs. However, crews led by low experience SROs tended to have significantly shorter task performance times than crews led by high experience SROs. The presence of the STA had no significant effect on overall team performance in responding to the four simulated casualties. The FY84 experiments are a partial replication and extension of the FY83 experiment, but with PWR operators and simulator

  20. 18th and 19th Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Bez, Wolfgang; Focht, Erich; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Patel, Nisarg

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art in high-performance computing and simulation on modern supercomputer architectures. It covers trends in hardware and software development in general and the future of high-performance systems and heterogeneous architectures in particular. The application-related contributions cover computational fluid dynamics, material science, medical applications and climate research; innovative fields such as coupled multi-physics and multi-scale simulations are highlighted. All papers were chosen from presentations given at the 18th Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance held at the HLRS, University of Stuttgart, Germany in October 2013 and subsequent Workshop of the same name held at Tohoku University in March 2014.  

  1. ATES/heat pump simulations performed with ATESSS code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, L. W.

    1989-01-01

    Modifications to the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage System Simulator (ATESSS) allow simulation of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES)/heat pump systems. The heat pump algorithm requires a coefficient of performance (COP) relationship of the form: COP = COP sub base + alpha (T sub ref minus T sub base). Initial applications of the modified ATES code to synthetic building load data for two sizes of buildings in two U.S. cities showed insignificant performance advantage of a series ATES heat pump system over a conventional groundwater heat pump system. The addition of algorithms for a cooling tower and solar array improved performance slightly. Small values of alpha in the COP relationship are the principal reason for the limited improvement in system performance. Future studies at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are planned to investigate methods to increase system performance using alternative system configurations and operations scenarios.

  2. Simulation and performance of brushless dc motor actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerba, A., Jr.

    1985-12-01

    The simulation model for a Brushless D.C. Motor and the associated commutation power conditioner transistor model are presented. The necessary conditions for maximum power output while operating at steady-state speed and sinusoidally distributed air-gap flux are developed. Comparison of simulated model with the measured performance of a typical motor are done both on time response waveforms and on average performance characteristics. These preliminary results indicate good agreement. Plans for model improvement and testing of a motor-driven positioning device for model evaluation are outlined.

  3. Cognitive load predicts point-of-care ultrasound simulator performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldekhyl, Sara; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B; Naismith, Laura M

    2018-02-01

    The ability to maintain good performance with low cognitive load is an important marker of expertise. Incorporating cognitive load measurements in the context of simulation training may help to inform judgements of competence. This exploratory study investigated relationships between demographic markers of expertise, cognitive load measures, and simulator performance in the context of point-of-care ultrasonography. Twenty-nine medical trainees and clinicians at the University of Toronto with a range of clinical ultrasound experience were recruited. Participants answered a demographic questionnaire then used an ultrasound simulator to perform targeted scanning tasks based on clinical vignettes. Participants were scored on their ability to both acquire and interpret ultrasound images. Cognitive load measures included participant self-report, eye-based physiological indices, and behavioural measures. Data were analyzed using a multilevel linear modelling approach, wherein observations were clustered by participants. Experienced participants outperformed novice participants on ultrasound image acquisition. Ultrasound image interpretation was comparable between the two groups. Ultrasound image acquisition performance was predicted by level of training, prior ultrasound training, and cognitive load. There was significant convergence between cognitive load measurement techniques. A marginal model of ultrasound image acquisition performance including prior ultrasound training and cognitive load as fixed effects provided the best overall fit for the observed data. In this proof-of-principle study, the combination of demographic and cognitive load measures provided more sensitive metrics to predict ultrasound simulator performance. Performance assessments which include cognitive load can help differentiate between levels of expertise in simulation environments, and may serve as better predictors of skill transfer to clinical practice.

  4. MUMAX: A new high-performance micromagnetic simulation tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vansteenkiste, A.; Van de Wiele, B.

    2011-01-01

    We present MUMAX, a general-purpose micromagnetic simulation tool running on graphical processing units (GPUs). MUMAX is designed for high-performance computations and specifically targets large simulations. In that case speedups of over a factor 100 x can be obtained compared to the CPU-based OOMMF program developed at NIST. MUMAX aims to be general and broadly applicable. It solves the classical Landau-Lifshitz equation taking into account the magnetostatic, exchange and anisotropy interactions, thermal effects and spin-transfer torque. Periodic boundary conditions can optionally be imposed. A spatial discretization using finite differences in two or three dimensions can be employed. MUMAX is publicly available as open-source software. It can thus be freely used and extended by community. Due to its high computational performance, MUMAX should open up the possibility of running extensive simulations that would be nearly inaccessible with typical CPU-based simulators. - Highlights: → Novel, open-source micromagnetic simulator on GPU hardware. → Speedup of ∝100x compared to other widely used tools. → Extensively validated against standard problems. → Makes previously infeasible simulations accessible.

  5. Event simulation based on three-fluid hydrodynamics for collisions at energies available at the Dubna Nuclotron-based Ion Collider Facility and at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Darmstadt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batyuk, P.; Blaschke, D.; Bleicher, M.; Ivanov, Yu. B.; Karpenko, Iu.; Merts, S.; Nahrgang, M.; Petersen, H.; Rogachevsky, O.

    2016-10-01

    We present an event generator based on the three-fluid hydrodynamics approach for the early stage of the collision, followed by a particlization at the hydrodynamic decoupling surface to join to a microscopic transport model, ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics, to account for hadronic final-state interactions. We present first results for nuclear collisions of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research-Nuclotron-based Ion Collider Facility energy scan program (Au+Au collisions, √{sN N}=4 -11 GeV ). We address the directed flow of protons and pions as well as the proton rapidity distribution for two model equations of state, one with a first-order phase transition and the other with a crossover-type softening at high densities. The new simulation program has the unique feature that it can describe a hadron-to-quark matter transition which proceeds in the baryon stopping regime that is not accessible to previous simulation programs designed for higher energies.

  6. Simulated astigmatism impairs academic-related performance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanasamy, Sumithira; Vincent, Stephen J; Sampson, Geoff P; Wood, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Astigmatism is an important refractive condition in children. However, the functional impact of uncorrected astigmatism in this population is not well established, particularly with regard to academic performance. This study investigated the impact of simulated bilateral astigmatism on academic-related tasks before and after sustained near work in children. Twenty visually normal children (mean age: 10.8 ± 0.7 years; six males and 14 females) completed a range of standardised academic-related tests with and without 1.50 D of simulated bilateral astigmatism (with both academic-related tests and the visual condition administered in a randomised order). The simulated astigmatism was induced using a positive cylindrical lens while maintaining a plano spherical equivalent. Performance was assessed before and after 20 min of sustained near work, during two separate testing sessions. Academic-related measures included a standardised reading test (the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability), visual information processing tests (Coding and Symbol Search subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) and a reading-related eye movement test (the Developmental Eye Movement test). Each participant was systematically assigned either with-the-rule (WTR, axis 180°) or against-the-rule (ATR, axis 90°) simulated astigmatism to evaluate the influence of axis orientation on any decrements in performance. Reading, visual information processing and reading-related eye movement performance were all significantly impaired by both simulated bilateral astigmatism (p  0.05). Simulated astigmatism led to a reduction of between 5% and 12% in performance across the academic-related outcome measures, but there was no significant effect of the axis (WTR or ATR) of astigmatism (p > 0.05). Simulated bilateral astigmatism impaired children's performance on a range of academic-related outcome measures irrespective of the orientation of the astigmatism. These findings have

  7. Measuring cognitive load: performance, mental effort and simulation task complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A; Rojas, David; Childs, Ruth; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Interest in applying cognitive load theory in health care simulation is growing. This line of inquiry requires measures that are sensitive to changes in cognitive load arising from different instructional designs. Recently, mental effort ratings and secondary task performance have shown promise as measures of cognitive load in health care simulation. We investigate the sensitivity of these measures to predicted differences in intrinsic load arising from variations in task complexity and learner expertise during simulation-based surgical skills training. We randomly assigned 28 novice medical students to simulation training on a simple or complex surgical knot-tying task. Participants completed 13 practice trials, interspersed with computer-based video instruction. On trials 1, 5, 9 and 13, knot-tying performance was assessed using time and movement efficiency measures, and cognitive load was assessed using subjective rating of mental effort (SRME) and simple reaction time (SRT) on a vibrotactile stimulus-monitoring secondary task. Significant improvements in knot-tying performance (F(1.04,24.95)  = 41.1, p cognitive load (F(2.3,58.5)  = 57.7, p load among novices engaged in simulation-based learning. These measures can be used to track cognitive load during skills training. Mental effort ratings are also sensitive to small differences in intrinsic load arising from variations in the physical complexity of a simulation task. The complementary nature of these subjective and objective measures suggests their combined use is advantageous in simulation instructional design research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Building Energy Performance Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Tryggvason, T.

    1998-01-01

    An interconnection between a building energy performance simulation program and a Computational Fluid Dynamics program (CFD) for room air distribution will be introduced for improvement of the predictions of both the energy consumption and the indoor environment. The building energy performance...... simulation program requires a detailed description of the energy flow in the air movement which can be obtained by a CFD program. The paper describes an energy consumption calculation in a large building, where the building energy simulation program is modified by CFD predictions of the flow between three...... zones connected by open areas with pressure and buoyancy driven air flow. The two programs are interconnected in an iterative procedure. The paper shows also an evaluation of the air quality in the main area of the buildings based on CFD predictions. It is shown that an interconnection between a CFD...

  9. Numerical Simulation and Performance Analysis of Twin Screw Air Compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. S. Lee

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model is proposed in this paper in order to study the performance of oil-less and oil-injected twin screw air compressors. Based on this model, a computer simulation program is developed and the effects of different design parameters including rotor profile, geometric clearance, oil-injected angle, oil temperature, oil flow rate, built-in volume ratio and other operation conditions on the performance of twin screw air compressors are investigated. The simulation program gives us output variables such as specific power, compression ratio, compression efficiency, volumetric efficiency, and discharge temperature. Some of the above results are then compared with experimentally measured data and good agreement is found between the simulation results and the measured data.

  10. INEX simulations of the optical performance of the AFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, J.C.; Wang, T.S.F.; Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The AFEL (Advanced Free-Electron Laser) Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory is presently under construction. The project's goal is to produce a very high-brightness electron beam which will be generated by a photocathode injector and a 20 MeV rf-linac. Initial laser experiments will be performed with a 1-cm-period permanent magnet wiggler which will generate intense optical radiation near a wavelength of 3.7 μm. Future experiments will operate with ''slotted-tube'' electromagnetic wigglers (formerly called ''pulsed- wire'' wigglers). Experiments at both fundamental and higher-harmonic wavelengths are planned. This paper presents results of INEX (Integrated Numerical EXperiment) simulations of the optical performance of the AFEL. These simulations use the electron micropulse produced by the accelerator/beam transport code PARMELA in the 3-D FEL simulation code FELEX. 9 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  11. MAPPS (Maintenance Personnel Performance Simulation): a computer simulation model for human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knee, H.E.; Haas, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    A computer model has been developed, sensitivity tested, and evaluated capable of generating reliable estimates of human performance measures in the nuclear power plant (NPP) maintenance context. The model, entitled MAPPS (Maintenance Personnel Performance Simulation), is of the simulation type and is task-oriented. It addresses a number of person-machine, person-environment, and person-person variables and is capable of providing the user with a rich spectrum of important performance measures including mean time for successful task performance by a maintenance team and maintenance team probability of task success. These two measures are particularly important for input to probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies which were the primary impetus for the development of MAPPS. The simulation nature of the model along with its generous input parameters and output variables allows its usefulness to extend beyond its input to PRA

  12. On the performance simulation of inter-stage turbine reheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, Alvise; Nikolaidis, Theoklis; Pachidis, Vassilios; Köhler, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An innovative gas turbine performance simulation methodology is proposed. • It allows to perform DP and OD performance calculations for complex engines layouts. • It is essential for inter-turbine reheat (ITR) engine performance calculation. • A detailed description is provided for fast and flexible implementation. • The methodology is successfully verified against a commercial closed-source software. - Abstract: Several authors have suggested the implementation of reheat in high By-Pass Ratio (BPR) aero engines, to improve engine performance. In contrast to military afterburning, civil aero engines would aim at reducing Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) by introducing ‘Inter-stage Turbine Reheat’ (ITR). To maximise benefits, the second combustor should be placed at an early stage of the expansion process, e.g. between the first and second High-Pressure Turbine (HPT) stages. The aforementioned cycle design requires the accurate simulation of two or more turbine stages on the same shaft. The Design Point (DP) performance can be easily evaluated by defining a Turbine Work Split (TWS) ratio between the turbine stages. However, the performance simulation of Off-Design (OD) operating points requires the calculation of the TWS parameter for every OD step, by taking into account the thermodynamic behaviour of each turbine stage, represented by their respective maps. No analytical solution of the aforementioned problem is currently available in the public domain. This paper presents an analytical methodology by which ITR can be simulated at DP and OD. Results show excellent agreement with a commercial, closed-source performance code; discrepancies range from 0% to 3.48%, and are ascribed to the different gas models implemented in the codes.

  13. High performance ultrasonic field simulation on complex geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouh, H.; Rougeron, G.; Chatillon, S.; Iehl, J. C.; Farrugia, J. P.; Ostromoukhov, V.

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic field simulation is a key ingredient for the design of new testing methods as well as a crucial step for NDT inspection simulation. As presented in a previous paper [1], CEA-LIST has worked on the acceleration of these simulations focusing on simple geometries (planar interfaces, isotropic materials). In this context, significant accelerations were achieved on multicore processors and GPUs (Graphics Processing Units), bringing the execution time of realistic computations in the 0.1 s range. In this paper, we present recent works that aim at similar performances on a wider range of configurations. We adapted the physical model used by the CIVA platform to design and implement a new algorithm providing a fast ultrasonic field simulation that yields nearly interactive results for complex cases. The improvements over the CIVA pencil-tracing method include adaptive strategies for pencil subdivisions to achieve a good refinement of the sensor geometry while keeping a reasonable number of ray-tracing operations. Also, interpolation of the times of flight was used to avoid time consuming computations in the impulse response reconstruction stage. To achieve the best performance, our algorithm runs on multi-core superscalar CPUs and uses high performance specialized libraries such as Intel Embree for ray-tracing, Intel MKL for signal processing and Intel TBB for parallelization. We validated the simulation results by comparing them to the ones produced by CIVA on identical test configurations including mono-element and multiple-element transducers, homogeneous, meshed 3D CAD specimens, isotropic and anisotropic materials and wave paths that can involve several interactions with interfaces. We show performance results on complete simulations that achieve computation times in the 1s range.

  14. Visuospatial ability factors and performance variables in laparoscopic simulator training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, J.M.; Verwey, Willem B.; Burie, Remke

    2012-01-01

    Visuospatial ability has been shown to be important to several aspects of laparoscopic performance, including simulator training. Only a limited subset of visuospatial ability factors however has been investigated in such studies. Tests for different visuospatial ability factors differ in stimulus

  15. Atomic scale simulations for improved CRUD and fuel performance modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Anders David Ragnar [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cooper, Michael William Donald [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-06

    A more mechanistic description of fuel performance codes can be achieved by deriving models and parameters from atomistic scale simulations rather than fitting models empirically to experimental data. The same argument applies to modeling deposition of corrosion products on fuel rods (CRUD). Here are some results from publications in 2016 carried out using the CASL allocation at LANL.

  16. Laser driven hydrodynamic instability experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remington, B.A.; Weber, S.V.; Haan, S.W.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Glendinning, S.G.; Wallace, R.J.; Goldstein, W.H.; Wilson, B.G.; Nash, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    We have conducted an extensive series of experiments on the Nova laser to measure hydrodynamic instabilities in planar foils accelerated by x-ray ablation. Single mode experiments allow a measurement of the fundamental growth rates from the linear well into the nonlinear regime; multimode foils allow an assessment of the degree of mode coupling; and surface-finish experiments allow a measurement of the evolution of a broad spectrum of random initial modes. Experimental results and comparisons with theory and simulations are presented

  17. Hydrodynamics of post CHF region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.; De Jarlais, G.

    1984-04-01

    Among various two-phase flow regimes, the inverted flow in the post-dryout region is relatively less well understood due to its special heat transfer conditions. The review of existing data indicates further research is needed in the areas of basic hydrodynamics related to liquid core disintegration mechanisms, slug and droplet formations, entrainment, and droplet size distributions. In view of this, the inverted flow is studied in detail both analytically and experimentally. Criteria for initial flow regimes in the post-dryout region are given. Preliminary models for subsequent flow regime transition criteria are derived together with correlations for a mean droplet diameter based on the adiabatic simulation data

  18. On the Hydrodynamics of Anomalocaris Tail Fins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, K A; Rival, D E; Caron, J-B

    2018-04-25

    Anomalocaris canadensis, a soft-bodied stem-group arthropod from the Burgess Shale, is considered the largest predator of the Cambrian period. Thanks to a series of lateral flexible lobes along its dorso-ventrally compressed body, it is generally regarded as an efficient swimmer, well-adapted to its predatory lifestyle. Previous theoretical hydrodynamic simulations have suggested a possible optimum in swimming performance when the lateral lobes performed as a single undulatory lateral fin, comparable to the pectoral fins in skates and rays. However, the role of the unusual fan-like tail of Anomalocaris has not been previously explored. Swimming efficiency and maneuverability deduced from direct hydrodynamic analysis are here studied in a towing tank facility using a three-vane physical model designed as an abstraction of the tail fin. Through direct force measurements, it was found that the model exhibited a region of steady-state lift and drag enhancement at angles of attack greater than 25° when compared to a triangular-shaped reference model. This would suggest that the resultant normal force on the tail fin of Anomalocaris made it well-suited for turning maneuvers, giving it the ability to turn quickly and through small radii of curvature. These results are consistent with an active predatory lifestyle, although detailed kinematic studies integrating the full organism, including the lateral lobes, would be required to test the effect of the tail fin on overall swimming performance. This study also highlights a possible example of evolutionary convergence between the tails of Anomalocaris and birds, which, in both cases, are well-adapted to efficient turning maneuvers.

