WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrodynamic design process

  1. Hydrodynamic extensional stress during the bubble bursting process for bioreactor system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thanh Tinh; Lee, Eun Gyo; Lee, In Su; Woo, Nam Sub; Han, Sang Mok; Kim, Young Ju; Hwang, Wook Ryol

    2016-11-01

    Cell damage, one of critical issues in the bioreactor design for animal cell culture, is caused mainly from the bubble bursting at the free surface subjected to strong extensional flows. In this work, extensive computational studies are performed to investigate bubble bursting process in great details. Extensive numerical simulations are performed for a wide range of bubble diameters (from 0.5 to 6 mm) and the surface tension values (from 0.03 to 0.072 N/m), with which effects of the bubble size and surfactant (PF68) concentration on the hydrodynamic stress are investigated. For all the cases, the maximum extensional stress appears at the instance when receding films impact each other at the bottom of the bubble. A model equation based on numerical simulations is presented to predict the maximum extensional stress as a function of the bubble diameter and the surface tension. The bubble diameter has turned out to contribute significantly the maximum hydrodynamic extensional stress. In addition, the bubble collapsed time and the affected volume around a bubble subjected to the critical extensional stress are investigated. The extensional stress estimation is reported as a function of the bubble size and the surface tension. The influence of the bubble size on the maximum stress dominates and extensional stress reaches up to the order of 104 Pa for bubble size of 0.5 mm.

  2. Hydrodynamic Design Optimization Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    techniques (Yang et al., 2008; Kim et al. 2010): (i) A modified NURBS technique is combined with a parametric global hull modification technique by...varying the sectional area curve with a shifting method, in which the design variables in the NURBS technique can be reduced via a grouping method after

  3. Designing and interpreting laboratory experiments for hydrodynamical, biogeochemical, and ecological processes in rivers (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packman, A. I.

    2009-12-01

    In this talk, I will articulate a general philosophy for the design of laboratory experiments for fluvial processes; discuss important concepts of scaling, scale limitation, and process coupling that should be considered in designing experiments and interpreting experimental results; and provide concrete examples of how this approach can be used to probe river mechanics, sedimentary biogeochemistry, benthic/hyporheic ecology, and downstream migration of reactive solutes and particles. It is challenging to design laboratory experiments to probe fluvial processes because river systems show extremely strong interactions over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Biological and ecological processes are especially difficult to study in the laboratory because they are influenced by a wide range of system conditions, and we do not currently have a strong theoretical basis to quantitatively generalize experimental observations. Further, many seemingly basic and invariant chemical and biological properties - such as sorption coefficients, reaction rate constants, respiration rates, and nutrient uptake rates - change over space and time in fluvial systems because these environments are highly dynamic over a wide range of temporal scales, show strong longitudinal connectivity, and have strong heterogeneity in the surrounding and underlying sediments. Laboratory studies can be used to systematically investigate these effects, thereby providing considerable insight into generally important controlling mechanisms, with the caveat that larger-scale drivers and process interactions must be considered when translating the results to the field. Laboratory experiments can best be targeted to discriminate alternate hypotheses regarding important governing processes, and to independently test the effects of each important variable. Once this information is obtained, it should be codified in the form of quantitative, theoretical relationships that can be subsequently evaluated in

  4. Hydrodynamic erosion process of undisturbed clay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, G.; Visser, P.J.; Vrijling, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the hydrodynamic erosion process of undisturbed clay due to the turbulent flow, based on theoretical analysis and experimental results. The undisturbed clay has the unique and complicated characteristics of cohesive force among clay particles, which are highly different from dis

  5. Hydrodynamic Study Of Column Bioleaching Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadowski Zygmunt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The modelling of flow leaching solution through the porous media has been considered. The heap bioleaching process can be tested using the column experimental equipment. This equipment was employed to the hydrodynamic studies of copper ore bioleaching. The copper ore (black shale ore with the support, inertial materials (glass small balls and polyethylene beads was used to the bioleaching tests. The packed beds were various composition, the ore/support ratio was changed. The correlation between the bed porosity and bioleaching kinetics, and copper recovery was investigated.

  6. Relativistic hydrodynamics on graphics processing units

    CERN Document Server

    Sikorski, Jan; Porter-Sobieraj, Joanna; Słodkowski, Marcin; Krzyżanowski, Piotr; Książek, Natalia; Duda, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    Hydrodynamics calculations have been successfully used in studies of the bulk properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma, particularly of elliptic flow and shear viscosity. However, there are areas (for instance event-by-event simulations for flow fluctuations and higher-order flow harmonics studies) where further advancement is hampered by lack of efficient and precise 3+1D~program. This problem can be solved by using Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) computing, which offers unprecedented increase of the computing power compared to standard CPU simulations. In this work, we present an implementation of 3+1D ideal hydrodynamics simulations on the Graphics Processing Unit using Nvidia CUDA framework. MUSTA-FORCE (MUlti STAge, First ORder CEntral, with a~slope limiter and MUSCL reconstruction) and WENO (Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillating) schemes are employed in the simulations, delivering second (MUSTA-FORCE), fifth and seventh (WENO) order of accuracy. Third order Runge-Kutta scheme was used for integration in the t...

  7. Hydrodynamic design of an underwater hull cleaning robot and its evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Hyung Lee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An underwater hull cleaning robot can be a desirable choice for the cleaning of large ships. It can make the cleaning process safe and economical. This paper presents a hydrodynamic design of an underwater cleaning robot and its evaluation for an underwater ship hull cleaning robot. The hydrodynamic design process of the robot body is described in detail. Optimal body design process with compromises among conflicting design requirements is given. Experimental results on the hydrodynamic performance of the robot are given.

  8. Hydrodynamic design of the humpback whale flipper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, F E; Battle, J M

    1995-07-01

    The humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) is reported to use its elongate pectoral flippers during swimming maneuvers. The morphology of the flipper from a 9.02-m whale was evaluated with regard to this hydrodynamic function. The flipper had a wing-like, high aspect ratio planform. Rounded tubercles were regularly interspersed along the flipper's leading edge. The flipper was cut into 71 2.5-cm cross-sections and photographed. Except for sections near the distal tip, flipper sections were symmetrical with no camber. Flipper sections had a blunt, rounded leading edge and a highly tapered trailing edge. Placement of the maximum thickness placement for each cross-section varied from 49% of chord at the tip to 19% at mid-span. Section thickness ratio averaged 0.23 with a range of 0.20-0.28. The humpback whale flipper had a cross-sectional design typical of manufactured aerodynamic foils for lift generation. The morphology and placement of leading edge tubercles suggest that they function as enhanced lift devices to control flow over the flipper and maintain lift at high angles of attack. The morphology of the humpback whale flipper suggests that it is adapted for high maneuverability associated with the whale's unique feeding behavior.

  9. A Displayer of Stellar Hydrodynamics Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigo, José Antonio Escartín; Senz, Domingo García

    The graphics display tool that we present here was originally developed to meet the needs of the Astronomy and Astrophysics group at the UPC (GAA). At present, it is used to display the plots obtained from hydrodynamic simulations using the SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) method. It is, however, a generic program that can be used for other multidimensional hydrodynamic methods. The application combines the most widely used features of other programs (most of them commercial) such as GnuPlot, Surfer, Grapher, IDL, Voxler, etc.

  10. Hydrodynamic Analysis to Process of Hydrostatic Extrusion for Tungsten Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuchi WANG; Zhaohui ZHANG; Shukui LI

    2001-01-01

    The hydrodynamic analysis to the process of the hydrostatic extrusion for tungsten alloy is carried through the hydrodynamic lubrication theory and Reynolds equation in this paper. The critical velocity equation when the hydrodynamic lubrication conditions appear between the surfaces of the work- piece and the die is obtained, and the relationship between the critical velocity and the extrusion parameters is discussed, which build the theoretical bases to the application of the hydrostatic extrusion for tungsten alloy.

  11. Enhancement of Hydrodynamic Processes in Oil Pipelines Considering Rheologically Complex High-Viscosity Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konakhina, I. A.; Khusnutdinova, E. M.; Khamidullina, G. R.; Khamidullina, A. F.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model of flow-related hydrodynamic processes for rheologically complex high-viscosity bitumen oil and oil-water suspensions and presents methods to improve the design and performance of oil pipelines.

  12. Application of Hydrodynamics in Design of Flotation Deinking Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R. G.; Xie, X. F.; Wang, A. L.; Chen, K. F.

    Recovery and recycling of waste paper has become increasingly important with demand for paper products sharply growing. The flotation process is the predominant technology for the removal of inks from waste paper because of its advantages. Flotation cells may be very different in size and shape, but the key elements ensuring aeration, ink collection and bubble separation are always present. Different aeration systems have been developed by the equipment suppliers. The hydrodynamic method, based on the self suction and mixing of air according to the Venturi principle has become the most common aeration technique. Injectors of various sizes and designs have been investigated and constantly improved and adapted to different designs of flotation units. Step diffuser is a common and predominant injector used in the flotation deinking cell.

  13. Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis

    2009-01-01

    advantages and challenges of agile processes in mobile software and web businesses are identified. The applicability of these agile processes is discussed in re- gards to design educations and product development in the domain of Industrial Design and is briefly seen in relation to the concept of dromology......Inspiration for most research and optimisations on design processes still seem to focus within the narrow field of the traditional design practise. The focus in this study turns to associated businesses of the design professions in order to learn from their development processes. Through interviews...

  14. [New procedure for protein spinning: the hydrodynamic process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaigne, F; Liber, E; Carbillet, L; Boulet, M; Riel, R R

    1978-01-01

    In this text, we describe a new protein spinning process called hydrodynamic process. Parameters which are related to production of fibers and which can influence diameter and texture are explained extensively. In this process, a spinning dope is extruded through a spinnerette in a moving coagulation bath in which the fibers are coagulated, stretched and carried.

  15. HYDRODYNAMICS THEORY AND CALCULATION IN WATER WAVE PUMP DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ying-xue; TAO Yi; LIU Gao-lian

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the hydrodynamics theory related to water wave pump.Water wave pump is a new type pump, which uses the particular quality of water wave and re-divides the inflow energy to increase the pressure of one part of the inflow water with the rest water flowing away freely.The research and development of such a pump is of importance and significant value and profitable social interest in that it can fully utilize the residual energy of natural source in industrial and civil water circle systems.Through hydrodynamics research and calculation, a series of valid design parameters were obtained and the predicted results achieved.

  16. A hydrodynamic optimization design methodology for a ship bulbous bow under multiple operating conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Lu; Xin Chang; An-kang Hu

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to describe an innovative methodology for the hydrodynamic optimization of a ship bulbous bow which considers multiple operating conditions. The proposed method is more practical and effective than the traditional optimization process, which is only based on contractually specified design condition. Parametric form approaches are adopted by employing an F-spline curve in order to generate variants of the hull bulbous bow forms using form design parameters...

  17. Biomimetic shark skin: design, fabrication and hydrodynamic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li; Weaver, James C; Lauder, George V

    2014-05-15

    Although the functional properties of shark skin have been of considerable interest to both biologists and engineers because of the complex hydrodynamic effects of surface roughness, no study to date has successfully fabricated a flexible biomimetic shark skin that allows detailed study of hydrodynamic function. We present the first study of the design, fabrication and hydrodynamic testing of a synthetic, flexible, shark skin membrane. A three-dimensional (3D) model of shark skin denticles was constructed using micro-CT imaging of the skin of the shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus). Using 3D printing, thousands of rigid synthetic shark denticles were placed on flexible membranes in a controlled, linear-arrayed pattern. This flexible 3D printed shark skin model was then tested in water using a robotic flapping device that allowed us to either hold the models in a stationary position or move them dynamically at their self-propelled swimming speed. Compared with a smooth control model without denticles, the 3D printed shark skin showed increased swimming speed with reduced energy consumption under certain motion programs. For example, at a heave frequency of 1.5 Hz and an amplitude of ± 1 cm, swimming speed increased by 6.6% and the energy cost-of-transport was reduced by 5.9%. In addition, a leading-edge vortex with greater vorticity than the smooth control was generated by the 3D printed shark skin, which may explain the increased swimming speeds. The ability to fabricate synthetic biomimetic shark skin opens up a wide array of possible manipulations of surface roughness parameters, and the ability to examine the hydrodynamic consequences of diverse skin denticle shapes present in different shark species.

  18. Dynamics Models of Interacting Torques of Hydrodynamic Retarder Braking Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic retarder is a kind of assist braking device, which can transfer the vehicle kinetic energy into the heat energy of working medium. There are complicated three-dimensional viscous incompressible turbulent flows in hydrodynamic retarder, so that it is difficult to represent the parameters changing phenomenon and investigate the interactional law. In order to develop a kind of reliable theoretical model for internal flow field, in this study, the dynamics models of interacting torques between impellers and working fluid were constructed based on braking energy transfer principle by using Euler theory to describe the flow state in view of time scale. The model can truly represent the dynamic braking process.

  19. A novel brewing process via controlled hydrodynamic cavitation

    CERN Document Server

    Albanese, Lorenzo; Meneguzzo, Francesco; Pagliaro, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a completely new brewing equipment and process based upon controlled hydrodynamic cavitation, providing significant advantages in terms of lowered capital cost, reduced production time, enhanced energy and production efficiency, food safety, while preserving beer organoleptic qualities. Experiments carried out on real microbrewery volume scale using the new and conventional technology unquestionably confirm the relevance of the new findings. Impacts of these discoveries are potentially far reaching, as beer is the worldwide most widely consumed alcoholic beverage, therefore highly relevant to health, environment the economy and even to local identities.

  20. Hydrodynamic limit of symmetric exclusion processes in inhomogeneous media

    CERN Document Server

    Faggionato, A

    2010-01-01

    In \\cite{J} M. Jara has presented a method, reducing the proof of the hydrodynamic limit of symmetric exclusion processes to an homogenization problem, as unified approach to recent works on the field as \\cite{N}, \\cite{F1}, \\cite{F2} and \\cite{FJL}. Although not stated in \\cite{J}, the reduction of the hydrodynamic limit to an homogenization problem was already obtained (in a different way) in \\cite{N}, \\cite{F1}. This alternative and very simple relation between the two problems goes back to an idea of K.\\ Nagy \\cite{N}, is stated in \\cite{F1}[Section B] for exclusion processes on $\\bbZ^d$ and, as stressed in \\cite{F2}, is completely general. The above relation has been applied to \\cite{N}, \\cite{F1}, \\cite{F2} and \\cite{FJL} and could be applied to other symmetric exclusion processes, mentioned in \\cite{J}. In this short note we briefly recall this unified approach in a complete general setting. Finally, we recall how the homogenization problem has been solved in the above previous works.

  1. Design of an electromagnetic accelerator for turbulent hydrodynamic mix studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susoeff, A.R.; Hawke, R.S.; Morrison, J.J.; Dimonte, G.; Remington, B.A.

    1993-12-08

    An electromagnetic accelerator in the form of a linear electric motor (LEM) has been designed to achieve controlled acceleration profiles of a carriage containing hydrodynamically unstable fluids for the investigation of the development of turbulent mix. The Rayleigh- Taylor instability is investigated by accelerating two dissimilar density fluids using the LEM to achieve a wide variety of acceleration and deceleration profiles. The acceleration profiles are achieved by independent control of rail and augmentation currents. A variety of acceleration-time profiles are possible including: (1) constant, (2) impulsive and (3) shaped. The LEM and support structure are a robust design in order to withstand high loads with deflections and to mitigate operational vibration. Vibration of the carriage during acceleration could create artifacts in the data which would interfere with the intended study of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The design allows clear access for diagnostic techniques such as laser induced fluorescence radiography, shadowgraphs and particle imaging velocimetry. Electromagnetic modeling codes were used to optimize the rail and augmentation coil positions within the support structure framework. Results of contemporary studies for non-arcing sliding contact of solid armatures are used for the design of the driving armature and the dynamic electromagnetic braking system. A 0. 6MJ electrolytic capacitor bank is used for energy storage to drive the LEM. This report will discuss a LEM design which will accelerate masses of up to 3kg to a maximum of about 3000g{sub o}, where g{sub o} is accelerated due to gravity.

  2. Approximate hydrodynamic design of a finite span hydrofoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, A N

    1955-01-01

    Previous work on the motion of various bodies under the surface of a heavy fluid is discussed. The solution of the motion of a flat plate by Keldysh and Lavrentiev is applied to the motion of a hydrofoil, making possible the presentation of charts for determining the lift and resistance of an infinite span hydrofoil operating in a heavy frictionless fluid having infinite depth below the free water surface. Consideration is given to the effects of viscosity and a method is suggested to correct for the finite span. The effect of the water surface on the downwash behind the foil is also discussed. A comparison of theoretical results obtained from this work with experimental data indicates that a basis for the approximate hydrodynamic design of a finite span hydrofoil has been achieved.

  3. A hydrodynamic optimization design methodology for a ship bulbous bow under multiple operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to describe an innovative methodology for the hydrodynamic optimization of a ship bulbous bow which considers multiple operating conditions. The proposed method is more practical and effective than the traditional optimization process, which is only based on contractually specified design condition. Parametric form approaches are adopted by employing an F-spline curve in order to generate variants of the hull bulbous bow forms using form design parameters modified, resulting in an optimization system based on improved genetic algorithms. The Rankine source panel method is used for the hydrodynamic evaluation, wherein non-linear free surface conditions and the trim and sinkage of the ship are taken into consideration. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed methodology for a large container ship is investigated by comparing the computational results with experimental data, which demonstrates that the proposed methodology can engage well in the automation process and improve hydrodynamic performance during actual ship design practices.

  4. A hydrodynamically suspended, magnetically sealed mechanically noncontact axial flow blood pump: design of a hydrodynamic bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Kido, Kazuyuki; Yano, Tetsuya; Sakota, Daisuke; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Sekine, Kazumitsu; OKamoto, Eiji

    2007-03-01

    To overcome the drive shaft seal and bearing problem in rotary blood pumps, a hydrodynamic bearing, a magnetic fluid seal, and a brushless direct current (DC) motor were employed in an axial flow pump. This enabled contact-free rotation of the impeller without material wear. The axial flow pump consisted of a brushless DC motor, an impeller, and a guide vane. The motor rotor was directly connected to the impeller by a motor shaft. A hydrodynamic bearing was installed on the motor shaft. The motor and the hydrodynamic bearing were housed in a cylindrical casing and were waterproofed by a magnetic fluid seal, a mechanically noncontact seal. Impeller shaft displacement was measured using a laser sensor. Axial and radial displacements of the shaft were only a few micrometers for motor speed up to 8500 rpm. The shaft did not make contact with the bearing housing. A flow of 5 L/min was obtained at 8000 rpm at a pressure difference of 100 mm Hg. In conclusion, the axial flow blood pump consisting of a hydrodynamic bearing, a magnetic fluid seal, and a brushless DC motor provided contact-free rotation of the impeller without material wear.

  5. Hydrodynamic pressure processing: Impact on the quality attributes of fresh and further-processed meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter reviews hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP) as an innovative, postharvest technology for enhancing the quality attributes of fresh and further-processed meat products. A variety of meat products have been tested for their response to the high pressure shockwaves of HDP. The st...

  6. Hydrodynamics of heavy liquid metal coolant processes and filtering apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert K Papovyants; Yuri I Orlov; Pyotr N Martynov; Yuri D Boltoev [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering named after A.I. Leypunsky Bondarenko sq. 1, 249033, Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: To optimize the design of filters for cleaning heavy liquid metal coolant (HLMC) from suspended impurities and choose appropriate filter material, the contribution is considered of different mechanisms of delivery and retention of these impurities from the coolant flow, which is governed by its specificity as a thermodynamically instable disperse system to a large extent. It is shown that the buildup of deposits in the filter is favored by the hydrodynamic regime with minimum filtration rates being due to the predominance in the suspension of the fine-dispersed solid phase (oxides Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and so on). With concentrating the last mentioned phase in filter material pores or stagnant zones, coagulation structuration is possible, which is accompanied by sharp local increase in the viscosity and strength of the solid phase medium being built from liquid metal, i.e. slag sedimentary deposits. In rather extended pores, disintegration of such structures is possible, which is accompanied by sedimentation of large particles produced due to sticking together at coagulation. The analytical solution of the problem of particle sedimentation due to diffusion indicated that in the case under consideration, this mechanism takes place for particles less than {approx} 0,05 {mu}m in size, which is specified by the fact that the time of their delivery to the filter material surface is longer than that of the coolant being in the filter. The London-Van-der-Waals molecular forces play a crucial role in the stage of retention of a separate particle. The constant of the molecular interaction between a spherical particle and the flat surface has been estimated for the chosen value of the gap between the contacting bodies, being dependent on the wetting angle. The sufficient condition for d{sub p}-diameter particle capture by the adhesion force field (with a gap of H {approx_equal} 30 nm) is that it be brought by the appropriate

  7. Design of hydrodynamically confined microfluidics: controlling flow envelope and pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Kevin V; Turner, Kevin T

    2011-04-21

    Closed-channel microfluidic devices are widely used in a number of chemical and biological applications; however, it is often difficult to interact with samples, such as cells, that are enclosed inside them. Hydrodynamically confined microflows (HCMs) allow microfluidic-type flows to be generated in open liquid environments, such as Petri dishes, thus greatly increasing the flexibility of microfluidic approaches. HCMs have previously been used for protein patterning and selective cell treatment applications, but the underlying fluid mechanics is not fully understood. Here, we examine the effect of device geometry and flow parameters on the properties of the flow envelope and pressure drop of several two-port HCM devices using a combination of experiments and modeling. A three-port device, which allows for different flow envelope shapes to be generated, is also analyzed. The experimental results agree well with the 3-D computational fluid dynamics simulations, with the majority of the measurements within 10% of the simulations. The results presented provide a framework for understanding the fluid mechanics of HCMs and will aid in the design of HCM devices for a broad range of applications.

  8. Hydrodynamic Optimization Method and Design Code for Stall-Regulated Hydrokinetic Turbine Rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, D.; Jonkman, J.; Musial, W.

    2009-08-01

    This report describes the adaptation of a wind turbine performance code for use in the development of a general use design code and optimization method for stall-regulated horizontal-axis hydrokinetic turbine rotors. This rotor optimization code couples a modern genetic algorithm and blade-element momentum performance code in a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) that allows for rapid and intuitive design of optimal stall-regulated rotors. This optimization method calculates the optimal chord, twist, and hydrofoil distributions which maximize the hydrodynamic efficiency and ensure that the rotor produces an ideal power curve and avoids cavitation. Optimizing a rotor for maximum efficiency does not necessarily create a turbine with the lowest cost of energy, but maximizing the efficiency is an excellent criterion to use as a first pass in the design process. To test the capabilities of this optimization method, two conceptual rotors were designed which successfully met the design objectives.

  9. Concurrent multiscale modelling of atomistic and hydrodynamic processes in liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markesteijn, Anton; Karabasov, Sergey; Scukins, Arturs; Nerukh, Dmitry; Glotov, Vyacheslav; Goloviznin, Vasily

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuations of liquids at the scales where the hydrodynamic and atomistic descriptions overlap are considered. The importance of these fluctuations for atomistic motions is discussed and examples of their accurate modelling with a multi-space–time-scale fluctuating hydrodynamics scheme are provided. To resolve microscopic details of liquid systems, including biomolecular solutions, together with macroscopic fluctuations in space–time, a novel hybrid atomistic–fluctuating hydrodynamics approach is introduced. For a smooth transition between the atomistic and continuum representations, an analogy with two-phase hydrodynamics is used that leads to a strict preservation of macroscopic mass and momentum conservation laws. Examples of numerical implementation of the new hybrid approach for the multiscale simulation of liquid argon in equilibrium conditions are provided. PMID:24982246

  10. Interaction of Microphysical Aerosol Processes with Hydrodynamics Mixing

    KAUST Repository

    Alshaarawi, Amjad

    2015-12-15

    This work is concerned with the interaction between condensing aerosol dynamics and hydrodynamic mixing within ow configurations in which aerosol particles form (nucleate) from a supersaturated vapor and supersaturation is induced by the mixing of two streams (a saturated stream and a cold one). Two canonical hydrodynamic configurations are proposed for the investigation. The First is the steady one-dimensional opposed-ow configuration. The setup consists of the two (saturated and cold) streams owing from opposite nozzles. A mixing layer is established across a stagnation plane in the center where nucleation and other aerosol dynamics are triggered. The second is homogeneous isotropic turbulence in a three-dimensional periodic domain. Patches of a hot saturated gas mix with patches of a cold one. A mixing layer forms across the growing interface where the aerosol dynamics of interest occur. In both configurations, a unique analogy is observed. The results reveal a complex response to variations in the mixing rates. Depending on the mixing rate, the response of the number density falls into one of two regimes. For fast mixing rates, the maximum reached number density of the condensing droplets increases with the hydrodynamic time. We refer to this as the nucleation regime. On the contrary, for low mixing rates, the maximum reached number density decreases with the hydrodynamic time. We refer to this as the consumption regime. It is shown that vapor scavenging by the aerosol phase is key to explaining the transition between these two regimes.

  11. Simple design criteria and efficiency of hydrodynamic vortex separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronowska-Szneler, M A; Sawicki, J M

    2014-01-01

    Vortex separators still draw attention from specialists investigating the process of removing particles suspended in liquids. The devices are locally applied for waste water treatment in different systems - from storm waste water sewerage to water circulation in fish ponds. However, the methods for separator design presented in the literature are questionable. The paper presents two simple and functional criteria that were employed to construct a laboratory test stand. The test results gave positive feedback on the efficiency of vortex separators.

  12. ECO DESIGN IN DESIGN PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRALEA Jeni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Eco-design is a new domain, required by the new trends and existing concerns worldwide, generated by the necessity of adopting new design principles. New design principles require the designer to provide a friendly relationship between concept created, environment and consume. This "friendly" relationship should be valid both at present and in the future, generating new opportunities for product, product components or materials from which it was made. Awareness, by the designer, the importance of this new trend, permits the establishment of concepts that have as their objective the protection of present values and ensuring the legacy of future generations. Ecodesig, by its principles, is involved in the design process, from early stage, the stage of product design. Priority objective of the designers will consist in reducing the negative effects on the environment through the entire life cycle and after it is taken out of use. The main aspects of the eco-design will consider extending product exploitation, make better use of materials, reduction of emission of waste. The design process in the "eco"domein must be started by selecting the function of the concept, materials and technological processes, causing the shape of macro and micro geometric of the product through an analysis that involves optimizing and streamlining the product. This paper presents the design process of a cross-sports footwear concept, built on the basis of the principles of ecodesign

  13. Simulation of the mixing process in FCIs with hydrodynamic fragmentation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Qian; CAO Xuewu

    2007-01-01

    Fuel Coolant Interactions (FCIs) are important issues in nuclear reactor severe accident analysis. In FCIs,fragmentation model of molten droplets is a key factor to estimate degree of possible damage. In this paper, the mixing process in FCIs is studied by the simulation of MIXA experiment with hydrodynamic fragmentation model. The result shows that hydrodynamic fragmentation model underestimates the fragmentation rate of high temperature molten droplets under the condition of low Weber numbers. It is concluded that models based on thermal fragmentation mechanism should be adopted to analyze the FCI process and its consequence.

  14. A THERMO-ELECTRO-HYDRODYNAMIC MODEL FOR VIBRATION-ELECTROSPINNING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Lan Xu; Liang Wang; Naeem Faraz

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a thermo-electro-hydrodynamic model of the vibration- electrospinning process is first established. The model can offer in-depth insight into physical understanding of many complex phenomena which can not be fully explained experimentally. It is a powerful tool to controlling over physical characters.

  15. A THERMO-ELECTRO-HYDRODYNAMIC MODEL FOR VIBRATION-ELECTROSPINNING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a thermo-electro-hydrodynamic model of the vibration- electrospinning process is first established. The model can offer in-depth insight into physical understanding of many complex phenomena which can not be fully explained experimentally. It is a powerful tool to controlling over physical characters.

  16. METHODS OF PHYSICAL MODELING OF HYDRODYNAMIC PROCESSES AT CASTING OF ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ju. Stetsenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of physical modeling of hydrodynamic processes of alloys molding is developed. It is shown that as a liquid it is necessary to use water and diethyl ether at molding of steel, silumins, tin-base bronzes and waterglycerine solutions.

  17. The Critical Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Heiselberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    within Danish tradition of architecture and construction. The objective of the research presented in this paper, is to compare the different design processes behind the making of passive houses in a Danish context. We evaluated the process with regard to the integrated and traditional design process....... Data analysis showed that the majority of the consortiums worked in an integrated manner; though there was room for improvment. Additionally, the paper discusses the challanges of implementing the integrated design process in practice and suggests ways of overcomming some of the barriers . In doing so...

  18. HYDRODYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION DESIGN OF LOW SOLIDITY VANED DIFFUSER FOR A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP USING GENETIC ALGORITHMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; FENG Zhen-ping; TSUKAMOTO Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a hydrodynamic redesign of the conventional vaned diffuser into the low solidity vaned diffuser for the maximum static pressure recovery in a centrifugal pump. A Bezier curve representation for profile description was coupled with a blade-to-blade flow calculation and a real-coded genetic algorithm. A low solidity vaned diffuser of 0.89 in solidity was obtained through the present optimum design. Numerical analysis and experimental test were made to evaluate the hydrodynamic performance of the centrifugal pump with the designed low solidity vaned diffuser and original vaned diffuser. The obtained results demonstrate that the centrifugal pump with the optimized vaned diffuser has compact size compared with the original one while the performance requirements have been met.

  19. Hydrodynamic provinces and oceanic connectivity from a transport network help designing marine reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Vincent; Ser-Giacomi, Enrico; López, Cristóbal; Hernández-García, Emilio

    2014-04-01

    Oceanic dispersal and connectivity have been identified as crucial factors for structuring marine populations and designing marine protected areas (MPAs). Focusing on larval dispersal by ocean currents, we propose an approach coupling Lagrangian transport and new tools from Network Theory to characterize marine connectivity in the Mediterranean basin. Larvae of different pelagic durations and seasons are modeled as passive tracers advected in a simulated oceanic surface flow from which a network of connected areas is constructed. Hydrodynamical provinces extracted from this network are delimited by frontiers which match multiscale oceanographic features. By examining the repeated occurrence of such boundaries, we identify the spatial scales and geographic structures that would control larval dispersal across the entire seascape. Based on these hydrodynamical units, we study novel connectivity metrics for existing reserves. Our results are discussed in the context of ocean biogeography and MPAs design, having ecological and managerial implications.

  20. A proposed Atlas liner design fabricated for hydrodynamic experiments on Shiva Star

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, W; Armijo, E; Bartos, Yu; Cameron, B; García, F; Henneke, B; Randolph, B; Salazar, M A; Sandoval, D L; Steckle, W; Turchi, P J; Gale, D

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given. An entirely new cylindrical liner system has been designed and fabricated for use at Shiva Star. The design incorporates features expected to be applicable to a future Atlas power flow channel with the intention of keeping any required liner design modifications to a minimum when the power flow channel at Atlas is available. Four shots were successfully conducted at Shiva Star that continued a series of hydrodynamics physics experiments started on Pegasus. Departures from the diagnostic suite that had previously been used at Pegasus required new techniques in the fabrication of the experiment insert package.

  1. Hydrodynamic solutions of spatially-varying 1D exclusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Greg; Chou, Tom

    2007-03-01

    We analyze the open boundary partially asymmetric exclusion process with smoothly varying internal hopping rates in the infinite-size, mean field limit. The mean field equations for particle densities are written in terms of Ricatti equations with the steady-state current J as a parameter. These equations are solved both analytically and numerically. Upon imposing the boundary conditions set by the injection and extraction rates, the currents J are found self-consistently. We find a number of cases where analytic solutions can be found exactly or approximated. Results for J from asymptotic analyses for slowly varying hopping rates agree extremely well with those from extensive Monte Carlo simulations, suggesting that mean field currents are exact as long as the hopping rates vary slowly over the lattice. If the forward hopping rate is greater than or less than the backward hopping rate throughout the entire chain, the three standard steady-state phases are preserved. Our analysis reveals the sensitivity of the current to the relative phase between the forward and backward hopping rate functions.

  2. A method to combine hydrodynamics and constructive design in the optimization of the runner blades of Kaplan turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miclosina, C. O.; Balint, D. I.; Campian, C. V.; Frunzaverde, D.; Ion, I.

    2012-11-01

    This paper deals with the optimization of the axial hydraulic turbines of Kaplan type. The optimization of the runner blade is presented systematically from two points of view: hydrodynamic and constructive. Combining these aspects in order to gain a safer operation when unsteady effects occur in the runner of the turbine is attempted. The design and optimization of the runner blade is performed with QTurbo3D software developed at the Center for Research in Hydraulics, Automation and Thermal Processes (CCHAPT) from "Eftimie Murgu" University of Resita, Romania. QTurbo3D software offers possibilities to design the meridian channel of hydraulic turbines design the blades and optimize the runner blade. 3D modeling and motion analysis of the runner blade operating mechanism are accomplished using SolidWorks software. The purpose of motion study is to obtain forces, torques or stresses in the runner blade operating mechanism, necessary to estimate its lifetime. This paper clearly states the importance of combining the hydrodynamics with the structural design in the optimization procedure of the runner of hydraulic turbines.

  3. CFD for hydrodynamic efficiency and design optimization of key elements of SHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pereira, Helena M. Ramos

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study how the flow behaves in key elements of small hydropower plants (SHP which should be well designed in order to achieve properly the best hydraulic and energy efficiency. There are some hydrodynamic and structural fundaments that all hydro circuits design has to follow, and there are other aspects that vary from design to the flow behavior. The variables that influence the hydro systems design are related with performance, technical, operational and environmental aspects. For instance, design discharge, produced energy, intakes and outlets geometry are some of the technical variables. The components of SHP design should be characterized by a balance between hydraulic, structural, operational and environment efficiency and economic issues. To improve the hydraulic efficiency is necessary information concerning with hydrodynamic flow behavior. The knowledge in this area is still insufficient since the hydrodynamic flow patterns, in some key elements of hydraulic circuits of SHP are quite complex. Therefore this paper uses an advanced computational fluid dynamic (CFD model for flow simulation, with the aim to improve the behavior comprehension enabling the identification of parameters’ variation which influences the performance efficiency of those components in the design criteria of such SHP. Since the inefficiency and the unsafe operating conditions are normally associated to separated flow zones, vorticity development, macro turbulence intensity, pressure gradients, shear stress increase, this paper intends to analyze causes and consequences of the flow behavior. Among these concerns it is possible to identify induced problems, such as vibrations, resonance effects, ruptures or collapses, cavitation, water column separation, significant friction losses, vortices and regions of reversed flow.

  4. ECO DESIGN IN DESIGN PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    PRALEA Jeni; SOLTUZ Elena

    2014-01-01

    Eco-design is a new domain, required by the new trends and existing concerns worldwide, generated by the necessity of adopting new design principles. New design principles require the designer to provide a friendly relationship between concept created, environment and consume. This "friendly" relationship should be valid both at present and in the future, generating new opportunities for product, product components or materials from which it was made. Awareness, by the designer, the imp...

  5. Hydrodynamic analysis, performance assessment, and actuator design of a flexible tail propulsor in an artificial alligator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philen, Michael; Neu, Wayne

    2011-09-01

    The overall objective of this research is to develop analysis tools for determining actuator requirements and assessing viable actuator technology for design of a flexible tail propulsor in an artificial alligator. A simple hydrodynamic model that includes both reactive and resistive forces along the tail is proposed and the calculated mean thrust agrees well with conventional estimates of drag. Using the hydrodynamic model forces as an input, studies are performed for an alligator ranging in size from 1 cm to 2 m at swimming speeds of 0.3-1.8 body lengths per second containing five antagonistic pairs of actuators distributed along the length of the tail. Several smart materials are considered for the actuation system, and preliminary analysis results indicate that the acrylic electroactive polymer and the flexible matrix composite actuators are potential artificial muscle technologies for the system.

  6. Investigating the Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kautz, Karlheinz

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to explore a case of customer and user participation in an agile software development project, which produced a tailor-made information system for workplace support as a step towards a theory of participatory design in agile software development. Design/methodology/approach...... supported a balance between flexibility and project progress and resulted in a project and a product which were considered a success by the customer and the development organization. The analysis showed that the integrative framework for user participation can also fruitfully be used in a new context...... to understand what participatory design is and how, when and where it can be performed as an instance of a design process in agile development. As such the paper contributes to an analytical and a design theory of participatory design in agile development. Furthermore the paper explicates why participatory...

  7. An Integrated Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2010-01-01

    Present paper is placed in the discussion about how sustainable measures are integrated in the design process by architectural offices. It presents results from interviews with four leading Danish architectural offices working with sustainable architecture and their experiences with it, as well...... as the requirements they meet in terms of how to approach the design process – especially focused on the early stages like a competition. The interviews focus on their experiences with working in multidisciplinary teams and using digital tools to support their work with sustainable issues. The interviews show...... the environmental measures cannot be discarded due to extra costs....

  8. Hydrodynamic filtration in microfluidic channels as size-selection process for giant unilamellar vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Youngjun; Heo, Youhee; Shin, Kwanwoo; Yi, Gi-Ra

    2013-04-01

    We have developed hydrodynamic filtration method in microfluidic device for the efficient size-selection of polydisperse lipid vesicles for giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), in which vesicles were formed by electroformation method. Combining pinched flow channel design before hydrodynamic filtration, GUVs were flowed and guided to filtration channels, in which small lipid vesicles were further filtered and GUV were remained in main flow channels. For increasing the selectivity of GUV in outlets, length of slit section, or relative flow rate were controlled and drain channels were introduced for avoiding back flow. At higher flow rate in a pinched flow, the fraction of recovered GUVs (>10 microm) were increased, in which most of small vesicles were filtered.

  9. An Integrated Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2010-01-01

    as the requirements they meet in terms of how to approach the design process – especially focused on the early stages like a competition. The interviews focus on their experiences with working in multidisciplinary teams and using digital tools to support their work with sustainable issues. The interviews show...

  10. Coupled discrete element and smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of the die filling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breinlinger, Thomas; Kraft, Torsten

    2016-11-01

    Die filling is an important part of the powder compaction process chain, where defects in the final part can be introduced—or prevented. Simulation of this process is therefore a goal for many part producers and has been studied by some researchers already. In this work, we focus on the influence of the surrounding air on the powder flow. We demonstrate the implementing and coupling of the discrete element method for the granular powder and the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method for the gas flow. Application of the method to the die filling process is demonstrated.

  11. A support design process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, J.; Scott, P.B. [Health and Safety Executive (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    A workman suffered a fatal injury due to a fall of ground from the face of a development drivage, which was supported by passive supports supplemented with roof bolts. A working party was set up to review the support process and evaluate how protection of the workmen could be improved whilst setting supports.The working party included representatives from the trade unions, the mines inspectorate and mine operators.Visits were made to several mines and discussions were held with the workmen and management at these mines. The paper describes the results of the visits and how a support design process was evolved. The process will ensure that the support system is designed to reduce the inherent hazards associated with setting supports using either conventional or mixed support systems.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF LOCAL HYDRODYNAMICS AND MASS EXCHANGE PROCESSES OF COOLANT IN FUEL ASSEMBLIES OF PRESSURIZED WATER REACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Dmitriev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental studies of local hydrodynamics and mass exchange of coolant flow behind spacer and mixing grids of different structural versions that were developed for fuel assemblies of domestic and foreign nuclear reactors are presented in the article. In order to carry out the study the models of the following fuel assemblies have been fabricated: FA for VVER and VBER, FA-KVADRAT for PWR-reactor and FA for KLT-40C reactor. All the models have been fabricated with a full geometrical similarity with full-scale fuel assemblies. The study was carried out by simulating the flow of coolant in a core by air on an aerodynamic test rig. In order to measure local hydrodynamic characteristics of coolant flow five-channel Pitot probes were used that enable to measure the velocity vector in a point by its three components. The tracerpropane method was used for studying mass transfer processes. Flow hydrodynamics was studied by measuring cross-section velocities of coolant flow and coolant rates according to the model cells. The investigation of mass exchange processes consisted of a study of concentration distribution for tracer in experimental model, in determination of attenuation lengths of mass transfer processes behind mixing grids, in calculating of inter-cellar mass exchange coefficient. The database on coolant flow in fuel assemblies for different types of reactors had been accumulated that formed the basis of the engineering substantiation of reactor cores designs. The recommendations on choice of optimal versions of mixing grids have been taken into consideration by implementers of the JSC “OKBM Afrikantov” when creating commissioned fuel assemblies. The results of the study are used for verification of CFD-codes and CFD programs of detailed cell-by-cell calculation of reactor cores in order to decrease conservatism for substantiation of thermal-mechanical reliability.

  13. The Optimum Design of Hydrodynamic Lubrication Bearing for Minimization of the Total Life Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsubo, Takuzo; Yamabayashi, Jun

    This paper proposes an optimum design method of journal bearing for minimizing the total life cost which includes not only the initial cost but also the running cost. Journal bearing is one of the typical friction part and physically severe part in machine elements. Therefore, maintenance is required to prevent failure and to keep performance. For this object, the running cost by the maintenance is user's burden. Thus, the optimum design method of the bearing for minimization of the total life cost is required. In this research, the evaluation functions of the total life cost which contains the initial cost and the running cost of the bearing are discussed and the optimum design is proposed under the physical constrain, that is Thermo Hydrodynamic Lubrication theory (THL theory), and inequality constraints. Then design valuables of the optimum journal bearing are obtained.

  14. Thermo-hydrodynamic design of fluidized bed combustors estimating metal wastage

    CERN Document Server

    Lyczkowski, Robert W; Bouillard, Jacques X; Folga, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    Thermo-Hydrodynamic Design of Fluidized Bed Combustors: Estimating Metal Wastage is a unique volume that finds that the most sensitive parameters affecting metal wastage are superficial fluidizing velocity, particle diameter, and particle sphericity.  Gross consistencies between disparate data sources using different techniques were found when the erosion rates are compared on the same basis using the concept of renormalization.  The simplified mechanistic models and correlations, when validated, can be used to renormalize any experimental data so they can be compared on a consistent basis using a master equation.

  15. Design Process Optimization Based on Design Process Gene Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bo; TONG Shu-rong

    2011-01-01

    The idea of genetic engineering is introduced into the area of product design to improve the design efficiency. A method towards design process optimization based on the design process gene is proposed through analyzing the correlation between the design process gene and characteristics of the design process. The concept of the design process gene is analyzed and categorized into five categories that are the task specification gene, the concept design gene, the overall design gene, the detailed design gene and the processing design gene in the light of five design phases. The elements and their interactions involved in each kind of design process gene signprocess gene mapping is drawn with its structure disclosed based on its function that process gene.

  16. Minimum Curvature Design of Three-Element Centripetalturbine Hydrodynamic Torque Converters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shi-ping; QUAN Long

    2009-01-01

    The influence of streamline bending inertia force on power loss is investigated. In order to analyze the combined effect of the inertia force and the path on the power loss, the accumulation effect expression of the inertia force on its path is derived. The calculation result shows that the accumulation effect of the unit inertia force on its path depends merely upon the velocity magnitude and the path scroll angle. As long as they are given, the accumulation effect is a constant and independent of the intermediate path. An important conclusion drawn is that the maximum inertia force rather than its accumulation effect plays a predominant role in the power loss. Thus, a new design method, minimum streamline curvature method, is proposed. Fluid particle movement inside a hydrodynamic torque converter can be regarded as curved movement on the circular surface and decomposed into a meridional component and a circumferential component. Each meridional streamline is designed to be close to a circular arc, while each torus streamline is constructed with a circular arc and a straight line segment. Based on the meridional streamline equation, the torus streamline equation and a streamlined thickness function, a blade surface equation of three-element centripetal-turbine hydrodynamic torque converter can be obtained.

  17. Design criteria for soil cleaning operations in electrokinetic remediation: hydrodynamic aspects in a cylindrical geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyanader, Mario A; Arce, Pedro; Dzurik, Andrew

    2005-08-01

    The applications of electrokinetics embrace a large family of important industrial, pharmaceutical, biomedical, and environmental applications. Processes such as separation, drug delivery, soil remediation, and others constitute alist of applications where electrical fields are used to induce the movement of solute species. Different transport driving forces participate in the motion of the solute. In the particular case of soil remediation, the electromechanisms may compete with buoyancy and advection, promoting distinct flow regimes. As a rule of thumb, some of the earlier applications of electrokinetic phenomena, mainly in the area of electrophoresis, neglected this competition, and therefore the hydrodynamics of the systems was considered simpler. The nature of the process in soil, a porous media, calls for a different approach and is in need of further analysis of the complete map of collaborating driving forces. The identification and analysis of the characteristic flow regimes may lead to important guidelines for improving the separation, avoiding the mixing, and more efficient cleaning in a given application. In this contribution, using a cylindrical capillary model, the basic aspects of the behavior of the system are captured. A differential model is formulated using simplifying assumptions, maintaining the mathematical aspects to a minimum level, and a solution is presented for the different fields, i.e., the temperature and the velocity. Based on the selection of values of the parameter space, several limiting cases and flow regimes are presented and discussed. Implications for the design of devices and cleaning strategies are also included. Needs for further research are identified. The main idea behind the study is to obtain a qualitative and semiquantitative description of the different flow regimes inside the channel. This information is useful to identify further aspects of the investigation and delineate a systematic approach for a more rigorous

  18. Influence of chronometry on hydrodynamic stability: design of Direct-Drive experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffite, Stephane; Canaud, Benoit; Masse, Laurent; Larroche, Olivier; Girard, Frederic; Tassin, Veronique; Philippe, Frank; Landoas, Olivier; Caillaud, Tony; CEA Team

    2013-10-01

    We present here the 2D design of future Direct-Drive (DD) experiments which will be carried out in 2014 at the OMEGA facility. Hydrodynamic stability of capsule is a major concern for DD and Indirect-Drive (ID) implosions. Stability can be greatly affected by the chronometry of the drive. The objective of these experiments is to study the impact of chronometry on the stability of the target. Target will be filled with 15 bars of DT or DD-Argon. Diameter will be about 900 microns. Plastic shell thickness will be 25 microns. Target dimensions will be the same for all the shots. Pulse will be varied from a square pulse to 2-steps-pulse and 3-steps-pulses. Hydrodynamic stability decreases with the number of steps: convergence ration increases from Rc = 14 to Rc = 20 whereas adiabat decreases from 3.5 to 1.7. For some shots, low-mode asymmetries will be created by turning off some of the beams.

