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Sample records for hydrodynamic drag reducer

  1. Pipeline Drag Reducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marawan, H.

    2004-01-01

    Pipeline drag reducers have proven to be an extremely powerful tool in fluid transportation. High molecular weight polymers are used to reduce the frictional pressure loss ratio in crude oil pipelines, refined fuel and aqueous pipelines. Chemical structure of the main used pipeline drag reducers is one of the following polymers and copolymers classified according to the type of fluid to ; low density polyethylene, copolymer of I-hexane cross linked with divinyl benzene, polyacrylamide, polyalkylene oxide polymers and their copolymers, fluorocarbons, polyalkyl methacrylates and terpolymer of styrene, alkyl acrylate and acrylic acid. Drag reduction is the increase in pump ability of a fluid caused by the addition of small amounts of an additive to the fluid. The effectiveness of a drag reducer is normally expressed in terms of percent drag reduction. Frictional pressure loss in a pipeline system is a waste of energy and it costly. The drag reducing additive minimizes the flow turbulence, increases throughput and reduces the energy costs. The Flow can be increased by more than 80 % with existing assets. The effectiveness of the injected drag reducer in Mostorod to Tanta crude oil pipeline achieved 35.4 % drag reduction and 23.2 % flow increase of the actual performance The experimental application of DRA on Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company (Summed) achieved a flow increase ranging from 9-32 %

  2. Hydrodynamic Drag on Streamlined Projectiles and Cavities

    KAUST Repository

    Jetly, Aditya

    2016-04-19

    The air cavity formation resulting from the water-entry of solid objects has been the subject of extensive research due to its application in various fields such as biology, marine vehicles, sports and oil and gas industries. Recently we demonstrated that at certain conditions following the closing of the air cavity formed by the initial impact of a superhydrophobic sphere on a free water surface a stable streamlined shape air cavity can remain attached to the sphere. The formation of superhydrophobic sphere and attached air cavity reaches a steady state during the free fall. In this thesis we further explore this novel phenomenon to quantify the drag on streamlined shape cavities. The drag on the sphere-cavity formation is then compared with the drag on solid projectile which were designed to have self-similar shape to that of the cavity. The solid projectiles of adjustable weight were produced using 3D printing technique. In a set of experiments on the free fall of projectile we determined the variation of projectiles drag coefficient as a function of the projectiles length to diameter ratio and the projectiles specific weight, covering a range of intermediate Reynolds number, Re ~ 104 – 105 which are characteristic for our streamlined cavity experiments. Parallel free fall experiment with sphere attached streamlined air cavity and projectile of the same shape and effective weight clearly demonstrated the drag reduction effect due to the stress-free boundary condition at cavity liquid interface. The streamlined cavity experiments can be used as the upper bound estimate of the drag reduction by air layers naturally sustained on superhydrophobic surfaces in contact with water. In the final part of the thesis we design an experiment to test the drag reduction capacity of robust superhydrophobic coatings deposited on the surface of various model vessels.

  3. Hydrodynamic Drag Force Measurement Of A Functionalized Surface Exhibiting Superhydrophobic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    hydrodynamic skin friction is greatly reduced and the water is said to slip over the air layer [12]. A number of direct numerical simulations ( DNS ) [13...practical means of reducing drag. It is therefore important to investigate materials where in the passive state exhibit the desired qualities of

  4. Effect of truncated cone roughness element density on hydrodynamic drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Kristofer; Schultz, Michael; Meneveau, Charles

    2017-11-01

    An experimental study was conducted on rough-wall, turbulent boundary layer flow with roughness elements whose idealized shape model barnacles that cause hydrodynamic drag in many applications. Varying planform densities of truncated cone roughness elements were investigated. Element densities studied ranged from 10% to 79%. Detailed turbulent boundary layer velocity statistics were recorded with a two-component LDV system on a three-axis traverse. Hydrodynamic roughness length (z0) and skin-friction coefficient (Cf) were determined and compared with the estimates from existing roughness element drag prediction models including Macdonald et al. (1998) and other recent models. The roughness elements used in this work model idealized barnacles, so implications of this data set for ship powering are considered. This research was supported by the Office of Naval Research and by the Department of Defense (DoD) through the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program.

  5. A novel hydrodynamic approach of drag-reducing polymers to improve left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang X

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Xinlu Zhang,1,* Xu Wang,2,* Feng Hu,1 Boda Zhou,3 Hai-Bin Chen,1 Daogang Zha,1 Yili Liu,1 Yansong Guo,4 Lemin Zheng,2 Jiancheng Xiu1 1Department of Cardiology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 2The Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences and Institute of Systems Biomedicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, and Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences of Ministry of Education, Peking University Health Science Center, 3Department of Cardiology, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences of Ministry of Education, and Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Molecular Biology and Regulatory Peptides of Ministry of Health, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, 4Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Fujian Provincial Hospital, Fuzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Drag-reducing polymers (DRPs, when added in minute concentrations, have been shown to decrease peripheral vascular resistance. In this study, the effect of DRPs on the hypertension-induced left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic remodeling was evaluated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Male SHR and age-matched Wistar rats were divided into four groups and received intravenous injection of normal saline (NS or DRPs. Body weight (BW, heart rate (HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP were measured. Echocardiography was used to evaluate the changes in left ventricle (LV function and global wall motion. The LV and aorta were stained by hematoxylin and eosin. Cell size of cardiomyocytes and aortic medial thickness were evaluated for each section. The expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1 of LV and aorta was examined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. There was no significant difference in the increase of SBP among SHR + NS, SHR + 10DRP and SHR + 20DRP groups. SHR + NS group had markedly smaller left ventricular end

  6. Comparative study of the hydrodynamic drag reducer efficiency in petroleum samples; Estudo comparativo da eficiencia de redutores de atrito hidrodinamico comerciais em amostras de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabadini, Edvaldo; Silva, Marcelo Alves da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Ziglio, Claudio Marcos; Carvalho, Carlos Henrique Monteiro de; Rocha, Nelson de Oliveira [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    In this work the efficiency of five commercial additives which produce drag reduction in petroleum was determined and compared. The studies were carried out in a rheometer using samples of petroleum from Bacia de Campos diluted in 50% of toluene. For such purpose the rheometer acts as a 'torquemeter', in which the magnitude of the drag reduction promoted by the additive is directly proportional to the difference in torque applied to maintain the sample in a specific flow rate. The obtained results have shown excellent capability of the additives to promote drag reduction (up to 20%) and small difference of efficiency among the additives was detectable. (author)

  7. The 3D CFD study of gliding swimmer on passive hydrodynamics drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishveshwar Rajendra Mantha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of depth on the hydrodynamic drag coefficient during the passive underwater gliding after the starts and turns. The swimmer hydrodynamics performance was studied by the application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD method. The steady-state CFD simulations were performed by the application of k - omega turbulent model and volume of fluid method to obtain two-phase flow around a three-dimensional swimmer model when gliding near water surface and at different depths from the water surface. The simulations were conducted for four different swimming pool size, each with different depth, i.e., 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 m for three different velocities, i.e., 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 m/s, with swimmer gliding at different depths with intervals of 0.25 m, each starting from the water surface, respectively. The numerical results of pressure drag and total coefficients at individual average race velocities were obtained. The results showed that the drag coefficient decreased as depth increased, with a trend toward reduced fluctuation after 0.5m depth from the water surface. The selection of the appropriate depth during the gliding phase should be a main concern of swimmers and coaches.

  8. The hydrodynamic drag and the mobilisation of sediment into the water column of towed fishing gear components

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, F. G.; Summerbell, Keith David

    2016-12-01

    The hydrodynamic drag of towed fishing gears leads to direct impacts on the benthic environment, and can play a major role in the overall economic efficiency of the fishing operation and emissions of nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and greenhouse gases such as CO2. Here we investigate some of the underpinning processes which govern these issues and make direct hydrodynamic drag measurements and calculate the hydrodynamic drag coefficients for a range of well-defined gear components that, when fished, are in contact with the seabed. We measure the concentration and particle size distribution of the sediment mobilised into the water column in the wake of these gear elements, at a range of towing speeds, and demonstrate that as the hydrodynamic drag increases the amount of sediment mobilised also increases. We also vary the weight of the elements and show that this does not influence the amount of sediment put into the water column. These results provide a better understanding of the physical and mechanical processes that take place when a towed fishing gear interacts with the seabed. They will permit the development of more fuel efficient gears and gears of reduced benthic impact and will improve the empirical modelling of the sediment mobilised into the turbulent wake behind towed fishing gears which will lead to better assessments of the environmental and ecological impact of fishing gears.

  9. Drag Reducing and Cavitation Resistant Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pease, Leonard F.

    2016-12-28

    Client, Green Building Systems (GBS), presented PNNL a coating reported to reduce drag and prevent cavitation damage on marine vessels, turbines and pumps. The composition of the coating remains proprietary but has as constituents including silicon oxides, aliphatic carbon chains, and fluorine rich particles. The coating is spray applied to surfaces. Prior GBS testing and experiments suggest reduction of both drag and cavitation on industrial scale propellers, but the underlying mechanism for these effects remains unclear. Yet, the application is compelling because even modest reductions in drag to marine vessels and cavitation to propellers and turbines present a significant economic and environmental opportunity. To discern among possible mechanisms, PNNL considered possible mechanisms with the client, executed multiple experiments, and completed one theoretical analysis (see appendix). The remainder of this report first considers image analysis to gain insight into drag reduction mechanisms and then exposes the coating to cavitation to explore its response to an intensely cavitating environment. Although further efforts may be warranted to confirm mechanisms, this report presents a first investigation into these coatings within the scope and resources of the technology assistance program (TAP).

  10. Hydrodynamic flows of non-Fermi liquids: Magnetotransport and bilayer drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Aavishkar A.; Davison, Richard A.; Levchenko, Alex

    2017-11-01

    We consider a hydrodynamic description of transport for generic two-dimensional electron systems that lack Galilean invariance and do not fall into the category of Fermi liquids. We study magnetoresistance and show that it is governed only by the electronic viscosity provided that the wavelength of the underlying disorder potential is large compared to the microscopic equilibration length. We also derive the Coulomb drag transresistance for double-layer non-Fermi-liquid systems in the hydrodynamic regime. As an example, we consider frictional drag between two quantum Hall states with half-filled lowest Landau levels, each described by a Fermi surface of composite fermions coupled to a U (1 ) gauge field. We contrast our results to prior calculations of drag of Chern-Simons composite particles and place our findings in the context of available experimental data.

  11. Hydrodynamic interaction on large-Reynolds-number aligned bubbles: Drag effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez-Munoz, J.; Salinas-Rodriguez, E.; Soria, A.; Gama-Goicochea, A.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → The hydrodynamic interaction of a pair aligned equal-sized bubbles is analyzed. → The leading bubble wake decreases the drag on the trailing bubble. → A new semi-analytical model for the trailing bubble's drag is presented. → The equilibrium distance between bubbles is predicted. - Abstract: The hydrodynamic interaction of two equal-sized spherical gas bubbles rising along a vertical line with a Reynolds number (Re) between 50 and 200 is analyzed. An approach to estimate the trailing bubble drag based on the search of a proper reference fluid velocity is proposed. Our main result is a new, simple semi-analytical model for the trailing bubble drag. Additionally, the equilibrium separation distance between bubbles is predicted. The proposed models agree quantitatively up to small distances between bubbles, with reported data for 50 ≤ Re ≤ 200. The relative average error for the trailing bubble drag, Er, is found to be in the range 1.1 ≤ Er ≤ 1.7, i.e., it is of the same order of the analytical predictions in the literature.

  12. Hydrodynamic interaction on large-Reynolds-number aligned bubbles: Drag effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Munoz, J., E-mail: jrm@correo.azc.uam.mx [Departamento de Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa Tamaulipas, 02200 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Centro de Investigacion en Polimeros, Marcos Achar Lobaton No. 2, Tepexpan, 55885 Acolman, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Salinas-Rodriguez, E.; Soria, A. [Departamento de IPH, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gama-Goicochea, A. [Centro de Investigacion en Polimeros, Marcos Achar Lobaton No. 2, Tepexpan, 55885 Acolman, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > The hydrodynamic interaction of a pair aligned equal-sized bubbles is analyzed. > The leading bubble wake decreases the drag on the trailing bubble. > A new semi-analytical model for the trailing bubble's drag is presented. > The equilibrium distance between bubbles is predicted. - Abstract: The hydrodynamic interaction of two equal-sized spherical gas bubbles rising along a vertical line with a Reynolds number (Re) between 50 and 200 is analyzed. An approach to estimate the trailing bubble drag based on the search of a proper reference fluid velocity is proposed. Our main result is a new, simple semi-analytical model for the trailing bubble drag. Additionally, the equilibrium separation distance between bubbles is predicted. The proposed models agree quantitatively up to small distances between bubbles, with reported data for 50 {<=} Re {<=} 200. The relative average error for the trailing bubble drag, Er, is found to be in the range 1.1 {<=} Er {<=} 1.7, i.e., it is of the same order of the analytical predictions in the literature.

  13. Surface correlations of hydrodynamic drag for transitionally rough engineering surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Manan; Busse, Angela; Sandham, Neil

    2017-02-01

    Rough surfaces are usually characterised by a single equivalent sand-grain roughness height scale that typically needs to be determined from laboratory experiments. Recently, this method has been complemented by a direct numerical simulation approach, whereby representative surfaces can be scanned and the roughness effects computed over a range of Reynolds number. This development raises the prospect over the coming years of having enough data for different types of rough surfaces to be able to relate surface characteristics to roughness effects, such as the roughness function that quantifies the downward displacement of the logarithmic law of the wall. In the present contribution, we use simulation data for 17 irregular surfaces at the same friction Reynolds number, for which they are in the transitionally rough regime. All surfaces are scaled to the same physical roughness height. Mean streamwise velocity profiles show a wide range of roughness function values, while the velocity defect profiles show a good collapse. Profile peaks of the turbulent kinetic energy also vary depending on the surface. We then consider which surface properties are important and how new properties can be incorporated into an empirical model, the accuracy of which can then be tested. Optimised models with several roughness parameters are systematically developed for the roughness function and profile peak turbulent kinetic energy. In determining the roughness function, besides the known parameters of solidity (or frontal area ratio) and skewness, it is shown that the streamwise correlation length and the root-mean-square roughness height are also significant. The peak turbulent kinetic energy is determined by the skewness and root-mean-square roughness height, along with the mean forward-facing surface angle and spanwise effective slope. The results suggest feasibility of relating rough-wall flow properties (throughout the range from hydrodynamically smooth to fully rough) to surface

  14. Drag Reduction by Leidenfrost Vapor Layers

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Marston, Jeremy O.; Chan, Derek Y. C.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2011-01-01

    , we show that such vapor layers can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by over 85%. These results appear to approach the ultimate limit of drag reduction possible by different methods based on gas-layer lubrication and can stimulate the development

  15. Reducing drag of a commuter train, using engine exhaust momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Dong Keun

    The objective of this thesis was to perform numerical investigations of two different methods of injecting fluid momentum into the air flow above a commuter train to reduce its drag. Based on previous aerodynamic modifications of heavy duty trucks in improving fuel efficiency, two structural modifications were designed and applied to a Metrolink Services commuter train in the Los Angeles (LA) County area to reduce its drag and subsequently improve fuel efficiency. The first modification was an L-shaped channel, added to the exhaust cooling fan above the locomotive roof to divert and align the exhaust gases in the axial direction. The second modification was adding an airfoil shaped lid over the L-shape channel, to minimize the drag of the perturbed structure, and thus reduce the overall drag. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software CCM+ from CD-Adapco with the ?-? turbulence model was used for the simulations. A single train set which consists of three vehicles: one locomotive, one trailer car and one cab car were used. All the vehicles were modeled based on the standard Metrolink fleet train size. The wind speed was at 90 miles per hour (mph), which is the maximum speed for the Orange County Metrolink line. Air was used as the exhaust gas in the simulation. The temperature of the exhausting air emitting out of the cooling fan on the roof was 150 F and the average fan speed was 120 mph. Results showed that with the addition of the lid, momentum injection results in reduced flow separation and pressure recovery behind the locomotive, which reduces the overall drag by at least 30%.

  16. Oral cavity hydrodynamics and drag production in Balaenid whale suspension feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Potvin

    Full Text Available Balaenid whales feed on large aggregates of small and slow-moving prey (predominantly copepods through a filtration process enabled by baleen. These whales exhibit continuous filtration, namely, with the mouth kept partially opened and the baleen exposed to oncoming prey-laden waters while fluking. The process is an example of crossflow filtration (CFF in which most of the particulates (prey are separated from the substrate (water without ever coming into contact with the filtering surface (baleen. This paper discusses the simulation of baleen filtration hydrodynamics based on a type of hydraulic circuit modeling commonly used in microfluidics, but adapted to the much higher Reynolds number flows typical of whale hydrodynamics. This so-called Baleen Hydraulic Circuit (BHC model uses as input the basic characteristics of the flows moving through a section of baleen observed in a previous flume study by the authors. The model has low-spatial resolution but incorporates the effects of fluid viscosity, which doubles or more a whale's total body drag in comparison to non-feeding travel. Modeling viscous friction is crucial here since exposing the baleen system to the open ocean ends up tripling a whale's total wetted surface area. Among other findings, the BHC shows how CFF is enhanced by a large filtration surface and hence large body size; how it is carried out via the establishment of rapid anteroposterior flows transporting most of the prey-water slurry towards the oropharyngeal wall; how slower intra-baleen flows manage to transfer most of the substrate out of the mouth, all the while contributing only a fraction to overall oral cavity drag; and how these anteroposterior and intra-baleen flows lose speed as they approach the oropharyngeal wall.

  17. Oral cavity hydrodynamics and drag production in Balaenid whale suspension feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Jean; Werth, Alexander J

    2017-01-01

    Balaenid whales feed on large aggregates of small and slow-moving prey (predominantly copepods) through a filtration process enabled by baleen. These whales exhibit continuous filtration, namely, with the mouth kept partially opened and the baleen exposed to oncoming prey-laden waters while fluking. The process is an example of crossflow filtration (CFF) in which most of the particulates (prey) are separated from the substrate (water) without ever coming into contact with the filtering surface (baleen). This paper discusses the simulation of baleen filtration hydrodynamics based on a type of hydraulic circuit modeling commonly used in microfluidics, but adapted to the much higher Reynolds number flows typical of whale hydrodynamics. This so-called Baleen Hydraulic Circuit (BHC) model uses as input the basic characteristics of the flows moving through a section of baleen observed in a previous flume study by the authors. The model has low-spatial resolution but incorporates the effects of fluid viscosity, which doubles or more a whale's total body drag in comparison to non-feeding travel. Modeling viscous friction is crucial here since exposing the baleen system to the open ocean ends up tripling a whale's total wetted surface area. Among other findings, the BHC shows how CFF is enhanced by a large filtration surface and hence large body size; how it is carried out via the establishment of rapid anteroposterior flows transporting most of the prey-water slurry towards the oropharyngeal wall; how slower intra-baleen flows manage to transfer most of the substrate out of the mouth, all the while contributing only a fraction to overall oral cavity drag; and how these anteroposterior and intra-baleen flows lose speed as they approach the oropharyngeal wall.

  18. Reducing Aerodynamic Drag on Empty Open Cargo Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James C.; Storms, Bruce L.; Dzoan, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Some simple structural modifications have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing aerodynamic drag on vehicles that have empty open cargo bays. The basic idea is to break up the airflow in a large open cargo bay by inserting panels to divide the bay into a series of smaller bays. In the case of a coal car, this involves inserting a small number (typically between two and four) of vertical full-depth or partial-depth panels.

  19. The effect of drainage channels on the hydrodynamic drag of non-colloidal spheres down an inclined plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Brian; Dhong, Charles; Frechette, Joelle

    While it is well known that surface asperities and roughness alter the hydrodynamic drag of a non-colloidal sphere down an inclined plane, less is known about how the hydrodynamic drag is modified if the asperities and roughness are connected through a network of drainage channels, which allows the movement of fluid between asperities. We investigate the rotational and translation motion of spheres on several pairs of surfaces that have the same porosity and asperity size, but one surface has interconnected drainage channels whereas the other does not. These can have direct relevance to lubricated surfaces such as ball bearings in industrial settings, or biological relevance of leucocyte movement across rough surfaces. Provost's Undergraduate Research Awards, Office of Naval Research, National Science Foundation.

  20. Numerical Study of Natural Supercavitation Influenced by Rheological Properties of Turbulent Drag-Reducing Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Xing Jiang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural supercavitations in water and turbulent drag-reducing solution were numerically simulated using unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS scheme with mixture-multiphase model. The Cross viscosity equation was adopted to represent the fluid property of aqueous solution of drag-reducing additives. The characteristics of natural supercavity configuration and overall resistance of the navigating body were presented, respectively. The numerical simulation results indicated that, at the same cavitation number, the length and diameter of supercavity in drag-reducing solution are larger than those in water, and the drag coefficient of navigating body in solution is smaller than that in water; the surface tension plays an important role in incepting and maintaining the cavity. Turbulent drag-reducing additives have the potential in enhancement of supercavitation, drag reduction, and decrease of turbulent vortex structures. Numerical simulation results are consistent with the available experimental data.

  1. Efficient three-dimensional reconstruction of aquatic vegetation geometry: Estimating morphological parameters influencing hydrodynamic drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liénard, Jean; Lynn, Kendra; Strigul, Nikolay; Norris, Benjamin K.; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Mullarney, Julia C.; Bryan, Karin, R.; Henderson, Stephen M.

    2016-09-01

    Aquatic vegetation can shelter coastlines from energetic waves and tidal currents, sometimes enabling accretion of fine sediments. Simulation of flow and sediment transport within submerged canopies requires quantification of vegetation geometry. However, field surveys used to determine vegetation geometry can be limited by the time required to obtain conventional caliper and ruler measurements. Building on recent progress in photogrammetry and computer vision, we present a method for reconstructing three-dimensional canopy geometry. The method was used to survey a dense canopy of aerial mangrove roots, called pneumatophores, in Vietnam's Mekong River Delta. Photogrammetric estimation of geometry required 1) taking numerous photographs at low tide from multiple viewpoints around 1 m2 quadrats, 2) computing relative camera locations and orientations by triangulation of key features present in multiple images and reconstructing a dense 3D point cloud, and 3) extracting pneumatophore locations and diameters from the point cloud data. Step 3) was accomplished by a new 'sector-slice' algorithm, yielding geometric parameters every 5 mm along a vertical profile. Photogrammetric analysis was compared with manual caliper measurements. In all 5 quadrats considered, agreement was found between manual and photogrammetric estimates of stem number, and of number × mean diameter, which is a key parameter appearing in hydrodynamic models. In two quadrats, pneumatophores were encrusted with numerous barnacles, generating a complex geometry not resolved by hand measurements. In remaining cases, moderate agreement between manual and photogrammetric estimates of stem diameter and solid volume fraction was found. By substantially reducing measurement time in the field while capturing in greater detail the 3D structure, photogrammetry has potential to improve input to hydrodynamic models, particularly for simulations of flow through large-scale, heterogenous canopies.

  2. The influence of longitudinal micro grooves on hydrodynamic friction drag of a plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.І. Коробов

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available  Weight measurements in a water tunnel have shown that there exist a range of parameters of longitudinally fine-ribbed surface such that turbulent friction in flow over the surface is less than that over a smooth flat plane of the same projected area. Maximum drag reduction due to ribbing is up to 16%.

  3. Kevlar/PMR-15 reduced drag DC-9 reverser stang fairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, R. T.

    1982-01-01

    A reduced drag fairing for the afterbody enclosing the thrust reverser actuators on the DC-9 has been developed with Kevlar-49/PMR-15 advanced composite material. The improved fairing reduces airplane drag 1% compared to the production baseline. Use of composites reduces weight 40% compared to an equivalent metal fairing. The Kevlar-49/PMR-15 advanced composite is an organic matrix material system that can be used at temperatures up to 500 F.

  4. Numerical simulation of drag-reducing channel flow by using bead-spring chain model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, M.; Atsumi, T.; Mamori, H.; Iwamoto, K.; Murata, A.; Masuda, M.; Ando, H.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Numerical simulations of drag-reduced turbulent flow by polymer additives were performed by using a discrete element model. • A decreasing pressure-strain correlation mainly contributes to drag reduction by polymer addition. • Energy transport by the polymer attenuates the turbulence. • The viscoelastic effects on the drag-reducing flow are intensified with increasing relaxation time of polymer. • The polymer energy transport is related to the orientation of the polymer. - Abstract: Numerical simulations of the drag-reducing turbulent channel flow caused by polymer addition are performed. A bead-spring chain model is employed as a model of polymer aggregation. The model consists of beads and springs to represent the polymer dynamics. Three drag-reduction cases are studied with different spring constants that correspond to the relaxation time of the polymer. The energy budget is mainly focused upon to discuss the drag-reduction mechanism. Our results show that a decreasing pressure-strain correlation mainly contributes to strengthening the anisotropy of the turbulence. Furthermore, energy transport by the polymer models attenuates the turbulence. These viscoelastic effects on the drag-reducing flow are intensified with decreasing spring constant. By visualizing the flow field, it is found that this polymer energy transport is related to the orientation of the polymer.

  5. Wavelet Analysis on Turbulent Structure in Drag-Reducing Channel Flow Based on Direct Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct numerical simulation has been performed to study a polymer drag-reducing channel flow by using a discrete-element model. And then, wavelet analyses are employed to investigate the multiresolution characteristics of velocity components based on DNS data. Wavelet decomposition is applied to decompose velocity fluctuation time series into ten different frequency components including approximate component and detailed components, which show more regular intermittency and burst events in drag-reducing flow. The energy contribution, intermittent factor, and intermittent energy are calculated to investigate characteristics of different frequency components. The results indicate that energy contributions of different frequency components are redistributed by polymer additives. The energy contribution of streamwise approximate component in drag-reducing flow is up to 82%, much more than 25% in the Newtonian flow. Feature of turbulent multiscale structures is shown intuitively by continuous wavelet transform, verifying that turbulent structures become much more regular in drag-reducing flow.

  6. Modification of near-wall coherent structures in polymer drag reduced flow: simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubief, Yves; White, Christopher; Shaqfeh, Eric; Moin, Parviz; Lele, Sanjiva

    2002-11-01

    Polymer drag reduced flows are investigated through direct numerical simulations of viscoelastic flows. The solver for the viscoelastic model (FENE-P) is based on higher-order finite difference schemes and a novel implicit time integration method. Its robustness allows the simulation of all drag reduction (DR) regimes from the onset to the maximum drag reduction (MDR). It also permits the use of realistic polymer length and concentration. The maximum polymer extension in our simulation matches that of a polystyrene molecule of 10^6 molecular weight. Two distinct regimes of polymer drag reduced flows are observed: at low drag reduction (LDR, DR< 40-50%), the near-wall structure is essentially similar to Newtonian wall turbulence whereas the high drag reduction regime (HDR, DR from 40-50% to MDR) shows significant differences in the organization of the coherent structures. The 3D information provided by numerical simulations allows the determination of the interaction of polymers and near-wall coherent structures. To isolate the contribution of polymers in the viscous sublayer, the buffer and the outer region of the flow, numerical experiments are performed where the polymer concentration is varied in the wall-normal direction. Finally a mechanism of polymer drag reduction derived from our results and PIV measurements is discussed.

  7. Grafted natural polymer as new drag reducing agent: An experimental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Hayder A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation introduces a new natural drag reducing agent which has the ability to improve the flow in pipelines carrying aqueous or hydrocarbon liquids in turbulent flow. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus mucilage drag reduction performance was tested in water and hydrocarbon (gas-oil media after grafting. The drag reduction test was conducted in a buildup closed loop liquid circulation system consists of two pipes 0.0127 and 0.0381 m Inside Diameter (ID, four testing sections in each pipe (0.5 to 2.0 m, tank, pump and pressure transmitters. Reynolds number (Re, additive concentration and the transported media type (water and gas-oil, were the major drag reduction variables investigated. The experimental results show that, new additive drag reduction ability is high with maximum percentage of drag reduction (%Dr up to 60% was achieved. The experimental results showed that the drag reduction ability increased by increasing the additive concentration. The %Dr was found to increase by increasing the Re by using the water-soluble additive while it was found to decrease by increasing the Re when using the oil-soluble additive. The %Dr was higher in the 0.0381 m ID pipe. Finally, the grafted and natural mucilage showed high resistance to shear forces when circulated continuously for 200 seconds in the closed-loop system.

  8. Analysis of Zero Reynolds Shear Stress Appearing in Dilute Surfactant Drag-Reducing Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Gu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilute surfactant solution of 25 ppm in the two-dimensional channel is investigated experimentally compared with water flow. Particle image velocimetry (PIV system is used to take 2D velocity frames in the streamwise and wall-normal plane. Based on the frames of instantaneous vectors and statistical results, the phenomenon of zero Reynolds shear stress appearing in the drag-reducing flow is discussed. It is found that 25 ppm CTAC solution exhibits the highest drag reduction at Re = 25000 and loses drag reduction completely at Re = 40000. When drag reduction lies in the highest, Reynolds shear stress disappears and reaches zero although the RMS of the velocity fluctuations is not zero. By the categorization in four quadrants, the fluctuations of 25 ppm CTAC solution are distributed in all four quadrants equally at Re = 25000, which indicates that turnaround transportation happens in drag-reducing flow besides Reynolds shear stress transportation. Moreover, the contour distribution of streamwise velocity and the fluctuations suggests that turbulence transportation is depressed in drag-reducing flow. The viscoelasticity is possible to decrease the turbulence transportation and cause the turnaround transportation.

  9. Development of a Kevlar/PMR-15 reduced drag DC-9 nacelle fairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, R. T.; Hrach, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes an advanced composite fairing designed to reduce drag on DC-9 nacelles as a part of the NASA Engine Component Improvement Program. This fairing is the aft enclosure for the thrust reverser actuator system on JT8D engine nacelles and is subjected to a 500 F exhaust flow during the reverse thrust. A reduced-drag configuration was developed by using in-flight tuft surveys for flow visualization in order to identify areas with low-quality flow, and then modifying the aerodynamic lines to improve the flow. A fabrication method for molding the part in an autoclave was developed; this material system is suitable for 500 F. The resultant composite fairing reduces the overall aircraft drag 1% with a weight reduction of 40% when compared with a metal component.

  10. Experimental and Numerical Study of Water Entry Supercavity Influenced by Turbulent Drag-Reducing Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Xing Jiang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The configurational and dynamic characteristics of water entry supercavities influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives were studied through supercavitating projectile approach, experimentally and numerically. The projectile was projected vertically into water and aqueous solution of CTAC with weight concentrations of 100, 500, and 1000 ppm, respectively, using a pneumatic nail gun. The trajectories of the projectile and the supercavity configuration were recorded by a high-speed CCD camera. Besides, water entry supercavities in water and CTAC solution were numerically simulated based on unsteady RANS scheme, together with application of VOF multiphase model. The Cross viscosity model was adopted to represent the fluid property of CTAC solution. It was obtained that the numerical simulation results are in consistence with experimental data. Numerical and experimental results all show that the length and diameter of supercavity in drag-reducing solution are larger than those in water, and the drag coefficient is smaller than that in water; the maintaining time of supercavity is longer in solution as well. The surface tension plays an important role in maintaining the cavity. Turbulent drag-reducing additives have the potential in enhancement of supercavitation and drag reduction.

  11. Application and numerical simulation research on biomimetic drag-reducing technology for gas pipelining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Deyuan; Luo Yuehao; Chen Huawei [Beihang Univ., Beijing (China). School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation

    2011-06-15

    For the purpose of increasing the transmission capacity of gas pipelines, the internal coating technology has been vastly put into application, and a remarkable benefit has been achieved so far. However, with the reduction of wall roughness, the small convex parts are all completely submerged in the viscous sublayer, the gas pipeline becomes a 'hydraulic smooth pipe', even by smoothing the coating surface further, it is difficult to reduce wall friction. Therefore, in order to increase the transportation capacity on the basis of internal coating, the new methods and technologies should be researched and investigated, and perhaps, the biomimetic drag-reducing technology is a good approach. In this paper, according to the planning parameters of the second pipeline of the West-to-East gas transmission project, the best drag reducing effect grooves are calculated and designed, and based on the characteristics and properties of internal coating (AW-01 epoxy resin), the Pre-Cured Micro- Rolling Technology (PCMRT) is discussed and presented, the rolling equipment is also designed and analyzed, the rolling process can be easily added on the available production line. Aiming at the field operating parameters of the gas pipeline in China, and the drag-reducing effect of the grooved surface is analyzed and discussed comprehensively. In addition, the economic benefit of adopting the biomimetic drag reduction technology is investigated. (orig.)

  12. Statistical Investigation on Coherent Vortex Structure in Turbulent Drag Reducing Channel Flow with Blown Polymer Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishitsuka, Shota; Motozawa, Masaaki; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Iwamoto, Kaoru; Ando, Hirotomo; Senda, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    Coherent vortex structure in turbulent drag-reducing channel flow with blown polymer solution from the wall was investigated. As a statistical analysis, we carried out Galilean decomposition, swirling strength and linear stochastic estimation of the PIV data obtained by the PIV measurement in x – y plane. Reynolds number based on bulk velocity and channel height was set to 40000. As a result, the angle of shear layer that cleared up by using Galilean decomposition becomes small in the drag-reducing flow. Q3 events were observed near the shear layer. In addition, as a result of linear stochastic estimation (LSE) based on swirling strength, we confirmed that the velocity under the vortex core is strong in the water flow. This result shows Q2 (ejection) are dominant in the water flow. However, in the drag-reducing flow with blown polymer solution, the velocity above the vortex core become strong, that is, Q4 (sweep) events are relatively strong around the vortex core. This is the result of Q4 events to come from the channel center region because the polymer solution does not exist in this region. The typical structure like this was observed in the drag -reducing flow with blown polymer solution from the wall.

  13. Envisat/ASAR Images for the Calibration of Wind Drag Action in the Doñana Wetlands 2D Hydrodynamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs Ramos-Fuertes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Doñana National Park wetlands are located in southwest Spain, on the right bank of the Guadalquivir River, near the Atlantic Ocean coast. The wetlands dry out completely every summer and progressively flood again throughout the fall and winter seasons. Given the flatness of Doñana’s topography, the wind drag action can induce the flooding or emergence of extensive areas, detectable in remote sensing images. Envisat/ASAR scenes acquired before and during strong and persistent wind episodes enabled the spatial delineation of the wind-induced water displacement. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Doñana wetlands was built in 2006 with the aim to predict the effect of proposed hydrologic restoration actions within Doñana’s basin. In this work, on-site wind records and concurrent ASAR scenes are used for the calibration of the wind-drag modeling by assessing different formulations. Results show a good adjustment between the modeled and observed wind drag effect. Displacements of up to 2 km in the wind direction are satisfactorily reproduced by the hydrodynamic model, while including an atmospheric stability parameter led to no significant improvement of the results. Such evidence will contribute to a more accurate simulation of hypothetic or design scenarios, when no information is available for the atmospheric stability assessment.

  14. Modification of Flow Structure Over a Van Model By Suction Flow Control to Reduce Aerodynamics Drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harinaldi Harinaldi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Automobile aerodynamic studies are typically undertaken to improve safety and increase fuel efficiency as well as to  find new innovation in automobile technology to deal with the problem of energy crisis and global warming. Some car companies have the objective to develop control solutions that enable to reduce the aerodynamic drag of vehicle and  significant modification progress is still possible by reducing the mass, rolling friction or aerodynamic drag. Some flow  control method provides the possibility to modify the flow separation to reduce the development of the swirling structures around the vehicle. In this study, a family van is modeled with a modified form of Ahmed's body by changing the orientation of the flow from its original form (modified/reversed Ahmed body. This model is equipped with a suction on the rear side to comprehensively examine the pressure field modifications that occur. The investigation combines computational and experimental work. Computational approach used  a commercial software with standard k-epsilon flow turbulence model, and the objectives was  to determine the characteristics of the flow field and aerodynamic drag reduction that occurred in the test model. Experimental approach used load cell in order to validate the aerodynamic drag reduction obtained by computational approach. The results show that the application of a suction in the rear part of the van model give the effect of reducing the wake and the vortex formation. Futhermore, aerodynamic drag reduction close to 13.86% for the computational approach and 16.32% for the experimental have been obtained.

  15. Experimental Investigation on Zonal Structure in Drag-Reducing Channel Flow with Surfactant Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Motozawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial structure of a drag-reducing channel flow with surfactant additives in a two-dimensional channel was investigated experimentally. We carried out detailed measurements of the instantaneous velocity in the streamwise wall-normal plane and streamwise spanwise plane by using particle image velocimetry (PIV. The surfactant used in this experiment is a kind of cationic surfactant CTAC. The weight concentrations of the CTAC solution were 25 and 40 ppm on the flow. We considered the effects of Reynolds number ranging from 10000 to 25000 and the weight concentration of CTAC. The results of this paper showed that in the drag-reducing flow, there appeared an area where the root mean square of streamwise velocity fluctuation and the vorticity fluctuation sharply decreased. This indicated that two layers with different turbulent structure coexisted on the boundary of this area. Moreover, these layers had characteristic flow structures, as confirmed by observation of the instantaneous vorticity fluctuation map.

  16. Numerical study of water entry supercavitating flow around a vertical circular cylinder influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, C X; Cheng, J P; Li, F C

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to introduce a numerical simulation procedure to simulate water-entry problems influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives in a viscous incompressible medium. Firstly we performed a numerical investigation on water-entry supercavities in water and turbulent drag-reducing solution at the impact velocity of 28.4 m/s to confirm the accuracy of the numerical method. Based on the verification, projectile entering water and turbulent drag-reducing solution at relatively high velocity of 142.7 m/s (phase transition is considered) is simulated. The cross viscosity equation was adopted to represent the shear-thinning characteristic of aqueous solution of drag-reducing additives. The configuration and dynamic characteristics of water entry supercavity, flow resistance were discussed respectively. It was obtained that the numerical simulation results are in consistence with experimental data. Numerical results show that the supercavity length in drag-reducing solution is larger than one in water and the velocity attenuates faster at high velocity than at low velocity; the influence of drag-reducing solution is more obvious at high impact velocity. Turbulent drag-reducing additives have the great potential for enhancement of supercavity

  17. Impact of drag reducing polymers on the onset of instability in a pipe with reverse flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashank, H. J.; Sreenivas, K. R.

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the mechanism by which drag reducing polymer (DRP) additives modify turbulent flow, so as to reduce turbulent drag. Reverse flow in a pipe occurs when the fluid close to the wall moves in an opposite direction to that of the core fluid. Reverse flow is established by using a piston-cylinder mechanism, the programmed motion of which imparts a known impulse to the fluid. When the piston is stopped at the end of the stroke, fluid inertia makes the core of the flow to continue in the same direction. In order to conserve mass, reverse flow is established close to the wall. An inflection point is thus formed, leading to flow instability above a critical Reynolds number. Dye and streak flow visualization experiments are performed to highlight the impact of DRP additives (polyethylene oxide, PEO, dissolved in water). The time of onset of the instability and the wavelength of the observed instability are studied in systems with and without DRP additives. This study will provide further insight into the phenomenon of turbulent polymer drag reduction.

  18. Drag Reduction by Leidenfrost Vapor Layers

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2011-05-23

    We demonstrate and quantify a highly effective drag reduction technique that exploits the Leidenfrost effect to create a continuous and robust lubricating vapor layer on the surface of a heated solid sphere moving in a liquid. Using high-speed video, we show that such vapor layers can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by over 85%. These results appear to approach the ultimate limit of drag reduction possible by different methods based on gas-layer lubrication and can stimulate the development of related energy saving technologies.

  19. Diffusion of drag-reducing polymer solutions within a rough-walled turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Brian R.; Dowling, David R.; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven L.

    2010-04-01

    The influence of surface roughness on diffusion of wall-injected, drag-reducing polymer solutions within a turbulent boundary layer was studied with a 0.94 m long flat-plate test model at speeds of up to 10.6 m s-1 and Reynolds numbers of up to 9×106. The surface was hydraulically smooth, transitionally rough, or fully rough. Mean concentration profiles were acquired with planar laser induced fluorescence, which was the primary flow diagnostic. Polymer concentration profiles with high injection concentrations (≥1000 wppm) had the peak concentration shifted away from the wall, which was partially attributed to a lifting phenomenon. The diffusion process was divided into three zones—initial, intermediate, and final. Studies of polymer injection into a polymer ocean at concentrations sufficient for maximum drag reduction indicated that the maximum initial zone length is of the order of 100 boundary layer thicknesses. The intermediate zone results indicate that friction velocity and roughness height are important scaling parameters in addition to flow and injection conditions. Lastly, the current results were combined with those in Petrie et al. ["Polymer drag reduction with surface roughness in flat-plate turbulent boundary layer flow," Exp. Fluids 35, 8 (2003)] to demonstrate that the influence of polymer degradation increases with increased surface roughness.

  20. Method and apparatus for reducing the drag of flows over surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Laurence R. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus, and its accompanying method, for reducing the drag of flows over a surface includes arrays of small disks and sensors. The arrays are embedded in the surface and may extend above, or be depressed below, the surface, provided they remain hydraulically smooth either when operating or when inactive. The disks are arranged in arrays of various shapes, and spaced according to the cruising speed of the vehicle on which the arrays are installed. For drag reduction at speeds of the order of 30 meters/second, preferred embodiments include disks that are 0.2 millimeter in diameter and spaced 0.4 millimeter apart. For drag reduction at speeds of the order of 300 meters/second, preferred embodiments include disks that are 0.045 millimeter in diameter and spaced 0.09 millimeter apart. Smaller and larger dimensions for diameter and spacing are also possible. The disks rotate in the plane of the surface, with their rotation axis substantially perpendicular to the surface. The rotating disks produce velocity perturbations parallel to the surface in the overlying boundary layer. The sensors sense the flow at the surface and connect to control circuitry that adjusts the rotation rates and duty cycles of the disks accordingly. Suction and blowing holes can be interspersed among, or made coaxial with, the disks for creating general three-component velocity perturbations in the near-surface region. The surface can be a flat, planar surface or a nonplanar surface, such as a triangular riblet surface. The present apparatus and method have potential applications in the field of aeronautics for improving performance and efficiency of commercial and military aircraft, and in other industries where drag is an obstacle, including gas and oil delivery through long-haul pipelines.

  1. Drag Moderation by the Melting of an Ice Surface in Contact with Water

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2015-07-24

    We report measurements of the effects of a melting ice surface on the hydrodynamic drag of ice-shell-metal-core spheres free falling in water at a Reynolds of number Re∼2×104–3×105 and demonstrate that the melting surface induces the early onset of the drag crisis, thus reducing the hydrodynamic drag by more than 50%. Direct visualization of the flow pattern demonstrates the key role of surface melting. Our observations support the hypothesis that the drag reduction is due to the disturbance of the viscous boundary layer by the mass transfer from the melting ice surface.

  2. Drag Moderation by the Melting of an Ice Surface in Contact with Water

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Chan, Derek Y.  C.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2015-01-01

    We report measurements of the effects of a melting ice surface on the hydrodynamic drag of ice-shell-metal-core spheres free falling in water at a Reynolds of number Re∼2×104–3×105 and demonstrate that the melting surface induces the early onset of the drag crisis, thus reducing the hydrodynamic drag by more than 50%. Direct visualization of the flow pattern demonstrates the key role of surface melting. Our observations support the hypothesis that the drag reduction is due to the disturbance of the viscous boundary layer by the mass transfer from the melting ice surface.

  3. Viscosity and Vorticity in Reduced Magneto-Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Ilon [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-12

    Magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) critically relies on viscous forces in order for an accurate determination of the electric eld. For each charged particle species, the Braginskii viscous tensor for a magnetized plasma has the decomposition into matrices with special symmetries.

  4. Short revolving wings enable hovering animals to avoid stall and reduce drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentink, David; Kruyt, Jan W.; Heijst, Gertjan F.; Altshuler, Douglas L.

    2014-11-01

    Long and slender wings reduce the drag of airplanes, helicopters, and gliding animals, which operate at low angle of attack (incidence). Remarkably, there is no evidence for such influence of wing aspect ratio on the energetics of hovering animals that operate their wings at much higher incidence. High incidence causes aircraft wings to stall, hovering animals avoid stall by generating an attached vortex along the leading edge of their wings that elevates lift. Hypotheses that explain this capability include the necessity for a short radial distance between the shoulder joint and wing tip, measured in chord lengths, instead of the long tip-to-tip distance that elevates aircraft performance. This stems from how hovering animals revolve their wings around a joint, a condition for which the precise effect of aspect ratio on stall performance is unknown. Here we show that the attachment of the leading edge vortex is determined by wing aspect ratio with respect to the center of rotation-for a suite of aspect ratios that represent both animal and aircraft wings. The vortex remains attached when the local radius is shorter than 4 chord lengths, and separates outboard on more slender wings. Like most other hovering animals, hummingbirds have wing aspect ratios between 3 and 4, much stubbier than helicopters. Our results show this makes their wings robust against flow separation, which reduces drag below values obtained with more slender wings. This revises our understanding of how aspect ratio improves performance at low Reynolds numbers.

  5. Investigation of the required length for fully developed pipe flow with drag-reducing polymer solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsiani, Yasaman; Elbing, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Adding trace amounts of long chain polymers into a liquid flow is known to reduce skin friction drag by up to 80%. While polymer drag reduction (PDR) has been successfully implemented in internal flows, diffusion and degradation have limited its external flow applications. A weakness in many previous PDR studies is that there was no characterization of the polymer being injected into the turbulent boundary layer, which can be accomplished by testing a sample in a pressure-drop tube. An implicit assumption in polymer characterization is that the flow is fully developed at the differential pressure measurement. While available data in the literature shows that the entry length to achieve fully developed flow increases with polymeric solutions, it is unclear how long is required to achieve fully developed flow for non-Newtonian turbulent flows. In the present study, the pressure-drop is measured across a 1.05 meter length section of a 1.04 cm inner diameter pipe. Differential pressure is measured with a pressure transducer for different entry lengths, flow and polymer solution properties. This presentation will present preliminary data on the required entrance length as well as characterization of polymer solution an estimate of the mean molecular weight.

  6. Modification of a Turbulent Boundary Layer within a Homogeneous Concentration of Drag reducing Polymer Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsiani, Yasaman; Elbing, Brian

    2017-11-01

    High molecular weight polymer solutions in wall-bounded flows can reduce the local skin friction by as much as 80%. External flow studies have typical focused on injection of polymer within a developing turbulent boundary layer (TBL), allowing the concentration and drag reduction level to evolve with downstream distance. Modification of the log-law region of the TBL is directly related to drag reduction, but recent results suggest that the exact behavior is dependent on flow and polymer properties. Weissenberg number and the viscosity ratio (ratio of solvent viscosity to the zero-shear viscosity) are concentration dependent, thus the current study uses a polymer ocean (i.e. a homogenous concentration of polymer solution) with a developing TBL to eliminate uncertainty related to polymer properties. The near-wall modified TBL velocity profiles are acquired with particle image velocimetry. In the current presentation the mean velocity profiles and the corresponding flow (Reynolds number) and polymer (Weissenberg number, viscosity ratio, and length ratio) properties are reported. Note that the impact of polymer degradation on molecular weight will also be quantified and accounted for when estimating polymer properties This work was supported by NSF Grant 1604978.

  7. Computational modeling and simulation of electro-hydrodynamic (EHD) ion-drag micropump with planar emitter and micropillar collector electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamboh, Shakeel Ahmed; Labadin, Jane; Rigit, Andrew Ragai Henry

    2013-01-01

    Computational models can be used to simulate a prototype of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) ion-drag micropump with planar emitter and micropillar collector electrodes. In this study, a simple and inexpensive design of an ion-drag micropump was modeled and numerically simulated. A three-dimensional segment of the microchannel was simulated by using periodic boundary conditions at the inlet and outlet. The pressure and velocity distribution at the outlet and in the entire domain of the micropump was obtained numerically. The effect of the gap between the emitter and the collector electrode, width and the height of micropillar and flow channel height was analyzed for optimum pressure and output flow rate. The enhanced performance of micropump was compared with existing designs. It was found that the performance of micropump could be improved by decreasing the height of micropillar and the gap between both electrodes. The numerical results also show that a maximum pressure head of about 2350 Pa and maximum mass flow rate 0.4 g min −1 at an applied voltage 1000 V is achievable with the proposed design of micropump. These values of pressure and flow rate can meet the cryogenic cooling requirements for some specific electronic devices.

  8. DNS of fully developed turbulent heat transfer of a viscoelastic drag-reducing flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Bo [Department of Oil and Gas Storage and Transportation Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Kawaguchi, Yasuo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

    2005-10-01

    A direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent heat transfer in a channel flow with a Giesekus model was carried out to investigate turbulent heat transfer mechanism of a viscoelastic drag-reducing flow by additives. The configuration was a fully-developed turbulent channel flow with uniform heat flux imposed on both the walls. The temperature was considered as a passive scalar with the effect of buoyancy force neglected. The Reynolds number based on the friction velocity and half the channel height was 150. Statistical quantities such as root-mean-square temperature fluctuations, turbulent heat fluxes and turbulent Prandtl number were obtained and compared with those of a Newtonian fluid flow. Budget terms of the temperature variance and turbulent heat fluxes were also presented. (author)

  9. The importance of high injection velocity to reduce plasma armature growth and drag in hypervelocity railguns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, R.S.; Dixon, W.R.; Kang, S.W.; McCallen, R.C.; Susoeff, A.R.; Asay, J.R.; Shaninpoor, M.

    1987-01-01

    Plasmas are required to serve as armature in hypervelocity railguns. Typically, the plasmas are at temperatures of about 20-30,000 K and result in a high heat flux on the barrel wall. Slow moving plasmas radiate heat and melt the launcher wall causing it to ablate and resulting in a growth of the armature mass and length. As the velocity increases, the more massive and longer armature will result in greater viscous drag and ultimately limit the maximum achievable velocity. Several possible means of reducing the armature growth are possible. This paper discusses two of them, use of heat resistant barrel materials, and reduction of wall heating by reduction of exposure time through use of a high initial velocity. A summary of experimentally based, material ablation resistance calculations is presented. Second, the benefit of high injection velocity is evaluated. Finally, a joint SNLA and LLNL railgun research project based on the above considerations are described

  10. Leidenfrost Vapor Layers Reduce Drag without the Crisis in High Viscosity Liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2016-09-08

    The drag coefficient CD of a solid smooth sphere moving in a fluid is known to be only a function of the Reynolds number Re and diminishes rapidly at the drag crisis around Re∼3×105. A Leidenfrost vapor layer on a hot sphere surface can trigger the onset of the drag crisis at a lower Re. By using a range of high viscosity perfluorocarbon liquids, we show that the drag reduction effect can occur over a wide range of Re, from as low as ∼600 to 105. The Navier slip model with a viscosity dependent slip length can fit the observed drag reduction and wake shape. © 2016 American Physical Society.

  11. Leidenfrost Vapor Layers Reduce Drag without the Crisis in High Viscosity Liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Berry, Joseph D.; Chan, Derek Y C; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2016-01-01

    The drag coefficient CD of a solid smooth sphere moving in a fluid is known to be only a function of the Reynolds number Re and diminishes rapidly at the drag crisis around Re∼3×105. A Leidenfrost vapor layer on a hot sphere surface can trigger the onset of the drag crisis at a lower Re. By using a range of high viscosity perfluorocarbon liquids, we show that the drag reduction effect can occur over a wide range of Re, from as low as ∼600 to 105. The Navier slip model with a viscosity dependent slip length can fit the observed drag reduction and wake shape. © 2016 American Physical Society.

  12. Effect of drag-reducing polymers on Tubing Performance Curve (TPC) in vertical gas-liquid flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shoeibi Omrani, P.; Veltin, J.; Turkenburg, D.H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of drag reducing polymers on the Tubing Performance Curve (TPC) of vertical air-water flows at near atmospheric conditions. The effect of polymer concentration, liquid and gas flow rates on the pressure drop curve (Tubing Performance Curve) was investigated

  13. Averaged Propulsive Body Acceleration (APBA) Can Be Calculated from Biologging Tags That Incorporate Gyroscopes and Accelerometers to Estimate Swimming Speed, Hydrodynamic Drag and Energy Expenditure for Steller Sea Lions

    OpenAIRE

    Ware, Colin; Trites, Andrew W.; Rosen, David A. S.; Potvin, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Forces due to propulsion should approximate forces due to hydrodynamic drag for animals horizontally swimming at a constant speed with negligible buoyancy forces. Propulsive forces should also correlate with energy expenditures associated with locomotion-an important cost of foraging. As such, biologging tags containing accelerometers are being used to generate proxies for animal energy expenditures despite being unable to distinguish rotational movements from linear movements. However, recen...

  14. Can large-scale oblique undulations on a solid wall reduce the turbulent drag?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebali, Sacha; Chernyshenko, Sergei I.; Leschziner, Michael A.

    2017-10-01

    Direct numerical simulations of fully developed turbulent channel flows with wavy walls are undertaken. The wavy walls, skewed with respect to the mean flow direction, are introduced as a means of emulating a Spatial Stokes Layer (SSL) induced by in-plane wall motion. The transverse shear strain above the wavy wall is shown to be similar to that of a SSL, thereby affecting the turbulent flow and leading to a reduction in the turbulent skin-friction drag. However, some important differences with respect to the SSL case are brought to light too. In particular, the phase variations of the turbulent properties are accentuated and, unlike in the SSL case, there is a region of increased turbulence production over a portion of the wall, above the leeward side of the wave, thus giving rise to a local increase in dissipation. The pressure- and friction-drag levels are carefully quantified for various flow configurations, exhibiting a combined maximum overall-drag reduction of about 0.6%. The friction-drag reduction is shown to behave approximately quadratically for small wave slopes and then linearly for higher slopes, whilst the pressure-drag penalty increases quadratically. The transverse shear-strain layer is shown to be approximately Reynolds-number independent when the wave geometry is scaled in wall units.

  15. Drag-reducing performance of obliquely aligned superhydrophobic surface in turbulent channel flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Sho; Fukagata, Koji [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, Hiyoshi 3-14-1, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Mamori, Hiroya, E-mail: fukagata@mech.keio.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, Niijuku 6-3-1, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 125-8585 (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Friction drag reduction effect by superhydrophobic surfaces in a turbulent channel flow is investigated by means of direct numerical simulation. The simulations are performed under a constant pressure gradient at the friction Reynolds number of 180. A special focus is laid upon the influence of the angle of microridge structure to flow direction, while the gas area fraction on the surface is kept at 50% and the groove width is kept constant at 33.75 wall units. Larger drag reduction effect is observed for a smaller angle: the bulk-mean velocity is increased about 15% when the microridge is parallel to the flow. The drag reduction effect is found to deteriorate rapidly with the microridge angle due to a decrease in the slip velocity. The Reynolds stress budgets show that the modification in each physical effect is qualitatively similar but more pronounced when the microridge is aligned with the stream. (paper)

  16. Vortex Induced Vibrations of Cylinders: Experiments in Reducing Drag Force and Amplitude of Motion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farrell, David E

    2007-01-01

    .... The second series of tests are the rigid cylinder, PIV experiments. These rests measure both the drag force on the cylinder and the oscillating component of the lift force, the latter of which is a good indication of vortex formation. The Chapter 3 tests also image the test section wake-providing helpful insight into the physical process of vortex formations.

  17. Effects of polymer stresses on analogy between momentum and heat transfer in drag-reduced turbulent channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoungyoun; Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna

    2018-03-01

    The effects of polymer stresses on the analogy between momentum and heat transfer are examined by using a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of viscoelastic turbulent channel flows using a constant heat flux boundary condition. The Reynolds number based on the friction velocity and channel half height is 125, and the Prandtl number is 5. The polymer stress is modeled using the finitely extensible nonlinear elastic-Peterlin constitutive model, and low (15%), intermediate (34%), and high drag reduction (DR) (52%) cases are examined. The Colburn analogy is found to be inapplicable for viscoelastic turbulent flows, suggesting dissimilarity between the momentum and heat transfer at the macroscopic coefficient level. The mean temperature profile also shows behaviour different from the mean velocity profile in drag-reduced flows. In contrast to the dissimilarity in the mean profiles, the turbulent Prandtl number Prt predicted by the DNS is near unity. This implies that turbulent heat transfer is still analogous to turbulent momentum transfer in drag-reduced flows, as in Newtonian flow. An increase in DR is accompanied by an increase in the correlation coefficient ρuθ between the instantaneous fluctuations in the streamwise velocity u and temperature θ. The correlation coefficient between u' and wall-normal velocity fluctuations v', ρ-u v, exhibits a profile similar to that of ρ-θ v in drag-reduced and Newtonian flows. Finally, the budget analysis of the transport equations of turbulent heat flux shows a strong similarity between the turbulent momentum and heat transfer, which is consistent with the predictions of Prt near unity.

  18. Preparation of Nano-Scale Biopolymer Extracted from Coconut Residue and Its Performance as Drag Reducing Agent (DRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Muhammad Luqman Bin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Drag or frictional force is defined as force that acts opposite to the object’s relative motion through a fluid which then will cause frictional pressure loss in the pipeline. Drag Reducing Agent (DRA is used to solve this issue and most of the DRAs are synthetic polymers but has some environmental issues. Therefore for this study, biopolymer known as Coconut Residue (CR is selected as the candidate to replace synthetic polymers DRA. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Nano-scale biopolymer DRA on the application of water injection system. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC is extracted by synthesizing the cellulose extracted from CR under the alkali-catalyzed reaction using monochloroacetic acid. The synthesize process is held in controlled condition whereby the concentration of NaOH is kept at 60%wt, 60 °C temperature and the reaction time is 4 hours. For every 25 g of dried CR used, the mass of synthesized CMC yield is at an average of 23.8 g. The synthesized CMC is then grinded in controlled parameters using the ball milling machine to get the Nano-scale size. The particle size obtained from this is 43.32 Nm which is in range of Nano size. This study proved that Nano-size CMC has higher percentage of drag reduction (%DR and flow increase (%FI if compared to normal-size CMC when tested in high and low flow rate; 44% to 48% increase in %DR and %FI when tested in low flow rate, and 16% to 18% increase in %DR and %FI when tested in high flow rate. The success of this research shows that Nano-scale DRA can be considered to be used to have better performance in reducing drag.

  19. Reducing the pressure drag of a D-shaped bluff body using linear feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Longa, L.; Morgans, A. S.; Dahan, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    The pressure drag of blunt bluff bodies is highly relevant in many practical applications, including to the aerodynamic drag of road vehicles. This paper presents theory revealing that a mean drag reduction can be achieved by manipulating wake flow fluctuations. A linear feedback control strategy then exploits this idea, targeting attenuation of the spatially integrated base (back face) pressure fluctuations. Large-eddy simulations of the flow over a D-shaped blunt bluff body are used as a test-bed for this control strategy. The flow response to synthetic jet actuation is characterised using system identification, and controller design is via shaping of the frequency response to achieve fluctuation attenuation. The designed controller successfully attenuates integrated base pressure fluctuations, increasing the time-averaged pressure on the body base by 38%. The effect on the flow field is to push the roll-up of vortices further downstream and increase the extent of the recirculation bubble. This control approach uses only body-mounted sensing/actuation and input-output model identification, meaning that it could be applied experimentally.

