WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrodynamic control surfaces

  1. Inner wrinkling control in hydrodynamic deep drawing of an irregular surface part using drawbeads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Bao; Wan Min; Wu Xiangdong; Yuan Sheng; Xu Xudong; Liu Jie

    2014-01-01

    Inner wrinkling phenomenon is more likely to develop during hydrodynamic deep draw-ing (HDD) of complicated component-forms due to the higher demand for controlling deformation sequences. Aiming at the problems in control of inner wrinkling for an irregular surface part featured with both concavity and convex, this research proposes an optimal design method of drawbead parameters to change the material flow. According to theoretical analysis of the mechanism of inner wrinkling, optimizing cavity pressure only is unreasonable to form a wrinkle-free deep-drawn part, so semi-circular drawbeads are employed. The effects of layout and height of drawbeads on forming results are discussed, and a process window is established based on evaluation indicators including the anti-wrinkle coefficient and the minimum wall thickness. Experiments are carried out to validate the process window, and the wall thickness and the wrinkle height are measured and compared with numerical findings. The results show that the anti-wrinkle ability of drawbeads weakens with increasing oblique angle and distance from the die center, while the wall thickness increases with increasing oblique angle and distance, and the inner wrinkling can be completely suppressed by drawbeads arranged in zones I and II with optimum penetration.

  2. Inner wrinkling control in hydrodynamic deep drawing of an irregular surface part using drawbeads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Bao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Inner wrinkling phenomenon is more likely to develop during hydrodynamic deep drawing (HDD of complicated component-forms due to the higher demand for controlling deformation sequences. Aiming at the problems in control of inner wrinkling for an irregular surface part featured with both concavity and convex, this research proposes an optimal design method of drawbead parameters to change the material flow. According to theoretical analysis of the mechanism of inner wrinkling, optimizing cavity pressure only is unreasonable to form a wrinkle-free deep-drawn part, so semi-circular drawbeads are employed. The effects of layout and height of drawbeads on forming results are discussed, and a process window is established based on evaluation indicators including the anti-wrinkle coefficient and the minimum wall thickness. Experiments are carried out to validate the process window, and the wall thickness and the wrinkle height are measured and compared with numerical findings. The results show that the anti-wrinkle ability of drawbeads weakens with increasing oblique angle and distance from the die center, while the wall thickness increases with increasing oblique angle and distance, and the inner wrinkling can be completely suppressed by drawbeads arranged in zones I and II with optimum penetration.

  3. Electro-hydrodynamics near Hydrophobic Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Maduar, S R; Lobaskin, V; Vinogradova, O I

    2014-01-01

    We show that the dynamics of the electrostatic diffuse layer at the slippery hydrophobic surface depends strongly on the mobility of surface charges. For a hydrophobic surface with immobile charges the fluid transport is considerably amplified by the existence of a hydrodynamic slippage. In contrast, near the hydrophobic surface with mobile adsorbed charges it is also controlled by an additional electric force, which increases the shear stress at the slipping interface. To account for this we formulate electro-hydrodynamic boundary conditions at the slipping interface, which are applied to quantify electro-osmotic flows. Our theoretical predictions are fully supported by dissipative particle dynamics simulations with explicit charges. These results lead to a new general concept of zeta-potential of hydrophobic surfaces.

  4. Hydrodynamics of slip wedge and optimization of surface slip property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA GuoJun; WU ChengWei; ZHOU Ping

    2007-01-01

    The hydrodynamic load support generated by a slip wedge of a slider bearing was studied. The surface slip property was optimized so that a maximum hydrodynamic load support could be obtained. A multi-linearity method was given for the slip control equation of two-dimensional (2-D) wall slip. We investigated 2-D wall slip and the hydrodynamics of a finite length bearing with any values of the surface limiting shear stress. It was found that the hydrodynamic effect of the slip wedge is greater than the traditional geometrical convergent-wedge. Even though the geometrical gap is a parallel or divergent sliding gap, the slip wedge still gives rise to a very big hydrodynamic pressure. The optimized slip wedge can give rise to a hydrodynamic load support as high as 2.5 times of what the geometrical convergent-wedge can produce. Wall slip usually gives a small surface friction.

  5. Hydrodynamics of slip wedge and optimization of surface slip property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The hydrodynamic load support generated by a slip wedge of a slider bearing was studied. The surface slip property was optimized so that a maximum hydrodynamic load support could be obtained. A multi-linearity method was given for the slip control equation of two-dimensional (2-D) wall slip. We investigated 2-D wall slip and the hydrodynamics of a finite length bearing with any values of the surface limiting shear stress. It was found that the hydrodynamic effect of the slip wedge is greater than the traditional geometrical convergent-wedge. Even though the geo- metrical gap is a parallel or divergent sliding gap, the slip wedge still gives rise to a very big hydrodynamic pressure. The optimized slip wedge can give rise to a hy- drodynamic load support as high as 2.5 times of what the geometrical conver- gent-wedge can produce. Wall slip usually gives a small surface friction.

  6. Hydrodynamic Noise and Surface Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-08

    Lighthill, 3,4 Ffowcs-Wiiliams, 5-7 and Morse and Ingard .8 Ffowcs-Williams’ 7 excellent review identifies five distinctly different theoretical...Williams, "Hydrodynamic Noise," Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics (Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, CA), vol. 1, 1969, pp. 197-222. 8. P. Morse and K. V. Ingard

  7. Effective Hydrodynamic Boundary Conditions for Corrugated Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Mongruel, Anne; Asmolov, Evgeny S; Vinogradova, Olga I

    2012-01-01

    We report measurements of the hydrodynamic drag force acting on a smooth sphere falling down under gravity to a plane decorated with microscopic periodic grooves. Both surfaces are lyophilic, so that a liquid (silicone oil) invades the surface texture being in the Wenzel state. A significant decrease in the hydrodynamic resistance force as compared with that predicted for two smooth surfaces is observed. To quantify the effect of roughness we use the effective no-slip boundary condition, which is applied at the imaginary smooth homogeneous isotropic surface located at an intermediate position between top and bottom of grooves. Such an effective condition fully characterizes the force reduction measured with the real surface, and the location of this effective plane is related to geometric parameters of the texture by a simple analytical formula.

  8. Hydrodynamic slip length as a surface property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were conducted in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic slip length is a surface property. The system under investigation was water confined between two graphite layers to form nanochannels of different sizes (3-8 nm). The water-carbon interaction potential was calibrated by matching wettability experiments of graphitic-carbon surfaces free of airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Three equilibrium theories were used to calculate the hydrodynamic slip length. It was found that one of the recently reported equilibrium theories for the calculation of the slip length featured confinement effects, while the others resulted in calculations significantly hindered by the large margin of error observed between independent simulations. The hydrodynamic slip length was found to be channel-size independent using equilibrium calculations, i.e., suggesting a consistency with the definition of a surface property, for 5-nm channels and larger. The analysis of the individual trajectories of liquid particles revealed that the reason for observing confinement effects in 3-nm nanochannels is the high mobility of the bulk particles. Nonequilibrium calculations were not consistently affected by size but by noisiness in the smallest systems.

  9. Hydrodynamic slip length as a surface property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G P

    2016-02-01

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were conducted in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic slip length is a surface property. The system under investigation was water confined between two graphite layers to form nanochannels of different sizes (3-8 nm). The water-carbon interaction potential was calibrated by matching wettability experiments of graphitic-carbon surfaces free of airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Three equilibrium theories were used to calculate the hydrodynamic slip length. It was found that one of the recently reported equilibrium theories for the calculation of the slip length featured confinement effects, while the others resulted in calculations significantly hindered by the large margin of error observed between independent simulations. The hydrodynamic slip length was found to be channel-size independent using equilibrium calculations, i.e., suggesting a consistency with the definition of a surface property, for 5-nm channels and larger. The analysis of the individual trajectories of liquid particles revealed that the reason for observing confinement effects in 3-nm nanochannels is the high mobility of the bulk particles. Nonequilibrium calculations were not consistently affected by size but by noisiness in the smallest systems.

  10. (Non)-Dissipative Hydrodynamics on Embedded Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Armas, Jay

    2014-01-01

    We construct the theory of dissipative hydrodynamics of uncharged fluids living on embedded space-time surfaces to first order in a derivative expansion in the case of codimension-1 surfaces (including fluid membranes) and the theory of non-dissipative hydrodynamics to second order in a derivative expansion in the case of codimension higher than one under the assumption of no angular momenta in transverse directions to the surface. This construction includes the elastic degrees of freedom, and hence the corresponding transport coefficients, that take into account transverse fluctuations of the geometry where the fluid lives. Requiring the second law of thermodynamics to be satisfied leads us to conclude that in the case of codimension-1 surfaces the stress-energy tensor is characterized by 2+1 independent transport coefficients to first order in the expansion while for codimension higher than one, and for non-dissipative flows, the stress-energy tensor is characterized by 7+3 independent transport coefficient...

  11. Hydrodynamic force between a sphere and a soft, elastic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveh, Farzaneh; Ally, Javed; Kappl, Michael; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-10-07

    The hydrodynamic drainage force between a spherical silica particle and a soft, elastic polydimethylsiloxane surface was measured using the colloidal probe technique. The experimental force curves were compared to finite element simulations and an analytical model. The hydrodynamic repulsion decreased when the particle approached the soft surface as compared to a hard substrate. In contrast, when the particle was pulled away from the surface again, the attractive hydrodynamic force was increased. The hydrodynamic attraction increased because the effective area of the narrow gap between sphere and the plane on soft surfaces is larger than on rigid ones.

  12. Dynamo efficiency controlled by hydrodynamic bistability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Sophie; Herault, Johann; Herault, Johann; Fauve, Stephan; Gissinger, Christophe; Pétrélis, François; Daviaud, François; Dubrulle, Bérengère; Boisson, Jean; Bourgoin, Mickaël; Verhille, Gautier; Odier, Philippe; Pinton, Jean-François; Plihon, Nicolas

    2014-06-01

    Hydrodynamic and magnetic behaviors in a modified experimental setup of the von Kármán sodium flow-where one disk has been replaced by a propeller-are investigated. When the rotation frequencies of the disk and the propeller are different, we show that the fully turbulent hydrodynamic flow undergoes a global bifurcation between two configurations. The bistability of these flow configurations is associated with the dynamics of the central shear layer. The bistable flows are shown to have different dynamo efficiencies; thus for a given rotation rate of the soft-iron disk, two distinct magnetic behaviors are observed depending on the flow configuration. The hydrodynamic transition controls the magnetic field behavior, and bifurcations between high and low magnetic field branches are investigated.

  13. Ultrasmooth surface polishing based on the hydrodynamic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wenqiang; Guan, Chaoliang; Li, Shengyi

    2013-09-01

    This study will examine the feasibility of applying the hydrodynamic effect to ultrasmooth surface polishing. Differing from conventional pad polishing, hydrodynamic effect polishing is noncontact, as the polishing wheel is floated on the workpiece under the hydrodynamic effect. The material removal mechanism and the removal contour are analyzed in detail. Dynamic pressure and shear stress distribution on the workpiece are numerically simulated in three dimensions under different clearances between the polishing wheel and the workpiece, showing that the dynamic pressure distribution and the magnitude of shear stress on the workpiece are greatly influenced by the clearance. It is clearly demonstrated from fixed-point polishing experiments that material removal rates and contours are determined by the combined action of dynamic pressure and shear stress. A material removal analytic model is presented with the hydrodynamic effect polishing method. Finally, a polishing experiment is conducted on a quartz glass and the plastic scratches, cracks, and bumpy structures on the initial surface are clearly removed. Moreover, the processed surface roughness is improved to 0.145 nm rms, 0.116 nm Ra.

  14. Hydrodynamic boundary condition of water on hydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffel, David; Yordanov, Stoyan; Schmelzeisen, Marcus; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Kappl, Michael; Schmitz, Roman; Dünweg, Burkhard; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Koynov, Kaloian

    2013-05-01

    By combining total internal reflection fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy with Brownian dynamics simulations, we were able to measure the hydrodynamic boundary condition of water flowing over a smooth solid surface with exceptional accuracy. We analyzed the flow of aqueous electrolytes over glass coated with a layer of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (advancing contact angle Θ = 108°) or perfluorosilane (Θ = 113°). Within an error of better than 10 nm the slip length was indistinguishable from zero on all surfaces.

  15. CHF Enhancement by Surface Patterning based on Hydrodynamic Instability Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Han; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    If the power density of a device exceeds the CHF point, bubbles and vapor films will be covered on the whole heater surface. Because vapor films have much lower heat transfer capabilities compared to the liquid layer, the temperature of the heater surface will increase rapidly, and the device could be damaged due to the heater burnout. Therefore, the prediction and the enhancement of the CHF are essential to maximizing the efficient heat removal region. Numerous studies have been conducted to describe the CHF phenomenon, such as hydrodynamic instability theory, macrolayer dryout theory, hot/dry spot theory, and bubble interaction theory. The hydrodynamic instability model, proposed by Zuber, is the predominant CHF model that Helmholtz instability attributed to the CHF. Zuber assumed that the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability wavelength is related to the Helmholtz wavelength. Lienhard and Dhir proposed a CHF model that Helmholtz instability wavelength is equal to the most dangerous RT wavelength. In addition, they showed the heater size effect using various heater surfaces. Lu et al. proposed a modified hydrodynamic theory that the Helmholtz instability was assumed to be the heater size and the area of the vapor column was used as a fitting factor. The modified hydrodynamic theories were based on the change of Helmholtz wavelength related to the RT instability wavelength. In the present study, the change of the RT instability wavelength, based on the heater surface modification, was conducted to show the CHF enhancement based on the heater surface patterning in a plate pool boiling. Sapphire glass was used as a base heater substrate, and the Pt film was used as a heating source. The patterning surface was based on the change of RT instability wavelength. In the present work the study of the CHF was conducted using bare Pt and patterned heating surfaces.

  16. An Efficient Hydrodynamic Model for Surface Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kun; JIN Sheng; LU Gang

    2009-01-01

    In the present study,a semi-implicit finite difference model for non-bydrostatic,free-surface flows is analyzed and discussed.The governing equations are the three-dimensional free-surface Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations defined on a general,irregular domain of arbitrary scale.At outflow,a combination of a sponge layer technique and a radiation boundary condition is applied to minimize wave reflection.The equations are solved with the fractional step method where the hydrostatic pressure component is determined first,while the non-hydrostatic component of the pressure is computed from the pressure Poisson equation in which the coefficient matrix is positive definite and symmetric.The advectiou and horizontal viscosity terms are discretized by use of a semi-Lagrangian approach.The resulting model is computationally efficient and unrestricted to the CFL condition.The developed model is verified against analytical solutions and experimental data,with excellent agreement.

  17. Dynamic forces between bubbles and surfaces and hydrodynamic boundary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Ofer; Vakarelski, Ivan U; Stevens, Geoffrey W; Grieser, Franz; Dagastine, Raymond R; Chan, Derek Y C

    2008-10-21

    A bubble attached to the end of an atomic force microscope cantilever and driven toward or away from a flat mica surface across an aqueous film is used to characterize the dynamic force that arises from hydrodynamic drainage and electrical double layer interactions across the nanometer thick intervening aqueous film. The hydrodynamic response of the air/water interface can range from a classical fully immobile, no-slip surface in the presence of added surfactants to a partially mobile interface in an electrolyte solution without added surfactants. A model that includes the convection and diffusion of trace surface contaminants can account for the observed behavior presented. This model predicts quantitatively different interfacial dynamics to the Navier slip model that can also be used to fit dynamic force data with a post hoc choice of a slip length.

  18. Hydrodynamic Boundary Conditions and Dynamic Forces between Bubbles and Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Ofer; Vakarelski, Ivan U.; Tang, Xiaosong; O'Shea, Sean J.; Stevens, Geoffrey W.; Grieser, Franz; Dagastine, Raymond R.; Chan, Derek Y. C.

    2008-07-01

    Dynamic forces between a 50μm radius bubble driven towards and from a mica plate using an atomic force microscope in electrolyte and in surfactant exhibit different hydrodynamic boundary conditions at the bubble surface. In added surfactant, the forces are consistent with the no-slip boundary condition at the mica and bubble surfaces. With no surfactant, a new boundary condition that accounts for the transport of trace surface impurities explains variations of dynamic forces at different speeds and provides a direct connection between dynamic forces and surface transport effects at the air-water interface.

  19. Modelling free surface flows with smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Di G.Sigalotti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the method of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH is extended to include an adaptive density kernel estimation (ADKE procedure. It is shown that for a van der Waals (vdW fluid, this method can be used to deal with free-surface phenomena without difficulties. In particular, arbitrary moving boundaries can be easily handled because surface tension is effectively simulated by the cohesive pressure forces. Moreover, the ADKE method is seen to increase both the accuracy and stability of SPH since it allows the width of the kernel interpolant to vary locally in a way that only the minimum necessary smoothing is applied at and near free surfaces and sharp fluid-fluid interfaces. The method is robust and easy to implement. Examples of its resolving power are given for both the formation of a circular liquid drop under surface tension and the nonlinear oscillation of excited drops.

  20. A hydrodynamic mechanism for attraction of undulatory microswimmers to surfaces (bordertaxis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinzhou; Raizen, David M; Bau, Haim H

    2015-08-06

    Although small nematodes significantly impact human and animal health, agriculture, and ecology, little is known about the role of hydrodynamics in their life cycles. Using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model undulatory microswimmer, we have observed that animals are attracted to and swim along surfaces. The attraction to surfaces does not require mechanosensory neuron function. In dilute swarms, swimmers aggregate near surfaces. Using resistive force-based theory, symmetry arguments, and direct hydrodynamic simulations, we demonstrate that forces resulting from the interaction between the swimmer-induced flow field and a nearby surface cause a short-range hydrodynamic torque that stirs the swimmers towards the surface. When combined with steric forces, this causes locomotion along the surface. This surface attraction may affect nematode mate and food finding behaviour and, in the case of parasitic nematodes, may facilitate host penetration. Surface attraction must be accounted for when studying animals' responses to various stimuli, and suggests means of controlling undulatory microswimmers. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. A novel brewing process via controlled hydrodynamic cavitation

    CERN Document Server

    Albanese, Lorenzo; Meneguzzo, Francesco; Pagliaro, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a completely new brewing equipment and process based upon controlled hydrodynamic cavitation, providing significant advantages in terms of lowered capital cost, reduced production time, enhanced energy and production efficiency, food safety, while preserving beer organoleptic qualities. Experiments carried out on real microbrewery volume scale using the new and conventional technology unquestionably confirm the relevance of the new findings. Impacts of these discoveries are potentially far reaching, as beer is the worldwide most widely consumed alcoholic beverage, therefore highly relevant to health, environment the economy and even to local identities.

  2. Three-Dimensional Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Simulation for Liquid Droplet with Surface Tension

    OpenAIRE

    Terissa, Hanifa; Barecasco, Agra; Naa, Christian Fredy

    2013-01-01

    We provide a basic method of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to simulate liquid droplet with surface tension in three dimensions. Liquid droplet is a simple case for surface tension modeling. Surface tension works only on fluid surface. In SPH method, we simply apply the surface tension on the boundary particles of liquid. The particle on the 3D boundary was detected dynamically using Free-Surface Detection algorithm. The normal vector and curvature of the boundary surface were calculat...

  3. Electro-osmosis at inhomogeneous charged surfaces: hydrodynamic versus electric friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Woon; Netz, Roland R

    2006-03-21

    Electrokinetic methods are efficient in probing the electrostatic surface properties of charged systems. However, anomalies observed in experiments indicate that the classical electrokinetic theory should be reconsidered. Using Green's function methods and hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate electro-osmosis driven by electric-field-induced ion motion near a charged planar substrate with smooth or rough boundary. First, a reformulation of electro-osmotic theory for planar charged surfaces employing Green's functions shows that the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski (HS) relation between electrostatic potential and solvent velocity is exact for smooth surfaces, even in the presence of ion correlations. Deviations from HS theory are caused by combined hydrodynamic and electric surface friction, as our hydrodynamic simulations of ions at smooth and corrugated charged surfaces in lateral electric fields demonstrate. Within the simulations, hydrodynamic interactions are treated in the continuum limit and the presence of a no-slip boundary condition at the surface is taken into account. While electrofriction is relevant in highly charged system and/or for multivalent ions, hydrodynamic friction is dominant in systems with moderate surface charge density and/or low ionic valency. We also derive the effective electrokinetic surface charge from the electro-osmotic solvent profiles, which is substantially reduced when compared with the bare value and shows qualitative agreement with the experimental tendency.

  4. Microalgae scatter off solid surfaces by hydrodynamic and contact forces

    CERN Document Server

    Contino, Matteo; Tuval, Idan; Kantsler, Vasily; Polin, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between microorganisms and solid boundaries play an important role in biological processes, like egg fertilisation, biofilm formation and soil colonisation, where microswimmers move within a structured environment. Despite recent efforts to understand their origin, it is not clear whether these interactions can be understood as fundamentally of hydrodynamic origin or hinging on the swimmer's direct contact with the obstacle. Using a combination of experiments and simulations, here we study in detail the interaction of the biflagellate green alga \\textit{Chlamydomonas reinhardtii}, widely used as a model puller microorganism, with convex obstacles, a geometry ideally suited to highlight the different roles of steric and hydrodynamic effects. Our results reveal that both kinds of forces are crucial for the correct description of the interaction of this class of flagellated microorganisms with boundaries.

  5. Flow, slippage and a hydrodynamic boundary condition of polymers at surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, M; Pastorino, C; Servantie, J [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Georg-August-Universitaet, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany)], E-mail: mmueller@theorie.physik.uni-goettingen.de

    2008-12-10

    Tailoring surface interactions or grafting of polymers onto surfaces is a versatile tool for controlling wettability, lubrication, adhesion and interactions between surfaces. Using molecular dynamics of a coarse-grained, bead-spring model and dynamic single-chain-in-mean-field simulations, we investigate how structural changes near the surface affect the flow of a polymer melt over the surface and how these changes can be parameterized by a hydrodynamic boundary condition. We study the temperature dependence of the near-surface flow of a polymer melt at a corrugated, attractive surface. At weakly attractive surfaces, lubrication layers form, the slip length is large and increases upon cooling. Close to the glass transition temperature, very large slip lengths are observed. At a more attractive surface, a 'sticky surface layer' is build up, giving rise to a small slip length. Upon cooling, the slip length decreases at high temperatures, passes through a minimum and increases upon approaching the glass transition temperature. At strongly attractive surfaces, the Navier slip condition fails to describe Couette and Poiseuille flows simultaneously. A similar failure of the Navier slip condition is observed for the flow of a polymer melt over a brush comprised of identical molecules. The wetting and flow properties of this surface are rather complex. Most notably, the cyclic motion of the grafted molecules gives rise to a reversal of the flow direction at the grafting surface. The failure of the Navier slip condition in both cases can be rationalized within a schematic, two-layer model, which demonstrates that the Navier slip condition fails to simultaneously describe Poiseuille and Couette flow if the fluid at the surface exhibits a higher viscosity than the bulk.

  6. An Hourglass Control Algorithm for Lagrangian Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ganzenmüller, Georg C

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a stabilization scheme which addresses the rank-deficiency problem in meshless collocation methods for solid mechanics. Specifically, Smooth-Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) in the Total Lagrangian formalism is considered. This method is rank-deficient in the sense that the SPH approximation of the deformation gradient is not unique with respect to the positions of the integration points. The non-uniqueness can result in the formation of zero-energy modes. If undetected, these modes can grow and completely dominate the solution. Here, an algorithm is introduced, which effectively suppresses these modes in a fashion similar to hour-glass control mechanisms in Finite-Element methods. Simulations utilizing this control algorithm result exhibit much improved stability, accuracy, and error convergence properties. In contrast to an alternative method which eliminates zero-energy modes, namely the use of additional integration points, the here presented algorithm is easy to implement and computationa...

  7. Thermophoresis at a charged surface: the role of hydrodynamic slip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morthomas, Julien; Würger, Alois

    2009-01-21

    By matching boundary layer hydrodynamics with slippage to the force-free flow at larger distances, we obtain the thermophoretic mobility of charged particles as a function of the Navier slip length b. A moderate value of b augments Ruckenstein's result by a term 2b/λ, where λ is the Debye length. If b exceeds the particle size a, the enhancement coefficient a/λ is independent of b but proportional to the particle size. Similar effects occur for transport driven by a salinity gradient or by an electric field.

  8. Active control of magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities in hot plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igochine, Valentin (ed.) [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    Written and edited by leading plasma physics researchers. Provides a toolkit for scientists and engineers aiming to optimize plasma performance. Comprehensive treatment of different plasma instabilities. During the past century, world-wide energy consumption has risen dramatically, which leads to a quest for new energy sources. Fusion of hydrogen atoms in hot plasmas is an attractive approach to solve the energy problem, with abundant fuel, inherent safety and no long-lived radioactivity. However, one of the limits on plasma performance is due to the various classes of magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities that may occur. The physics and control of these instabilities in modern magnetic confinement fusion devices is the subject of this book. Written by foremost experts, the contributions will provide valuable reference and up-to-date research reviews for ''old hands'' and newcomers alike.

  9. Active control of magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities in hot plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    During the past century, world-wide energy consumption has risen dramatically, which leads to a quest for new energy sources. Fusion of hydrogen atoms in hot plasmas is an attractive approach to solve the energy problem, with abundant fuel, inherent safety and no long-lived radioactivity.  However, one of the limits on plasma performance is due to the various classes of magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities that may occur. The physics and control of these instabilities in modern magnetic confinement fusion devices is the subject of this book. Written by foremost experts, the contributions will provide valuable reference and up-to-date research reviews for "old hands" and newcomers alike.

  10. Lateral hydrodynamic interactions between an emulsion droplet and a flat surface evaluated by frictional force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Dagastine, Raymond R; Chan, Derek Y C; Stevens, Geoffrey W; Higashitani, Ko; Grieser, Franz

    2010-06-01

    We introduce a lateral atomic force microscopy (AFM) method to measure the hydrodynamic drag force acting on a microscopic emulsion droplet moving parallel to a flat surface. A tetradecane oil droplet formed in an aqueous solution of sodium dodecylsulfate was attached to a V-shaped atomic force microscopy cantilever, and lateral hydrodynamic interactions between the droplet and a flat glass surface were measured using a range of scanning velocities. The droplet was positioned either far from the oscillating surface or was pressed to the surface under a constant applied load. These measurements demonstrate the feasibility of using AFM to study lateral hydrodynamic interactions and lubricity between soft matter materials relevant to a large number of applications in areas as diverse as flavor delivery in foods to the applications of emulsions or emollients in personal care products.

  11. Study of hydrodynamic model in sluice controlled river networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zeng, Fantang

    2010-05-01

    Shiqi river network ,is situated in the Zhongshan city of Guangdong province in the P.R.China. The river network covers approximately 702.55km2 ,with a total river length of over 500km and extending over 34km from north to south and over 46km from east to west. The river network overlaps with the most densely populated and economically developed region in the Pear River Delta Economic Zone. In 2008 the region had a population of 1 846.9 thousands And a GDP of more than 8 2500 million RMB. All branches of the river network are encircled by the main rivers of Pear River Delta(PRD) network. With the economic and social development, all natural connections with the external rivers are controlled by the sluices, water body exchanges between the Shiqi river network and external rivers are significantly changed by human activities. The overall objective the research is to develop a tool for the local Environmental Protection Bureau to Understand and quantify the impact of the artificial construction on the hydrological cycle. The developed model can accurate representation of the water levels and flows in the study area, to allow accurate representation of the transport of pollutants. The river network topography is derived directly from the available database. Only the "major" rivers were included in the model, because cross-section data for the "minor" rivers are currently not available. In general, the 1D hydrodynamic model is provided with flow boundary conditions ("Q") at its upstream boundaries and with water level boundary conditions ("z") at its downstream boundaries. For all boundaries of Shiqi river network, there are no flow records available, all records are water level. To reflect the hydrodynamic process accurately, the author developed a new methods to set the hydrodynamic model's boundary. For each boundary, the boundary condition is "Z" when the sluice is open, and the boundary condition is "Q" while it is closed. The open or close condition is identified

  12. Surface charge and hydrodynamic coefficient measurements of Bacillus subtilis spore by optical tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Giuseppe; Rusciano, Giulia; Sasso, Antonio; Isticato, Rachele; Sirec, Teja; Ricca, Ezio

    2014-04-01

    In this work we report on the simultaneous measurement of the hydrodynamic coefficient and the electric charge of single Bacillus subtilis spores. The latter has great importance in protein binding to spores and in the adhesion of spores onto surfaces. The charge and the hydrodynamic coefficient were measured by an accurate procedure based on the analysis of the motion of single spores confined by an optical trap. The technique has been validated using charged spherical polystyrene beads. The excellent agreement of our results with the expected values demonstrates the quality of our procedure. We measured the charge of spores of B. subtilis purified from a wild type strain and from two isogenic mutants characterized by an altered spore surface. Our technique is able to discriminate the three spore types used, by their charge and by their hydrodynamic coefficient which is related to the hydrophobic properties of the spore surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. How hydrodynamics control algal blooms in the Ythan estuary, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champangern, Khruewan; Hoey, Trevor; Thomas, Rhian

    2016-04-01

    The Ythan estuary, northeast Scotland, was designated in 2000 as a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone (NVZ) under the European Commission (EC) Nitrates Directive. Much of the catchment is intensively farmed and water quality has been adversely affected by nutrients from agricultural fertilizers. As a result, algal mats develop annually on tidal flats where sediment from upstream and from the adjacent dune systems is deposited. Understanding the patterns of water (river and ocean) circulation in the estuary as well as understanding how nutrients and sediments are transported in the estuary is crucial for understanding the role of several factors (elevation; sediment characteristics; nutrient flux) control the locations and scale of annual algal blooms. In order to understand those controls, study of interactions between hydrodynamic factors and water quality, in particular chlorophyll levels, at different time scales has been carried out. The results from the study reveal complex seasonal and event-scale relationships of river flow with the amount of chlorophyll, which provide an initial comprehension of controls over the concentrations of chlorophyll in the estuary. The concentration of chlorophyll changes, whether increasing or decreasing, with regards to changes in river flow. During high flow events, high amounts of chlorophyll are found when the tide is low. During low flow events, high amounts of chlorophyll are found at high tides. These phenomena reveal that both river flow and tidal cycle affect the amount of chlorophyll in the estuary. In addition, the Delft3d flow model, which has been extensively applied to many coastal and estuarine studies is used to simulate hydrodynamic patterns in the estuary during high flow and low flow events. The model is composed of 36,450 fine resolution grids and the upstream/ downstream boundary that represents water level is based on time-series data from river flow and tidal measurements. The bathymetry used for the model domain is

  14. Lattice hydrodynamic model based traffic control: A transportation cyber-physical system approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Sun, Dihua; Liu, Weining

    2016-11-01

    Lattice hydrodynamic model is a typical continuum traffic flow model, which describes the jamming transition of traffic flow properly. Previous studies in lattice hydrodynamic model have shown that the use of control method has the potential to improve traffic conditions. In this paper, a new control method is applied in lattice hydrodynamic model from a transportation cyber-physical system approach, in which only one lattice site needs to be controlled in this control scheme. The simulation verifies the feasibility and validity of this method, which can ensure the efficient and smooth operation of the traffic flow.

  15. Free-Surface Viscous Flow Solution Methods for Ship Hydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    WACKERS, Jeroen; Koren, Barry; Raven, H.C.; Van Der Ploeg,, Atze; Starke, A.R.; Deng, G.B.; Queutey, P.; VISONNEAU, Michel; Hino, T.; Ohashi, K

    2011-01-01

    The simulation of viscous free-surface water flow is a subject that has reached a certain maturity and is nowadays used in industrial applications, like the simulation of the flow around ships. While almost all methods used are based on the Navier-Stokes equations, the discretisation methods for the water surface differ widely. Many of these highly different methods are being used with success. We review three of these methods, by describing in detail their implementation in one particular co...

  16. A VERTICAL 2D MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR HYDRODYNAMIC FLOWS WITH FREE SURFACE IN σ COORDINATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Numerical models with hydrostatic pressure have been widely utilized in studying flows in rivers, estuaries and coastal areas. The hydrostatic assumption is valid for the large-scale surface flows where the vertical acceleration can be ignored, but for some particular cases the hydrodynamic pressure is important. In this paper, a vertical 2D mathematical model with non-hydrostatic pressure was implemented in the σ coordinate. A fractional step method was used to enable the pressure to be decomposed into hydrostatic and hydrodynamic components and the predictor-corrector approach was applied to integration in time domain. Finally, several computational cases were studied to validate the importance of contributions of the hydrodynamic pressure.

  17. Free-Surface Viscous Flow Solution Methods for Ship Hydrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wackers, J.; Koren, B.; Raven, H.C.; Ploeg, A. van der; Starke, A.R.; Deng, G.B.; Queutey, P.; Visonneau, M.; Hino, T.; Ohashi, K.

    2011-01-01

    The simulation of viscous free-surface water flow is a subject that has reached a certain maturity and is nowadays used in industrial applications, like the simulation of the flow around ships. While almost all methods used are based on the Navier-Stokes equations, the discretisation methods for the

  18. Three-Dimensional Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Simulation for Liquid Droplet with Surface Tension

    CERN Document Server

    Terissa, Hanifa; Naa, Christian Fredy

    2013-01-01

    We provide a basic method of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to simulate liquid droplet with surface tension in three dimensions. Liquid droplet is a simple case for surface tension modeling. Surface tension works only on fluid surface. In SPH method, we simply apply the surface tension on the boundary particles of liquid. The particle on the 3D boundary was detected dynamically using Free-Surface Detection algorithm. The normal vector and curvature of the boundary surface were calculated simultaneously with 3D boundary surface reconstruction using Moving Least-Squares (MLS) method. Before the reconstruction, the coordinate system was transformed into a local coordinate system. Afterwards, the surface tension force which depends on curvature of the surface, was calculated and applied on the boundary particles of the droplet. We present the simulation result of droplet motion with gravity force. By using the basic method of SPH for fluid modeling, and a combination of 3D Free-Surface Detection algorithm ...

  19. Hydrodynamic Data for Manoeuvring and Control of an AUV Determined by Tank Tests and Free-Sailing Trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Christian

    1998-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV's) can be used for a large number of subsea acitivities in different modes of operation varying from the ROV-mode with on-line control and power supply from the surface, to the true AUV-mode where the vehicle performs its pre-programmed tasks with full autonomy.......For any mode of operation a complete set of hydrodynamic data will be required for the optimum design of the steering and manoeuvring equipment and strategies. Precise track-keeping and fast obstacle avoidance are important qualities of an underwater vehicle. The data necessary to investigate...... these properties and to program the control systemm comprise added mass and inertia coefficients, damping, lift and drag coefficients of the vehicle and its control surfaces, as well as resistance and propulsion characteristics. Only few hydrodynamic data for AUVs have yet been published, so dedicated tests...

  20. Hydrodynamic approach to surface pattern formation by ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Mario, E-mail: marioc@upcomillas.es [Grupo Interdisciplinar de Sistemas Complejos (GISC) and Grupo de Dinamica No Lineal (DNL), Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieri a - ICAI, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, E-28015 Madrid (Spain); Cuerno, Rodolfo [Departamento de Matematicas and GISC, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avenida de la Universidad 30, E-28911 Leganes (Spain)

    2012-02-15

    On the proper timescale, amorphous solids can flow. Solid flow can be observed macroscopically in glaciers or lead pipes, but it can also be artificially enhanced by creating defects. Ion Beam Sputtering (IBS) is a technique in which ions with energies in the 0.110 keV range impact against a solid target inducing defect creation and dynamics, and eroding its surface leading to formation of ordered nanostructures. Despite its technological interest, a basic understanding of nanopattern formation processes occurring under IBS of amorphizable targets has not been clearly established, recent experiments on Si having largely questioned knowledge accumulated during the last two decades. A number of interfacial equations have been proposed in the past to describe these phenomena, typically by adding together different contributions coming from surface diffusion, ion sputtering or mass redistribution, etc. in a non-systematic way. Here, we exploit the general idea of solids flowing due to ion impacts in order to establish a general framework into which different mechanisms (such as viscous flow, stress, diffusion, or sputtering) can be incorporated, under generic physical conservation laws. As opposed to formulating phenomenological interfacial equations, this approach allows to assess systematically the relevance and interplay of different physical mechanisms influencing surface pattern formation by IBS.

  1. The hydrodynamics of bubble rise and impact with solid surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manica, Rogerio; Klaseboer, Evert; Chan, Derek Y C

    2016-09-01

    A bubble smaller than 1mm in radius rises along a straight path in water and attains a constant speed due to the balance between buoyancy and drag force. Depending on the purity of the system, within the two extreme limits of tangentially immobile or mobile boundary conditions at the air-water interface considerably different terminal speeds are possible. When such a bubble impacts on a horizontal solid surface and bounces, interesting physics can be observed. We study this physical phenomenon in terms of forces, which can be of colloidal, inertial, elastic, surface tension and viscous origins. Recent advances in high-speed photography allow for the observation of phenomena on the millisecond scale. Simultaneous use of such cameras to visualize both rise/deformation and the dynamics of the thin film drainage through interferometry are now possible. These experiments confirm that the drainage process obeys lubrication theory for the spectrum of micrometre to millimetre-sized bubbles that are covered in this review. We aim to bridge the colloidal perspective at low Reynolds numbers where surface forces are important to high Reynolds number fluid dynamics where the effect of the surrounding flow becomes important. A model that combines a force balance with lubrication theory allows for the quantitative comparison with experimental data under different conditions without any fitting parameter.

  2. Hydrodynamics of the free surface flow in Pelton turbine buckets

    OpenAIRE

    Perrig, Alexandre; Avellan, François; Farhat, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    The design of Pelton turbines has always been more difficult than that of reaction turbines, and their performances lower. Indeed, the Pelton turbines combine 4 types of flows: (i) confined, steady-state flow in the piping systems and injector, (ii) free water jets, (iii) 3D unsteady free surface flows in the buckets, and (iv) dispersed 2-phase flows in the casing. The flow in Pelton turbines has not been analyzed so far with such detail as the flow in the reaction turbines, thus the understa...

  3. Hydrodynamics of the free surface flow in Pelton turbine buckets

    OpenAIRE

    Perrig, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    The design of Pelton turbines has always been more difficult than that of reaction turbines, and their performances lower. Indeed, the Pelton turbines combine 4 types of flows: (i) confined, steady-state flow in the piping systems and injector, (ii) free water jets, (iii) 3D unsteady free surface flows in the buckets, and (iv) dispersed 2-phase flows in the casing. The flow in Pelton turbines has not been analyzed so far with such detail as the flow in the reaction turbines, thus the understa...

  4. Hydrodynamics of interaction of particles (including cells) with surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duszyk, Marek; Doroszewski, Jan

    The study of the phenomena related to the motion of particles flowing in the proximity of the wall is pursued for purely cognitive reason as well as for some important practical purposes in various fields of technology, biology and medicine. When small spherical rigid particles move in the direction parallel to the surface their velocity is smaller than that of the fluid and depends on the ratio of the distance from the wall to the particle radius. The velocity of a particle falling down in a vertical cylinder is maximal in an eccentric position. A sphere in contact with the wall remains stationary. Translational velocity of spherical rigid particles the dimension of which are comparable to that of the tube is only slightly dependent of their lateral position. The differences in the flow parameters of deformable particles in comparison with rigid ones depend on the particle and fluid viscosity coefficient. When the particles move perpendicularly toward the wall, their velocity decreases as the particle approaches the surface. The change of particle velocity is inversely proportional to the gap. There are several theories explaining the influence of the channel diameter on the suspension viscosity (sigma phenomenon); a modern approach is based on the analysis of rheological properties of suspensions. The explanations of the Fahraeus effect (i.e. the fact that the concentration of particles flowing in a tube linking two containers are smaller than that in the containers) are based on non-uniform particle distribution in a transverse cross section and on the differences of velocities of particles and medium. The deviation of the velocity profile of a suspension of rigid particles flowing through a tube from the parabolic shape (blunting) does not depend on the flow velocity; as concerns deformable particles, however, this effect is the smaller the greater is the flow velocity. When the Reynolds number for particles is greater than 10 -3, there appears a component of

  5. A moving control volume approach to computing hydrodynamic forces and torques on immersed bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia, Nishant; Johansen, Hans; Patankar, Neelesh A.; Bhalla, Amneet Pal Singh

    2017-10-01

    We present a moving control volume (CV) approach to computing hydrodynamic forces and torques on complex geometries. The method requires surface and volumetric integrals over a simple and regular Cartesian box that moves with an arbitrary velocity to enclose the body at all times. The moving box is aligned with Cartesian grid faces, which makes the integral evaluation straightforward in an immersed boundary (IB) framework. Discontinuous and noisy derivatives of velocity and pressure at the fluid-structure interface are avoided and far-field (smooth) velocity and pressure information is used. We re-visit the approach to compute hydrodynamic forces and torques through force/torque balance equations in a Lagrangian frame that some of us took in a prior work (Bhalla et al., 2013 [13]). We prove the equivalence of the two approaches for IB methods, thanks to the use of Peskin's delta functions. Both approaches are able to suppress spurious force oscillations and are in excellent agreement, as expected theoretically. Test cases ranging from Stokes to high Reynolds number regimes are considered. We discuss regridding issues for the moving CV method in an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) context. The proposed moving CV method is not limited to a specific IB method and can also be used, for example, with embedded boundary methods.

  6. Biological implications of the hydrodynamics of swimming at or near the surface and in shallow water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, R W [Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 (Canada)], E-mail: blake@zoology.ubc.ca

    2009-03-01

    The origins and effects of wave drag at and near the surface and in shallow water are discussed in terms of the dispersive waves generated by streamlined technical bodies of revolution and by semi-aquatic and aquatic animals with a view to bearing on issues regarding the design and function of autonomous surface and underwater vehicles. A simple two-dimensional model based on energy flux, allowing assessment of drag and its associated wave amplitude, is applied to surface swimming in Lesser Scaup ducks and is in good agreement with measured values. It is argued that hydrodynamic limitations to swimming at speeds associated with the critical Froude number ({approx}0.5) and hull speed do not necessarily set biological limitations as most behaviours occur well below the hull speed. From a comparative standpoint, the need for studies on the hull displacement of different forms is emphasized. For forms in surface proximity, drag is a function of both Froude and Reynolds numbers. Whilst the depth dependence of wave drag is not particularly sensitive to Reynolds number, its magnitude is, with smaller and slower forms subject to relatively less drag augmentation than larger, faster forms that generate additional resistance due to ventilation and spray. A quasi-steady approach to the hydrodynamics of swimming in shallow water identifies substantial drag increases relative to the deeply submerged case at Froude numbers of about 0.9 that could limit the performance of semi-aquatic and aquatic animals and autonomous vehicles. A comparative assessment of fast-starting trout and upside down catfish shows that the energy losses of fast-starting fish are likely to be less for fish in surface proximity in deep water than for those in shallow water. Further work on unsteady swimming in both circumstances is encouraged. Finally, perspectives are offered as to how autonomous surface and underwater vehicles in surface proximity and shallow water could function to avoid prohibitive

  7. Pairwise Force Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics model for multiphase flow: Surface tension and contact line dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Panchenko, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel formulation of the Pairwise Force Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Model (PF-SPH) and use it to simulate two- and three-phase flows in bounded domains. In the PF-SPH model, the Navier-Stokes equations are discretized with the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method and the Young-Laplace boundary condition at the fluid-fluid interface and the Young boundary condition at the fluid-fluid-solid interface are replaced with pairwise forces added into the Navier-Stokes equations. We derive a relationship between the parameters in the pairwise forces and the surface tension and static contact angle. Next, we demonstrate the accuracy of the model under static and dynamic conditions. Finally, to demonstrate the capabilities and robustness of the model we use it to simulate flow of three fluids in a porous material.

  8. Pairwise Force Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics model for multiphase flow: Surface tension and contact line dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Panchenko, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel formulation of the Pairwise Force Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (PF-SPH) model and use it to simulate two- and three-phase flows in bounded domains. In the PF-SPH model, the Navier-Stokes equations are discretized with the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method, and the Young-Laplace boundary condition at the fluid-fluid interface and the Young boundary condition at the fluid-fluid-solid interface are replaced with pairwise forces added into the Navier-Stokes equations. We derive a relationship between the parameters in the pairwise forces and the surface tension and static contact angle. Next, we demonstrate the model's accuracy under static and dynamic conditions. Finally, we use the Pf-SPH model to simulate three phase flow in a porous medium.

  9. Hydrodynamic size distribution of gold nanoparticles controlled by repetition rate during pulsed laser ablation in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Manjón, Ana; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2011-02-01

    Most investigations on the laser generation and fragmentation of nanoparticles focus on Feret particle size, although the hydrodynamic size of nanoparticles is of great importance, for example in biotechnology for diffusion in living cells, or in engineering, for a tuned rheology of suspensions. In this sense, the formation and fragmentation of gold colloidal nanoparticles using femtosecond laser ablation at variable pulse repetition rates (100-5000 Hz) in deionized water were investigated through their plasmon resonance and hydrodynamic diameter, measured by Dynamic Light Scattering. The increment of the repetition rate does not influence the ablation efficiency, but produces a decrease of the hydrodynamic diameter and blue-shift of the plasmon resonance of the generated gold nanoparticles. Fragmentation, induced by inter-pulse irradiation of the colloids was measured online, showing to be more effective low repetition rates. The pulse repetition rate is shown to be an appropriate laser parameter for hydrodynamic size control of nanoparticles without further influence on the production efficiency.