  19. Degradation of imidacloprid using combined advanced oxidation processes based on hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pankaj N; Bote, Sayli D; Gogate, Parag R

    2014-09-01

    The harmful effects of wastewaters containing pesticides or insecticides on human and aquatic life impart the need of effectively treating the wastewater streams containing these contaminants. In the present work, hydrodynamic cavitation reactors have been applied for the degradation of imidacloprid with process intensification studies based on different additives and combination with other similar processes. Effect of different operating parameters viz. concentration (20-60 ppm), pressure (1-8 bar), temperature (34 °C, 39 °C and 42 °C) and initial pH (2.5-8.3) has been investigated initially using orifice plate as cavitating device. It has been observed that 23.85% degradation of imidacloprid is obtained at optimized set of operating parameters. The efficacy of different process intensifying approaches based on the use of hydrogen peroxide (20-80 ppm), Fenton's reagent (H2O2:FeSO4 ratio as 1:1, 1:2, 2:1, 2:2, 4:1 and 4:2), advanced Fenton process (H2O2:Iron Powder ratio as 1:1, 2:1 and 4:1) and combination of Na2S2O8 and FeSO4 (FeSO4:Na2S2O8 ratio as 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4) on the extent of degradation has been investigated. It was observed that near complete degradation of imidacloprid was achieved in all the cases at optimized values of process intensifying parameters. The time required for complete degradation of imidacloprid for approach based on hydrogen peroxide was 120 min where as for the Fenton and advance Fenton process, the required time was only 60 min. To check the effectiveness of hydrodynamic cavitation with different cavitating devices, few experiments were also performed with the help of slit venturi as a cavitating device at already optimized values of parameters. The present work has conclusively established that combined processes based on hydrodynamic cavitation can be effectively used for complete degradation of imidacloprid.

  20. HYDRODYNAMIC AND THERMODYNAMIC EFFECTS IN PHASE INVERSION EMULSIFICATION PROCESS OF EPOXY RESIN IN WATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-ze Xu; Yu-zhe Wu; Jian-mao Yang

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism of phase inversion emulsification process (PIE) was studied for waterborne dispersion of highly viscous epoxy resin using non-ionic polymeric surfactants. Drop deformation and breakup, rheological properties,conductivity, and particle size measurements reveal the micro-structural transition amid emulsification. It is revealed that strong flow causes water drop to burst with the formation of droplets and huge interface. Phase inversion corresponds to an abrupt rheological transition from a type of viscous melt with weak elasticity to a highly elastic type of aqueous gel. This implies that the phase inversion equivalent to a curvature inversion. Based on this, a geometric model is postulated to correlate process variables to the particle size. The coverage and conformation of the surfactant plays key role for the particle size of the final emulsion. The interactions of thermodynamic and hydrodynamic effects are also discussed. It is concluded that the thermodynamics control the PIE while the hydrodynamics drives the creation of interface and involves every step of PIE.

  1. Disruption of Brewers' yeast by hydrodynamic cavitation: Process variables and their influence on selective release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasundaram, B; Harrison, S T L

    2006-06-01

    Intracellular products, not secreted from the microbial cell, are released by breaking the cell envelope consisting of cytoplasmic membrane and an outer cell wall. Hydrodynamic cavitation has been reported to cause microbial cell disruption. By manipulating the operating variables involved, a wide range of intensity of cavitation can be achieved resulting in a varying extent of disruption. The effect of the process variables including cavitation number, initial cell concentration of the suspension and the number of passes across the cavitation zone on the release of enzymes from various locations of the Brewers' yeast was studied. The release profile of the enzymes studied include alpha-glucosidase (periplasmic), invertase (cell wall bound), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; cytoplasmic) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH; cytoplasmic). An optimum cavitation number Cv of 0.13 for maximum disruption was observed across the range Cv 0.09-0.99. The optimum cell concentration was found to be 0.5% (w/v, wet wt) when varying over the range 0.1%-5%. The sustained effect of cavitation on the yeast cell wall when re-circulating the suspension across the cavitation zone was found to release the cell wall bound enzyme invertase (86%) to a greater extent than the enzymes from other locations of the cell (e.g. periplasmic alpha-glucosidase at 17%). Localised damage to the cell wall could be observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of cells subjected to less intense cavitation conditions. Absence of the release of cytoplasmic enzymes to a significant extent, absence of micronisation as observed by TEM and presence of a lower number of proteins bands in the culture supernatant on SDS-PAGE analysis following hydrodynamic cavitation compared to disruption by high-pressure homogenisation confirmed the selective release offered by hydrodynamic cavitation.

  2. Design of an electromagnetic accelerator for turbulent hydrodynamic mix studies. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susoeff, A.R.; Hawke, R.S.; Morrison, J.J.; Dimonte, G.; Remington, B.A.

    1994-03-01

    An electromagnetic accelerator in the form of a linear electric motor (LEM) has been designed to achieve controlled acceleration profiles of a carriage containing hydrodynamically unstable fluids for the investigation of the development of turbulent mix. Key features of the design include: (1) independent control of acceleration, deceleration and augmentation currents to provide a variety of acceleration-time profiles, (2) a robust support structure to minimized deflection and dampen vibration which could create artifacts in the data interfering with the intended study and (3) a compliant, non-arcing solid armature allowing optimum electrical contact. Electromagnetic modeling codes were used to optimize the rail and augmentation coil positions within the support structure framework. Design of the driving armature and the dynamic electromagnetic braking system is based on results of contemporary studies for non-arcing sliding contact of solid armatures. A 0.6MJ electrolytic capacitor bank is used for energy storage to drive the LEM. This report will discuss a LEM and armature design which will accelerate masses of up to 3kg to a maximum of about 3000g{sub o}, where g{sub o} is acceleration due to gravity.

  3. The Analysis of the High Speed Wire Drawing Process of High Carbon Steel Wires Under Hydrodynamic Lubrication Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliga M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work the analysis of the wire drawing process in hydrodynamic dies has been done. The drawing process of φ5.5 mm wire rod to the final wire of φ1.7 mm was conducted in 12 passes, in drawing speed range of 5-25 m/s. For final wires of φ1.7 mm the investigation of topography of wire surface, the amount of lubricant on the wire surface and the pressure of lubricant in hydrodynamic dies were determined. Additionally, in the work selected mechanical properties of the wires have been estimated.

  4. The Analysis of the High Speed Wire Drawing Process of High Carbon Steel Wires Under Hydrodynamic Lubrication Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Suliga M.

    2015-01-01

    In this work the analysis of the wire drawing process in hydrodynamic dies has been done. The drawing process of φ5.5 mm wire rod to the final wire of φ1.7 mm was conducted in 12 passes, in drawing speed range of 5-25 m/s. For final wires of φ1.7 mm the investigation of topography of wire surface, the amount of lubricant on the wire surface and the pressure of lubricant in hydrodynamic dies were determined. Additionally, in the work selected mechanical properties of the wires have been estima...

  5. Experimental Research on the Marine Hydrodynamic Action on the Consolidation Process of the Sediments in the Yellow River Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiu-juan; JIA Yong-gang; LI Xiang-ran; SHAN Hong-xian

    2011-01-01

    Based on the in-situ measurements,the impact of the marine hydrodynamics,such as wave and tide,in the rapidly deposited sediments consolidation process was studied.In the tide flat of Diaokou delta-lobe,one 2m×1m×1m test pit was excavated.The seabed soils were dug and dehydrated,and then the powder of the soil was mixed with seawater to be fluid sediments.And an iron plate covered part of the test pit to cut off the effect of the marine hydrodynamics.By field-testing methods,like static cone penetration test(SPT)and vane shear test(VST),the variation of strength is measured as a function of time,and the marine hydrodynamics impact on the consolidation process of the sediments in the Yellow River estuary was studied.It is shown that the self-consolidated sediments'strength linearly increases with the depth.In the consolidation process,in the initial,marine hydrodynamics play a decisive role,about 1.5 times as much as self-consolidated in raising the strength of the sea-bed soils,and with the extension of the depth the role of the hydrodynamics is reduced.In the continuation of the consolidation process,the trend of the surface sediments increased-strength gradually slows down under the water dynamics,while the sediments below 50 cm are in opposite ways.As a result,the rapidly deposited silt presents a nonuniform consolidation state,and the crust gradually forms.The results have been referenced in studying the role of the hydrodynamics in the soil consolidation process.

  6. Flood hazards analysis based on changes of hydrodynamic processes in fluvial systems of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simas, Iury; Rodrigues, Cleide

    2016-04-01

    The metropolis of Sao Paulo, with its 7940 Km² and over 20 million inhabitants, is increasingly being consolidated with disregard for the dynamics of its fluvial systems and natural limitations imposed by fluvial terraces, floodplains and slopes. Events such as floods and flash floods became particularly persistent mainly in socially and environmentally vulnerable areas. The Aricanduva River basin was selected as the ideal area for the development of the flood hazard analysis since it presents the main geological and geomorphological features found in the urban site. According to studies carried out by Anthropic Geomorphology approach in São Paulo, to study this phenomenon is necessary to take into account the original hydromorphological systems and its functional conditions, as well as in which dimensions the Anthropic factor changes the balance between the main variables of surface processes. Considering those principles, an alternative model of geographical data was proposed and enabled to identify the role of different driving forces in terms of spatial conditioning of certain flood events. Spatial relationships between different variables, such as anthropogenic and original morphology, were analyzed for that purpose in addition to climate data. The surface hydrodynamic tendency spatial model conceived for this study takes as key variables: 1- The land use present at the observed date combined with the predominant lithological group, represented by a value ranging 0-100, based on indexes of the National Soil Conservation Service (NSCS-USA) and the Hydraulic Technology Center Foundation (FCTH-Brazil) to determine the resulting balance of runoff/infiltration. 2- The original slope, applying thresholds from which it's possible to determine greater tendency for runoff (in percents). 3- The minimal features of relief, combining the curvature of surface in plant and profile. Those three key variables were combined in a Geographic Information System in a series of

  7. Artificial islands in northern Lazio (Italy): evaluation of different hydrodynamic scenarios in support of the design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Alfiero; Bonamano, Simone; Scanu, Sergio; Peviani, Maximo; Marcelli, Marco

    2010-05-01

    The present work shows the assessment of the hypothetical influence on the hydrodynamic field induced by the construction of three artificial islands off the northern coast of Lazio (Italy). The proposed settlements will be realized with cutting-edge techniques already used around the world, allowing to explore, develop, test and apply the possibilities of a truly sustainable development of the coast. Following the identification of suitable sites, the design and construction of these insular facilities will procede locating them in such a way as to protect the coasts, adjusting sediment transportation and encouraging the recovery and development of marine ecosystems with high ecological value. The eco-sustainable islands will be created also using (reusing and recycling) residual material from human activities, as already experienced with considerable success in projects realised worldwide. To assess the effects of artificial islands on the coastline dynamics different scenarios were considered with different design choices and weather conditions through the application of two forecasting mathematical models that calculate wind-induced currents (ADCIRC) and the propagation of waves (STWAVE) and that can also assess the variation of littoral drift effects induced by coastline modifications.

  8. Modeling rainfall-runoff processes using smoothed particle hydrodynamics with mass-varied particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tsang-Jung; Chang, Yu-Sheng; Chang, Kao-Hua

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a novel treatment of adopting mass-varied particles in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is proposed to solve the shallow water equations (SWEs) and model the rainfall-runoff process. Since SWEs have depth-averaged or cross-section-averaged features, there is no sufficient dimension to add rainfall particles. Thus, SPH-SWE methods have focused on modeling discharge flows in open channels or floodplains without rainfall. With the proposed treatment, the application of SPH-SWEs can be extended to rainfall-runoff processes in watersheds. First, the numerical procedures associated with using mass-varied particles in SPH-SWEs are introduced and derived. Then, numerical validations are conducted for three benchmark problems, including uniform rainfall over a 1D flat sloping channel, nonuniform rain falling over a 1D three-slope channel with different rainfall durations, and uniform rainfall over a 2D plot with complex topography. The simulated results indicate that the proposed treatment can avoid the necessity of a source term function of mass variation, and no additional particles are needed for the increase of mass. Rainfall-runoff processes can be well captured in the presence of hydraulic jumps, dry/wet bed flows, and supercritical/subcritical/transcritical flows. The proposed treatment using mass-varied particles was proven robust and reliable for modeling rainfall-runoff processes. It can provide a new alternative for investigating practical hydrological problems.

  9. The Critical Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Heiselberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    The “Comfort Houses” project is the most ambitious building project for passive, single-family houses even undertaken in Denmark. Thus far, different consortiums have designed and built 10 houses. Besides fulfilling the German passive-house standard, the goal of the project was to build the house...

  10. Decoding designers' inspiration process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonçalves, M.

    2016-01-01

    Every great invention, innovative design or visionary art piece ever created started in the same way: with a blank canvas. However, you never begin a new project with a completely clean slate: besides memories, past experiences and general knowledge, all of us are constantly surrounded by informatio

  11. Hydrodynamics research of wastewater treatment bioreactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Nan-qi; ZHANG Bing; ZHOU Xue-fei

    2009-01-01

    To optimize the design and improve the performance of wastewater treatment bioreactors, the review concerning the hydrodynamics explored by theoretical equations, process experiments, modeling of the hydrody-namics and flow field measurement is presented. Results of different kinds of experiments show that the hydro-dynamic characteristics can affect sludge characteristics, mass transfer and reactor performance significantly. A-long with the development of theoretical equations, turbulence models including large eddy simulation models and Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models are widely used at present. Standard and modified k-ε models are the most widely used eddy viscosity turbulence models for simulating flows in bioreactors. Numericalsimulation of hydrodynamics is proved to be efficient for optimizing design and operation. The development of measurement techniques with high accuracy and low intrusion enables the flow filed in the bioreactors to be transparent. Integration of both numerical simulation and experimental measurement can describe the hydrody-namics very well.

  12. Teaching Process Design through Integrated Process Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Matthew J.; Glasser, Benjamin J.; Patel, Bilal; Hildebrandt, Diane; Glasser, David

    2012-01-01

    The design course is an integral part of chemical engineering education. A novel approach to the design course was recently introduced at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The course aimed to introduce students to systematic tools and techniques for setting and evaluating performance targets for processes, as well as…

  13. Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Processes in Long Bay of the Carolinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y.; Xu, K.; He, R.; Wren, P. A.; Gong, Y.; Quigley, B.; Tarpley, D.

    2010-12-01

    The coastline along Long Bay of the Carolinas is a fast-growing and heavily-developed area supporting local populations, infrastructure, and a large tourism industry. Myrtle Beach and its adjacent sandy beaches are popular tourist destinations that attract millions of visitors each year, representing one of the state’s most essential natural resources. The economy of this region is closely related to the stability of the sandy beaches, which are vulnerable to coastal erosion during severe storm events. Quantifying the sediment transport processes in the nearshore and inner continental shelf regions is thus critical for both understanding the regional sediment budget and implementing effective coastal management. As a first step toward investigating the sediment transport processes, a three-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic-sediment transport model for Long Bay in the Carolinas has been developed. The model, based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), spans from Cape Fear estuary in NC to Winyah Bay estuary in SC. It considers the delivery of fluvial sediment from the Cape Fear and Pee Dee Rivers, resuspension from seabed, and transport of suspended sediment by ambient currents and waves calculated using Simulating WAve Nearshore model (SWAN). Our model simulations are driven by observed wind fields, which were collected at nearby meteorological stations maintained by National Data Buoy Center as well as at six buoys by the Palmetto Wind Research Project at Coastal Carolina University. Spatially varying sea bed conditions consisting of both hard bottoms and sandy bodies are applied in the calculation. The model is one-way nested inside a large-scale coastal circulation model that covers both the Middle Atlantic Bight and the South Atlantic Bight and provides dynamically consistent and numerically accurate circulation open boundary conditions. Modeling results indicate both wind-driven currents and storm-induced waves are capable of resuspending sandy

  14. Biodiesel production process intensification using a rotor-stator type generator of hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crudo, Daniele; Bosco, Valentina; Cavaglià, Giuliano; Grillo, Giorgio; Mantegna, Stefano; Cravotto, Giancarlo

    2016-11-01

    Triglyceride transesterification for biodiesel production is a model reaction which is used to compare the conversion efficiency, yield, reaction time, energy consumption, scalability and cost estimation of different reactor technology and energy source. This work describes an efficient, fast and cost-effective procedure for biodiesel preparation using a rotating generator of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC). The base-catalyzed transesterification (methanol/sodium hydroxide) has been carried out using refined and bleached palm oil and waste vegetable cooking oil. The novel HC unit is a continuous rotor-stator type reactor in which reagents are directly fed into the controlled cavitation chamber. The high-speed rotation of the reactor creates micron-sized droplets of the immiscible reacting mixture leading to outstanding mass and heat transfer and enhancing the kinetics of the transesterification reaction which completes much more quickly than traditional methods. All the biodiesel samples obtained respect the ASTM standard and present fatty acid methyl ester contents of >99% m/m in both feedstocks. The electrical energy consumption of the HC reactor is 0.030kWh per L of produced crude biodiesel, making this innovative technology really quite competitive. The reactor can be easily scaled-up, from producing a few hundred to thousands of liters of biodiesel per hour while avoiding the risk of orifices clogging with oil impurities, which may occur in conventional HC reactors. Furthermore it requires minimal installation space due to its compact design, which enhances overall security.

  15. Materials in Participatory Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nicolai Brodersen

    This dissertation presents three years of academic inquiry into the question of what role materials play in interaction design and participatory design processes. The dissertation aims at developing conceptual tools, based on Deweys pragmatism, for understanding how materials aid design reflection....... It has been developed using a research-through-design approach in which the author has conducted practical design work in order to investigate and experiment with using materials to scaffold design inquiry. The results of the PhD work is submitted as seven separate papers, submitted to esteemed journals...... and conferences within the field of interaction design and HCI. The work is motivated both by the growing interest in materials in interaction design and HCI and the interest in design processes and collaboration within those fields. At the core of the dissertation lies an interest in the many different materials...

  16. Optimal design of a lagrangian observing system for hydrodynamic surveys in coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, Andrea; Quattrocchi, Giovanni; Antognarelli, Fabio; Satta, Andrea; Maicu, Francesco; Ferrarin, Christian; Umgiesser, Georg

    2014-05-01

    The optimization of ocean observing systems is a pressing need for scientific research. In particular, the improvement of ocean short-term observing networks is achievable by reducing the cost-benefit ratio of the field campaigns and by increasing the quality of measurements. Numerical modeling is a powerful tool for determining the appropriateness of a specific observing system and for optimizing the sampling design. This is particularly true when observations are carried out in coastal areas and lagoons where, the use satellites is prohibitive due to the water shallowness. For such areas, numerical models are the most efficient tool both to provide a preliminary assess of the local physical environment and to make short -term predictions above its change. In this context, a test case experiment was carried out within an enclosed shallow water areas, the Cabras Lagoon (Sardinia, Italy). The aim of the experiment was to explore the optimal design for a field survey based on the use of coastal lagrangian buoys. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model based on the finite element method (SHYFEM3D, Umgiesser et al., 2004) was implemented to simulate the lagoon water circulation. The model domain extent to the whole Cabras lagoon and to the whole Oristano Gulf, including the surrounding coastal area. Lateral open boundary conditions were provided by the operational ocean model system WMED and only wind forcing, provided by SKIRON atmospheric model (Kallos et al., 1997), was considered as surface boundary conditions. The model was applied to provide a number of ad hoc scenarios and to explore the efficiency of the short-term hydrodynamic survey. A first field campaign was carried out to investigate the lagrangian circulation inside the lagoon under the main wind forcing condition (Mistral wind from North-West). The trajectories followed by the lagrangian buoys and the estimated lagrangian velocities were used to calibrate the model parameters and to validate the

  17. Hydrodynamic mean-field solutions of 1D exclusion processes with spatially varying hopping rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Greg; O'Brien, John; Chou, Tom

    2006-03-01

    We analyse the open boundary partially asymmetric exclusion process with smoothly varying internal hopping rates in the infinite-size, mean-field limit. The mean-field equations for particle densities are written in terms of Ricatti equations with the steady-state current J as a parameter. These equations are solved both analytically and numerically. Upon imposing the boundary conditions set by the injection and extraction rates, the currents J are found self-consistently. We find a number of cases where analytic solutions can be found exactly or approximated. Results for J from asymptotic analyses for slowly varying hopping rates agree extremely well with those from extensive Monte Carlo simulations, suggesting that mean-field currents asymptotically approach the exact currents in the hydrodynamic limit, as the hopping rates vary slowly over the lattice. If the forward hopping rate is greater than or less than the backward hopping rate throughout the entire chain, the three standard steady-state phases are preserved. Our analysis reveals the sensitivity of the current to the relative phase between the forward and backward hopping rate functions.

  18. 3-D hydrodynamic modelling of flood impacts on a building and indoor flooding processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gems, Bernhard; Mazzorana, Bruno; Hofer, Thomas; Sturm, Michael; Gabl, Roman; Aufleger, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Given the current challenges in flood risk management and vulnerability assessment of buildings exposed to flood hazards, this study presents three-dimensional numerical modelling of torrential floods and its interaction with buildings. By means of a case study application, the FLOW-3D software is applied to the lower reach of the Rio Vallarsa torrent in the village of Laives (Italy). A single-family house on the flood plain is therefore considered in detail. It is exposed to a 300-year flood hydrograph. Different building representation scenarios, including an entire impervious building envelope and the assumption of fully permeable doors, light shafts and windows, are analysed. The modelling results give insight into the flooding process of the building's interior, the impacting hydrodynamic forces on the exterior and interior walls, and further, they quantify the impact of the flooding of a building on the flow field on the surrounding flood plain. The presented study contributes to the development of a comprehensive physics-based vulnerability assessment framework. For pure water floods, this study presents the possibilities and limits of advanced numerical modelling techniques within flood risk management and, thereby, the planning of local structural protection measures.

  19. Multidimensional upwind hydrodynamics on unstructured meshes using graphics processing units - I. Two-dimensional uniform meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paardekooper, S.-J.

    2017-08-01

    We present a new method for numerical hydrodynamics which uses a multidimensional generalization of the Roe solver and operates on an unstructured triangular mesh. The main advantage over traditional methods based on Riemann solvers, which commonly use one-dimensional flux estimates as building blocks for a multidimensional integration, is its inherently multidimensional nature, and as a consequence its ability to recognize multidimensional stationary states that are not hydrostatic. A second novelty is the focus on graphics processing units (GPUs). By tailoring the algorithms specifically to GPUs, we are able to get speedups of 100-250 compared to a desktop machine. We compare the multidimensional upwind scheme to a traditional, dimensionally split implementation of the Roe solver on several test problems, and we find that the new method significantly outperforms the Roe solver in almost all cases. This comes with increased computational costs per time-step, which makes the new method approximately a factor of 2 slower than a dimensionally split scheme acting on a structured grid.

  20. Hydrodynamic mean-field solutions of 1D exclusion processes with spatially varying hopping rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, Greg; O' Brien, John; Chou, Tom [Department of Biomathematics and Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2006-03-10

    We analyse the open boundary partially asymmetric exclusion process with smoothly varying internal hopping rates in the infinite-size, mean-field limit. The mean-field equations for particle densities are written in terms of Ricatti equations with the steady-state current J as a parameter. These equations are solved both analytically and numerically. Upon imposing the boundary conditions set by the injection and extraction rates, the currents J are found self-consistently. We find a number of cases where analytic solutions can be found exactly or approximated. Results for J from asymptotic analyses for slowly varying hopping rates agree extremely well with those from extensive Monte Carlo simulations, suggesting that mean-field currents asymptotically approach the exact currents in the hydrodynamic limit, as the hopping rates vary slowly over the lattice. If the forward hopping rate is greater than or less than the backward hopping rate throughout the entire chain, the three standard steady-state phases are preserved. Our analysis reveals the sensitivity of the current to the relative phase between the forward and backward hopping rate functions.

  1. Design of environmentally benign processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Martin; Harper, Peter Mathias; Gani, Rafiqul

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid method for design of environmentally benign processes. The hybrid method integrates mathematical modelling with heuristic approaches to solving the optimisation problems related to separation process synthesis and solvent design and selection. A structured method...... of solution, which employs thermodynamic insights to reduce the complexity and size of the mathematical problem by eliminating redundant alternatives, has been developed for the hybrid method. Separation process synthesis and design problems related to the removal of a chemical species from process streams...... mixture and the second example involves the determination of environmentally benign substitute solvents for removal of a chemical species from wastewater. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  2. Design of Industrial Quenching Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nikolai. I. KOBASKO; George .E. TOTTEN

    2004-01-01

    The method of designing industrial processes of quench cooling, in particular, the speed of the conveyor movement with regard to shape and sizes of parts to be quenched, thermal and physical properties of material and cooling capacity of quenchants has been developed. The suggested designing method and databases are the basis for the complete automation of industrial processes of quench cooling, especially for continuous conveyor lines, with the purpose of making high-strength materials. The process is controlled by infrared technique.

  3. Physical-chemical hydrodynamics of the processes of sorption-membrane technology of LRW treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander D Efanov; Pyotr N Martynov; Yuri D Boltoev; Ivan V Yagodkin; Nataliya G Bogdanovich; Sergey S Skvortsov; Alexander R Sokolovsky; Elena V Ignatova; Gennady V Grigoriev; Vitaly V Grigorov [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering named after A.I. Leypunsky Bondarenko sq. 1, 249033, Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Liquid radioactive NPP waste is generated, when radioactive water is collected and mixed from various routine and non-routine process measures being performed in accordance with the operating regulations of reactor units with water coolant. The main sources of LRW are the primary loop water coolant, deactivation, regeneration and rinse waters, waste laundry and showers water producing the initial averaged LRW as well as spent fuel element cooling pond water and water of biological protection tanks. LRW handling can be substantially advanced, in particular, through development and introduction of the non-conventional sorption-membrane technology of NPP LRW treatment, being developed at SSC RF IPPE. This technology makes use of natural inorganic sorbents (tripolite, zeolite, ion-exchange materials) and filtering nano-structured metallic and ceramic membranes (titanium, zirconium, chromium and other or their oxides, carbides and nitrides). The efficiency of the sorption membrane technology is associated just with the investigation of the physical-chemical processes of sorption, coagulation and sedimentation under the conditions of forced and free convection occurring in LRW. Besides, it is necessary to take into consideration that the hydrodynamics of the flows of LRW being decontaminated by membrane filtration depends on the structure and composition of the porous composition pare 'nano-structured membrane-substrate'. Neglecting these peculiarities can result in drastic reduction of the time of stable LRW filtration, reduction of the operability resource of filtration systems or in quick mechanical destruction of porous materials. The paper presents the investigation results on: -the effect of the convection flows being generated by air bubbling or LRW stirring by agitator on the static sorption conditions (sorption time, medium pH, sorbent dispersity, sorbent concentration in liquid medium) and on the efficiency of

  4. Analog circuit design designing waveform processing circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The fourth volume in the set Designing Waveform-Processing Circuits builds on the previous 3 volumes and presents a variety of analog non-amplifier circuits, including voltage references, current sources, filters, hysteresis switches and oscilloscope trigger and sweep circuitry, function generation, absolute-value circuits, and peak detectors.

  5. Degradation of diclofenac sodium using combined processes based on hydrodynamic cavitation and heterogeneous photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagal, Manisha V; Gogate, Parag R

    2014-05-01

    Diclofenac sodium, a widely detected pharmaceutical drug in wastewater samples, has been selected as a model pollutant for degradation using novel combined approach of hydrodynamic cavitation and heterogeneous photocatalysis. A slit venturi has been used as cavitating device in the hydrodynamic cavitation reactor. The effect of various operating parameters such as inlet fluid pressure (2-4 bar) and initial pH of the solution (4-7.5) on the extent of degradation have been studied. The maximum extent of degradation of diclofenac sodium was obtained at inlet fluid pressure of 3 bar and initial pH as 4 using hydrodynamic cavitation alone. The loadings of TiO2 and H2O2 have been optimised to maximise the extent of degradation of diclofenac sodium. Kinetic study revealed that the degradation of diclofenac sodium fitted first order kinetics over the selected range of operating protocols. It has been observed that combination of hydrodynamic cavitation with UV, UV/TiO2 and UV/TiO2/H2O2 results in enhanced extents of degradation as compared to the individual schemes. The maximum extent of degradation as 95% with 76% reduction in TOC has been observed using hydrodynamic cavitation in conjunction with UV/TiO2/H2O2 under the optimised operating conditions. The diclofenac sodium degradation byproducts have been identified using LC/MS analysis.

  6. Numerical Investigation on Hydrodynamic Characteristics of a Centrifugal Pump with a Double Volute at Off-Design Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, H. S.; Kim, K. Y.

    2016-11-01

    Severe radial thrust under off-design operating conditions can be harmful factor for centrifugal pumps. In the present work, effects of geometry of a double volute casing on the hydrodynamic performance of a centrifugal pump have been investigated focusing on off-design conditions. Three-dimensional steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes analysis was carried out by using shear stress transport turbulence model. Numerical results for the hydrodynamic performance of the centrifugal pump were validated compared with experimental data. The hydraulic efficiency and radial thrust coefficient were used as performance parameters to evaluate the hydrodynamic characteristics of the centrifugal pump. The cross-sectional area ratio of the volute casing, the expansion coefficient of the rib structure, distance between the rib starting point and volute entrance, and radius of the volute entrance, were selected as geometric parameters. The results of parametric study show that performance parameters are significantly affected by both the geometric variables and operating conditions. Some configurations of the double volute casing showed outstanding performance in terms of the efficiency and radial thrust coefficient.

  7. The Integrated Design Process (IDP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Tine Ring; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2005-01-01

    Summary: This paper presents the Integrated Design Process (IDP) applied to sustainable architecture and available design methods and gives an example of the tools applied. The paper focuses upon the ability to integrate knowledge from engineering and architecture and let them interact with each...... other in order to solve the often very complicated problems connected to the design of sustainable buildings. Some of the aspects of the integrated design process were tested on a virtual design project in order to evaluate if the IDP can help achieve sustainable architecture. The aim was to show how...... the different parameters and products can interact, and which consequences this would have on a project. The IDP does not ensure aesthetic or sustainable solutions, but it enables the designer to control the many parameters that must be considered and integrated in the project when creating more holistic...

  8. Ponce de Leon Inlet, FL: An Integrated Hydrodynamic and Morphologic Assessment of Design Alternatives using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Coastal Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Ponce de Leon Inlet, FL: An Integrated Hydrodynamic and Morphologic Assessment of Design Alternatives using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ponce de Leon Inlet, FL: An Integrated Hydrodynamic and Morphologic Assessment of Design Alternatives...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Shoaling and channel migration at Ponce de Leon Inlet, FL, have caused persistently hazardous navigation conditions

  9. Submarine hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Renilson, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This book adopts a practical approach and presents recent research together with applications in real submarine design and operation. Topics covered include hydrostatics, manoeuvring, resistance and propulsion of submarines. The author briefly reviews basic concepts in ship hydrodynamics and goes on to show how they are applied to submarines, including a look at the use of physical model experiments. The issues associated with manoeuvring in both the horizontal and vertical planes are explained, and readers will discover suggested criteria for stability, along with rudder and hydroplane effectiveness. The book includes a section on appendage design which includes information on sail design, different arrangements of bow planes and alternative stern configurations. Other themes explored in this book include hydro-acoustic performance, the components of resistance and the effect of hull shape. Readers will value the author’s applied experience as well as the empirical expressions that are presented for use a...

  10. Efficiency of thermal relaxation by radiative processes in protoplanetary discs: constraints on hydrodynamic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malygin, M. G.; Klahr, H.; Semenov, D.; Henning, Th.; Dullemond, C. P.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Hydrodynamic, non-magnetic instabilities can provide turbulent stress in the regions of protoplanetary discs, where the magneto-rotational instability can not develop. The induced motions influence the grain growth, from which formation of planetesimals begins. Thermal relaxation of the gas constrains origins of the identified hydrodynamic sources of turbulence in discs. Aims: We aim to estimate the radiative relaxation timescale of temperature perturbations in protoplanetary discs. We study the dependence of the thermal relaxation on the perturbation wavelength, the location within the disc, the disc mass, and the dust-to-gas mass ratio. We then apply thermal relaxation criteria to localise modes of the convective overstability, the vertical shear instability, and the zombie vortex instability. Methods: For a given temperature perturbation, we estimated two timescales: the radiative diffusion timescale tthick and the optically thin emission timescale tthin. The longest of these timescales governs the relaxation: trelax = max (tthick, tthin). We additionally accounted for the collisional coupling to the emitting species. Our calculations employed the latest tabulated dust and gas mean opacities. Results: The relaxation criterion defines the bulk of a typical T Tauri disc as unstable to the development of linear hydrodynamic instabilities. The midplane is unstable to the convective overstability from at most 2au and up to 40au, as well as beyond 140au. The vertical shear instability can develop between 15au and 180au. The successive generation of (zombie) vortices from a seeded noise can work within the inner 0.8au. Conclusions: A map of relaxation timescale constrains the origins of the identified hydrodynamic turbulence-driving mechanisms in protoplanetary discs. Dynamic disc modelling with the evolution of dust and gas opacities is required to clearly localise the hydrodynamic turbulence, and especially its non-linear phase.

  11. Human Integration Design Processes (HIDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Human Integration Design Processes (HIDP) document is to provide human-systems integration design processes, including methodologies and best practices that NASA has used to meet human systems and human rating requirements for developing crewed spacecraft. HIDP content is framed around human-centered design methodologies and processes in support of human-system integration requirements and human rating. NASA-STD-3001, Space Flight Human-System Standard, is a two-volume set of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Agency-level standards established by the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer, directed at minimizing health and performance risks for flight crews in human space flight programs. Volume 1 of NASA-STD-3001, Crew Health, sets standards for fitness for duty, space flight permissible exposure limits, permissible outcome limits, levels of medical care, medical diagnosis, intervention, treatment and care, and countermeasures. Volume 2 of NASASTD- 3001, Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, focuses on human physical and cognitive capabilities and limitations and defines standards for spacecraft (including orbiters, habitats, and suits), internal environments, facilities, payloads, and related equipment, hardware, and software with which the crew interfaces during space operations. The NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) 8705.2B, Human-Rating Requirements for Space Systems, specifies the Agency's human-rating processes, procedures, and requirements. The HIDP was written to share NASA's knowledge of processes directed toward achieving human certification of a spacecraft through implementation of human-systems integration requirements. Although the HIDP speaks directly to implementation of NASA-STD-3001 and NPR 8705.2B requirements, the human-centered design, evaluation, and design processes described in this document can be applied to any set of human-systems requirements and are independent of reference

  12. Condensation of long-term wave climates for the fatigue design of hydrodynamically sensitive offshore wind turbine support structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passon, Patrik; Branner, Kim

    2016-01-01

    of the marginal wind and wave distribution. This is achieved by condensation of the site-specific wave climate in terms of wave period or wave height lumping, subsequently used as input for a correlation with the corresponding wind climate. The quality of this resulting wind–wave correlation is especially...... important for hydrodynamically sensitive structures since the applied met-ocean parameters have a non-linear influence on calculated fatigue design loads. The present article introduces a new wave lumping method for condensation of the wave climate. The novelty is predominantly based on refined equivalence...

  13. Design and fabrication of a CH/Al dual-layer perturbation target for hydrodynamic instability experiments in ICF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jun [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Xie, Zhiyong [Shanghai Institute of Laser Plasma, Shanghai 201800 (China); Du, Ai [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Ye, Junjian [Shanghai Institute of Laser Plasma, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhang, Zhihua; Shen, Jun [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhou, Bin, E-mail: zhoubin863@tongji.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2014-04-15

    Highlights: • Sinusoidal perturbed Al foil was prepared by single-point diamond turning. • Perturbed Al foil was measured by surface profiler and white light interferometer. • Perturbed Al foil and CH layer adhered with each other via a hot-press process. • Parameters and cross-section of the CH–Al perturbation target was characterized. - Abstract: A polystyrene (CH)/aluminum (Al) dual-layer perturbation target for hydrodynamic instability experiments in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) was designed and fabricated. The target was composed of a perturbed 40 μm Al foil and a CH layer. The detailed fabrication method consisted of four steps. The 40 μm Al foil was first prepared by roll and polish process; the perturbation patterns were then introduced on the surface of the Al foil by the single-point diamond turning (SPDT) technology; the CH layer was prepared via a simple method which called spin-coating process; finally, the CH layer was directly coated on the perturbation surface of Al foil by a hot-press process to avoid the use of a sticker and to eliminate the gaps between the CH layer and the Al foil. The parameters of the target, such as the perturbation wavelength (T) and perturbation amplitude (A), were characterized by a QC-5000 tool microscope, an alpha-step 500 surface profiler and a NT1100 white light interferometer. The results showed that T and A of the target were about 52 μm and 7.34 μm, respectively. Thickness of the Al foil (H1), thickness of the CH layer (H2), and cross-section of the dual-layer target were characterized by a QC-5000 tool microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). H1 and H2 were about 40 μm and 15 μm, respectively, the cross-sectional photographs of the target showed that the CH layer and the Al foil adhered perfectly with each other.

  14. Fluid dynamic design for low hemolysis in a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashige, Tomotaka; Kosaka, Ryo; Nishida, Masahiro; Maruyama, Osamu; Yamane, Takashi; Kuwana, Katsuyuki; Kawaguchi, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump for extracorporeal circulatory support as a bridge to decision pump. The impeller is levitated using hydrodynamic bearings without any complicated control circuit or displacement sensor. However, the effect of the outer circumferential velocity and the bearing area on the hemolytic property has not been clarified, even if the bearing gap is same size. The purpose of this study is to experimentally evaluate the effect of the outer circumferential velocity and the bearing area in the bearing gaps on the hemolytic property in a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump. We prepared three models for testing. These models have the same bearing gap size by adjusting the impeller levitation position. However, the outer circumferential velocity of the impeller and the bearing area in the minimum bearing gaps are different. The outer circumferential velocity of the impeller and the bearing area were assumed to be related to the maximum shear rate and the exposure time. For the evaluation, we conducted an impeller levitation performance test and an in vitro hemolysis test. As a result, the normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) was reduced from 0.084 g/100 L to 0.040 g/100 L corresponding to a reduction in the outer circumferential velocity and a reduction in the bearing area, even if the minimum bearing gaps were same size. We confirmed that, even if the bearing gap was same size under the stably levitated condition, the outer circumferential velocity and the bearing area should be decreased in order to improve the hemolytic property.

  15. Investigation of model capability in capturing vertical hydrodynamic coastal processes: a case study in the north Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKiver, W. J.; Sannino, G.; Braga, F.; Bellafiore, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we consider a numerical study of hydrodynamics in the coastal zone using two different models, SHYFEM (shallow water hydrodynamic finite element model) and MITgcm (Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model), to assess their capability to capture the main processes. We focus on the north Adriatic Sea during a strong dense water event that occurred at the beginning of 2012. This serves as an interesting test case to examine both the models strengths and weaknesses, while giving an opportunity to understand how these events affect coastal processes, like upwelling and downwelling, and how they interact with estuarine dynamics. Using the models we examine the impact of setup, surface and lateral boundary treatment, resolution and mixing schemes, as well as assessing the importance of nonhydrostatic dynamics in coastal processes. Both models are able to capture the dense water event, though each displays biases in different regions. The models show large differences in the reproduction of surface patterns, identifying the choice of suitable bulk formulas as a central point for the correct simulation of the thermohaline structure of the coastal zone. Moreover, the different approaches in treating lateral freshwater sources affect the vertical coastal stratification. The results indicate the importance of having high horizontal resolution in the coastal zone, specifically in close proximity to river inputs, in order to reproduce the effect of the complex coastal morphology on the hydrodynamics. A lower resolution offshore is acceptable for the reproduction of the dense water event, even if specific vortical structures are missed. Finally, it is found that nonhydrostatic processes are of little importance for the reproduction of dense water formation in the shelf of the north Adriatic Sea.

  16. Hydrodynamic model of cells for designing systems of urban groundwater drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Eric; Riccardi, Gerardo

    2000-08-01

    An improved mathematical hydrodynamic quasi-two-dimensional model of cells, CELSUB3, is presented for simulating drainage systems that consist of pumping well fields or subsurface drains. The CELSUB3 model is composed of an assemblage of algorithms that have been developed and tested previously and that simulate saturated flow in porous media, closed conduit flow, and flow through pumping stations. A new type of link between aquifer cells and drainage conduits is proposed. This link is verified in simple problems with well known analytical solutions. The correlation between results from analytical and mathematical solutions was considered satisfactory in all cases. To simulate more complex situations, the new proposed version, CELSUB3, was applied in a project designed to control the water-table level within a sewer system in Chañar Ladeado Town, Santa Fe Province, Argentina. Alternative drainage designs, which were evaluated under conditions of dynamic recharge caused by rainfall in a critical year (wettest year for the period of record) and a typical year, are briefly described. After analyzing ten alternative designs, the best technical-economic solution is a subsurface drainage system of closed conduits with pumping stations and evacuation channels. Résumé. Un modèle hydrodynamique perfectionné de cellules en quasi 2D, CELSUB3, est présenté dans le but de simuler des systèmes de drainage qui consistent en des champs de puits de pompage ou de drains souterrains. Le modèle CELSUB3 est composé d'un assemblage d'algorithmes développés et testés précédemment et qui simulent des écoulements en milieu poreux saturé, en conduites et dans des stations de pompage. Un nouveau type de lien entre des cellules d'aquifères et des drains est proposé. Ce lien est vérifié dans des problèmes simples dont les solutions analytiques sont bien connues. La corrélation entre les résultats des solutions analytiques et des solutions mathématiques a été consid

  17. Degradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol using a combination of hydrodynamic cavitation, chemical and advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagal, Manisha V; Gogate, Parag R

    2013-09-01

    In the present work, degradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a persistent organic contaminant with high toxicity and very low biodegradability has been investigated using combination of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) and chemical/advanced oxidation. The cavitating conditions have been generated using orifice plate as a cavitating device. Initially, the optimization of basic operating parameters have been done by performing experiments over varying inlet pressure (over the range of 3-6 bar), temperature (30 °C, 35 °C and 40 °C) and solution pH (over the range of 3-11). Subsequently, combined treatment strategies have been investigated for process intensification of the degradation process. The effect of HC combined with chemical oxidation processes such as hydrogen peroxide (HC/H2O2), ferrous activated persulfate (HC/Na2S2O8/FeSO4) and HC coupled with advanced oxidation processes such as conventional Fenton (HC/FeSO4/H2O2), advanced Fenton (HC/Fe/H2O2) and Fenton-like process (HC/CuO/H2O2) on the extent of degradation of DNP have also been investigated at optimized conditions of pH 4, temperature of 35 °C and inlet pressure of 4 bar. Kinetic study revealed that degradation of DNP fitted first order kinetics for all the approaches under investigation. Complete degradation with maximum rate of DNP degradation has been observed for the combined HC/Fenton process. The energy consumption analysis for hydrodynamic cavitation based process has been done on the basis of cavitational yield. Degradation intermediates have also been identified and quantified in the current work. The synergistic index calculated for all the combined processes indicates HC/Fenton process is more feasible than the combination of HC with other Fenton like processes.

  18. Pumps modelling of a sodium fast reactor design and analysis of hydrodynamic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ordóñez Ródenas José

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the goals of Generation IV reactors is to increase safety from those of previous generations. Different research platforms have been identified the need to improve the reliability of the simulation tools to ensure the capability of the plant to accommodate the design basis transients established in preliminary safety studies. The paper describes the modelling of primary pumps in advanced sodium cooled reactors using the TRACE code. Following the implementation of the models, the results obtained in the analysis of different design basis transients are compared with the simplifying approximations used in reference models. The paper shows the process to obtain a consistent pump model of the ESFR (European Sodium Fast Reactor design and the analysis of loss of flow transients triggered by pumps coast–down analyzing the thermal hydraulic neutronic coupled system response. A sensitivity analysis of the system pressure drops effect and the other relevant parameters that influence the natural convection after the pumps coast–down is also included.

  19. Knowledge and Processes in Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-03

    3 a lack of a basic scientific understanding of the design process is endangering American industry - and productivity (Dertouzos, Lester, & Solow ...Dertouzos, M. L., Lester, R. K., & Solow , R. M. (1989). Made in America: Regaining the productive edge. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Dixon, J. R., & Duffy, M. R...NO. DPS-5 ofillsrcue Peter Pirolli and Daniel Berger University of California at Berkeley Portions of this research were funded by the Cognitive

  20. Concept design and hydrodynamic optimization of an innovative SWATH USV by CFD methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizzolara, Stefano; Curtin, Tom; Bovio, Marco; Vernengo, Giuliano

    2012-02-01

    The paper presents the main characteristics of an innovative platform which has been conceived and designed to extend the operational capabilities of current unmanned surface vehicles in terms of platform stability in waves and of powering requirement at a relatively high speed. The main idea which rules the project is the realization of a small autonomous surface unit (about 6 m in length) capable of undertaking several tasks in the marine environment even with moderate rough sea conditions. The designed vessel has the ability to locate, recover, and launch other members of the autonomous fleet (like AUVs or other underwater devices) and at the same time could carry out a surveillance service of the surrounding areas. To manage these tasks, the vehicle is designed to provide a fairly good autonomy which is needed to face intermediate-range missions (100 nautical miles). The choice of a small waterplane area twin hull (SWATH) form has been motivated by its excellent properties of seakeeping qualities, combined with a non-conventional low resistance underwater hull shape, currently under patenting process, which is able to reduce to a minimum the resistance of the vessel especially at higher speeds. To obtain the most efficient profile of the underwater bodies, a systematic optimization with an automatic procedure based on a parametric definition of the geometry, a state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics (CFD) flow solver, and a differential evolution global minimization algorithm have been created and used. As expected, all the final CFD computations on the best design have demonstrated the superior efficiency of the developed unconventional SWATH technology with respect to different alternatives of current hull typologies.