  20. Effect of static mixer on the performance of compact plate heat exchanger with zwitterionic type of drag-reducing additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blais, C.; Wollerstrand, J.

    1997-06-01

    The main task of the project was to investigate the influence of drag-reducing additives (DRA) dissolved in circulating hot water on heat transfer in compact plate heat exchangers (PHE). Furthermore the result of flow disturbance (static mixing) immediately before the PHE on pressure drop and heat transfer was clarified. The project used a new type of DRA (surfactants of zwitterionic type) for two different temperature ranges. A dedicated test rig, `Ansgar`, was built for the purpose. Good thermal and mechanical stability also outside the operating range was observed except some sensitivity for water hardness at high temperatures for DRA2. Similarly to known investigations, the heat transfer coefficient was significantly reduced by DRA in heat exchangers. In PHE used however, the heat transfer reduction was considerably lower in the high flow region. A static mixer placed in front of the PHE was found to significantly improve heat transfer, especially at high flow rates. On the other hand, an additional pressure drop was introduced. Therefore the optimal choice of static mixer needs further investigation. Specially designed PHE combining mixing and heat transfer functions could be beneficial to reducing the effects of additives in thermal systems. The relaxation time (RT) of drag-reducing additives in water solutions flowing through test pipes with known geometries was estimated by monitoring specific pressure drop variation along the pipe. These preliminary experiments in respect to relaxation time showed that RT depends on the flow rate and on the temperature 12 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  1. Elliptical, parabolic, and hyperbolic exchanges of energy in drag reducing plane Couette flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Anselmo S.; Mompean, Gilmar; Thompson, Roney L.; Soares, Edson J.

    2017-11-01

    In the present paper, we investigate the polymer-turbulence interaction by discriminating between the mechanical responses of this system to three different subdomains: elliptical, parabolic, and hyperbolic, corresponding to regions where the magnitude of vorticity is greater than, equal to, or less than the magnitude of the rate of strain, respectively, in accordance with the Q-criterion. Recently, it was recognized that hyperbolic structures play a crucial role in the drag reduction phenomenon of viscoelastic turbulent flows, thanks to the observation that hyperbolic structures, as well as vortical ones, are weakened by the action of polymers in turbulent flows in a process that can be referred to as flow parabolization. We employ direct numerical simulations of a viscoelastic finite extensible nonlinear elastic model with the Peterlin approximation to examine the transient evolution and statistically steady regimes of a plane Couette flow that has been perturbed from a laminar flow at an initial time and developed a turbulent regime as a result of this perturbation. We have found that even more activity is located within the confines of the hyperbolic structures than in the elliptical ones, which highlights the importance of considering the role of hyperbolic structures in the drag reduction mechanism.

  2. Nanomolar concentration of blood-soluble drag-reducing polymer inhibits experimental metastasis of human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Z

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Zhijie Ding,1,* Marion Joy,1,* Marina V Kameneva,1-3 Partha Roy1,3-6 1Department of Bioengineering, 2Department of Surgery, 3McGowan Institute of Regenerative Medicine, 4Department of Pathology, 5Department of Cell Biology, 6Magee Women’s Research Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer mortality. Extravasation of cancer cells is a critical step of metastasis. We report a novel proof-of-concept study that investigated whether non-toxic blood-soluble chemical agents capable of rheological modification of the near-vessel-wall blood flow can reduce extravasation of tumor cells and subsequent development of metastasis. Using an experimental metastasis model, we demonstrated that systemic administration of nanomolar concentrations of so-called drag-reducing polymer dramatically impeded extravasation and development of pulmonary metastasis of breast cancer cells in mice. This is the first proof-of-principle study to directly demonstrate physical/rheological, as opposed to chemical, way to prevent cancer cells from extravasation and developing metastasis and, thus, it opens the possibility of a new direction of adjuvant interventional approach in cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, metastasis, extravasation, hemodynamics, drag-reducing polymer, blood cell traffic, microvessels

  3. Hydrodynamic characteristics of sailfish and swordfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagong, Woong; Jeon, Woo-Pyung; Choi, Haecheon

    2009-11-01

    The sailfish and swordfish are known as fastest sea animals, reaching their maximum speeds of more than 100km/h. Recently, Sagong et al. (2008, Phys. Fluids) investigated the role of V- shaped protrusions existing on the sailfish skin in the skin-friction reduction but those protrusions did not make a direct role in reducing drag. On the other hand, the long bill has been regarded as a device of reducing drag by separation delay through turbulence generation. In the present study, we investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of sailfish and swordfish by installing the stuffed ones in a wind tunnel and measuring the drag on their bodies and boundary-layer velocities above the body surfaces. The drag coefficients of sailfish and swordfish are 0.0075 and 0.009 based on the free-stream velocity and wetted area, respectively. They are comparable to or smaller than those of other kinds of fish such as the dogfish, tuna and trout. Next, the role of bill on the drag is studied. The drag without bill or with an artificial short bill is lower than that with the original long bill, indicating that the bill does not reduce the drag at all. From the velocity measurement near the body surfaces, we found that flow separation does not occur even without bill, and thus the conjecture that the flow separation is delayed through turbulence generation by the bill is not valid.

  4. Modification of the mean near-wall velocity profile of a high-Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer with the injection of drag-reducing polymer solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Brian R.; Perlin, Marc; Dowling, David R.; Ceccio, Steven L.

    2013-08-01

    The current study explores the influence of polymer drag reduction on the near-wall velocity distribution in a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) and its dependence on Reynolds number. Recent moderate Reynolds number direct numerical simulation and experimental studies presented in White et al. [Phys. Fluids 24, 021701 (2012)], 10.1063/1.3681862 have challenged the classical representation of the logarithmic dependence of the velocity profile for drag-reduced flows, especially at drag reduction levels above 40%. In the present study, high Reynolds number data from a drag reduced TBL is presented and compared to the observations of White et al. [Phys. Fluids 24, 021701 (2012)], 10.1063/1.3681862. Data presented here were acquired in the TBL flow on a 12.9-m-long flat plate at speeds to 20.3 m s-1, achieving momentum thickness based Reynolds number to 1.5 × 105, which is an order of magnitude greater than that available in the literature. Polyethylene oxide solutions with an average molecular weight of 3.9 × 106 g mol-1 were injected into the flow at various concentrations and volumetric fluxes to achieve a particular level of drag reduction. The resulting mean near-wall velocity profiles show distinctly different behavior depending on whether they fall in the low drag reduction (LDR) or the high drag reduction (HDR) regimes, which are nominally divided at 40% drag reduction. In the LDR regime, the classical view that the logarithmic slope remains constant at the Newtonian value and the intercept constant increases with increasing drag reduction appears to be valid. However, in the HDR regime the behavior is no longer universal. The intercept constant continues to increase linearly in proportion to the drag reduction level until a Reynolds-number-dependent threshold is achieved, at which point the intercept constant rapidly decreases to that predicted by the ultimate profile. The rapid decrease in the intercept constant is due to the corresponding increase in the

  5. Envisat/ASAR images for the calibration of wind drag action in the Doñana wetlands 2D hydrodynamic model

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Fuertes, Anaïs; Martí Cardona, Belén; Bladé i Castellet, Ernest; Dolz Ripollès, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Doñana National Park wetlands are located in southwest Spain, on the right bank of the Guadalquivir River, near the Atlantic Ocean coast. The wetlands dry out completely every summer and progressively flood again throughout the fall and winter seasons. Given the flatness of Doñana’s topography, the wind drag action can induce the flooding or emergence of extensive areas, detectable in remote sensing images. Envisat/ASAR scenes acquired before and during strong and persistent wind episodes ena...

  6. New insights into the microvascular mechanisms of drag reducing polymers: effect on the cell-free layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Judith; Kliner, Dustin; Lipowsky, Herbert H; Kameneva, Marina V; Villanueva, Flordeliza S; Pacella, John J

    2013-01-01

    Drag-reducing polymers (DRPs) significantly increase blood flow, tissue perfusion, and tissue oxygenation in various animal models. In rectangular channel microfluidic systems, DRPs were found to significantly reduce the near-wall cell-free layer (CFL) as well as modify traffic of red blood cells (RBC) into microchannel branches. In the current study we further investigated the mechanism by which DRP enhances microvascular perfusion. We studied the effect of various concentrations of DRP on RBC distribution in more relevant round microchannels and the effect of DRP on CFL in the rat cremaster muscle in vivo. In round microchannels hematocrit was measured in parent and daughter branch at baseline and after addition of DRP. At DRP concentrations of 5 and 10 ppm, the plasma skimming effect in the daughter branch was eliminated, as parent and daughter branch hematocrit were equivalent, compared to a significantly lowered hematocrit in the daughter branch without DRPs. In anesthetized rats (N=11) CFL was measured in the cremaster muscle tissue in arterioles with a diameter of 32.6 ± 1.7 µm. In the control group (saline, N=6) there was a significant increase in CFL in time compared to corresponding baseline. Addition of DRP at 1 ppm (N=5) reduced CFL significantly compared to corresponding baseline and the control group. After DRP administration the CFL reduced to about 85% of baseline at 5, 15, 25 and 35 minutes after DRP infusion was complete. These in vivo and in vitro findings demonstrate that DRPs induce a reduction in CFL width and plasma skimming in the microvasculature. This may lead to an increase of RBC flux into the capillary bed, and thus explain previous observations of a DRP mediated enhancement of capillary perfusion.

  7. Reexamination of the Classical View of how Drag-Reducing Polymer Solutions Modify the Mean Velocity Profile: Baseline Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsiani, Yasaman; Baade, Jacquelyne; Elbing, Brian

    2016-11-01

    Recent numerical and experimental data have shown that the classical view of how drag-reducing polymer solutions modify the mean turbulent velocity profile is incorrect. The classical view is that the log-region is unmodified from the traditional law-of-the-wall for Newtonian fluids, though shifted outward. Thus the current study reexamines the modified velocity distribution and its dependence on flow and polymer properties. Based on previous work it is expected that the behavior will depend on the Reynolds number, Weissenberg number, ratio of solvent viscosity to the zero-shear viscosity, and the ratio between the coiled and fully extended polymer chain lengths. The long-term objective for this study includes a parametric study to assess the velocity profile sensitivity to each of these parameters. This study will be performed using a custom design water tunnel, which has a test section that is 1 m long with a 15.2 cm square cross section and a nominal speed range of 1 to 10 m/s. The current presentation focuses on baseline (non-polymeric) measurements of the velocity distribution using PIV, which will be used for comparison of the polymer modified results. Preliminary polymeric results will also be presented. This work was supported by NSF Grant 1604978.

  8. Averaged Propulsive Body Acceleration (APBA Can Be Calculated from Biologging Tags That Incorporate Gyroscopes and Accelerometers to Estimate Swimming Speed, Hydrodynamic Drag and Energy Expenditure for Steller Sea Lions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Ware

    Full Text Available Forces due to propulsion should approximate forces due to hydrodynamic drag for animals horizontally swimming at a constant speed with negligible buoyancy forces. Propulsive forces should also correlate with energy expenditures associated with locomotion-an important cost of foraging. As such, biologging tags containing accelerometers are being used to generate proxies for animal energy expenditures despite being unable to distinguish rotational movements from linear movements. However, recent miniaturizations of gyroscopes offer the possibility of resolving this shortcoming and obtaining better estimates of body accelerations of swimming animals. We derived accelerations using gyroscope data for swimming Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus, and determined how well the measured accelerations correlated with actual swimming speeds and with theoretical drag. We also compared dive averaged dynamic body acceleration estimates that incorporate gyroscope data, with the widely used Overall Dynamic Body Acceleration (ODBA metric, which does not use gyroscope data. Four Steller sea lions equipped with biologging tags were trained to swim alongside a boat cruising at steady speeds in the range of 4 to 10 kph. At each speed, and for each dive, we computed a measure called Gyro-Informed Dynamic Acceleration (GIDA using a method incorporating gyroscope data with accelerometer data. We derived a new metric-Averaged Propulsive Body Acceleration (APBA, which is the average gain in speed per flipper stroke divided by mean stroke cycle duration. Our results show that the gyro-based measure (APBA is a better predictor of speed than ODBA. We also found that APBA can estimate average thrust production during a single stroke-glide cycle, and can be used to estimate energy expended during swimming. The gyroscope-derived methods we describe should be generally applicable in swimming animals where propulsive accelerations can be clearly identified in the signal

  9. Air Layer Drag Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccio, Steven; Elbing, Brian; Winkel, Eric; Dowling, David; Perlin, Marc

    2008-11-01

    A set of experiments have been conducted at the US Navy's Large Cavitation Channel to investigate skin-friction drag reduction with the injection of air into a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer. Testing was performed on a 12.9 m long flat-plate test model with the surface hydraulically smooth and fully rough at downstream-distance-based Reynolds numbers to 220 million and at speeds to 20 m/s. Local skin-friction, near-wall bulk void fraction, and near-wall bubble imaging were monitored along the length of the model. The instrument suite was used to access the requirements necessary to achieve air layer drag reduction (ALDR). Injection of air over a wide range of air fluxes showed that three drag reduction regimes exist when injecting air; (1) bubble drag reduction that has poor downstream persistence, (2) a transitional regime with a steep rise in drag reduction, and (3) ALDR regime where the drag reduction plateaus at 90% ± 10% over the entire model length with large void fractions in the near-wall region. These investigations revealed several requirements for ALDR including; sufficient volumetric air fluxes that increase approximately with the square of the free-stream speed, slightly higher air fluxes are needed when the surface tension is reduced, higher air fluxes are required for rough surfaces, and the formation of ALDR is sensitive to the inlet condition.

  10. Leidenfrost vapour layer moderation of the drag crisis and trajectories of superhydrophobic and hydrophilic spheres falling in water

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Chan, Derek Y C; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the dynamic effects of a Leidenfrost vapour layer sustained on the surface of heated steel spheres during free fall in water. We find that a stable vapour layer sustained on the textured superhydrophobic surface of spheres falling through 95 °C water can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by up to 75% and stabilize the sphere trajectory for the Reynolds number between 104 and 106, spanning the drag crisis in the absence of the vapour layer. For hydrophilic spheres under the same conditions, the transition to drag reduction and trajectory stability occurs abruptly at a temperature different from the static Leidenfrost point. The observed drag reduction effects are attributed to the disruption of the viscous boundary layer by the vapour layer whose thickness depends on the water temperature. Both the drag reduction and the trajectory stabilization effects are expected to have significant implications for development of sustainable vapour layer based technologies. © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  11. Aerodynamic Drag Scoping Work.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voskuilen, Tyler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Erickson, Lindsay Crowl [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knaus, Robert C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    This memo summarizes the aerodynamic drag scoping work done for Goodyear in early FY18. The work is to evaluate the feasibility of using Sierra/Low-Mach (Fuego) for drag predictions of rolling tires, particularly focused on the effects of tire features such as lettering, sidewall geometry, rim geometry, and interaction with the vehicle body. The work is broken into two parts. Part 1 consisted of investigation of a canonical validation problem (turbulent flow over a cylinder) using existing tools with different meshes and turbulence models. Part 2 involved calculating drag differences over plate geometries with simple features (ridges and grooves) defined by Goodyear of approximately the size of interest for a tire. The results of part 1 show the level of noise to be expected in a drag calculation and highlight the sensitivity of absolute predictions to model parameters such as mesh size and turbulence model. There is 20-30% noise in the experimental measurements on the canonical cylinder problem, and a similar level of variation between different meshes and turbulence models. Part 2 shows that there is a notable difference in the predicted drag on the sample plate geometries, however, the computational cost of extending the LES model to a full tire would be significant. This cost could be reduced by implementation of more sophisticated wall and turbulence models (e.g. detached eddy simulations - DES) and by focusing the mesh refinement on feature subsets with the goal of comparing configurations rather than absolute predictivity for the whole tire.

  12. Action of drag reduces in mono and two--phase low in pipeline; Acao de redutores de atrito em escoamentos mono bifasicos em tubulacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paes, Diogo M.; Franca, Fernando A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Bizotto, Vanessa C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Lab. Kelsen Valente Serra (LABPETRO); Sabadini, Edvaldo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The phenomenon of hydrodynamic drag reduction (DR) takes place when small amounts of polymer with high molecular weight are added to a turbulent flow. This phenomenon is very important in pumping process, mainly in petroleum industries. Studies on DR have been made using high-grade polyacrylamide (PAM) and a commercial polymer (FA920, basically composed by PAM) in water solution, both with a high molecular weight. At first, studies were developed in a double gap type rheometer using small amount of polymer. They provided information on the polymer concentration in which the maximum DR was reached, the amount of drag reduction and the solution mechanical stability along a turbulent shearing process. The results indicated a limiting 17%DR when a 2 ppm aqueous solution of high grade PAM was tested. These tests, besides giving preliminary estimations, are limited in terms of engineering application due to the low shearing rates applied by the viscometer. The tests performed at LabPetro-UNICAMP comprised of pressure drop measurements in actual pipe flows, single water and two-phase airwater flows, using the previous knowledge acquired with the viscometer tests. In the former case, the classical Moody diagram, (f vs Re) has been drawn to show the %DR in terms of the friction factor reduction for the Reynolds number in the 2x10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} range. Single phase flows attained up to 37% DR with commercial PAM (FA 920), depending on the polymer concentration. Preliminary results of DR tests performed with air-water flows, in different flow patterns - stratified-wavy and slug flows, are shown. To infer the air-water flow pattern, high speed filming was used. (author)

  13. Drag and Torque on Locked Screw Propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Tabaczek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Few data on drag and torque on locked propeller towed in water are available in literature. Those data refer to propellers of specific geometry (number of blades, blade area, pitch and skew of blades. The estimation of drag and torque of an arbitrary propeller considered in analysis of ship resistance or propulsion is laborious. The authors collected and reviewed test data available in the literature. Based on collected data there were developed the empirical formulae for estimation of hydrodynamic drag and torque acting on locked screw propeller. Supplementary CFD computations were carried out in order to prove the applicability of the formulae to modern moderately skewed screw propellers.

  14. Hydrodynamic Drag on Streamlined Projectiles and Cavities

    KAUST Repository

    Jetly, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    The air cavity formation resulting from the water-entry of solid objects has been the subject of extensive research due to its application in various fields such as biology, marine vehicles, sports and oil and gas industries. Recently we

  15. Aerodynamic drag on intermodal railcars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinghorn, Philip; Maynes, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    The aerodynamic drag associated with transport of commodities by rail is becoming increasingly important as the cost of diesel fuel increases. This study aims to increase the efficiency of intermodal cargo trains by reducing the aerodynamic drag on the load carrying cars. For intermodal railcars a significant amount of aerodynamic drag is a result of the large distance between loads that often occurs and the resulting pressure drag resulting from the separated flow. In the present study aerodynamic drag data have been obtained through wind tunnel testing on 1/29 scale models to understand the savings that may be realized by judicious modification to the size of the intermodal containers. The experiments were performed in the BYU low speed wind tunnel and the test track utilizes two leading locomotives followed by a set of five articulated well cars with double stacked containers. The drag on a representative mid-train car is measured using an isolated load cell balance and the wind tunnel speed is varied from 20 to 100 mph. We characterize the effect that the gap distance between the containers and the container size has on the aerodynamic drag of this representative rail car and investigate methods to reduce the gap distance.

  16. Drag Reduction by Riblets & Sharkskin Denticles: A Numerical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomsma, Aaron

    Riblet films are a passive method of turbulent boundary layer control that can reduce viscous drag. They have been studied with great detail for over 30 years. Although common riblet applications include flows with Adverse Pressure Gradients (APG), nearly all research thus far has been performed in channel flows. Recent research has provided motivation to study riblets in more complicated turbulent flows with claims that riblet drag reduction can double in mild APG common to airfoils at moderate angles of attack. Therefore, in this study, we compare drag reduction by scalloped riblet films between riblets in a zero pressure gradient and those in a mild APG using high-resolution large eddy simulations. In order to gain a fundamental understanding of the relationship between drag reduction and pressure gradient, we simulated several different riblet sizes that encompassed a broad range of s + (riblet width in wall units), similarly to many experimental studies. We found that there was only a slight improvement in drag reduction for riblets in the mild APG. We also observed that peak values of streamwise turbulence intensity, turbulent kinetic energy, and streamwise vorticity scale with riblet width. Primary Reynolds shear stresses and turbulence kinetic energy production however scale with the ability of the riblet to reduce skin-friction. Another turbulent roughness of similar shape and size to riblets is sharkskin. The hydrodynamic function of sharkskin has been under investigation for the past 30 years. Current literature conflicts on whether sharkskin is able to reduce skin friction similarly to riblets. To contribute insights toward reconciling these conflicting views, Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) are carried out to obtain detailed flow fields around realistic denticles. A sharp interface immersed boundary method is employed to simulate two arrangements of actual sharkskin denticles (from Isurus oxyrinchus) in a turbulent boundary layer at Retau ≈ 180

  17. Diffusion of Drag-Reducing Polymers within a High-Reynolds-Number, Rough-Wall Turbulent Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Brian; Perlin, Marc; Dowling, David; Solomon, Michael; Ceccio, Steven

    2008-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate polymer drag reduction (PDR) within high Reynolds number (to 200 million based on downstream distance), rough-wall turbulent boundary layers. The first experiment was conducted at the U.S. Navy's Large Cavitation Channel on a 12.9 m long flat-plate at speeds to 20 m/s with the surface hydraulically smooth and fully rough. Local skin-friction measurements on the smooth and rough surfaces had maximum PDR levels of 65 and 75 percent, respectively. However, PDR decreased with increasing downstream distance and flow speed more rapidly on the rough surface, and at the top speed no measureable level of PDR was observed. The roughness-induced increased diffusion was quantified with near-wall concentration measurements and the second experiment, which measured concentration profiles on a 0.94 m long flat-plate with three surface conditions: smooth, 240-grit, and 60-grit sandpaper. The increased diffusion does not fully explain the smooth-rough PDR differences observed in the first experiment. Rheological analysis of drawn samples from the first experiment indicates that polymer degradation (chain scission) could be responsible for the remaining loss of rough-wall PDR. These results have implications for the cost effectiveness of PDR for surface ships.

  18. DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, R; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Castellucci, P; Pointer, D; Browand, F; Ross, J; Storms, B

    2007-01-04

    Class 8 tractor-trailers consume 11-12% of the total US petroleum use. At highway speeds, 65% of the energy expenditure for a Class 8 truck is in overcoming aerodynamic drag. The project objective is to improve fuel economy of Class 8 tractor-trailers by providing guidance on methods of reducing drag by at least 25%. A 25% reduction in drag would present a 12% improvement in fuel economy at highway speeds, equivalent to about 130 midsize tanker ships per year. Specific goals include: (1) Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles; (2) Develop innovative drag reducing concepts that are operationally and economically sound; and (3) Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate the potential of new drag-reduction devices. The studies described herein provide a demonstration of the applicability of the experience developed in the analysis of the standard configuration of the Generic Conventional Model. The modeling practices and procedures developed in prior efforts have been applied directly to the assessment of new configurations including a variety of geometric modifications and add-on devices. Application to the low-drag 'GTS' configuration of the GCM has confirmed that the error in predicted drag coefficients increases as the relative contribution of the base drag resulting from the vehicle wake to the total drag increases and it is recommended that more advanced turbulence modeling strategies be applied under those circumstances. Application to a commercially-developed boat tail device has confirmed that this restriction does not apply to geometries where the relative contribution of the base drag to the total drag is reduced by modifying the geometry in that region. Application to a modified GCM geometry with an open grille and radiator has confirmed that the underbody flow, while important for underhood cooling, has little impact on the drag

  19. Hydrodynamic interactions in active colloidal crystal microrheology

    OpenAIRE

    Weeber, R; Harting, JDR Jens

    2012-01-01

    In dense colloids it is commonly assumed that hydrodynamic interactions do not play a role. However, a found theoretical quantification is often missing. We present computer simulations that are motivated by experiments where a large colloidal particle is dragged through a colloidal crystal. To qualify the influence of long-ranged hydrodynamics, we model the setup by conventional Langevin dynamics simulations and by an improved scheme with limited hydrodynamic interactions. This scheme signif...

  20. Studies of Aerodynamic Drag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    31. Strouhal number vs Reynolds number - Effect of Wind tunnel Blockage. 150- P ecrit 100- 50k- o present d Qta o Mitry (1977) --Shair et ati (1963) 0...forces measured by the balance. 4.12 Final Tests A comprehensive set of drag measurements was taken with the new drag plates, the drag plates being

  1. An Examination of Drag Reduction Mechanisms in Marine Animals, with Potential Applications to Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, John A.; Patterson, Mark R.; Dowd, Wesley W.

    2002-01-01

    Previous engineering research and development has documented the plausibility of applying biomimetic approaches to aerospace engineering. Past cooperation between the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) and NASA focused on the drag reduction qualities of the microscale dermal denticles of shark skin. This technology has subsequently been applied to submarines and aircraft. The present study aims to identify and document the three-dimensional geometry of additional macroscale morphologies that potentially confer drag reducing hydrodynamic qualities upon marine animals and which could be applied to enhance the range and endurance of Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Such morphologies have evolved over eons to maximize organismal energetic efficiency by reducing the energetic input required to maintain cruising speeds in the viscous marine environment. These drag reduction qualities are manifested in several groups of active marine animals commonly encountered by ongoing VIMS research programs: namely sharks, bony fishes such as tunas, and sea turtles. Through spatial data acquired by molding and digital imagery analysis of marine specimens provided by VIMS, NASA aims to construct scale models of these features and to test these potential drag reduction morphologies for application to aircraft design. This report addresses the efforts of VIMS and NASA personnel on this project between January and November 2001.

  2. Hydrodynamic interactions in active colloidal crystal microrheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeber, R; Harting, J

    2012-11-01

    In dense colloids it is commonly assumed that hydrodynamic interactions do not play a role. However, a found theoretical quantification is often missing. We present computer simulations that are motivated by experiments where a large colloidal particle is dragged through a colloidal crystal. To qualify the influence of long-ranged hydrodynamics, we model the setup by conventional Langevin dynamics simulations and by an improved scheme with limited hydrodynamic interactions. This scheme significantly improves our results and allows to show that hydrodynamics strongly impacts the development of defects, the crystal regeneration, as well as the jamming behavior.

  3. Microblowing Technique for Drag Reduction, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA seeks to develop technologies for aircraft drag reduction which contribute to improved aerodynamic efficiency in support of national goals for reducing fuel...

  4. Racializing white drag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyne, Ragan

    2004-01-01

    While drag is primarily understood as a performance of gender, other performative categories such as race, class, and sexuality create drag meaning as well. Though other categories of identification are increasingly understood as essential elements of drag by performers of color, whiteness remains an unmarked category in the scholarship on drag performances by white queens. In this paper, I argue that drag by white queens must be understood as a performance of race as well as gender and that codes of gender excess are specifically constructed through the framework of these other axes of identity. This essay asks whether white performance by white queens necessarily reinscribes white supremacy through the performance of an unmarked white femininity, or might drag performance complicate (though not necessarily subvert) categories of race as well as gender? In this essay, I will suggest that camp drag performances, through the deployment of class as a crucial category of performative femininity, might indeed be a key site through which whiteness is denaturalized and its power challenged. Specifically, I will read on camp as a politicized mode of race, class and gender performance, focusing on the intersections of these categories of identity in the drag performance of Divine.

  5. Magnon-drag thermopower and Nernst coefficient in Fe, Co, and Ni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watzman, Sarah J.; Duine, Rembert A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830127; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Boona, Stephen R.; Jin, Hyungyu; Prakash, Arati; Zheng, Yuanhua; Heremans, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    Magnon-drag is shown to dominate the thermopower of elemental Fe from 2 to 80 K and of elemental Co from 150 to 600 K; it is also shown to contribute to the thermopower of elemental Ni from 50 to 500 K. Two theoretical models are presented for magnon-drag thermopower. One is a hydrodynamic theory

  6. Magnon-drag thermopower and Nernst coefficient in Fe, Co and Ni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watzman, S.J.; Duine, R.A.; Tserkovnyak, Y.; Jin, H.; Prakash, A.; Zheng, Y.; Heremans, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Magnon drag is shown to dominate the thermopower of elemental Fe from 2 to 80 K and of elemental Co from 150 to 600 K; it is also shown to contribute to the thermopower of elemental Ni from 50 to 500 K. Two theoretical models are presented for magnon-drag thermopower. One is a hydrodynamic theory

  7. Hydrodynamic approach to electronic transport in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narozhny, Boris N. [Institute for Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Gornyi, Igor V. [Institute for Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Mirlin, Alexander D. [Institute for Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Schmalian, Joerg [Institute for Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute for Solid State Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    The last few years have seen an explosion of interest in hydrodynamic effects in interacting electron systems in ultra-pure materials. In this paper we briefly review the recent advances, both theoretical and experimental, in the hydrodynamic approach to electronic transport in graphene, focusing on viscous phenomena, Coulomb drag, non-local transport measurements, and possibilities for observing nonlinear effects. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Measurements of drag and flow over biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartenberger, Joel; Gose, James W.; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven L.

    2017-11-01

    Microbial `slime' biofilms detrimentally affect the performance of every day systems from medical devices to large ocean-going vessels. In flow applications, the presence of biofilm typically results in a drag increase and may alter the turbulence in the adjacent boundary layer. Recent studies emphasize the severity of the drag penalty associated with soft biofouling and suggest potential mechanisms underlying the increase; yet, fundamental questions remain-such as the role played by compliance and the contribution of form drag to the overall resistance experienced by a fouled system. Experiments conducted on live biofilm and 3D printed rigid replicas in the Skin-Friction Flow Facility at the University of Michigan seek to examine these factors. The hydrodynamic performance of the biofilms grown on test panels was evaluated through pressure drop measurements as well as conventional and microscale PIV. High-resolution, 3D rigid replicas of select cases were generated via additive manufacturing using surface profiles obtained from a laser scanning system. Drag and flow measurements will be presented along with details of the growth process and the surface profile characterization method.

  9. Bioinspired surfaces for turbulent drag reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovin, Kevin B; Gose, James W; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven L; Tuteja, Anish

    2016-08-06

    In this review, we discuss how superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) can provide friction drag reduction in turbulent flow. Whereas biomimetic SHSs are known to reduce drag in laminar flow, turbulence adds many new challenges. We first provide an overview on designing SHSs, and how these surfaces can cause slip in the laminar regime. We then discuss recent studies evaluating drag on SHSs in turbulent flow, both computationally and experimentally. The effects of streamwise and spanwise slip for canonical, structured surfaces are well characterized by direct numerical simulations, and several experimental studies have validated these results. However, the complex and hierarchical textures of scalable SHSs that can be applied over large areas generate additional complications. Many studies on such surfaces have measured no drag reduction, or even a drag increase in turbulent flow. We discuss how surface wettability, roughness effects and some newly found scaling laws can help explain these varied results. Overall, we discuss how, to effectively reduce drag in turbulent flow, an SHS should have: preferentially streamwise-aligned features to enhance favourable slip, a capillary resistance of the order of megapascals, and a roughness no larger than 0.5, when non-dimensionalized by the viscous length scale.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Reducing the Drag and Damage of a High-Speed Train by Analyzing and Optimizing its Boundary Layer Separation and Roll-up into Wake Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chung-Hsiang; Marcus, Philip

    2012-11-01

    We present numerical calculations of the boundary layers and shed wake vortices behind several aerodynamic bodies and generic models of high-speed trains. Our calculations illustrate new visual diagnostics that we developed that clearly show where the separation of a boundary layer occurs and where, how, and with what angles (with respect to the stream-wise direction) the wake vortices form. The calculations also illustrate novel 3D morphing and mesh ``pushing and pulling'' techniques that allow us to change the shapes of aerodynamic bodies and models in a controlled and automated manner without spurious features appearing. Using these tools we have examined the patterns of the shed vortices behind generic bodies and trains and correlated them with the changes in the drag as well as with the effects of the shed vortices on the environment. In particular, we have applied these techniques to the end car of a next-generation, high-speed train in order to minimize the drag and to minimize the adverse effects of the shed vortices on the track ballast.

  11. Active aerodynamic drag reduction on morphable cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttag, M.; Reis, P. M.

    2017-12-01

    We study a mechanism for active aerodynamic drag reduction on morphable grooved cylinders, whose topography can be modified pneumatically. Our design is inspired by the morphology of the Saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea), which possesses an array of axial grooves, thought to help reduce aerodynamic drag, thereby enhancing the structural robustness of the plant under wind loading. Our analog experimental samples comprise a spoked rigid skeleton with axial cavities, covered by a stretched elastomeric film. Decreasing the inner pressure of the sample produces axial grooves, whose depth can be accurately varied, on demand. First, we characterize the relation between groove depth and pneumatic loading through a combination of precision mechanical experiments and finite element simulations. Second, wind tunnel tests are used to measure the aerodynamic drag coefficient (as a function of Reynolds number) of the grooved samples, with different levels of periodicity and groove depths. We focus specifically on the drag crisis and systematically measure the associated minimum drag coefficient and the critical Reynolds number at which it occurs. The results are in agreement with the classic literature of rough cylinders, albeit with an unprecedented level of precision and resolution in varying topography using a single sample. Finally, we leverage the morphable nature of our system to dynamically reduce drag for varying aerodynamic loading conditions. We demonstrate that actively controlling the groove depth yields a drag coefficient that decreases monotonically with Reynolds number and is significantly lower than the fixed sample counterparts. These findings open the possibility for the drag reduction of grooved cylinders to be operated over a wide range of flow conditions.

  12. Hydrodynamic forces on inundated bridge decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    The hydrodynamic forces experienced by an inundated bridge deck have great importance in the design of bridges. Specifically, the drag force, lift force, and the moment acting on the bridge deck under various levels of inundation and a range of flow ...

  13. The effect of sodium hydroxide on drag reduction using banana peel as a drag reduction agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, H.; Jaafar, A.

    2018-02-01

    Drag reduction is observed as reduced frictional pressure losses under turbulent flow conditions. Drag reduction agent such as polymers can be introduced to increase the flowrate of water flowing and reduce the water accumulation in the system. Currently used polymers are synthetic polymers, which will harm our environment in excessive use of accumulation. A more environmentally-friendly drag reduction agent such as the polymer derived from natural sources or biopolymer, is then required for such purpose. As opposed to the synthetic polymers, the potential of biopolymers as drag reduction agents, especially those derived from a local plant source are not extensively explored. The drag reduction of a polymer produced from a local plant source within the turbulent regime was explored and assessed in this study using a rheometer, where a reduced a torque produced was perceived as a reduction of drag. This method proposed is less time consuming and is more practical which is producing carboxymethylcellulose from the banana peel. The cellulose powder was converted to carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) by etherification process. The carboxymethylation reaction during the synthesizing process was then optimized against the reaction temperature, reaction time and solubility. The biopolymers were then rheologically characterized, where the viscoelastic effects and the normal stresses produced by these biopolymers were utilized to further relate and explain the drag reduction phenomena. The research was structured to focus on producing the biopolymer and to assess the drag reduction ability of the biopolymer produced. The rheological behavior of the biopolymers was then analyzed based on the ability of reducing drag. The results are intended to expand the currently extremely limited experimental database. Based on the results, the biopolymer works as a good DRA.

  14. Wind-Tunnel Investigations of Blunt-Body Drag Reduction Using Forebody Surface Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Sprague, Stephanie; Naughton, Jonathan W.; Curry, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents results of wind-tunnel tests that demonstrate a novel drag reduction technique for blunt-based vehicles. For these tests, the forebody roughness of a blunt-based model was modified using micomachined surface overlays. As forebody roughness increases, boundary layer at the model aft thickens and reduces the shearing effect of external flow on the separated flow behind the base region, resulting in reduced base drag. For vehicle configurations with large base drag, existing data predict that a small increment in forebody friction drag will result in a relatively large decrease in base drag. If the added increment in forebody skin drag is optimized with respect to base drag, reducing the total drag of the configuration is possible. The wind-tunnel tests results conclusively demonstrate the existence of a forebody dragbase drag optimal point. The data demonstrate that the base drag coefficient corresponding to the drag minimum lies between 0.225 and 0.275, referenced to the base area. Most importantly, the data show a drag reduction of approximately 15% when the drag optimum is reached. When this drag reduction is scaled to the X-33 base area, drag savings approaching 45,000 N (10,000 lbf) can be realized.

  15. Measurement of drag and its cancellation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBra, D B; Conklin, J W, E-mail: johnwc@stanford.edu [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4035 (United States)

    2011-05-07

    The design of drag cancellation missions of the future will take advantage of the technology experience of the past. The importance of data for modeling of the atmosphere led to at least six types of measurement: (a) balloon flights, (b) missile-launched falling spheres, (c) the 'cannonball' satellites of Ken Champion with accelerometers for low-altitude drag measurement (late 1960s and early 1970s), (d) the Agena flight of LOGACS (1967), a Bell MESA accelerometer mounted on a rotating platform to spectrally shift low-frequency errors in the accelerometer, (e) a series of French low-level accelerometers (e.g. CACTUS, 1975), and (f) correction of differential accelerations for drag errors in measuring gravity gradient on a pair of satellites (GRACE, 2002). The independent invention of the drag-free satellite concept by Pugh and Lange (1964) to cancel external disturbance added implementation opportunities. Its first flight application was for ephemeris prediction improvement with the DISCOS flight (1972)-still the only extended free test mass flight. Then successful flights for reduced disturbance environment for science measurement with gyros on GP-B (2004) and for improved accuracy in geodesy and ocean studies (GOCE, 2009) each using accelerometer measurements to control the drag-canceling thrust. LISA, DECIGO, BBO and other gravity wave-measuring satellite systems will push the cancellation of drag to new levels.

  16. Measurement of drag and its cancellation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBra, D B; Conklin, J W

    2011-01-01

    The design of drag cancellation missions of the future will take advantage of the technology experience of the past. The importance of data for modeling of the atmosphere led to at least six types of measurement: (a) balloon flights, (b) missile-launched falling spheres, (c) the 'cannonball' satellites of Ken Champion with accelerometers for low-altitude drag measurement (late 1960s and early 1970s), (d) the Agena flight of LOGACS (1967), a Bell MESA accelerometer mounted on a rotating platform to spectrally shift low-frequency errors in the accelerometer, (e) a series of French low-level accelerometers (e.g. CACTUS, 1975), and (f) correction of differential accelerations for drag errors in measuring gravity gradient on a pair of satellites (GRACE, 2002). The independent invention of the drag-free satellite concept by Pugh and Lange (1964) to cancel external disturbance added implementation opportunities. Its first flight application was for ephemeris prediction improvement with the DISCOS flight (1972)-still the only extended free test mass flight. Then successful flights for reduced disturbance environment for science measurement with gyros on GP-B (2004) and for improved accuracy in geodesy and ocean studies (GOCE, 2009) each using accelerometer measurements to control the drag-canceling thrust. LISA, DECIGO, BBO and other gravity wave-measuring satellite systems will push the cancellation of drag to new levels.

  17. Evaluation of Skin Friction Drag for Liner Applications in Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Brown, Martha C.; Jasinski, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    A parameter that is gaining significance in the evaluation of acoustic liner performance is the skin friction drag induced by air flow over the liner surface. Estimates vary widely regarding the amount of drag the liner induces relative to a smooth wall, from less than a 20% increase to nearly 100%, and parameters such as face sheet perforate hole diameter, percent open area, and sheet thickness are expected to figure prominently in the skin friction drag. Even a small increase in liner drag can impose an economic penalty, and current research is focused on developing 'low drag' liner concepts, with the goal being to approach the skin friction drag of a smooth wall. The issue of skin friction drag takes on greater significance as airframe designers investigate the feasibility of putting sound absorbing liners on the non-lifting surfaces of the wings and fuselage, for the purpose of reducing engine noise reflected and scattered toward observers on the ground. Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center have embarked on investigations of liner skin friction drag with the aims of: developing a systematic drag measurement capability, establishing the drag of current liners, and developing liners that produce reduced drag without compromising acoustic performance. This paper discusses the experimental procedures that have been developed to calculate the drag coefficient based on the change in momentum thickness and the companion research program being carried out to measure the drag directly using a force balance. Liner samples that are evaluated include a solid wall with known roughness and conventional liners with perforated facesheets of varying hole diameter and percent open area.

  18. Drag reduction of nata de coco suspensions in circular pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warashina, J.; Ogata, S.

    2015-04-01

    Reducing pipe friction by adding a drag-reducing agent has attracted interest as a means to reduce energy consumption. In addition to reducing drag, these agents are required to have a low environmental load and conserve natural resources. However, no drag-reducing agent currently satisfies both these conditions. We focused on nata de coco and found that the nata de coco fiber reduced drag by up to 25%. With respect to the mechanism of drag reduction by nata de coco fiber, the relationship between drag-reduction phenomena and the fiber form of nata de coco was investigated by visualization. We also found that the drag-reduction effect appeared to be due to the formation of networks of tangled fibers of nata de coco. However, drag reduction did not occur in the case in which fibers of nata de coco did not form networks.

  19. Magnon-drag thermopile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costache, Marius V; Bridoux, German; Neumann, Ingmar; Valenzuela, Sergio O

    2011-12-18

    Thermoelectric effects in spintronics are gathering increasing attention as a means of managing heat in nanoscale structures and of controlling spin information by using heat flow. Thermal magnons (spin-wave quanta) are expected to play a major role; however, little is known about the underlying physical mechanisms involved. The reason is the lack of information about magnon interactions and of reliable methods to obtain it, in particular for electrical conductors because of the intricate influence of electrons. Here, we demonstrate a conceptually new device that enables us to gather information on magnon-electron scattering and magnon-drag effects. The device resembles a thermopile formed by a large number of pairs of ferromagnetic wires placed between a hot and a cold source and connected thermally in parallel and electrically in series. By controlling the relative orientation of the magnetization in pairs of wires, the magnon drag can be studied independently of the electron and phonon-drag thermoelectric effects. Measurements as a function of temperature reveal the effect on magnon drag following a variation of magnon and phonon populations. This information is crucial to understand the physics of electron-magnon interactions, magnon dynamics and thermal spin transport.

  20. Fuel Savings and Aerodynamic Drag Reduction from Rail Car Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, Bruce; Salari, Kambiz; Babb, Alex

    2008-01-01

    The potential for energy savings by reducing the aerodynamic drag of rail cars is significant. A previous study of aerodynamic drag of coal cars suggests that a 25% reduction in drag of empty cars would correspond to a 5% fuel savings for a round trip [1]. Rail statistics for the United States [2] report that approximately 5.7 billion liters of diesel fuel were consumed for coal transportation in 2002, so a 5% fuel savings would total 284 million liters. This corresponds to 2% of Class I railroad fuel consumption nationwide. As part of a DOE-sponsored study, the aerodynamic drag of scale rail cars was measured in a wind tunnel. The goal of the study was to measure the drag reduction of various rail-car cover designs. The cover designs tested yielded an average drag reduction of 43% relative to empty cars corresponding to an estimated round-trip fuel savings of 9%.

  1. Drag reduction through self-texturing compliant bionic materials

    OpenAIRE

    Eryong Liu; Longyang Li; Gang Wang; Zhixiang Zeng; Wenjie Zhao; Qunji Xue

    2017-01-01

    Compliant fish skin is effectively in reducing drag, thus the design and application of compliant bionic materials may be a good choice for drag reduction. Here we consider the drag reduction of compliant bionic materials. First, ZnO and PDMS mesh modified with n-octadecane were prepared, the drag reduction of self-texturing compliant n-octadecane were studied. The results show that the mesh modified by ZnO and PDMS possess excellent lipophilic and hydrophobic, thus n-octadecane at solid, sem...

  2. Aerodynamic Efficiency Analysis on Modified Drag Generator of Tanker-Ship Using Symmetrical Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moranova, Starida; Rahmat Hadiyatul A., S. T.; Indra Permana S., S. T.

    2018-04-01

    Time reduction of tanker ship spent in the sea should be applied for solving problems occured in oil and gas distribution, such as the unpunctuality of the distribution and oil spilling. The aerodynamic design for some parts that considered as drag generators is presumed to be one of the solution, utilizing our demand of the increasing speed. This paper suggests two examples of the more-aerodynamic design of a part in the tanker that is considered a drag generator, and reports the value of drag generated from the basic and the suggested aerodynamic designs. The new designs are made by adding the NACA airfoil to the cross section of the drag generator. The scenario is assumed with a 39 km/hour speed of tanker, neglecting the hydrodynamic effects occured in the tanker by cutting it at the waterline which separated the drag between air and water. The results of produced drag in each design are calculated by Computational Fluid Dynamic method.

  3. Relativistic hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Luciano, Rezzolla

    2013-01-01

    Relativistic hydrodynamics is a very successful theoretical framework to describe the dynamics of matter from scales as small as those of colliding elementary particles, up to the largest scales in the universe. This book provides an up-to-date, lively, and approachable introduction to the mathematical formalism, numerical techniques, and applications of relativistic hydrodynamics. The topic is typically covered either by very formal or by very phenomenological books, but is instead presented here in a form that will be appreciated both by students and researchers in the field. The topics covered in the book are the results of work carried out over the last 40 years, which can be found in rather technical research articles with dissimilar notations and styles. The book is not just a collection of scattered information, but a well-organized description of relativistic hydrodynamics, from the basic principles of statistical kinetic theory, down to the technical aspects of numerical methods devised for the solut...

  4. Numerical study on the hydrodynamic characteristics of biofouled full-scale net cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Chun-wei; Zhao, Yun-peng; Dong, Guo-hai

    2015-06-01

    The effect of biofouling on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the net cage is of particular interest as biofouled nettings can significantly reduce flow of well-oxygenated water reaching the stocked fish. For computational efficiency, the porous-media fluid model is proposed to simulate flow through the biofouled plane net and full-scale net cage. The porous coefficients of the porous-media fluid model can be determined from the quadratic-function relationship between the hydrodynamic forces on a plane net and the flow velocity using the least squares method. In this study, drag forces on and flow fields around five plane nets with different levels of biofouling are calculated by use of the proposed model. The numerical results are compared with the experimental data of Swift et al. (2006) and the effectiveness of the numerical model is presented. On that basis, flow through full-scale net cages with the same level of biofouling as the tested plane nets are modeled. The flow fields inside and around biofouled net cages are analyzed and the drag force acting on a net cage is estimated by a control volume analysis method. According to the numerical results, empirical formulas of reduction in flow velocity and load on a net cage are derived as function of drag coefficient of the corresponding biofouled netting.

  5. Drag Reduction trough Special paints Coated on the hull

    OpenAIRE

    Izaguirre Alza, Patricia; Pérez Rojas, Luis; Núñez Basáñez, José Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The economic recession, the environmental impact as well as the continuous fossil fuel consumption encourage actions that focus on saving energy. In the vessels sector, one of the main objectives has always been to reach a hydro-dynamically optimum hull which gave the desired speed with minimum power. Hydrodynamic drag is basically divided into two parts: a) the friction between the water and the hull, and b) the wave generation due to the free-surface air-water. Presented in this paper...

  6. Dragging of inertial frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciufolini, Ignazio

    2007-09-06

    The origin of inertia has intrigued scientists and philosophers for centuries. Inertial frames of reference permeate our daily life. The inertial and centrifugal forces, such as the pull and push that we feel when our vehicle accelerates, brakes and turns, arise because of changes in velocity relative to uniformly moving inertial frames. A classical interpretation ascribed these forces to acceleration relative to some absolute frame independent of the cosmological matter, whereas an opposite view related them to acceleration relative to all the masses and 'fixed stars' in the Universe. An echo and partial realization of the latter idea can be found in Einstein's general theory of relativity, which predicts that a spinning mass will 'drag' inertial frames along with it. Here I review the recent measurements of frame dragging using satellites orbiting Earth.

  7. Drag Reduction by Laminar Flow Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Beck

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Energy System Transition in Aviation research project of the Aeronautics Research Center Niedersachsen (NFL searches for potentially game-changing technologies to reduce the carbon footprint of aviation by promoting and enabling new propulsion and drag reduction technologies. The greatest potential for aerodynamic drag reduction is seen in laminar flow control by boundary layer suction. While most of the research so far has been on partial laminarization by application of Natural Laminar Flow (NLF and Hybrid Laminar Flow Control (HLFC to wings, complete laminarization of wings, tails and fuselages promises much higher gains. The potential drag reduction and suction requirements, including the necessary compressor power, are calculated on component level using a flow solver with viscid/inviscid coupling and a 3D Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS solver. The effect on total aircraft drag is estimated for a state-of-the-art mid-range aircraft configuration using preliminary aircraft design methods, showing that total cruise drag can be halved compared to today’s turbulent aircraft.

  8. Hydrodynamic bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Bonneau, Dominique; Souchet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    This Series provides the necessary elements to the development and validation of numerical prediction models for hydrodynamic bearings. This book describes the rheological models and the equations of lubrication. It also presents the numerical approaches used to solve the above equations by finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements methods.

  9. Hydrodynamic Lubrication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 9. Hydrodynamic Lubrication Experiment with 'Floating' Drops. Jaywant H Arakeri K R Sreenivas. General Article Volume 1 Issue 9 September 1996 pp 51-58. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. Theoretical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Milne-Thomson, L M

    2011-01-01

    This classic exposition of the mathematical theory of fluid motion is applicable to both hydrodynamics and aerodynamics. Based on vector methods and notation with their natural consequence in two dimensions - the complex variable - it offers more than 600 exercises and nearly 400 diagrams. Prerequisites include a knowledge of elementary calculus. 1968 edition.

  11. Hydrodynamic disperser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulatov, A.I.; Chernov, V.S.; Prokopov, L.I.; Proselkov, Yu.M.; Tikhonov, Yu.P.

    1980-01-15

    A hydrodynamic disperser is suggested which contains a housing, slit nozzles installed on a circular base arranged opposite from each other, resonators secured opposite the nozzle and outlet sleeve. In order to improve the effectiveness of dispersion by throttling the flow, each resonator is made in the form of a crimped plate with crimpings that decrease in height in a direction towards the nozzle.

  12. Drag reduction effects facilitated by microridges inside the mouthparts of honeybee workers and drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chu-Chu; Wu, Jia-Ning; Yang, Yun-Qiang; Zhu, Ren-Gao; Yan, Shao-Ze

    2016-01-21

    The mouthpart of a honeybee is a natural well-designed micropump that uses a reciprocating glossa through a temporary tube comprising a pair of galeae and labial palpi for loading nectar. The shapes and sizes of mouthparts differ among castes of honeybees, but the diversities of the functional microstructures inside the mouthparts of honeybee workers and drones remain poorly understood. Through scanning electron microscopy, we found the dimensional difference of uniformly distributed microridges on the inner galeae walls of Apis mellifera ligustica workers and drones. Subsequently, we recorded the feeding process of live honeybees by using a specially designed high-speed camera system. Considering the microridges and kinematics of the glossa, we constructed a hydrodynamic model to calculate the friction coefficient of the mouthpart. In addition, we test the drag reduction through the dimensional variations of the microridges on the inner walls of mouthparts. Theoretical estimations of the friction coefficient with respect to dipping frequency show that inner microridges can reduce friction during the feeding process of honeybees. The effects of drag reduction regulated by specific microridges were then compared. The friction coefficients of the workers and drones were found to be 0.011±0.007 (mean±s.d.) and 0.045±0.010, respectively. These results indicate that the mouthparts of workers are more capable of drag reduction compared with those of drones. The difference was analyzed by comparing the foraging behavior of the workers and drones. Workers are equipped with well-developed hypopharyngeal, and their dipping frequency is higher than that of drones. Our research establishes a critical link between microridge dimensions and drag reduction capability during the nectar feeding of honeybees. Our results reveal that microridges inside the mouthparts of honeybee workers and drones reflect the caste-related life cycles of honeybees. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  13. Hydrodynamic optical soliton tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, P.; Hoefer, M. A.; El, G. A.

    2018-03-01

    A notion of hydrodynamic optical soliton tunneling is introduced in which a dark soliton is incident upon an evolving, broad potential barrier that arises from an appropriate variation of the input signal. The barriers considered include smooth rarefaction waves and highly oscillatory dispersive shock waves. Both the soliton and the barrier satisfy the same one-dimensional defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation, which admits a convenient dispersive hydrodynamic interpretation. Under the scale separation assumption of nonlinear wave (Whitham) modulation theory, the highly nontrivial nonlinear interaction between the soliton and the evolving hydrodynamic barrier is described in terms of self-similar, simple wave solutions to an asymptotic reduction of the Whitham-NLS partial differential equations. One of the Riemann invariants of the reduced modulation system determines the characteristics of a soliton interacting with a mean flow that results in soliton tunneling or trapping. Another Riemann invariant yields the tunneled soliton's phase shift due to hydrodynamic interaction. Soliton interaction with hydrodynamic barriers gives rise to effects that include reversal of the soliton propagation direction and spontaneous soliton cavitation, which further suggest possible methods of dark soliton control in optical fibers.

  14. Progress report on INEL full flow drag screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arave, A.E.; Colson, J.B.; Fincke, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    The objective in developing a full flow drag screen is to obtain a total momentum flux measurement which when combined with a suitable independent velocity or density measurement will yield a total mass flux. The major design considerations are predicated by the fact that an accurate momentum flux measurement must be made over a wide range of flow conditions. The device should exhibit a constant calibration regardless of Reynolds number, void fraction, slip ratio, or flow regime. The dynamics of drag devices are well understood in single-phase flows. This is not true for two-phase flows. The present development program is directed toward gaining an understanding of the dynamics of drag devices which sample the total area of a pipe in two-phase flow and developing a method for deducing mass flow rate using such a device. Various geometric arrangements are to be investigated. Testing to date has shown excellent results using a round wire mesh screen in the Semiscale air/water loop. Future air/water testing will include perforated plates and wire meshes with both rectangular and diamond shaped cross sections. Analytical models of the hydrodynamics of the drag screen as well as the associated density or velocity measuring device are being used to select the optimum configuration. Alternate force sensing methods are also being considered. These include single and multiple transducer arrangements. Multistage springs and pressure drop across the body are to be evaluated for extending the dynamic range of the drag body

  15. Drag reduction through self-texturing compliant bionic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Eryong; Li, Longyang; Wang, Gang; Zeng, Zhixiang; Zhao, Wenjie; Xue, Qunji

    2017-01-01

    Compliant fish skin is effectively in reducing drag, thus the design and application of compliant bionic materials may be a good choice for drag reduction. Here we consider the drag reduction of compliant bionic materials. First, ZnO and PDMS mesh modified with n-octadecane were prepared, the drag reduction of self-texturing compliant n-octadecane were studied. The results show that the mesh modified by ZnO and PDMS possess excellent lipophilic and hydrophobic, thus n-octadecane at solid, semisolid and liquid state all have good adhesion with modified mesh. The states of n-octadecane changed with temperature, thus, the surface contact angle and adhesive force all varies obviously at different state. The contact angle decreases with temperature, the adhesive force shows a lower value at semisolid state. Furthermore, the drag testing results show that the compliant n-octadecane film is more effectively in drag reduction than superhydrophobic ZnO/PDMS film, indicating that the drag reduction mechanism of n-octadecane is significantly different with superhydrophobic film. Further research shows that the water flow leads to self-texturing of semisolid state n-octadecane, which is similar with compliant fish skin. Therefore, the compliant bionic materials of semisolid state n-octadecane with regular bulge plays a major role in the drag reduction.

  16. Drag reduction by a polymeric aluminium soap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriquez, F.

    1971-04-12

    The pressure drop per unit length of pipe during the turbulent flow of liquids is reduced by certain additives. Most such drag reducing or friction-reducing agents are polymers of very high molecular weight. Some time ago, aluminum soaps were described as reducing drag in organic solvents, but the viscosity in laminar flow of such solutions was much higher than that of the solvents. More recently, it was found that aluminum dioleate and aluminum palmitate did not reduce turbulent friction until the solute concentration reached 0.75%. The viscosity at this concentration was 2 or 3 times that of the solvent, benzene. Exploratory work with aluminum di-2-ethylhexanoate indicates that it is an effective drag-reducing agent at concentrations which increase the viscosity of toluene by less than 10%. The dependence of the effectiveness on concentration is similar to that of most polymers. Taking into account the normal change in friction factor with Reynolds number together with end effects in the apparatus, the maximum effectiveness (x = 54 cm) corresponds to a a decrease in friction factor to less than a quarter of the original value for toluene alone. (13 refs.)

  17. Assessing hydrodynamic space use of brown trout, Salmo trutta, in a complex flow environment: a return to first principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, James R; Manes, Costantino; Kemp, Paul S

    2016-11-01

    It is commonly assumed that stream-dwelling fish should select positions where they can reduce energetic costs relative to benefits gained and enhance fitness. However, the selection of appropriate hydrodynamic metrics that predict space use is the subject of recent debate and a cause of controversy. This is for three reasons: (1) flow characteristics are often oversimplified, (2) confounding variables are not always controlled and (3) there is limited understanding of the explanatory mechanisms that underpin the biophysical interactions between fish and their hydrodynamic environment. This study investigated the space use of brown trout, Salmo trutta, in a complex hydrodynamic flow field created using an array of different sized vertically oriented cylinders in a large open-channel flume in which confounding variables were controlled. A hydrodynamic drag function (D) based on single-point time-averaged velocity statistics that incorporates the influence of turbulent fluctuations was used to infer the energetic cost of steady swimming. Novel hydrodynamic preference curves were developed and used to assess the appropriateness of D as a descriptor of space use compared with other commonly used metrics. Zones in which performance-enhancing swimming behaviours (e.g. Kármán gaiting, entraining and bow riding) that enable fish to hold position while reducing energetic costs (termed 'specialised behaviours') were identified and occupancy was recorded. We demonstrate that energy conservation strategies play a key role in space use in an energetically taxing environment with the majority of trout groups choosing to frequently occupy areas in which specialised behaviours may be adopted or by selecting low-drag regions. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Aerodynamic drag reduction by vertical splitter plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliéron, Patrick; Kourta, Azeddine

    2010-01-01

    The capacity of vertical splitter plates placed at the front or the rear of a simplified car geometry to reduce drag, with and without skew angle, is investigated for Reynolds numbers between 1.0 × 106 and 1.6 × 106. The geometry used is a simplified geometry to represent estate-type vehicles, for the rear section, and MPV-type vehicle. Drag reductions of nearly 28% were obtained for a zero skew angle with splitter plates placed at the front of models of MPV or utility vehicles. The results demonstrate the advantage of adapting the position and orientation of the splitter plates in the presence of a lateral wind. All these results confirm the advantage of this type of solution, and suggest that this expertise should be used in the automotive field to reduce consumption and improve dynamic stability of road vehicles.