  19. Simulation model of a twin-tail, high performance airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttrill, Carey S.; Arbuckle, P. Douglas; Hoffler, Keith D.

    1992-01-01

    The mathematical model and associated computer program to simulate a twin-tailed high performance fighter airplane (McDonnell Douglas F/A-18) are described. The simulation program is written in the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language. The simulation math model includes the nonlinear six degree-of-freedom rigid-body equations, an engine model, sensors, and first order actuators with rate and position limiting. A simplified form of the F/A-18 digital control laws (version 8.3.3) are implemented. The simulated control law includes only inner loop augmentation in the up and away flight mode. The aerodynamic forces and moments are calculated from a wind-tunnel-derived database using table look-ups with linear interpolation. The aerodynamic database has an angle-of-attack range of -10 to +90 and a sideslip range of -20 to +20 degrees. The effects of elastic deformation are incorporated in a quasi-static-elastic manner. Elastic degrees of freedom are not actively simulated. In the engine model, the throttle-commanded steady-state thrust level and the dynamic response characteristics of the engine are based on airflow rate as determined from a table look-up. Afterburner dynamics are switched in at a threshold based on the engine airflow and commanded thrust.

  20. The effects of fatigue on performance in simulated nursing work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Linsey M; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2011-09-01

    Fatigue is associated with increased rates of medical errors and healthcare worker injuries, yet existing research in this sector has not considered multiple dimensions of fatigue simultaneously. This study evaluated hypothesised causal relationships between mental and physical fatigue and performance. High and low levels of mental and physical fatigue were induced in 16 participants during simulated nursing work tasks in a laboratory setting. Task-induced changes in fatigue dimensions were quantified using both subjective and objective measures, as were changes in performance on physical and mental tasks. Completing the simulated work tasks increased total fatigue, mental fatigue and physical fatigue in all experimental conditions. Higher physical fatigue adversely affected measures of physical and mental performance, whereas higher mental fatigue had a positive effect on one measure of mental performance. Overall, these results suggest causal effects between manipulated levels of mental and physical fatigue and task-induced changes in mental and physical performance. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Nurse fatigue and performance has implications for patient and provider safety. Results from this study demonstrate the importance of a multidimensional view of fatigue in understanding the causal relationships between fatigue and performance. The findings can guide future work aimed at predicting fatigue-related performance decrements and designing interventions.

  1. Hydrodynamic suppression of phase separation in active suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matas-Navarro, Ricard; Golestanian, Ramin; Liverpool, Tanniemola B; Fielding, Suzanne M

    2014-09-01

    We simulate with hydrodynamics a suspension of active disks squirming through a Newtonian fluid. We explore numerically the full range of squirmer area fractions from dilute to close packed and show that "motility induced phase separation," which was recently proposed to arise generically in active matter, and which has been seen in simulations of active Brownian disks, is strongly suppressed by hydrodynamic interactions. We give an argument for why this should be the case and support it with counterpart simulations of active Brownian disks in a parameter regime that provides a closer counterpart to hydrodynamic suspensions than in previous studies.

  2. Water desalination price from recent performances: Modelling, simulation and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metaiche, M.; Kettab, A.

    2005-01-01

    The subject of the present article is the technical simulation of seawater desalination, by a one stage reverse osmosis system, the objectives of which are the recent valuation of cost price through the use of new membrane and permeator performances, the use of new means of simulation and modelling of desalination parameters, and show the main parameters influencing the cost price. We have taken as the simulation example the Seawater Desalting centre of Djannet (Boumerdes, Algeria). The present performances allow water desalting at a price of 0.5 $/m 3 , which is an interesting and promising price, corresponding with the very acceptable water product quality, in the order of 269 ppm. It is important to run the desalting systems by reverse osmosis under high pressure, resulting in further decrease of the desalting cost and the production of good quality water. Aberration in choice of functioning conditions produces high prices and unacceptable quality. However there exists the possibility of decreasing the price by decreasing the requirement on the product quality. The seawater temperature has an effect on the cost price and quality. The installation of big desalting centres, contributes to the decrease in prices. A very important, long and tedious calculation is effected, which is impossible to conduct without programming and informatics tools. The use of the simulation model has been much efficient in the design of desalination centres that can perform at very improved prices. (author)

  3. Facility/equipment performance evaluation using microcomputer simulation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chockie, A.D.; Hostick, C.J.

    1985-08-01

    A computer simulation analysis model was developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to assist in assuring the adequacy of the Monitored Retrievable Storage facility design to meet the specified spent nuclear fuel throughput requirements. The microcomputer-based model was applied to the analysis of material flow, equipment capability and facility layout. The simulation analysis evaluated uncertainties concerning both facility throughput requirements and process duration times as part of the development of a comprehensive estimate of facility performance. The evaluations provided feedback into the design review task to identify areas where design modifications should be considered

  4. Imaging Performance Analysis of Simbol-X with Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, M.; Roques, J. P.

    2009-05-01

    Simbol-X is an X-Ray telescope operating in formation flight. It means that its optical performances will strongly depend on the drift of the two spacecrafts and its ability to measure these drifts for image reconstruction. We built a dynamical ray tracing code to study the impact of these parameters on the optical performance of Simbol-X (see Chauvin et al., these proceedings). Using the simulation tool we have developed, we have conducted detailed analyses of the impact of different parameters on the imaging performance of the Simbol-X telescope.

  5. Imaging Performance Analysis of Simbol-X with Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvin, M.; Roques, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Simbol-X is an X-Ray telescope operating in formation flight. It means that its optical performances will strongly depend on the drift of the two spacecrafts and its ability to measure these drifts for image reconstruction. We built a dynamical ray tracing code to study the impact of these parameters on the optical performance of Simbol-X (see Chauvin et al., these proceedings). Using the simulation tool we have developed, we have conducted detailed analyses of the impact of different parameters on the imaging performance of the Simbol-X telescope.

  6. Advanced in Macrostatistical Hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, A.L.; Tetlow, N.; Abbott, J.R.; Mondy, L.S.; Brenner, H.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of research that focuses on slow flows of suspensions in which colloidal and inertial effects are negligibly small (Macrostatistical Hydrodynamics). First, we describe nuclear magnetic resonance imaging experiments to quantitatively measure particle migration occurring in concentrated suspensions undergoing a flow with a nonuniform shear rate. These experiments address the issue of how the flow field affects the microstructure of suspensions. In order to understand the local viscosity in a suspension with such a flow-induced, spatially varying concentration, one must know how the viscosity of a homogeneous suspension depends on such variables as solids concentration and particle orientation. We suggest the technique of falling ball viscometry, using small balls, as a method to determine the effective viscosity of a suspension without affecting the original microstructure significantly. We also describe data from experiments in which the detailed fluctuations of a falling ball's velocity indicate the noncontinuum nature of the suspension and may lead to more insights into the effects of suspension microstructure on macroscopic properties. Finally, we briefly describe other experiments that can be performed in quiescent suspensions (in contrast to the use of conventional shear rotational viscometers) in order to learn more about the microstructure and boundary effects in concentrated suspensions

  7. Visualization and Analysis of Climate Simulation Performance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röber, Niklas; Adamidis, Panagiotis; Behrens, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    Visualization is the key process of transforming abstract (scientific) data into a graphical representation, to aid in the understanding of the information hidden within the data. Climate simulation data sets are typically quite large, time varying, and consist of many different variables sampled on an underlying grid. A large variety of climate models - and sub models - exist to simulate various aspects of the climate system. Generally, one is mainly interested in the physical variables produced by the simulation runs, but model developers are also interested in performance data measured along with these simulations. Climate simulation models are carefully developed complex software systems, designed to run in parallel on large HPC systems. An important goal thereby is to utilize the entire hardware as efficiently as possible, that is, to distribute the workload as even as possible among the individual components. This is a very challenging task, and detailed performance data, such as timings, cache misses etc. have to be used to locate and understand performance problems in order to optimize the model implementation. Furthermore, the correlation of performance data to the processes of the application and the sub-domains of the decomposed underlying grid is vital when addressing communication and load imbalance issues. High resolution climate simulations are carried out on tens to hundreds of thousands of cores, thus yielding a vast amount of profiling data, which cannot be analyzed without appropriate visualization techniques. This PICO presentation displays and discusses the ICON simulation model, which is jointly developed by the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology and the German Weather Service and in partnership with DKRZ. The visualization and analysis of the models performance data allows us to optimize and fine tune the model, as well as to understand its execution on the HPC system. We show and discuss our workflow, as well as present new ideas and

  8. Neurocognitive Correlates of Young Drivers' Performance in a Driving Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinosso, Stephanie A; Johnson, Sara B; Schultheis, Maria T; Graefe, Anna C; Bishai, David M

    2016-04-01

    Differences in neurocognitive functioning may contribute to driving performance among young drivers. However, few studies have examined this relation. This pilot study investigated whether common neurocognitive measures were associated with driving performance among young drivers in a driving simulator. Young drivers (19.8 years (standard deviation [SD] = 1.9; N = 74)) participated in a battery of neurocognitive assessments measuring general intellectual capacity (Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient, FSIQ) and executive functioning, including the Stroop Color-Word Test (cognitive inhibition), Wisconsin Card Sort Test-64 (cognitive flexibility), and Attention Network Task (alerting, orienting, and executive attention). Participants then drove in a simulated vehicle under two conditions-a baseline and driving challenge. During the driving challenge, participants completed a verbal working memory task to increase demand on executive attention. Multiple regression models were used to evaluate the relations between the neurocognitive measures and driving performance under the two conditions. FSIQ, cognitive inhibition, and alerting were associated with better driving performance at baseline. FSIQ and cognitive inhibition were also associated with better driving performance during the verbal challenge. Measures of cognitive flexibility, orienting, and conflict executive control were not associated with driving performance under either condition. FSIQ and, to some extent, measures of executive function are associated with driving performance in a driving simulator. Further research is needed to determine if executive function is associated with more advanced driving performance under conditions that demand greater cognitive load. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Performance evaluation of sea surface simulation methods for target detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Renjie; Wu, Xin; Yang, Chen; Han, Yiping; Zhang, Jianqi

    2017-11-01

    With the fast development of sea surface target detection by optoelectronic sensors, machine learning has been adopted to improve the detection performance. Many features can be learned from training images by machines automatically. However, field images of sea surface target are not sufficient as training data. 3D scene simulation is a promising method to address this problem. For ocean scene simulation, sea surface height field generation is the key point to achieve high fidelity. In this paper, two spectra-based height field generation methods are evaluated. Comparison between the linear superposition and linear filter method is made quantitatively with a statistical model. 3D ocean scene simulating results show the different features between the methods, which can give reference for synthesizing sea surface target images with different ocean conditions.

  10. Performance simulation of a MRPC-based PET imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A.; Banerjee, A.; Biswas, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Das, G.; Saha, S.

    2014-10-01

    The less expensive and high resolution Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) opens up a new possibility to find an efficient alternative detector for the Time of Flight (TOF) based Positron Emission Tomography, where the sensitivity of the system depends largely on the time resolution of the detector. In a layered structure, suitable converters can be used to increase the photon detection efficiency. In this work, we perform a detailed GEANT4 simulation to optimize the converter thickness towards improving the efficiency of photon conversion. A Monte Carlo based procedure has been developed to simulate the time resolution of the MRPC-based system, making it possible to simulate its response for PET imaging application. The results of the test of a six-gap MRPC, operating in avalanche mode, with 22Na source have been discussed.

  11. Software life cycle dynamic simulation model: The organizational performance submodel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausworthe, Robert C.

    1985-01-01

    The submodel structure of a software life cycle dynamic simulation model is described. The software process is divided into seven phases, each with product, staff, and funding flows. The model is subdivided into an organizational response submodel, a management submodel, a management influence interface, and a model analyst interface. The concentration here is on the organizational response model, which simulates the performance characteristics of a software development subject to external and internal influences. These influences emanate from two sources: the model analyst interface, which configures the model to simulate the response of an implementing organization subject to its own internal influences, and the management submodel that exerts external dynamic control over the production process. A complete characterization is given of the organizational response submodel in the form of parameterized differential equations governing product, staffing, and funding levels. The parameter values and functions are allocated to the two interfaces.

  12. Numerical simulation investigation on centrifugal compressor performance of turbocharger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jie; Yin, Yuting; Li, Shuqi; Zhang, Jizhong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the mathematical model of the flow filed in centrifugal compressor of turbocharger was studied. Based on the theory of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), performance curves and parameter distributions of the compressor were obtained from the 3-D numerical simulation by using CFX. Meanwhile, the influences of grid number and distribution on compressor performance were investigated, and numerical calculation method was analyzed and validated, through combining with test data. The results obtained show the increase of the grid number has little influence on compressor performance while the grid number of single-passage is above 300,000. The results also show that the numerical calculation mass flow rate of compressor choke situation has a good consistent with test results, and the maximum difference of the diffuser exit pressure between simulation and experiment decrease to 3.5% with the assumption of 6 kPa additional total pressure loss at compressor inlet. The numerical simulation method in this paper can be used to predict compressor performance, and the difference of total pressure ratio between calculation and test is less than 7%, and the total-to-total efficiency also have a good consistent with test.

  13. Adaptive Performance-Constrained in Situ Visualization of Atmospheic Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorier, Matthieu; Sisneros, Roberto; Bautista Gomez, Leonard; Peterka, Tom; Orf, Leigh; Rahmani, Lokman; Antoniu, Gabriel; Bouge, Luc

    2016-09-12

    While many parallel visualization tools now provide in situ visualization capabilities, the trend has been to feed such tools with large amounts of unprocessed output data and let them render everything at the highest possible resolution. This leads to an increased run time of simulations that still have to complete within a fixed-length job allocation. In this paper, we tackle the challenge of enabling in situ visualization under performance constraints. Our approach shuffles data across processes according to its content and filters out part of it in order to feed a visualization pipeline with only a reorganized subset of the data produced by the simulation. Our framework leverages fast, generic evaluation procedures to score blocks of data, using information theory, statistics, and linear algebra. It monitors its own performance and adapts dynamically to achieve appropriate visual fidelity within predefined performance constraints. Experiments on the Blue Waters supercomputer with the CM1 simulation show that our approach enables a 5 speedup with respect to the initial visualization pipeline and is able to meet performance constraints.

  14. Performance measurement system for training simulators. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockhold, G. Jr.; Roth, D.R.

    1978-05-01

    In the first project phase, the project team has designed, installed, and test run on the Browns Ferry nuclear power plant training simulator a performance measurement system capable of automatic recording of statistical information on operator actions and plant response. Key plant variables and operator actions were monitored and analyzed by the simulator computer for a selected set of four operating and casualty drills. The project has the following objectives: (1) To provide an empirical data base for statistical analysis of operator reliability and for allocation of safety and control functions between operators and automated controls; (2) To develop a method for evaluation of the effectiveness of control room designs and operating procedures; and (3) To develop a system for scoring aspects of operator performance to assist in training evaluations and to support operator selection research. The performance measurement system has shown potential for meeting the research objectives. However, the cost of training simulator time is high; to keep research program costs reasonable, the measurement system is being designed to be an integral part of operator training programs. In the pilot implementation, participating instructors judged the measurement system to be a valuable and objective extension of their abilities to monitor trainee performance

  15. Numerical simulation investigation on centrifugal compressor performance of turbocharger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jie [China Iron and Steel Research Institute Group, Beijing (China); Yin, Yuting [China North Engine Research Institute, Datong (China); Li, Shuqi; Zhang, Jizhong [Science and Technology Diesel Engine Turbocharging Laboratory, Datong (China)

    2013-06-15

    In this paper, the mathematical model of the flow filed in centrifugal compressor of turbocharger was studied. Based on the theory of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), performance curves and parameter distributions of the compressor were obtained from the 3-D numerical simulation by using CFX. Meanwhile, the influences of grid number and distribution on compressor performance were investigated, and numerical calculation method was analyzed and validated, through combining with test data. The results obtained show the increase of the grid number has little influence on compressor performance while the grid number of single-passage is above 300,000. The results also show that the numerical calculation mass flow rate of compressor choke situation has a good consistent with test results, and the maximum difference of the diffuser exit pressure between simulation and experiment decrease to 3.5% with the assumption of 6 kPa additional total pressure loss at compressor inlet. The numerical simulation method in this paper can be used to predict compressor performance, and the difference of total pressure ratio between calculation and test is less than 7%, and the total-to-total efficiency also have a good consistent with test.