  1. Identifying eastern Baltic cod nursery grounds using hydrodynamic modelling: knowledge for the design of Marine Protected Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Kraus, Gerd; Böttcher, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of juvenile cod is essential to closing the life cycle in population dynamic models, and it is a prerequisite for the design of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) aiming at the protection of juveniles. In this study, we use a hydrodynamic model...... evidence that the final destinations of juvenile cod drift routes are affected by decadal climate variability. Application of the methodology to MPA design is discussed, e.g. identifying the overlap of areas with a high probability of successful juvenile cod settlement and regions of high fishing effort...... to examine the spatial distribution of eastern Baltic cod larvae and early juveniles. The transport patterns of the larvae spawned at the three major spawning grounds in the central Baltic Sea were investigated by drift model simulations for the period 1979–2004. We analysed potential habitats...

  2. Hydrodynamic and morphological processes in Yangtze Estuary: State-of-the-art research and its applications by Hohai University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-hai ZHENG

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the state-of-the-art research and its applications developed at Hohai University relating to the hydrodynamic and morphological processes in the Yangtze Estuary. Longitudinal, lateral, and horizontal flow circulations have been revealed based on the measurements with acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP. The hydrodynamic mechanism at diversion points as well as the changing patterns of flow and sediment flux in the Yangtze Estuary has been investigated through long-term data analysis. A field survey has been carried out to detect the saltwater intrusion from the North Branch to South Branch. Different numerical models of flow motion, sediment transport, and saltwater intrusion have been developed to simulate the complicated processes and to evaluate the effects of engineering projects. The morphological processes of wetlands over a time scale of decades have been analyzed with an established database. Ideas for further research on the bio-geomorphological model system and long-term evolution mechanisms are put forward.

  3. COLLISION PROCESS DETAILS CONTROL THE HYDRODYNAMICS AND HEAT TRANSFER IN FLUIDIZED BED REACTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masayuki; Horio

    2005-01-01

    In the '90s DEM simulation research was successful in exploring its potential in the simulation of fluidization phenomenaand in its application to the design of fluidized-bed processes. Nevertheless, not much progress has been made regardingthe realistic treatment of collision processes that are critical in determining macroscopic mode of fluidization. All throughthe second half of the '90s, the author investigated/demonstrated the issue by introducing different surface interactionscaused by formation of liquid and/or solid bridges, van der Waals force and the existence of surface roughness. In the firstpart of the presentation these are to be summarized and the tasks remaining are discussed. In the second part, are pre-sented the results from a newly developed force-deformation meter to demonstrate the significance of the surfaceroughness and its elasto-plastic characteristics.

  4. Oceanic provinces and basin-scale connectivity derived from a hydrodynamical network help designing marine reserves in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Cristóbal; Rossi, Vincent; Ser-Giacomi, Enrico; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio

    2014-05-01

    Larval dispersal and marine connectivity have been identified as crucial factors for structuring marine population and thus to design Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Focusing on larval dispersal by ocean currents, we propose a new approach coupling Lagrangian modeling and network theory which characterizes marine connectivity in the whole Mediterranean basin. Larvae of different Pelagic Larval Duration are modeled as passive tracers advected in a simulated oceanic surface flow from which a network of connected areas can be constructed. Hydrodynamical 'coherent' provinces extracted from this network are delimited by frontiers which match mesoscale oceanographic features. By examining the repeated occurrence of such boundaries, we identify the relevant scales of larval dispersal across the entire seascape. We finally used these hydrodynamical units to define connectivity metrics for a few selected MPAs in the Mediterranean sea and we discuss our results for future allocations of MPA. The characterization of marine connectivity and its geographic structure at basin-scale has ecological and managerial implications, especially considering the growing interests for offshore MPAs.

  5. Supporting chemical process design under uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Wechsung,A.; Oldenburg, J; J. Yu; Polt,A.

    2010-01-01

    A major challenge in chemical process design is to make design decisions based on partly incomplete or imperfect design input data. Still, process engineers are expected to design safe, dependable and cost-efficient processes under these conditions. The complexity of typical process models limits intuitive engineering estimates to judge the impact of uncertain parameters on the proposed design. In this work, an approach to quantify the effect of uncertainty on a process design in order to enh...

  6. Numerical Simulation of Crater Creating Process in Dynamic Replacement Method by Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilewicz Andrzej

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical base of SPH method, including the governing equations, discussion of importance of the smoothing function length, contact formulation, boundary treatment and finally utilization in hydrocode simulations are presented. An application of SPH to a real case of large penetrations (crater creating into the soil caused by falling mass in Dynamic Replacement Method is discussed. An influence of particles spacing on method accuracy is presented. An example calculated by LS-DYNA software is discussed. Chronological development of Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics is presented. Theoretical basics of SPH method stability and consistency in SPH formulation, artificial viscosity and boundary treatment are discussed. Time integration techniques with stability conditions, SPH+FEM coupling, constitutive equation and equation of state (EOS are presented as well.

  7. Processing Binary and Fuzzy Logic by Chaotic Time Series Generated by a Hydrodynamic Photochemical Oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Pier Luigi; Giubila, Maria Sole; Heron, B Mark

    2017-02-03

    This work demonstrates the computational power of a hydrodynamic photochemical oscillator based on a photochromic naphthopyran, generating aperiodic time series. The chaotic character of the time series is tested by calculating its largest Lyapunov exponent and the correlation dimension of its attractor after building its phase space through the Takens' theorem. Then, the chaotic dynamic is shown to be suitable to implement all the fundamental Boolean two-inputs-one-output logic gates. Finally, the strategy to implement Fuzzy logic systems (FLSs) based on the time series is described. Such FLSs promise to be useful in the field of Computational Linguistics that is concerned with the development of artificial intelligent systems able to transform collections of numerical data in natural language texts.

  8. Hydrodynamic effects on coalescence.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimiduk, Thomas G.; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Grillet, Anne Mary; Baer, Thomas A.; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Loewenberg, Michael (Yale University, New Haven, CT); Gorby, Allen D.; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2006-10-01

    The goal of this project was to design, build and test novel diagnostics to probe the effect of hydrodynamic forces on coalescence dynamics. Our investigation focused on how a drop coalesces onto a flat surface which is analogous to two drops coalescing, but more amenable to precise experimental measurements. We designed and built a flow cell to create an axisymmetric compression flow which brings a drop onto a flat surface. A computer-controlled system manipulates the flow to steer the drop and maintain a symmetric flow. Particle image velocimetry was performed to confirm that the control system was delivering a well conditioned flow. To examine the dynamics of the coalescence, we implemented an interferometry capability to measure the drainage of the thin film between the drop and the surface during the coalescence process. A semi-automated analysis routine was developed which converts the dynamic interferogram series into drop shape evolution data.

  9. Fast-ignition design transport studies: realistic electron source, integrated PIC-hydrodynamics, imposed magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Strozzi, D J; Larson, D J; Divol, L; Kemp, A J; Bellei, C; Marinak, M M; Key, M H

    2012-01-01

    Transport modeling of idealized, cone-guided fast ignition targets indicates the severe challenge posed by fast-electron source divergence. The hybrid particle-in-cell [PIC] code Zuma is run in tandem with the radiation-hydrodynamics code Hydra to model fast-electron propagation, fuel heating, and thermonuclear burn. The fast electron source is based on a 3D explicit-PIC laser-plasma simulation with the PSC code. This shows a quasi two-temperature energy spectrum, and a divergent angle spectrum (average velocity-space polar angle of 52 degrees). Transport simulations with the PIC-based divergence do not ignite for > 1 MJ of fast-electron energy, for a modest 70 micron standoff distance from fast-electron injection to the dense fuel. However, artificially collimating the source gives an ignition energy of 132 kJ. To mitigate the divergence, we consider imposed axial magnetic fields. Uniform fields ~50 MG are sufficient to recover the artificially collimated ignition energy. Experiments at the Omega laser facil...

  10. Modeling of Hydrodynamic Processes at a Large Leak of Water into Sodium in the Fast Reactor Coolant Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Perevoznikov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a physicomathematical model of the processes that occur in a sodium circuit with a variable flow cross-section in the case of a water leak into sodium. The application area for this technique includes the possibility of analyzing consequences of this leak as applied to sodium–water steam generators in fast neutron reactors. Hydrodynamic processes that occur in sodium circuits in the event of a water leak are described within the framework of a one-dimensional thermally nonequilibrium three-component gas–liquid flow model (sodium–hydrogen–sodium hydroxide. Consideration is given to the results of a mathematical modeling of experiments involving steam injection into the sodium loop of a circulation test facility. That was done by means of the computer code in which the proposed model had been implemented.

  11. Modeling of hydrodynamic processes at a large leak of water into sodium in the fast reactor coolant circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perevoznikov, Sergey; Shvetsov, Yuriy; Kamayev, Aleksey; Paknomov, Ilia; Borisov, Viacheslav; Pazan, Gennadiy; Mizeabasov, Oleg; Korzun, Olga [Joint Stock Company State Scientific Centre of the Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering named after A.I. Leypunsky, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, we describe a physicomathematical model of the processes that occur in a sodium circuit with a variable flow cross-section in the case of a water leak into sodium. The application area for this technique includes the possibility of analyzing consequences of this leak as applied to sodium-water steam generators in fast neutron reactors. Hydrodynamic processes that occur in sodium circuits in the event of a water leak are described within the framework of a one-dimensional thermally nonequilibrium three-component gas-liquid flow model (sodium-hydrogen-sodium hydroxide). Consideration is given to the results of a mathematical modeling of experiments involving steam injection into the sodium loop of a circulation test facility. That was done by means of the computer code in which the proposed model had been implemented.

  12. Managing Constraint Generators in Retail Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Mia Borch; Haug, Anders

    Retail design concepts are complex designs meeting functional and aesthetic demands. During a design process a retail designer has to consider various constraint generators such as stakeholder interests, physical limitations and restrictions. Obviously the architectural site, legislators...

  13. Conceptual Chemical Process Design for Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter examines the sustainable design of chemical processes, with a focus on conceptual design, hierarchical and short-cut methods, and analyses of process sustainability for alternatives. The chapter describes a methodology for incorporating process sustainability analyse...

  14. Study of the ship design process model for collaborative design

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ze; Qiu, Chang-Hua; Wang, Neng-Jian

    2005-09-01

    The ship design process model is the basis for developing the ship collaborative design system under network environment. According to the characteristics of the ship design, a method for dividing the ship design process into, three layers is pat forward, that is project layer, design task layer and design activity layer, then the formalized definitions of the ship design process model, the decomposing principles of the ship design process and the architecture of the ship collaborative design (SDPM) system are presented. This method simplifies the activity network makes the optimization and adjustment of the design plan convenient and also makes the design process easier to control and change, at last the architecture of the ship collaborative design system is discussed.

  15. Study of the ship design process model for collaborative design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The ship design process model is the basis for developing the ship collaborative design system under network environment.According to the characteristics of the ship design, a method for dividing the ship design process into three layers is pat forward, that is project layer, design task layer and design activity layer, then the formalized definitions of the ship design process model, the decomposing principles of the ship design process and the architecture of the ship collaborative design (SDPM) system are presented. This method simplifies the activity network, makes the optimization and adjustment of the design plan convenient and also makes the design process easier to control and change, at last the architecture of the ship collaborative design system is discussed.

  16. A novel design of spiral groove bearing in a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal rotary blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qing; Zou, Jun; Ruan, Xiaodong; Fu, Xin; Yang, Huayong

    2012-08-01

    Good washout is very important in spiral groove bearing (SGB) designs when applied to blood pumps due to the micrometer scales of lubrication films and groove depths. To improve washout, flow rate or leakage through SGBs should be as large as possible. However, this special goal violates conventional SGB designs in which no leakage is desired as the leakage would decrease load-carrying capacity significantly. So, a design concept is formed fulfilling the two goals of high load-carrying capacity and large flow rate: let groove width decrease along flow path and the mating surface of the rotor rotate with a direction facilitating the flow through the grooves. Under this concept, a novel SGB is designed, contrary to conventional ones, with groove width decreasing with increasing spiral radius. This SGB is mounted on the motionless upper plate of our designed centrifugal blood pump, with the mating surface of rotor rotating with a direction facilitating the outward flow. To assess SGB designs, a characteristic plane is originally presented relating to pressure-normalized load-carrying capacity and flow rate. Comparisons between various kinds of SGB designs are made, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results are plotted in this characteristic plane from which load/flow performances can be directly read out. CFD and comparison results show that the new designs have superior load/flow characteristics. However, the impact of SGB designs upon hemolysis/thrombus formation is still to be verified according to the concept presented.

  17. Business Process Redesign: Design the Improved Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    64 C. MULTIVOTING ......... .................. .. 65 D. ELECTRONIC VOTING TECHNOLOGY ... ......... .. 65 v E. PAIRED...PROCESS IMPROVEMENT PROCESS (PIP) Diagram of each Activity (AI-A4) ......... .. 122 vi APPENDIX D: PRODUCTS AND VENDORS WHICH SUPPORT ELECTRONIC VOTING ............. 126...requirements. D. ELECTRONIC VOTING TECHNOLOGY Nunamaker [1992] suggests that traditional voting usual- ly happens at the end of a discussion, to close

  18. Hybrid alkali-hydrodynamic disintegration of waste-activated sludge before two-stage anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grübel, Klaudiusz; Suschka, Jan

    2015-05-01

    The first step of anaerobic digestion, the hydrolysis, is regarded as the rate-limiting step in the degradation of complex organic compounds, such as waste-activated sludge (WAS). The aim of lab-scale experiments was to pre-hydrolyze the sludge by means of low intensive alkaline sludge conditioning before applying hydrodynamic disintegration, as the pre-treatment procedure. Application of both processes as a hybrid disintegration sludge technology resulted in a higher organic matter release (soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)) to the liquid sludge phase compared with the effects of processes conducted separately. The total SCOD after alkalization at 9 pH (pH in the range of 8.96-9.10, SCOD = 600 mg O2/L) and after hydrodynamic (SCOD = 1450 mg O2/L) disintegration equaled to 2050 mg/L. However, due to the synergistic effect, the obtained SCOD value amounted to 2800 mg/L, which constitutes an additional chemical oxygen demand (COD) dissolution of about 35 %. Similarly, the synergistic effect after alkalization at 10 pH was also obtained. The applied hybrid pre-hydrolysis technology resulted in a disintegration degree of 28-35%. The experiments aimed at selection of the most appropriate procedures in terms of optimal sludge digestion results, including high organic matter degradation (removal) and high biogas production. The analyzed soft hybrid technology influenced the effectiveness of mesophilic/thermophilic anaerobic digestion in a positive way and ensured the sludge minimization. The adopted pre-treatment technology (alkalization + hydrodynamic cavitation) resulted in 22-27% higher biogas production and 13-28% higher biogas yield. After two stages of anaerobic digestion (mesophilic conditions (MAD) + thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD)), the highest total solids (TS) reduction amounted to 45.6% and was received for the following sample at 7 days MAD + 17 days TAD. About 7% higher TS reduction was noticed compared with the sample after 9

  19. Expression regulation of design process gene in product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lusheng; Li, Bo; Tong, Shurong

    2011-01-01

    is proposed and analyzed, as well as its three categories i.e., the operator gene, the structural gene and the regulator gene. Second, the trigger mechanism that design objectives and constraints trigger the operator gene is constructed. Third, the expression principle of structural gene is analyzed......To improve the design process efficiency, this paper proposes the principle and methodology that design process gene controls the characteristics of design process under the framework of design process reuse and optimization based on design process gene. First, the concept of design process gene...... with the example of design management gene. Last, the regulation mode that the regulator gene regulates the expression of the structural gene is established and it is illustrated by taking the design process management gene as an example. © (2011) Trans Tech Publications....

  20. Application of Technology of Hydrodynamic Cavitation Processing High-Viscosity Oils for the Purpose of Improving the Rheological Characteristics of Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemenkov, Y. D.; Zemenkova, M. Y.; Vengerov, A. A.; Brand, A. E.

    2016-10-01

    There is investigated the technology of hydrodynamic cavitational processing viscous and high-viscosity oils and the possibility of its application in the pipeline transport system for the purpose of increasing of rheological properties of the transported oils, including dynamic viscosity shear stress in the article. It is considered the possibility of application of the combined hydrodynamic cavitational processing with addition of depressor additive for identification of effect of a synergism. It is developed the laboratory bench and they are presented results of modeling and laboratory researches. It is developed the hardware and technological scheme of application of the developed equipment at industrial objects of pipeline transport.

  1. Design Thinking in Elementary Students' Collaborative Lamp Designing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Kaiju; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Design and Technology education is potentially a rich environment for successful learning, if the management of the whole design process is emphasised, and students' design thinking is promoted. The aim of the present study was to unfold the collaborative design process of one team of elementary students, in order to understand their multimodal…

  2. Intensified depolymerization of aqueous polyacrylamide solution using combined processes based on hydrodynamic cavitation, ozone, ultraviolet light and hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapat, Amrutlal L; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-07-01

    The present work deals with intensification of depolymerization of polyacrylamide (PAM) solution using hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) reactors based on a combination with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ozone (O3) and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Effect of inlet pressure in hydrodynamic cavitation reactor and power dissipation in the case of UV irradiation on the extent of viscosity reduction has been investigated. The combined approaches such as HC+UV, HC+O3, HC+H2O2, UV+H2O2 and UV+O3 have been subsequently investigated and found to be more efficient as compared to individual approaches. For the approach based on HC+UV+H2O2, the extent of viscosity reduction under the optimized conditions of HC (3 bar inlet pressure)+UV (8 W power)+H2O2 (0.2% loading) was 97.27% in 180 min whereas individual operations of HC (3 bar inlet pressure) and UV (8 W power) resulted in about 35.38% and 40.83% intrinsic viscosity reduction in 180 min respectively. In the case of HC (3 bar inlet pressure)+UV (8 W power)+ozone (400 mg/h flow rate) approach, the extent of viscosity reduction was 89.06% whereas individual processes of only ozone (400 mg/h flow rate), ozone (400 mg/h flow rate)+HC (3 bar inlet pressure) and ozone (400 mg/h flow rate)+UV (8 W power) resulted in lower extent of viscosity reduction as 50.34%, 60.65% and 75.31% respectively. The chemical structure of the treated PAM by all approaches was also characterized using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectra and it was established that no significant chemical structure changes were obtained during the treatment. Overall, it can be said that the combination of HC+UV+H2O2 is an efficient approach for the depolymerization of PAM solution.

  3. describing a collaborative clothing design process between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Vol 43, 2015. Designing success: describing a ... PROCESS BETWEEN APPRENTICE DESIGNERS AND EXPERT DESIGN ...... decision-making. Thinking Skills and ...

  4. Analysis, synthesis and design of chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turton, R. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Bailie, R.C.; Whiting, W.B.

    1998-12-31

    The book illustrates key concepts through a running example from the real world: the manufacture of benzene; covers design, economic considerations, troubleshooting and health/environmental safety; and includes exclusive software for estimating chemical manufacturing equipment capital costs. This book will help chemical engineers optimize the efficiency of production processes, by providing both a philosophical framework and detailed information about chemical process design. Design is the focal point of the chemical engineering practice. This book helps engineers and senior-level students hone their design skills through process design rather than simply plant design. It introduces all the basics of process simulation. Learn how to size equipment, optimize flowsheets, evaluate the economics of projects, and plan the operation of processes. Learn how to use Process Flow Diagrams; choose the operating conditions for a process; and evaluate the performance of existing processes and equipment. Finally, understand how chemical process design impacts health, safety, the environment and the community.

  5. Adjoint Parameter Sensitivity Analysis for the Hydrodynamic Lattice Boltzmann Method with Applications to Design Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pingen, Georg; Evgrafov, Anton; Maute, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    We present an adjoint parameter sensitivity analysis formulation and solution strategy for the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The focus is on design optimization applications, in particular topology optimization. The lattice Boltzmann method is briefly described with an in-depth discussion...

  6. Formal analysis of design process dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a formal analysis of design process dynamics. Such a formal analysis is a prerequisite to come to a formal theory of design and for the development of automated support for the dynamics of design processes. The analysis was geared toward the identification of dynamic design

  7. Formal analysis of design process dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a formal analysis of design process dynamics. Such a formal analysis is a prerequisite to come to a formal theory of design and for the development of automated support for the dynamics of design processes. The analysis was geared toward the identification of dynamic design prope

  8. Study on Professional Process of Bra Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明菊; 徐朝晖

    2001-01-01

    The process of bra design in the underwear industry is studied. Several important aspects of the process were identified: sizing, fabric selection, pattern development and grading, the use of CAD system, fitting and wear trials. Although the design process relies heavily on the expertise and experience of designers, the modern technology such as CAD can facilitate and optimize the design process, and the fitting process on life models is essential for the underwear design. The differences between domestic underwear companies and foreign major ones mainly lie at the lack of dress form specially used for underwear design, lack of CAD/CAM or not making full use of them, and most of all, lack of the professional bra designers or even skillful pattern designers. The prospects and future model of bra design process were also elaborated in this paper.

  9. Hafnium transistor process design for neural interfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, David W; Basham, Eric J

    2009-01-01

    A design methodology is presented that uses 1-D process simulations of Metal Insulator Semiconductor (MIS) structures to design the threshold voltage of hafnium oxide based transistors used for neural recording. The methodology is comprised of 1-D analytical equations for threshold voltage specification, and doping profiles, and 1-D MIS Technical Computer Aided Design (TCAD) to design a process to implement a specific threshold voltage, which minimized simulation time. The process was then verified with a 2-D process/electrical TCAD simulation. Hafnium oxide films (HfO) were grown and characterized for dielectric constant and fixed oxide charge for various annealing temperatures, two important design variables in threshold voltage design.

  10. Managing Analysis Models in the Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Clark

    2006-01-01

    Design of large, complex space systems depends on significant model-based support for exploration of the design space. Integrated models predict system performance in mission-relevant terms given design descriptions and multiple physics-based numerical models. Both the design activities and the modeling activities warrant explicit process definitions and active process management to protect the project from excessive risk. Software and systems engineering processes have been formalized and similar formal process activities are under development for design engineering and integrated modeling. JPL is establishing a modeling process to define development and application of such system-level models.

  11. Ergonomics approaches to sociotechnical design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2003-01-01

    A five-year design process of a continuous process wok has been studied with the aim of elucidating the conditions for integrating work environment aspects. The design process was seen as a network building activity and as a social shaping process of the artefact. A work environment log is sugges...

  12. Designing future learning. A posthumanist approach to researching design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelskjær, Malou

    I investigate how a design process – leading up to the design of a new education building - enact, transform and highlight tacit everyday practices and experiences in an education setting, whereby becoming an art of managing. I apply a post-humanist performative perspective, highlighting entangled...... agencies rather than focusing on human agency. I focus on the design process rather than the designer. The design process accelerated and performed past and future experiences of schooling, learning, teaching. This called for analytical attention to agential forces of not only the material but also...... and temporalities matter in design processes. Furthermore, the analysis emphasise how design translate affective economies and that attention to those affective economies are vital for the result of the design process....

  13. Experimental study on hydrodynamics of L-type podded propulsor in straight-ahead motion and off-design conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dagang; Guo, Chunyu; Su, Yumin; Dou, Pengfei; Jing, Tao

    2017-03-01

    Experimental tests were conducted to evaluate the hydrodynamic performance of an L-type podded propulsor in straight-ahead motion and off-design conditions using an open-water measuring instrument developed by the authors for podded propulsors, a ship model towing tank, and under water particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement systems. Under the three types of conditions, the main parameters of an L-type podded propulsor were measured, including the propeller thrust and torque, as well as the thrust, side force, and moment of the whole pod unit. In addition, the flow field on the section between the propeller and the strut was analyzed. Experimental results demonstrate that the dynamic azimuthing rate and direction and the turning direction affect the forces on the propeller and the whole pod unit. Forces are asymmetrically distributed between the left and right azimuthing directions because of the effect of propeller rotation. The findings of this study provide a foundation for further research on L-type podded propulsors.

  14. Process Variations and Probabilistic Integrated Circuit Design

    CERN Document Server

    Haase, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainty in key parameters within a chip and between different chips in the deep sub micron era plays a more and more important role. As a result, manufacturing process spreads need to be considered during the design process.  Quantitative methodology is needed to ensure faultless functionality, despite existing process variations within given bounds, during product development.   This book presents the technological, physical, and mathematical fundamentals for a design paradigm shift, from a deterministic process to a probability-orientated design process for microelectronic circuits.  Readers will learn to evaluate the different sources of variations in the design flow in order to establish different design variants, while applying appropriate methods and tools to evaluate and optimize their design.  Trains IC designers to recognize problems caused by parameter variations during manufacturing and to choose the best methods available to mitigate these issues during the design process; Offers both qual...

  15. Relativistic hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Luciano, Rezzolla

    2013-01-01

    Relativistic hydrodynamics is a very successful theoretical framework to describe the dynamics of matter from scales as small as those of colliding elementary particles, up to the largest scales in the universe. This book provides an up-to-date, lively, and approachable introduction to the mathematical formalism, numerical techniques, and applications of relativistic hydrodynamics. The topic is typically covered either by very formal or by very phenomenological books, but is instead presented here in a form that will be appreciated both by students and researchers in the field. The topics covered in the book are the results of work carried out over the last 40 years, which can be found in rather technical research articles with dissimilar notations and styles. The book is not just a collection of scattered information, but a well-organized description of relativistic hydrodynamics, from the basic principles of statistical kinetic theory, down to the technical aspects of numerical methods devised for the solut...

  16. Gaps in the Design Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veers, Paul

    2016-10-04

    The design of offshore wind plants is a relatively new field. The move into U.S. waters will have unique environmental conditions, as well as expectations from the authorities responsible for managing the development. Wind turbines are required to test their assumed design conditions with the site conditions of the plant. There are still some outstanding issues on how we can assure that the design for both the turbine and the foundation are appropriate for the site and will have an acceptable level of risk associated with the particular installation.

  17. Thermodynamic and stochastic theory of hydrodynamic and power-producing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J.

    1992-09-16

    Thermodynamics of the transport processes of diffusion, thermal conduction, and viscous flow at a macroscopic level are developed for the simplest cases of one-dimensional transport in fluids for individual linear and nonlinear processes approaching a stationary non-equilibrium state. Formulation has started of thermodynamic and stochastic theory of combinations of transport processes. Global thermodynamic and stochastic theory of open chemical systems frar from equilibrium is continued with analysis of a broad class of isothermal, multicomponent reaction mechanisms with multiple steady states with assumed local equilibrium. Stationary solutions are obtained of the master equation for single and multi-intermediate autocatalytic chemical systems. A kinetic potential is identified that governs the deterministic time evolution of coupled tank reactors. A second-order response theory was developed to investigate the effects of external periodic perturbations on a chemical reaction at a stable steady state in an open reactor.

  18. Wetland evolution in the Qinghai Lake area, China, in response to hydrodynamic and eolian processes during the past 1100 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dada; Wünnemann, Bernd; Hu, Yanbo; Frenzel, Peter; Zhang, Yongzhan; Chen, Kelong

    2017-04-01

    The Daotanghe riverine wetland in close proximity to the Qinghai Lake was investigated to demonstrate the interrelationships between Qinghai Lake hydrodynamic processes, eolian mobility and ecological conditions during the past 1100 years in response to climate change. We used ostracod assemblages from various sites east of Qinghai Lake and from the sediment core QW15 of Daotanghe Pond and combined them with grain size and geochemical data from the same core. The statistical extraction of grain size endmembers (EM) revealed three different transportation processes responsible for pond-related fluvio-lacustrine, pure fluvial and eolian deposits. Identified seasonal effects (eolian mobility phase) and timing of ice cover are possible tracers for the competing influence between the Asian summer monsoon and the Westerlies in the Daotanghe Wetland and surrounding area. Our results show that ostracod associations and sediment properties are evidence of a fluvio-lacustrine fresh water environment without ingression of Qinghai Lake into the wetland. Hydrodynamic variations coupled with phases of eolian input indicate highly variable water budgets in response to climate-induced effective moisture supply. The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) until about 1270 CE displays generally moist and warm climate conditions with minor fluctuations, likely in response to variations in summer monsoon intensity. The three-partite period of the Little Ice Age (LIA), shows hydrologically unstable conditions between 1350 and 1530 CE with remarkably colder periods, assigned to a prolonged seasonal ice cover. Pond desiccation and replacement by fluvial deposits occurred between 1530 and 1750 CE, superimposed by eolian deposits. The phase 1730-1900 CE is recorded by the re-occurrence of a pond environment with reduced eolian input. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on ostracod abundances shows similar trends. All three phases of the LIA developed during a weak summer monsoon influence, favoring

  19. Wave and Hydrodynamic Modeling for Engineering Design of Jetties at Tangier Island in Chesapeake Bay, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihwa Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The protection of a boat canal at the western entrance of Tangier Island, Virginia, located in the lower Chesapeake Bay, is investigated using different structural alternatives. The existing entrance channel is oriented 45 deg with respect to the local shoreline, and exposed directly to the lower Bay without any protection. The adjacent shoreline has experienced progressive erosion in recent decades by flooding due to severe storms and waves. To protect the western entrance of the channel and shoreline, five different jetty and spur combinations were proposed to reduce wave energy in the lee of jetties. Environmental forces affecting the proposed jettied inlet system are quantified using the Coastal Modeling System, consisting of a spectral wave model and a depth-averaged circulation model with sediment transport calculations. Numerical simulations were conducted for design wave conditions and a 50-year return period tropical storm at the project site. Model results show a low crested jetty of 170-m length connecting to the north shore at a 45-deg angle, and a short south spur of 25-m long, provide adequate wave-reduction benefits among the five proposed alternatives. The model simulation indicates this alternative has the minimum impact on sedimentation around the structured inlet and boat canal.

  20. Launch Vehicle Design Process Characterization Enables Design/Project Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, J. C.; Ryan, R. S.; Schutzenhofer, L. A.; Robinson, Nancy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the project described in this viewgraph presentation included the following: (1) Provide an overview characterization of the launch vehicle design process; and (2) Delineate design/project tool to identify, document, and track pertinent data.

  1. Graphic Design in Libraries: A Conceptual Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Providing successful library services requires efficient and effective communication with users; therefore, it is important that content creators who develop visual materials understand key components of design and, specifically, develop a holistic graphic design process. Graphic design, as a form of visual communication, is the process of…

  2. Graphic Design in Libraries: A Conceptual Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Providing successful library services requires efficient and effective communication with users; therefore, it is important that content creators who develop visual materials understand key components of design and, specifically, develop a holistic graphic design process. Graphic design, as a form of visual communication, is the process of…

  3. Theoretical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Milne-Thomson, L M

    2011-01-01

    This classic exposition of the mathematical theory of fluid motion is applicable to both hydrodynamics and aerodynamics. Based on vector methods and notation with their natural consequence in two dimensions - the complex variable - it offers more than 600 exercises and nearly 400 diagrams. Prerequisites include a knowledge of elementary calculus. 1968 edition.

  4. Hydrodynamic bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Bonneau, Dominique; Souchet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    This Series provides the necessary elements to the development and validation of numerical prediction models for hydrodynamic bearings. This book describes the rheological models and the equations of lubrication. It also presents the numerical approaches used to solve the above equations by finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements methods.

  5. Ship Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrance, Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Explores in a non-mathematical treatment some of the hydrodynamical phenomena and forces that affect the operation of ships, especially at high speeds. Discusses the major components of ship resistance such as the different types of drags and ways to reduce them and how to apply those principles for the hovercraft. (GA)

  6. NASA System Engineering Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Jose

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's use of systems engineering for the complete life cycle of a project. Systems engineering is a methodical, disciplined approach for the design, realization, technical management, operations, and retirement of a system. Each phase of a NASA project is terminated with a Key decision point (KDP), which is supported by major reviews.

  7. Parametric Design of Hydrodynamic Coupling%液力偶合器参数化设计系统的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘刚

    2012-01-01

    利用UG二次开发,对液力偶合器进行参数化设计,并开发液力偶合器参数化设计系统。通过改变偶合器的5个参数:有效直径、腔型半径、叶片缩进距离、叶片数量、泵轮与涡轮间隙,得到满足需求的偶合器三维图形。%Parametric design of the hydrodynamic coupling is proposed using the secondary development of UG, and exploiting parametric design system of hydrodynamic coupling. Through changing the five different parameters, namely, effective diameter, chamber radius, blade indent distance, blade number, and interspace between pump and turbine, the three dimensional model of coupling which suffice the requirement is achieved.

  8. Integrated Process Design and Control of Reactive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2015-01-01

    In this work, integrated design and control of reactive distillation processes is presented. Simple graphical design methods that are similar in concept to non-reactive distillation processes are used, such as reactive McCabe-Thiele method and driving force approach. The methods are based...... of this approach, it is shown that designing the reactive distillation process at the maximum driving force results in an optimal design in terms of controllability and operability. It is verified that the reactive distillation design option is less sensitive to the disturbances in the feed at the highest driving...

  9. Optimization Design of Double-parameter Shift Schedule of Tracked Vehicle with Hydrodynamic-mechanical Transmission%Optimization Design of Double-parameter Shift Schedule of Tracked Vehicle with Hydrodynamic-mechanical Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武景燕; 魏巍; 曲婧瑶; 闫清东

    2011-01-01

    A kind of automatic shift schedule optimization method is provided for a tracked vehicle with hydrodynamic-mechanical transmission in order to improve its dynamic performance. A dynamic model of integrated hydrodynamic-mechanical transmission is built in MATLAB/Simdriveline environment, and an optimum shift schedule is derived by using iSight software to call the dynamic model above, then the shift schedule is achieved after optimization. The simulation results show that the method is significant to improve the dynamic performance and gear-shifting smoothness theoretically and practically.

  10. Biomimetic design processes in architecture: morphogenetic and evolutionary computational design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menges, Achim

    2012-03-01

    Design computation has profound impact on architectural design methods. This paper explains how computational design enables the development of biomimetic design processes specific to architecture, and how they need to be significantly different from established biomimetic processes in engineering disciplines. The paper first explains the fundamental difference between computer-aided and computational design in architecture, as the understanding of this distinction is of critical importance for the research presented. Thereafter, the conceptual relation and possible transfer of principles from natural morphogenesis to design computation are introduced and the related developments of generative, feature-based, constraint-based, process-based and feedback-based computational design methods are presented. This morphogenetic design research is then related to exploratory evolutionary computation, followed by the presentation of two case studies focusing on the exemplary development of spatial envelope morphologies and urban block morphologies.

  11. Metallocene-catalyzed ethylene−α-olefin isomeric copolymerization: A perspective from hydrodynamic boundary layer mass transfer and design of MAO anion

    KAUST Repository

    Adamu, Sagir

    2015-11-28

    This study reports a novel conceptual framework that can be easily experimented to evaluate the effects of hydrodynamic boundary layer mass transfer, methylaluminoxane (MAO) anion design, and comonomer steric hindrance on metallocene-catalyzed ethylene polymerization. This approach was illustrated by conducting homo- and isomeric copolymerization of ethylene with 1-hexene and 4-methyl-1-pentene in the presence of bis(n-butylcyclopentadienyl) zirconium dichloride (nBuCp)2ZrCl2, using (i) MAO anion 1 (unsupported [MAOCl2]−) and pseudo-homogeneous reference polymerization, and (ii) MAO anion 2 (supported Si−O−[MAOCl2]−) and in-situ heterogeneous polymerization. The measured polymer morphology, catalyst productivity, molecular weight distribution, and inter-chain composition distribution were related to the locus of polymerization, comonomer effect, in-situ chain transfer process, and micromixing effect, respectively. The peak melting and crystallization temperatures and %crystallinity were mathematically correlated to the parameters of microstructural composition distributions, melt fractionation temperatures, and average lamellar thickness. These relations showed to be insightful. The comonomer-induced enchainment defects and the eventual partial disruption of the crystal lattice were successfully modeled using Flory and Gibbs–Thompson equations. The present methodology can also be applied to study ethylene−α-olefin copolymerization, performed using MAO-activated non-metallocene precatalysts.

  12. The cognition in the design process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Barros Pontes e Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this document is to present an approach of understanding of the design process from the framework of cognitive psychology. It is anchored in models of cognitive architecture and problem-solving approaches in order to suggest a metacognition practice for the designers. Is presented an approach of design as a process of problem solving, including common heuristics, their analysis and synthesis nature and contributions from Cognitive Psychology in metacognition processes, creativity and evaluation.

  13. Designing with video focusing the user-centred design process

    CERN Document Server

    Ylirisku, Salu Pekka

    2007-01-01

    Digital video for user-centered co-design is an emerging field of design, gaining increasing interest in both industry and academia. It merges the techniques and approaches of design ethnography, participatory design, interaction analysis, scenario-based design, and usability studies. This book covers the complete user-centered design project. It illustrates in detail how digital video can be utilized throughout the design process, from early user studies to making sense of video content and envisioning the future with video scenarios to provoking change with video artifacts. The text includes

  14. Radiation Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castor, J I

    2003-10-16

    The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correct description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is

  15. Total Ship Design Process Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    Microsoft Project® or Primavera ®, and perform process simulations that can investigate risk, cost, and schedule trade-offs. Prior efforts to capture...planning in the face of disruption, delay, and late‐changing  requirements. ADePT is interfaced with  PrimaVera , the AEC  industry favorite program

  16. Aesthetic design process: Descriptive design research and ways forward

    OpenAIRE

    Jagtap, Santosh; Jagtap, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Consumer response to designed products has a profound effect on how products are interpreted, approached and used. Product design is crucial in determining this consumer response. Research in this field has been centered on studying the relationship between product features and subjective responses of users and consumers to those features. The subject of aesthetic or styling design process has been relatively neglected despite the important role of this process in fulfilling intended consumer...

  17. Practicing universal design to actual hand tool design process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kai-Chieh; Wu, Chih-Fu

    2015-09-01

    UD evaluation principles are difficult to implement in product design. This study proposes a methodology for implementing UD in the design process through user participation. The original UD principles and user experience are used to develop the evaluation items. Difference of product types was considered. Factor analysis and Quantification theory type I were used to eliminate considered inappropriate evaluation items and to examine the relationship between evaluation items and product design factors. Product design specifications were established for verification. The results showed that converting user evaluation into crucial design verification factors by the generalized evaluation scale based on product attributes as well as the design factors applications in product design can improve users' UD evaluation. The design process of this study is expected to contribute to user-centered UD application.

  18. Bacterial hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lauga, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass, and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micron scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically-complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, we review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.

  19. Nanoflow hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Dyre, Jeppe C.; Daivis, Peter J.;

    2011-01-01

    We show by nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations that the Navier-Stokes equation does not correctly describe water flow in a nanoscale geometry. It is argued that this failure reflects the fact that the coupling between the intrinsic rotational and translational degrees of freedom becomes...... important for nanoflows. The coupling is correctly accounted for by the extended Navier-Stokes equations that include the intrinsic angular momentum as an independent hydrodynamic degree of freedom. © 2011 American Physical Society....

  20. Improvning the design process by integrating design analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Martin; Burman, Åke

    2005-01-01

    A common denominator in most design literature is the goal of improving methods and techniques for the design process, thus contributing to increased efficiency of the design activities. It is a striking fact that the majority of the improvements suggested focus solely on qualitative methods and techniques, thereby neglecting to recognize the improvement potential inherent in quantitative methods and techniques. At the Division of Machine Design at Lund University, a number of ...

  1. THEORETICAL FRAMES FOR DESIGNING REVERSE LOGISTICS PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Grabara, Janusz K.; Sebastian Kot

    2009-01-01

    Logistics processes of return flow became more and more important in present business practice. Because of better customer satisfaction, environmental and financial aspects many enterprises deal with reverse logistics performance. The paper is a literature review focused on the design principles of reverse logistics processes Keywords: reverse logistics, designing.

  2. Facilitating Teamwork in the Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Louise; Nissen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    By approaching the Repertory Grid as an exploratory design game and drawing on insight in diagrammatic reasoning we argue that this approach is useful in supporting team work in the design process. In this paper we draw on two courses inviting textile design students to contribute to the developm...

  3. PROPOSAL OF SPATIAL OPTIMIZATION OF PRODUCTION PROCESS IN PROCESS DESIGNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Malega

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is focused on optimizing the use of space in the production process using software Process Designer. The aim of this contribution is to suggest possible improvements to the existing layout of the selected production process. Production process was analysed in terms of inputs, outputs and course of actions. Nowadays there are many software solutions aimed at optimizing the use of space. One of these software products is the Process Designer, which belongs to the product line Tecnomatix. This software is primarily aimed at production planning. With Process Designer is possible to design the layout of production and subsequently to analyse the production or to change according to the current needs of the company.

  4. Sustainable Process Design of Lignocellulose based Biofuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangnimit, Saranya; Malakul, Pomthong; Gani, Rafiqul

    the deermination of sustainable process options, if they exist. . The paper will highlight an improved alternative process design compared to a base case (published) design in terms of production cost, waste, energy usage and environmental impacts, criteria that are asociated with sustainable process design...... a combustion processing step, carbondioxide and other important greenhouse gases are released. This is considered non-renewable and non-sustainable energy and may be one of the major causes of global warming and therefore, climate change concerns coupled with high oil prices. This isdriving efforts to increase...

  5. Marine litter on the floor of deep submarine canyons of the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea: The role of hydrodynamic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubau, Xavier; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic; Rayo, Xavier; Rivera, Jesus; Amblas, David

    2015-05-01

    Marine litter represents a widespread type of pollution in the World's Oceans. This study is based on direct observation of the seafloor by means of Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives and reports litter abundance, type and distribution in three large submarine canyons of the NW Mediterranean Sea, namely Cap de Creus, La Fonera and Blanes canyons. Our ultimate objective is establishing the links between active hydrodynamic processes and litter distribution, thus going beyond previous, essentially descriptive studies. Litter was monitored using the Liropus 2000 ROV. Litter items were identified in 24 of the 26 dives carried out in the study area, at depths ranging from 140 to 1731 m. Relative abundance of litter objects by type, size and apparent weight, and distribution of litter in relation to depth and canyon environments (i.e. floor and flanks) were analysed. Plastics are the dominant litter component (72%), followed by lost fishing gear, disregarding their composition (17%), and metal objects (8%). Most of the observed litter seems to be land-sourced. It reaches the ocean through wind transport, river discharge and after direct dumping along the coastline. While coastal towns and industrial areas represent a permanent source of litter, tourism and associated activities relevantly increase litter production during summer months ready to be transported to the deep sea by extreme events. After being lost, fishing gear such as nets and long-lines has the potential of being harmful for marine life (e.g. by ghost fishing), at least for some time, but also provides shelter and a substrate on which some species like cold-water corals are capable to settle and grow. La Fonera and Cap de Creus canyons show the highest mean concentrations of litter ever seen on the deep-sea floor, with 15,057 and 8090 items km-2, respectively, and for a single dive litter observed reached 167,540 items km-2. While most of the largest concentrations were found on the canyon floors at

  6. Variant Designing in the Preliminary Small Ship Design Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karczewski Artur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ship designing is a complex process, as the ship itself is a complex, technical multi-level object which operates in the air/water boundary environment and is exposed to the action of many different external and internal factors resulting from the adopted technical solutions, type of operation, and environmental conditions. A traditional ship design process consists of a series of subsequent multistage iterations, which gradually increase the design identification level. The paper presents problems related to the design of a small untypical vessel with the aid of variant methodology making use of optimisation algorithms. The computer-aided design methodology has been developed which does not need permanent reference to already built real ships and empirical-statistical relations. Possibilities were indicated for integrating together early design stages, and parallel designing of hull shape and parameters.

  7. Integrated Process Design and Control of Reactive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2015-01-01

    In this work, integrated process design and control of reactive distillation processes is presented. Simple graphical design methods that are similar in concept to non-reactive distillation processes are used, such as reactive McCabe-Thiele method and driving force approach. The methods are based...... on the element concept, which is used to translate a system of compounds into elements. The operation of the reactive distillation column at the highest driving force and other candidate points is analyzed through analytical solution as well as rigorous open-loop and closed-loop simulations. By application...... of this approach, it is shown that designing the reactive distillation process at the maximum driving force results in an optimal design in terms of controllability and operability. It is verified that the reactive distillation design option is less sensitive to the disturbances in the feed at the highest driving...

  8. Integrated Process Design, Control and Analysis of Intensified Chemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil

    approach is to tackle process design and controllability issues simultaneously, in the early stages of process design. This simultaneous synthesis approach provides optimal/near optimal operation and more efficient control of conventional (non-reactive binary distillation columns) as well as complex...... chemical processes; for example, intensified processes such as reactive distillation. Most importantly, it identifies and eliminates potentially promising design alternatives that may have controllability problems later. To date, a number of methodologies have been proposed and applied on various problems...... design of the process as well as the controller structure. Through analytical, steady-state and closed-loop dynamic analysis it is verified that the control structure, disturbance rejection and energy requirement of the reactive distillation column is better than any other operation point...

  9. Systematic sustainable process design and analysis of biodiesel processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Ismail, Muhammad Imran; Babi, Deenesh Kavi

    2013-01-01

    technology. Second, the evaluation of this superstructure for systematic screening to obtain an appropriate base case design. This is done by first reducing the search space using a sustainability analysis, which provides key indicators for process bottlenecks of different flowsheet configurations...... and then by further reducing the search space by using economic evaluation and life cycle assessment. Third, the determination of sustainable design with/without process intensification using a phenomena-based synthesis/design method. A detailed step by step application of the framework is highlighted through...... process intensification opportunities. This work focuses on three main aspects that have been incorporated into a systematic computer-aided framework for sustainable process design. First, the creation of a generic superstructure, which consists of all possible process alternatives based on available...