  19. Aerodynamic drag reduction by vertical splitter plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillieron, Patrick [Renault Group, Research Division, Fluid Mechanics and Aerodynamics, Guyancourt (France); Kourta, Azeddine [Polytech' Orleans, Institut PRISME, ESA, Orleans (France)

    2010-01-15

    The capacity of vertical splitter plates placed at the front or the rear of a simplified car geometry to reduce drag, with and without skew angle, is investigated for Reynolds numbers between 1.0 x 10{sup 6} and 1.6 x 10{sup 6}. The geometry used is a simplified geometry to represent estate-type vehicles, for the rear section, and MPV-type vehicle. Drag reductions of nearly 28% were obtained for a zero skew angle with splitter plates placed at the front of models of MPV or utility vehicles. The results demonstrate the advantage of adapting the position and orientation of the splitter plates in the presence of a lateral wind. All these results confirm the advantage of this type of solution, and suggest that this expertise should be used in the automotive field to reduce consumption and improve dynamic stability of road vehicles. (orig.)

  20. Switchable and Tunable Aerodynamic Drag on Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttag, Mark; Lopéz Jiménez, Francisco; Upadhyaya, Priyank; Kumar, Shanmugam; Reis, Pedro

    We report results on the performance of Smart Morphable Surfaces (Smporhs) that can be mounted onto cylindrical structures to actively reduce their aerodynamic drag. Our system comprises of an elastomeric thin shell with a series of carefully designed subsurface cavities that, once depressurized, lead to a dramatic deformation of the surface topography, on demand. Our design is inspired by the morphology of the giant cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) which possesses an array of axial grooves, thought to help reduce aerodynamic drag, thereby enhancing the structural robustness of the plant under wind loading. We perform systematic wind tunnel tests on cylinders covered with our Smorphs and characterize their aerodynamic performance. The switchable and tunable nature of our system offers substantial advantages for aerodynamic performance when compared to static topographies, due to their operation over a wider range of flow conditions.

  1. Anomalous Hydrodynamic Drafting of Interacting Flapping Flags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristroph, Leif; Zhang, Jun

    2008-11-01

    In aggregates of objects moving through a fluid, bodies downstream of a leader generally experience reduced drag force. This conventional drafting holds for objects of fixed shape, but interactions of deformable bodies in a flow are poorly understood, as in schools of fish. In our experiments on “schooling” flapping flags, we find that it is the leader of a group who enjoys a significant drag reduction (of up to 50%), while the downstream flag suffers a drag increase. This counterintuitive inverted drag relationship is rationalized by dissecting the mutual influence of shape and flow in determining drag. Inverted drafting has never been observed with rigid bodies, apparently due to the inability to deform in response to the altered flow field of neighbors.

  2. Supernova hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The explosion of a star supernova occurs at the end of its evolution when the nuclear fuel in its core is almost, or completely, consumed. The star may explode due to a small residual thermonuclear detonation, type I SN or it may collapse, type I and type II SN leaving a neutron star remnant. The type I progenitor should be thought to be an old accreting white dwarf, 1.4 M/sub theta/, with a close companion star. A type II SN is thought to be a massive young star 6 to 10 M/sub theta/. The mechanism of explosion is still a challenge to our ability to model the most extreme conditions of matter and hydrodynamics that occur presently and excessively in the universe. 39 references

  3. Submarine hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Renilson, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This book adopts a practical approach and presents recent research together with applications in real submarine design and operation. Topics covered include hydrostatics, manoeuvring, resistance and propulsion of submarines. The author briefly reviews basic concepts in ship hydrodynamics and goes on to show how they are applied to submarines, including a look at the use of physical model experiments. The issues associated with manoeuvring in both the horizontal and vertical planes are explained, and readers will discover suggested criteria for stability, along with rudder and hydroplane effectiveness. The book includes a section on appendage design which includes information on sail design, different arrangements of bow planes and alternative stern configurations. Other themes explored in this book include hydro-acoustic performance, the components of resistance and the effect of hull shape. Readers will value the author’s applied experience as well as the empirical expressions that are presented for use a...

  4. Physical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Guyon, Etienne; Petit, Luc; Mitescu, Catalin D

    2015-01-01

    This new edition is an enriched version of the textbook of fluid dynamics published more than 10 years ago. It retains the same physically oriented pedagogical perspective. This book emphasizes, as in the first edition, experimental inductive approaches and relies on the study of the mechanisms at play and on dimensional analysis rather than more formal approaches found in many classical textbooks in the field. The need for a completely new version also originated from the increase, over the last few decades, of the cross-overs between the mechanical and physical approaches, as is visible in international meetings and joint projects. Hydrodynamics is more widely linked today to other fields of experimental sciences: materials, environment, life sciences and earth sciences, as well as engineering sciences.

  5. Introduction to hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of hydrodynamics and elastic--plastic flow are introduced for the purpose of defining hydrodynamic terms and explaining what some of the important hydrodynamic concepts are. The first part covers hydrodynamic theory; and discussed fundamental hydrodynamic equations, discontinuities, and shock, detonation, and elastic--plastic waves. The second part deals with applications of hydrodynamic theory to material equations of state, spall, Taylor instabilities, and detonation pressure measurements

  6. Thermo-hydrodynamic lubrication in hydrodynamic bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Bonneau, Dominique; Souchet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    This Series provides the necessary elements to the development and validation of numerical prediction models for hydrodynamic bearings. This book describes the thermo-hydrodynamic and the thermo-elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication. The algorithms are methodically detailed and each section is thoroughly illustrated.

  7. Resolvent-based feedback control for turbulent friction drag reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagoe, Aika; Nakashima, Satoshi; Luhar, Mitul; Fukagata, Koji

    2017-11-01

    Suboptimal control for turbulent friction drag reduction has been studied extensively. Nakashima et al. (accepted) extended resolvent analysis to suboptimal control, and for the control where the streamwise wall shear stress is used as an input (Case ST), they revealed the control effect across spectral space is mixed: there are regions of drag increase as well as reduction. This suggests that control performance may be improved if the control is applied for selective wavelengths, or if a new law is designed to suppress the spectral region leading to drag increase. In the present study, we first assess the effect of suboptimal control for selective wavelengths via DNS. The friction Reynolds number is set at 180. For Case ST, resolvent analysis predicts drag reduction at long streamwise wavelengths. DNS with control applied only for this spectral region, however, did not result in drag reduction. Then, we seek an effective control law using resolvent analysis and propose a new law. DNS results for this law are consistent with predictions from resolvent analysis, and about 10% drag reduction is attained. Further, we discuss how this law reduces the drag from a dynamical and theoretical point of view. This work was supported through Grant-in-Aid for Scientic Research (C) (No. 25420129) by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).

  8. Controlling turbulent drag across electrolytes using electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostilla-Mónico, Rodolfo; Lee, Alpha A

    2017-07-01

    Reversible in operando control of friction is an unsolved challenge that is crucial to industrial tribology. Recent studies show that at low sliding velocities, this control can be achieved by applying an electric field across electrolyte lubricants. However, the phenomenology at high sliding velocities is yet unknown. In this paper, we investigate the hydrodynamic friction across electrolytes under shear beyond the transition to turbulence. We develop a novel, highly parallelised numerical method for solving the coupled Navier-Stokes Poisson-Nernst-Planck equation. Our results show that turbulent drag cannot be controlled across dilute electrolytes using static electric fields alone. The limitations of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck formalism hint at ways in which turbulent drag could be controlled using electric fields.

  9. Hydrodynamic dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryce, M.H.L.

    1985-01-01

    A dominant mechanism contributing to hydrodynamic dispersion in fluid flow through rocks is variation of travel speeds within the channels carrying the fluid, whether these be interstices between grains, in granular rocks, or cracks in fractured crystalline rocks. The complex interconnections of the channels ensure a mixing of those parts of the fluid which travel more slowly and those which travel faster. On a macroscopic scale this can be treated statistically in terms of the distribution of times taken by a particle of fluid to move from one surface of constant hydraulic potential to another, lower, potential. The distributions in the individual channels are such that very long travel times make a very important contribution. Indeed, while the mean travel time is related to distance by a well-defined transport speed, the mean square is effectively infinite. This results in an asymmetrical plume which differs markedly from a gaussian shape. The distribution of microscopic travel times is related to the distribution of apertures in the interstices, or in the microcracks, which in turn are affected in a complex way by the stresses acting on the rock matrix

  10. Hydrodynamic Forces from Steep Waves in Rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevoll, A.

    1996-12-31

    The reservoir behind a hydroelectric power production dam has an enormous potential for destruction in case of a dam break. The present doctoral thesis evaluates the hydrodynamic forces from steep waves in rivers. In the laboratory, forces on a structure shaped as a vertical cylinder of rectangular cross section were measured, and the threshold condition for the bed sediment was investigated. A wave parameter {alpha} is introduced to describe the gradient of a wave front. The flow condition in the flume was reproduced by a 3-D numerical model. For various values of the wave parameter the forces were measured and compared to the drag force calculated from measured depth and velocity. From these comparisons the hydrodynamic force can be calculated as drag only, even in the case of a breaking wave front. The contribution from inertia relative to drag depends on the size of the structure. For larger structures the contributions may be important in steep waves. To study the initiation of motion (of sediments) under unsteady flow, waves of various parameter values were passed over a gravel covered bed. The initiation of motion starts before the peak of the wave, and is given by Shield`s relation if the friction slope is applied. No dependence upon the wave gradient was found. A relation was established which gives the critical shear stress if the friction slope is estimated by the bottom slope. 65 refs., 41 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Hydrodynamic Forces from Steep Waves in Rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loevoll, A.

    1996-01-01

    The reservoir behind a hydroelectric power production dam has an enormous potential for destruction in case of a dam break. The present doctoral thesis evaluates the hydrodynamic forces from steep waves in rivers. In the laboratory, forces on a structure shaped as a vertical cylinder of rectangular cross section were measured, and the threshold condition for the bed sediment was investigated. A wave parameter α is introduced to describe the gradient of a wave front. The flow condition in the flume was reproduced by a 3-D numerical model. For various values of the wave parameter the forces were measured and compared to the drag force calculated from measured depth and velocity. From these comparisons the hydrodynamic force can be calculated as drag only, even in the case of a breaking wave front. The contribution from inertia relative to drag depends on the size of the structure. For larger structures the contributions may be important in steep waves. To study the initiation of motion (of sediments) under unsteady flow, waves of various parameter values were passed over a gravel covered bed. The initiation of motion starts before the peak of the wave, and is given by Shield's relation if the friction slope is applied. No dependence upon the wave gradient was found. A relation was established which gives the critical shear stress if the friction slope is estimated by the bottom slope. 65 refs., 41 figs., 10 tabs

  12. Investigation of Drag Coefficient for Rigid Ballute-like Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnasciali, Maria-Isabel; Mastromarino, Anthony

    2014-11-01

    One common method of decelerating an object during atmospheric entry, descent, and landing is the use of parachutes. Another deceleration technology is the ballute - a combination of balloon and parachute. A CFD study was conducted using commercially available software to investigate the flow-field and the coefficient of drag for various rigid ballute-like shapes at varying Reynolds numbers. The impact of size and placement of the burble-fence as well as number, size, and shape of inlets was considered. Recent experimental measurements conducted during NASA's Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator program revealed a much higher coefficient of drag (Cd) for ballutes than previously encountered. Using atmospheric drag to slow down and land reduces the need for heavy fuel and rocket engines and thus, high values of drag are desired. Funding for this work, in part, provided by the CT Space Grant Consortium.

  13. Experimental study of drag reduction in flumes and spillway tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-kui Wang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiments in an open flume model and spillway tunnel model were carried out using drag reduction techniques. Two drag reduction techniques were adopted in the experiments: polymer addition and coating. The drag reduction effect of a polyacrylamide (PAM solution and dimethyl silicone oil coating were studied in the flume model experiments, and the results were analyzed. Experiments were then carried out with a model of the Xiluodu Hydropower Station, the second largest dam in China. In order to reduce the resistance, the spillway tunnels were internally coated with dimethyl silicone oil. This is the first time that these drag reduction techniques have been applied to so large a hydraulic model. The experimental results show that the coating technique can effectively increase flood discharge. The outlet velocity and the jet trajectory distance are also increased, which enhances the energy dissipation of the spillway tunnel.

  14. Turbulent skin-friction drag on a slender body of revolution and Gray's Paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesteruk, Igor; Cartwright, Julyan H E

    2011-01-01

    The boundary layer on a slender body of revolution differs considerably from that on a flat plate, but these two cases can be connected by the Mangler-Stepanov transformations. The presented analysis shows that turbulent frictional drag on a slender rotationally symmetric body is much smaller than the flat-plate concept gives and the flow can remain laminar at larger Reynolds numbers. Both facts are valid for an unseparated flow pattern and enable us to revise the turbulent drag estimation of a dolphin, presented by Gray 74 years ago, and to resolve his paradox, since experimental data testify that dolphins can achieve flow without separation. The small values of turbulent skin-friction drag on slender bodies of revolution have additional interest for further experimental investigations and for applications of shapes without boundary-layer separation to diminish the total drag and noise of air- and hydrodynamic hulls.

  15. A grid-independent EMMS/bubbling drag model for bubbling and turbulent fluidization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Hao; Lu, Bona; Zhang, Jingyuan

    2017-01-01

    The EMMS/bubbling drag model takes the effects of meso-scale structures (i.e. bubbles) into modeling of drag coefficient and thus improves coarse-grid simulation of bubbling and turbulent fluidized beds. However, its dependence on grid size has not been fully investigated. In this article, we adopt...... a two-step scheme to extend the EMMS/bubbling model to the sub-grid level. Thus the heterogeneity index, HD, which accounts for the hydrodynamic disparity between homogeneous and heterogeneous fluidization, can be correlated as a function of both local voidage and slip velocity. Simulations over...... a periodic domain show the new drag model is less sensitive to grid size because of the additional dependence on local slip velocity. When applying the new drag model to simulations of realistic bubbling and turbulent fluidized beds, we find grid-independent results are easier to obtain for high...

  16. Chromatin Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, Robijn; Grosberg, Alexander Y.; Rabin, Yitzhak; Zidovska, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Following recent observations of large scale correlated motion of chromatin inside the nuclei of live differentiated cells, we present a hydrodynamic theory—the two-fluid model—in which the content of a nucleus is described as a chromatin solution with the nucleoplasm playing the role of the solvent and the chromatin fiber that of a solute. This system is subject to both passive thermal fluctuations and active scalar and vector events that are associated with free energy consumption, such as ATP hydrolysis. Scalar events drive the longitudinal viscoelastic modes (where the chromatin fiber moves relative to the solvent) while vector events generate the transverse modes (where the chromatin fiber moves together with the solvent). Using linear response methods, we derive explicit expressions for the response functions that connect the chromatin density and velocity correlation functions to the corresponding correlation functions of the active sources and the complex viscoelastic moduli of the chromatin solution. We then derive general expressions for the flow spectral density of the chromatin velocity field. We use the theory to analyze experimental results recently obtained by one of the present authors and her co-workers. We find that the time dependence of the experimental data for both native and ATP-depleted chromatin can be well-fitted using a simple model—the Maxwell fluid—for the complex modulus, although there is some discrepancy in terms of the wavevector dependence. Thermal fluctuations of ATP-depleted cells are predominantly longitudinal. ATP-active cells exhibit intense transverse long wavelength velocity fluctuations driven by force dipoles. Fluctuations with wavenumbers larger than a few inverse microns are dominated by concentration fluctuations with the same spectrum as thermal fluctuations but with increased intensity. PMID:24806919

  17. Hypersonic wave drag reduction performance of cylinders with repetitive laser energy depositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, J; Hong, Y J; Li, Q; Huang, H

    2011-01-01

    It has been widely research that wave drag reduction on hypersonic vehicle by laser energy depositions. Using laser energy to reduce wave drag can improve vehicle performance. A second order accurate scheme based on finite-difference method and domain decomposition of structural grid is used to compute the drag performance of cylinders in a hypersonic flow of Mach number 2 at altitude of 15km with repetitive energy depositions. The effects of frequency on drag reduction are studied. The calculated results show: the recirculation zone is generated due to the interaction between bow shock over the cylinder and blast wave produced by energy deposition, and a virtual spike which is supported by an axis-symmetric recirculation, is formed in front of the cylinder. By increasing the repetitive frequency, the drag is reduced and the oscillation of the drag is decreased; however, the energy efficiency decreases by increasing the frequency.

  18. Gravitational waves and dragging effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bičák, Jiří; Katz, Joseph; Lynden-Bell, Donald

    2008-08-01

    Linear and rotational dragging effects of gravitational waves on local inertial frames are studied in purely vacuum spacetimes. First, the linear dragging caused by a simple cylindrical pulse is investigated. Surprisingly strong transverse effects of the pulse are exhibited. The angular momentum in cylindrically symmetric spacetimes is then defined and confronted with some results in the literature. In the main part, a general procedure is developed for studying weak gravitational waves with translational but not axial symmetry which can carry angular momentum. After a suitable averaging the rotation of local inertial frames due to such rotating waves can be calculated explicitly and illustrated graphically. This is done in detail in the accompanying paper. Finally, the rotational dragging is given for strong cylindrical waves interacting with a rotating cosmic string with a small angular momentum.

  19. Drag reduction by polymer addition in single and two-phase gas-liquid flows in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizotto, Vanessa Cristina; Paes, Diogo Melo; Franca, Fernando de Almeida [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos de Petroleo. LabPetro]. E-mails: vanessa@cepetro.unicamp.br; diogopaes10@hotmail.com; Sabadini, Edvaldo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mails: sabadini@iqm.unicamp.br; ffranca@fem.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    Turbulence mechanisms, as the eddies formation frequency and size, promote energy dissipation that appears as pressure drop in pipe flows. Adding minute amounts of polymers - ppm - of high molecular weight to the solution can lead to the reduction of the viscous dissipation. The formed macromolecules interact with the eddies, cause the eddies coherence breakdown, damp the energy transport and reduces the pressure drop. This phenomenon is known as the hydrodynamic drag reduction (DR, for short). Thus, for a given pipe flow rate there is decrease in pressure head, which is a desired operating strategy when transporting liquids. Studies on the hydrodynamic drag reduction in polymeric systems have been carried out in collaboration by the Chemistry Institute and the Petroleum Laboratory - LabPetro, UNICAMP. These studies have allowed microscopic approaches to the engineering scales, tackling the most usual processes - single phase flows, as well as gas-liquid two-phase flows in pipelines, which are quite common in the chemical and the petroleum industries. Tests conducted in the Chemistry Institute comprised over-the-bench experimentations made with a rotational double-gap type rheometer. These quick performed tests used small amount of polymers, and provided information on the additive concentration, the drag reduction and the solution mechanical stability along a turbulent shearing process. The results indicated that 17% is the limiting drag reduction achieved when a 2 ppm aqueous solution of polyacrylamide - PAM - was tested. These tests, besides giving preliminary estimations, are limited in terms of engineering application due to the low shearing rates applied by the viscometer. The tests performed at LabPetro comprised pressure drop measurements in actual pipe flows, both water single and air-water two-phase flows, using the previous knowledge acquired with the viscometer tests. In the former case, the Prandtl-von Karman map has been drawn to show the %DR in terms

  20. Thermospheric density and satellite drag modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Piyush Mukesh

    The United States depends heavily on its space infrastructure for a vast number of commercial and military applications. Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and Threat Assessment require maintaining accurate knowledge of the orbits of resident space objects (RSOs) and the associated uncertainties. Atmospheric drag is the largest source of uncertainty for low-perigee RSOs. The uncertainty stems from inaccurate modeling of neutral atmospheric mass density and inaccurate modeling of the interaction between the atmosphere and the RSO. In order to reduce the uncertainty in drag modeling, both atmospheric density and drag coefficient (CD) models need to be improved. Early atmospheric density models were developed from orbital drag data or observations of a few early compact satellites. To simplify calculations, densities derived from orbit data used a fixed CD value of 2.2 measured in a laboratory using clean surfaces. Measurements from pressure gauges obtained in the early 1990s have confirmed the adsorption of atomic oxygen on satellite surfaces. The varying levels of adsorbed oxygen along with the constantly changing atmospheric conditions cause large variations in CD with altitude and along the orbit of the satellite. Therefore, the use of a fixed CD in early development has resulted in large biases in atmospheric density models. A technique for generating corrections to empirical density models using precision orbit ephemerides (POE) as measurements in an optimal orbit determination process was recently developed. The process generates simultaneous corrections to the atmospheric density and ballistic coefficient (BC) by modeling the corrections as statistical exponentially decaying Gauss-Markov processes. The technique has been successfully implemented in generating density corrections using the CHAMP and GRACE satellites. This work examines the effectiveness, specifically the transfer of density models errors into BC estimates, of the technique using the CHAMP and

  1. Hydrodynamic Lubrication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. Friction plays a large and essential role in everyday life although ... two undesirable effects: (1) it increases wear and (2) work that is not useful, needs to be done to overcome it. Thus, reducing .... If either ingredient is absent the load cannot be .... We can explain the different shapes by considering a balance of.

  2. Symmetry breaking for drag minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Marcus; Squires, Todd M.; Brenner, Michael P.

    2005-11-01

    For locomotion at high Reynolds numbers drag minimization favors fore-aft asymmetric slender shapes with blunt noses and sharp trailing edges. On the other hand, in an inertialess fluid the drag experienced by a body is independent of whether it travels forward or backward through the fluid, so there is no advantage to having a single preferred swimming direction. In fact numerically determined minimum drag shapes are known to exhibit almost no fore-aft asymmetry even at moderate Re. We show that asymmetry persists, albeit extremely weakly, down to vanishingly small Re, scaling asymptotically as Re^3. The need to minimize drag to maximize speed for a given propulsive capacity gives one possible mechanism for the increasing asymmetry in the body plans seen in nature, as organisms increase in size and swimming speed from bacteria like E-Coli up to pursuit predator fish such as tuna. If it is the dominant mechanism, then this signature scaling will be observed in the shapes of motile micro-organisms.

  3. HYDRODYNAMICS OF OSCILLATING WING ON THE PITCH ANGLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalii Korobov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: research of the hydrodynamic characteristics of a wing in a nonstationary stream. Methods: The experimental studies of the hydrodynamic load acting on the wing of 1.5 elongation, wich harmonically oscillated respect to the transversal axis in the frequency range of 0.2-2.5 Hz. The flow speed in the hydrodynamic tunnel ranged of 0.2-1.5 m/s. Results: The instantaneous values of the coefficients of lift and drag / thrust on the pitch angle at unsteady flow depends on the Strouhal number.Discussion: with increasing oscillation frequency coefficients of hydrodynamic force components significantly higher than the data for the stationary blowing out of the wing.

  4. The Overall Drag Losses For A Combination of Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Al-Janabi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to obtain better understanding of the flow over a combination of bluff bodies in close enough proximity to strongly interact with each other. This interaction is often beneficial in that the drag of the overall system is reduced. Proto-types for this problem come from tractor- trailer and missiles, and from various add-on devices designed to reduce their drag. Thus, an experimental investigation was carried out by placing  conical frontal bodies having a base diameter of 0.65 cylinder diameter with different vertex angles (30°, 50°, 70°, and 90°. It was found that, the bluffer cone with 90° vertex angle gives the best minimum drag, which is 31% lower than the drag of the isolated cylinder. Also an interesting phenomenon was observed in that, the minimum drags for all combinations are obtained at the same gap ratio (i.e.at g/d2= 0.365.

  5. The Role of Rough Topography in Mediating Impacts of Bottom Drag in Eddying Ocean Circulation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trossman, David S; Arbic, Brian K; Straub, David N; Richman, James G; Chassignet, Eric P; Wallcraft, Alan J; Xu, Xiaobiao

    2017-08-01

    Motivated by the substantial sensitivity of eddies in two-layer quasi-geostrophic (QG) turbulence models to the strength of bottom drag, this study explores the sensitivity of eddies in more realistic ocean general circulation model (OGCM) simulations to bottom drag strength. The OGCM results are interpreted using previous results from horizontally homogeneous, two-layer, flat-bottom, f-plane, doubly periodic QG turbulence simulations and new results from two-layer β -plane QG turbulence simulations run in a basin geometry with both flat and rough bottoms. Baroclinicity in all of the simulations varies greatly with drag strength, with weak drag corresponding to more barotropic flow and strong drag corresponding to more baroclinic flow. The sensitivity of the baroclinicity in the QG basin simulations to bottom drag is considerably reduced, however, when rough topography is used in lieu of a flat bottom. Rough topography reduces the sensitivity of the eddy kinetic energy amplitude and horizontal length scales in the QG basin simulations to bottom drag to an even greater degree. The OGCM simulation behavior is qualitatively similar to that in the QG rough bottom basin simulations in that baroclinicity is more sensitive to bottom drag strength than are eddy amplitudes or horizontal length scales. Rough topography therefore appears to mediate the sensitivity of eddies in models to the strength of bottom drag. The sensitivity of eddies to parameterized topographic internal lee wave drag, which has recently been introduced into some OGCMs, is also briefly discussed. Wave drag acts like a strong bottom drag in that it increases the baroclinicity of the flow, without strongly affecting eddy horizontal length scales.

  6. Behavior of passive admixture in a vortical hydrodynamic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.O.Bobrov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The motion of passive admixture of spherical particles in the stationary hydrodynamic field of a swirling flow is studied. A spherical particle of a given mass in the hydrodynamic field of a swirling flow is located on a certain circular orbit, where the centrifugal force is compensated by the radial drag force due to the sink. This leads to the separation of the host fluid and admixture. A theory of Brownian motion of admixture in dilute solutions with a non-uniform flow is constructed.

  7. Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N.A.; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2002-01-01

    We present a theory for Coulomb drag between two mesoscopic systems which expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions. The formalism can be applied to both ballistic and disordered systems and the consequences can be studied either by numerical simulations or analytic...... means such as perturbation theory or random matrix theory. The physics of Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime is very different from Coulomb drag between extended electron systems. In the mesoscopic regime we in general find fluctuations of the drag comparable to the mean value. Examples are vanishing...

  8. A Conventional Liner Acoustic/Drag Interaction Benchmark Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howerton, Brian M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    The aerodynamic drag of acoustic liners has become a significant topic in the design of such for aircraft noise applications. In order to evaluate the benefits of concepts designed to reduce liner drag, it is necessary to establish the baseline performance of liners employing the typical design features of conventional configurations. This paper details a set of experiments in the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube to quantify the relative drag of a number of perforate-over-honeycomb liner configurations at flow speeds of M=0.3 and 0.5. These conventional liners are investigated to determine their resistance factors using a static pressure drop approach. Comparison of the resistance factors gives a relative measurement of liner drag. For these same flow conditions, acoustic measurements are performed with tonal excitation from 400 to 3000 Hz at source sound pressure levels of 140 and 150 dB. Educed impedance and attenuation spectra are used to determine the interaction between acoustic performance and drag.

  9. Relativistic Gas Drag on Dust Grains and Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Thiem, E-mail: thiemhoang@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 34113 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-20

    We study the drag force on grains moving at relativistic velocities through interstellar gas and explore its application. First, we derive a new analytical formula of the drag force at high energies and find that it is significantly reduced compared to the classical model. Second, we apply the obtained drag force to calculate the terminal velocities of interstellar grains by strong radiation sources such as supernovae and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We find that grains can be accelerated to relativistic velocities by very luminous AGNs. We then quantify the deceleration of relativistic spacecraft proposed by the Breakthrough Starshot initiative due to gas drag on a relativistic lightsail. We find that the spacecraft’s decrease in speed is negligible because of the suppression of gas drag at relativistic velocities, suggesting that the lightsail may be open for communication during its journey to α Centauri without causing a considerable delay. Finally, we show that the damage to relativistic thin lightsails by interstellar dust is a minor effect.

  10. Drag reduction in channel flow using nonlinear control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Laurence R.

    1993-01-01

    Two nonlinear control schemes have been applied to the problem of drag reduction in channel flow. Both schemes have been tested using numerical simulations at a mass flux Reynolds numbers of 4408, utilizing 2D nonlinear neutral modes for goal dynamics. The OGY-method, which requires feedback, reduces drag to 60-80 percent of the turbulent value at the same Reynolds number, and employs forcing only within a thin region near the wall. The H-method, or model-based control, fails to achieve any drag reduction when starting from a fully turbulent initial condition, but shows potential for suppressing or retarding laminar-to-turbulent transition by imposing instead a transition to a low drag, nonlinear traveling wave solution to the Navier-Stokes equation. The drag in this state corresponds to that achieved by the OGY-method. Model-based control requires no feedback, but in experiments to date has required the forcing be imposed within a thicker layer than the OGY-method. Control energy expenditures in both methods are small, representing less than 0.1 percent of the uncontrolled flow's energy.

  11. Coulomb drag in coherent mesoscopic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Asger; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2001-01-01

    We present a theory for Coulomb drag between two mesoscopic systems. Our formalism expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions, and its range of validity covers both ballistic and disordered systems. The consequences can be worked out either by analytic means, such as th......We present a theory for Coulomb drag between two mesoscopic systems. Our formalism expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions, and its range of validity covers both ballistic and disordered systems. The consequences can be worked out either by analytic means......, such as the random matrix theory, or by numerical simulations. We show that Coulomb drag is sensitive to localized states. which usual transport measurements do not probe. For chaotic 2D systems we find a vanishing average drag, with a nonzero variance. Disordered 1D wires show a finite drag, with a large variance...

  12. Investigation into the Mechanism of Polymer Thread Drag Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    They conducted experiments in a 3.75 cm diameter pipe, Re = 85,000, where they injected drag reducing solutions of guar gum and polyacrylamide, P-295 a...manufactured by Dow Chemical. Concentrations of 5000 ppm and 466 ppm based on weight were used in the experiments. The dry powder was suspended in 300

  13. Analytic solutions of hydrodynamics equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggeshall, S.V.

    1991-01-01

    Many similarity solutions have been found for the equations of one-dimensional (1-D) hydrodynamics. These special combinations of variables allow the partial differential equations to be reduced to ordinary differential equations, which must then be solved to determine the physical solutions. Usually, these reduced ordinary differential equations are solved numerically. In some cases it is possible to solve these reduced equations analytically to obtain explicit solutions. In this work a collection of analytic solutions of the 1-D hydrodynamics equations is presented. These can be used for a variety of purposes, including (i) numerical benchmark problems, (ii) as a basis for analytic models, and (iii) to provide insight into more complicated solutions

  14. The Effect of Sodium Hydroxide on Drag Reduction using a Biopolymer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Harvin Kaur A/P Gurchran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drag reduction is observed as reduced frictional pressure losses under turbulent flow conditions and hence, substantially increases the flowrate of the fluid. Practical application includes water flooding system, pipeline transport and drainage system. Drag reduction agent, such as polymers, can be introduced to increase the flowrate of water flowing, reducing the water accumulation in the system and subsequently lesser possibility of heavy flooding. Currently used polymer as drag reduction agents is carboxymethylcellulose, to name one. This is a synthetic polymer which will seep into the ground and further harm our environment in excessive use of accumulation. A more environmentally-friendly drag reduction agent, such as the polymer derived from natural sources or biopolymer, is then required for such purpose. As opposed to the synthetic polymers, the potential of biopolymers as drag reduction agents, especially those derived from a local plant source, are not extensively explored. The drag reduction of a polymer produced from a local plant source within the turbulent regime will be explored and assessed in this study using a rheometer where a reduced a torque produced can be perceived as a reduction of drag. The cellulose powder was converted to carboxymethylcellulose (CMC by etherification process using sodium monochloroacetate and sodium hydroxide. The carboxymethylation reaction then was optimized against concentration of NaOH. The research is structured to focus on producing the biopolymer and also assess the drag reduction ability of the biopolymer produced against concentration of sodium hydroxide.

  15. Great hammerhead sharks swim on their side to reduce transport costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Nicholas L; Iosilevskii, Gil; Barnett, Adam; Fischer, Chris; Graham, Rachel T; Gleiss, Adrian C; Watanabe, Yuuki Y

    2016-07-26

    Animals exhibit various physiological and behavioural strategies for minimizing travel costs. Fins of aquatic animals play key roles in efficient travel and, for sharks, the functions of dorsal and pectoral fins are considered well divided: the former assists propulsion and generates lateral hydrodynamic forces during turns and the latter generates vertical forces that offset sharks' negative buoyancy. Here we show that great hammerhead sharks drastically reconfigure the function of these structures, using an exaggerated dorsal fin to generate lift by swimming rolled on their side. Tagged wild sharks spend up to 90% of time swimming at roll angles between 50° and 75°, and hydrodynamic modelling shows that doing so reduces drag-and in turn, the cost of transport-by around 10% compared with traditional upright swimming. Employment of such a strongly selected feature for such a unique purpose raises interesting questions about evolutionary pathways to hydrodynamic adaptations, and our perception of form and function.

  16. Direct numerical simulations of drag reduction in turbulent channel flow over bio-inspired herringbone riblet-texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benschop, H.O.G.; Westerweel, J.; Breugem, W.P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of drag reducing surface textures is a promising passive method to reduce fuel consumption. Probably most wellknown is the utilisation of shark-skin inspired ridges or riblets parallel to the mean flow. They can reduce drag up to 10%. Recently another bio-inspired texture based on bird

  17. Trade-off between drag reduction and light interception of macrophytes: comparing five aquatic plants with contrasting morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, K.D.; Bouma, T.J.; Buis, K.; Struyf, E.; Jonas, S.; Backx, H.; Meire, P.

    2011-01-01

    1. Macrophytes in running waters experience an often dynamic and harsh environment. To avoid breakage, plants have to reduce the experienced drag force. However, by reducing leaf area, photosynthetic production is less. Aquatic plants therefore have to find a balance between reducing drag and

  18. The Effect of Volumetric Porosity on Roughness Element Drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, John; Nickling, William; Nikolich, George; Etyemezian, Vicken

    2016-04-01

    Much attention has been given to understanding how the porosity of two dimensional structures affects the drag force exerted by boundary-layer flow on these flow obstructions. Porous structures such as wind breaks and fences are typically used to control the sedimentation of sand and snow particles or create micro-habitats in their lee. Vegetation in drylands also exerts control on sediment transport by wind due to aerodynamic effects and interaction with particles in transport. Recent research has also demonstrated that large spatial arrays of solid three dimensional roughness elements can be used to reduce sand transport to specified targets for control of wind erosion through the effect of drag partitioning and interaction of the moving sand with the large (>0.3 m high) roughness elements, but porous elements may improve the effectiveness of this approach. A thorough understanding of the role porosity plays in affecting the drag force on three-dimensional forms is lacking. To provide basic understanding of the relationship between the porosity of roughness elements and the force of drag exerted on them by fluid flow, we undertook a wind tunnel study that systematically altered the porosity of roughness elements of defined geometry (cubes, rectangular cylinders, and round cylinders) and measured the associated change in the drag force on the elements under similar Reynolds number conditions. The elements tested were of four basic forms: 1) same sized cubes with tubes of known diameter milled through them creating three volumetric porosity values and increasing connectivity between the tubes, 2) cubes and rectangular cylinders constructed of brass screen that nested within each other, and 3) round cylinders constructed of brass screen that nested within each other. The two-dimensional porosity, defined as the ratio of total surface area of the empty space to the solid surface area of the side of the element presented to the fluid flow was conserved at 0.519 for

  19. Elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication

    CERN Document Server

    Dowson, D; Hopkins, D W

    1977-01-01

    Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication deals with the mechanism of elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication, that is, the lubrication regime in operation over the small areas where machine components are in nominal point or line contact. The lubrication of rigid contacts is discussed, along with the effects of high pressure on the lubricant and bounding solids. The governing equations for the solution of elasto-hydrodynamic problems are presented.Comprised of 13 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication and representation of contacts by cylinders, followed by a discussio

  20. Elementary classical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chirgwin, B H; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A; Plumpton, C

    1967-01-01

    Elementary Classical Hydrodynamics deals with the fundamental principles of elementary classical hydrodynamics, with emphasis on the mechanics of inviscid fluids. Topics covered by this book include direct use of the equations of hydrodynamics, potential flows, two-dimensional fluid motion, waves in liquids, and compressible flows. Some general theorems such as Bernoulli's equation are also considered. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental principles of fluid hydrodynamics, with emphasis on ways of studying the motion of a fluid. Basic c

  1. Topics in fluctuating nonlinear hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milner, S.T.

    1986-01-01

    Models of fluctuating nonlinear hydrodynamics have enjoyed much success in explaining the effect of long-wavelength fluctuations in diverse hydrodynamic systems. This thesis explores two such problems; in both, the body of hydrodynamic assumptions powerfully constrains the predictions of a well-posed theory. The effects of layer fluctuations in smectic-A liquid crystals are first examined. The static theory (introduced by Grinstein and Pelcovits) is reviewed. Ward identities, resulting from the arbitrariness of the layering direction, are derived and exploited. The static results motivate an examination of dynamic fluctuation effects. A new sound-damping experiment is proposed that would probe singular dependence of viscosities on applied stress. A theory of Procaccia and Gitterman that reaction rates of chemically reacting binary mixtures are drastically reduced near their thermodynamic critical points is analyzed. Hydrodynamic arguments and Van Hove theory are applied, concluding that the PG idea is drastically slowed, and spatially varying composition fluctuations are at best slowed down over a narrow range of wavenumbers

  2. Turbulent skin-friction drag on a slender body of revolution and Gray's Paradox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesteruk, Igor [Institute of Hydromechanics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Cartwright, Julyan H E [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada (Spain)

    2011-12-22

    The boundary layer on a slender body of revolution differs considerably from that on a flat plate, but these two cases can be connected by the Mangler-Stepanov transformations. The presented analysis shows that turbulent frictional drag on a slender rotationally symmetric body is much smaller than the flat-plate concept gives and the flow can remain laminar at larger Reynolds numbers. Both facts are valid for an unseparated flow pattern and enable us to revise the turbulent drag estimation of a dolphin, presented by Gray 74 years ago, and to resolve his paradox, since experimental data testify that dolphins can achieve flow without separation. The small values of turbulent skin-friction drag on slender bodies of revolution have additional interest for further experimental investigations and for applications of shapes without boundary-layer separation to diminish the total drag and noise of air- and hydrodynamic hulls.

  3. Drag and drop display & builder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolshakov, Timofei B.; Petrov, Andrey D.; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    The Drag and Drop (DnD) Display & Builder is a component-oriented system that allows users to create visual representations of data received from data acquisition systems. It is an upgrade of a Synoptic Display mechanism used at Fermilab since 2002. Components can be graphically arranged and logically interconnected in the web-startable Project Builder. Projects can be either lightweight AJAX- and SVG-based web pages, or they can be started as Java applications. The new version was initiated as a response to discussions between the LHC Controls Group and Fermilab.

  4. Surface pressure drag for hydrostatic two-layer flow over axisymmetric mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutbecher, M.

    2000-07-01

    The effect of partial reflections on surface pressure drag is investigated for hydrostatic gravity waves in two-layer flow with piecewise constant buoyancy frequency. The variation of normalized surface pressure drag with interface height is analyzed for axisymmetric mountains. The results are compared with the familiar solution for infinitely long ridges. The drag for the two-layer flow is normalized with the drag of one-layer flow, which has the buoyancy frequency of the lower layer. An analytical expression for the normalized drag of axisymmetric mountains is derived from linear theory of steady flow. Additionally, two-layer flow over finite-height axisymmetric mountains is simulated numerically for flow with higher stability in the upper layer. The temporal evolution of the surface pressure drag is examined in a series of experiments with different interface and mountain heights. The focus is on the linear regime and the nonlinear regime of nonbreaking gravity waves. The dispersion of gravity waves in flow over isolated mountains prevents that the entire wave spectrum is in resonance at the same interface height, which is the case in hydrostatic flow over infinitely long ridges. In consequence, the oscillation of the normalized drag with interface height is smaller for axisymmetric mountains than for infinitely long ridges. However, even for a reflection coefficient as low as 1/3 the drag of an axisymmetric mountain can be amplified by 50% and reduced by 40%. The nonlinear drag becomes steady in the numerical experiments in which no wave breaking occurs. The steady state nonlinear drag agrees quite well with the prediction of linear theory if the linear drag is computed for a slightly lowered interface. (orig.)

  5. Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N. Asger; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2002-01-01

    We present a theory for Coulomb drug between two mesoscopic systems which expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions. The formalism can be applied to both ballistic and disordered systems and the consequences can be studied either by numerical simulations or analytic...... means such as perturbation theory or random matrix theory. The physics of Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime is very different from Coulomb drag between extended electron systems. In the mesoscopic regime we in general find fluctuations of the drag comparable to the mean value. Examples are vanishing...

  6. Electro—magnetic control of shear flow over a cylinder for drag reduction and lift enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui; Fan Bao-Chun; Chen Zhi-Hua; Chen Shuai; Li Hong-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the electro—magnetic control of a cylinder wake in shear flow is investigated numerically. The effects of the shear rate and Lorentz force on the cylinder wake, the distribution of hydrodynamic force, and the drag/lift phase diagram are discussed in detail. It is revealed that Lorentz force can be classified into the field Lorentz force and the wall Lorentz force and they affect the drag and lift forces independently. The drag/lift phase diagram with a shape of ''8'' consists of two closed curves, which correspond to the halves of the shedding cycle dominated by the upper and lower vortices respectively. The free stream shear (K > 0) induces the diagram to move downward and leftward, so that the average lift force directs toward the downside. With the upper Lorentz force, the diagram moves downwards and to the right by the field Lorentz force, thus resulting in the drag increase and the lift reduction, whereas it moves upward and to the left by the wall Lorentz force, leading to the drag reduction and the lift increase. Finally the diagram is dominated by the wall Lorentz force, thus moving upward and leftward. Therefore the upper Lorentz force, which enhances the lift force, can be used to overcome the lift loss due to the free stream shear, which is also obtained in the experiment. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  7. Superhydrophobic and polymer drag reduction in turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajappan, Anoop; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2017-11-01

    We use a custom-built Taylor-Couette apparatus (radius ratio η = 0.75) to study frictional drag reduction by dilute polymer solutions and superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces in turbulent flows for 15000 analysis. We also investigate drag reduction by dilute polymer solutions, and show that natural biopolymers from plant mucilage can be an inexpensive and effective alternative to synthetic polymers in drag reduction applications, approaching the same maximum drag reduction asymptote. Finally we explore combinations of the two methods - one arising from wall slip and the other due to changes in turbulence dynamics in the bulk flow - and find that the two effects are not additive; interestingly, the effectiveness of polymer drag reduction is drastically reduced in the presence of an SH coating on the wall. This study was financially supported by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) through Contract No. 3002453814.

  8. Wave drag as the objective function in transonic fighter wing optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    The original computational method for determining wave drag in a three dimensional transonic analysis method was replaced by a wave drag formula based on the loss in momentum across an isentropic shock. This formula was used as the objective function in a numerical optimization procedure to reduce the wave drag of a fighter wing at transonic maneuver conditions. The optimization procedure minimized wave drag through modifications to the wing section contours defined by a wing profile shape function. A significant reduction in wave drag was achieved while maintaining a high lift coefficient. Comparisons of the pressure distributions for the initial and optimized wing geometries showed significant reductions in the leading-edge peaks and shock strength across the span.

  9. Improvements of evaporation drag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoyan; Yang Yanhua; Xu Jijun

    2004-01-01

    A special observable experiment facility has been established, and a series of experiments have been carried out on this facility by pouring one or several high-temperature particles into a water pool. The experiment has verified the evaporation drag model, which believe the non-symmetric profile of the local evaporation rate and the local density of the vapor would bring about a resultant force on the hot particle so as to resist its motion. However, in Yang's evaporation drag model, radiation heat transfer is taken as the only way to transfer heat from hot particle to the vapor-liquid interface and all of the radiation energy is deposited on the vapor-liquid interface, thus contributing to the vaporization rate and mass balance of the vapor film. So, the heat conduction and the heat convection are taken into account in improved model. At the same time, the improved model given by this paper presented calculations of the effect of hot particles temperature on the radiation absorption behavior of water

  10. Hydrodynamic characteristics of knotted and knotless purse seine netting panels as determined in a flume tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Xu, Liuxiong; Hu, Fuxiang

    2018-01-01

    Nylon (PA) netting is widely used in purse seines and other fishing gears due to its high strength and good sinking performance. However, hydrodynamic properties of nylon netting of different characteristics are poorly understood. This study investigated hydrodynamic characteristics of nylon netting of different knot types and solidity ratios under different attack angles and flow velocities. It was found that the hydrodynamic coefficient of netting panels was related to Reynolds number, solidity ratio, attack angle, knot type and twine construction. The solidity ratio was found to positively correlate with drag coefficient when the netting was normal to the flow (CD90), but not the case when the netting was parallel to the flow (CD0). For netting panels inclined to the flow, the inclined drag coefficient had a negative relationship with the solidity ratio for attack angles between 0° and 50°, but a positive relationship for attack angles between 50° and 90°. The lift coefficient increased with the attack angle, reaching the culminating point at an attack angle of 50°, before subsequent decline. We found that the drag generated by knot accounted for 15-25% of total drag, and the knotted netting with higher solidity ratio exhibited a greater CD0, but it was not the case for the knotless netting. Compared to knotless polyethylene (PE) netting, the drag coefficients of knotless PA netting were dominant at higher Reynolds number (Re>2200).

  11. Hydrodynamic characteristics of knotted and knotless purse seine netting panels as determined in a flume tank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Tang

    Full Text Available Nylon (PA netting is widely used in purse seines and other fishing gears due to its high strength and good sinking performance. However, hydrodynamic properties of nylon netting of different characteristics are poorly understood. This study investigated hydrodynamic characteristics of nylon netting of different knot types and solidity ratios under different attack angles and flow velocities. It was found that the hydrodynamic coefficient of netting panels was related to Reynolds number, solidity ratio, attack angle, knot type and twine construction. The solidity ratio was found to positively correlate with drag coefficient when the netting was normal to the flow (CD90, but not the case when the netting was parallel to the flow (CD0. For netting panels inclined to the flow, the inclined drag coefficient had a negative relationship with the solidity ratio for attack angles between 0° and 50°, but a positive relationship for attack angles between 50° and 90°. The lift coefficient increased with the attack angle, reaching the culminating point at an attack angle of 50°, before subsequent decline. We found that the drag generated by knot accounted for 15-25% of total drag, and the knotted netting with higher solidity ratio exhibited a greater CD0, but it was not the case for the knotless netting. Compared to knotless polyethylene (PE netting, the drag coefficients of knotless PA netting were dominant at higher Reynolds number (Re>2200.

  12. Effect of structure height on the drag reduction performance using rotating disk apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashed, Musaab K; Salleh, Mohamad Amran Mohd; Ismail, M Halim Shah [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia (Malaysia); Abdulbari, Hayder A, E-mail: hayder.bari@gmail.com [Center of Excellence for Advanced Research in Fluid Flow, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (Malaysia)

    2017-02-15

    The drag reduction characteristics in a rotating disk apparatus were investigated by using structured disks with different riblet types and dimensions. Two disk types were fabricated with right angle triangular (RAT) grooves and space v-shape (SV) grooves, with six dimensions for each type. A high-accuracy rotating disk apparatus was fabricated and then used to investigate the turbulent drag reduction characterization of the disk in diesel fuel. In this work, the effects of several parameters are investigated; riblet types, riblet dimensions, and rotational disk speed (rpm) on the drag reduction performance. It was found that the surface structure of the disk reduced the drag, this was clearly seen from the comparison of torque values of smooth and structured disks. Drag reduction for structured disks was higher than that for smooth disks, and SV-grooves showed better drag reduction performance than RAT-grooves. In addition, it was observed that the drag reduction performance increased with decreasing groove height for both groove types. The maximum drag reduction achieved in this study was 37.368% for SV-groove at 1000 rpm, compared with 30% for RAT-groove, at the same rotational speed. (paper)

  13. On the Effect of Rigid Swept Surface Waves on Turbulent Drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denison, M.; Wilkinson, S. P.; Balakumar, P.

    2015-01-01

    Passive turbulent drag reduction techniques are of interest as a cost effective means to improve air vehicle fuel consumption. In the past, rigid surface waves slanted at an angle from the streamwise direction were deemed ineffective to reduce skin friction drag due to the pressure drag that they generate. A recent analysis seeking similarities to the spanwise shear stress generated by spatial Stokes layers suggested that there may be a range of wavelength, amplitude, and orientation in which the wavy surface would reduce turbulent drag. The present work explores, by experiments and Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS), the effect of swept wavy surfaces on skin friction and pressure drag. Plates with shallow and deep wave patterns were rapid-prototyped and tested using a drag balance in the 7x11 inch Low-Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA LaRC Research Center. The measured drag o set between the wavy plates and the reference at plate is found to be within the experimental repeatability limit. Oil vapor flow measurements indicate a mean spanwise flow over the deep waves. The turbulent flow in channels with at walls, swept wavy walls and spatial Stokes spanwise velocity forcing was simulated at a friction Reynolds number of two hundred. The time-averaged and dynamic turbulent flow characteristics of the three channel types are compared. The drag obtained for the channel with shallow waves is slightly larger than for the at channel, within the range of the experiments. In the case of the large waves, the simulation over predicts the drag. The shortcomings of the Stokes layer analogy model for the estimation of the spanwise shear stress and drag are discussed.

  14. Drag reduction in silica nanochannels induced by graphitic wall coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemann, Enrique; Walther, J. H.; Zambrano, Harvey A.

    2017-11-01

    Transport of water in hydrophilic nanopores is of significant technological and scientific interest. Water flow through hydrophilic nanochannels is known to experience enormous hydraulic resistance. Therefore, drag reduction is essential for the development of highly efficient nanofluidic devices. In this work, we propose the use of graphitic materials as wall coatings in hydrophilic silica nanopores. Specifically, by conducting atomistic simulations, we investigate the flow inside slit and cylindrical silica channels with walls coated with graphene (GE) layers and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), respectively. We develop realistic force fields to simulate the systems of interest and systematically, compare flow rates in coated and uncoated nanochannels under different pressure gradients. Moreover, we assess the effect that GE and CNT translucencies to wettability have on water hydrodynamics in the nanochannels. The influence of channel size is investigated by systematically varying channel heights and nanopore diameters. In particular, we present the computed water density and velocity profiles, volumetric flow rates, slip lengths and flow enhancements, to clearly demonstrate the drag reduction capabilities of graphitic wall coatings. We wish to thank partial funding from CRHIAM Conicyt/ Fondap Project 15130015 and computational support from DTU and NLHPC (Chile).

  15. Vorticity confinement technique for drag prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povitsky, Alex; Snyder, Troy

    2011-11-01

    This work couples wake-integral drag prediction and vorticity confinement technique (VC) for the improved prediction of drag from CFD simulations. Induced drag computations of a thin wing are shown to be more accurate than the more widespread method of surface pressure integration when compared to theoretical lifting-line value. Furthermore, the VC method improves trailing vortex preservation and counteracts the shift from induced drag to numerical entropy drag with increasing distance of Trefftz plane downstream of the wing. Accurate induced drag prediction via the surface integration of pressure barring a sufficiently refined surface grid and increased computation time. Furthermore, the alternative wake-integral technique for drag prediction suffers from numerical dissipation. VC is shown to control the numerical dissipation with very modest computational overhead. The 2-D research code is used to test specific formulations of the VC body force terms and illustrate the computational efficiency of the method compared to a ``brute force'' reduction in spatial step size. For the 3-D wing simulation, ANSYS FLUENT is employed with the VC body force terms added to the solver with user-defined functions (UDFs). VC is successfully implemented to highly unsteady flows typical for Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) producing oscillative drag force either by natural vortex shedding at high angles of attack or by flapping wing motion.

  16. Disruptive Innovation in Numerical Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waltz, Jacob I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-06

    We propose the research and development of a high-fidelity hydrodynamic algorithm for tetrahedral meshes that will lead to a disruptive innovation in the numerical modeling of Laboratory problems. Our proposed innovation has the potential to reduce turnaround time by orders of magnitude relative to Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) codes; reduce simulation setup costs by millions of dollars per year; and effectively leverage Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) and future Exascale computing hardware. If successful, this work will lead to a dramatic leap forward in the Laboratory's quest for a predictive simulation capability.

  17. Determination of the surface drag coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahrt, L.; Vickers, D.; Sun, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the dependence of the surface drag coefficient on stability, wind speed, mesoscale modulation of the turbulent flux and method of calculation of the drag coefficient. Data sets over grassland, sparse grass, heather and two forest sites are analyzed. For significantly unstable...... conditions, the drag coefficient does not depend systematically on z/L but decreases with wind speed for fixed intervals of z/L, where L is the Obukhov length. Even though the drag coefficient for weak wind conditions is sensitive to the exact method of calculation and choice of averaging time, the decrease...... of the drag coefficient with wind speed occurs for all of the calculation methods. A classification of flux calculation methods is constructed, which unifies the most common previous approaches. The roughness length corresponding to the usual Monin-Obukhov stability functions decreases with increasing wind...

  18. Experimental hydrodynamics of swimming in fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytell, Eric Daniel

    2005-11-01

    The great diversity of fish body shapes suggests that they have adapted to different selective pressures. For many fishes, the pressures include hydrodynamic demands: swimming efficiently or accelerating rapidly, for instance. However, the hydrodynamic advantages or disadvantages to specific morphologies are poorly understood. In particular, eels have been considered inefficient swimmers, but they migrate long distances without feeding, a task that requires efficient swimming. This dissertation, therefore, begins with an examination of the swimming hydrodynamics of American eels, Anguilla rostrata, at steady swimming speeds from 0.5 to 2 body lengths (L) per second and during accelerations from -1.4 to 1.3 L s -2. The final chapter examines the hydrodynamic effects of body shape directly by describing three-dimensional flow around swimming bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus. In all chapters, flow is quantified using digital particle image velocimetry, and simultaneous kinematics are measured from high-resolution digital video. The wake behind a swimming eel in the horizontal midline plane is described first. Rather than producing a wake with fluid jets angled backwards, like in fishes such as sunfish, eels have a wake with exclusively lateral jets. The lack of downstream momentum indicates that eels balance the axial forces of thrust and drag evenly over time and over their bodies, and therefore do not change axial fluid momentum. This even balance, present at all steady swimming speeds, is probably due to the relatively uniform body shape of eels. As eels accelerate, thrust exceeds drag, axial momentum increases, and the wake approaches that of other fishes. During steady swimming, though, the lack of axial momentum prevents direct efficiency estimation. The effect of body shape was examined directly by measuring flow in multiple transverse planes along the body of bluegill sunfish swimming at 1.2 L s-1. The dorsal and anal fin, neglected in many previous

  19. Hydrodynamics of rotating superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis, a coarse grained hydrodynamics is developed from the exact description of Tkachenko. To account for the dynamics of the vortex lattice, the macroscopic vortex displacement field is treated as an independent degree of freedom. The conserved energy is written in terms of the coarse-grained normal fluid, superfluid, and vortex velocities and includes an elastic energy associated with deformations of the vortex lattice. Equations of motion consistent with the conservation of energy, entropy and vorticity and containing mutual friction terms arising from microscopic interactions between normal fluid excitations and the vortex lines are derived. When the vortex velocity is eliminated from the damping terms, this system of equations becomes essentially that of BK with added elastic terms in the momentum stress tensor and energy current. The dispersion relation and damping of the first and second sound modes and the two transverse modes sustained by the system are investigated. It is shown that mutual friction mixes the transverse modes of the normal and superfluid components and damps the transverse mode associated with the relative velocity of these components, making this wave evanescent in the plane perpendicular to the rotation axis. The wave associated with transverse motion of the total mass current is a generalized Tkachenko mode, whose dispersion relation reduces to that derived by Tkachenko wave when the wavevector lies in this plane

  20. Discovery of riblets in a bird beak (Rynchops) for low fluid drag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Samuel; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-08-06

    Riblet structures found on fast-swimming shark scales, such as those found on a mako shark, have been shown to reduce fluid drag. In previous experimental and modelling studies, riblets have been shown to provide drag reduction by lifting vortices formed in turbulent flow, decreasing overall shear stresses. Skimmer birds (Rynchops) are the only birds to catch fish in flight by flying just above the water surface with a submerged beak to fish for food. Because they need to quickly catch prey, reducing drag on their beak is advantageous. For the first time, riblet structures found on the beak of the skimmer bird have been studied experimentally and computationally for low fluid drag properties. In this study, skimmer replicas were studied for drag reduction through pressure drop in closed-channel, turbulent water flow. Pressure drop measurements are compared for black and yellow skimmer beaks in two configurations, and mako shark skin. In addition, two configurations of skimmer beak were modelled to compare drag properties and vortex structures. Results are discussed, and a conceptual model is presented to explain a possible drag reduction mechanism in skimmers.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Hydrodynamic advantages of swimming by salp chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kelly R; Weihs, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Salps are marine invertebrates comprising multiple jet-propelled swimming units during a colonial life-cycle stage. Using theory, we show that asynchronous swimming with multiple pulsed jets yields substantial hydrodynamic benefit due to the production of steady swimming velocities, which limit drag. Laboratory comparisons of swimming kinematics of aggregate salps ( Salpa fusiformis and Weelia cylindrica ) using high-speed video supported that asynchronous swimming by aggregates results in a smoother velocity profile and showed that this smoother velocity profile is the result of uncoordinated, asynchronous swimming by individual zooids. In situ flow visualizations of W. cylindrica swimming wakes revealed that another consequence of asynchronous swimming is that fluid interactions between jet wakes are minimized. Although the advantages of multi-jet propulsion have been mentioned elsewhere, this is the first time that the theory has been quantified and the role of asynchronous swimming verified using experimental data from the laboratory and the field. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Mechanism of drag reduction for circular cylinders with patterned surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, U.; Jehring, L.; Egbers, C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Reduced drag of patterned cylinders over a wide range of Re numbers. • Hexagonal patterns cannot be characterized as roughness structures. • Hexagonal bumps affect the flow like spherical dimples of smaller k/d ratio do. • Main separation is delayed caused by a partial separation. • Angle of a separation line is not constant over the length of cylinder. -- Abstract: In this paper, the flow over cylinders with a patterned surface (k/d = 1.98 × 10 −2 ) is investigated in a subsonic wind tunnel over Reynolds numbers ranging from 3.14 × 10 4 to 2.77 × 10 5 by measuring drag, flow visualization and measuring velocity profiles above the surface of the cylinders, to observe the effect of hexagonal patterns on the flow of air. These patterns can also be referred as hexagonal dimples or bumps depending on their configuration. The investigations revealed that a patterned cylinder with patterns pressed outwards has a drag coefficient of about 0.65 times of a smooth one. Flow visualization techniques including surface oil-film technique and velocity profile measurement were employed to elucidate this effect, and hence present the mechanism of drag reduction. The measurement of velocity profiles using hot-wire anemometry above the surface reveal that a hexagonal bump cause local separation generating large turbulence intensity along the separating shear layer. Due to this increased turbulence, the flow reattaches to the surface with higher momentum and become able to withstand the pressure gradient delaying the main separation significantly. Besides that, the separation does not appear to occur in a straight line along the length of the cylinder as in case of most passive drag control methods, but follow exactly the hexagonal patterns forming a wave with its crest at 115° and trough at 110°, in contrast to the laminar separation line at 85° for a smooth cylinder

  3. Computational investigations of blunt body drag-reduction spikes in hypersonic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran, N.; Zahir, S.; Khan, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Drag is an important parameter in the designing of high-speed vehicles. Such vehicles include hypervelocity projectiles, reentry modules, and hypersonic aircrafts. Therefore, there exists an active or passive technique to reduce drag due to the high pressures at nosetip region of the vehicle. Drag can be reduced by attaching a forward facing spike on the nose of the vehicle. The present study reviews and deals with the CFD analysis made on a standard blunt body to reduce aerodynamic drag due to the attachment of forward facing spikes for High-Speed vehicles. Different spike lengths have been examined to study the forebody flowfield. The investigation concludes that spikes are an effective way to reduce the aerodynamic drag due to reduced dynamic pressure on the nose caused by the separated flow on the spikes. With the accomplishment of confidence on computational data, study was extended in hypersonic Mach range with a drag prediction accuracy of ± 10%. In the present work, viscous fluid dynamics studies were performed for a complete freestream Mach number range of 5.0, 6.0, 7.0 and 8.0 for different spike lengths and zero degree angle of attack. (author)

  4. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction for a Generic Truck Using Geometrically Optimized Rear Cabin Bumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Ait Moussa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous surge in gas prices has raised major concerns about vehicle fuel efficiency, and drag reduction devices offer a promising strategy. In this paper, we investigate the mechanisms by which geometrically optimized bumps, placed on the rear end of the cabin roof of a generic truck, reduce aerodynamic drag. The incorporation of these devices requires proper choices of the size, location, and overall geometry. In the following analysis we identify these factors using a novel methodology. The numerical technique combines automatic modeling of the add-ons, computational fluid dynamics and optimization using orthogonal arrays, and probabilistic restarts. Numerical results showed reduction in aerodynamic drag between 6% and 10%.