  16. Reply to Comment by Lu et al. on "An Efficient and Stable Hydrodynamic Model With Novel Source Term Discretization Schemes for Overland Flow and Flood Simulations"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xilin; Liang, Qiuhua; Ming, Xiaodong; Hou, Jingming

    2018-01-01

    This document addresses the comments raised by Lu et al. (2017). Lu et al. (2017) proposed an alternative numerical treatment for implementing the fully implicit friction discretization in Xia et al. (2017). The method by Lu et al. (2017) is also effective, but not necessarily easier to implement or more efficient. The numerical wiggles observed by Lu et al. (2017) do not affect the overall solution accuracy of the surface reconstruction method (SRM). SRM introduces an antidiffusion effect, which may also lead to more accurate numerical predictions than hydrostatic reconstruction (HR) but may be the cause of the numerical wiggles. As suggested by Lu et al. (2017), HR may perform equally well if fine enough grids are used, which has been investigated and recognized in the literature. However, the use of refined meshes in simulations will inevitably increase computational cost and the grid sizes as suggested are too small for real-world applications.

  17. Fully Coupled Simulation of Lithium Ion Battery Cell Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trembacki, Bradley L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murthy, Jayathi Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Scott Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery particle-scale (non-porous electrode) simulations applied to resolved electrode geometries predict localized phenomena and can lead to better informed decisions on electrode design and manufacturing. This work develops and implements a fully-coupled finite volume methodology for the simulation of the electrochemical equations in a lithium-ion battery cell. The model implementation is used to investigate 3D battery electrode architectures that offer potential energy density and power density improvements over traditional layer-by-layer particle bed battery geometries. Advancement of micro-scale additive manufacturing techniques has made it possible to fabricate these 3D electrode microarchitectures. A variety of 3D battery electrode geometries are simulated and compared across various battery discharge rates and length scales in order to quantify performance trends and investigate geometrical factors that improve battery performance. The energy density and power density of the 3D battery microstructures are compared in several ways, including a uniform surface area to volume ratio comparison as well as a comparison requiring a minimum manufacturable feature size. Significant performance improvements over traditional particle bed electrode designs are observed, and electrode microarchitectures derived from minimal surfaces are shown to be superior. A reduced-order volume-averaged porous electrode theory formulation for these unique 3D batteries is also developed, allowing simulations on the full-battery scale. Electrode concentration gradients are modeled using the diffusion length method, and results for plate and cylinder electrode geometries are compared to particle-scale simulation results. Additionally, effective diffusion lengths that minimize error with respect to particle-scale results for gyroid and Schwarz P electrode microstructures are determined.

  18. Simulator experiments: effects of NPP operator experience on performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beare, A.N.; Gray, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments are being conducted on nuclear power plant (NPP) control room training simulators by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, its subcontractor, General Physics Corporation, and participating utilities. The experiments are sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Human Factors and Safeguards Branch, Division of Risk Analysis and Operations, and are a continuation of prior research using simulators, supported by field data collection, to provide a technical basis for NRC human factors regulatory issues concerned with the operational safety of nuclear power plants. During the FY83 research, a simulator experiment was conducted at the control room simulator for a GE boiling water reactor (BWR) NPP. The research subjects were licensed operators undergoing requalification training and shift technical advisors (STAs). This experiment was designed to investigate the effects of (a) senior reactor operator (SRO) experience, (b) operating crew augmentation with an STA and (c) practice, as a crew, upon crew and individual operator performance, in response to anticipated plant transients. The FY84 experiments are a partial replication and extension of the FY83 experiment, but with PWR operators and simulator. Methodology and results to date are reported

  19. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SOLAR COLLECTORS USING A SOLAR SIMULATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Norhafana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar water heating systems is one of the applications of solar energy. One of the components of a solar water heating system is a solar collector that consists of an absorber. The performance of the solar water heating system depends on the absorber in the solar collector. In countries with unsuitable weather conditions, the indoor testing of solar collectors with the use of a solar simulator is preferred. Thus, this study is conducted to use a multilayered absorber in the solar collector of a solar water heating system as well as to evaluate the performance of the solar collector in terms of useful heat of the multilayered absorber using the multidirectional ability of a solar simulator at several values of solar radiation. It is operated at three variables of solar radiation of 400 W/m2, 550 W/m2 and 700 W/m2 and using three different positions of angles at 0º, 45º and 90º. The results show that the multilayer absorber in the solar collector is only able to best adapt at 45° of solar simulator with different values of radiation intensity. At this angle the maximum values of useful heat and temperature difference are achieved. KEYWORDS: solar water heating system; solar collector; multilayered absorber; solar simulator; solar radiation 

  20. Comparison of driving simulator performance and neuropsychological testing in narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotterba, Sylvia; Mueller, Nicole; Leidag, Markus; Widdig, Walter; Rasche, Kurt; Malin, Jean-Pierre; Schultze-Werninghaus, Gerhard; Orth, Maritta

    2004-09-01

    Daytime sleepiness and cataplexy can increase automobile accident rates in narcolepsy. Several countries have produced guidelines for issuing a driving license. The aim of the study was to compare driving simulator performance and neuropsychological test results in narcolepsy in order to evaluate their predictive value regarding driving ability. Thirteen patients with narcolepsy (age: 41.5+/-12.9 years) and 10 healthy control patients (age: 55.1+/-7.8 years) were investigated. By computer-assisted neuropsychological testing, vigilance, alertness and divided attention were assessed. In a driving simulator patients and controls had to drive on a highway for 60 min (mean speed of 100 km/h). Different weather and daytime conditions and obstacles were presented. Epworth Sleepiness Scale-Scores were significantly raised (narcolepsy patients: 16.7+/-5.1, controls: 6.6+/-3.6, P divided attention (56.9+/-25.4) and vigilance (58.7+/-26.8) were in a normal range. There was, however, a high inter-individual difference. There was no correlation between driving performance and neuropsychological test results or ESS Score. Neuropsychological test results did not significantly change in the follow-up. The difficulties encountered by the narcolepsy patient in remaining alert may account for sleep-related motor vehicle accidents. Driving simulator investigations are closely related to real traffic situations than isolated neuropsychological tests. At the present time the driving simulator seems to be a useful instrument judging driving ability especially in cases with ambiguous neuropsychological results.

  1. Fluctuating hydrodynamics for ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaridis, Konstantinos [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Washington State University, Pullman, 99163 (United States); Wickham, Logan [Department of Computer Science, Washington State University, Richland, 99354 (United States); Voulgarakis, Nikolaos, E-mail: n.voulgarakis@wsu.edu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Washington State University, Pullman, 99163 (United States)

    2017-04-25

    We present a mean-field fluctuating hydrodynamics (FHD) method for studying the structural and transport properties of ionic liquids in bulk and near electrified surfaces. The free energy of the system consists of two competing terms: (1) a Landau–Lifshitz functional that models the spontaneous separation of the ionic groups, and (2) the standard mean-field electrostatic interaction between the ions in the liquid. The numerical approach used to solve the resulting FHD-Poisson equations is very efficient and models thermal fluctuations with remarkable accuracy. Such density fluctuations are sufficiently strong to excite the experimentally observed spontaneous formation of liquid nano-domains. Statistical analysis of our simulations provides quantitative information about the properties of ionic liquids, such as the mixing quality, stability, and the size of the nano-domains. Our model, thus, can be adequately parameterized by directly comparing our prediction with experimental measurements and all-atom simulations. Conclusively, this work can serve as a practical mathematical tool for testing various theories and designing more efficient mixtures of ionic liquids. - Highlights: • A new fluctuating hydrodynamics method for ionic liquids. • Description of ionic liquid morphology in bulk and near electrified surfaces. • Direct comparison with experimental measurements.

  2. Performance Analysis of Cloud Computing Architectures Using Discrete Event Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, John C.; Golomb, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing offers the economic benefit of on-demand resource allocation to meet changing enterprise computing needs. However, the flexibility of cloud computing is disadvantaged when compared to traditional hosting in providing predictable application and service performance. Cloud computing relies on resource scheduling in a virtualized network-centric server environment, which makes static performance analysis infeasible. We developed a discrete event simulation model to evaluate the overall effectiveness of organizations in executing their workflow in traditional and cloud computing architectures. The two part model framework characterizes both the demand using a probability distribution for each type of service request as well as enterprise computing resource constraints. Our simulations provide quantitative analysis to design and provision computing architectures that maximize overall mission effectiveness. We share our analysis of key resource constraints in cloud computing architectures and findings on the appropriateness of cloud computing in various applications.

  3. The new rosetta targets observations, simulations and instrument performances

    CERN Document Server

    Epifani, Elena; Palumbo, Pasquale

    2004-01-01

    The Rosetta mission was successfully launched on March 2nd, 2004 for a rendezvous with the short period comet 67PChuryumov-Gerasimenko in 2014 The new baseline mission foresees also a double fly-by with asteroids 21 Lutetia and 2867 Steins, on the way towards the primary target This volume collects papers presented at the workshop on "The NEW Rosetta targets Observations, simulations and instrument performances", held in Capri on October 13-15, 2003 The papers cover the fields of observations of the new Rosetta targets, laboratory experiments and theoretical simulation of cometary processes, and the expected performances of Rosetta experiments Until real operations around 67PChuryumov-Gerasimenko will start in 10 years from now, new astronomical observations, laboratory experiments and theoretical models are required The goals are to increase knowledge about physics and chemistry of comets and to prepare to exploit at best Rosetta data

  4. VINE-A NUMERICAL CODE FOR SIMULATING ASTROPHYSICAL SYSTEMS USING PARTICLES. II. IMPLEMENTATION AND PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Wetzstein, M.; Naab, T.

    2009-01-01

    We continue our presentation of VINE. In this paper, we begin with a description of relevant architectural properties of the serial and shared memory parallel computers on which VINE is intended to run, and describe their influences on the design of the code itself. We continue with a detailed description of a number of optimizations made to the layout of the particle data in memory and to our implementation of a binary tree used to access that data for use in gravitational force calculations and searches for smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) neighbor particles. We describe the modifications to the code necessary to obtain forces efficiently from special purpose 'GRAPE' hardware, the interfaces required to allow transparent substitution of those forces in the code instead of those obtained from the tree, and the modifications necessary to use both tree and GRAPE together as a fused GRAPE/tree combination. We conclude with an extensive series of performance tests, which demonstrate that the code can be run efficiently and without modification in serial on small workstations or in parallel using the OpenMP compiler directives on large-scale, shared memory parallel machines. We analyze the effects of the code optimizations and estimate that they improve its overall performance by more than an order of magnitude over that obtained by many other tree codes. Scaled parallel performance of the gravity and SPH calculations, together the most costly components of most simulations, is nearly linear up to at least 120 processors on moderate sized test problems using the Origin 3000 architecture, and to the maximum machine sizes available to us on several other architectures. At similar accuracy, performance of VINE, used in GRAPE-tree mode, is approximately a factor 2 slower than that of VINE, used in host-only mode. Further optimizations of the GRAPE/host communications could improve the speed by as much as a factor of 3, but have not yet been implemented in VINE

  5. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SOLAR COLLECTORS USING A SOLAR SIMULATOR

    OpenAIRE

    M. Norhafana; Ahmad Faris Ismail; Z. A. A. Majid

    2015-01-01

    Solar water heating systems is one of the applications of solar energy. One of the components of a solar water heating system is a solar collector that consists of an absorber. The performance of the solar water heating system depends on the absorber in the solar collector. In countries with unsuitable weather conditions, the indoor testing of solar collectors with the use of a solar simulator is preferred. Thus, this study is conducted to use a multilayered absorber in the solar collector of...

  6. Sustainable construction building performance simulation and asset and maintenance management

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a collection of recent research works that highlight best practice solutions, case studies and practical advice on the implementation of sustainable construction techniques. It includes a set of new developments in the field of building performance simulation, building sustainability assessment, sustainable management, asset and maintenance management and service-life prediction. Accordingly, the book will appeal to a broad readership of professionals, scientists, students, practitioners, lecturers and other interested parties.

  7. Use of advanced simulations in fuel performance codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Uffelen, P.

    2015-01-01

    The simulation of the cylindrical fuel rod behaviour in a reactor or a storage pool for spent fuel requires a fuel performance code. Such tool solves the equations for the heat transfer, the stresses and strains in fuel and cladding, the evolution of several isotopes and the behaviour of various fission products in the fuel rod. The main equations along with their limitations are briefly described. The current approaches adopted for overcoming these limitations and the perspectives are also outlined. (author)

  8. Hydrodynamic optical soliton tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, P.; Hoefer, M. A.; El, G. A.

    2018-03-01

    A notion of hydrodynamic optical soliton tunneling is introduced in which a dark soliton is incident upon an evolving, broad potential barrier that arises from an appropriate variation of the input signal. The barriers considered include smooth rarefaction waves and highly oscillatory dispersive shock waves. Both the soliton and the barrier satisfy the same one-dimensional defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation, which admits a convenient dispersive hydrodynamic interpretation. Under the scale separation assumption of nonlinear wave (Whitham) modulation theory, the highly nontrivial nonlinear interaction between the soliton and the evolving hydrodynamic barrier is described in terms of self-similar, simple wave solutions to an asymptotic reduction of the Whitham-NLS partial differential equations. One of the Riemann invariants of the reduced modulation system determines the characteristics of a soliton interacting with a mean flow that results in soliton tunneling or trapping. Another Riemann invariant yields the tunneled soliton's phase shift due to hydrodynamic interaction. Soliton interaction with hydrodynamic barriers gives rise to effects that include reversal of the soliton propagation direction and spontaneous soliton cavitation, which further suggest possible methods of dark soliton control in optical fibers.

  9. Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ngada, Narcisse

    2015-06-15

    The complexity and cost of building and running high-power electrical systems make the use of simulations unavoidable. The simulations available today provide great understanding about how systems really operate. This paper helps the reader to gain an insight into simulation in the field of power converters for particle accelerators. Starting with the definition and basic principles of simulation, two simulation types, as well as their leading tools, are presented: analog and numerical simulations. Some practical applications of each simulation type are also considered. The final conclusion then summarizes the main important items to keep in mind before opting for a simulation tool or before performing a simulation.

  10. Robust Multivariable Optimization and Performance Simulation for ASIC Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuMonthier, Jeffrey; Suarez, George

    2013-01-01

    Application-specific-integrated-circuit (ASIC) design for space applications involves multiple challenges of maximizing performance, minimizing power, and ensuring reliable operation in extreme environments. This is a complex multidimensional optimization problem, which must be solved early in the development cycle of a system due to the time required for testing and qualification severely limiting opportunities to modify and iterate. Manual design techniques, which generally involve simulation at one or a small number of corners with a very limited set of simultaneously variable parameters in order to make the problem tractable, are inefficient and not guaranteed to achieve the best possible results within the performance envelope defined by the process and environmental requirements. What is required is a means to automate design parameter variation, allow the designer to specify operational constraints and performance goals, and to analyze the results in a way that facilitates identifying the tradeoffs defining the performance envelope over the full set of process and environmental corner cases. The system developed by the Mixed Signal ASIC Group (MSAG) at the Goddard Space Flight Center is implemented as a framework of software modules, templates, and function libraries. It integrates CAD tools and a mathematical computing environment, and can be customized for new circuit designs with only a modest amount of effort as most common tasks are already encapsulated. Customization is required for simulation test benches to determine performance metrics and for cost function computation.

  11. Simulating the Performance of Ground-Based Optical Asteroid Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Eric J.; Shelly, Frank C.; Gibbs, Alex R.; Grauer, Albert D.; Hill, Richard E.; Johnson, Jess A.; Kowalski, Richard A.; Larson, Stephen M.

    2014-11-01

    We are developing a set of asteroid survey simulation tools in order to estimate the capability of existing and planned ground-based optical surveys, and to test a variety of possible survey cadences and strategies. The survey simulator is composed of several layers, including a model population of solar system objects and an orbital integrator, a site-specific atmospheric model (including inputs for seeing, haze and seasonal cloud cover), a model telescope (with a complete optical path to estimate throughput), a model camera (including FOV, pixel scale, and focal plane fill factor) and model source extraction and moving object detection layers with tunable detection requirements. We have also developed a flexible survey cadence planning tool to automatically generate nightly survey plans. Inputs to the cadence planner include camera properties (FOV, readout time), telescope limits (horizon, declination, hour angle, lunar and zenithal avoidance), preferred and restricted survey regions in RA/Dec, ecliptic, and Galactic coordinate systems, and recent coverage by other asteroid surveys. Simulated surveys are created for a subset of current and previous NEO surveys (LINEAR, Pan-STARRS and the three Catalina Sky Survey telescopes), and compared against the actual performance of these surveys in order to validate the model’s performance. The simulator tracks objects within the FOV of any pointing that were not discovered (e.g. too few observations, too trailed, focal plane array gaps, too fast or slow), thus dividing the population into “discoverable” and “discovered” subsets, to inform possible survey design changes. Ongoing and future work includes generating a realistic “known” subset of the model NEO population, running multiple independent simulated surveys in coordinated and uncoordinated modes, and testing various cadences to find optimal strategies for detecting NEO sub-populations. These tools can also assist in quantifying the efficiency of novel

  12. Predictive neuromechanical simulations indicate why walking performance declines with ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seungmoon; Geyer, Hartmut

    2018-04-01

    Although the natural decline in walking performance with ageing affects the quality of life of a growing elderly population, its physiological origins remain unknown. By using predictive neuromechanical simulations of human walking with age-related neuro-musculo-skeletal changes, we find evidence that the loss of muscle strength and muscle contraction speed dominantly contribute to the reduced walking economy and speed. The findings imply that focusing on recovering these muscular changes may be the only effective way to improve performance in elderly walking. More generally, the work is of interest for investigating the physiological causes of altered gait due to age, injury and disorders. Healthy elderly people walk slower and energetically less efficiently than young adults. This decline in walking performance lowers the quality of life for a growing ageing population, and understanding its physiological origin is critical for devising interventions that can delay or revert it. However, the origin of the decline in walking performance remains unknown, as ageing produces a range of physiological changes whose individual effects on gait are difficult to separate in experiments with human subjects. Here we use a predictive neuromechanical model to separately address the effects of common age-related changes to the skeletal, muscular and nervous systems. We find in computer simulations of this model that the combined changes produce gait consistent with elderly walking and that mainly the loss of muscle strength and mass reduces energy efficiency. In addition, we find that the slower preferred walking speed of elderly people emerges in the simulations when adapting to muscle fatigue, again mainly caused by muscle-related changes. The results suggest that a focus on recovering these muscular changes may be the only effective way to improve performance in elderly walking. © 2018 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2018 The Physiological Society.