  10. Hydrodynamic control of microphytoplankton bloom in a coastal sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, K. Narasimha; Sarma, Nittala S.; Pandi, Sudarsana Rao; Chiranjeevulu, Gundala; Kiran, Rayaprolu; Muralikrishna, R.

    2017-08-01

    The influence of hydrodynamics on phytoplankton bloom occurrence/formation has not been adequately reported. Here, we document diurnal observations in the tropical Bay of Bengal's mid-western shelf region which reveal microphytoplankton cell density maxima in association with neap tide many times more than what could be accounted for by solar insolation and nutrient levels. When in summer, phytoplankton cells were abundant and the cell density of Guinardia delicatula reached critical value by tide caused zonation, aggregation happened to an intense bloom. Mucilaginous exudates from the alga due to heat and silicate stress likely promoted and stable water column and weak winds left undisturbed, the transient bloom. The phytoplankton aggregates have implication as food resource in the benthic region implying higher fishery potential, in carbon dioxide sequestration (carbon burial) and in efforts towards improving remote sensing algorithms for chlorophyll in the coastal region.

  11. Hydrodynamic control of microphytoplankton bloom in a coastal sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Narasimha Murty; Nittala S Sarma; Sudarsana Rao Pandi; Gundala Chiranjeevulu; Rayaprolu Kiran; R Muralikrishna

    2017-08-01

    The influence of hydrodynamics on phytoplankton bloom occurrence/formation has not been adequately reported. Here, we document diurnal observations in the tropical Bay of Bengal’s mid-western shelf region which reveal microphytoplankton cell density maxima in association with neap tide many times more than what could be accounted for by solar insolation and nutrient levels. When in summer, phytoplankton cells were abundant and the cell density of Guinardia delicatula reached critical value by tide caused zonation, aggregation happened to an intense bloom. Mucilaginous exudates from the alga due to heat and silicate stress likely promoted and stable water column and weak winds left undisturbed, the transient bloom. The phytoplankton aggregates have implication as food resource in the benthic region implying higher fishery potential, in carbon dioxide sequestration (carbon burial) and in efforts towards improving remote sensing algorithms for chlorophyll in the coastal region.

  12. Assessing satellite sea surface salinity from ocean color radiometric measurements for coastal hydrodynamic model data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ronald L.; Brown, Christopher W.

    2016-07-01

    Improving forecasts of salinity from coastal hydrodynamic models would further our predictive capacity of physical, chemical, and biological processes in the coastal ocean. However, salinity is difficult to estimate in coastal and estuarine waters at the temporal and spatial resolution required. Retrieving sea surface salinity (SSS) using satellite ocean color radiometry may provide estimates with reasonable accuracy and resolution for coastal waters that could be assimilated into hydrodynamic models to improve SSS forecasts. We evaluated the applicability of satellite SSS retrievals from two algorithms for potential assimilation into National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Chesapeake Bay Operational Forecast System (CBOFS) hydrodynamic model. Of the two satellite algorithms, a generalized additive model (GAM) outperformed that of an artificial neural network (ANN), with mean bias and root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 1.27 and 3.71 for the GAM and 3.44 and 5.01 for the ANN. However, the RMSE for the SSS predicted by CBOFS (2.47) was lower than that of both satellite algorithms. Given the better precision of the CBOFS model, assimilation of satellite ocean color SSS retrievals will not improve CBOFS forecasts of SSS in Chesapeake Bay. The bias in the GAM SSS retrievals suggests that adding a variable related to precipitation may improve its performance.

  13. The effect of surface roughness on thermal-elasto-hydrodynamic model of contact mechanical seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, QingFeng; Liu, Ying; Huang, WeiFeng; Suo, ShuangFu; Wang, YuMing

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, the effect of surface roughness on sealing clearance, pressure distribution, friction torque and leakage is studied by the thermal-elasto-hydrodynamic mixed lubrication model. A convergent nominal clearance is formed by the pressure deformation and thermal deformation of the seal faces. This causes more serious wear in the inner side than that of the outer side of the contact area. Mass leakage increases with the growing of the surface roughness. The temperature and thermal deformation on the seal surface increases substantially if the roughness is reduced. The contact mechanical seals have consistent performance when the standard deviation of surface roughness is approximately 0.2 μm. In order to validate the theoretical analysis model, a method combining the measurement of three-dimensioned profile and Raman spectrum is proposed.

  14. Can satellite-derived water surface changes be used to calibrate a hydrodynamic model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Beck, Hylke; Salamon, Peter; Burek, Peter; de Roo, Ad; Thielen, Jutta

    2015-04-01

    The limited availability of recent ground observational data is one of the main challenges for validation of hydrodynamic models. This is especially relevant for real-time global applications such as flood forecasting models. In this study, we aim to use remotely-sensed data from the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS) as a proxy of river discharge time series and test its value through calibration of the hydrological model LISFLOOD. This was carried out for the time period 1998-2010 at 40 sites in Africa, Europe, North America and South America by calibrating the parameters that control the flow routing and groundwater processes. We compared the performance of the calibrated simulated discharge time series that used satellite-derived data with the ground discharge time series. Furthermore, we compared it with the independent calibrated run that used ground data and also, to the non-calibrated simulated discharge time series. The non-calibrated set up used a set of parameters which values were predefined by expert-knowledge. This is currently being used by the LISFLOOD set up model embedded in the pre-operational Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). The results of this study showed that the satellite surface water changes from the Global Flood Detection System can be used as a proxy of river discharge data, through the demonstration of its added value for model calibration and validation. Using satellite-derived data, the skill scores obtained by the calibrated simulated model discharge improved when comparing to non-calibrated simulated time series. Calibration, post-processing and data assimilation strategies of satellite data as a proxy for streamflow data within the global hydrological model are outlined and discussed.

  15. The improvement of laser induced damage resistance of optical workpiece surface by hydrodynamic effect polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wenqiang; Guan, Chaoliang; Li, Shengyi; Wang, Zhuo

    2016-10-01

    Surface and subsurface damage in optical element will greatly decrease the laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) in the intense laser optical system. Processing damage on the workpiece surface can be inevitably caused when the material is removed in brittle or plastic mode. As a non-contact polishing technology, hydrodynamic effect polishing (HEP) shows very good performance on generating an ultra-smooth surface without damage. The material is removed by chemisorption between nanoparticle and workpiece surface in the elastic mode in HEP. The subsurface damage and surface scratches can be effectively removed after the polishing process. Meanwhile ultra-smooth surface with atomic level surface roughness can be achieved. To investigate the improvement of LIDT of optical workpiece, polishing experiment was conducted on a magnetorheological finishing (MRF) silica glass sample. AFM measurement results show that all the MRF directional plastic marks have been removed clearly and the root-mean-square (rms) surface roughness has decreased from 0.673nm to 0.177nm after HEP process. Laser induced damage experiment was conducted with laser pulse of 1064nm wavelength and 10ns time width. Compared with the original state, the LEDT of the silica glass sample polished by HEP has increased from 29.78J/cm2 to 45.47J/cm2. It demonstrates that LIDT of optical element treated by HEP can be greatly improved for ultra low surface roughness and nearly defect-free surface/subsurface.

  16. Effects of hydrodynamic interactions and control within a point absorber array on electrical output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nambiar, Anup J.; Forehand, David I.M.; Kramer, Morten

    2015-01-01

    the WECs and the total power extracted by the array can be modified. In this paper, different resistive and reactive PTO control strategies, applied to a time-domain wave-to-wire model of a three-float Danish Wavestar device, are compared. The time-domain modelling approach, as opposed to the frequency...... and farms of WECs. The total power extracted by an array of WECs is influenced by the hydrodynamic interactions between them, especially when the WECs are spaced very closely. By control of the power take-off (PTO) forces and moments acting on the WECs within the array, the hydrodynamic interactions between...

  17. Design of hydrodynamically confined microfluidics: controlling flow envelope and pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Kevin V; Turner, Kevin T

    2011-04-21

    Closed-channel microfluidic devices are widely used in a number of chemical and biological applications; however, it is often difficult to interact with samples, such as cells, that are enclosed inside them. Hydrodynamically confined microflows (HCMs) allow microfluidic-type flows to be generated in open liquid environments, such as Petri dishes, thus greatly increasing the flexibility of microfluidic approaches. HCMs have previously been used for protein patterning and selective cell treatment applications, but the underlying fluid mechanics is not fully understood. Here, we examine the effect of device geometry and flow parameters on the properties of the flow envelope and pressure drop of several two-port HCM devices using a combination of experiments and modeling. A three-port device, which allows for different flow envelope shapes to be generated, is also analyzed. The experimental results agree well with the 3-D computational fluid dynamics simulations, with the majority of the measurements within 10% of the simulations. The results presented provide a framework for understanding the fluid mechanics of HCMs and will aid in the design of HCM devices for a broad range of applications.

  18. Hydrodynamic model of bacterial tumbling near a non-slip surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jian; Molaei, Mehdi

    2013-11-01

    To swim forward, wild type Escherichia coli bacteria rotate their helical flagella CCW to form a bundle; to tumble, one or more flagella rotate CW to initiate flagella unbundling and polymorphic transformation that leads to a significant change in cell orientation in comparison to original swimming direction. These random change of direction increases bacterial dispersion and also is long speculated to be a mechanism for perichtricous bacteria to escape from a surface. Our recent experimental results show that the tumbling frequency is substantially suppressed near a solid surface by 50%, and the bacterium tends to start a new run in the direction parallel to the surface. This suppression occurs at two cell length (including flagella) away from the surface whereby steric hindrance plays less significant role. Here we propose an analytical model based on hydrodynamic interaction between flagella and the solid surface. We utilize Slender Body Theory combined with the image system of the singularities for the Stoke-flow to quantify the flow around the bacterial flagella in the presence of a no-slip surface. The model includes two non-identical rigid helical flagella representing a bundle and single flagellum. We have showed that in the bulk, a repulsive force among flagella initiates the unbundling and consequently tumbling; however, in presence of a solid surface, the force is strongly mitigated that stabilize the bundle and suppress the tumbling. NIH, NSF, GoMRI.

  19. Acoustics and hydrodynamics of a drop impact on a water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chashechkin, Yu. D.; Prokhorov, V. E.

    2017-01-01

    Hydrodynamic and acoustic processes associated with a drop impact on a water surface were studied experimentally. Acoustic signals were detected underwater (with a hydrophone) and in air (with a microphone), the flow pattern was recorded with a high-speed camera, and the surface perturbation was monitored with a laser detector. The dimensionless parameters of flows (Reynolds, Froude, and Weber numbers) induced by the impact varied with fall height within the ranges of 5000 noted in a series of experiments performed at a constant fall height. The analysis of video data showed that the signal variability was induced by considerable differences in the scenarios of water entry of a drop, which assumed an ovoid shape at the end trajectory segment, in the mentioned experiments.

  20. Coupling of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics with Finite Volume method for free-surface flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrone, S.; Di Mascio, A.; Le Touzé, D.

    2016-04-01

    A new algorithm for the solution of free surface flows with large front deformation and fragmentation is presented. The algorithm is obtained by coupling a classical Finite Volume (FV) approach, that discretizes the Navier-Stokes equations on a block structured Eulerian grid, with an approach based on the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method, implemented in a Lagrangian framework. The coupling procedure is formulated in such a way that each solver is applied in the region where its intrinsic characteristics can be exploited in the most efficient and accurate way: the FV solver is used to resolve the bulk flow and the wall regions, whereas the SPH solver is implemented in the free surface region to capture details of the front evolution. The reported results clearly prove that the combined use of the two solvers is convenient from the point of view of both accuracy and computing time.

  1. Applying downscaled global climate model data to a hydrodynamic surface-water and groundwater model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Eric; Stefanova, Lydia; Smith, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation data from Global Climate Models have been downscaled to smaller regions. Adapting this downscaled precipitation data to a coupled hydrodynamic surface-water/groundwater model of southern Florida allows an examination of future conditions and their effect on groundwater levels, inundation patterns, surface-water stage and flows, and salinity. The downscaled rainfall data include the 1996-2001 time series from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting ERA-40 simulation and both the 1996-1999 and 2038-2057 time series from two global climate models: the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamic Laboratory (GFDL). Synthesized surface-water inflow datasets were developed for the 2038-2057 simulations. The resulting hydrologic simulations, with and without a 30-cm sea-level rise, were compared with each other and field data to analyze a range of projected conditions. Simulations predicted generally higher future stage and groundwater levels and surface-water flows, with sea-level rise inducing higher coastal salinities. A coincident rise in sea level, precipitation and surface-water flows resulted in a narrower inland saline/fresh transition zone. The inland areas were affected more by the rainfall difference than the sea-level rise, and the rainfall differences make little difference in coastal inundation, but a larger difference in coastal salinities.

  2. On the hydrodynamic interaction between a particle and a permeable surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon, Guy Z.; Huppert, Herbert E.; Lister, John R.; Stone, Howard A.

    2013-07-01

    The motion and deposition of a particle translating perpendicular to a rigid, permeable surface is considered. The lubrication approximation is used to derive an equation for the pressure in the gap between the particle and the permeable surface, with a symmetric shape prescribed for the particle. The hydrodynamic force on a particle is, in general, a function of the particle size and shape, the distance from the surface and the surface permeability, and its sign depends on the relative motion of the particle and the background fluid permeating through the surface. As the particle becomes flatter, this force generally increases and is more sensitive to the surface permeability. In the case of a spherical particle, closed-form, approximate solutions are obtained using perturbation methods, in the limits of small permeability and close approach to contact. It is also shown that a sedimenting particle attains a finite velocity on close approach, which scales as k1/2 and k for a sphere and a disc, respectively, where k is the permeability per unit thickness of the surface. In the case of a particle advected toward the surface, as is common in membrane filtration, a balance of electrostatic repulsion and viscous drag is used to calculate a possible equilibrium position of the particle, at some finite distance from the surface. The dependence of the equilibrium and its stability is shown in terms of the ratio of electrostatic and lubrication forces at contact, as well as the ratio of characteristic lengths over which the two forces decay away from the boundary. The latter is found to be a significant factor in determining the conditions under which a stable equilibrium exists. These results are useful for estimating deposition propensity in membrane filtration processes, as affected by operational conditions.

  3. Hydrodynamic Synchronization and Metachronal Waves on the Surface of the Colonial Alga Volvox carteri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumley, Douglas R.; Polin, Marco; Pedley, Timothy J.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2012-12-01

    From unicellular ciliates to the respiratory epithelium, carpets of cilia display metachronal waves, long-wavelength phase modulations of the beating cycles, which theory suggests may arise from hydrodynamic coupling. Experiments have been limited by a lack of organisms suitable for systematic study of flagella and the flows they create. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry, we report the discovery of metachronal waves on the surface of the colonial alga Volvox carteri, whose large size and ease of visualization make it an ideal model organism for these studies. An elastohydrodynamic model of weakly coupled compliant oscillators, recast as interacting phase oscillators, reveals that orbit compliance can produce fast, robust synchronization in a manner essentially independent of boundary conditions, and offers an intuitive understanding of a possible mechanism leading to the emergence of metachronal waves.

  4. Modeling hydrodynamic flows in plasma fluxes when depositing metal layer on the surface of catalyst converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinakhov, D. A.; Sarychev, V. D.; Granovsky, A. Yu; Solodsky, S. A.; Nevsky, S. A.; Konovalov, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    Air pollution with harmful substances resulting from combustion of liquid hydrocarbons and emitted into atmosphere became one of the global environmental problems in the late 20th century. The systems of neutralization capable to reduce toxicity of exhaust gases several times are very important for making environmentally safer combustion products discharged into the atmosphere. As revealed in the literature review, one of the most promising purification procedures is neutralization of burnt gases by catalyst converter systems. The principal working element in the converter is a catalytic layer of metals deposited on ceramics, with thickness 20-60 micron and a well-developed micro-relief. The paper presents a thoroughly substantiated new procedure of deposing a nano-scale surface layer of metal-catalyst particles, furthering the utilization of catalysts on a new level. The paper provides description of mathematical models and computational researches into plasma fluxes under high-frequency impulse input delivered to electrode material, explorations of developing Kelvin-Helmholtz, Marangoni and magnetic hydrodynamic instabilities on the surface of liquid electrode metal droplet in the nano-scale range of wavelengths to obtain a flow of nano-meter particles of cathode material. The authors have outlined a physical and mathematical model of magnetic and hydrodynamic instability for the case of melt flowing on the boundary with the molten metal with the purpose to predict the interphase shape and mutual effect of formed plasma jet and liquid metal droplet on the electrode in the nano-scale range of wavelengths at high-frequency impact on the boundary “electrode-liquid layer”.

  5. Ventilation Inception and Washout, Scaling, and Effects on Hydrodynamic Performance of a Surface Piercing Strut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Casey; Young, Yin Lu; Ceccio, Steven

    2014-11-01

    High-lift devices that operate at or near a fluid free surface (such as surface-piercing or shallowly-submerged propellers and hydrofoils) are prone to a multiphase flow phenomenon called ventilation, wherein non-condensable gas is entrained in the low-pressure flow, forming a cavity around the body and dramatically altering the global hydrodynamic forces. Experiments are being conducted at the University of Michigan's towing tank using a canonical surface-piercing strut to investigate atmospheric ventilation. The goals of the work are (i) to gain an understanding of the dominant physics in fully wetted, partially ventilated, and fully ventilated flow regimes, (ii) to quantify the effects of governing dimensionless parameters on the transition between flow regimes, and (iii) to develop scaling relations for the transition between flow regimes. Using theoretical arguments and flow visualization techniques, new criteria are developed for classifying flow regimes and transition mechanisms. Unsteady transition mechanisms are described and mapped as functions of the governing non-dimensional parameters. A theoretical scaling relationship is developed for ventilation washout, which is shown to adequately capture the experimentally-observed washout boundary. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Student Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE 1256260. Support also comes from the Naval Engineering Education Center (Award No. N65540-10-C-003).

  6. New control strategy for the lattice hydrodynamic model of traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenqiang; Zhong, Shiquan; Li, Guangyu; Ma, Shoufeng

    2017-02-01

    The new delayed-feedback control strategy is applied for lattice hydrodynamic model of traffic flow by considering the control signal of the variation rate of the optimal velocity. The linear stability condition is derived in the frequency-domain with control theory. Then, different feedback gains under the periodic boundary scenery and on-ramp scenery are simulated. The periodic boundary scenery provides an initial small disturbance situation on the circle road, while the on-ramp scenery reproduces the disturbance triggered by the on-ramp on the open road. Both the theoretical analysis and simulations show that this new control signal has a positive effect to suppress traffic jams.

  7. Hydrodynamic Controls on Acoustical and Optical Water Properties in Tropical Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    change, coral bleaching and the future of the world’s coral reefs . Mar. Freshw. Res., 50, 839-866. McKee and Cunningham, 2005. Evidence for wavelength...the dominant hydrodynamic controls across different reef environments? Tropical coral health can be significantly affected by sedimentation that can...collaborative field work by the PIs, carried out in collaboration with UCSD SIO (PI: Terrill) and the Coral Reef Research Foundation in Koror (PI

  8. Hydrodynamic parameters estimation from self-potential data in a controlled full scale site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidichimo, Francesco; De Biase, Michele; Rizzo, Enzo; Masi, Salvatore; Straface, Salvatore

    2015-03-01

    A multi-physical approach developed for the hydrodynamic characterization of porous media using hydrogeophysical information is presented. Several pumping tests were performed in the Hydrogeosite Laboratory, a controlled full-scale site designed and constructed at the CNR-IMAA (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - Istituto di Metodologia per l'Analisi Ambientale), in Marsico Nuovo (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy), in order to obtain an intermediate stage between laboratory experiments and field survey. The facility consists of a pool, used to study water infiltration processes, to simulate the space and time dynamics of subsurface contamination phenomena, to improve and to find new relationship between geophysical and hydrogeological parameters, to test and to calibrate new geophysical techniques and instruments. Therefore, the Hydrogeosite Laboratory has the advantage of carrying out controlled experiments, like in a flow cell or sandbox, but at field comparable scale. The data collected during the experiments have been used to estimate the saturated hydraulic conductivity ks [ms-1] using a coupled inversion model working in transient conditions, made up of the modified Richards equation describing the water flow in a variably saturated porous medium and the Poisson equation providing the self-potential ϕ [V], which naturally occurs at points of the soil surface owing to the presence of an electric field produced by the motion of underground electrolytic fluids through porous systems. The result obtained by this multi-physical numerical approach, which removes all the approximations adopted in previous works, makes a useful instrument for real heterogeneous aquifer characterization and for predictive analysis of its behavior.

  9. Effects of Surface Irregularities on Piston Ring-Cylinder Tribo Pair of a Two Stroke Motor Engine in Hydrodynamic Lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zavos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tribological parameters such as friction, lubrication and wear influence strongly the engine component's life. In this study, a piston ring-cylinder system simulated taking into account the surface modifications under fully flooded lubrication and normal engine conditions. The hydrodynamic pressure field solved based on the Navier Stokes equations by Fluid Structure Interaction analysis. A real experimental data of piston ring-cylinder was used from a two stroke motor engine 50 cc. The surface irregularities are measured by 3D coordinate measurement machine while the engine has been worked about 4000 hours. The friction force, the hydrodynamic pressure, the oil film and the mechanical stresses were predicted for different engine conditions. Results show that the worn profile ring reduces the friction as well as the mechanical stresses increased. Surface condition of worn top ring was observed after a metallurgical profile analysis.

  10. Smolt Responses to Hydrodynamic Conditions in Forebay Flow Nets of Surface Flow Outlets, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Hedgepeth, J. B.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Anderson, Michael G.; Deng, Zhiqun; Khan, Fenton; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Sather, Nichole K.; Serkowski, John A.; Steinbeck, John R.

    2009-04-01

    This study provides information on juvenile salmonid behaviors at McNary and The Dalles dams that can be used by the USACE, fisheries resource managers, and others to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance fish passage. We researched smolt movements and ambient hydrodynamic conditions using a new approach combining simultaneous acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and acoustic imaging device (AID) measurements at surface flow outlets (SFO) at McNary and The Dalles dams on the Columbia River during spring and summer 2007. Because swimming effort vectors could be computed from the simultaneous fish and flow data, fish behavior could be categorized as passive, swimming against the flow (positively rheotactic), and swimming with the flow (negatively rheotactic). We present bivariate relationships to provide insight into fish responses to particular hydraulic variables that engineers might consider during SFO design. The data indicate potential for this empirical approach of simultaneous water/fish measurements to lead to SFO design guidelines in the future.

  11. Towards accelerating Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics simulations for free-surface flows on multi-GPU clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Valdez-Balderas, Daniel; Rogers, Benedict D; Crespo, Alejandro J C

    2012-01-01

    Starting from the single graphics processing unit (GPU) version of the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code DualSPHysics, a multi-GPU SPH program is developed for free-surface flows. The approach is based on a spatial decomposition technique, whereby different portions (sub-domains) of the physical system under study are assigned to different GPUs. Communication between devices is achieved with the use of Message Passing Interface (MPI) application programming interface (API) routines. The use of the sorting algorithm radix sort for inter-GPU particle migration and sub-domain halo building (which enables interaction between SPH particles of different subdomains) is described in detail. With the resulting scheme it is possible, on the one hand, to carry out simulations that could also be performed on a single GPU, but they can now be performed even faster than on one of these devices alone. On the other hand, accelerated simulations can be performed with up to 32 million particles on the current architec...

  12. Online measurements of surface tensions and viscosities based on the hydrodynamics of Taylor flow in a microchannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanhong; Guo, Chaohong; Jiang, Yuyan; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Lei

    2016-11-01

    This paper demonstrates an online measurement technique which can measure both surface tension and viscosity for confined fluids in microfluidic systems. The surface tension and viscosity are determined by monitoring the liquid film thickness deposited in a microchannel based on the hydrodynamics of Taylor flow. Measurements were carried out for pure liquids and binary aqueous liquid mixtures. The results agreed well with reference data and theoretical models. This novel method has considerable potential for measuring dynamic interfacial tension of complex mixtures. Furthermore, it offers opportunity for integrating property measurement with two-phase flow in microchannel, opening new lines of applications.

  13. Formulation optimization of hydrodynamically balanced oral controlled release bioadhesive tablets of tramadol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhupinder; Rani, Ashu; Babita; Ahuja, Naveen; Kapil, Rishi

    2010-01-01

    The directly compressible floating-bioadhesive tablets of tramadol were formulated using varying amounts Carbopol 971P (CP) and hydroxy-propylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), along with other requisite excipients. In vitro drug release profile, floatational characteristics and ex vivo bioadhesive strength using texture analyzer were determined, and systematically optimized using a 3(2) central composite design (CCD). The studies indicated successful formulation of gastroretentive compressed matrices with excellent controlled release, mucoadhesion and hydrodynamic balance. Comparison of the dissolution profiles of the optimized formulation, with optimal composition of CP:HPMC :: 80.0:125.0, with that of the marketed controlled release formulation other indicated analogy of drug release performance with each other. Validation of optimization study using eight confirmatory experimental runs indicated very high degree of prognostic ability of CCD with mean  SEM of â0.06%  0.37. Further, the study successfully unravels the effect of the polymers on the selected response variables.

  14. Modeling of fluid-induced vibrations and identification of hydrodynamic forces on flow control valves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samad Mehrzad; Ilgar Javanshir; Ahmad Rahbar Ranji; Seyyed Hadi Taheri

    2015-01-01

    Dynamics and vibration of control valves under flow-induced vibration are analyzed. Hydrodynamic load characteristics and structural response under flow-induced vibration are mainly influenced by inertia, damping, elastic, geometric characteristics and hydraulic parameters. The purpose of this work is to investigate the dynamic behavior of control valves in the response to self-excited fluid flow. An analytical and numerical method is developed to simulate the dynamic and vibrational behavior of sliding dam valves, in response to flow excitation. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed model, the simulation results are validated with experimental ones. Finally, to achieve the optimal valve geometry, numerical results for various shapes of valves are compared. Rounded valve with the least amount of flow turbulence obtains lower fluctuations and vibration amplitude compared with the flat and steep valves. Simulation results demonstrate that with the optimal design requirements of valves, vibration amplitude can be reduced by an average to 30%.

  15. Thermodynamically consistent description of the hydrodynamics of free surfaces covered by insoluble surfactants of high concentration

    CERN Document Server

    Thiele, Uwe; Plapp, Mathis

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose several models that describe the dynamics of liquid films which are covered by a high concentration layer of insoluble surfactant. First, we briefly review the 'classical' hydrodynamic form of the coupled evolution equations for the film height and surfactant concentration that are well established for small concentrations. Then we re-formulate the basic model as a gradient dynamics based on an underlying free energy functional that accounts for wettability and capillarity. Based on this re-formulation in the framework of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, we propose extensions of the basic hydrodynamic model that account for (i) nonlinear equations of state, (ii) surfactant-dependent wettability, (iii) surfactant phase transitions, and (iv) substrate-mediated condensation. In passing, we discuss important differences to most of the models found in the literature.

  16. Thermodynamically consistent description of the hydrodynamics of free surfaces covered by insoluble surfactants of high concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Thiele, Uwe; Archer, Andrew J.; Plapp, Mathis

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose several models that describe the dynamics of liquid films which are covered by a high concentration layer of insoluble surfactant. First, we briefly review the 'classical' hydrodynamic form of the coupled evolution equations for the film height and surfactant concentration that are well established for small concentrations. Then we re-formulate the basic model as a gradient dynamics based on an underlying free energy functional that accounts for wettability and capill...

  17. CHNHYD: a channel hydrodynamic model for simulating flows and water surface elevations in a stream/river network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, G.T.

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of the development of a channel hydrodynamic model for simulating the behavior of flows and water surface elevations in a river network that may consist of any number of joined and branched rivers/streams, including both tidal and nontidal rivers. The model employs a numerical method, an integrated compartment method (ICM). The basic procedures of the ICM are first to discretize the river/stream system into compartments of various sizes, then to apply three integral theorems of vectors to transform the n-dimensional volume integral into an (n - 1)-dimensional surface integral, and finally to close the system by using simple interpolation to relate the interfacial values in terms of the compartment values. Thus, the method greatly facilitates the setup of algebraic equations for the discrete field approximating the corresponding continuous field. Most of the possible boundary conditions that may be anticipated in real-world problems are considered. These include junctions, prescribed flow, prescribed water surface elevation (or cross-sectional area), and rating curve boundaries. The use of ICM makes the implementation of these four types of boundary conditions relatively easy. The model is applied to two case studies: first to a single river and then to a network of five river channels in a watershed. Results indicate that the model can definitely simulate the behavior of the hydrodynamic variables that are required to compute chemical transport in a river/stream network.

  18. Hydrodynamics of free surface flows modelling with the finite element method

    CERN Document Server

    Hervouet, Jean-Michel

    2007-01-01

    A definitive guide for accurate state-of-the-art modelling of free surface flows Understanding the dynamics of free surface flows is the starting point of many environmental studies, impact studies, and waterworks design. Typical applications, once the flows are known, are water quality, dam impact and safety, pollutant control, and sediment transport. These studies used to be done in the past with scale models, but these are now being replaced by numerical simulation performed by software suites called "hydro-informatic systems". The Telemac system is the leading software package worldwide, and has been developed by Electricité de France and Jean-Michel Hervouet, who is the head and main developer of the Telemac project. Written by a leading authority on Computational Fluid Dynamics, the book aims to provide environmentalists, hydrologists, and engineers using hydro-informatic systems such as Telemac and the finite element method, with the knowledge of the basic principles, capabilities, different hypothese...

  19. Thermal Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication by Non - Fluids with Rough Surfaces: its Application to Spur Gear Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian M.

    1995-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the behavior of thermal elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication by non-Newtonian fluids under rough surfaces has been conducted. The study consists of two parts. In the first part, a general line contact elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication model is derived, which integrates several critical effects such as rheological characteristics of lubricants, roughness and temperature into one system. A more effective numerical algorithm is adopted to obtains the solutions under wide ranges of operating conditions. Observations and extensive discussions of the results lead to further understand the phenomena of the different interactions among the various factors in a elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication process. In the second part, the forgoing theory is applied to the specific problem of the spur gear transmission. Various kinematics and dynamics features associated with the lubrication process in the spur gear have been investigated. The results has shown that the pitch point EHL film thickness does not reliably represent the minimum EHL film thickness. The full thermal EHL calculation along the line of action is needed in order to predict the minimum film thickness and pressure peak more precisely. The actual location of the minimum film thickness along the line of action is strongly influenced by the dynamic load sharing profile. Surface roughness has the moderate effect on the gear lubrication. The effects become more significant when the roughness amplitudes approach the nominal film thickness. Non-Newtonian behavior of lubricants may significantly alter the level of the minimum film thickness and temperature distribution, but has only small effect on pressure peak.

  20. Hydrodynamic effects on coalescence.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimiduk, Thomas G.; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Grillet, Anne Mary; Baer, Thomas A.; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Loewenberg, Michael (Yale University, New Haven, CT); Gorby, Allen D.; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2006-10-01

    The goal of this project was to design, build and test novel diagnostics to probe the effect of hydrodynamic forces on coalescence dynamics. Our investigation focused on how a drop coalesces onto a flat surface which is analogous to two drops coalescing, but more amenable to precise experimental measurements. We designed and built a flow cell to create an axisymmetric compression flow which brings a drop onto a flat surface. A computer-controlled system manipulates the flow to steer the drop and maintain a symmetric flow. Particle image velocimetry was performed to confirm that the control system was delivering a well conditioned flow. To examine the dynamics of the coalescence, we implemented an interferometry capability to measure the drainage of the thin film between the drop and the surface during the coalescence process. A semi-automated analysis routine was developed which converts the dynamic interferogram series into drop shape evolution data.

  1. Hydrodynamic Characterization of a Surface Storage Zone in a Natural Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval Ulloa, J. C.; Escauriaza, C. R.; Mignot, E.; Mao, L.

    2015-12-01

    Flow developed in surface storage zones in rivers is very important for many physical and biogeochemical processes. These regions are characterized by low velocities compared to the flow in the main channel and long residence times that favor the deposition of contaminants, nutrient uptake and interactions with reactive sediments. The dynamics of the turbulent flows in these zones is very complex, typically characterized by a shear layer that induces a recirculating area, with multiple large-scale coherent structures of different temporal and spatial scales. In this work we present the methodology and analysis of measurements in a natural surface storage zone. We report detailed information of a field campaign carried out in the Lluta River, located in northern Chile in the high altitude Andean environment known as the Altiplano (~4,000 masl). The area of study has great interest for the river ecosystem, since the water has high concentration levels of arsenic and other metals. The Lluta River is also a water source for many agricultural communities and urban centers located in the lower parts of the watershed. Field information obtained was: detailed topography, 3D velocity components in several points, and sediment arsenic concentration in the main channel and in the recirculating region of the natural surface storage zone. Topography was obtained through DGPS and digital image processing. The 3D velocity field was measured with an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) and surface velocity data was obtained through the LSPIV technique. Arsenic concentration was obtained by sediment sampling analysis. With this data we analyze the flow topology and characteristics features of the velocity, which constitute the controlling mechanisms of contaminant transport in the field. In addition, we contrast with preliminary results of a three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulation, to determine the influence of different parameters on the transport and mixing processes in natural

  2. Effect of hydrodynamics and surface roughness on the electrochemical behaviour of carbon steel in CSG produced water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyu, Gaius Debi; Will, Geoffrey; Dekkers, Willem; MacLeod, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    The influence of fluid flow, surface roughness and immersion time on the electrochemical behaviour of carbon steel in coal seam gas produced water under static and hydrodynamic conditions has been studied. The disc electrode surface morphology before and after the corrosion test was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion product was examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD).The results show that the anodic current density increased with increasing surface roughness and consequently a decrease in corrosion surface resistance. Under dynamic flow conditions, the corrosion rate increased with increasing rotating speed due to the high mass transfer coefficient and formation of non-protective akaganeite β-FeO(OH) and goethite α-FeO(OH) corrosion scale at the electrode surface. The corrosion rate was lowest at 0 rpm. The corrosion rate decreased in both static and dynamic conditions with increasing immersion time. The decrease in corrosion rate is attributed to the deposition of corrosion products on the electrode surface. SEM results revealed that the rougher surface exhibited a great tendency toward pitting corrosion.

  3. Experimental evidence of how the fractal structure controls the hydrodynamic resistance on granular aggregates moving through water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Federico

    2015-09-01

    A comprehensive set of experiments was carried out to investigate the effect of the fractal architecture of granular aggregates on the free-fall acceleration through a still water column. Test aggregates were first generated numerically with a method that allowed to control the fractal dimension d and, next, three stochastic replicates were lithographically fabricated for each of six values of d ranging between 1.9 and 2.7. The recorded position, velocity and acceleration served to analyze their dynamics in the Reynolds and Galilei number space, and to calculate the momentum rate of change and the intensity of drag (viscous and impact) and inertial forces (added mass and Basset-Bousinnesq). Analysis of these forces highlighted a strong dependence on d; additionally, integration of these forces in the particle momentum equation allowed to identify an additional resistance Rx that showed a strong correlation with d. A correlation analysis of Rx with various scaling laws combining velocity and acceleration suggested that Rx could be described by a nonlinear drag force and a force intermediate between drag and inertia. It was therefore concluded that irregular granular fractal aggregates accelerating in water are subject to highly complex and nonlinear hydrodynamic effects caused by surface roughness and volume porosity, and that these effects have tight connection with the internal and external fractal characteristics of the aggregates.

  4. Hourglass control for Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics removes tensile and rank-deficiency instabilities. Hourglass control for SPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzenmüller, G. C.; Sauer, M.; May, M.; Hiermaier, S.

    2016-05-01

    We present a stabilization scheme for elastoplastic Smooth-Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) which overcomes two major challenges: (i) the tensile instability inherent to the updated Lagrangian approach is suppressed and (ii) the rank-deficiency instability inherent to the nodal integration approach is cured. To achieve these goals, lessons learned from the Finite-Element Method are transferred to SPH. In particular, an analogue of hourglass control is derived for SPH, which locally linearizes the deformation field to obtain stable and accurate solutions, without the need to resort to stabilization via excessive artificial viscosity. The resulting SPH scheme combines the ability of updated Lagrangian SPH to model truly large deformations with the accuracy and stability needed to faithfully perform simulations. This claim is supported by the analysis of problematic cases and the simulation of an impact scenario.

  5. Surface-effect corrections for solar-like oscillations using 3D hydrodynamical simulations. I. Adiabatic oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoi, T.; Samadi, R.; Belkacem, K.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Caffau, E.; Mosser, B.

    2015-11-01

    Context. The CoRoT and Kepler space-borne missions have provided us with a wealth of high-quality observational data that allows for seismic inferences of stellar interiors. This requires the computation of precise and accurate theoretical frequencies, but imperfect modeling of the uppermost stellar layers introduces systematic errors. To overcome this problem, an empirical correction has been introduced by Kjeldsen et al. (2008, ApJ, 683, L175) and is now commonly used for seismic inferences. Nevertheless, we still lack a physical justification allowing for the quantification of the surface-effect corrections. Aims: Our aim is to constrain the surface-effect corrections across the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram using a set of 3D hydrodynamical simulations. Methods: We used a grid of these simulations computed with the CO5BOLD code to model the outer layers of solar-like stars. Upper layers of the corresponding 1D standard models were then replaced by the layers obtained from the horizontally averaged 3D models. The frequency differences between these patched models and the 1D standard models were then calculated using the adiabatic approximation and allowed us to constrain the Kjeldsen et al. power law, as well as a Lorentzian formulation. Results: We find that the surface effects on modal frequencies depend significantly on both the effective temperature and the surface gravity. We further provide the variation in the parameters related to the surface-effect corrections using their power law as well as a Lorentzian formulation. Scaling relations between these parameters and the elevation (related to the Mach number) is also provided. The Lorentzian formulation is shown to be more robust for the whole frequency spectrum, while the power law is not suitable for the frequency shifts in the frequency range above νmax. Finally, we show that, owing to turbulent pressure, the elevation of the uppermost layers modifies the location of the hydrogen ionization zone and

  6. Hydrodynamic controls on oxygen dynamics in a riverine salt wedge estuary, the Yarra River estuary, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, L. C.; Cook, P. L. M.; Teakle, I.; Hipsey, M. R.

    2014-04-01

    Oxygen depletion in coastal and estuarine waters has been increasing rapidly around the globe over the past several decades, leading to decline in water quality and ecological health. In this study we apply a numerical model to understand how salt wedge dynamics, changes in river flow and temperature together control oxygen depletion in a micro-tidal riverine estuary, the Yarra River estuary, Australia. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models have been previously applied to study how hydrodynamics impact upon seasonal hypoxia; however, their application to relatively shallow, narrow riverine estuaries with highly transient patterns of river inputs and sporadic periods of oxygen depletion has remained challenging, largely due to difficulty in accurately simulating salt wedge dynamics in morphologically complex areas. In this study we overcome this issue through application of a flexible mesh 3-D hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model in order to predict the extent of salt wedge intrusion and consequent patterns of oxygen depletion. The extent of the salt wedge responded quickly to the sporadic riverine flows, with the strength of stratification and vertical density gradients heavily influenced by morphological features corresponding to shallow points in regions of tight curvature ("horseshoe" bends). The spatiotemporal patterns of stratification led to the emergence of two "hot spots" of anoxia, the first downstream of a shallow region of tight curvature and the second downstream of a sill. Whilst these areas corresponded to regions of intense stratification, it was found that antecedent conditions related to the placement of the salt wedge played a major role in the recovery of anoxic regions following episodic high flow events. Furthermore, whilst a threshold salt wedge intrusion was a requirement for oxygen depletion, analysis of the results allowed us to quantify the effect of temperature in determining the overall severity and extent of hypoxia and anoxia. Climate

  7. Hydrodynamic control of phytoplankton loss to the benthos in an estuarine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, N.L.; Thompson, J.K.; Arrigo, K.R.; Monismith, Stephen G.

    2009-01-01

    Field experiments were undertaken to measure the influence of hydrodynamics on the removal of phytoplankton by benthic grazers in Suisun Slough, North San Francisco Bay. Chlorophyll a concentration boundary layers were found over beds inhabited by the active suspension feeders Corbula amurensis and Corophium alienense and the passive suspension feeders Marenzellaria viridis and Laonome sp. Benthic losses of phytoplankton were estimated via both the control volume and the vertical flux approach, in which chlorophyll a concentration was used as a proxy for phytoplankton biomass. The rate of phytoplankton loss to the bed was positively correlated to the bed shear stress. The maximum rate of phytoplankton loss to the bed was five times larger than estimated by laboratory-derived pumping rates for the active suspension feeders. Reasons for this discrepancy are explored including a physical mechanism whereby phytoplankton is entrained in a near-bed fluff layer where aggregation is mediated by the presence of mucus produced by the infaunal community. ?? 2009, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  8. Size-Controlled Fabrication of Polyaniline Microfibers Based on 3D Hydrodynamic Focusing Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Imsung; Song, Simon; Uh, Kyungchan; Lee, Chan Woo; Kim, Jong-Man

    2015-07-01

    Owing to the relatively high conductivity and unique redox behavior, polyaniline (PANI) has been one of the most technologically promising conducting polymers. Although various methodologies have been developed, fabrication of PANI microfibers has been a challenging task owing to the poor solubility in most organic solvents. By taking advantage of a microfluidic technology and organic soluble acid labile t-Boc-protected PANI (t-Boc-PANI) as the conducting polymer precursor, fabrication of PANI microfibers in a size-controlled manner is possible. Introduction of a THF solution containing t-Boc-PANI, and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) as a core flow, and water as a sheath flow into a microfluidic channel with a 3D hydrodynamic focusing effect results in crystallization of the polymer fiber. By changing the flow rate, linear PANI microfibers that range from 16.2 to 39.4 μm in diameter are readily obtained. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Vertical 2D Modeling of Free Surface Flow with Hydrodynamic Pressure Using SIMPLE Arithmetic in σ Coordinates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴修广; 沈永明; 郑永红

    2004-01-01

    A numerical model for shallow water flow has been developed based on the unsteady Reynolds-averaged NavierStokes equations with the hydrodynamic pressure instead of hydrostatic pressure assumption. The equations are transformed into the σ-coordinate system and the eddy viscosity is calculated with the standard k - e turbulence model. The control volume method is used to discrete the equations, and the boundary conditions at the bed for shallow water models only include vertical diffusion terms expressed with wall functions. And the semi-implicit method for pressure linked equation arithmetic is adopted to solve the equations. The model is applied to the 2D vertical plane flow of a curent over two steep-sided trenches for which experiment data are available for comparison and good agreement is obtained. And the model is used to predicting the flow in a channel with a steep-sided submerged breakwater at the bottom, and the streamline is drawn.

  10. Hydrodynamic surface fluctuations of polymer films by coherent X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunjung [Department of Physics and Interdisciplinary Program of Integrated Biotechnology, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: hkim@sogang.ac.kr; Jiang, Zhang [Department of Physics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 United States (United States); Lee, Heeju [Department of Physics and Interdisciplinary Program of Integrated Biotechnology, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Joo [Department of Physics and Interdisciplinary Program of Integrated Biotechnology, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jiao, Xuesong; Li, Chunhua [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794 United States (United States); Lurio, Laurence [Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, De Kalb, IL 60115 United States (United States); Rafailovich, Miriam [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794 United States (United States); Sinha, S.K. [Department of Physics and Interdisciplinary Program of Integrated Biotechnology, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-Dong, Mapo-Gu Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); LANSCE, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 United States (United States)

    2007-05-23

    We have applied X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) to measure the surface dynamics of polymer films of thicknesses down to a few times of the polymer radius of gyration. XPCS is currently the only technique to measure selectively dynamics of surface and/or interfacial fluctuations of the films thanks to high brilliance and coherence of the third generation synchrotron source. The results show the behavior of the capillary waves expected in viscous liquid when the film thickness is thicker than four times of the radius of gyration. However, thinner films show a deviation indicating the need to account for viscoelasticity. We present also the theory for surface dynamics of the thermally excited fluctuations on homogenous single-layer film with arbitrary depth is generalized to describe surface and interfacial dynamics of polymeric liquid bilayer films in terms of susceptibilities, power spectra and characteristic relaxation time constants. The effects on surface dynamics originating from viscosity inhomogeneities close to surface region are investigated by the bilayer theory and compared with the surface dynamics from homogeneous single-layer films under non-slip and slip boundary conditions.