  5. Drag Coefficient Estimation in Orbit Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Craig A.; Manee, Steve; Lichtenberg, Travis

    2011-07-01

    Drag modeling is the greatest uncertainty in the dynamics of low Earth satellite orbits where ballistic coefficient and density errors dominate drag errors. This paper examines fitted drag coefficients found as part of a precision orbit determination process for Stella, Starlette, and the GEOSAT Follow-On satellites from 2000 to 2005. The drag coefficients for the spherical Stella and Starlette satellites are assumed to be highly correlated with density model error. The results using MSIS-86, NRLMSISE-00, and NRLMSISE-00 with dynamic calibration of the atmosphere (DCA) density corrections are compared. The DCA corrections were formulated for altitudes of 200-600 km and are found to be inappropriate when applied at 800 km. The yearly mean fitted drag coefficients are calculated for each satellite for each year studied. The yearly mean drag coefficients are higher for Starlette than Stella, where Starlette is at a higher altitude. The yearly mean fitted drag coefficients for all three satellites decrease as solar activity decreases after solar maximum.

  6. Modelling of Aerodynamic Drag in Alpine Skiing

    OpenAIRE

    Elfmark, Ola

    2017-01-01

    Most of the breaking force in the speed disciplines in alpine skiing is caused by the aerodynamic drag, and a better knowledge of the drag force is therefore desirable to gain time in races. In this study a complete database of how the drag area (CDA) changes, with respect to the different body segments, was made and used to explain a complete body motion in alpine skiing. Three experiments were performed in the wind tunnel at NTNU, Trondheim. The database from a full body measurement on an a...

  7. Parameterizing Subgrid-Scale Orographic Drag in the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) Atmospheric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, M. D.; Olson, J.; Kenyon, J.; Smirnova, T. G.; Brown, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The accuracy of wind forecasts in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models is improved when the drag forces imparted on atmospheric flow by subgrid-scale orography are included. Without such parameterizations, only the terrain resolved by the model grid, along with the small-scale obstacles parameterized by the roughness lengths can have an effect on the flow. This neglects the impacts of subgrid-scale terrain variations, which typically leads to wind speeds that are too strong. Using statistical information about the subgrid-scale orography, such as the mean and variance of the topographic height within a grid cell, the drag forces due to flow blocking, gravity wave drag, and turbulent form drag are estimated and distributed vertically throughout the grid cell column. We recently implemented the small-scale gravity wave drag paramterization of Steeneveld et al. (2008) and Tsiringakis et al. (2017) for stable planetary boundary layers, and the turbulent form drag parameterization of Beljaars et al. (2004) in the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) NWP model developed at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). As a result, a high surface wind speed bias in the model has been reduced and small improvement to the maintenance of stable layers has also been found. We present the results of experiments with the subgrid-scale orographic drag parameterization for the regional HRRR model, as well as for a global model in development at NOAA, showing the direct and indirect impacts.

  8. Drag reduction by natural polymeric additives in PMDS microchannel: Effect of types of additives

    OpenAIRE

    Ling Fiona W.M.; Abdulbari Hayder A.

    2017-01-01

    Drag reduction technology was used in medical applications to enhance the blood flow in semiclogged blood streams which can be an alternative treatment for atherosclerosis. In this present study, natural polymeric drag reducing additives (DRA) was introduced to replace synthetic polymer which has the possibility of bringing side effects to human health. Three different sources, namely okra, aloe vera and hibiscus were utilized to extract the natural polymeric additives which were then tested ...

  9. No Winglets: What a Drag...Argument for Adding Winglets to Large Air Force Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    prices have once again brought improving aircraft aerodynamic efficiencies to the forefront of the energy conservation debate. Displaying how winglets ... winglet . Winglets are small, nearly vertical aerodynamic surfaces mounted on aircraft wingtips. Engineers design them with the same careful attention to...total drag.6 Since winglets , designed as small airfoils, reduce the aerodynamic drag associated with vortices by minimizing the amount of energy used

  10. Drag reduction statistics in a channel flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Bernal, Jose A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, LABINTHAP-SEPI-ESIME, Edif. 5, 3er piso Col. Lindavista, Mexico DF 07738 (Mexico); Hassan, Yassin A.; Gutierrez-Torres, Claudia del C. [Nuclear Engineering Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3123 (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Methods to reduce the drag have been studied for many years because of the promising payoffs that can be attained. In this investigation, the evaluation of statistics such as skewness, flatness, spectra of the stream-wise velocity fluctuations is performed for single phase flow and for two phase flow. Micro-bubbles with an average diameter of 30 {mu}m and a local void fraction of 4.8 % were produced by electrolysis and injected inside the boundary layer. This value of void fraction produced a 38.45 % decrease of the drag. The experiments were conducted in a channel flow at a Reynolds number Re 5128 (considering half height of the channel, the bulk velocity and the kinematics viscosity of the water). The channel was made of acrylic due to the optical properties of this material; its dimensions are 3.85 m long, 0.206 m wide and 0.056 m high. A pressure transducer that ranges from 0 to 35 Pa is located in the test station to measure the pressure drop in single phase flow; this pressure value is used to calculate the shear wall stress. The shear wall stress of two phase flow was measured from the velocity fields obtained from Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. PIV was utilized to measure instantaneous velocity fields in the stream-wise-normal (x-y) plane. The use of low-local values of void fraction caused a reduction of undesirable speckles effects and an absence of extreme brightness provoked by high bubble saturation. The measurements were carried out in the upper wall of the channel at 3.15 m downstream the inlet's channel. The PIV system is formed by a CCD camera with a resolution of 1008 x 1018 pixels and a double pulse laser with a maximum power 400 mJ and a wavelength of 532 nm (green light). The laser beam was transformed into a sheet of light by an array of cylindrical lenses. Two hundred frames with an area of 1.28 cm{sup 2} were recorded to obtain one hundred velocity fields. The time separation between

  11. Drag reduction statistics in a channel flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Bernal, Jose A.; Hassan, Yassin A.; Gutierrez-Torres, Claudia del C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Methods to reduce the drag have been studied for many years because of the promising payoffs that can be attained. In this investigation, the evaluation of statistics such as skewness, flatness, spectra of the stream-wise velocity fluctuations is performed for single phase flow and for two phase flow. Micro-bubbles with an average diameter of 30 μm and a local void fraction of 4.8 % were produced by electrolysis and injected inside the boundary layer. This value of void fraction produced a 38.45 % decrease of the drag. The experiments were conducted in a channel flow at a Reynolds number Re 5128 (considering half height of the channel, the bulk velocity and the kinematics viscosity of the water). The channel was made of acrylic due to the optical properties of this material; its dimensions are 3.85 m long, 0.206 m wide and 0.056 m high. A pressure transducer that ranges from 0 to 35 Pa is located in the test station to measure the pressure drop in single phase flow; this pressure value is used to calculate the shear wall stress. The shear wall stress of two phase flow was measured from the velocity fields obtained from Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. PIV was utilized to measure instantaneous velocity fields in the stream-wise-normal (x-y) plane. The use of low-local values of void fraction caused a reduction of undesirable speckles effects and an absence of extreme brightness provoked by high bubble saturation. The measurements were carried out in the upper wall of the channel at 3.15 m downstream the inlet's channel. The PIV system is formed by a CCD camera with a resolution of 1008 x 1018 pixels and a double pulse laser with a maximum power 400 mJ and a wavelength of 532 nm (green light). The laser beam was transformed into a sheet of light by an array of cylindrical lenses. Two hundred frames with an area of 1.28 cm 2 were recorded to obtain one hundred velocity fields. The time separation between consecutive pulses

  12. CALIBRATED HYDRODYNAMIC MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezar Gülbaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The land development and increase in urbanization in a watershed affect water quantityand water quality. On one hand, urbanization provokes the adjustment of geomorphicstructure of the streams, ultimately raises peak flow rate which causes flood; on theother hand, it diminishes water quality which results in an increase in Total SuspendedSolid (TSS. Consequently, sediment accumulation in downstream of urban areas isobserved which is not preferred for longer life of dams. In order to overcome thesediment accumulation problem in dams, the amount of TSS in streams and inwatersheds should be taken under control. Low Impact Development (LID is a BestManagement Practice (BMP which may be used for this purpose. It is a land planningand engineering design method which is applied in managing storm water runoff inorder to reduce flooding as well as simultaneously improve water quality. LID includestechniques to predict suspended solid loads in surface runoff generated over imperviousurban surfaces. In this study, the impact of LID-BMPs on surface runoff and TSS isinvestigated by employing a calibrated hydrodynamic model for Sazlidere Watershedwhich is located in Istanbul, Turkey. For this purpose, a calibrated hydrodynamicmodel was developed by using Environmental Protection Agency Storm WaterManagement Model (EPA SWMM. For model calibration and validation, we set up arain gauge and a flow meter into the field and obtain rainfall and flow rate data. Andthen, we select several LID types such as retention basins, vegetative swales andpermeable pavement and we obtain their influence on peak flow rate and pollutantbuildup and washoff for TSS. Consequently, we observe the possible effects ofLID on surface runoff and TSS in Sazlidere Watershed.

  13. The physics of orographic gravity wave drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A C Teixeira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The drag and momentum fluxes produced by gravity waves generated in flow over orography are reviewed, focusing on adiabatic conditions without phase transitions or radiation effects, and steady mean incoming flow. The orographic gravity wave drag is first introduced in its simplest possible form, for inviscid, linearized, non-rotating flow with the Boussinesq and hydrostatic approximations, and constant wind and static stability. Subsequently, the contributions made by previous authors (primarily using theory and numerical simulations to elucidate how the drag is affected by additional physical processes are surveyed. These include the effect of orography anisotropy, vertical wind shear, total and partial critical levels, vertical wave reflection and resonance, non-hydrostatic effects and trapped lee waves, rotation and nonlinearity. Frictional and boundary layer effects are also briefly mentioned. A better understanding of all of these aspects is important for guiding the improvement of drag parametrization schemes.

  14. Satellite Formation Control Using Atmospheric Drag

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hajovsky, Blake B

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the use of a linear quadratic terminal controller to reconfigure satellite formations using atmospheric drag actuated control while minimizing the loss of energy of the formation...

  15. Simultaneous drag and flow measurements of Olympic skeleton athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Yae Eun; Digiulio, David; Peters, Steve; Wei, Timothy

    2009-11-01

    The Olympic sport of skeleton involves an athlete riding a small sled face first down a bobsled track at speeds up to 130 km/hr. In these races, the difference between gold and missing the medal stand altogether can be hundredths of a second per run. As such, reducing aerodynamic drag through proper body positioning is of first order importance. To better study the flow behavior and to improve the performance of the athletes, we constructed a static force balance system on a mock section of a bobsled track. Athlete and the sled are placed on the force balance system which is positioned at the exit of an open loop wind tunnel. Simultaneous drag force and DPIV velocity field measurements were made along with video recordings of body position to aid the athletes in determining their optimal aerodynamic body position.

  16. Diagnostic-Photographic Determination of Drag/Lift/Torque Coefficients of High Speed Rigid Body in Water Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    various physical processes such as supercavitation and bubbles. A diagnostic- photographic method is developed in this study to determine the drag...nonlinear dynamics, body and multi-phase fluid interaction, supercavitation , and instability theory. The technical application of the hydrodynamics of...uV U ω= = − ×V e e e ei i , (29) where Eq.(9) is used. For a supercavitation area, a correction factor may be

  17. Evaluation of WRF Simulations With Different Selections of Subgrid Orographic Drag Over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Beljaars, A.; Wang, Y.; Huang, B.; Lin, C.; Chen, Y.; Wu, H.

    2017-09-01

    Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations with different selections of subgrid orographic drag over the Tibetan Plateau have been evaluated with observation and ERA-Interim reanalysis. Results show that the subgrid orographic drag schemes, especially the turbulent orographic form drag (TOFD) scheme, efficiently reduce the 10 m wind speed bias and RMS error with respect to station measurements. With the combination of gravity wave, flow blocking and TOFD schemes, wind speed is simulated more realistically than with the individual schemes only. Improvements are also seen in the 2 m air temperature and surface pressure. The gravity wave drag, flow blocking drag, and TOFD schemes combined have the smallest station mean bias (-2.05°C in 2 m air temperature and 1.27 hPa in surface pressure) and RMS error (3.59°C in 2 m air temperature and 2.37 hPa in surface pressure). Meanwhile, the TOFD scheme contributes more to the improvements than the gravity wave drag and flow blocking schemes. The improvements are more pronounced at low levels of the atmosphere than at high levels due to the stronger drag enhancement on the low-level flow. The reduced near-surface cold bias and high-pressure bias over the Tibetan Plateau are the result of changes in the low-level wind components associated with the geostrophic balance. The enhanced drag directly leads to weakened westerlies but also enhances the a-geostrophic flow in this case reducing (enhancing) the northerlies (southerlies), which bring more warm air across the Himalaya Mountain ranges from South Asia (bring less cold air from the north) to the interior Tibetan Plateau.

  18. Thermal lift generation and drag reduction in rarefied aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekardan, Cem; Alexeenko, Alina

    2016-11-01

    With the advent of the new technologies in low pressure environments such as Hyperloop and helicopters designed for Martian applications, understanding the aerodynamic behavior of airfoils in rarefied environments are becoming more crucial. In this paper, verification of rarefied ES-BGK solver and ideas such as prediction of the thermally induced lift and drag reduction in rarefied aerodynamics are investigated. Validation of the rarefied ES-BGK solver with Runge-Kutta discontinous Galerkin method with experiments in transonic regime with a Reynolds number of 73 showed that ES-BGK solver is the most suitable solver in near slip transonic regime. For the quantification of lift generation, A NACA 0012 airfoil is studied with a high temperature surface on the bottom for the lift creation for different Knudsen numbers. It was seen that for lower velocities, continuum solver under predicts the lift generation when the Knudsen number is 0.00129 due to local velocity gradients reaching slip regime although lift coefficient is higher with the Boltzmann ES-BGK solutions. In the second part, the feasibility of using thermal transpiration for drag reduction is studied. Initial study in drag reduction includes an application of a thermal gradient at the upper surface of a NACA 0012 airfoil near trailing edge at a 12-degree angle of attack and 5 Pa pressure. It was seen that drag is reduced by 4 percent and vortex shedding frequency is reduced due to asymmetry introduced in the flow due to temperature gradient causing reverse flow due to thermal transpiration phenomena.

  19. The Hydrodynamic Study of the Swimming Gliding: a Two-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Daniel A; Barbosa, Tiago M; Rouboa, Abel I; Silva, António J

    2011-09-01

    Nowadays the underwater gliding after the starts and the turns plays a major role in the overall swimming performance. Hence, minimizing hydrodynamic drag during the underwater phases should be a main aim during swimming. Indeed, there are several postures that swimmers can assume during the underwater gliding, although experimental results were not conclusive concerning the best body position to accomplish this aim. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyse the effect in hydrodynamic drag forces of using different body positions during gliding through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology. For this purpose, two-dimensional models of the human body in steady flow conditions were studied. Two-dimensional virtual models had been created: (i) a prone position with the arms extended at the front of the body; (ii) a prone position with the arms placed alongside the trunk; (iii) a lateral position with the arms extended at the front and; (iv) a dorsal position with the arms extended at the front. The drag forces were computed between speeds of 1.6 m/s and 2 m/s in a two-dimensional Fluent(®) analysis. The positions with the arms extended at the front presented lower drag values than the position with the arms aside the trunk. The lateral position was the one in which the drag was lower and seems to be the one that should be adopted during the gliding after starts and turns.

  20. Drag Performance of Twist Morphing MAV Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail N.I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphing wing is one of latest evolution found on MAV wing. However, due to few design problems such as limited MAV wing size and complicated morphing mechanism, the understanding of its aerodynamic behaviour was not fully explored. In fact, the basic drag distribution induced by a morphing MAV wing is still remained unknown. Thus, present work is carried out to compare the drag performance between a twist morphing wing with membrane and rigid MAV wing design. A quasi-static aeroelastic analysis by using the Ansys-Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI method is utilized in current works to predict the drag performance a twist morphing MAV wing design. Based on the drag pattern study, the results exhibits that the morphing wing has a partial similarities in overall drag pattern with the baseline (membrane and rigid wing. However, based CD analysis, it shows that TM wing induced higher CD magnitude (between 25% to 82% higher than to the baseline wing. In fact, TM wing also induced the largest CD increment (about 20% to 27% among the wings. The visualization on vortex structure revealed that TM wing also produce larger tip vortex structure (compared to baseline wings which presume to promote higher induce drag component and subsequently induce its higher CD performance.

  1. Small systems – hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bożek, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.bozek@fis.agh.edu.pl

    2016-12-15

    The scenario assuming a collective expansion stage in collisions of small systems, p-A, d-Au, and {sup 3}He-Au is discussed. A review of the observables predicted in relativistic hydrodynamic models in comparison with experimental data is presented, with arguments indicating the presence of collective expansion. The limits of applicability of the hydrodynamic model are addressed. We briefly indicate possible applications of the collective flow in small systems to study the space-time dynamics at very small scales in relativistic collisions.

  2. Biological implications of the hydrodynamics of swimming at or near the surface and in shallow water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, R W

    2009-01-01

    The origins and effects of wave drag at and near the surface and in shallow water are discussed in terms of the dispersive waves generated by streamlined technical bodies of revolution and by semi-aquatic and aquatic animals with a view to bearing on issues regarding the design and function of autonomous surface and underwater vehicles. A simple two-dimensional model based on energy flux, allowing assessment of drag and its associated wave amplitude, is applied to surface swimming in Lesser Scaup ducks and is in good agreement with measured values. It is argued that hydrodynamic limitations to swimming at speeds associated with the critical Froude number (∼0.5) and hull speed do not necessarily set biological limitations as most behaviours occur well below the hull speed. From a comparative standpoint, the need for studies on the hull displacement of different forms is emphasized. For forms in surface proximity, drag is a function of both Froude and Reynolds numbers. Whilst the depth dependence of wave drag is not particularly sensitive to Reynolds number, its magnitude is, with smaller and slower forms subject to relatively less drag augmentation than larger, faster forms that generate additional resistance due to ventilation and spray. A quasi-steady approach to the hydrodynamics of swimming in shallow water identifies substantial drag increases relative to the deeply submerged case at Froude numbers of about 0.9 that could limit the performance of semi-aquatic and aquatic animals and autonomous vehicles. A comparative assessment of fast-starting trout and upside down catfish shows that the energy losses of fast-starting fish are likely to be less for fish in surface proximity in deep water than for those in shallow water. Further work on unsteady swimming in both circumstances is encouraged. Finally, perspectives are offered as to how autonomous surface and underwater vehicles in surface proximity and shallow water could function to avoid prohibitive

  3. Biological implications of the hydrodynamics of swimming at or near the surface and in shallow water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, R W [Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 (Canada)], E-mail: blake@zoology.ubc.ca

    2009-03-01

    The origins and effects of wave drag at and near the surface and in shallow water are discussed in terms of the dispersive waves generated by streamlined technical bodies of revolution and by semi-aquatic and aquatic animals with a view to bearing on issues regarding the design and function of autonomous surface and underwater vehicles. A simple two-dimensional model based on energy flux, allowing assessment of drag and its associated wave amplitude, is applied to surface swimming in Lesser Scaup ducks and is in good agreement with measured values. It is argued that hydrodynamic limitations to swimming at speeds associated with the critical Froude number ({approx}0.5) and hull speed do not necessarily set biological limitations as most behaviours occur well below the hull speed. From a comparative standpoint, the need for studies on the hull displacement of different forms is emphasized. For forms in surface proximity, drag is a function of both Froude and Reynolds numbers. Whilst the depth dependence of wave drag is not particularly sensitive to Reynolds number, its magnitude is, with smaller and slower forms subject to relatively less drag augmentation than larger, faster forms that generate additional resistance due to ventilation and spray. A quasi-steady approach to the hydrodynamics of swimming in shallow water identifies substantial drag increases relative to the deeply submerged case at Froude numbers of about 0.9 that could limit the performance of semi-aquatic and aquatic animals and autonomous vehicles. A comparative assessment of fast-starting trout and upside down catfish shows that the energy losses of fast-starting fish are likely to be less for fish in surface proximity in deep water than for those in shallow water. Further work on unsteady swimming in both circumstances is encouraged. Finally, perspectives are offered as to how autonomous surface and underwater vehicles in surface proximity and shallow water could function to avoid prohibitive

  4. Drag reduction by natural polymeric additives in PMDS microchannel: Effect of types of additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Fiona W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Drag reduction technology was used in medical applications to enhance the blood flow in semiclogged blood streams which can be an alternative treatment for atherosclerosis. In this present study, natural polymeric drag reducing additives (DRA was introduced to replace synthetic polymer which has the possibility of bringing side effects to human health. Three different sources, namely okra, aloe vera and hibiscus were utilized to extract the natural polymeric additives which were then tested in custom made microchannel simulating human heart blood vessels. The performance of different types of additives was evaluated using pressure measurements. The maximum drag reduction up to 63.48% is achieved using 300 ppm of hibiscus mucilage at operating pressure of 50 mbar. In this present work, hibiscus showed the best drag reduction performance, giving the highest %FI in most of the cases. This experimental results proved that these natural polymeric additives could be utilized as DRA in enhancing the blood flow in semiclogged blood streams.

  5. Hydrodynamical description of collective flow

    OpenAIRE

    Huovinen, Pasi

    2003-01-01

    I review how hydrodynamical flow is related to the observed flow in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions and how initial conditions, equation of state and freeze-out temperature affect flow in hydrodynamical models.

  6. Dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imshennik, V.S.; Morozov, Yu.I.

    1989-01-01

    Using the comoving reference frame in the general non-inertial case, the relativistic hydrodynamics equations are derived with an account for dissipative effects in the matter. From the entropy production equation, the exact from for the dissipative tensor components is obtained. As a result, the closed system of equations of dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics is obtained in the comoving reference frame as a relativistic generalization of the known Navier-Stokes equations for Lagrange coordinates. Equations of relativistic hydrodynamics with account for dissipative effects in the matter are derived using the assocoated reference system in general non-inertial case. True form of the dissipative tensor components is obtained from entropy production equation. Closed system of equations for dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics is obtained as a result in the assocoated reference system (ARS) - relativistic generalization of well-known Navier-Stokes equations for Lagrange coordinates. Equation system, obtained in this paper for ARS, may be effectively used in numerical models of explosive processes with 10 51 erg energy releases which are characteristic for flashes of supernovae, if white dwarf type compact target suggested as presupernova

  7. Hydrodynamic fabrication of structurally gradient ZnO nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Min; Youn, Jae Ryoun; Song, Young Seok

    2016-02-26

    We studied a new approach where structurally gradient nanostructures were fabricated by means of hydrodynamics. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were synthesized in a drag-driven rotational flow in a controlled manner. The structural characteristics of nanorods such as orientation and diameter were determined by momentum and mass transfer at the substrate surface. The nucleation of ZnO was induced by shear stress which plays a key role in determining the orientation of ZnO nanorods. The nucleation and growth of such nanostructures were modeled theoretically and analyzed numerically to understand the underlying physics of the fabrication of nanostructures controlled by hydrodynamics. The findings demonstrated that the precise control of momentum and mass transfer enabled the formation of ZnO nanorods with a structural gradient in diameter and orientation.

  8. Hydrodynamic manoeuvrability data of a flatfish type AUV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Christian; Wagner Smitt, Leif

    1994-01-01

    Hydrodynamic manoeuvrability data of the flatfish type autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) “MARIUS” are presented. “MARIUS” was developed under the EC MAST Programme as a vehicle for seabed inspection and environmental surveys in coastal waters. The AUV has an overall length of 4.5 m and is driven...... by two propellers and four thrusters. The data comprise added mass and inertia coefficients, damping, lift and drag coefficients of the vehicle and its control surfaces, as well as resistance and propulsion characteristics. The hydrodynamic data have been determined by full scale tests, using a towing...... tank equipped with a planar motion mechanism. A few free-sailing tests have been carried out as well. Application of the data and possible improvements of the shape of the vehicle are discussed...

  9. Hydrodynamical analysis of the effect of fish fins morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azwadi Che Sidik, Nor; Yen, Tey Wah

    2013-12-01

    The previous works on the biomechanics of fishes focuses on the locomotion effect of the fish bodies. However, there is quite a insufficiency in unveiling the respective function of fins when the fishes pose statics and exposed to fluid flow. Accordingly, this paper's focus is to investigate the hydrodynamic effect of the fins configuration to the fluid flow of shark-shaped-inspired structure. The drag and lift coefficient is computed for different cases of fish fins addition and configuration. The k-epsilon turbulence model is deployed using finite volume method with the aid of commercial software ANSYS CFX. The finding will demystify some of the functions of the fish's fins in term of their contribution to the hydrodynamic flow around the fishes.

  10. The elaborate plumage in peacocks is not such a drag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Graham N

    2014-09-15

    One of the classic examples of an exaggerated sexually selected trait is the elaborate plumage that forms the train in male peafowl Pavo cristatus (peacock). Such ornaments are thought to reduce locomotor performance as a result of their weight and aerodynamic drag, but this cost is unknown. Here, the effect that the train has on take-off flight in peacocks was quantified as the sum of the rates of change of the potential and kinetic energies of the body (P(CoM)) in birds with trains and following the train's removal. There was no significant difference between P(CoM) in birds with and without a train. The train incurs drag during take-off; however, while this produces a twofold increase in parasite drag, parasite power only accounts for 0.1% of the total aerodynamic power. The train represented 6.9% of body weight and is expected to increase induced power. The absence of a detectable effect on take-off performance does not necessarily mean that there is no cost associated with possessing such ornate plumage; rather, it suggests that given the variation in take-off performance per se, the magnitude of any effect of the train has little meaningful functional relevance. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Coordination of multiple appendages in drag-based swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alben, Silas; Spears, Kevin; Garth, Stephen; Murphy, David; Yen, Jeannette

    2010-11-06

    Krill are aquatic crustaceans that engage in long distance migrations, either vertically in the water column or horizontally for 10 km (over 200,000 body lengths) per day. Hence efficient locomotory performance is crucial for their survival. We study the swimming kinematics of krill using a combination of experiment and analysis. We quantify the propulsor kinematics for tethered and freely swimming krill in experiments, and find kinematics that are very nearly metachronal. We then formulate a drag coefficient model which compares metachronal, synchronous and intermediate motions for a freely swimming body with two legs. With fixed leg velocity amplitude, metachronal kinematics give the highest average body speed for both linear and quadratic drag laws. The same result holds for five legs with the quadratic drag law. When metachronal kinematics is perturbed towards synchronous kinematics, an analysis shows that the velocity increase on the power stroke is outweighed by the velocity decrease on the recovery stroke. With fixed time-averaged work done by the legs, metachronal kinematics again gives the highest average body speed, although the advantage over synchronous kinematics is reduced.

  12. Airfoil Drag Reduction using Controlled Trapped Vorticity Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desalvo, Michael; Glezer, Ari

    2017-11-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a lifting surface at low angles of attack (when the base flow is fully attached) is improved through fluidic modification of its ``apparent'' shape by superposition of near-surface trapped vorticity concentrations. In the present wind tunnel investigations, a controlled trapped vorticity concentration is formed on the pressure surface of an airfoil (NACA 4415) using a hybrid actuator comprising a passive obstruction of scale O(0.01c) and an integral synthetic jet actuator. The jet actuation frequency [Stact O(10)] is selected to be at least an order of magnitude higher than the characteristic unstable frequency of the airfoil wake, thereby decoupling the actuation from the global instabilities of the base flow. Regulation of vorticity accumulation in the vicinity of the actuator by the jet effects changes in the local pressure, leading in turn to changes in the airfoil's drag and lift. Trapped vorticity can lead to a significant reduction in drag and reduced lift (owing to the sense of the vorticity), e.g. at α =4° and Re = 6.7 .105 the drag and lift reductions are 14% and 2%, respectively. PIV measurements show the spatial variation in the distribution of vorticity concentrations and yield estimates of the corresponding changes in circulation.

  13. The impact of glide phases on the trackability of hydrodynamic trails in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieskotten, S; Dehnhardt, G; Mauck, B; Miersch, L; Hanke, W

    2010-11-01

    The mystacial vibrissae of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) constitute a highly sensitive hydrodynamic receptor system enabling the seals to detect and follow hydrodynamic trails. In the wild, hydrodynamic trails, as generated by swimming fish, consist of cyclic burst-and-glide phases, associated with various differences in the physical parameters of the trail. Here, we investigated the impact of glide phases on the trackability of differently aged hydrodynamic trails in a harbour seal. As fish are not easily trained to swim certain paths with predetermined burst-and-glide phases, the respective hydrodynamic trails were generated using a remote-controlled miniature submarine. Gliding phases in hydrodynamic trails had a negative impact on the trackability when trails were 15 s old. The seal lost the generated trails more often within the transition zones, when the submarine switched from a burst to a glide moving pattern. Hydrodynamic parameter analysis (particle image velocimetry) revealed that the smaller dimensions and faster decay of hydrodynamic trails generated by the gliding submarine are responsible for the impaired success of the seal tracking the gliding phase. Furthermore, the change of gross water flow generated by the submarine from a rearwards-directed stream in the burst phase to a water flow passively dragged behind the submarine during gliding might influence the ability of the seal to follow the trail as this might cause a weaker deflection of the vibrissae. The possible ecological implications of intermittent swimming behaviour in fish for piscivorous predators are discussed.

  14. The effect of shape on drag: a physics exercise inspired by biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerut, Jonathan; Johnson, Nicholas; Mongeau, Eric; Habdas, Piotr

    2017-07-01

    As part of a biomechanics course aimed at upper-division biology and physics majors, but applicable to a range of student learning levels, this laboratory exercise provides an insight into the effect of shape on hydrodynamic performance, as well an introduction to computer aided design (CAD) and 3D printing. Students use hydrodynamic modeling software and simple CAD programs to design a shape with the least amount of drag based on strategies gleaned from the study of natural forms. Students then print the shapes using a 3D printer and test their shapes against their classmates in a friendly competition. From this exercise, students gain a more intuitive sense of the challenges that organisms face when moving through fluid environments, the physical phenomena involved in moving through fluids at high Reynolds numbers and observe how and why certain morphologies, such as streamlining, are common answers to the challenge of swimming at high speeds.

  15. Anisotropic hydrodynamics for conformal Gubser flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, Michael; Nopoush, Mohammad [Kent State University, Kent OH 44242 (United States); Ryblewski, Radoslaw [The H. Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-31342 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-12-15

    In this proceedings contribution, we review the exact solution of the anisotropic hydrodynamics equations for a system subject to Gubser flow. For this purpose, we use the leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics equations which assume that the distribution function is ellipsoidally symmetric in local-rest-frame momentum. We then prove that the SO(3){sub q} symmetry in de Sitter space constrains the anisotropy tensor to be of spheroidal form with only one independent anisotropy parameter remaining. As a consequence, the exact solution reduces to the problem of solving two coupled non-linear differential equations. We show that, in the limit that the relaxation time goes to zero, one obtains Gubser's ideal hydrodynamic solution and, in the limit that the relaxation time goes to infinity, one obtains the exact free streaming solution obtained originally by Denicol et al. For finite relaxation time, we solve the equations numerically and compare to the exact solution of the relaxation-time-approximation Boltzmann equation subject to Gubser flow. Using this as our standard, we find that anisotropic hydrodynamics describes the spatio-temporal evolution of the system better than all currently known dissipative hydrodynamics approaches.

  16. Anisotropic hydrodynamics for conformal Gubser flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickland, Michael; Nopoush, Mohammad; Ryblewski, Radoslaw

    2016-01-01

    In this proceedings contribution, we review the exact solution of the anisotropic hydrodynamics equations for a system subject to Gubser flow. For this purpose, we use the leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics equations which assume that the distribution function is ellipsoidally symmetric in local-rest-frame momentum. We then prove that the SO(3)_q symmetry in de Sitter space constrains the anisotropy tensor to be of spheroidal form with only one independent anisotropy parameter remaining. As a consequence, the exact solution reduces to the problem of solving two coupled non-linear differential equations. We show that, in the limit that the relaxation time goes to zero, one obtains Gubser's ideal hydrodynamic solution and, in the limit that the relaxation time goes to infinity, one obtains the exact free streaming solution obtained originally by Denicol et al. For finite relaxation time, we solve the equations numerically and compare to the exact solution of the relaxation-time-approximation Boltzmann equation subject to Gubser flow. Using this as our standard, we find that anisotropic hydrodynamics describes the spatio-temporal evolution of the system better than all currently known dissipative hydrodynamics approaches.

  17. Assessment of passive drag in swimming by numerical simulation and analytical procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Tiago M; Ramos, Rui; Silva, António J; Marinho, Daniel A

    2018-03-01

    The aim was to compare the passive drag-gliding underwater by a numerical simulation and an analytical procedure. An Olympic swimmer was scanned by computer tomography and modelled gliding at a 0.75-m depth in the streamlined position. Steady-state computer fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed on Fluent. A set of analytical procedures was selected concurrently. Friction drag (D f ), pressure drag (D pr ), total passive drag force (D f +pr ) and drag coefficient (C D ) were computed between 1.3 and 2.5 m · s -1 by both techniques. D f +pr ranged from 45.44 to 144.06 N with CFD, from 46.03 to 167.06 N with the analytical procedure (differences: from 1.28% to 13.77%). C D ranged between 0.698 and 0.622 by CFD, 0.657 and 0.644 by analytical procedures (differences: 0.40-6.30%). Linear regression models showed a very high association for D f +pr plotted in absolute values (R 2  = 0.98) and after log-log transformation (R 2  = 0.99). The C D also obtained a very high adjustment for both absolute (R 2  = 0.97) and log-log plots (R 2  = 0.97). The bias for the D f +pr was 8.37 N and 0.076 N after logarithmic transformation. D f represented between 15.97% and 18.82% of the D f +pr by the CFD, 14.66% and 16.21% by the analytical procedures. Therefore, despite the bias, analytical procedures offer a feasible way of gathering insight on one's hydrodynamics characteristics.

  18. Large-Scale Description of Interacting One-Dimensional Bose Gases: Generalized Hydrodynamics Supersedes Conventional Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, Benjamin; Dubail, Jérôme; Konik, Robert; Yoshimura, Takato

    2017-11-01

    The theory of generalized hydrodynamics (GHD) was recently developed as a new tool for the study of inhomogeneous time evolution in many-body interacting systems with infinitely many conserved charges. In this Letter, we show that it supersedes the widely used conventional hydrodynamics (CHD) of one-dimensional Bose gases. We illustrate this by studying "nonlinear sound waves" emanating from initial density accumulations in the Lieb-Liniger model. We show that, at zero temperature and in the absence of shocks, GHD reduces to CHD, thus for the first time justifying its use from purely hydrodynamic principles. We show that sharp profiles, which appear in finite times in CHD, immediately dissolve into a higher hierarchy of reductions of GHD, with no sustained shock. CHD thereon fails to capture the correct hydrodynamics. We establish the correct hydrodynamic equations, which are finite-dimensional reductions of GHD characterized by multiple, disjoint Fermi seas. We further verify that at nonzero temperature, CHD fails at all nonzero times. Finally, we numerically confirm the emergence of hydrodynamics at zero temperature by comparing its predictions with a full quantum simulation performed using the NRG-TSA-abacus algorithm. The analysis is performed in the full interaction range, and is not restricted to either weak- or strong-repulsion regimes.

  19. Influence of Blocker Distance Variations in form of Triangle in Front of Cylinder toward Drag Coefficien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Putu Gede Gunawan Tista

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the ways to reduce energy consumption on the air plane and the other bluff bodies are by decreasing the drag. Drag isclosely related to the flow separation. The earlier separation, then the drag will increase more. Based of the fact the effort todecrease drag is conducted by manipulating the field of fluid flow. Stream manipulation was be done by installing Triangleobstacle in front of cylinder. The purpose of this research is to analyze the effect of various distance triangle obstacle in front ofcylinder on drag. The present experiment was done by placing triangle rod in front of the cylinder. In the present research, theexperiment was conducted in the wind tunnel, which consisted of blower, pitot pipe, manometer, cylinder pipe, and triangle rod.The triangle was positioned at L/D = 1.19, L/D = 1.43, L/D = 1.67, L/D = 1.9, L/D = 2.14, L/D = 2.38, L/D = 2.62, and L/D =2.86 by upstream from the cylinder. The triangle was 8 mm uniform side. The Reynolds number based on the cylinder diameter (D= 42 mm was Re = 1.81 x 104. The research results showed that the triangle rod could decrease the drag of cylinder. Coefficientdrag for cylinder without triangle rod was 0.1276 while the biggest decrease of coefficient of drag with triangle rod washappened at L/D = 1.43 which was 0.0188. It means that the drag of cylinder with triangle rod was 85.25% lower than thecylinder alone.

  20. Geodetic precession or dragging of inertial frames?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, N.; Shahid-Saless, B.

    1990-01-01

    In metric theories of gravity the principle of general covariance allows one to describe phenomena by means of any convenient choice of coordinate system. In this paper it is shown that in an appropriately chosen coordinate system, geodetic precession of a gyroscope orbiting a spherically symmetric, spinning mass can be recast as a Lense-Thirring frame-dragging effect without invoking spatial curvature. The origin of this reference frame moves around the source but the frame axes point in fixed directions. The drag can be interpreted to arise from the orbital angular momentum of the source around the origin of the reference frame. In this reference frame the effects of geodetic precession and Lense-Thirring drag due to intrinsic angular momentum of the source have the same origin, namely, gravitomagnetism

  1. High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Isolated Nacelle Transonic Boattail Drag Study and Results Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midea, Anthony C.; Austin, Thomas; Pao, S. Paul; DeBonis, James R.; Mani, Mori

    2005-01-01

    Nozzle boattail drag is significant for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) and can be as high as 25 percent of the overall propulsion system thrust at transonic conditions. Thus, nozzle boattail drag has the potential to create a thrust drag pinch and can reduce HSCT aircraft aerodynamic efficiencies at transonic operating conditions. In order to accurately predict HSCT performance, it is imperative that nozzle boattail drag be accurately predicted. Previous methods to predict HSCT nozzle boattail drag were suspect in the transonic regime. In addition, previous prediction methods were unable to account for complex nozzle geometry and were not flexible enough for engine cycle trade studies. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) effort was conducted by NASA and McDonnell Douglas to evaluate the magnitude and characteristics of HSCT nozzle boattail drag at transonic conditions. A team of engineers used various CFD codes and provided consistent, accurate boattail drag coefficient predictions for a family of HSCT nozzle configurations. The CFD results were incorporated into a nozzle drag database that encompassed the entire HSCT flight regime and provided the basis for an accurate and flexible prediction methodology.

  2. Riblet drag reduction in mild adverse pressure gradients: A numerical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boomsma, Aaron; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We model several differently sized scalloped riblets using LES. • Riblets were modeled in both ZPG and mild APG and compared to each other and to a baseline (flat plate) case. • Scalloped riblets in the mild APG reduce drag only slightly more than those in ZPG. • Maximum values of streamwise turbulence intensities, streamwise vorticity, and TKE are proportional to riblet width. • Primary Reynolds shear stresses and turbulence energy production scale with riblet drag reduction. - Abstract: Riblet films are a passive method of turbulent boundary layer control that can reduce viscous drag. They have been studied with great detail for over 30 years. Although common riblet applications include flows with Adverse Pressure Gradients (APG), nearly all research thus far has been performed in channel flows. Recent research has provided motivation to study riblets in more complicated turbulent flows with claims that riblet drag reduction can double in mild APG common to airfoils at moderate angles of attack. Therefore, in this study, we compare drag reduction by scalloped riblet films between riblets in a zero pressure gradient and those in a mild APG using high-resolution large eddy simulations. In order to gain a fundamental understanding of the relationship between drag reduction and pressure gradient, we simulated several different riblet sizes that encompassed a broad range of s"+ (riblet width in wall units), similarly to many previously published experimental studies. We found that there was only a slight improvement in drag reduction for riblets in the mild APG. We also observed that peak values of streamwise turbulence intensity, turbulent kinetic energy, and streamwise vorticity scale with riblet width. Primary Reynolds shear stresses and turbulence kinetic energy production however scale with the ability of the riblet to reduce skin-friction.

  3. Pengaruh variasi lebar alur berbentuk segi empat pada permukaan silinder terhadap koefisien drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Putu Gede Gunawan Tista

    2018-01-01

    aspects of human life, for example, fluid flow across a cylinder. In many engineering applications using cylindrical found equipment such as a chimney, a pillar of the bridge, and so on. The equipment is undergoing a puff of air at all times so that the strength of the construction has decreased, this is due to drag him in the direction of flow. Efforts are being made to reduce drag is by manipulating the flow field. Manipulation of the flow field is done by making rectangular-shaped grooves on the surface of the cylinder. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of variations in width rectangular-shaped grooves on the surface of the cylinder to the coefficient of drag. This research was conducted in wind tunnel consisting of a blower, pitot pipe, inclined manometer, U manometer, digital scales, and cylinders. The test object in the form of a cylinder diameter of 60 mm and a length of 420 mm is placed vertically in the wind tunnel. The width of the grooves on the surface of the cylinder varied which is 3 mm, 4 mm and 5 mm. The pressure distribution is obtained by measuring the surface pressure cylinders at 36 points with 10o intervals. Drag force testing done using digital scale that records the amount of mass, to get the drag force multiplied by gravity. The results showed a decline in the coefficient of drag on a grooved cylinder compared without grooves. Lowest coefficient values occurred in the magnitude of 4 mm groove width CD = 0.3734. The amount of reduction in drag is 22.3% compared without grooves. Keywords: drag reduction, the width of the groove, rectangular groove, cylindrical

  4. Pengaruh Variasi Jarak Penghalang Segitiga di depan Silinder Arah Vertikal terhadap Drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Gede Gunawan Tista

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu cara untuk menghemat energi pada pesawat terbang dan bluff body lainnya adalah dengan mengurangi drag. Drag erat hubungannya dengan separasi aliran. Semakin awal terjadi separasi maka drag semakin meningkat. Oleh karena itu upaya yang dilakukan untuk mengurangi drag adalah dengan memanipulasi medan aliran fluida. Manipulasi aliran bisa dilakukan secara pasif antara lain menempelkan sebuah sirip pada bluff body, melubangi bluff body, menambahkan spiral pada bluff body dan menempatkan penghalang yang lebih kecil didepan bluff body. Penelitian ini yaitu dengan cara  menempatkan penghalang berbentuk segitiga didepan silinder. Dalam penelitian ini pengujian dilakukan pada wind tunnel, yang terdiri dari blower, pipa pitot, manometer, pipa silinder, dan segitiga penghalang. Penempatan penghalang divariasikan pada arah vertikal posisi y = 0, y = 5 mm, y = 10 mm, y = 15 mm, sedangkan posisi penghalang pada arah horisontal pada jarak  60 mm terhadap silinder dengan panjang sisi segitiga adalah 8 mm. Distribusi tekanan diperoleh dengan mengukur tekanan permukaan silinder pada 36 titik dengan interval 10o. Data yang diukur adalah tekanan permukaan silinder, tekanan statis, dan kecepatan aliran fluida. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terjadi penurunan drag pada saat diberi penghalang segitiga dibandingkan dengan tanpa diberi penghalang segitiga. Nilai koefisien drag untuk silinder tanpa diberi penghalang yaitu 0.1276. Sedangkan dari variasi jarak penghalang pada arah vertikal diperoleh penurunan koefisien drag tertinggi adalah pada posisi  y = 0 yaitu sebesar 0,0186. Besarnya penurunan drag pada posisi ini adalah 85,45% dibandingkan dengan tanpa penghalang. One of the ways to reduce energy consumption an airplane and the other bluff body is by decreasing the drag.  The drag is closely related to the flow of separation. The early separation, then the drag will increase. Based on the fact the effort to decrease drag is conducted by

  5. Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    2014-01-01

    We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well-polarized flocks. The continuum equations controlled by only two dimensionless parameters, orientational inertia and alignment strength, are derived by coarse graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields anisotropic spin waves that mediate the propagation o...

  6. Frictional Coulomb drag in strong magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Martin Christian; Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    1997-01-01

    A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21) is eval......A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21...

  7. Hydrodynamics of insect spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, On Shun; Lauga, Eric

    2010-11-01

    Microorganism motility plays important roles in many biological processes including reproduction. Many microorganisms propel themselves by propagating traveling waves along their flagella. Depending on the species, propagation of planar waves (e.g. Ceratium) and helical waves (e.g. Trichomonas) were observed in eukaryotic flagellar motion, and hydrodynamic models for both were proposed in the past. However, the motility of insect spermatozoa remains largely unexplored. An interesting morphological feature of such cells, first observed in Tenebrio molitor and Bacillus rossius, is the double helical deformation pattern along the flagella, which is characterized by the presence of two superimposed helical flagellar waves (one with a large amplitude and low frequency, and the other with a small amplitude and high frequency). Here we present the first hydrodynamic investigation of the locomotion of insect spermatozoa. The swimming kinematics, trajectories and hydrodynamic efficiency of the swimmer are computed based on the prescribed double helical deformation pattern. We then compare our theoretical predictions with experimental measurements, and explore the dependence of the swimming performance on the geometric and dynamical parameters.

  8. Correlated Coulomb drag in capacitively coupled quantum-dot structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2016-01-01

    We study theoretically Coulomb drag in capacitively coupled quantum dots (CQDs) -- a biasdriven dot coupled to an unbiased dot where transport is due to Coulomb mediated energy transfer drag. To this end, we introduce a master-equation approach which accounts for higher-order tunneling (cotunneling......) processes as well as energy-dependent lead couplings, and identify a mesoscopic Coulomb drag mechanism driven by nonlocal multi-electron cotunneling processes. Our theory establishes the conditions for a nonzero drag as well as the direction of the drag current in terms of microscopic system parameters...... on Coulomb drag in CQD systems....

  9. A Novel Method to Determine the Hydrodynamic Coefficients of an Eyeball ROV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yh, Eng; Ws, Lau; Low, E.; Ggl, Seet; Cs, Chin [Robotic Research Center, School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering (MAE), Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Ave, 639798 Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-01-12

    A good dynamics model is essential and critical for the successful design of navigation and control system of an underwater vehicle. However, it is difficult to determine from the hydrodynamic forces, the inertial added mass terms and the drag coefficients. In this paper, a new experimental method has been used to find the hydrodynamic forces for the ROV II, a remotely operated underwater vehicle. The proposed method is based on the classical free decay test, but with the spring oscillation replaced by a pendulum motion. The experiment results determined from the free decay test of a scaled model compared well with the simulation results obtained from well‐established computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program. Thus, the proposed approach can be used to find the added mass and drag coefficients for other underwater vehicles.

  10. A Novel Method to Determine the Hydrodynamic Coefficients of an Eyeball ROV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yh, Eng; Ws, Lau; Low, E.; Ggl, Seet; Cs, Chin

    2009-01-01

    A good dynamics model is essential and critical for the successful design of navigation and control system of an underwater vehicle. However, it is difficult to determine from the hydrodynamic forces, the inertial added mass terms and the drag coefficients. In this paper, a new experimental method has been used to find the hydrodynamic forces for the ROV II, a remotely operated underwater vehicle. The proposed method is based on the classical free decay test, but with the spring oscillation replaced by a pendulum motion. The experiment results determined from the free decay test of a scaled model compared well with the simulation results obtained from well‐established computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program. Thus, the proposed approach can be used to find the added mass and drag coefficients for other underwater vehicles.

  11. An L-stable method for solving stiff hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengtai

    2017-07-01

    We develop a new method for simulating the coupled dynamics of gas and multi-species dust grains. The dust grains are treated as pressure-less fluids and their coupling with gas is through stiff drag terms. If an explicit method is used, the numerical time step is subject to the stopping time of the dust particles, which can become extremely small for small grains. The previous semi-implicit method [1] uses second-order trapezoidal rule (TR) on the stiff drag terms and it works only for moderately small size of the dust particles. This is because TR method is only A-stable not L-stable. In this work, we use TR-BDF2 method [2] for the stiff terms in the coupled hydrodynamic equations. The L-stability of TR-BDF2 proves essential in treating a number of dust species. The combination of TR-BDF2 method with the explicit discretization of other hydro terms can solve a wide variety of stiff hydrodynamics equations accurately and efficiently. We have implemented our method in our LA-COMPASS (Los Alamos Computational Astrophysics Suite) package. We have applied the code to simulate some dusty proto-planetary disks and obtained very good match with astronomical observations.

  12. Hydrodynamic Coefficients Identification and Experimental Investigation for an Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaorong XIE

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic coefficients are the foundation of unmanned underwater vehicles modeling and controller design. In order to reduce identification complexity and acquire necessary hydrodynamic coefficients for controllers design, the motion of the unmanned underwater vehicle was separated into vertical motion and horizontal motion models. Hydrodynamic coefficients were regarded as mapping parameters from input forces and moments to output velocities and acceleration of the unmanned underwater vehicle. The motion models of the unmanned underwater vehicle were nonlinear and Genetic Algorithm was adopted to identify those hydrodynamic coefficients. To verify the identification quality, velocities and acceleration of the unmanned underwater vehicle was measured using inertial sensor under the same conditions as Genetic Algorithm identification. Curves similarity between measured velocities and acceleration and those identified by Genetic Algorithm were used as optimizing standard. It is found that the curves similarity were high and identified hydrodynamic coefficients of the unmanned underwater vehicle satisfied the measured motion states well.

  13. Hydrodynamics experiments with soap films and soap bubbles: A short review of recent experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellay, H.

    2017-11-01

    In this short review, I focus on recent experiments that benefit from the advantages offered by the two-dimensionality of the flow in suspended thin liquid films to reconsider hydrodynamics problems which have resisted a full understanding. The first problem discussed here concerns friction drag in channel flows. The use of turbulent channel flows, using thin liquid films, allows measurements of friction drag as well as mean velocity profiles for flows with different spectral exponents. Is there a link between the spectral properties of the turbulence and the mean velocity profiles or the frictional drag? This is the first question considered. The second issue examined considers the long time dynamics of large scale vortices. These are obtained in half bubbles rendered "turbulent" through thermal convection. These vortices, which live in a quasi two-dimensional environment, have a long time dynamics where their vorticity goes through what seems to be a well-defined cycle with generic features.

  14. Numerical simulation of the vertical migration of Microcystis (cyanobacteria colonies based on turbulence drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongru Zhao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The vertical migration and accumulation of Microcystis is an important process in water blooms, and colony migration is influenced by colony size and wind-wave disturbance. The vertical migration of Microcystis colonies in turbulence can be simulated in a numerical model. In this study, we model such migration by coupling the colony size and hydrodynamics, including the gravity, colony buoyancy, and the viscous drag force of turbulence. The turbulence intensity was represented by the turbulent kinetic energy (KZ; the larger the KZ, the stronger the wind-wave disturbance. The simulated vertical distribution of Microcystis well agreed with the measured values in a laboratory experiment indicating that our model can simulate the vertical distribution of Microcystis under different hydrodynamic conditions. We also found a size-dependent critical turbulent kinetic energy (TKZ, such that if the turbulent kinetic energy of water exceeds the critical value (i.e., KZ > TKZ, the colonies sink under the drag forces of turbulence; conversely, if KZ < TKZ, the colonies can overcome the turbulent mixing and float. The TKZ of each colony was linearly related to colony diameter. The model is crucial for prediction and prevention of water blooms. The simulated threshold turbulent kinetic energy, at which water blooms disappear in Lake Taihu (a large freshwater lake in the Yangtze Delta, Jiangsu Province, China, was 55.5 cm2 s−2. 

  15. Investigation of Tractor Base Bleeding for Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, J; Salari, K; Storms, B

    2007-10-25

    One of the main contributors to the aerodynamic drag of a heavy vehicle is tractor-trailer gap drag, which arises when the vehicle operates within a crosswind. Under this operating condition, freestream flow is entrained into the tractor-trailer gap, imparting a momentum exchange to the vehicle and subsequently increasing the aerodynamic drag. While a number of add-on devices, including side extenders, splitter plates, vortex stabilizers, and gap sealers, have been previously tested to alleviate this source of drag, side extenders remain the primary add-on device of choice for reducing tractor-trailer gap drag. However, side extenders are not without maintenance and operational issues. When a heavy vehicle pivots sharply with respect to the trailer, as can occur during loading or unloading operations, the side extenders can become crushed against the trailer. Consequently, fleet operators are forced to incur additional costs to cover the repair or replacement of the damaged side extenders. This issue can be overcome by either shortening the side extenders or by devising an alternative drag reduction concept that can perform just as effectively as side extenders. To explore such a concept, we investigate tractor base bleeding as a means of reducing gap drag. Wind tunnel measurements are made on a 1:20 scale heavy vehicle model at a vehicle width-based Reynolds number of 420,000. The tractor bleeding flow, which is delivered through a porous material embedded within the tractor base, is introduced into the tractor-trailer gap at bleeding coefficients ranging from 0.0-0.018. To determine the performance of tractor base bleeding under more realistic operating conditions, computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed on a full-scale heavy vehicle within a crosswind for bleeding coefficients ranging from 0.0-0.13.

  16. Magnetic Viscous Drag for Friction Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Chris; Catching, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The typical friction lab performed in introductory mechanics courses is usually not the favorite of either the student or the instructor. The measurements are not all that easy to make, and reproducibility is usually a troublesome issue. This paper describes the augmentation of such a friction lab with a study of the viscous drag on a magnet…

  17. High accuracy satellite drag model (HASDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Mark F.; Bowman, Bruce R.; Branson, Major James I.; Casali, Stephen J.; Tobiska, W. Kent

    The dominant error source in force models used to predict low-perigee satellite trajectories is atmospheric drag. Errors in operational thermospheric density models cause significant errors in predicted satellite positions, since these models do not account for dynamic changes in atmospheric drag for orbit predictions. The Air Force Space Battlelab's High Accuracy Satellite Drag Model (HASDM) estimates and predicts (out three days) a dynamically varying global density field. HASDM includes the Dynamic Calibration Atmosphere (DCA) algorithm that solves for the phases and amplitudes of the diurnal and semidiurnal variations of thermospheric density near real-time from the observed drag effects on a set of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) calibration satellites. The density correction is expressed as a function of latitude, local solar time and altitude. In HASDM, a time series prediction filter relates the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) energy index E10.7 and the geomagnetic storm index ap, to the DCA density correction parameters. The E10.7 index is generated by the SOLAR2000 model, the first full spectrum model of solar irradiance. The estimated and predicted density fields will be used operationally to significantly improve the accuracy of predicted trajectories for all low-perigee satellites.

  18. Judicial civil procedure dragging out in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rrustem Qehaja

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article tends to deal with one of the most worrying issues in the judicial system of Kosovo the problem of judicial civil procedure dragging out. The article analyses the reasons of these dragging outs of the judicial civil procedure focusing on the context of one of the basic procedural principles in civil procedure-the principle of economy or efficiency in the courts. Dragging out of civil procedure in Kosovo has put in question not only the basic principles of civil procedure, but it also challenges the general principles related to human rights and freedoms sanctioned not only by the highest legal act of the country, but also with international treaties. The article tends to give a reflection to the most important reasons that effect and influence in these dragging outs of civil procedure, as well as, at the same time aims to give the necessary alternatives to pass through them by identifying dilemmas within the judicial practice. As a result, the motives of this scientific paper are exactly focused at the same time on identifying the dilemmas, as well as presenting ideas, to overstep them, including the judicial practice of the European Court of Human Rights on Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights, by which it is given the possibility to offering people efficient and within a reasonable time legal protection of their rights before national courts. For these reasons, the paper elaborates this issue based on both, the legal theory and judicial practice.

  19. Drag coefficient Variability and Thermospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Kenneth

    Satellite drag coefficients depend upon a variety of factors: The shape of the satellite, its altitude, the eccentricity of its orbit, the temperature and mean molecular mass of the ambient atmosphere, and the time in the sunspot cycle. At altitudes where the mean free path of the atmospheric molecules is large compared to the dimensions of the satellite, the drag coefficients can be determined from the theory of free-molecule flow. The dependence on altitude is caused by the concentration of atomic oxygen which plays an important role by its ability to adsorb on the satellite surface and thereby affect the energy loss of molecules striking the surface. The eccentricity of the orbit determines the satellite velocity at perigee, and therefore the energy of the incident molecules relative to the energy of adsorption of atomic oxygen atoms on the surface. The temperature of the ambient atmosphere determines the extent to which the random thermal motion of the molecules influences the momentum transfer to the satellite. The time in the sunspot cycle affects the ambient temperature as well as the concentration of atomic oxygen at a particular altitude. Tables and graphs will be used to illustrate the variability of drag coefficients. Before there were any measurements of gas-surface interactions in orbit, Izakov and Cook independently made an excellent estimate that the drag coefficient of satellites of compact shape would be 2.2. That numerical value, independent of altitude, was used by Jacchia to construct his model from the early measurements of satellite drag. Consequently, there is an altitude dependent bias in the model. From the sparce orbital experiments that have been done, we know that the molecules which strike satellite surfaces rebound in a diffuse angular distribution with an energy loss given by the energy accommodation coefficient. As more evidence accumulates on the energy loss, more realistic drag coefficients are being calculated. These improved drag

  20. DETERMINATION OF HYDRODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A RADIO-CONTROLLED AIRPLANE MODEL WITH AIR CUSHION LANDING GEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the hydrodynamic parameters of radio-controlled models (RCM of the aircraft with the landing gear on an air cushion (REFERENCED obtained during tests in the water tank of TSAGI NIMC on land- ing modes with varying alignment and pressure in air cushion chassis on calm and disturbed water surfaces.ACLG’s RCM is based on the Froude criterion. The experimental data of the real aircraft Dingo, LMS, An-26, C-130 Hercules (size, weight, thrust parameters were processed. Tests were carried out, using the standard testbed, utiliz- ing the dynamically-corresponding models in the water tank. Drag best value rate while travelling along the smooth water was reached at the rear centering, with balloon pressure on the water of 700 Pa. In this case, the hump drag, at velocity of 2 mps, does not exceed 29 Newtons (hydrodynamic fineness on the ‘drag hump’ is, Кг=13,5, while at velocity of 10 mps, the drag is 30 Newtons, at Кг =13.The most unfavourable mode of motion is the one with configuration of lowered pressure in the balloons (400 Pa.In these cases, the Кг = 6,5. At motion with yaw angle of 10º, the drag rate meaning practically stands stable (Кг = 13,1, while at 20º it grows (Кг = 10,6.At motion along the waved surface, the critical wave length equals to two thirds of the ACU, while drag raises by the quarter, compared to other wave types. Such vehicles can be used in the hard-to-reach regions of the Russian Federation.