  10. Designing reactive distillation processes with improved efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida-Rivera, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    In this dissertation a life-span inspired perspective is taken on the conceptual design of grassroots reactive distillation processes. Attention was paid to the economic performance of the process and to potential losses of valuable resources over the process life span. The research was cast in a se

  11. Designing future learning. A posthumanist approach to researching design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelskjær, Malou

    I investigate how a design process – leading up to the design of a new education building - enact, transform and highlight tacit everyday practices and experiences in an education setting, whereby becoming an art of managing. I apply a post-humanist performative perspective, highlighting entangled...... agencies rather than focusing on human agency. I focus on the design process rather than the designer. The design process accelerated and performed past and future experiences of schooling, learning, teaching. This called for analytical attention to agential forces of not only the material but also...... the spatio-temporal. The concept of spacetimemattering from the work of Karen Barad (2007) highlights the performativity, the continuous coming into being through entanglement and differentiation, of space, time, matter and meaning. I draw on this thinking in order to re-consider how multiple spatialities...

  12. Hidden realities inside PBL design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Ole Verner

    2015-01-01

    Design Process, but is a group-based architecture and design education better than that which is individually based? How does PBL affect space, form, and creative processes? Hans Kiib, professor and one of the founders of the Department of Architecture and Design in Aalborg, describes his intentions...... within the group work, as it is closer related to the actual PBL process”. Is the Integrated Design Process (Knudstrup 2004) and is Colb (1975) still current and valid? Can we still use these methodologies when we must create “learning for an unknown future,” as Ronald Barnett (2004) claims that we...... investigates the creative processes of the collective and the individual and clarifies some of the hidden realities behind the PBL-based creative processes, both through an inquiry with the students and a more methodological and theoretical approach. The paper also explores how to integrate artistic...

  13. Multidisciplinary systems engineering architecting the design process

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Demijohn, Russell

    2016-01-01

    This book presents Systems Engineering from a modern, multidisciplinary engineering approach, providing the understanding that all aspects of systems design, systems, software, test, security, maintenance and the full life-cycle must be factored in to any large-scale system design; up front, not factored in later. It lays out a step-by-step approach to systems-of-systems architectural design, describing in detail the documentation flow throughout the systems engineering design process. It provides a straightforward look and the entire systems engineering process, providing realistic case studies, examples, and design problems that will enable students to gain a firm grasp on the fundamentals of modern systems engineering.  Included is a comprehensive design problem that weaves throughout the entire text book, concluding with a complete top-level systems architecture for a real-world design problem.

  14. Environmental Challenges in the Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Present article is based on qualitative interviews with eight offices involved in the early conceptual stages of the design process. It investigates what experiences they have with their design process especially in relation to address environmental issues. The data from the interviews are analyzed...... through a coding scheme that focuses on what experiences they have in the early stages of the design process with the brief, the environmental concerns and the challenges they meet in this work. From the interviews it is seen that the direction today is to have an increased focus on a multidisciplinary...

  15. An Integrated Course and Design Project in Chemical Process Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockstraw, David A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes a chemical engineering course curriculum on process design, analysis, and simulation. Includes information regarding the sequencing of engineering design classes and the location of the classes within the degree program at New Mexico State University. Details of course content are provided. (DDR)

  16. Engineering design: A cognitive process approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strimel, Greg Joseph

    The intent of this dissertation was to identify the cognitive processes used by advanced pre-engineering students to solve complex engineering design problems. Students in technology and engineering education classrooms are often taught to use an ideal engineering design process that has been generated mostly by educators and curriculum developers. However, the review of literature showed that it is unclear as to how advanced pre-engineering students cognitively navigate solving a complex and multifaceted problem from beginning to end. Additionally, it was unclear how a student thinks and acts throughout their design process and how this affects the viability of their solution. Therefore, Research Objective 1 was to identify the fundamental cognitive processes students use to design, construct, and evaluate operational solutions to engineering design problems. Research Objective 2 was to determine identifiers within student cognitive processes for monitoring aptitude to successfully design, construct, and evaluate technological solutions. Lastly, Research Objective 3 was to create a conceptual technological and engineering problem-solving model integrating student cognitive processes for the improved development of problem-solving abilities. The methodology of this study included multiple forms of data collection. The participants were first given a survey to determine their prior experience with engineering and to provide a description of the subjects being studied. The participants were then presented an engineering design challenge to solve individually. While they completed the challenge, the participants verbalized their thoughts using an established "think aloud" method. These verbalizations were captured along with participant observational recordings using point-of-view camera technology. Additionally, the participant design journals, design artifacts, solution effectiveness data, and teacher evaluations were collected for analysis to help achieve the

  17. Design variables and constraints in fashion store design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Anders; Borch Münster, Mia

    2015-01-01

    a set of subsystems, while considering their mutual interdependencies. Research limitations/implications: – The proposed framework may be used as a point of departure and a frame of reference for future research into fashion store design. Practical implications: – The paper may support retail designers......Purpose: – Several frameworks of retail store environment variables exist, but as shown by this paper, they are not particularly well-suited for supporting fashion store design processes. Thus, in order to provide an improved understanding of fashion store design, the purpose of this paper...... is to identify the most important store design variables, organise these variables into categories, understand the design constraints between categories, and determine the most influential stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach: – Based on a discussion of existing literature, the paper defines a framework...

  18. Hidden realities inside PBL design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Ole Verner

    2015-01-01

    Design Process, but is a group-based architecture and design education better than that which is individually based? How does PBL affect space, form, and creative processes? Hans Kiib, professor and one of the founders of the Department of Architecture and Design in Aalborg, describes his intentions...... within the group work, as it is closer related to the actual PBL process”. Is the Integrated Design Process (Knudstrup 2004) and is Colb (1975) still current and valid? Can we still use these methodologies when we must create “learning for an unknown future,” as Ronald Barnett (2004) claims that we...... are passing from a complex world into one based on super complexity? Could Gaston Bachelard (1958), who writes in his book The Poetic of Space "that poets and artists are born phenomenologists," help architecture and design students in their journey to find his/her own professional expression? This paper...

  19. Chemical Process Design: An Integrated Teaching Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debelak, Kenneth A.; Roth, John A.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews a one-semester senior plant design/laboratory course, focusing on course structure, student projects, laboratory assignments, and course evaluation. Includes discussion of laboratory exercises related to process waste water and sludge. (SK)

  20. Molecular Thermodynamics for Chemical Process Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prausnitz, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses that aspect of thermodynamics which is particularly important in chemical process design: the calculation of the equilibrium properties of fluid mixtures, especially as required in phase-separation operations. (MLH)

  1. Introduction to Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jeon, Sangyong

    2015-01-01

    We give a pedagogical review of relativistic hydrodynamics relevant to relativistic heavy ion collisions. Topics discussed include linear response theory derivation of 2nd order viscous hydrodynamics including the Kubo formulas, kinetic theory derivation of 2nd order viscous hydrodynamics, anisotropic hydrodynamics and a brief review of numerical algorithms. Emphasis is given to the theory of hydrodynamics rather than phenomenology.

  2. Sensor Network Design for Nonlinear Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博; 陈丙珍

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a method to design a cost-optimal nonredundant sensor network to observe all variables in a general nonlinear process. A mixed integer linear programming model was used to minimize the cost with data classification to check the observability of all unmeasured variables. This work is a starting point for designing sensor networks for general nonlinear processes based on various criteria, such as reliability and accuracy.

  3. Product quality driven food process design

    OpenAIRE

    Hadiyanto, M.

    2007-01-01

    Consumers evaluate food products on their quality, and thus the product quality is a main target in industrial food production. In the last decade there has been a remarkable increase of interest of the food industry to put food product quality central in innovation. However, quality itself is seldom considered as a starting point for the design of production systems. The objective of this thesis is to advance food process innovation by procedures for food process design which start from the ...

  4. The Engineering Process in Construction & Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Melissa A.; Stuby, Kristin T.; Szczepanski, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that high-impact activities in science and math classes promote positive attitudinal shifts in students. By implementing high-impact activities, such as designing a school and a skate park, mathematical thinking can be linked to the engineering design process. This hands-on approach, when possible, to demonstrate or…

  5. SOLVING GLOBAL PROBLEMS USING COLLABORATIVE DESIGN PROCESSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Mejborn, Christina Okai

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we argue that use of collaborative design processes is a powerful means of bringing together different stakeholders and generating ideas in complex design situations. The collaborative design process was used in a workshop with international participants where the goal was to propos...... physical models strongly enhanced mutual understanding and exchange of ideas. Furthermore, the introduction of biological solution analogies also showed to be fruitful for the generation of new ideas for product design.......In this paper we argue that use of collaborative design processes is a powerful means of bringing together different stakeholders and generating ideas in complex design situations. The collaborative design process was used in a workshop with international participants where the goal was to propose...... forward proposed solutions for how to design, brand and make business models for how to solve aspects of the sanitation problem. The workshop showed that it was possible to work freely with such a taboo topic and that in particular the use of visualisation tools, i.e. drawing posters and building simple...

  6. Design for embedded image processing on FPGAs

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, Donald G

    2011-01-01

    "Introductory material will consider the problem of embedded image processing, and how some of the issues may be solved using parallel hardware solutions. Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are introduced as a technology that provides flexible, fine-grained hardware that can readily exploit parallelism within many image processing algorithms. A brief review of FPGA programming languages provides the link between a software mindset normally associated with image processing algorithms, and the hardware mindset required for efficient utilization of a parallel hardware design. The bulk of the book will focus on the design process, and in particular how designing an FPGA implementation differs from a conventional software implementation. Particular attention is given to the techniques for mapping an algorithm onto an FPGA implementation, considering timing, memory bandwidth and resource constraints, and efficient hardware computational techniques. Extensive coverage will be given of a range of image processing...

  7. Removal of cobalt ions from aqueous solutions by polymer assisted ultrafiltration using experimental design approach: part 2: Optimization of hydrodynamic conditions for a crossflow ultrafiltration module with rotating part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojocaru, Corneliu; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, Grazyna; Miskiewicz, Agnieszka

    2009-09-30

    Application of shear-enhanced crossflow ultrafiltration for separation of cobalt ions from synthetic wastewaters by prior complexation with polyethyleneimine has been investigated via experimental design approach. The hydrodynamic conditions in the module with tubular metallic membrane have been planned according to full factorial design in order to figure out the main and interaction effects of process factors upon permeate flux and cumulative flux decline. It has been noticed that the turbulent flow induced by rotation of inner cylinder in the module conducts to growth of permeate flux, normalized flux and membrane permeability as well as to decreasing of permeate flux decline. In addition, the rotation has led to self-cleaning effect as a result of the reduction of estimated polymer layer thickness on the membrane surface. The optimal hydrodynamic conditions in the module have been figured out by response surface methodology and overlap contour plot, being as follows: DeltaP=70 kPa, Q(R)=108 L/h and W=2800 rpm. In such conditions the maximal permeate flux and the minimal flux decline has been observed.

  8. Process characterization and Design Space definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakemeyer, Christian; McKnight, Nathan; St John, Rick; Meier, Steven; Trexler-Schmidt, Melody; Kelley, Brian; Zettl, Frank; Puskeiler, Robert; Kleinjans, Annika; Lim, Fred; Wurth, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Quality by design (QbD) is a global regulatory initiative with the goal of enhancing pharmaceutical development through the proactive design of pharmaceutical manufacturing process and controls to consistently deliver the intended performance of the product. The principles of pharmaceutical development relevant to QbD are described in the ICH guidance documents (ICHQ8-11). An integrated set of risk assessments and their related elements developed at Roche/Genentech were designed to provide an overview of product and process knowledge for the production of a recombinant monoclonal antibody (MAb). This chapter describes the tools used for the characterization and validation of MAb manufacturing process under the QbD paradigm. This comprises risk assessments for the identification of potential Critical Process Parameters (pCPPs), statistically designed experimental studies as well as studies assessing the linkage of the unit operations. Outcome of the studies is the classification of process parameters according to their criticality and the definition of appropriate acceptable ranges of operation. The process and product knowledge gained in these studies can lead to the approval of a Design Space. Additionally, the information gained in these studies are used to define the 'impact' which the manufacturing process can have on the variability of the CQAs, which is used to define the testing and monitoring strategy.

  9. Design trends in low temperature gas processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, W.E.; Battershell, D.D.

    1966-01-01

    The following basic trends reflected in recent design of low-temperature gas processing are discussed: (1) higher recovery levels of light hydrocarbon products; (2) lower process temperatures and lighter absorption oils; (3) increased thermodynamic efficiencies; (4) automation; (5) single rather than multiple units; and (6) prefabrication and preassembly of the operating unit.

  10. Industrial best practices of conceptual process design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    The chemical process industry aims particularly at energy, capital expenditure and variable feedstock cost savings due to fierce global competition, the Kyoto Protocol and requirements for sustainable development. Increasingly conceptual process design methods are used in the industry to achieve the

  11. Degradation of 4-chloro 2-aminophenol using a novel combined process based on hydrodynamic cavitation, UV photolysis and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Arati J; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-05-01

    The degradation of 4-chloro 2-aminophenol (4C2AP), an acute toxic organic compound, has been studied using different approaches based on the hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) with orifice plate as cavitating device, photolysis (UV) and ozonation (O3). The dependency of extent of degradation on operating parameters like operating pressure (2-5 bar), initial pH (3-8) and temperature (30-38 °C) have been established initially to maximize the efficacy of hydrodynamic cavitation. Subsequently the degradation has been studied using combined treatment strategies as HC+UV, HC+O3, UV+O3 and HC+UV+O3 at the established optimum parameters of operating temperature as 30 °C, initial pH of 6 and inlet pressure of 4 bar. The maximum extent of degradation as 96.85% and 73.6% reduction in TOC has been obtained using hydrodynamic cavitation in combination with UV photolysis and ozonation under the optimized operating conditions. The degradation products of 4C2AP have been identified using GC-MS. The present work has clearly established the efficacy of combined treatment approach (HC+UV+O3) for the removal of organic pollutant for the first time.

  12. Biocatalytic Process Design and Reaction Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wohlgemuth

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Biocatalytic processes occurring in nature provide a wealth of inspiration for manufacturing processes with high molecular economy. The molecular and engineering aspects of bioprocesses converting available raw materials into valuable products are therefore of much industrial interest. Modular reaction platforms and straightforward working paths, from the fundamental understanding of biocatalytic systems in nature to the design and reaction engineering of novel biocatalytic processes, have been important for shortening development times. Building on broadly applicable reaction platforms and tools for designing biocatalytic processes and their reaction engineering are key success factors. Process integration and intensification aspects are illustrated with biocatalytic processes to numerous small-molecular weight compounds, which have been prepared by novel and highly selective routes, for applications in the life sciences and biomedical sciences.

  13. Integrating ergonomic knowledge into engineering design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg

    Integrating ergonomic knowledge into engineering design processes has been shown to contribute to healthy and effective designs of workplaces. However, it is also well-recognized that, in practice, ergonomists often have difficulties gaining access to and impacting engineering design processes....... This PhD dissertation takes its point of departure in a recent development in Denmark in which many larger engineering consultancies chose to established ergonomic departments in house. In the ergonomic profession, this development was seen as a major opportunity to gain access to early design phases....... Present study contributes new perspectives on possibilities and barriers for integrating ergonomic knowledge in design by exploring the integration activities under new conditions. A case study in an engineering consultancy in Denmark was carried out. A total of 23 persons were interviewed...

  14. Real-Time Observation of Thrombus Growth Process in an Impeller of a Hydrodynamically Levitated Centrifugal Blood Pump by Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Murashige, Tomotaka; Kosaka, Ryo; Fujiwara, Tatsuki; Nishida, Masahiro; Maruyama, Osamu

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the thrombus formation in cardiovascular devices such as rotary blood pumps is the most important issue in developing more hemocompatible devices. The objective of this study was to develop a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) method to visualize the thrombus growth process within a rotary blood pump and investigate the optical properties of the thrombus. An in vitro thrombogenic test was conducted using fresh porcine blood and a specially designed hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump with a transparent bottom. The pump rotating at 3000 rpm circulated the blood at 1.0 L/min. The bottom surface of the pump was illuminated with white light pulsed at the same frequency as the pump rotation, and the backward-scattered light was imaged using the HSI system. Using stroboscopic HSI and an image construction algorithm, dynamic spectral imaging at wavelengths ranging from 608 to 752 nm within the rotating pump was achieved. After completing the experiment, we collected the red thrombus formed in the pump impeller and quantified the thrombus hemoglobin concentration (Hbthrombus ). The spectrum changed around the center of the impeller, and the area of change expanded toward the impeller flow path. The shape corresponded approximately to the shape of the thrombus. The spectrum change indicated that the light scattering derived from red blood cells decreased. The Hbthrombus was 4.7 ± 1.3 g/dL versus a total hemoglobin of 13 ± 0.87 g/dL. The study revealed that Hbthrombus was reduced by the surrounding blood flow.

  15. Planar Inlet Design and Analysis Process (PINDAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, John W.; Gruber, Christopher R.

    2005-01-01

    The Planar Inlet Design and Analysis Process (PINDAP) is a collection of software tools that allow the efficient aerodynamic design and analysis of planar (two-dimensional and axisymmetric) inlets. The aerodynamic analysis is performed using the Wind-US computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program. A major element in PINDAP is a Fortran 90 code named PINDAP that can establish the parametric design of the inlet and efficiently model the geometry and generate the grid for CFD analysis with design changes to those parameters. The use of PINDAP is demonstrated for subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic inlets.

  16. Occupational safety in the fusion design process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshonas, K. E-mail: kmoshonas@sympatico.ca; Langman, V.J

    2001-04-01

    The radiological hazards associated with the operation and maintenance of fusion machines are cause for safety and regulatory concerns. Current experience in the nuclear industry, and at operating tokamaks confirm that a high level of occupational safety can be achieved through an effective planning process. For fusion facilities with increased hazard levels resulting from the introduction of large quantities of tritium, and higher neutron flux and fluence, a process must be implemented during the design phase to address both the worker safety and the regulatory requirements. Such a process has been developed and was used for the radiological occupational safety assessment of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The purpose of this paper is to describe the approach used, including, the implementation of the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principle for individual and collective doses in an evolving design, and the demonstration of adequate radiological occupational safety during the design process.

  17. Scalability of Hydrodynamic Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Shikui

    2009-01-01

    Many hydrodynamic processes can be studied in a way that is scalable over a vastly relevant physical parameter space. We systematically examine this scalability, which has so far only briefly discussed in astrophysical literature. We show how the scalability is limited by various constraints imposed by physical processes and initial conditions. Using supernova remnants in different environments and evolutionary phases as application examples, we demonstrate the use of the scaling as a powerful tool to explore the interdependence among relevant parameters, based on a minimum set of simulations. In particular, we devise a scaling scheme that can be used to adaptively generate numerous seed remnants and plant them into 3D hydrodynamic simulations of the supernova-dominated interstellar medium.

  18. On the Process of Software Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Software design is a complex undertaking. This study delineates and analyses three major constituents of this complexity: the formative element entailed in articulating and reaching closure on a design, the progress imperative entailed in making estimates and tracking status, and the collaboration...... challenge entailed in learning within and across projects. Empirical data from two small to medium-size projects illustrate how practicing software designers struggle with the complexity induced by these constituents and suggest implications for user-centred design. These implications concern collaborative...... grounding, long-loop learning, and the need for a more managed design process while acknowledging that methods are not an alternative to the project knowledge created, negotiated, and refined by designers. Specifically, insufficient collaborative grounding will cause project knowledge to gradually...

  19. Annual Report: Hydrodynamics and Radiative Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Paul Drake

    2005-12-01

    We report the ongoing work of our group in hydrodynamics and radiative hydrodynamics with astrophysical applications. During the period of the existing grant, we have carried out two types of experiments at the Omega laser. One set of experiments has studied radiatively collapsing shocks, obtaining high-quality scaling data using a backlit pinhole and obtaining the first (ever, anywhere) Thomson-scattering data from a radiative shock. Other experiments have studied the deeply nonlinear development of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability from complex initial conditions, obtaining the first (ever, anywhere) dual-axis radiographic data using backlit pinholes and ungated detectors. All these experiments have applications to astrophysics, discussed in the corresponding papers either in print or in preparation. We also have obtained preliminary radiographs of experimental targets using our x-ray source. The targets for the experiments have been assembled at Michigan, where we also prepare many of the simple components. The above activities, in addition to a variety of data analysis and design projects, provide good experience for graduate and undergraduates students. In the process of doing this research we have built a research group that uses such work to train junior scientists.

  20. Investigation of a design performance measurement tool for improving collaborative design during a design process

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Yuanyuan

    2009-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. With rapid growth of global competition, the design process is becoming more and more complex due largely to cross-functional team collaboration, dynamic design processes, and unpredictable design outcomes. Thus, it is becoming progressively more difficult to support and improve design activities effectively during a design process, especially from a collaboration perspective. Although a grea...

  1. Relativistic Hydrodynamics on Graphic Cards

    CERN Document Server

    Gerhard, Jochen; Bleicher, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    We show how to accelerate relativistic hydrodynamics simulations using graphic cards (graphic processing units, GPUs). These improvements are of highest relevance e.g. to the field of high-energetic nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC where (ideal and dissipative) relativistic hydrodynamics is used to calculate the evolution of hot and dense QCD matter. The results reported here are based on the Sharp And Smooth Transport Algorithm (SHASTA), which is employed in many hydrodynamical models and hybrid simulation packages, e.g. the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics model (UrQMD). We have redesigned the SHASTA using the OpenCL computing framework to work on accelerators like graphic processing units (GPUs) as well as on multi-core processors. With the redesign of the algorithm the hydrodynamic calculations have been accelerated by a factor 160 allowing for event-by-event calculations and better statistics in hybrid calculations.

  2. Capturing Creativity in Collaborative Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J. U.; Onarheim, Balder

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the question of how we can capture creativity in collaborative design processes consisting of two or more individuals collaborating in the process of producing innovative outputs. Traditionally, methods for detecting creativity are focused on the cognitive and mental...... processes of the solitary individual. A new framework for studying and capturing creativity, which goes beyond individual cognitive processes by examining the applied creative process of individuals in context, is proposed. We apply a context sensitive framework that embraces the creative collaborative...... process and present the process in a visual overview with the use of a visual language of symbols. The framework, entitled C3, Capturing Creativity in Context, is presented and subsequently evaluated based on a pilot study utilizing C3. Here it was found that the framework was particularly useful...

  3. Systematic Sustainable Process Design and Analysis of Biodiesel Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Soheil Mansouri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a promising fuel alternative compared to traditional diesel obtained from conventional sources such as fossil fuel. Many flowsheet alternatives exist for the production of biodiesel and therefore it is necessary to evaluate these alternatives using defined criteria and also from process intensification opportunities. This work focuses on three main aspects that have been incorporated into a systematic computer-aided framework for sustainable process design. First, the creation of a generic superstructure, which consists of all possible process alternatives based on available technology. Second, the evaluation of this superstructure for systematic screening to obtain an appropriate base case design. This is done by first reducing the search space using a sustainability analysis, which provides key indicators for process bottlenecks of different flowsheet configurations and then by further reducing the search space by using economic evaluation and life cycle assessment. Third, the determination of sustainable design with/without process intensification using a phenomena-based synthesis/design method. A detailed step by step application of the framework is highlighted through a biodiesel production case study.

  4. Design To Manufacturing Process:Bumpy Road?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Ntegration between design and manufacturing is one of the topics that normally hits a lot of discussion in the product development and PLM space.To support this process becomes more and more important in a modern enterprise manufacturing organization.You can ask me why? Let me put is simple this is one of the most important processes that can drive cost optimization in the companies.Everything a company is making need to be first designed and later manufacturing.If it breaks nothing can help.

  5. Sedimentation process and design of settling systems

    CERN Document Server

    De, Alak

    2017-01-01

    This book is designed to serve as a comprehensive source of information of sedimentation processes and design of settling systems, especially as applied to design of such systems in civil and environmental engineering. The book begins with an introduction to sedimentation as a whole and goes on to cover the development and details of various settling theories. The book traces the chronological developments of the comprehensive knowledge of settling studies and design of settling systems from 1889.A new concept of 'Velocity Profile Theorem', tool for settling problem analysis, has been employed to the analysis of the phenomenon of short circuiting. Complete theory of tube settling has been developed and its application to the computation of residual solids from the assorted solids through the same has been demonstrated. Experimental verification of the tube settling theory has also been presented. Field-oriented compatible design and operation methodology of settling system has been developed from the detailed...

  6. Crystallization: Key thermodynamic, kinetic and hydrodynamic aspects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sreepriya Vedantam; Vivek V Ranade

    2013-12-01

    Crystallization is extensively used in different industrial applications, including the production of a wide range of materials such as fertilizers, detergents, food and pharmaceutical products, as well as in the mineral processing industries and treatment of waste effluents. In spite of the wide-spread use of crystallization, a clear understanding of the thermodynamic, kinetic and hydrodynamic aspects of the design methodologies are not yet well established. More often than not crystallization is still considered an art especially in fine-chemicals, pharmaceuticals and life-sciences sector. It is essential to understand and relate key thermodynamic, kinetic and hydrodynamic aspects to crystallizer performance, not just in terms of yield but also in terms of product quality (characterized by particle size distribution, morphology, polymorphism and the amount of strain as well as the uptake of solvent or impurities in the crystal lattice). This paper attempts to do that by critically reviewing published experimental and modelling studies on establishing and enhancing state-of-the-art thermodynamic, kinetic and hydrodynamic aspects of crystallization. Efforts are made to discuss and raise points for emerging modelling tools needed for a flexible design and operation of crystallizers and crystallization processes that are needed to meet the ever increasing demand on precise product specifications. Focus is on bringing out the trends which can be used as perspectives for future studies in this field.

  7. Process design for Al backside contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalfoun, L.L.; Kimerling, L.C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    It is known that properly alloyed aluminum backside contacts can improve silicon solar cell efficiency. To use this knowledge to fullest advantage, we have studied the gettering process that occurs during contact formation and the microstructure of the contact and backside junction region. With an understanding of the alloying step, optimized fabrication processes can be designed. To study gettering, single crystal silicon wafers were coated with aluminim on both sides and subjected to heat treatments. Results are described.

  8. Integration of process design and controller design for chemical processes using model-based methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abd.Hamid, Mohd-Kamaruddin; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel systematic model-based methodology for performing integrated process design and controller design (IPDC) for chemical processes is presented. The methodology uses a decomposition method to solve the IPDC typically formulated as a mathematical programming (optimization...... with constraints) problem. Accordingly the optimization problem is decomposed into four sub-problems: (i) pre-analysis, (ii) design analysis, (iii) controller design analysis, and (iv) final selection and verification, which are relatively easier to solve. The methodology makes use of thermodynamic-process...... insights and the reverse design approach to arrive at the final process design–controller design decisions. The developed methodology is illustrated through the design of: (a) a single reactor, (b) a single separator, and (c) a reactor–separator-recycle system and shown to provide effective solutions...

  9. Model-Based Integrated Process Design and Controller Design of Chemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abd Hamid, Mohd Kamaruddin Bin

    This thesis describes the development and application of a new systematic modelbased methodology for performing integrated process design and controller design (IPDC) of chemical processes. The new methodology is simple to apply, easy to visualize and efficient to solve. Here, the IPDC problem...... and verification. Using thermodynamic and process insights, a bounded search space is first identified. This feasible solution space is further reduced to satisfy the process design and controller design constraints in sub-problems 2 and 3, respectively, until in the final sub-problem all feasible candidates...... are ordered according to the defined performance criteria (objective function). The final selected design is then verified through rigorous simulation. In the pre-analysis sub-problem, the concepts of attainable region and driving force are used to locate the optimal process-controller design solution...

  10. Designer networks for time series processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, C; Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan

    1993-01-01

    The conventional tapped-delay neural net may be analyzed using statistical methods and the results of such analysis can be applied to model optimization. The authors review and extend efforts to demonstrate the power of this strategy within time series processing. They attempt to design compact...

  11. Dynamic Process Simulation for Analysis and Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Herbert E., Jr.; Himmelblau, David M.

    A computer program for the simulation of complex continuous process in real-time in an interactive mode is described. The program is user oriented, flexible, and provides both numerical and graphic output. The program has been used in classroom teaching and computer aided design. Typical input and output are illustrated for a sample problem to…

  12. Biorefinery plant design, engineering and process optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine

    2014-01-01

    Before new biorefinery systems can be implemented, or the modification of existing single product biomass processing units into biorefineries can be carried out, proper planning of the intended biorefinery scheme must be performed initially. This chapter outlines design and synthesis approaches a...

  13. Flexible Processing and the Design of Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sag, Ivan A.; Wasow, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We explore the consequences of letting the incremental and integrative nature of language processing inform the design of competence grammar. What emerges is a view of grammar as a system of local monotonic constraints that provide a direct characterization of the signs (the form-meaning correspondences) of a given language. This…

  14. Feedback between tidal hydrodynamics and morphological changes induced by natural process and human interventions in a wave-dominated tidal inlet: Xiaohai, Hainan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Wenping; SHEN Jian; JIA Jianjun

    2009-01-01

    The feedback between morphological evolution and tidal hydrodynamics in a wave-dominated tidal inlet, Xiaohai, China is investigated through data analysis and numerical model experiments. His-torically, Xiaohai Inlet had two openings, located at the north and south of Neizhi Island (a rocky outcrop), respectively. The evolution of Xiaohai Inlet was dominated by the natural process be-fore 1972. In addition to the natural process, human interventions, including the closure of the north opening, 50% of freshwater reduction, and increase of land reclamation, have altered tidal hydrodynamics and morphological evolution since 1972. A series of numerical model simulations were conducted to investigate the influence of morphological changes on the hydrodynamics and the influence of human activities on the inlet evolution. The natural process has caused narrowing and shoaling of the inlet throat, development of the flood-tidal delta, and shoaling of the tidal channel inside the lagoon. Human interventions have accelerated these changes. Consequently, the tidal propagation from the offshore into the lagoon has been impeded and the tidal energy has been dissipated substantially. Tidal current has changed from ebb-dominant to flood-dominant in most parts of the inlet system whereas the inlet throat has remained as ebb-dominant, the tidal prism has decreased consistently, and sediment has continued to deposit inside the inlet. As a result, the changes of morphology, hydrodynamics, and sediment transport show a positive feedback. The human interventions have had both advantageous and adverse influences on the stability of the inlet. The closure of the North Opening has decreased the longshore sediment input to the inlet, and increased the tidal prism, ebb velocity, and sediment transport in the south opening, thus enhancing the inlet's stability. However, reducing the river discharge and landfill of the tidal flats has resulted in a decrease of the tidal prism, the ebb velocity

  15. Assessment and Development of Engineering Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrikkeholm, Jeppe Bjerrum

    customer demands for customised products. The thesis at hand is based on six scientific articles. Three of the articles are written and presented at scientific conferences whereas the remaining three are submitted to scientific journals. The results of the six papers constitute the main contribution......Many engineering companies are currently facing a significant challenge as they are experiencing increasing demands from their customers for delivery of customised products that have almost the same delivery time, price and quality as mass-produced products. In order to comply with this development......, the engineering companies need to have efficient engineering design processes in place, so they can design customised product variants faster and more efficiently. It is however not an easy task to model and develop such processes. To conduct engineering design is often a highly iterative, illdefined and complex...

  16. Interface design in the process industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaverstock, M. C.; Stassen, H. G.; Williamson, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Every operator runs his plant in accord with his own mental model of the process. In this sense, one characteristic of an ideal man-machine interface is that it be in harmony with that model. With this theme in mind, the paper first reviews the functions of the process operator and compares them with human operators involved in control situations previously studied outside the industrial environment (pilots, air traffic controllers, helmsmen, etc.). A brief history of the operator interface in the process industry and the traditional methodology employed in its design is then presented. Finally, a much more fundamental approach utilizing a model definition of the human operator's behavior is presented.

  17. Improved Large-Scale Inundation Modelling by 1D-2D Coupling and Consideration of Hydrologic and Hydrodynamic Processes - a Case Study in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, J. M.; Bierkens, M. F.; Van Beek, R.; Winsemius, H.; Haag, A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics of fluvial floods is paramount to accurate flood hazard and risk modeling. Currently, economic losses due to flooding constitute about one third of all damage resulting from natural hazards. Given future projections of climate change, the anticipated increase in the World's population and the associated implications, sound knowledge of flood hazard and related risk is crucial. Fluvial floods are cross-border phenomena that need to be addressed accordingly. Yet, only few studies model floods at the large-scale which is preferable to tiling the output of small-scale models. Most models cannot realistically model flood wave propagation due to a lack of either detailed channel and floodplain geometry or the absence of hydrologic processes. This study aims to develop a large-scale modeling tool that accounts for both hydrologic and hydrodynamic processes, to find and understand possible sources of errors and improvements and to assess how the added hydrodynamics affect flood wave propagation. Flood wave propagation is simulated by DELFT3D-FM (FM), a hydrodynamic model using a flexible mesh to schematize the study area. It is coupled to PCR-GLOBWB (PCR), a macro-scale hydrological model, that has its own simpler 1D routing scheme (DynRout) which has already been used for global inundation modeling and flood risk assessments (GLOFRIS; Winsemius et al., 2013). A number of model set-ups are compared and benchmarked for the simulation period 1986-1996: (0) PCR with DynRout; (1) using a FM 2D flexible mesh forced with PCR output and (2) as in (1) but discriminating between 1D channels and 2D floodplains, and, for comparison, (3) and (4) the same set-ups as (1) and (2) but forced with observed GRDC discharge values. Outputs are subsequently validated against observed GRDC data at Óbidos and flood extent maps from the Dartmouth Flood Observatory. The present research constitutes a first step into a globally applicable approach to fully couple

  18. The design of a nanolithographic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Matthew Steven

    This research delineates the design of a nanolithographic process for nanometer scale surface patterning. The process involves the combination of serial atomic force microscope (AFM) based nanolithography with the parallel patterning capabilities of soft lithography. The union of these two techniques provides for a unique approach to nanoscale patterning that establishes a research knowledge base and tools for future research and prototyping. To successfully design this process a number of separate research investigations were undertaken. A custom 3-axis AFM with feedback control on three positioning axes of nanometer precision was designed in order to execute nanolithographic research. This AFM system integrates a computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) environment to allow for the direct synthesis of nanostructures and patterns using a virtual design interface. This AFM instrument was leveraged primarily to study anodization nanolithography (ANL), a nanoscale patterning technique used to generate local surface oxide layers on metals and semiconductors. Defining research focused on the automated generation of complex oxide nanoscale patterns as directed by CAD/CAM design as well as the implementation of tip-sample current feedback control during ANL to increase oxide uniformity. Concurrently, research was conducted concerning soft lithography, primarily in microcontact printing (muCP), and pertinent experimental and analytic techniques and procedures were investigated. Due to the masking abilities of the resulting oxide patterns from ANL, the results of AFM based patterning experiments are coupled with micromachining techniques to create higher aspect ratio structures at the nanoscale. These relief structures are used as master pattern molds for polymeric stamp formation to reproduce the original in a parallel fashion using muCP stamp formation and patterning. This new method of master fabrication provides for a useful alternative to

  19. Hydrodynamics of insect spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, On Shun; Lauga, Eric

    2010-11-01

    Microorganism motility plays important roles in many biological processes including reproduction. Many microorganisms propel themselves by propagating traveling waves along their flagella. Depending on the species, propagation of planar waves (e.g. Ceratium) and helical waves (e.g. Trichomonas) were observed in eukaryotic flagellar motion, and hydrodynamic models for both were proposed in the past. However, the motility of insect spermatozoa remains largely unexplored. An interesting morphological feature of such cells, first observed in Tenebrio molitor and Bacillus rossius, is the double helical deformation pattern along the flagella, which is characterized by the presence of two superimposed helical flagellar waves (one with a large amplitude and low frequency, and the other with a small amplitude and high frequency). Here we present the first hydrodynamic investigation of the locomotion of insect spermatozoa. The swimming kinematics, trajectories and hydrodynamic efficiency of the swimmer are computed based on the prescribed double helical deformation pattern. We then compare our theoretical predictions with experimental measurements, and explore the dependence of the swimming performance on the geometric and dynamical parameters.

  20. Synthesis and Design of Processing Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaglia, Alberto; Sarup, Bent; Sin, Gürkan

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution, we propose an integrated business and engineering framework for synthesis and design of processing networks under uncertainty. In our framework, an adapted formulation of the transhipment problem is integrated with a superstructure, leading to a Stochastic Mixed Integer Non...... Linear Program (sMINLP), which is solved to determine simultaneously the optimal strategic and tactical decisions with respect to the processing network, the material flows, raw material and product portfolio. The framework allows time-effective and robust formulation, solution and analysis of largescale...... synthesis problems in presence of uncertainty parameters, contributing to broaden the range of application of stochastic programming and optimization to real industrial problems. The framework is applied to an industrial case study based on soybean processing, to identify the optimal processing network...

  1. Synthesis and Design of Processing Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaglia, Alberto; Sarup, Bent; Sin, Gürkan

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution, we propose an integrated business and engineering framework for synthesis and design of processing networks under uncertainty. In our framework, an adapted formulation of the transhipment problem is integrated with a superstructure, leading to a Stochastic Mixed Integer Non...... Linear Program (sMINLP), which is solved to determine simultaneously the optimal strategic and tactical decisions with respect to the processing network, the material flows, raw material and product portfolio. The framework allows time-effective and robust formulation, solution and analysis of largescale...... synthesis problems in presence of uncertainty parameters, contributing to broaden the range of application of stochastic programming and optimization to real industrial problems. The framework is applied to an industrial case study based on soybean processing, to identify the optimal processing network...

  2. Biorefinery plant design, engineering and process optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine

    2014-01-01

    applicable for the planning and upgrading of intended biorefinery systems, and includes discussions on the operation of an existing lignocellulosic-based biorefinery platform. Furthermore, technical considerations and tools (i.e., process analytical tools) which could be applied to optimise the operations......Before new biorefinery systems can be implemented, or the modification of existing single product biomass processing units into biorefineries can be carried out, proper planning of the intended biorefinery scheme must be performed initially. This chapter outlines design and synthesis approaches...

  3. Design of Separation Processes with Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A systematic methodology for screening and designing of Ionic Liquid (IL)-based separation processes is proposed and demonstrated using several case studies of both aqueous and non-aqueous systems, for instance, ethanol + water, ethanol + hexane, benzene + hexane, and toluene + methylcyclohexane....... The best four ILs of each mixture are [mmim][dmp], [emim][bti], [emim][etso4] and [hmim][tcb], respectively. All of them were used as entrainers in the extractive distillation. A process simulation of each system was carried out and showed a lower both energy requirement and solvent usage as compared...

  4. Hygienic Design in the Food Processing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Hjelm, M.

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are of major concern in food production and processing industry. In 1998 a Danish co-operation programme under the title Centre for Hygienic Design was funded to combine the skills of universities, research institutes and industry to focus on the following...... with cleaning chemicals and cleaning procedures • Optimising design of production equipment • Development of environmentally friendly cleaning procedures for removal of biofilm The partners include food production/processing companies and producers of equipment for the food industry, cleaning chemicals...... approach is to focus on surface material hygienic lifetime. Test of this is made in an industrial test loop run by biotechnology researchers in co-operation with materials producers and a food producer to compare biofilm formation, cleanability and deterioration of different rubber and plastic materials...

  5. Change in requirements during the design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudin, Mohd Nizam Bin; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2011-01-01

    on a pre-defined coding scheme. The results of the study shows that change in requirements were initiated by internal stakeholders through analysis and evaluation activities during the design process, meanwhile external stakeholders were requested changes during the meeting with consultant. All......Specification is an integral part of the product development process. Frequently, more than a single version of a specification is produced due to changes in requirements. These changes are often necessary to ensure the scope of the design problem is as clear as possible. However, the negative...... effects of such changes include an increase in lead-time and cost. Thus, support to mitigate change in requirements is essential. A thorough understanding of the nature of changes in requirements is essential before a method or tool to mitigate these changes can be proposed. Therefore, a case study...

  6. Conceptual Design of Industrial Process Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C.R.; Lind, Morten

    1999-01-01

    by a simple example from a plant with batch processes. Later the method is applied to develop a supervisory display for a condenser system in a nuclear power plant. The differences between the continuous plant domain of power production and the batch processes from the example are analysed and broad...... categories of display types are proposed. The problems involved in specification and invention of a supervisory display are analysed and conclusions from these problems are made. It is concluded that the design method proposed provides a framework for the progress of the display design and is useful in pin......-pointing the actual problems. The method was useful in reducing the number of existing displays that could fulfil the requirements of the supervision task. The method provided at the same time a framework for dealing with the problems involved in inventing new displays based on structured analysis. However...

  7. Change in requirements during the design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudin, Mohd Nizam Bin; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2011-01-01

    Specification is an integral part of the product development process. Frequently, more than a single version of a specification is produced due to changes in requirements. These changes are often necessary to ensure the scope of the design problem is as clear as possible. However, the negative...... effects of such changes include an increase in lead-time and cost. Thus, support to mitigate change in requirements is essential. A thorough understanding of the nature of changes in requirements is essential before a method or tool to mitigate these changes can be proposed. Therefore, a case study...... approach was employed to understand the nature of change in requirements during the design process - particularly concerning the initiation, discovery, and motivation of these changes. Semi-structured interviews were adopted as the data collection method. The interviews were transcribed and analysed based...

  8. User-Centered Design (UCD) Process Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    mockups and prototypes. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS UCD provides guidance for improving total system performance by considering the real- world...Artifacts from the UCD process will focus and guide the hardware and software integration efforts and will support systems engineering goals to achieve...against essential story scenarios, eventually leading to the development of high-fidelity mockups and prototypes. Figure 1. User-centered design (UCD

  9. The Processes Involved in Designing Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    body of relevant knowledge. There has been a limited amount of research on the process of design or on problems that are difficult enough to require the...refinement of those subproblems. Our results are therefore potentially limited to similar straightforward problems. In tasks for which the...They first break the problem Into Its major constituents, thus forming a solution moodl . During each Iteration, subproblems from the previous cycle are

  10. MULTI-WORLD MECHANISM FOR MODELING EVOLUTIONARY DESIGN PROCESS FROM CONCEPTUAL DESIGN TO DETAILED DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A multi-world mechanism is developed for modeling evolutionary design process from conceptual design to detailed design. In this mechanism, the evolutionary design database is represented by a sequence of worlds corresponding to the design descriptions at different design stages. In each world, only the differences with its ancestor world are recorded. When the design descriptions in one world are changed, these changes are then propagated to its descendant worlds automatically. Case study is conducted to show the effectiveness of this evolutionary design database model.

  11. Chip Design Process Optimization Based on Design Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häusler, Stefan; Blaschke, Jana; Sebeke, Christian; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Hahn, Axel

    2010-06-01

    Nowadays, the managing of product development projects is increasingly challenging. Especially the IC design of ASICs with both analog and digital components (mixed-signal design) is becoming more and more complex, while the time-to-market window narrows at the same time. Still, high quality standards must be fulfilled. Projects and their status are becoming less transparent due to this complexity. This makes the planning and execution of projects rather difficult. Therefore, there is a need for efficient project control. A main challenge is the objective evaluation of the current development status. Are all requirements successfully verified? Are all intermediate goals achieved? Companies often develop special solutions that are not reusable in other projects. This makes the quality measurement process itself less efficient and produces too much overhead. The method proposed in this paper is a contribution to solve these issues. It is applied at a German design house for analog mixed-signal IC design. This paper presents the results of a case study and introduces an optimized project scheduling on the basis of quality assessment results.

  12. Intensification of the Reverse Cationic Flotation of Hematite Ores with Optimization of Process and Hydrodynamic Parameters of Flotation Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poperechnikova, O. Yu; Filippov, L. O.; Shumskaya, E. N.; Filippova, I. V.

    2017-07-01

    The demand of high grade iron ore concentrates is a major issue due to the depletion of rich iron-bearing ores and high competitiveness in the iron ore market. Iron ore production is forced out to upgrade flowsheets to decrease the silica content in the pelettes. Different types of ore have different mineral composition and texture-structural features which require different mineral processing methods and technologies. The paper presents a comparative study of the cationic and anionic flotation routes to process a fine-grain oxidized iron ore. The modified carboxymethyl cellulose was found as the most efficient depressant in reverse cationic flotation. The results of flotation optimization of hematite ores using matrix of second-order center rotatable uniform design allowed to define the collector concentration, impeller rotation speed and air flowrate as the main flotation parameters impacting on the iron ore concentrate quality and iron recovery in a laboratory flotation machine. These parameters have been selected as independent during the experiments.

  13. THEHYCO-3DT: Thermal hydrodynamic code for the 3 dimensional transient calculation of advanced LMFBR core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitruk, S.G.; Korsun, A.S. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Ushakov, P.A. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (R)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The multilevel mathematical model of neutron thermal hydrodynamic processes in a passive safety core without assemblies duct walls and appropriate computer code SKETCH, consisted of thermal hydrodynamic module THEHYCO-3DT and neutron one, are described. A new effective discretization technique for energy, momentum and mass conservation equations is applied in hexagonal - z geometry. The model adequacy and applicability are presented. The results of the calculations show that the model and the computer code could be used in conceptual design of advanced reactors.

  14. The mass loss process in dwarf galaxies from 3D hydrodynamical simulations: the role of dark matter and starbursts

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz, Luciana O; Lanfranchi, Gustavo A; Caproni, Anderson

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological models predict a much larger number of low mass dark matter haloes than has been observed in the Local Group of galaxies. One possible explanation is the increased difficulty of detecting these haloes if most of the visible matter is lost at early evolutionary phases through galactic winds. In this work we study the current models of triggering galactic winds in dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph) from supernovae, and study, based on 3D hydrodynamic numerical simulations, the correlation of the mass loss rates and important physical parameters as the dark matter halo mass and its radial profile, and the star formation rate. We find that the existence of winds is ubiquitous, independent on the gravitational potential. Our simulations revealed that the Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) may play a major role on pushing matter out of these systems, even for very massive haloes. The instability is responsible for 5 - 40% of the mass loss during the early evolution of the galaxy, ...