  11. Hydrodynamics of dip-coated thin films in the presence of evaporation, and, Surfactant structures controlling spontaneous dewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Dan

    In this dissertation, we discuss the investigation of two problems in dynamic wetting: the hydrodynamics of dip-coated, finite-length films of evaporative fluids and the surfactant structures controlling the spontaneous dewetting of a surfactant solution. While films pulled from non-volatile fluids on a vertical substrate are essentially infinite in length, films pulled from volatile fluids have a finite length. We examine such finite films using three well-controlled oligomer liquids as well as surfactant solutions. We find that the finite length of the film is controlled by a global balance between mass lost by evaporation and mass input by viscous forces. While the attendant thermally driven Marangoni flows have small impact on the mass balance, they do alter the velocity field in the film in the direction parallel to the substrate. Using measured film profiles, wit have developed a novel method to determine the combined effects of evaporation and Marangoni flow on velocity and pressure fields in the film. This method is independent of any specific model of the evaporation process. In preliminary studies with surfactant solutions, we observed strong effects of solutal Marangoni flows on dip-coated films. For the second problem, we examine the structures of self-assemblies left on a solid as a contact line spontaneously retreats across a surface during an autophobing event. We find that surfactants of a continuous structural gradient are deposited: from molecules lying down on the surface with low packing densities in a region never touched by the solution, to molecules standing up with higher packing densities in a region where the contact line has moved slowly. Despite significant free volumes within the self-assemblies, we see no evidence of clustering of molecules. We see a clear correlation between contact line speed and the surfactant structures. We show that the dynamics during at least a later period of the autophobing event is dominated by the time

  12. Improvement of water-repellent and hydrodynamic drag reduction properties on bio-inspired surface and exploring sharkskin effect mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuehao; Liu, Yufei; Anderson, James; Li, Xiang; Li, Yuanyue

    2015-07-01

    Bio-inspired/biomimetic surface technologies focusing on sharkskin, lotus leaf, gecko feet, and others have attracted so lots of attentions from all over the world; meanwhile, they have also brought great advantages and profits for mankind. Sharkskin drag-reducing/low-resistance surface is the imperative consequence of nature selection and self-evolution in the long history, which can enable itself accommodate the living environments perfectly. Generally speaking, sharkskin effect can become transparent only in some certain velocity scope. How to expand its application range and enhance the drag reduction function further has developed into the urgent issue. In this article, the water-repellent and hydrodynamic drag-reducing effects are improved by adjusting sharkskin texture. The experimental results show that contact angle of more than 150° is achieved, and drag-reducing property is improved to some extent. In addition, the drag-reducing mechanism is explored and generalized from different aspects adopting the numerical simulation, which has important significance to comprehend sharkskin effect.

  13. On orbit surfacing of thermal control surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    Substrates to be contaminated and contamination source were prepared. Additional information on paint spray method apparatus was obtained. Silver teflon second surface mirror samples and S 13 GLO paint samples were mounted, photographed under the microscope and measured to establish baseline data. Atomic oxygen cleaning and spray painting are being considered. Electrostatic powder and plasma spray coating systems appear to have serious drawbacks.

  14. A COMPUTATIONAL HYDRODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF DUISBURG TEST CASE WITH FREE SURFACE AND PROPELLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Kemal Kinaci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the effects of the free surface and the propeller on a benchmark Post-Panamax Ship, Duisburg Test Case (DTC. The experimental results are already available in the literature. The computational study carried out in this work is verified first with the experiments and then used to explain some of the physical aspects associated with viscous ship flows. There are two interesting outcomes of this work. The first one is, the existence of the propeller contributes to the pressure resistance of the ship by increasing the wave elevations along the hull and the fluid domain substantially. The second outcome is; by changing the pressure distribution along the hull and the propeller, the free surface increases the efficiency of the propulsion system. These specific outcomes are thoroughly discussed in the paper with CFD generated results and physical explanations.

  15. A simple hydrodynamic model of a laminar free-surface jet in horizontal or vertical flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustein, Herman D.; Harnik, Ron S.; Rohlfs, Wilko

    2017-08-01

    A useable model for laminar free-surface jet evolution during flight, for both horizontal and vertical jets, is developed through joint analytical, experimental, and simulation methods. The jet's impingement centerline velocity, recently shown to dictate stagnation zone heat transfer, encompasses the entire flow history: from pipe-flow velocity profile development to profile relaxation and jet contraction during flight. While pipe-flow is well-known, an alternative analytic solution is presented for the centerline velocity's viscous-driven decay. Jet-contraction is subject to influences of surface tension (We), pipe-flow profile development, in-flight viscous dissipation (Re), and gravity (Nj = Re/Fr). The effects of surface tension and emergence momentum flux (jet thrust) are incorporated analytically through a global momentum balance. Though emergence momentum is related to pipe flow development, and empirically linked to nominal pipe flow-length, it can be modified to incorporate low-Re downstream dissipation as well. Jet contraction's gravity dependence is extended beyond existing uniform-velocity theory to cases of partially and fully developed profiles. The final jet-evolution model relies on three empirical parameters and compares well to present and previous experiments and simulations. Hence, micro-jet flight experiments were conducted to fill-in gaps in the literature: jet contraction under mild gravity-effects, and intermediate Reynolds and Weber numbers (Nj = 5-8, Re = 350-520, We = 2.8-6.2). Furthermore, two-phase direct numerical simulations provided insight beyond the experimental range: Re = 200-1800, short pipes (Z = L/d . Re ≥ 0.01), variable nozzle wettability, and cases of no surface tension and/or gravity.

  16. Nonlinear hydrodynamic effects induced by Rayleigh surface acoustic wave in sessile droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghane, M; Chen, B X; Fu, Y Q; Li, Y; Desmulliez, M P Y; Mohammed, M I; Walton, A J

    2012-11-01

    We report an experimental and numerical characterization of three-dimensional acoustic streaming behavior in small droplets of volumes (1-30 μl) induced by surface acoustic wave (SAW). We provide a quantitative evidence of the existence of strong nonlinear nature of the flow inertia in this SAW-driven flow over a range of the newly defined acoustic parameter F{NA}=Fλ/(σ/R_{d})≥0.01, which is a measure of the strength of the acoustic force to surface tension, where F is the acoustic body force, λ is the SAW wavelength, σ is the surface tension, and R{d} is the droplet radius. In contrast to the widely used Stokes model of acoustic streaming, which generally ignores such a nonlinearity, we identify that the full Navier-Stokes equation must be applied to avoid errors up to 93% between the computed streaming velocities and those from experiments as in the nonlinear case. We suggest that the Stokes model is valid only for very small acoustic power of ≤1 μW (F{NA}droplets.

  17. Hydrodynamic synchronization of flagella on the surface of the colonial alga Volvox carteri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumley, Douglas; Polin, Marco; Goldstein, Raymond; Pedley, Timothy

    2012-11-01

    Whether on the surface of unicellular ciliates or in the respiratory epithelium, groups of eukaryotic cilia and flagella are capable of coordinating their beating over large scales. The mechanism responsible for the emergence of these metachronal waves is still unclear, mostly because finding an experimental system in which the beating filaments can be followed individually is challenging. We propose the multicellular green alga Volvox carteri as an ideal model system to study metachronal coordination, and report the existence of robust metachronal waves on its surface. Inspired by flagellar tip trajectories of Volvox somatic cells, we model a flagellum using a sphere of radius a elastically bound to a circular orbit of radius r0, perpendicular to a no-slip plane. This elastohydrodynamic model of weakly-coupled self-sustained oscillators can be recast in terms of interacting phase oscillators, offering an intuitive understanding of the mechanism driving the emergence of coordination. Our results confirm that elasticity is fundamental to guarantee fast and robust synchronization, and that sufficiently compliant trajectories lead to the emergence of metachronal waves in a manner essentially independent of boundary conditions.

  18. Hydrodynamic Efficiency Improvement of the High Skew Propeller for the Underwater Vehicle Under Surface and Submerged Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan Ghassemi; Parviz Ghadimi

    2011-01-01

    An algorithm based on the Boundary Element Method (BEM) is presented for designing the High Skew Propeller (HSP)used in an Underwater Vehicle (UV).Since UVs operate under two different kinds of working conditions (i.e.surface and submerged conditions),the design of such a propeller is an unwieldy task.This is mainly due to the fact that the resistance forces as well as the vessel efficiency under these conditions are significantly different.Therefore,some factors are necessary for the design of the optimum propeller to utilize the power under the mentioned conditions.The design objectives of the optimum propeller are to obtain the highest possible thrust and efficiency with the minimum torque.For the current UV,the main dimensions of the propeller are predicted based on the given required thrust and the defined operating conditions.These dimensions (number of blades,pitch,diameter,expanded area ratio,thickness and camber) are determined through iterative procedure.Because the propeller operates at the stem of the UV where the inflow velocity to the propeller is non-uniform,a 5-blade HSP is preferred for running the UV.Finally,the propeller is designed based on the numerical calculations to acquire the improved hydrodynamic efficiency.

  19. Optimization of hydrodynamic cavitations reactor efficiency for biodiesel production by response surface methods (Case study: Sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Javadikia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Biofuels are considered as one of the largest sources of renewable fuels or replacement of fossil fuels. Combustion of plant-based fuels is the indirect use of solar energy. Biofuels significantly have less pollution than other fossil fuels and can easily generate from residual plant material. Waste and residues of foods and wastewater can also be a good source for biofuel production. Transesterification method (one of biodiesel production methods is the most common forms to produce mono-alkyl esters from vegetable oil and animal fats. The procedure aims are reduction the oil viscosity during the reaction between triglycerides and alcohol in the presence of a catalyst or without it. In this study, the method of transesterification with alkaline catalysts is used that it is the most common and most commercial biodiesel production method. In this study, configurations of made hydrodynamic cavitation reactor were studied to measure biodiesel fuel quality and enhanced device performance with optimum condition. The Design Expert software and response surface methodology were used to get this purpose. Materials and Methods Transesterification method was used in this study. The procedure aims were reduction of the oil viscosity during the reaction between triglycerides and alcohol in the presence of a catalyst or without it. Materials needed in the production of biodiesel transesterification method include: vegetable oil, alcohol and catalysts. The used oil in the production of biodiesel was sunflower oil, which was used 0.6 liters per each test in the production process base on titration method. Methanol with purity of 99.8 percent and the molar ratio of 6:1 to oil was used based on titration equation and according to the results of other researchers. The used catalyst in continuous production process was high-purity sodium hydroxide (99% that it is one of alkaline catalysts. Weight of hydroxide was 1% of the used oil weight in the

  20. Surface-effect corrections for solar-like oscillations using 3D hydrodynamical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Sonoi, T; Belkacem, K; Ludwig, H -G; Caffau, E; Mosser, B

    2015-01-01

    The space-borne missions have provided us with a wealth of high-quality observational data that allows for seismic inferences of stellar interiors. This requires the computation of precise and accurate theoretical frequencies, but imperfect modeling of the uppermost stellar layers introduces systematic errors. To overcome this problem, an empirical correction has been introduced by Kjeldsen et al. (2008, ApJ, 683, L175) and is now commonly used for seismic inferences. Nevertheless, we still lack a physical justification allowing for the quantification of the surface-effect corrections. We used a grid of these simulations computed with the CO$^5$BOLD code to model the outer layers of solar-like stars. Upper layers of the corresponding 1D standard models were then replaced by the layers obtained from the horizontally averaged 3D models. The frequency differences between these patched models and the 1D standard models were then calculated using the adiabatic approximation and allowed us to constrain the Kjeldsen...

  1. Hydrodynamic directional control of liquid metal droplets within a microfluidic flow focusing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gol, Berrak; Kurdzinski, Michael E.; Tovar-Lopez, Francisco J.; Petersen, Phred; Mitchell, Arnan; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2016-04-01

    Here, we investigate the directional control of Galinstan liquid metal droplets when transferring from the high-viscosity glycerol core into the parallel low-viscosity NaOH sheath streams within a flow focusing microfluidic system. In the presence of sufficient flow mismatch between the sheath streams, the droplets are driven toward the higher velocity interface and cross the interface under the influence of surface tension gradient. A minimum flow mismatch of 125 μl/min is required to enable the continuous transfer of droplets toward the desired sheath stream. The response time of droplets, the time required to change the direction of droplet transfer, is governed by the response time of the syringe pump driven microfluidic system and is found to be 3.3 and 8.8 s when increasing and decreasing the flow rate of sheath stream, respectively.

  2. Free Surface Hydrodynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Investigates processes and interactions at the air-sea interface, and compares measurements to numerical simulations and field data. Typical phenomena of...

  3. Viscosity of dilute suspensions of rigid bead arrays at low shear: accounting for the variation in hydrodynamic stress over the bead surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Stuart A; Pei, Hongxia

    2009-06-11

    In this work, we examine the viscosity of a dilute suspension of irregularly shaped particles at low shear. A particle is modeled as a rigid array of nonoverlapping beads of variable size and geometry. Starting from a boundary element formalism, approximate account is taken of the variation in hydrodynamic stress over the surface of the individual beads. For a touching dimer of two identical beads, the predicted viscosity is lower than the exact value by 5.2%. The methodology is then applied to several other model systems including tetramers of variable conformation and linear strings of touching beads. An analysis is also carried out of the viscosity and translational diffusion of several dilute amino acids and diglycine in water. It is concluded that continuum hydrodynamic modeling with stick boundary conditions is unable to account for the experimental viscosity and diffusion data simultaneously. A model intermediate between "stick" and "slip" could possibly reconcile theory and experiment.

  4. Relativistic hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Luciano, Rezzolla

    2013-01-01

    Relativistic hydrodynamics is a very successful theoretical framework to describe the dynamics of matter from scales as small as those of colliding elementary particles, up to the largest scales in the universe. This book provides an up-to-date, lively, and approachable introduction to the mathematical formalism, numerical techniques, and applications of relativistic hydrodynamics. The topic is typically covered either by very formal or by very phenomenological books, but is instead presented here in a form that will be appreciated both by students and researchers in the field. The topics covered in the book are the results of work carried out over the last 40 years, which can be found in rather technical research articles with dissimilar notations and styles. The book is not just a collection of scattered information, but a well-organized description of relativistic hydrodynamics, from the basic principles of statistical kinetic theory, down to the technical aspects of numerical methods devised for the solut...

  5. Hydrodynamic Effects on Modeling and Control of a High Temperature Active Magnetic Bearing Pump with a Canned Rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melin, Alexander M [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Fugate, David L [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Embedding instrumentation and control Embedding instrumentation and control (I\\&C) at the component level in nuclear power plants can improve component performance, lifetime, and resilience by optimizing operation, reducing the constraints on physical design, and providing on-board prognostics and diagnostics. However, the extreme environments that many nuclear power plant components operate in makes embedding instrumentation and control at the component level difficult. Successfully utilizing embedded I\\&C requires developing a deep understanding of the system's dynamics and using that knowledge to overcome material and physical limitations imposed by the environment. In this paper, we will develop a coupled dynamic model of a high temperature (700 $^\\circ$C) canned rotor pump that incorporates rotordynamics, hydrodynamics, and active magnetic bearing dynamics. Then we will compare two control design methods, one that uses a simplified decoupled model of the system and another that utilizes the full coupled system model. It will be seen that utilizing all the available knowledge of the system dynamics in the controller design yield an order of magnitude improvement in the magnitude of the magnetic bearing response to disturbances at the same level of control effort, a large reduction in the settling time of the system, and a smoother control action.

  6. MESA meets MURaM: Surface effects in main-sequence solar-like oscillators computed using three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, W H; Cameron, R H; Gizon, L

    2016-01-01

    ... [C]urrent stellar models predict oscillation frequencies that are systematically affected by simplified modelling of the near-surface layers. We use three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations to better model the near-surface equilibrium structure of dwarfs with spectral types F3, G2, K0 and K5, and examine the differences between oscillation mode frequencies. ... We precisely match stellar models to the simulations' gravities and effective temperatures at the surface, and to the temporally- and horizontally-averaged densities and pressures at their deepest points. We then replace the near-surface structure with that of the averaged simulation and compute the change in the oscillation mode frequencies. We also fit the differences using several parametric models currently available in the literature. The surface effect in the stars of solar-type and later is qualitatively similar and changes steadily with decreasing effective temperature. In particular, the point of greatest frequency difference ...

  7. Theoretical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Milne-Thomson, L M

    2011-01-01

    This classic exposition of the mathematical theory of fluid motion is applicable to both hydrodynamics and aerodynamics. Based on vector methods and notation with their natural consequence in two dimensions - the complex variable - it offers more than 600 exercises and nearly 400 diagrams. Prerequisites include a knowledge of elementary calculus. 1968 edition.

  8. Hydrodynamic bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Bonneau, Dominique; Souchet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    This Series provides the necessary elements to the development and validation of numerical prediction models for hydrodynamic bearings. This book describes the rheological models and the equations of lubrication. It also presents the numerical approaches used to solve the above equations by finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements methods.

  9. Ship Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrance, Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Explores in a non-mathematical treatment some of the hydrodynamical phenomena and forces that affect the operation of ships, especially at high speeds. Discusses the major components of ship resistance such as the different types of drags and ways to reduce them and how to apply those principles for the hovercraft. (GA)

  10. Over-limiting Current and Control of Dendritic Growth by Surface Conduction in Nanopores

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Ji-Hyung; Bai, Peng; Bazant, Martin Z

    2014-01-01

    Understanding over-limiting current (faster than diffusion) is a long-standing challenge in electrochemistry with applications in desalination and energy storage. Known mechanisms involve either chemical or hydrodynamic instabilities in unconfined electrolytes. Here, it is shown that over-limiting current can be sustained by surface conduction in nano pores, without any such instabilities, and used to control dendritic growth during electrodeposition. Copper electrode posits are grown in anodized aluminum oxide membranes with polyelectrolyte coatings to modify the surface charge. At low currents, uniform electroplating occurs, unaffected by surface modification due to thin electric double layers, but the morphology changes dramatically above the limiting current. With negative surface charge, growth is enhanced along the nanopore surfaces, forming surface dendrites and nanotubes behind a deionization shock. With positive surface charge, dendrites avoid the surfaces and are either guided along the nanopore cen...

  11. Hydrodynamics of evaporating sessile drops

    CERN Document Server

    Barash, L Yu

    2010-01-01

    Several dynamical stages of the Marangoni convection of an evaporating sessile drop are obtained. We jointly take into account the hydrodynamics of an evaporating sessile drop, effects of the thermal conduction in the drop and the diffusion of vapor in air. The stages are characterized by different number of vortices in the drop and the spatial location of vortices. During the early stage the array of vortices arises near a surface of the drop and induces a non-monotonic spatial distribution of the temperature over the drop surface. The number of near-surface vortices in the drop is controlled by the Marangoni cell size, which is calculated similar to that given by Pearson for flat fluid layers. The number of vortices quickly decreases with time, resulting in three bulk vortices in the intermediate stage. The vortex structure finally evolves into the single convection vortex in the drop, existing during about 1/2 of the evaporation time.

  12. Surface gradients under electrochemical control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbenborg, Sven Olle

    2014-01-01

    Gradients are systems in which the physicochemical properties of a solution and/or surface change gradually in space and/or time. They are used for a myriad of technological and biological applications, for example for high-throughput screening, or for the investigation of biological systems. The de

  13. Radiation Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castor, J I

    2003-10-16

    The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correct description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is

  14. Hydrodynamic dispersion effect on natural convection in porous surfaces by double diffusion; Efeito da dispersao hidrodinamica na conveccao natural por difusao dupla em meios porosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telles, Rubens S.

    1990-12-31

    This work discusses the problem of hydrodynamic dispersion on natural convection in porous medium near impermeable surfaces. The study considers the convection caused by density variation due to temperature and concentration gradients combination. The parametrization of the phenomenon is obtained through scale analysis. It is also presented four possible situations according to the intensity of dispersion term. In search of similarity solutions the similarity variables and parameters associated to dispersion are found through scale analysis. The Runge-Kutta algorithm and the `shooting` method are used to solve the equations resulting from the similarity transformations. Several cases are solved covering an extensive range of the governing parameters. 22 refs., 43 figs., 13 tabs.

  15. Bacterial hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lauga, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass, and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micron scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically-complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, we review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.

  16. Nanoflow hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Dyre, Jeppe C.; Daivis, Peter J.;

    2011-01-01

    We show by nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations that the Navier-Stokes equation does not correctly describe water flow in a nanoscale geometry. It is argued that this failure reflects the fact that the coupling between the intrinsic rotational and translational degrees of freedom becomes...... important for nanoflows. The coupling is correctly accounted for by the extended Navier-Stokes equations that include the intrinsic angular momentum as an independent hydrodynamic degree of freedom. © 2011 American Physical Society....

  17. CALIBRATED HYDRODYNAMIC MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezar Gülbaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The land development and increase in urbanization in a watershed affect water quantityand water quality. On one hand, urbanization provokes the adjustment of geomorphicstructure of the streams, ultimately raises peak flow rate which causes flood; on theother hand, it diminishes water quality which results in an increase in Total SuspendedSolid (TSS. Consequently, sediment accumulation in downstream of urban areas isobserved which is not preferred for longer life of dams. In order to overcome thesediment accumulation problem in dams, the amount of TSS in streams and inwatersheds should be taken under control. Low Impact Development (LID is a BestManagement Practice (BMP which may be used for this purpose. It is a land planningand engineering design method which is applied in managing storm water runoff inorder to reduce flooding as well as simultaneously improve water quality. LID includestechniques to predict suspended solid loads in surface runoff generated over imperviousurban surfaces. In this study, the impact of LID-BMPs on surface runoff and TSS isinvestigated by employing a calibrated hydrodynamic model for Sazlidere Watershedwhich is located in Istanbul, Turkey. For this purpose, a calibrated hydrodynamicmodel was developed by using Environmental Protection Agency Storm WaterManagement Model (EPA SWMM. For model calibration and validation, we set up arain gauge and a flow meter into the field and obtain rainfall and flow rate data. Andthen, we select several LID types such as retention basins, vegetative swales andpermeable pavement and we obtain their influence on peak flow rate and pollutantbuildup and washoff for TSS. Consequently, we observe the possible effects ofLID on surface runoff and TSS in Sazlidere Watershed.

  18. Control Theory with Applications to Naval Hydrodynamics: The First David W. Taylor Lectures -- April 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    by Bucy and Joseph; this lecture considers only the linear problem. Astrom , K. J., "Introduction to Stochastic Control Theory," Academic Press, Inc...Optimal Filter 62 REFERENCES 1. Astrom , K. J., "Introduction to Stochastic Control Theory," Academic Press, Inc., New York (1970). 2. Kaiman, R. E

  19. COLLISION PROCESS DETAILS CONTROL THE HYDRODYNAMICS AND HEAT TRANSFER IN FLUIDIZED BED REACTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masayuki; Horio

    2005-01-01

    In the '90s DEM simulation research was successful in exploring its potential in the simulation of fluidization phenomenaand in its application to the design of fluidized-bed processes. Nevertheless, not much progress has been made regardingthe realistic treatment of collision processes that are critical in determining macroscopic mode of fluidization. All throughthe second half of the '90s, the author investigated/demonstrated the issue by introducing different surface interactionscaused by formation of liquid and/or solid bridges, van der Waals force and the existence of surface roughness. In the firstpart of the presentation these are to be summarized and the tasks remaining are discussed. In the second part, are pre-sented the results from a newly developed force-deformation meter to demonstrate the significance of the surfaceroughness and its elasto-plastic characteristics.

  20. Hydrodynamic aspect of caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franci Gabrovsek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available From a hydrological point of view, active caves are a series of connected conduits which drain water through an aquifer. Water tends to choose the easiest way through the system but different geological and morphological barriers act as flow restrictions. The number and characteristics of restrictions depends on the particular speleogenetic environment, which is a function of geological, geomorphological, climatological and hydrological settings. Such a variety and heterogeneity of underground systems has presented a challenge for human understanding for many centuries. Access to many underground passages, theoretical knowledge and recent methods (modeling, water pressure-resistant dataloggers, precise sensors etc. give us the opportunity to get better insight into the hydrodynamic aspect of caves. In our work we tried to approach underground hydrodynamics from both theoretical and practical points of view. We present some theoretical background of open surface and pressurized flow in underground rivers and present results of some possible scenarios. Moreover, two case studies from the Ljubljanica river basin are presented in more detail: the cave system between Planinsko polje and Ljubljansko barje, and the cave system between Bloško polje and Cerkniško polje. The approach and methodology in each case is somewhat different, as the aims were different at the beginning of exploration. However, they both deal with temporal and spatial hydrodynamics of underground waters. In the case of Bloško polje-Cerkniško polje system we also explain the feedback loop between hydrodynamics and Holocene speleogenesis.

  1. 复杂形状海洋浮体水动力系数计算%Calculation of Hydrodynamic Coefficients of Floating Body with Complex Wetted Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任慧龙; 刘文玺

    2008-01-01

    Mesh generation is the key step of hydrodynamic calculation.A method of mesh generation is presented for floating bodies with complex wetted surface.For the floating body with complex bow and stem,the molded line reconstruction method is adopted to generate the section lines on the bow and on the stern which are necessary to construct the wetted surface,and it Can raise efficiency greatly that the intersection lines of intersection structures are obtained by the way of combining modelingtool and NURBS technology;then the patch representation method is adopted in generating the mesh of wetted surface and interior free surface,and the velocity potentials on them aye expressed separately,on basis of which the irregular frequency effect is dealt with in the calculation of hydrodynamic coefficients.The results show that the above methods are fit for the calculation of hydrodynamic coefficients.%网格划分是水动力计算的关键环节,文中针对复杂形状海洋浮体提出了一种湿表面网格划分方法.对于有复杂首尾结构的浮体,用型线重构的方式在首尾生成曲面构成所需要的截面线,将通用建模工具和NURBS曲线拟合相结合,生成相贯结构的相交线;然后,用分片法生成浮体湿表面及内自由面网格,并独立表达各自的速度势以处理不规则频率现象,进而进行水动力系数计算.计算结果表明,上述处理方式很适合复杂形状海洋浮体水动力系数的计算.

  2. Introduction to Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jeon, Sangyong

    2015-01-01

    We give a pedagogical review of relativistic hydrodynamics relevant to relativistic heavy ion collisions. Topics discussed include linear response theory derivation of 2nd order viscous hydrodynamics including the Kubo formulas, kinetic theory derivation of 2nd order viscous hydrodynamics, anisotropic hydrodynamics and a brief review of numerical algorithms. Emphasis is given to the theory of hydrodynamics rather than phenomenology.

  3. The Effects of Surface Debris Diversion Devices on River Hydrodynamic Conditions and Implications for In-Stream Hydrokinetic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Toniolo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Floating objects designed to divert woody debris—known as debris diversion devices—can protect hydrokinetic turbines deployed in rivers; they also change the hydrodynamic conditions of a river, at least locally. Modifications associated with velocity adjustments in both magnitude and direction would be expected. Thus, one could assume that extra macro-turbulent levels would be found immediately behind a device and downstream of that location. This article presents a set of cross-sectional and longitudinal velocity measurements carried out to quantify these effects. Results show important changes in the velocity components. In addition, significant changes in the vorticity field, calculated along cross-sectional profiles, demonstrate the role of a submerged chain used to maintain the debris diversion device in place. More importantly, findings suggest that hydrokinetic turbines should not be installed in a river’s central area behind a debris diversion device, due to the additional turbulence created by the submerged chain.

  4. Surface-Controlled Metal Oxide Resistive Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Ke, Jr-Jian

    2015-10-28

    To explore the surface effect on resistive random-access memory (ReRAM), the impact of surface roughness on the characteristics of ZnO ReRAM were studied. The thickness-independent resistance and the higher switching probability of ZnO ReRAM with rough surfaces indicate the importance of surface oxygen chemisorption on the switching process. Furthermore, the improvements in switching probability, switching voltage and resistance distribution observed for ReRAM with rough surfaces can be attributed to the stable oxygen adatoms under various ambience conditions. The findings validate the surface-controlled stability and uniformity of ReRAM and can serve as the guideline for developing practical device applications.

  5. Geochemical and hydrodynamic controls on arsenic and trace metal cycling in a seasonally stratified US sub-tropical reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Louchouarn, Patrick; Herbert, Bruce; Tissot, Philippe

    2004-10-01

    contaminants downstream of the U mine pits and tailings. As in Lyssy pond, arsenic (and other oxyanions) in Lake Corpus Christi's water column are not affected by the abundant presence of Fe-rich particles but instead behave conservatively throughout the entire period of study. A quantitative mass balance model, constructed using monthly hydrological data for the reservoir, provides quantitative evidence of seasonal evaporative concentration of as in surface waters demonstrating the predominance of hydrodynamic constraints, over geochemical ones, on the cycling of this metal in selected aquatic systems.

  6. Dispersion controlled by permeable surfaces: surface properties and scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Bowen; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Battiato, Ilenia

    2016-07-19

    Permeable and porous surfaces are common in natural and engineered systems. Flow and transport above such surfaces are significantly affected by the surface properties, e.g. matrix porosity and permeability. However, the relationship between such properties and macroscopic solute transport is largely unknown. In this work, we focus on mass transport in a two-dimensional channel with permeable porous walls under fully developed laminar flow conditions. By means of perturbation theory and asymptotic analysis, we derive the set of upscaled equations describing mass transport in the coupled channel–porous-matrix system and an analytical expression relating the dispersion coefficient with the properties of the surface, namely porosity and permeability. Our analysis shows that their impact on the dispersion coefficient strongly depends on the magnitude of the Péclet number, i.e. on the interplay between diffusive and advective mass transport. Additionally, we demonstrate different scaling behaviours of the dispersion coefficient for thin or thick porous matrices. Our analysis shows the possibility of controlling the dispersion coefficient, i.e. transverse mixing, by either active (i.e. changing the operating conditions) or passive mechanisms (i.e. controlling matrix effective properties) for a given Péclet number. By elucidating the impact of matrix porosity and permeability on solute transport, our upscaled model lays the foundation for the improved understanding, control and design of microporous coatings with targeted macroscopic transport features.

  7. Submarine hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Renilson, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This book adopts a practical approach and presents recent research together with applications in real submarine design and operation. Topics covered include hydrostatics, manoeuvring, resistance and propulsion of submarines. The author briefly reviews basic concepts in ship hydrodynamics and goes on to show how they are applied to submarines, including a look at the use of physical model experiments. The issues associated with manoeuvring in both the horizontal and vertical planes are explained, and readers will discover suggested criteria for stability, along with rudder and hydroplane effectiveness. The book includes a section on appendage design which includes information on sail design, different arrangements of bow planes and alternative stern configurations. Other themes explored in this book include hydro-acoustic performance, the components of resistance and the effect of hull shape. Readers will value the author’s applied experience as well as the empirical expressions that are presented for use a...

  8. JCMT active surface control system: implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ian A.

    1998-05-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on the summit of Mauna Kea in Hawaii is a 15 meter sub-millimeter telescope which operates in the 350 microns to 2 millimeter region. The primary antenna surface consists of 276 panels, each of which is positioned by 3 stepper motors. In order to achieve the highest possible surface accuracy we are embarking upon a project to actively control the position of the panels adjuster system is based on a 6809 micro connected to the control computer by a GPIB interface. This system is slow and inflexible and it would prove difficult to build an active surface control system with it. Part of the upgrade project is to replace the existing micro with a 68060 VME micro. The poster paper will describe how the temperature of the antenna is monitored with the new system, how a Finite Element Analyses package transforms temperature changes into a series of panel adjuster moves, and how these moves are then applied to the surface. The FEA package will run on a high end Sun workstation. A series of DRAMA tasks distributed between the workstation and the Baja 68060 VxWorks Active Surface Control System micro will control the temperature monitoring, FEA and panel adjustment activities. Users can interact with the system via a Tcl/TK based GUI.

  9. Particle fluxes in the NW Iberian coastal upwelling system: Hydrodynamical and biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, D.; Villacieros-Robineau, N.; Salgueiro, E.; Alonso-Pérez, F.; Rosón, G.; Abrantes, F.; Castro, C. G.

    2016-07-01

    To better understand sources and transport of particulate material in the NW Iberian coastal upwelling system, a mooring line dotted with an automated PPS 4/3 sediment trap was deployed off Cape Silleiro at the base of the photic zone. The samples were collected from November 2008 through June 2012 over sampling periods of 4-12 days. Our study represents the first automated sediment trap database for the NW Iberian margin. The magnitude and composition of the settling material showed strong seasonal variability with the highest fluxes during the poleward and winter mixing periods (averages of 12.9±9.6 g m-2 d-1 and 5.6±5.6 g m-2 d-1 respectively), and comparatively lower fluxes (3.6±4.1 g m-2 d-1) for the upwelling season. Intensive deposition events registered during poleward and winter mixing periods were dominated by the lithogenic fraction (80±3%). They were associated to high energy wave-driven resuspension processes, due to the occurrence of south-westerly storms, and intense riverine inputs of terrestrial material from Minho and Douro rivers. On the other hand, during the spring - summer upwelling season, the share of biogenic compounds (organic matter, calcium carbonate (CaCO3), biogenic silica (bSiO2)) to downward fluxes was higher, reflecting an increase in pelagic sedimentation due to the seasonal intensification of primary production and negligible river inputs and wave-driven resuspended material. Otherwise, the large variations of biogenic settling particles were mainly modulated by upwelling intensity, which by means of upwelling filaments ultimately controlled the offshore transport of the organic carbon fixed by primary producers towards the adjacent ocean. Based on the average downward flux of organic carbon (212 mg C m-2 d-1) and considering an average primary production of 1013 mg C m-2 d-1 from literature, we estimated that about 21% of the fixed carbon is vertically exported during the upwelling season.

  10. Melting phenomenon in magneto hydro-dynamics steady flow and heat transfer over a moving surface in the presence of thermal radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, G. Abdel-Rahman; M. Khader, M.; Ahmed, M. Megahed

    2013-03-01

    The Lie group method is applied to present an analysis of the magneto hydro-dynamics (MHD) steady laminar flow and the heat transfer from a warm laminar liquid flow to a melting moving surface in the presence of thermal radiation. By using the Lie group method, we have presented the transformation groups for the problem apart from the scaling group. The application of this method reduces the partial differential equations (PDEs) with their boundary conditions governing the flow and heat transfer to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with appropriate boundary conditions. The resulting nonlinear system of ODEs is solved numerically using the implicit finite difference method (FDM). The local skin-friction coefficients and the local Nusselt numbers for different physical parameters are presented in a table.

  11. X-ray shadow imprint of hydrodynamic instabilities on the surface of inertial confinement fusion capsules by the fuel fill tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, A. G.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D. S.; Felker, S.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Kroll, J.; Landen, O. L.; Martinez, D. A.; Michel, P.; Milovich, J.; Moore, A.; Nikroo, A.; Rice, N.; Robey, H. F.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Stadermann, M.; Weber, C. R.

    2017-03-01

    Measurements of hydrodynamic instability growth for a high-density carbon ablator for indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion implosions on the National Ignition Facility are reported. We observe significant unexpected features on the capsule surface created by shadows of the capsule fill tube, as illuminated by laser-irradiated x-ray spots on the hohlraum wall. These shadows increase the spatial size and shape of the fill tube perturbation in a way that can significantly degrade performance in layered implosions compared to previous expectations. The measurements were performed at a convergence ratio of ˜2 using in-flight x-ray radiography. The initial seed due to shadow imprint is estimated to be equivalent to ˜50-100 nm of solid ablator material. This discovery has prompted the need for a mitigation strategy for future inertial confinement fusion designs as proposed here.

  12. Melting phenomenon in magneto hydro-dynamics steady flow and heat transfer over a moving surface in the presence of thermal radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reda G.Abdel-Rahman; M.M.Khader; Ahmed M.Megahed

    2013-01-01

    The Lie group method is applied to present an analysis of the magneto hydro-dynamics (MHD) steady laminar flow and the heat transfer from a warm laminar liquid flow to a melting moving surface in the presence of thermal radiation.By using the Lie group method,we have presented the transformation groups for the problem apart from the scaling group.The application of this method reduces the partial differential equations (PDEs) with their boundary conditions governing the flow and heat transfer to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with appropriate boundary conditions.The resulting nonlinear system of ODEs is solved numerically using the implicit finite difference method (FDM).The local skin-friction coefficients and the local Nusselt numbers for different physical parameters are presented in a table.

  13. Modeling and Testing of Hydrodynamic Damping Model for a Complex-shaped Remotely-operated Vehicle for Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Chin; Michael Lau

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,numerical modeling and model testing of a complex-shaped remotely-operated vehicle (ROV) were shown.The paper emphasized the systematic modeling of hydrodynamic damping using the computational fluid dynamic software ANSYS-CFXTM on the complex-shaped ROV,a practice that is not commonly applied.For initial design and prototype testing during the developmental stage,small-scale testing using a free-decaying experiment was used to verify the theoretical models obtained from ANSYS-CFXTM.Simulation results are shown to coincide with the experimental tests.The proposed method could determine the hydrodynamic damping coefficients of the ROV.

  14. Simulations of flow mode distributions on rough fracture surfaces using a parallelized Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordilla, J.; Shigorina, E.; Tartakovsky, A. M.; Pan, W.; Geyer, T.

    2015-12-01

    Under idealized conditions (smooth surfaces, linear relationship between Bond number and Capillary number of droplets) steady-state flow modes on fracture surfaces have been shown to develop from sliding droplets to rivulets and finally (wavy) film flow, depending on the specified flux. In a recent study we demonstrated the effect of surface roughness on droplet flow in unsaturated wide aperture fractures, however, its effect on other prevailing flow modes is still an open question. The objective of this work is to investigate the formation of complex flow modes on fracture surfaces employing an efficient three-dimensional parallelized SPH model. The model is able to simulate highly intermittent, gravity-driven free-surface flows under dynamic wetting conditions. The effect of surface tension is included via efficient pairwise interaction forces. We validate the model using various analytical and semi-analytical relationships for droplet and complex flow dynamics. To investigate the effect of surface roughness on flow dynamics we construct surfaces with a self-affine fractal geometry and roughness characterized by the Hurst exponent. We demonstrate the effect of surface roughness (on macroscopic scales this can be understood as a tortuosity) on the steady-state distribution of flow modes. Furthermore we show the influence of a wide range of natural wetting conditions (defined by static contact angles) on the final distribution of surface coverage, which is of high importance for matrix-fracture interaction processes.

  15. Animation control of surface motion capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejera, Margara; Casas, Dan; Hilton, Adrian

    2013-12-01

    Surface motion capture (SurfCap) of actor performance from multiple view video provides reconstruction of the natural nonrigid deformation of skin and clothing. This paper introduces techniques for interactive animation control of SurfCap sequences which allow the flexibility in editing and interactive manipulation associated with existing tools for animation from skeletal motion capture (MoCap). Laplacian mesh editing is extended using a basis model learned from SurfCap sequences to constrain the surface shape to reproduce natural deformation. Three novel approaches for animation control of SurfCap sequences, which exploit the constrained Laplacian mesh editing, are introduced: 1) space–time editing for interactive sequence manipulation; 2) skeleton-driven animation to achieve natural nonrigid surface deformation; and 3) hybrid combination of skeletal MoCap driven and SurfCap sequence to extend the range of movement. These approaches are combined with high-level parametric control of SurfCap sequences in a hybrid surface and skeleton-driven animation control framework to achieve natural surface deformation with an extended range of movement by exploiting existing MoCap archives. Evaluation of each approach and the integrated animation framework are presented on real SurfCap sequences for actors performing multiple motions with a variety of clothing styles. Results demonstrate that these techniques enable flexible control for interactive animation with the natural nonrigid surface dynamics of the captured performance and provide a powerful tool to extend current SurfCap databases by incorporating new motions from MoCap sequences.

  16. Hydrodynamic Noise and Surface Compliance--An Overview of the Naval Underwater Systems Center IR/IED Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    34 COATING WAS BASICALLY A VERSION OF A " DOLPHIN -LIKE" SURFACE DEVISED TO EXTEND KRAMER’S WELL KNOWN DRAG REDUCTION INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE FLOW NOISE...EVEN DESCRIBED IN WHICH A DOLPHIN WAS INSTRUMENTED WITH FLUSH PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS. HOWEVER, NO DATA WERE GIVEN. ONE OF THE LATEST EXPERIMENTS...OBTAINED USING A LASER DOPPLER VELOCIMETER. FINALLY LASER HOLOGRAPHY OR LASER SURFACE SLOPE MEASUREMENTS WILL BE UTILIZED TO CHARACTERIZE THE SURFACE

  17. Controlled surface chemistries and quantitative cell response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Anne L.

    2002-03-01

    Living cells experience a large number of signaling cues from their extracellular matrix. As a result of these inputs, a variety of intracellular signaling pathways are apparently initiated simultaneously. The vast array of alternative responses that result from the integration of these inputs suggests that it may be reasonable to look for cellular response not as an 'on' or 'off' condition but as a distribution of responses. A difficult challenge is to determine whether variations in responses from individual cells arise from the complexity of intracellular signals or are due to variations in the cell culture environment. By controlling surface chemistry so that every cell 'sees' the same chemical and physical environment, we can begin to assess how the distribution of cell response is affected strictly by changes in the chemistry of the cell culture surface. Using the gene for green fluorescent protein linked to the gene for the promoter of the extracellular matrix protein, tenascin, we can easily probe the end product in a signaling pathway that is purported to be linked to surface protein chemistry and to cell shape. Cell response to well-controlled, well-characterized, and highly reproducible surfaces prepared using soft lithography techniques are compared with more conventional ways of preparing extracellular matrix proteins for cell culture. Using fluorescence microscopy and image analysis of populations of cells on these surfaces, we probe quantitatively the relationship between surface chemistry, cell shape and variations in gene expression endpoint.

  18. Influence of wall slip on the hydrodynamic behavior of a two-dimensional slider bearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.J.Ma; C.W.Wu; P.Zhou

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, a multi-linearity method is used to address the nonlinear slip control equation for the hydrodynamic analysis of a two-dimensional (2-D) slip gap flow. Numerical analysis of a finite length slider beating with wall slip shows that the surface limiting shear stress exerts complicated influences on the hydrodynamic behavior of the gap flow. If the slip occurs at either the stationary surface or the moving surface (especially at the stationary surface),there is a transition point in the initial limiting shear stress for the proportional coefficient to affect the hydrodynamic load support in two opposite ways: it increases the hydrody-namic load support at higher initial limiting shear stresses, but decreases the hydrodynamic load support at lower ini-tial limiting shear stresses. If the slip occurs at the moving surface only, no fluid pressure is generated in the case of null initial limiting shear stress. If the slip occurs at both the surfaces with the same slip property, the hydrodynamic load support goes off after a critical sliding speed is reached. A small initial limiting shear stress and a small proportionality coefficient always give rise to a low friction drag.

  19. Plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghendrih, Ph.; Becoulet, M.; Costanzo, L. [and others

    2000-07-01

    This report brings together all the contributions of EURATOM/CEA association to the 14. international conference on plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices. 24 papers are presented and they deal mainly with the ergodic divertor and the first wall of Tore-supra tokamak.

  20. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography Satellite Mission - An Assessment of Swath Altimetry Measurements of River Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Matthew D.; Durand, Michael; Alsdorf, Douglas; Chul-Jung, Hahn; Andreadis, Konstantinos M.; Lee, Hyongki

    2012-01-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission, scheduled for launch in 2020 with development commencing in 2015, will provide a step-change improvement in the measurement of terrestrial surface water storage and dynamics. In particular, it will provide the first, routine two-dimensional measurements of water surface elevations, which will allow for the estimation of river and floodplain flows via the water surface slope. In this paper, we characterize the measurements which may be obtained from SWOT and illustrate how they may be used to derive estimates of river discharge. In particular, we show (i) the spatia-temporal sampling scheme of SWOT, (ii) the errors which maybe expected in swath altimetry measurements of the terrestrial surface water, and (iii) the impacts such errors may have on estimates of water surface slope and river discharge, We illustrate this through a "virtual mission" study for a approximately 300 km reach of the central Amazon river, using a hydraulic model to provide water surface elevations according to the SWOT spatia-temporal sampling scheme (orbit with 78 degree inclination, 22 day repeat and 140 km swath width) to which errors were added based on a two-dimension height error spectrum derived from the SWOT design requirements. Water surface elevation measurements for the Amazon mainstem as may be observed by SWOT were thereby obtained. Using these measurements, estimates of river slope and discharge were derived and compared to those which may be obtained without error, and those obtained directly from the hydraulic model. It was found that discharge can be reproduced highly accurately from the water height, without knowledge of the detailed channel bathymetry using a modified Manning's equation, if friction, depth, width and slope are known. Increasing reach length was found to be an effective method to reduce systematic height error in SWOT measurements.

  1. Surface purity control during XMASS detector refurbishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi, E-mail: kenkou@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Kamioka observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, the University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu, 506-1205 (Japan); Kavl Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8582 (Japan)

    2015-08-17

    The XMASS project aims at detecting dark matter, pp and {sup 7}Be solar neutrinos, and neutrino less double beta decay using large volume of pure liquid xenon. The first physics target of the XMASS project is to detect dark matter with 835 kg liquid xenon. After the commissioning runs, XMASS detector was refurbished to minimize the background contribution mainly from PMT sealing material and we restarted data taking in November 2013. We report how we control surface purity, especially how we prevent radon daughter accumulation on the detector copper surface, during XMASS detector refurbishment. The result and future plan of XMASS are also reported.