  1. Correlated Coulomb Drag in Capacitively Coupled Quantum-Dot Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2016-05-13

    We study theoretically Coulomb drag in capacitively coupled quantum dots (CQDs)-a bias-driven dot coupled to an unbiased dot where transport is due to Coulomb mediated energy transfer drag. To this end, we introduce a master-equation approach that accounts for higher-order tunneling (cotunneling) processes as well as energy-dependent lead couplings, and identify a mesoscopic Coulomb drag mechanism driven by nonlocal multielectron cotunneling processes. Our theory establishes the conditions for a nonzero drag as well as the direction of the drag current in terms of microscopic system parameters. Interestingly, the direction of the drag current is not determined by the drive current, but by an interplay between the energy-dependent lead couplings. Studying the drag mechanism in a graphene-based CQD heterostructure, we show that the predictions of our theory are consistent with recent experiments on Coulomb drag in CQD systems.

  2. Significance of relative velocity in drag force or drag power estimation for a tethered float

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Sastry, J.S.

    There is difference in opinion regarding the use of relative velocity instead of particle velocity alone in the estimation of drag force or power. In the present study, a tethered spherical float which undergoes oscillatory motion in regular waves...

  3. On the Hydrodynamics of Anomalocaris Tail Fins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, K A; Rival, D E; Caron, J-B

    2018-04-25

    Anomalocaris canadensis, a soft-bodied stem-group arthropod from the Burgess Shale, is considered the largest predator of the Cambrian period. Thanks to a series of lateral flexible lobes along its dorso-ventrally compressed body, it is generally regarded as an efficient swimmer, well-adapted to its predatory lifestyle. Previous theoretical hydrodynamic simulations have suggested a possible optimum in swimming performance when the lateral lobes performed as a single undulatory lateral fin, comparable to the pectoral fins in skates and rays. However, the role of the unusual fan-like tail of Anomalocaris has not been previously explored. Swimming efficiency and maneuverability deduced from direct hydrodynamic analysis are here studied in a towing tank facility using a three-vane physical model designed as an abstraction of the tail fin. Through direct force measurements, it was found that the model exhibited a region of steady-state lift and drag enhancement at angles of attack greater than 25° when compared to a triangular-shaped reference model. This would suggest that the resultant normal force on the tail fin of Anomalocaris made it well-suited for turning maneuvers, giving it the ability to turn quickly and through small radii of curvature. These results are consistent with an active predatory lifestyle, although detailed kinematic studies integrating the full organism, including the lateral lobes, would be required to test the effect of the tail fin on overall swimming performance. This study also highlights a possible example of evolutionary convergence between the tails of Anomalocaris and birds, which, in both cases, are well-adapted to efficient turning maneuvers.

  4. Hydrodynamics of circulating and bubbling fluidized beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gidaspow, D.P.; Tsuo, Y.P.; Ding, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that a review of modeling of the hydrodynamics of fluidization of bubbling beds showed that inviscid two-fluid models were able to predict a great deal of the behavior of bubbling beds because the dominant mechanism of energy dissipation is the drag between the particles and the fluid. The formation, the growth and the bursting of bubbles were predicted. Predicted wall-to-bed heat transfer coefficients and velocity profiles of jets agreed with measurements. Time average porosity distributions agreed with measurements done using gamma-ray densitometers without the use of any adjustable parameters. However, inviscid models could not correctly predict rates of erosion around tubes immersed into fluidized beds. To correctly model such behavior, granular stresses involving solids viscosity were added into the computer model. This viscosity arises due to random collision of particles. Several models fro this viscosity were investigated and the results compared to measurements of solids distributions in two-dimensional beds and to particle velocities reported in the literature. While in the case of bubbling beds the solids viscosity plays the role of a correction, modeling of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) without a viscosity is not possible. Recent experimental data obtained at IIT and at IGT show that in CFB the solids viscous dissipation is responsible for as much as half of the pressure drop. From such measurement, solids viscosities were computed. These were used in the two fluid hydrodynamic model, to predict radial solids distributions and solids velocities which matched the experimental distributions. Most important, the model predicted cluster formation and transient internal circulation which is responsible for the favorable characteristics of CFBs, such as good wall-to-bed heat transfer. Video tape movies of computations compared favorably with high speed movies of the experiments

  5. Drag force, drag torque, and Magnus force coefficients of rotating spherical particle moving in fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukerchenko, Nikolay; Kvurt, Y.; Keita, Ibrahima; Chára, Zdeněk; Vlasák, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2012), s. 55-67 ISSN 0272-6351 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600603; GA ČR GA103/09/1718 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : drag force * drag torque * Magnus force * Reynolds number * rotational Reynolds number Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.435, year: 2012

  6. Titan's hydrodynamically escaping atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Darrell F.

    2008-02-01

    The upper atmosphere of Titan is currently losing mass at a rate ˜(4-5)×10 amus, by hydrodynamic escape as a high density, slow outward expansion driven principally by solar UV heating by CH 4 absorption. The hydrodynamic mass loss is essentially CH 4 and H 2 escape. Their combined escape rates are restricted by power limitations from attaining their limiting rates (and limiting fluxes). Hence they must exhibit gravitational diffusive separation in the upper atmosphere with increasing mixing ratios to eventually become major constituents in the exosphere. A theoretical model with solar EUV heating by N 2 absorption balanced by HCN rotational line cooling in the upper thermosphere yields densities and temperatures consistent with the Huygens Atmospheric Science Investigation (HASI) data [Fulchignoni, M., and 42 colleagues, 2005. Nature 438, 785-791], with a peak temperature of ˜185-190 K between 3500-3550 km. This model implies hydrodynamic escape rates of ˜2×10 CHs and 5×10 Hs, or some other combination with a higher H 2 escape flux, much closer to its limiting value, at the expense of a slightly lower CH 4 escape rate. Nonthermal escape processes are not required to account for the loss rates of CH 4 and H 2, inferred by the Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements [Yelle, R.V., Borggren, N., de la Haye, V., Kasprzak, W.T., Niemann, H.B., Müller-Wodarg, I., Waite Jr., J.H., 2006. Icarus 182, 567-576].

  7. On the Drag Effect of a Refuelling Pellet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Tinghong; Michelsen, Poul

    1981-01-01

    A refueling pellet is subjected mainly to two kinds of drags: (1) inertial drag caused by the motion of the pellet relative to the surrounding plasma, and (2) ablation drag caused by an uneven ablation rate of the front and the rear surface of the pellet in an inhomogeneous plasma. Computational ...... results showed that for reasonable combinations of pellet size and injection speed, the drag effect is hardly detectable for plasma conditions prevailing in current large tokamaks....

  8. How to fake hydrodynamic signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romatschke, Paul [Department of Physics, 390 UCB, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States); Center for Theory of Quantum Matter, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Flow signatures in experimental data from relativistic ion collisions, are usually interpreted as a fingerprint of the presence of a hydrodynamic phase during the evolution of these systems. I review some theoretical ideas to ‘fake’ this hydrodynamic behavior in p+A and A+A collisions. I find that transverse flow and femtoscopic measurements can easily be forged through non-hydrodynamic evolution, while large elliptic flow requires some non-vanishing interactions in the hot phase.

  9. Modeling hydrodynamic cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P.S.; Pandit, A.B. [Mumbai Univ. (India). Chemical Engineering Div.

    1999-12-01

    Cavitation as a source and method of energy input for chemical processing is increasingly studied due to its ability to generate localized high temperatures and pressures under nearly ambient conditions. Compared to cavitation generated by ultrasound, hydrodynamic cavitation has been proved to be a very energy-efficient alternative. A simple and unified model has been developed to study the cavitation phenomena in hydraulic systems with emphasis on the venturi tube and high-speed homogenizer. The model has been found to be satisfactory in explaining the effect of operating variables and equipment geometry on two different modes of cavitation generation qualitatively and in some cases quantitatively. (orig.)

  10. Hydrodynamics of Ship Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslin, John P.; Andersen, Poul

    This book deals with flows over propellers operating behind ships, and the hydrodynamic forces and moments which the propeller generates on the shaft and on the ship hull.The first part of the text is devoted to fundamentals of the flow about hydrofoil sections (with and without cavitation...... of an intermittently cavitating propeller in a wake and the pressures and forces it exerts on the shaft and on the ship hull is examined. A final chapter discusses the optimization of efficiency of compound propulsors. The authors have taken care to clearly describe physical concepts and mathematical steps. Appendices...

  11. Foundations of radiation hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mihalas, Dimitri

    1999-01-01

    Radiation hydrodynamics is a broad subject that cuts across many disciplines in physics and astronomy: fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, kinetic theory, and radiative transfer, among others. The theory developed in this book by two specialists in the field can be applied to the study of such diverse astrophysical phenomena as stellar winds, supernova explosions, and the initial phases of cosmic expansion, as well as the physics of laser fusion and reentry vehicles. As such, it provides students with the basic tools for research on radiating flows.Largely self-contained,

  12. Nanoscale hydrodynamics near solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Diego; de la Torre, J. A.; Duque-Zumajo, D.; Español, Pep; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Chejne, Farid

    2018-02-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) is a successful and well-established theory for the study of the structure of simple and complex fluids at equilibrium. The theory has been generalized to dynamical situations when the underlying dynamics is diffusive as in, for example, colloidal systems. However, there is no such a clear foundation for Dynamic DFT (DDFT) for the case of simple fluids in contact with solid walls. In this work, we derive DDFT for simple fluids by including not only the mass density field but also the momentum density field of the fluid. The standard projection operator method based on the Kawasaki-Gunton operator is used for deriving the equations for the average value of these fields. The solid is described as featureless under the assumption that all the internal degrees of freedom of the solid relax much faster than those of the fluid (solid elasticity is irrelevant). The fluid moves according to a set of non-local hydrodynamic equations that include explicitly the forces due to the solid. These forces are of two types, reversible forces emerging from the free energy density functional, and accounting for impenetrability of the solid, and irreversible forces that involve the velocity of both the fluid and the solid. These forces are localized in the vicinity of the solid surface. The resulting hydrodynamic equations should allow one to study dynamical regimes of simple fluids in contact with solid objects in isothermal situations.

  13. Anisotropic nonequilibrium hydrodynamic attractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Michael; Noronha, Jorge; Denicol, Gabriel S.

    2018-02-01

    We determine the dynamical attractors associated with anisotropic hydrodynamics (aHydro) and the DNMR equations for a 0 +1 d conformal system using kinetic theory in the relaxation time approximation. We compare our results to the nonequilibrium attractor obtained from the exact solution of the 0 +1 d conformal Boltzmann equation, the Navier-Stokes theory, and the second-order Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory. We demonstrate that the aHydro attractor equation resums an infinite number of terms in the inverse Reynolds number. The resulting resummed aHydro attractor possesses a positive longitudinal-to-transverse pressure ratio and is virtually indistinguishable from the exact attractor. This suggests that an optimized hydrodynamic treatment of kinetic theory involves a resummation not only in gradients (Knudsen number) but also in the inverse Reynolds number. We also demonstrate that the DNMR result provides a better approximation of the exact kinetic theory attractor than the Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory. Finally, we introduce a new method for obtaining approximate aHydro equations which relies solely on an expansion in the inverse Reynolds number. We then carry this expansion out to the third order, and compare these third-order results to the exact kinetic theory solution.

  14. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  15. Drag crisis moderation by thin air layers sustained on superhydrophobic spheres falling in water

    KAUST Repository

    Jetly, Aditya

    2018-01-22

    We investigate the effect of thin air layers naturally sustained on superhydrophobic surfaces on the terminal velocity and drag force of metallic spheres free falling in water. The surface of 20 mm to 60 mm steel or tungsten-carbide spheres is rendered superhydrophobic by a simple coating process that uses commercially available hydrophobic agent. By comparing the free fall of unmodified spheres and superhydrophobic spheres in a 2.5 meters tall water tank, It is demonstrated that even a very thin air layer (~ 1 – 2 μm) that covers the freshly dipped superhydrophobic sphere, can reduce the drag force on the spheres by up to 80 %, at Reynolds numbers 105 - 3×105 , owing to an early drag crisis transition. This study complements prior investigations on the drag reduction efficiency of model gas layers sustained on heated metal spheres falling in liquid by the Leidenfrost effect. The drag reduction effects are expected to have significant implication for the development of sustainable air-layer-based energy saving technologies.

  16. Drag and diffusion of heavy quarks in a hot and anisotropic QCD medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.K.; Patra, Binoy Krishna

    2017-01-01

    The propagation of heavy quarks (HQs) in a medium was quite often modeled by the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation. Since the transport coefficients, related to drag and diffusion processes, are the main ingredients in the FP equation, the evolution of HQs is thus effectively controlled by them. At the initial stage of the relativistic heavy-ion collisions, asymptotic weak-coupling causes the free-streaming motions of partons in the beam direction and the expansions in transverse directions are almost frozen, hence an anisotropy in the momentum space sets in. Since HQs are too produced in the same time, the study of the effect of momentum anisotropy on the drag and diffusion coefficients becomes highly desirable. In this article we have thus studied the drag and diffusion of HQs in the anisotropic medium and found that the presence of the anisotropy reduces both drag and diffusion coefficients. In addition, the anisotropy introduces an angular dependence to both the drag and diffusion coefficients, as a result both coefficients get more inflated when the partons are moving transversely to the direction of anisotropy than when moving parallel to the direction of anisotropy. (orig.)

  17. Drag and diffusion of heavy quarks in a hot and anisotropic QCD medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, P.K.; Patra, Binoy Krishna [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Department of Physics, Roorkee (India)

    2017-06-15

    The propagation of heavy quarks (HQs) in a medium was quite often modeled by the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation. Since the transport coefficients, related to drag and diffusion processes, are the main ingredients in the FP equation, the evolution of HQs is thus effectively controlled by them. At the initial stage of the relativistic heavy-ion collisions, asymptotic weak-coupling causes the free-streaming motions of partons in the beam direction and the expansions in transverse directions are almost frozen, hence an anisotropy in the momentum space sets in. Since HQs are too produced in the same time, the study of the effect of momentum anisotropy on the drag and diffusion coefficients becomes highly desirable. In this article we have thus studied the drag and diffusion of HQs in the anisotropic medium and found that the presence of the anisotropy reduces both drag and diffusion coefficients. In addition, the anisotropy introduces an angular dependence to both the drag and diffusion coefficients, as a result both coefficients get more inflated when the partons are moving transversely to the direction of anisotropy than when moving parallel to the direction of anisotropy. (orig.)

  18. Hydrodynamic Forces on Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited HYDRODYNAMIC ...Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HYDRODYNAMIC FORCES ON COMPOSITE STRUCTURES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Scott C. Millhouse 7. PERFORMING...angles yields different free surface effects including vortices and the onset of cavitation . 14. SUBJECT TERMS Fluid structure interaction, FSI, finite

  19. Black brane entropy and hydrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booth, I.; Heller, M.P.; Spaliński, M.

    2010-01-01

    A generalization of entropy to near-equilibrium phenomena is provided by the notion of a hydrodynamic entropy current. Recent advances in holography have lead to the formulation of fluid-gravity duality, a remarkable connection between the hydrodynamics of certain strongly coupled media and dynamics

  20. Black brane entropy and hydrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booth, I.; Heller, M.P.; Spaliński, M.

    2011-01-01

    A generalization of entropy to near-equilibrium phenomena is provided by the notion of a hydrodynamic entropy current. Recent advances in holography have lead to the formulation of fluid-gravity duality, a remarkable connection between the hydrodynamics of certain strongly coupled media and dynamics

  1. AERODYNAMICS ASSESSMENT USING CFD FOR A LOW DRAG SHELL ECO-MARATHON CAR

    OpenAIRE

    Abo-Serie, E.

    2017-01-01

    Having a small car running with low power can be achieved byreducing the aerodynamics drag, rolling resistance and mechanical frictionsbetween the moving parts. The Shell Eco-Marathon competition held around theworld with events in Europe, USA and Asia shows every year new techniques andideas to reduce the power needed to drive the car. The record of over 3400 kmon the equivalent of a single litre of fuel is an indication of how car can runefficiently. The problem with these low drag cars is ...

  2. ISM-induced erosion and gas-dynamical drag in the Oort Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    The model presently used to examine the physical interactions between the ISM and the Oort Cloud can account for sputtering, sticking, and grain-impact erosion, as well as gas drag, by envisioning the ISM as a multiphase medium with distinct atomic and molecular cloud-phase regimes and coronal and warm/ambient gas-phase regimes. Erosion, which reduces the effectiveness of the thermal and radiation-damage processes acting on cometary surfaces in the Oort cloud, is found to be the dominant ISM interaction; ISM drag effects were found to efficiently remove submicron particles from the Cloud. 67 refs

  3. ISM-induced erosion and gas-dynamical drag in the Oort Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, S. Alan

    1990-01-01

    The model presently used to examine the physical interactions between the ISM and the Oort Cloud can account for sputtering, sticking, and grain-impact erosion, as well as gas drag, by envisioning the ISM as a multiphase medium with distinct atomic and molecular cloud-phase regimes and coronal and warm/ambient gas-phase regimes. Erosion, which reduces the effectiveness of the thermal and radiation-damage processes acting on cometary surfaces in the Oort cloud, is found to be the dominant ISM interaction; ISM drag effects were found to efficiently remove submicron particles from the Cloud.

  4. A hydrodynamic formalism for Brownian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, E.; Rosales, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    A formal hydrodynamic approach to Brownian motion is presented and the corresponding equations are derived. Hydrodynamic quantities are expressed in terms of the physical variables characterizing the Brownian systems. Contact is made with the hydrodynamic model of Quantum Mechanics. (author)

  5. Simulating Electrophoresis with Discrete Charge and Drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowitz, Aaron J.; Witten, Thomas A.

    A charged asymmetric rigid cluster of colloidal particles in saline solution can respond in exotic ways to an electric field: it may spin or move transversely. These distinctive motions arise from the drag force of the neutralizing countercharge surrounding the cluster. Because of this drag, calculating the motion of arbitrary asymmetric objects with nonuniform charge is impractical by conventional methods. Here we present a new method of simulating electrophoresis, in which we replace the continuous object and the surrounding countercharge with discrete point-draggers, called Stokeslets. The balance of forces imposes a linear, self-consistent relation among the drag and Coulomb forces on the Stokeslets, which allows us to easily determine the object's motion via matrix inversion. By explicitly enforcing charge+countercharge neutrality, the simulation recovers the distinctive features of electrophoretic motion to few-percent accuracy using as few as 1000 Stokeslets. In particular, for uniformly charged objects, we observe the characteristic Smoluchowski independence of mobility on object size and shape. We then discuss electrophoretic motion of asymmetric objects, where our simulation method is particularly advantageous. This work is supported by a Grant from the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation.

  6. Foundations of radiation hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalas, D.; Mihalas, B. W.

    This book is the result of an attempt, over the past few years, to gather the basic tools required to do research on radiating flows in astrophysics. The microphysics of gases is discussed, taking into account the equation of state of a perfect gas, the first and second law of thermodynamics, the thermal properties of a perfect gas, the distribution function and Boltzmann's equation, the collision integral, the Maxwellian velocity distribution, Boltzmann's H-theorem, the time of relaxation, and aspects of classical statistical mechanics. Other subjects explored are related to the dynamics of ideal fluids, the dynamics of viscous and heat-conducting fluids, relativistic fluid flow, waves, shocks, winds, radiation and radiative transfer, the equations of radiation hydrodynamics, and radiating flows. Attention is given to small-amplitude disturbances, nonlinear flows, the interaction of radiation and matter, the solution of the transfer equation, acoustic waves, acoustic-gravity waves, basic concepts of special relativity, and equations of motion and energy.

  7. From TDHF to hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    The Time-Dependent Hartree-Fock theory provides a microscopic approach to the scattering of heavy ions. Fundamental in this theory is a mean-(one-body) field. The calculation of this field from a two-body effective interaction makes the theory microscopic. Many-body effects are included by the Brueckner definition of this interaction; the reaction-matrix. In excited media it is in general complex allowing for decays. The imaginary part relates directly to the collision-term in a transport equation. We treat this term by the time-relaxation-method. This implies an extension of the TDHF-equation to include two-body collisions. Hydrodynamic equations are derived from this new equation. The solution of the two equations agree quantitatively for short-relaxation-times. Relaxation-times are calculated as a function of temperature. (orig.)

  8. Hydrodynamics of Peristaltic Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassiadis, Athanasios; Hart, Douglas

    2014-11-01

    A curious class of animals called salps live in marine environments and self-propel by ejecting vortex rings much like jellyfish and squid. However, unlike other jetting creatures that siphon and eject water from one side of their body, salps produce vortex rings by pumping water through siphons on opposite ends of their hollow cylindrical bodies. In the simplest cases, it seems like some species of salp can successfully move by contracting just two siphons connected by an elastic body. When thought of as a chain of timed contractions, salp propulsion is reminiscent of peristaltic pumping applied to marine locomotion. Inspired by salps, we investigate the hydrodynamics of peristaltic propulsion, focusing on the scaling relationships that determine flow rate, thrust production, and energy usage in a model system. We discuss possible actuation methods for a model peristaltic vehicle, considering both the material and geometrical requirements for such a system.

  9. Hydrodynamic effects on coalescence.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimiduk, Thomas G.; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Grillet, Anne Mary; Baer, Thomas A.; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Loewenberg, Michael (Yale University, New Haven, CT); Gorby, Allen D.; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2006-10-01

    The goal of this project was to design, build and test novel diagnostics to probe the effect of hydrodynamic forces on coalescence dynamics. Our investigation focused on how a drop coalesces onto a flat surface which is analogous to two drops coalescing, but more amenable to precise experimental measurements. We designed and built a flow cell to create an axisymmetric compression flow which brings a drop onto a flat surface. A computer-controlled system manipulates the flow to steer the drop and maintain a symmetric flow. Particle image velocimetry was performed to confirm that the control system was delivering a well conditioned flow. To examine the dynamics of the coalescence, we implemented an interferometry capability to measure the drainage of the thin film between the drop and the surface during the coalescence process. A semi-automated analysis routine was developed which converts the dynamic interferogram series into drop shape evolution data.

  10. Experimental Studies on the Physics and Technology of Polymer Drag-Reduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanratty, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    .... Companion studies were carried out in the polymer laboratory of Anthony J. McHugh so that the performance of drag-reducing polymer solutions can be related to their rheological and rheo-optical properties in simple non-turbulent flows...

  11. A Bubble-Based Drag Model at the Local-Grid Level for Eulerian Simulation of Bubbling Fluidized Beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Hong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A bubble-based drag model at the local-grid level is proposed to simulate gas-solid flows in bubbling fluidized beds of Geldart A particles. In this model, five balance equations are derived from the mass and the momentum conservation. This set of equations along with necessary correlations for bubble diameter and voidage of emulsion phase is solved to obtain seven local structural parameters (uge, upe, εe, δb, ub, db, and ab which describe heterogeneous flows of bubbling fluidized beds. The modified drag coefficient obtained from the above-mentioned structural parameters is then incorporated into the two-fluid model to simulate the hydrodynamics of Geldart A particles in a lab-scale bubbling fluidized bed. The comparison between experimental and simulation results for the axial and radial solids concentration profiles is promising.

  12. Drag reduction of a rapid vehicle in supercavitating flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercavitation is one of the most attractive technologies to achieve high speed for underwater vehicles. However, the multiphase flow with high-speed around the supercavitating vehicle (SCV is difficult to simulate accurately. In this paper, we use modified the turbulent viscosity formula in the Standard K-Epsilon (SKE turbulent model to simulate the supercavitating flow. The numerical results of flow over several typical cavitators are in agreement with the experimental data and theoretical prediction. In the last part, a flying SCV was studied by unsteady numerical simulation. The selected computation setup corresponds to an outdoor supercavitating experiment. Only very limited experimental data was recorded due to the difficulties under the circumstance of high-speed underwater condition. However, the numerical simulation recovers the whole scenario, the results are qualitatively reasonable by comparing to the experimental observations. The drag reduction capacity of supercavitation is evaluated by comparing with a moving vehicle launching at the same speed but without supercavitation. The results show that the supercavitation reduces the drag of the vehicle dramatically.

  13. Drag reduction using wrinkled surfaces in high Reynolds number laminar boundary layer flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raayai-Ardakani, Shabnam; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2017-09-01

    Inspired by the design of the ribbed structure of shark skin, passive drag reduction methods using stream-wise riblet surfaces have previously been developed and tested over a wide range of flow conditions. Such textures aligned in the flow direction have been shown to be able to reduce skin friction drag by 4%-8%. Here, we explore the effects of periodic sinusoidal riblet surfaces aligned in the flow direction (also known as a "wrinkled" texture) on the evolution of a laminar boundary layer flow. Using numerical analysis with the open source Computational Fluid Dynamics solver OpenFOAM, boundary layer flow over sinusoidal wrinkled plates with a range of wavelength to plate length ratios ( λ / L ), aspect ratios ( 2 A / λ ), and inlet velocities are examined. It is shown that in the laminar boundary layer regime, the riblets are able to retard the viscous flow inside the grooves creating a cushion of stagnant fluid that the high-speed fluid above can partially slide over, thus reducing the shear stress inside the grooves and the total integrated viscous drag force on the plate. Additionally, we explore how the boundary layer thickness, local average shear stress distribution, and total drag force on the wrinkled plate vary with the aspect ratio of the riblets as well as the length of the plate. We show that riblets with an aspect ratio of close to unity lead to the highest reduction in the total drag, and that because of the interplay between the local stress distribution on the plate and stream-wise evolution of the boundary layer the plate has to exceed a critical length to give a net decrease in the total drag force.

  14. Hydrodynamic cavitation for sonochemical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moholkar, V S; Kumar, P S; Pandit, A B

    1999-03-01

    A comparative study of hydrodynamic and acoustic cavitation has been made on the basis of numerical solutions of the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The bubble/cavity behaviour has been studied under both acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation conditions. The effect of varying pressure fields on the collapse of the cavity (sinusoidal for acoustic and linear for hydrodynamic) and also on the latter's dynamic behaviour has been studied. The variations of parameters such as initial cavity size, intensity of the acoustic field and irradiation frequency in the case of acoustic cavitation, and initial cavity size, final recovery pressure and time for pressure recovery in the case of hydrodynamic cavitation, have been found to have significant effects on cavity/bubble dynamics. The simulations reveal that the bubble/cavity collapsing behaviour in the case of hydrodynamic cavitation is accompanied by a large number of pressure pulses of relatively smaller magnitude, compared with just one or two pulses under acoustic cavitation. It has been shown that hydrodynamic cavitation offers greater control over operating parameters and the resultant cavitation intensity. Finally, a brief summary of the experimental results on the oxidation of aqueous KI solution with a hydrodynamic cavitation set-up is given which supports the conclusion of this numerical study. The methodology presented allows one to manipulate and optimise of specific process, either physical or chemical.

  15. Recent development of hydrodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Tetsufumi

    2014-09-01

    In this talk, I give an overview of recent development in hydrodynamic modeling of high-energy nuclear collisions. First, I briefly discuss about current situation of hydrodynamic modeling by showing results from the integrated dynamical approach in which Monte-Carlo calculation of initial conditions, quark-gluon fluid dynamics and hadronic cascading are combined. In particular, I focus on rescattering effects of strange hadrons on final observables. Next I highlight three topics in recent development in hydrodynamic modeling. These include (1) medium response to jet propagation in di-jet asymmetric events, (2) causal hydrodynamic fluctuation and its application to Bjorken expansion and (3) chiral magnetic wave from anomalous hydrodynamic simulations. (1) Recent CMS data suggest the existence of QGP response to propagation of jets. To investigate this phenomenon, we solve hydrodynamic equations with source term which exhibits deposition of energy and momentum from jets. We find a large number of low momentum particles are emitted at large angle from jet axis. This gives a novel interpretation of the CMS data. (2) It has been claimed that a matter created even in p-p/p-A collisions may behave like a fluid. However, fluctuation effects would be important in such a small system. We formulate relativistic fluctuating hydrodynamics and apply it to Bjorken expansion. We found the final multiplicity fluctuates around the mean value even if initial condition is fixed. This effect is relatively important in peripheral A-A collisions and p-p/p-A collisions. (3) Anomalous transport of the quark-gluon fluid is predicted when extremely high magnetic field is applied. We investigate this possibility by solving anomalous hydrodynamic equations. We found the difference of the elliptic flow parameter between positive and negative particles appears due to the chiral magnetic wave. Finally, I provide some personal perspective of hydrodynamic modeling of high energy nuclear collisions

  16. Pengaruh variasi jarak antar ring berbentuk segi empat pada permukaan silinder terhadap koefisien drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Putu Gede Gunawan Tista

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Dalam aplikasi engineering banyak ditemukan peralatan yang menggunakan silinder seperti tiang penyangga jembatan,cerobong asap, tiang pancang pengeboran minyak lepas pantai dan sebagainya. Peralatan-peralatan tersebutmengalami hembusan udara setiap saat, yang menyebabkan kekuatan konstruksinya berkurang, akibat adanya drag.Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh variasi jarak antar ring berbentuk segi empat padapermukaan silinder terhadap koefisien drag. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada wind tunnel (lorong udara yang terdiri dariblower (untuk menghembuskan udara, pipa pitot, U tube manometer, inclined manometer, neraca digital, silinderdengan ring segi empat. Pada penelitian ini, dilakukan dengan memvariasikan Jarak antar ring yaitu 30 mm, 40 mm, 50mm, 60 mm dan 70 mm. Silinder diletakkan vertikal dalam wind tunnel dengan diameter D = 60 mm. Gaya dragdiperoleh dengan menggunakan neraca digital yang mencatat besarnya massa, kemudian dikalikan dengan percepatangravitasi. Distribusi tekanan diperoleh dengan mengukur tekanan pada permukaan silinder menggunakan inclinedmanometer pada 36 titik dengan interval 10o. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan semakin besar jarak antar ring koefisiendrag semakin besar. Koefisien Drag terendah terjadi pada jarak antar ring L = 30 mm atau L/D = 0.50, besarnya CD =0,606352. Besarnya penurunan drag dibandingkan tanpa ring adalah 29,3 %.Kata kunci: Silinder, ring segi empat, jarak antar ring, koefisien drag Abstract: In many engineering applications there are many types of equipment that use cylinders, such as smoke chimney, bridgesupport column, etc. The equipment is undergoing drag due to the airflow that flows through it. The existence of the dragwill reduce its lifetime. One of the efforts to reduce drag is to create a rectangular ring on the surface of the cylinder. Thepurpose of this study was to determine the effect of variations in the distance between the ring of a rectangular ring onthe

  17. SPECIAL RELATIVISTIC HYDRODYNAMICS WITH GRAVITATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jai-chan [Department of Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Hyerim [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-20

    Special relativistic hydrodynamics with weak gravity has hitherto been unknown in the literature. Whether such an asymmetric combination is possible has been unclear. Here, the hydrodynamic equations with Poisson-type gravity, considering fully relativistic velocity and pressure under the weak gravity and the action-at-a-distance limit, are consistently derived from Einstein’s theory of general relativity. An analysis is made in the maximal slicing, where the Poisson’s equation becomes much simpler than our previous study in the zero-shear gauge. Also presented is the hydrodynamic equations in the first post-Newtonian approximation, now under the general hypersurface condition. Our formulation includes the anisotropic stress.

  18. Similarity flows in relativistic hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, J.P.; Ollitrault, J.Y.

    1986-01-01

    In ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, one expects in particular to observe a deconfinement transition leading to a formation of quark gluon plasma. In the framework of the hydrodynamic model, experimental signatures of such a plasma may be looked for as observable consequences of a first order transition on the evolution of the system. In most of the possible scenario, the phase transition is accompanied with discontinuities in the hydrodynamic flow, such as shock waves. The method presented in this paper has been developed to treat without too much numerical effort such discontinuous flow. It relies heavily on the use of similarity solutions of the hydrodynamic equations

  19. Lotic Water Hydrodynamic Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judi, David Ryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tasseff, Byron Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-23

    Water-related natural disasters, for example, floods and droughts, are among the most frequent and costly natural hazards, both socially and economically. Many of these floods are a result of excess rainfall collecting in streams and rivers, and subsequently overtopping banks and flowing overland into urban environments. Floods can cause physical damage to critical infrastructure and present health risks through the spread of waterborne diseases. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has developed Lotic, a state-of-the-art surface water hydrodynamic model, to simulate propagation of flood waves originating from a variety of events. Lotic is a two-dimensional (2D) flood model that has been used primarily for simulations in which overland water flows are characterized by movement in two dimensions, such as flood waves expected from rainfall-runoff events, storm surge, and tsunamis. In 2013, LANL developers enhanced Lotic through several development efforts. These developments included enhancements to the 2D simulation engine, including numerical formulation, computational efficiency developments, and visualization. Stakeholders can use simulation results to estimate infrastructure damage and cascading consequences within other sets of infrastructure, as well as to inform the development of flood mitigation strategies.

  20. Advanced in Macrostatistical Hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, A.L.; Tetlow, N.; Abbott, J.R.; Mondy, L.S.; Brenner, H.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of research that focuses on slow flows of suspensions in which colloidal and inertial effects are negligibly small (Macrostatistical Hydrodynamics). First, we describe nuclear magnetic resonance imaging experiments to quantitatively measure particle migration occurring in concentrated suspensions undergoing a flow with a nonuniform shear rate. These experiments address the issue of how the flow field affects the microstructure of suspensions. In order to understand the local viscosity in a suspension with such a flow-induced, spatially varying concentration, one must know how the viscosity of a homogeneous suspension depends on such variables as solids concentration and particle orientation. We suggest the technique of falling ball viscometry, using small balls, as a method to determine the effective viscosity of a suspension without affecting the original microstructure significantly. We also describe data from experiments in which the detailed fluctuations of a falling ball's velocity indicate the noncontinuum nature of the suspension and may lead to more insights into the effects of suspension microstructure on macroscopic properties. Finally, we briefly describe other experiments that can be performed in quiescent suspensions (in contrast to the use of conventional shear rotational viscometers) in order to learn more about the microstructure and boundary effects in concentrated suspensions

  1. Engineering Hydrodynamic AUV Hulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.

    2016-12-01

    AUV stands for autonomous underwater vehicle. AUVs are used in oceanography and are similar to gliders. MBARIs AUVs as well as other AUVs map the ocean floor which is very important. They also measure physical characteristics of the water, such as temperature and salinity. My science fair project for 4th grade was a STEM activity in which I built and tested 3 different AUV bodies. I wanted to find out which design was the most hydrodynamic. I tested three different lengths of AUV hulls to see which AUV would glide the farthest. The first was 6 inches. The second was 12 inches and the third was 18 inches. I used clay for the nosecone and cut a ruler into two and made it the fin. Each AUV used the same nosecone and fin. I tested all three designs in a pool. I used biomimicry to create my hypothesis. When I was researching I found that long slim animals swim fastest. So, my hypothesis is the longer AUV will glide farthest. In the end I was right. The longer AUV did glide the farthest.

  2. Hydrodynamics of electrons in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Andrew; Chung Fong, Kin

    2018-02-01

    Generic interacting many-body quantum systems are believed to behave as classical fluids on long time and length scales. Due to rapid progress in growing exceptionally pure crystals, we are now able to experimentally observe this collective motion of electrons in solid-state systems, including graphene. We present a review of recent progress in understanding the hydrodynamic limit of electronic motion in graphene, written for physicists from diverse communities. We begin by discussing the ‘phase diagram’ of graphene, and the inevitable presence of impurities and phonons in experimental systems. We derive hydrodynamics, both from a phenomenological perspective and using kinetic theory. We then describe how hydrodynamic electron flow is visible in electronic transport measurements. Although we focus on graphene in this review, the broader framework naturally generalizes to other materials. We assume only basic knowledge of condensed matter physics, and no prior knowledge of hydrodynamics.

  3. Analytic approaches to relativistic hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatta, Yoshitaka

    2016-12-15

    I summarize our recent work towards finding and utilizing analytic solutions of relativistic hydrodynamic. In the first part I discuss various exact solutions of the second-order conformal hydrodynamics. In the second part I compute flow harmonics v{sub n} analytically using the anisotropically deformed Gubser flow and discuss its dependence on n, p{sub T}, viscosity, the chemical potential and the charge.

  4. Hydrodynamic aspects of flotation separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peleka Efrosyni N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flotation separation is mainly used for removing particulates from aqueous dispersions. It is widely used for ore beneficiation and recovering valuable materials. This paper reviews the hydrodynamics of flotation separations and comments on selected recent publications. Units are distinguished as cells of ideal and non-ideal flow. A brief introduction to hydrodynamics is included to explain an original study of the hybrid flotation-microfiltration cell, effective for heavy metal ion removal.

  5. An introduction to astrophysical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, Steven N

    1992-01-01

    This book is an introduction to astrophysical hydrodynamics for both astronomy and physics students. It provides a comprehensive and unified view of the general problems associated with fluids in a cosmic context, with a discussion of fluid dynamics and plasma physics. It is the only book on hydrodynamics that addresses the astrophysical context. Researchers and students will find this work to be an exceptional reference. Contents include chapters on irrotational and rotational flows, turbulence, magnetohydrodynamics, and instabilities.

  6. Ocean's response to Hurricane Frances and its implications for drag coefficient parameterization at high wind speeds

    KAUST Repository

    Zedler, S. E.

    2009-04-25

    The drag coefficient parameterization of wind stress is investigated for tropical storm conditions using model sensitivity studies. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Ocean General Circulation Model was run in a regional setting with realistic stratification and forcing fields representing Hurricane Frances, which in early September 2004 passed east of the Caribbean Leeward Island chain. The model was forced with a NOAA-HWIND wind speed product after converting it to wind stress using four different drag coefficient parameterizations. Respective model results were tested against in situ measurements of temperature profiles and velocity, available from an array of 22 surface drifters and 12 subsurface floats. Changing the drag coefficient parameterization from one that saturated at a value of 2.3 × 10 -3 to a constant drag coefficient of 1.2 × 10-3 reduced the standard deviation difference between the simulated minus the measured sea surface temperature change from 0.8°C to 0.3°C. Additionally, the standard deviation in the difference between simulated minus measured high pass filtered 15-m current speed reduced from 15 cm/s to 5 cm/s. The maximum difference in sea surface temperature response when two different turbulent mixing parameterizations were implemented was 0.3°C, i.e., only 11% of the maximum change of sea surface temperature caused by the storm. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Drag Measurements over Embedded Cavities in a Low Reynolds Number Couette Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmer, Caleb; Lang, Amy; Jones, Robert

    2010-11-01

    Recent research has revealed that thin-walled, embedded cavities in low Reynolds number flow have the potential to reduce the net viscous drag force acting on the surface. This reduction is due to the formation of embedded vortices allowing the outer flow to pass over the surface via a roller bearing effect. It is also hypothesized that the scales found on butterfly wings may act in a similar manner to cause a net increase in flying efficiency. In this experimental study, rectangular embedded cavities were designed as a means of successfully reducing the net drag across surfaces in a low Reynolds number flow. A Couette flow was generated via a rotating conveyor belt immersed in a tank of high viscosity mineral oil above which the plates with embedded cavities were placed. Drag induced on the plate models was measured using a force gauge and compared directly to measurements acquired over a flat plate. Various cavity aspect ratios and gap heights were tested in order to determine the conditions under which the greatest drag reductions occurred.

  8. Drag Reduction of an Airfoil Using Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chiyu; Sun, Anzhu; Marcus, Philip

    2017-11-01

    We reduced the drag of a 2D airfoil by starting with a NACA-0012 airfoil and used deep learning methods. We created a database which consists of simulations of 2D external flow over randomly generated shapes. We then developed a machine learning framework for external flow field inference given input shapes. Past work which utilized machine learning in Computational Fluid Dynamics focused on estimations of specific flow parameters, but this work is novel in the inference of entire flow fields. We further showed that learned flow patterns are transferable to cases that share certain similarities. This study illustrates the prospects of deeper integration of data-based modeling into current CFD simulation frameworks for faster flow inference and more accurate flow modeling.

  9. Engineering drag currents in Coulomb coupled quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jong Soo; Sánchez, David; López, Rosa

    2018-02-01

    The Coulomb drag phenomenon in a Coulomb-coupled double quantum dot system is revisited with a simple model that highlights the importance of simultaneous tunneling of electrons. Previously, cotunneling effects on the drag current in mesoscopic setups have been reported both theoretically and experimentally. However, in both cases the sequential tunneling contribution to the drag current was always present unless the drag level position were too far away from resonance. Here, we consider the case of very large Coulomb interaction between the dots, whereby the drag current needs to be assisted by cotunneling events. As a consequence, a quantum coherent drag effect takes place. Further, we demonstrate that by properly engineering the tunneling probabilities using band tailoring it is possible to control the sign of the drag and drive currents, allowing them to flow in parallel or antiparallel directions. We also show that the drag current can be manipulated by varying the drag gate potential and is thus governed by electron- or hole-like transport.

  10. On the origin of the drag force on golf balls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaras, Elias; Beratlis, Nikolaos; Squires, Kyle

    2017-11-01

    It is well establised that dimples accelerate the drag-crisis on a sphere. The result of the early drag-crisis is a reduction of the drag coefficient by more than a factor of two when compared to a smooth sphere at the same Reynolds number. However, when the drag coefficients for smooth and dimpled spheres in the supercritical regime are compared, the latter is higher by a factor of two to three. To understand the origin of this behavior we conducted direct numerical simulations of the flow around a dimpled sphere, which is similar to commercially available golf balls, in the supercritical regime. By comparing the results to those for a smooth sphere it is found that dimples, although effective in accelerating the drag crisis, impose a local drag-penalty, which contributes significantly to the overall drag force. This finding challenges the broadly accepted view, that the dimples only indirectly affect the drag force on a golf ball by manipulating the structure of the turbulent boundary layer near the wall and consequently affect global separation. Within this view, typically the penalty on the drag force imposed by the dimples is assumed to be small and coming primarily from skin friction. The direct numerical simulations we will report reveal a very different picture.

  11. Drag reduction and thrust generation by tangential surface motion in flow past a cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuerui; Pearson, Emily

    2018-03-01

    Sensitivity of drag to tangential surface motion is calculated in flow past a circular cylinder in both two- and three-dimensional conditions at Reynolds number Re ≤ 1000 . The magnitude of the sensitivity maximises in the region slightly upstream of the separation points where the contour lines of spanwise vorticity are normal to the cylinder surface. A control to reduce drag can be obtained by (negatively) scaling the sensitivity. The high correlation of sensitivities of controlled and uncontrolled flow indicates that the scaled sensitivity is a good approximation of the nonlinear optimal control. It is validated through direct numerical simulations that the linear range of the steady control is much higher than the unsteady control, which synchronises the vortex shedding and induces lock-in effects. The steady control injects angular momentum into the separating boundary layer, stabilises the flow and increases the base pressure significantly. At Re=100 , when the maximum tangential motion reaches 50% of the free-stream velocity, the vortex shedding, boundary-layer separation and recirculation bubbles are eliminated and 32% of the drag is reduced. When the maximum tangential motion reaches 2.5 times of the free-stream velocity, thrust is generated and the power savings ratio, defined as the ratio of the reduced drag power to the control input power, reaches 19.6. The mechanism of drag reduction is attributed to the change of the radial gradient of spanwise vorticity (partial r \\hat{ζ } ) and the subsequent accelerated pressure recovery from the uncontrolled separation points to the rear stagnation point.

  12. Drag Reduction Through Distributed Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Alex M.; Bevirt, JoeBen; Moore, Mark D.; Fredericks, William J.; Borer, Nicholas K.

    2014-01-01

    One promising application of recent advances in electric aircraft propulsion technologies is a blown wing realized through the placement of a number of electric motors driving individual tractor propellers spaced along each wing. This configuration increases the maximum lift coefficient by providing substantially increased dynamic pressure across the wing at low speeds. This allows for a wing sized near the ideal area for maximum range at cruise conditions, imparting the cruise drag and ride quality benefits of this smaller wing size without decreasing takeoff and landing performance. A reference four-seat general aviation aircraft was chosen as an exemplary application case. Idealized momentum theory relations were derived to investigate tradeoffs in various design variables. Navier-Stokes aeropropulsive simulations were performed with various wing and propeller configurations at takeoff and landing conditions to provide insight into the effect of different wing and propeller designs on the realizable effective maximum lift coefficient. Similar analyses were performed at the cruise condition to ensure that drag targets are attainable. Results indicate that this configuration shows great promise to drastically improve the efficiency of small aircraft.

  13. Effects of Increasing Drag on Conjunction Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigm, Ryan Clayton; McKinley, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis relies heavily on the computation of the Probability of Collision (Pc) and the understanding of the sensitivity of this calculation to the position errors as defined by the covariance. In Low Earth Orbit (LEO), covariance is predominantly driven by perturbations due to atmospheric drag. This paper describes the effects of increasing atmospheric drag through Solar Cycle 24 on Pc calculations. The process of determining these effects is found through analyzing solar flux predictions on Energy Dissipation Rate (EDR), historical relationship between EDR and covariance, and the sensitivity of Pc to covariance. It is discovered that while all LEO satellites will be affected by the increase in solar activity, the relative effect is more significant in the LEO regime around 700 kilometers in altitude compared to 400 kilometers. Furthermore, it is shown that higher Pc values can be expected at larger close approach miss distances. Understanding these counter-intuitive results is important to setting Owner/Operator expectations concerning conjunctions as solar maximum approaches.

  14. Pengaruh Penempatan Penghalang Berbentuk Silinder Pada Posisi Vertikal Dengan Variasi Jarak Horisontal Di Depan Silinder Utama Terhadap Koefisien Drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Putu Gede Gunawan Tista

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the ways to reduce energy consumption on the air plane and the other bluff bodies are by decreasing the drag. Dragis closely related to the flow separation. The earlier separation, then the drag will increase more. Based of the fact the effortto decrease drag is conducted by manipulating the field of fluid flow. Stream manipulation was be done by installingcylindrical obstacle in front of main cylinder. The purpose of this research is to analyze the effect of placement cylindricalobstacle at vertical position in the various horizontal distance in front of main cylinder on drag coefficient . In thisresearch, the experiment was conducted in the wind tunnel, which consisted of blower, pitot pipe, manometer, cylinder pipe,and cylinder rod. The cylindrical obstacle was positioned at vertical (y=14 mm in the various horizontal distanceL/D = 1.41, L/D = 1.56, L/D = 1.72, L/D = 1.88, L/D = 2.03, L/D = 2.19, and L/D = 2.81 by upstream from the maincylinder. Diameter cylinder obstacle was 8 mm.. The Reynolds number based on the main cylinder diameter (D = 42 mmwas Re = 3.42 x 104. The research results showed that the cylinder rod could decrease the drag coefficient of main cylinder.Drag coefficient for cylinder without cylinder rod was 0.167 while the biggest decrease of coefficient of drag with cylindricalobstacle was happened at L/D = 1.72 which was 0,0593. It means that the drag coefficient of main cylinder with cylindricalobstacle was 64.5% lower than the cylinder alone.

  15. Sensitivity analysis of a coupled hydrodynamic-vegetation model using the effectively subsampled quadratures method (ESQM v5.2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Tarandeep S.; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo; Seshadri, Pranay; Ganju, Neil K.; Beudin, Alexis

    2017-12-01

    Coastal hydrodynamics can be greatly affected by the presence of submerged aquatic vegetation. The effect of vegetation has been incorporated into the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system. The vegetation implementation includes the plant-induced three-dimensional drag, in-canopy wave-induced streaming, and the production of turbulent kinetic energy by the presence of vegetation. In this study, we evaluate the sensitivity of the flow and wave dynamics to vegetation parameters using Sobol' indices and a least squares polynomial approach referred to as the Effective Quadratures method. This method reduces the number of simulations needed for evaluating Sobol' indices and provides a robust, practical, and efficient approach for the parameter sensitivity analysis. The evaluation of Sobol' indices shows that kinetic energy, turbulent kinetic energy, and water level changes are affected by plant stem density, height, and, to a lesser degree, diameter. Wave dissipation is mostly dependent on the variation in plant stem density. Performing sensitivity analyses for the vegetation module in COAWST provides guidance to optimize efforts and reduce exploration of parameter space for future observational and modeling work.

  16. Sensitivity analysis of a coupled hydrodynamic-vegetation model using the effectively subsampled quadratures method (ESQM v5.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Kalra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Coastal hydrodynamics can be greatly affected by the presence of submerged aquatic vegetation. The effect of vegetation has been incorporated into the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere–Wave–Sediment Transport (COAWST modeling system. The vegetation implementation includes the plant-induced three-dimensional drag, in-canopy wave-induced streaming, and the production of turbulent kinetic energy by the presence of vegetation. In this study, we evaluate the sensitivity of the flow and wave dynamics to vegetation parameters using Sobol' indices and a least squares polynomial approach referred to as the Effective Quadratures method. This method reduces the number of simulations needed for evaluating Sobol' indices and provides a robust, practical, and efficient approach for the parameter sensitivity analysis. The evaluation of Sobol' indices shows that kinetic energy, turbulent kinetic energy, and water level changes are affected by plant stem density, height, and, to a lesser degree, diameter. Wave dissipation is mostly dependent on the variation in plant stem density. Performing sensitivity analyses for the vegetation module in COAWST provides guidance to optimize efforts and reduce exploration of parameter space for future observational and modeling work.

  17. Hydrodynamic role of longitudinal ridges in a leatherback turtle swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Kyeongtae; Kim, Jooha; Lee, Sang-Im; Choi, Haecheon

    2015-11-01

    The leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), the fastest swimmer and the deepest diver among marine turtles, has five longitudinal ridges on its carapace. These ridges are the most remarkable morphological features distinguished from other marine turtles. To investigate the hydrodynamic role of these ridges in the leatherback turtle swimming, we model a carapace with and without ridges by using three dimensional surface data of a stuffed leatherback turtle in the National Science Museum, Korea. The experiment is conducted in a wind tunnel in the ranges of the real leatherback turtle's Reynolds number (Re) and angle of attack (α). The longitudinal ridges function differently according to the flow condition (i.e. Re and α). At low Re and negative α that represent the swimming condition of hatchlings and juveniles, the ridges significantly decrease the drag by generating streamwise vortices and delaying the main separation. On the other hand, at high Re and positive α that represent the swimming condition of adults, the ridges suppress the laminar separation bubble near the front part by generating streamwise vortices and enhance the lift and lift-to-drag ratio. Supported by the NRF program (2011-0028032).

  18. The hydrodynamics of linear accelerations in bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Tyler; Boden, Alex; Schwalbe, Margot; Tytell, Eric

    2015-11-01

    As fish swim, their body interacts with the fluid around them in order to generate thrust. In this study, we examined the hydrodynamics of linear acceleration by bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus, which swims using a carangiform mode. Carangiform swimmers primarily use their caudal fin and posterior body for propulsion, which is different from anguilliform swimmers, like eels, that undulate almost their whole body to swim. Most previous studies have examined steady swimming, but few have looked at linear accelerations, even though most fish do not often swim steadily. During steady swimming, thrust and drag forces are balanced, which makes it difficult to separate the two, but during acceleration, thrust exceeds drag, making it easier to measure; this may reveal insights into how thrust is produced. This study used particle image velocimetry (PIV) to compare the structure of the wake during steady swimming and acceleration and to estimate the axial force. Axial force increased during acceleration, but the orientation of the vortices did not differ between steady swimming and acceleration, which is different than anguilliform swimmers, whose wakes change structure during acceleration. This difference may point to fundamental differences between the two swimming modes. This material is based upon work supported by the U. S. Army Research Office under grant number W911NF-14-1-0494.

  19. Hydrodynamic studies on two traveling wavy foils in tandem arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jian; Shao, Xue-Ming; Yu, Zhao-Sheng

    2007-11-01

    In this study, the hydrodynamic interactions between two tandem foils undergoing fishlike swimming motion are investigated numerically by solving the Navier-Stokes equations with the immersed-boundary method. The two foils represent two tandem propellers attached on a concept ship. The thrusts and efficiencies at three typical Strouhal numbers, i.e., St =0.4, 0.6, and 0.8, are investigated. The results show that a fish situated directly behind another one does not always undergo a lower thrust. Whether it experiences a thrust enhancement or reduction depends on the Strouhal number. At a relatively low Strouhal number (e.g., St =0.4), the usual wake drag-reduction effect predominates over the drag-enhancement effect caused by the reverse von Kármán vortices, resulting in a thrust enhancement. The opposite happens at a relatively high Strouhal number (e.g., St =0.8). The downstream fish can benefit from the upstream one by slalom between the vortices rather than through them. For the upstream fish, the thrusts and efficiencies for all Strouhal numbers studied are higher than those for a single fish when the two fish are closely spaced, and approach those for a single fish as the spacing is increased.

  20. Hydrodynamics of a Digitized Adult Humpback Whale Flipper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassmann, Wesley N.; McDonald, Samuel J.; Thomson, Scott L.; Fish, Frank E.

    2013-11-01

    During feeding, humpback whales turn with a turn radius of up to 1 /6th of their length towards schools of fish enclosed by bubble nets. This high maneuverability requirement is facilitated by high aspect ratio flippers with leading edge tubercles that delay stall. Previous experimental and computational studies have used idealized models, such as airfoils with scalloped leading edges, to explore the influence of leading edge tubercles on boundary layer separation, vortex generation, and airfoil lift and drag characteristics. Owing to the substantial size of the flipper, no studies have been performed on a digitized adult humpback flipper with real geometry. In this study the hydrodynamics of a realistic humpback flipper model were explored. The model was developed by digitizing a sequence of 18 images circumscribing the suspended flipper of a beached humpback whale. A physical prototype was constructed based on the resulting 3D model, along with a complementary model with the tubercles removed. Experimentally-obtained measurements of lift and drag were used to study the influence of the tubercles. In the presentation, digitization and flow measurement methods are described, and the flow data and results are presented and discussed.

  1. Hydrodynamic escape from planetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng

    Hydrodynamic escape is an important process in the formation and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Due to the existence of a singularity point near the transonic point, it is difficult to find transonic steady state solutions by solving the time-independent hydrodynamic equations. In addition to that, most previous works assume that all energy driving the escape flow is deposited in one narrow layer. This assumption not only results in less accurate solutions to the hydrodynamic escape problem, but also makes it difficult to include other chemical and physical processes in the hydrodynamic escape models. In this work, a numerical model describing the transonic hydrodynamic escape from planetary atmospheres is developed. A robust solution technique is used to solve the time dependent hydrodynamic equations. The method has been validated in an isothermal atmosphere where an analytical solution is available. The hydrodynamic model is applied to 3 cases: hydrogen escape from small orbit extrasolar planets, hydrogen escape from a hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere, and nitrogen/methane escape from Pluto's atmosphere. Results of simulations on extrasolar planets are in good agreement with the observations of the transiting extrasolar planet HD209458b. Hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen from other hypothetical close-in extrasolar planets are simulated and the influence of hydrogen escape on the long-term evolution of these extrasolar planets are discussed. Simulations on early Earth suggest that hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen from a hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere is about two orders magnitude slower than the diffusion limited escape rate. A hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere could have been maintained by the balance between the hydrogen escape and the supply of hydrogen into the atmosphere by volcanic outgassing. Origin of life may have occurred in the organic soup ocean created by the efficient formation of prebiotic molecules in the hydrogen rich early

  2. Research of tare hydrodynamic behaviour at sterilization of canned fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexeev G. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to research on improving the equipment that ensures the absolute safety of mineral nutrients in the production of sterilized canned fish. The results of experimental study of hydrodynamic characteristics moving sterilized jars of canned fish of different sizes under the influence of circulating gas-liquid heat-carrying medium in the capacity have been presented. Some experimental setup with organized top-down and bottom-up flows in it modeling a sterilizer (autoclave has been proposed for the research. The experiments have been performed in the superficial gas velocity ranging from 0.03 m/s to 0.15 m/s corresponding to stable operation of the apparatus. Cans drag coefficient in the flow of heat-carrying medium has been determined by two methods for two heat-carrying media – pure glycerol and water solutions in experiments on precipitation and air – cans when blowing in the wind tunnel. The significant difference in the rates of cans upstream and downstream is reliably established, and therefore it has been proposed to use for the cans' motion characterization the indicator averaged over the two specified rates and called cans circulation speed. An empirical equation describing the dependence of the cans circulation rate from the superficial gas velocity has been obtained. Based on the analysis of studies some empirical dependencies on calculation of the drag coefficients of various types of packaging in the range of Reynolds criterion values from 1 to 4 000 have been offered. The necessity of using the qualifying factor for calculating the real drag on the results of the experiment has been determined.

  3. London 2012 Paralympic swimming: passive drag and the classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yim-Taek; Burkett, Brendan; Osborough, Conor; Formosa, Danielle; Payton, Carl

    2013-09-01

    The key difference between the Olympic and Paralympic Games is the use of classification systems within Paralympic sports to provide a fair competition for athletes with a range of physical disabilities. In 2009, the International Paralympic Committee mandated the development of new, evidence-based classification systems. This study aims to assess objectively the swimming classification system by determining the relationship between passive drag and level of swimming-specific impairment, as defined by the current swimming class. Data were collected on participants at the London 2012 Paralympic Games. The passive drag force of 113 swimmers (classes 3-14) was measured using an electro-mechanical towing device and load cell. Swimmers were towed on the surface of a swimming pool at 1.5 m/s while holding their most streamlined position. Passive drag ranged from 24.9 to 82.8 N; the normalised drag (drag/mass) ranged from 0.45 to 1.86 N/kg. Significant negative associations were found between drag and the swimming class (τ = -0.41, p < 0.01) and normalised drag and the swimming class (τ = -0.60, p < 0.01). The mean difference in drag between adjacent classes was inconsistent, ranging from 0 N (6 vs 7) to 11.9 N (5 vs 6). Reciprocal Ponderal Index (a measure of slenderness) correlated moderately with normalised drag (r(P) = -0.40, p < 0.01). Although swimmers with the lowest swimming class experienced the highest passive drag and vice versa, the inconsistent difference in mean passive drag between adjacent classes indicates that the current classification system does not always differentiate clearly between swimming groups.