  13. Simulations of KSTAR high performance steady state operation scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Yong-Su; Kessel, C.E.; Park, J.M.; Yi, Sumin; Kim, J.Y.; Becoulet, A.; Sips, A.C.C.

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of predictive modelling of high performance steady state operation scenarios in KSTAR. Firstly, the capabilities of steady state operation are investigated with time-dependent simulations using a free-boundary plasma equilibrium evolution code coupled with transport calculations. Secondly, the reproducibility of high performance steady state operation scenarios developed in the DIII-D tokamak, of similar size to that of KSTAR, is investigated using the experimental data taken from DIII-D. Finally, the capability of ITER-relevant steady state operation is investigated in KSTAR. It is found that KSTAR is able to establish high performance steady state operation scenarios; β N above 3, H 98 (y, 2) up to 2.0, f BS up to 0.76 and f NI equals 1.0. In this work, a realistic density profile is newly introduced for predictive simulations by employing the scaling law of a density peaking factor. The influence of the current ramp-up scenario and the transport model is discussed with respect to the fusion performance and non-inductive current drive fraction in the transport simulations. As observed in the experiments, both the heating and the plasma current waveforms in the current ramp-up phase produce a strong effect on the q-profile, the fusion performance and also on the non-inductive current drive fraction in the current flattop phase. A criterion in terms of q min is found to establish ITER-relevant steady state operation scenarios. This will provide a guideline for designing the current ramp-up phase in KSTAR. It is observed that the transport model also affects the predictive values of fusion performance as well as the non-inductive current drive fraction. The Weiland transport model predicts the highest fusion performance as well as non-inductive current drive fraction in KSTAR. In contrast, the GLF23 model exhibits the lowest ones. ITER-relevant advanced scenarios cannot be obtained with the GLF23 model in the conditions given in this work

  14. A theoretical study of hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrojo, S; Benito, Y

    2008-03-01

    The optimization of hydrodynamic cavitation as an AOP requires identifying the key parameters and studying their effects on the process. Specific simulations of hydrodynamic bubbles reveal that time scales play a major role on the process. Rarefaction/compression periods generate a number of opposing effects which have demonstrated to be quantitatively different from those found in ultrasonic cavitation. Hydrodynamic cavitation can be upscaled and offers an energy efficient way of generating cavitation. On the other hand, the large characteristic time scales hinder bubble collapse and generate a low number of cavitation cycles per unit time. By controlling the pressure pulse through a flexible cavitation chamber design these limitations can be partially compensated. The chemical processes promoted by this technique are also different from those found in ultrasonic cavitation. Properties such as volatility or hydrophobicity determine the potential applicability of HC and therefore have to be taken into account.

  15. Small systems – hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bożek, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.bozek@fis.agh.edu.pl

    2016-12-15

    The scenario assuming a collective expansion stage in collisions of small systems, p-A, d-Au, and {sup 3}He-Au is discussed. A review of the observables predicted in relativistic hydrodynamic models in comparison with experimental data is presented, with arguments indicating the presence of collective expansion. The limits of applicability of the hydrodynamic model are addressed. We briefly indicate possible applications of the collective flow in small systems to study the space-time dynamics at very small scales in relativistic collisions.

  16. Alcohol consumption for simulated driving performance: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee-Zavareh, Mohammad Saeid; Salamati, Payman; Ramezani-Binabaj, Mahdi; Saeidnejad, Mina; Rousta, Mansoureh; Shokraneh, Farhad; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol consumption can lead to risky driving and increase the frequency of traffic accidents, injuries and mortalities. The main purpose of our study was to compare simulated driving performance between two groups of drivers, one consumed alcohol and the other not consumed, using a systematic review. In this systematic review, electronic resources and databases including Medline via Ovid SP, EMBASE via Ovid SP, PsycINFO via Ovid SP, PubMed, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINHAL) via EBSCOhost were comprehensively and systematically searched. The randomized controlled clinical trials that compared simulated driving performance between two groups of drivers, one consumed alcohol and the other not consumed, were included. Lane position standard deviation (LPSD), mean of lane position deviation (MLPD), speed, mean of speed deviation (MSD), standard deviation of speed deviation (SDSD), number of accidents (NA) and line crossing (LC) were considered as the main parameters evaluating outcomes. After title and abstract screening, the articles were enrolled for data extraction and they were evaluated for risk of biases. Thirteen papers were included in our qualitative synthesis. All included papers were classified as high risk of biases. Alcohol consumption mostly deteriorated the following performance outcomes in descending order: SDSD, LPSD, speed, MLPD, LC and NA. Our systematic review had troublesome heterogeneity. Alcohol consumption may decrease simulated driving performance in alcohol consumed people compared with non-alcohol consumed people via changes in SDSD, LPSD, speed, MLPD, LC and NA. More well-designed randomized controlled clinical trials are recommended. Copyright © 2017. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Alcohol consumption for simulated driving performance: A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Saeid Rezaee-Zavareh; Payman Salamati; Mahdi Ramezani-Binabaj; Mina Saeidnejad; Mansoureh Rousta; Farhad Shokraneh; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2017-01-01

    Purpose:Alcohol consumption can lead to risky driving and increase the frequency of traffic accidents,injuries and mortalities.The main purpose of our study was to compare simulated driving performance between two groups of drivers,one consumed alcohol and the other not consumed,using a systematic review.Methods:In this systematic review,electronic resources and databases including Medline via Ovid SP,EMBASE via Ovid SP,PsycINFO via Ovid SP,PubMed,Scopus,Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINHAL) via EBSCOhost were comprehensively and systematically searched.The randomized controlled clinical trials that compared simulated driving performance between two groups of drivers,one consumed alcohol and the other not consumed,were included.Lane position standard deviation (LPSD),mean of lane position deviation (MLPD),speed,mean of speed deviation (MSD),standard deviation of speed deviation (SDSD),number of accidents (NA) and line crossing (LC) were considered as the main parameters evaluating outcomes.After title and abstract screening,the articles were enrolled for data extraction and they were evaluated for risk of biases.Results:Thirteen papers were included in our qualitative synthesis.All included papers were classified as high risk of biases.Alcohol consumption mostly deteriorated the following performance outcomes in descending order:SDSD,LPSD,speed,MLPD,LC and NA.Our systematic review had troublesome heterogeneity.Conclusion:Alcohol consumption may decrease simulated driving performance in alcohol consumed people compared with non-alcohol consumed people via changes in SDSD,LPSD,speed,MLPD,LC and NA.More well-designed randomized controlled clinical trials are recommended.

  18. Building Performance Simulation tools for planning of energy efficiency retrofits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondrup, Thomas Fænø; Karlshøj, Jan; Vestergaard, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Designing energy efficiency retrofits for existing buildings will bring environmental, economic, social, and health benefits. However, selecting specific retrofit strategies is complex and requires careful planning. In this study, we describe a methodology for adopting Building Performance...... to energy efficiency retrofits in social housing. To generate energy savings, we focus on optimizing the building envelope. We evaluate alternative building envelope actions using procedural solar radiation and daylight simulations. In addition, we identify the digital information flow and the information...... Simulation (BPS) tools as energy and environmentally conscious decision-making aids. The methodology has been developed to screen buildings for potential improvements and to support the development of retrofit strategies. We present a case study of a Danish renovation project, implementing BPS approaches...

  19. Hybrid Building Performance Simulation Models for Industrial Energy Efficiency Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Smolek

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the challenge of achieving environmental sustainability, industrial production plants, as large contributors to the overall energy demand of a country, are prime candidates for applying energy efficiency measures. A modelling approach using cubes is used to decompose a production facility into manageable modules. All aspects of the facility are considered, classified into the building, energy system, production and logistics. This approach leads to specific challenges for building performance simulations since all parts of the facility are highly interconnected. To meet this challenge, models for the building, thermal zones, energy converters and energy grids are presented and the interfaces to the production and logistics equipment are illustrated. The advantages and limitations of the chosen approach are discussed. In an example implementation, the feasibility of the approach and models is shown. Different scenarios are simulated to highlight the models and the results are compared.

  20. Acoustic performance of industrial mufflers with CAE modeling and simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon Soohong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the noise transmission performance of industrial mufflers widely used in ships based on the CAE modeling and simulation. Since the industrial mufflers have very complicated internal structures, the conventional Transfer Matrix Method (TMM is of limited use. The CAE modeling and simulation is therefore required to incorporate commercial softwares: CATIA for geometry modeling, MSC/PATRAN for FE meshing and LMS/ SYSNOISE for analysis. Main sources of difficulties in this study are led by complicated arrangement of reactive elements, perforated walls and absorption materials. The reactive elements and absorbent materials are modeled by applying boundary conditions given by impedance. The perforated walls are modeled by applying the transfer impedance on the duplicated node mesh. The CAE approach presented in this paper is verified by comparing with the theoretical solution of a concentric-tube resonator and is applied for industrial mufflers.

  1. Acoustic performance of industrial mufflers with CAE modeling and simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soohong Jeon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the noise transmission performance of industrial mufflers widely used in ships based on the CAE modeling and simulation. Since the industrial mufflers have very complicated internal structures, the conventional Transfer Matrix Method (TMM is of limited use. The CAE modeling and simulation is therefore required to incorporate commercial softwares: CATIA for geometry modeling, MSC/PATRAN for FE meshing and LMS/SYSNOISE for analysis. Main sources of difficulties in this study are led by complicated arrangement of reactive ele- ments, perforated walls and absorption materials. The reactive elements and absorbent materials are modeled by applying boundary conditions given by impedance. The perforated walls are modeled by applying the transfer impedance on the duplicated node mesh. The CAE approach presented in this paper is verified by comparing with the theoretical solution of a concentric-tube resonator and is applied for industrial mufflers.

  2. Management of Industrial Performance Indicators: Regression Analysis and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Roberto Hernandez Vergara

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic methods can be used in problem solving and explanation of natural phenomena through the application of statistical procedures. The article aims to associate the regression analysis and systems simulation, in order to facilitate the practical understanding of data analysis. The algorithms were developed in Microsoft Office Excel software, using statistical techniques such as regression theory, ANOVA and Cholesky Factorization, which made it possible to create models of single and multiple systems with up to five independent variables. For the analysis of these models, the Monte Carlo simulation and analysis of industrial performance indicators were used, resulting in numerical indices that aim to improve the goals’ management for compliance indicators, by identifying systems’ instability, correlation and anomalies. The analytical models presented in the survey indicated satisfactory results with numerous possibilities for industrial and academic applications, as well as the potential for deployment in new analytical techniques.

  3. Supernova Hydrodynamics on the Omega Laser. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R. Paul

    2004-01-01

    (B204)The fundamental motivation for our work is that supernovae are not well understood. Recent observations have clarified the depth of our ignorance, by producing observed phenomena that current theory and computer simulations cannot reproduce. Such theories and simulations involve, however, a number of physical mechanisms that have never been studied in isolation. We perform experiments, in compressible hydrodynamics and radiation hydrodynamics, relevant to supernovae and supernova remnants. These experiments produce phenomena in the laboratory that are believed, based on simulations, to be important to astrophysics but that have not been directly observed in either the laboratory or in an astrophysical system. During the period of this grant, we have focused on the scaling of an astrophysically relevant, radiative-precursor shock, on preliminary studies of collapsing radiative shocks, and on the multimode behavior and the three-dimensional, deeply nonlinear evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability at a decelerating, embedded interface. These experiments required strong compression and decompression, strong shocks (Mach ∼10 or greater), flexible geometries, and very smooth laser beams, which means that the 60-beam Omega laser is the only facility capable of carrying out this program

  4. A Numerical Study on Hydrodynamic Interactions between Dynamic Positioning Thrusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Doo Hwa; Lee, Sang Wook [University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, we conducted computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for the unsteady hydrodynamic interaction of multiple thrusters by solving Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. A commercial CFD software, STAR-CCM+ was used for all simulations by employing a ducted thruster model with combination of a propeller and No. 19a duct. A sliding mesh technique was used to treat dynamic motion of propeller rotation and non-conformal hexahedral grid system was considered. Four different combinations in tilting and azimuth angles of the thrusters were considered to investigate the effects on the propulsion performance. We could find that thruster-hull and thruster-thruster interactions has significant effect on propulsion performance and further study will be required for the optimal configurations with the best tilting and relative azimuth angle between thrusters.

  5. Assessment for hydrodynamic masses of HANARO flow tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Cho, Yeong Garp; Kim, Doo Kie; Woo, Jong Sug; Park, Jin Ho

    2000-06-01

    The effect of hydrodynamic masses is investigated in dynamic characteristics and seismic response analyses of the submerged HANARO hexagonal flow tubes. Consistent hydrodynamic masses of the surrounding water are evaluated by the prepared program using the finite element method, in which arbitrary cross-sections of submerged structures and boundary conditions of the surrounding fluid can be considered. Also lumped hydrodynamic masses are calculated using simple formula applied to hexagonal flow tubes in the infinite fluid. Modal analyses and seismic response spectrum analyses were performed using hydrodynamic masses obtained by the finite element method and the simple formula. The results of modal analysis were verified by comparing the results measured from modal tests. And the displacement results of the seismic response spectrum analysis were assessed by comparing the consistent and the lumped hydrodynamic masses obtained by various methods. Finally practical criteria based on parametric studies are proposed as the lumped hydrodynamic masses for HANARO flow tubes.

  6. Assessment for hydrodynamic masses of HANARO flow tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Cho, Yeong Garp; Kim, Doo Kie; Woo, Jong Sug; Park, Jin Ho

    2000-06-01

    The effect of hydrodynamic masses is investigated in dynamic characteristics and seismic response analyses of the submerged HANARO hexagonal flow tubes. Consistent hydrodynamic masses of the surrounding water are evaluated by the prepared program using the finite element method, in which arbitrary cross-sections of submerged structures and boundary conditions of the surrounding fluid can be considered. Also lumped hydrodynamic masses are calculated using simple formula applied to hexagonal flow tubes in the infinite fluid. Modal analyses and seismic response spectrum analyses were performed using hydrodynamic masses obtained by the finite element method and the simple formula. The results of modal analysis were verified by comparing the results measured from modal tests. And the displacement results of the seismic response spectrum analysis were assessed by comparing the consistent and the lumped hydrodynamic masses obtained by various methods. Finally practical criteria based on parametric studies are proposed as the lumped hydrodynamic masses for HANARO flow tubes

  7. Hydrodynamical description of collective flow

    OpenAIRE

    Huovinen, Pasi

    2003-01-01

    I review how hydrodynamical flow is related to the observed flow in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions and how initial conditions, equation of state and freeze-out temperature affect flow in hydrodynamical models.