  2. 修正表面张力算法的SPH方法及其实现%Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Method with Modified Surface Tension and Its Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强洪夫; 陈福振; 高巍然

    2011-01-01

    Modified equations for surface tension are derived by modifying normal and curvature with corrected smoothed particle method (CSPM). It is based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method with surface tension proposed by Morris. Both Morris and our method are tested via a semicircular problem. Factors that affect accuracy are investigated including surface definition, normal and curvature calculation. Smoothed length in curvature calculation is also confirmed reasonable. Furthermore, formation of a liquid drop with initial square shape under surface tension is simulated. Compared with Morris method and grid-based volume of fluid method,it is proved that the accuracy of our method is higher and particle distribution is more homogeneous. Finally, coalescence process of two oil drops in water under surface tension is simulated.%在Morris提出的表面张力SPH方法基础上,通过引入CSPM方法对边界法向的计算和曲率的计算进行修正,得到表面张力修正方程组;通过半圆形算例测试方法和Morris方法在边界定位、法向计算和曲率计算等影响表面张力关键因素的求解精度,研究曲率计算中应采用的光滑长度值.模拟初始方形液滴在表面张力作用下的自然变化过程,并与Morris方法及VOF有限体积法进行对比,表明方法精度较高,稳定性较好.最后,模拟水溶液中两个油滴的互溶过程.

  3. Sustainable Improvement of Urban River Network Water Quality and Flood Control Capacity by a Hydrodynamic Control Approach-Case Study of Changshu City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chen; Yang, Fan; Liu, Guoqing; Liu, Yang; Wang, Long; Fan, Ziwu

    2017-01-01

    Water environment of urban rivers suffers degradation with the impacts of urban expansion, especially in Yangtze River Delta. The water area in cites decreased sharply, and some rivers were cut off because of estate development, which brings the problems of urban flooding, flow stagnation and water deterioration. The approach aims to enhance flood control capability and improve the urban river water quality by planning gate-pump stations surrounding the cities and optimizing the locations and functions of the pumps, sluice gates, weirs in the urban river network. These gate-pump stations together with the sluice gates and weirs guarantee the ability to control the water level in the rivers and creating hydraulic gradient artificially according to mathematical model. Therefore the flow velocity increases, which increases the rate of water exchange, the DO concentration and water body self-purification ability. By site survey and prototype measurement, the river problems are evaluated and basic data are collected. The hydrodynamic model of the river network is established and calibrated to simulate the scenarios. The schemes of water quality improvement, including optimizing layout of the water distribution projects, improvement of the flow discharge in the river network and planning the drainage capacity are decided by comprehensive Analysis. Finally the paper introduces the case study of the approach in Changshu City, where the approach is successfully implemented.

  4. Shape-memory-actuated compliant control surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Brian J.; Carpenter, Bernie F.; Draper, Jerry L.; Misra, Mohan S.

    1993-09-01

    Advanced submarine stern configurations require a variety of control surfaces to actively manage aftbody boundary layer flow, vorticity, propulsor inflow and intrapropulsor flow, as well as vehicle attitude. Two necessary attributes of advanced control surface designs include (1) integrated actuation to provide placement flexibility at remote locations with minimal structural interfacing and control interconnects, and (2) improved lift efficiency and flow using variable or adaptive camber control. To demonstrate these attributes, a shape memory alloy (SMA) actuated compliant control fin (CCF) with a planform area of 620 sq. cm was developed for evaluation as rudder and sternplane appendages on a radio control submarine model at velocities up to 5.1 m/s (Reynolds No. approximately equals 1,000,000) and up to 0.2 Hz full cycle actuation. A completely fixed root design was developed to reduce turbulence at the hull/fine interface, with compliant deformation of the foil to improve flow characteristics over the baseline full-flying and trailing-edge-flap designs.

  5. Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert

    2014-08-07

    From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms.

  6. SURFACE TEXTURE ANALYSIS FOR FUNCTIONALITY CONTROL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Tosello, Guido

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 3 hours duration as a part of the course VISION ONLINE – One week course on Precision & Nanometrology. The exercises concern surface texture analysis for functionality control, in connection with three different case stories. This docume...... contains a short description of each case story, 3-D roughness parameters analysis and relation with the product’s functionality.......This document is used in connection with three exercises of 3 hours duration as a part of the course VISION ONLINE – One week course on Precision & Nanometrology. The exercises concern surface texture analysis for functionality control, in connection with three different case stories. This document...

  7. Remote control of planetary surface vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, E.

    1973-01-01

    A remotely manned system consisting of an earth-based control center and a remote rover system on the planetary surface is assumed to extend to the remote site the sensory, manipulative and certain intellectual capabilities of humans here on earth. Required system functions, including scientific payload functions, vehicle functions and ground-based human control functions are discussed and the effects of communication delay and increased remote automaticity on system performance are investigated. To accomplish the required operations for scientific exploration, the control of the remote system requires the development of techniques to deal with problems of long communication time delays so that the performance in terms of operation speed can be increased to acceptable levels. Increased operational performance can be achieved primarily by increasing the rate of useful information flow in the man-machine sensor-control loop, or by increasing the autonomous capabilities of the remote system or by both.

  8. A Velocity Prediction Procedure for Sailing Yachts with a hydrodynamic Model based on integrated fully coupled RANSE-Free-Surface Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boehm, C.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important tools in today's sailing yacht design is the Velocity Prediction Program (VPP). VPPs calculate boat speed from the equilibrium of aero- and hydrodynamic flow forces. Consequently their accuracy is linked to the accuracy of the aero- and hydrodynamic data used to represent a

  9. A Velocity Prediction Procedure for Sailing Yachts with a hydrodynamic Model based on integrated fully coupled RANSE-Free-Surface Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boehm, C.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important tools in today's sailing yacht design is the Velocity Prediction Program (VPP). VPPs calculate boat speed from the equilibrium of aero- and hydrodynamic flow forces. Consequently their accuracy is linked to the accuracy of the aero- and hydrodynamic data used to represent a

  10. Nanoscale Surface Plasmonics Sensor With Nanofluidic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jianjun; Singhal, Sameer; Waldeck, David H.; Kofke, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Conventional quantitative protein assays of bodily fluids typically involve multiple steps to obtain desired measurements. Such methods are not well suited for fast and accurate assay measurements in austere environments such as spaceflight and in the aftermath of disasters. Consequently, there is a need for a protein assay technology capable of routinely monitoring proteins in austere environments. For example, there is an immediate need for a urine protein assay to assess astronaut renal health during spaceflight. The disclosed nanoscale surface plasmonics sensor provides a core detection method that can be integrated to a lab-on-chip device that satisfies the unmet need for such a protein assay technology. Assays based upon combinations of nanoholes, nanorings, and nanoslits with transmission surface plasmon resonance (SPR) are used for assays requiring extreme sensitivity, and are capable of detecting specific analytes at concentrations as low as picomole to femtomole level in well-controlled environments. The device operates in a transmission mode configuration in which light is directed at one planar surface of the array, which functions as an optical aperture. The incident light induces surface plasmon light transmission from the opposite surface of the array. The presence of a target analyte is detected by changes in the spectrum of light transmitted by the array when a target analyte induces a change in the refractive index of the fluid within the nanochannels. This occurs, for example, when a target analyte binds to a receptor fixed to the walls of the nanochannels in the array. Independent fluid handling capability for individual nanoarrays on a nanofluidic chip containing a plurality of nanochannel arrays allows each array to be used to sense a different target analyte and/or for paired arrays to analyze control and test samples simultaneously in parallel. The present invention incorporates transmission mode nanoplasmonics and nanofluidics into a single

  11. Adaptive Dynamic Surface Control for Generator Excitation Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiu-yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the generator excitation control system which is equipped with static var compensator (SVC and unknown parameters, a novel adaptive dynamic surface control scheme is proposed based on neural network and tracking error transformed function with the following features: (1 the transformation of the excitation generator model to the linear systems is omitted; (2 the prespecified performance of the tracking error can be guaranteed by combining with the tracking error transformed function; (3 the computational burden is greatly reduced by estimating the norm of the weighted vector of neural network instead of the weighted vector itself; therefore, it is more suitable for the real time control; and (4 the explosion of complicity problem inherent in the backstepping control can be eliminated. It is proved that the new scheme can make the system semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded. Simulation results show the effectiveness of this control scheme.

  12. Hydrodynamics of a quark droplet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, Johan J.; Mishustin, Igor N.; Døssing, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple model of a multi-quark droplet evolution based on the hydrodynamical description. This model includes collective expansion of the droplet, effects of the vacuum pressure and surface tension. The hadron emission from the droplet is described following Weisskopf's statistical...

  13. One type of hydrodynamic instability in joule heating of a fluid near an ion-selective surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, N. V.; Khasmatulina, N. Yu.; Ganchenko, G. S.; Kalaidin, E. N.; Kiriy, V. A.; Demekhin, E. A.

    2016-06-01

    The stability of the equilibrium state of an electrolyte in a horizontal microgap between two ionselective surfaces in an electric field is studied with the Joule heating of the fluid taken into account. It is established that the Joule heating can lead to instability at the potential differences, which are several times smaller than those in the isothermal case. The effects of microscale thermal instability differ from the Rayleigh-Benard thermal convection: the destabilization occurs upon heating in the upper part of the gap.

  14. Methane Lunar Surface Thermal Control Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta, David W.; Sutherlin, Steven G.; Johnson, Wesley L.; Feller, Jeffrey R.; Jurns, John M.

    2012-01-01

    NASA is considering propulsion system concepts for future missions including human return to the lunar surface. Studies have identified cryogenic methane (LCH4) and oxygen (LO2) as a desirable propellant combination for the lunar surface ascent propulsion system, and they point to a surface stay requirement of 180 days. To meet this requirement, a test article was prepared with state-of-the-art insulation and tested in simulated lunar mission environments at NASA GRC. The primary goals were to validate design and models of the key thermal control technologies to store unvented methane for long durations, with a low-density high-performing Multi-layer Insulation (MLI) system to protect the propellant tanks from the environmental heat of low Earth orbit (LEO), Earth to Moon transit, lunar surface, and with the LCH4 initially densified. The data and accompanying analysis shows this storage design would have fallen well short of the unvented 180 day storage requirement, due to the MLI density being much higher than intended, its substructure collapse, and blanket separation during depressurization. Despite the performance issue, insight into analytical models and MLI construction was gained. Such modeling is important for the effective design of flight vehicle concepts, such as in-space cryogenic depots or in-space cryogenic propulsion stages.

  15. Micelles Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Svintradze, David V

    2016-01-01

    A micelle consists of monolayer of lipid molecules containing hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail. These amphiphilic molecules in aqueous environment aggregate spontaneously into monomolecular layer held together due to hydrophobic effect by weak non-covalent forces. Micelles are flexible surfaces that show variety of shapes of different topology, but remarkably in mechanical equilibrium conditions they are spherical in shape. The shape and size of a micelle are functions of many variables such as lipid concentration, temperature, ionic strength, etc. Addressing the question, why the shape of micelles is sphere in mechanical equilibrium conditions, analytically proved to be a difficult problem. In the following paper we offer the shortest and elegant analytical proof of micelles spheroidal nature when they are thermodynamically equilibrated with solvent. The formalism presented in this paper can be readily extended to any homogenous surfaces, such are vesicles and membranes.

  16. Hydrodynamic effects of the tip movement on surface nanobubbles: a combined tapping mode, lift mode and force volume mode AFM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczyk, Wiktoria; Hain, Nicole; Schönherr, Holger

    2014-08-28

    We report on an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) study of AFM tip-nanobubble interactions in experiments conducted on argon surface nanobubbles on HOPG (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) in water in tapping mode, lift mode and Force Volume (FV) mode AFM. By subsequent data acquisition on the same nanobubbles in these three different AFM modes, we could directly compare the effect of different tip-sample interactions. The tip-bubble interaction strength was found to depend on the vertical and horizontal position of the tip on the bubble with respect to the bubble center. The interaction forces measured experimentally were in good agreement with the forces calculated using the dynamic interaction model. The strength of the hydrodynamic effect was also found to depend on the direction of the tip movement. It was more pronounced in the FV mode, in which the tip approaches the bubble from the top, than in the lift mode, in which the tip approaches the bubble from the side. This result suggests that the direction of tip movement influences the bubble deformation. The effect should be taken into account when nanobubbles are analysed by AFM in various scanning modes.

  17. Dynamic Surface Control and Its Application to Lateral Vehicle Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongsob Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the design and analysis methodology of dynamic surface control (DSC in Song and Hedrick, 2011, for a more general class of nonlinear systems. When rotational mechanical systems such as lateral vehicle control and robot control are considered for applications, sinusoidal functions are easily included in the equation of motions. If such a sinusoidal function is used as a forcing term for DSC, the stability analysis faces the difficulty due to highly nonlinear functions resulting from the low-pass filter dynamics. With modification of input variables to the filter dynamics, the burden of mathematical analysis can be reduced and stability conditions in linear matrix inequality form to guarantee the quadratic stability via DSC are derived for the given class of nonlinear systems. Finally, the proposed design and analysis approach are applied to lateral vehicle control for forward automated driving and backward parallel parking at a low speed as well as an illustrative example.

  18. Ride control of surface effect ships using distributed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgeir J. Sørensen

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available A ride control system for active damping of heave and pitch accelerations of Surface Effect Ships (SES is presented. It is demonstrated that distributed effects that are due to a spatially varying pressure in the air cushion result in significant vertical vibrations in low and moderate sea states. In order to achieve a high quality human comfort and crew workability it is necessary to reduce these vibrations using a control system which accounts for distributed effects due to spatial pressure variations in the air cushion. A mathematical model of the process is presented, and collocated sensor and actuator pairs are used. The process stability is ensured using a controller with appropriate passivity properties. Sensor and actuator location is also discussed. The performance of the ride control system is shown by power spectra of the vertical accelerations obtained from full scale experiments with a 35 m SES.

  19. Hydrodynamic dispersion within porous biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Davit, Y.

    2013-01-23

    Many microorganisms live within surface-associated consortia, termed biofilms, that can form intricate porous structures interspersed with a network of fluid channels. In such systems, transport phenomena, including flow and advection, regulate various aspects of cell behavior by controlling nutrient supply, evacuation of waste products, and permeation of antimicrobial agents. This study presents multiscale analysis of solute transport in these porous biofilms. We start our analysis with a channel-scale description of mass transport and use the method of volume averaging to derive a set of homogenized equations at the biofilm-scale in the case where the width of the channels is significantly smaller than the thickness of the biofilm. We show that solute transport may be described via two coupled partial differential equations or telegrapher\\'s equations for the averaged concentrations. These models are particularly relevant for chemicals, such as some antimicrobial agents, that penetrate cell clusters very slowly. In most cases, especially for nutrients, solute penetration is faster, and transport can be described via an advection-dispersion equation. In this simpler case, the effective diffusion is characterized by a second-order tensor whose components depend on (1) the topology of the channels\\' network; (2) the solute\\'s diffusion coefficients in the fluid and the cell clusters; (3) hydrodynamic dispersion effects; and (4) an additional dispersion term intrinsic to the two-phase configuration. Although solute transport in biofilms is commonly thought to be diffusion dominated, this analysis shows that hydrodynamic dispersion effects may significantly contribute to transport. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  20. Low torque hydrodynamic lip geometry for rotary seals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.

    2015-07-21

    A hydrodynamically lubricating geometry for the generally circular dynamic sealing lip of rotary seals that are employed to partition a lubricant from an environment. The dynamic sealing lip is provided for establishing compressed sealing engagement with a relatively rotatable surface, and for wedging a film of lubricating fluid into the interface between the dynamic sealing lip and the relatively rotatable surface in response to relative rotation that may occur in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction. A wave form incorporating an elongated dimple provides the gradual convergence, efficient impingement angle, and gradual interfacial contact pressure rise that are conducive to efficient hydrodynamic wedging. Skewed elevated contact pressure zones produced by compression edge effects provide for controlled lubricant movement within the dynamic sealing interface between the seal and the relatively rotatable surface, producing enhanced lubrication and low running torque.

  1. Hydrodynamic Self-Assembly of Topographical Patterns on Soft Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Satish [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-01-06

    The objective of this project is to use theoretical tools to explore fundamentally new ways of creating and controlling surface topography on soft materials (e.g., polymeric liquids, gels, colloidal suspensions) that make use of principles from hydrodynamics and self-assembly. Surface topography is known to have a significant impact on the optical, adhesive, and wetting properties of materials, so improved fundamental understanding of how to create and control it will help enable the tailoring of these properties to desired specifications. Self-assembly is the spontaneous organization of an ordered structure, and hydrodynamics often plays an important role in the self-assembly of soft materials. This research supported through this project has led to the discovery of a number of novel phenomena that are described in published journal articles. In this way, the research significantly adds to the fundamental understanding of the topics investigated.

  2. Spiralling out of control: 3D hydrodynamical modelling of the colliding winds in $\\eta\\thinspace$Carinae

    CERN Document Server

    Parkin, E R; Corcoran, M F; Hamaguchi, K

    2010-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) adaptive-mesh refinement (AMR) hydrodynamical simulations of the wind-wind collision between the enigmatic super-massive star \\etacar and its mysterious companion star are presented which include radiative driving of the stellar winds, gravity, optically-thin radiative cooling, and orbital motion. Simulations with static stars with a periastron passage separation reveal that the preshock companion star's wind speed is sufficiently reduced that radiative cooling in the postshock gas becomes important, permitting the runaway growth of non-linear thin shell (NTSI) instabilities which massively distort the WCR. However, large-scale simulations which include the orbital motion of the stars, show that orbital motion reduces the impact of radiative inhibition, and thus increases the acquired preshock velocities. As such, the postshock gas temperature and cooling time see a commensurate increase, and sufficient gas pressure is preserved to stabilize the WCR against catastrophic instability grow...

  3. Hydrodynamic slip in silicon nanochannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.

    2016-03-01

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were performed to better understand the hydrodynamic behavior of water flowing through silicon nanochannels. The water-silicon interaction potential was calibrated by means of size-independent molecular dynamics simulations of silicon wettability. The wettability of silicon was found to be dependent on the strength of the water-silicon interaction and the structure of the underlying surface. As a result, the anisotropy was found to be an important factor in the wettability of these types of crystalline solids. Using this premise as a fundamental starting point, the hydrodynamic slip in nanoconfined water was characterized using both equilibrium and nonequilibrium calculations of the slip length under low shear rate operating conditions. As was the case for the wettability analysis, the hydrodynamic slip was found to be dependent on the wetted solid surface atomic structure. Additionally, the interfacial water liquid structure was the most significant parameter to describe the hydrodynamic boundary condition. The calibration of the water-silicon interaction potential performed by matching the experimental contact angle of silicon led to the verification of the no-slip condition, experimentally reported for silicon nanochannels at low shear rates.

  4. Hydrodynamic Nambu Brackets derived by Geometric Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Blender, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A geometric approach to derive the Nambu brackets for ideal two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics is suggested. The derivation is based on two-forms with vanishing integrals in a periodic domain, and with resulting dynamics constrained by an orthogonality condition. As a result, 2D hydrodynamics with vorticity as dynamic variable emerges as a generic model, with conservation laws which can be interpreted as enstrophy and energy functionals. Generalized forms like surface quasi-geostrophy and fractional Poisson equations for the stream-function are also included as results from the derivation. The formalism is extended to a hydrodynamic system coupled to a second degree of freedom, with the Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection as an example. This system is reformulated in terms of constitutive conservation laws with two additive brackets which represent individual processes: a first representing inviscid 2D hydrodynamics, and a second representing the coupling between hydrodynamics and thermodynamics. The results can b...

  5. Silicon surface structure-controlled oleophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Xiu, Yonghao; Hess, Dennis W; Wong, C P

    2010-06-01

    Superoleophobic surfaces display contact angles >150 degrees with liquids that have lower surface energies than does water. The design of superoleophobic surfaces requires an understanding of the effect of the geometrical shape of etched silicon surfaces on the contact angle and hysteresis observed when different liquids are brought into contact with these surfaces. This study used liquid-based metal-assisted etching and various silane treatments to create superoleophobic surfaces on a Si(111) surface. Etch conditions such as the etch time and etch solution concentration played critical roles in establishing the oleophobicity of Si(111). When compared to Young's contact angle, the apparent contact angle showed a transition from a Cassie to a Wenzel state for low-surface-energy liquids as different silane treatments were applied to the silicon surface. These results demonstrated the relationship between the re-entrant angle of etched surface structures and the contact angle transition between Cassie and Wenzel behavior on etched Si(111) surfaces.

  6. Coupled Hydrodynamic-Water Quality Model for Pollution Control Scenarios in El-Burullus Lake (Nile Delta, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. El-Adawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El-Burullus Lake is affected by increasing and extensive human activities, rapid social-economic development and the construction of fish ponds nearby. This has significantly impacted the health of the lake eco-system. On the foundation of the two-dimensional depth averaged hydrodynamic model, distributions of the salinity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and Ammonium (NH4 were modeled. The heat flux model was also utilized to enhance the accuracy of the calculations in the water quality modeling stage. The calibration and the verification of this model were based on spatially distributed water quality measurements during the period 2010-2011. The correlation coefficients between measured and simulated salinity was found to be 0.79 in January 2011 and 0.84 in August 2010 with a mean errors of 1.3407 and 2.0727 ppt in August 2010 and January 2011 respectively. The results generally agree with the observations, but this indicates that more measurements are needed to verify the predictability of the simulations. In addition, Delft-3D model has been applied in evaluating the feasibility of adding a new artificial inlet or diversion of some drains. The model proved to be an effective tool for the water dynamics, water quality simulation and evaluating different scenarios of such shallow Lake.

  7. Controlled hydrodynamic conditions on the formation of iron oxide nanostructures synthesized by electrochemical anodization: Effect of the electrode rotation speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Granados, Bianca; Sánchez-Tovar, Rita; Fernández-Domene, Ramón M.; García-Antón, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Iron oxide nanostructures are of particular interest because they can be used as photocatalysts in water splitting due to their advantageous properties. Electrochemical anodization is one of the best techniques to synthesize nanostructures directly on the metal substrate (direct back contact). In the present study, a novel methodology consisting of the anodization of iron under hydrodynamic conditions is carried out in order to obtain mainly hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanostructures to be used as photocatalysts for photoelectrochemical water splitting applications. Different rotation speeds were studied with the aim of evaluating the obtained nanostructures and determining the most attractive operational conditions. The synthesized nanostructures were characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, photoelectrochemical water splitting, stability against photocorrosion tests, Mott-Schottky analysis, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and band gap measurements. The results showed that the highest photocurrent densities for photoelectrochemical water splitting were achieved for the nanostructure synthesized at 1000 rpm which corresponds to a nanotubular structure reaching ∼0.130 mA cm-2 at 0.54 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). This is in agreement with the EIS measurements and Mott-Schottky analysis which showed the lowest resistances and the corresponding donor density values, respectively, for the nanostructure anodized at 1000 rpm.

  8. Numerical Modeling Analysis of Hydrodynamic and Microbial Controls on DNAPL Pool Dissolution and Detoxification: Dehalorespirers in Co-culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesseldyke, Eric S.; Becker, Jennifer G.; Seagren, Eric A.; Mayer, Alex S.; Zhang, Changyong

    2015-04-01

    Dissolution of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contaminants like tetrachloroethene (PCE) can be “bioenhanced” via biodegradation, which increases the concentration gradient at the DNAPL–water interface. Model simulations were used to evaluate the impact of ecological interactions between different dehalorespiring strains and hydrodynamics on the bioenhancement effect and the extent of PCE dechlorination. Simulations were performed using a two-dimensional coupled flow-transport model, with a DNAPL pool source and two microbial species, Dehalococcoides mccartyi 195 and Desulfuromonas michiganensis, which compete for electron acceptors (e.g., PCE), but not for their electron donors. Under biostimulation, low vx conditions, D. michiganensis alone significantly enhanced dissolution by rapidly utilizing aqueous-phase PCE. In co-culture under these conditions, D. mccartyi 195 increased this bioenhancement modestly and greatly increased the extent of PCE transformation. Although D. michiganensis was the dominant population under low velocity conditions, D. mccartyi 195 dominated under high velocity conditions due to bioclogging effects.

  9. Controlling surface reactions with nanopatterned surface elastic strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhisheng; Potapenko, Denis V; Osgood, Richard M

    2015-01-27

    The application of elastic lattice strain is a promising approach for tuning material properties, but the attainment of a systematic approach for introducing a high level of strain in materials so as to study its effects has been a major challenge. Here we create an array of intense locally varying strain fields on a TiO2 (110) surface by introducing highly pressurized argon nanoclusters at 6-20 monolayers under the surface. By combining scanning tunneling microscopy imaging and the continuum mechanics model, we show that strain causes the surface bridge-bonded oxygen vacancies (BBOv), which are typically present on this surface, to be absent from the strained area and generates defect-free regions. In addition, we find that the adsorption energy of hydrogen binding to oxygen (BBO) is significantly altered by local lattice strain. In particular, the adsorption energy of hydrogen on BBO rows is reduced by ∼ 35 meV when the local crystal lattice is compressed by ∼ 1.3%. Our results provide direct evidence of the influence of strain on atomic-scale surface chemical properties, and such effects may help guide future research in catalysis materials design.

  10. Elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication

    CERN Document Server

    Dowson, D; Hopkins, D W

    1977-01-01

    Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication deals with the mechanism of elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication, that is, the lubrication regime in operation over the small areas where machine components are in nominal point or line contact. The lubrication of rigid contacts is discussed, along with the effects of high pressure on the lubricant and bounding solids. The governing equations for the solution of elasto-hydrodynamic problems are presented.Comprised of 13 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication and representation of contacts by cylinders, followed by a discussio

  11. Elementary classical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chirgwin, B H; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A; Plumpton, C

    1967-01-01

    Elementary Classical Hydrodynamics deals with the fundamental principles of elementary classical hydrodynamics, with emphasis on the mechanics of inviscid fluids. Topics covered by this book include direct use of the equations of hydrodynamics, potential flows, two-dimensional fluid motion, waves in liquids, and compressible flows. Some general theorems such as Bernoulli's equation are also considered. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental principles of fluid hydrodynamics, with emphasis on ways of studying the motion of a fluid. Basic c

  12. Modelling and control of laser surface treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, Gerardus Richardus Benardus Engelina

    1999-01-01

    The results of laser surface treatment may vary significantly during laser surface processing. These variations arise from the sensitivity of the process to disturbances, such as varying absorptivity and the small dimensions of the work piece. To increase the reproducibility of the process, a real-t

  13. Process control of laser surface alloying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Meijer, J.; Olde Benneker, Jeroen

    1998-01-01

    In spite of the many advantages of laser surface treatment, such as high production rates and low induced thermal distortion, and its great potential for modifying the surface properties of a wide range of new and existing materials, industrial applications are still limited. This is not only

  14. Modelling and control of laser surface treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina

    1999-01-01

    The results of laser surface treatment may vary significantly during laser surface processing. These variations arise from the sensitivity of the process to disturbances, such as varying absorptivity and the small dimensions of the work piece. To increase the reproducibility of the process, a

  15. Force-Control Algorithm for Surface Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikmese, Behcet; Quadrelli, Marco B.; Phan, Linh

    2008-01-01

    A G-FCON algorithm is designed for small-body surface sampling. It has a linearization component and a feedback component to enhance performance. The algorithm regulates the contact force between the tip of a robotic arm attached to a spacecraft and a surface during sampling.

  16. Expert S-surface control for autonomous underwater vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; PANG Yong-jie; SU Yu-min; ZHAO Fu-long; QIN Zai-bai

    2008-01-01

    S-surface control has proven to be an effective means for motion control of underwater autonomous vehicles (AUV). However there are still problems maintaining steady precision of course due to the constant need to adjust parameters,especially where there are disturbing currents. Thus an intelligent integral was introduced to improve precision. An expert S-surface control was developed to tune the parameters on-line,based on the expert system,it provides S-surface control according to practical experience and control knowledge. To prevent control output over-compensation,a fuzzy neural network was included to adjust the production rules to the knowledge base. Experiments were conducted on an AUV simulation platform,and the results show that the expert S-surface controller performs better than an S-surface controller in environments with currents,producing good steady precision of course in a robust way.

  17. Quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Alqahtani, Mubarak

    2016-01-01

    We study an azimuthally-symmetric boost-invariant quark-gluon plasma using quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics including the effects of both shear and bulk viscosities. We compare results obtained using the quasiparticle method with the standard anisotropic hydrodynamics and viscous hydrodynamics. We consider the predictions of the three methods for the differential particle spectra and mean transverse momentum. We find that the three methods agree for small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, $\\eta/s$, but show differences at large $\\eta/s$. Additionally, we find that the standard anisotropic hydrodynamics method shows suppressed production at low transverse-momentum compared to the other two methods, and the bulk-viscous correction can drive the primordial particle spectra negative at large $p_T$ in viscous hydrodynamics.

  18. Development of Control Models and a Robust Multivariable Controller for Surface Shape Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, Scott Eric [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2003-06-18

    Surface shape control techniques are applied to many diverse disciplines, such as adaptive optics, noise control, aircraft flutter control and satellites, with an objective to achieve a desirable shape for an elastic body by the application of distributed control forces. Achieving the desirable shape is influenced by many factors, such as, actuator locations, sensor locations, surface precision and controller performance. Building prototypes to complete design optimizations or controller development can be costly or impractical. This shortfall, puts significant value in developing accurate modeling and control simulation approaches. This thesis focuses on the field of adaptive optics, although these developments have the potential for application in many other fields. A static finite element model is developed and validated using a large aperture interferometer system. This model is then integrated into a control model using a linear least squares algorithm and Shack-Hartmann sensor. The model is successfully exercised showing functionality for various wavefront aberrations. Utilizing a verified model shows significant value in simulating static surface shape control problems with quantifiable uncertainties. A new dynamic model for a seven actuator deformable mirror is presented and its accuracy is proven through experiment. Bond graph techniques are used to generate the state space model of the multi-actuator deformable mirror including piezo-electric actuator dynamics. Using this verified model, a robust multi-input multi-output (MIMO) H controller is designed and implemented. This controller proved superior performance as compared to a standard proportional-integral controller (PI) design.

  19. Biomimetic shark skin: design, fabrication and hydrodynamic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li; Weaver, James C; Lauder, George V

    2014-05-15

    Although the functional properties of shark skin have been of considerable interest to both biologists and engineers because of the complex hydrodynamic effects of surface roughness, no study to date has successfully fabricated a flexible biomimetic shark skin that allows detailed study of hydrodynamic function. We present the first study of the design, fabrication and hydrodynamic testing of a synthetic, flexible, shark skin membrane. A three-dimensional (3D) model of shark skin denticles was constructed using micro-CT imaging of the skin of the shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus). Using 3D printing, thousands of rigid synthetic shark denticles were placed on flexible membranes in a controlled, linear-arrayed pattern. This flexible 3D printed shark skin model was then tested in water using a robotic flapping device that allowed us to either hold the models in a stationary position or move them dynamically at their self-propelled swimming speed. Compared with a smooth control model without denticles, the 3D printed shark skin showed increased swimming speed with reduced energy consumption under certain motion programs. For example, at a heave frequency of 1.5 Hz and an amplitude of ± 1 cm, swimming speed increased by 6.6% and the energy cost-of-transport was reduced by 5.9%. In addition, a leading-edge vortex with greater vorticity than the smooth control was generated by the 3D printed shark skin, which may explain the increased swimming speeds. The ability to fabricate synthetic biomimetic shark skin opens up a wide array of possible manipulations of surface roughness parameters, and the ability to examine the hydrodynamic consequences of diverse skin denticle shapes present in different shark species.

  20. Hydrodynamically driven colloidal assembly in dip coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosqui, Carlos E; Morris, Jeffrey F; Stone, Howard A

    2013-05-01

    We study the hydrodynamics of dip coating from a suspension and report a mechanism for colloidal assembly and pattern formation on smooth substrates. Below a critical withdrawal speed where the coating film is thinner than the particle diameter, capillary forces induced by deformation of the free surface prevent the convective transport of single particles through the meniscus beneath the film. Capillary-induced forces are balanced by hydrodynamic drag only after a minimum number of particles assemble within the meniscus. The particle assembly can thus enter the thin film where it moves at nearly the withdrawal speed and rapidly separates from the next assembly. The interplay between hydrodynamic and capillary forces produces periodic and regular structures below a critical ratio Ca(2/3)/sqrt[Bo] particles in suspension. The hydrodynamically driven assembly documented here is consistent with stripe pattern formations observed experimentally in dip coating.

  1. Role of hydrodynamic factors in controlling the formation and location of unconformity-related uranium deposits: insights from reactive-flow modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghbelagh, Yousef Beiraghdar; Yang, Jianwen

    2017-03-01

    The role of hydrodynamic factors in controlling the formation and location of unconformity-related uranium (URU) deposits in sedimentary basins during tectonically quiet periods is investigated. A number of reactive-flow modeling experiments at the deposit scale were carried out by assigning different dip angles and directions to a fault and various permeabilities to hydrostratigraphic units). The results show that the fault dip angle and direction, and permeability of the hydrostratigraphic units govern the convection pattern, temperature distribution, and uranium mineralization. A vertical fault results in uranium mineralization at the bottom of the fault within the basement, while a dipping fault leads to precipitation of uraninite below the unconformity either away from or along the plane of the fault, depending on the fault permeability. A more permeable fault causes uraninite precipitates along the fault plane, whereas a less permeable one gives rise to the precipitation of uraninite away from it. No economic ore mineralization can form when either very low or very high permeabilities are assigned to the sandstone or basement suggesting that these units seem to have an optimal window of permeability for the formation of uranium deposits. Physicochemical parameters also exert an additional control in both the location and grade of URU deposits. These results indicate that the difference in size and grade of different URU deposits may result from variation in fluid flow pattern and physicochemical conditions, caused by the change in structural features and hydraulic properties of the stratigraphic units involved.

  2. Hydrodynamic properties of fin whale flippers predict maximum rolling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segre, Paolo S; Cade, David E; Fish, Frank E; Potvin, Jean; Allen, Ann N; Calambokidis, John; Friedlaender, Ari S; Goldbogen, Jeremy A

    2016-11-01

    Maneuverability is one of the most important and least understood aspects of animal locomotion. The hydrofoil-like flippers of cetaceans are thought to function as control surfaces that effect maneuvers, but quantitative tests of this hypothesis have been lacking. Here, we constructed a simple hydrodynamic model to predict the longitudinal-axis roll performance of fin whales, and we tested its predictions against kinematic data recorded by on-board movement sensors from 27 free-swimming fin whales. We found that for a given swimming speed and roll excursion, the roll velocity of fin whales calculated from our field data agrees well with that predicted by our hydrodynamic model. Although fluke and body torsion may further influence performance, our results indicate that lift generated by the flippers is sufficient to drive most of the longitudinal-axis rolls used by fin whales for feeding and maneuvering.

  3. Hydrodynamic manoeuvrability data of a flatfish type AUV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Christian; Wagner Smitt, Leif

    1994-01-01

    Hydrodynamic manoeuvrability data of the flatfish type autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) “MARIUS” are presented. “MARIUS” was developed under the EC MAST Programme as a vehicle for seabed inspection and environmental surveys in coastal waters. The AUV has an overall length of 4.5 m and is driven...... by two propellers and four thrusters. The data comprise added mass and inertia coefficients, damping, lift and drag coefficients of the vehicle and its control surfaces, as well as resistance and propulsion characteristics. The hydrodynamic data have been determined by full scale tests, using a towing...... tank equipped with a planar motion mechanism. A few free-sailing tests have been carried out as well. Application of the data and possible improvements of the shape of the vehicle are discussed...

  4. 3D Kinematics and Hydrodynamic Analysis of Freely Swimming Cetacean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yan; Sheinberg, Dustin; Liu, Geng; Dong, Haibo; Fish, Frank; Javed, Joveria

    2015-11-01

    It's widely thought that flexibility and the ability to control flexibility are crucial elements in determining the performance of animal swimming. However, there is a lack of quantification of both span-wise and chord-wise deformation of Cetacean's flukes and associated hydrodynamic performance during actively swimming. To fill this gap, we examined the motion and flexure of both dolphin fluke and orca fluke in steady swimming using a combined experimental and computational approach. It is found that the fluke surface morphing can effectively modulate the flow structures and influence the propulsive performance. Findings from this work are fundamental for understanding key kinematic features of effective Cetacean propulsors, and for quantifying the hydrodynamic force production that naturally occurs during different types of swimming. This work is supported by ONR MURI N00014-14-1-0533 and NSF CBET-1313217.

  5. Hydrodynamic and geomorphic controls on the morphology of an island ecosystem in the Vembanad Lake, West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Laluraj, C.M.; Gopinath, G.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Balachandran, K.K.

    is controlled by the productivity of the overlying water column. The evolution of this island is believed to be due to fluvial inputs from Muvattupuzha River. The braid shape of the island is attributed to the high-energy flow along the wedge of the estuary...

  6. Hydrodynamic Analysis to Process of Hydrostatic Extrusion for Tungsten Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuchi WANG; Zhaohui ZHANG; Shukui LI

    2001-01-01

    The hydrodynamic analysis to the process of the hydrostatic extrusion for tungsten alloy is carried through the hydrodynamic lubrication theory and Reynolds equation in this paper. The critical velocity equation when the hydrodynamic lubrication conditions appear between the surfaces of the work- piece and the die is obtained, and the relationship between the critical velocity and the extrusion parameters is discussed, which build the theoretical bases to the application of the hydrostatic extrusion for tungsten alloy.

  7. PREDICTION OF HYDRODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF THE FLAP RUDDER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a new method for predicting the hydrodynamic performance of the flap rudder behind a propeller. The hydrodynamics of the rudder was calculated by the panel method and the performance of the propeller was predicted by the simplified propeller theoty. The interaction between the rudder and propeller was determined by iterative procedure. The pressure distribution on rudder surface and the hydrodynamic performance of the flap rudder are discussed in the paper.

  8. Hydrodynamics and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Oz, Yaron

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes how the AdS/CFT correspondence (the Holographic Principle) relates field theory hydrodynamics to perturbations of black hole (brane) gravitational backgrounds. The hydrodynamics framework is first presented from the field theory point of view, after which the dual gravitational description is outlined, first for relativistic fluids and then for the nonrelativistic case. Further details of the fluid/gravity correspondence are then discussed, including the bulk geometry and the dynamics of the black hole horizon.

  9. Control System Design for a Surface Cleaning Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhai Yuyi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study a control system for a surface cleaning robot and the focus of the study is the surface cleaning robot controller design. The structural framework of the propulsion control system of the surface robot is designed based on the principle of PWM speed control. The function of each module in the control system is divided and described in detail. A kind of thinking based on an AVR microprocessor and its software and hardware design proposals are presented. Through RS485 and PC communication according to the agreed protocol, the control system achieves robot forward, backward, turn and work operations by the use of a DC motor or stepper motor, and it can therefore more successfully realize the work of a surface cleaning robot.

  10. Kinetically driven self-assembly of a binary solute mixture with controlled phase separation via electro-hydrodynamic flow of corona discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee Joon; Huh, June; Park, Cheolmin

    2012-10-21

    This feature article describes a new and facile process to fabricate a variety of thin films of non-volatile binary solute mixtures suitable for high performance organic electronic devices via electro-hydrodynamic flow of conventional corona discharge. Both Corona Discharge Coating (CDC) and a modified version of CDC, Scanning Corona Discharge Coating (SCDC), are based on utilizing directional electric flow, known as corona wind, of the charged uni-polar particles generated by corona discharge between a metallic needle and a bottom plate under a high electric field (5-10 kV cm(-1)). The electric flow rapidly spreads out the binary mixture solution on the bottom plate and subsequently forms a smooth and flat thin film in a large area within a few seconds. In the case of SCDC, the static movement of the bottom electrode on which a binary mixture solution is placed provides further control of thin film formation, giving rise to a film highly uniform over a large area. Interesting phase separation behaviors were observed including nanometer scale phase separation of a polymer-polymer binary mixture and vertical phase separation of a polymer-organic semiconductor mixture. Core-shell type phase separation of either polymer-polymer or polymer-colloidal nanoparticle binary mixtures was also developed with a periodically patterned microstructure when the relative location of the corona wind was controlled to a binary solution droplet on a substrate. We also demonstrate potential applications of thin functional films with controlled microstructures by corona coating to various organic electronic devices such as electroluminescent diodes, field effect transistors and non-volatile polymer memories.

  11. Protein adsorption to graphene surfaces controlled by chemical modification of the substrate surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Yasutaka; Yamazaki, Kenji; Ogino, Toshio

    2014-10-01

    We have investigated effects of the support substrate surfaces on properties of the attached graphene flakes by observing protein adsorption to the graphene surfaces on SiO2/Si substrates that are modified with self-assembled monolayers to control their hydrophilicity. Using atomic force microscopy operated in aqueous environment, we found that high-density clusters of agglomerated avidin molecules form on the graphene flakes in the areas supported by a hydrophobic substrate surface, whereas very low density of large avidin clusters form at the edge of graphene flakes in the area supported by a hydrophilic surface. These results demonstrate that hydrophilicity of the support surface affects hydrophilicity of the graphene surface also in aqueous environment and that surface modification of the support substrate is a useful technique to control protein adsorption phenomena on graphene surfaces for realization of high sensitive graphene biosensors.

  12. Hydrodynamic controls on cold-water coral growth in the Gulf of Mexico: Long term in situ seabed lander observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mienis, Furu; Duineveld, Gerard; Davies, Andrew J.; van Weering, Tjeerd C. E.; Ross, Steve W.; Roberts, Murray; Seim, Harvey E.; Bane, John M.

    2010-05-01

    temperature (6.5-11.7 °C) and salinity (34.9-35.4) fluctuations. Temperature and salinity co-vary during the year, showing a large increase in July 2009. The average near-bed (1 m above bottom) current speed in the area varies at around 7 cms-1, whilst peak current speeds up to 38 cms-1 are occasionally recorded. The area is characterized by a dominant reversing east and westward flow of water. Short term variability is shown by changes in temperature and salinity, that can be related to internal waves over 5-11 hour periodicity. A further pattern which was observed over the coral habitat is a 24 hour diel vertical migration of zooplankton, that may form part of the food chain reaching the cold-water corals. Fluorescence data show that there is no fresh matter input from the water surface reaching the corals. However, sediment trap samples show high mass fluxes (4002-4192 mg m-2 d-1) in the area and video observations show the presence of large muddy aggregates in the water column. In June and July 2009 a considerable event was recorded, showing an increase in current speed, which was followed by an increase in temperature and salinity. During this period of three weeks a sustained westward water flow was observed. The environmental conditions recorded resemble those recorded in cold-water coral areas on the European margin. However, several main differences have been recorded, the high sediment load in the water column, the absence of fresh surface particles at the seafloor and low oxygen concentrations. Yet Lophelia pertusa still appears to thrive in this area.

  13. 滑行艇半浸式螺旋桨的水动力学特性%Hydrodynamic characteristics of the surface-piercing propellers for the planing craft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan GHASSEMI

    2009-01-01

    Demand for high-speed marine vehicles(HSMVs)is high among both commercial and naval users. It is the duty of the marine vessel's designer to provide a hull and propulsion system that diminishes drag, improves propulsive efficiency, increases safety and improves maneuverability. From the propulsor side, surface piercing propellers(SPPs)should improve performance. Unlike immersed propellers, behavior of the SPP is affected by depth of immersion, Weber number and shaft inclination angle. This paper uses a practical numerical method to predict the hydrodynamic characteristics of an SPP. The critical advance velocity ratio is derived using the Weber number and pitch ratio in the transition mode, then the potential based boundary element method(BEM)is used on the engaged surfaces. Two models of three and six-bladed SPPs(SPP-1 and SPP-2)were selected and some results are shown.

  14. Development of Fully Coupled Aeroelastic and Hydrodynamic Models for Offshore Wind Turbines: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkman, J. M.; Sclavounos, P. D.

    2006-01-01

    Aeroelastic simulation tools are routinely used to design and analyze onshore wind turbines, in order to obtain cost effective machines that achieve favorable performance while maintaining structural integrity. These tools employ sophisticated models of wind-inflow; aerodynamic, gravitational, and inertial loading of the rotor, nacelle, and tower; elastic effects within and between components; and mechanical actuation and electrical responses of the generator and of control and protection systems. For offshore wind turbines, additional models of the hydrodynamic loading in regular and irregular seas, the dynamic coupling between the support platform motions and wind turbine motions, and the dynamic characterization of mooring systems for compliant floating platforms are also important. Hydrodynamic loading includes contributions from hydrostatics, wave radiation, and wave scattering, including free surface memory effects. The integration of all of these models into comprehensive simulation tools, capable of modeling the fully coupled aeroelastic and hydrodynamic responses of floating offshore wind turbines, is presented.

  15. Controlling grass weeds on hard surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Anne Merete; Kristoffersen, Palle; Andreasen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    malezas gramíneas. El objetivo de este experimento fue optimizar el control de Poa annua y Lolium perenne, ambas especies muy difíciles de controlar sin herbicidas. La biomasa aérea de 72 plantas por tratamiento se cosechó y los pesos secos se registraron en intervalos regulares para investigar cómo las...... y también el índice de floración de las plantas de P. annua. Sin embargo, solamente murieron unas cuantas plantas. El primer tratamiento afectó la biomasa aérea más que el segundo tratamiento. Un intervalo entre tratamientos de siete días proporcionó la mayor reducción de regeneración de L. perenne...

  16. Hydrodynamic controls on respiration in the Amazon River and the importance of particle interactions on organic matter decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, N. D.; Sawakuchi, H. O.; Bianchi, T. S.; Gagne-Maynard, W.; Neu, V.; da Silva, D. F.; Diniz, J. E. D. M.; de Matos Valerio, A.; Cunha, A. C.; Brito, D. C.; da Silva, R.; Krusche, A. V.; Richey, J. E.; Keil, R. G.