  4. Finite element modeling of shell shape in the freshwater turtle Pseudemys concinna reveals a trade-off between mechanical strength and hydrodynamic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Gabriel; Stayton, C Tristan

    2011-10-01

    Aquatic species can experience different selective pressures on morphology in different flow regimes. Species inhabiting lotic regimes often adapt to these conditions by evolving low-drag (i.e., streamlined) morphologies that reduce the likelihood of dislodgment or displacement. However, hydrodynamic factors are not the only selective pressures influencing organismal morphology and shapes well suited to flow conditions may compromise performance in other roles. We investigated the possibility of morphological trade-offs in the turtle Pseudemys concinna. Individuals living in lotic environments have flatter, more streamlined shells than those living in lentic environments; however, this flatter shape may also make the shells less capable of resisting predator-induced loads. We tested the idea that "lotic" shell shapes are weaker than "lentic" shell shapes, concomitantly examining effects of sex. Geometric morphometric data were used to transform an existing finite element shell model into a series of models corresponding to the shapes of individual turtles. Models were assigned identical material properties and loaded under identical conditions, and the stresses produced by a series of eight loads were extracted to describe the strength of the shells. "Lotic" shell shapes produced significantly higher stresses than "lentic" shell shapes, indicating that the former is weaker than the latter. Females had significantly stronger shell shapes than males, although these differences were less consistent than differences between flow regimes. We conclude that, despite the potential for many-to-one mapping of shell shape onto strength, P. concinna experiences a trade-off in shell shape between hydrodynamic and mechanical performance. This trade-off may be evident in many other turtle species or any other aquatic species that also depend on a shell for defense. However, evolution of body size may provide an avenue of escape from this trade-off in some cases, as changes in

  5. Aquatic prey capture in snakes: the link between morphology, behavior and hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, Marion; Herrel, Anthony; Godoy-Diana, Ramiro; Funevol Team; Pmmh Team

    2017-11-01

    Natural selection favors animals that are the most successful in their fitness-related behaviors, such as foraging. Secondary adaptations pose the problem of re-adapting an already 'hypothetically optimized' phenotype to new constraints. When animals forage underwater, they face strong physical constraints, particularly when capturing a prey. The capture requires the predator to be fast and to generate a high acceleration to catch the prey. This involves two main constraints due to the surrounding fluid: drag and added mass. Both of these constraints are related to the shape of the animal. We experimentally explore the relationship between shape and performance in the context of an aquatic strike. As a model, we use 3D-printed snake heads of different shapes and frontal strike kinematics based on in vivo observations. By using direct force measurements, we compare the drag and added mass generated by aquatic and non-aquatic snake models during a strike. Our results show that drag is optimized in aquatic snakes. Added mass appears less important than drag for snakes during an aquatic strike. The flow features associated to the hydrodynamic forces measured allows us to propose a mechanism rendering the shape of the head of aquatic snakes well adapted to catch prey underwater. Region Ile de France and the doctoral school Frontieres du Vivant (FdV) - Programme Bettencourt.

  6. Lift and Drag on Cylinder of Octagonal Cross-Section in a Turbulent Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Jomir Hossain

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation of surface static pressure distributions on octagonal cylinder in uniform and turbulent flows was carried out. The study was performed on both the single cylinder and the group of two cylinders, two cylinders were used, one was at the upstream side, and the other was at the downstream side of the flow. They were placed centrally along the flow direction. The inter-spacing space between the two cylinders was varied at 1D, 2D, 3D, 4D, 5D, 6D, 7D and 8D, where D is the width of the cylinder across the flow direction. The pressure coefficients were calculated from the measured values of the surface static pressure distribution on the cylinder. Then the drag and lift coefficients were obtained from the pressure coefficients by the numerical integration method. It was observed that at various angles of attack, the values of the lift coefficients and drag coefficients were insignificant compared to those for a sharp-edged square cylinder. The strength of the vortex shedding was shown to be reduced as the intensity of the incident turbulence was increased. Measurements of drag at various angles of attack (0° to 40° showed that with increase in turbulence level the minimum drag occurred at smaller values of angle of attack.

  7. Measurements of long-range enhanced collisional velocity drag through plasma wave damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, M.; Anderegg, F.; Dubin, D. H. E.; Driscoll, C. F.

    2018-05-01

    We present damping measurements of axial plasma waves in magnetized, multispecies ion plasmas. At high temperatures T ≳ 10-2 eV, collisionless Landau damping dominates, whereas, at lower temperatures T ≲ 10-2 eV, the damping arises from interspecies collisional drag, which is dependent on the plasma composition and scales roughly as T-3 /2 . This drag damping is proportional to the rate of parallel collisional slowing, and is found to exceed classical predictions of collisional drag damping by as much as an order of magnitude, but agrees with a new collision theory that includes long-range collisions. Centrifugal mass separation and collisional locking of the species occur at ultra-low temperatures T ≲ 10-3 eV, which reduce the drag damping from the T-3 /2 collisional scaling. These mechanisms are investigated by measuring the damping of higher frequency axial modes, and by measuring the damping in plasmas with a non-equilibrium species profile.

  8. The Effects of Propulsive Jetting on Drag of a Streamlined body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Michael; Mohseni, Kamran

    2017-11-01

    Recently an abundance of bioinspired underwater vehicles have emerged to leverage eons of evolution. Our group has developed a propulsion technique inspired by jellyfish and squid. Propulsive jets are generated by ingesting and expelling water from a flexible internal cavity. We have demonstrated thruster capabilities for maneuvering on AUV platforms, where the internal thruster geometry minimized forward drag; however, such a setup cannot characterize propulsive efficiency. Therefore, we created a new streamlined vehicle platform that produces unsteady jets for forward propulsion rather than maneuvering. The streamlined jetting body is placed in a water tunnel and held stationary while jetting frequency and background flow velocity are varied. For each frequency/velocity pair the flow field is measured around the surface and in the wake using PIV. Using the zero jetting frequency as a baseline for each background velocity, the passive body drag is related to the velocity distribution. For cases with active jetting the drag and jetting forces are estimated from the velocity field and compared to the passive case. For this streamlined body, the entrainment of surrounding flow into the propulsive jet can reduce drag forces in addition to the momentum transfer of the jet itself. Office of Naval Research.

  9. Reynolds number dependence of drag reduction by rodlike polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amarouchene, Y.; Bonn, D.; Kellay, H.; Lo, T.-S.; L'vov, V.S.; Procaccia, I.

    2008-01-01

    We present experimental and theoretical results addressing the Reynolds number (Re) dependence of drag reduction by sufficiently large concentrations of rodlike polymers in turbulent wall-bounded flows. It is shown that when Re is small the drag is enhanced. On the other hand, when Re increases, the

  10. Determination of the Drag Resistance Coefficients of Different Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahsl, Christoph; Vogt, Patrik

    2018-01-01

    While it has been demonstrated how air resistance could be analyzed by using mobile devices, this paper demonstrates a method of how to determine the drag resistance coefficient "c" of a commercial automobile by using the acceleration sensor of a smartphone or tablet. In an academic context, the drag resistance is often mentioned, but…

  11. EFFECTIVENESS OF NYLON DRAG STRAPS FOR BRAKING MONORAIL SLEDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velocity versus coast distance measurements on two monorail rocket sleds were conducted on the Holloman track to obtain numerical information on the...sleds and the drag straps. The straps as described are shown to increase the effective drag area of the monorail sleds used by approximately one square

  12. Spin-transfer mechanism for magnon-drag thermopower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314406913; Wong, C.H.; Duine, R.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830127; Tserkovnyak, Y.

    2011-01-01

    We point out a relation between the dissipative spin-transfer-torque parameter β and the contribution of magnon drag to the thermoelectric power in conducting ferromagnets. Using this result, we estimate β in iron at low temperatures, where magnon drag is believed to be the dominant contribution to

  13. Analysis of Drag Reduction Methods and Mechanisms of Turbulent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Yunqing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbulent flow is a difficult issue in fluid dynamics, the rules of which have not been totally revealed up to now. Fluid in turbulent state will result in a greater frictional force, which must consume great energy. Therefore, it is not only an important influence in saving energy and improving energy utilization rate but also an extensive application prospect in many fields, such as ship domain and aerospace. Firstly, bionic drag reduction technology is reviewed and is a hot research issue now, the drag reduction mechanism of body surface structure is analyzed, such as sharks, earthworms, and dolphins. Besides, we make a thorough study of drag reduction characteristics and mechanisms of microgrooved surface and compliant wall. Then, the relevant drag reduction technologies and mechanisms are discussed, focusing on the microbubbles, the vibrant flexible wall, the coating, the polymer drag reduction additives, superhydrophobic surface, jet surface, traveling wave surface drag reduction, and the composite drag reduction methods. Finally, applications and advancements of the drag reduction technology in turbulence are prospected.

  14. Frictional drag between quantum wells mediated by phonon exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, M.C.; Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    1998-01-01

    We use the Kubo formalism to evaluate the contribution of acoustic-phonon exchange to the frictional drag between nearby two-dimensional electron systems. In the case of free phonons, we find a divergent drag rate (tau(D)(-l)). However, tau(D)(-l) becomes finite when phonon scattering from either...

  15. Dancing droplets: Contact angle, drag, and confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benusiglio, Adrien; Cira, Nate; Prakash, Manu

    2015-11-01

    When deposited on a clean glass slide, a mixture of water and propylene glycol forms a droplet of given contact angle, when both pure liquids spread. (Cira, Benusiglio, Prakash: Nature, 2015). The droplet is stabilized by a gradient of surface tension due to evaporation that induces a Marangoni flow from the border to the apex of the droplets. The apparent contact angle of the droplets depends on both their composition and the external humidity as captured by simple models. These droplets present remarkable properties such as lack of a large pinning force. We discuss the drag on these droplets as a function of various parameters. We show theoretical and experimental results of how various confinement geometries change the vapor gradient and the dynamics of droplet attraction.

  16. Analytical Ballistic Trajectories with Approximately Linear Drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giliam J. P. de Carpentier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a practical analytical approximation of projectile trajectories in 2D and 3D roughly based on a linear drag model and explores a variety of different planning algorithms for these trajectories. Although the trajectories are only approximate, they still capture many of the characteristics of a real projectile in free fall under the influence of an invariant wind, gravitational pull, and terminal velocity, while the required math for these trajectories and planners is still simple enough to efficiently run on almost all modern hardware devices. Together, these properties make the proposed approach particularly useful for real-time applications where accuracy and performance need to be carefully balanced, such as in computer games.

  17. Future Drag Measurements from Venus Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Gerald; Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo; Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Yelle, Roger; Bruinsma, Sean; Withers, Paul; Lopez-Valverde, Miguel Angel; Theriot, Res. Assoc. Michael; Bougher, Stephen

    Beginning in July 2008 during the Venus Express Extended Mission, the European Space Agency will dramatically drop orbital periapsis from near 250km to near 180km above the Venus North Polar Region. This will allow orbital decay measurements of atmospheric densities to be made near the Venus North Pole by the VExADE (Venus Express Atmospheric Drag Experiment) whose team leader is Ingo Mueller-Wodarg. VExADE consists of two parts VExADE-ODA (Orbital Drag Analysis from radio tracking data) and VExADE-ACC (Accelerometer in situ atmospheric density measurements). Previous orbital decay measurements of the Venus thermosphere were obtained by Pioneer Venus from the 1970's into the 1990's and from Magellan in the 1990's. The major difference is that the Venus Express will provide measurements in the North Polar Region on the day and night sides, while the earlier measurements were obtained primarily near the equator. The periapsis will drift upwards in altitude similar to the earlier spacecraft and then be commanded down to its lower original values. This cycle in altitude will allow estimates of vertical structure and thus thermospheric temperatures in addition to atmospheric densities. The periapsis may eventually be lowered even further so that accelerometers can more accurately obtain density measurements of the polar atmosphere as a function of altitude, latitude, longitude, local solar time, pressure, Ls, solar activity, and solar wind on each pass. Bias in accelerometer measurements will be determined and corrected for by accelerometer measurements obtained above the discernable atmosphere on each pass. The second experiment, VExADE-ACC, is similar to the accelerometer experiments aboard Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter that carried similar accelerometers in orbit around Mars. The risk involved in the orbital decay and accelerometer measurements is minimal. We have not lost any spacecraft orbiting Venus or Mars due to unexpected

  18. Analysis of hydrodynamic characteristics of unmanned underwater vehicle moving close to the sea bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-xu Du

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The accurate research on the hydrodynamics of unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV, which moves close to the sea bottom, has a great significance for its maneuverability. The structured grid of the computational models with different distances to the sea bottom and attack angles is generated by Ansys ICEM, and the flow field near the sea bottom is simulated using CFX. The characteristics of the drag, lift, pitching moment influenced by the distance to sea bottom and the attack angle are studied. The result shows that the drag coefficient increases with the decrease of distance, while it increases with the increase of attack angle. There exists attraction force when UUV moves close to the sea bottom, and the attraction force increases with the decrease in distance. The lift coefficient increases with the increase in attack angle. The absolute value of the pitching moment coefficient increases with the decrease in distance and the increase in attack angle.

  19. Hydrodynamic interactions in metachronal paddling: effects of varying stroke kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaee, Milad; Kasoju, Vishwa; Lai, Hong Kuan; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2017-11-01

    Crustaceans such as shrimp and krill use a drag-based technique for propulsion, in which multiple pairs of limbs are paddled rhythmically from the tail to the head. Each limb is phase-shifted in time relative to its neighbor. Most studies of this type of metachronal swimming have focused on the jet formed in the animal's wake. However, synergistic hydrodynamic interactions between adjacent limbs in metachrony have received minimal attention. We used a dynamically scaled robotic model to experimentally investigate how variations in stroke kinematics impact inter-paddle hydrodynamic interactions and thrust generation. Physical models of limbs were fitted to the robot and paddled with two different motion profiles (MPs)-1) MP1: metachronal power stroke (PS) and metachronal recovery stroke (RS); and 2) MP2: metachronal PS and synchronous RS. Stroke frequency and amplitude were maintained constant across both MPs. Our results show that MP2 produced faster jets in the thrust-generating direction as compared to MP1. The necessity for a pause in MP2 after completion of PS by the paddles leading the motion, prior to executing the synchronous RS, aided in further downstream flow propagation. The effect of using asymmetric stroke kinematics on thrust generated will be discussed.

  20. Friction and drag forces on spheres propagating down inclined planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Yi Hui; Longmire, Ellen

    2017-11-01

    When a submerged sphere propagates along an inclined wall at terminal velocity, it experiences gravity, drag, lift, and friction forces. In the related equations of motion, the drag, lift and friction coefficients are unknown. Experiments are conducted to determine the friction and drag coefficients of the sphere over a range of Reynolds numbers. Through high speed imaging, translational and rotational velocities of spheres propagating along a glass plate are determined in liquids with several viscosities. The onset of sliding motion is identified by computing the dimensionless rotation rate of the sphere. Using drag and lift coefficients for Re friction coefficients are calculated for several materials. The friction coefficients are then employed to estimate the drag coefficient for 350 frictional force over this Re range. Supported by NSF (CBET-1510154).

  1. Airflow in Gravity Sewers - Determination of Wastewater Drag Coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Østertoft, Kristian Kilsgaard; Vollertsen, Jes; Fuglsang, Emil Dietz; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    2016-03-01

    Several experiments have been conducted in order to improve the understanding of the wastewater drag and the wall frictional force acting on the headspace air in gravity sewers. The aim of the study is to improve the data basis for a numerical model of natural sewer ventilation. The results of the study shows that by integrating the top/side wall shear stresses the log-law models for the air velocity distribution along the unwetted perimeter resulted in a good agreement with the friction forces calculated by use of the Colebrook-White formula for hydraulic smooth pipes. Secondly, the water surface drags were found by log-law models of the velocity distribution in turbulent flows to fit velocity profiles measured from the water surface and by integrating the water surface drags along the wetted perimeter, mean water surface drags were found and a measure of the water surface drag coefficient was found.

  2. Electron drag in ferromagnetic structures separated by an insulating interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozub, V. I.; Muradov, M. I.; Galperin, Y. M.

    2018-06-01

    We consider electron drag in a system of two ferromagnetic layers separated by an insulating interface. The source of it is expected to be magnon-electron interactions. Namely, we assume that the external voltage is applied to the "active" layer stimulating electric current through this layer. In its turn, the scattering of the current-carrying electrons by magnons leads to a magnon drag current within this layer. The 3-magnons interactions between magnons in the two layers (being of non-local nature) lead to magnon drag within the "passive" layer which, correspondingly, produce electron drag current via processes of magnon-electron scattering. We estimate the drag current and compare it to the phonon-induced one.

  3. Soliton Gases and Generalized Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, Benjamin; Yoshimura, Takato; Caux, Jean-Sébastien

    2018-01-01

    We show that the equations of generalized hydrodynamics (GHD), a hydrodynamic theory for integrable quantum systems at the Euler scale, emerge in full generality in a family of classical gases, which generalize the gas of hard rods. In this family, the particles, upon colliding, jump forward or backward by a distance that depends on their velocities, reminiscent of classical soliton scattering. This provides a "molecular dynamics" for GHD: a numerical solver which is efficient, flexible, and which applies to the presence of external force fields. GHD also describes the hydrodynamics of classical soliton gases. We identify the GHD of any quantum model with that of the gas of its solitonlike wave packets, thus providing a remarkable quantum-classical equivalence. The theory is directly applicable, for instance, to integrable quantum chains and to the Lieb-Liniger model realized in cold-atom experiments.

  4. Anomalous hydrodynamics of Weyl materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Gustavo; Abanov, Alexander

    Kinetic theory is a useful tool to study transport in Weyl materials when the band-touching points are hidden inside a Fermi surface. It accounts, for example, for the negative magnetoresistance caused by the chiral magnetic effect and quantum oscillations (SdH effect) in the magnetoresistance together within the same framework. As an alternative approach to kinetic theory we also consider the regime of strong interactions where hydrodynamics can be applicable. A variational principle of these hydrodynamic equations can be found in and provide a natural framework to study hydrodynamic surface modes which correspond to the strongly-interacting physics signature of Fermi arcs. G.M. acknowledges the financial support from FAPESP.

  5. Brownian dynamics with hydrodynamic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermak, D.L.; McCammon, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A method for simulating the Brownian dynamics of N particles with the inclusion of hydrodynamic interactions is described. The particles may also be subject to the usual interparticle or external forces (e.g., electrostatic) which have been included in previous methods for simulating Brownian dynamics of particles in the absence of hydrodynamic interactions. The present method is derived from the Langevin equations for the N particle assembly, and the results are shown to be consistent with the corresponding Fokker--Planck results. Sample calculations on small systems illustrate the importance of including hydrodynamic interactions in Brownian dynamics simulations. The method should be useful for simulation studies of diffusion limited reactions, polymer dynamics, protein folding, particle coagulation, and other phenomena in solution

  6. Derivation of a correlation for Drag coefficient in two-dimensional bounded supercavitating flows, using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafaghat, R.; Hosseinalipour, S.M.; Derakhshani, S.M.E. [Iran University of Science and Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-07-15

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used as a new approach for the determination of the relations between drag coefficient and Cavitation Number with cavity geometry in supercavitating flows which have been most widely used in the hydrodynamics researches. Also the result of the ANNs as a cost function potentially will be used in an optimization algorithm. Instead of complex differential equations and limited experimental data, faster and simpler solutions were obtained using equations derived from the ANN model. For training of the ANN the numerical results are used that are obtained from a boundary element method (BEM). At this problem, a two-dimensional supercavitation potential inviscid flow pasts a symmetric two-dimensional cavitator, which is placed perpendicular to the flow in a channel of infinite width and immediately a cavity is formed behind the cavitator. It was found that the coefficient of multiple determination (R{sup 2}-value) between the actual and ANN predicted data is equal to about 0.9998 for the drag coefficient and Cavitation number. As seen from the obtained results, the calculated cavity geometry for all drag coefficients and Cavitation Numbers are obviously within acceptable limits. (orig.)

  7. Influence of drag closures and inlet conditions on bubble dynamics and flow behavior inside a bubble column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Asad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the hydrodynamics of a bubble column is investigated numerically using the discrete bubble model, which tracks the dispersed bubbles individually in a liquid column. The discrete bubble model is combined with the volume of fluid approach to account for a proper free surface boundary condition at the liquid–gas interface. This improves describing the backflow region, which takes place close to the wall region. The numerical simulation is conducted by means of the open source computational fluid dynamics library OpenFOAM®. In order to validate the numerical model, experimental results of a bubble column are used. The numerical prediction shows an overall good agreement compared to the experimental data. The effect of injection conditions and the influence of the drag closures on bubble dynamics are investigated in the current paper. Here, the significant effect of injection boundary conditions on bubble dynamics and flow velocity in the studied cavity is revealed. Moreover, the impact of the choice of the drag closure on the liquid velocity field and on bubble behavior is indicated by comparing three drag closures derived from former studies.

  8. Experimental study on the estimation method of hydrodynamic force acting on floating offshore structures; Futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu ni kuwawaru ryutairyoku no suiteiho ni kansuru jikkenteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, K; Kato, S [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Koterayama, W [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1996-04-10

    In the design of various floating offshore structures (FOS), the functionality, safety and amenity of FOSs were examined by estimating responses of FOSs to environmental external forces such as wave, wind and flow. In this paper, the estimation method of drag acting on the whole FOS was established by combining previous study results on hydrodynamic force acting on various bodies such as Reynolds number effect (RNE), 3-D effect (TDE) and interference effect (IE). This hydrodynamic force was also compared with that obtained from the experiment result on a FOS model for TLP to confirm the applicability of this estimation method. The estimation result on the drag coefficient in steady flow by considering RNE, TDE and IE well agreed with experimental one. The drag coefficient acting on FOSs in heaving could be estimated in practically sufficient accuracy by considering drag acting on not columns but only square columns. The estimation result on the drag coefficient acting on FOSs in surging by considering RNE, TDE and IE well agreed with experimental one. 12 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Hydrodynamic characteristics of the oval cambered double slotted otter board in bottom trawl fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Huang, H. L.; Li, L. Z.; Qu, T. C.; Wu, Y.; Chen, S.; Yang, J. L.; Rao, X.

    2017-07-01

    The otter board is one of the main components of single boat trawl fisheries. An oval cambered double slotted otter board was developed for improving the expansion performance of trawl net in bottom trawl fisheries. A flume model experiment was conducted to measure the lift coefficient (C L), drag coefficient (C D), and lift to drag ratio (K) in different angles of attack (α). The experimental results are as follows : (1) The C L and K value show a trend of increasing at the beginning and then decreasing with the increase of angle of attack, the C D value reflects an upward trend as the angle of attack increases; (2) The D3 otter board (front flow deflector angle at 29°) showed a better hydrodynamic performance. When α=30°, the max lift coefficient (C Lmax) was 1.464, in this case C D = 0.554 and K=2.643. When α=15°, the max lift to drag ratio (K max) was 4.165, C L =0.633, and C D = 0.152. This suggests that the best working scope for the angle of attack is between 15°~30°, in which case, C L>0.633 and K>2.643. The mean value of the lift coefficient was 1.071 and the mean of the lift to drag ratio was 3.482. Comparative analysis of the hydrodynamic performance of different types of otter boards showed that the D3 otter board both had good expansion performance and efficiency, which can provide a reference basis for further optimization of the bottom trawl otter board.

  10. Experimental evaluation of the drag force and drag torque acting on a rotating spherical particle moving in fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukerchenko, Nikolay; Kvurt, Y.; Kharlamov, Alexander; Chára, Zdeněk; Vlasák, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2008), s. 88-94 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600603 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : drag force * drag torque * spherical particle * rotational movement * translational movement Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  11. Bubble-induced skin-friction drag reduction and the abrupt transition to air-layer drag reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Brian R.; Winkel, Eric S.; Lay, Keary A.; Ceccio, Steven L.; Dowling, David R.; Perlin, Marc

    To investigate the phenomena of skin-friction drag reduction in a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) at large scales and high Reynolds numbers, a set of experiments has been conducted at the US Navy's William B. Morgan Large Cavitation Channel (LCC). Drag reduction was achieved by injecting gas (air) from a line source through the wall of a nearly zero-pressure-gradient TBL that formed on a flat-plate test model that was either hydraulically smooth or fully rough. Two distinct drag-reduction phenomena were investigated; bubble drag reduction (BDR) and air-layer drag reduction (ALDR).The streamwise distribution of skin-friction drag reduction was monitored with six skin-friction balances at downstream-distance-based Reynolds numbers to 220 million and at test speeds to 20.0msinitial zone1. These results indicated that there are three distinct regions associated with drag reduction with air injection: Region I, BDR; Region II, transition between BDR and ALDR; and Region III, ALDR. In addition, once ALDR was established: friction drag reduction in excess of 80% was observed over the entire smooth model for speeds to 15.3ms1 with the surface fully roughened (though approximately 50% greater volumetric air flux was required); and ALDR was sensitive to the inflow conditions. The sensitivity to the inflow conditions can be mitigated by employing a small faired step (10mm height in the experiment) that helps to create a fixed separation line.

  12. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  13. Anisotropic hydrodynamics: Motivation and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, Michael

    2014-06-15

    In this proceedings contribution I review recent progress in our understanding of the bulk dynamics of relativistic systems that possess potentially large local rest frame momentum-space anisotropies. In order to deal with these momentum-space anisotropies, a reorganization of relativistic viscous hydrodynamics can be made around an anisotropic background, and the resulting dynamical framework has been dubbed “anisotropic hydrodynamics”. I also discuss expectations for the degree of momentum-space anisotropy of the quark–gluon plasma generated in relativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC from second-order viscous hydrodynamics, strong-coupling approaches, and weak-coupling approaches.

  14. Hydrodynamics of oceans and atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Eckart, Carl

    1960-01-01

    Hydrodynamics of Oceans and Atmospheres is a systematic account of the hydrodynamics of oceans and atmospheres. Topics covered range from the thermodynamic functions of an ideal gas and the thermodynamic coefficients for water to steady motions, the isothermal atmosphere, the thermocline, and the thermosphere. Perturbation equations, field equations, residual equations, and a general theory of rays are also presented. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic equations and their solutions, with the aim of illustrating the laws of dynamics. The nonlinear

  15. Hydrodynamic constants from cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Shin

    2008-01-01

    We study a gravity dual of Bjorken flow of N=4 SYM-theory plasma. We point out that the cosmic censorship hypothesis may explain why the regularity of the dual geometry constrains the hydrodynamic constants. We also investigate the apparent horizon of the dual geometry. We find that the dual geometry constructed on Fefferman-Graham (FG) coordinates is not appropriate for examination of the apparent horizon since the coordinates do not cover the trapped region. However, the preliminary analysis on FG coordinates suggests that the location of the apparent horizon is very sensitive to the hydrodynamic parameters. (author)

  16. Hydrodynamic simulation of elliptic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Kolb, P F; Ruuskanen, P V; Heinz, Ulrich W

    1999-01-01

    We use a hydrodynamic model to study the space-time evolution transverse to the beam direction in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions with nonzero impact parameters. We focus on the influence of early pressure on the development of radial and elliptic flow. We show that at high energies elliptic flow is generated only during the initial stages of the expansion while radial flow continues to grow until freeze-out. Quantitative comparisons with SPS data from semiperipheral Pb+Pb collisions suggest the applicability of hydrodynamical concepts already $\\approx$ 1 fm/c after impact.

  17. Drag of Clean and Fouled Net Panels--Measurements and Parameterization of Fouling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Christian Gansel

    Full Text Available Biofouling is a serious problem in marine aquaculture and it has a number of negative impacts including increased forces on aquaculture structures and reduced water exchange across nets. This in turn affects the behavior of fish cages in waves and currents and has an impact on the water volume and quality inside net pens. Even though these negative effects are acknowledged by the research community and governmental institutions, there is limited knowledge about fouling related effects on the flow past nets, and more detailed investigations distinguishing between different fouling types have been called for. This study evaluates the effect of hydroids, an important fouling organism in Norwegian aquaculture, on the forces acting on net panels. Drag forces on clean and fouled nets were measured in a flume tank, and net solidity including effect of fouling were determined using image analysis. The relationship between net solidity and drag was assessed, and it was found that a solidity increase due to hydroids caused less additional drag than a similar increase caused by change in clean net parameters. For solidities tested in this study, the difference in drag force increase could be as high as 43% between fouled and clean nets with same solidity. The relationship between solidity and drag force is well described by exponential functions for clean as well as for fouled nets. A method is proposed to parameterize the effect of fouling in terms of an increase in net solidity. This allows existing numerical methods developed for clean nets to be used to model the effects of biofouling on nets. Measurements with other types of fouling can be added to build a database on effects of the accumulation of different fouling organisms on aquaculture nets.

  18. Drag of ballistic electrons by an ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurevich, V. L.; Muradov, M. I., E-mail: mag.muradov@mail.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Drag of electrons of a one-dimensional ballistic nanowire by a nearby one-dimensional beam of ions is considered. We assume that the ion beam is represented by an ensemble of heavy ions of the same velocity V. The ratio of the drag current to the primary current carried by the ion beam is calculated. The drag current turns out to be a nonmonotonic function of velocity V. It has a sharp maximum for V near v{sub nF}/2, where n is the number of the uppermost electron miniband (channel) taking part in conduction and v{sub nF} is the corresponding Fermi velocity. This means that the phenomenon of ion beam drag can be used for investigation of the electron spectra of ballistic nanostructures. We note that whereas observation of the Coulomb drag between two parallel quantum wires may in general be complicated by phenomena such as tunneling and phonon drag, the Coulomb drag of electrons of a one-dimensional ballistic nanowire by an ion beam is free of such spurious effects.

  19. Search for a solute-drag effect in dendritic solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckler, K.; Herlach, D.M.; Aziz, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report the results of an indirect experimental test for the solute-drag effect in alloy solidification by fitting the data of Eckler et.al. for Ni-B dendrite tip velocities vs undercooling to models in several ways. The unknown equilibrium partition coefficient, k e , was varied as a fitting parameter. When they combine the dendrite growth model of Boettinger et al. with the Continuous Growth Model (CGM) of Aziz and Kaplan with solute drag, they cannot fit the data for any value of k e . When they combine dendrite growth theory with the CGM without solute drag, they obtain a reasonable fit to the data for k e = 4 x 10 -6 . When they combine dendrite growth theory with a new partial-solute-drag interpolation between the with-solute-drag and the without-solute-drag versions of the CGM, they obtain a still better fit to the data for k e = 2.8 x 10 - 4. This result points out the possibility of partial solute-drag during solidification and the importance of an independent determination of k e in order to distinguish between models

  20. Anomalous hydrodynamics in two dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A new approach is presented to discuss two-dimensional hydrodynamics with gauge and gravitational anomalies. Exact constitutive relations for the stress tensor and charge current are obtained. Also, a connection between response parameters and anomaly coefficients is discussed. These are new results which, ...

  1. Radiation hydrodynamics in the laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    This report contains a collection of five preprints devoted to the subject of laser induced phenomena of radiation hydrodynamics. These preprints cover approximately the contents of the presentations made by the MPQ experimental laser-plasma group at the 17th European Conference on Laser Interaction with Matter (ECLIM), Rome, November 18-22, 1985. (orig.)

  2. Numerical Hydrodynamics in General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Font José A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The current status of numerical solutions for the equations of ideal general relativistic hydrodynamics is reviewed. With respect to an earlier version of the article, the present update provides additional information on numerical schemes, and extends the discussion of astrophysical simulations in general relativistic hydrodynamics. Different formulations of the equations are presented, with special mention of conservative and hyperbolic formulations well-adapted to advanced numerical methods. A large sample of available numerical schemes is discussed, paying particular attention to solution procedures based on schemes exploiting the characteristic structure of the equations through linearized Riemann solvers. A comprehensive summary of astrophysical simulations in strong gravitational fields is presented. These include gravitational collapse, accretion onto black holes, and hydrodynamical evolutions of neutron stars. The material contained in these sections highlights the numerical challenges of various representative simulations. It also follows, to some extent, the chronological development of the field, concerning advances on the formulation of the gravitational field and hydrodynamic equations and the numerical methodology designed to solve them.

  3. Hydrodynamics of a quark droplet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, Johan J.; Mishustin, Igor N.; Døssing, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple model of a multi-quark droplet evolution based on the hydrodynamical description. This model includes collective expansion of the droplet, effects of the vacuum pressure and surface tension. The hadron emission from the droplet is described following Weisskopf's statistical...

  4. Hydrodynamic instabilities in inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses topics on hydrodynamics instabilities in inertial confinement: linear analysis of Rayleigh-Taylor instability; ablation-surface instability; bubble rise in late-stage Rayleigh-Taylor instability; and saturation and multimode interactions in intermediate-stage Rayleigh-Taylor instability

  5. Hydrodynamic analysis, performance assessment, and actuator design of a flexible tail propulsor in an artificial alligator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philen, Michael; Neu, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    The overall objective of this research is to develop analysis tools for determining actuator requirements and assessing viable actuator technology for design of a flexible tail propulsor in an artificial alligator. A simple hydrodynamic model that includes both reactive and resistive forces along the tail is proposed and the calculated mean thrust agrees well with conventional estimates of drag. Using the hydrodynamic model forces as an input, studies are performed for an alligator ranging in size from 1 cm to 2 m at swimming speeds of 0.3–1.8 body lengths per second containing five antagonistic pairs of actuators distributed along the length of the tail. Several smart materials are considered for the actuation system, and preliminary analysis results indicate that the acrylic electroactive polymer and the flexible matrix composite actuators are potential artificial muscle technologies for the system

  6. Bilateral macular colobomata: Temporal dragging of optic disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old male presented with decreased vision and squint from childhood. He had bilateral large colobomata at the macula in each eye, the one on the right being larger than the left. The disc was dragged temporally with straightening of the temporal retinal vessels. This is a case report of bilateral large macular coloboma and serves to report its association with a temporally dragged disc and straightened temporal retinal vessels. A dragged disc if present with a colobomatous defect at the macula may strengthen the case for diagnosis of macular coloboma and help exclude other differentials.

  7. Oscillating Sign of Drag in High Landau Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Oppen, Felix; Simon, Steven H.; Stern, Ady

    2001-01-01

    Motivated by experiments, we study the sign of the Coulomb drag voltage in a double layer system in a strong magnetic field. We show that the commonly used Fermi golden rule approach implicitly assumes a linear dependence of intralayer conductivity on density, and is thus inadequate in strong magnetic fields. Going beyond this approach, we show that the drag voltage commonly changes sign with density difference between the layers. We find that, in the quantum Hall regime, the Hall and longitudinal drag resistivities may be comparable. Our results are also relevant for pumping and acoustoelectric experiments

  8. Effect of guideway discontinuities on magnetic levitation and drag forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossing, T.D.; Korte, R.; Hull, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Transients in the lift and drag forces on a NdFeB permanent magnet were observed as the magnet passed over various discontinuities in a rotating aluminum disk at velocities of 4 to 25 m/s. For full cuts in the disk, the amplitude of the lift and drag transients and the wave form of the drag transient depend on the width, and the amplitudes are much larger than for partial cuts. The use of a backing plate to join two cut segments is ineffective

  9. Final Report. Hydrodynamics by high-energy-density plasma flow and hydrodynamics and radiative hydrodynamics with astrophysical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R Paul Drake

    2004-01-01

    OAK-B135 This is the final report from the project Hydrodynamics by High-Energy-Density Plasma Flow and Hydrodynamics and Radiation Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications. This project supported a group at the University of Michigan in the invention, design, performance, and analysis of experiments using high-energy-density research facilities. The experiments explored compressible nonlinear hydrodynamics, in particular at decelerating interfaces, and the radiation hydrodynamics of strong shock waves. It has application to supernovae, astrophysical jets, shock-cloud interactions, and radiative shock waves

  10. Biodiesel production through hydrodynamic cavitation and performance testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Amit; Verma, Ashish; Kachhwaha, S.S.; Maji, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi College of Engineering, Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India)

    2010-03-15

    This paper presents the details of development of a biodiesel production test rig based on hydrodynamic cavitation followed by results of experimental investigation carried out on a four cylinder, direct injection water cooled diesel engine operating on diesel and biodiesel blend of Citrullus colocyntis (Thumba) oil. The experiment covers a wide range of engine rpm. Results show that biodiesel of Thumba oil produced through hydrodynamic cavitation technique can be used as an alternative fuel with better performance and lower emissions compared to diesel. The most significant conclusions are that (1) Biodiesel production through hydrodynamic cavitation technique seems to be a simple, efficient, time saving, eco-friendly and industrially viable process. (2) 30% biodiesel blend of Thumba oil shows relatively higher brake power, brake thermal efficiency, reduced bsfc and smoke opacity with favourable p-{theta} diagram as compared to diesel. (author)

  11. Hydrodynamic Expansion of Pellicles Caused by e-Beam Heating

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, D

    2000-01-01

    Placing a pellicle in front of a x-ray converter target for radiographic applications can confine the backstreaming ions and target plasma to a shorter channel so that the cumulative effect on e-beam focusing is reduced. The pellicle is subject to heating by e-beam since the pellicle is placed upstream of the target. The calculation of the hydrodynamic expansion, caused by the heating, using the radiation hydrodynamics code LASNEX is presented in this report. Calculations show that mylar pellicles disintegrate at the end of a multi-pulse intense e-beam while beryllium and carbon pellicles remain intact. The expansions for the kapton-carbon multi-layered targets are also examined. Hydrodynamic expansions for pellicles with various e-beam spot radii are calculated for DARHT-II beam parameters. All the simulation results indicate that the backstreaming ions can be stopped.

  12. Bioinspired Surface for Low Drag, Self-Cleaning, and Antifouling: Shark Skin, Butterfly and Rice Leaf Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixler, Gregroy D.

    In this thesis, first presented is an overview of inorganic-fouling and biofouling which is generally undesirable for many medical, marine, and industrial applications. A survey of nature's flora and fauna are studied in order to discover new antifouling methods that could be mimicked for engineering applications. New antifouling methods will presumably incorporate a combination of physical and chemical controls. Presented are mechanisms and experimental results focusing on laminar and turbulent drag reducing shark skin inspired riblet surfaces. This includes new laser etched and riblet film samples for closed channel drag using water, oil, and air as well as in wind tunnel. Also presented are mechanisms and experimental results focusing on the newly discovered rice and butterfly wing effect surfaces. Morphology, drag, self-cleaning, contact angle, and contact angle hysteresis data are presented to understand the role of sample geometrical dimensions, wettability, viscosity, and velocity. Hierarchical liquid repellent coatings combining nano- and micro-sized features and particles are utilized to recreate or combine various effects. Such surfaces have been fabricated with photolithography, soft lithography, hot embossing, and coating techniques. Discussion is provided along with new conceptual models describing the role of surface structures related to low drag, self-cleaning, and antifouling properties. Modeling provides design guidance when developing novel low drag and self-cleaning surfaces for medical, marine, and industrial applications.

  13. Fish Pectoral Fin Hydrodynamics; Part III: Low Dimensional Models via POD Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurttas, M.; Madden, P.

    2005-11-01

    The highly complex kinematics of the pectoral fin and the resulting hydrodynamics does not lend itself easily to analysis based on simple notions of pitching/heaving/paddling kinematics or lift/drag based propulsive mechanisms. A more inventive approach is needed to dissect the fin gait and gain insight into the hydrodynamic performance of the pectoral fin. The focus of the current work is on the hydrodynamics of the pectoral fin of a bluegill sunfish in steady forward motion. The 3D, time-dependent fin kinematics is obtained via a stereo-videographic technique. We employ proper orthogonal decomposition to extract the essential features of the fin gait and then use CFD to examine the hydrodynamics of simplified gaits synthesized from the POD modes. The POD spectrum shows that the first two, three and five POD modes capture 55%, 67%, and 80% of the motion respectively. The first three modes are in particular highly distinct: Mode-1 is a ``cupping'' motion where the fin cups forward as it is abducted; Mode-2 is an ``expansion'' motion where the fin expands to present a larger area during adduction and finally Mode-3 involves a ``spanwise flick'' of the dorsal edge of the fin. Numerical simulation of flow past fin gaits synthesized from these modes lead to insights into the mechanisms of thrust production; these are discussed in detail.

  14. Drag Reduction through Pulsed Plasma Actuators, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Drag reduction is a fundamental necessity in all aerodynamic designs, as it directly affects aircraft fuel efficiency which in turn affects endurance, range, and...

  15. Influence of Surface Roughness on Polymer Drag Reduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ceccio, Steven L; Dowling, David R; Perlin, Marc; Solomon, Michael

    2007-01-01

    .... The details of that effort can be found in the final technical report for that project. The purpose of the additional investigation was to examine the physics and engineering of friction drag reduction methods for turbulent boundary layers (TBL...

  16. Drag force and jet propulsion investigation of a swimming squid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabatabaei Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, CAD model of a squid was obtained by taking computer tomography images of a real squid. The model later placed into a computational domain to calculate drag force and performance of jet propulsion. The drag study was performed on the CAD model so that drag force subjected to real squid was revealed at squid’s different swimming speeds and comparison has been made with other underwater creatures (e.g., a dolphin, sea lion and penguin. The drag coefficient (referenced to total wetted surface area of squid is 0.0042 at Reynolds number 1.6x106 that is a %4.5 difference from Gentoo penguin. Besides, jet flow of squid was simulated to observe the flow region generated in the 2D domain utilizing dynamic mesh method to mimic the movement of squid’s mantle cavity.

  17. Wall temperature control of low-speed body drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. C.; Ash, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of thermal means to control drag under turbulent boundary layer conditions is examined. Numerical calculations are presented for both skin friction and (unseparated) pressure drag for turbulent boundary-layer flows over a fuselage-like body with wall heat transfer. In addition, thermal control of separation on a bluff body is investigated. It is shown that a total drag reduction of up to 20 percent can be achieved for wall heating with a wall-to-total-freestream temperature ratio of 2. For streamlined slender bodies, partial wall heating of the forebody can produce almost the same order of total drag reduction as the full body heating case. For bluff bodies, the separation delay from partial wall cooling of the afterbody is approximately the same as for the fully cooled body.

  18. An investigation of drag reduction on box-shaped ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, V. U.

    1976-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the reduction in drag which could be obtained by making various configuration changes to a box-shaped ground vehicle. Tests were conducted at yaw (relative wind) angles of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 degrees and Reynolds numbers of 300,000 to 850,000. The power required to overcome the aerodynamic drag was reduced by a maximum of 73% for a head wind for the best configuration relative to the smooth bottom box-shape, or 75% relative to the rough bottom box-shape. The reduction for a 20 MPH wind at 30 deg to the vehicle path was, respectively, 77% and 79%.

  19. Ab initio optimization of phonon drag effect for lower-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiawei; Liao, Bolin; Qiu, Bo; Huberman, Samuel; Esfarjani, Keivan; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Although the thermoelectric figure of merit zT above 300 K has seen significant improvement recently, the progress at lower temperatures has been slow, mainly limited by the relatively low Seebeck coefficient and high thermal conductivity. Here we report, for the first time to our knowledge, success in first-principles computation of the phonon drag effect—a coupling phenomenon between electrons and nonequilibrium phonons—in heavily doped region and its optimization to enhance the Seebeck coefficient while reducing the phonon thermal conductivity by nanostructuring. Our simulation quantitatively identifies the major phonons contributing to the phonon drag, which are spectrally distinct from those carrying heat, and further reveals that although the phonon drag is reduced in heavily doped samples, a significant contribution to Seebeck coefficient still exists. An ideal phonon filter is proposed to enhance zT of silicon at room temperature by a factor of 20 to ∼0.25, and the enhancement can reach 70 times at 100 K. This work opens up a new venue toward better thermoelectrics by harnessing nonequilibrium phonons. PMID:26627231

  20. Drag Reduction and Performance Improvement of Hydraulic Torque Converters with Multiple Biological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chunbao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish-like, dolphin-like, and bionic nonsmooth surfaces were employed in a hydraulic torque converter to achieve drag reduction and performance improvement, which were aimed at reducing profile loss, impacting loss and friction loss, respectively. YJSW335, a twin turbine torque converter, was bionically designed delicately. The biological characteristics consisted of fish-like blades in all four wheels, dolphin-like structure in the first turbine and the stator, and nonsmooth surfaces in the pump. The prediction performance of bionic YJSW335, obtained by computational fluid dynamics simulation, was improved compared with that of the original model, and then it could be proved that drag reduction had been achieved. The mechanism accounting for drag reduction of three factors was also investigated. After bionic design, the torque ratio and the highest efficiencies of YJSW335 were both advanced, which were very difficult to achieve through traditional design method. Moreover, the highest efficiency of the low speed area and high speed area is 85.65% and 86.32%, respectively. By economic matching analysis of the original and bionic powertrains, the latter can significantly reduce the fuel consumption and improve the operating economy of the loader.

  1. Improvement in supply chain management for oil and gas sector using drag reduction theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjum, A.A.; Chughtai, A.; Shafeeq, A.; Muhammad, A.

    2010-01-01

    Supply chain management is an integrative philosophy about managing the flow of distribution channels from supplier to the consumer. PARCO, an oil and gas company in Pakistan has three existing pipelines. Out of three, two pipelines are running parallel from Karachi to Mehmood kot. One pipeline is of crude oil and meeting the demand of PARCO refinery while second pipeline is of High Speed Diesel (HSD) and third pipeline is of (HSD and Kerosene) running from Mehmood Kot to Machhike (Sheikhupura). PARCO supply petroleum products from Shikarpur, Mehmood Kot, Faisalabad and Machhike to oil marketing companies (OMCs) as per their share, standard and demand. The purpose of these pipelines is to meet the country demand for petroleum products at various locations all over Pakistan. In the peak season when OMCs have high demand and receipt of product from PARCO pipelines are less, there is a need to enhance the flow rate of oil inside the PARCO pipelines to fulfill the demand of OMCs. This could be done economically by the application of drag reduction theory. So by injecting drag reducer, dragging of the oil inside the pipeline could appreciably be reduced thereby improving the pumping of oil. (author)

  2. Drag reduction by streamwise traveling wave-like Lorenz Force in channel flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamori, Hiroya; Fukagata, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Skin-friction drag reduction effect of traveling wave-like wall-normal Lorenz force in a fully developed turbulent channel flow is investigated by means of direct numerical simulation. A sinusoidal profile of the wall-normal body force is assumed as the Lorenz force. While upstream traveling waves reduce the drag in the case of blowing/suction, standing waves reduce it in the case of present forcing. Visualization of vortical structure under the standing wave-like wall-normal Lorenz force reveals that the near-wall streamwise vortices, which increase the skin-friction drag, disappear and spanwise roller-like vortices are generated instead. Three component decomposition of the Reynolds shear stress indicates that the spanwise roller-like vortices contribute to the negative Reynolds shear stress in the region near the wall, similarly to the case of laminar flows. While the analogy between the wall-normal and streamwise forcings can be expected, the statistics are found to exhibit different behaviors due to the difference in the energy flow.

  3. Atomistically informed solute drag in Al–Mg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, F; Curtin, W A

    2008-01-01

    Solute drag in solute-strengthened alloys, caused by diffusion of solute atoms around moving dislocations, controls the stress at deformation rates and temperatures useful for plastic forming processes. In the technologically important Al–Mg alloys, the solute drag stresses predicted by classical theories are much larger than experiments, which is resolved in general by eliminating the singularity of the dislocation core via Peierls–Nabarro-type models. Here, the drag stress versus dislocation velocity is computed numerically using a realistic dislocation core structure obtained from an atomistic model to investigate the role of the core and obtain quantitative stresses for comparison with experiment. The model solves a discrete diffusion equation in a reference frame moving with the dislocation, with input solute enthalpies and diffusion activation barriers in the core computed by or estimated from atomistic studies. At low dislocation velocities, the solute drag stress is controlled by bulk solute diffusion because the core diffusion occurs too quickly. In this regime, the drag stress can be obtained using a Peierls–Nabarro model with a core spreading parameter tuned to best match the atomistic models. At intermediate velocities, both bulk and core diffusion can contribute to the drag, leading to a complex stress–velocity relationship showing two peaks in stress. At high velocities, the drag stress is controlled solely by diffusion within and across the core. Like the continuum models, the drag stress is nearly linear in solute concentration. The Orowan relationship is used to connect dislocation velocity to deformation strain rate. Accounting for the dependence of mobile dislocation density on stress, the simulations are in good agreement with experiments on Al–Mg alloys over a range of concentrations and temperatures

  4. Drag force in a D-instanton background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-qiang; Luo, Zhong-jie; Hou, De-fu

    2018-06-01

    We study the drag force and diffusion coefficient with respect to a moving heavy quark in a D-instanton background, which corresponds to the Yang-Mills theory in the deconfining, high-temperature phase. It is shown that the presence of the D-instanton density tends to increase the drag force and decrease the diffusion coefficient, reverse to the effects of the velocity and the temperature. Moreover, the inclusion of the D-instanton density makes the medium less viscous.

  5. Thermal Transport and Drag Force in Improved Holographic QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Gürsoy, Umut; Michalogiorgakis, Georgios; Nitti, Francesco; 10.1088

    2009-01-01

    We calculate the bulk viscosity, drag force and jet quenching parameter in Improved Holographic QCD. We find that the bulk viscosity rises near the phase transition but does not exceed the shear viscosity. The drag force shows the effects of asymptotic freedom both as a function of velocity and temperature. It indicates diffusion times of heavy quarks in rough agreement with data. The jet quenching parameter values computed via the light-like Wilson loop are in the lower range suggested by data.

  6. Progress towards a Drag-free SmallSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraf, Shailendhar

    The net force acting on a drag-free satellite is purely gravitational as all other forces, mainly atmospheric drag and solar radiation pressure, are canceled out. In order to achieve this, a free floating reference (test mass) inside the satellite is shielded against all forces but gravity and a system of thrusters is commanded by a control algorithm such that the relative displacement between the reference and the satellite stays constant. The main input to that control algorithm is the output of a sensor which measures the relative displacement between the satellite and the test mass. Internal disturbance forces such as electrostatic or magnetic forces cannot be canceled out his way and have to be minimized by a careful design of the satellite. A drag-free technology package is under development at Stanford since 2004. It includes an optical displacement sensor to measure the relative position of the test mass inside the satellite, a caging mechanism to lock the test mass during launch, a UV LED based charge management system to minimize the effect of electrostatic forces, a thermal enclosure, and the drag-free control algorithms. Possible applications of drag-free satellites in fundamental physics (Gravity Probe B, LISA), geodesy (GOCE), and navigation (TRIAD I). In this presentation we will highlight the progress of the technology development towards a drag-free mission. The planned mission on a SaudiSat bus will demonstrate drag-free technology on a small spacecraft at a fraction of the cost of previous drag-free missions. The target acceleration noise is 10-12 m/sec2. With multiple such satellites a GRACE-like mission with improved sensitivity and potentially improved spatial and temporal resolution can be achieved.

  7. Navier slip model of drag reduction by Leidenfrost vapor layers

    KAUST Repository

    Berry, Joseph D.; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Chan, Derek Y. C.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2017-01-01

    Recent experiments found that a hot solid sphere that is able to sustain a stable Leidenfrost vapor layer in a liquid exhibits significant drag reduction during free fall. The variation of the drag coefficient with Reynolds number deviates substantially from the characteristic drag crisis behavior at high Reynolds numbers. Measurements based on liquids of different viscosities show that the onset of the drag crisis depends on the viscosity ratio of the vapor to the liquid. Here we attempt to characterize the complexity of the Leidenfrost vapor layer with respect to its variable thickness and possible vapor circulation within, in terms of the Navier slip model that is defined by a slip length. Such a model can facilitate tangential flow and thereby alter the behavior of the boundary layer. Direct numerical and large eddy simulations of flow past a sphere at moderate to high Reynolds numbers (102≤Re≤4×104) are employed to quantify comparisons with experimental results, including the drag coefficient and the form of the downstream wake on the sphere. This provides a simple one parameter characterization of the drag reduction phenomenon due to a stable vapor layer that envelops a solid body.

  8. Navier slip model of drag reduction by Leidenfrost vapor layers

    KAUST Repository

    Berry, Joseph D.

    2017-10-17

    Recent experiments found that a hot solid sphere that is able to sustain a stable Leidenfrost vapor layer in a liquid exhibits significant drag reduction during free fall. The variation of the drag coefficient with Reynolds number deviates substantially from the characteristic drag crisis behavior at high Reynolds numbers. Measurements based on liquids of different viscosities show that the onset of the drag crisis depends on the viscosity ratio of the vapor to the liquid. Here we attempt to characterize the complexity of the Leidenfrost vapor layer with respect to its variable thickness and possible vapor circulation within, in terms of the Navier slip model that is defined by a slip length. Such a model can facilitate tangential flow and thereby alter the behavior of the boundary layer. Direct numerical and large eddy simulations of flow past a sphere at moderate to high Reynolds numbers (102≤Re≤4×104) are employed to quantify comparisons with experimental results, including the drag coefficient and the form of the downstream wake on the sphere. This provides a simple one parameter characterization of the drag reduction phenomenon due to a stable vapor layer that envelops a solid body.

  9. Dragging of inertial frames inside the rotating neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Chandrachur; Modak, Kamakshya Prasad; Bandyopadhyay, Debades, E-mail: chandrachur.chakraborty@saha.ac.in, E-mail: kamakshya.modak@saha.ac.in [Astroparticle Physics and Cosmology Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2014-07-20

    We derive the exact frame-dragging rate inside rotating neutron stars. This formula is applied to show that the frame-dragging rate monotonically decreases from the center to the surface of the neutron star along the pole. In the case of the frame-dragging rate along the equatorial distance, it decreases initially away from the center, becomes negligibly small well before the surface of the neutron star, rises again, and finally approaches to a small value at the surface. The appearance of a local maximum and minimum in this case is the result of the dependence of frame-dragging frequency on the distance and angle. Moving from the equator to the pole, it is observed that this local maximum and minimum in the frame-dragging rate along the equator disappear after crossing a critical angle. It is also noted that the positions of the local maximum and minimum of the frame-dragging rate along the equator depend on the rotation frequency and central energy density of a particular pulsar.

  10. Aerodynamic drag of modern soccer balls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Takeshi; Seo, Kazuya

    2013-12-01

    Soccer balls such as the Adidas Roteiro that have been used in soccer tournaments thus far had 32 pentagonal and hexagonal panels. Recently, the Adidas Teamgeist II and Adidas Jabulani, respectively having 14 and 8 panels, have been used at tournaments; the aerodynamic characteristics of these balls have not yet been verified. Now, the Adidas Tango 12, having 32 panels, has been developed for use at tournaments; therefore, it is necessary to understand its aerodynamic characteristics. Through a wind tunnel test and ball trajectory simulations, this study shows that the aerodynamic resistance of the new 32-panel soccer ball is larger in the high-speed region and lower in the middle-speed region than that of the previous 14- and 8-panel balls. The critical Reynolds number of the Roteiro, Teamgeist II, Jabulani, and Tango 12 was ~2.2 × 10(5) (drag coefficient, C d  ≈ 0.12), ~2.8 × 10(5) (C d  ≈ 0.13), ~3.3 × 10(5) (C d  ≈ 0.13), and ~2.4 × 10(5) (C d  ≈ 0.15), respectively. The flight trajectory simulation suggested that the Tango 12, one of the newest soccer balls, has less air resistance in the medium-speed region than the Jabulani and can thus easily acquire large initial velocity in this region. It is considered that the critical Reynolds number of a soccer ball, as considered within the scope of this experiment, depends on the extended total distance of the panel bonds rather than the small designs on the panel surfaces.

  11. Laser driven hydrodynamic instability experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remington, B.A.; Weber, S.V.; Haan, S.W.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Glendinning, S.G.; Wallace, R.J.; Goldstein, W.H.; Wilson, B.G.; Nash, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    An extensive series of experiments has been conducted on the Nova laser to measure hydrodynamic instabilities in planar foils accelerated by x-ray ablation. Single mode experiments allow a measurement of the fundamental growth rates from the linear well into the nonlinear regime. Two-mode foils allow a first direct observation of mode coupling. Surface-finish experiments allow a measurement of the evolution of a broad spectrum of random initial modes

  12. Rapidity correlations test stochastic hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zin, C; Gavin, S; Moschelli, G

    2017-01-01

    We show that measurements of the rapidity dependence of transverse momentum correlations can be used to determine the characteristic time τ π that dictates the rate of isotropization of the stress energy tensor, as well as the shear viscosity ν = η/sT . We formulate methods for computing these correlations using second order dissipative hydrodynamics with noise. Current data are consistent with τ π /ν ∼ 10 but targeted measurements can improve this precision. (paper)

  13. Hydrodynamic simulations of expanding shells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wünsch, Richard; Palouš, Jan; Ehlerová, Soňa

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 289, 3-4 (2004), s. 35-36 ISSN 0004-640X. [From observation to self-consistent modelling of the ISM in galaxies. Porto, 03.09.2002-05.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1048102 Keywords : hydrodynamic simulations * ISM * star formation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.597, year: 2004

  14. Hydrodynamic Limit of Multiple SLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Ikkei; Katori, Makoto

    2018-04-01

    Recently del Monaco and Schleißinger addressed an interesting problem whether one can take the limit of multiple Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLE) as the number of slits N goes to infinity. When the N slits grow from points on the real line R in a simultaneous way and go to infinity within the upper half plane H, an ordinary differential equation describing time evolution of the conformal map g_t(z) was derived in the N → ∞ limit, which is coupled with a complex Burgers equation in the inviscid limit. It is well known that the complex Burgers equation governs the hydrodynamic limit of the Dyson model defined on R studied in random matrix theory, and when all particles start from the origin, the solution of this Burgers equation is given by the Stieltjes transformation of the measure which follows a time-dependent version of Wigner's semicircle law. In the present paper, first we study the hydrodynamic limit of the multiple SLE in the case that all slits start from the origin. We show that the time-dependent version of Wigner's semicircle law determines the time evolution of the SLE hull, K_t \\subset H\\cup R, in this hydrodynamic limit. Next we consider the situation such that a half number of the slits start from a>0 and another half of slits start from -a exact solutions, we will discuss the universal long-term behavior of the multiple SLE and its hull K_t in the hydrodynamic limit.

  15. Hydrodynamical model with massless constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.B.; Wang, K.H.

    1974-01-01

    Within the constituent hydrodynamical model, it is shown that the total number of constituents is conserved, if these constituents are massless and satisfy the Fermi-Dirac distribution. A simple scheme for the transition from the constituent-phase to the hadron-phase is suggested, and the hadron inclusive momentum spectra are presented for this case. This phase transition scheme predicts the average transverse momentum of meson resonances which is compatible with the data. (U.S.)

  16. Bag-breakup control of surface drag in hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil

    2016-04-01

    consequent breaking of short-lived, sail-like pieces of the water-surface film - "bags". On the base of general principles of statistical physics (model of a canonical ensemble) we developed statistics of the "bag-breakup" events: their number and statistical distribution of geometrical parameters depending on wind speed. Basing on the developed statistics, we estimated the surface stress caused by bags as the average sum of stresses caused by individual bags depending on their eometrical parameters. The resulting stress is subjected to counteracting impacts of the increasing wind speed: the increasing number of bags, and their decreasing sizes and life times and the balance yields a peaking dependence of the bag resistance on the wind speed: the share of bag-stress peaks at U10  35 m/s and then reduces. Peaking of surface stress associated with the "bag-breakup" explains seemingly paradoxical non-monotonous wind-dependence of surface drag coefficient peaking at winds about 35 m/s. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation of Basic Research (14-05-91767, 13-05-12093, 16-05-00839, 14-05-91767, 16-55-52025, 15-35-20953) and experiment and equipment was supported by Russian Science Foundation (Agreements 14-17-00667 and 15-17-20009 respectively), Yu.Troitskaya, A.Kandaurov and D.Sergeev were partially supported by FP7 Collaborative Project No. 612610.