  15. Reliability Methods for Shield Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    Providing protection against the hazards of space radiation is a major challenge to the exploration and development of space. The great cost of added radiation shielding is a potential limiting factor in deep space operations. In this enabling technology, we have developed methods for optimized shield design over multi-segmented missions involving multiple work and living areas in the transport and duty phase of space missions. The total shield mass over all pieces of equipment and habitats is optimized subject to career dose and dose rate constraints. An important component of this technology is the estimation of two most commonly identified uncertainties in radiation shield design, the shielding properties of materials used and the understanding of the biological response of the astronaut to the radiation leaking through the materials into the living space. The largest uncertainty, of course, is in the biological response to especially high charge and energy (HZE) ions of the galactic cosmic rays. These uncertainties are blended with the optimization design procedure to formulate reliability-based methods for shield design processes. The details of the methods will be discussed.

  16. Saving Material with Systematic Process Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerausch, M.

    2011-08-01

    Global competition is forcing the stamping industry to further increase quality, to shorten time-to-market and to reduce total cost. Continuous balancing between these classical time-cost-quality targets throughout the product development cycle is required to ensure future economical success. In today's industrial practice, die layout standards are typically assumed to implicitly ensure the balancing of company specific time-cost-quality targets. Although die layout standards are a very successful approach, there are two methodical disadvantages. First, the capabilities for tool design have to be continuously adapted to technological innovations; e.g. to take advantage of the full forming capability of new materials. Secondly, the great variety of die design aspects have to be reduced to a generic rule or guideline; e.g. binder shape, draw-in conditions or the use of drawbeads. Therefore, it is important to not overlook cost or quality opportunities when applying die design standards. This paper describes a systematic workflow with focus on minimizing material consumption. The starting point of the investigation is a full process plan for a typical structural part. All requirements are definedaccording to a predefined set of die design standards with industrial relevance are fulfilled. In a first step binder and addendum geometry is systematically checked for material saving potentials. In a second step, blank shape and draw-in are adjusted to meet thinning, wrinkling and springback targets for a minimum blank solution. Finally the identified die layout is validated with respect to production robustness versus splits, wrinkles and springback. For all three steps the applied methodology is based on finite element simulation combined with a stochastical variation of input variables. With the proposed workflow a well-balanced (time-cost-quality) production process assuring minimal material consumption can be achieved.

  17. Sustainable Process Design of Lignocellulose based Biofuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangnimit, Saranya; Malakul, Pomthong; Gani, Rafiqul

    the production and use of alternative and sustainable energy sources as rapidly as possible. Biofuel is a type of alternative energy that can be produced from many sources including sugar substances (such as sugarcane juice and molasses), starchy materials (such as corn and cassava), and lignocellulosic...... available, and are also non-food crops. In this respect, Cassava rhizome has several characteristics that make it a potential feedstock for fuel ethanol production. It has high content of cellulose and hemicelluloses . The objective of this paper is to present a study focused on the sustainable process...... design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome using various computer aided tools through a systematic and effiicient work-flow, The study includes process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA) according to a well-defined workflow that guarantees...

  18. Innovative machine designs for radiation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroom, David

    2007-12-01

    In the 1990s Raychem Corporation established a program to investigate the commercialization of several promising applications involving the combined use of its core competencies in materials science, radiation chemistry and e-beam radiation technology. The applications investigated included those that would extend Raychem's well known heat recoverable polymer and wire and cable product lines as well as new potential applications such as remediation of contaminated aqueous streams. A central part of the program was the development of new accelerator technology designed to improve quality, lower processing costs and efficiently process conformable materials such at liquids. A major emphasis with this new irradiation technology was to look at the accelerator and product handling systems as one integrated, not as two complimentary systems.

  19. Sustainable process design & analysis of hybrid separations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar Tula, Anjan; Befort, Bridgette; Garg, Nipun

    2016-01-01

    Distillation is an energy intensive operation in chemical process industries. There are around 40,000 distillation columns in operation in the US, requiring approximately 40% of the total energy consumption in US chemical process industries. However, analysis of separations by distillation has...... shown that more than 50% of energy is spent in purifying the last 5-10% of the distillate product. Membrane modules on the other hand can achieve high purity separations at lower energy costs, but if the flux is high, it requires large membrane area. A hybrid scheme where distillation and membrane...... modules are combined such that each operates at its highest efficiency, has the potential for significant energy reduction without significant increase of capital costs. This paper presents a method for sustainable design of hybrid distillation-membrane schemes with guaranteed reduction of energy...

  20. Designer cell signal processing circuits for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert W; Wang, Baojun

    2015-12-25

    Microorganisms are able to respond effectively to diverse signals from their environment and internal metabolism owing to their inherent sophisticated information processing capacity. A central aim of synthetic biology is to control and reprogramme the signal processing pathways within living cells so as to realise repurposed, beneficial applications ranging from disease diagnosis and environmental sensing to chemical bioproduction. To date most examples of synthetic biological signal processing have been built based on digital information flow, though analogue computing is being developed to cope with more complex operations and larger sets of variables. Great progress has been made in expanding the categories of characterised biological components that can be used for cellular signal manipulation, thereby allowing synthetic biologists to more rationally programme increasingly complex behaviours into living cells. Here we present a current overview of the components and strategies that exist for designer cell signal processing and decision making, discuss how these have been implemented in prototype systems for therapeutic, environmental, and industrial biotechnological applications, and examine emerging challenges in this promising field.

  1. Real processing (RP) I: The principle of minimal entropy production (PME) of irreversible thermodynamics and the principle of minimal deformation (PMD) of hydrodynamics, their dependence and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Bernhard

    1996-02-01

    The principle of minimal entropy production (PME) of irreversible thermodynamics is generalized to determine process parameters in process engineering with well-known mathematical methods. This useful instrument applied to industrial processes is called real processing (RP). A special form of the PME is the principle of minimal deformation (PMD) which allows for applications in hydrodynamics (HD). A second and independent derivation of the PMD takes a similar way as the derivation of the statement of Helmholtz and Rayleigh (SHR). The generalization of SHR then leads to the PMD derived within HD. Next in a similar way. starting directly from the Navier-Stokes equation (NSE) can lead in a third way to the PMD. Several applications of the PMD are given: An analytical and numerical application of PMD is given for the entrance flow of tubes. Physical and analytical applications are the Crocco-Vazsonyi-type equations opening new possibilities of analytical treatment of process engineering problems. Process engineering models may be replaced by applications of PMD. In particular, turbulence may be treated as the answer of nature on PMD. A basic mathematical treatment of these subjects is possible by the gradient field theory (GFT), a particular method of vector analysis stemming from the Clebsch Ansatz for vector fields, which can be ordered from the author together with an advanced detailed mathematical treatment of these subjects.

  2. Effects of complex hydrodynamic processes on the horizontal and vertical distribution of Tc-99 in the Irish Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olbert, Agnieszka I., E-mail: indiana.olbert@nuigalway.ie [Civil Engineering Department, Environmental Change Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Hartnett, Michael; Dabrowski, Tomasz [Civil Engineering Department, Environmental Change Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Kelleher, Kevin [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, 3 Clonskeagh Square, Clonskeagh Road, Dublin 14 (Ireland)

    2010-12-01

    The increased discharge of Tc-99 from the Sellafield plant following the commissioning of the Enhance Actinide Removal Plant in 1994 was reflected in higher Tc-99 activity concentrations over much of the Irish Sea. The presence of this radionuclide in the marine environment is of concern not only because of its long half life but also high bio-concentration factor in commercially valuable species, such Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) and common lobster (Homarus gammarus). Accurate predictions of the transport, and spatial and temporal distributions of Tc-99 in the Irish Sea have important environmental and commercial implications. In this study, transport of the Tc-99 material was simulated in order to develop an increased understanding of long-term horizontal and vertical distributions. In particular, impact of seasonal hydrodynamic features such as the summer stratification on the surface-to-bottom Tc-99 ratio was of interest. Also, material retention mechanisms within the western Irish Sea were explored and flushing rates under various release conditions and meteorological forcing were estimated. The results show that highest vertical gradients are observed between June and July in the deepest regions of the North Channel and the western Irish Sea where radionuclide-rich saline-poor water overlays radionuclide-poor saline-rich Atlantic water masses. Strong correlation between top-to-bottom ratio of Tc-99 and strength of stratification was found. Flushing studies demonstrate that as the stratification intensifies, residence times within the western Irish Sea increase. In stratified waters of the gyre Tc-99 material is flushed out from the upper layer much quicker than from the bottom zone. The research also shows that in the gyre the biologically active upper layers above the thermocline are likely to contain higher concentrations than the near-bed region. Long-term horizontal and vertical distributions as determined in this study provide a basis for

  3. Hydrodynamic processes, velocity structure and stratification in natural turbidity currents: Results inferred from field data in the Var Turbidite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migeon, Sébastien; Mulder, Thierry; Savoye, Bruno; Sage, Françoise

    2012-03-01

    The Var Turbidite System (NW Mediterranean Sea) is fed during the present-day highstand sea level by large earthquake-induced ignitive turbidity currents, low-density turbidity currents resulting from retrogressive failures triggered on the upper continental slope, and hyperpycnal flows related to the Var River floods. Using a large dataset including bathymetric data, side-scan sonar images, seismic-reflection profiles, cores and photographs of the seafloor, this paper attempts to better constrain the hydrodynamic behaviour of debris flows and turbidity currents along the Upper and Middle Valley of the Var Turbidite System. The drastic change of the seafloor morphology between the Upper and the Middle Valley suggests that gravity flows undergo rapid transformation from cohesive to fully turbulent behaviour. This transformation is related to a hydraulic jump caused by an abrupt decrease in slope angle at the transition between the Upper and the Middle Valley and is associated with en masse deposition and elevation of the seafloor. Strong seafloor erosion prevails in the Middle Valley, suggesting that, for a low and constant slope angle, turbulent flows must regain a balance between concentration and flow thickness rapidly after they experience hydraulic jump. The internal stratification and vertical grain-size distribution within turbulent flows are inferred from the distribution of fine- to coarse-grained turbidites found in cores located along the crest of the Var Sedimentary Ridge with a decreasing elevation above the floor of the Middle Valley. The theoretical vertical velocity profile deduced from the vertical grain-size distribution exhibits a general trend and an inflection of the gradient curve different from those of the velocity profiles classically obtained using numerical modelling.

  4. The hydrodynamics of colloidal gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Zsigmond; Wang, Gang; Swan, James

    2015-12-14

    Colloidal gels are formed during arrested phase separation. Sub-micron, mutually attractive particles aggregate to form a system spanning network with high interfacial area, far from equilibrium. Models for microstructural evolution during colloidal gelation have often struggled to match experimental results with long standing questions regarding the role of hydrodynamic interactions. In nearly all models, these interactions are neglected entirely. In the present work, we report simulations of gelation with and without hydrodynamic interactions between the suspended particles executed in HOOMD-blue. The disparities between these simulations are striking and mirror the experimental-theoretical mismatch in the literature. The hydrodynamic simulations agree with experimental observations, however. We explore a simple model of the competing transport processes in gelation that anticipates these disparities, and conclude that hydrodynamic forces are essential. Near the gel boundary, there exists a competition between compaction of individual aggregates which suppresses gelation and coagulation of aggregates which enhances it. The time scale for compaction is mildly slowed by hydrodynamic interactions, while the time scale for coagulation is greatly accelerated. This enhancement to coagulation leads to a shift in the gel boundary to lower strengths of attraction and lower particle concentrations when compared to models that neglect hydrodynamic interactions. Away from the gel boundary, differences in the nearest neighbor distribution and fractal dimension persist within gels produced by both simulation methods. This result necessitates a fundamental rethinking of how dynamic, discrete element models for gelation kinetics are developed as well as how collective hydrodynamic interactions influence the arrest of attractive colloidal dispersions.

  5. Hydrodynamics of pronuclear migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazockdast, Ehssan; Needleman, Daniel; Shelley, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Microtubule (MT) filaments play a key role in many processes involved in cell devision including spindle formation, chromosome segregation, and pronuclear positioning. We present a direct numerical technique to simulate MT dynamics in such processes. Our method includes hydrodynamically mediated interactions between MTs and other cytoskeletal objects, using singularity methods for Stokes flow. Long-ranged many-body hydrodynamic interactions are computed using a highly efficient and scalable fast multipole method, enabling the simulation of thousands of MTs. Our simulation method also takes into account the flexibility of MTs using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory as well as their dynamic instability. Using this technique, we simulate pronuclear migration in single-celled Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Two different positioning mechanisms, based on the interactions of MTs with the motor proteins and the cell cortex, are explored: cytoplasmic pulling and cortical pushing. We find that although the pronuclear complex migrates towards the center of the cell in both models, the generated cytoplasmic flows are fundamentally different. This suggest that cytoplasmic flow visualization during pronuclear migration can be utilized to differentiate between the two mechanisms.

  6. On the influence of the hydrodynamics in flotation process. - Effects of process on the residence time distribution in a continuously operated flotation machine. Beitrag zum Einfluss der Hydrodynamik beim Flotationsprozess. - Charakteristika der Verweilzeitverteilungsfunktion im Trogflotationsapparat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischofberger, C.; Koch, P.

    1986-01-01

    The papers deal with the possible descriptions of turbulent flows and measuring method with piezoelectrical sensors. Experimental tests on the sylvinite flotation and tin ore flotation for optimizing hydrodynamics were meant to clarity the influence of design, speed and specific air flow. In semi-industrial and industrial scale was investigated the residence time distribution in a continuously operated flotation bank. The mixing behaviour was quantitatively analysed by variations some important parameters. The 2 papers have been abstracted separately. (orig./MOS) With 53 figs., 10 tabs., 74 refs.

  7. Model-Based Integrated Process Design and Controller Design of Chemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abd Hamid, Mohd Kamaruddin Bin

    and verification. Using thermodynamic and process insights, a bounded search space is first identified. This feasible solution space is further reduced to satisfy the process design and controller design constraints in sub-problems 2 and 3, respectively, until in the final sub-problem all feasible candidates...... may or may not be able to find the optimal solution, depending on the performance of their search algorithms and computational demand, this method using the attainable region and driving force concepts is simple and able to find at least near-optimal designs (if not optimal) to IPDC problems...... tested using a series of case studies that represents three different systems in chemical processes: a single reactor system, a single separator system and a reactor-separator-recycle system....

  8. Process simulation during the design process makes the difference : Process simulations applied to a traditional design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traversari, R.; Goedhart, R.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective is evaluation of a traditionally designed operating room using simulation of various surgical workflows. Background: A literature search showed that there is no evidence for an optimal operating room layout regarding the position and size of an ultraclean ventilation (UCV) c

  9. Process simulation during the design process makes the difference: process simulations applied to a traditional design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traversari, R.; Goedhart, R.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective is evaluation of a traditionally designed operating room using simulation of various surgical workflows.Background: A literature search showed that there is no evidence for an optimal operating room layout regarding the position and size of an ultraclean ventilation (UCV) ca

  10. Process simulation during the design process makes the difference: process simulations applied to a traditional design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traversari, R.; Goedhart, R.; Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective is evaluation of a traditionally designed operating room using simulation of various surgical workflows.Background: A literature search showed that there is no evidence for an optimal operating room layout regarding the position and size of an ultraclean ventilation (UCV)

  11. Design of indirectly driven, high-compression Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions with improved hydrodynamic stability using a 4-shock adiabat-shaped drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milovich, J. L., E-mail: milovich1@llnl.gov; Robey, H. F.; Clark, D. S.; Baker, K. L.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C.; Field, J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Patel, P. K.; Peterson, J. L.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, C. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Experimental results from indirectly driven ignition implosions during the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) [M. J. Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] achieved a record compression of the central deuterium-tritium fuel layer with measured areal densities up to 1.2 g/cm{sup 2}, but with significantly lower total neutron yields (between 1.5 × 10{sup 14} and 5.5 × 10{sup 14}) than predicted, approximately 10% of the 2D simulated yield. An order of magnitude improvement in the neutron yield was subsequently obtained in the “high-foot” experiments [O. A. Hurricane et al., Nature 506, 343 (2014)]. However, this yield was obtained at the expense of fuel compression due to deliberately higher fuel adiabat. In this paper, the design of an adiabat-shaped implosion is presented, in which the laser pulse is tailored to achieve similar resistance to ablation-front instability growth, but with a low fuel adiabat to achieve high compression. Comparison with measured performance shows a factor of 3–10× improvement in the neutron yield (>40% of predicted simulated yield) over similar NIC implosions, while maintaining a reasonable fuel compression of >1 g/cm{sup 2}. Extension of these designs to higher laser power and energy is discussed to further explore the trade-off between increased implosion velocity and the deleterious effects of hydrodynamic instabilities.

  12. Design of indirectly driven, high-compression Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions with improved hydrodynamic stability using a 4-shock adiabat-shaped drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovich, J. L.; Robey, H. F.; Clark, D. S.; Baker, K. L.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C.; Field, J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Patel, P. K.; Peterson, J. L.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    Experimental results from indirectly driven ignition implosions during the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) [M. J. Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] achieved a record compression of the central deuterium-tritium fuel layer with measured areal densities up to 1.2 g/cm2, but with significantly lower total neutron yields (between 1.5 × 1014 and 5.5 × 1014) than predicted, approximately 10% of the 2D simulated yield. An order of magnitude improvement in the neutron yield was subsequently obtained in the "high-foot" experiments [O. A. Hurricane et al., Nature 506, 343 (2014)]. However, this yield was obtained at the expense of fuel compression due to deliberately higher fuel adiabat. In this paper, the design of an adiabat-shaped implosion is presented, in which the laser pulse is tailored to achieve similar resistance to ablation-front instability growth, but with a low fuel adiabat to achieve high compression. Comparison with measured performance shows a factor of 3-10× improvement in the neutron yield (>40% of predicted simulated yield) over similar NIC implosions, while maintaining a reasonable fuel compression of >1 g/cm2. Extension of these designs to higher laser power and energy is discussed to further explore the trade-off between increased implosion velocity and the deleterious effects of hydrodynamic instabilities.

  13. Modelling multi-phase liquid-sediment scour and resuspension induced by rapid flows using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) accelerated with a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourtakas, G.; Rogers, B. D.

    2016-06-01

    A two-phase numerical model using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is applied to two-phase liquid-sediments flows. The absence of a mesh in SPH is ideal for interfacial and highly non-linear flows with changing fragmentation of the interface, mixing and resuspension. The rheology of sediment induced under rapid flows undergoes several states which are only partially described by previous research in SPH. This paper attempts to bridge the gap between the geotechnics, non-Newtonian and Newtonian flows by proposing a model that combines the yielding, shear and suspension layer which are needed to predict accurately the global erosion phenomena, from a hydrodynamics prospective. The numerical SPH scheme is based on the explicit treatment of both phases using Newtonian and the non-Newtonian Bingham-type Herschel-Bulkley-Papanastasiou constitutive model. This is supplemented by the Drucker-Prager yield criterion to predict the onset of yielding of the sediment surface and a concentration suspension model. The multi-phase model has been compared with experimental and 2-D reference numerical models for scour following a dry-bed dam break yielding satisfactory results and improvements over well-known SPH multi-phase models. With 3-D simulations requiring a large number of particles, the code is accelerated with a graphics processing unit (GPU) in the open-source DualSPHysics code. The implementation and optimisation of the code achieved a speed up of x58 over an optimised single thread serial code. A 3-D dam break over a non-cohesive erodible bed simulation with over 4 million particles yields close agreement with experimental scour and water surface profiles.

  14. Hygienic Design in the Food Processing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Hjelm, M.

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are of major concern in food production and processing industry. In 1998 a Danish co-operation programme under the title Centre for Hygienic Design was funded to combine the skills of universities, research institutes and industry to focus on the following...... goals: • Development of materials with low bioadhesion (defined as resistance towards biofilm formation) - and in this context evaluation of quantitative techniques for examination of bioadhesion • Improvement of surface material hygienic life time by selecting surface materials in combination...... approach is to focus on surface material hygienic lifetime. Test of this is made in an industrial test loop run by biotechnology researchers in co-operation with materials producers and a food producer to compare biofilm formation, cleanability and deterioration of different rubber and plastic materials...

  15. Design of nanomaterial synthesis by aerosol processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesser, Beat; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2012-01-01

    Aerosol synthesis of materials is a vibrant field of particle technology and chemical reaction engineering. Examples include the manufacture of carbon blacks, fumed SiO(2), pigmentary TiO(2), ZnO vulcanizing catalysts, filamentary Ni, and optical fibers, materials that impact transportation, construction, pharmaceuticals, energy, and communications. Parallel to this, development of novel, scalable aerosol processes has enabled synthesis of new functional nanomaterials (e.g., catalysts, biomaterials, electroceramics) and devices (e.g., gas sensors). This review provides an access point for engineers to the multiscale design of aerosol reactors for the synthesis of nanomaterials using continuum, mesoscale, molecular dynamics, and quantum mechanics models spanning 10 and 15 orders of magnitude in length and time, respectively. Key design features are the rapid chemistry; the high particle concentrations but low volume fractions; the attainment of a self-preserving particle size distribution by coagulation; the ratio of the characteristic times of coagulation and sintering, which controls the extent of particle aggregation; and the narrowing of the aggregate primary particle size distribution by sintering.

  16. Design of Nanomaterial Synthesis by Aerosol Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesser, Beat; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol synthesis of materials is a vibrant field of particle technology and chemical reaction engineering. Examples include the manufacture of carbon blacks, fumed SiO2, pigmentary TiO2, ZnO vulcanizing catalysts, filamentary Ni, and optical fibers, materials that impact transportation, construction, pharmaceuticals, energy, and communications. Parallel to this, development of novel, scalable aerosol processes has enabled synthesis of new functional nanomaterials (e.g., catalysts, biomaterials, electroceramics) and devices (e.g., gas sensors). This review provides an access point for engineers to the multiscale design of aerosol reactors for the synthesis of nanomaterials using continuum, mesoscale, molecular dynamics, and quantum mechanics models spanning 10 and 15 orders of magnitude in length and time, respectively. Key design features are the rapid chemistry; the high particle concentrations but low volume fractions; the attainment of a self-preserving particle size distribution by coagulation; the ratio of the characteristic times of coagulation and sintering, which controls the extent of particle aggregation; and the narrowing of the aggregate primary particle size distribution by sintering. PMID:22468598

  17. 扑翼滑翔UUV流体动力布局设计%Hydrodynamic Layout and Design of Flapping-Wing and Glide UUV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘光; 马启超; 刘冠杉; 曹永辉; 黄桥高

    2011-01-01

    针对以往无人水下航行器(UUV)流体动力布局设计只对扑翼的安装位置进行研究,本文将水下仿生扑翼UUV和水下滑翔机(AUG)两者优点集于一体,提出了一种新型扑翼滑翔UUV.通过分析海龟运动和航行器前、后端扑翼的用途,归纳了大升阻比、低阻力的流体动力布局设计准则,利用计算流体力学(CFD)的方法对前端扑翼的4种安装位置和3种翻转角设计分别进行了数值仿真.仿真结果表明,当前端扑翼选用安装位置取距UUV主体外壳最前端纵向长度为整个纵向长度的30%和翻转角为10°时,该扑翼滑翔UUV具有较优的大升阻比、低阻力的流体动力性能,所得结果为进一步研究该UUV的总体设计提供了理论参考.%A new-style of flapping-wing and glide unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) combining the advantages of an underwater biomimetic flapping-wing UUV and an autonomous underwater glider (AUG) was proposed. Through analying the movement of sea turtles and the purposes of the vehicle's front and end flapping-wings, the hydrodynamic layout and design criteria with a large lift-drag ratio and low-drag were obtained. Numerical simulation was conducted to four kinds of installation location and three kinds of flip angle design of the front flapping-wing using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Simulation results show that the flapping-wing and glide UUV has the better hydrodynamic capability of large lift-drag ratio and low-drag when the front flapping-wing is chosen at the position where the longitudinal distance between installation location and the forefront of main hull UUV is 30% of the entire longitudinal length and the flip angle is 10°.Besides, the relationship among the flapping-wing's different installation location, the flip angle and the lift, drag and lift-drag ratio of UUV are achieved.

  18. On the design of chemical processes with improved controllability characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuse, F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, process design and control system design are carried out sequentially. The premise underlying this sequential approach is that the decisions made in the process design phase do not limit the control design. However, it is generally known that incongruent designs can occur quite

  19. On the design of chemical processes with improved controllability characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuse, F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, process design and control system design are carried out sequentially. The premise underlying this sequential approach is that the decisions made in the process design phase do not limit the control design. However, it is generally known that incongruent designs can occur quite easily

  20. Impact of hydrodynamics on pollutant degradation and energy efficiency of VUV/UV and H2O2/UV oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Mehdi; Mohseni, Madjid

    2015-12-01

    The Vacuum-UV/UV process, an incipient catalyst/chemical-free advanced oxidation process (AOP), is potentially a cost-effective solution for the removal of harmful micropollutants from water. Utilizing a novel mechanistic numerical model, this work aimed to establish a thorough understanding of the degradation mechanisms in the VUV/UV process operating under continuous flow conditions, when compared with the widely applied H2O2/UV AOP. Of particular interest was the examination of the impact of flow characteristics (hydrodynamics) on the degradation efficacy of a target micropollutant during the VUV/UV and H2O2/UV AOPs. While hydroxyl radical (OH) oxidation was the dominant degradation pathway in both processes, the degradation efficacy of the VUV/UV process showed much stronger correlation with the extent of mixing in the photoreactor. Under a uniform flow regime, the degradation efficiency of the target pollutant achieved by the H2O2/UV process with 2- and 5 ppm H2O2 was greater than that provided by the VUV/UV process. Nonetheless, introduction of mixing and circulation zones to the VUV/UV reactor resulted in superior performance compared with the H2O2/UV AOP. Based on the electrical energy-per-order (EEO) analysis, incorporation of circulation zones resulted in a reduction of up to 50% in the overall energy cost of the VUV/UV AOP, while the corresponding reduction for the 5-ppm H2O2/UV system was less than 5%. Furthermore, the extent of OH scavenging of natural organic matter (NOM) on energy efficiency of the VUV/UV and H2O2/UV AOPs under continuous flow conditions was assessed using the EEO analysis.

  1. Universal Design: Process, Principles, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgstahler, Sheryl

    2009-01-01

    Designing any product or environment involves the consideration of many factors, including aesthetics, engineering options, environmental issues, safety concerns, industry standards, and cost. Typically, designers focus their attention on the average user. In contrast, universal design (UD), according to the Center for Universal Design," is…

  2. Design and intensification of industrial DADPM process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneker, Anne Maria; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; de Waele, B.; de Zeeuw, A.J.; van den Berg, Henderikus

    2016-01-01

    Process intensification is an essential method for the improvement of energy and material efficiency, waste reduction and simplification of industrial processes. In this research a Process Intensification methodology developed by Lutze, Gani and Woodley at the Computer Aided Process Engineering

  3. Interoperability of Design Intent in Integrated Product and Process Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M; W; Fu; W; F; Lu; A; Y; C; Nee; S; K; Ong

    2002-01-01

    Concurrent engineering is currently an overwhelming t rend in product development since it takes the down-stream product development issues and product life-cycle issues into consideration in up-front design pro cess. At this stage, evaluation, verification and validation of design concepts and design schemes is critical to the right-to-market product development. I dentification and extraction of design intent from the part digital mock-ups in different data formats and created in different CAD syste...

  4. On the design of chemical processes with improved controllability characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Meeuse, F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, process design and control system design are carried out sequentially. The premise underlying this sequential approach is that the decisions made in the process design phase do not limit the control design. However, it is generally known that incongruent designs can occur quite easily. In the literature two different classes of approaches are being described that consider the control performance of the design alternatives from the earliest design stages: (i) Anticipating sequen...

  5. CONSTRUCTION METHOD OF KNOWLEDGE MAP BASED ON DESIGN PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Hai; JIANG Zuhua

    2007-01-01

    Due to the increasing amount and complexity of knowledge in product design, the knowledge map based on design process is presented as a tool to reuse product design process, promote the product design knowledge sharing. The relationship between design task flow and knowledge flow is discussed; A knowledge organizing method based on design task decomposition and a visualization method to support the knowledge retrieving and sharing in product design are proposed. And a knowledge map system to manage the knowledge in product design process is built with Visual C++ and SVG. Finally, a brief case study is provided to illustrate the construction and application of knowledge map in fuel pump design.

  6. Hydrodynamics of Ship Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslin, John P.; Andersen, Poul

    This book deals with flows over propellers operating behind ships, and the hydrodynamic forces and moments which the propeller generates on the shaft and on the ship hull.The first part of the text is devoted to fundamentals of the flow about hydrofoil sections (with and without cavitation......) and about wings. It then treats propellers in uniform flow, first via advanced actuator disc modelling, and then using lifting-line theory. Pragmatic guidance is given for design and evaluation of performance, including the use of computer modelling.The second part covers the development of unsteady forces...... arising from operation in non-uniform hull wakes. First, by a number of simplifications, various aspects of the problem are dealt with separately until the full problem of a non-cavitating, wide-bladed propeller in a wake is treated by a new and completely developed theory. Next, the complicated problem...

  7. A New and Better Method for Designing and Simulating Hydrodynamic Resistance Servo Compensation System%水动阻力随动补偿系统设计与仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玥; 朱战霞

    2012-01-01

    To compensate for hydrodynamic resistance during experiments on neutral buoyancy, we propose a new method for designing and simulating hydrodynamic resistance servo compensation system, which we believe is new and better than previous ones. Sections 1 and 2 of the full paper explain our method. Their core consists of; ( 1) we combine the traditional PID control with fuzzy control so as to perform fuzzy inference of unknown information and online learning with artificial intelligence, thus effectively handling the nonlinearity and uncertainty of the actuator control system and adjusting its PI parameters on line and in real time; ( 2) we apply our method to the closed loop control system of the hydrodynamic resistance servo compensation system; (3) using the fuzzy logic toolbox of MATLAB, we design and simulate the hydrodynamic resistance servo compensation system; the simulation results, given in Figs. 6(a) and (b) , and their comparison show preliminarily that the closed loop control system we designed has no overshoot but faster response than the traditional PID control method, thus effectively compensating for hydrodynamic resistance.%针对中性浮力实验中水动阻力的补偿问题,提出了一种参数自整定模糊PI控制方法,即采用传统的PID控制与模糊控制相结合的新型控制方法.将方法应用于水动阻力补偿系统的控制闭环中,并利用MATLAB软件中的模糊控制工具箱进行了系统的辅助设计与仿真.仿真结果表明,参数自整定模糊P1控制可改善水动阻力补偿系统的动态性能,该方法是水动阻力实时补偿的有效方法.

  8. Optimal design of the hydrodynamic multi-arc bearing in a centrifugal blood pump for the improvement of bearing stiffness and hemolysis level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Kazuya; Kosaka, Ryo; Nishida, Masahiro; Maruyama, Osamu; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Yamane, Takashi

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of the present study is to establish an optimal design of the multi-arc hydrodynamic bearing in a centrifugal blood pump for the improvement of bearing stiffness and hemolysis level. The multi-arc bearing was designed to fulfill the required specifications: (i) ensuring the uniform bearing stiffness for various bearing angles; (ii) ensuring a higher bearing stiffness than the centrifugal force to prevent impeller whirl; and (iii) adjusting the bearing clearance as much as possible to reduce hemolysis. First, a numerical analysis was performed to optimize three design parameters of the multi-arc bearing: number of arcs N, bearing clearance C, and groove depth H. To validate the accuracy of the numerical analysis, the impeller trajectories for six pump models were measured. Finally, an in vitro hemolysis test was conducted to evaluate the hemolytic property of the multi-arc bearing. As a result of the numerical analysis, the optimal parameter combination was determined as follows: N=4, C=100 μm, and H ≥ 100 μm. In the measurements of the impeller trajectory, the optimal parameter combination was found to be as follows: N=4, C=90 μm, and H=100 μm. This result demonstrated the high reliability of the numerical analysis. In the hemolysis test, the parameter combination that achieved the smallest hemolysis was obtained as follows: N=4, C=90 μm, and H=100 μm. In conclusion, the multi-arc bearing could be optimized for the improvement of bearing stiffness and hemolysis level.

  9. A hydrodynamics-reaction kinetics coupled model for evaluating bioreactors derived from CFD simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Ding, Jie; Guo, Wan-Qian; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2010-12-01

    Investigating how a bioreactor functions is a necessary precursor for successful reactor design and operation. Traditional methods used to investigate flow-field cannot meet this challenge accurately and economically. Hydrodynamics model can solve this problem, but to understand a bioreactor in sufficient depth, it is often insufficient. In this paper, a coupled hydrodynamics-reaction kinetics model was formulated from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to simulate a gas-liquid-solid three-phase biotreatment system for the first time. The hydrodynamics model is used to formulate prediction of the flow field and the reaction kinetics model then portrays the reaction conversion process. The coupled model is verified and used to simulate the behavior of an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor for biohydrogen production. The flow patterns were visualized and analyzed. The coupled model also demonstrates a qualitative relationship between hydrodynamics and biohydrogen production. The advantages and limitations of applying this coupled model are discussed.

  10. Hydrodynamic design of internal submarine propulsor%潜艇内置推进系统水动力设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕晓军; 周其斗; 莫登沅; 潘雨村

    2011-01-01

    To increase the efficiency of propulsor and decrease the noise level of submarine, a kind of internal submarine propulsor and its configuration were presented. And methods for theoretical analy sis and design of this internal propulsor were proposed primarily. Besides, the tube of the propulsor was parametrically designed. Using CFD software, the flow field around the submarine with different tube parameters was simulated by adopting volume force as a substitute for propeller force. The calcu lated results indicate that the resistance of the tube decreases by increasing inlet area and the efficiency of tube system increases. After the propeller was installed, CFD calculations show that increase of both submarine speed and propeller speed can cause the propeller to begin speeding. In addition, the propulsive efficiency increased from 57. 8% to 59. 4% to promote the submarine speed from 15 to 30 knots. Studies show that the propulsive efficiency of the well designed internal propulsor can equal or surpass that of a conventional propeller, which proves the effectiveness of the design method of this new-style propulsor.%为提高潜艇推进效率,降低潜艇阻力和噪声,提出了一种潜艇内王推进系统及其结构布局,初步建立了内置推进系统的理论分析方法和设计思路.对推进系统的管道进行了参数化设计,并借助计算流体力学软件,用体积力代替螺旋桨产生的力场,对不同管道参数下的潜艇周围及管道内部的流场进行了数值模拟,结果表明:增大管道的进口面积可以减小管道阻力,提高管道系统效率.将螺旋桨置入出流管道后的计算结果表明:航速和螺旋桨转速的增加均会引起管道内螺旋桨进速的增加,其中螺旋桨转速的影响相对较大.另外,潜艇保持匀速航行时,推进系统的推进效率随航速增加而增加,在航速30 kn时达到59.4%.由此可见,设计良好的潜艇内置推进系统的推进效率可以达到或

  11. A new smoothed particle hydrodynamics non-Newtonian model for friction stir welding: Process modeling and simulation of microstructure evolution in a magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wenxiao; Li, Dongsheng; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Ahzi, Said; Khraisheh, Marwan; Khaleel, Moe

    2013-09-01

    We present a new smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) model for friction stir welding (FSW). FSW has broad commercial application in the marine, aerospace, rail, and automotive industries. However, development of the FSW process for each new application has remained largely empirical. Few established numerical modeling techniques have been developed that can explain and predict important features of the process physics involved in FSW. This is particularly true in the areas of material flow and mixing mechanisms. In this paper, we present a novel modeling approach to simulate FSW that may have significant advantages over current finite element or finite difference based methods. Unlike traditional grid-based methods, Lagrangian particle methods such as SPH can simulate the dynamics of interfaces, large material deformations, and the material’s strain and temperature history without employing complex tracking schemes. Three-dimensional simulations of FSW on AZ31 Mg alloy are performed. The temperature history and distribution, grain size, microhardness as well as the texture evolution are presented. Numerical results are found to be in good agreement with experimental observations.

  12. Design of a Free-running, 1/30th Froude Scaled Model Destroyer for In-situ Hydrodynamic Flow Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    Kollmorgen AKM Brushless DC motors – 2.02 N-m continuous torque • Maneuvering – 2 x IMS Mdrive23 Steppers • Control – 2 x Kollmorgen AKD 120 VAC...Froude Scaled Model Destroyer for In- situ Hydrodynamic Flow Visualization LT Dave Cope 3 May 2012 Advised by Prof Chrys Chryssostomidis Dr...Scaled Model Destroyer for In-situ Hydrodynamic Flow Visualization (BRIEFING CHARTS) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  13. Guidelines for engineering design for process safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2012-01-01

    .... Key areas to be enhanced in the new edition include inherently safer design, specifically concepts for design of inherently safer unit operations and Safety Instrumented Systems and Layer of Protection Analysis...

  14. Thermodynamic and stochastic theory of hydrodynamic and power-producing processes. [Annual report], September 1991--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J.

    1992-09-16

    Thermodynamics of the transport processes of diffusion, thermal conduction, and viscous flow at a macroscopic level are developed for the simplest cases of one-dimensional transport in fluids for individual linear and nonlinear processes approaching a stationary non-equilibrium state. Formulation has started of thermodynamic and stochastic theory of combinations of transport processes. Global thermodynamic and stochastic theory of open chemical systems frar from equilibrium is continued with analysis of a broad class of isothermal, multicomponent reaction mechanisms with multiple steady states with assumed local equilibrium. Stationary solutions are obtained of the master equation for single and multi-intermediate autocatalytic chemical systems. A kinetic potential is identified that governs the deterministic time evolution of coupled tank reactors. A second-order response theory was developed to investigate the effects of external periodic perturbations on a chemical reaction at a stable steady state in an open reactor.

  15. Toward automating the database design process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asprey, P.L.

    1979-04-25

    One organization's approach to designing complex, interrelated databases is described. The problems encountered and the techniques developed are discussed. A set of software tools to aid the designer and to produce an initial database design directly is presented. 5 figures.

  16. Making values explicit during the design process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.G.D.; Poel, I. van de

    2012-01-01

    When people design products and services, they often do so to help realize specific values. Design is a value-driven activity, although the values often remain implicit and unarticulated. Here we reflect on a design-driven research project in which a series of innovative telecommunication, multimedi

  17. Hydrodynamic Nambu Brackets derived by Geometric Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Blender, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A geometric approach to derive the Nambu brackets for ideal two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics is suggested. The derivation is based on two-forms with vanishing integrals in a periodic domain, and with resulting dynamics constrained by an orthogonality condition. As a result, 2D hydrodynamics with vorticity as dynamic variable emerges as a generic model, with conservation laws which can be interpreted as enstrophy and energy functionals. Generalized forms like surface quasi-geostrophy and fractional Poisson equations for the stream-function are also included as results from the derivation. The formalism is extended to a hydrodynamic system coupled to a second degree of freedom, with the Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection as an example. This system is reformulated in terms of constitutive conservation laws with two additive brackets which represent individual processes: a first representing inviscid 2D hydrodynamics, and a second representing the coupling between hydrodynamics and thermodynamics. The results can b...

  18. Elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication

    CERN Document Server

    Dowson, D; Hopkins, D W

    1977-01-01

    Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication deals with the mechanism of elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication, that is, the lubrication regime in operation over the small areas where machine components are in nominal point or line contact. The lubrication of rigid contacts is discussed, along with the effects of high pressure on the lubricant and bounding solids. The governing equations for the solution of elasto-hydrodynamic problems are presented.Comprised of 13 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication and representation of contacts by cylinders, followed by a discussio

  19. Elementary classical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chirgwin, B H; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A; Plumpton, C

    1967-01-01

    Elementary Classical Hydrodynamics deals with the fundamental principles of elementary classical hydrodynamics, with emphasis on the mechanics of inviscid fluids. Topics covered by this book include direct use of the equations of hydrodynamics, potential flows, two-dimensional fluid motion, waves in liquids, and compressible flows. Some general theorems such as Bernoulli's equation are also considered. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental principles of fluid hydrodynamics, with emphasis on ways of studying the motion of a fluid. Basic c

  20. Creativity Processes of Students in the Design Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Amy Mattingly; Leigh, Katharine E.; Tremblay, Kenneth R., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The creative process is a multifaceted and dynamic path of thinking required to execute a project in design-based disciplines. The goal of this research was to test a model outlining the creative design process by investigating student experiences in a design project assignment. The study used an exploratory design to collect data from student…

  1. Numerical Hydrodynamics in General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Font José A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The current status of numerical solutions for the equations of ideal general relativistic hydrodynamics is reviewed. With respect to an earlier version of the article, the present update provides additional information on numerical schemes, and extends the discussion of astrophysical simulations in general relativistic hydrodynamics. Different formulations of the equations are presented, with special mention of conservative and hyperbolic formulations well-adapted to advanced numerical methods. A large sample of available numerical schemes is discussed, paying particular attention to solution procedures based on schemes exploiting the characteristic structure of the equations through linearized Riemann solvers. A comprehensive summary of astrophysical simulations in strong gravitational fields is presented. These include gravitational collapse, accretion onto black holes, and hydrodynamical evolutions of neutron stars. The material contained in these sections highlights the numerical challenges of various representative simulations. It also follows, to some extent, the chronological development of the field, concerning advances on the formulation of the gravitational field and hydrodynamic equations and the numerical methodology designed to solve them.

  2. Operation and Design of Diabatic Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas

    nature of the modelling framework is favourable for benchmarking distillation column configurations. To further facilitate benchmarking of distillation column configurations, a conceptual design algorithm was formulated, which systematicallyaddresses the selection of the design variables. The conceptual...... design of the heat-integrated distillation column configurations is challenging as a result of the increased number of decision variables compared to the CDiC. Finally, themodel is implemented in Matlab and a database of the considered configurations, case studies, pure component properties, and binary...

  3. Launch Vehicle Design Process: Characterization, Technical Integration, and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, J. C.; Ryan, R. S.; Schutzenhofer, L. A.; Humphries, W. R.

    2001-01-01

    Engineering design is a challenging activity for any product. Since launch vehicles are highly complex and interconnected and have extreme energy densities, their design represents a challenge of the highest order. The purpose of this document is to delineate and clarify the design process associated with the launch vehicle for space flight transportation. The goal is to define and characterize a baseline for the space transportation design process. This baseline can be used as a basis for improving effectiveness and efficiency of the design process. The baseline characterization is achieved via compartmentalization and technical integration of subsystems, design functions, and discipline functions. First, a global design process overview is provided in order to show responsibility, interactions, and connectivity of overall aspects of the design process. Then design essentials are delineated in order to emphasize necessary features of the design process that are sometimes overlooked. Finally the design process characterization is presented. This is accomplished by considering project technical framework, technical integration, process description (technical integration model, subsystem tree, design/discipline planes, decision gates, and tasks), and the design sequence. Also included in the document are a snapshot relating to process improvements, illustrations of the process, a survey of recommendations from experienced practitioners in aerospace, lessons learned, references, and a bibliography.

  4. Learning design and feedback processes at scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringtved, Ulla L.; Miligan, Sandra; Corrin, Linda

    2016-01-01

    design and would benefit from learning analytics support? What is the character of analytics that can be deployed to help deliver good design of online learning platforms? What are the theoretical and pedagogical bases inherent in different analytics designs? These and other questions will be examined......Design for teaching in scaled courses is shifting away from replication of the traditional on-campus or online teaching-learning relationship towards exploiting the distinctive characteristic and potentials of that environment to transform both teaching and learning. This involves consideration...

  5. Experimental study of laser-induced hydrodynamical and thermochemical processes by means of a laser brightness amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokoshev, Valerii G.; Klimovskii, Ivan I.; Galkin, Arkadii F.; Orlov, Vitalii N.; Abramov, Dmitrii V.; Taranenko, Mihail A.; Danilof, S. U.; Arakelian, Sergei M.

    1998-06-01

    Provided is the experimental study of the laser melting, treatment and oxidation of metals and alloys (steel, copper, brass, titanium and others) in a real time by the laser brightness amplifier on the basis of a copper laser. The image processing of obtained results has been carried out by computer. Worked out is the technique of measuring of the oxide layer growth by registration of movement of the interference minima (maxima) in reflective ability for radiation of the copper laser reflected from the inhomogeneous distribution of oxide over the cross section of the interaction zone. The results are compared with introduced theoretical models.

  6. Hydrodynamical properties of recombinant spider silk proteins: Effects of pH, salts and shear, and implications for the spinning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Jérémie; Lefèvre, Thierry; Gauthier, Martin; Gagné, Stéphane M; Auger, Michèle

    2013-09-01

    We have investigated the effect of pH, salts and shear on the hydrodynamical diameter of recombinant major ampullate (MA) rMaSpI silk proteins in solution as a function of time using (1) H solution NMR spectroscopy. The results indicate that the silk proteins in solution are composed of two diffusing populations, a high proportion of "native" solubilized proteins and a small amount of high molecular weight oligomers. Similar results are observed with the MA gland content. Salts help maintaining the proteins in a compact form in solution over time and inhibit aggregation, the absence of salts triggering protein assembly leading to a gel state. Moreover, the aggregation kinetics of rMaSpI at low salt concentration accelerates as the pH is close to the isoelectric point of the proteins, suggesting that the pH decrease tends to slow down aggregation. The data also support the strong impact of shear on the spinning process and suggest that the assembly is driven by a nucleation conformational conversion mechanism. Thus, the adjustment of the physicochemical conditions in the ampulla seems to promote a stable, long term storage. In addition, the optimization of protein conformation as well as their unfolding and aggregation propensity in the duct leads to a specifically organized structure.