    2016-12-01

    Microbial decomposition of terrestrial and aquatic organic matter (OM) drives an evasive CO2gas flux from the world's inland waters comparable to the amount of anthropogenic carbon absorbed by the terrestrial biosphere. However, the physical factors regulating aquatic respiration rates are not well understood and traditional respiration experiments have not satisfactorily represented the turbulent conditions that microbes experience in large rivers. We hypothesize that interactions between the OM/microbes associated with particles and their free-living/dissolved counterparts such as exoenzyme activity, cometabolism, and priming effects are a critical factor controlling respiration rates. River velocity is directly linked to the abundance of particles that remain suspended, and as such, should regulate respiration accordingly. This study examines the influence of river velocity on aquatic respiration based on experiments performed in the lower Amazon River with stationary and rotating incubation chambers equipped with integrated O2 probes to monitor O2 drawdown in real-time. For all experiments performed there was a robust positive correlation between the rate at which chambers were spun and the measured respiration rate (r2 values ranged from 0.76 to 1.00). This relationship was then used to normalize respiration rates to instantaneous measurements of river velocity across each river channel. Whereas average respiration rates measured in traditional BOD bottles could only account for 12 ± 7% of the annual average CO2 outgassing rate measured along the lower Amazon River mainstem, respiration rates based on chambers spinning at 0.22 m s-1, 0.66 m s-1, and velocity-normalized calculations could account for 64 ± 22%, 104 ± 36%, and 130 ± 62% of the CO2 outgassing rate, respectively (average river velocity along the lower Amazon River was 0.98 ± 0.42 m s-1). During each sampling campaign there was a positive correlation with river velocity and in situ CO2

  17. Adaptive Fuzzy Dynamic Surface Control for Uncertain Nonlinear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yuan Luo; Zhi-Hao Zhu; Xin-Ping Guan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a robust adaptive fuzzy dynamic surface control for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems is proposed. A novel adaptive fuzzy dynamic surface model is built to approximate the uncertain nonlinear functions by only one fuzzy logic system. The approximation capability of this model is proved and the model is implemented to solve the problem that too many approximators are used in the controller design of uncertain nonlinear systems. The shortage of "explosion of complexity" in backstepping design procedure is overcome by using the proposed dynamic surface control method. It is proved by constructing appropriate Lyapunov candidates that all signals of closed-loop systems are semi-globaily uniformly ultimate bounded. Also, this novel controller stabilizes the states of uncertain nonlinear systems faster than the adaptive sliding mode controller (SMC). Two simulation examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the control approach proposed in this paper.

  18. Smart nanofibers with a photoresponsive surface for controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guo-Dong; Xu, Li-Qun; Yao, Fang; Li, Guo-Liang; Kang, En-Tang

    2009-11-01

    A novel photocontrolled "ON-OFF" release system for the alpha-cyclodextrin-5-fluorouracial (alpha-CD-5FU) prodrug, based on host-guest interaction on the photoresponsive and cross-linked nanofiber surface, was demonstrated. The nanofibers with a stimuli-responsive surface were electrospun from the block copolymer prepared via controlled radical polymerization, followed by surface modification via "Click Chemistry", and loading of the prodrug via host-guest interaction.

  19. Optimal Control Surface Layout for an Aeroservoelastic Wingbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Bret K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a technique for locating the optimal control surface layout of an aeroservoelastic Common Research Model wingbox, in the context of maneuver load alleviation and active utter suppression. The combinatorial actuator layout design is solved using ideas borrowed from topology optimization, where the effectiveness of a given control surface is tied to a layout design variable, which varies from zero (the actuator is removed) to one (the actuator is retained). These layout design variables are optimized concurrently with a large number of structural wingbox sizing variables and control surface actuation variables, in order to minimize the sum of structural weight and actuator weight. Results are presented that demonstrate interdependencies between structural sizing patterns and optimal control surface layouts, for both static and dynamic aeroelastic physics.

  20. Flexible and Safe Control of Mobile Surface Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary innovation of this work is a novel Petri net based approach for safe and flexible control of highly capable mobile surface systems, such as long-duration...

  1. Morphing Flight Control Surface for Advanced Flight Performance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, a new Morphing Flight Control Surface (MFCS) will be developed. The distinction of the research effort is that the SenAnTech team will employ...

  2. Flexible and Safe Control of Mobile Surface Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary innovation of this work is a novel approach for flexible and safe control of highly capable mobile surface systems, such as long-duration science rovers,...

  3. The efficiency of a new hydrodynamic cavitation pilot system on Artemia salina cysts and natural population of copepods and bacteria under controlled mesocosm conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Martina; Grego, Mateja; Turk, Valentina

    2016-04-15

    A study of the efficiency of hydrodynamic cavitation and separation was carried out to evaluate an innovative, environmentally safe and acceptable system for ballast water treatment for reducing the risk of introducing non-native species worldwide. Mesocosm experiments were performed to assess the morphological changes and viability of zooplankton (copepods), Artemia salina cysts, and the growth potential of marine bacteria after the hydrodynamic cavitation treatment with a different number of cycles. Our preliminary results confirmed the significant efficiency of the treatment since more than 98% of the copepods and A. salina cysts were damaged, in comparison with the initial population. The efficiency increased with the number of the hydrodynamic cavitation cycles, or in combination with a separation technique for cysts. There was also a significant decrease in bacterial abundance and growth rate, compared to the initial number and growth potential.

  4. Proportional control valves integrated in silicon nitride surface channel technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Maarten S.; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Meutstege, Esken; Brookhuis, Robert A.; Brouwer, Dannis M.; Lötters, Joost C.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2015-01-01

    We have designed and realized two types of proportional microcontrol valves in a silicon nitride surface channel technology process. This enables on-die integration of flow controllers with other surface channel devices, such as pressure sensors or thermal or Coriolis-based (mass) flow sensors, to o

  5. Anomalous Surface Wave Launching by Handedness Phase Control

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xueqian

    2015-10-09

    Anomalous launch of a surface wave with different handedness phase control is achieved in a terahertz metasurface based on phase discontinuities. The polarity of the phase profile of the surface waves is found to be strongly correlated to the polarization handedness, promising polarization-controllable wavefront shaping, polarization sensing, and environmental refractive-index sensing. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Anisotropic hydrodynamics -- basic concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Florkowski, Wojciech; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Strickland, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Due to the rapid longitudinal expansion of the quark-gluon plasma created in relativistic heavy ion collisions, potentially large local rest frame momentum-space anisotropies are generated. The magnitude of these momentum-space anisotropies can be so large as to violate the central assumption of canonical viscous hydrodynamical treatments which linearize around an isotropic background. In order to better describe the early-time dynamics of the quark gluon plasma, one can consider instead expanding around a locally anisotropic background which results in a dynamical framework called anisotropic hydrodynamics. In this proceedings contribution we review the basic concepts of the anisotropic hydrodynamics framework presenting viewpoints from both the phenomenological and microscopic points of view.

  7. Dispersive hydrodynamics: Preface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondini, G.; El, G. A.; Hoefer, M. A.; Miller, P. D.

    2016-10-01

    This Special Issue on Dispersive Hydrodynamics is dedicated to the memory and work of G.B. Whitham who was one of the pioneers in this field of physical applied mathematics. Some of the papers appearing here are related to work reported on at the workshop "Dispersive Hydrodynamics: The Mathematics of Dispersive Shock Waves and Applications" held in May 2015 at the Banff International Research Station. This Preface provides a broad overview of the field and summaries of the various contributions to the Special Issue, placing them in a unified context.

  8. Polarization controlled directional propagation of Bloch surface wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalevich, Tatiana; Boyer, Philippe; Suarez, Miguel; Salut, Roland; Kim, Myun-Sik; Herzig, Hans Peter; Bernal, Maria-Pilar; Grosjean, Thierry

    2017-03-06

    Bloch surface waves (BSWs) are recently developing alternative to surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Due to dramatically enhanced propagation distance and strong field confinement these surface states can be successfully used in on-chip all-optical integrated devices of increased complexity. In this work we propose a highly miniaturized grating based BSW coupler which is gathering launching and directional switching functionalities in a single element. This device allows to control with polarization the propagation direction of Bloch surface waves at subwavelength scale, thus impacting a large panel of domains such as optical circuitry, function design, quantum optics, etc.

  9. Particle hydrodynamics with tessellation techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, S

    2009-01-01

    Lagrangian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is a well-established approach to model fluids in astrophysical problems, thanks to its geometric flexibility and ability to automatically adjust the spatial resolution to the clumping of matter. However, a number of recent studies have emphasized inaccuracies of SPH in the treatment of fluid instabilities. The origin of these numerical problems can be traced back to spurious surface effects across contact discontinuities, and to SPH's inherent prevention of mixing at the particle level. We here investigate a new fluid particle model where the density estimate is carried out with the help of an auxiliary mesh constructed as the Voronoi tessellation of the simulation particles instead of an adaptive smoothing kernel. This Voronoi-based approach improves the ability of the scheme to represent sharp contact discontinuities. We show that this eliminates spurious surface tension effects present in SPH and that play a role in suppressing certain fluid instabilities. ...

  10. Surface Treatment of Polymeric Materials Controlling the Adhesion of Biomolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Zorzi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review describes different strategies of surface elaboration for a better control of biomolecule adsorption. After a brief description of the fundamental interactions between surfaces and biomolecules, various routes of surface elaboration are presented dealing with the attachment of functional groups mostly thanks to plasma techniques, with the grafting to and from methods, and with the adsorption of surfactants. The grafting of stimuli-responsive polymers is also pointed out. Then, the discussion is focused on the protein adsorption phenomena showing how their interactions with solid surfaces are complex. The adsorption mechanism is proved to be dependent on the solid surface physicochemical properties as well as on the surface and conformation properties of the proteins. Different behaviors are also reported for complex multiple protein solutions.

  11. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-10-05

    This code is a highly modular framework for developing smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations running on parallel platforms. The compartmentalization of the code allows for rapid development of new SPH applications and modifications of existing algorithms. The compartmentalization also allows changes in one part of the code used by many applications to instantly be made available to all applications.

  12. Hydrodynamic analysis of 3-D hydrofoil under free surface and the study on experiment%近自由面三维水翼的水动力分析及试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆任; 叶恒奎; 杨向晖; 冯大奎; 管延敏

    2011-01-01

    采用面元法对近自由面三维水翼进行势流数值分析并进行了相关试验研究.在数值计算中,将Rankine源和偶极子置于边界面上,用时间步进法模拟水翼的势流场和自由表面波形.在自由面采用非线性自由面边界条件,在尾涡面上采用偶极子布置以满足Kutta条件.文中给出了数值计算模型的参数,对于不同浸深、不同航速和不同攻角下的水翼,计算了水翼表面上的压力分布,水翼的阻力和升力及自由表面波形.数值计算结果与试验结果进行了对比.结果表明,文中方法可用于水翼优化设计、近自由面振动翼运动及水翼船兴波等问题的研究.%A time domain panel method based on Green's theorem was developed for the hydrodynamic analysis of a three-dimensional hydrofoil moving under the free surface in the time domain. The interrelated hydrodynamic experiment was also made.The Rankine sources and dipoles were distributed on boundary surfaces including the hydrofoil body surface and free surface.The dipoles were also placed on the wake surface. The Kutta condition was satisfied. A time-stepping panel method was employed in this paper. The numerical results of pressure distribution, lifting force, wave resistance and wave patterns were presented for the three-dimensional hydrofoil. The computed results were compared with experimental. The results show that the numerical method could be used in research on the analysis of optimization design of the hydrofoil, the oscillating hydrofoil moving near free surface and the wave-making of hydrofoil craft.

  13. Stabilizing geometry for hydrodynamic rotary seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.

    2010-08-10

    A hydrodynamic sealing assembly including a first component having first and second walls and a peripheral wall defining a seal groove, a second component having a rotatable surface relative to said first component, and a hydrodynamic seal comprising a seal body of generally ring-shaped configuration having a circumference. The seal body includes hydrodynamic and static sealing lips each having a cross-sectional area that substantially vary in time with each other about the circumference. In an uninstalled condition, the seal body has a length defined between first and second seal body ends which varies in time with the hydrodynamic sealing lip cross-sectional area. The first and second ends generally face the first and second walls, respectively. In the uninstalled condition, the first end is angulated relative to the first wall and the second end is angulated relative to the second wall. The seal body has a twist-limiting surface adjacent the static sealing lip. In the uninstalled condition, the twist-limiting surface is angulated relative to the peripheral wall and varies along the circumference. A seal body discontinuity and a first component discontinuity mate to prevent rotation of the seal body relative to the first component.

  14. SPH方法对金属表面微射流的数值模拟%Simulated Microjet from Free Surface of Aluminum Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王裴; 秦承森; 张树道; 刘超

    2004-01-01

    光滑粒子流体动力学(Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics)方法是一种无网格的拉氏计算方法,具有计算格式简单、易于计算大变形问题等优势.用二维SPH程序模拟了冲击加载下金属铝表面的沟槽状缺陷产生微射流的过程,得到了喷射物的总质量、最大速度和质量-速度曲线.还计算了相同深度、不同夹角的沟槽微射流,并与实验结果进行了比较.结果表明:计算得到的喷射物总质量和最大速度与实验结果符合较好,SPH方法对于估算金属表面的微射流提供了一种有效的数值模拟手段.

  15. Hydrodynamics of the Dirac spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yizhuang, E-mail: yizhuang.liu@stonybrook.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Warchoł, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.warchol@uj.edu.pl [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, PL-30348 Krakow (Poland); Zahed, Ismail, E-mail: ismail.zahed@stonybrook.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    We discuss a hydrodynamical description of the eigenvalues of the Dirac spectrum in even dimensions in the vacuum and in the large N (volume) limit. The linearized hydrodynamics supports sound waves. The hydrodynamical relaxation of the eigenvalues is captured by a hydrodynamical (tunneling) minimum configuration which follows from a pertinent form of Euler equation. The relaxation from a phase of unbroken chiral symmetry to a phase of broken chiral symmetry occurs over a time set by the speed of sound.

  16. Reversible Compositional Control of Oxide Surfaces by Electrochemical Potentials

    KAUST Repository

    Mutoro, Eva

    2012-01-05

    Perovskite oxides can exhibit a wide range of interesting characteristics such as being catalytically active and electronically/ionically conducting, and thus, they have been used in a number of solid-state devices such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and sensors. As the surface compositions of perovskites can greatly influence the catalytic properties, knowing and controlling their surface compositions is crucial to enhance device performance. In this study, we demonstrate that the surface strontium (Sr) and cobalt (Co) concentrations of perovskite-based thin films can be controlled reversibly at elevated temperatures by applying small electrical potential biases. The surface compositional changes of La 0.8Sr 0.2CoO 3-δ (LSC 113), (La 0.5Sr 0.5) 2CoO 4±δ (LSC 214), and LSC 214-decorated LSC 113 films (LSC 113/214) were investigated in situ by utilizing synchrotron-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), where the largest changes of surface Sr were found for the LSC 113/214 surface. These findings offer the potential of reversibly controlling the surface functionality of perovskites. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  17. Surface Magnetism of Cobalt Nanoislands Controlled by Atomic Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jewook; Park, Changwon; Yoon, Mina; Li, An-Ping

    2017-01-11

    Controlling the spin states of the surface and interface is key to spintronic applications of magnetic materials. Here, we report the evolution of surface magnetism of Co nanoislands on Cu(111) upon hydrogen adsorption and desorption with the hope of realizing reversible control of spin-dependent tunneling. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy reveals three types of hydrogen-induced surface superstructures, 1H-(2 × 2), 2H-(2 × 2), and 6H-(3 × 3), with increasing H coverage. The prominent magnetic surface states of Co, while being preserved at low H coverage, become suppressed as the H coverage level increases, which can then be recovered by H desorption. First-principles calculations reveal the origin of the observed magnetic surface states by capturing the asymmetry between the spin-polarized surface states and identify the role of hydrogen in controlling the magnetic states. Our study offers new insights into the chemical control of magnetism in low-dimensional systems.

  18. Reconfigurable Flight Control Design for Combat Flying Wing with Multiple Control Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lei; WANG Lixin

    2012-01-01

    With control using redundant multiple control surface arrangement and large-deflection drag rudders,a combat flying wing has a higher probability for control surface failures.Therefore,its flight control system must be able to reconfigure after such failures.Considering three types of typical control surface failures (lock-in-place (LIP),loss-of-effectiveness (LOE) and float),flight control reconfiguration characteristic and capability of such aircraft types are analyzed.Because of the control surface redundancy,the aircraft using the dynamic inversion flight control law already has a control allocation block.In this paper,its flight control configuration during the above failures is achieved by modifying this block.It is shown that such a reconfigurable flight control design is valid,through numerical simulations of flight attitude control task.Results indicate that,in the circumstances of control surface failures with limited degree and the degradation of the flying quality level,a combat flying wing adopting this flight control reconfiguration approach based on control allocation could guarantee its flight safety and perform some flight combat missions.

  19. Low torque hydrodynamic lip geometry for bi-directional rotation seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.

    2009-07-21

    A hydrodynamically lubricating geometry for the generally circular dynamic sealing lip of rotary seals that are employed to partition a lubricant from an environment. The dynamic sealing lip is provided for establishing compressed sealing engagement with a relatively rotatable surface, and for wedging a film of lubricating fluid into the interface between the dynamic sealing lip and the relatively rotatable surface in response to relative rotation that may occur in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction. A wave form incorporating an elongated dimple provides the gradual convergence, efficient impingement angle, and gradual interfacial contact pressure rise that are conducive to efficient hydrodynamic wedging. Skewed elevated contact pressure zones produced by compression edge effects provide for controlled lubricant movement within the dynamic sealing interface between the seal and the relatively rotatable surface, producing enhanced lubrication and low running torque.

  20. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  1. Thermal control of sequential on-surface transformation of a hydrocarbon molecule on a copper surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Shigeki; Haapasilta, Ville; Lindner, Benjamin D.; Tahara, Kazukuni; Spijker, Peter; Buitendijk, Jeroen A.; Pawlak, Rémy; Meier, Tobias; Tobe, Yoshito; Foster, Adam S.; Meyer, Ernst

    2016-09-01

    On-surface chemical reactions hold the potential for manufacturing nanoscale structures directly onto surfaces by linking carbon atoms in a single-step reaction. To fabricate more complex and functionalized structures, the control of the on-surface chemical reactions must be developed significantly. Here, we present a thermally controlled sequential three-step chemical transformation of a hydrocarbon molecule on a Cu(111) surface. With a combination of high-resolution atomic force microscopy and first-principles computations, we investigate the transformation process in step-by-step detail from the initial structure to the final product via two intermediate states. The results demonstrate that surfaces can be used as catalysing templates to obtain compounds, which cannot easily be synthesized by solution chemistry.

  2. Controlled adsorption of cytochrome c to nanostructured gold surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Ines [Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica (Portugal); Feio, Maria J. [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica (Portugal); Santos, Nuno C. [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Medicina Molecular (Portugal); Eaton, Peter [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica (Portugal); Serro, Ana Paula; Saramago, Benilde [Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Instituto Superior Tecnico (Portugal); Pereira, Eulalia [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica (Portugal); Franco, Ricardo, E-mail: ricardo.franco@fct.unl.pt [Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica (Portugal)

    2012-12-15

    Controlled electrostatic physisorption of horse heart cytochrome c (Cyt c) onto nanostructured gold surfaces was investigated using Quartz-Crystal Microbalance measurements in planar gold surfaces with or without functionalization using a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of the alkanethiol mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA). MUA is a useful functionalization ligand for gold surfaces, shedding adsorbed biomolecules from the excessive electron density of the metal. A parallel analysis was conducted in the corresponding curved surfaces of 15 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), using zeta-potential and UV- visible spectroscopy. Atomic Force Microscopy of both types of functionalized gold surfaces with a MUA SAM, allowed for visualization of Cyt c deposits on the nanostructured gold surface. The amount of Cyt c adsorbed onto the gold surface could be controlled by the solution pH. For the assays conducted at pH 4.5, when MUA SAM- functionalized planar gold surfaces are positive or neutral, and Cyt c has a positive net charge, only 13 % of the planar gold surface area was coated with protein. In contrast, at pH 7.4, when MUA SAM-functionalized planar gold surfaces and Cyt c have opposite charges, a protein coverage of 28 % could be observed implying an adsorption process strongly governed by electrostatic forces. Cyt c adsorption on planar and curved gold surfaces are found to be greatly favored by the presence of a MUA-capping layer. In particular, on the AuNPs, the binding constant is three times larger than the binding constant obtained for the original citrate-capped AuNPs.

  3. Neuromechanical Control for Hexapedal Robot Walking on Challenging Surfaces and Surface Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Xiaofeng; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    are achieved by only changing the stiffness parameters of the VAAMs. In addition, six surfaces can be also classified by observing the motor signals generated by the controller. The performance of the controller is tested on a physical hexapod robot. Experimental results show that it can effectively walk...

  4. Control and characterization of textured, hydrophobic ionomer surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueyuan

    Polymer thin films are of increasing interest in many industrial and technological applications. Superhydrophobic, self-cleaning surfaces have attracted a lot of attention for their application in self-cleaning, anti-sticking coatings, stain resistance, or anti-contamination surfaces in diverse technologies, including medical, transportation, textiles, electronics and paints. This thesis focuses on the preparation of nanometer to micrometer-size particle textured surfaces which are desirable for super water repellency. Textured surfaces consisting of nanometer to micrometer-sized lightly sulfonated polystyrene ionomer (SPS) particles were prepared by rapid evaporation of the solvent from a dilute polymer solution cast onto silica. The effect of the solvent used to spin coat the film, the molecular weight of the ionomer, and the rate of solvent evaporation were investigated. The nano-particle or micron-particle textured ionomer surfaces were prepared by either spin coating or solution casting ionomer solutions at controlled evaporation rates. The surface morphologies were consistent with a spinodal decomposition mechanism where the surface first existed as a percolated-like structure and then ripened into droplets if molecular mobility was retained for sufficient time. The SPS particles or particle aggregates were robust and resisted deformation even after annealing at 120°C for one week. The water contact angles on as-prepared surfaces were relatively low, ~ 90° since the polar groups in ionomer reduce the surface hydrophobicity. After chemical vapor deposition of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane, the surface contact angles increased to ~ 109° on smooth surfaces and ~140° on the textured surfaces. Water droplets stuck to these surfaces even when tilted 90 degrees. Superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared by spraying coating ionomer solutions and Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane onto textured surfaces. The

  5. Controlling Multivalent Binding through Surface Chemistry: Model Study on Streptavidin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Although multivalent binding to surfaces is an important tool in nanotechnology, quantitative information about the residual valency and orientation of surface-bound molecules is missing. To address these questions, we study streptavidin (SAv) binding to commonly used biotinylated surfaces such as supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) and self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Stability and kinetics of SAv binding are characterized by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, while the residual valency of immobilized SAv is quantified using spectroscopic ellipsometry by monitoring binding of biotinylated probes. Purpose-designed SAv constructs having controlled valencies (mono-, di-, trivalent in terms of biotin-binding sites) are studied to rationalize the results obtained on regular (tetravalent) SAv. We find that divalent interaction of SAv with biotinylated surfaces is a strict requirement for stable immobilization, while monovalent attachment is reversible and, in the case of SLBs, leads to the extraction of biotinylated lipids from the bilayer. The surface density and lateral mobility of biotin, and the SAv surface coverage are all found to influence the average orientation and residual valency of SAv on a biotinylated surface. We demonstrate how the residual valency can be adjusted to one or two biotin binding sites per immobilized SAv by choosing appropriate surface chemistry. The obtained results provide means for the rational design of surface-confined supramolecular architectures involving specific biointeractions at tunable valency. This knowledge can be used for the development of well-defined bioactive coatings, biosensors and biomimetic model systems. PMID:28234007

  6. Experimental Study of a Membrane Antenna Surface Adaptive Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, H.; Quijano, U.; Bach, V.; Hill, J.; Wang, K. W.

    2011-01-01

    Due to their ultra lightweight and high packaging efficiency, membrane reflectors are getting more and more attentions for mission architectures that need extremely large inspace deployable antennas. However how to maintain the surface shape of a membrane reflector to the instrument precision requirements is a very challenging problem. This experimental study investigated using PVDF membrane piezoelectric material as actuators to control the surface figures of membrane reflectors. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated by several sets of test results.

  7. Soil Carbon Dioxide Production and Surface Fluxes: Subsurface Physical Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk, D.; Kellman, L.; Beltrami, H.

    Soil respiration is a critical determinant of landscape carbon balance. Variations in soil temperature and moisture patterns are important physical processes controlling soil respiration which need to be better understood. Relationships between soil respi- ration and physical controls are typically addressed using only surface flux data but other methods also exist which permit more rigorous interpretation of soil respira- tion processes. Here we use a combination of subsurface CO_{2} concentrations, surface CO_{2} fluxes and detailed physical monitoring of the subsurface envi- ronment to examine physical controls on soil CO_{2} production at four climate observatories in Eastern Canada. Results indicate that subsurface CO_{2} produc- tion is more strongly correlated to the subsurface thermal environment than the surface CO_{2} flux. Soil moisture was also found to have an important influence on sub- surface CO_{2} production, particularly in relation to the soil moisture - soil profile diffusivity relationship. Non-diffusive profile CO_{2} transport appears to be im- portant at these sites, resulting in a de-coupling of summertime surface fluxes from subsurface processes and violating assumptions that surface CO_{2} emissions are the result solely of diffusion. These results have implications for the study of soil respiration across a broad range of terrestrial environments.

  8. Ellipsoidal Colloids with a Controlled Surface Roughness via Bioinspired Surface Engineering: Building Blocks for Liquid Marbles and Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengjiao; Yang, Lu; Li, Qiang; Wu, Songhai; Jia, Shaoyi; Li, Zhanyong; Zhang, Zhenkun; Shi, Linqi

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the important role of the surface roughness of nano/colloidal particles and harnessing them for practical applications need novel strategies to control the particles' surface topology. Although there are many examples of spherical particles with a specific surface roughness, nonspherical ones with similar surface features are rare. The current work reports a one-step, straightforward, and bioinspired surface engineering strategy to prepare ellipsoidal particles with a controlled surface roughness. By manipulating the unique chemistry inherent to the oxidation-induced self-polymerization of dopamine into polydopamine (PDA), PDA coating of polymeric ellipsoids leads to a library of hybrid ellipsoidal particles (PS@PDA) with a surface that decorates with nanoscale PDA protrusions of various densities and sizes. Together with the advantages originated from the anisotropy of ellipsoids and rich chemistry of PDA, such a surface feature endows these particles with some unique properties. Evaporative drying of fluorinated PS@PDA particles produces a homogeneous coating with superhydrophobicity that arises from the two-scale hierarchal structure of microscale interparticle packing and nanoscale roughness of the constituent ellipsoids. Instead of water repelling that occurs for most of the lotus leaf-like superhydrophobic surfaces, such coating exhibits strong water adhesion that is observed with certain species of rose pedals. In addition, the as-prepared hybrid ellipsoids are very efficient in preparing liquid marble-isolated droplets covered with solid particles. Such liquid marbles can be placed onto many surfaces and might be useful for the controllable transport and manipulation of small volumes of liquids.

  9. Hydrodynamic simulations with the Godunov SPH

    CERN Document Server

    Murante, Giuseppe; Brunino, Riccardo; Cha, Suneg-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    We present results based on an implementation of the Godunov Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (GSPH), originally developed by Inutsuka (2002), in the GADGET-3 hydrodynamic code. We first review the derivation of the GSPH discretization of the equations of moment and energy conservation, starting from the convolution of these equations with the interpolating kernel. The two most important aspects of the numerical implementation of these equations are (a) the appearance of fluid velocity and pressure obtained from the solution of the Riemann problem between each pair of particles, and (b the absence of an artificial viscosity term. We carry out three different controlled hydrodynamical three-dimensional tests, namely the Sod shock tube, the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in a shear flow test, and the "blob" test describing the evolution of a cold cloud moving against a hot wind. The results of our tests confirm and extend in a number of aspects those recently obtained by Cha (2010): (i) GSPH provi...

  10. Mind the gap: a flow instability controlled by particle-surface distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Michelle; Delmotte, Blaise; Youssef, Mena; Sacanna, Stefano; Donev, Aleksandar; Chaikin, Paul

    2016-11-01

    Does a rotating particle always spin in place? Not if that particle is near a surface: rolling leads to translational motion, as well as very strong flows around the particle, even quite far away. These large advective flows strongly couple the motion of neighboring particles, giving rise to strong collective effects in groups of rolling particles. Using a model experimental system, weakly magnetic colloids driven by a rotating magnetic field, we observe that driving a compact group of microrollers leads to a new kind of flow instability. First, an initially uniformly-distributed strip of particles evolves into a shock structure, and then it becomes unstable, emitting fingers with a well-defined wavelength. Using 3D large-scale simulations in tandem with our experiments, we find that the instability wavelength is controlled not by the driving torque or the fluid viscosity, but a geometric parameter: the microroller's distance above the container floor. Furthermore, we find that the instability dynamics can be reproduced using only one ingredient: hydrodynamic interactions near a no-slip boundary.

  11. Scalability of Hydrodynamic Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Shikui

    2009-01-01

    Many hydrodynamic processes can be studied in a way that is scalable over a vastly relevant physical parameter space. We systematically examine this scalability, which has so far only briefly discussed in astrophysical literature. We show how the scalability is limited by various constraints imposed by physical processes and initial conditions. Using supernova remnants in different environments and evolutionary phases as application examples, we demonstrate the use of the scaling as a powerful tool to explore the interdependence among relevant parameters, based on a minimum set of simulations. In particular, we devise a scaling scheme that can be used to adaptively generate numerous seed remnants and plant them into 3D hydrodynamic simulations of the supernova-dominated interstellar medium.

  12. Relativistic Hydrodynamics with Wavelets

    CERN Document Server

    DeBuhr, Jackson; Anderson, Matthew; Neilsen, David; Hirschmann, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    Methods to solve the relativistic hydrodynamic equations are a key computational kernel in a large number of astrophysics simulations and are crucial to understanding the electromagnetic signals that originate from the merger of astrophysical compact objects. Because of the many physical length scales present when simulating such mergers, these methods must be highly adaptive and capable of automatically resolving numerous localized features and instabilities that emerge throughout the computational domain across many temporal scales. While this has been historically accomplished with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) based methods, alternatives based on wavelet bases and the wavelet transformation have recently achieved significant success in adaptive representation for advanced engineering applications. This work presents a new method for the integration of the relativistic hydrodynamic equations using iterated interpolating wavelets and introduces a highly adaptive implementation for multidimensional simulati...

  13. Toward spatial control of gold nanorod surface functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Jonathan R.

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) show much promise for applications in biological, optoelectronic and energy applications. The resonant generation of a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) at the GNR surface results in interesting optical properties and unique interactions with molecules. Combined with their biocompatibility, ease of synthesis and facile surface functionalization, these anisotropic metal particles are excellent scaffolds for the study of the interactions between nanoscale surfaces and their chemical/biological environments. Regardless of the application, however, GNR utility will not be fully realized until the chemical nature of the surface is understood and controlled. GNRs can enhance various photophysical properties of molecules. In the case of two-photon absorption (TPA), cross-section enhancements have been shown to increase with strong distance-dependence. Here, a dual approach for the conjugation of a TPA chromophore to GNRs is presented, relying on layer-by- layer (LbL) polymer wrapping and direct thiol coating of the same parent chromophore structure. Together, these approaches allow for estimated chromophore-particle distances from nanomaterials. Surface-initiated Atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) is a popular method for grafting polymers from a surface. We demonstrate our ability to grow poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) shells on the GNR surface, toward a "smart" thermoresponsive polymer shell. The role of ligand choice, molar ratio of monomer to initiator and polymerization on presence and control of shell thickness are investigated. The introduction of a tetradentate (vs. the commonly-used tridentate) ATRP ligand was necessary for the growth of PNIPAM shells in our studies, and consideration of the molar ratio of monomer and initiator and reaction time allowed control of shell thickness and extent of aggregation.

  14. Burst Mechanisms in Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Knobloch, E

    1999-01-01

    Different mechanisms believed to be responsible for the generation of bursts in hydrodynamical systems are reviewed and a new mechanism capable of generating regular or irregular bursts of large dynamic range near threshold is described. The new mechanism is present in the interaction between oscillatory modes of odd and even parity in systems of large but finite aspect ratio, and provides an explanation for the bursting behavior observed in binary fluid convection. Additional applications of the new mechanism are proposed.

  15. Relativistic cosmological hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, J

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the relativistic cosmological hydrodynamic perturbations. We present the general large scale solutions of the perturbation variables valid for the general sign of three space curvature, the cosmological constant, and generally evolving background equation of state. The large scale evolution is characterized by a conserved gauge invariant quantity which is the same as a perturbed potential (or three-space curvature) in the comoving gauge.

  16. Heterogeneous ice nucleation controlled by the coupling of surface crystallinity and surface hydrophilicity

    CERN Document Server

    Bi, Yuanfei; Li, Tianshu

    2015-01-01

    The microscopic mechanisms controlling heterogeneous ice nucleation are complex and remain poorly understood. Although good ice nucleators are generally believed to match ice lattice and to bind water, counter examples are often identified. Here we show, by advanced molecular simulations, that the heterogeneous nucleation of ice on graphitic surface is controlled by the coupling of surface crystallinity and surface hydrophilicity. Molecular level analysis reveals that the crystalline graphitic lattice with an appropriate hydrophilicity may indeed template ice basal plane by forming a strained ice layer, thus significantly enhancing its ice nucleation efficiency. Remarkably, the templating effect is found to transit from within the first contact layer of water to the second as the hydrophilicity increases, yielding an oscillating distinction between the crystalline and amorphous graphitic surfaces in their ice nucleation efficiencies. Our study sheds new light on the long-standing question of what constitutes ...

  17. Hydrodynamics of insect spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, On Shun; Lauga, Eric

    2010-11-01

    Microorganism motility plays important roles in many biological processes including reproduction. Many microorganisms propel themselves by propagating traveling waves along their flagella. Depending on the species, propagation of planar waves (e.g. Ceratium) and helical waves (e.g. Trichomonas) were observed in eukaryotic flagellar motion, and hydrodynamic models for both were proposed in the past. However, the motility of insect spermatozoa remains largely unexplored. An interesting morphological feature of such cells, first observed in Tenebrio molitor and Bacillus rossius, is the double helical deformation pattern along the flagella, which is characterized by the presence of two superimposed helical flagellar waves (one with a large amplitude and low frequency, and the other with a small amplitude and high frequency). Here we present the first hydrodynamic investigation of the locomotion of insect spermatozoa. The swimming kinematics, trajectories and hydrodynamic efficiency of the swimmer are computed based on the prescribed double helical deformation pattern. We then compare our theoretical predictions with experimental measurements, and explore the dependence of the swimming performance on the geometric and dynamical parameters.

  18. Irradiation of bioresorbable biomaterials for controlled surface degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simpson, M.; Gilmore, B.F.; Miller, Arne;

    2014-01-01

    Bioresorbable polymers increasingly are the materials of choice for implantable orthopaedic fixation devices. Controlled degradation of these polymers is vital for preservation of mechanical properties during tissue repair and controlled release of incorporated agents such as osteoconductive...... or anti-microbial additives. The work outlined in this paper investigates the use of low energy electron beam irradiation to surface modify polyhydroxyacid samples incorporating beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP). This work uniquely demonstrates that surface modification of bioresorbable polymers through...... bioresorption, followed by characterisation. The results show that low energy e-beam irradiation enhances surface hydrolytic degradation in comparison to bulk and furthermore allows for earlier release of incorporated calcium via dissolution into the surrounding medium....

  19. Controlled crystalline structure and surface stability of cobalt nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yuping; Beerman, Michael; Pakhomov, Alexandre B; Krishnan, Kannan M

    2005-04-21

    The synthesis of monodispersed 10 nm cobalt nanocrystals with controlled crystal morphology and investigation of the surface stability of these nanocrystals are described. Depending on the surfactants used, single crystalline or multiple grain nanocrystals can be reproducibly produced. The relative surface stability of these nanocrystals is analyzed using the temperature dependences of the dc magnetic susceptibility. The novel method, which allows sensitive monitoring of the surface stability, is based on the observation that, with particle oxidation, an anomalous peak appears at 8 K in zero-field-cooled magnetization measurements. It is found that the surfactant protective layer is more important for long-term stability at room temperature, while the high-temperature oxidation rate is controlled by the crystal morphology of the nanoparticles.

  20. Preparation Of Control Space For Remeshing Of Polygonal Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Jurczyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the article concerns the issues of remeshing, transforming a polygonal mesh into a triangular mesh adapted to surface. From the initial polygonal mesh the curvature of surface and boundary is retrieved and used to calculate a metric tensor varying in three-dimensional space. In the proposed approach the curvature is computed using local approximation of surfaces and curves on the basis of vertices of the polygonal mesh. An essential part of the presented remeshing procedure is creation of a control space structure based on the retrieved discrete data. The subsequent process of remeshing is then supervised by the contents of this auxiliary structure. The article presents various aspects related to the procedure of initialization, creation and adjusting the control space structure.

  1. Automated Control Surface Design and Sizing for the Prandtl Plane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ginneken, D.A.J.; Voskuijl, M.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.; Frediani, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the design of the primary flight control surfaces, in terms of size, number and location, for fixed wing aircraft (conventional or unconventional). As test case, the methodology is applied to a 300 passenger variant of the Prandtl Plane. This box wing aircraft i

  2. Modeling Alaska boreal forests with a controlled trend surface approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo Zhou; Jingjing Liang

    2012-01-01

    An approach of Controlled Trend Surface was proposed to simultaneously take into consideration large-scale spatial trends and nonspatial effects. A geospatial model of the Alaska boreal forest was developed from 446 permanent sample plots, which addressed large-scale spatial trends in recruitment, diameter growth, and mortality. The model was tested on two sets of...

  3. Optical control over bioactive ligands at supramolecular surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskuhl, Jens; Sankaran, S.; Jonkheijm, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    In this communication we report for the first time the use of azobenzene modified glycoconjugates to establish optical control over bioactive ligands at a supramolecular β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) surface. Several studies were conducted to investigate the photoresponsive immobilization of proteins and

  4. A uniform, quality controlled Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Takahashi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A well documented, publicly available, global data set of surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2 parameters has been called for by international groups for nearly two decades. The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT project was initiated by the international marine carbon science community in 2007 with the aim of providing a comprehensive, publicly available, regularly updated, global data set of marine surface CO2, which had been subject to quality control (QC. Many additional CO2 data, not yet made public via the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC, were retrieved from data originators, public websites and other data centres. All data were put in a uniform format following a strict protocol. Quality control was carried out according to clearly defined criteria. Regional specialists performed the quality control, using state-of-the-art web-based tools, specially developed for accomplishing this global team effort. SOCAT version 1.5 was made public in September 2011 and holds 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data points from the global oceans and coastal seas, spanning four decades (1968–2007. Three types of data products are available: individual cruise files, a merged complete data set and gridded products. With the rapid expansion of marine CO2 data collection and the importance of quantifying net global oceanic CO2 uptake and its changes, sustained data synthesis and data access are priorities.

  5. A uniform, quality controlled Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pfeil

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A well-documented, publicly available, global data set of surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2 parameters has been called for by international groups for nearly two decades. The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT project was initiated by the international marine carbon science community in 2007 with the aim of providing a comprehensive, publicly available, regularly updated, global data set of marine surface CO2, which had been subject to quality control (QC. Many additional CO2 data, not yet made public via the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC, were retrieved from data originators, public websites and other data centres. All data were put in a uniform format following a strict protocol. Quality control was carried out according to clearly defined criteria. Regional specialists performed the quality control, using state-of-the-art web-based tools, specially developed for accomplishing this global team effort. SOCAT version 1.5 was made public in September 2011 and holds 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data points from the global oceans and coastal seas, spanning four decades (1968–2007. Three types of data products are available: individual cruise files, a merged complete data set and gridded products. With the rapid expansion of marine CO2 data collection and the importance of quantifying net global oceanic CO2 uptake and its changes, sustained data synthesis and data access are priorities.

  6. Surface chemistry interventions to control boiler tube fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C.W.; Guzonas, D.A.; Klimas, S.J

    2000-06-01

    The adsorption of ammonia, morpholine, ethanolamine, and dimethylamine onto the surfaces of colloidal magnetite and hematite was measured at 25{sup o}C. The effect of the adsorption on the surface potential was quantified by measuring the resulting shift in the isoelectric point of the corrosion products and by the direct measurement of the surface interaction force between the corrosion products and Inconel 600. These measurements have served to support the hypothesis that adsorption of amine affects the magnetite deposition rate by lowering the force of repulsion between magnetite and the surface of Inconel 600. The deposition rate of hematite increased as the oxygen concentration increased. A mechanism to account for enhanced deposition rates at high mixture qualities (> 0.35) has been identified and shown to predict behaviour that is consistent with both experimental and plant data. As a result of this investigation, several criteria are proposed to reduce the extent of corrosion product deposition on the tube bundle. Low hematite deposition is favoured by a low concentration of dissolved oxygen, and low magnetite deposition is favoured by choosing an amine for pH control that has little tendency to adsorb onto the surface of magnetite. To minimize adsorption the amine should have a high base strength and a large 'footprint' on the surface of magnetite. To prevent enhanced deposition at high mixture qualities, it is proposed that a modified amine be used that will reduce the surface tension or the elasticity of the steam-water interface or both.

  7. Microfluidic delivery of small molecules into mammalian cells based on hydrodynamic focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fen; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hsiang-Yu; Rummel, Peter L; Garimella, Suresh V; Lu, Chang

    2008-05-01

    Microfluidics-based cell assays offer high levels of automation and integration, and allow multiple assays to be run in parallel, based on reduced sample volumes. These characteristics make them attractive for studies associated with drug discovery. Controlled delivery of drug molecules or other exogenous materials into cells is a critical issue that needs to be addressed before microfluidics can serve as a viable platform for drug screening and studies. In this study, we report the application of hydrodynamic focusing for controlled delivery of small molecules into cells immobilized on the substrate of a microfluidic device. We delivered calcein AM which was permeant to the cell membrane into cells, and monitored its enzymatic conversion into fluorescent calcein during and after the delivery. Different ratios of the sample flow to the side flow were tested to determine how the conditions of hydrodynamic focusing affected the delivery. A 3D numerical model was developed to help understand the fluid flow, molecular diffusion due to hydrodynamic focusing in the microfluidic channel. The results from the simulation indicated that the calcein AM concentration on the outer surface of a cell was determined by the conditions of hydrodynamic focusing. By comparing the results from the simulation with those from the experiment, we found that the calcein AM concentration on the cell outer surface correlated very well with the amount of the molecules delivered into the cell. This suggests that hydrodynamic focusing provides an effective way for potentially quantitative delivery of exogenous molecules into cells at the single cell or subcellular level. We expect that our technique will pave the way to high-throughput drug screening and delivery on a microfluidic platform.

  8. Visuomotor control of neck surface electromyography in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Jessica R; Valentin, Juliana C; Hands, Gabrielle L; Stevens, Christina A; Langmore, Susan E; Noordzij, J Pieter; Stepp, Cara E

    2014-01-01

    To compare performance of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) and age-matched controls on a visuomotor tracking task controlled via surface electromyography (sEMG). Twenty-seven adults with PD and twenty-four older controls produced dry swallows and completed a visuomotor tracking task utilizing both static and dynamic targets. sEMG was recorded at the anterior neck and submental surface during both tasks. There was no significant difference in visuomotor tracking ability between cohorts. Post hoc analyses indicated that there was no significant difference between participant groups in the strength or duration of swallows as measured by sEMG but that participants with PD showed a trend for decreased swallow durations at the anterior neck (padj = 0.067) whereas controls showed a trend for increased durations at the anterior neck (padj = 0.112), compared to the submental surface. However, there were no significant correlations between swallowing behavior and visuomotor tracking ability. There were no significant differences in visuomotor tracking performance between individuals with PD and controls. Furthermore, there was no relationship between tracking ability and swallowing behavior. We conclude that sEMG-mediated biofeedback may have limited promise as a tool for treating PD-related dysphagia.

  9. A cell cycle and nutritional checkpoint controlling bacterial surface adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aretha Fiebig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In natural environments, bacteria often adhere to surfaces where they form complex multicellular communities. Surface adherence is determined by the biochemical composition of the cell envelope. We describe a novel regulatory mechanism by which the bacterium, Caulobacter crescentus, integrates cell cycle and nutritional signals to control development of an adhesive envelope structure known as the holdfast. Specifically, we have discovered a 68-residue protein inhibitor of holdfast development (HfiA that directly targets a conserved glycolipid glycosyltransferase required for holdfast production (HfsJ. Multiple cell cycle regulators associate with the hfiA and hfsJ promoters and control their expression, temporally constraining holdfast development to the late stages of G1. HfiA further functions as part of a 'nutritional override' system that decouples holdfast development from the cell cycle in response to nutritional cues. This control mechanism can limit surface adhesion in nutritionally sub-optimal environments without affecting cell cycle progression. We conclude that post-translational regulation of cell envelope enzymes by small proteins like HfiA may provide a general means to modulate the surface properties of bacterial cells.