  17. Drag reduction in reservoir rock surface: Hydrophobic modification by SiO{sub 2} nanofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yong-Li, E-mail: yylhill@163.com [College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Xi’an Shiyou University, Xi’an 710065 (China); Cui, Ming-Yue; Jiang, Wei-Dong; He, An-Le; Liang, Chong [Langfang Branch of Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, Langfang 065007 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Graphical abstract: The micro-nanoscale hierarchical structures at the sandstone core surface are constructed by adsorption of the modified silica nanoparticles, which leads to the effect of drag reduction to improve the low injection rate in ultra-low permeability reservoirs. - Highlights: • A micro-nanoscale hierarchical structure is formed at the reservoir rock surface. • An inversion has happened from hydrophilic into hydrophobic modified by nanofluids. • The effect of drag reduction to improve the low injection rate is realized. • The mechanism of drag reduction induced from the modified core surface was unclosed. - Abstract: Based on the adsorption behavior of modified silica nanoparticles in the sandstone core surface, the hydrophobic surface was constructed, which consists of micro-nanoscale hierarchical structure. This modified core surface presents a property of drag reduction and meets the challenge of high injection pressure and low injection rate in low or ultra-low permeability reservoir. The modification effects on the surface of silica nanoparticles and reservoir cores, mainly concerning hydrophobicity and fine structure, were determined by measurements of contact angle and scanning electron microscopy. Experimental results indicate that after successful modification, the contact angle of silica nanoparticles varies from 19.5° to 141.7°, exhibiting remarkable hydrophobic properties. These modified hydrophobic silica nanoparticles display a good adsorption behavior at the core surface to form micro-nanobinary structure. As for the wettability of these modified core surfaces, a reversal has happened from hydrophilic into hydrophobic and its contact angle increases from 59.1° to 105.9°. The core displacement experiments show that the relative permeability for water has significantly increased by an average of 40.3% via core surface modification, with the effects of reducing injection pressure and improving injection performance of water

  18. Drag reduction in reservoir rock surface: Hydrophobic modification by SiO_2 nanofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Yong-Li; Cui, Ming-Yue; Jiang, Wei-Dong; He, An-Le; Liang, Chong

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The micro-nanoscale hierarchical structures at the sandstone core surface are constructed by adsorption of the modified silica nanoparticles, which leads to the effect of drag reduction to improve the low injection rate in ultra-low permeability reservoirs. - Highlights: • A micro-nanoscale hierarchical structure is formed at the reservoir rock surface. • An inversion has happened from hydrophilic into hydrophobic modified by nanofluids. • The effect of drag reduction to improve the low injection rate is realized. • The mechanism of drag reduction induced from the modified core surface was unclosed. - Abstract: Based on the adsorption behavior of modified silica nanoparticles in the sandstone core surface, the hydrophobic surface was constructed, which consists of micro-nanoscale hierarchical structure. This modified core surface presents a property of drag reduction and meets the challenge of high injection pressure and low injection rate in low or ultra-low permeability reservoir. The modification effects on the surface of silica nanoparticles and reservoir cores, mainly concerning hydrophobicity and fine structure, were determined by measurements of contact angle and scanning electron microscopy. Experimental results indicate that after successful modification, the contact angle of silica nanoparticles varies from 19.5° to 141.7°, exhibiting remarkable hydrophobic properties. These modified hydrophobic silica nanoparticles display a good adsorption behavior at the core surface to form micro-nanobinary structure. As for the wettability of these modified core surfaces, a reversal has happened from hydrophilic into hydrophobic and its contact angle increases from 59.1° to 105.9°. The core displacement experiments show that the relative permeability for water has significantly increased by an average of 40.3% via core surface modification, with the effects of reducing injection pressure and improving injection performance of water

  19. Drag reduction and improvement of material transport in creeping films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholle, M.; Rund, A.; Aksel, N. [University of Bayreuth, Department of Applied Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics, Bayreuth (Germany)

    2006-01-01

    It is widely accepted that for bodies in turbulent flows a reduction of skin friction can be reached if the surface of the body is provided with small ridges aligned in the local flow direction. This surprising and counterintuitive phenomenon is called the shark-skin effect, motivated from the dermal surface morphology of sharks. In the present article we examine the possibility of resistance reduction due to a rippled surface topography in Stokes flow. We especially analyse the influence of wall riblets perpendicular to the flow direction on the mean transport velocity in gravity-driven creeping film flows following the idea that eddies generated in the valleys of the riblets act like fluid roller bearings and hence may reduce drag. Using a theoretical treatment of the Stokes equations with complex function theory, parameter studies with varying flow rate, bottom amplitude and bottom shape are presented. For the given bottom shapes the maximum enhancement of transport velocity is found by optimising the film thickness. (orig.)

  20. Black Hole Scrambling from Hydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozdanov, Sašo; Schalm, Koenraad; Scopelliti, Vincenzo

    2018-06-08

    We argue that the gravitational shock wave computation used to extract the scrambling rate in strongly coupled quantum theories with a holographic dual is directly related to probing the system's hydrodynamic sound modes. The information recovered from the shock wave can be reconstructed in terms of purely diffusionlike, linearized gravitational waves at the horizon of a single-sided black hole with specific regularity-enforced imaginary values of frequency and momentum. In two-derivative bulk theories, this horizon "diffusion" can be related to late-time momentum diffusion via a simple relation, which ceases to hold in higher-derivative theories. We then show that the same values of imaginary frequency and momentum follow from a dispersion relation of a hydrodynamic sound mode. The frequency, momentum, and group velocity give the holographic Lyapunov exponent and the butterfly velocity. Moreover, at this special point along the sound dispersion relation curve, the residue of the retarded longitudinal stress-energy tensor two-point function vanishes. This establishes a direct link between a hydrodynamic sound mode at an analytically continued, imaginary momentum and the holographic butterfly effect. Furthermore, our results imply that infinitely strongly coupled, large-N_{c} holographic theories exhibit properties similar to classical dilute gases; there, late-time equilibration and early-time scrambling are also controlled by the same dynamics.

  1. Numerical Hydrodynamics in Special Relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, José Maria; Müller, Ewald

    2003-01-01

    This review is concerned with a discussion of numerical methods for the solution of the equations of special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD). Particular emphasis is put on a comprehensive review of the application of high-resolution shock-capturing methods in SRHD. Results of a set of demanding test bench simulations obtained with different numerical SRHD methods are compared. Three applications (astrophysical jets, gamma-ray bursts and heavy ion collisions) of relativistic flows are discussed. An evaluation of various SRHD methods is presented, and future developments in SRHD are analyzed involving extension to general relativistic hydrodynamics and relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics. The review further provides FORTRAN programs to compute the exact solution of a 1D relativistic Riemann problem with zero and nonzero tangential velocities, and to simulate 1D relativistic flows in Cartesian Eulerian coordinates using the exact SRHD Riemann solver and PPM reconstruction. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2003-7 and is accessible for authorized users.

  2. Fractionation of Magnetic Microspheres in a Microfluidic Spiral: Interplay between Magnetic and Hydrodynamic Forces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dutz

    Full Text Available Magnetic forces and curvature-induced hydrodynamic drag have both been studied and employed in continuous microfluidic particle separation and enrichment schemes. Here we combine the two. We investigate consequences of applying an outwardly directed magnetic force to a dilute suspension of magnetic microspheres circulating in a spiral microfluidic channel. This force is realized with an array of permanent magnets arranged to produce a magnetic field with octupolar symmetry about the spiral axis. At low flow rates particles cluster around an apparent streamline of the flow near the outer wall of the turn. At high flow rates this equilibrium is disrupted by the induced secondary (Dean flow and a new equilibrium is established near the inner wall of the turn. A model incorporating key forces involved in establishing these equilibria is described, and is used to extract quantitative information about the magnitude of local Dean drag forces from experimental data. Steady-state fractionation of suspensions by particle size under the combined influence of magnetic and hydrodynamic forces is demonstrated. Extensions of this work could lead to new continuous microscale particle sorting and enrichment processes with improved fidelity and specificity.

  3. Optimization of a Two-Fluid Hydrodynamic Model of Churn-Turbulent Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donna Post Guillen

    2009-07-01

    A hydrodynamic model of two-phase, churn-turbulent flows is being developed using the computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) code, NPHASE-CMFD. The numerical solutions obtained by this model are compared with experimental data obtained at the TOPFLOW facility of the Institute of Safety Research at the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The TOPFLOW data is a high quality experimental database of upward, co-current air-water flows in a vertical pipe suitable for validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. A five-field CMFD model was developed for the continuous liquid phase and four bubble size groups using mechanistic closure models for the ensemble-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Mechanistic models for the drag and non-drag interfacial forces are implemented to include the governing physics to describe the hydrodynamic forces controlling the gas distribution. The closure models provide the functional form of the interfacial forces, with user defined coefficients to adjust the force magnitude. An optimization strategy was devised for these coefficients using commercial design optimization software. This paper demonstrates an approach to optimizing CMFD model parameters using a design optimization approach. Computed radial void fraction profiles predicted by the NPHASE-CMFD code are compared to experimental data for four bubble size groups.

  4. Kevlar/PMR-15 polyimide matrix composite for a complex shaped DC-9 drag reduction fairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, R. T.; Mccarthy, R. F.; Willer, M. S.; Hrach, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    The Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Program was established by NASA to improve the fuel efficiency of commercial transport aircraft and thereby to reduce the amount of fuel consumed by the air transportation industry. One of the final items developed by the program is an improved fairing which is the aft closure for the thrust reverser actuators on the JT8D nacelles on DC-9 aircraft. The reduced-drag fairing uses, in the interest of weight savings, an advanced composite construction. The composite material contains Kevlar 49 fibers in a PMR-15 matrix. Attention is given to the aerodynamic configuration, the material system, and aspects of fabrication development.

  5. Entropy-limited hydrodynamics: a novel approach to relativistic hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guercilena, Federico; Radice, David; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2017-07-01

    We present entropy-limited hydrodynamics (ELH): a new approach for the computation of numerical fluxes arising in the discretization of hyperbolic equations in conservation form. ELH is based on the hybridisation of an unfiltered high-order scheme with the first-order Lax-Friedrichs method. The activation of the low-order part of the scheme is driven by a measure of the locally generated entropy inspired by the artificial-viscosity method proposed by Guermond et al. (J. Comput. Phys. 230(11):4248-4267, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.jcp.2010.11.043). Here, we present ELH in the context of high-order finite-differencing methods and of the equations of general-relativistic hydrodynamics. We study the performance of ELH in a series of classical astrophysical tests in general relativity involving isolated, rotating and nonrotating neutron stars, and including a case of gravitational collapse to black hole. We present a detailed comparison of ELH with the fifth-order monotonicity preserving method MP5 (Suresh and Huynh in J. Comput. Phys. 136(1):83-99, 1997, doi: 10.1006/jcph.1997.5745), one of the most common high-order schemes currently employed in numerical-relativity simulations. We find that ELH achieves comparable and, in many of the cases studied here, better accuracy than more traditional methods at a fraction of the computational cost (up to {˜}50% speedup). Given its accuracy and its simplicity of implementation, ELH is a promising framework for the development of new special- and general-relativistic hydrodynamics codes well adapted for massively parallel supercomputers.

  6. Generalized hydrodynamic correlations and fractional memory functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Rosalio F.; Fujioka, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    A fractional generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model of the longitudinal velocity fluctuations correlation, and its associated memory function, for a complex fluid is analyzed. The adiabatic elimination of fast variables introduces memory effects in the transport equations, and the dynamic of the fluctuations is described by a generalized Langevin equation with long-range noise correlations. These features motivate the introduction of Caputo time fractional derivatives and allows us to calculate analytic expressions for the fractional longitudinal velocity correlation function and its associated memory function. Our analysis eliminates a spurious constant term in the non-fractional memory function found in the non-fractional description. It also produces a significantly slower power-law decay of the memory function in the GH regime that reduces to the well-known exponential decay in the non-fractional Navier-Stokes limit.

  7. Drag reduction behavior of hydrolyzed polyacrylamide/xanthan gum mixed polymer solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehdi Habibpour; Peter E.Clark

    2017-01-01

    Partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) as the main component of slickwater fracturing fluid is a shear-sensitive polymer,which suffers from mechanical degradation at turbulent flow rates.Five different concentrations of HPAM as well as mixtures of polyacrylamide/xanthan gum were prepared to investigate the possibility of improving shear stability of HPAM.Drag reduction (DR)measurements were performed in a closed flow loop.For HPAM solutions,the extent of DR increased from 30% to 67% with increasing HPAM concentration from 100 to 1000 wppm.All the HPAM solutions suffered from mechanical degradation and loss of DR efficiency over the shearing period.Results indicated that the resistance to shear degradation increased with increasing polymer concentration.DR efficiency of 600 wppm xanthan gum (XG)was 38%,indicating that XG was not as good a drag reducer as HPAM.But with only 6% DR decline,XG solution exhibited a better shear stability compared to HPAM solutions.Mixed HPAM/XG solutions initially exhibited greater DR (40% and 55%) compared to XG,but due to shear degradation,DR% dropped for HPAM/XG solutions.Compared to 200 wppm HPAM solution,addition of XG did not improve the drag reduction efficiency of HPAM/XG mixed solutions though XG slightly improved the resistance against mechanical degradation in HPAM/XG mixed polymer solutions.

  8. Drag Reduction CFD Simulations and Flow Visualization of Light Vehicle-Trailer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, Lorenz; Boyer, Henry; Lange, Carlos F.

    2016-11-01

    Experiments and CFD were performed to study the effect a deflector had on the flow and drag force associated with a 2010 F-150 truck and cargo trailer Light Vehicle-Trailer System (LVTS). Image Correlation Velocimetry (ICV) on smokewire streaklines measured the velocity field on the model mid-plane. CFD estimated the drag reduction as 13% at a Re of 14,900 with a moving ground-plane, and 17% without. Experiments suggested that the low Re does not diminish the full-scale relevance of the drag reduction results. One low Re effect was the presence of a separation bubble on the hood of the tow vehicle whose size reduced with an increase in Re. Three other characteristic flow patterns were identified: separation off the lead vehicle cab, stagnation of the free-stream on the trailer face for the no-deflector case, and subsequent separation at the trailer front corner. Comparisons of the ICV and CFD results with no deflector indicated good agreement in the direction of the velocity vectors, and the smoke streaklines and CFD streamlines also agreed well. However, for the deflector case, the CFD found an entirely different topological solution absent in the experiment. A pair of vertically-oriented mid-plane vortices were wrapped around the front of the trailer. Support from the Canadian Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council Grant 41747 is gratefully acknowledged.

  9. Air-Induced Drag Reduction at High Reynolds Numbers: Velocity and Void Fraction Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Brian; Mäkiharju, Simo; Wiggins, Andrew; Dowling, David; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven

    2010-11-01

    The injection of air into a turbulent boundary layer forming over a flat plate can reduce the skin friction. With sufficient volumetric fluxes an air layer can separate the solid surface from the flowing liquid, which can produce drag reduction in excess of 80%. Several large scale experiments have been conducted at the US Navy's Large Cavitation Channel on a 12.9 m long flat plate model investigating bubble drag reduction (BDR), air layer drag reduction (ALDR) and the transition between BDR and ALDR. The most recent experiment acquired phase velocities and void fraction profiles at three downstream locations (3.6, 5.9 and 10.6 m downstream from the model leading edge) for a single flow speed (˜6.4 m/s). The profiles were acquired with a combination of electrode point probes, time-of-flight sensors, Pitot tubes and an LDV system. Additional diagnostics included skin-friction sensors and flow-field image visualization. During this experiment the inlet flow was perturbed with vortex generators immediately upstream of the injection location to assess the robustness of the air layer. From these, and prior measurements, computational models can be refined to help assess the viability of ALDR for full-scale ship applications.

  10. Locomotion on the water surface: hydrodynamic constraints on rowing velocity require a gait change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter; Wildman

    1999-10-01

    Fishing spiders, Dolomedes triton (Araneae, Pisauridae), propel themselves across the water surface using two gaits: they row with four legs at sustained velocities below 0.2 m s(-)(1) and they gallop with six legs at sustained velocities above 0.3 m s(-)(1). Because, during rowing, most of the horizontal thrust is provided by the drag of the leg and its associated dimple as both move across the water surface, the integrity of the dimple is crucial. We used a balance, incorporating a biaxial clinometer as the transducer, to measure the horizontal thrust forces on a leg segment subjected to water moving past it in non-turbulent flow. Changes in the horizontal forces reflected changes in the status of the dimple and showed that a stable dimple could exist only under conditions that combined low flow velocity, shallow leg-segment depth and a long perimeter of the interface between the leg segment and the water. Once the dimple disintegrated, leaving the leg segment submerged, less drag was generated. Therefore, the disintegration of the dimple imposes a limit on the efficacy of rowing with four legs. The limited degrees of freedom in the leg joints (the patellar joints move freely in the vertical plane but allow only limited flexion in other planes) impose a further constraint on rowing by restricting the maximum leg-tip velocity (to approximately 33 % of that attained by the same legs during galloping). This confines leg-tip velocities to a range at which maintenance of the dimple is particularly important. The weight of the spider also imposes constraints on the efficacy of rowing: because the drag encountered by the leg-cum-dimple is proportional to the depth of the dimple and because dimple depth is proportional to the supported weight, only spiders with a mass exceeding 0.48 g can have access to the full range of hydrodynamically possible dimple depths during rowing. Finally, the maximum velocity attainable during rowing is constrained by the substantial drag

  11. Nation Drag: Uses of the Exotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micol Seigel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    In Uneven Encounters, the forthcoming book from which this article is excerpted, Micol Seigel chronicles the exchange of popular culture between Brazil and the United States in the years between the World Wars, and she demonstrates how that exchange affected ideas of race and nation in both countries. From Americans interpreting advertisements for Brazilian coffee or dancing the Brazilian maxixe, to Rio musicians embracing the “foreign” qualities of jazz, Seigel traces a lively, cultural back-and-forth. Along the way, she shows how race and nation are constructed together, by both non-elites and elites, and gleaned from global cultural and intellectual currents as well as local, regional, and national ones. Seigel explores the circulation of images of Brazilian coffee and of maxixe in the United States during the period just after the imperial expansions of the early twentieth century. Exoticist interpretations structured North Americans’ paradoxical sense of self as productive “consumer citizens.” Some people, however, could not simply assume the privileges of citizenship. In their struggles against racism, Afro-descended citizens living in the cities of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, New York, and Chicago encountered images and notions of each other, and found them useful. Seigel introduces readers to cosmopolitan Afro-Brazilians and African Americans who rarely traveled far but who absorbed ideas from abroad nonetheless. African American vaudeville artists saw the utility of pretending to “be” Brazilian to cross the color line on stage. Putting on “nation drag,” they passed not from one race to another but out of familiar racial categories entirely. Afro-Brazilian journalists reported intensively on foreign, particularly North American, news and eventually entered into conversation with the U.S. black press in a collaborative but still conflictual dialogue. Seigel suggests that projects comparing U.S. and

  12. Nation Drag: Uses of the Exotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micol Seigel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In Uneven Encounters, the forthcoming book from which this article is excerpted, Micol Seigel chronicles the exchange of popular culture between Brazil and the United States in the years between the World Wars, and she demonstrates how that exchange affected ideas of race and nation in both countries. From Americans interpreting advertisements for Brazilian coffee or dancing the Brazilian maxixe, to Rio musicians embracing the “foreign” qualities of jazz, Seigel traces a lively, cultural back-and-forth. Along the way, she shows how race and nation are constructed together, by both non-elites and elites, and gleaned from global cultural and intellectual currents as well as local, regional, and national ones. Seigel explores the circulation of images of Brazilian coffee and of maxixe in the United States during the period just after the imperial expansions of the early twentieth century. Exoticist interpretations structured North Americans’ paradoxical sense of self as productive “consumer citizens.” Some people, however, could not simply assume the privileges of citizenship. In their struggles against racism, Afro-descended citizens living in the cities of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, New York, and Chicago encountered images and notions of each other, and found them useful. Seigel introduces readers to cosmopolitan Afro-Brazilians and African Americans who rarely traveled far but who absorbed ideas from abroad nonetheless. African American vaudeville artists saw the utility of pretending to “be” Brazilian to cross the color line on stage. Putting on “nation drag,” they passed not from one race to another but out of familiar racial categories entirely. Afro-Brazilian journalists reported intensively on foreign, particularly North American, news and eventually entered into conversation with the U.S. black press in a collaborative but still conflictual dialogue. Seigel suggests that projects comparing U.S. and Brazilian racial

  13. Interplay of Laser-Plasma Interactions and Inertial Fusion Hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strozzi, D. J.; Bailey, D. S.; Michel, P.; Divol, L.; Sepke, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of laser-plasma interactions (LPI) on the dynamics of inertial confinement fusion hohlraums are investigated in this work via a new approach that self-consistently couples reduced LPI models into radiation-hydrodynamics numerical codes. The interplay between hydrodynamics and LPI—specifically stimulated Raman scatter and crossed-beam energy transfer (CBET)—mostly occurs via momentum and energy deposition into Langmuir and ion acoustic waves. This spatially redistributes energy coupling to the target, which affects the background plasma conditions and thus, modifies laser propagation. In conclusion, this model shows reduced CBET and significant laser energy depletion by Langmuir waves, which reduce the discrepancy between modeling and data from hohlraum experiments on wall x-ray emission and capsule implosion shape.

  14. A Low Cost Inflatable CubeSat Drag Brake Utilizing Sublimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Adam Charles

    The United Nations Inter-Agency Debris Coordination Committee has adopted a 25-year post-mission lifetime requirement for any satellite orbiting below 2000 km in order to mitigate the growing orbital debris threat. Low-cost CubeSats have become important satellite platforms with startling capabilities, but this guideline restricts them to altitudes below 600 km because they remain in orbit too long. In order to enable CubeSat deployments at higher release altitudes, a low-cost, ultra-reliable deorbit device is needed. This thesis reports on efforts to develop a deployable and passively inflatable drag brake that can deorbit from higher orbital altitudes, thereby complying with the 25-year orbital lifetime guideline. On the basis of concepts first implemented during the NASA Echo Satellite Project, this study investigated the design of an inflatable CubeSat drag device that utilizes sublimating benzoic acid powder as the inflation propellant. Testing has focused on demonstrating the functionality of charging a Mylar drag brake bladder with appropriate quantities of benzoic acid powder, and the exposure to a controlled-temperature vacuum chamber causing the bladder to inflate. Although results show a measureable increase in internal pressure when introduced to anticipated orbital temperatures, a significant air-derived expansion prior to sublimation was encountered due to the undetectable volume of ambient residual air in the fabricated membrane bladders. These tests have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach, thereby demonstrating that this concept can create a potentially smaller and less expensive drag device, eliminating inflation gas tanks and valves. In that way, this system can provide a low-cost, miniaturized system that reduces a CubeSat's orbital lifetime to less than 25 years, when placed at higher orbital altitude.

  15. Solitonic Dispersive Hydrodynamics: Theory and Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiden, Michelle D.; Anderson, Dalton V.; Franco, Nevil A.; El, Gennady A.; Hoefer, Mark A.

    2018-04-01

    Ubiquitous nonlinear waves in dispersive media include localized solitons and extended hydrodynamic states such as dispersive shock waves. Despite their physical prominence and the development of thorough theoretical and experimental investigations of each separately, experiments and a unified theory of solitons and dispersive hydrodynamics are lacking. Here, a general soliton-mean field theory is introduced and used to describe the propagation of solitons in macroscopic hydrodynamic flows. Two universal adiabatic invariants of motion are identified that predict trapping or transmission of solitons by hydrodynamic states. The result of solitons incident upon smooth expansion waves or compressive, rapidly oscillating dispersive shock waves is the same, an effect termed hydrodynamic reciprocity. Experiments on viscous fluid conduits quantitatively confirm the soliton-mean field theory with broader implications for nonlinear optics, superfluids, geophysical fluids, and other dispersive hydrodynamic media.

  16. The Use of Biobased Surfactant Obtained by Enzymatic Syntheses for Wax Deposition Inhibition and Drag Reduction in Crude Oil Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil plays an important role in providing the energy supply of the world, and pipelines have long been recognized as the safest and most efficient means of transporting oil and its products. However, the transportation process also faces the challenges of asphaltene-paraffin structural interactions, pipeline pressure losses and energy consumption. In order to determine the role of drag-reducing surfactant additives in the transportation of crude oils, experiments of wax deposition inhibition and drag reduction of different oil in pipelines with a biobased surfactant obtained by enzymatic syntheses were carried out. The results indicated that heavy oil transportation in the pipeline is remarkably enhanced by creating stable oil-in-water (O/W emulsion with the surfactant additive. The wax appearance temperature (WAT and pour point were modified, and the formation of a space-filling network of interlocking wax crystals was prevented at low temperature by adding a small concentration of the surfactant additive. A maximum viscosity reduction of 70% and a drag reduction of 40% for light crude oil flows in pipelines were obtained with the surfactant additive at a concentration of 100 mg/L. Furthermore, a successful field application of the drag-reducing surfactant in a light crude oil pipeline in Daqing Oilfield was demonstrated. Hence, the use of biobased surfactant obtained by enzymatic syntheses in oil transportation is a potential method to address the current challenges, which could result in a significant energy savings and a considerable reduction of the operating cost.

  17. Annual Report: Hydrodynamics and Radiative Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Paul Drake

    2005-12-01

    We report the ongoing work of our group in hydrodynamics and radiative hydrodynamics with astrophysical applications. During the period of the existing grant, we have carried out two types of experiments at the Omega laser. One set of experiments has studied radiatively collapsing shocks, obtaining high-quality scaling data using a backlit pinhole and obtaining the first (ever, anywhere) Thomson-scattering data from a radiative shock. Other experiments have studied the deeply nonlinear development of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability from complex initial conditions, obtaining the first (ever, anywhere) dual-axis radiographic data using backlit pinholes and ungated detectors. All these experiments have applications to astrophysics, discussed in the corresponding papers either in print or in preparation. We also have obtained preliminary radiographs of experimental targets using our x-ray source. The targets for the experiments have been assembled at Michigan, where we also prepare many of the simple components. The above activities, in addition to a variety of data analysis and design projects, provide good experience for graduate and undergraduates students. In the process of doing this research we have built a research group that uses such work to train junior scientists.

  18. Creating drag and lift curves from soccer trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric; Kelley, John; Hobson, Chad M.; Seo, Kazuya; Asai, Takeshi; Choppin, S. B.

    2017-07-01

    Trajectory analysis is an alternative to using wind tunnels to measure a soccer ball’s aerodynamic properties. It has advantages over wind tunnel testing such as being more representative of game play. However, previous work has not presented a method that produces complete, speed-dependent drag and lift coefficients. Four high-speed cameras in stereo-calibrated pairs were used to measure the spatial co-ordinates for 29 separate soccer trajectories. Those trajectories span a range of launch speeds from 9.3 to 29.9 m s-1. That range encompasses low-speed laminar flow of air over a soccer ball, through the drag crises where air flow is both laminar and turbulent, and up to high-speed turbulent air flow. Results from trajectory analysis were combined to give speed-dependent drag and lift coefficient curves for the entire range of speeds found in the 29 trajectories. The average root mean square error between the measured and modelled trajectory was 0.028 m horizontally and 0.034 m vertically. The drag and lift crises can be observed in the plots of drag and lift coefficients respectively.

  19. Theory of Coulomb drag for massless Dirac fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrega, M; Principi, A; Polini, M; Tudorovskiy, T; Katsnelson, M I

    2012-01-01

    Coulomb drag between two unhybridized graphene sheets separated by a dielectric spacer has recently attracted considerable theoretical interest. We first review, for the sake of completeness, the main analytical results which have been obtained by other authors. We then illustrate pedagogically the minimal theory of Coulomb drag between two spatially separated two-dimensional systems of massless Dirac fermions which are both away from the charge-neutrality point. This relies on second-order perturbation theory in the screened interlayer interaction and on Boltzmann-transport theory. In this theoretical framework and in the low-temperature limit, we demonstrate that, to leading (i.e. quadratic) order in temperature, the drag transresistivity is completely insensitive to the precise intralayer momentum-relaxation mechanism (i.e. to the functional dependence of the transport scattering time on energy). We also provide analytical results for the low-temperature drag transresistivity for both cases of ‘thick’ and ‘thin’ spacers and for arbitrary values of the dielectric constants of the media surrounding the two Dirac-fermion layers. Finally, we present numerical results for the low-temperature drag transresistivity for the case when one of the media surrounding the Dirac-fermion layers has a frequency-dependent dielectric constant. We conclude by suggesting an experiment that can potentially allow for the observation of departures from the canonical quadratic-in-temperature behavior of the transresistivity. (paper)

  20. The effect of netting solidity ratio and inclined angle on the hydrodynamic characteristics of knotless polyethylene netting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Hu, Fuxiang; Xu, Liuxiong; Dong, Shuchuang; Zhou, Cheng; Wang, Xuefang

    2017-10-01

    Knotless polyethylene (PE) netting has been widely used in aquaculture cages and fishing gears, especially in Japan. In this study, the hydrodynamic coefficient of six knotless PE netting panels with different solidity ratios were assessed in a flume tank under various attack angles of netting from 0° (parallel to flow) to 90° (perpendicular to flow) and current speeds from 40 cm s-1 to 130 cm s-1. It was found that the drag coefficient was related to Reynolds number, solidity ratio and attack angle of netting. The solidity ratio was positively related with drag coefficient for netting panel perpendicular to flow, whereas when setting the netting panel parallel to the flow the opposite result was obtained. For netting panels placed at an angle to the flow, the lift coefficient reached the maximum at an attack angle of 50° and then decreased as the attack angle further increased. The solidity ratio had a dual influence on drag coefficient of inclined netting panels. Compared to result in the literature, the normal drag coefficient of knotless PE netting measured in this study is larger than that of nylon netting or Dyneema netting.

  1. Laser driven hydrodynamic instability experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remington, B.A.; Weber, S.V.; Haan, S.W.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Glendinning, S.G.; Wallace, R.J.; Goldstein, W.H.; Wilson, B.G.; Nash, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    We have conducted an extensive series of experiments on the Nova laser to measure hydrodynamic instabilities in planar foils accelerated by x-ray ablation. Single mode experiments allow a measurement of the fundamental growth rates from the linear well into the nonlinear regime; multimode foils allow an assessment of the degree of mode coupling; and surface-finish experiments allow a measurement of the evolution of a broad spectrum of random initial modes. Experimental results and comparisons with theory and simulations are presented

  2. Hydrodynamics of post CHF region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.; De Jarlais, G.

    1984-04-01

    Among various two-phase flow regimes, the inverted flow in the post-dryout region is relatively less well understood due to its special heat transfer conditions. The review of existing data indicates further research is needed in the areas of basic hydrodynamics related to liquid core disintegration mechanisms, slug and droplet formations, entrainment, and droplet size distributions. In view of this, the inverted flow is studied in detail both analytically and experimentally. Criteria for initial flow regimes in the post-dryout region are given. Preliminary models for subsequent flow regime transition criteria are derived together with correlations for a mean droplet diameter based on the adiabatic simulation data

  3. Problems in astrophysical radiation hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castor, J.I.

    1983-01-01

    The basic equations of radiation hydrodynamics are discussed in the regime that the radiation is dynamically as well as thermally important. Particular attention is paid to the question of what constitutes an acceptable approximate non-relativistic system of dynamical equations for matter and radiation in this regime. Further discussion is devoted to two classes of application of these ideas. The first class consists of problems dominated by line radiation, which is sensitive to the velocity field through the Doppler effect. The second class is of problems in which the advection of radiation by moving matter dominates radiation diffusion

  4. Hydrodynamics and stellar winds an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Maciel, Walter J

    2014-01-01

    Stellar winds are a common phenomenon in the life of stars, from the dwarfs like the Sun to the red giants and hot supergiants, constituting one of the basic aspects of modern astrophysics. Stellar winds are a hydrodynamic phenomenon in which circumstellar gases expand towards the interstellar medium. This book presents an elementary introduction to the fundamentals of hydrodynamics with an application to the study of stellar winds. The principles of hydrodynamics have many other applications, so that the book can be used as an introduction to hydrodynamics for students of physics, astrophysics and other related areas.

  5. Effect of trailing edge ramp on cavity flow structures and pressure drag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pey, Yin Yin; Chua, Leok Poh; Siauw, Wei Long

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Trailing edge ramps were used to reduce unsteadiness and pressure drag of a cavity. • Proper Orthogonal Decomposition was used to educe the coherent structures. • The 30° ramp was successful in redistributing the energy content within the cavity. • The 30° ramp guides the flow smoothly out of the cavity, reducing flow impingement. • A substantial reduction of pressure drag was achieved by the 30° ramp. -- Abstract: The effects of trailing edge ramp modifications on time-averaged velocity and pressure distributions within a cavity with a length to depth ratio of 2, at a speed of 15 m/s were investigated. The ramp angles were varied at 30°, 45° and 60° and ramp heights were varied at 0.25 times and 0.5 times of cavity depth. The mean flow within the cavity differed significantly from the baseline case when ramp angle was 30° and 45° with ramp height 0.5 times of cavity depth. At these 2 configurations, moment about the center of the cavity floor was reduced significantly. These could be attributed to the more steady flow within the cavity as compared to the baseline case. Spatial correlation of velocity in the cavity of ramp angle 30° showed that internal cavity flow was less sensitive to flow changes in the shear layer as compared to the baseline case. In the same cavity, snapshot Proper Orthogonal Decomposition revealed a redistribution of energy content where energetic structures exist only in the shear layer as opposed to energetic structures in both the shear layer and internal cavity for the baseline case. A reduction of pressure drag was also observed as the gentle ramp angle of 30° guides the flow smoothly out of the cavity and reduces trailing edge impingement

  6. Acoustic Liner Drag: Measurements on Novel Facesheet Perforate Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howerton, Brian M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Interest in characterization of the aerodynamic drag of acoustic liners has increased in the past several years. This paper details experiments in the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube to quantify the relative drag of several perforate-over-honeycomb liner configurations at flow speeds of centerline flow Mach number equals 0.3 and 0.5. Various perforate geometries and orientations are investigated to determine their resistance factors using a static pressure drop approach. Comparison of these resistance factors gives a relative measurement of liner drag. For these same flow conditions, acoustic measurements are performed with tonal excitation from 400 to 3000 hertz at source sound pressure levels of 140 and 150 decibels. Educed impedance and attenuation spectra are used to determine the impact of variations in perforate geometry on acoustic performance.

  7. On the energy economics of air lubrication drag reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo A. Mäkiharju

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Air lubrication techniques for frictional drag reduction on ships have been proposed by numerous researchers since the 19th century. However, these techniques have not been widely adopted as questions persist about their drag reduction performance beyond the laboratory, as well as energy and economic cost-benefit. This paper draws on data from the literature to consider the suitability of air lubrication for large ocean going and U.S. Great Lakes ships, by establishing the basic energy economic calculations and presenting results for a hypothetical air lubricated ship. All the assumptions made in the course of the analysis are clearly stated so that they can be refined when considering application of air lubrication to a specific ship. The analysis suggests that, if successfully implemented, both air layer and partial cavity drag reduction could lead to net energy savings of 10 to 20%, with corresponding reductions in emissions.

  8. Flexural phonon limited phonon drag thermopower in bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mohd Meenhaz; Ashraf, SSZ

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the phonon drag thermopower from flexural phonons as a function of electron temperature and carrier concentration in the Bloch-Gruneisen regime in non-strained bilayer graphene using Boltzmann transport equation approach. The flexural phonons are expected to be the major source of intrinsic scattering mechanism in unstrained bilayer graphene due to their large density. The flexural phonon modes dispersion relation is quadratic so these low energy flexural phonons abound at room temperature and as a result deform the bilayer graphene sheet in the out of plane direction and affects the transport properties. We also produce analytical result for phonon-drag thermopower from flexural phonons and find that phonon-drag thermopower depicts T2 dependence on temperature and n-1 on carrier concentration.

  9. Spanwise drag variation on low Re wings -- revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shanling; Spedding, Geoffrey

    2011-11-01

    Aerodynamic performance measurement and prediction of airfoils and wings at chord Reynolds numbers below 105 is both difficult and increasingly important in application to small-scale aircraft. Not only are the aerodynamics strongly affected by the dynamics of the unstable laminar boundary layer but the flow is decreasingly likely to be two-dimensional as Re decreases. The spanwise variation of the flow along a two-dimensional geometry is often held to be responsible for the large variations in measured profile drag coefficient. Here we measure local two-dimensional drag coefficients along a finite wing using non-intrusive PIV methods. Variations in Cd (y) can be related to local flow variations on the wing itself. Integrated values can be compared with force balance data, and the proper description of drag components at low Re will be discussed.

  10. Invariant description of solutions of hydrodynamic-type systems in hodograph space: hydrodynamic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferapontov, E.V.

    2002-01-01

    Hydrodynamic surfaces are solutions of hydrodynamic-type systems viewed as non-parametrized submanifolds of the hodograph space. We propose an invariant differential-geometric characterization of hydrodynamic surfaces by expressing the curvature form of the characteristic web in terms of the reciprocal invariants. (author)

  11. Storm surge and wave simulations in the Gulf of Mexico using a consistent drag relation for atmospheric and storm surge models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vatvani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To simulate winds and water levels, numerical weather prediction (NWP and storm surge models generally use the traditional bulk relation for wind stress, which is characterized by a wind drag coefficient. A still commonly used drag coefficient in those models, some of them were developed in the past, is based on a relation, according to which the magnitude of the coefficient is either constant or increases monotonically with increasing surface wind speed (Bender, 2007; Kim et al., 2008; Kohno and Higaki, 2006. The NWP and surge models are often tuned independently from each other in order to obtain good results. Observations have indicated that the magnitude of the drag coefficient levels off at a wind speed of about 30 m s−1, and then decreases with further increase of the wind speed. Above a wind speed of approximately 30 m s−1, the stress above the air-sea interface starts to saturate. To represent the reducing and levelling off of the drag coefficient, the original Charnock drag formulation has been extended with a correction term.

    In line with the above, the Delft3D storm surge model is tested using both Charnock's and improved Makin's wind drag parameterization to evaluate the improvements on the storm surge model results, with and without inclusion of the wave effects. The effect of waves on storm surge is included by simultaneously simulating waves with the SWAN model on identical model grids in a coupled mode. However, the results presented here will focus on the storm surge results that include the wave effects.

    The runs were carried out in the Gulf of Mexico for Katrina and Ivan hurricane events. The storm surge model was initially forced with H*wind data (Powell et al., 2010 to test the effect of the Makin's wind drag parameterization on the storm surge model separately. The computed wind, water levels and waves are subsequently compared with observation data. Based on the good

  12. An introduction to relativistic hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font, Jose A [Departamento de AstronomIa y AstrofIsica, Universidad de Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2007-11-15

    We review formulations of the equations of (inviscid) general relativistic hydrodynamics and (ideal) magnetohydrodynamics, along with methods for their numerical solution. Both systems can be cast as first-order, hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, following the explicit choice of an Eulerian observer and suitable fluid and magnetic field variables. During the last fifteen years, the so-called (upwind) high-resolution shock-capturing schemes based on Riemann solvers have been successfully extended from classical to relativistic fluid dynamics, both special and general. Nowadays, general relativistic hydrodynamical simulations in relativistic astrophysics are routinely performed, particularly within the test-fluid approximation but also for dynamical spacetimes. While such advances also hold true in the case of the MHD equations, the astrophysical applications investigated so far are still limited, yet the field is bound to witness major developments in the near future. The article also presents a brief overview of numerical techniques, providing state-of-the-art examples of their applicability to general relativistic fluids and magneto-fluids in characteristic scenarios of relativistic astrophysics.

  13. Inducer Hydrodynamic Load Measurement Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelley, Stephen E.; Zoladz, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has demonstrated two measurement devices for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on fluid machinery. The first - a derivative of the six component wind tunnel balance - senses the forces and moments on the rotating device through a weakened shaft section instrumented with a series of strain gauges. This "rotating balance" was designed to directly measure the steady and unsteady hydrodynamic loads on an inducer, thereby defining both the amplitude and frequency content associated with operating in various cavitation modes. The second device - a high frequency response pressure transducer surface mounted on a rotating component - was merely an extension of existing technology for application in water. MSFC has recently completed experimental evaluations of both the rotating balance and surface-mount transducers in a water test loop. The measurement bandwidth of the rotating balance was severely limited by the relative flexibility of the device itself, resulting in an unexpectedly low structural bending mode and invalidating the higher frequency response data. Despite these limitations, measurements confirmed that the integrated loads on the four-bladed inducer respond to both cavitation intensity and cavitation phenomena. Likewise, the surface-mount pressure transducers were subjected to a range of temperatures and flow conditions in a non-rotating environment to record bias shifts and transfer functions between the transducers and a reference device. The pressure transducer static performance was within manufacturer's specifications and dynamic response accurately followed that of the reference.

  14. CHASM Challenge Problem: Lagrangian Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornung, R [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Keasler, J [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gokhale, M [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-09-10

    Computer simulations of many science and engineering problems require modeling the equations of hydrodynamics which describe the motion of materials relative to each other induced by various forces. Many important DoD simulation problems involve complex multi-material systems that undergo large deformations. Examples include the analysis of armor defense, penetration mechanics, blast effects, structural integrity, and conventional munitions such as shaped charges and explosively formed projectiles. Indeed, the original motivation for developing codes that solve the equations of hydrodynamics, herein referred to as “hydrocodes”, was to solve problems with defense applications. The FY2010 Requirements Analysis Report issued by the DoD High Performance Computing Modernization Program (HPCMP) Office shows that a major portion of DoD HPC activities involves hydrocodes [HPCMP2010]. The report surveyed 496 projects across the Services and various Agencies, representing 4,050 HPCMP users at more than 125 locations, including government, contractors, and academia, and grouped each project into one of ten categories.

  15. Fluctuating hydrodynamics for ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaridis, Konstantinos [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Washington State University, Pullman, 99163 (United States); Wickham, Logan [Department of Computer Science, Washington State University, Richland, 99354 (United States); Voulgarakis, Nikolaos, E-mail: n.voulgarakis@wsu.edu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Washington State University, Pullman, 99163 (United States)

    2017-04-25

    We present a mean-field fluctuating hydrodynamics (FHD) method for studying the structural and transport properties of ionic liquids in bulk and near electrified surfaces. The free energy of the system consists of two competing terms: (1) a Landau–Lifshitz functional that models the spontaneous separation of the ionic groups, and (2) the standard mean-field electrostatic interaction between the ions in the liquid. The numerical approach used to solve the resulting FHD-Poisson equations is very efficient and models thermal fluctuations with remarkable accuracy. Such density fluctuations are sufficiently strong to excite the experimentally observed spontaneous formation of liquid nano-domains. Statistical analysis of our simulations provides quantitative information about the properties of ionic liquids, such as the mixing quality, stability, and the size of the nano-domains. Our model, thus, can be adequately parameterized by directly comparing our prediction with experimental measurements and all-atom simulations. Conclusively, this work can serve as a practical mathematical tool for testing various theories and designing more efficient mixtures of ionic liquids. - Highlights: • A new fluctuating hydrodynamics method for ionic liquids. • Description of ionic liquid morphology in bulk and near electrified surfaces. • Direct comparison with experimental measurements.

  16. Hydrodynamical fluctuations in smooth shear flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagelishvili, G.D.; Khujadze, G.R.; Lominadze, J.G.

    1999-11-01

    Background of hydrodynamical fluctuations in a intrinsically/stochastically forced, laminar, uniform shear flow is studied. The employment of so-called nonmodal mathematical analysis makes it possible to represent the background of fluctuations in a new light and to get more insight into the physics of its formation. The basic physical processes responsible for the formation of vortex and acoustic wave fluctuation backgrounds are analyzed. Interplay of the processes at low and moderate shear rates is described. Three-dimensional vortex fluctuations around a given macroscopic state are numerically calculated. The correlation functions of the fluctuations of physical quantities are analyzed. It is shown that there exists subspace D k in the wave-number space (k-space) that is limited externally by spherical surface with radius k ν ≡ A/ν (where A is the velocity shear parameter, ν - the kinematic viscosity) in the nonequilibrium open system under study. The spatial Fourier harmonics of vortex as well as acoustic wave fluctuations are strongly subjected by flow shear (by the open character of the system) at wave-numbers satisfying the condition k ν . Specifically it is shown that in D k : The fluctuations are non-Markovian; the spatial spectral density of energy of the vortex fluctuations by far exceeds the white-noise; the term of a new type associated to the hydrodynamical fluctuation of velocity appears in the correlation function of pressure; the fluctuation background of the acoustic waves is completely different at low and moderate shear rates (at low shear rates it is reduced in D k in comparison to the uniform (non-shear) flow; at moderate shear rates it it comparable to the background of the vortex fluctuations). The fluctuation background of both the vortex and the acoustic wave modes is anisotropic. The possible significance of the fluctuation background of vortices for the subcritical transition to turbulence and Brownian motion of small macroscopic

  17. The contact drag of towed demersal fishing gear components

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, F. G.; Summerbell, K.; Ivanović, A.

    2018-01-01

    The contact demersal towed fishing gears make with the seabed can lead to penetration of the substrate, lateral displacement of the sediment and a pressure field transmitted through the sediment. It will also contribute to the overall drag of the fishing gear. Consequently, there can be environmental effects such as habitat alteration and benthic mortality, and impacts to the fuel efficiency of the fishing operation which will affect emissions of nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and greenhouse gases such as CO2. Here we present the results of experimental trials that measure the contact drag of a range of elements that represent some of the components of towed demersal gears that are in contact with the seabed. We show that the contact drag of the gear components depends on their weight, geometry, the type of sediment on which they are towed and whether they are rolling or not. As expected, the contact drag of each gear component increases as its weight increases and the drag of fixed elements is greater than that of the rolling ones. The dependence on aspect ratio is more complex and the drag (per unit area) of narrow cylinders is less than that of wider ones when they roll on the finer sediment or are fixed (not permitted to roll) on the coarser sediment. When they roll on the coarse sediment there is no dependence on aspect ratio. Our results also suggest that fixed components may penetrate the seabed to a lesser depth when they are towed at higher speeds but when they roll there is no such relationship.

  18. Effect of Surface Roughness on Polymer Drag Reduction with a High-Reynolds-Number Turbulent Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Brian; Dowling, David; Solomon, Michael; Bian, Sherry; Ceccio, Steven

    2007-11-01

    A recent experiment at the U.S. Navy's Large Cavitation Channel (LCC) investigated the effect of wall roughness on wall-injection polymer drag reduction (PDR) within a high-Reynolds-number (10^7 to 2x10^8 based on downstream distance) turbulent boundary layer (TBL). Testing was performed in two parts: 1) PDR experiment on a 12.9 m long, 3.05 m wide hydro-dynamically smooth flat plate and 2) PDR experiment on the same model with the entire surface roughened. The roughness was produced by blowing glass beads into epoxy paint that was applied to the entire model. The roughened model had an average roughness height ranging between 307 and 1154 μm. Drag reduction was determined using six, stream-wise located integrated skin-friction balances. In addition to skin-friction measurements, sampling was performed at three stream-wise located ports. The sampling ports were used to determine the amount of degradation, if any, caused by the turbulent flow on the polymer. Both the skin-friction measurements and sampling analysis indicates that wall roughness in a turbulent boundary layer significantly increases degradation of the polymer solution.

  19. Hydrodynamics of Bubble Columns: Turbulence and Population Balance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Braga Vieira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an in-depth numerical analysis on the hydrodynamics of a bubble column. As in previous works on the subject, the focus here is on three important parameters characterizing the flow: interfacial forces, turbulence and inlet superficial Gas Velocity (UG. The bubble size distribution is taken into account by the use of the Quadrature Method of Moments (QMOM model in a two-phase Euler-Euler approach using the open-source Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD code OpenFOAM (Open Field Operation and Manipulation. The interfacial forces accounted for in all the simulations presented here are drag, lift and virtual mass. For the turbulence analysis in the water phase, three versions of the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS k-ε turbulence model are examined: namely, the standard, modified and mixture variants. The lift force proves to be of major importance for a trustworthy prediction of the gas volume fraction profiles for all the (superficial gas velocities tested. Concerning the turbulence, the mixture k-ε model is seen to provide higher values of the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate in comparison to the other models, and this clearly affects the prediction of the gas volume fraction in the bulk region, and the bubble-size distribution. In general, the modified k-ε model proves to be a good compromise between modeling simplicity and accuracy in the study of bubble columns of the kind undertaken here.

  20. Hydrodynamic aspects of thrust generation in gymnotiform swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirgaonkar, Anup A.; Curet, Oscar M.; Patankar, Neelesh A.; Maciver, Malcolm A.

    2008-11-01

    The primary propulsor in gymnotiform swimmers is a fin running along most of the ventral midline of the fish. The fish propagates traveling waves along this ribbon fin to generate thrust. This unique mode of thrust generation gives these weakly electric fish great maneuverability cluttered spaces. To understand the mechanical basis of gymnotiform propulsion, we investigated the hydrodynamics of a model ribbon-fin of an adult black ghost knifefish using high-resolution numerical experiments. We found that the principal mechanism of thrust generation is a central jet imparting momentum to the fluid with associated vortex rings near the free edge of the fin. The high-fidelity simulations also reveal secondary vortex rings potentially useful in rapid sideways maneuvers. We obtained the scaling of thrust with respect to the traveling wave kinematic parameters. Using a fin-plate model for a fish, we also discuss improvements to Lighthill's inviscid theory for gymnotiform and balistiform modes in terms of thrust magnitude, viscous drag on the body, and momentum enhancement.

  1. Locus of the apices of projectile trajectories under constant drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Saldaña, H.

    2017-11-01

    Using the hodograph method, we present an analytical solution for projectile coplanar motion under constant drag, parametrised by the velocity angle. We find the locus formed by the apices of the projectile trajectories, and discuss its implementation for the motion of a particle on an inclined plane in presence of Coulomb friction. The range and time of flight are obtained numerically, and we find that the optimal launching angle is smaller than in the drag-free case. This is a good example of a problem with constant dissipation of energy that includes curvature; it is appropriate for intermediate courses of mechanics.

  2. The effects of Poynting–Robertson drag on solar sails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Abd El-Salam

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the concept of solar sailing and its developing spacecraft are presented. The effects of Poynting–Robertson drag on solar sails are considered. Some analytical control laws with some mentioned input constraints for optimizing solar sails dynamics in heliocentric orbit using Lagrange’s planetary equations are obtained. Optimum force vector in a required direction is maximized by deriving optimal sail cone angle. New control laws that maximize thrust to obtain certain required maximization in some particular orbital element are obtained. Keywords: Poynting–Robertson drag, Solar sail, Control laws, Optimal sail, Cone angle

  3. A hypersonic lift mechanism with decoupled lift and drag surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, YiZhe; Xu, ZhiQi; Li, ShaoGuang; Li, Juan; Bai, ChenYuan; Wu, ZiNiu

    2013-05-01

    In the present study, we propose a novel lift mechanism for which the lifting surface produces only lift. This is achieved by mounting a two-dimensional shock-shock interaction generator below the lifting surface. The shock-shock interaction theory in conjunction with a three dimensional correction and checked with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to analyze the lift and drag forces as function of the geometrical parameters and inflow Mach number. Through this study, though limited to only inviscid flow, we conclude that it is possible to obtain a high lift to drag ratio by suitably arranging the shock interaction generator.

  4. Development of drag disk and turbines at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodrich, L.D.; Edson, J.L.; Averill, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    One of the parameters that must be measured in nuclear safety research is mass flow rate. The reactor environment associated with two-phase flow makes this measurement difficult. To accomplish this at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, a drag disk and turbine transducer conbination was developed. These transducers can withstand >2000 h of continuous operation in the reactor environment. Mechanical problems have been solved with these transducers to the point where the electrical coils are now the limiting factor on lifetime. This paper presents the results of the development of the drag disk and turbine with problems and solutions pointed out

  5. Drag force in a strongly coupled anisotropic plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernicoff, Mariano; Fernández, Daniel; Mateos, David; Trancanelli, Diego

    2012-08-01

    We calculate the drag force experienced by an infinitely massive quark propagating at constant velocity through an anisotropic, strongly coupled {N} = 4 plasma by means of its gravity dual. We find that the gluon cloud trailing behind the quark is generally misaligned with the quark velocity, and that the latter is also misaligned with the force. The drag coefficient μ can be larger or smaller than the corresponding isotropic value depending on the velocity and the direction of motion. In the ultra-relativistic limit we find that generically μ ∝ p. We discuss the conditions under which this behaviour may extend to more general situations.

  6. Control of the electromagnetic drag using fluctuating light fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Víctor J. López; Marqués, Manuel I.

    2018-05-01

    An expression for the electromagnetic drag force experienced by an electric dipole in a light field consisting of a monochromatic plane wave with polarization and phase randomly fluctuating is obtained. The expression explicitly considers the transformations of the field and frequency due to the Doppler shift and the change of the polarizability response of the electric dipole. The conditions to be fulfilled by the polarizability of the dipole in order to obtain a positive, a null, and a negative drag coefficient are analytically determined and checked against numerical simulations for the dynamics of a silver nanoparticle. The theoretically predicted diffusive, superdiffusive, and exponentially accelerated dynamical regimes are numerically confirmed.

  7. Determination of the drag resistance coefficients of different vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahsl, Christoph; Vogt, Patrik

    2018-05-01

    While it has been demonstrated how air resistance could be analyzed by using mobile devices, this paper demonstrates a method of how to determine the drag resistance coefficient c of a commercial automobile by using the acceleration sensor of a smartphone or tablet. In an academic context, the drag resistance is often mentioned, but little attention is paid to quantitative measurements. This experiment was driven by the fact that this physical value is most certainly neglected because of its difficult measurability. In addition to that, this experiment gives insights on how the aerodynamic factor of an automobile affects the energy dissipation and thus how much power is required by automobile transportation.

  8. Aeroelastic Modeling of Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept via Wing Shaping Control for Drag Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; James Urnes, Sr.

    2012-01-01

    Lightweight aircraft design has received a considerable attention in recent years as a means for improving cruise efficiency. Reducing aircraft weight results in lower lift requirements which directly translate into lower drag, hence reduced engine thrust requirements during cruise. The use of lightweight materials such as advanced composite materials has been adopted by airframe manufacturers in current and future aircraft. Modern lightweight materials can provide less structural rigidity while maintaining load-carrying capacity. As structural flexibility increases, aeroelastic interactions with aerodynamic forces and moments become an increasingly important consideration in aircraft design and aerodynamic performance. Furthermore, aeroelastic interactions with flight dynamics can result in issues with vehicle stability and control. Abstract This paper describes a recent aeroelastic modeling effort for an elastically shaped aircraft concept (ESAC). The aircraft model is based on the rigid-body generic transport model (GTM) originally developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The ESAC distinguishes itself from the GTM in that it is equipped with highly flexible wing structures as a weight reduction design feature. More significantly, the wings are outfitted with a novel control effector concept called variable camber continuous trailing edge (VCCTE) flap system for active control of wing aeroelastic deflections to optimize the local angle of attack of wing sections for improved aerodynamic efficiency through cruise drag reduction and lift enhancement during take-off and landing. The VCCTE flap is a multi-functional and aerodynamically efficient device capable of achieving high lift-to-drag ratios. The flap system is comprised of three chordwise segments that form the variable camber feature of the flap and multiple spanwise segments that form a piecewise continuous trailing edge. By configuring the flap camber and trailing edge shape, drag reduction could be

  9. Drag reduction in oil flows; Reducao da perda de carga durante o escoamento de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Nelson de Oliveira; Carvalho, Carlos Henrique M. de; Ziglio, Claudio Marcos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Noronha, Francisco de Assis; Silva, Aldo Manoel Borburema da [PETROBRAS S.A., Natal, RN (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio RN/CE; Santos, Anderson Oliveira; Rizzo, Rodrigo Gouveia de O.; Sanatana, Marcos Antonio de Oliveira [PETROBRAS S.A., Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio SE/AL

    2008-07-01

    The strong world demand for petroleum has increased interest in optimizing the production from mature fields. To do this, it is necessary to use recovery methods that are associated with others that generally use water and/or steam injection, aimed at increasing the production. In parallel with the increase in water production from mature fields, it is evident that there is an increase in viscosity of the liquid phase. This is due to the formation of an emulsion during the lift and flow processes, principally caused by the agitation and shearing, which in turn provoke less oil mobility and high pressure in the production systems. For this reason the oil flow has become a challenge to the production and this is highlighted in the technological innovation scenario in the petroleum industry. Different situations are observed in the production scenario where the following are found: oil production with high BSW, low BSW and /or stable emulsions. The study of the phenomenon to reduce the drag during the turbulent flow, through the injection of polymeric type chemical additives with high molecular weight has been the subject of various surveys over the past few years. The employment of chemical additives containing a drag-reducing agent known as DRA (Drag-Reducing Agents), in turbulent flows, allows for a lower pressure to maintain or to even increase the production capacity. In this study, a mathematic equation of the problem will be presented and the operational methods employed. The performance of different multi functional chemical additives are shown, which are capable of maintaining the flow, either by breaking the emulsion, or by modifying the flow regime, culminating in the reduction of the loss of load during the production flow. (author)

  10. Hydrodynamics and propulsion mechanism of self-propelled catalytic micromotors: model and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longqiu; Wang, Jiyuan; Li, Tianlong; Song, Wenping; Zhang, Guangyu

    2014-10-14

    The hydrodynamic behavior and propulsion mechanism of self-propelled micromotors are studied theoretically and experimentally. A hydrodynamic model to describe bubble growth and detachment is proposed to investigate the mechanism of a self-propelled conical tubular catalytic micromotor considering bubble geometric asymmetry and buoyancy force. The growth force caused by the growth of the bubble surface against the fluid is the driving force for micromotor motion. Also, the buoyancy force plays a primary role in bubble detachment. The effect of geometrical parameters on the micromotor velocity and drag force is presented. The bubble radius ratio is investigated for different micromotor radii to determine its hydrodynamic behavior during bubble ejection. The average micromotor velocity is found to be strongly dependent on the semi-cone angle, expelling frequency and bubble radius ratio. The semi-cone angle has a significant effect on the expelling frequency for conical tubular micromotors. The predicted results are compared to already existing experimental data for cylindrical micromotors (semi-cone angle δ = 0°) and conical micromotors. A good agreement is found between the theoretical calculation and experimental results. This model provides a profound explanation for the propulsion mechanism of a catalytic micromotor and can be used to optimize the micromotor design for its biomedical and environmental applications.