  7. Hydrodynamic cavitation in combination with the ozone, hydrogen peroxide and the UV-based advanced oxidation processes for the removal of natural organic matter from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čehovin, Matej; Medic, Alojz; Scheideler, Jens; Mielcke, Jörg; Ried, Achim; Kompare, Boris; Žgajnar Gotvajn, Andreja

    2017-07-01

    Natural organic matter in drinking water is causing concern especially due to the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) by chlorine, as these are proven to have adverse health effects on consumers. In this research, humic acid was used as a source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in drinking water (up to 3mgL(-1)). The efficiency of DOC removal was studied by applying O3, H2O2/O3, H2O2/UV and O3/UV advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) alone and combined with hybrid hydrodynamic cavitation (HC), generated by an orifice plate, as this technology recently shows promising potential for the treatment of water, containing recalcitrant organic substances. It was observed that the combined treatment by HC could significantly affect the performance of the applied AOPs, with as little as 3-9 passes through the cavitation generators. For O3 and H2O2 dosages up to 2 and 4mgL(-1), respectively, and UV dosage up to 300mJcm(-2), HC enhanced DOC removal by 5-15% in all combinations, except for O3/UV AOPs. Overall, the potential benefits of HC for DOC removal were emphasized for low ratio between applied oxidants to DOC and high UV absorbance of the sample. Investigated DBPs formation potentials require special attention for H2O2/UV AOPs and combinations with HC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Structures and Processes in Didactic Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik; Heilesen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a user-driven approach to designing new educational formats including new media for learning. Focus will be on didactic design involving the use of information technology as a means of mediating, augmenting or even fundamentally changing teaching and learning practices...

  9. REVERSING THE CO-DESIGN PROCESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard, Christina

    2011-01-01

    , but the focus is almost always on the upcoming design. Based on an experiment, this paper investigates how co-design tools can be used as a part of a post-occupancy evaluation (POE). When you do a POE, you evaluate the performance of an already completed building in relation to the daily use. Unlike...

  10. Structures and Processes in Didactic Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik; Heilesen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a user-driven approach to designing new educational formats including new media for learning. Focus will be on didactic design involving the use of information technology as a means of mediating, augmenting or even fundamentally changing teaching and learning practices. The ...

  11. Information management and design & engineering processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutters, Diederick; ten Brinke, E.; Streppel, A.H.; Kals, H.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    In analysing design and manufacturing tasks and their mutual interactions, it appears that the underlying information of these tasks is of the utmost importance. If this information is managed in a formalized, structured way, it can serve as a basis for the control of design and manufacturing proces

  12. Computer Applications in the Design Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchip, Susan

    Computer Assisted Design (CAD) and Computer Assisted Manufacturing (CAM) are emerging technologies now being used in home economics and interior design applications. A microcomputer in a computer network system is capable of executing computer graphic functions such as three-dimensional modeling, as well as utilizing office automation packages to…

  13. Property Modelling for Applications in Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    Physical-chemical properties of pure chemicals and their mixtures play an important role in the design of chemicals based products and the processes that manufacture them. Although, the use of experimental data in design and analysis of chemicals based products and their processes is desirable...... such as database, property model library, model parameter regression, and, property-model based product-process design will be presented. The database contains pure component and mixture data for a wide range of organic chemicals. The property models are based on the combined group contribution and atom...... modeling tools in design and analysis of chemical product-process design, including biochemical processes will be highlighted....

  14. A Design Process Evaluation Method for Sustainable Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. Magent

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research develops a technique to model and evaluate the design process for sustainable buildings. Three case studies were conducted to validate this method. The resulting design process evaluation method for sustainable buildings (DPEMSB may assist project teams in designing their own sustainable building design processes. This method helps to identify critical decisions in the design process, to evaluate these decisions for time and sequence, to define information required for decisions from various project stakeholders, and to identify stakeholder competencies for process implementation. Published in the Journal AEDM - Volume 5, Numbers 1-2, 2009 , pp. 62-74(13

  15. New Vistas in Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lei; Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    Design of chemicals-based products is broadly classified into those that are process centered and those that are product centered. In this article, the designs of both classes of products are reviewed from a process systems point of view; developments related to the design of the chemical product......, its corresponding process, and its integration are highlighted. Although significant advances have been made in the development of systematic model-based techniques for process design (also for optimization, operation, and control), much work is needed to reach the same level for product design....... Timeline diagrams illustrating key contributions in product design, process design, and integrated product-process design are presented. The search for novel, innovative, and sustainable solutions must be matched by consideration of issues related to the multidisciplinary nature of problems, the lack...

  16. Experimental Testbed for the Study of Hydrodynamic Issues in Supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robey, H F; Kane, J O; Remington, B A; Drake, R P; Hurricane, O A; Louis, H; Wallace, R J; Knauer, J; Keiter, P; Arnett, D

    2000-10-09

    More than a decade after the explosion of SN 1987A, unresolved discrepancies still remain in attempts to numerically simulate the mixing processes initiated by the passage of a very strong shock through the layered structure of the progenitor star. Numerically computed velocities of the radioactive {sup 56}Ni and {sup 56}CO, produced by shock-induced explosive burning within the silicon layer for example, are still more than 50% too low as compared with the measured velocities. In order to resolve such discrepancies between observation and simulation, an experimental testbed has been designed on the Omega Laser for the study of hydrodynamic issues of importance to supernovae (SNe). In this paper, we present results from a series of scaled laboratory experiments designed to isolate and explore several issues in the hydrodynamics of SN explosions. The results of the experiments are compared with numerical simulations and are generally found to be in reasonable agreement.

  17. Process integration: Cooling water systems design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technique for grassroot design of cooling water system for wastewater minimization which incorporates the performances of the cooling towers involved. The study focuses mainly on cooling systems consisting of multiple cooling...

  18. Guidelines for engineering design for process safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2012-01-01

    "This updated version of one of the most popular and widely used CCPS books provides plant design engineers, facility operators, and safety professionals with key information on selected topics of interest...

  19. Cooling water systems design using process integration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooling water systems are generally designed with a set of heat exchangers arranged in parallel. This arrangement results in higher cooling water flowrate and low cooling water return temperature thus reducing cooling tower efficiency. Previous...

  20. Quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Alqahtani, Mubarak

    2016-01-01

    We study an azimuthally-symmetric boost-invariant quark-gluon plasma using quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics including the effects of both shear and bulk viscosities. We compare results obtained using the quasiparticle method with the standard anisotropic hydrodynamics and viscous hydrodynamics. We consider the predictions of the three methods for the differential particle spectra and mean transverse momentum. We find that the three methods agree for small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, $\\eta/s$, but show differences at large $\\eta/s$. Additionally, we find that the standard anisotropic hydrodynamics method shows suppressed production at low transverse-momentum compared to the other two methods, and the bulk-viscous correction can drive the primordial particle spectra negative at large $p_T$ in viscous hydrodynamics.

  1. Engineering Hydrodynamic AUV Hulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.

    2016-12-01

    AUV stands for autonomous underwater vehicle. AUVs are used in oceanography and are similar to gliders. MBARIs AUVs as well as other AUVs map the ocean floor which is very important. They also measure physical characteristics of the water, such as temperature and salinity. My science fair project for 4th grade was a STEM activity in which I built and tested 3 different AUV bodies. I wanted to find out which design was the most hydrodynamic. I tested three different lengths of AUV hulls to see which AUV would glide the farthest. The first was 6 inches. The second was 12 inches and the third was 18 inches. I used clay for the nosecone and cut a ruler into two and made it the fin. Each AUV used the same nosecone and fin. I tested all three designs in a pool. I used biomimicry to create my hypothesis. When I was researching I found that long slim animals swim fastest. So, my hypothesis is the longer AUV will glide farthest. In the end I was right. The longer AUV did glide the farthest.

  2. Green Diesel from Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil Process Design Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbers, T.J.; Sprakel, L.M.J.; Enk, van den L.B.J.; Zaalberg, B.; Berg, van den H.; Ham, van der A.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic approach was applied to study the process of hydrotreating vegetable oils. During the three phases of conceptual, detailed, and final design, unit operations were designed and sized. Modeling of the process was performed with UniSim Design®. Producing green diesel and jet fuel from vege

  3. Learning Objects: A User-Centered Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branon, Rovy F., III

    2011-01-01

    Design research systematically creates or improves processes, products, and programs through an iterative progression connecting practice and theory (Reinking, 2008; van den Akker, 2006). Developing a new instructional systems design (ISD) processes through design research is necessary when new technologies emerge that challenge existing practices…

  4. Knowledge and Processes in Design. DPS Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirolli, Peter

    Four papers from a project concerning information-processing characterizations of the knowledge and processes involved in design are presented. The project collected and analyzed verbal protocols from instructional designers, architects, and mechanical engineers. A framework was developed for characterizing the problem spaces of design that…

  5. VCM Process Design: An ABET 2000 Fully Compliant Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyahia, Farid

    2005-01-01

    A long experience in undergraduate vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) process design projects is shared in this paper. The VCM process design is shown to be fully compliant with ABET 2000 criteria by virtue of its abundance in chemical engineering principles, integration of interpersonal and interdisciplinary skills in design, safety, economics, and…

  6. Green Diesel from Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil Process Design Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbers, T.J.; Sprakel, Lisette Maria Johanna; van den Enk, L.B.J.; Zaalberg, B.; van den Berg, Henderikus; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic approach was applied to study the process of hydrotreating vegetable oils. During the three phases of conceptual, detailed, and final design, unit operations were designed and sized. Modeling of the process was performed with UniSim Design®. Producing green diesel and jet fuel from

  7. Optimality criteria design and stress constraint processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, R.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for pre-screening stress constraints into either primary or side-constraint categories are reviewed; a projection method, which is developed from prior cycle stress resultant history, is introduced as an additional screening parameter. Stress resultant projections are also employed to modify the traditional stress-ratio, side-constraint boundary. A special application of structural modification reanalysis is applied to the critical stress constraints to provide feasible designs that are preferable to those obtained by conventional scaling. Sample problem executions show relatively short run times and fewer design cycle iterations to achieve low structural weights; those attained are comparable to the minimum values developed elsewhere.

  8. Technological design as an evolutionary process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip; Kroes, Peter; Vermaas, Pieter E.; Light, Andrew; Moore, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of technical artifacts is often seen as radically different from the evolution of biological species. Technical artifacts are normally understood to result from the purposive intelligence of designers whereas biological species and organisms are held to have resulted from evolution by

  9. Technological design as an evolutionary process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.; Kroes, Peter; Vermaas, Pieter E.; Light, Andrew; Moore, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of technical artifacts is often seen as radically different from the evolution of biological species. Technical artifacts are normally understood to result from the purposive intelligence of designers whereas biological species and organisms are held to have resulted from evolution by

  10. A design process for creative technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika; Eggink, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    Creative Technology is a new bachelor programme at the University of Twente. Goal of Creative Technology is to design products and applications that improve the quality of daily life in its manifold aspects, building on Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The application domains range fr

  11. Interpretive Research Design. Concepts and Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz-Shea, P.; Yanow, D.

    2012-01-01

    Research design is fundamental to all scientific endeavors, at all levels and in all institutional settings. In many social science disciplines, however, scholars working in an interpretive-qualitative tradition get little guidance on this aspect of research from the positivist-centered training the

  12. Biochemical Engineering. Part II: Process Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, B.

    1972-01-01

    Describes types of industrial techniques involving biochemical products, specifying the advantages and disadvantages of batch and continuous processes, and contrasting biochemical and chemical engineering. See SE 506 318 for Part I. (AL)

  13. Integrating conceptualizations of experience into the interaction design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter

    2010-01-01

    From a design perspective, the increasing awareness of experiential aspects of interactive systems prompts the question of how conceptualizations of experience can inform and potentially be integrated into the interaction design process. This paper presents one approach to integrating theoretical...... perspectives on experience in design by formulating conceptual constructs that can guide design decisions....

  14. 船用螺旋桨水动力性能优化设计%Design and Optimization of Hydrodynamic Performance of M arine P ro peller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波; 张以良; 熊鹰

    2015-01-01

    In order to seek for a propeller that both good at efficiency and cavitation performance ,an it‐erative optimization design of a pod propeller was accomplished by using propeller comprehensive per‐formance optimization design system‐with independent intellectual property rights ,and model tests were conducted to verify the optimization results .The propeller parameters distributions are described by Bezier‐spline ,so that the curve fairing can be ensured .Aiming at improving the efficiency and cavi‐tation performance , genetic algorithm combined with a prediction method of steady hydrodynamic characteristics of propeller based on surface panel method is utilized to optimize and analyze propeller parameters distribution .T he optimization results show that the efficiency of the optimized propeller is slightly lower ,but the cavitation inception is later and the cavitation area is smaller at the same condi‐tion comparing to the original propeller ,the cavitation performance have been improved .%为寻找效率和空泡性能优良的螺旋桨,利用螺旋桨多参数协同优化系统对某吊舱螺旋桨开展迭代优化,并对优化结果进行试验验证。螺旋桨各参数分布曲线采用贝塞尔样条曲线拟合,以确保各参数在优化过程中的光顺性;应用遗传算法,结合螺旋桨面元法的定常水动力性能预报工具,以提高螺旋桨效率及空泡性能为优化目标,对螺旋桨各参数分布进行优化及相关分析探讨。结果表明,优化桨较原桨效率略低,但空泡初生更晚,相同条件下空化面积更小,空泡性能得到有效改善。

  15. Integrating Thermal Tools Into the Mechanical Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn T.; Siebes, Georg; Novak, Keith S.; Kinsella, Gary M.

    1999-01-01

    The intent of mechanical design is to deliver a hardware product that meets or exceeds customer expectations, while reducing cycle time and cost. To this end, an integrated mechanical design process enables the idea of parallel development (concurrent engineering). This represents a shift from the traditional mechanical design process. With such a concurrent process, there are significant issues that have to be identified and addressed before re-engineering the mechanical design process to facilitate concurrent engineering. These issues also assist in the integration and re-engineering of the thermal design sub-process since it resides within the entire mechanical design process. With these issues in mind, a thermal design sub-process can be re-defined in a manner that has a higher probability of acceptance, thus enabling an integrated mechanical design process. However, the actual implementation is not always problem-free. Experience in applying the thermal design sub-process to actual situations provides the evidence for improvement, but more importantly, for judging the viability and feasibility of the sub-process.

  16. Conceptual design of distillation-based hybrid separation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiborowski, Mirko; Harwardt, Andreas; Marquardt, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid separation processes combine different separation principles and constitute a promising design option for the separation of complex mixtures. Particularly, the integration of distillation with other unit operations can significantly improve the separation of close-boiling or azeotropic mixtures. Although the design of single-unit operations is well understood and supported by computational methods, the optimal design of flowsheets of hybrid separation processes is still a challenging task. The large number of operational and design degrees of freedom requires a systematic and optimization-based design approach. To this end, a structured approach, the so-called process synthesis framework, is proposed. This article reviews available computational methods for the conceptual design of distillation-based hybrid processes for the separation of liquid mixtures. Open problems are identified that must be addressed to finally establish a structured process synthesis framework for such processes.

  17. The Process of Soviet Weapons Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-01

    system on the BMP from an early 1940s German design. But the validity and usefulness of a theory, especially one that makes predictions about the future...when the 1940 publication of a highly significant Soviet discovery of spontaneous fission resulted in a complete lack of an American response, the...taken from I. N. Golovin , I. V. Khurchatov, Atomizdat, Moscow, 1973, and from Herbert York, The Advisors. Oppenheimer, Teller, and the Superbomb, W. H

  18. Impact of urban effluents on summer hypoxia in the highly turbid Gironde Estuary, applying a 3D model coupling hydrodynamics, sediment transport and biogeochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajaunie-Salla, Katixa; Wild-Allen, Karen; Sottolichio, Aldo; Thouvenin, Bénédicte; Litrico, Xavier; Abril, Gwenaël

    2017-10-01

    Estuaries are increasingly degraded due to coastal urban development and are prone to hypoxia problems. The macro-tidal Gironde Estuary is characterized by a highly concentrated turbidity maximum zone (TMZ). Field observations show that hypoxia occurs in summer in the TMZ at low river flow and a few days after the spring tide peak. In situ data highlight lower dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations around the city of Bordeaux, located in the upper estuary. Interactions between multiple factors limit the understanding of the processes controlling the dynamics of hypoxia. A 3D biogeochemical model was developed, coupled with hydrodynamics and a sediment transport model, to assess the contribution of the TMZ and the impact of urban effluents through wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and sewage overflows (SOs) on hypoxia. Our model describes the transport of solutes and suspended material and the biogeochemical mechanisms impacting oxygen: primary production, degradation of all organic matter (i.e. including phytoplankton respiration, degradation of river and urban watershed matter), nitrification and gas exchange. The composition and the degradation rates of each variable were characterized by in situ measurements and experimental data from the study area. The DO model was validated against observations in Bordeaux City. The simulated DO concentrations show good agreement with field observations and satisfactorily reproduce the seasonal and neap-spring time scale variations around the city of Bordeaux. Simulations show a spatial and temporal correlation between the formation of summer hypoxia and the location of the TMZ, with minimum DO centered in the vicinity of Bordeaux. To understand the contribution of the urban watershed forcing, different simulations with the presence or absence of urban effluents were compared. Our results show that in summer, a reduction of POC from SO would increase the DO minimum in the vicinity of Bordeaux by 3% of saturation. Omitting

  19. Information processing theory in the early design stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Kreye, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    suggestions for improvements and support. One theory that may be particularly applicable to the early design stages is Information Processing Theory (IPT) as it is linked to the design process with regard to the key concepts considered. IPT states that designers search for information if they perceive......, the new knowledge is shared between the design team to reduce ambiguity with regards to its meaning and to build a shared understanding – reducing perceived uncertainty. Thus, we propose that Information-Processing Theory is suitable to describe designer activity in the early design stages......Developing appropriate theory is one of the main challenges facing engineering design (Cross, 2007). Theory helps to both explain design activity but also support greater research impact in the domain. It is useful for gaining a more comprehensive understanding of design activity and developing...

  20. Information processing theory in the early design stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Kreye, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Developing appropriate theory is one of the main challenges facing engineering design (Cross, 2007). Theory helps to both explain design activity but also support greater research impact in the domain. It is useful for gaining a more comprehensive understanding of design activity and developing...... suggestions for improvements and support. One theory that may be particularly applicable to the early design stages is Information Processing Theory (IPT) as it is linked to the design process with regard to the key concepts considered. IPT states that designers search for information if they perceive...... uncertainty with regard to the knowledge necessary to solve a design challenge. They then process this information and compare if the new knowledge they have gained covers the previous knowledge gap. In engineering design, uncertainty plays a key role, particularly in the early design stages which has been...

  1. Method for innovative synthesis-design of chemical process flowsheets

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Tula, Anjan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    Chemical process synthesis-design involve the identification of the processing route to reach a desired product from a specified set of raw materials, design of the operations involved in the processing route, the calculations of utility requirements, the calculations of waste and emission to the surrounding and many more. Different methods (knowledge-based [1], mathematical programming [2], hybrid, etc.) have been proposed and are also currently employed to solve these synthesis-design probl...

  2. Adding Users to the Website Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomeo, Megan L.

    2012-01-01

    Alden Library began redesigning its website over a year ago. Throughout the redesign process the students, faculty, and staff that make up the user base were added to the conversation by utilizing several usability test methods. This article focuses on the usability testing conducted at Alden Library and delves into future usability testing, which…

  3. Hidden realities inside PBL design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Ole Verner

    2015-01-01

    for the education as being intuition, reflection, artistic progression and critical interpretation (Kiib 2004). “As the reflection and critical interpretation are well integrated within the education, mostly parts of the exam evaluation, it seems like the artistic progression and intuition are somewhat drowning...... are passing from a complex world into one based on super complexity? Could Gaston Bachelard (1958), who writes in his book The Poetic of Space "that poets and artists are born phenomenologists," help architecture and design students in their journey to find his/her own professional expression? This paper...

  4. SOLVING GLOBAL PROBLEMS USING COLLABORATIVE DESIGN PROCESSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Mejborn, Christina Okai

    2011-01-01

    new solutions that would help solve the global problem of sanitation. Lack of sanitation is a problem for 42% of the world’s population but it is also a taboo topic that only very few people will engage in. In the one-day workshop participants from very different areas came together and brought...... forward proposed solutions for how to design, brand and make business models for how to solve aspects of the sanitation problem. The workshop showed that it was possible to work freely with such a taboo topic and that in particular the use of visualisation tools, i.e. drawing posters and building simple...

  5. The Lean Design of Manufacturing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Strachotová

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to using of Six Sigma methodology. A break trough strategy to significantly improve customer satisfaction and shareholder value by reducing variability in every aspects of business. It enhances the ability to delivery customer satisfaction and cost improvement results faster – within months from the start, and sustains the rate of improvement on-going. One of the most powerful ways to improve business performance is combining business process management (BPM strategies with Six Sigma strategies. BPM strategies emphasize process improvements and automation to drive performance, while Six Sigma uses statistical analysis to drive quality improvements. The two strategies are not mutually exclusive, however, and some savvy companies have discovered that combining BPM and Six Sigma can create dramatic results. Six Sigma methodology teaches and deploys hard skills and business practices emphasizing.

  6. A systems-based approach for integrated design of materials, products and design process chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Jitesh H.; Choi, Hae-Jin; Allen, Janet K.; McDowell, David L.; Mistree, Farrokh

    2007-12-01

    The concurrent design of materials and products provides designers with flexibility to achieve design objectives that were not previously accessible. However, the improved flexibility comes at a cost of increased complexity of the design process chains and the materials simulation models used for executing the design chains. Efforts to reduce the complexity generally result in increased uncertainty. We contend that a systems based approach is essential for managing both the complexity and the uncertainty in design process chains and simulation models in concurrent material and product design. Our approach is based on simplifying the design process chains systematically such that the resulting uncertainty does not significantly affect the overall system performance. Similarly, instead of striving for accurate models for multiscale systems (that are inherently complex), we rely on making design decisions that are robust to uncertainties in the models. Accordingly, we pursue hierarchical modeling in the context of design of multiscale systems. In this paper our focus is on design process chains. We present a systems based approach, premised on the assumption that complex systems can be designed efficiently by managing the complexity of design process chains. The approach relies on (a) the use of reusable interaction patterns to model design process chains, and (b) consideration of design process decisions using value-of-information based metrics. The approach is illustrated using a Multifunctional Energetic Structural Material (MESM) design example. Energetic materials store considerable energy which can be released through shock-induced detonation; conventionally, they are not engineered for strength properties. The design objectives for the MESM in this paper include both sufficient strength and energy release characteristics. The design is carried out by using models at different length and time scales that simulate different aspects of the system. Finally, by

  7. Hydrodynamics and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Oz, Yaron

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes how the AdS/CFT correspondence (the Holographic Principle) relates field theory hydrodynamics to perturbations of black hole (brane) gravitational backgrounds. The hydrodynamics framework is first presented from the field theory point of view, after which the dual gravitational description is outlined, first for relativistic fluids and then for the nonrelativistic case. Further details of the fluid/gravity correspondence are then discussed, including the bulk geometry and the dynamics of the black hole horizon.

  8. Bioreactor and process design for biohydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Show, Kuan-Yeow; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2011-09-01

    Biohydrogen is regarded as an attractive future clean energy carrier due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. It has the potential for renewable biofuel to replace current hydrogen production which rely heavily on fossil fuels. While biohydrogen production is still in the early stage of development, there have been a variety of laboratory- and pilot-scale systems developed with promising potential. This work presents a review of advances in bioreactor and bioprocess design for biohydrogen production. The state-of-the art of biohydrogen production is discussed emphasizing on production pathways, factors affecting biohydrogen production, as well as bioreactor configuration and operation. Challenges and prospects of biohydrogen production are also outlined.

  9. Simulation-enhanced lean design process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon H. Marvel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available 72 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} A traditional lean transformation process does not validate the future state before implementation, relying instead on a series of iterations to modify the system until performance is satisfactory. An enhanced lean process that includes future state validation before implementation is presented.  Simulation modeling and experimentation is proposed as the primary validation tool.  Simulation modeling and experimentation extends value stream mapping to include time, the behavior of individual entities, structural variability, random variability, and component interaction effects. Experiments to analyze the model and draw conclusions about whether the lean transformation effectively addresses the current state gap can be conducted.  Industrial applications of the enhanced lean process show it effectiveness.

  10. 4D Design and Simulation Technologies and Process Design Patterns to Support Lean Construction Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manfred Breit; Manfred Vogel; Fritz H(a)ubi; Fabian M(a)rki; Micheal Raps

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this ongoing joint research program is to determine how 3D/4D modeling, simula- tion and visualization of Products (buildings), Organizations and Processes (POP) can support lean con- struction. Initial findings suggest that Process Design Pattern may have the potential to intuitively support ICT based lean construction. We initiated a "Process Archeology" in order to reveal the requirements for tools that can support the planning, simulation and control of lean construction methods. First findings show that existing tools provide only limited support and therefore, we started to develop new methodologies and technologies to overcome these shortcomings. Through the introduction of Process Design Patterns, we in- tent to establish process thinking in the interdisciplinary POP design. Optimized construction processes may be synthesized with semi-automatic methods by applying Process Design Pattems on building structures. By providing process templates that integrate problem solution and expert knowledge, Process Design Pat- tems may have the potential to ensure high quality process models.

  11. Systematic Integrated Process Design and Control of Binary Element Reactive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2016-01-01

    In this work, integrated process design and control of reactive distillation processes is considered through a computer-aided framework. First, a set of simple design methods for reactive distillation column that are similar in concept to non-reactive distillation design methods are extended....... It is shown that the same design-control principles that apply to a non-reacting binary system of compounds are also valid for a reactive binary system of elements for distillation columns. Application of this framework shows that designing the reactive distillation process at the maximum driving force...... results in a feasible and reliable design of the process as well as the controller structure....

  12. Design of a process template for amine synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ravendra; Godfrey, Andy; Gregertsen, Björn;

    A conceptual nitro reduction process template that should be generic such that it can handle a series of substrates with sim ilar molecular functionality has been designed. The reduction process is based on a continuo us plug-flow slurry reactor. The process template aims at speeding up the process...

  13. 3D hydrodynamic focusing microfluidics for emerging sensing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Michael A; Boyd, Darryl A; Mott, David R; Ligler, Frances S

    2015-05-15

    While the physics behind laminar flows has been studied for 200 years, understanding of how to use parallel flows to augment the capabilities of microfluidic systems has been a subject of study primarily over the last decade. The use of one flow to focus another within a microfluidic channel has graduated from a two-dimensional to a three-dimensional process and the design principles are only now becoming established. This review explores the underlying principles for hydrodynamic focusing in three dimensions (3D) using miscible fluids and the application of these principles for creation of biosensors, separation of cells and particles for sample manipulation, and fabrication of materials that could be used for biosensors. Where sufficient information is available, the practicality of devices implementing fluid flows directed in 3D is evaluated and the advantages and limitations of 3D hydrodynamic focusing for the particular application are highlighted.

  14. Sociotechnical design processes and working environment: The case of a continuous process wok

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2000-01-01

    A five-year design process of a continuous process wok has been studied with the aim of elucidating the conditions for integrating working environment aspects. The design proc-ess is seen as a network building activity and as a social shaping process of the artefact. A working environment log...

  15. Sociotechnical design processes and working environment: The case of a continuous process wok

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2000-01-01

    A five-year design process of a continuous process wok has been studied with the aim of elucidating the conditions for integrating working environment aspects. The design process is seen as a network building activity and as a social shaping process of the artefact. A working environment log...

  16. Sociotechnical design processes and working environment: The case of a continuous process wok

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2000-01-01

    A five-year design process of a continuous process wok has been studied with the aim of elucidating the conditions for integrating working environment aspects. The design process is seen as a network building activity and as a social shaping process of the artefact. A working environment log...

  17. The aerodynamics and hydrodynamics of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennos, A R

    1999-12-01

    Because they grow away from their substratum to compete for light, plants have to withstand hydrodynamic or aerodynamic drag. Both water and land plants reconfigure in response to this drag, and this is presumed to reduce the risk of mechanical failure. However, there is little unequivocal evidence of drag reduction in large trees as a result of reconfiguration. Land plants must also transport water internally to their tissues, and many have developed xylem tracheids and vessels that help speed up this process. Recent evidence that tree height is limited by water supply suggests that water transport efficiency must be a crucial element in tree design. However, the resistance of many parts of the xylem is still unknown. More focused work is urgently required to shed light on the evolution and ecology of plants in relation to the flow of fluids.

  18. Simulating thermo-mechanical interaction between a xenon gas-filled chamber and tungsten first-wall armor for the LIFE reactor design using the BUCKY 1-D radiation hydrodynamics code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heltemes, T A; Prochaska, A E; Moses, G A, E-mail: taheltemes@wisc.ed [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison WI 53706 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The BUCKY 1-D radiation hydrodynamics code has been used to simulate the dynamic thermo-mechanical interaction between a xenon gas-filled chamber and tungsten first-wall armor with an indirect-drive laser fusion target for the LIFE reactor design. Two classes of simulations were performed: (1) short-time (0-2 ms) simulations to fully capture the hydrodynamic effects of the introduction of the LIFE indirect-drive target x-ray and ion threat spectra and (2) long-time (2-70 ms) simulations starting with quiescent chamber conditions characteristic of those at 2 ms to estimate xenon plasma cooling between target implosions at 13 Hz. The short-time simulation results reported are: (1) the plasma hydrodynamics of the xenon in the chamber, (2) dynamic overpressure on the tungsten armor, and (3) time-dependent temperatures in the tungsten armor. The ramifications of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) vs. non-LTE opacity models are also addressed.

  19. Cholla : A New Massively-Parallel Hydrodynamics Code For Astrophysical Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Evan E

    2014-01-01

    We present Cholla (Computational Hydrodynamics On ParaLLel Architectures), a new three-dimensional hydrodynamics code that harnesses the power of graphics processing units (GPUs) to accelerate astrophysical simulations. Cholla models the Euler equations on a static mesh using state-of-the-art techniques, including the unsplit Corner Transport Upwind (CTU) algorithm, a variety of exact and approximate Riemann solvers, and multiple spatial reconstruction techniques including the piecewise parabolic method (PPM). Cholla performs all hydrodynamical calculations in a massively-parallel manner, using GPUs to evolve the fluid properties of thousands of cells simultaneously while leaving the power of central processing units (CPUs) available for modeling additional physics. On current hardware, Cholla can update more than ten million cells per GPU-second while using an exact Riemann solver and PPM reconstruction with the CTU algorithm. Owing to the massively-parallel architecture of GPUs and the design of the Cholla ...

  20. METHODS FOR MEASURING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN THE DESIGN PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Đapic

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In the design process, the designer makes decisions under uncertainty, contradiction and ignorance conditions. Are these decisions correct and to what extent? How much do they influence customer's satisfaction? These are only some of the questions the designers face all time. These dilemmas appear more in early phases of the design process. The explicit objectives of this paper is improvement of design decision making process in such a way that in same time when designer made a decision he or she show result that decision on customer satisfaction. In order to solve above problems, the paper describes the method, which enables integrated use of the axiomatic approach to designing, and the Taguchi method of robust design. This approach implies the modelling of the development process as an evidence-reasoning network based on uncertain evidence described via belief functions of (Dempster - Shafer theory. The paper starts with base concept of belief functions and valuation based system or evidential reasoning system for representation and reasoning based on uncertainty. After that we introduce coefficient of relative decrease of uncertainty in design process and new graphical representation of system architecture - the evidence networks. On the end we presents a method for measuring customer satisfaction in the design process in uncertainty condition using evidence networks.

  1. New Vistas in Chemical Product and Process Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Babi, Deenesh K; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-06-07

    Design of chemicals-based products is broadly classified into those that are process centered and those that are product centered. In this article, the designs of both classes of products are reviewed from a process systems point of view; developments related to the design of the chemical product, its corresponding process, and its integration are highlighted. Although significant advances have been made in the development of systematic model-based techniques for process design (also for optimization, operation, and control), much work is needed to reach the same level for product design. Timeline diagrams illustrating key contributions in product design, process design, and integrated product-process design are presented. The search for novel, innovative, and sustainable solutions must be matched by consideration of issues related to the multidisciplinary nature of problems, the lack of data needed for model development, solution strategies that incorporate multiscale options, and reliability versus predictive power. The need for an integrated model-experiment-based design approach is discussed together with benefits of employing a systematic computer-aided framework with built-in design templates.

  2. Biomechanical microsystems design, processing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ostasevicius, Vytautas; Palevicius, Arvydas; Gaidys, Rimvydas; Jurenas, Vytautas

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the most important aspects of analysis of dynamical processes taking place on the human body surface. It provides an overview of the major devices that act as a prevention measure to boost a person‘s motivation for physical activity. A short overview of the most popular MEMS sensors for biomedical applications is given. The development and validation of a multi-level computational model that combines mathematical models of an accelerometer and reduced human body surface tissue is presented. Subsequently, results of finite element analysis are used together with experimental data to evaluate rheological properties of not only human skin but skeletal joints as well. Methodology of development of MOEMS displacement-pressure sensor and adaptation for real-time biological information monitoring, namely “ex vivo” and “in vitro” blood pulse type analysis, is described. Fundamental and conciliatory investigations, achieved knowledge and scientific experience about biologically adaptive mu...

  3. DESIGNS FOR MIXTURE AND PROCESS VARIABLES APPLIED IN TABLET FORMULATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUINEVELD, CAA; SMILDE, AK; DOORNBOS, DA

    1993-01-01

    Although there are several methods for the construction of a design for process variables and mixture variables, there are not very many methods which are suitable to combine mixture and process variables in one design. Some of the methods which are feasible will be shown. These methods will be

  4. DESIGNS FOR MIXTURE AND PROCESS VARIABLES APPLIED IN TABLET FORMULATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUINEVELD, CAA; SMILDE, AK; DOORNBOS, DA

    1993-01-01

    Although there are several methods for the construction of a design for process variables and mixture variables, there are not very many methods which are suitable to combine mixture and process variables in one design. Some of the methods which are feasible will be shown. These methods will be comp

  5. Solid propellant processing factor in rocket motor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The ways are described by which propellant processing is affected by choices made in designing rocket engines. Tradeoff studies, design proof or scaleup studies, and special design features are presented that are required to obtain high product quality, and optimum processing costs. Processing is considered to include the operational steps involved with the lining and preparation of the motor case for the grain; the procurement of propellant raw materials; and propellant mixing, casting or extrusion, curing, machining, and finishing. The design criteria, recommended practices, and propellant formulations are included.

  6. Programming-Free Form Conversion, Design, and Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Ting-Jun; Machlin, Rona S.; Wang, Christopher P.; Chang, Ifay F.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, we present the requirements and design considerations for programming-free form conversion, design, and processing. A set of object-oriented software tools are also presented to help users convert a paper form into an electronic form, design an electronic form, and fill in an electronic form directly on screen.

  7. The Use of Computer Graphics in the Design Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzi, Maria

    This master's thesis examines applications of computer technology to the field of industrial design and ways in which technology can transform the traditional process. Following a statement of the problem, the history and applications of the fields of computer graphics and industrial design are reviewed. The traditional industrial design process…

  8. Laser processing with specially designed laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asratyan, A. A.; Bulychev, N. A.; Feofanov, I. N.; Kazaryan, M. A.; Krasovskii, V. I.; Lyabin, N. A.; Pogosyan, L. A.; Sachkov, V. I.; Zakharyan, R. A.

    2016-04-01

    The possibility of using laser systems to form beams with special spatial configurations has been studied. The laser systems applied had a self-conjugate cavity based on the elements of copper vapor lasers (LT-5Cu, LT-10Cu, LT-30Cu) with an average power of 5, 10, or 30 W. The active elements were pumped by current pulses of duration 80-100 ns. The duration of laser generation pulses was up to 25 ns. The generator unit included an unstable cavity, where one reflector was a special mirror with a reflecting coating. Various original optical schemes used were capable of exploring spatial configurations and energy characteristics of output laser beams in their interaction with micro- and nanoparticles fabricated from various materials. In these experiments, the beam dimensions of the obtained zones varied from 0.3 to 5 µm, which is comparable with the minimum permissible dimensions determined by the optical elements applied. This method is useful in transforming a large amount of information at the laser pulse repetition rate of 10-30 kHz. It was possible to realize the high-precision micromachining and microfabrication of microscale details by direct writing, cutting and drilling (with the cutting width and through-hole diameters ranging from 3 to 100 µm) and produce microscale, deep, intricate and narrow grooves on substrate surfaces of metals and nonmetal materials. This system is used for producing high-quality microscale details without moving the object under treatment. It can also be used for microcutting and microdrilling in a variety of metals such as molybdenum, copper and stainless steel, with a thickness of up to 300 µm, and in nonmetals such as silicon, sapphire and diamond with a thickness ranging from 10 µm to 1 mm with different thermal parameters and specially designed laser beam.

  9. Making design representations as catalysts for reflective making in a collaborative design research process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Schoffelen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of making may seem self-evident in a design context. However, in developing an educational design research course at the [institute name], we experienced that when design and research are intertwined, students tend to lose their focus on making. Therefore, this paper reflects on a research trajectory that explores how to support students in intertwining making and reflecting throughout the design research process. During this trajectory, we redeveloped design research methods making use of design representations – representations of design, i.e. field studies, insights, experiments, prototypes, and so on – as a means to connect making and reflecting throughout the design process. Design representations have informing and inspiring qualities and are made by designers to open up their design process and to enable communication, collaboration and reflection with others, throughout the making process. We will argue that combining design representations with structuring rules of play in a design research method and using them throughout the whole design process can improve collaborative reflection-in-action (Schön, 1983, or reflection-in-making, since it allows students to work in a more iterative manner. We describe how we – in eight case studies - recreated and evaluated a design research method, making use of design representations and structuring rules of play.

  10. Integrating chemical engineering fundamentals in the capstone process design project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Solms, Nicolas; Woodley, John; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2010-01-01

    All B.Eng. courses offered at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) must now follow CDIO standards. The final “capstone” course in the B.Eng. education is Process Design, which for many years has been typical of chemical engineering curricula worldwide. The course at DTU typically has about 30...... of the CDIO standards – especially standard 3 – Integrated Curriculum - means that the course projects must draw on competences provided in other subjects which the students are taking in parallel with Process Design – specifically Process Control and Reaction Engineering. In each semester of the B.......Eng. education, one course is designated the “project” course, which should draw on material learned in parallel courses. In the 6th semester, Process Design is the project course. Process Control and Reaction Engineering are then incorporated into the final plant design project. Specifically, almost all...

  11. Innovation Design of Persimmon Processing Equipment Driven by Future Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiao-fei; Su, Xiu-juan; Guan, Lei; Zhang, Wei-she

    2017-07-01

    This article aims to discuss the methods of innovative by future scenarios design, to help the designers be more effective of the design of persimmon processing machinery. By analyzing the persimmon traditional processing process, conceiving persimmon processing future scenarios and using the UXD and Morphological matrix, it can get the comprehensive function schemes. It Select the most optimal schemes which match the future scenarios best by illustrating the schematic design of the rotary-light Dried-persimmon Processing Machinery. It is feasible and effective to carry out the scenario design research and construct the reasonable future scenario, and combine the function analysis method to carry on the product plan innovation and the development.

  12. XML-based product information processing method for product design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen Yu

    2012-01-01

    Design knowledge of modern mechatronics product is based on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus product design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics product design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-based product information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of product design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of product function element, product structure element, product mapping relationship between function and structure based on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-based design system and product innovation.

  13. Random Designs for Estimating Integrals of Stochastic Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenfelder, Carol; Cambanis, Stamatis

    1982-01-01

    The integral of a second-order stochastic process $Z$ over a $d$-dimensional domain is estimated by a weighted linear combination of observations of $Z$ in a random design. The design sample points are possibly dependent random variables and are independent of the process $Z$, which may be nonstationary. Necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for the mean squared error of a random design estimator to converge to zero as the sample size increases towards infinity. Simple random, stra...

  14. A methodology for integrating sustainability considerations into process design

    OpenAIRE

    Azapagic, A.; Millington, A.; Collett, A

    2006-01-01

    Designing more sustainable processes is one of the key challenges for sustainable development of the chemical industry. This is by no means a trivial task as it requires translating the theoretical principles of sustainable development into design practice. At present, there is no general methodology to guide sustainable process design and almost no practical experience. In an attempt to contribute to this emerging area, this paper proposes a new methodology for integrating sustainability con...

  15. The design process seen through the eyes of a type designer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    To understand how the design process works, the paper takes the outset in the work of one of the first innovating type designers: the English printer and typefounder John Baskerville (1706-1775). By comparing his way of working with a model for a contemporary design process, the paper reflects up...

  16. Implications of Building Information Modeling on Interior Design Education: The Impact on Teaching Design Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Roehl, MFA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, major shifts occur in design processes effecting business practices for industries involved with designing and delivering the built environment. These changing conditions are a direct result of industry adoption of relatively new technologies called BIM or Building Information Modeling. This review of literature examines implications of these changing processes on interior design education.

  17. Implications of Building Information Modeling on Interior Design Education: The Impact on Teaching Design Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Roehl, MFA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, major shifts occur in design processes effecting business practices for industries involved with designing and delivering the built environment. These changing conditions are a direct result of industry adoption of relatively new technologies called BIM or Building Information Modeling. This review of literature examines implications of these changing processes on interior design education.

  18. Defining process design space for monoclonal antibody cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Absi, Susan Fugett; Yang, LiYing; Thompson, Patrick; Jiang, Canping; Kandula, Sunitha; Schilling, Bernhard; Shukla, Abhinav A

    2010-08-15

    The concept of design space has been taking root as a foundation of in-process control strategies for biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes. During mapping of the process design space, the multidimensional combination of operational variables is studied to quantify the impact on process performance in terms of productivity and product quality. An efficient methodology to map the design space for a monoclonal antibody cell culture process is described. A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) was used as the basis for the process characterization exercise. This was followed by an integrated study of the inoculum stage of the process which includes progressive shake flask and seed bioreactor steps. The operating conditions for the seed bioreactor were studied in an integrated fashion with the production bioreactor using a two stage design of experiments (DOE) methodology to enable optimization of operating conditions. A two level Resolution IV design was followed by a central composite design (CCD). These experiments enabled identification of the edge of failure and classification of the operational parameters as non-key, key or critical. In addition, the models generated from the data provide further insight into balancing productivity of the cell culture process with product quality considerations. Finally, process and product-related impurity clearance was evaluated by studies linking the upstream process with downstream purification. Production bioreactor parameters that directly influence antibody charge variants and glycosylation in CHO systems were identified.

  19. Sociotechnical design processes and working environment: The case of a continuous process wok

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2000-01-01

    A five-year design process of a continuous process wok has been studied with the aim of elucidating the conditions for integrating working environment aspects. The design process is seen as a network building activity and as a social shaping process of the artefact. A working environment log...... is suggested as a tool designers can use to integrate considerations of future operators' working environment....

  20. 工程堆积体陡坡坡面土壤侵蚀水动力学过程%Hydrodynamic process of soil erosion in steep slope of engineering accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乐涛; 高照良; 田红卫

    2013-01-01

    工程堆积体产生的新增水土流失严重威胁工程建设区及其附近区域的生态安全。该文采用野外放水冲刷试验的方法,对神木-府谷高速公路沿线典型工程堆积体陡坡坡面土壤侵蚀水动力过程进行了研究,结果表明,1)水流剪切力、水流功率及径流动能对薄层水流侵蚀土壤剥蚀率的影响皆可用线性方程描述,单位水流功率、过水断面单位能量的影响不显著;2)水流剪切力、水流功率、过水断面单位能量对细沟侵蚀土壤剥蚀率的影响皆可用线性方程描述,单位水流功率的影响可用幂函数方程描述,径流动能的影响可用对数线性方程描述;3)水流功率是与土壤剥蚀率关系最好的水动力学参数,是坡面侵蚀的动力根源;4)发生细沟侵蚀的临界水流功率为3 N/(m·s),细沟可蚀性参数为8×10-3 s2/m2。该结果可为工程堆积体陡坡坡面土壤侵蚀模型的建立奠定基础,为生产建设项目区新增水土流失治理提供科学依据。%Soil erosion newly derived from engineering accumulation severely threatens ecological safety of construction sites and surrounding areas. It is of great necessity to carry out researches on hydrodynamic process of soil erosion originated from engineering soil deposits, and develop prediction model of soil erosion in production and construction areas. A set of field pouring water scouring experiments were conducted on the experimental plot with 72.7%gradient and 12-meter length, which lies in a steep slope of a typical spoil ground along the line of Shenfu freeway, to investigate the hydrodynamic process of soil erosion of the engineering accumulation. At the upper slope of runoff plot, a watering system consisting of submersible pump, water segregator, valves, flowmeter,overflow tank and impermeable fabric was set up achieve desired discharges. Inflow discharges were designed according to calculated unit discharge

  1. Process-based design of dynamical biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanevski, Jovan; Todorovski, Ljupčo; Džeroski, Sašo

    2016-09-01

    The computational design of dynamical systems is an important emerging task in synthetic biology. Given desired properties of the behaviour of a dynamical system, the task of design is to build an in-silico model of a system whose simulated be- haviour meets these properties. We introduce a new, process-based, design methodology for addressing this task. The new methodology combines a flexible process-based formalism for specifying the space of candidate designs with multi-objective optimization approaches for selecting the most appropriate among these candidates. We demonstrate that the methodology is general enough to both formulate and solve tasks of designing deterministic and stochastic systems, successfully reproducing plausible designs reported in previous studies and proposing new designs that meet the design criteria, but have not been previously considered.

  2. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design...... of the bioethanol conversion process using cassava rhizome as a feedstock. The sustainability analysis is performed to analyze the relevant indicators in sustainability metrics, to definedesign/retrofit targets for process improvements. Economic analysis is performed to evaluate the profitability of the process........ Also, simultaneously with sustainability analysis, the life cycle impact on environment associated with bioethanol production is performed. Finally, candidate alternative designs are generated and compared with the base case design in terms of LCA, economics, waste, energy usage and enviromental impact...

  3. Method for innovative synthesis-design of chemical process flowsheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar Tula, Anjan; Gani, Rafiqul

    of chemical processes, where, chemical process flowsheets could be synthesized in the same way as atoms or groups of atoms are synthesized to form molecules in computer aided molecular design (CAMD) techniques [4]. That, from a library of building blocks (functional process-groups) and a set of rules to join......, the implementation of the computer-aided process-group based flowsheet synthesis-design framework is presented together with an extended library of flowsheet property models to predict the environmental impact, safety factors, product recovery and purity, which are employed to screen the generated alternatives. Also...... flowsheet (the well-known Hydrodealkylation of toluene process) and another for a biochemical process flowsheet (production of ethanol from lignocellulose). In both cases, not only the reported designs are found and matched, but also new innovative designs are found, which is possible because...