  10. Controlled chemical and morphological surface modifications via pulsed plasma polymerizations: Synthesis of ultrahydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Haibo

    The RF plasma polymerization of saturated linear and cyclic perfluoroalkane monomers and vinyl acetic acid were studied in this dissertation. Film chemical compositions, deposition rates, surface wettabilities and morphologies were characterized as functions of various plasma processing conditions. Large progressive changes in chemical compositions with sequential variations in plasma duty cycle were demonstrated in polymerization of both perfluoroalkane and vinyl acetic acid monomers. As anticipated, polymer films obtained from the perfluorocarbon monomers exhibited a general trend towards more linear structures with decreasing plasma duty cycles. However, completely unexpectedly, ultrahydrophobic films were obtained from some of these monomers under restricted duty cycle and power input conditions. SEM and XPS characterizations revealed that a rough, fibrous-like surface morphology is responsible for this ultrahydrophobicity, as opposed to unusual chemical compositions. The growth of the fibrous surface is believed to arise from nucleation and hillock-like growth patterns on selectively activated sites of the growing polymer film. Surface mobility of plasma generated reactive species apparently plays an important role in the growth of the fibrous ultrahydrophobic surfaces, as shown by substrate temperature studies. Additionally, the present study revealed a number of interesting new observations of significant differences in the chemical compositions and deposition rates of polymer films obtained from the diverse range of perfluorocarbon monomers employed in this work. The ultrahydrophobic fluorocarbon films discovered in this investigation were evaluated for use in several biomaterial applications. The results obtained show excellent marine antifouling properties for these surfaces, as documented in ocean testing experiments. These surfaces have also been shown to be useful in controlling protein and peptide surface adsorptions, as well as in the inflammatory

  11. Classical analogue of an interstellar travel through a hydrodynamic wormhole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euvé, L.-P.; Rousseaux, G.

    2017-09-01

    The classical theory of space-time, namely general relativity, suggests but does not demonstrate the existence of so-called wormholes allowing for interstellar journeys. Alternative proposals such as quantum gravity theories are developed nowadays to allow for wormhole travels by assuming hypothetical trans-Planckian effects at tiny scales. Here we show experimentally that analogue traversable and bidirectional wormholes exist in hydrodynamics following a suggestion by Wheeler. Using a water channel, we sent free surface waves on a countercurrent in an analogue gravity setup aiming at showing that hydrodynamic wormhole travels are controlled by a cascade of dispersive scales including surface tension effects: the capillary wavelength plays the role of a Planckian scale below which long gravity waves are transformed into short capillary waves that are able to move at speeds higher than the "flow" of space-time. Whereas our results do not apply to putative astrophysical wormholes per se, we anticipate that they will trigger new ideas to explore quantum gravity physics.

  12. Biological control of surface temperature in the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyendranath, Shubha; Gouveia, Albert D.; Shetye, Satish R.; Ravindran, P.; Platt, Trevor

    1991-01-01

    In the Arabian Sea, the southwest monsoon promotes seasonal upwelling of deep water, which supplies nutrients to the surface layer and leads to a marked increase in phytoplankton growth. Remotely sensed data on ocean color are used here to show that the resulting distribution of phytoplankton exerts a controlling influence on the seasonal evolution of sea surface temperature. This results in a corresponding modification of ocean-atmosphere heat exchange on regional and seasonal scales. It is shown that this biological mechanism may provide an important regulating influence on ocean-atmosphere interactions.

  13. Controllable wettability and morphology of electrodeposited surfaces on zinc substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Binyan; Lu, Shixiang, E-mail: shixianglu@bit.edu.cn; Xu, Wenguo, E-mail: wenguoxu60@bit.edu.cn; Cheng, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces combining hierarchical micro/nanostructures were fabricated on zinc substrates by etching, electrodeposition of ZnO coatings and annealing. Such superhydrophobic surfaces offer possibilities for chemical, biological, electronic and microfluidic applications. - Highlights: • Superhydrophobic surface was fabricated via electrodeposition of ZnO and annealing. • The ZnO hierarchical micro/nanostructures contribute to the surface superhydrophobicity. • Surface wettability and morphology can be controlled by varying process conditions. • The anti-icing properties and reversible wetting behaviors of the ZnO coatings were studied. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces combining hierarchical micro/nanostructures were fabricated on zinc substrates by etching in hydrochloric acid solution, electrodeposition of ZnO coatings and subsequent thermal annealing. The optimal coatings were electrodeposited at −1.25 V for 900 s on the etched zinc substrates and then annealed at 200 °C for 60 min, which could achieve a maximum water contact angle of 170 ± 2° and an ultra-low sliding angle of approximately 0°. By conducting SEM and water CA analysis, we found that the morphology and wettability of prepared samples were controllable by the fabrication process. Interestingly, even without any additional modification, the samples prepared under different electrodeposition conditions (including Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} concentration from 5 mM to 40 mM and deposition time from 300 s to 1500 s) exhibited superhydrophobic character. The influences of the Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} concentration, deposition time, annealing temperature and annealing time on the wetting behaviors were also discussed in detail. Such superhydrophobic surfaces possess long-term stability, and good corrosion resistance as well as self-cleaning ability. In addition, the anti-icing properties of the ZnO films were investigated. These surfaces could be rapidly and

  14. Hydrodynamic permeability of aggregates of porous particles with an impermeable core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Satya; Filippov, Anatoly; Tiwari, Ashish; Vasin, Sergey; Starov, Victor

    2011-05-11

    A hydrodynamic permeability of membranes built up by porous cylindrical or spherical particles with impermeable core is investigated. Different versions of a cell method are used to calculate the hydrodynamic permeability of the membranes. Four known boundary conditions, namely, Happel's, Kuwabara's, Kvashnin's and Cunningham/Mehta-Morse's, are considered on the outer surface of the cell. Comparison of the resulting hydrodynamic permeability is undertaken. A possible jump of a shear stress at the fluid-membrane interface, its impact on the hydrodynamic permeability is also investigated. New results related to the calculated hydrodynamic permeability and the theoretical values of Kozeny constant are reported. Both transversal and normal flows of liquid with respect to the cylindrical fibers that compose the membrane are studied. The deduced theoretical results can be applied for the investigation of the hydrodynamic permeability of colloidal cake layers on the membrane surface, the hydrodynamic permeability of woven materials. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Controlling Protein Oligomerization with Surface Curvature on the Nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurylowicz, Marty; Dutcher, John

    2011-03-01

    We investigate the effect of surface curvature on the conformation of beta-lactoglobulin (β LG) using Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy. β LG is a model interfacial protein which stabilizes oil droplets in milk and is known to undergo structural rearrangement when adsorbed onto a surface. We reliably control nanoscale surface curvature by creating close-packed monolayers of monodisperse polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles with diameters of 20, 40, 60, 80 and 140 nm, which are stable in aqueous buffer. By adsorbing β LG onto these hydrophobic surfaces and collecting force-extension curves in the fluid phase we can compare the conformation of β LG on 5 different surface curvatures with that on a flat PS film. We demonstrate a transition from oligomeric to monomeric β LG as the surface curvature is increased. Histograms of contour length from fits to peaks in the force-extension curves show a single maximum near 30 nm for β LG adsorbed onto nanoparticles with diameters less than 80 nm. For the larger nanoparticles, the histogram approaches that observed for β LG adsorbed onto a flat PS film, with maxima indicative of β LG dimers and trimers.

  16. Quality Control system for a hot-rolled metal surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mazur

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The modern ideas about of quality of products are based on the principle of the absolute satisfaction of requirements of recommendations of the buyer. A presence of surface defects of steel-smelting and rolling origin is peculiar to the production of hot-rolling mill. The automatic surface inspection system (ASIS includes two digital line video cameras for the filming of the upper and lower surfaces of the flat bar, block of illumination of the upper and lower surfaces of the flat bar, computer equipment. A system that secures 100 % control of the surface of rolled metal (of the upper and lower side detects automatically and classifies the sheet defects in the real time mode was mounted in the domestic practice in the first time in 2003 on hot rolling mill 2000 JSC «Novolipetsk Iron & Steel Corporation» (NISC. The whole assortment of the mill 2000 was divided for the five groups by the outward appearance of the surface. The works on the identification of defects of hot-rolled metal and widening of data base of knowledge of ASIS were continued after the carrying out of guarantee tests. More than 10 thousand images of defects were added to the data base during the year.

  17. Hydrodynamic instabilities in an ablation front

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piriz, A R; Portugues, R F [E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2004-06-01

    The hydrodynamic stability of an ablation front is studied for situations in which the wavelength of the perturbations is larger than the distance to the critical surface where the driving radiation is absorbed. An analytical model is presented, and it shows that under conditions in which the thermal flux is limited within the supercritical region of the ablative corona, the front may behave like a flame or like an ablation front, depending on the perturbation wavelength. For relatively long wavelengths the critical and ablation surfaces practically lump together into a unique surface and the front behaves like a flame, whereas for the shortest wavelengths the ablation front substructure is resolved.

  18. Foundations of radiation hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mihalas, Dimitri

    1999-01-01

    Radiation hydrodynamics is a broad subject that cuts across many disciplines in physics and astronomy: fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, kinetic theory, and radiative transfer, among others. The theory developed in this book by two specialists in the field can be applied to the study of such diverse astrophysical phenomena as stellar winds, supernova explosions, and the initial phases of cosmic expansion, as well as the physics of laser fusion and reentry vehicles. As such, it provides students with the basic tools for research on radiating flows.Largely self-contained,

  19. Optimization of Submarine Hydrodynamic Coefficients Based on Immune Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Kun; XU Yi-fan

    2010-01-01

    Aiming at the demand for optimization of hydrodynamic coefficients in submarine's motion equations, an adaptive weight immune genetic algorithm was proposed to optimize hydrodynamic coefficients in motion equations. Some hydrody-namic coefficients of high sensitivity to control and maneuver were chosen as the optimization objects in the algorithm. By using adaptive weight method to determine the weight and target function, the multi-objective optimization could be transla-ted into single-objective optimization. For a certain kind of submarine, three typical maneuvers were chosen to be the objects of study: overshoot maneuver in horizontal plane, overshoot maneuver in vertical plane and turning circle maneuver in horizontal plane. From the results of computer simulations using primal hydrodynamic coefficient and optimized hydrody-namic coefficient, the efficiency of proposed method is proved.

  20. Modeling Water Waves with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    flows, such as undertow, longshore currents, and rip currents. APPROACH The approach is based on improving various aspects of the SPH code ...Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics ( SPH ) is a meshless numerical method that is being developed for the study of nearshore waves and other Navy needs. The...Lagrangian nature of SPH allows the modeling of wave breaking, surf zones, ship waves, and wave-structure interaction, where the free surface becomes

  1. Laser driven hydrodynamic instability experiments. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remington, B.A.; Weber, S.V.; Haan, S.W.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Glendinning, S.G.; Wallace, R.J.; Goldstein, W.H.; Wilson, B.G.; Nash, J.K.

    1993-02-17

    An extensive series of experiments has been conducted on the Nova laser to measure hydrodynamic instabilities in planar foils accelerated by x-ray ablation. Single mode experiments allow a measurement of the fundamental growth rates from the linear well into the nonlinear regime. Two-mode foils allow a first direct observation of mode coupling. Surface-finish experiments allow a measurement of the evolution of a broad spectrum of random initial modes.

  2. Molecular hydrodynamics from memory kernels

    CERN Document Server

    Lesnicki, Dominika; Carof, Antoine; Rotenberg, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The memory kernel for a tagged particle in a fluid, computed from molecular dynamics simulations, decays algebraically as $t^{-3/2}$. We show how the hydrodynamic Basset-Boussinesq force naturally emerges from this long-time tail and generalize the concept of hydrodynamic added mass. This mass term is negative in the present case of a molecular solute, at odds with incompressible hydrodynamics predictions. We finally discuss the various contributions to the friction, the associated time scales and the cross-over between the molecular and hydrodynamic regimes upon increasing the solute radius.

  3. Surface Sites for Engineering Allosteric Control in Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeeyeon; Natarajan, Madhusudan; Nashine, Vishal C.; Socolich, Michael; Vo, Tina; Russ, William P.; Benkovic, Stephen J.; Ranganathan, Rama

    2010-01-01

    Statistical analyses of protein families reveal networks of coevolving amino acids that functionally link distantly positioned functional surfaces. Such linkages suggest a concept for engineering allosteric control into proteins: The intramolecular networks of two proteins could be joined across their surface sites such that the activity of one protein might control the activity of the other. We tested this idea by creating PAS-DHFR, a designed chimeric protein that connects a light-sensing signaling domain from a plant member of the Per/Arnt/Sim (PAS) family of proteins with Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). With no optimization, PAS-DHFR exhibited light-dependent catalytic activity that depended on the site of connection and on known signaling mechanisms in both proteins. PAS-DHFR serves as a proof of concept for engineering regulatory activities into proteins through interface design at conserved allosteric sites. PMID:18927392

  4. Robust formation control of marine surface craft using Lagrange multipliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihle, Ivar-Andre F.; Jouffroy, Jerome; Fossen, Thor I.

    2006-01-01

    framework we develop robust control laws for marine surface vessels to counteract unknown, slowly varying, environmental disturbances and measurement noise. Robustness with respect to time-delays in the communication channels are addressed by linearizing the system. Simulations of tugboats subject......This paper presents a formation modelling scheme based on a set of inter-body constraint functions and Lagrangian multipliers. Formation control for a °eet of marine craft is achieved by stabilizing the auxiliary constraints such that the desired formation con¯guration appears. In the proposed...

  5. Controlling magnetism on metal surfaces with non-magnetic means: electric fields and surface charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovko, Oleg O; Ruiz-Díaz, Pedro; Dasa, Tamene R; Stepanyuk, Valeri S

    2014-03-01

    We review the state of the art of surface magnetic property control with non-magnetic means, concentrating on metallic surfaces and techniques such as charge-doping or external electric field (EEF) application. Magneto-electric coupling via EEF-based charge manipulation is discussed as a way to tailor single adatom spins, exchange interaction between adsorbates or anisotropies of layered systems. The mechanisms of paramagnetic and spin-dependent electric field screening and the effect thereof on surface magnetism are discussed in the framework of theoretical and experimental studies. The possibility to enhance the effect of EEF by immersing the target system into an electrolyte or ionic liquid is discussed by the example of substitutional impurities and metallic alloy multilayers. A similar physics is pointed out for the case of charge traps, metallic systems decoupled from a bulk electron bath. In that case the charging provides the charge carrier density changes necessary to affect the magnetic moments and anisotropies in the system. Finally, the option of using quasi-free electrons rather than localized atomic spins for surface magnetism control is discussed with the example of Shockley-type metallic surface states confined to magnetic nanoislands.

  6. Machine-tool control system for turning nonaxisymmetric surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglass, S.S.; Green, W.L.

    1979-09-01

    A development program has been initiated to allow on-axis turning of nonaxisymmetric surfaces. A short-travel high-speed slide is mounted on a precision, numerically controlled, two-axis turning machine. The motion of the auxiliary slide is synchronized with the spindle and the two remaining slides. The report defines the workpiece geometry and requirements, calculations for the slide motion, techniques for real-time command generation, and planned equipment set.

  7. Hydrodynamics of pronuclear migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazockdast, Ehssan; Needleman, Daniel; Shelley, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Microtubule (MT) filaments play a key role in many processes involved in cell devision including spindle formation, chromosome segregation, and pronuclear positioning. We present a direct numerical technique to simulate MT dynamics in such processes. Our method includes hydrodynamically mediated interactions between MTs and other cytoskeletal objects, using singularity methods for Stokes flow. Long-ranged many-body hydrodynamic interactions are computed using a highly efficient and scalable fast multipole method, enabling the simulation of thousands of MTs. Our simulation method also takes into account the flexibility of MTs using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory as well as their dynamic instability. Using this technique, we simulate pronuclear migration in single-celled Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Two different positioning mechanisms, based on the interactions of MTs with the motor proteins and the cell cortex, are explored: cytoplasmic pulling and cortical pushing. We find that although the pronuclear complex migrates towards the center of the cell in both models, the generated cytoplasmic flows are fundamentally different. This suggest that cytoplasmic flow visualization during pronuclear migration can be utilized to differentiate between the two mechanisms.

  8. Hydrodynamic Instability of Ionization Fronts in HII Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuta, A; Kane, J; Ryutov, D; Remington, B; Takabe, H; Pound, M

    2003-08-21

    The authors investigate hydrodynamic instability of accelerating ionization fronts with two dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. When recombination in the ionized region is turned off, Rayleigh-Taylor instability is effective. Perturbation grows up with classical Rayleigh-Taylor growth rate. In the case with recombination, the local difference of absorption profile works to smooth the surface. The perturbation does not grow and the amplitude follows a damped oscillations with time.

  9. Hydrodynamic Flow Confinement Technology in Microfluidic Perfusion Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Jesorka

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamically confined flow device technology is a young research area with high practical application potential in surface processing, assay development, and in various areas of single cell research. Several variants have been developed, and most recently, theoretical and conceptual studies, as well as fully developed automated systems, were presented. In this article we review concepts, fabrication strategies, and application areas of hydrodynamically confined flow (HCF devices.

  10. Scaled multisensor inspection of extended surfaces for industrial quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Daniel; Bothe, Thorsten; Osten, Wolfgang

    2002-06-01

    Reliable real-time surface inspection of extended surfaces with high resolution is needed in several industrial applications. With respect to an efficient application to extended technical components such as aircraft or automotive parts, the inspection system has to perform a robust measurement with a ratio of less then 10-6 between depth resolution and lateral extension. This ratio is at least one order beyond the solutions that are offered by existing technologies. The concept of scaled topometry consists of arranging different optical measurement techniques with overlapping ranges of resolution systematically in order to receive characteristic surface information with the required accuracy. In such a surface inspection system, an active algorithm combines measurements on several scales of resolution and distinguishes between local fault indicating structures with different extensions and global geometric properties. The first part of this active algorithm finds indications of critical surface areas in the data of every measurement and separates them into different categories. The second part analyses the detected structures in the data with respect to their resolution and decides whether a further local measurement with a higher resolution has to be performed. The third part positions the sensors and starts the refined measurements. The fourth part finally integrates the measured local data set into the overall data mesh. We have constructed a laboratory setup capable of measuring surfaces with extensions up to 1500mm x 1000mm x 500mm (in x-, y- and z-direction respectively). Using this measurement system we will be able to separate the fault indicating structures on the surface from the global shape and to classify the detected structures according to their extensions and characteristic shapes simultaneously. The level of fault detection probability will be applicable by input parameter control.

  11. Droplet deformation and surface tension modeling using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method%液滴变形及表面张力模拟的光滑粒子动力学方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘栋; 郭印诚; 林文漪

    2013-01-01

    光滑粒子动力学(smoothed particle hydrodynamics,SPH)方法是一种Lagrange无网格粒子方法,在多相流模拟方向有着巨大的潜力.液体表面张力是多相流动的一个很重要的作用力.该文采用连续表面力(continuum surface force,CSF)模型和粒子间相互作用力(inter-particle interaction force,IIF)模型在SPH方法中引入表面张力,比较了这两种模型对液滴变形过程的模拟.CSF模型与理论结果之间的比较表明,CSF模型很好地模拟表面张力的效应.而IIF模型虽然也可以用于计算表面张力,但与CSF模型相比,其模型参数的确定较为困难.

  12. Surface chemistry interventions to control boiler tube fouling - Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C.W.; Guzonas, D.A.; Klimas, S.J

    2004-06-15

    This is the third in a series of reports from an investigation co-funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) into the effectiveness of alternative amines for controlling the rate of tube-bundle fouling under steam generator (SG) operating conditions. The objectives of this investigation are to determine whether the fouling rate depends on the amine used for pH control, to identify those factors that influence the effectiveness, and use this information to optimize the selection of an amine for chemistry control and deposit control in the steam cycle and steam generator, respectively. Work to date has demonstrated that the rate of particle deposition under steam generator operating conditions is strongly influenced by surface chemistry (Turner et al., 1997; Turner et al., 1999). This dependence upon surface chemistry is illustrated by the difference between the deposition rates measured for hematite and magnetite, and by the dependence of the particle deposition rate on the amine used for pH control. Deposition rates of hematite were found to be more than 10 times greater than those for magnetite under similar test conditions (Turner et al., 1997). At 270{sup o}C and pH{sub T} 6.2, the surfaces of hematite and magnetite are predicted to be positively charged and negatively charged, respectively (Shoonen, 1994). Measurements of the point of zero charge (PZC) of magnetite at temperatures from 25{sup o}C to 290{sup o}C by Wesolowski et al. (1999) have confirmed that magnetite is negatively charged at the stated conditions. A PZC of 4.2 was measured for Alloy 600 at 25{sup o}C (Balakrishnan and Turner, un-published results), and its surface is expected to remain negatively charged for alkaline chemistry over the temperature range of interest. Therefore, there will be a repulsive force between the surfaces of magnetite particles and Alloy 600 at 270{sup o}C and pH{sub T} 6.2 that is absent for hematite particles

  13. Steady, subsonic, lifting surface theory for wings with swept, partial span, trailing edge control surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medan, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    A method for computing the lifting pressure distribution on a wing with partial span, swept control surfaces is presented. This method is valid within the framework of linearized, steady, potential flow theory and consists of using conventional lifting surface theory in conjuction with a flap pressure mode. The cause of a numerical instability that can occur during the quadrature of the flap pressure mode is discussed, and an efficient technique to eliminate the instability is derived. This technique is valid for both the flap pressure mode and regular pressure modes and could be used to improve existing lifting surface methods. Examples of the use of the flap pressure mode and comparisons among this method, other theoretical methods, and experiments are given. Discrepancies with experiment are indicated and candidate causes are presented. It is concluded that the method can lead to an efficient and accurate solution of the mathematical problem when a partial span, trailing edge flap is involved.

  14. Adaptive control and constrained control allocation for overactuated ocean surface vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mou; Jiang, Bin

    2013-12-01

    In this article, the constrained control allocation is proposed for overactuated ocean surface vessels with parametric uncertainties and unknown external disturbances. The constrained control allocation is transformed into a convex quadratic programming problem and a recurrent neural network is employed to solve it. To complete the control allocation, the control command is derived via the backstepping method. Adaptive tracking control is proposed for the full-state feedback case using the backstepping technique and the Lyapunov synthesis. It is proved that the proposed adaptive tracking control is able to guarantee semi-global uniform ultimate boundedness of all signals in the closed-loop system. Then, the obtained control command is distributed to each actuator of overactuated ocean vessels. Finally, simulation studies are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive tracking control and the constrained control allocation scheme.

  15. Adaptive Sliding Mode Control Method Based on Nonlinear Integral Sliding Surface for Agricultural Vehicle Steering Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taochang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic steering control is the key factor and essential condition in the realization of the automatic navigation control of agricultural vehicles. In order to get satisfactory steering control performance, an adaptive sliding mode control method based on a nonlinear integral sliding surface is proposed in this paper for agricultural vehicle steering control. First, the vehicle steering system is modeled as a second-order mathematic model; the system uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics as well as the external disturbances are regarded as the equivalent disturbances satisfying a certain boundary. Second, a transient process of the desired system response is constructed in each navigation control period. Based on the transient process, a nonlinear integral sliding surface is designed. Then the corresponding sliding mode control law is proposed to guarantee the fast response characteristics with no overshoot in the closed-loop steering control system. Meanwhile, the switching gain of sliding mode control is adaptively adjusted to alleviate the control input chattering by using the fuzzy control method. Finally, the effectiveness and the superiority of the proposed method are verified by a series of simulation and actual steering control experiments.

  16. Irradiation of bioresorbable biomaterials for controlled surface degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, M.; Gilmore, B. F.; Miller, A.; Helt-Hansen, J.; Buchanan, F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Bioresorbable polymers increasingly are the materials of choice for implantable orthopaedic fixation devices. Controlled degradation of these polymers is vital for preservation of mechanical properties during tissue repair and controlled release of incorporated agents such as osteoconductive or anti-microbial additives. The work outlined in this paper investigates the use of low energy electron beam irradiation to surface modify polyhydroxyacid samples incorporating beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP). This work uniquely demonstrates that surface modification of bioresorbable polymers through electron beam irradiation allows for the early release of incorporated agents such as bioactive additives. Samples were e-beam irradiated at an energy of 125 keV and doses of either 150 kGy or 500 kGy. Irradiated and non-irradiated samples were degraded in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), to simulate bioresorption, followed by characterisation. The results show that low energy e-beam irradiation enhances surface hydrolytic degradation in comparison to bulk and furthermore allows for earlier release of incorporated calcium via dissolution into the surrounding medium.

  17. Produced water re-injection in a non-fresh water aquifer with geochemical reaction, hydrodynamic molecular dispersion and adsorption kinetics controlling: model development and numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obe, Ibidapo; Fashanu, T. A.; Idialu, Peter O.; Akintola, Tope O.; Abhulimen, Kingsley E.

    2017-06-01

    An improved produced water reinjection (PWRI) model that incorporates filtration, geochemical reaction, molecular transport, and mass adsorption kinetics was developed to predict cake deposition and injectivity performance in hydrocarbon aquifers in Nigeria oil fields. Thus, the improved PWRI model considered contributions of geochemical reaction, adsorption kinetics, and hydrodynamic molecular dispersion mechanism to alter the injectivity and deposition of suspended solids on aquifer wall resulting in cake formation in pores during PWRI and transport of active constituents in hydrocarbon reservoirs. The injectivity decline and cake deposition for specific case studies of hydrocarbon aquifers in Nigeria oil fields were characterized with respect to its well geometry, lithology, and calibrations data and simulated in COMSOL multiphysics software environment. The PWRI model was validated by comparisons to assessments of previous field studies based on data and results supplied by operator and regulator. The results of simulation showed that PWRI performance was altered because of temporal variations and declinations of permeability, injectivity, and cake precipitation, which were observed to be dependent on active adsorption and geochemical reaction kinetics coupled with filtration scheme and molecular dispersion. From the observed results and findings, transition time t r to cake nucleation and growth were dependent on aquifer constituents, well capacity, filtration coefficients, particle-to-grain size ratio, water quality, and more importantly, particle-to-grain adsorption kinetics. Thus, the results showed that injectivity decline and permeability damage were direct contributions of geochemical reaction, hydrodynamic molecular diffusion, and adsorption kinetics to the internal filtration mechanism, which are largely dependent on the initial conditions of concentration of active constituents of produced water and aquifer capacity.

  18. Produced water re-injection in a non-fresh water aquifer with geochemical reaction, hydrodynamic molecular dispersion and adsorption kinetics controlling: model development and numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obe, Ibidapo; Fashanu, T. A.; Idialu, Peter O.; Akintola, Tope O.; Abhulimen, Kingsley E.

    2016-12-01

    An improved produced water reinjection (PWRI) model that incorporates filtration, geochemical reaction, molecular transport, and mass adsorption kinetics was developed to predict cake deposition and injectivity performance in hydrocarbon aquifers in Nigeria oil fields. Thus, the improved PWRI model considered contributions of geochemical reaction, adsorption kinetics, and hydrodynamic molecular dispersion mechanism to alter the injectivity and deposition of suspended solids on aquifer wall resulting in cake formation in pores during PWRI and transport of active constituents in hydrocarbon reservoirs. The injectivity decline and cake deposition for specific case studies of hydrocarbon aquifers in Nigeria oil fields were characterized with respect to its well geometry, lithology, and calibrations data and simulated in COMSOL multiphysics software environment. The PWRI model was validated by comparisons to assessments of previous field studies based on data and results supplied by operator and regulator. The results of simulation showed that PWRI performance was altered because of temporal variations and declinations of permeability, injectivity, and cake precipitation, which were observed to be dependent on active adsorption and geochemical reaction kinetics coupled with filtration scheme and molecular dispersion. From the observed results and findings, transition time t r to cake nucleation and growth were dependent on aquifer constituents, well capacity, filtration coefficients, particle-to-grain size ratio, water quality, and more importantly, particle-to-grain adsorption kinetics. Thus, the results showed that injectivity decline and permeability damage were direct contributions of geochemical reaction, hydrodynamic molecular diffusion, and adsorption kinetics to the internal filtration mechanism, which are largely dependent on the initial conditions of concentration of active constituents of produced water and aquifer capacity.

  19. Unsteady hydrodynamic forces acting on a robotic hand and its flow field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hideki; Nakashima, Motomu; Ozaki, Takashi; Matsuuchi, Kazuo

    2013-07-26

    This study aims to clarify the mechanism of generating unsteady hydrodynamic forces acting on a hand during swimming in order to directly measure the forces, pressure distribution, and flow field around the hand by using a robotic arm and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The robotic arm consisted of the trunk, shoulder, upper arm, forearm, and hand, and it was independently computer controllable in five degrees of freedom. The elbow-joint angle of the robotic arm was fixed at 90°, and the arm was moved in semicircles around the shoulder joint in a plane perpendicular to the water surface. Two-component PIV was used for flow visualization around the hand. The data of the forces and pressure acting on the hand were sampled at 200Hz and stored on a PC. When the maximum resultant force acting on the hand was observed, a pair of counter-rotating vortices appeared on the dorsal surface of the hand. A vortex attached to the hand increased the flow velocity, which led to decreased surface pressure, increasing the hydrodynamic forces. This phenomenon is known as the unsteady mechanism of force generation. We found that the drag force was 72% greater and the lift force was 4.8 times greater than the values estimated under steady flow conditions. Therefore, it is presumable that swimmers receive the benefits of this unsteady hydrodynamic force.

  20. Fluctuations in Relativistic Causal Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Avdhesh; Mishra, Ananta P

    2013-01-01

    The formalism to calculate the hydrodynamics fluctuation using the quasi-stationary fluctuation theory of Onsager to the relativistic Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics is already known. In this work we calculate hydrodynamic fluctuations in relativistic causal theory of Muller, Israel and Stewart and other related causal hydrodynamic theories. We show that expressions for the Onsager coefficients and the correlation functions have form similar to the ones obtained by using Navier-Stokes equation. However, temporal evolution of the correlation functions obtained using MIS and the other causal theories can be significantly different than the correlation functions obtained using the Navier-Stokes equation. Finally, as an illustrative example, we explicitly plot the correlation functions obtained using the causal-hydrodynamics theories and compare them with correlation functions obtained by earlier authors using the expanding boost-invariant (Bjorken) flows.

  1. Gradient expansion for anisotropic hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Florkowski, Wojciech; Spaliński, Michał

    2016-01-01

    We compute the gradient expansion for anisotropic hydrodynamics. The results are compared with the corresponding expansion of the underlying kinetic-theory model with the collision term treated in the relaxation time approximation. We find that a recent formulation of anisotropic hydrodynamics based on an anisotropic matching principle yields the first three terms of the gradient expansion in agreement with those obtained for the kinetic theory. This gives further support for this particular hydrodynamic model as a good approximation of the kinetic-theory approach. We further find that the gradient expansion of anisotropic hydrodynamics is an asymptotic series, and the singularities of the analytic continuation of its Borel transform indicate the presence of non-hydrodynamic modes.

  2. Lifshitz Superfluid Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, Shira; Oz, Yaron

    2014-01-01

    We construct the first order hydrodynamics of quantum critical points with Lifshitz scaling and a spontaneously broken symmetry. The fluid is described by a combination of two flows, a normal component that carries entropy and a super-flow which has zero viscosity and carries no entropy. We analyze the new transport effects allowed by the lack of boost invariance and constrain them by the local second law of thermodynamics. Imposing time-reversal invariance, we find eight new parity even transport coefficients. The formulation is applicable, in general, to any superfluid/superconductor with an explicit breaking of boost symmetry, in particular to high $T_c$ superconductors. We discuss possible experimental signatures.

  3. Hydrodynamics of Ship Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslin, John P.; Andersen, Poul

    This book deals with flows over propellers operating behind ships, and the hydrodynamic forces and moments which the propeller generates on the shaft and on the ship hull.The first part of the text is devoted to fundamentals of the flow about hydrofoil sections (with and without cavitation......) and about wings. It then treats propellers in uniform flow, first via advanced actuator disc modelling, and then using lifting-line theory. Pragmatic guidance is given for design and evaluation of performance, including the use of computer modelling.The second part covers the development of unsteady forces...... arising from operation in non-uniform hull wakes. First, by a number of simplifications, various aspects of the problem are dealt with separately until the full problem of a non-cavitating, wide-bladed propeller in a wake is treated by a new and completely developed theory. Next, the complicated problem...

  4. Surface Cleaning or Activation?Control of Surface Condition Prior to Thermo-Chemical Heat Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brigitte Haase; Juan Dong; Jens Heinlein

    2004-01-01

    Actual heat treatment processes must face increasing specifications with reference to process quality, safety and results in terms of reproducibility and repeatability. They can be met only if the parts' surface condition is controlled during manufacturing and, especially, prior to the treatment. An electrochemical method for the detection of a steel part's surface condition is presented, together with results, consequences, and mechanisms concerning surface pre-treatment before the thermochemical process. A steel surface's activity or passivity can be detected electrochemically, independently from the chemical background. The selected method was the recording of potential vs. time curves at small constant currents, using a miniaturized electrochemical cell, a (nearly) non-destructive electrolyte and a potentio-galvanostatic setup. The method enables to distinguish types of surface contamination which do not interfere with the thermochemical process, from passive layers which do and must be removed. Whereas some types of passive layers can be removed using conventional cleaning processes and agents, others are so stable that their effects can only be overcome by applying an additional activation pre-treatment, e.g. oxynitriding.

  5. Hydrodynamics of sediment threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sk Zeeshan; Dey, Subhasish

    2016-07-01

    A novel hydrodynamic model for the threshold of cohesionless sediment particle motion under a steady unidirectional streamflow is presented. The hydrodynamic forces (drag and lift) acting on a solitary sediment particle resting over a closely packed bed formed by the identical sediment particles are the primary motivating forces. The drag force comprises of the form drag and form induced drag. The lift force includes the Saffman lift, Magnus lift, centrifugal lift, and turbulent lift. The points of action of the force system are appropriately obtained, for the first time, from the basics of micro-mechanics. The sediment threshold is envisioned as the rolling mode, which is the plausible mode to initiate a particle motion on the bed. The moment balance of the force system on the solitary particle about the pivoting point of rolling yields the governing equation. The conditions of sediment threshold under the hydraulically smooth, transitional, and rough flow regimes are examined. The effects of velocity fluctuations are addressed by applying the statistical theory of turbulence. This study shows that for a hindrance coefficient of 0.3, the threshold curve (threshold Shields parameter versus shear Reynolds number) has an excellent agreement with the experimental data of uniform sediments. However, most of the experimental data are bounded by the upper and lower limiting threshold curves, corresponding to the hindrance coefficients of 0.2 and 0.4, respectively. The threshold curve of this study is compared with those of previous researchers. The present model also agrees satisfactorily with the experimental data of nonuniform sediments.

  6. Kinetically controlled growth of gallium on stepped Si (553) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Pasha, Syed Khalid; Govind,, E-mail: govind@nplindia.org

    2013-10-15

    Kinetically controlled growth of gallium (Ga) metal has been reported on high index stepped Si (553) surface and its thermal stability with various novel superstructural phases has been analyzed. Auger electron spectroscopy studies revealed that the adsorption of Ga at room temperature (RT) follows Frank–van der Merwe (FM) growth mode while for higher substrate temperature, Ga adsorption remains within the submonolayer range. Thermal desorption and low energy electron diffraction studies investigated the formation of thermally stable Ga-islands and the various Ga induced superstructural phase on Si (553). During room temperature adsorption, (1 1 1)7 × 7 facet of Si (553) reconstructed into (1 1 1)6 × 6 facet while during desorption process, stable (1 1 1)6 × 6 and (1 1 1)√3 × √3-R30° surface reconstructions has been observed.

  7. Electromagnetic controllable surfaces based on trapped-mode effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dmitriev

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present some recent results of our theoretical investigations of electromagnetically controllable surfaces. These surfaces are designed on the basis of periodic arrays made of metallic inclusions of special form which are placed on a thin substrate of active material (magnetized ferrite or optically active semiconductor. The main peculiarity of the studied structures is their capability to support the trapped-mode resonance which is a result of the antiphase current oscillations in the elements of a periodic cell. Several effects, namely: tuning the position of passband and the linear and nonlinear (bistable transmission switching are considered when an external static magnetic field or optical excitation are applied. Our numerical calculations are fulfilled in both microwave and optical regions.

  8. Kinetically controlled growth of gallium on stepped Si (553) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Pasha, Syed Khalid; Govind

    2013-10-01

    Kinetically controlled growth of gallium (Ga) metal has been reported on high index stepped Si (553) surface and its thermal stability with various novel superstructural phases has been analyzed. Auger electron spectroscopy studies revealed that the adsorption of Ga at room temperature (RT) follows Frank-van der Merwe (FM) growth mode while for higher substrate temperature, Ga adsorption remains within the submonolayer range. Thermal desorption and low energy electron diffraction studies investigated the formation of thermally stable Ga-islands and the various Ga induced superstructural phase on Si (553). During room temperature adsorption, (1 1 1)7 × 7 facet of Si (553) reconstructed into (1 1 1)6 × 6 facet while during desorption process, stable (1 1 1)6 × 6 and (1 1 1)√3 × √3-R30° surface reconstructions has been observed.

  9. Design and control of an embedded vision guided robotic fish with multiple control surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junzhi; Wang, Kai; Tan, Min; Zhang, Jianwei

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development and control issues of a self-propelled robotic fish with multiple artificial control surfaces and an embedded vision system. By virtue of the hybrid propulsion capability in the body plus the caudal fin and the complementary maneuverability in accessory fins, a synthesized propulsion scheme including a caudal fin, a pair of pectoral fins, and a pelvic fin is proposed. To achieve flexible yet stable motions in aquatic environments, a central pattern generator- (CPG-) based control method is employed. Meanwhile, a monocular underwater vision serves as sensory feedback that modifies the control parameters. The integration of the CPG-based motion control and the visual processing in an embedded microcontroller allows the robotic fish to navigate online. Aquatic tests demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed mechatronic design and swimming control methods. Particularly, a pelvic fin actuated sideward swimming gait was first implemented. It is also found that the speeds and maneuverability of the robotic fish with coordinated control surfaces were largely superior to that of the swimming robot propelled by a single control surface.

  10. Control Surface Fault Diagnosis for Small Autonomous Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren; Blanke, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    of distributions and change detection methods are employed to reach decisions about not-normal behaviour and it is shown how control surface faults can be diagnosed for a specific UAV without adding additional hardware to the platform. Only telemetry data from the aircraft is used together with a basic model...... of relations between signals within the aircraft. Frequency domain methods are shown to be robust in exploring relevant properties of the signals. The detection is shown to work on data from a real incident where an aileron gets stuck during launch of a UAV....

  11. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States))

    1992-03-01

    The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal's emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

  12. Controllable Catalysis with Nanoparticles: Bimetallic Alloy Systems and Surface Adsorbates

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Tianyou

    2016-05-16

    Transition metal nanoparticles are privileged materials in catalysis due to their high specific surface areas and abundance of active catalytic sites. While many of these catalysts are quite useful, we are only beginning to understand the underlying catalytic mechanisms. Opening the “black box” of nanoparticle catalysis is essential to achieve the ultimate goal of catalysis by design. In this Perspective we highlight recent work addressing the topic of controlled catalysis with bimetallic alloy and “designer” adsorbate-stabilized metal nanoparticles.

  13. Fluoropolymer surface coatings to control droplets in microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riche, Carson T; Zhang, Chuchu; Gupta, Malancha; Malmstadt, Noah

    2014-06-07

    We have demonstrated the application of low surface energy fluoropolymer coatings onto poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic devices for droplet formation and extraction-induced merger of droplets. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) was used to pattern fluoropolymer coatings within microchannels based on geometrical constraints. In a two-phase flow system, the range of accessible flow rates for droplet formation was greatly enhanced in the coated devices. The ability to controllably apply the coating only at the inlet facilitated a method for merging droplets. An organic spacer droplet was extracted from between a pair of aqueous droplets. The size of the organic droplet and the flow rate controlled the time to merge the aqueous droplets; the process of merging was independent of the droplet sizes. Extraction-induced droplet merging is a robust method for manipulating droplets that could be applied in translating multi-step reactions to microfluidic platforms.

  14. 控制动作下带缆遥控水下机器人的水动力特性%Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Tethered Underwater Robot Under Control Manipulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴家鸣; 崔寅; 邓威; 伍力; 马志权

    2012-01-01

    首先利用模糊神经网络算法构建了基于完整的带缆遥控水下机器人水动力数学模型的控制器,对水下机器人多自由度上的轨迹和姿态进行控制;然后,针对传统螺旋桨推进力分析方法中的缺陷,引入神经网络相关理论并结合计算流体方法对推进力和转速之间的相互关系进行辨识和换算;在此基础上构建了一个完整的、包括模糊神经控制器、机器人水动力数学模型以及推进力和转速换算模块的带缆遥控水下机器人控制系统;最后,在考虑系统各部分间相互影响的前提下进行了水动力特性的整体分析和计算.数值计算结果表明,所建立的控制系统可以对带缆遥控水下机器人进行有效的轨迹和姿态控制,文中方法可以从整体的角度分析一定控制动作下水下机器人的水动力响应.%A controller based on an integrated hydrodynamic model of the tethered underwater robot is constructed with the help of FNN ( Fuzzy Neural Network) algorithm and is used to control the trajectory and attitude of the robot in multiple degrees of freedom. Then, in order to remedy the disadvantages of the traditional method of analyzing propeller propulsion, a new method combining the theory of neural network and the computational fluid dynamics technique is proposed for the conversion between the propulsion and the rotating speed. Moreover, an integrated control system, which consists of a FNN controller, a robotic hydrodynamic model and a conversion module of propulsion and rotating speed, is presented for the tethered underwater robot. Finally, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the robot are globally analyzed and calculated by taking into consideration the interaction among different parts of the robot. Numerical simulation results indicate that the proposed system effectively controls the trajectory and attitude of the tethered underwater robot, and that it helps to globally calculate the

  15. Controlled reflectance surfaces with film-coupled colloidal nanoantennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Antoine; Ciraci, Cristian; Mock, Jack J.; Hill, Ryan T.; Wang, Qiang; Wiley, Benjamin J.; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Smith, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Efficient and tunable absorption is essential for a variety of applications, such as the design of controlled emissivity surfaces for thermophotovoltaic devices1; tailoring of the infrared spectrum for controlled thermal dissipation2; and detector elements for imaging3. Metamaterials based on metallic elements are particularly efficient as absorbing media, because both the electrical and the magnetic properties of a metamaterial can be tuned by structured design4. To date, metamaterial absorbers in the infrared or visible range have been fabricated using lithographically patterned metallic structures2,5–9, making them inherently difficult to produce over large areas and hence reducing their applicability. We demonstrate here an extraordinarily simple method to create a metamaterial absorber by randomly adsorbing chemically synthesized silver nanocubes onto a nanoscale thick polymer spacer layer on a gold film –making no effort to control the spatial arrangement of the cubes on the film– and show that the film-coupled nanocubes provide a reflectance spectrum that can be tailored by varying the geometry. Each nanocube is the optical analog of the well-known grounded patch antenna, with a nearly identical local field structure that is modified by the plasmonic response of the metal dielectric function, and with an anomalously large absorption efficiency that can be partly attributed to an interferometric effect10. The absorptivity of large surface areas can be controlled using this method, at scales out of reach of lithographic approaches like e-beam lithography otherwise required to manipulate matter at the nanometer scale. PMID:23222613

  16. Controlled locomotion of robots driven by a vibrating surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbanhowar, Paul; Lynch, Kevin M.

    Robots typically derive their powers of movement from onboard actuators and power sources, but other scenarios are possible where the external environment provides part or all of the necessary forcing and control. I will discuss details of a system where the ``robots'' are just planar solid objects and the requisite driving forces originate from frictional sliding-interactions with a periodically oscillated and nominally horizontal surface. For the robots to move, the temporal symmetry of the frictional forces must be broken, which is achieved here by modulating the normal force using vertical acceleration of the surface. Independent of the initial conditions and vibration waveform, a sliding locomotor reaches a unique velocity limit cycle at a given position. Its resulting motion can be described in terms of velocity fields which specify the robot's cycle-averaged velocity as a function of position. Velocity fields with non-zero spatial divergence can be generated by combining translational and rotational surface motions; this allows the simultaneous and open-loop collection, dispersal, and transport of multiple robots. Fields and field sequences can simultaneously move multiple robots between arbitrary positions and, potentially, along arbitrary trajectories. Supported by NSF CMMI #0700537.

  17. Hydrodynamic provinces and oceanic connectivity from a transport network help designing marine reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Vincent; Ser-Giacomi, Enrico; López, Cristóbal; Hernández-García, Emilio

    2014-04-01

    Oceanic dispersal and connectivity have been identified as crucial factors for structuring marine populations and designing marine protected areas (MPAs). Focusing on larval dispersal by ocean currents, we propose an approach coupling Lagrangian transport and new tools from Network Theory to characterize marine connectivity in the Mediterranean basin. Larvae of different pelagic durations and seasons are modeled as passive tracers advected in a simulated oceanic surface flow from which a network of connected areas is constructed. Hydrodynamical provinces extracted from this network are delimited by frontiers which match multiscale oceanographic features. By examining the repeated occurrence of such boundaries, we identify the spatial scales and geographic structures that would control larval dispersal across the entire seascape. Based on these hydrodynamical units, we study novel connectivity metrics for existing reserves. Our results are discussed in the context of ocean biogeography and MPAs design, having ecological and managerial implications.