  8. Dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imshennik, V.S.; Morozov, Yu.I.

    1989-01-01

    Using the comoving reference frame in the general non-inertial case, the relativistic hydrodynamics equations are derived with an account for dissipative effects in the matter. From the entropy production equation, the exact from for the dissipative tensor components is obtained. As a result, the closed system of equations of dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics is obtained in the comoving reference frame as a relativistic generalization of the known Navier-Stokes equations for Lagrange coordinates. Equations of relativistic hydrodynamics with account for dissipative effects in the matter are derived using the assocoated reference system in general non-inertial case. True form of the dissipative tensor components is obtained from entropy production equation. Closed system of equations for dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics is obtained as a result in the assocoated reference system (ARS) - relativistic generalization of well-known Navier-Stokes equations for Lagrange coordinates. Equation system, obtained in this paper for ARS, may be effectively used in numerical models of explosive processes with 10 51 erg energy releases which are characteristic for flashes of supernovae, if white dwarf type compact target suggested as presupernova

  9. Performance demonstration program plan for analysis of simulated headspace gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for analysis of headspace gases will consist of regular distribution and analyses of test standards to evaluate the capability for analyzing VOCs, hydrogen, and methane in the headspace of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles will provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for TRU waste characterization. Laboratory performance will be demonstrated by the successful analysis of blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste drum headspace gases according to the criteria set within the text of this Program Plan. Blind audit samples (hereinafter referred to as PDP samples) will be used as an independent means to assess laboratory performance regarding compliance with the QAPP QAOs. The concentration of analytes in the PDP samples will encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual waste characterization gas samples. Analyses which are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with various regulatory requirements and which are included in the PDP must be performed by laboratories which have demonstrated acceptable performance in the PDP

  10. High performance thermal stress analysis on the earth simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriyuki, Kushida; Hiroshi, Okuda; Genki, Yagawa

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the thermal stress finite element analysis code optimized for the earth simulator was developed. A processor node of which of the earth simulator is the 8-way vector processor, and each processor can communicate using the message passing interface. Thus, there are two ways to parallelize the finite element method on the earth simulator. The first method is to assign one processor for one sub-domain, and the second method is to assign one node (=8 processors) for one sub-domain considering the shared memory type parallelization. Considering that the preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) method, which is one of the suitable linear equation solvers for the large-scale parallel finite element methods, shows the better convergence behavior if the number of domains is the smaller, we have determined to employ PCG and the hybrid parallelization, which is based on the shared and distributed memory type parallelization. It has been said that it is hard to obtain the good parallel or vector performance, since the finite element method is based on unstructured grids. In such situation, the reordering is inevitable to improve the computational performance [2]. In this study, we used three reordering methods, i.e. Reverse Cuthil-McKee (RCM), cyclic multicolor (CM) and diagonal jagged descending storage (DJDS)[3]. RCM provides the good convergence of the incomplete lower-upper (ILU) PCG, but causes the load imbalance. On the other hand, CM provides the good load balance, but worsens the convergence of ILU PCG if the vector length is so long. Therefore, we used the combined-method of RCM and CM. DJDS is the method to store the sparse matrices such that longer vector length can be obtained. For attaining the efficient inter-node parallelization, such partitioning methods as the recursive coordinate bisection (RCM) or MeTIS have been used. Computational performance of the practical large-scale engineering problems will be shown at the meeting. (author)

  11. Validation Hydrodynamic Models of Three Topological Models of Secondary Facultative Ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Aponte-Reyes Alxander

    2014-01-01

    A methodology was developed to analyze boundary conditions, the size of the mesh and the turbulence of a mathematical model of CFD, which could explain hydrodynamic behavior on facultative stabilization ponds, FSP, built to pilot scale: conventional pond, CP, baffled pond, BP, and baffled-mesh pond, BMP. Models dispersion studies were performed in field for validation, taking samples into and out of the FSP, the information was used to carry out CFD model simulations of the three topologies. ...

  12. Assessing performance and validating finite element simulations using probabilistic knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolin, Ronald M.; Rodriguez, E. A. (Edward A.)

    2002-01-01

    Two probabilistic approaches for assessing performance are presented. The first approach assesses probability of failure by simultaneously modeling all likely events. The probability each event causes failure along with the event's likelihood of occurrence contribute to the overall probability of failure. The second assessment method is based on stochastic sampling using an influence diagram. Latin-hypercube sampling is used to stochastically assess events. The overall probability of failure is taken as the maximum probability of failure of all the events. The Likelihood of Occurrence simulation suggests failure does not occur while the Stochastic Sampling approach predicts failure. The Likelihood of Occurrence results are used to validate finite element predictions.

  13. Crystal and molecular simulation of high-performance polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquhoun, H M; Williams, D J

    2000-03-01

    Single-crystal X-ray analyses of oligomeric models for high-performance aromatic polymers, interfaced to computer-based molecular modeling and diffraction simulation, have enabled the determination of a range of previously unknown polymer crystal structures from X-ray powder data. Materials which have been successfully analyzed using this approach include aromatic polyesters, polyetherketones, polythioetherketones, polyphenylenes, and polycarboranes. Pure macrocyclic homologues of noncrystalline polyethersulfones afford high-quality single crystals-even at very large ring sizes-and have provided the first examples of a "protein crystallographic" approach to the structures of conventionally amorphous synthetic polymers.

  14. Eddy current NDE performance demonstrations using simulation tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurice, L.; Costan, V.; Guillot, E.; Thomas, P.

    2013-01-01

    To carry out performance demonstrations of the Eddy-Current NDE processes applied on French nuclear power plants, EDF studies the possibility of using simulation tools as an alternative to measurements on steam generator tube mocks-up. This paper focuses on the strategy led by EDF to assess and use code C armel3D and Civa, on the case of Eddy-Current NDE on wears problem which may appear in the U-shape region of steam generator tubes due to the rubbing of anti-vibration bars.

  15. Simulation of a spintronic transistor: A study of its performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pela, R.R.; Teles, L.K.

    2009-01-01

    We study theoretically the magnetic bipolar transistor, and compare its performance with common bipolar transistor. We present not only the simulation results for the characteristic curves, but also other relevant parameters related with its performance, such as: the current amplification factor, the open-loop gain, the hybrid parameters and the cutoff frequency. We noted that the spin-charge coupling introduces new phenomena that enrich the functionality characteristics of the magnetic bipolar transistor. Among other things, it has an adjustable band structure, which may be modified during the device operation; it exhibits the already known spin-voltaic effect. On the other hand, we observed that it is necessary a large g-factor to analyze the influence of the field B over the transistor. Nevertheless, we consider the magnetic bipolar transistor as a promising device for spintronic applications

  16. Mixed-Language High-Performance Computing for Plasma Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanming Lu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Java is receiving increasing attention as the most popular platform for distributed computing. However, programmers are still reluctant to embrace Java as a tool for writing scientific and engineering applications due to its still noticeable performance drawbacks compared with other programming languages such as Fortran or C. In this paper, we present a hybrid Java/Fortran implementation of a parallel particle-in-cell (PIC algorithm for plasma simulations. In our approach, the time-consuming components of this application are designed and implemented as Fortran subroutines, while less calculation-intensive components usually involved in building the user interface are written in Java. The two types of software modules have been glued together using the Java native interface (JNI. Our mixed-language PIC code was tested and its performance compared with pure Java and Fortran versions of the same algorithm on a Sun E6500 SMP system and a Linux cluster of Pentium~III machines.

  17. A New Model to Simulate Energy Performance of VRF Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Pang, Xiufeng; Schetrit, Oren; Wang, Liping; Kasahara, Shinichi; Yura, Yoshinori; Hinokuma, Ryohei

    2014-03-30

    This paper presents a new model to simulate energy performance of variable refrigerant flow (VRF) systems in heat pump operation mode (either cooling or heating is provided but not simultaneously). The main improvement of the new model is the introduction of the evaporating and condensing temperature in the indoor and outdoor unit capacity modifier functions. The independent variables in the capacity modifier functions of the existing VRF model in EnergyPlus are mainly room wet-bulb temperature and outdoor dry-bulb temperature in cooling mode and room dry-bulb temperature and outdoor wet-bulb temperature in heating mode. The new approach allows compliance with different specifications of each indoor unit so that the modeling accuracy is improved. The new VRF model was implemented in a custom version of EnergyPlus 7.2. This paper first describes the algorithm for the new VRF model, which is then used to simulate the energy performance of a VRF system in a Prototype House in California that complies with the requirements of Title 24 ? the California Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The VRF system performance is then compared with three other types of HVAC systems: the Title 24-2005 Baseline system, the traditional High Efficiency system, and the EnergyStar Heat Pump system in three typical California climates: Sunnyvale, Pasadena and Fresno. Calculated energy savings from the VRF systems are significant. The HVAC site energy savings range from 51 to 85percent, while the TDV (Time Dependent Valuation) energy savings range from 31 to 66percent compared to the Title 24 Baseline Systems across the three climates. The largest energy savings are in Fresno climate followed by Sunnyvale and Pasadena. The paper discusses various characteristics of the VRF systems contributing to the energy savings. It should be noted that these savings are calculated using the Title 24 prototype House D under standard operating conditions. Actual performance of the VRF systems for real

  18. High performance computer code for molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levay, I.; Toekesi, K.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation is a widely used technique for modeling complicated physical phenomena. Since 2005 we are developing a MD simulations code for PC computers. The computer code is written in C++ object oriented programming language. The aim of our work is twofold: a) to develop a fast computer code for the study of random walk of guest atoms in Be crystal, b) 3 dimensional (3D) visualization of the particles motion. In this case we mimic the motion of the guest atoms in the crystal (diffusion-type motion), and the motion of atoms in the crystallattice (crystal deformation). Nowadays, it is common to use Graphics Devices in intensive computational problems. There are several ways to use this extreme processing performance, but never before was so easy to programming these devices as now. The CUDA (Compute Unified Device) Architecture introduced by nVidia Corporation in 2007 is a very useful for every processor hungry application. A Unified-architecture GPU include 96-128, or more stream processors, so the raw calculation performance is 576(!) GFLOPS. It is ten times faster, than the fastest dual Core CPU [Fig.1]. Our improved MD simulation software uses this new technology, which speed up our software and the code run 10 times faster in the critical calculation code segment. Although the GPU is a very powerful tool, it has a strongly paralleled structure. It means, that we have to create an algorithm, which works on several processors without deadlock. Our code currently uses 256 threads, shared and constant on-chip memory, instead of global memory, which is 100 times slower than others. It is possible to implement the total algorithm on GPU, therefore we do not need to download and upload the data in every iteration. On behalf of maximal throughput, every thread run with the same instructions

  19. Instrument performance and simulation verification of the POLAR detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kole, M.; Li, Z. H.; Produit, N.; Tymieniecka, T.; Zhang, J.; Zwolinska, A.; Bao, T. W.; Bernasconi, T.; Cadoux, F.; Feng, M. Z.; Gauvin, N.; Hajdas, W.; Kong, S. W.; Li, H. C.; Li, L.; Liu, X.; Marcinkowski, R.; Orsi, S.; Pohl, M.; Rybka, D.; Sun, J. C.; Song, L. M.; Szabelski, J.; Wang, R. J.; Wang, Y. H.; Wen, X.; Wu, B. B.; Wu, X.; Xiao, H. L.; Xiong, S. L.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, L. Y.; Zhang, S. N.; Zhang, X. F.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zhao, Y.

    2017-11-01

    POLAR is a new satellite-born detector aiming to measure the polarization of an unprecedented number of Gamma-Ray Bursts in the 50-500 keV energy range. The instrument, launched on-board the Tiangong-2 Chinese Space lab on the 15th of September 2016, is designed to measure the polarization of the hard X-ray flux by measuring the distribution of the azimuthal scattering angles of the incoming photons. A detailed understanding of the polarimeter and specifically of the systematic effects induced by the instrument's non-uniformity are required for this purpose. In order to study the instrument's response to polarization, POLAR underwent a beam test at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in France. In this paper both the beam test and the instrument performance will be described. This is followed by an overview of the Monte Carlo simulation tools developed for the instrument. Finally a comparison of the measured and simulated instrument performance will be provided and the instrument response to polarization will be presented.

  20. Autocalibration of a one-dimensional hydrodynamic-ecological model (DYRESM 4.0-CAEDYM 3.1) using a Monte Carlo approach: simulations of hypoxic events in a polymictic lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Liancong; Hamilton, David; Lan, Jia; McBride, Chris; Trolle, Dennis

    2018-03-01

    Automated calibration of complex deterministic water quality models with a large number of biogeochemical parameters can reduce time-consuming iterative simulations involving empirical judgements of model fit. We undertook autocalibration of the one-dimensional hydrodynamic-ecological lake model DYRESM-CAEDYM, using a Monte Carlo sampling (MCS) method, in order to test the applicability of this procedure for shallow, polymictic Lake Rotorua (New Zealand). The calibration procedure involved independently minimizing the root-mean-square error (RMSE), maximizing the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) and Nash-Sutcliffe efficient coefficient (Nr) for comparisons of model state variables against measured data. An assigned number of parameter permutations was used for 10 000 simulation iterations. The "optimal" temperature calibration produced a RMSE of 0.54 °C, Nr value of 0.99, and r value of 0.98 through the whole water column based on comparisons with 540 observed water temperatures collected between 13 July 2007 and 13 January 2009. The modeled bottom dissolved oxygen concentration (20.5 m below surface) was compared with 467 available observations. The calculated RMSE of the simulations compared with the measurements was 1.78 mg L-1, the Nr value was 0.75, and the r value was 0.87. The autocalibrated model was further tested for an independent data set by simulating bottom-water hypoxia events from 15 January 2009 to 8 June 2011 (875 days). This verification produced an accurate simulation of five hypoxic events corresponding to DO < 2 mg L-1 during summer of 2009-2011. The RMSE was 2.07 mg L-1, Nr value 0.62, and r value of 0.81, based on the available data set of 738 days. The autocalibration software of DYRESM-CAEDYM developed here is substantially less time-consuming and more efficient in parameter optimization than traditional manual calibration which has been the standard tool practiced for similar complex water quality models.

  1. Wireless network simulation - Your window on future network performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, E.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes three relevant perspectives on current wireless simulation practices. In order to obtain the key challenges for future network simulations, the characteristics of "beyond 3G" networks are described, including their impact on simulation.

  2. Solar power plant performance evaluation: simulation and experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsheh, E M; Albarbar, A

    2012-01-01

    In this work the performance of solar power plant is evaluated based on a developed model comprise photovoltaic array, battery storage, controller and converters. The model is implemented using MATLAB/SIMULINK software package. Perturb and observe (P and O) algorithm is used for maximizing the generated power based on maximum power point tracker (MPPT) implementation. The outcome of the developed model are validated and supported by a case study carried out using operational 28.8kW grid-connected solar power plant located in central Manchester. Measurements were taken over 21 month's period; using hourly average irradiance and cell temperature. It was found that system degradation could be clearly monitored by determining the residual (the difference) between the output power predicted by the model and the actual measured power parameters. It was found that the residual exceeded the healthy threshold, 1.7kW, due to heavy snow in Manchester last winter. More important, the developed performance evaluation technique could be adopted to detect any other reasons that may degrade the performance of the P V panels such as shading and dirt. Repeatability and reliability of the developed system performance were validated during this period. Good agreement was achieved between the theoretical simulation and the real time measurement taken the online grid connected solar power plant.

  3. Solar power plant performance evaluation: simulation and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsheh, E. M.; Albarbar, A.

    2012-05-01

    In this work the performance of solar power plant is evaluated based on a developed model comprise photovoltaic array, battery storage, controller and converters. The model is implemented using MATLAB/SIMULINK software package. Perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm is used for maximizing the generated power based on maximum power point tracker (MPPT) implementation. The outcome of the developed model are validated and supported by a case study carried out using operational 28.8kW grid-connected solar power plant located in central Manchester. Measurements were taken over 21 month's period; using hourly average irradiance and cell temperature. It was found that system degradation could be clearly monitored by determining the residual (the difference) between the output power predicted by the model and the actual measured power parameters. It was found that the residual exceeded the healthy threshold, 1.7kW, due to heavy snow in Manchester last winter. More important, the developed performance evaluation technique could be adopted to detect any other reasons that may degrade the performance of the P V panels such as shading and dirt. Repeatability and reliability of the developed system performance were validated during this period. Good agreement was achieved between the theoretical simulation and the real time measurement taken the online grid connected solar power plant.