  4. Research and development of process innovation design oriented web-based process case base system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Xin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Process innovation is very significant for an enterprise to lower cost, improve product quality and win competitive advantage. In order to inspire designers to realize innovation design, this paper has proposed a concept of process innovation design regarding Web process case base system model. To be specific, it constructs system mainline through the realization of technique and application flow, determines system architecture by combining process case base and cognition method and establishes links among principles, innovation approaches and process cases on this basis. The process case prototype system is established under the model of browser/server, and 5 kinds of search models, i.e. processing methods, processing focus, design depth, innovation approaches and user-defined model are integrated. This paper has demonstrated case base backstage realization and management methods, showcased system interface and demonstrated its effectiveness in process design based on actual cases.

  5. Perspectives on the design of safer nanomaterials and manufacturing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraci, Charles [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (United States); Heidel, Donna [Bureau Veritas North America, Inc. (United States); Sayes, Christie [Baylor University (United States); Hodson, Laura, E-mail: lhodson@cdc.gov; Schulte, Paul; Eastlake, Adrienne [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (United States); Brenner, Sara [Colleges of Nanoscale Science and Engineering at State University of New York Polytechnic Institute, (SUNY Poly) (United States)

    2015-09-15

    A concerted effort is being made to insert Prevention through Design principles into discussions of sustainability, occupational safety and health, and green chemistry related to nanotechnology. Prevention through Design is a set of principles, which includes solutions to design out potential hazards in nanomanufacturing including the design of nanomaterials, and strategies to eliminate exposures and minimize risks that may be related to the manufacturing processes and equipment at various stages of the lifecycle of an engineered nanomaterial.

  6. Perspectives on the design of safer nanomaterials and manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Charles; Heidel, Donna; Sayes, Christie; Hodson, Laura; Schulte, Paul; Eastlake, Adrienne; Brenner, Sara

    2015-09-01

    A concerted effort is being made to insert Prevention through Design principles into discussions of sustainability, occupational safety and health, and green chemistry related to nanotechnology. Prevention through Design is a set of principles that includes solutions to design out potential hazards in nanomanufacturing including the design of nanomaterials, and strategies to eliminate exposures and minimize risks that may be related to the manufacturing processes and equipment at various stages of the lifecycle of an engineered nanomaterial.

  7. Model Driven Manufacturing Process Design and Managing Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgren, Magnus; Hedlind, Mikael; Kjellberg, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Besides decisions in design, decisions made in process planning determine the conditions for manufacturing the right quality. Hence systematic process planning is a key enabler for robust product realization from design through manufacturing. Current work methods for process planning and quality assurance lack efficient system integration. As a consequence companies spend unnecessary lot of non-value adding time on managing quality. This paper presents a novel model-based approach to integrat...

  8. Process Model Construction and Optimization Using Statistical Experimental Design,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    Memo No. 88-442 ~LECTE March 1988 31988 %,.. MvAY 1 98 0) PROCESS MODEL CONSTRUCTION AND OPTIMIZATION USING STATISTICAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Emmanuel...Sachs and George Prueger Abstract A methodology is presented for the construction of process models by the combination of physically based mechanistic...253-8138. .% I " Process Model Construction and Optimization Using Statistical Experimental Design" by Emanuel Sachs Assistant Professor and George

  9. The uses and users of design process models

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The use of design process models is of great importance for developing better products. Indeed, it is one of the factors that may differentiate the best companies from the rest. However, their adoption in companies is declining. Usefulness and usability issues may be responsible for process models not to meet the needs of its users. The goal of this research is to provide deeper understanding of the users needs of design process models. Three main perspectives are provided: (1) why organizati...

  10. Framework for Managing the Very Large Scale Integration Design Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Al-Fedaghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The VLSI design cycle was described in terms of successive states and substages; it starts with system specification and ends with packaging. At the next descriptive level, currently known methodologies (e.g., flowchart based, object-oriented based lack a global conceptual representation suitable for managing the VLSI design process. Technical details were intermixed with tool-dependent and implementation issues such as control flow and data structure. It was important to fill the gap between these two levels of description because VLSI chip manufacturing was a complex management project and providing a conceptual detailed depiction of the design process would assist in managing operations on the great number of generated artifacts. Approach: This study introduces a conceptual framework representing flows and transformations of various descriptions (e.g., circuits, technical sketches to be used as a tracking apparatus for directing traffic during the VLSI design process. The proposed methodology views a description as an integral element of a process, called a flow system, constructed from six generic operations and designed to handle descriptions. It draws maps of flows of representations (called flowthings that run through the design flow. These flowthings are created, transformed (processed, transferred, released and received by various functions along the design flow at different levels (a hierarchy. The resultant conceptual framework can be used to support designers with computer-aided tools to organize and manage chains of tasks. Results: The proposed model for managing the VLSI design process was characterized by being conceptual (no technical or implementation details and can be uniformly applied at different levels of design and to various kinds of artifacts. The methodology is applied to describe the VLSI physical design stage that includes partitioning, floorplanning and placement, routing, compaction and extraction

  11. Systematic Integrated Process Design and Control of Binary Element Reactive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2016-01-01

    In this work, integrated process design and control of reactive distillation processes is considered through a computer-aided framework. First, a set of simple design methods for reactive distillation column that are similar in concept to non-reactive distillation design methods are extended to d...

  12. Cognitive Design for Learning: Cognition and Emotion in the Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasebrook, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    We are so used to accept new technologies being the driver of change and innovation in human computer interfaces (HCI). In our research we focus on the development of innovations as a design process--or design, for short. We also refer to the entire process of creating innovations and putting them to use as "cognitive processes"--or…

  13. A Robust Process Analytical Technology (PAT) System Design for Crystallization Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli Bin; Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist

    2013-01-01

    for generation of the supersaturation setpoint for a supersaturation controller, a tool for design of a process monitoring and control system (also called Process Analytical Technology (PAT) system) as well as a tool for performing uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the PAT system design. The uncertainty......A generic computer-aided framework for systematic design of a process monitoring and control system for crystallization processes has been developed to study various aspects of crystallization operations. The design framework contains a generic multidimensional modelling framework, a tool...... crystallization process to achieve the target crystal size distribution (CSD) in the presence of parametric uncertainties....

  14. What are the Characteristics of Engineering Design Processes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Störrle, Harald

    2011-01-01

    survey among academic and industrial ED process modelling experts. In a third step, we added a further nine characteristics from personal experiences in the Language Engineering Domain to capture the pragmatic perspective. We arrive at a comprehensive set of 18 characteristics grouped into 6 challenges......This paper studies the characteristic properties of Engineering Design (ED) processes from a process modelling perspective. In a first step, we extracted nine characteristics of engineering design processes from the literature and in a second step validated the findings using results from our...... for process modelling in the engineering design domain. The challenges process modelers need to address when using and developing process modelling approaches and tools are: Development, Collaboration, Products & Services, Formality, Pragmatics, and Flexibility. We then compare the importance of elicited...

  15. A Design Approach for Collaboration Processes: A Multi-Method Design Science Study in Collaboration Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolfschoten, G.L.; De Vreede, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Collaboration Engineering is an approach for the design and deployment of repeatable collaboration processes that can be executed by practitioners without the support of collaboration professionals such as facilitators. A critical challenge in Collaboration Engineering concerns how the design activi

  16. Design of experiments in Biomedical Signal Processing Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Li, Bin

    2008-01-01

    Biomedical Signal Processing is one of the most important major subjects in Biomedical Engineering. The contents of Biomedical Signal Processing include the theories of digital signal processing, the knowledge of different biomedical signals, physiology and the ability of computer programming. Based on our past five years teaching experiences, in order to let students master the signal processing algorithm well, we found that the design of experiments following algorithm was very important. In this paper we presented the ideas and aims in designing the experiments. The results showed that our methods facilitated the study of abstractive signal processing algorithms and made understanding of biomedical signals in a simple way.

  17. Designing a process for executing projects under an international agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    Projects executed under an international agreement require special arrangements in order to operate within confines of regulations issued by the State Department and the Commerce Department. In order to communicate enterprise-level guidance and procedural information uniformly to projects based on interpretations that carry the weight of institutional authority, a process was developed. This paper provides a script for designing processes in general, using this particular process for context. While the context is incidental, the method described is applicable to any process in general. The paper will expound on novel features utilized for dissemination of the procedural details over the Internet following such process design.

  18. Designing a Process for Tracking Business Model Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groskovs, Sergejs

    The paper has adopted a design science research approach to design and verify with key stakeholders a fundamental management process of revising KPIs (key performance indicators), including those indicators that are related to business model change. The paper proposes a general guide for such pro...... innovation, performance management and business model change that informed the design throughout the project.......The paper has adopted a design science research approach to design and verify with key stakeholders a fundamental management process of revising KPIs (key performance indicators), including those indicators that are related to business model change. The paper proposes a general guide...... that may alter the business model of the firm. The decision-making process about which metrics to track affects what management’s attention is focused on during the year. The rather streamlined process outlined here is capable of facilitating swift responses to environmental changes in local markets...

  19. Risk Management and Loss Optimization at Design Process of Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Németh-Erdődi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We’d like to introduce a flexible system of design process elements to support theformation and tool selection of an efficient, „lean” product design process. To do this weidentify numerical risk factors and introduce a calculating method for optimising takinginto consideration- the effect of design steps on usage characteristics,- the time needed by the design elements and the resultant losses,- the effect of design on the success of the implementation process.A generic model was developed for harmonising and sequencing of market and technicalactivities with built-in acceptance phase. The steps of the model can be selected flexiblydepending on design goals. The model regards the concurrent character of market,technical and organising activities, the critical speed of information flow between them andthe control, decision and confirmation points.

  20. Integrated Design Process in Problem-Based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2004-01-01

    This article reports and reflects on the learning achievements and the educational experiences in connection with the first years of the curriculum in Architecture at Aalborg University ?s Civil Engineer Education in Architecture & Design. In the article I will focus on the learning activity.......g. the computer as a tool for designing and optimising the building. I will also consider the dilemma of the Integrated Design Process in Problem Based Learning that emerges when the number of courses in the learning model, as is often the case, clashes with the demand for time and scope for reflection which...... and the method that are developed during the semester when working with an Integrated Design Process combining architecture, design, functional aspects, energy consumption, indoor environment, technology, and construction. I will emphasize the importance of working with different tools in the design process, e...

  1. Value-driven coordination process design using physical delivery models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, R.J.; Pijpers, V.; Bodenstaff, L.; Gordijn, J.

    2008-01-01

    Current e-business technology enables the execution of increasingly complex coordination processes that link IT services of different companies. Successful design of cross-organizational coordination processes requires the mutual alignment of the coordination process with a commercial business case.

  2. Design of Test Parts to Characterize Micro Additive Manufacturing Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Mischkot, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The minimum feature size and obtainable tolerances of additive manufacturing processes are linked to the smallest volumetric elements (voxels) that can be created. This work presents the iterative design of a test part to investigate the resolution of AM processes with voxel sizes at the micro...... manufacturing processes....

  3. Slurry bubble column hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rados, Novica

    Slurry bubble column reactors are presently used for a wide range of reactions in both chemical and biochemical industry. The successful design and scale up of slurry bubble column reactors require a complete understanding of multiphase fluid dynamics, i.e. phase mixing, heat and mass transport characteristics. The primary objective of this thesis is to improve presently limited understanding of the gas-liquid-solid slurry bubble column hydrodynamics. The effect of superficial gas velocity (8 to 45 cm/s), pressure (0.1 to 1.0 MPa) and solids loading (20 and 35 wt.%) on the time-averaged solids velocity and turbulent parameter profiles has been studied using Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT). To accomplish this, CARPT technique has been significantly improved for the measurements in highly attenuating systems, such as high pressure, high solids loading stainless steel slurry bubble column. At a similar set of operational conditions time-averaged gas and solids holdup profiles have been evaluated using the developed Computed Tomography (CT)/Overall gas holdup procedure. This procedure is based on the combination of the CT scans and the overall gas holdup measurements. The procedure assumes constant solids loading in the radial direction and axially invariant cross-sectionally averaged gas holdup. The obtained experimental holdup, velocity and turbulent parameters data are correlated and compared with the existing low superficial gas velocities and atmospheric pressure CARPT/CT gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid slurry data. The obtained solids axial velocity radial profiles are compared with the predictions of the one dimensional (1-D) liquid/slurry recirculation phenomenological model. The obtained solids loading axial profiles are compared with the predictions of the Sedimentation and Dispersion Model (SDM). The overall gas holdup values, gas holdup radial profiles, solids loading axial profiles, solids axial velocity radial profiles and solids

  4. CALIBRATED HYDRODYNAMIC MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezar Gülbaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The land development and increase in urbanization in a watershed affect water quantityand water quality. On one hand, urbanization provokes the adjustment of geomorphicstructure of the streams, ultimately raises peak flow rate which causes flood; on theother hand, it diminishes water quality which results in an increase in Total SuspendedSolid (TSS. Consequently, sediment accumulation in downstream of urban areas isobserved which is not preferred for longer life of dams. In order to overcome thesediment accumulation problem in dams, the amount of TSS in streams and inwatersheds should be taken under control. Low Impact Development (LID is a BestManagement Practice (BMP which may be used for this purpose. It is a land planningand engineering design method which is applied in managing storm water runoff inorder to reduce flooding as well as simultaneously improve water quality. LID includestechniques to predict suspended solid loads in surface runoff generated over imperviousurban surfaces. In this study, the impact of LID-BMPs on surface runoff and TSS isinvestigated by employing a calibrated hydrodynamic model for Sazlidere Watershedwhich is located in Istanbul, Turkey. For this purpose, a calibrated hydrodynamicmodel was developed by using Environmental Protection Agency Storm WaterManagement Model (EPA SWMM. For model calibration and validation, we set up arain gauge and a flow meter into the field and obtain rainfall and flow rate data. Andthen, we select several LID types such as retention basins, vegetative swales andpermeable pavement and we obtain their influence on peak flow rate and pollutantbuildup and washoff for TSS. Consequently, we observe the possible effects ofLID on surface runoff and TSS in Sazlidere Watershed.

  5. Models and Modelling Tools for Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    The design, development and reliability of a chemical product and the process to manufacture it, need to be consistent with the end-use characteristics of the desired product. One of the common ways to match the desired product-process characteristics is through trial and error based experiments......-based framework is that in the design, development and/or manufacturing of a chemical product-process, the knowledge of the applied phenomena together with the product-process design details can be provided with diverse degrees of abstractions and details. This would allow the experimental resources......, are the needed models for such a framework available? Or, are modelling tools that can help to develop the needed models available? Can such a model-based framework provide the needed model-based work-flows matching the requirements of the specific chemical product-process design problems? What types of models...

  6. Reported Design Processes for Accessibility in Rail Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard; Cook, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    ). The research found that the role of users in the design process of manufacturers was limited and that compliance with industry standards was the dominant means to achieving accessibility goals. Design consultancies were willing to apply more user-centred design if the client requested it. Where operators were......Accessibility is a fundamental requirement in public transport (PT) yet there exists little research on design for accessibility or inclusive design (ID) in this area. This paper sets out to discover what methods are used in the rail sector to achieve accessibility goals and to examine how far...... these methods deviate from user-centred and ID norms. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine rolling stock producers, operators and design consultancies. The purpose was to determine if ID design methods are used explicitly and the extent to which the processes used conformed to ID (if at all...

  7. Sensitivity of Process Design due to Uncertainties in Property Estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hukkerikar, Amol; Jones, Mark Nicholas; Sarup, Bent;

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a systematic methodology for performing analysis of sensitivity of process design due to uncertainties in property estimates. The methodology provides the following results: a) list of properties with critical importance on design; b) acceptable levels...... of accuracy for different thermo-physical property prediction models; and c) design variables versus properties relationships. The application of the methodology is illustrated through a case study of an extractive distillation process and sensitivity analysis of designs of various unit operations found...

  8. A computer-aided approach for achieving sustainable process design by process intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anantasarn, Nateetorn; Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn; Babi, Deenesh Kavi

    2017-01-01

    to generate flowsheet alternatives that satisfy the design targets thereby, minimizing and/or eliminating the process hot-spots. The application of the framework is highlighted through the production of para-xylene via toluene methylation where more sustainable flowsheet alternatives that consist of hybrid......Process intensification can be applied to achieve sustainable process design. In this paper, a systematic, 3-stage synthesis-intensification framework is applied to achieve more sustainable design. In stage 1, the synthesis stage, an objective function and design constraints are defined and a base...... case is synthesized. In stage 2, the design and analysis stage, the base case is analyzed using economic and environmental analyses to identify process hot-spots that are translated into design targets. In stage 3, the innovation design stage, phenomena-based process intensification is performed...

  9. Anisotropic hydrodynamics -- basic concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Florkowski, Wojciech; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Strickland, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Due to the rapid longitudinal expansion of the quark-gluon plasma created in relativistic heavy ion collisions, potentially large local rest frame momentum-space anisotropies are generated. The magnitude of these momentum-space anisotropies can be so large as to violate the central assumption of canonical viscous hydrodynamical treatments which linearize around an isotropic background. In order to better describe the early-time dynamics of the quark gluon plasma, one can consider instead expanding around a locally anisotropic background which results in a dynamical framework called anisotropic hydrodynamics. In this proceedings contribution we review the basic concepts of the anisotropic hydrodynamics framework presenting viewpoints from both the phenomenological and microscopic points of view.

  10. Hybrid design tools for conceptual design and design engineering processes: bridging the design gap: towards an intuitive design tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendrich, Robert Eric

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid Design Tools; Representation; Computational Synthesis. Non-linear, non-explicit, non-standard thinking and ambiguity in design tools has a great impact on enhancement of creativity during ideation and conceptualization. Tacit-tangible representation based on a mere idiosyncratic and individu

  11. The Topographic Design of River Channels for Form-Process Linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rocko A.; Pasternack, Gregory B.; Lin, Tin

    2016-04-01

    Scientists and engineers design river topography for a wide variety of uses, such as experimentation, site remediation, dam mitigation, flood management, and river restoration. A recent advancement has been the notion of topographical design to yield specific fluvial mechanisms in conjunction with natural or environmental flow releases. For example, the flow convergence routing mechanism, whereby shear stress and spatially convergent flow migrate or jump from the topographic high (riffle) to the low point (pool) from low to high discharge, is thought to be a key process able to maintain undular relief in gravel bedded rivers. This paper develops an approach to creating riffle-pool topography with a form-process linkage to the flow convergence routing mechanism using an adjustable, quasi equilibrium synthetic channel model. The link from form to process is made through conceptualizing form-process relationships for riffle-pool couplets into geomorphic covariance structures (GCSs) that are then quantitatively embedded in a synthetic channel model. Herein, GCSs were used to parameterize a geometric model to create five straight, synthetic river channels with varying combinations of bed and width undulations. Shear stress and flow direction predictions from 2D hydrodynamic modeling were used to determine if scenarios recreated aspects of the flow convergence routing mechanism. Results show that the creation of riffle-pool couplets that experience flow convergence in straight channels requires GCSs with covarying bed and width undulations in their topography as supported in the literature. This shows that GCSs are a useful way to translate conceptualizations of form-process linkages into quantitative models of channel form.

  12. Fuel ethanol production: process design trends and integration opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Carlos A; Sánchez, Oscar J

    2007-09-01

    Current fuel ethanol research and development deals with process engineering trends for improving biotechnological production of ethanol. In this work, the key role that process design plays during the development of cost-effective technologies is recognized through the analysis of major trends in process synthesis, modeling, simulation and optimization related to ethanol production. Main directions in techno-economical evaluation of fuel ethanol processes are described as well as some prospecting configurations. The most promising alternatives for compensating ethanol production costs by the generation of valuable co-products are analyzed. Opportunities for integration of fuel ethanol production processes and their implications are underlined. Main ways of process intensification through reaction-reaction, reaction-separation and separation-separation processes are analyzed in the case of bioethanol production. Some examples of energy integration during ethanol production are also highlighted. Finally, some concluding considerations on current and future research tendencies in fuel ethanol production regarding process design and integration are presented.

  13. Integrating rock mechanics issues with repository design through design process principles and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniawski, Z.T. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A good designer needs not only knowledge for designing (technical know-how that is used to generate alternative design solutions) but also must have knowledge about designing (appropriate principles and systematic methodology to follow). Concepts such as {open_quotes}design for manufacture{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}concurrent engineering{close_quotes} are widely used in the industry. In the field of rock engineering, only limited attention has been paid to the design process because design of structures in rock masses presents unique challenges to the designers as a result of the uncertainties inherent in characterization of geologic media. However, a stage has now been reached where we are be able to sufficiently characterize rock masses for engineering purposes and identify the rock mechanics issues involved but are still lacking engineering design principles and methodology to maximize our design performance. This paper discusses the principles and methodology of the engineering design process directed to integrating site characterization activities with design, construction and performance of an underground repository. Using the latest information from the Yucca Mountain Project on geology, rock mechanics and starter tunnel design, the current lack of integration is pointed out and it is shown how rock mechanics issues can be effectively interwoven with repository design through a systematic design process methodology leading to improved repository performance. In essence, the design process is seen as the use of design principles within an integrating design methodology, leading to innovative problem solving. In particular, a new concept of {open_quotes}Design for Constructibility and Performance{close_quotes} is introduced. This is discussed with respect to ten rock mechanics issues identified for repository design and performance.

  14. Modelling the role of the design context in the design process: a domain-independent approach

    OpenAIRE

    Reymen, Isabelle; Kroes, P.; Basten, T; Durling, D.; Shackleton, J

    2002-01-01

    Domain-independent models of the design process are an important means for facilitating interdisciplinary communication and for supporting multidisciplinary design. Many so-called domain-independent models are, however, not really domain independent. We state that, to be domain independent, the models must abstract from domain-specific aspects, be based on the study of several design disciplines, and be useful for many design disciplines and for multidisciplinary design teams. This paper desc...

  15. Dispersive hydrodynamics: Preface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondini, G.; El, G. A.; Hoefer, M. A.; Miller, P. D.

    2016-10-01

    This Special Issue on Dispersive Hydrodynamics is dedicated to the memory and work of G.B. Whitham who was one of the pioneers in this field of physical applied mathematics. Some of the papers appearing here are related to work reported on at the workshop "Dispersive Hydrodynamics: The Mathematics of Dispersive Shock Waves and Applications" held in May 2015 at the Banff International Research Station. This Preface provides a broad overview of the field and summaries of the various contributions to the Special Issue, placing them in a unified context.

  16. An heuristic based practical tool for casting process design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, N.K.; Smith, K.A.; Voller, V.R.; Haberle, K.F. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The work in this paper reports on an heuristic based computer tool directed at casting process design; in particular key design parameters, such as part orientation, location of sprues, feeding rates, etc. The underlying principal used is that a given casting can be represented on identifying and classifying its critical features. The input to the system consists of the attributes of the features and the graphical output provides semi-quantitative information on key design parameters. Results on real castings match those of the expert casting designers and in some cases potential design improvements have been suggested by the system.

  17. Hydrodynamic modelling of hydrostatic magnesium extrusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moodij, E.; Rooij, de M.B.; Schipper, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    Wilson’s hydrodynamic model of the hydrostatic extrusion process is extended to meet the geometry found on residual billets. The transition from inlet to work zone of the process is not considered sharp as in the model of Wilson but as a rounded edge, modelled by a parabolic function. It is shown th

  18. Hydrodynamics and Roughness of Irregular Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    principle component analysis (PCA) similar to that used by Preston (2009) for ship- mounted multibeam data. Several variables derived from the...complex boundaries as well as characterization of acoustic and optical processes. Turbulent processes at the seabed are at the foundation of littoral...nearshore hydrodynamics, turbulence over rough beds influences optical and acoustic properties. Bed roughness also directly affects acoustic propagation in

  19. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF FPGA BASED SIGNAL PROCESSING CARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Gupta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of FPGA based signal processing card. An on board real time digital signal processing system is designed using FPGA. The platform can decode process of various kinds of digital and analog signals simultaneously. The design trend in this card is towards small size, high integration and fast real time processing. For the optimum performance a 16 bit 1 MSPS ADC is used which is interfaced with FPGA to make all the data processing on board in real time. This card can be used in many signal processing based applications like audio signal processing, audio compression, digital image processing, video compression, speech processing, speech recognition, digital communications by interfacing several separate board using inbuilt I/O’s, each with a number of input channels that will communicate with each other in real time over a high speed communication link. The resulting images can be displayed directly on LCD or OLED panel displays using I/O’s peripherals. The project introduces many challenging issues, which are being addressed in turn with different prototype designs. These issues are the ADC performance, interfacing the ADCs to the FPGA, implementing the flexible processing algorithms and high speed interconnection between the boards.

  20. Property Based Process and Product Synthesis and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eden, Mario Richard

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a general framework for solving process and product design problems. Targeting the desired performance of the system in a systematic manner relieves the iterative nature of conventional design techniques. Furthermore, conventional component based methods...... roles a property model plays at different stages of the solution to a design problem, it is discovered that by decoupling the constitutive equations, that make up the property model, from the balance and constraint equations of the process or product model, a significant reduction in problem complexity...... in terms of the constitutive (synthesis/design) variables instead of the process variables, thus providing the synthesis/design targets. The second reverse problem (reverse property prediction) solves the constitutive equations to identify unit operations, operating conditions and/or products by matching...

  1. Reactor and process design in sustainable energy technology

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Reactor Process Design in Sustainable Energy Technology compiles and explains current developments in reactor and process design in sustainable energy technologies, including optimization and scale-up methodologies and numerical methods. Sustainable energy technologies that require more efficient means of converting and utilizing energy can help provide for burgeoning global energy demand while reducing anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions associated with energy production. The book, contributed by an international team of academic and industry experts in the field, brings numerous reactor design cases to readers based on their valuable experience from lab R&D scale to industry levels. It is the first to emphasize reactor engineering in sustainable energy technology discussing design. It provides comprehensive tools and information to help engineers and energy professionals learn, design, and specify chemical reactors and processes confidently. Emphasis on reactor engineering in sustainable energy techn...

  2. Neptune: An astrophysical smooth particle hydrodynamics code for massively parallel computer architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandalski, Stou

    Smooth particle hydrodynamics is an efficient method for modeling the dynamics of fluids. It is commonly used to simulate astrophysical processes such as binary mergers. We present a newly developed GPU accelerated smooth particle hydrodynamics code for astrophysical simulations. The code is named neptune after the Roman god of water. It is written in OpenMP parallelized C++ and OpenCL and includes octree based hydrodynamic and gravitational acceleration. The design relies on object-oriented methodologies in order to provide a flexible and modular framework that can be easily extended and modified by the user. Several pre-built scenarios for simulating collisions of polytropes and black-hole accretion are provided. The code is released under the MIT Open Source license and publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/neptune-sph/.

  3. Computer-Aided Sustainable Process Synthesis-Design and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar Tula, Anjan

    Process synthesis involves the investigation of chemical reactions needed to produce the desired product, selection of the separation techniques needed for downstream processing, as well as taking decisions on sequencing the involved separation operations. For an effective, efficient and flexible...... purity etc. In this way, the entire list of feasible chemical process flowsheets are quickly generated, screened and selected for further analysis. In the next stage, the design of the most promising process flowsheet candidates is performed through a reverse simulation approach, where the design...

  4. Disruptive Innovation in Numerical Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waltz, Jacob I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-06

    We propose the research and development of a high-fidelity hydrodynamic algorithm for tetrahedral meshes that will lead to a disruptive innovation in the numerical modeling of Laboratory problems. Our proposed innovation has the potential to reduce turnaround time by orders of magnitude relative to Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) codes; reduce simulation setup costs by millions of dollars per year; and effectively leverage Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) and future Exascale computing hardware. If successful, this work will lead to a dramatic leap forward in the Laboratory's quest for a predictive simulation capability.

  5. Induction Heating Process Design Using COMSOL Multiphysics Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Triwinarko

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Induction heating is clean environmental heating process due to a non-contact heating process. There is lots of the induction heating type that be used in the home appliance but it is still new technology in Indonesia. The main interesting area of the induction heating design is the efficiency of the usage of energy and choice of the plate material. COMSOL Multiphysics Software can be used to simulate and estimate the induction heating process. Therefore, the software can be used to design the induction heating process that will have a optimum efficiency. The properties of the induction heating design were also simulated and analyzed such as effect of inductors width, inductors distance, and conductive plate material. The result was shown that the good design of induction heating must have a short width and distance inductor and used silicon carbide as material plate with high frequency controller.

  6. Process design and evaluation of butanol production from lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daza Montano, C.M. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    The outline of this presentation on the title subject states: Why Butanol?; ABE (acetone, butanol, ethanol) fermentation background and state of the art; Developed conceptual process design; Economic evaluation; Environmental Impact assessment (LCA); and Conclusion.

  7. A SYSTEM DESIGN PROCESS TAILORED FOR REVERSE ENGINEERING AND REENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hun Yoon

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a system design process using a reverse engineering. The Reverse Engineering Approach, if possible, is a cost-effective and easy approach to be used in a system design. All industries use this approach consciously or unconsciously to reduce system development risks. It can be a part of formal process, simple requirement reuse, or adoption of industry standards. The reverse engineering approach can be considered as an effective system design method in immature system engineering environments. This paper proposes a system design process using reverse engineering which can be tailored for large complex system development projects. The proposed process composed of two stages to produce system specification generation. The reverse engineering stage is performed to define functional and physical architecture of legacy system used as reference model when they are not available. The reengineering stage takes outputs of the reverse engineering stage to define the rest of logical and physical solutions.

  8. Improving industrial designers work process by involving user research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zheng; Ómarsson, Ólafur

    2011-01-01

    With changing times, new technologies and more opinionated consumers, the modern industrial designer has found himself in need of fresher and more up to date approaches in his daily work. In a fast moving industry, the designer needs to keep a thinking process of dynamic and subjective attitude....... User research is part of user centered design (UCD). UCD has a reputation for subjective and reflective practice. In this paper there are two example cases. One is conducted by a classical industrial design process, and another is costing half of energy and time in user research. These examples...... will give the grounding for believing that the industrial designer needs to adopt user research methods to a level where he can still continue to work under the very nature of industrial design that has made it a successful practice for the last century. The combing of the approaches and attitude will help...

  9. Accessibility through user-centred and Inclusive Design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2014-01-01

    around the fact that the needs of individuals with reduced capabilities compared to the norm (referred to for convenience as "the elderly and disabled") have not been properly addressed by standard design processes. In response to this fact, ID is a proposed design method to find more effective means...... be delimited by examining design for accessibility in the areas of assistive technology (AT) and public transport (PT) with reference to consumer product design?......This PhD dissertation addresses the subject of accessibility through user-centred and Inclusive Design processes (ID). The project takes as its starting point the observation that the concept of Inclusive Design is not adequately delimited. The supporting literature in the field of ID is structured...

  10. The Influence of Toy Design Activities on Middle School Students' Understanding of the Engineering Design Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ninger; Pereira, Nielsen L.; George, Tarun Thomas; Alperovich, Jeffrey; Booth, Joran; Chandrasegaran, Senthil; Tew, Jeffrey David; Kulkarni, Devadatta M.; Ramani, Karthik

    2017-10-01

    The societal demand for inspiring and engaging science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) students and preparing our workforce for the emerging creative economy has necessitated developing students' self-efficacy and understanding of engineering design processes from as early as elementary school levels. Hands-on engineering design activities have shown the potential to promote middle school students' self-efficacy and understanding of engineering design processes. However, traditional classrooms often lack hands-on engineering design experiences, leaving students unprepared to solve real-world design problems. In this study, we introduce the framework of a toy design workshop and investigate the influence of the workshop activities on students' understanding of and self-efficacy beliefs in engineering design. Using a mixed method approach, we conducted quantitative analyses to show changes in students' engineering design self-efficacy and qualitative analyses to identify students' understanding of the engineering design processes. Findings show that among the 24 participants, there is a significant increase in students' self-efficacy beliefs after attending the workshop. We also identified major themes such as design goals and prototyping in students' understanding of engineering design processes. This research provides insights into the key elements of middle school students' engineering design learning and the benefits of engaging middle school students in hands-on toy design workshops.

  11. The Influence of Toy Design Activities on Middle School Students' Understanding of the Engineering Design Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ninger; Pereira, Nielsen L.; George, Tarun Thomas; Alperovich, Jeffrey; Booth, Joran; Chandrasegaran, Senthil; Tew, Jeffrey David; Kulkarni, Devadatta M.; Ramani, Karthik

    2017-05-01

    The societal demand for inspiring and engaging science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) students and preparing our workforce for the emerging creative economy has necessitated developing students' self-efficacy and understanding of engineering design processes from as early as elementary school levels. Hands-on engineering design activities have shown the potential to promote middle school students' self-efficacy and understanding of engineering design processes. However, traditional classrooms often lack hands-on engineering design experiences, leaving students unprepared to solve real-world design problems. In this study, we introduce the framework of a toy design workshop and investigate the influence of the workshop activities on students' understanding of and self-efficacy beliefs in engineering design. Using a mixed method approach, we conducted quantitative analyses to show changes in students' engineering design self-efficacy and qualitative analyses to identify students' understanding of the engineering design processes. Findings show that among the 24 participants, there is a significant increase in students' self-efficacy beliefs after attending the workshop. We also identified major themes such as design goals and prototyping in students' understanding of engineering design processes. This research provides insights into the key elements of middle school students' engineering design learning and the benefits of engaging middle school students in hands-on toy design workshops.

  12. A robust tolerance design method based on process capability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹衍龙; 杨将新; 吴昭同; 吴立群

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a method for robust tolerance design in terms of Process Capability Indices (PCI) . The component tolerance and the suitable manufacturing processes can be selected based on the real manufacturing context. The robustness of design feasibility under the effect of uncertainties is also discussed. A comparison between the results obtained by the proposed model and other methods indicates that robust and reliable tolerance can be obtained.

  13. A robust tolerance design method based on process capability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yan-long(曹衍龙); YANG Jiang-xin(杨将新); WU Zhao-tong(吴昭同); WU Li-qun(吴立群)

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a method for robust tolerance design in terms of Process Capability Indices (PCI). The component tolerance and the suitable manufacturing processes can be selected based on the real manufacturing context. The robustness of design feasibility under the effect of uncertainties is also discussed. A comparison between the results obtained by the proposed model and other methods indicates that robust and reliable tolerance can be obtained.

  14. Improving industrial designers work process by involving user research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zheng; Ómarsson, Ólafur

    2011-01-01

    With changing times, new technologies and more opinionated consumers, the modern industrial designer has found himself in need of fresher and more up to date approaches in his daily work. In a fast moving industry, the designer needs to keep a thinking process of dynamic and subjective attitude...

  15. Foundations of digital signal processing theory, algorithms and hardware design

    CERN Document Server

    Gaydecki, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    An excellent introductory text, this book covers the basic theoretical, algorithmic and real-time aspects of digital signal processing (DSP). Detailed information is provided on off-line, real-time and DSP programming and the reader is effortlessly guided through advanced topics such as DSP hardware design, FIR and IIR filter design and difference equation manipulation.

  16. Risk Informed Design as Part of the Systems Engineering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, George

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of Risk Informed Design (RID) as an important feature of the systems engineering process. RID is based on the principle that risk is a design commodity such as mass, volume, cost or power. It also reviews Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) as it is used in the product life cycle in the development of NASA's Constellation Program.

  17. Capturing Design Process Information in Complex Product Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woestenenk, Krijn; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; Alvarez Cabrera, Andres A.; Tomiyama, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    From interviewing developers and analyzing examples from industry, the authors have concluded that communication issues during the design process are a key factor of the complexity of product development. These communication issues stem from a lack of insight in the workflow between designers and th

  18. Structural optimization for materially informed design to robotic production processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.; Mostafavi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperbody’s materially informed Design-to-Robotic-Production (D2RP) processes for additive and subtractive manufacturing aim to achieve performative porosity in architecture at various scales. An extended series of D2RP experiments aiming to produce prototypes at 1:1 scale wherein design materiality

  19. Design process of an area-efficient photobioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijffers, J.F.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the design process of the Green Solar Collector (GSC), an area-efficient photobioreactor for the outdoor cultivation of microalgae. The overall goal has been to design a system in which all incident sunlight on the area covered by the reactor is delivered to the algae at such

  20. A framework for efficient process development using optimal experimental designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, P. van de; Bijlsma, S.; Gout, E.; Voort Maarschalk, K. van der; Thissen, U.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to develop and demonstrate a framework assuring efficient process development using fewer experiments than standard experimental designs. Methods: A novel optimality criterion for experimental designs (Iw criterion) is defined that leads to more efficient proc

  1. Design process of an area-efficient photobioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijffers, J.F.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the design process of the Green Solar Collector (GSC), an area-efficient photobioreactor for the outdoor cultivation of microalgae. The overall goal has been to design a system in which all incident sunlight on the area covered by the reactor is delivered to the algae at such

  2. Rates of reaction and process design data for the Hydrocarb Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, M.; Kobayashi, Atsushi [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Tung, Yuanki [Hydrocarb Corp., New York, NY (United States)

    1992-08-01

    In support of studies for developing the coprocessing of fossil fuels with biomass by the Hydrocarb Process, experimental and process design data are reported. The experimental work includes the hydropryolysis of biomass and the thermal decomposition of methane in a tubular reactor. The rates of reaction and conversion were obtained at temperature and pressure conditions pertaining to a Hydrocarb Process design. A Process Simulation Computer Model was used to design the process and obtain complete energy and mass balances. Multiple feedstocks including biomass with natural gas and biomass with coal were evaluated. Additional feedstocks including green waste, sewage sludge and digester gas were also evaluated for a pilot plant unit.

  3. Annual Report 2006 for Hydrodynamics and Radiation Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Paul Drake

    2007-04-05

    We report the ongoing work of our group in hydrodynamics and radiation hydrodynamics with astrophysical applications. During the period of the existing grant, we have carried out two types of experiments at the Omega laser. One set of experiments has studied radiatively collapsing shocks, obtaining data using a backlit pinhole with a 100 ps backlighter and beginning to develop the ability to look into the shock tube with optical or x-ray diagnostics. Other experiments have studied the deeply nonlinear development of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability from complex initial conditions, using dual-axis radiographic data with backlit pinholes and ungated detectors to complete the data set for a Ph.D. student. We lead a team that is developing a proposal for experiments at the National Ignition Facility and are involved in experiments at NIKE and LIL. All these experiments have applications to astrophysics, discussed in the corresponding papers. We assemble the targets for the experiments at Michigan, where we also prepare many of the simple components. We also have several projects underway in our laboratory involving our x-ray source. The above activities, in addition to a variety of data analysis and design projects, provide good experience for graduate and undergraduates students. In the process of doing this research we have built a research group that uses such work to train junior scientists.

  4. Research on Three Dimensional Computer Assistance Assembly Process Design System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Wenjun; YAN Yaoqi; DUAN Wenjia; SUN Hanxu

    2006-01-01

    The computer aided process planning will certainly play a significant role in the success of enterprise informationization. 3-dimensional design will promote Tri-dimensional process planning. This article analysis nowadays situation and problems of assembly process planning, gives a 3-dimensional computer aided process planning system (3D-VAPP), and researches on the product information extraction, assembly sequence and path planning in visual interactive assembly process design, dynamic emulation of assembly and process verification, assembly animation outputs and automatic exploding view generation, interactive craft filling and craft knowledge management, etc. It also gives a multi-layer collision detect and multi-perspective automatic camera switching algorithm. Experiments were done to validate the feasibility of such technology and algorithm, which established the foundation of tri-dimensional computer aided process planning.

  5. Process Design and Evaluation for Chemicals Based on Renewable Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Wenjing

    with recycle of the aqueous phase back to the enzymatic reaction. Costing analysis indicates the HMF production cost by the designed process is very sensitive to the dehydration reaction yield, the amount of solvent used in the whole process and the glucose price. In addition, increasing scale is also help......One of the key steps in process design is choosing between alternative technologies, especially for processes producing bulk and commodity chemicals. Recently, driven by the increasing oil prices and diminishing reserves, the production of bulk and commodity chemicals from renewable feedstocks has....... In addition, another characteristic of chemicals based on renewable feedstocks is that many alternative technologies and possible routes exist, resulting in many possible process flowsheets. The challenge for process engineers is then to choose between possible process routes and alternative technologies...

  6. Participatory ergonomics in design processes: the role of boundary objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Ole; Andersen, Vibeke; Seim, Rikke

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of boundary objects in order to better understand the role of objects in participatory ergonomics (PE) design processes. The research question is: What characterizes boundary objects in PE processes? Based on two case studies, we identify eight characteristics of boundary objects and their use, which make them particularly useful in PE design processes. These characteristics go beyond the object itself and extend into the context of their use. We argue that the selection of boundary objects in PE processes is of great importance, since different objects enable workers' participation and collaborative design in different ways. The framework developed may serve to provide criteria to guide practitioners and intervention researchers in the selection of objects to facilitate a PE process. The paper concludes with a list of recommendations for ergonomic practitioners that are based on the framework.

  7. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF ROCK FAILURE PROCESS IN UNIAXIAL COMPRESSION USING SMOOTHED PARTICLE HYDRODYNAMICS%单轴压缩条件下岩石破坏的光滑粒子流体动力学数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小平; 赵毅; 钱七虎

    2015-01-01

    The problem of rock failure is discontinuous one. The numerical results depend on meshes and computational efficiency is low when finite element method is applied to simulate the failure of rock. Standard smoothed particle hydrodynamics(SPH) method is mesh-free numerical one,which is mainly applied to model the problem of fluid. In this paper,a corrected smoothed particle hydrodynamics,in which constitutive relation of fluid is replaced by constitutive relation of elasto-brittle solid and Weibull statistical approach is used to describe the heterogeneity of the rock-like materials,is developed to simulate the failure of heterogeneous elasto-brittle rock. The corrected smoothed particle hydrodynamics overcomes the shortcomings of finite element method. The numerical results is independence of meshes and computational efficiency is high when the corrected smoothed particle hydrodynamics is applied to simulate growth and coalescence of cracks. The corrected smoothed particle hydrodynamics is helpful to understanding and predicting complex fracture processes of rock-like materials.%岩石破坏问题是非连续问题。采用传统的有限元方法模拟岩石破坏时,计算结果依赖于网格,计算效率低。光滑粒子流体动力学(SPH)法主是一种模拟流体的无网格方法。对SPH法进行改进,将SPH法中流体的本构关系修正为弹脆性固体的本构关系,采用Weibull统计方法描述岩石材料的非均匀性,使SPH法能有效地模拟各向异性弹脆性岩石的破坏。改进的SPH法克服了有限元的缺点,在模拟裂纹启裂、扩展和连接时,计算结果不依赖网格,计算效率高。通过对单轴压缩条件下岩石破坏的数值计算结果表明:改进的SPH法能有效地理解和预测岩石材料的复杂破裂过程。

  8. Hydrodynamic pressure processing to improve meat quality and safety%高压水冲击波加工在改善肉类品质方面的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琦; 靳烨

    2011-01-01

    Hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP)is a new method to improve meat quality and safety ,The instantaneous tenderizing that is observed in HDP-treated meat is most likely due to the direct physical disruption that occurs within and between myofibrils due to the high-pressure shock wave.As a kind of nonthermal process,HDP processing can also reduce bacterial population and microbial flora in meat.%HDP(Hydrodynamic pressure processing)技术是一项用于改善肉品嫩度、提高肉品安全性、延长肉品货架期的新兴技术.HDP技术通过使肌肉结构物理性断裂从而使肉得到嫩化,并且它作为一种非热处理可杀死肉中非致病细菌,降低肉中微生物菌落数,从而延长肉品的货架期.

  9. Process designing for laser forming of circular sheet metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Q. Nadeem; W. J. Seong; S. J. Na

    2012-01-01

    Laser forming is a new type of flexible manufacturing process that has become viable for the shaping of metallic components.Process designing of laser forming involves finding a set of process parameters,including laser power,laser scanning paths,and scanning speed,given a prescribed shape.To date,research has focused on process designing for rectangular plates,and only a few studies are presented for axis-symmetric geometries like circular plates.In the present study,process designing for axis-symmetric geometries-with focus on class of shapes--is handled using a formerly proposed distance-based approach.A prescribed shape is achieved for geometries such as quarter-circular and half-circular ring plates.Experimental results verify the applicability of the proposed method for a class of shapes.%Laser forming is a new type of flexible manufacturing process that has become viable for the shaping of metallic components. Process designing of laser forming involves finding a set of process parameters, including laser power, laser scanning paths, and scanning speed, given a prescribed shape. To date, research has focused on process designing for rectangular plates, and only a few studies are presented for axis-symmetric geometries like circular plates. In the present study, process designing for axis-symmetric geometries-with focus on class of shapes-is handled using a formerly proposed distance-based approach. A prescribed shape is achieved for geometries such as quarter-circular and half-circular ring plates. Experimental results verify the applicability of the proposed method for a class of shapes.

  10. Non-intrusive measurement and hydrodynamics characterization of gas–solid fluidized beds: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jingyuan; Yan, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Gas-solid fluidization is a well-established technique to suspend or transport particles and has been applied in a variety of industrial processes. Nevertheless, our knowledge of fluidization hydrodynamics is still limited for the design, scale-up and operation optimization of fluidized bed reactors. It is therefore essential to characterize the two-phase flow behaviours in gas-solid fluidized beds and monitor the fluidization processes for control and optimization. A range of non-intrusive t...