  18. Recent development of hydrodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Tetsufumi

    2014-09-01

    In this talk, I give an overview of recent development in hydrodynamic modeling of high-energy nuclear collisions. First, I briefly discuss about current situation of hydrodynamic modeling by showing results from the integrated dynamical approach in which Monte-Carlo calculation of initial conditions, quark-gluon fluid dynamics and hadronic cascading are combined. In particular, I focus on rescattering effects of strange hadrons on final observables. Next I highlight three topics in recent development in hydrodynamic modeling. These include (1) medium response to jet propagation in di-jet asymmetric events, (2) causal hydrodynamic fluctuation and its application to Bjorken expansion and (3) chiral magnetic wave from anomalous hydrodynamic simulations. (1) Recent CMS data suggest the existence of QGP response to propagation of jets. To investigate this phenomenon, we solve hydrodynamic equations with source term which exhibits deposition of energy and momentum from jets. We find a large number of low momentum particles are emitted at large angle from jet axis. This gives a novel interpretation of the CMS data. (2) It has been claimed that a matter created even in p-p/p-A collisions may behave like a fluid. However, fluctuation effects would be important in such a small system. We formulate relativistic fluctuating hydrodynamics and apply it to Bjorken expansion. We found the final multiplicity fluctuates around the mean value even if initial condition is fixed. This effect is relatively important in peripheral A-A collisions and p-p/p-A collisions. (3) Anomalous transport of the quark-gluon fluid is predicted when extremely high magnetic field is applied. We investigate this possibility by solving anomalous hydrodynamic equations. We found the difference of the elliptic flow parameter between positive and negative particles appears due to the chiral magnetic wave. Finally, I provide some personal perspective of hydrodynamic modeling of high energy nuclear collisions

  19. Hydrodynamics Research on Amphibious Vehicle Systems:Modeling Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Nai-jun

    2006-01-01

    For completing the hydrodynamics software development and the engineering application research on the amphibious vehicle systems, hydrodynamic modeling theory of the amphibious vehicle systems is elaborated, which includes to build up the dynamic system model of amphibious vehicle motion on water, gun tracking-aiming-firing, bullet hit and armored check-target, gunner operating control, and the simulation computed model of time domain for random sea wave.

  20. Fluctuating hydrodynamics for ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridis, Konstantinos; Wickham, Logan; Voulgarakis, Nikolaos

    2017-04-01

    We present a mean-field fluctuating hydrodynamics (FHD) method for studying the structural and transport properties of ionic liquids in bulk and near electrified surfaces. The free energy of the system consists of two competing terms: (1) a Landau-Lifshitz functional that models the spontaneous separation of the ionic groups, and (2) the standard mean-field electrostatic interaction between the ions in the liquid. The numerical approach used to solve the resulting FHD-Poisson equations is very efficient and models thermal fluctuations with remarkable accuracy. Such density fluctuations are sufficiently strong to excite the experimentally observed spontaneous formation of liquid nano-domains. Statistical analysis of our simulations provides quantitative information about the properties of ionic liquids, such as the mixing quality, stability, and the size of the nano-domains. Our model, thus, can be adequately parameterized by directly comparing our prediction with experimental measurements and all-atom simulations. Conclusively, this work can serve as a practical mathematical tool for testing various theories and designing more efficient mixtures of ionic liquids.

  1. Controlled surface neutralization: A quantitative approach to study surface charging in photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, S. [Surface Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Mukherjee, M. [Surface Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)], E-mail: manabendra.mukherjee@saha.ac.in

    2007-02-15

    Photons when used to probe poorly conducting materials induce emission of secondary electrons that are inadequately compensated from the sample ground giving rise to a phenomenon commonly known as sample charging. In case of photoemission spectroscopy of an insulating material the data obtained from the charged surface are accordingly distorted. Here we have used a controlled neutralization technique to obtain photoemission data from continuously varying equilibrium charging conditions from two dissimilar insulating polymeric systems. A quantitative scheme for data analysis has been developed to demonstrate systematic behavior in the apparently distorted spectra and the charging peak shift has been described by an effective model. It is shown that the neutralization responses are non-linear for both the systems and possess intrinsic similarity. Around a critical electron flux the neutralization of the samples appears to occur through the percolation of homogeneously dispersed surface domains.

  2. Swarm formation control utilizing elliptical surfaces and limiting functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Laura E; Fields, Mary Anne; Valavanis, Kimon P

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we present a strategy for organizing swarms of unmanned vehicles into a formation by utilizing artificial potential fields that were generated from normal and sigmoid functions. These functions construct the surface on which swarm members travel, controlling the overall swarm geometry and the individual member spacing. Nonlinear limiting functions are defined to provide tighter swarm control by modifying and adjusting a set of control variables that force the swarm to behave according to set constraints, formation, and member spacing. The artificial potential functions and limiting functions are combined to control swarm formation, orientation, and swarm movement as a whole. Parameters are chosen based on desired formation and user-defined constraints. This approach is computationally efficient and scales well to different swarm sizes, to heterogeneous systems, and to both centralized and decentralized swarm models. Simulation results are presented for a swarm of 10 and 40 robots that follow circle, ellipse, and wedge formations. Experimental results are included to demonstrate the applicability of the approach on a swarm of four custom-built unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs).

  3. Special Relativistic Hydrodynamics with Gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim

    2016-12-01

    Special relativistic hydrodynamics with weak gravity has hitherto been unknown in the literature. Whether such an asymmetric combination is possible has been unclear. Here, the hydrodynamic equations with Poisson-type gravity, considering fully relativistic velocity and pressure under the weak gravity and the action-at-a-distance limit, are consistently derived from Einstein’s theory of general relativity. An analysis is made in the maximal slicing, where the Poisson’s equation becomes much simpler than our previous study in the zero-shear gauge. Also presented is the hydrodynamic equations in the first post-Newtonian approximation, now under the general hypersurface condition. Our formulation includes the anisotropic stress.

  4. Special relativistic hydrodynamics with gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Jai-chan

    2016-01-01

    The special relativistic hydrodynamics with weak gravity is hitherto unknown in the literature. Whether such an asymmetric combination is possible was unclear. Here, the hydrodynamic equations with Poisson-type gravity considering fully relativistic velocity and pressure under the weak gravity and the action-at-a-distance limit are consistently derived from Einstein's general relativity. Analysis is made in the maximal slicing where the Poisson's equation becomes much simpler than our previous study in the zero-shear gauge. Also presented is the hydrodynamic equations in the first post-Newtonian approximation, now under the {\\it general} hypersurface condition. Our formulation includes the anisotropic stress.

  5. E-beam-patterned hydrogels to control nanoscale surface bioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krsko, P.; Saaem, I.; Clancy, R.; Geller, H.; Soteropoulos, P.; Libera, M.

    2005-11-01

    We are interested in controlling the spatial distribution of proteins on surfaces at cellular and subcellular length scales. To do this, we use a variation of e-beam lithography in a field-emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) to radiation crosslink thin films of water- soluble polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol) [PEG] and poly (carboxylic acids). We can simultaneously pattern the resulting hydrogels on silicon or glass surfaces with nanoscale and microscale feature sizes. Using hydroxy-terminated PEG 6800 we create gels with swell ratios between unity and fifteen depending on the degree of radiation crosslinking, and the swelling properties can be interpreted in terms of the Flory-Rehner formulation modified for one-dimensional swelling. While lightly-crosslinked PEG gels resist protein adsorption and cell adhesion as expected, highly crosslinked PEG gels adsorb such proteins as fibronectin and laminin and consequently become adhesive to fibroblasts, macrophages, and neurons. By spatially modulating the degree of crosslinking, we can localize these cells on surfaces and, for example, direct neurite outgrowth. If instead of using hydroxy-terminated PEG we use amine- terminated PEG, we introduce the additional flexibility of creating high-swelling PEG gels that resist nonspecific protein adsorption but to which specific proteins can be covalently bound. These can be surface patterned at submicron spacings, and we can pattern 7500 nanohydrogels in a 100 micron diameter arrays in 10 seconds. This is an areal density ~104 times greater than a modern DNA/protein chip, and the required bioreagents for chip fabrication and processing are proportionately less. We can bind fibronectin and laminin to different arrays, and we show that these proteins maintain their biospecificity after binding to the nanohydrogels with high fidelity. Looking to applications in next-generation protein-chip technology, our most recent experiments compare the performance of nanohydrogel

  6. Bosonization and quantum hydrodynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Girish S Setlur

    2006-03-01

    It is shown that it is possible to bosonize fermions in any number of dimensions using the hydrodynamic variables, namely the velocity potential and density. The slow part of the Fermi field is defined irrespective of dimensionality and the commutators of this field with currents and densities are exponentiated using the velocity potential as conjugate to the density. An action in terms of these canonical bosonic variables is proposed that reproduces the correct current and density correlations. This formalism in one dimension is shown to be equivalent to the Tomonaga-Luttinger approach as it leads to the same propagator and exponents. We compute the one-particle properties of a spinless homogeneous Fermi system in two spatial dimensions with long-range gauge interactions and highlight the metal-insulator transition in the system. A general formula for the generating function of density correlations is derived that is valid beyond the random phase approximation. Finally, we write down a formula for the annihilation operator in momentum space directly in terms of number conserving products of Fermi fields.

  7. Engineering Hydrodynamic AUV Hulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.

    2016-12-01

    AUV stands for autonomous underwater vehicle. AUVs are used in oceanography and are similar to gliders. MBARIs AUVs as well as other AUVs map the ocean floor which is very important. They also measure physical characteristics of the water, such as temperature and salinity. My science fair project for 4th grade was a STEM activity in which I built and tested 3 different AUV bodies. I wanted to find out which design was the most hydrodynamic. I tested three different lengths of AUV hulls to see which AUV would glide the farthest. The first was 6 inches. The second was 12 inches and the third was 18 inches. I used clay for the nosecone and cut a ruler into two and made it the fin. Each AUV used the same nosecone and fin. I tested all three designs in a pool. I used biomimicry to create my hypothesis. When I was researching I found that long slim animals swim fastest. So, my hypothesis is the longer AUV will glide farthest. In the end I was right. The longer AUV did glide the farthest.

  8. Testing hydrodynamics schemes in galaxy disc simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, C. G.; Dobbs, C.; Pettitt, A.; Konstandin, L.

    2016-08-01

    We examine how three fundamentally different numerical hydrodynamics codes follow the evolution of an isothermal galactic disc with an external spiral potential. We compare an adaptive mesh refinement code (RAMSES), a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (SPHNG), and a volume-discretized mesh-less code (GIZMO). Using standard refinement criteria, we find that RAMSES produces a disc that is less vertically concentrated and does not reach such high densities as the SPHNG or GIZMO runs. The gas surface density in the spiral arms increases at a lower rate for the RAMSES simulations compared to the other codes. There is also a greater degree of substructure in the SPHNG and GIZMO runs and secondary spiral arms are more pronounced. By resolving the Jeans length with a greater number of grid cells, we achieve more similar results to the Lagrangian codes used in this study. Other alterations to the refinement scheme (adding extra levels of refinement and refining based on local density gradients) are less successful in reducing the disparity between RAMSES and SPHNG/GIZMO. Although more similar, SPHNG displays different density distributions and vertical mass profiles to all modes of GIZMO (including the smoothed particle hydrodynamics version). This suggests differences also arise which are not intrinsic to the particular method but rather due to its implementation. The discrepancies between codes (in particular, the densities reached in the spiral arms) could potentially result in differences in the locations and time-scales for gravitational collapse, and therefore impact star formation activity in more complex galaxy disc simulations.

  9. Reciprocal relations in dissipationless hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnikovsky, L. A., E-mail: leva@kapitza.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    Hidden symmetry in dissipationless terms of arbitrary hydrodynamics equations is recognized. We demonstrate that all fluxes are generated by a single function and derive conventional Euler equations using the proposed formalism.

  10. Relativistic Hydrodynamics on Graphic Cards

    CERN Document Server

    Gerhard, Jochen; Bleicher, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    We show how to accelerate relativistic hydrodynamics simulations using graphic cards (graphic processing units, GPUs). These improvements are of highest relevance e.g. to the field of high-energetic nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC where (ideal and dissipative) relativistic hydrodynamics is used to calculate the evolution of hot and dense QCD matter. The results reported here are based on the Sharp And Smooth Transport Algorithm (SHASTA), which is employed in many hydrodynamical models and hybrid simulation packages, e.g. the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics model (UrQMD). We have redesigned the SHASTA using the OpenCL computing framework to work on accelerators like graphic processing units (GPUs) as well as on multi-core processors. With the redesign of the algorithm the hydrodynamic calculations have been accelerated by a factor 160 allowing for event-by-event calculations and better statistics in hybrid calculations.

  11. Gradient expansion for anisotropic hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florkowski, Wojciech; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Spaliński, Michał

    2016-12-01

    We compute the gradient expansion for anisotropic hydrodynamics. The results are compared with the corresponding expansion of the underlying kinetic-theory model with the collision term treated in the relaxation time approximation. We find that a recent formulation of anisotropic hydrodynamics based on an anisotropic matching principle yields the first three terms of the gradient expansion in agreement with those obtained for the kinetic theory. This gives further support for this particular hydrodynamic model as a good approximation of the kinetic-theory approach. We further find that the gradient expansion of anisotropic hydrodynamics is an asymptotic series, and the singularities of the analytic continuation of its Borel transform indicate the presence of nonhydrodynamic modes.

  12. Controlling cell-cell interactions using surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Li, Peng; French, Jarrod B; Mao, Zhangming; Zhao, Hong; Li, Sixing; Nama, Nitesh; Fick, James R; Benkovic, Stephen J; Huang, Tony Jun

    2015-01-06

    The interactions between pairs of cells and within multicellular assemblies are critical to many biological processes such as intercellular communication, tissue and organ formation, immunological reactions, and cancer metastasis. The ability to precisely control the position of cells relative to one another and within larger cellular assemblies will enable the investigation and characterization of phenomena not currently accessible by conventional in vitro methods. We present a versatile surface acoustic wave technique that is capable of controlling the intercellular distance and spatial arrangement of cells with micrometer level resolution. This technique is, to our knowledge, among the first of its kind to marry high precision and high throughput into a single extremely versatile and wholly biocompatible technology. We demonstrated the capabilities of the system to precisely control intercellular distance, assemble cells with defined geometries, maintain cellular assemblies in suspension, and translate these suspended assemblies to adherent states, all in a contactless, biocompatible manner. As an example of the power of this system, this technology was used to quantitatively investigate the gap junctional intercellular communication in several homotypic and heterotypic populations by visualizing the transfer of fluorescent dye between cells.

  13. Surface dislocation nucleation controlled deformation of Au nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, B.; Kapelle, B.; Volkert, C. A., E-mail: volkert@ump.gwdg.de [Institute of Materials Physics, Georg August University, Göttingen 37077 (Germany); Richter, G. [Max-Plank-Institute for Intelligent Systems, Stuttgart 70569 (Germany)

    2014-11-17

    We investigate deformation in high quality Au nanowires under both tension and bending using in-situ transmission electron microscopy. Defect evolution is investigated during: (1) tensile deformation of 〈110〉 oriented, initially defect-free, single crystal nanowires with cross-sectional widths between 30 and 300 nm, (2) bending deformation of the same wires, and (3) tensile deformation of wires containing coherent twin boundaries along their lengths. We observe the formation of twins and stacking faults in the single crystal wires under tension, and storage of full dislocations after bending of single crystal wires and after tension of twinned wires. The stress state dependence of the deformation morphology and the formation of stacking faults and twins are not features of bulk Au, where deformation is controlled by dislocation interactions. Instead, we attribute the deformation morphologies to the surface nucleation of either leading or trailing partial dislocations, depending on the Schmid factors, which move through and exit the wires producing stacking faults or full dislocation slip. The presence of obstacles such as neutral planes or twin boundaries hinder the egress of the freshly nucleated dislocations and allow trailing and leading partial dislocations to combine and to be stored as full dislocations in the wires. We infer that the twins and stacking faults often observed in nanoscale Au specimens are not a direct size effect but the result of a size and obstacle dependent transition from dislocation interaction controlled to dislocation nucleation controlled deformation.

  14. An introduction to astrophysical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, Steven N

    1992-01-01

    This book is an introduction to astrophysical hydrodynamics for both astronomy and physics students. It provides a comprehensive and unified view of the general problems associated with fluids in a cosmic context, with a discussion of fluid dynamics and plasma physics. It is the only book on hydrodynamics that addresses the astrophysical context. Researchers and students will find this work to be an exceptional reference. Contents include chapters on irrotational and rotational flows, turbulence, magnetohydrodynamics, and instabilities.

  15. TEMPERATURE CONTROL CIRCUIT FOR SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE (SAW RESONATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Mohamad Ashari

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW resonators are key components in oscillators, frequency synthesizers and transceivers. One of the drawbacks of SAW resonators are that its piezoelectric substrates are highly sensitive to ambient temperature resulting in performance degradation. This work propose a simple circuit design which stabalizes the temperature of the SAW resonator, making it independet of temperature change. This circuit is based on the oven control method which elevates the temperature of the resonator to a high temperature, making it tolerant to minor changes in ambient temperature.This circuit consist of a temperature sensor, heaters and a comparator which turn the heater on or off depending on the ambient temperature. Several SAW resonator were tested using this circuit. Experimental results indicate the temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF decreases from maximum of 130.44/°C to a minimum of -1.11/°C. 

  16. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Harris, G.; Sotillo, F.; Diao, J. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA)); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA)); Hu, Weibai; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (USA)); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (USA))

    1990-08-15

    The primary objective of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve near total pyritic-sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from six major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Work this quarter concentrated on the following: washability studies, which included particle size distribution of the washability samples, and chemical analysis of washability test samples; characterization studies of induction time measurements, correlation between yield, combustible-material recovery (CMR), and heating-value recovery (HVR), and QA/QC for standard flotation tests and coal analyses; surface modification and control including testing of surface-modifying reagents, restoration of hydrophobicity to lab-oxidized coals, pH effects on coal flotation, and depression of pyritic sulfur in which pyrite depression with calcium cyanide and pyrite depression with xanthated reagents was investigated; flotation optimization and circuitry included staged reagent addition, cleaning and scavenging, and scavenging and middling recycling. Weathering studies are also discussed. 19 figs., 28 tabs.

  17. Active Aerothermoelastic Control of Hypersonic Double-wedge Lifting Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laith K Abbas; Chen Qian; Piergiovanni Marzocca; Gürdal Zafer; Abdalla Mostafa

    2008-01-01

    Designing reentry space vehicles and high-speed aireraft requires special attention to the nonlinear thermoelastic and aerodynamic instability of their structural components. The thermal effects are important since temperature environment brings dramatic influences on the static and dynamic behaviors of flight structures in supersonic/hypersonic regimes and is likely to cause instability, catastrophic failure and oscillations resulting in structural failure due to fatigue. In order to understand the dynamic behaviors of these "hot"structures, a double-wedge lifting surface with combining freeplay and cubic structural nonlinearities in both plunging and pitching degrees-of-freedom operating in supersonic/hypersonic flight speed regimes has been analyzed. A third order piston theory aerodynamic isused to estimate the applied nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic loads. Also considered is the loss of torsiunal stiffness that may be incurredby lifting surfaces subject to axial stresses induced by aerodynamic heating. The aerodynamic heating effects are estimated based on theadiabatic wall temperature due to high speed airstreams. As a recently emerging technology, the active aerothermoelastic control isaimed at providing solutions to a large number of problems involving the aeronautica Faerospace flight vehicle structures. To preventsuch damaging phenomena from occurring, an application of linear and nonlinear active control methods on both flutter boundary andpost-flutter behavior has been fulfilled. In this paper, modeling issues as well as numerical simulation have been presented and pertinent conclusions outlined. It is evidenced that a serious loss of torsional stiffness may induce the dynamic instability; however active controlcan be used to expand the flutter boundary and convert unstable limit cycle oscillations (LCO) into the stable LCO and/or to shift the transition between these two states toward higher flight Mach numbers.

  18. Slurry bubble column hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rados, Novica

    Slurry bubble column reactors are presently used for a wide range of reactions in both chemical and biochemical industry. The successful design and scale up of slurry bubble column reactors require a complete understanding of multiphase fluid dynamics, i.e. phase mixing, heat and mass transport characteristics. The primary objective of this thesis is to improve presently limited understanding of the gas-liquid-solid slurry bubble column hydrodynamics. The effect of superficial gas velocity (8 to 45 cm/s), pressure (0.1 to 1.0 MPa) and solids loading (20 and 35 wt.%) on the time-averaged solids velocity and turbulent parameter profiles has been studied using Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT). To accomplish this, CARPT technique has been significantly improved for the measurements in highly attenuating systems, such as high pressure, high solids loading stainless steel slurry bubble column. At a similar set of operational conditions time-averaged gas and solids holdup profiles have been evaluated using the developed Computed Tomography (CT)/Overall gas holdup procedure. This procedure is based on the combination of the CT scans and the overall gas holdup measurements. The procedure assumes constant solids loading in the radial direction and axially invariant cross-sectionally averaged gas holdup. The obtained experimental holdup, velocity and turbulent parameters data are correlated and compared with the existing low superficial gas velocities and atmospheric pressure CARPT/CT gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid slurry data. The obtained solids axial velocity radial profiles are compared with the predictions of the one dimensional (1-D) liquid/slurry recirculation phenomenological model. The obtained solids loading axial profiles are compared with the predictions of the Sedimentation and Dispersion Model (SDM). The overall gas holdup values, gas holdup radial profiles, solids loading axial profiles, solids axial velocity radial profiles and solids

  19. Two-Phase Flow Hydrodynamics in Superhydrophobic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kimberly; Crockett, Julie; Maynes, Daniel; Iverson, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces promote drop-wise condensation and droplet removal leading to the potential for increased thermal transport. Accordingly, great interest exists in using superhydrophobic surfaces in flow condensing environments, such as power generation and desalination. Adiabatic air-water mixtures were used to gain insight into the effect of hydrophobicity on two-phase flows and the hydrodynamics present in flow condensation. Pressure drop and onset of various flow regimes in hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and superhydrophobic mini (0.5 x 10 mm) channels were explored. Data for air/water mixtures with superficial Reynolds numbers from 20-200 and 250-1800, respectively, were obtained. Agreement between experimentally obtained pressure drops and correlations in literature for the conventional smooth control surfaces was better than 20 percent. Transitions between flow regimes for the hydrophobic and hydrophilic channels were similar to commonly recognized flow types. However, the superhydrophobic channel demonstrated significantly different flow regime behavior from conventional surfaces including a different shape of the air slugs, as discussed in the presentation.

  20. Speed Tracking Control of a Vehicle Robot Driver System Using Multiple Sliding Surface Control Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the drawbacks of using a traditional proportional-integral-derivative (PID control method for a robot driver system, such as requiring preliminary offline learning, big overshoot and large speed fluctuation, a new method for speed tracking of a robot driver system based on sliding mode control is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the coordinated control model of multiple manipulators for the robot driver is built, which achieved coordinated control of the throttle mechanical leg, clutch mechanical leg, brake mechanical leg and shift mechanical arm for the robot driver. On the basis of this, a speed tracking sliding mode controller for a vehicle robot driver is designed using the method of multiple sliding surfaces design, and the variable structure control laws of throttle and brake are designed respectively, which realize the speed tracking of the given driving test cycle. Experimental results demonstrate that compared with the PID control method, the proposed method can obviously reduce the overshoot of vehicle speed tracking control and greatly improve the accuracy of vehicle speed tracking. The vehicle speed tracking accuracy stays within a tolerance band of ±2 km/h, which meets the requirements of national vehicle test standards. Furthermore, the action of the speed tracking control in the same driving test cycle using the proposed method is consistent, so that the robot driver has good repeatability. Therefore, it can ensure the effectiveness of the vehicle emission test.

  1. Quality control methods for KOOS operational sea surface temperature products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chansu; KIM Sunhwa

    2016-01-01

    Sea surface temperature SST obtained from the initial version of the Korea Operational Oceanographic System (KOOS) SST satellite have low accuracy during summer and daytime. This is attributed to the diurnal warming effect. Error estimation of SST data must be carried out to use the real-time forecasting numerical model of the KOOS. This study suggests two quality control methods for the KOOS SST system. To minimize the diurnal warming effect, SSTs of areas where wind speed is higher than 5 m/s were used. Depending on the wind threshold value, KOOS SST data for August 2014 were reduced by 0.15°C. Errors in SST data are considered to be a combination of random, sampling, and bias errors. To estimate bias error, the standard deviation of bias between KOOS SSTs and climatology SSTs were used. KOOS SST data yielded an analysis error standard deviation value similar to OSTIA and NOAA NCDC (OISST) data. The KOOS SST shows lower random and sampling errors with increasing number of observations using six satellite datasets. In further studies, the proposed quality control methods for the KOOS SST system will be applied through more long-term case studies and comparisons with other SST systems.

  2. Controllable surface haptics via particle jamming and pneumatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Andrew A; Okamura, Allison M

    2015-01-01

    The combination of particle jamming and pneumatics allows the simultaneous control of shape and mechanical properties in a tactile display. A hollow silicone membrane is molded into an array of thin cells, each filled with coffee grounds such that adjusting the vacuum level in any individual cell rapidly switches it between flexible and rigid states. The array clamps over a pressure-regulated air chamber with internal mechanisms designed to pin the nodes between cells at any given height. Various sequences of cell vacuuming, node pinning, and chamber pressurization allow the surface to balloon into a variety of shapes. Experiments were performed to expand existing physical models of jamming at the inter-particle level to define the rheological characteristics of jammed systems from a macroscopic perspective, relevant to force-displacement interactions that would be experienced by human users. Force-displacement data show that a jammed cell in compression fits a Maxwell model and a cell deflected in the center while supported only at the edges fits a Zener model, each with stiffness and damping parameters that increase at higher levels of applied vacuum. This provides framework to tune and control the mechanical properties of a jamming haptic interface.

  3. Graphene thickness-controlled photocatalysis and surface enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Cheng-Chi; Chen, Chun-Hu

    2014-11-01

    Exceptional photocatalytic enhancement of graphene-semiconductor composites has been widely reported, but our understanding of the role that graphene plays in this enhancement remains limited, which arises from the difficulty of precisely controlling graphene hybridization. Here we present a general platform of a graphene-semiconductor hybrid panel (GHP) system wherein a precise number of layers of graphene are hybridized with photoactive semiconductors (e.g. TiO2, ZnO) to study systematically how graphene affects the photocatalysis. The results show that the graphene enhancement of the photocatalysis depends on the number of graphene layers, with the maximum performance observed at 3 layers. Photodeposited indicators of gold particles further reveal that graphene thickness governs the density of photocatalytic sites and charge transfer efficiency at the graphene-semiconductor interfaces. We suggest that quantized energy levels caused by different numbers of stacked graphene sheets along the vector normal to the graphene basal plane affect the charge transfer routes and lead to the graphene thickness-controlled photocatalysis. GHP substrates deposited with gold particles are promising, uniform substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications with the enhancement factor as high as ∼10(8) on 3-layer graphene.

  4. Laser controlled melting of pre-treated zirconia surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilbas, B.S., E-mail: bsyilbas@kfupm.edu.sa [ME Department, KFUPM, Dhahran 31261, (Saudi Arabia); Akhtar, S.S. [ME Department, KFUPM, Dhahran 31261, (Saudi Arabia); Karatas, C. [Engineering College, Hacettepe University, (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    Laser treatment of pre-prepared zirconia surface is carried out. The pre-prepared surface, prior to laser treatment, consists of 50 {mu}m carbon film and 7% titanium carbide particles, which are imbedded in the carbon film. The microstructural and morphological changes in the laser treated surface layer are examined using optical and scanning electron microscopes, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The fracture toughness of the laser treated surface is measured and the residual stress formed at the surface vicinity is determined from the X-ray diffraction technique. It is found that the microhardness of the laser treated surface increased slightly due to the dense layer formed at the surface vicinity. However, the laser treatment process reduces the fracture toughness of the surface due to improved surface hardness and the residual stress formed in the surface vicinity.

  5. Modeling hydrodynamics of large lagoons: Insights from the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clunies, Gregory J.; Mulligan, Ryan P.; Mallinson, David J.; Walsh, J. P.

    2017-04-01

    Large estuaries are influenced by winds over adjacent coastal ocean and land areas causing significant spatial variations in water levels, currents and surface waves. In this study we apply a numerical model to simulate hydrodynamics and waves in the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine System, a large and shallow back-barrier basin in eastern North Carolina, over a one-month study period (September 2008) with observations from several storm wind events of differing time scales and directions. Model performance is evaluated for a spatially varying wind field from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) dataset in comparison to spatially uniform forcing from wind observations at offshore, coastal and land-based sites across the region. A spatially uniform wind field from offshore winds observations results in statistically better hydrodynamic simulations of water levels (R = 0.88) in the estuaries than NARR (R = 0.48) after comparison with measurements and indicates the importance of strong marine winds over most of the estuary surface area. The influence of a prominent bathymetric feature on hydrodynamics in Pamlico Sound is also investigated by numerically removing a 30 km long and 2-3 m deep shoal from the model grid and replacing it with an idealized depth of 6 m. The removal of the shoal increases water level setup by 14% at the estuarine shoreline, decreases current magnitudes by up to 40% in the shoal region and increases significant wave heights locally by up to 25% in the sound, indicating the importance of this relict geomorphic feature as a major control on the hydrodynamic response of the system during wind events. The results suggest that increasing the water depth over the shoal can lead to higher storm surges and wave heights with the possibility of increased inundation and erosion of the back-barrier and mainland coastal regions. The complex bathymetry and marine wind influence are critical input conditions for modeling large and shallow lagoonal

  6. Morphologic and hydrodynamic controls on the occurrence of tidal bundles in an open-coast macrotidal environment, northern Gyeonggi Bay, west coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyungsik; Kim, Do Hyeong

    2016-06-01

    Tidal dunes with well-defined rhythmic tidal bundles are documented from the lower intertidal zone of an open-coast macrotidal environment in Gyeonggi Bay, Korea. Based on combined morphologic, sedimentologic and hydrodynamic datasets, this study aims to characterize the factors that govern the temporal and spatial variability of tidal bundles in a non-barred, unconfined macrotidal environment. The tidal dunes are flood-asymmetric and of longer wavelength (10-20 m) with small ebb caps on the upper bank, and symmetric to slightly ebb-asymmetric and of shorter wavelength (5-10 m) with larger ebb caps on the lower bank. The upper-bank dunes are characterized by more steeply dipping flood-directed planar cross-beds and thinner mud drapes than the lower-bank dunes. Each tidal bundle consists of a single mud drape that is stratified to cross-stratified, rich in silt and very fine sand. It overlies ebb-directed ripples and represents dynamic mud deposition during the ebb tidal phase. The presence of strong rotary currents (up to 0.25 m/s) and low suspended-sediment concentration of flood currents prevent deposition of mud drapes during the high-tide slack-water period. The distinct asymmetry in the water elevation at which the velocity peaks during the ebb and flood phases results in the preferential preservation of flood-directed cross-beds in the lower intertidal zone, where the ebb current - although stronger than the flood currents - is of shorter duration and hence unable to reverse the dune profile. The pronounced time-velocity asymmetry at the higher elevation combined with the distinct velocity peak asymmetry leads to a better preservation of hierarchical tidal cycles in the upper-bank dunes. The present study suggests that the persistent occurrence of single, stratified to cross-stratified mud drapes, which reflect dynamic mud deposition during the ebb phase, and the dominance of flood-directed cross-beds are diagnostic features of tidal bundles in the intertidal

  7. The hydrodynamics of colloidal gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Zsigmond; Wang, Gang; Swan, James

    2015-12-14

    Colloidal gels are formed during arrested phase separation. Sub-micron, mutually attractive particles aggregate to form a system spanning network with high interfacial area, far from equilibrium. Models for microstructural evolution during colloidal gelation have often struggled to match experimental results with long standing questions regarding the role of hydrodynamic interactions. In nearly all models, these interactions are neglected entirely. In the present work, we report simulations of gelation with and without hydrodynamic interactions between the suspended particles executed in HOOMD-blue. The disparities between these simulations are striking and mirror the experimental-theoretical mismatch in the literature. The hydrodynamic simulations agree with experimental observations, however. We explore a simple model of the competing transport processes in gelation that anticipates these disparities, and conclude that hydrodynamic forces are essential. Near the gel boundary, there exists a competition between compaction of individual aggregates which suppresses gelation and coagulation of aggregates which enhances it. The time scale for compaction is mildly slowed by hydrodynamic interactions, while the time scale for coagulation is greatly accelerated. This enhancement to coagulation leads to a shift in the gel boundary to lower strengths of attraction and lower particle concentrations when compared to models that neglect hydrodynamic interactions. Away from the gel boundary, differences in the nearest neighbor distribution and fractal dimension persist within gels produced by both simulation methods. This result necessitates a fundamental rethinking of how dynamic, discrete element models for gelation kinetics are developed as well as how collective hydrodynamic interactions influence the arrest of attractive colloidal dispersions.

  8. Preliminary study of disc hydrodynamic polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Lin, Bin; Zhang, XiaoFeng; Liu, PengFei

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a developed polishing method based on elastic emission machining and Jules Verne-a variation on fluid jet polishing-is presented. This method is named disc hydrodynamic polishing (DHDP). A computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based model that consists of a CFD model and an erosion model is introduced to predict the surface roughness obtained by DHDP. The performance of DHDP is studied by experiments. The slurry used in the experiments comprises 95% deionized water and 5% cerium oxide particles. Fused-silica glass is chosen as the workpiece. After the experiments, an ultrasmooth surface without cracks is obtained. The simulation results principally coincide with the experimental results. The experimental results show that the actual roughness is slightly less than the prediction and smaller particles are more favorable for obtaining a better surface roughness.

  9. Evolution of kinetically controlled In-induced surface structure on Si(5 5 7) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Amit Kumar Singh [Physics of Energy Harvesting, (CSIR-NPL), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Department of Physics, JMI, New Delhi 110025 (India); Eldose, Nirosh M.; Mishra, Monu [Physics of Energy Harvesting, (CSIR-NPL), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Niazi, Asad; Nair, Lekha [Department of Physics, JMI, New Delhi 110025 (India); Gupta, Govind, E-mail: govind@nplindia.org [Physics of Energy Harvesting, (CSIR-NPL), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Evolution of In induced superstructures on Si(5 5 7) surface during RT and HT adsorption/desorption process. • Kinetics is governed by substrate temperature which exhibits various growth modes (FM, SK, VB) under different conditions. • Strain relaxation play significant role in the commencement of desorption/rearrangement of atoms. • A consolidated phase diagram of In/Si(5 5 7) interface has been reported with new √3 × √3-R30° and 4 × 1 phases. - Abstract: This paper introduces issue of kinetically controlled and temperature driven superstructural phase transition of Indium (In) on atomically clean high index Si(5 5 7)-7 × 1 surface. Auger electron spectroscopy analysis reveals that at room-temperature (RT) with a controlled incident flux of 0.002 ML/s; In overlayers evolve through the Frank-van der Merwe growth mode and yield a (1 × 1) diffraction pattern for coverage ≥1 ML. For substrate temperature <500°C, growth of In follows Stranski–Krastanov growth mode while for temperature >500°C island growth is observed. On annealing the In/Si(5 5 7) interface in the temperature range 250–340°C, clusters to two dimensional (2D) layer transformation on top of a stable monolayer is predominated. In-situ RT and HT adsorption and thermal desorption phenomena revealed the formation of coverage and temperature dependent thermally stable In induced superstructural phases such as (4 × 1) at 0.5 ML (520°C), (√3 × √3-R30°) at 0.3 ML (560°C) and (7 × 7) at 0.1 ML (580°C). These indium induced superstructures could be utilized as potential substrate for the growth of various exotic 1D/2D structures.

  10. Evolution of kinetically controlled In-induced surface structure on Si(5 5 7) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Amit Kumar Singh; Eldose, Nirosh M.; Mishra, Monu; Niazi, Asad; Nair, Lekha; Gupta, Govind

    2014-09-01

    This paper introduces issue of kinetically controlled and temperature driven superstructural phase transition of Indium (In) on atomically clean high index Si(5 5 7)-7 × 1 surface. Auger electron spectroscopy analysis reveals that at room-temperature (RT) with a controlled incident flux of 0.002 ML/s; In overlayers evolve through the Frank-van der Merwe growth mode and yield a (1 × 1) diffraction pattern for coverage ≥1 ML. For substrate temperature 500 °C island growth is observed. On annealing the In/Si(5 5 7) interface in the temperature range 250-340 °C, clusters to two dimensional (2D) layer transformation on top of a stable monolayer is predominated. In-situ RT and HT adsorption and thermal desorption phenomena revealed the formation of coverage and temperature dependent thermally stable In induced superstructural phases such as (4 × 1) at 0.5 ML (520 °C), (√3 × √3-R30°) at 0.3 ML (560 °C) and (7 × 7) at 0.1 ML (580 °C). These indium induced superstructures could be utilized as potential substrate for the growth of various exotic 1D/2D structures.

  11. Central motor control failure in fibromyalgia: a surface electromyography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buskila Dan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia (FM is characterised by diffuse musculoskeletal pain and stiffness at multiple sites, tender points in characteristic locations, and the frequent presence of symptoms such as fatigue. The aim of this study was to assess whether the myoelectrical manifestations of fatigue in patients affected by FM are central or peripheral in origin. Methods Eight female patients aged 55.6 ± 13.6 years (FM group and eight healthy female volunteers aged 50.3 ± 9.3 years (MCG were studied by means of non-invasive surface electromyography (s-EMG involving a linear array of 16 electrodes placed on the skin overlying the biceps brachii muscle, with muscle fatigue being evoked by means of voluntary and involuntary (electrically elicited contractions. Maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs, motor unit action potential conduction velocity distributions (mean ± SD and skewness, and the mean power frequency of the spectrum (MNF were estimated in order to assess whether there were any significant differences between the two groups and contraction types. Results The motor pattern of recruitment during voluntary contractions was altered in the FM patients, who also showed fewer myoelectrical manifestations of fatigue (normalised conduction velocity rate of changes: -0.074 ± 0.052%/s in FM vs -0.196 ± 0.133%/s in MCG; normalised MNF rate of changes: -0.29 ± 0.16%/s in FM vs -0.66 ± 0.34%/s in MCG. Mean conduction velocity distribution and skewnesses values were higher (p Conclusion The apparent paradox of fewer myoelectrical manifestations of fatigue in FM is the electrophysiological expression of muscle remodelling in terms of the prevalence of slow conducting fatigue-resistant type I fibres. As the only between-group differences concerned voluntary contractions, they are probably more related to central motor control failure than muscle membrane alterations, which suggests pathological muscle fibre remodelling related to altered

  12. Tensorial hydrodynamic slip

    CERN Document Server

    Bazant, Martin Z

    2008-01-01

    We describe a tensorial generalization of the Navier slip boundary condition and illustrate its use in solving for flows around anisotropic textured surfaces. Tensorial slip can be derived from molecular or microstructural theories or simply postulated as an constitutive relation, subject to certain general constraints on the interfacial mobility. The power of the tensor formalism is to capture complicated effects of surface anisotropy, while preserving a simple fluid domain. This is demonstrated by exact solutions for laminar shear flow and pressure-driven flow between parallel plates of arbitrary and different textures. From such solutions, the effects of rotating a texture follow from simple matrix algebra. Our results may be useful to extracting local slip tensors from global measurements, such as the permeability of a textured channel or the force required to move a patterned surface, in experiments or simulations.

  13. Surface chemistry of black phosphorus under a controlled oxidative environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Zemlyanov, Dmitry Y.; Milligan, Cory A.; Du, Yuchen; Yang, Lingming; Wu, Yanqing; Ye, Peide D.

    2016-10-01

    Black phosphorus (BP), the bulk counterpart of monolayer phosphorene, is a relatively stable phosphorus allotrope at room temperature. However, monolayer phosphorene and ultra-thin BP layers degrade in ambient atmosphere. In this paper, we report the investigation of BP oxidation and discuss the reaction mechanism based on the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data. The kinetics of BP oxidation was examined under various well-controlled conditions, namely in 5% O2/Ar, 2.3% H2O/Ar, and 5% O2 and 2.3% H2O/Ar. At room temperature, the BP surface is demonstrated not to be oxidized at a high oxidation rate in 5% O2/Ar nor in 2.3% H2O/Ar, according to XPS, with the thickness of the oxidized phosphorus layer <5 Å for 5 h. On the other hand, in the O2/H2O mixture, a 30 Å thickness oxide layer was detected already after 2 h of the treatment. This result points to a synergetic effect of water and oxygen in the BP oxidation. The oxidation effect was also studied in applications to the electrical measurements of BP field-effect transistors (FETs) with or without passivation. The electrical performance of BP FETs with atomic layer deposition (ALD) dielectric passivation or h-BN passivation formed in a glove-box environment are also presented.

  14. Recent progress in anisotropic hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Strickland, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The quark-gluon plasma created in a relativistic heavy-ion collisions possesses a sizable pressure anisotropy in the local rest frame at very early times after the initial nuclear impact and this anisotropy only slowly relaxes as the system evolves. In a kinetic theory picture, this translates into the existence of sizable momentum-space anisotropies in the underlying partonic distribution functions, . In such cases, it is better to reorganize the hydrodynamical expansion by taking into account momentum-space anisotropies at leading-order in the expansion instead of as a perturbative correction to an isotropic distribution. The resulting anisotropic hydrodynamics framework has been shown to more accurately describe the dynamics of rapidly expanding systems such as the quark-gluon plasma. In this proceedings contribution, I review the basic ideas of anisotropic hydrodynamics, recent progress, and present a few preliminary phenomenological predictions for identified particle spectra and elliptic flow.

  15. Numerical Hydrodynamics in Special Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martí José Maria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This review is concerned with a discussion of numerical methods for the solution of the equations of special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD. Particular emphasis is put on a comprehensive review of the application of high-resolution shock-capturing methods in SRHD. Results of a set of demanding test bench simulations obtained with different numerical SRHD methods are compared. Three applications (astrophysical jets, gamma-ray bursts and heavy ion collisions of relativistic flows are discussed. An evaluation of various SRHD methods is presented, and future developments in SRHD are analyzed involving extension to general relativistic hydrodynamics and relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics. The review further provides FORTRAN programs to compute the exact solution of a 1D relativistic Riemann problem with zero and nonzero tangential velocities, and to simulate 1D relativistic flows in Cartesian Eulerian coordinates using the exact SRHD Riemann solver and PPM reconstruction.

  16. Comparative hydrodynamics of bacterial polymorphism

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnolie, Saverio E

    2011-01-01

    Most bacteria swim through fluids by rotating helical flagella which can take one of twelve distinct polymorphic shapes. The most common helical waveform is the "normal" form, used during forward swimming runs. To shed light on the prevalence of the normal form in locomotion, we gather all available experimental measurements of the various polymorphic forms and compute their intrinsic hydrodynamic efficiencies. The normal helical form is found to be the most hydrodynamically efficient of the twelve polymorphic forms by a significant margin - a conclusion valid for both the peritrichous and polar flagellar families, and robust to a change in the effective flagellum diameter or length. The hydrodynamic optimality of the normal polymorph suggests that, although energetic costs of locomotion are small for bacteria, fluid mechanical forces may have played a significant role in the evolution of the flagellum.

  17. Quantum Plasmas An Hydrodynamic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Haas, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the basic concepts and new methods in the emerging scientific area known as quantum plasmas. In the near future, quantum effects in plasmas will be unavoidable, particularly in high density scenarios such as those in the next-generation intense laser-solid density plasma experiment or in compact astrophysics objects. Currently, plasmas are in the forefront of many intriguing questions around the transition from microscopic to macroscopic modeling of charged particle systems. Quantum Plasmas: an Hydrodynamic Approach is devoted to the quantum hydrodynamic model paradigm, which, unlike straight quantum kinetic theory, is much more amenable to investigate the nonlinear realm of quantum plasmas. The reader will have a step-by-step construction of the quantum hydrodynamic method applied to plasmas. The book is intended for specialists in classical plasma physics interested in methods of quantum plasma theory, as well as scientists interested in common aspects of two major areas of...

  18. HYDRODYNAMIC INTERACTIONS BETWEEN TWO BODIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of model tests, potential flow theory, and viscous Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method, the hydrodynamic interactions between two underwater bodies were investigated to determine the influencing factors, changing rule, interaction mechanism, and appropriate methods describing them. Some special phenomena were discovered in two series of near-wall interaction experiments. The mathematical model and predicting methods were presented for interacting forces near wall, and the calculation results agreed well with the experimental ones. From the comparisons among numerical results with respect to nonviscosity, numerical results with respect to viscosity, and measured results, data on the influence of viscosity on hydrodynamic interactions were obtained. For hydrodynamic interaction related to multi-body unsteady motions with six degrees of freedom that is difficult to simulate in tests, numerical predictions of unsteady interacting forces were given.