  4. Beyond Hydrodynamic Modeling of AGN Heating in Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsiang-Yi Karen

    Clusters of galaxies hold a unique position in hierarchical structure formation - they are both powerful cosmological probes and excellent astrophysical laboratories. Accurate modeling of the cluster properties is crucial for reducing systematic uncertainties in cluster cosmology. However, theoretical modeling of the intracluster medium (ICM) has long suffered from the "cooling-flow problem" - clusters with short central times or cool cores (CCs) are predicted to host massive inflows of gas that are not observed. Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is by far the most promising heating mechanism to counteract radiative cooling. Recent hydrodynamic simulations have made remarkable progress reproducing properties of the CCs. However, there remain two major questions that cannot be probed using purely hydrodynamic models: (1) what are the roles of cosmic rays (CRs)? (2) how is the existing picture altered when the ICM is modeled as weakly collisional plasma? We propose to move beyond limitations of pure hydrodynamics and progress toward a complete understanding of how AGN jet-inflated bubbles interact with their surroundings and provide heat to the ICM. Our objectives include: (1) understand how CR-dominated bubbles heat the ICM; (2) understand bubble evolution and sound-wave dissipation in the ICM with different assumptions of plasma properties, e.g., collisionality of the ICM, with or without anisotropic transport processes; (3) Develop a subgrid model of AGN heating that can be adopted in cosmological simulations based on state-of-the-art isolated simulations. We will use a combination of analytical calculations and idealized simulations to advance our understanding of each individual physical process. We will then perform the first three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of self-regulated AGN feedback with relevant CR and anisotropic transport processes in order to quantify the amount and distribution of heating from the AGN. Our

  5. Learning through simulated independent practice leads to better future performance in a simulated crisis than learning through simulated supervised practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, A; Silverman, E; Samuelson, S; Katz, D; Lin, H M; Levine, A; DeMaria, S

    2015-05-01

    Anaesthetists may fail to recognize and manage certain rare intraoperative events. Simulation has been shown to be an effective educational adjunct to typical operating room-based education to train for these events. It is yet unclear, however, why simulation has any benefit. We hypothesize that learners who are allowed to manage a scenario independently and allowed to fail, thus causing simulated morbidity, will consequently perform better when re-exposed to a similar scenario. Using a randomized, controlled, observer-blinded design, 24 first-year residents were exposed to an oxygen pipeline contamination scenario, either where patient harm occurred (independent group, n=12) or where a simulated attending anaesthetist intervened to prevent harm (supervised group, n=12). Residents were brought back 6 months later and exposed to a different scenario (pipeline contamination) with the same end point. Participants' proper treatment, time to diagnosis, and non-technical skills (measured using the Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills Checklist, ANTS) were measured. No participants provided proper treatment in the initial exposure. In the repeat encounter 6 months later, 67% in the independent group vs 17% in the supervised group resumed adequate oxygen delivery (P=0.013). The independent group also had better ANTS scores [median (interquartile range): 42.3 (31.5-53.1) vs 31.3 (21.6-41), P=0.015]. There was no difference in time to treatment if proper management was provided [602 (490-820) vs 610 (420-800) s, P=0.79]. Allowing residents to practise independently in the simulation laboratory, and subsequently, allowing them to fail, can be an important part of simulation-based learning. This is not feasible in real clinical practice but appears to have improved resident performance in this study. The purposeful use of independent practice and its potentially negative outcomes thus sets simulation-based learning apart from traditional operating room learning. © The Author

  6. Hydrodynamic Modeling and Its Application in AUC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Mattia; Byron, Olwyn

    2015-01-01

    The hydrodynamic parameters measured in an AUC experiment, s(20,w) and D(t)(20,w)(0), can be used to gain information on the solution structure of (bio)macromolecules and their assemblies. This entails comparing the measured parameters with those that can be computed from usually "dry" structures by "hydrodynamic modeling." In this chapter, we will first briefly put hydrodynamic modeling in perspective and present the basic physics behind it as implemented in the most commonly used methods. The important "hydration" issue is also touched upon, and the distinction between rigid bodies versus those for which flexibility must be considered in the modeling process is then made. The available hydrodynamic modeling/computation programs, HYDROPRO, BEST, SoMo, AtoB, and Zeno, the latter four all implemented within the US-SOMO suite, are described and their performance evaluated. Finally, some literature examples are presented to illustrate the potential applications of hydrodynamics in the expanding field of multiresolution modeling. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Generating performance portable geoscientific simulation code with Firedrake (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, D. A.; Bercea, G.; Cotter, C. J.; Kelly, P. H.; Loriant, N.; Luporini, F.; McRae, A. T.; Mitchell, L.; Rathgeber, F.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation will demonstrate how a change in simulation programming paradigm can be exploited to deliver sophisticated simulation capability which is far easier to programme than are conventional models, is capable of exploiting different emerging parallel hardware, and is tailored to the specific needs of geoscientific simulation. Geoscientific simulation represents a grand challenge computational task: many of the largest computers in the world are tasked with this field, and the requirements of resolution and complexity of scientists in this field are far from being sated. However, single thread performance has stalled, even sometimes decreased, over the last decade, and has been replaced by ever more parallel systems: both as conventional multicore CPUs and in the emerging world of accelerators. At the same time, the needs of scientists to couple ever-more complex dynamics and parametrisations into their models makes the model development task vastly more complex. The conventional approach of writing code in low level languages such as Fortran or C/C++ and then hand-coding parallelism for different platforms by adding library calls and directives forces the intermingling of the numerical code with its implementation. This results in an almost impossible set of skill requirements for developers, who must simultaneously be domain science experts, numericists, software engineers and parallelisation specialists. Even more critically, it requires code to be essentially rewritten for each emerging hardware platform. Since new platforms are emerging constantly, and since code owners do not usually control the procurement of the supercomputers on which they must run, this represents an unsustainable development load. The Firedrake system, conversely, offers the developer the opportunity to write PDE discretisations in the high-level mathematical language UFL from the FEniCS project (http://fenicsproject.org). Non-PDE model components, such as parametrisations

  8. Analysis of TIMS performance subjected to simulated wind blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, S.; Kuo, S.

    1992-01-01

    The results of the performance of the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) when it is subjected to various wind conditions in the laboratory are described. Various wind conditions were simulated using a 24 inch fan or combinations of air jet streams blowing toward either or both of the blackbody surfaces. The fan was used to simulate a large volume of air flow at moderate speeds (up to 30 mph). The small diameter air jets were used to probe TIMS system response in reaction to localized wind perturbations. The maximum nozzle speed of the air jet was 60 mph. A range of wind directions and speeds were set up in the laboratory during the test. The majority of the wind tests were conducted under ambient conditions with the room temperature fluctuating no more than 2 C. The temperature of the high speed air jet was determined to be within 1 C of the room temperature. TIMS response was recorded on analog tape. Additional thermistor readouts of the blackbody temperatures and thermocouple readout of the ambient temperature were recorded manually to be compared with the housekeeping data recorded on the tape. Additional tests were conducted under conditions of elevated and cooled room temperatures. The room temperature was varied between 19.5 to 25.5 C in these tests. The calibration parameters needed for quantitative analysis of TIMS data were first plotted on a scanline-by-scanline basis. These parameters are the low and high blackbody temperature readings as recorded by the TIMS and their corresponding digitized count values. Using these values, the system transfer equations were calculated. This equation allows us to compute the flux for any video count by computing the slope and intercept of the straight line that relates the flux to the digital count. The actual video of the target (the lab floor in this case) was then compared with a simulated target. This simulated target was assumed to be a blackbody at emissivity of .95 degrees and the temperature was

  9. Near peripheral motion contrast threshold predicts older drivers' simulator performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Steven; Gagnon, Sylvain; Collin, Charles; Tabone, Ricardo; Stinchcombe, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Our group has previously demonstrated that peripheral motion contrast threshold (PMCT) is significantly associated with self-reported accident risk of older drivers (questionnaire assessment), and with Useful Field of View(®) subtest 2 (UFOV2). It has not been shown, however, that PMCT is significantly associated with driving performance. Using the method of descending limits (spatial two-alternative forced choice) we assessed motion contrast thresholds of 28 young participants (25-45), and 21 older drivers (63-86) for 0.4 cycle/degree drifting Gabor stimuli at 15° eccentricity and examined whether it was related to performance on a simulated on-road test and to a measure of visual attention (UFOV(®) subtests 2 and 3). Peripheral motion contrast thresholds (PMCT) of younger participants were significantly lower than older participants. PMCT and UFOV2 significantly predicted driving examiners' scores of older drivers' simulator performance, as well as number of crashes. Within the older group, PMCT correlated significantly with UFOV2, UFOV3, and age. Within the younger group, PMCT was not significantly related to either UFOV(®) scores or age. Partial correlations showed that: substantial association between PMCT and UFOV2 was not age-related (within the older driver group); PMCT and UFOV2 tapped a common visual function; and PMCT assessed a component not captured by UFOV2. PMCT is potentially a useful assessment tool for predicting accident risk of older drivers, and for informing efforts to develop effective countermeasures to remediate this functional deficit as much as possible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The RAGE radiation-hydrodynamic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittings, Michael; Clover, Michael; Betlach, Thomas; Byrne, Nelson; Ranta, Dale [Science Applications International Corp. MS A-1, 10260 Campus Point Drive, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Weaver, Robert; Coker, Robert; Dendy, Edward; Hueckstaedt, Robert; New, Kim; Oakes, W Rob [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS T087, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Stefan, Ryan [TaylorMade-adidas Golf, 5545 Fermi Court, Carlsbad, CA 92008-7324 (United States)], E-mail: michael.r.clover@saic.com

    2008-10-01

    We describe RAGE, the 'radiation adaptive grid Eulerian' radiation-hydrodynamics code, including its data structures, its parallelization strategy and performance, its hydrodynamic algorithm(s), its (gray) radiation diffusion algorithm, and some of the considerable amount of verification and validation efforts. The hydrodynamics is a basic Godunov solver, to which we have made significant improvements to increase the advection algorithm's robustness and to converge stiffnesses in the equation of state. Similarly, the radiation transport is a basic gray diffusion, but our treatment of the radiation-material coupling, wherein we converge nonlinearities in a novel manner to allow larger timesteps and more robust behavior, can be applied to any multi-group transport algorithm.

  11. The RAGE radiation-hydrodynamic code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittings, Michael; Clover, Michael; Betlach, Thomas; Byrne, Nelson; Ranta, Dale; Weaver, Robert; Coker, Robert; Dendy, Edward; Hueckstaedt, Robert; New, Kim; Oakes, W Rob; Stefan, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    We describe RAGE, the 'radiation adaptive grid Eulerian' radiation-hydrodynamics code, including its data structures, its parallelization strategy and performance, its hydrodynamic algorithm(s), its (gray) radiation diffusion algorithm, and some of the considerable amount of verification and validation efforts. The hydrodynamics is a basic Godunov solver, to which we have made significant improvements to increase the advection algorithm's robustness and to converge stiffnesses in the equation of state. Similarly, the radiation transport is a basic gray diffusion, but our treatment of the radiation-material coupling, wherein we converge nonlinearities in a novel manner to allow larger timesteps and more robust behavior, can be applied to any multi-group transport algorithm

  12. Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    2014-01-01

    We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well-polarized flocks. The continuum equations controlled by only two dimensionless parameters, orientational inertia and alignment strength, are derived by coarse graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields anisotropic spin waves that mediate the propagation o...

  13. Performance Simulations for a Spaceborne Methane Lidar Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiemle, C.; Kawa, Stephan Randolph; Quatrevalet, Mathieu; Browell, Edward V.

    2014-01-01

    Future spaceborne lidar measurements of key anthropogenic greenhouse gases are expected to close current observational gaps particularly over remote, polar, and aerosol-contaminated regions, where actual in situ and passive remote sensing observation techniques have difficulties. For methane, a "Methane Remote Lidar Mission" was proposed by Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt and Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales in the frame of a German-French climate monitoring initiative. Simulations assess the performance of this mission with the help of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations of the earth's surface albedo and atmospheric optical depth. These are key environmental parameters for integrated path differential absorption lidar which uses the surface backscatter to measure the total atmospheric methane column. Results showthat a lidar with an average optical power of 0.45W at 1.6 µm wavelength and a telescope diameter of 0.55 m, installed on a low Earth orbit platform(506 km), will measure methane columns at precisions of 1.2%, 1.7%, and 2.1% over land, water, and snow or ice surfaces, respectively, for monthly aggregated measurement samples within areas of 50 × 50 km2. Globally, the mean precision for the simulated year 2007 is 1.6%, with a standard deviation of 0.7%. At high latitudes, a lower reflectance due to snow and ice is compensated by denser measurements, owing to the orbital pattern. Over key methane source regions such as densely populated areas, boreal and tropical wetlands, or permafrost, our simulations show that the measurement precision will be between 1 and 2%.

  14. Hydrodynamic analysis of laser-driven cylindrical implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramis, R. [E.T.S.I. Aeronáuticos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain)

    2013-08-15

    Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations are performed to study laser-driven cylindrical implosions in the context of experiments (F. Perez et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 51, 124035 (2009)) carried out at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the framework of the HiPER project. The analysis is carried out by using the 3D version of the hydrocode MULTI (R. Ramis et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 49, 475-505 (1988)). The influence of the main laser parameters on implosion performance and symmetry is consistently studied and compared with the results of 2D analysis. Furthermore, the effects of uncertainties in laser irradiation (pointing, focusing, power balance, and time jitter) on implosion performance (average peak density and temperature) are studied by means of statistical analysis.

  15. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes sample gases of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for analysis. Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility's compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement

  16. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes blind audit samples in a gas matrix for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility's compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document

  17. A coarse-graining approach for molecular simulation that retains the dynamics of the all-atom reference system by implementing hydrodynamic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markutsya, Sergiy [Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Lamm, Monica H., E-mail: mhlamm@iastate.edu [Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2014-11-07

    We report on a new approach for deriving coarse-grained intermolecular forces that retains the frictional contribution that is often discarded by conventional coarse-graining methods. The approach is tested for water and an aqueous glucose solution, and the results from the new implementation for coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation show remarkable agreement with the dynamics obtained from reference all-atom simulations. The agreement between the structural properties observed in the coarse-grained and all-atom simulations is also preserved. We discuss how this approach may be applied broadly to any existing coarse-graining method where the coarse-grained models are rigorously derived from all-atom reference systems.

  18. A coarse-graining approach for molecular simulation that retains the dynamics of the all-atom reference system by implementing hydrodynamic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markutsya, Sergiy; Lamm, Monica H.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a new approach for deriving coarse-grained intermolecular forces that retains the frictional contribution that is often discarded by conventional coarse-graining methods. The approach is tested for water and an aqueous glucose solution, and the results from the new implementation for coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation show remarkable agreement with the dynamics obtained from reference all-atom simulations. The agreement between the structural properties observed in the coarse-grained and all-atom simulations is also preserved. We discuss how this approach may be applied broadly to any existing coarse-graining method where the coarse-grained models are rigorously derived from all-atom reference systems

  19. Heat capacity of liquids: A hydrodynamic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bryk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We study autocorrelation functions of energy, heat and entropy densities obtained by molecular dynamics simulations of supercritical Ar and compare them with the predictions of the hydrodynamic theory. It is shown that the predicted by the hydrodynamic theory single-exponential shape of the entropy density autocorrelation functions is perfectly reproduced for small wave numbers by the molecular dynamics simulations and permits the calculation of the wavenumber-dependent specific heat at constant pressure. The estimated wavenumber-dependent specific heats at constant volume and pressure, Cv(k and Cp(k, are shown to be in the long-wavelength limit in good agreement with the macroscopic experimental values of Cv and Cp for the studied thermodynamic points of supercritical Ar.

  20. Battery Performance Modelling ad Simulation: a Neural Network Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottavianelli, Giuseppe; Donati, Alessandro

    2002-01-01

    This project has developed on the background of ongoing researches within the Control Technology Unit (TOS-OSC) of the Special Projects Division at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) of the European Space Agency. The purpose of this research is to develop and validate an Artificial Neural Network tool (ANN) able to model, simulate and predict the Cluster II battery system's performance degradation. (Cluster II mission is made of four spacecraft flying in tetrahedral formation and aimed to observe and study the interaction between sun and earth by passing in and out of our planet's magnetic field). This prototype tool, named BAPER and developed with a commercial neural network toolbox, could be used to support short and medium term mission planning in order to improve and maximise the batteries lifetime, determining which are the future best charge/discharge cycles for the batteries given their present states, in view of a Cluster II mission extension. This study focuses on the five Silver-Cadmium batteries onboard of Tango, the fourth Cluster II satellite, but time restrains have allowed so far to perform an assessment only on the first battery. In their most basic form, ANNs are hyper-dimensional curve fits for non-linear data. With their remarkable ability to derive meaning from complicated or imprecise history data, ANN can be used to extract patterns and detect trends that are too complex to be noticed by either humans or other computer techniques. ANNs learn by example, and this is why they can be described as an inductive, or data-based models for the simulation of input/target mappings. A trained ANN can be thought of as an "expert" in the category of information it has been given to analyse, and this expert can then be used, as in this project, to provide projections given new situations of interest and answer "what if" questions. The most appropriate algorithm, in terms of training speed and memory storage requirements, is clearly the Levenberg

  1. Behavioral Simulation and Performance Evaluation of Multi-Processor Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausif Mahmood

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of multi-processor architectures requires extensive behavioral simulations to verify the correctness of design and to evaluate its performance. A high level language can provide maximum flexibility in this respect if the constructs for handling concurrent processes and a time mapping mechanism are added. This paper describes a novel technique for emulating hardware processes involved in a parallel architecture such that an object-oriented description of the design is maintained. The communication and synchronization between hardware processes is handled by splitting the processes into their equivalent subprograms at the entry points. The proper scheduling of these subprograms is coordinated by a timing wheel which provides a time mapping mechanism. Finally, a high level language pre-processor is proposed so that the timing wheel and the process emulation details can be made transparent to the user.

  2. Maintenance personnel performance simulation (MAPPS) model: overview and evaluation efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knee, H.E.; Haas, P.M.; Siegel, A.I.; Bartter, W.D.; Wolf, J.J.; Ryan, T.G.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the MAPPS model has been completed and the model is currently undergoing evaluation. These efforts are addressing a number of identified issues concerning practicality, acceptability, usefulness, and validity. Preliminary analysis of the evaluation data that has been collected indicates that MAPPS will provide comprehensive and reliable data for PRA purposes and for a number of other applications. The MAPPS computer simulation model provides the user with a sophisticated tool for gaining insights into tasks performed by NPP maintenance personnel. Its wide variety of input parameters and output data makes it extremely flexible for application to a number of diverse applications. With the demonstration of favorable model evaluation results, the MAPPS model will represent a valuable source of NPP maintainer reliability data and provide PRA studies with a source of data on maintainers that has previously not existed

  3. Using Performance in Multiple Simulated Scenarios to Assess Bronchoscopy Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, Lars; Arendrup, Henrik; Buchwald, Christian von

    2011-01-01

    using a standardized scoring form. Methods: The test was administered on a virtual reality bronchoscopy simulator to a total of 42 test subjects (14 senior consultants, 14 trainees and 14 medical students). The inter-rater reliability of the test procedure was explored according to examination of test......Background: International guidelines suggest that trainees should perform at least 100 flexible bronchoscopies in a supervised setting, but this number is not evidence based. An objective assessment method could provide educational feedback to trainees and help supervisors decide when basic...... competency is established. No former assessment instrument has been able to distinguish between trainees and experts. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the validity and reliability of a new assessment procedure relating to testing operators across multiple tasks with increasing difficulty...