  11. Manufacturing process design for multi commodities in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyawan, Yudha; Santosa, Andrian Henry

    2017-06-01

    High-potential commodities within particular agricultural sectors should be accompanied by maximum benefit value that can be attained by both local farmers and business players. In several cases, the business players are small-medium enterprises (SMEs) which have limited resources to perform added value process of the local commodities into the potential products. The weaknesses of SMEs such as the manual production process with low productivity, limited capacity to maintain prices, and unattractive packaging due to conventional production. Agricultural commodity is commonly created into several products such as flour, chips, crackers, oil, juice, and other products. This research was initiated by collecting data by interview method particularly to obtain the perspectives of SMEs as the business players. Subsequently, the information was processed based on the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) to determine House of Quality from the first to fourth level. A proposed design as the result of QFD was produced and evaluated with Technology Assessment Model (TAM) and continued with a revised design. Finally, the revised design was analyzed with financial perspective to obtain the cost structure of investment, operational, maintenance, and workers. The machine that performs manufacturing process, as the result of revised design, was prototyped and tested to determined initial production process. The designed manufacturing process offers IDR 337,897, 651 of Net Present Value (NPV) in comparison with the existing process value of IDR 9,491,522 based on similar production input.

  12. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-10-05

    This code is a highly modular framework for developing smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations running on parallel platforms. The compartmentalization of the code allows for rapid development of new SPH applications and modifications of existing algorithms. The compartmentalization also allows changes in one part of the code used by many applications to instantly be made available to all applications.

  13. Hydrodynamic aspect of caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franci Gabrovsek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available From a hydrological point of view, active caves are a series of connected conduits which drain water through an aquifer. Water tends to choose the easiest way through the system but different geological and morphological barriers act as flow restrictions. The number and characteristics of restrictions depends on the particular speleogenetic environment, which is a function of geological, geomorphological, climatological and hydrological settings. Such a variety and heterogeneity of underground systems has presented a challenge for human understanding for many centuries. Access to many underground passages, theoretical knowledge and recent methods (modeling, water pressure-resistant dataloggers, precise sensors etc. give us the opportunity to get better insight into the hydrodynamic aspect of caves. In our work we tried to approach underground hydrodynamics from both theoretical and practical points of view. We present some theoretical background of open surface and pressurized flow in underground rivers and present results of some possible scenarios. Moreover, two case studies from the Ljubljanica river basin are presented in more detail: the cave system between Planinsko polje and Ljubljansko barje, and the cave system between Bloško polje and Cerkniško polje. The approach and methodology in each case is somewhat different, as the aims were different at the beginning of exploration. However, they both deal with temporal and spatial hydrodynamics of underground waters. In the case of Bloško polje-Cerkniško polje system we also explain the feedback loop between hydrodynamics and Holocene speleogenesis.

  14. Phenomena-based Process Synthesis and Design to achieve Process Intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutze, Philip; Gani, Rafiqul; Woodley, John

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve processes incorporating process intensification and to allow them to go beyond pre-defined unit operations, the process has to be viewed at a lower level of aggregation, namely the phenomena scale. In this contribution, an approach for aggregating processes through phenomena...... level. This phenomena-based synthesis/design methodology is tested through a case study....

  15. A systematic synthesis and design methodology to achieve process intensification in (bio) chemical processes

    OpenAIRE

    Lutze, Philip; Woodley, John; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    Process intensification (PI) has the potential to improve existing processes or create new process options which are needed in order to produce products using more sustainable methods. Potentially, PI creates an enormous number of process options. For identification where and how the process should be intensified for biggest improvement, process synthesis and design tools are applied which results in the development of a systematic methodology incorporating PI. In order to manage the complexi...

  16. Theory and Practice Meets in Industrial Process Design -Educational Perspective-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramo-Immonen, Heli; Toikka, Tarja

    Software engineer should see himself as a business process designer in enterprise resource planning system (ERP) re-engineering project. Software engineers and managers should have design dialogue. The objective of this paper is to discuss the motives to study the design research in connection of management education in order to envision and understand the soft human issues in the management context. Second goal is to develop means of practicing social skills between designers and managers. This article explores the affective components of design thinking in industrial management domain. In the conceptual part of this paper are discussed concepts of network and project economy, creativity, communication, use of metaphors, and design thinking. Finally is introduced empirical research plan and first empirical results from design method experiments among the multi-disciplined groups of the master-level students of industrial engineering and management and software engineering.

  17. Artefact specification, design, and production as a process of communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1999-01-01

    for the success of communication carry over to the artefact production process. The purpose of the analysis is to provide a conceptual background for the study of various aspects of artefact production, such as design, or the development of computer-based tools for collaborative design, product modelling......The co-operative process of specifying, designing, and producing an artefact is analysed in terms of communication among the agents involved. By way of introduction, I offer a brief analysis of communication in general, outlining conditions for its success, while avoiding simplistic assumptions...

  18. The start up as a phase of architectural design process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Iara Sousa; Lima, Francisco de Paula Antunes; Duarte, Francisco José de Castro Moura

    2012-01-01

    Alterations made in the architectural design can be considered as a continuous process, from its conception to the moment a built environment is already in use. This article focuses on the "moving phase", which is the initial moment of the environment occupation and the start-up of services. It aims to show that the continuity of ergonomics interventions during the "moving phase" or start up may reveal the built environment inadequacies; clearly showing needs not met by the design and allowing making instant decisions to solve non-foreseen problems. The results have revealed some lessons experienced by users during a critical stage not usually included in the design process.

  19. Hydrodynamic impact response, a flexible view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vredeveldt, A.W.; Hoogeland, M.; Janssen, G.Th.M.

    2001-01-01

    The popularity of high-speed craft is steadily increasing. Until now, much attention has been focussed on the hydrodynamic aspects of these craft. The structural design of these vessels is usually considered in a quasi static sense. However, due to the requirement of light ship structures, fast ship

  20. Hydrodynamics of the Dirac spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yizhuang, E-mail: yizhuang.liu@stonybrook.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Warchoł, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.warchol@uj.edu.pl [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, PL-30348 Krakow (Poland); Zahed, Ismail, E-mail: ismail.zahed@stonybrook.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    We discuss a hydrodynamical description of the eigenvalues of the Dirac spectrum in even dimensions in the vacuum and in the large N (volume) limit. The linearized hydrodynamics supports sound waves. The hydrodynamical relaxation of the eigenvalues is captured by a hydrodynamical (tunneling) minimum configuration which follows from a pertinent form of Euler equation. The relaxation from a phase of unbroken chiral symmetry to a phase of broken chiral symmetry occurs over a time set by the speed of sound.

  1. Issues in the design of facilitated collaboration processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolfschoten, G.L.; Hengst, den; Bruggeling, M.; Vreede, G.J. de

    2007-01-01

    Groups often rely on the expertise of facilitators to support them in their collaboration processes. The design and preparation of a collaboration process is an important facilitation task. Although there is a significant body of knowledge about the effects of facilitation, there is a dearth of know

  2. A rational approach for ω-transaminase-catalyzed process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Gundersen, Maria; Lloyd, Richard; Tufvesson, Pär;

    Herein we describe a novel rational approach to the design of a ω-transaminase process such that it will fulfill criteria necessary for industrial use. By first determining the fundamental properties of the reaction system, it is possible to suggest appropriate process strategies that may be used...

  3. Expectation changes and team characteristics in a participatory design process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazley, C.M.; Jong, A. de; Vink, P.

    2012-01-01

    A human factors specialist researched the expectations of a culturally and professionally diverse team throughout a year long participatory design process of a large processing facility. For a deeper understanding of high-level team expectations and characteristics, the specialist collected data and

  4. Learning from Game Design : Understanding Participatory processes through Game Mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ampatzidou, Christina; Gugerell, Katharina; Diephuis, Jeremiah

    With the increasing interest of local governments in civic participation, it becomes important to explore the available methods for orchestrating participatory processes and evaluate how different tools address some of the common issues associated with participatory processes. Game design is an

  5. Reverse electrodialysis : A validated process model for design and optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, J.; Saakes, M.; Metz, S. J.; Harmsen, G. J.

    2011-01-01

    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a technology to generate electricity using the entropy of the mixing of sea and river water. A model is made of the RED process and validated experimentally. The model is used to design and optimize the RED process. It predicts very small differences between counter-

  6. Sustainable and Intensified Design of a Biodiesel Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Ismail, Muhammad I.; Babi, Deenesh Kavi

    for process sustainability analysis), ECON (method and tool for process economic analysis), LCSoft (method and tool for process lifecycle assessment analysis) and process simulation software (e.g. PRO/II, ASPEN Plus, ICAS). They are all used in an integrated framework for process synthesis....... impact and maximum profitability is needed. In this work a computer-aided framework for process synthesis and process intensification is applied for sustainable production of biodiesel from pure/waste palm oil as the feedstock. This approach examines several biodiesel processing routes that were...... collected through available data and current technologies reported in the literature. Using this information, a generic superstructure of processing routes was created that described a network of configurations representing multiple designs for the production of biodiesel. Therefore, based on the currently...

  7. Incorporating manufacturability constraints into the design process of heterogeneous objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuna; Blouin, Vincent Y.; Fadel, Georges M.

    2004-11-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) technology, such as Laser Engineering Net Shaping (LENSTM), can be used to fabricate heterogeneous objects with gradient variations in material composition. These objects are generally characterized by enhanced functional performance. Past research on the design of such objects has focused on representation, modeling, and functional performance. However, the inherent constraints in RP processes, such as system capability and processing time, lead to heterogeneous objects that may not meet the designer's original intent. To overcome this situation, the research presented in this paper focuses on the identification and implementation of manufacturing constraints into the design process. A node-based finite element modeling technique is used for the representation and analysis and the multicriteria design problem corresponds to finding the nodal material compositions that minimize structural weight and maximize thermal performance. The optimizer used in this research is a real-valued Evolutionary Strategies (ES), which is well suited for this type of multi-modal problem. Two limitations of the LENS manufacturing process, which have an impact on the design process, are identified and implemented. One of them is related to the manufacturing time, which is considered as an additional criterion to be minimized in the design problem for a preselected tool path. A brake disc rotor made of two materials, aluminum for lightweight and steel for superior thermal characteristics, is used to illustrate the tradeoff between manufacturability and functionality.

  8. A Robust Process Analytical Technology (PAT) System Design for Crystallization Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli Bin; Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist

    2013-01-01

    A generic computer-aided framework for systematic design of a process monitoring and control system for crystallization processes has been developed to study various aspects of crystallization operations. The design framework contains a generic multidimensional modelling framework, a tool for gen...

  9. Rethinking the Systems Engineering Process in Light of Design Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    the creative thinking process exhibited by designers and now used in many non-traditional design domains such as strategy formulation, business , and...Eversheim W., & Perrone G. (1997). A methodology for the reduction of imprecision in the engineering design process . European Journal of Operations...qÜáêíÉÉåíÜ=^ååì~ä= ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ= póãéçëáìã= tÉÇåÉëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=f= = Rethinking the Systems Engineering Process in Light of Design Thinking

  10. RF-Frontend Design for Process-Variation-Tolerant Receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Sakian, Pooyan; van Roermund, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    This book discusses a number of challenges faced by designers of wireless receivers, given complications caused by the shrinking of electronic and mobile devices circuitry into ever-smaller sizes and the resulting complications on the manufacturability, production yield, and the end price of the products.  The authors describe the impact of process technology on the performance of the end product and equip RF designers with countermeasures to cope with such problems.  The mechanisms by which these problems arise are analyzed in detail and novel solutions are provided, including design guidelines for receivers with robustness to process variations and details of circuit blocks that obtain the required performance level. Describes RF receiver frontends and their building blocks from a system- and circuit-level perspective; Provides system-level analysis of a generic RF receiver frontend with robustness to process variations; Includes details of CMOS circuit design at 60GHz and reconfigurable circuits at 60GHz...

  11. Design Process for Integrated Concepts with Responsive Building Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aa, Van der A.; Heiselberg, Per

    2008-01-01

    is needed. The hard question is however: how to make the right choice of the combination of individual measures from building components and building services elements. Within the framework of IEA-ECBCS Annex 44 research has been conducted about the design process for integrated building concepts......An integrated building concept is a prerequisite to come to an energy efficient building with a good and healthy IAQ indoor comfort. A design process that defines the targets and boundary conditions in the very first stage of the design and guarantees them until the building is finished and used...... with responsive building elements. The (Dutch) Toolkit Sustainable Residential Buildings is one of the examples of tools for an integrated design process....

  12. Systematic Integrated Process Design and Control of Reactive Distillation Processes Involving Multi-elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2016-01-01

    In this work, integrated process design and control of reactive distillation processes that involve multiple elements (more than two) is addressed through a computer-aided hierarchical decomposition-based framework. Multiple elements are encountered for reactive systems when four or more compounds...... (including inert compounds) are encountered. The reactive distillation design methods and tools which are similar in concept to design of binary non-reactive distillations and binary reactive distillations are used for design of multi-element reactive distillation processes, such as driving force approach...

  13. Using a Design Science Perspective to Understand a Complex Design-Based Research Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate how a design science perspective can be used to describe and understand a set of related design-based research processes. We describe and analyze a case study in a manner that is inspired by design science. The case study involves the design of modeling...... tools and the redesign of an information service in a library. We use a set of guidelines from a design science perspective to organize the description and analysis of the case study. By doing this we demonstrate the usefulness of design science as an analytical tool for understanding related design......-based research processes. And we argue that a design science perspective may be useful for both researchers and practitioners....

  14. Using a Design Science Perspective to Understand a Complex Design-Based Research Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    tools and the redesign of an information service in a library. We use a set of guidelines from a design science perspective to organize the description and analysis of the case study. By doing this we demonstrate the usefulness of design science as an analytical tool for understanding related design......The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate how a design science perspective can be used to describe and understand a set of related design-based research processes. We describe and analyze a case study in a manner that is inspired by design science. The case study involves the design of modeling......-based research processes. And we argue that a design science perspective may be useful for both researchers and practitioners....

  15. Integrated and Modular Design of an Optimized Process Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Raßfeld

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Global economic integration increased the complexity of business activities, so organizations are forced to become more efficient each day. Process organization is a very useful way of aligning organizational systems towards business processes. However, an organization must do more than just focus its attention and efforts on processes. The layout design has also a significant impact on the system performance.. We contribute to this field by developing a tailored process-oriented organizational structure and new layout design for the quality assurance of a leading German automotive manufacturer. The target concept we developed was evaluated by process owners and an IT-based process simulation. Our results provide solid empirical back-up in which the performance and effects are  assessed from a qualitative and quantitative perspective

  16. 3D Printed Surgical Instruments: The Design and Fabrication Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Mitchell; Aroom, Kevin R; Hawes, Harvey G; Gill, Brijesh S; Love, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    3D printing is an additive manufacturing process allowing the creation of solid objects directly from a digital file. We believe recent advances in additive manufacturing may be applicable to surgical instrument design. This study investigates the feasibility, design and fabrication process of usable 3D printed surgical instruments. The computer-aided design package SolidWorks (Dassault Systemes SolidWorks Corp., Waltham MA) was used to design a surgical set including hemostats, needle driver, scalpel handle, retractors and forceps. These designs were then printed on a selective laser sintering (SLS) Sinterstation HiQ (3D Systems, Rock Hill SC) using DuraForm EX plastic. The final printed products were evaluated by practicing general surgeons for ergonomic functionality and performance, this included simulated surgery and inguinal hernia repairs on human cadavers. Improvements were identified and addressed by adjusting design and build metrics. Repeated manufacturing processes and redesigns led to the creation of multiple functional and fully reproducible surgical sets utilizing the user feedback of surgeons. Iterative cycles including design, production and testing took an average of 3 days. Each surgical set was built using the SLS Sinterstation HiQ with an average build time of 6 h per set. Functional 3D printed surgical instruments are feasible. Advantages compared to traditional manufacturing methods include no increase in cost for increased complexity, accelerated design to production times and surgeon specific modifications.

  17. Representation stigma: Perceptions of tools and processes for design graphics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barbarash

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Practicing designers and design students across multiple fields were surveyed to measure preference and perception of traditional hand and digital tools to determine if common biases for an individual toolset are realized in practice. Significant results were found, primarily with age being a determinant in preference of graphic tools and processes; this finding demonstrates a hard line between generations of designers. Results show that while there are strong opinions in tools and processes, the realities of modern business practice and production gravitate towards digital methods despite a traditional tool preference in more experienced designers. While negative stigmas regarding computers remain, younger generations are more accepting of digital tools and images, which should eventually lead to a paradigm shift in design professions.

  18. System Design Support by Optimization Method Using Stochastic Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Katsuhito; Ishikawa, Yoshio

    We proposed the new optimization method based on stochastic process. The characteristics of this method are to obtain the approximate solution of the optimum solution as an expected value. In numerical calculation, a kind of Monte Carlo method is used to obtain the solution because of stochastic process. Then, it can obtain the probability distribution of the design variable because it is generated in the probability that design variables were in proportion to the evaluation function value. This probability distribution shows the influence of design variables on the evaluation function value. This probability distribution is the information which is very useful for the system design. In this paper, it is shown the proposed method is useful for not only the optimization but also the system design. The flight trajectory optimization problem for the hang-glider is shown as an example of the numerical calculation.

  19. Information Flow in the Launch Vehicle Design/Analysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, W. R., Sr.; Holland, W.; Bishop, R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a team effort aimed at defining the information flow between disciplines at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) engaged in the design of space launch vehicles. The information flow is modeled at a first level and is described using three types of templates: an N x N diagram, discipline flow diagrams, and discipline task descriptions. It is intended to provide engineers with an understanding of the connections between what they do and where it fits in the overall design process of the project. It is also intended to provide design managers with a better understanding of information flow in the launch vehicle design cycle.

  20. Participatory ergonomics in design processes: The role of boundary objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Andersen, Vibeke; Seim, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of boundary objects in order to better understand the role of objects in participatory ergonomics (PE) design processes. The research question is: What characterizes boundary objects in PE processes? Based on two case studies, we identify eight...... enable workers’ participation and collaborative design in different ways. The framework developed may serve to provide criteria to guide practitioners and intervention researchers in the selection of objects to facilitate a PE process. The paper concludes with a list of recommendations for ergonomic...

  1. Methods and tools for sustainable chemical process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Chairakwongsa, Siwanat; Quaglia, Alberto;

    2015-01-01

    As the pressure on chemical and biochemical processes to achieve a more sustainable performance increases, the need to define a systematic and holistic way to accomplish this is becoming more urgent. In this chapter, a multilevel computer-aided framework for systematic design of more sustainable...... chemical processes is presented. The framework allows the use of appropriate computer-aided methods and tools in a hierarchical manner according to a developed work flow for a multilevel criteria analysis that helps generate competing and more sustainable process design options. The application...

  2. Concurrent materials and process selection in conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleban, Stephen D.; Knorovsky, Gerald A.

    2000-08-16

    A method for concurrent selection of materials and a joining process based on product requirements using a knowledge-based, constraint satisfaction approach facilitates the product design and manufacturing process. Using a Windows-based computer video display and a data base of materials and their properties, the designer can ascertain the preferred composition of two parts based on various operating/environmental constraints such as load, temperature, lifetime, etc. Optimum joinder of the two parts may simultaneously be determined using a joining process data base based upon the selected composition of the components as well as the operating/environmental constraints.

  3. Industrial and process furnaces principles, design and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Barrie

    2014-01-01

    Furnaces sit at the core of all branches of manufacture and industry, so it is vital that these are designed and operated safely and effi-ciently. This reference provides all of the furnace theory needed to ensure that this can be executed successfully on an industrial scale. Industrial and Process Furnaces: Principles, 2nd Edition provides comprehensive coverage of all aspects of furnace operation and design, including topics essential for process engineers and operators to better understand furnaces. This includes: the combustion process and its control, furnace fuels, efficiency,

  4. A systematic framework for design of process monitoring and control (PAT) systems for crystallization processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli Bin; Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist

    2013-01-01

    for generation of the supersaturation set-point for supersaturation control, as well as a tool for design of a process monitoring and control system (also called Process Analytical Technology (PAT) system). This systematic design allows one to generate the necessary problem-chemical system specific model......A generic computer-aided framework for systematic design of a process monitoring and control system for crystallization processes has been developed to study various aspects of crystallization operations.The systematic design framework contains a generic crystallizer modelling toolbox, a tool......, the necessary supersaturation set-point as well as a PAT system design including implementation of monitoring tools and control strategies in order to produce the desired target product properties notably crystal size distribution (CSD) and shape for a wide range of crystallization processes. Application...

  5. A Generic Framework for Systematic Design of Process Monitoring and Control System for Crystallization Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli Bin; Meisler, Kresten Troelstrup; Sin, Gürkan

    2012-01-01

    A generic framework for systematic design of a process monitoring and control system for crystallization processes has been developed in order to obtain the desired end-product properties notably the crystal size distribution (CSD). The design framework contains a generic crystallizer modelling...... tool-box, a tool for design of operational policies as well as a tool for design of process monitoring and control systems. Through this framework, it is possible for a wide range of crystallization processes to generate the necessary problem-system specific model, the necessary operational policy...... and a Process Analytical Technology (PAT) system design including implementation of monitoring tools and control strategies in order to produce a desired product with its corresponding target properties. Application of the framework is highlighted through a case study involving the system potassium dihydrogen...

  6. Design of a distributed CORBA based image processing server.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giess, C; Evers, H; Heid, V; Meinzer, H P

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a distributed image processing server based on CORBA. Existing image processing tools were encapsulated in a common way with this server. Data exchange and conversion is done automatically inside the server, hiding these tasks from the user. The different image processing tools are visible as one large collection of algorithms and due to the use of CORBA are accessible via intra-/internet.

  7. Involving the elderly in the design process: a participatory design model for usability, safety and attractiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Demirbilek, Oya

    1999-01-01

    Ankara : Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent University, 1999. Thesis (Ph.D.) -- Bilkent University, 1999 Includes bibliographical references leaves 113-131 This work presents a conceptual model involving the elderly users into the design process by means of participatory design sessions, where the expertise of designers and the real requirements and opinions of elderly end-users, related to how objects, environments and equipment should be designed to allow ageing ...

  8. Characteristics affecting management of design information in the production system design process

    OpenAIRE

    Bruch, Jessica; Bellgran, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Although it has been argued that the design of production systems is crucial, there is a general lack of empirical studies analysing and identifying resources and capabilities required for an efficient production system design process. One of these resources is the critical role attributed to design information and one such capability is how the design information is managed. To address this research gap, this paper reports the results from two in-depth case studies in the automotive industry...

  9. Using Solver Interfaced Virtual Reality in PEACER Design Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyong Won; Nam, Won Chang; Jeong, Seung Ho; Hwang, Il Soon; Shin, Jong Gye; Kim, Chang Hyo [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The recent research progress in the area of plant design and simulation highlighted the importance of integrating design and analysis models on a unified environment. For currently developed advanced reactors, either for power production or research, this effort has embraced impressive state-of-the-art information and automation technology. The PEACER (Proliferation-resistant, Environment friendly, Accident-tolerant, Continual and Economical Reactor) is one of the conceptual fast reactor system cooled by LBE (Lead Bismuth Eutectic) for nuclear waste transmutation. This reactor system is composed of innovative combination between design process and analysis. To establish an integrated design process by coupling design, analysis, and post-processing technology while minimizing the repetitive and costly manual interactions for design changes, a solver interfaced virtual reality simulation system (SIVR) has been developed for a nuclear transmutation energy system as PEACER. The SIVR was developed using Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) in order to interface a commercial 3D CAD tool with various engineering solvers and to implement virtual reality presentation of results in a neutral format. In this paper, we have shown the SIVR approach viable and effective in the life-cycle management of complex nuclear energy systems, including design, construction and operation. For instance, The HELIOS is a down scaled model of the PEACER prototype to demonstrate the operability and safety as well as preliminary test of PEACER PLM (Product Life-cycle Management) with SIVR (Solver Interfaced Virtual Reality) concepts. Most components are designed by CATIA, which is 3D CAD tool. During the construction, 3D drawing by CATIA was effective to handle and arrange the loop configuration, especially when we changed the design. Most of all, This system shows the transparency of design and operational status of an energy complex to operators and inspectors can help ensure accident

  10. Property Modelling for Applications in Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    Physical-chemical properties of pure chemicals and their mixtures play an important role in the design of chemicals based products and the processes that manufacture them. Although, the use of experimental data in design and analysis of chemicals based products and their processes is desirable...... such as database, property model library, model parameter regression, and, property-model based product-process design will be presented. The database contains pure component and mixture data for a wide range of organic chemicals. The property models are based on the combined group contribution and atom......, polymers, mixtures as well as separation processes. The presentation will highlight the framework (ICAS software) for property modeling, the property models and issues such as prediction accuracy, flexibility, maintenance and updating of the database. Also, application issues related to the use of property...

  11. Design flow for implementing image processing in FPGAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakalo, M.; Giles, G.

    2007-04-01

    A design flow for implementing a dynamic gamma algorithm in an FPGA is described. Real-time video processing makes enormous demands on processing resources. An FPGA solution offers some advantages over commercial video chip and DSP implementation alternatives. The traditional approach to FPGA development involves a system engineer designing, modeling and verifying an algorithm and writing a specification. A hardware engineer uses the specification as a basis for coding in VHDL and testing the algorithm in the FPGA with supporting electronics. This process is work intensive and the verification of the image processing algorithm executing on the FPGA does not occur until late in the program. The described design process allows the system engineer to design and verify a true VHDL version of the algorithm, executing in an FPGA. This process yields reduced risk and development time. The process is achieved by using Xilinx System Generator in conjunction with Simulink® from The MathWorks. System Generator is a tool that bridges the gap between the high level modeling environment and the digital world of the FPGA. System Generator is used to develop the dynamic gamma algorithm for the contrast enhancement of a candidate display product. The results of this effort are to increase the dynamic range of the displayed video, resulting in a more useful image for the user.

  12. Generative design visualize, program, and create with processing

    CERN Document Server

    Bohnacker, Hartmut; Laub, Julia; Lazzeroni, Claudius

    2012-01-01

    Generative design is a revolutionary new method of creating artwork, models, and animations from sets of rules, or algorithms. By using accessible programming languages such as Processing, artists and designers are producing extravagant, crystalline structures that can form the basis of anything from patterned textiles and typography to lighting, scientific diagrams, sculptures, films, and even fantastical buildings. Opening with a gallery of thirty-five illustrated case studies, Generative Design takes users through specific, practical instructions on how to create their own visual experiments by combining simple-to-use programming codes with basic design principles. A detailed handbook of advanced strategies provides visual artists with all the tools to achieve proficiency. Both a how-to manual and a showcase for recent work in this exciting new field, Generative Design is the definitive study and reference book that designers have been waiting for.

  13. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS A design method for process design kit based on an SMIC 65 nm process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiyan, Luo; Lan, Chen; Minghui, Yin

    2010-10-01

    The frame structure of a process design kit (PDK) is described in detail, and a practical design method for PDK is presented. Based on this method, a useful SMIC 65 nm PDK has been successfully designed and realized, which is applicable to native EDA software of Zeni. The design process and difficulties of PDK are introduced by developing and analyzing these parameterized cell (Pcell) devices (MOS, resistor, etc.). A structured design method was proposed to implement Pcell, which makes thousands upon thousands of source codes of Pcell concise, readable, easy-to-upkeep and transplantable. Moreover, a Pcase library for each Pcell is designed to verify the Pcell in batches. By this approach, the Pcell can be verified efficiently and the PDK will be more reliable and steady. In addition, the component description format parameters and layouts of the Pcell are optimized by adding flexibility and improving performance, which benefits analog and custom IC designers to satisfy the demand of design. Finally, the SMIC 65 nm PDK was applied to IC design. The results indicate that the SMIC 65 nm PDK is competent to support IC design.

  14. Design considerations for fume hoods for process plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, H D; Bender, M

    1980-07-01

    Proper design of fume hoods is a necessary requisite for a clean working environment for many industrial processes. Until recently, the design of these hoods has been rather a trial and error approach and not based on sound engineering design principles. Hatch Associates have developed and applied new techniques to establish hood parameters for different industrail processes. The paper reviews the developed techniques and illustrates practical application of these techniques to the solving of difficult and comples fume hood design and operating performance problems. The scope of the paper covers the following subject areas: definitions and general considerations: evaluation of volume and heat flow rates for emission sources; local capture of process emissions; remote capture of process emissions and case studies of fume hood applications. The purpose of the paper is to detail a coherent approach in the analysis of emission problems which will result in the development of an efficient design of a fume capture hood. An efficient fume hood can provide a safe working place as well as a clean external environment. Although the techniques can be applied to smaller sources, the case studies which will be examined will be for fume hoods in the flow design range of 50 000 CFM to +1 000 000 CFM.

  15. Influence of laser design parameters on the hydrodynamics of microfusion plasmas; Influencia de los parametros basicos del laser sobre la hidrodinamica de plasmas para microfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanmartin, J. A.; Barrero, A.

    1976-07-01

    The quasi neutral, one dimensional motion generated in a cold, infinite, uniform plasma of density n{sub 0}, by the absorption, In a given plane, of a linear pulse of energy per unit time and area {phi} - {phi}{sub 0}t/{tau}, 0< t {<=} {tau}, is considered; the analysis allows for thermal conduction and viscosity of ions and electrons, their energy exchange, and an electron thermal flux limiter. The motion is found to be self similar and governed by single non dimensional parameter {alpha} similar{sub t}o(n{sup 2}{sub 0} {tau}/{phi}{sub 0}){sup 2}/3. Detailed asymptotic results are obtained for both {alpha}<<1and {alpha}>>1; the general (behaviour of the solution for arbitrary {alpha} is discussed. The analysis can be easily extended to the case of a plasma initially occupying a half-space, and throws light on the hydrodynamics of laser fusion plasmas. (Author) 51 refs.

  16. POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE DESIGN OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES USING HIERARCHICAL DESIGN AND SIMULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The design of chemical processes is normally an interactive process of synthesis and analysis. When one also desires or needs to limit the amount of pollution generated by the process the difficulty of the task can increase substantially. In this work, we show how combining hier...

  17. Determination of Hydrodynamic Parameters on Two--Phase Flow Gas - Liquid in Pipes with Different Inclination Angles Using Image Processing Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Gustavo; Valecillos, María; Romero, Carlos; Gonzáles, Dosinda

    2009-11-01

    In the present research a digital image processing-based automated algorithm was developed in order to determine the phase's height, hold up, and statistical distribution of the drop size in a two-phase system water-air using pipes with 0 , 10 , and 90 of inclination. Digital images were acquired with a high speed camera (up to 4500fps), using an equipment that consist of a system with three acrylic pipes with diameters of 1.905, 3.175, and 4.445 cm. Each pipe is arranged in two sections of 8 m of length. Various flow patterns were visualized for different superficial velocities of water and air. Finally, using the image processing program designed in Matlab/Simulink^, the captured images were processed to establish the parameters previously mentioned. The image processing algorithm is based in the frequency domain analysis of the source pictures, which allows to find the phase as the edge between the water and air, through a Sobel filter that extracts the high frequency components of the image. The drop size was found using the calculation of the Feret diameter. Three flow patterns were observed: Annular, ST, and ST&MI.

  18. Expectation changes and team characteristics in a participatory design process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazley, Conne Mara; De Jong, Annelise; Vink, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A human factors specialist researched the expectations of a culturally and professionally diverse team throughout a year long participatory design process of a large processing facility. For a deeper understanding of high-level team expectations and characteristics, the specialist collected data and information through in-situ ethnography and traditional case study methods, personal interviews, and a questionnaire that included a likert scale rating for expectation levels. Results found that expectation levels rated extremely satisfied for individual team members and the overall team itself before and during the participatory process. In contrast, expectations for upper management from the team were satisfied before the participatory process, but changed to uncertain, to unsatisfied, to extremely unsatisfied during the process. Additionally, the participatory design team exhibited high-level team characteristics to include honesty, competence, commitment, communication, creativity, and clear expectations.

  19. Hydrodynamic Modeling and Its Application in AUC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Mattia; Byron, Olwyn

    2015-01-01

    The hydrodynamic parameters measured in an AUC experiment, s(20,w) and D(t)(20,w)(0), can be used to gain information on the solution structure of (bio)macromolecules and their assemblies. This entails comparing the measured parameters with those that can be computed from usually "dry" structures by "hydrodynamic modeling." In this chapter, we will first briefly put hydrodynamic modeling in perspective and present the basic physics behind it as implemented in the most commonly used methods. The important "hydration" issue is also touched upon, and the distinction between rigid bodies versus those for which flexibility must be considered in the modeling process is then made. The available hydrodynamic modeling/computation programs, HYDROPRO, BEST, SoMo, AtoB, and Zeno, the latter four all implemented within the US-SOMO suite, are described and their performance evaluated. Finally, some literature examples are presented to illustrate the potential applications of hydrodynamics in the expanding field of multiresolution modeling.

  20. Mechanisms and coherences of robust design methodology: a robust design process proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göhler, Simon Moritz; Christensen, Martin Ebro; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Although robust design (RD) methods are recognised as a way of developing mechanical products with consistent and predictable performance and quality, they do not experience widespread success in industry. One reason being the lack of a coherent RD process (RDP). In this contribution we analyse...... the robustness of the design, (3) processing and evaluation of the robustness data and (4) scaling of the design to optimise parameter and tolerance values. For each of the activities, the set of relevant RD methods is presented. The main objective of the RDP is to provide the design team with a better overview...

  1. Supporting change processes in design: Complexity, prediction and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, Claudia M. [Engineering Design Centre, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: cme26@cam.ac.uk; Keller, Rene [Engineering Design Centre, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rk313@cam.ac.uk; Earl, Chris [Open University, Department of Design and Innovation, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: C.F.Earl@open.ac.uk; Clarkson, P. John [Engineering Design Centre, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: pjc10@cam.ac.uk

    2006-12-15

    Change to existing products is fundamental to design processes. New products are often designed through change or modification to existing products. Specific parts or subsystems are changed to similar ones whilst others are directly reused. Design by modification applies particularly to safety critical products where the reuse of existing working parts and subsystems can reduce cost and risk. However change is rarely a matter of just reusing or modifying parts. Changing one part can propagate through the entire design leading to costly rework or jeopardising the integrity of the whole product. This paper characterises product change based on studies in the aerospace and automotive industry and introduces tools to aid designers in understanding the potential effects of change. Two ways of supporting designers are described: probabilistic prediction of the effects of change and visualisation of change propagation through product connectivities. Change propagation has uncertainties which are amplified by the choices designers make in practice as they implement change. Change prediction and visualisation is discussed with reference to complexity in three areas of product development: the structural backcloth of connectivities in the existing product (and its processes), the descriptions of the product used in design and the actions taken to carry out changes.

  2. Implementation of quality by design toward processing of food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Anurag S; Kapoor, Gautam

    2017-05-28

    Quality by design (QbD) is a systematic approach that begins with predefined objectives and emphasizes product and process understanding and process control. It is an approach based on principles of sound science and quality risk management. As the food processing industry continues to embrace the idea of in-line, online, and/or at-line sensors and real-time characterization for process monitoring and control, the existing gaps with regard to our ability to monitor multiple parameters/variables associated with the manufacturing process will be alleviated over time. Investments made for development of tools and approaches that facilitate high-throughput analytical and process development, process analytical technology, design of experiments, risk analysis, knowledge management, and enhancement of process/product understanding would pave way for operational and economic benefits later in the commercialization process and across other product pipelines. This article aims to achieve two major objectives. First, to review the progress that has been made in the recent years on the topic of QbD implementation in processing of food products and second, present a case study that illustrates benefits of such QbD implementation.

  3. Integration of CAD/CAE System for Casting Process Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周舰; 荆涛

    2003-01-01

    Concurrent engineering is needed to modernize the foundry industry and to reduce the scrap from castings and thus increase the economic profit. This paper presents an integrated 3-D CAD/CAE system for a foundry using concurrent engineering which considers casting structure, casting type, and manufacturing properties in the CAD module to design the pouring system, the riser, the chill core and so on. A visualized solid model is developed for the casting component with the model design enhanced by CAE analysis. Heat transfer and fluid flow simulation are used to analyze the initial design. The whole product development process is analyzed using concurrent engineering methods. The application shows that the integrated system can improve the efficiency of the design and manufacturing process of die casting.

  4. The Process of Optimizing Mechanical Sound Quality in Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare; Holst, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    clarify the importance of product sound, defining perceptive demands identified by users, and, finally, how to suggest mechanical principles for modification of an existing sound design. The optimized mechanical sound design is followed by tests on users of the product in its use context. The result......The research field concerning optimizing product sound quality is a relatively unexplored area, and may become difficult for designers to operate in. To some degree, sound is a highly subjective parameter, which is normally targeted sound specialists. This paper describes the theoretical...... and practical background for managing a process of optimizing the mechanical sound quality in a product design by using simple tools and workshops systematically. The procedure is illustrated by a case study of a computer navigation tool (computer mouse or mouse). The process is divided into 4 phases, which...

  5. Design of CAN Bus Application in the Process of Papermaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisheng Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the design of can bus application in the process of papermaking. The design for an intelligent measure and control system based on the technology of CAN bus, is applied to detect and control the concentration of wood-pulp, the temperature of multistage dryer and other parameters in the process of papermaking, in order to meet the control requirements and characters for the study quality and ensure paper even and cohesive under the course of manufacturer. The intelligence of measure and control system has been predominantly researched in the article, including the proposal of intelligent control node and communication model, the design of hardware interface circuit in the intelligent measure and control node and the design of whole system.

  6. Status and future of hydrodynamical model atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Ludwig, H G

    2004-01-01

    Since about 25 years ago work has been dedicated to the development of hydrodynamical model atmospheres for cool stars (of A to T spectral type). Despite their obviously sounder physical foundation in comparison with standard hydrostatic models, their general application has been rather limited. In order to understand why this is, and how to progress, we review the present status of hydrodynamical modelling of cool star atmospheres. The development efforts were and are motivated by the theoretical interest of understanding the dynamical processes operating in stellar atmospheres. To show the observational impact, we discuss examples in the fields of spectroscopy and stellar structure where hydrodynamical modelling provided results on a level qualitatively beyond standard models. We stress present modelling challenges, and highlight presently possible and future observations that would be particularly valuable in the interplay between model validation and interpretation of observables, to eventually widen the ...

  7. Relativistic Hydrodynamics with Wavelets

    CERN Document Server

    DeBuhr, Jackson; Anderson, Matthew; Neilsen, David; Hirschmann, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    Methods to solve the relativistic hydrodynamic equations are a key computational kernel in a large number of astrophysics simulations and are crucial to understanding the electromagnetic signals that originate from the merger of astrophysical compact objects. Because of the many physical length scales present when simulating such mergers, these methods must be highly adaptive and capable of automatically resolving numerous localized features and instabilities that emerge throughout the computational domain across many temporal scales. While this has been historically accomplished with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) based methods, alternatives based on wavelet bases and the wavelet transformation have recently achieved significant success in adaptive representation for advanced engineering applications. This work presents a new method for the integration of the relativistic hydrodynamic equations using iterated interpolating wavelets and introduces a highly adaptive implementation for multidimensional simulati...

  8. DESIGN OF AN EXPERT CONTROL SYSTEM FOR LEACHING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    One important step in zinc hydrometallurgy is the leaching process, which involves the dissolving of zinc-bearing material in dilute sulfuric acid to form zinc sulfate solution. The key problem in the process control is to determine the optimal pHs of the overflows of the continuous leaches and track them. An expert control system for the leaching process was designed to solve the key problem. A methodology is proposed for determining and tracking the optimal pHs with an expert control strategy based on a combination of steadystate mathematical models and rule models of the process.

  9. Separation process design for isolation and purification of natural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malwade, Chandrakant R.

    selection of separation techniques and operating conditions. The key factor in designing separation processes with multiple unit operations is to determine the synergy between them which in turn demands molecular level understanding of process streams. Therefore, the methodology is fortified with process......, thereby providing process information crucial for determining synergistic effects between different unit operations. In this work, the formulated methodology has been used to isolate and purify artemisinin, an antimalarial drug, from dried leaves of the plant Artemisia annua. A process flow sheet...... is generated consisting of maceration, flash column chromatography and crystallization unit operations for extraction, partial purification and final purification of artemisinin, respectively. PAT framework is used extensively to characterize the process streams at molecular level and the generated process...

  10. Product and Process Improvement Using Mixture-Process Variable Designs and Robust Optimization Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahni, Narinder S.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Naes, Tormod

    2009-04-01

    The quality of an industrial product depends on the raw material proportions and the process variable levels, both of which need to be taken into account in designing a product. This article presents a case study from the food industry in which both kinds of variables were studied by combining a constrained mixture experiment design and a central composite process variable design. Based on the natural structure of the situation, a split-plot experiment was designed and models involving the raw material proportions and process variable levels (separately and combined) were fitted. Combined models were used to study: (i) the robustness of the process to variations in raw material proportions, and (ii) the robustness of the raw material recipes with respect to fluctuations in the process variable levels. Further, the expected variability in the robust settings was studied using the bootstrap.

  11. Hybrid microcircuit technology handbook materials, processes, design, testing and production

    CERN Document Server

    Licari, James J

    1998-01-01

    The Hybrid Microcircuit Technology Handbook integrates the many diverse technologies used in the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of hybrid segments crucial to the success of producing reliable circuits in high yields. Among these are: resistor trimming, wire bonding, die attachment, cleaning, hermetic sealing, and moisture analysis. In addition to thin films, thick films, and assembly processes, important chapters on substrate selections, handling (including electrostatic discharge), failure analysis, and documentation are included. A comprehensive chapter of design guidelines will

  12. Design og styring af processer i netværk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmesen, Johan E.T.

    to begreber i en design og styringsmæssig betydning. Konteksten for studiet er ønsket om et helhedssyn af sammenhængen mellem processer og netværk, hvilket ikke lader til at have fortilfælde. Det helhedssyn skal undersøges for fordele i en design- og styringsmæssig betydning i.e. management....

  13. Odenplan: a media façade design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Hansen, Nicolai Brodersen; Basballe, Ditte Amund;

    2012-01-01

    of how to design for media façades by discussing how we have structured our design process to address specific sets of challenges outlined in previous literature in the field of media architecture. In our view, such research is valuable in that it helps establish common ground for researchers...... and practitioners in a developing field by building a repertoire of approaches, as well as highlight important issues that need to be addressed in this emergent field....

  14. Lean engineering in the design process: An industrial application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudouh Toufik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present a methodology used to streamline the product development process by introducing Lean Engineering concepts. We are interested specifically in routine design which represents in some companies more than 80% of the design activity. A project management model was developed and implemented in a PLM tool. This allows faster initiation of projects in which project planning is automatically performed. Hence, non-added value tasks in project planning were identified and reduced.

  15. OSIRIS Multi-Object Spectroscopy: Mask Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Velarde, G.; García-Alvarez, D.; Cabrerra-Lavers, A.

    2016-10-01

    The OSIRIS (Optical System for Imaging and Low-Intermediate Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy) instrument at the 10.4 m GTC has offered a multi-object spectroscopic mode since March 2014. In this paper we describe the detailed process of designing a MOS mask for OSIRIS by using the Mask Designer Tool, and give some numbers on the accuracy of the mask manufacture achievable at the telescope for its scientific use.

  16. Burst Mechanisms in Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Knobloch, E

    1999-01-01

    Different mechanisms believed to be responsible for the generation of bursts in hydrodynamical systems are reviewed and a new mechanism capable of generating regular or irregular bursts of large dynamic range near threshold is described. The new mechanism is present in the interaction between oscillatory modes of odd and even parity in systems of large but finite aspect ratio, and provides an explanation for the bursting behavior observed in binary fluid convection. Additional applications of the new mechanism are proposed.

  17. Relativistic cosmological hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, J

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the relativistic cosmological hydrodynamic perturbations. We present the general large scale solutions of the perturbation variables valid for the general sign of three space curvature, the cosmological constant, and generally evolving background equation of state. The large scale evolution is characterized by a conserved gauge invariant quantity which is the same as a perturbed potential (or three-space curvature) in the comoving gauge.

  18. The New Embedded System Design Methodology For Improving Design Process Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Abdurohman, Maman; Sutikno, Sarwono; Sasongko, Arif

    2010-01-01

    Time-to-market pressure and productivity gap force vendors and researchers to improve embedded system design methodology. Current used design method, Register Transfer Level (RTL), is no longer be adequate to comply with embedded system design necessity. It needs a new methodology for facing the lack of RTL. In this paper, a new methodology of hardware embedded system modeling process is designed for improving design process performance using Transaction Level Modeling (TLM). TLM is a higher abstraction design concept model above RTL model. Parameters measured include design process time and accuracy of design. For implementing RTL model used Avalon and Wishbone buses, both are System on Chip bus. Performance improvement measured by comparing TLM and RTL model process. The experiment results show performance improvements for Avalon RTL using new design methodology are 1,03 for 3-tiers, 1,47 for 4-tiers and 1,69 for 5-tiers. Performance improvements for Wishbone RTL are 1,12 for 3-tiers, 1,17 for 4-tiers and 1...

  19. Design of launch systems using continuous improvement process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard W.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify a systematic process for improving ground operations for future launch systems. This approach is based on the Total Quality Management (TQM) continuous improvement process. While the continuous improvement process is normally identified with making incremental changes to an existing system, it can be used on new systems if they use past experience as a knowledge base. In the case of the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), the Space Shuttle operations provide many lessons. The TQM methodology used for this paper will be borrowed from the United States Air Force 'Quality Air Force' Program. There is a general overview of the continuous improvement process, with concentration on the formulation phase. During this phase critical analyses are conducted to determine the strategy and goals for the remaining development process. These analyses include analyzing the mission from the customers point of view, developing an operations concept for the future, assessing current capabilities and determining the gap to be closed between current capabilities and future needs and requirements. A brief analyses of the RLV, relative to the Space Shuttle, will be used to illustrate the concept. Using the continuous improvement design concept has many advantages. These include a customer oriented process which will develop a more marketable product and a better integration of operations and systems during the design phase. But, the use of TQM techniques will require changes, including more discipline in the design process and more emphasis on data gathering for operational systems. The benefits will far outweigh the additional effort.

  20. Integrated Process Design and Control of Multi-element Reactive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2016-01-01

    In this work, integrated process design and control of reactive distillation processes involving multi-elements is presented. The reactive distillation column is designed using methods and tools which are similar in concept to non-reactive distillation design methods, such as driving force approach......-state analysis it is shown that it has the least energy consumption and carbon footprint. Next, through analytical and dynamic analysis it is verified that the control structure, disturbance rejection and the controllability at the maximum driving force is the best compared to any other design alternative which...