  11. Unsteady hydrodynamic forces acting on a robotic hand and its flow field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hideki; Nakashima, Motomu; Ozaki, Takashi; Matsuuchi, Kazuo

    2013-07-26

    This study aims to clarify the mechanism of generating unsteady hydrodynamic forces acting on a hand during swimming in order to directly measure the forces, pressure distribution, and flow field around the hand by using a robotic arm and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The robotic arm consisted of the trunk, shoulder, upper arm, forearm, and hand, and it was independently computer controllable in five degrees of freedom. The elbow-joint angle of the robotic arm was fixed at 90°, and the arm was moved in semicircles around the shoulder joint in a plane perpendicular to the water surface. Two-component PIV was used for flow visualization around the hand. The data of the forces and pressure acting on the hand were sampled at 200Hz and stored on a PC. When the maximum resultant force acting on the hand was observed, a pair of counter-rotating vortices appeared on the dorsal surface of the hand. A vortex attached to the hand increased the flow velocity, which led to decreased surface pressure, increasing the hydrodynamic forces. This phenomenon is known as the unsteady mechanism of force generation. We found that the drag force was 72% greater and the lift force was 4.8 times greater than the values estimated under steady flow conditions. Therefore, it is presumable that swimmers receive the benefits of this unsteady hydrodynamic force. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydrodynamic thrust generation and power consumption investigations for piezoelectric fins with different aspect ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab, S.; Tan, D.; Erturk, A.

    2015-12-01

    Bio-inspired hydrodynamic thrust generation using piezoelectric transduction has recently been explored using Macro-Fiber Composite (MFC) actuators. The MFC technology strikes a balance between the actuation force and structural deformation levels for effective swimming performance, and additionally offers geometric scalability, silent operation, and ease of fabrication. Recently we have shown that mean thrust levels comparable to biological fish of similar size can be achieved using MFC fins. The present work investigates the effect of length-to-width (L/b) aspect ratio on the hydrodynamic thrust generation performance of MFC cantilever fins by accounting for the power consumption level. It is known that the hydrodynamic inertia and drag coefficients are controlled by the aspect ratio especially for L/bdrag coefficients from the vibration response to harmonic actuation for the first bending mode. Experiments are then conducted for various actuation voltage levels to quantify the mean thrust resultant and power consumption levels for different aspect ratios. Variation of the thrust coefficient of the MFC bimorph fins with changing aspect ratio is also semi-empirically modeled and presented.

  13. Hydrodynamic Overview at Hot Quarks 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn

    2017-01-01

    Event-by-event relativistic hydrodynamics has been extremely successful in describing flow observables in heavy-ion collisions. However, the initial state and viscosity simultaneously affect comparisons to data so a discussion of experimental observables that help to distinguish the two follows. Specific problems that arise in the hydrodynamical modeling at the Beam Energy Scan are also addressed. (paper)

  14. Two-fluid hydrodynamic model for semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maack, Johan Rosenkrantz; Mortensen, N. Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2018-01-01

    The hydrodynamic Drude model (HDM) has been successful in describing the optical properties of metallic nanostructures, but for semiconductors where several different kinds of charge carriers are present an extended theory is required. We present a two-fluid hydrodynamic model for semiconductors...

  15. Hemolytic potential of hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, S D; Bartlett, R H; Ceccio, S L

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the hemolytic potentials of discrete bubble cavitation and attached cavitation. To generate controlled cavitation events, a venturigeometry hydrodynamic device, called a Cavitation Susceptibility Meter (CSM), was constructed. A comparison between the hemolytic potential of discrete bubble cavitation and attached cavitation was investigated with a single-pass flow apparatus and a recirculating flow apparatus, both utilizing the CSM. An analytical model, based on spherical bubble dynamics, was developed for predicting the hemolysis caused by discrete bubble cavitation. Experimentally, discrete bubble cavitation did not correlate with a measurable increase in plasma-free hemoglobin (PFHb), as predicted by the analytical model. However, attached cavitation did result in significant PFHb generation. The rate of PFHb generation scaled inversely with the Cavitation number at a constant flow rate, suggesting that the size of the attached cavity was the dominant hemolytic factor.

  16. Deterministic hydrodynamics: Taking blood apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John A.; Inglis, David W.; Morton, Keith J.; Lawrence, David A.; Huang, Lotien R.; Chou, Stephen Y.; Sturm, James C.; Austin, Robert H.

    2006-10-01

    We show the fractionation of whole blood components and isolation of blood plasma with no dilution by using a continuous-flow deterministic array that separates blood components by their hydrodynamic size, independent of their mass. We use the technology we developed of deterministic arrays which separate white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets from blood plasma at flow velocities of 1,000 μm/sec and volume rates up to 1 μl/min. We verified by flow cytometry that an array using focused injection removed 100% of the lymphocytes and monocytes from the main red blood cell and platelet stream. Using a second design, we demonstrated the separation of blood plasma from the blood cells (white, red, and platelets) with virtually no dilution of the plasma and no cellular contamination of the plasma. cells | plasma | separation | microfabrication

  17. The hydrodynamic theory of detonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langweiler, Heinz

    1939-01-01

    This report derives equations containing only directly measurable constants for the quantities involved in the hydrodynamic theory of detonation. The stable detonation speed, D, is revealed as having the lowest possible value in the case of positive material velocity, by finding the minimum of the Du curve (u denotes the speed of the gases of combustion). A study of the conditions of energy and impulse in freely suspended detonating systems leads to the disclosure of a rarefaction front traveling at a lower speed behind the detonation front; its velocity is computed. The latent energy of the explosive passes into the steadily growing detonation zone - the region between the detonation front and the rarefaction front. The conclusions lead to a new definition of the concept of shattering power. The calculations are based on the behavior of trinitrotoluene.

  18. Fluctuating nonlinear hydrodynamics of flocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sunil Kumar; Das, Shankar P.

    2018-03-01

    Starting from a microscopic model, the continuum field theoretic description of the dynamics of a system of active ingredients or "particles" is presented. The equations of motion for the respective collective densities of mass and momentum follow exactly from that of a single element in the flock. The single-particle dynamics has noise and anomalous momentum dependence in its frictional terms. The equations for the collective densities are averaged over a local equilibrium distribution to obtain the corresponding coarse grained equations of fluctuating nonlinear hydrodynamics (FNH). The latter are the equations used frequently for describing active systems on the basis of intuitive arguments. The transport coefficients which appear in the macroscopic FNH equations are determined in terms of the parameters of the microscopic dynamics.

  19. Hydrodynamics and phases of flocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toner, John; Tu Yuhai; Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2005-01-01

    We review the past decade's theoretical and experimental studies of flocking: the collective, coherent motion of large numbers of self-propelled 'particles' (usually, but not always, living organisms). Like equilibrium condensed matter systems, flocks exhibit distinct 'phases' which can be classified by their symmetries. Indeed, the phases that have been theoretically studied to date each have exactly the same symmetry as some equilibrium phase (e.g., ferromagnets, liquid crystals). This analogy with equilibrium phases of matter continues in that all flocks in the same phase, regardless of their constituents, have the same 'hydrodynamic'-that is, long-length scale and long-time behavior, just as, e.g., all equilibrium fluids are described by the Navier-Stokes equations. Flocks are nonetheless very different from equilibrium systems, due to the intrinsically nonequilibrium self-propulsion of the constituent 'organisms'. This difference between flocks and equilibrium systems is most dramatically manifested in the ability of the simplest phase of a flock, in which all the organisms are, on average moving in the same direction (we call this a 'ferromagnetic' flock; we also use the terms 'vector-ordered' and 'polar-ordered' for this situation) to exist even in two dimensions (i.e., creatures moving on a plane), in defiance of the well-known Mermin-Wagner theorem of equilibrium statistical mechanics, which states that a continuous symmetry (in this case, rotation invariance, or the ability of the flock to fly in any direction) can not be spontaneously broken in a two-dimensional system with only short-ranged interactions. The 'nematic' phase of flocks, in which all the creatures move preferentially, or are simply oriented preferentially, along the same axis, but with equal probability of moving in either direction, also differs dramatically from its equilibrium counterpart (in this case, nematic liquid crystals). Specifically, it shows enormous number fluctuations, which

  20. Anomalous hydrodynamics kicks neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Matthias, E-mail: mski@ua.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2 (Canada); Uhlemann, Christoph F. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Bleicher, Marcus [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe Universität Frankfurt (Germany); Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe Universität Frankfurt (Germany)

    2016-09-10

    Observations show that, at the beginning of their existence, neutron stars are accelerated briskly to velocities of up to a thousand kilometers per second. We argue that this remarkable effect can be explained as a manifestation of quantum anomalies on astrophysical scales. To theoretically describe the early stage in the life of neutron stars we use hydrodynamics as a systematic effective-field-theory framework. Within this framework, anomalies of the Standard Model of particle physics as underlying microscopic theory imply the presence of a particular set of transport terms, whose form is completely fixed by theoretical consistency. The resulting chiral transport effects in proto-neutron stars enhance neutrino emission along the internal magnetic field, and the recoil can explain the order of magnitude of the observed kick velocities.

  1. Hydrodynamic dispersion within porous biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Davit, Y.

    2013-01-23

    Many microorganisms live within surface-associated consortia, termed biofilms, that can form intricate porous structures interspersed with a network of fluid channels. In such systems, transport phenomena, including flow and advection, regulate various aspects of cell behavior by controlling nutrient supply, evacuation of waste products, and permeation of antimicrobial agents. This study presents multiscale analysis of solute transport in these porous biofilms. We start our analysis with a channel-scale description of mass transport and use the method of volume averaging to derive a set of homogenized equations at the biofilm-scale in the case where the width of the channels is significantly smaller than the thickness of the biofilm. We show that solute transport may be described via two coupled partial differential equations or telegrapher\\'s equations for the averaged concentrations. These models are particularly relevant for chemicals, such as some antimicrobial agents, that penetrate cell clusters very slowly. In most cases, especially for nutrients, solute penetration is faster, and transport can be described via an advection-dispersion equation. In this simpler case, the effective diffusion is characterized by a second-order tensor whose components depend on (1) the topology of the channels\\' network; (2) the solute\\'s diffusion coefficients in the fluid and the cell clusters; (3) hydrodynamic dispersion effects; and (4) an additional dispersion term intrinsic to the two-phase configuration. Although solute transport in biofilms is commonly thought to be diffusion dominated, this analysis shows that hydrodynamic dispersion effects may significantly contribute to transport. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  2. On the variability of sea drag in finite water depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffoli, A.; Loffredo, L.; Le Roy, P.; LefèVre, J.-M.; Babanin, A. V.

    2012-11-01

    The coupling between the atmospheric boundary layer and the ocean surface in large-scale models is usually parameterized in terms of the sea drag coefficient, which is routinely estimated as a function of mean wind speed. The scatter of data around such parametric dependencies, however, is very significant and imposes a serious limitation on the forecasts and predictions that make use of sea surface drag parameterizations. The analysis of an atmospheric and wave data set collected in finite water depth at the Lake George measurement site (Australia) suggests that this variability relates to a number of parameters at the air-sea interface other than wind speed alone. In particular, results indicate that the sea drag depends on water depth and wave steepness, which make the wave profile more vertically asymmetric, and the concentration of water vapor in the air, which modifies air density and friction velocity. These dependencies are used to derive parametric functions based on the combined contribution of wind, waves and relative humidity. A standard statistical analysis confirms a substantial improvement in the prediction of the drag coefficient and sea surface roughness when additional parameters are taken into account.

  3. Measurements of the Drag Coefficient of Simulated Micrometeoroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, M.; Munsat, T.; Sternovsky, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The dust accelerator facility operated at the University of Colorado is used to simulate meteoric ablation, including measuring the ionization efficiency over a wide range of velocities (e.g., DeLuca et al., Planet. Space Sci., submitted, 2017). This presentation reports on the most recent experimental measurements of the drag coefficient that determines the particles' slowdown from their frictional interaction with the atmosphere. The measurements indicate that meteors experience considerably more slowdown than usually assumed. The simulated meteors consisted of submicron sized aluminum particles shot into an air chamber held at 200 mTorr pressure at velocities between 1 - 10 km/s using the dust accelerator and meteor ablation facility. The slowdown is calculated from precise timing measurements made using pickup tube detectors placed upstream and near the entrance to the air chamber, and an impact detector inside the air chamber at the downstream end of the chamber. Supporting modeling calculations show that the particles have little or no mass loss during their interaction with air and thus constant radius can be assumed. Preliminary results for the drag coefficient calculated from these timing measurements reveal that the aluminum particles have a drag coefficient of 1.51 ± 0.24 in air, which is higher than typically assumed in meteoric ablation models (usually 0.5 to 1), indicating that meteors may experience more air drag than previously assumed. More detailed measurements over a wider parameter range are underway.

  4. Investigation of drag effect using the field signature method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Zhengjun; Liao, Junbi; Tian, Gui Yun; Cheng, Liang

    2011-01-01

    The potential drop (PD) method is an established non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique. The monitoring of internal corrosion, erosion and cracks in piping systems, based on electrical field mapping or direct current potential drop array, is also known as the field signature method (FSM). The FSM has been applied in the field of submarine pipe monitoring and land-based oil and gas transmission pipes and containers. In the experimental studies, to detect and calculate the degree of pipe corrosion, the FSM analyses the relationships between the electrical resistance and pipe thickness using an electrode matrix. The relevant drag effect or trans-resistance will cause a large margin of error in the application of resistance arrays. It is the first time that the drag effect in the paper is investigated and analysed in resistance networks with the help of the FSM. Subsequently, a method to calculate the drag factors and eliminate its errors is proposed and presented. Theoretical analysis, simulation and experimental results show that the measurement accuracy can be improved by eliminating the errors caused by the drag effect

  5. Plasmon-mediated Coulomb drag between graphene waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shylau, Artsem A.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2014-01-01

    We analyze theoretically charge transport in Coulomb coupled graphene waveguides (GWGs). The GWGs are defined using antidot lattices, and the lateral geometry bypasses many technological challenges of earlier designs. The drag resistivity ρD, which is a measure of the many-particle interactions...

  6. Drag reduction of dense fine-grained slurries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Pavel; Chára, Zdeněk; Štern, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 4 (2010), s. 261-270 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/10/1574 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : kaolin slurry * drag reduction * experimental investigation * peptization * slurry rheology Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.553, year: 2010

  7. Aerodynamic drag reduction tests on a box-shaped vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, R. L.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    The intent of the present experiment is to define a near optimum value of drag coefficient for a high volume type of vehicle through the use of a boattail, on a vehicle already having rounded front corners and an underbody seal, or fairing. The results of these tests will constitute a baseline for later follow-on studies to evaluate candidate methods of obtaining afterbody drag coefficients approaching the boattail values, but without resorting to such impractical afterbody extensions. The current modifications to the box-shaped vehicle consisted of a full and truncated boattail in conjunction with the faired and sealed underbody. Drag results from these configurations are compared with corresponding wind tunnel results of a 1/10 scale model. Test velocities ranged up to 96.6 km/h (60 mph) and the corresponding Reynolds numbers ranged up to 1.3 x 10 to the 7th power based on the vehicles length which includes the boattail. A simple coast-down technique was used to define drag.

  8. Experimental investigation of drag reduction by forward facing high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Substantial aerodynamic drag, while flying at hypersonic Mach number, due to the presence of strong ... atmospheric flight of hypersonic vehicles, large-angle blunt-cone configurations are preferred at the cost of .... This paper is dedicated to Dr P R Viswanath for his contributions to experimental research in aerodynamics.

  9. Drag power kite with very high lift coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, F.; Kennel, R.M.; Hackl, C.M.; Campagnolo, F.; Patt, M.; Schmehl, R.

    2018-01-01

    As an alternative to conventional wind turbines, this study considered kites with onboard wind turbines driven by a high airspeed due to crosswind flight (“drag power”). The hypothesis of this study was, that if the kite's lift coefficient is maximized, then the power, energy yield, allowed costs

  10. Design and performance of the drag-disc turbine transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averill, R.H.; Goodrich, L.D.; Ford, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    Mass flow rates at the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility, EG and G Idaho, Inc., at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, are measured with the drag-disc turbine transducer (DTT). Operational description of the DTT and the developmental effort are discussed. Performance data and experiences with this transducer have been evaluated and are presented in this paper

  11. Separability of drag and thrust in undulatory animals and machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Rahul; Shirgaonkar, Anup A.; Neveln, Izaak D.; Bhalla, Amneet Pal Singh; Maciver, Malcolm A.; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2014-12-01

    For nearly a century, researchers have tried to understand the swimming of aquatic animals in terms of a balance between the forward thrust from swimming movements and drag on the body. Prior approaches have failed to provide a separation of these two forces for undulatory swimmers such as lamprey and eels, where most parts of the body are simultaneously generating drag and thrust. We nonetheless show that this separation is possible, and delineate its fundamental basis in undulatory swimmers. Our approach unifies a vast diversity of undulatory aquatic animals (anguilliform, sub-carangiform, gymnotiform, bal-istiform, rajiform) and provides design principles for highly agile bioinspired underwater vehicles. This approach has practical utility within biology as well as engineering. It is a predictive tool for use in understanding the role of the mechanics of movement in the evolutionary emergence of morphological features relating to locomotion. For example, we demonstrate that the drag-thrust separation framework helps to predict the observed height of the ribbon fin of electric knifefish, a diverse group of neotropical fish which are an important model system in sensory neurobiology. We also show how drag-thrust separation leads to models that can predict the swimming velocity of an organism or a robotic vehicle.

  12. Deconstructing Hub Drag. Part 2. Computational Development and Anaysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    leveraged a Vertical Lift Consortium ( VLC )-funded hub drag scaling research effort. To confirm this objective, correlations are performed with the...Technology™ Demonstrator aircraft using an unstructured computational solver. These simpler faired elliptical geome- tries can prove to be challenging ...possible. However, additional funding was obtained from the Vertical Lift Consortium ( VLC ) to perform this study. This analysis is documented in

  13. Clock transport synchronisation and the dragging of inertial frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenblum, Arnold

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that it is possible, by using the lack of synchronisation of clocks by clock transport synchronisation in circular orbits, to test for the dragging of inertial frames in Einstein's theory of general relativity. Possible experiments are discussed. (author)

  14. An Aerodynamic Database for the Mk 82 General Purpose Low Drag Bomb

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krishnamoorthy, L

    1997-01-01

    The drag database of the Mk 82 General Purpose Low Drag bomb, the primary gravity weapon in the RAAF inventory, has some shortcomings in the quality and traceability of data, and in the variations due...

  15. Hydrodynamics-based functional forms of activity metabolism: a case for the power-law polynomial function in animal swimming energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The first-degree power-law polynomial function is frequently used to describe activity metabolism for steady swimming animals. This function has been used in hydrodynamics-based metabolic studies to evaluate important parameters of energetic costs, such as the standard metabolic rate and the drag power indices. In theory, however, the power-law polynomial function of any degree greater than one can be used to describe activity metabolism for steady swimming animals. In fact, activity metabolism has been described by the conventional exponential function and the cubic polynomial function, although only the power-law polynomial function models drag power since it conforms to hydrodynamic laws. Consequently, the first-degree power-law polynomial function yields incorrect parameter values of energetic costs if activity metabolism is governed by the power-law polynomial function of any degree greater than one. This issue is important in bioenergetics because correct comparisons of energetic costs among different steady swimming animals cannot be made unless the degree of the power-law polynomial function derives from activity metabolism. In other words, a hydrodynamics-based functional form of activity metabolism is a power-law polynomial function of any degree greater than or equal to one. Therefore, the degree of the power-law polynomial function should be treated as a parameter, not as a constant. This new treatment not only conforms to hydrodynamic laws, but also ensures correct comparisons of energetic costs among different steady swimming animals. Furthermore, the exponential power-law function, which is a new hydrodynamics-based functional form of activity metabolism, is a special case of the power-law polynomial function. Hence, the link between the hydrodynamics of steady swimming and the exponential-based metabolic model is defined.

  16. Hydrodynamics-based functional forms of activity metabolism: a case for the power-law polynomial function in animal swimming energetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Papadopoulos

    Full Text Available The first-degree power-law polynomial function is frequently used to describe activity metabolism for steady swimming animals. This function has been used in hydrodynamics-based metabolic studies to evaluate important parameters of energetic costs, such as the standard metabolic rate and the drag power indices. In theory, however, the power-law polynomial function of any degree greater than one can be used to describe activity metabolism for steady swimming animals. In fact, activity metabolism has been described by the conventional exponential function and the cubic polynomial function, although only the power-law polynomial function models drag power since it conforms to hydrodynamic laws. Consequently, the first-degree power-law polynomial function yields incorrect parameter values of energetic costs if activity metabolism is governed by the power-law polynomial function of any degree greater than one. This issue is important in bioenergetics because correct comparisons of energetic costs among different steady swimming animals cannot be made unless the degree of the power-law polynomial function derives from activity metabolism. In other words, a hydrodynamics-based functional form of activity metabolism is a power-law polynomial function of any degree greater than or equal to one. Therefore, the degree of the power-law polynomial function should be treated as a parameter, not as a constant. This new treatment not only conforms to hydrodynamic laws, but also ensures correct comparisons of energetic costs among different steady swimming animals. Furthermore, the exponential power-law function, which is a new hydrodynamics-based functional form of activity metabolism, is a special case of the power-law polynomial function. Hence, the link between the hydrodynamics of steady swimming and the exponential-based metabolic model is defined.

  17. An investigation into the mechanisms of drag reduction of a boat tailed base cavity on a blunt based body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehs, Joshua Paul

    It is well documented in the literature that boat-tailed base cavities reduce the drag on blunt based bodies. The majority of the previous work has been focused on the final result, namely reporting the resulting drag reduction or base pressure increase without examining the methods in which such a device changes the fluid flow to enact such end results. The current work investigates the underlying physical means in which these devices change the flow around the body so as to reduce the overall drag. A canonical model with square cross section was developed for the purpose of studying the flow field around a blunt based body. The boat-tailed base cavity tested consisted of 4 panels of length equal to half the width of the body extending from the edges of the base at an angle towards the models center axis of 12°. Drag and surface pressure measurements were made at Reynolds numbers based on width from 2.3x105 to 3.6x10 5 in the Clarkson University high-speed wind tunnel over a range of pitch and yaw angles. Cross-stream hotwire wake surveys were used to identify wake width and turbulence intensities aft of the body at Reynolds numbers of 2.3x105 to 3.0x105. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to quantify the flow field in the wake of the body, including the mean flow, vorticity, and turbulence measurements. The results indicated that the boat-tailed aft cavity decreases the drag significantly due to increased pressure on the base. Hotwire measurements indicated a reduction in wake width as well as a reduction in turbulence in the wake. PIV measurements indicated a significant reduction in wake turbulence and revealed that there exists a co-flowing stream that exits the cavity parallel to the free stream, reducing the shear in the flow at the flow separation point. The reduction in shear at the separation point indicated the method by which the turbulence was reduced. The reduction in turbulence combined with the reduction in wake size provided the mechanism

  18. Quantifying drag on wellbore casings in moving salt sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijermars, R.; Jackson, M. P. A.; Dooley, T. P.

    2014-08-01

    Frontier hydrocarbon development projects in the deepwater slopes of the Gulf of Mexico Basin, Santos Basin and Lower Congo Basin all require wells to cross ductile layers of autochthonous or allochthonous salt moving at peak rates of 100 mm yr-1. The Couette-Poiseuille number is introduced here to help pinpoint the depth of shear stress reversal in such salt layers. For any well-planned through salt, the probable range of creep forces of moving salt needs to be taken into account when designing safety margins and load-factor tolerance of the well casing. Drag forces increase with wellbore diameter, but more significantly with effective viscosity and speed of the creeping salt layer. The potential drag forces on cased wellbores in moving salt sheets are estimated analytically using a range of salt viscosities (1015-1019 Pa s) and creep rates (0-10 mm yr-1). Drag on perfectly rigid casing of infinite strength may reach up to 13 Giga Newton per meter wellbore length in salt having a viscosity of 1019 Pa s. Well designers may delay stress accumulations due to salt drag when flexible casing accommodates some of the early displacement and strain. However, all creeping salt could displace, fracture and disconnect well casing, eventually. The shear strength of typical heavy duty well casing (about 1000 MPa) can be reached due to drag by moving salt. Internal flow of salt will then fracture the casing near salt entry and exit points, but the structural damage is likely to remain unnoticed early in the well-life when the horizontal shift of the wellbore is still negligibly small (at less than 1 cm yr-1). Disruption of casing and production flow lines within the anticipated service lifetime of a well remains a significant risk factor within distinct zones of low-viscosity salt which may reach ultrafast creep rates of 100 mm yr-1.

  19. Metal of cavitation erosion of a hydrodynamic reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirzakov, A. G.; Brand, A. E.; Petryakov, V. A.; Gordievskaya, E. F.

    2017-02-01

    Cavitation erosion is a major cause of the petroleum equipment hydraulic erosion, which leads to the metal weight loss of the equipment and its breakdown, which can be followed by the full stop of the plant or company work. The probability of the metal weight loss and equipment failure can be reduced by the use of special protective coatings or rivets, made of the sacrificial metals, the use of which significantly increases the service life and the production equipment reliability. The article investigates the cavitation erosion effect, occurred under the condition of the advanced hydrodynamic cavitation on the hydrodynamic cavitation reactor. This article presents the results of the experiments and recommendations for increasing the operational resource.

  20. On the computation of electrical resistance of hydrodynamic journal bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Pop

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches the mathematical model of electrical resistance of hydrodynamic journal bearing under different parameters of operation so as to predict bearing performance and safe load carrying capacity. The currents circulating in the journal bearing of electrical machine causes reducing of lifespan by appearance of pitting on their surface and the degradation of the lubricant. In a hydrodynamic journal bearing, the zone of minimum film thickness, load-carrying oil film varies along the circumference of a bearing through its length. This has been found to form a capacitor of varying capacitance between the journal and the bearings dependent on permittivity of the lubricant used, the bearing length, the eccentricity ratio and the clearance ratio. Besides this, load-carrying on oil film offers resistance that depends on operating parameters and resistivity of the lubricant.

  1. Modeling of dynamically loaded hydrodynamic bearings at low Sommerfeld numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kim

    Current state of the art within the wind industry dictates the use of conventional rolling element bearings for main bearings. As wind turbine generators increase in size and output, so does the size of the main bearings and accordingly also the cost and potential risk of failure modes. The cost...... and failure risk of rolling element bearings do, however, grow exponentially with the size. Therefore hydrodynamic bearings can prove to be a competitive alternative to the current practice of rolling element bearings and ultimately help reducing the cost and carbon footprint of renewable energy generation....... The challenging main bearing operation conditions in a wind turbine pose a demanding development task for the design of a hydrodynamic bearing. In general these conditions include operation at low Reynolds numbers with frequent start and stop at high loads as well as difficult operating conditions dictated...

  2. Hydrodynamics of annular-dispersed flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.; Kataoka, I.

    1982-01-01

    The interfacial drag, droplet entrainment, and droplet size distributions are important for detailed mechanistic modeling of annular dispersed two-phase flow. In view of this, recently developed correlations for these parameters are presented and discussed in this paper. The drag correlations for multiple fluid particle systems have been developed from a similarity hypothesis based on the mixture viscosity model. The results show that the drag coefficient depends on the particle Reynolds number and droplet concentration. The onset on droplet entrainment significantly alters the mechanisms of mass, momentum, and energy transfer between the film and gas core flow as well as the transfer between the two-phase mixture and the wall. By assuming the roll wave entrainment mechanism, the correlations for the amount of entrained droplet as well as for the droplet size distribution have been obtained from a simple model in collaboration with a large number of data

  3. A Study of the Drag Characteristics and Polymer Diffusion in the Boundary Layer of an Axisymmetric Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-12

    Reduction in Pipe Flow at R =14xl03 (from Hoyt (1972)) Guar Gum Karaya Polyox WSR 301 400 850 10 Polyacrylamide, Polyhall-250 20 21 ■.I...shown to be effec- tive drag reducers. Polysaccharides ( Guar ), polyethylene oxide, polyacrylamides, and sodium carboxymethyl...sifting the premeasured polyox powder onto the surface of the carefully weighed water which was being slowly stirred by a magnetic mixing bar. After a

  4. Biomimetic shark skin: design, fabrication and hydrodynamic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li; Weaver, James C; Lauder, George V

    2014-05-15

    Although the functional properties of shark skin have been of considerable interest to both biologists and engineers because of the complex hydrodynamic effects of surface roughness, no study to date has successfully fabricated a flexible biomimetic shark skin that allows detailed study of hydrodynamic function. We present the first study of the design, fabrication and hydrodynamic testing of a synthetic, flexible, shark skin membrane. A three-dimensional (3D) model of shark skin denticles was constructed using micro-CT imaging of the skin of the shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus). Using 3D printing, thousands of rigid synthetic shark denticles were placed on flexible membranes in a controlled, linear-arrayed pattern. This flexible 3D printed shark skin model was then tested in water using a robotic flapping device that allowed us to either hold the models in a stationary position or move them dynamically at their self-propelled swimming speed. Compared with a smooth control model without denticles, the 3D printed shark skin showed increased swimming speed with reduced energy consumption under certain motion programs. For example, at a heave frequency of 1.5 Hz and an amplitude of ± 1 cm, swimming speed increased by 6.6% and the energy cost-of-transport was reduced by 5.9%. In addition, a leading-edge vortex with greater vorticity than the smooth control was generated by the 3D printed shark skin, which may explain the increased swimming speeds. The ability to fabricate synthetic biomimetic shark skin opens up a wide array of possible manipulations of surface roughness parameters, and the ability to examine the hydrodynamic consequences of diverse skin denticle shapes present in different shark species. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Relativistic conformal magneto-hydrodynamics from holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchbinder, Evgeny I.; Buchel, Alex

    2009-01-01

    We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to study first-order relativistic viscous magneto-hydrodynamics of (2+1)-dimensional conformal magnetic fluids. It is shown that the first order magneto-hydrodynamics constructed following Landau and Lifshitz from the positivity of the entropy production is inconsistent. We propose additional contributions to the entropy motivated dissipative current and, correspondingly, new dissipative transport coefficients. We use the strongly coupled M2-brane plasma in external magnetic field to show that the new magneto-hydrodynamics leads to self-consistent results in the shear and sound wave channels.

  6. Dileptons from transport and hydrodynamical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huovinen, P.; Koch, V.

    2000-01-01

    Transport and hydrodynamical models used to describe the expansion stage of a heavy-ion collision at the CERN SPS give different dilepton spectrum even if they are tuned to reproduce the observed hadron spectra. To understand the origin of this difference we compare the dilepton emission from transport and hydrodynamical models using similar initial states in both models. We find that the requirement of pion number conservation in a hydrodynamical model does not change the dilepton emission. Also the mass distribution from the transport model indicates faster cooling and longer lifetime of the fireball

  7. Tuning bacterial hydrodynamics with magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, C. J.; Mumper, E.; Brown, E. E.; Brangham, J. T.; Lower, B. H.; Lower, S. K.; Yang, F. Y.; Sooryakumar, R.

    2017-06-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are a group of motile prokaryotes that synthesize chains of lipid-bound, magnetic nanoparticles called magnetosomes. This study exploits their innate magnetism to investigate previously unexplored facets of bacterial hydrodynamics at surfaces. Through use of weak, uniform, external magnetic fields and local, micromagnetic surface patterns, the relative strength of hydrodynamic, magnetic, and flagellar force components is tuned through magnetic control of the bacteria's orientation. The resulting swimming behaviors provide a means to experimentally determine hydrodynamic parameters and offer a high degree of control over large numbers of living microscopic entities. The implications of this controlled motion for studies of bacterial motility near surfaces and for micro- and nanotechnology are discussed.

  8. Toward understanding whether superhydrophobic surfaces can really decrease fluidic friction drag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bin; Li, Mei; Lu, Qinghua

    2010-04-20

    Superhydrophobic surfaces in nature such as legs of water striders can get an extra supporting force from the deformed water surface they contact, leading to an anticipation of using water-repellent surfaces on ship and even submarine hulls to reduce friction drag. Here, we first fabricate superhydrophobic coatings with microstructures on glass balls by introducing hydrophobic silica nanoparticles into a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film. Then, the movement of a superhydrophobic ball on and below water surface is investigated and compared with that of a highly hydrophilic normal glass ball. The results reveal that a superhydrophobic ball can fall more slowly under water compared with a normal glass ball, because the dense microbubbles trapped at the solid/water interface around the superhydrophobic ball act not as a reducer, but as an enhancer for the friction drag. In contrast, the faster movement of a superhydrophobic ball on the water surface can be mainly attributed to the great reduction of skin friction owing to the increased area of the solid/atmosphere interface.

  9. Effect of fastskin suits on performance, drag, and energy cost of swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatard, Jean-Claude; Wilson, Barry

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the effect of fastskin suits on 25- to 800-m performances, drag, and energy cost of swimming. The performances, stroke rate and distance per stroke, were measured for 14 competitive swimmers in a 25-m pool, when wearing a normal suit (N) and when wearing a full-body suit (FB) or a waist-to-ankle suit (L). Passive drag, oxygen uptake, blood lactate, and the perceived exertion were measured in a flume. There was a 3.2% +/- 2.4% performance benefit for all subjects over the six distances covered at maximal speed wearing FB and L when compared with N. When wearing L, the gain was significantly lower (1.8% +/- 2.5%, P energy cost of swimming was significantly reduced when wearing FB and L by 4.5% +/- 5.4% and 5.5% +/- 3.1%, respectively (P energy cost of submaximal swimming and an increased distance per stroke, at the same stroke rates, and reduced freestyle performance time.

  10. Fish locomotion: kinematics and hydrodynamics of flexible foil-like fins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, George V.; Madden, Peter G. A.

    2007-11-01

    The fins of fishes are remarkable propulsive devices that appear at the origin of fishes about 500 million years ago and have been a key feature of fish evolutionary diversification. Most fish species possess both median (midline) dorsal, anal, and caudal fins as well as paired pectoral and pelvic fins. Fish fins are supported by jointed skeletal elements, fin rays, that in turn support a thin collagenous membrane. Muscles at the base of the fin attach to and actuate each fin ray, and fish fins thus generate their own hydrodynamic wake during locomotion, in addition to fluid motion induced by undulation of the body. In bony fishes, the jointed fin rays can be actively deformed and the fin surface can thus actively resist hydrodynamic loading. Fish fins are highly flexible, exhibit considerable deformation during locomotion, and can interact hydrodynamically during both propulsion and maneuvering. For example, the dorsal and anal fins shed a vortex wake that greatly modifies the flow environment experienced by the tail fin. New experimental kinematic and hydrodynamic data are presented for pectoral fin function in bluegill sunfish. The highly flexible sunfish pectoral fin moves in a complex manner with two leading edges, a spanwise wave of bending, and substantial changes in area through the fin beat cycle. Data from scanning particle image velocimetry (PIV) and time-resolved stereo PIV show that the pectoral fin generates thrust throughout the fin beat cycle, and that there is no time of net drag. Continuous thrust production is due to fin flexibility which enables some part of the fin to generate thrust at all times and to smooth out oscillations that might arise at the transition from outstroke to instroke during the movement cycle. Computational fluid dynamic analyses of sunfish pectoral fin function corroborate this conclusion. Future research on fish fin function will benefit considerably from close integration with studies of robotic model fins.

  11. Implement a Sub-grid Turbulent Orographic Form Drag in WRF and its application to Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Yang, K.; Wang, Y.; Huang, B.

    2017-12-01

    Sub-grid-scale orographic variation exerts turbulent form drag on atmospheric flows. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) includes a turbulent orographic form drag (TOFD) scheme that adds the stress to the surface layer. In this study, another TOFD scheme has been incorporated in WRF3.7, which exerts an exponentially decaying drag on each model layer. To investigate the effect of the new scheme, WRF with the old and new one was used to simulate the climate over the complex terrain of the Tibetan Plateau. The two schemes were evaluated in terms of the direct impact (on wind) and the indirect impact (on air temperature, surface pressure and precipitation). Both in winter and summer, the new TOFD scheme reduces the mean bias in the surface wind, and clearly reduces the root mean square error (RMSEs) in comparisons with the station measurements (Figure 1). Meanwhile, the 2-m air temperature and surface pressure is also improved (Figure 2) due to the more warm air northward transport across south boundary of TP in winter. The 2-m air temperature is hardly improved in summer but the precipitation improvement is more obvious, with reduced mean bias and RMSEs. This is due to the weakening of water vapor flux (at low-level flow with the new scheme) crossing the Himalayan Mountains from South Asia.

  12. Conformal invariance in hydrodynamic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkovich, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    This short survey is written by a physicist. It contains neither theorems nor precise definitions. Its main content is a description of the results of numerical solution of the equations of fluid mechanics in the regime of developed turbulence. Due to limitations of computers, the results are not very precise. Despite being neither exact nor rigorous, the findings may nevertheless be of interest for mathematicians. The main result is that the isolines of some scalar fields (vorticity, temperature) in two-dimensional turbulence belong to the class of conformally invariant curves called SLE (Scramm-Loewner evolution) curves. First, this enables one to predict and find a plethora of quantitative relations going far beyond what was known previously about turbulence. Second, it suggests relations between phenomena that seemed unrelated, like the Euler equation and critical percolation. Third, it shows that one is able to get exact analytic results in statistical hydrodynamics. In short, physicists have found something unexpected and hope that mathematicians can help to explain it.

  13. The hydrodynamics of swimming microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauga, Eric; Powers, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    Cell motility in viscous fluids is ubiquitous and affects many biological processes, including reproduction, infection and the marine life ecosystem. Here we review the biophysical and mechanical principles of locomotion at the small scales relevant to cell swimming, tens of micrometers and below. At this scale, inertia is unimportant and the Reynolds number is small. Our emphasis is on the simple physical picture and fundamental flow physics phenomena in this regime. We first give a brief overview of the mechanisms for swimming motility, and of the basic properties of flows at low Reynolds number, paying special attention to aspects most relevant for swimming such as resistance matrices for solid bodies, flow singularities and kinematic requirements for net translation. Then we review classical theoretical work on cell motility, in particular early calculations of swimming kinematics with prescribed stroke and the application of resistive force theory and slender-body theory to flagellar locomotion. After examining the physical means by which flagella are actuated, we outline areas of active research, including hydrodynamic interactions, biological locomotion in complex fluids, the design of small-scale artificial swimmers and the optimization of locomotion strategies.

  14. Hydrodynamic effect of a satellite transmitter on a juvenile green turtle (Chelonia mydas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson; Granger

    1998-09-01

    Wind tunnel tests were performed to measure the effect of a satellite transmitter on a juvenile green turtle (Chelonia mydas). A full-scale turtle model was constructed from an 11.5 kg specimen with a 48 cm carapace length, and a transmitter model was constructed from a Telonics ST-6. The turtle model was tested in a wind tunnel with and without the transmitter, which was mounted on the forward, topmost part of the carapace. Drag, lift and pitch moment were measured for several speeds and flow angles, and the data were scaled for application to the marine environment. At small flow angles representative of straight-line swimming, the transmitter increased drag by 27-30 %, reduced lift by less than 10 % and increased the pitch moment by 11-42 %. On the basis of the drag data at zero angle of attack, it is estimated that the backpack will reduce swimming speed by 11 %, assuming that the turtle produces the same thrust with the unit attached. The drag data are also used to estimate the effect of a transmitter on the swimming energetics of an adult green turtle. Design guidelines are included to minimize the adverse forces and moments caused by the transmitter.

  15. Hydrodynamic excitations in hot QCD plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Navid; Allahbakhshi, Davood; Davody, Ali; Taghavi, Seyed Farid

    2017-12-01

    We study the long wavelength excitations in rotating QCD fluid in the presence of an external magnetic field at finite vector and axial charge densities. We consider the fluctuations of vector and axial charge currents coupled to energy and momentum fluctuations and compute the S O (3 ) covariant dispersion relations of the six corresponding hydrodynamic modes. Among them, there are always two scalar chiral-magnetic-vortical-heat (CMVH) waves; in the absence of a magnetic field (vorticity) these waves reduce to chiral-vortical-heat (CVH) [chiral-magnetic-heat (CMH)] waves. While CMVH waves are a mixture of CMH and CVH waves, they have generally different velocities compared to the sum of velocities of the latter waves. The other four modes, which are made out of scalar-vector fluctuations, are mixed sound-Alfvén waves. We show that when the magnetic field is parallel with the vorticity, these four modes are the two ordinary sound modes together with two chiral Alfvén waves propagating along the common direction of the magnetic field and vorticity.

  16. An implicit Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Charles E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2000-05-01

    An implicit version of the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) code SPHINX has been written and is working. In conjunction with the SPHINX code the new implicit code models fluids and solids under a wide range of conditions. SPH codes are Lagrangian, meshless and use particles to model the fluids and solids. The implicit code makes use of the Krylov iterative techniques for solving large linear-systems and a Newton-Raphson method for non-linear corrections. It uses numerical derivatives to construct the Jacobian matrix. It uses sparse techniques to save on memory storage and to reduce the amount of computation. It is believed that this is the first implicit SPH code to use Newton-Krylov techniques, and is also the first implicit SPH code to model solids. A description of SPH and the techniques used in the implicit code are presented. Then, the results of a number of tests cases are discussed, which include a shock tube problem, a Rayleigh-Taylor problem, a breaking dam problem, and a single jet of gas problem. The results are shown to be in very good agreement with analytic solutions, experimental results, and the explicit SPHINX code. In the case of the single jet of gas case it has been demonstrated that the implicit code can do a problem in much shorter time than the explicit code. The problem was, however, very unphysical, but it does demonstrate the potential of the implicit code. It is a first step toward a useful implicit SPH code.

  17. Framing Camera Improvements and hydrodynamic Experiments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drake, R. P

    2007-01-01

    .... We also propose to participate in hydrodynamic experiments at NRL whenever they occur, to prepare for an experiment for NIKE to study the onset of turbulence via the Kelvin Helmholtz instability...

  18. Hydrodynamic limit of interacting particle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landim, C.

    2004-01-01

    We present in these notes two methods to derive the hydrodynamic equation of conservative interacting particle systems. The intention is to present the main ideas in the simplest possible context and refer for details and references. (author)

  19. Moffies, artists, and queens: race and the production of South African gay male drag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarr, Amanda Lock

    2004-01-01

    This article draws on seventeen months of ethnographic fieldwork in South Africa to explore the experiences of urban and township drag performers. I show that two distinct sex-gender-sexuality systems have emerged based in the sociopolitical history of South Africa, and I argue that urban drag produces race oppositionally and examine how township femininity creates raced forms of gender, sex, and sexuality. Contemporary South African drag foregrounds the performativity and constitution of race and gender. My analysis attempts to challenge definitions of "drag" and "audience," suggesting the necessity for an integrated reconceptualization of drag studies.

  20. Experimental Investigation of the Fresnel Drag Effect in RF Coaxial Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brotherton D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment that confirms the Fresnel drag formalism in RF coaxial cables is reported. The Fresnel "drag" in bulk dielectrics and in optical fibers has previously been well established. An explanation for this formalism is given, and it is shown that there is no actual drag phenomenon, rather that the Fresnel drag effect is merely the consequence of a simplified description of EM scattering within a dielectric in motion wrt the dynamical 3-space. The Fresnel drag effect plays a critical role in the design of various light-speed anisotropy detectors.

  1. Parametric sensitivity of a CFD model concerning the hydrodynamics of trickle-bed reactor (TBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janecki Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensitivity of a multiphase Eulerian CFD model with respect to relations defining drag forces between phases. The mean relative error as well as standard deviation of experimental and computed values of pressure gradient and average liquid holdup were used as validation criteria of the model. Comparative basis for simulations was our own data-base obtained in experiments carried out in a TBR operating at a co-current downward gas and liquid flow. Estimated errors showed that the classical equations of Attou et al. (1999 defining the friction factors Fjk approximate experimental values of hydrodynamic parameters with the best agreement. Taking this into account one can recommend to apply chosen equations in the momentum balances of TBR.

  2. Synchronization and Collective Dynamics of Flagella and Cilia as Hydrodynamically Coupled Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Nariya; Golestanian, Ramin; Bennett, Rachel R.

    2017-10-01

    Cooperative motion of flagella and cilia faciliates swimming of microorganisms and material transport in the body of multicellular organisms. Using minimal models, we address the roles of hydrodynamic interaction in synchronization and collective dynamics of flagella and cilia. Collective synchronization of bacterial flagella is studied with a model of bacterial carpets. Cilia and eukaryotic flagella are characterized by periodic modulation of their driving forces, which produces various patterns of two-body synchronization and metachronal waves. Long-range nature of the interaction introduces novel features in the dynamics of these model systems. The flagella of a swimmer synchronize also by a viscous drag force mediated through the swimmer's body. Recent advance in experimental studies of the collective dynamics of flagella, cilia and related artificial systems are summarized.

  3. Coupled incompressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics model for continuum-based modelling sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahar, Gourabananda; Dhar, Anirban

    2017-04-01

    A coupled solenoidal Incompressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (ISPH) model is presented for simulation of sediment displacement in erodible bed. The coupled framework consists of two separate incompressible modules: (a) granular module, (b) fluid module. The granular module considers a friction based rheology model to calculate deviatoric stress components from pressure. The module is validated for Bagnold flow profile and two standardized test cases of sediment avalanching. The fluid module resolves fluid flow inside and outside porous domain. An interaction force pair containing fluid pressure, viscous term and drag force acts as a bridge between two different flow modules. The coupled model is validated against three dambreak flow cases with different initial conditions of movable bed. The simulated results are in good agreement with experimental data. A demonstrative case considering effect of granular column failure under full/partial submergence highlights the capability of the coupled model for application in generalized scenario.

  4. Improvements to SOIL: An Eulerian hydrodynamics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.G.

    1988-04-01

    Possible improvements to SOIL, an Eulerian hydrodynamics code that can do coupled radiation diffusion and strength of materials, are presented in this report. Our research is based on the inspection of other Eulerian codes and theoretical reports on hydrodynamics. Several conclusions from the present study suggest that some improvements are in order, such as second-order advection, adaptive meshes, and speedup of the code by vectorization and/or multitasking. 29 refs., 2 figs

  5. Relabeling symmetries in hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhye, N.; Morrison, P.J.

    1996-04-01

    Lagrangian symmetries and concomitant generalized Bianchi identities associated with the relabeling of fluid elements are found for hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In hydrodynamics relabeling results in Ertel's theorem of conservation of potential vorticity, while in MHD it yields the conservation of cross helicity. The symmetries of the reduction from Lagrangian (material) to Eulerian variables are used to construct the Casimir invariants of the Hamiltonian formalism

  6. Applying the technology of hydrodynamic cavitation treatment of high-viscosity oils to increase the efficiency of transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, A. E.; Vershinina, S. V.; Vengerov, A. A.; Mostovaya, N. A.

    2015-10-01

    The article investigates the possibility of applying hydrodynamic cavitation treatment to reduce oil viscosity in Russian pipeline transportation system and increase its performance. The result of laboratory tests and suggestions on technology application are given

  7. Intershell resistance in multiwall carbon nanotubes: A Coulomb drag study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Anders Mathias; Flensborg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2005-01-01

    We calculate the intershell resistance R-21 in a multiwall carbon nanotube as a function of temperature T and Fermi level epsilon(F) (e.g., a gate voltage), varying the chirality of the inner and outer tubes. This is done in a so-called Coulomb drag setup, where a current I-1 in one shell induces...... a voltage drop V-2 in another shell by the screened Coulomb interaction between the shells neglecting the intershell tunneling. We provide benchmark results for R-21 = V2/I-1 within the Fermi liquid theory using Boltzmann equations. The band structure gives rise to strongly chirality-dependent suppression...... effects for the Coulomb drag between different tubes due to selection rules combined with mismatching of wave vector and crystal angular momentum conservation near the Fermi level. This gives rise to orders of magnitude changes in R-21 and even the sign of R-21 can change depending on the chirality...

  8. Wave drag reduction due to a self-aligning aerodisk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Ch.; Wysocki, O.; Schülein, E.

    2015-06-01

    The effect of a self-aligning aerodisk on the wave drag of a blunt slender body in a pitching maneuver has been numerically investigated. The self-alignment was realized by a coupling of the flow solver and a flight mechanics tool. The slender body was pitched with high repetition rate between α = 0° and 20° at M = 1.41. Even at high α, the concept could align the aerodisk to the oncoming flow. In comparison to the reference body without a self-aligning aerodisk, a distinct drag reduction is achieved. A comparison with existing experimental data shows a qualitatively good agreement considering the shock and separation structure and the kinematics of the aerodisk.

  9. Bioinspired superhydrophobic, self-cleaning and low drag surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2013-09-01

    Nature has evolved objects with desired functionality using commonly found materials. Nature capitalizes on hierarchical structures to achieve functionality. The understanding of the functions provided by objects and processes found in nature can guide us to produce nanomaterials, nanodevices, and processes with desirable functionality. This article provides an overview of four topics: (1) Lotus Effect used to develop superhydrophobic and self-cleaning/antifouling surfaces with low adhesion, (2) Shark Skin Effect to develop surfaces with low fluid drag and anti-fouling characteristics, and (3-4) Rice Leaf and Butterfly Wing Effect to develop superhydrophobic and self-cleaning surfaces with low drag. Rice Leaf and Butterfly Wings combine the Shark Skin and Lotus Effects.

  10. Collisionless ion drag force on a spherical grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I H

    2006-01-01

    The ion drag force on a spherical grain situated in a flowing collisionless plasma is obtained from the specialized coordinate electrostatic particle and thermals in cell simulation code (SCEPTIC) (Hutchinson 2002 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 44 1953, Hutchinson 2003 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 45 1477, Hutchinson 2005 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 47 71) and compared with recent analytic approximate treatments in the interesting and relevant case when the Debye length is only moderately larger than the sphere radius. There is a substantial complex structure in the results for transonic flows, which is explained in terms of the details of ion orbits. Naturally the prior analytic approximations miss this structure, and as a result they seriously underestimate the drag for speeds near the sound speed. An easy-to-evaluate expression for force is provided that fits the comprehensive results of the code. This expression, with minor modification, also fits the results even for Debye length much smaller than the sphere radius

  11. Drag reduction by dimples? - A complementary experimental/numerical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lienhart, Hermann; Breuer, Michael; Koeksoy, Cagatay

    2008-01-01

    The paper is concerned with an experimental and numerical investigation of the turbulent flow over dimpled surfaces. Shallow dimples distributed regularly over the wall of a plane channel with large aspect ratio are used to study their effect on the friction drag. The resulting pressure drop in the channel was measured for smooth and dimpled walls. In addition to these investigations on internal flows, an external flow study was performed and boundary-layer profiles were measured using a Pitot-tube rake. Complementary to the measurements, direct numerical simulations for the internal flow configuration with and without dimples were carried out for two different grid resolutions and analyzed in detail. The objective was to clarify whether or not dimples cause reduction of the skin-friction drag

  12. Suboptimal control for drag reduction in turbulent pipe flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jung Il; Sung, Hyung Jin; Xu, Chun Xiao

    2001-01-01

    A suboptimal control law in turbulent pipe flow is derived and tested. Two sensing variables ∂ρ/∂θ / w and ∂ν θ /∂r / w are applied with two actuations φ θ and φ γ . To test the suboptimal control law, direct numerical simulations of turbulent pipe flow at Re τ =150 are performed. When the control law is applied, a 13∼23% drag reduction is achieved. The most effective drag reduction is made at the pair of ∂υ θ /∂r / w and φ γ . An impenetrable virtual wall concept is useful for analyzing the near-wall suction and blowing. The virtual wall concept is useful for analyzing the near-wall behavior of the controlled flow. Comparison of the present suboptimal control with that of turbulent channel flow reveals that the curvature effect is insignificant

  13. Physics and control of wall turbulence for drag reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, John

    2011-04-13

    Turbulence physics responsible for high skin-friction drag in turbulent boundary layers is first reviewed. A self-sustaining process of near-wall turbulence structures is then discussed from the perspective of controlling this process for the purpose of skin-friction drag reduction. After recognizing that key parts of this self-sustaining process are linear, a linear systems approach to boundary-layer control is discussed. It is shown that singular-value decomposition analysis of the linear system allows us to examine different approaches to boundary-layer control without carrying out the expensive nonlinear simulations. Results from the linear analysis are consistent with those observed in full nonlinear simulations, thus demonstrating the validity of the linear analysis. Finally, fundamental performance limit expected of optimal control input is discussed.

  14. Two-fluid hydrodynamic modes in a trapped superfluid gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, E.; Griffin, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the collisional region at finite temperatures, the collective modes of superfluids are described by the Landau two-fluid hydrodynamic equations. This region can now be probed over the entire BCS-Bose-Einstein-condensate crossover in trapped Fermi superfluids with a Feshbach resonance, including the unitarity region. Building on the approach initiated by Zaremba, Nikuni, and Griffin in 1999 for trapped atomic Bose gases, we present a variational formulation of two-fluid hydrodynamic collective modes based on the work of Zilsel in 1950 developed for superfluid helium. Assuming a simple variational Ansatz for the superfluid and normal fluid velocities, the frequencies of the hydrodynamic modes are given by solutions of coupled algebraic equations, with constants only involving spatial integrals over various equilibrium thermodynamic derivatives. This variational approach is both simpler and more physical than a direct attempt to solve the Landau two-fluid differential equations. Our two-fluid results are shown to reduce to those of Pitaevskii and Stringari for a pure superfluid at T=0

  15. The effects of Poynting-Robertson drag on solar sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Salam, F. A.

    2018-06-01

    In the present work, the concept of solar sailing and its developing spacecraft are presented. The effects of Poynting-Robertson drag on solar sails are considered. Some analytical control laws with some mentioned input constraints for optimizing solar sails dynamics in heliocentric orbit using Lagrange's planetary equations are obtained. Optimum force vector in a required direction is maximized by deriving optimal sail cone angle. New control laws that maximize thrust to obtain certain required maximization in some particular orbital element are obtained.

  16. Stokes’ and Lamb's viscous drag laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eames, I; Klettner, C A

    2017-01-01

    Since Galileo used his pulse to measure the time period of a swinging chandelier in the 17th century, pendulums have fascinated scientists. It was not until Stokes' (1851 Camb. Phil. Soc. 9 8–106) (whose interest was spurred by the pendulur time pieces of the mid 19th century) treatise on viscous flow that a theoretical framework for the drag on a sphere at low Reynolds number was laid down. Stokes' famous drag law has been used to determine two fundamental physical constants—the charge on an electron and Avogadro's constant—and has been used in theories which have won three Nobel prizes. Considering its illustrious history it is then not surprising that the flow past a sphere and its two-dimensional analog, the flow past a cylinder, form the starting point of teaching flow past a rigid body in undergraduate level fluid mechanics courses. Usually starting with the two-dimensional potential flow past a cylinder, students progress to the three-dimensional potential flow past a sphere. However, when the viscous flow past rigid bodies is taught, the three-dimensional example of a sphere is first introduced, and followed by (but not often), the two-dimensional viscous flow past a cylinder. The reason why viscous flow past a cylinder is generally not taught is because it is usually explained from an asymptotic analysis perspective. In fact, this added mathematical complexity is why the drag on a cylinder was only solved in 1911, 60 years after the drag on a sphere. In this note, we show that the viscous flow past a cylinder can be explained without the need to introduce any asymptotic analysis while still capturing all the physical insight of this classic fluid mechanics problem. (paper)

  17. Original analytical model of the hydrodynamic loads applied on the half-bridge of a circular settling tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oanta, Emil M.; Dascalescu, Anca-Elena; Sabau, Adrian

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents an original analytical model of the hydrodynamic loads applied on the half-bridge of a circular settling tank. The calculus domain is defined using analytical geometry and the calculus of the local dynamic pressure is based on the radius from the center of the settling tank to the current area, i.e. the relative velocity of the fluid and the depth where the current area is located, i.e. the density of the fluid. Calculus of the local drag forces uses the discrete frontal cross sectional areas of the submerged structure in contact with the fluid. In the last stage is performed the reduction of the local drag forces in the appropriate points belonging to the main beam. This class of loads is producing the flexure of the main beam in a horizontal plane and additional twisting moments along this structure. Taking into account the hydrodynamic loads, the results of the theoretical models, i.e. the analytical model and the finite element model, may have an increased accuracy.

  18. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of airlift bioreactor: effect of draft tube configurations on hydrodynamics, cell suspension, and shear rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Sanjay B

    2018-01-01

    The biomass productivity of microalgae cells mainly depends on the hydrodynamics of airlift bioreactor (ABR). Thus, the hydrodynamics of concentric tube ABR was initially studied using two-phase three-dimensional CFD simulations with the Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. The performance of ABR (17 L) was examined for different configurations of the draft tube using various drag models such as Grace, Ishii-Zuber, and Schiller-Naumann. The gas holdups in the riser and the downcomer were well predicted using E-L approach. This work was further extended to study the dispersion of microalgae cells in the ABR using three-phase CFD simulations. In this model (combined E-E and E-L), the solid phase (microalgae cells) was dispersed into the continuous liquid phase (water), while the gas phase (air bubbles) was modeled as a particle transport fluid. The effect of non-drag forces such as virtual mass and lift forces was also considered. Flow regimes were explained on the basis of the relative gas holdup distribution in the riser and the downcomer. The microalgae cells were found in suspension for the superficial gas velocities of 0.02-0.04 m s -1 experiencing an average shear of 23.52-44.56 s -1 which is far below the critical limit of cell damage.

  19. Biomimetics inspired surfaces for drag reduction and oleophobicity/philicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Bhushan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The emerging field of biomimetics allows one to mimic biology or nature to develop nanomaterials, nanodevices, and processes which provide desirable properties. Hierarchical structures with dimensions of features ranging from the macroscale to the nanoscale are extremely common in nature and possess properties of interest. There are a large number of objects including bacteria, plants, land and aquatic animals, and seashells with properties of commercial interest. Certain plant leaves, such as lotus (Nelumbo nucifera leaves, are known to be superhydrophobic and self-cleaning due to the hierarchical surface roughness and presence of a wax layer. In addition to a self-cleaning effect, these surfaces with a high contact angle and low contact angle hysteresis also exhibit low adhesion and drag reduction for fluid flow. An aquatic animal, such as a shark, is another model from nature for the reduction of drag in fluid flow. The artificial surfaces inspired from the shark skin and lotus leaf have been created, and in this article the influence of structure on drag reduction efficiency is reviewed. Biomimetic-inspired oleophobic surfaces can be used to prevent contamination of the underwater parts of ships by biological and organic contaminants, including oil. The article also reviews the wetting behavior of oil droplets on various superoleophobic surfaces created in the lab.

  20. The influence of numerical models on determining the drag coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobeš Josef

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with numerical modelling of body aerodynamic drag coefficient in the transition from laminar to turbulent flow regimes, where the selection of a suitable numerical model is problematic. On the basic problem of flow around a simple body – sphere selected computational models are tested. The values obtained by numerical simulations of drag coefficients of each model are compared with the graph of dependency of the drag coefficient vs. Reynolds number for a sphere. Next the dependency of Strouhal number vs. Reynolds number is evaluated, where the vortex shedding frequency values for given speed are obtained numerically and experimentally and then the values are compared for each numerical model and experiment. The aim is to specify trends for the selection of appropriate numerical model for flow around bodies problem in which the precise description of the flow field around the obstacle is used to define the acoustic noise source. Numerical modelling is performed by finite volume method using CFD code.