  4. Predictability of Pilot Performance from Simulated to Real Flight in the UH-60 (Black Hawk) Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    keratectomy ( PRK ) and laser in-situ keratomileusis ( LASIK ) procedures to determine compatibility, safety, and efficacy of these procedures for rated Army...performance data. Table B- 1. Simulator and aircraft mean flight performance. LASIK PRK Simulator Aircraft Simulator Aircraft Pre-op 60.81 (2.65) 56.41...12 7. Aircraft vs . Simulator scatter plot, hover turn maneuvers

  5. Inducer Hydrodynamic Load Measurement Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelley, Stephen E.; Zoladz, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has demonstrated two measurement devices for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on fluid machinery. The first - a derivative of the six component wind tunnel balance - senses the forces and moments on the rotating device through a weakened shaft section instrumented with a series of strain gauges. This "rotating balance" was designed to directly measure the steady and unsteady hydrodynamic loads on an inducer, thereby defining both the amplitude and frequency content associated with operating in various cavitation modes. The second device - a high frequency response pressure transducer surface mounted on a rotating component - was merely an extension of existing technology for application in water. MSFC has recently completed experimental evaluations of both the rotating balance and surface-mount transducers in a water test loop. The measurement bandwidth of the rotating balance was severely limited by the relative flexibility of the device itself, resulting in an unexpectedly low structural bending mode and invalidating the higher frequency response data. Despite these limitations, measurements confirmed that the integrated loads on the four-bladed inducer respond to both cavitation intensity and cavitation phenomena. Likewise, the surface-mount pressure transducers were subjected to a range of temperatures and flow conditions in a non-rotating environment to record bias shifts and transfer functions between the transducers and a reference device. The pressure transducer static performance was within manufacturer's specifications and dynamic response accurately followed that of the reference.

  6. Maintenance personnel performance simulation (MAPPS): a model for predicting maintenance performance reliability in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knee, H.E.; Krois, P.A.; Haas, P.M.; Siegel, A.I.; Ryan, T.G.

    1983-01-01

    The NRC has developed a structured, quantitative, predictive methodology in the form of a computerized simulation model for assessing maintainer task performance. Objective of the overall program is to develop, validate, and disseminate a practical, useful, and acceptable methodology for the quantitative assessment of NPP maintenance personnel reliability. The program was organized into four phases: (1) scoping study, (2) model development, (3) model evaluation, and (4) model dissemination. The program is currently nearing completion of Phase 2 - Model Development

  7. Influence of the degree of simplification of the two-phase hydrodynamic model on the simulated behaviour dynamics of a steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, J.F.

    1979-03-01

    The principal simplifications of a mathematical model for the simulation of behaviour dynamics of a two-phase flow with heat exchange are examined, as it appears in a steam generator. The theoretical considerations and numerical solutions permit the evaluation of the validity limits and the influence of these simplifications on the results. (G.T.H.)

  8. Towards granular hydrodynamics in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, E.L.; Zhou, T.; Ben-Naim, E.; Ben-Naim, E.

    1997-01-01

    We study steady-state properties of inelastic gases in two dimensions in the presence of an energy source. We generalize previous hydrodynamic treatments to situations where high and low density regions coexist. The theoretical predictions compare well with numerical simulations in the nearly elastic limit. It is also seen that the system can achieve a nonequilibrium steady state with asymmetric velocity distributions, and we discuss the conditions under which such situations occur. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  9. Comparing the performances of circular ponds with different impellers by CFD simulation and microalgae culture experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chen; Huang, Jianke; Ye, Chunyu; Cheng, Wenchao; Chen, Jianpei; Li, Yuanguang

    2015-07-01

    In this study, a numerical simulation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of circular ponds with three different impellers (hydrofoil, four-pitched-blade turbine, and grid plate). The reliability of the CFD model was validated by particle image velocimetry (PIV). Hydrodynamic analyses were conducted to evaluate the average velocity magnitude along the light direction (Uz), turbulence properties, average shear stress, pressure loss and the volume percentage of dead zone inside circular ponds. The simulation results showed that Uz value of hydrofoil was 58.9, 40.3, and 28.8% higher than those of grid plate with single arm, grid plate with double arms and four-pitched blade turbines in small-scale circular ponds, respectively. In addition, hydrofoil impeller with down-flow operation had outstanding mixing characteristics. Lastly, the results of Chlorella pyrenoidosa cultivation experiments indicated that the biomass concentration of hydrofoil impeller with down-flow operation was 65.2 and 88.8% higher than those of grid plate with double arms and four-pitched-blade turbine, respectively. Therefore, the optimal circular pond mixing system for microalgae cultivation involved a hydrofoil impeller with down-flow operation.

  10. Hydrodynamic relaxations in dissipative particle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J. S.; Greenfield, Michael L.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the dynamics of relaxation phenomena in the standard dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) model [R. D. Groot and P. B. Warren, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4423 (1997)]. Using fluctuating hydrodynamics as the framework of the investigation, we focus on the collective transverse and longitudinal dynamics. It is shown that classical hydrodynamic theory predicts the transverse dynamics at relatively low temperatures very well when compared to simulation data; however, the theory predictions are, on the same length scale, less accurate for higher temperatures. The agreement with hydrodynamics depends on the definition of the viscosity, and here we find that the transverse dynamics are independent of the dissipative and random shear force contributions to the stress. For high temperatures, the spectrum for the longitudinal dynamics is dominated by the Brillouin peak for large length scales and the relaxation is therefore governed by sound wave propagation and is athermal. This contrasts the results at lower temperatures and small length scale, where the thermal process is clearly present in the spectra. The DPD model, at least qualitatively, re-captures the underlying hydrodynamical mechanisms, and quantitative agreement is excellent at intermediate temperatures for the transverse dynamics.

  11. Hydrodynamic behavior of a bare rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartzis, J.G.; Todreas, N.E.

    1977-06-01

    The temperature distribution within the rod bundle of a nuclear reactor is of major importance in nuclear reactor design. However temperature information presupposes knowledge of the hydrodynamic behavior of the coolant which is the most difficult part of the problem due to complexity of the turbulence phenomena. In the present work a 2-equation turbulence model--a strong candidate for analyzing actual three dimensional turbulent flows--has been used to predict fully developed flow of infinite bare rod bundle of various aspect ratios (P/D). The model has been modified to take into account anisotropic effects of eddy viscosity. Secondary flow calculations have been also performed although the model seems to be too rough to predict the secondary flow correctly. Heat transfer calculations have been performed to confirm the importance of anisotropic viscosity in temperature predictions. All numerical calculations for flow and heat have been performed by two computer codes based on the TEACH code. Experimental measurements of the distribution of axial velocity, turbulent axial velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and radial Reynolds stresses were performed in the developing and fully developed regions. A 2-channel Laser Doppler Anemometer working on the Reference mode with forward scattering was used to perform the measurements in a simulated interior subchannel of a triangular rod array with P/D = 1.124. Comparisons between the analytical results and the results of this experiment as well as other experimental data in rod bundle array available in literature are presented. The predictions are in good agreement with the results for the high Reynolds numbers

  12. MATLAB Simulation of Photovoltaic and Photovoltaic/Thermal Systems Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Farah H. M.; Husaini, Yusnira

    2018-03-01

    The efficiency of the photovoltaic reduces when the photovoltaic cell temperature increased due to solar irradiance. One solution is come up with the cooling system photovoltaic system. This combination is forming the photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) system. Not only will it generate electricity also heat at the same time. The aim of this research is to focus on the modeling and simulation of photovoltaic (PV) and photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) electrical performance by using single-diode equivalent circuit model. Both PV and PV/T models are developed in Matlab/Simulink. By providing the cooling system in PV/T, the efficiency of the system can be increased by decreasing the PV cell temperature. The maximum thermal, electrical and total efficiency values of PV/T in the present research are 35.18%, 15.56% and 50.74% at solar irradiance of 400 W/m2, mass flow rate of 0.05kgs-1 and inlet temperature of 25 °C respectively has been obtained. The photovoltaic-thermal shows that the higher efficiency performance compared to the photovoltaic system.

  13. Analysis of 3-dimensional Hydro-dynamical Model Simulation in the Gulf of Kutch, India and Its Comparison with Satellite Data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Osawa, T.; Zhao, C.; Kunte, P.D.; Ae, L.S.; Hara, M.; Moriyama, T.

    temperature, relative humidity and cloud fraction are obtained from Da Silva et al. (1994) climatic data sets from 1984-1991. Figure 2b shows the air temperature and the relative humidity above sea surface, and we can see that the temperature changes from 22... to monitor the variation of environment in the enclosed Gulf. Satellite data could provide cloud fraction from NOAA/AVHRR or other meteorological satellites. Making full use of satellite observations and combining with numerical model simulation will give...

  14. Equipment and performance upgrade of compact nuclear simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Chang; Kwon, Kee Choon; Lee, Dong Young; Cha, Kyung Ho; Park, Won Man; Song, Soon Ja; Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Seok; Moon, Byung Sou; Ham, Chang Shik; Seh, Kyung Won; Joo, Young Chang; Lee, Eui Jin

    1999-12-01

    We developed techniques for upgrading nuclear power plant simulators that lost some function due to aging and obsolescence of parts. This project will provide a guidance for resolving the problems with aged simulators. We transplanted the simulation code operated in Macro-VAX II into the HP workstation with operating system version 10.20. If further research is proceeded, it will be possible to build simulator system on PCs. (author)

  15. Automatic, unstructured mesh optimization for simulation and assessment of tide- and surge-driven hydrodynamics in a longitudinal estuary: St. Johns River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacopoulos, Peter

    2018-05-01

    A localized truncation error analysis with complex derivatives (LTEA+CD) is applied recursively with advanced circulation (ADCIRC) simulations of tides and storm surge for finite element mesh optimization. Mesh optimization is demonstrated with two iterations of LTEA+CD for tidal simulation in the lower 200 km of the St. Johns River, located in northeast Florida, and achieves more than an over 50% decrease in the number of mesh nodes, relating to a twofold increase in efficiency, at a zero cost to model accuracy. The recursively generated meshes using LTEA+CD lead to successive reductions in the global cumulative truncation error associated with the model mesh. Tides are simulated with root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.09-0.21 m and index of agreement (IA) values generally in the 80s and 90s percentage ranges. Tidal currents are simulated with RMSE of 0.09-0.23 m s-1 and IA values of 97% and greater. Storm tide due to Hurricane Matthew 2016 is simulated with RMSE of 0.09-0.33 m and IA values of 75-96%. Analysis of the LTEA+CD results shows the M2 constituent to dominate the node spacing requirement in the St. Johns River, with the M4 and M6 overtides and the STEADY constituent contributing some. Friction is the predominant physical factor influencing the target element size distribution, especially along the main river stem, while frequency (inertia) and Coriolis (rotation) are supplementary contributing factors. The combination of interior- and boundary-type computational molecules, providing near-full coverage of the model domain, renders LTEA+CD an attractive mesh generation/optimization tool for complex coastal and estuarine domains. The mesh optimization procedure using LTEA+CD is automatic and extensible to other finite element-based numerical models. Discussion is provided on the scope of LTEA+CD, the starting point (mesh) of the procedure, the user-specified scaling of the LTEA+CD results, and the iteration (termination) of LTEA+CD for mesh optimization.

  16. A high-performance model for shallow-water simulations in distributed and heterogeneous architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Daniel; Canelas, Ricardo B.; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2017-04-01

    One of the most common challenges in hydrodynamic modelling is the trade off one must make between highly resolved simulations and the time required for their computation. In the particular case of urban floods, modelers are often forced to simplify the complex geometries of the problem, or to implicitly include some of its hydrodynamic effects, due to the typically very large spatial scales involved and limited computational resources. At CEris - Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa - the STAV-2D shallow-water model, particularly suited for strong transient flows in complex and dynamic geometries, has been under development for the past recent years (Canelas et al., 2013 & Conde et al., 2013). The model is based on an explicit, first-order 2DH finite-volume discretization scheme for unstructured triangular meshes, in which a flux-splitting technique is paired with a reviewed Roe-Riemann solver, yielding a model applicable to discontinuous flows over time-evolving geometries. STAV-2D features solid transport in both Euleran and Lagrangian forms, with the first aiming at describing the transport of fine natural sediments and the latter aimed at large individual debris. The model has been validated with theoretical solutions and laboratory experiments (Canelas et al., 2013 & Conde et al., 2015). This work presents our most recent effort in STAV-2D: the re-design of the code in a modern Object-Oriented parallel framework for heterogeneous computations in CPUs and GPUs. The programming language of choice for this re-design was C++, due to its wide support of established and emerging parallel programming interfaces. The current implementation of STAV-2D provides two different levels of parallel granularity: inter-node and intra-node. Inter-node parallelism is achieved by distributing a simulation across a set of worker nodes, with communication between nodes being explicitly managed through MPI. At this level, the main difficulty is associated with the

  17. Frequency-dependent hydrodynamic interaction between two solid spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Gerhard; Schmid, Friederike

    2017-12-01

    Hydrodynamic interactions play an important role in many areas of soft matter science. In simulations with implicit solvent, various techniques such as Brownian or Stokesian dynamics explicitly include hydrodynamic interactions a posteriori by using hydrodynamic diffusion tensors derived from the Stokes equation. However, this equation assumes the interaction to be instantaneous which is an idealized approximation and only valid on long time scales. In the present paper, we go one step further and analyze the time-dependence of hydrodynamic interactions between finite-sized particles in a compressible fluid on the basis of the linearized Navier-Stokes equation. The theoretical results show that at high frequencies, the compressibility of the fluid has a significant impact on the frequency-dependent pair interactions. The predictions of hydrodynamic theory are compared to molecular dynamics simulations of two nanocolloids in a Lennard-Jones fluid. For this system, we reconstruct memory functions by extending the inverse Volterra technique. The simulation data agree very well with the theory, therefore, the theory can be used to implement dynamically consistent hydrodynamic interactions in the increasingly popular field of non-Markovian modeling.

  18. Efficient performance simulation of class D amplifier output stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, Flemming; Risbo, Lars; Andreani, Pietro

    2005-01-01

    Straightforward simulation of amplifier distortion involves transient simulation of operation on a sine wave input signal, and a subsequent FFT of the output voltage. This approach is very slow on class D amplifiers, since the switching behavior forces simulation time steps that are many orders...... of magnitude smaller than the duration of one period of an audio sine wave. This work presents a method of simulating the amplifier transfer characteristic using a minimum amount of simulation time, and then deriving THD from the results....

  19. Fish Pectoral Fin Hydrodynamics; Part III: Low Dimensional Models via POD Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurttas, M.; Madden, P.

    2005-11-01

    The highly complex kinematics of the pectoral fin and the resulting hydrodynamics does not lend itself easily to analysis based on simple notions of pitching/heaving/paddling kinematics or lift/drag based propulsive mechanisms. A more inventive approach is needed to dissect the fin gait and gain insight into the hydrodynamic performance of the pectoral fin. The focus of the current work is on the hydrodynamics of the pectoral fin of a bluegill sunfish in steady forward motion. The 3D, time-dependent fin kinematics is obtained via a stereo-videographic technique. We employ proper orthogonal decomposition to extract the essential features of the fin gait and then use CFD to examine the hydrodynamics of simplified gaits synthesized from the POD modes. The POD spectrum shows that the first two, three and five POD modes capture 55%, 67%, and 80% of the motion respectively. The first three modes are in particular highly distinct: Mode-1 is a ``cupping'' motion where the fin cups forward as it is abducted; Mode-2 is an ``expansion'' motion where the fin expands to present a larger area during adduction and finally Mode-3 involves a ``spanwise flick'' of the dorsal edge of the fin. Numerical simulation of flow past fin gaits synthesized from these modes lead to insights into the mechanisms of thrust production; these are discussed in detail.

  20. Titan's hydrodynamically escaping atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Darrell F.

    2008-02-01

    The upper atmosphere of Titan is currently losing mass at a rate ˜(4-5)×10 amus, by hydrodynamic escape as a high density, slow outward expansion driven principally by solar UV heating by CH 4 absorption. The hydrodynamic mass loss is essentially CH 4 and H 2 escape. Their combined escape rates are restricted by power limitations from attaining their limiting rates (and limiting fluxes). Hence they must exhibit gravitational diffusive separation in the upper atmosphere with increasing mixing ratios to eventually become major constituents in the exosphere. A theoretical model with solar EUV heating by N 2 absorption balanced by HCN rotational line cooling in the upper thermosphere yields densities and temperatures consistent with the Huygens Atmospheric Science Investigation (HASI) data [Fulchignoni, M., and 42 colleagues, 2005. Nature 438, 785-791], with a peak temperature of ˜185-190 K between 3500-3550 km. This model implies hydrodynamic escape rates of ˜2×10 CHs and 5×10 Hs, or some other combination with a higher H 2 escape flux, much closer to its limiting value, at the expense of a slightly lower CH 4 escape rate. Nonthermal escape processes are not required to account for the loss rates of CH 4 and H 2, inferred by the Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements [Yelle, R.V., Borggren, N., de la Haye, V., Kasprzak, W.T., Niemann, H.B., Müller-Wodarg, I., Waite Jr., J.H., 2006. Icarus 182, 567-576].

  1. How to fake hydrodynamic signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romatschke, Paul [Department of Physics, 390 UCB, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States); Center for Theory of Quantum Matter, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Flow signatures in experimental data from relativistic ion collisions, are usually interpreted as a fingerprint of the presence of a hydrodynamic phase during the evolution of these systems. I review some theoretical ideas to ‘fake’ this hydrodynamic behavior in p+A and A+A collisions. I find that transverse flow and femtoscopic measurements can easily be forged through non-hydrodynamic evolution, while large elliptic flow requires some non-vanishing interactions in the hot phase.

  2. Insights into earthquake hazard map performance from shaking history simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S.; Vanneste, K.; Camelbeeck, T.; Vleminckx, B.

    2017-12-01

    Why recent large earthquakes caused shaking stronger than predicted by earthquake hazard maps is under debate. This issue has two parts. Verification involves how well maps implement probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) ("have we built the map right?"). Validation asks how well maps forecast shaking ("have we built the right map?"). We explore how well a map can ideally perform by simulating an area's shaking history and comparing "observed" shaking to that predicted by a map generated for the same parameters. The simulations yield shaking distributions whose mean is consistent with the map, but individual shaking histories show large scatter. Infrequent large earthquakes cause shaking much stronger than mapped, as observed. Hence, PSHA seems internally consistent and can be regarded as verified. Validation is harder because an earthquake history can yield shaking higher or lower than that predicted while being consistent with the hazard map. The scatter decreases for longer observation times because the largest earthquakes and resulting shaking are increasingly likely to have occurred. For the same reason, scatter is much less for the more active plate boundary than for a continental interior. For a continental interior, where the mapped hazard is low, even an M4 event produces exceedances at some sites. Larger earthquakes produce exceedances at more sites. Thus many exceedances result from small earthquakes, but infrequent large ones may cause very large exceedances. However, for a plate boundary, an M6 event produces exceedance at only a few sites, and an M7 produces them in a larger, but still relatively small, portion of the study area. As reality gives only one history, and a real map involves assumptions about more complicated source geometries and occurrence rates, which are unlikely to be exactly correct and thus will contribute additional scatter, it is hard to assess whether misfit between actual shaking and a map — notably higher

  3. Modeling hydrodynamic cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P.S.; Pandit, A.B. [Mumbai Univ. (India). Chemical Engineering Div.

    1999-12-01

    Cavitation as a source and method of energy input for chemical processing is increasingly studied due to its ability to generate localized high temperatures and pressures under nearly ambient conditions. Compared to cavitation generated by ultrasound, hydrodynamic cavitation has been proved to be a very energy-efficient alternative. A simple and unified model has been developed to study the cavitation phenomena in hydraulic systems with emphasis on the venturi tube and high-speed homogenizer. The model has been found to be satisfactory in explaining the effect of operating variables and equipment geometry on two different modes of cavitation generation qualitatively and in some cases quantitatively. (orig.)

  4. Hydrodynamics of Ship Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslin, John P.; Andersen, Poul

    This book deals with flows over propellers operating behind ships, and the hydrodynamic forces and moments which the propeller generates on the shaft and on the ship hull.The first part of the text is devoted to fundamentals of the flow about hydrofoil sections (with and without cavitation...... of an intermittently cavitating propeller in a wake and the pressures and forces it exerts on the shaft and on the ship hull is examined. A final chapter discusses the optimization of efficiency of compound propulsors. The authors have taken care to clearly describe physical concepts and mathematical steps. Appendices...

  5. Foundations of radiation hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mihalas, Dimitri

    1999-01-01

    Radiation hydrodynamics is a broad subject that cuts across many disciplines in physics and astronomy: fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, kinetic theory, and radiative transfer, among others. The theory developed in this book by two specialists in the field can be applied to the study of such diverse astrophysical phenomena as stellar winds, supernova explosions, and the initial phases of cosmic expansion, as well as the physics of laser fusion and reentry vehicles. As such, it provides students with the basic tools for research on radiating flows.Largely self-contained,

  6. Numerical Hydrodynamics and Magnetohydrodynamics in General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Font José A.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comprehensive overview of numerical hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD in general relativity. Some significant additions have been incorporated with respect to the previous two versions of this review (2000, 2003, most notably the coverage of general-relativistic MHD, a field in which remarkable activity and progress has occurred in the last few years. Correspondingly, the discussion of astrophysical simulations in general-relativistic hydrodynamics is enlarged to account for recent relevant advances, while those dealing with general-relativistic MHD are amply covered in this review for the first time. The basic outline of this article is nevertheless similar to its earlier versions, save for the addition of MHD-related issues throughout. Hence, different formulations of both the hydrodynamics and MHD equations are presented, with special mention of conservative and hyperbolic formulations well adapted to advanced numerical methods. A large sample of numerical approaches for solving such hyperbolic systems of equations is discussed, paying particular attention to solution procedures based on schemes exploiting the characteristic structure of the equations through linearized Riemann solvers. As previously stated, a comprehensive summary of astrophysical simulations in strong gravitational fields is also presented. These are detailed in three basic sections, namely gravitational collapse, black-hole accretion, and neutron-star evolutions; despite the boundaries, these sections may (and in fact do overlap throughout the discussion. The material contained in these sections highlights the numerical challenges of various representative simulations. It also follows, to some extent, the chronological development of the field, concerning advances in the formulation of the gravitational field, hydrodynamics and MHD equations and the numerical methodology designed to solve them. To keep the length of this article reasonable

  7. Development of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics for Flow in Complex Geometries and Application of Open Source Software for the Simulation of Turbulent Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obeidat, Anas Hassan MohD

    devel-oping a computational method which can deal with complex fluid structure, simulate complex geometers that change topology is particular challenging as the connectivity of the computational domain may change dynamically, and still eÿcient is important. In this thesis we are presenting a remeshed...... engines removes combustion gases from the engine cylinder and fills up the cylinder with the fresh air charge for the next cycle. Understanding the scavenging flow is crucial for the development of such engines, since it a˙ects fuel consumption, engine cooling and production of pollutants. We consider...

  8. Computational hydrodynamic comparison of a mini vessel and a USP 2 dissolution testing system to predict the dynamic operating conditions for similarity of dissolution performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Bredael, Gerard; Armenante, Piero M

    2018-03-25

    The hydrodynamic characteristics of a mini vessel and a USP 2 dissolution testing system were obtained and compared to predict the tablet-liquid mass transfer coefficient from velocity distributions near the tablet and establish the dynamic operating conditions under which dissolution in mini vessels could be conducted to generate concentration profiles similar to those in the USP 2. Velocity profiles were obtained experimentally using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to predict the velocity distribution and strain rate around a model tablet. A CFD-based mass transfer model was also developed. When plotted against strain rate, the predicted tablet-liquid mass transfer coefficient was found to be independent of the system where it was obtained, implying that a tablet would dissolve at the same rate in both systems provided that the concentration gradient between the tablet surface and the bulk is the same, the tablet surface area per unit liquid volume is identical, and the two systems are operated at the appropriate agitation speeds specified in this work. The results of this work will help dissolution scientists operate mini vessels so as to predict the dissolution profiles in the USP 2, especially during the early stages of drug development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrodynamic performance of a single-use aerated stirred bioreactor in animal cell culture: applications of tomography, dynamic gas disengagement (DGD), and CFD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemzadeh, Argang; Elias, Cynthia; Tamer, Melih; Ein-Mozaffari, Farhad

    2018-05-01

    The hydrodynamics of gas-liquid two-phase flow in a single-use bioreactor were investigated in detail both experimentally and numerically. Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) and dynamic gas disengagement (DGD) combined with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were employed to assess the effect of the volumetric gas flow rate and impeller speed on the gas-liquid flow field, local and global gas holdup values, and Sauter mean bubble diameter. From the results obtained from DGD coupled with ERT, the bubble sizes were determined. The experimental data indicated that the total gas holdup values increased with increasing both the rotational speed of impeller and volumetric gas flow rate. Moreover, the analysis of the flow field generated inside the aerated stirred bioreactor was conducted using CFD results. Overall, a more uniform distribution of the gas holdup was obtained at impeller speeds ≥ 100 rpm for volumetric gas flow rates ≥ 1.6 × 10 -5  m 3 /s.

  10. Simulation of hydrodynamic effects of salt rejection due to permafrost. Hydrogeological numerical model of density-driven mixing, at a regional scale, due to a high salinity pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidstrand, Patrik; Svensson, Urban; Follin, Sven

    2006-10-01

    The main objective of this study is to support the safety assessment of the investigated candidate sites concerning hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical issues related to permafrost. However, a more specific objective of the study is to improve the assessment of processes in relation to permafrost scenarios. The model is based on a mathematical model that includes Darcy velocities, mass conservation, matrix diffusion, and salinity distribution. Gravitational effects are thus fully accounted for. A regional groundwater flow model (POM v1.1, Simpevarp) was used as basis for the simulations. The main results of the model include salinity distributions in time. The general conclusion is that density-driven mixing processes are contained within more permeable deformation zones and that these processes are fast as compared with preliminary permafrost growth rates. The results of the simulation suggest that a repository volume in the rock mass in-between the deterministic deformation zones, approximately 150 m below the permafrost will not experience a high salinity situation due to the salt rejection process

  11. Simulations of backgate sandwich nanowire MOSFETs with improved device performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hengliang; Zhu Huilong; Zhong Jian; Ma Xiaolong; Wei Xing; Zhao Chao; Chen Dapeng; Ye Tianchun

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel backgate sandwich nanowire MOSFET (SNFET), which offers the advantages of ETSOI (dynamic backgate voltage controllability) and nanowire FETs (good short channel effect). A backgate is used for threshold voltage (V t ) control of the SNFET. Compared with a backgate FinFET with a punch-through stop layer (PTSL), the SNFET possesses improved device performance. 3D device simulations indicate that the SNFET has a three times larger overdrive current, a ∼75% smaller off leakage current, and reduced subthreshold swing (SS) and DIBL than those of a backgate FinFET when the nanowire (NW) and the fin are of equal width. A new process flow to fabricate the backgate SNFET is also proposed in this work. Our analytical model suggests that V t control by the backgate can be attributed to the capacitances formed by the frontgate, NW, and backgate. The SNFET devices are compatible with the latest state-of-the-art high-k/metal gate CMOS technology with the unique capability of independent backgate control for nFETs and pFETs, which is promising for sub-22 nm scaling down. (semiconductor devices)

  12. Autocalibration of a one-dimensional hydrodynamic-ecological model (DYRESM 4.0-CAEDYM 3.1 using a Monte Carlo approach: simulations of hypoxic events in a polymictic lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Luo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Automated calibration of complex deterministic water quality models with a large number of biogeochemical parameters can reduce time-consuming iterative simulations involving empirical judgements of model fit. We undertook autocalibration of the one-dimensional hydrodynamic-ecological lake model DYRESM-CAEDYM, using a Monte Carlo sampling (MCS method, in order to test the applicability of this procedure for shallow, polymictic Lake Rotorua (New Zealand. The calibration procedure involved independently minimizing the root-mean-square error (RMSE, maximizing the Pearson correlation coefficient (r and Nash–Sutcliffe efficient coefficient (Nr for comparisons of model state variables against measured data. An assigned number of parameter permutations was used for 10 000 simulation iterations. The "optimal" temperature calibration produced a RMSE of 0.54 °C, Nr value of 0.99, and r value of 0.98 through the whole water column based on comparisons with 540 observed water temperatures collected between 13 July 2007 and 13 January 2009. The modeled bottom dissolved oxygen concentration (20.5 m below surface was compared with 467 available observations. The calculated RMSE of the simulations compared with the measurements was 1.78 mg L−1, the Nr value was 0.75, and the r value was 0.87. The autocalibrated model was further tested for an independent data set by simulating bottom-water hypoxia events from 15 January 2009 to 8 June 2011 (875 days. This verification produced an accurate simulation of five hypoxic events corresponding to DO  <  2 mg L−1 during summer of 2009–2011. The RMSE was 2.07 mg L−1, Nr value 0.62, and r value of 0.81, based on the available data set of 738 days. The autocalibration software of DYRESM-CAEDYM developed here is substantially less time-consuming and more efficient in parameter optimization than traditional manual calibration which has been the standard tool practiced for similar

  13. Nanoscale hydrodynamics near solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Diego; de la Torre, J. A.; Duque-Zumajo, D.; Español, Pep; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Chejne, Farid

    2018-02-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) is a successful and well-established theory for the study of the structure of simple and complex fluids at equilibrium. The theory has been generalized to dynamical situations when the underlying dynamics is diffusive as in, for example, colloidal systems. However, there is no such a clear foundation for Dynamic DFT (DDFT) for the case of simple fluids in contact with solid walls. In this work, we derive DDFT for simple fluids by including not only the mass density field but also the momentum density field of the fluid. The standard projection operator method based on the Kawasaki-Gunton operator is used for deriving the equations for the average value of these fields. The solid is described as featureless under the assumption that all the internal degrees of freedom of the solid relax much faster than those of the fluid (solid elasticity is irrelevant). The fluid moves according to a set of non-local hydrodynamic equations that include explicitly the forces due to the solid. These forces are of two types, reversible forces emerging from the free energy density functional, and accounting for impenetrability of the solid, and irreversible forces that involve the velocity of both the fluid and the solid. These forces are localized in the vicinity of the solid surface. The resulting hydrodynamic equations should allow one to study dynamical regimes of simple fluids in contact with solid objects in isothermal situations.

  14. Anisotropic nonequilibrium hydrodynamic attractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Michael; Noronha, Jorge; Denicol, Gabriel S.

    2018-02-01

    We determine the dynamical attractors associated with anisotropic hydrodynamics (aHydro) and the DNMR equations for a 0 +1 d conformal system using kinetic theory in the relaxation time approximation. We compare our results to the nonequilibrium attractor obtained from the exact solution of the 0 +1 d conformal Boltzmann equation, the Navier-Stokes theory, and the second-order Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory. We demonstrate that the aHydro attractor equation resums an infinite number of terms in the inverse Reynolds number. The resulting resummed aHydro attractor possesses a positive longitudinal-to-transverse pressure ratio and is virtually indistinguishable from the exact attractor. This suggests that an optimized hydrodynamic treatment of kinetic theory involves a resummation not only in gradients (Knudsen number) but also in the inverse Reynolds number. We also demonstrate that the DNMR result provides a better approximation of the exact kinetic theory attractor than the Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory. Finally, we introduce a new method for obtaining approximate aHydro equations which relies solely on an expansion in the inverse Reynolds number. We then carry this expansion out to the third order, and compare these third-order results to the exact kinetic theory solution.

  15. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  16. Equipment and performance upgrade of compact nuclear simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Chang; Kwon, Kee Choon; Cha, Hyung Ho; Park, Won Man; Song, Soon Ja; Seh, Kyung Won; Joo, Young Chang

    1998-12-01

    In this project, the techniques to upgrade obsolescent nuclear power plant simulation were developed: the simulation code operated in Macro-VAX II has been transplanted to the HP workstation: commercial equipment PLC was adopted for the interface system: the protection logic was developed in the prototype level: and the display system was strengthened. These techniques can be directly used to upgrade other obsolescent simulators

  17. Equipment and performance upgrade of compact nuclear simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Chang; Kwon, Kee Choon; Cha, Hyung Ho; Park, Won Man; Song, Soon Ja; Seh, Kyung Won; Joo, Young Chang

    1998-12-01

    In this project, the techniques to upgrade obsolescent nuclear power plant simulation were developed: the simulation code operated in Macro-VAX II has been transplanted to the HP workstation: commercial equipment PLC was adopted for the interface system: the protection logic was developed in the prototype level: and the display system was strengthened. These techniques can be directly used to upgrade other obsolescent simulators.

  18. Improving operator training and performance through simulator observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and results of INPO observations of simulator training for licensed operators. It discusses the history of the observation program to the present. Effective methods for conducting and documenting simulator observations are discussed. The methods used to analyze the observations is also discussed. The major conclusion of the analysis is that opportunities exist for improvement in the use of emergency operating procedures. Teamwork, communication, and simulator instructor skills are also areas where improvement could be made

  19. An Efficient WSN Simulator for GPU-Based Node Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, An Na; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Barolli, Leonard; Jeong, Young-Sik

    2013-01-01

    In wireless sensor network, when these sensors are wrongly placed in an observation region, they can quickly run out of batteries or be disconnected. These incidents may result in huge losses in terms of sensing data from numerous sensors and their costs. For this reason, a number of simulators have been developed as tools for effective design and verification before the actual arrangement of sensors. While a number of simulators have been developed, simulation results can be fairly limited a...

  20. Hydrodynamic slip length as a surface property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were conducted in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic slip length is a surface property. The system under investigation was water confined between two graphite layers to form nanochannels of different sizes (3-8 nm). The water-carbon interaction potential was calibrated by matching wettability experiments of graphitic-carbon surfaces free of airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Three equilibrium theories were used to calculate the hydrodynamic slip length. It was found that one of the recently reported equilibrium theories for the calculation of the slip length featured confinement effects, while the others resulted in calculations significantly hindered by the large margin of error observed between independent simulations. The hydrodynamic slip length was found to be channel-size independent using equilibrium calculations, i.e., suggesting a consistency with the definition of a surface property, for 5-nm channels and larger. The analysis of the individual trajectories of liquid particles revealed that the reason for observing confinement effects in 3-nm nanochannels is the high mobility of the bulk particles. Nonequilibrium calculations were not consistently affected by size but by noisiness in the smallest systems.