  19. Hydrodynamic shocks in microroller suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmotte, Blaise; Driscoll, Michelle; Chaikin, Paul; Donev, Aleksandar

    2017-09-01

    We combine experiments, large-scale simulations, and continuum models to study the emergence of coherent structures in a suspension of magnetically driven microrollers sedimented near a floor. Collective hydrodynamic effects are predominant in this system, leading to strong density-velocity coupling. We characterize a uniform suspension and show that density waves propagate freely in all directions in a dispersive fashion. When sharp density gradients are introduced in the suspension, we observe the formation of a shock. Unlike Burgers' shocklike structures observed in other active and driven confined hydrodynamic systems, the shock front in our system has a well-defined finite width and moves rapidly compared to the mean suspension velocity. We introduce a continuum model demonstrating that the finite width of the front is due to far-field nonlocal hydrodynamic interactions and governed by a geometric parameter, the average particle height above the floor.

  20. Numerical Hydrodynamics in Special Relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, José Maria; Müller, Ewald

    2003-01-01

    This review is concerned with a discussion of numerical methods for the solution of the equations of special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD). Particular emphasis is put on a comprehensive review of the application of high-resolution shock-capturing methods in SRHD. Results of a set of demanding test bench simulations obtained with different numerical SRHD methods are compared. Three applications (astrophysical jets, gamma-ray bursts and heavy ion collisions) of relativistic flows are discussed. An evaluation of various SRHD methods is presented, and future developments in SRHD are analyzed involving extension to general relativistic hydrodynamics and relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics. The review further provides FORTRAN programs to compute the exact solution of a 1D relativistic Riemann problem with zero and nonzero tangential velocities, and to simulate 1D relativistic flows in Cartesian Eulerian coordinates using the exact SRHD Riemann solver and PPM reconstruction.

  1. Boundary slippage for generating hydrodynamic load-carrying capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-bin

    2008-01-01

    Boundary slippage is used to generate the load-carrying capacity of the hydrodynamic contact between two parallel plane surfaces.In the fluid inlet zone,the fluidcontact interfacial shear strength on a stationary surface is set at low to generate boundary slippage there,while in the fluid outlet zone the fluid-contact interfacial shear strength on the stationary surface is set at high enough to prevent the occurrence of boundary slippage.The fluid-contact interfacial shear strength on the entire moving surface is set at high enough to prevent boundary slippage on the moving surface.These hydrodynamic contact configurations are analyzed to generate the pronounced load-carrying capacity.The optimum ratio of the outlet zone width to the inlet zone width for the maximum load-carrying capacity of the whole contact is found to be 0.5.

  2. Hydrodynamics of soft active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, M. C.; Joanny, J. F.; Ramaswamy, S.; Liverpool, T. B.; Prost, J.; Rao, Madan; Simha, R. Aditi

    2013-07-01

    This review summarizes theoretical progress in the field of active matter, placing it in the context of recent experiments. This approach offers a unified framework for the mechanical and statistical properties of living matter: biofilaments and molecular motors in vitro or in vivo, collections of motile microorganisms, animal flocks, and chemical or mechanical imitations. A major goal of this review is to integrate several approaches proposed in the literature, from semimicroscopic to phenomenological. In particular, first considered are “dry” systems, defined as those where momentum is not conserved due to friction with a substrate or an embedding porous medium. The differences and similarities between two types of orientationally ordered states, the nematic and the polar, are clarified. Next, the active hydrodynamics of suspensions or “wet” systems is discussed and the relation with and difference from the dry case, as well as various large-scale instabilities of these nonequilibrium states of matter, are highlighted. Further highlighted are various large-scale instabilities of these nonequilibrium states of matter. Various semimicroscopic derivations of the continuum theory are discussed and connected, highlighting the unifying and generic nature of the continuum model. Throughout the review, the experimental relevance of these theories for describing bacterial swarms and suspensions, the cytoskeleton of living cells, and vibrated granular material is discussed. Promising extensions toward greater realism in specific contexts from cell biology to animal behavior are suggested, and remarks are given on some exotic active-matter analogs. Last, the outlook for a quantitative understanding of active matter, through the interplay of detailed theory with controlled experiments on simplified systems, with living or artificial constituents, is summarized.

  3. Clathrin to Lipid Raft-Endocytosis via Controlled Surface Chemistry and Efficient Perinuclear Targeting of Nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Atanu; Jana, Nikhil R

    2015-09-17

    Nanoparticle interacts with live cells depending on their surface chemistry, enters into cell via endocytosis, and is commonly trafficked to an endosome/lysozome that restricts subcellular targeting options. Here we show that nanoparticle surface chemistry can be tuned to alter their cell uptake mechanism and subcellular trafficking. Quantum dot based nanoprobes of 20-30 nm hydrodynamic diameters have been synthesized with tunable surface charge (between +15 mV to -25 mV) and lipophilicity to influence their cellular uptake processes and subcellular trafficking. It is observed that cationic nanoprobe electrostatically interacts with cell membrane and enters into cell via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. At lower surface charge (between +10 mV to -10 mV), the electrostatic interaction with cell membrane becomes weaker, and additional lipid raft endocytosis is initiated. If a lipophilic functional group is introduced on a weakly anionic nanoparticle surface, the uptake mechanism shifts to predominant lipid raft-mediated endocytosis. In particular, the zwitterionic-lipophilic nanoprobe has the unique advantage as it weakly interacts with anionic cell membrane, migrates toward lipid rafts for interaction through lipophilic functional group, and induces lipid raft-mediated endocytosis. While predominate or partial clathrin-mediated entry traffics most of the nanoprobes to lysozome, predominate lipid raft-mediated entry traffics them to perinuclear region, particularly to the Golgi apparatus. This finding would guide in designing appropriate nanoprobe for subcellular targeting and delivery.

  4. Anisotropic hydrodynamics: Motivation and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, Michael

    2014-06-15

    In this proceedings contribution I review recent progress in our understanding of the bulk dynamics of relativistic systems that possess potentially large local rest frame momentum-space anisotropies. In order to deal with these momentum-space anisotropies, a reorganization of relativistic viscous hydrodynamics can be made around an anisotropic background, and the resulting dynamical framework has been dubbed “anisotropic hydrodynamics”. I also discuss expectations for the degree of momentum-space anisotropy of the quark–gluon plasma generated in relativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC from second-order viscous hydrodynamics, strong-coupling approaches, and weak-coupling approaches.

  5. Hydrodynamics of oceans and atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Eckart, Carl

    1960-01-01

    Hydrodynamics of Oceans and Atmospheres is a systematic account of the hydrodynamics of oceans and atmospheres. Topics covered range from the thermodynamic functions of an ideal gas and the thermodynamic coefficients for water to steady motions, the isothermal atmosphere, the thermocline, and the thermosphere. Perturbation equations, field equations, residual equations, and a general theory of rays are also presented. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic equations and their solutions, with the aim of illustrating the laws of dynamics. The nonlinear

  6. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  7. Investigation of mechanisms governing electrowetting and hydrodynamic interactions in the presence of draining channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rohini

    -induced variation in contact angle hysteresis due to molecular reorganization at the solid-liquid interface (or change in the solid-liquid interfacial energy with applied potential) is demonstrated as a means to control macroscopic shape and motion of a drop on a homogeneous surface. In situ and reversible modulation of contact angle hysteresis or pinning force with repeated switching between positive and negative potentials results in drop stretching and contraction, such that the motion of a drop subjected to a constant driving force (gravity) mimics the motion of an inchworm. The hydrodynamic interactions in the presence of draining channels are investigated using the surface force apparatus as a means to understand the adhesion and locomotion mechanisms employed by tree frogs under flooded conditions. The hydrodynamic interactions measured during drainage of fluid from a gap between a structured surface and a smooth surface agree with Reynolds' theory at large separations. Deviations from theory, characterized by a reduction in the hydrodynamic repulsion, are observed below some critical separation, which depends on dimensions of the structural features. These results are analyzed within a scaling analysis to establish a separation of length scales that corresponds to the transition from the fluid being radially squeezed out of the nominal contact area to being squeezed out through the network of interconnected channels. Reduced hydrodynamic repulsion in the presence of draining channels would enable the tree frog toe pad to come into a more intimate contact with flooded surfaces.

  8. Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Modeling and Analysis of the Proposed Channel Modifications and Grade Control Structure on the Blue River near Byram's Ford Industrial Park, Kansas City, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    The Blue River Channel Modification project being implemented by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is intended to provide flood protection within the Blue River valley in the Kansas City, Mo., metropolitan area. In the latest phase of the project, concerns have arisen about preserving the Civil War historic area of Byram's Ford and the associated Big Blue Battlefield while providing flood protection for the Byram's Ford Industrial Park. In 1996, the USACE used a physical model built at the Waterways Experiment Station (WES) in Vicksburg, Miss., to examine the feasibility of a proposed grade control structure (GCS) that would be placed downstream from the historic river crossing of Byram's Ford to provide a subtle transition of flow from the natural channel to the modified channel. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the USACE, modified an existing two-dimensional finite element surface-water model of the river between 63d Street and Blue Parkway (the 'original model'), used the modified model to simulate the existing (as of 2006) unimproved channel and the proposed channel modifications and GCS, and analyzed the results from the simulations and those from the WES physical model. Modifications were made to the original model to create a model that represents existing (2006) conditions between the north end of Swope Park immediately upstream from 63d Street and the upstream limit of channel improvement on the Blue River (the 'model of existing conditions'). The model of existing conditions was calibrated to two measured floods. The model of existing conditions also was modified to create a model that represents conditions along the same reach of the Blue River with proposed channel modifications and the proposed GCS (the 'model of proposed conditions'). The models of existing conditions and proposed conditions were used to simulate the 30-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence floods. The discharge from the calibration flood of May 15, 1990, also

  9. Theoretical Investigation on a Novel Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路长厚; 陈淑江; 张建川

    2004-01-01

    To improve the static and dynamic performance of hydrodynamic journal beatings, a novel bearing is developed, which is a cone-shaped hydrodynamic bearing with spiral oil wedges. The major structural feature of this bearing is the three spiral circular recesses on the beating's surface, leading to improved characteristics. This paper aims to develop a model for design and calculation of the geometric parameters and the oil film thickness, and to provide a theoretical analysis to the static characteristics using a f'mite element method. Some new features are introduced.

  10. Hydrodynamic self-consistent field theory for inhomogeneous polymer melts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David M; Lookman, Turab; Fredrickson, Glenn H; Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2006-09-15

    We introduce a mesoscale technique for simulating the structure and rheology of block-copolymer melts and blends in hydrodynamic flows. The technique couples dynamic self-consistent field theory with continuum hydrodynamics and flow penalization to simulate polymeric fluid flows in channels of arbitrary geometry. We demonstrate the method by studying phase separation of an ABC triblock copolymer melt in a submicron channel with neutral wall wetting conditions. We find that surface wetting effects and shear effects compete, producing wall-perpendicular lamellae in the absence of flow and wall-parallel lamellae in cases where the shear rate exceeds some critical Weissenberg number.

  11. Edge control in a computer controlled optical surfacing process using a heterocercal tool influence function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haixiang; Zhang, Xin; Ford, Virginia; Luo, Xiao; Qi, Erhui; Zeng, Xuefeng; Zhang, Xuejun

    2016-11-14

    Edge effect is regarded as one of the most difficult technical issues in a computer controlled optical surfacing (CCOS) process. Traditional opticians have to even up the consequences of the two following cases. Operating CCOS in a large overhang condition affects the accuracy of material removal, while in a small overhang condition, it achieves a more accurate performance, but leaves a narrow rolled-up edge, which takes time and effort to remove. In order to control the edge residuals in the latter case, we present a new concept of the 'heterocercal' tool influence function (TIF). Generated from compound motion equipment, this type of TIF can 'transfer' the material removal from the inner place to the edge, meanwhile maintaining the high accuracy and efficiency of CCOS. We call it the 'heterocercal' TIF, because of the inspiration from the heterocercal tails of sharks, whose upper lobe provides most of the explosive power. The heterocercal TIF was theoretically analyzed, and physically realized in CCOS facilities. Experimental and simulation results showed good agreement. It enables significant control of the edge effect and convergence of entire surface errors in large tool-to-mirror size-ratio conditions. This improvement will largely help manufacturing efficiency in some extremely large optical system projects, like the tertiary mirror of the Thirty Meter Telescope.

  12. Preparation Of Control Space For Remeshing Of Polygonal Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Jurczyk; Barbara Glut

    2013-01-01

    The subject of the article concerns the issues of remeshing, transforming a polygonal mesh into a triangular mesh adapted to surface. From the initial polygonal mesh the curvature of surface and boundary is retrieved and used to calculate a metric tensor varying in three-dimensional space. In the proposed approach the curvature is computed using local approximation of surfaces and curves on the basis of vertices of the polygonal mesh. An essential part of the presented remeshing procedure is...

  13. Tears of Venom: Hydrodynamics of Reptilian Envenomation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bruce A.; Herzog, Florian; Friedel, Paul; Rammensee, Sebastian; Bausch, Andreas; van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2011-05-01

    In the majority of venomous snakes, and in many other reptiles, venom is conveyed from the animal’s gland to the prey’s tissue through an open groove on the surface of the teeth and not through a tubular fang. Here we focus on two key aspects of the grooved delivery system: the hydrodynamics of venom as it interacts with the groove geometry, and the efficiency of the tooth-groove-venom complex as the tooth penetrates the prey’s tissue. We show that the surface tension of the venom is the driving force underlying the envenomation dynamics. In so doing, we explain not only the efficacy of the open groove, but also the prevalence of this mechanism among reptiles.

  14. What controls the isotopic composition of Greenland surface snow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Steen-Larsen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Water stable isotopes in Greenland ice core data provide key paleoclimatic information, and have been compared with precipitation isotopic composition simulated by isotopically-enabled atmospheric models. However, post-deposition processes linked with snow metamorphism remain poorly documented. For this purpose, a monitoring of the isotopic composition (δ18O, δD of surface water vapor, precipitation and samples of top (0.5 cm snow surface has been conducted during two summers (2011–2012 at NEEM, NW Greenland. The measurements also include a subset of 17O-excess measurements over 4 days, and the measurements span the 2012 Greenland heat wave. Our observations are consistent with calculations assuming isotopic equilibrium between surface snow and water vapor. We observe a strong correlation between surface vapor δ18O and air temperature (0.85 ± 0.11 ‰ °C−1 (R = 0.76 for 2012. The correlation with air temperature is not observed in precipitation data or surface snow data. Deuterium excess (d-excess is strongly anti-correlated with δ18O with a stronger slope for vapor than for precipitation and snow surface data. During nine 1–5 days periods between precipitation events, our data demonstrate parallel changes of δ18O and d-excess in surface snow and surface vapor. The changes in δ18O of the vapor are similar or larger than those of the snow δ18O. It is estimated that 6 to 20% of the surface snow mass is exchanged with the atmosphere using the CROCUS snow model. In our data, the sign of surface snow isotopic changes is not related to the sign or magnitude of sublimation or condensation. Comparisons with atmospheric models show that day-to-day variations in surface vapor isotopic composition are driven by synoptic weather and changes in air mass trajectories and distillation histories. We suggest that, in-between precipitation events, changes in the surface snow isotopic composition are driven by these changes in surface vapor isotopic

  15. What controls the isotopic composition of Greenland surface snow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Steen-Larsen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Water stable isotopes in Greenland ice core data provide key paleoclimatic information, and have been compared with precipitation isotopic composition simulated by isotopically enabled atmospheric models. However, post-depositional processes linked with snow metamorphism remain poorly documented. For this purpose, monitoring of the isotopic composition (δ18O, δD of near-surface water vapor, precipitation and samples of the top (0.5 cm snow surface has been conducted during two summers (2011–2012 at NEEM, NW Greenland. The samples also include a subset of 17O-excess measurements over 4 days, and the measurements span the 2012 Greenland heat wave. Our observations are consistent with calculations assuming isotopic equilibrium between surface snow and water vapor. We observe a strong correlation between near-surface vapor δ18O and air temperature (0.85 ± 0.11‰ °C−1 (R = 0.76 for 2012. The correlation with air temperature is not observed in precipitation data or surface snow data. Deuterium excess (d-excess is strongly anti-correlated with δ18O with a stronger slope for vapor than for precipitation and snow surface data. During nine 1–5-day periods between precipitation events, our data demonstrate parallel changes of δ18O and d-excess in surface snow and near-surface vapor. The changes in δ18O of the vapor are similar or larger than those of the snow δ18O. It is estimated using the CROCUS snow model that 6 to 20% of the surface snow mass is exchanged with the atmosphere. In our data, the sign of surface snow isotopic changes is not related to the sign or magnitude of sublimation or deposition. Comparisons with atmospheric models show that day-to-day variations in near-surface vapor isotopic composition are driven by synoptic variations and changes in air mass trajectories and distillation histories. We suggest that, in between precipitation events, changes in the surface snow isotopic composition are driven by these changes in near-surface

  16. What controls the isotopic composition of Greenland surface snow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen-Larsen, H. C.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Hirabayashi, M.; Winkler, R.; Satow, K.; Prié, F.; Bayou, N.; Brun, E.; Cuffey, K. M.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Dumont, M.; Guillevic, M.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Landais, A.; Popp, T.; Risi, C.; Steffen, K.; Stenni, B.; Sveinbjörnsdottír, A. E.

    2014-02-01

    Water stable isotopes in Greenland ice core data provide key paleoclimatic information, and have been compared with precipitation isotopic composition simulated by isotopically enabled atmospheric models. However, post-depositional processes linked with snow metamorphism remain poorly documented. For this purpose, monitoring of the isotopic composition (δ18O, δD) of near-surface water vapor, precipitation and samples of the top (0.5 cm) snow surface has been conducted during two summers (2011-2012) at NEEM, NW Greenland. The samples also include a subset of 17O-excess measurements over 4 days, and the measurements span the 2012 Greenland heat wave. Our observations are consistent with calculations assuming isotopic equilibrium between surface snow and water vapor. We observe a strong correlation between near-surface vapor δ18O and air temperature (0.85 ± 0.11‰ °C-1 (R = 0.76) for 2012). The correlation with air temperature is not observed in precipitation data or surface snow data. Deuterium excess (d-excess) is strongly anti-correlated with δ18O with a stronger slope for vapor than for precipitation and snow surface data. During nine 1-5-day periods between precipitation events, our data demonstrate parallel changes of δ18O and d-excess in surface snow and near-surface vapor. The changes in δ18O of the vapor are similar or larger than those of the snow δ18O. It is estimated using the CROCUS snow model that 6 to 20% of the surface snow mass is exchanged with the atmosphere. In our data, the sign of surface snow isotopic changes is not related to the sign or magnitude of sublimation or deposition. Comparisons with atmospheric models show that day-to-day variations in near-surface vapor isotopic composition are driven by synoptic variations and changes in air mass trajectories and distillation histories. We suggest that, in between precipitation events, changes in the surface snow isotopic composition are driven by these changes in near-surface vapor

  17. Magmatic and fragmentation controls on volcanic ash surface chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayris, Paul M.; Diplas, Spyros; Damby, David E.; Hornby, Adrian J.; Cimarelli, Corrado; Delmelle, Pierre; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-04-01

    The chemical effects of silicate ash ejected by explosive volcanic eruptions on environmental systems are fundamentally mediated by ash particle surfaces. Ash surfaces are a composite product of magmatic properties and fragmentation mechanisms, as well as in-plume and atmospheric alteration processes acting upon those surfaces during and after the eruption. Recent attention has focused on the capacity of alteration processes to shape ash surfaces; most notably, several studies have utilised X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), a technique probing the elemental composition and coordination state of atoms within the top 10 nm of ash surfaces, to identify patterns of elemental depletions and enrichments relative to bulk ash chemical composition. Under the presumption of surface and bulk equivalence, any disparities have been previously attributed to surface alteration processes, but the ubiquity of some depletions (e.g., Ca, Fe) across multiple ash studies, irrespective of eruptive origin, could suggest these to be features of the surface produced at the instant of magma fragmentation. To investigate this possibility further, we conducted rapid decompression experiments at different pressure conditions and at ambient and magmatic temperature on porous andesitic rocks. These experiments produced fragmented ash material untouched by secondary alteration, which were compared to particles produced by crushing of large clasts from the same experiments. We investigated a restricted size fraction (63-90 μm) from both fragmented and crushed materials, determining bulk chemistry and mineralogy via XRF, SEM-BSE and EPMA, and investigated the chemical composition of the ash surface by XPS. Analyses suggest that fragmentation under experimental conditions partitioned a greater fraction of plagioclase-rich particles into the selected size fraction, relative to particles produced by crushing. Trends in surface chemical composition in fragmented and crushed particles mirror that

  18. The control mechanism of surface traps on surface charge behavior in alumina-filled epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanyang; Hu, Jun; Lin, Chuanjie; He, Jinliang

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the role surface traps play in the charge injection and transfer behavior of alumina-filled epoxy composites, surface traps with different trap levels are introduced by different surface modification methods which include dielectric barrier discharges plasma, direct fluorination, and Cr2O3 coating. The resulting surface physicochemical characteristics of experimental samples were observed using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The surface potential under dc voltage was detected and the trap level distribution was measured. The results suggest that the surface morphology of the experimental samples differs dramatically after treatment with different surface modification methods. Different surface trap distributions directly determine the charge injection and transfer property along the surface. Shallow traps with trap level of 1.03–1.11 eV and 1.06–1.13 eV introduced by plasma and fluorination modifications are conducive for charge transport along the insulating surface, and the surface potential can be modified, producing a smoother potential curve. The Cr2O3 coating can introduce a large number of deep traps with energy levels ranging from 1.09 to 1.15 eV. These can prevent charge injection through the reversed electric field formed by intensive trapped charges in the Cr2O3 coatings.

  19. Etching and Chemical Control of the Silicon Nitride Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Marine; Aureau, Damien; Chantraine, Paul; Guillemot, François; Etcheberry, Arnaud; Gouget-Laemmel, Anne Chantal; Ozanam, François

    2017-01-25

    Silicon nitride is used for many technological applications, but a quantitative knowledge of its surface chemistry is still lacking. Native oxynitride at the surface is generally removed using fluorinated etchants, but the chemical composition of surfaces still needs to be determined. In this work, the thinning (etching efficiency) of the layers after treatments in HF and NH4F solutions has been followed by using spectroscopic ellipsometry. A quantitative estimation of the chemical bonds found on the surface is obtained by a combination of infrared absorption spectroscopy in ATR mode, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and colorimetry. Si-F bonds are the majority species present at the surface after silicon nitride etching; some Si-OH and a few Si-NHx bonds are also present. No Si-H bonds are present, an unfavorable feature for surface functionalization in view of the interest of such mildly reactive groups for achieving stable covalent grafting. Mechanisms are described to support the experimental results, and two methods are proposed for generating surface SiH species: enriching the material in silicon, or submitting the etched surface to a H2 plasma treatment.

  20. Adsorption of T4 bacteriophages on planar indium tin oxide surface via controlled surface tailoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liana, Ayu Ekajayanthi; Chia, Ed Win; Marquis, Christopher P; Gunawan, Cindy; Gooding, J Justin; Amal, Rose

    2016-04-15

    The work investigates the influence of surface physicochemical properties of planar indium tin oxide (ITO) as a model substrate on T4 bacteriophage adsorption. A comparative T4 bacteriophage adsorption study shows a significant difference in bacteriophage adsorption observed on chemically modified planar ITO when compared to similarly modified particulate ITO, which infers that trends observed in virus-particle interaction studies are not necessarily transferrable to predict virus-planar surface adsorption behaviour. We also found that ITO surfaces modified with methyl groups, (resulting in increased surface roughness and hydrophobicity) remained capable of adsorbing T4 bacteriophage. The adsorption of T4 onto bare, amine and carboxylic functionalised planar ITO suggests the presence of a unique binding behaviour involving specific functional groups on planar ITO surface beyond the non-specific electrostatic interactions that dominate phage to particle interactions. The paper demonstrates the significance of physicochemical properties of surfaces on bacteriophage-surface interactions.

  1. Numerical Hydrodynamics in General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Font José A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The current status of numerical solutions for the equations of ideal general relativistic hydrodynamics is reviewed. With respect to an earlier version of the article, the present update provides additional information on numerical schemes, and extends the discussion of astrophysical simulations in general relativistic hydrodynamics. Different formulations of the equations are presented, with special mention of conservative and hyperbolic formulations well-adapted to advanced numerical methods. A large sample of available numerical schemes is discussed, paying particular attention to solution procedures based on schemes exploiting the characteristic structure of the equations through linearized Riemann solvers. A comprehensive summary of astrophysical simulations in strong gravitational fields is presented. These include gravitational collapse, accretion onto black holes, and hydrodynamical evolutions of neutron stars. The material contained in these sections highlights the numerical challenges of various representative simulations. It also follows, to some extent, the chronological development of the field, concerning advances on the formulation of the gravitational field and hydrodynamic equations and the numerical methodology designed to solve them.

  2. Anomalous hydrodynamics in two dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rabin Banerjee

    2016-02-01

    A new approach is presented to discuss two-dimensional hydrodynamics with gauge and gravitational anomalies. Exact constitutive relations for the stress tensor and charge current are obtained. Also, a connection between response parameters and anomaly coefficients is discussed. These are new results which, in the absence of the gauge sector, reproduce the results found by the gradient expansion approach.

  3. Superhydrophilic and superwetting surfaces: definition and mechanisms of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drelich, Jaroslaw; Chibowski, Emil

    2010-12-21

    The term superhydrophobicity was introduced in 1996 to describe water-repellent fractal surfaces, made of a hydrophobic material, on which water drops remain as almost perfect spheres and roll off such surfaces leaving no residue. Today, superhydrophobic surfaces are defined as textured materials (and coatings) on (nonsmooth) surfaces on which water forms contact angles 150° and larger, with only a few degrees of contact angle hysteresis (or sliding angle). The terms superhydrophilicity and superwetting were introduced a few years after the term superhydrophobicity to describe the complete spreading of water or liquid on substrates. The definition of superhydrophilic and superwetting substrates has not been clarified yet, and unrestricted use of these terms sometimes stirs controversy. This Letter briefly reviews the superwetting phenomenon and offers a suggestion on defining superhydrophilic and superwetting substrates and surfaces.

  4. Polarization controlled directional excitation of Bloch surface waves (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalevich, Tatiana; Boyer, Philippe; Bernal, Maria-Pilar; Kim, Myun-Sik; Herzig, Hans Peter; Grosjean, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    Bloch surface waves (BSWs) are electromagnetic surface waves which can be excited at the interface between periodic dielectric multilayer and a surrounding medium. In comparison with surface plasmon polaritons these surface states perform high quality factor due to low loss characteristics of dielectric materials and can be exited both by TE and TM polarized light. A platform consisting of periodic stacks of alternative SiO2 and Si3N4 layers is designed and fabricated to work at the wavelength of 1.55 µm. The platform has an application in sensing and in integrated optics domain. A standard way of BSW excitation is coupling via Kretschmann configuration, but in this work we investigate a grating coupling of BSWs. Grating parameters are analytically and numerically optimized by RCWA and FDTD methods in order to obtain the best coupling conditions. The light is launched orthogonally to the surface of the photonic crystal and the grating. Due to a special grating configuration we demonstrate directionality of the BSW propagation depending on polarization of the incident light. The structure was experimentally realized on the surface of the photonic crystal by FIB milling. Experimental results are in a good agreement with a theory. The investigated configuration can be successfully used as a BSW launcher in on-chip all-optical integrated systems and work as a surface wave switch or modulator.

  5. Surface chemistry: Key to control and advance myriad technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, John T.; Campbell, Charles T.

    2011-01-01

    This special issue on surface chemistry is introduced with a brief history of the field, a summary of the importance of surface chemistry in technological applications, a brief overview of some of the most important recent developments in this field, and a look forward to some of its most exciting future directions. This collection of invited articles is intended to provide a snapshot of current developments in the field, exemplify the state of the art in fundamental research in surface chemistry, and highlight some possibilities in the future. Here, we show how those articles fit together in the bigger picture of this field. PMID:21245359

  6. Controlling coverage of solution cast materials with unfavourable surface interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Burlakov, V. M.

    2014-03-03

    Creating uniform coatings of a solution-cast material is of central importance to a broad range of applications. Here, a robust and generic theoretical framework for calculating surface coverage by a solid film of material de-wetting a substrate is presented. Using experimental data from semiconductor thin films as an example, we calculate surface coverage for a wide range of annealing temperatures and film thicknesses. The model generally predicts that for each value of the annealing temperature there is a range of film thicknesses leading to poor surface coverage. The model accurately reproduces solution-cast thin film coverage for organometal halide perovskites, key modern photovoltaic materials, and identifies processing windows for both high and low levels of surface coverage. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  7. Ultrafast Coherent Control and Characterization of Surface Reactions using FELs

    CERN Document Server

    Ogasawara, Hirohito; Nordlund, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    The microscopic understanding of surface chemistry requires a detailed understanding of the dynamics of elementary processes at surfaces. The ultrashort electron pulse obtained in the linear accelerator to feed the FEL can be used for generation of coherent synchrotron radiation in the low energy THz regime. With the current parameters for LCLS this corresponds to radiation with energy corresponding to excitations of low-energy vibrational modes of molecules on surfaces or phonons in substrates. The coherent radiation can coherently manipulate atoms or molecules on surfaces. In this respect a chemical reaction can be initiated by coherent atomic motion along a specific reaction coordinate. Since the THz radiation is generated from the same source as the FEL radiation full-time synchronization for pump-probe experiments will be possible. The possibility to perform time-resolved X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (XES) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements as a probe of chemical dynamics is an exciti...

  8. Nanoparticle-Based Surface Modifications for Microtribology Control and Superhydrophobicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Kendall Matthew

    2010-11-01

    The emergence of miniaturization techniques for consumer electronics has brought forth the relatively new and exciting field of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). However, due to the inherent forces that exist between surfaces at the micro- and nanoscale, scientists and semiconductor manufacturers are still struggling to improve the lifetime and reliability of complex microdevices. Due to the extremely large surface area-to-volume ratio of typical MEMS and microstructured surfaces, dominant interfacial forces exist which can be detrimental to their operational lifetime. In particular, van der Waals, capillary, and electrostatic forces contribute to the permanent adhesion, or stiction , of microfabricated surfaces. This strong adhesion force also contributes to the friction and wear of these silicon-based systems. The scope of this work was to examine the effect of utilizing nanoparticles as the basis for roughening surfaces for the purpose of creating films with anti-adhesive and/or superhydrophobic properties. All of the studies presented in this work are focused around a gas-expanded liquid (GXL) process that promotes the deposition of colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) into conformal thin films. The GXL particle deposition process is finalized by a critical point drying step which is advantageous to the microelectromechanical systems and semiconductor (IC) industries. In fact, preliminary results illustrated that the GXL particle deposition process can easily be integrated into current MEMS microfabrication processes. Thin films of AuNPs deposited onto the surfaces of silicon-based MEMS and tribology test devices were shown to have a dramatic effect on the adhesion of microstructures. In the various investigations, the apparent work of adhesion between surfaces was reduced by 2-4 orders of magnitude. This effect is greatly attributed to the roughening of the typically smooth silicon oxide surfaces which, in turn, dramatically decreases the "real are of

  9. Influence of Solvent in Controlling Peptide-Surface Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Daniel A; Ashkenasy, Nurit; Tuttle, Tell

    2015-10-01

    Protein binding to surfaces is an important phenomenon in biology and in modern technological applications. Extensive experimental and theoretical research has been focused in recent years on revealing the factors that govern binding affinity to surfaces. Theoretical studies mainly focus on examining the contribution of the individual amino acids or, alternatively, the binding potential energies of the full peptide, which are unable to capture entropic contributions and neglect the dynamic nature of the system. We present here a methodology that involves the combination of nonequilibrium dynamics simulations with strategic mutation of polar residues to reveal the different factors governing the binding free energy of a peptide to a surface. Using a gold-binding peptide as an example, we show that relative binding free energies are a consequence of the balance between strong interactions of the peptide with the surface and the ability for the bulk solvent to stabilize the peptide.

  10. Towards self-tuning residual generators for UAV control surface fault diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Hansen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Control surface fault diagnosis is essential for timely detection of manoeuvring and stability risks for an unmanned aircraft. Timely detection is crucial since control surface related faults impact stability of flight and safety. Reliable diagnosis require well fitting dynamical models but with ...... flights with different members of a population of UAVs that have inherent model uncertainty from one member to another and from one flight to another. Events with actual faults on control surfaces demonstrates the efficacy of the approach....

  11. Testing Hydrodynamics Schemes in Galaxy Disc Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Few, C G; Pettitt, A; Konstandin, L

    2016-01-01

    We examine how three fundamentally different numerical hydrodynamics codes follow the evolution of an isothermal galactic disc with an external spiral potential. We compare an adaptive mesh refinement code (RAMSES), a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (sphNG), and a volume-discretised meshless code (GIZMO). Using standard refinement criteria, we find that RAMSES produces a disc that is less vertically concentrated and does not reach such high densities as the sphNG or GIZMO runs. The gas surface density in the spiral arms increases at a lower rate for the RAMSES simulations compared to the other codes. There is also a greater degree of substructure in the sphNG and GIZMO runs and secondary spiral arms are more pronounced. By resolving the Jeans' length with a greater number of grid cells we achieve more similar results to the Lagrangian codes used in this study. Other alterations to the refinement scheme (adding extra levels of refinement and refining based on local density gradients) are less successful i...

  12. Irradiation of bioresorbable biomaterials for controlled surface degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simpson, M.; Gilmore, B.F.; Miller, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Bioresorbable polymers increasingly are the materials of choice for implantable orthopaedic fixation devices. Controlled degradation of these polymers is vital for preservation of mechanical properties during tissue repair and controlled release of incorporated agents such as osteoconductive or a...

  13. Hydrodynamic sensing does not facilitate active drag reduction in the golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McHenry, M. J.; Michel, K. B.; Stewart, W.; Mueller, U. K.

    2010-01-01

    The lateral line system detects water flow, which allows fish to orient their swimming with respect to hydrodynamic cues. However, it is unclear whether this sense plays a role in the control of propulsion. Hydrodynamic theory suggests that fish could reduce drag by coordinating the motion of the

  14. Optimization of S-surface controller for autonomous underwater vehicle with immune-genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ye; ZHANG Lei; WAN Lei; LIANG Xiao

    2008-01-01

    To deduce error and fussy work of manual adjustment of parameters for an S-surface controller in underwater vehicle motion control, the immune-genetic optimization of S-surface controller of an underwater vehicle was proposed. The ability of producing various antibodies for the immune algorithm, the self-adjustment of antibody density, and the antigen immune memory were used to realize the rapid convergence of S-surface controller parameters. It avoided loitering near the local peak value. Deduction of the S-surface controller was given. General process of the immune-genetic algorithm was described and immune-genetic optimization of S-surface controller parameters was discussed. Definitive results were obtained from many simulation experiments and lake experiments, which indicate that the algorithm can get good effect in optimizing the nonlinear motion controller parameters of an underwater vehicle.

  15. Mesoscopic model for microscale hydrodynamics and interfacial phenomena: slip, films, and contact-angle hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosqui, Carlos E; Kavousanakis, Michail E; Papathanasiou, Athanasios G; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G

    2013-01-01

    We present a model based on the lattice Boltzmann equation that is suitable for the simulation of dynamic wetting. The model is capable of exhibiting fundamental interfacial phenomena such as weak adsorption of fluid on the solid substrate and the presence of a thin surface film within which a disjoining pressure acts. Dynamics in this surface film, tightly coupled with hydrodynamics in the fluid bulk, determine macroscopic properties of primary interest: the hydrodynamic slip; the equilibrium contact angle; and the static and dynamic hysteresis of the contact angles. The pseudo-potentials employed for fluid-solid interactions are composed of a repulsive core and an attractive tail that can be independently adjusted. This enables effective modification of the functional form of the disjoining pressure so that one can vary the static and dynamic hysteresis on surfaces that exhibit the same equilibrium contact angle. The modeled fluid-solid interface is diffuse, represented by a wall probability function that ultimately controls the momentum exchange between solid and fluid phases. This approach allows us to effectively vary the slip length for a given wettability (i.e., a given static contact angle) of the solid substrate.

  16. A mesoscopic model for microscale hydrodynamics and interfacial phenomena: Slip, films, and contact angle hysteresis

    OpenAIRE

    Colosqui, Carlos E.; Kavousanakis, Michail E.; Papathanasiou, Athanasios G.; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.

    2012-01-01

    We present a model based on the lattice Boltzmann equation that is suitable for the simulation of dynamic wetting. The model is capable of exhibiting fundamental interfacial phenomena such as weak adsorption of fluid on the solid substrate and the presence of a thin surface film within which a disjoining pressure acts. Dynamics in this surface film, tightly coupled with hydrodynamics in the fluid bulk, determine macroscopic properties of primary interest: the hydrodynamic slip; the equilibriu...

  17. Ultrafast Coherent Control and Characterization of Surface Reactions using FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogasawara, Hirohito; Nordlund, Dennis a Nilsson, Anders; /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-09-30

    The microscopic understanding of reactions at surfaces requires an in-depth knowledge of the dynamics of elementary processes on an ultrafast timescale. This can be accomplished using an ultrafast excitation to initiate a chemical reaction and then probe the progression of the reaction with an ultrashort x-ray pulse from the FEL. There is a great potential to use atom-specific spectroscopy involving core levels to probe the chemical nature, structure and bonding of species on surfaces. The ultrashort electron pulse obtained in the linear accelerator to feed the X-ray FEL can also be used for generation of coherent synchrotron radiation in the low energy THz regime to be used as a pump. This radiation has an energy close to the thermal excitations of low-energy vibrational modes of molecules on surfaces and phonons in substrates. The coherent THz radiation will be an electric field pulse with a certain direction that can collectively manipulate atoms or molecules on surfaces. In this respect a chemical reaction can be initiated by collective atomic motion along a specific reaction coordinate. If the coherent THz radiation is generated from the same source as the X-ray FEL radiation, full-time synchronization for pump-probe experiments will be possible. The combination of THz and X-ray spectroscopy could be a unique opportunity for FEL facilities to conduct ultrafast chemistry studies at surfaces.

  18. Experimental study on hydrodynamic coefficients for high-incidence-angle maneuver of a submarine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Yong Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Snap rolling during hard turning and instability during emergency rising are important features of submarine operation. Hydrodynamics modeling using a high incidence flow angle is required to predict these phenomena. In the present study, a quasi-steady dynamics model of a submarine suitable for high-incidence-angle maneuvering applications is developed. To determine the hydrodynamic coefficients of the model, static tests, dynamic tests, and control surface tests were conducted in a towing tank and wind tunnel. The towing tank test is conducted utilizing a Reynolds number of 3.12 × 106, and the wind tunnel test is performed utilizing a Reynolds number of 5.11 × 106. In addition, least squares, golden section search, and surface fitting using polynomial models were used to analyze the experimental results. The obtained coefficients are presented in tabular form and can be used for various purposes such as hard turning simulation, emergency rising simulation, and controller design.

  19. Surface Plasmon Coupling and Control Using Spherical Cap Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yu; Joly, Alan G.; Zhang, Xin; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2017-06-05

    Propagating surface plasmons (PSPs) launched from a protruded silver spherical cap structure are investigated using photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) and finite difference time domain (FDTD) calculations. Our combined experimental and theoretical findings reveal that PSP coupling efficiency is comparable to conventional etched-in plasmonic coupling structures. Additionally, plasmon propagation direction can be varied by a linear rotation of the driving laser polarization. A simple geometric model is proposed in which the plasmon direction selectivity is proportional to the projection of the linear laser polarization on the surface normal. An application for the spherical cap coupler as a gate device is proposed. Overall, our results indicate that protruded cap structures hold great promise as elements in emerging surface plasmon applications.

  20. Optimum conditions for fabricating superhydrophobic surface on copper plates via controlled surface oxidation and dehydration processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Wen; Ma, Fumin; Yu, Zhanlong; Ruan, Min; Ding, Yigang; Deng, Xiangyi

    2013-09-01

    The superhydrophobic surfaces on copper substrate were fabricated by direct oxidation and dehydration processes, and the reaction and modification conditions were optimized. Firstly, the oxidation conditions including the concentrations of K2S2O8 and NaOH, the oxidation time were studied. It is found that the superhydrophobicity would be better if the copper plates were oxidized in 0.06 M K2S2O8 and 3.0 M NaOH solution at 65 °C for 35 min. Then, the modification conditions including modifier concentration and modification time were investigated. The results showed that 5 wt% lauric acid and 1 h modification time were suitable modification conditions for preparing copper-based superhydrophobic surfaces. The surface fabricated under optimized conditions displayed excellent superhydrophobicity of high water contact angle of 161.1° and a low contact angle hysteresis of 2.5°. The surface microstructure and composition of the superhydrophobic surfaces were also characterized by SEM and FT-IR. It is found that the highly concentrated micro/nanostructured sheets and the low surface energy materials on the surface should be responsible for the high superhydrophobicity.

  1. Control method for exoskeleton ankle with surface electromyography signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhen; WANG Zhen; JIANG Jia-xin; QIAN Jin-wu

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a control method for an exoskeleton ankle with clectromyography (EMG) signals.The EMG signals of human ankle and the exoskeleton ankle are introduced.Then a control method is proposed to control the exoskeleton ankle using the EMG signals.The feed-forward neural network model applied here is composed of four layers and uses the back-propagation training algorithm.The output signals from neural network are processed by the wavelet transform.Finally the control orders generated from the output signals are passed to the motor controller and drive the exoskeleton to move.Through experiments,the equality of neural network prediction of ankle movement is evaluated by giving the correlation coefficient.It is shown from the experimental results that the proposed method can accurately control the movement of ankle joint.

  2. Surface texturing of superconductors by controlled oxygen pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, N.; Goretta, K.C.; Dorris, S.E.

    1999-01-05

    A method of manufacture of a textured layer of a high temperature superconductor on a substrate is disclosed. The method involves providing an untextured high temperature superconductor material having a characteristic ambient pressure peritectic melting point, heating the superconductor to a temperature below the peritectic temperature, establishing a reduced pO{sub 2} atmosphere below ambient pressure causing reduction of the peritectic melting point to a reduced temperature which causes melting from an exposed surface of the superconductor and raising pressure of the reduced pO{sub 2} atmosphere to cause solidification of the molten superconductor in a textured surface layer. 8 figs.

  3. Conformational Manipulation of DNA in Nanochannels Using Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    He, Qihao; Carrivain, Pascal; Viero, Yannick; Lacroix, Joris; Blatché, Charline; Daran, Emmanuelle; Victor, Jean-Marc; Bancaud, Aurélien

    2014-01-01

    The control over DNA elongation in nanofluidic devices holds great potential for large-scale genomic analysis. So far, the manipulation of DNA in nanochannels has been mostly carried out with electrophoresis and seldom with hydrodynamics, although the physics of soft matter in nanoscale flows has raised considerable interest over the past decade. In this report the migration of DNA is studied in nanochannels of lateral dimension spanning 100 to 500 nm using both actuation principles. We show that the relaxation kinetics are 3-fold slowed down and the extension increases up to 3-fold using hydrodynamics. We propose a model to account for the onset in elongation with the flow, which assumes that DNA response is determined by the shear-driven lift forces mediated by the proximity of the channels' walls. Overall, we suggest that hydrodynamic actuation allows for an improved manipulation of DNA in nanochannels.

  4. Production of endothelial cell-enclosing alginate-based hydrogel fibers with a cell adhesive surface through simultaneous cross-linking by horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed reaction in a hydrodynamic spinning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Sakai, Shinji; Taya, Masahito

    2012-09-01

    We developed an alginate-based hydrogel fiber enabling to enclose endothelial cells, degradable on-demand by alginate lyase, and having a cell adhesive surface. The hydrogel fiber was obtained by extruding an aqueous solution of 4% (w/v) alginate derivative possessing phenolic hydroxyl moieties (Alg-Ph) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into a flow of aqueous solution containing 0.3 mM H(2)O(2) and gelatin derivative possessing Ph moieties (Gelatin-Ph). In the process, cross-linking of Alg-Ph resulting in a hydrogel fiber and immobilization of Gelatin-Ph on the surface of the hydrogel fiber were simultaneously accomplished by an HRP-catalyzed cross-linking reaction between Ph moieties. The diameter of the hydrogel fiber and the quantity of immobilized Gelatin-Ph on the fiber were controllable by changing the flow rates of the solutions and the concentration of HRP in the Alg-Ph-containing solution, respectively. The viability of the human endothelial cells enclosed in the hydrogel fibers obtained by 10 s of flowing in the H(2)O(2)-containing solution was 87.1%. In addition, the cells harvested from the hydrogel fibers through degradation using alginate lyase grew on tissue culture dishes in the same fashion as the cells seeded by a conventional subculture protocol. Human smooth muscle cells adhered, grew and achieved confluence on the surface of the hydrogel fibers. By degrading the hydrogel fibers using alginate lyase, a tubular cell construct was successfully obtained.

  5. Hydrodynamic, neotectonic and climatic control of the evolution of a barrier beach in the microtidal environment of the NE Ionian Sea (eastern Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Serafim E.; Ghionis, George; Verykiou, Efthymia; Roussakis, Grigoris; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Karditsa, Aikaterini; Alexandrakis, George; Petrakis, Stelios; Sifnioti, Dafni; Panagiotopoulos, Ioannis P.; Andris, Periklis; Georgiou, Panos

    2015-02-01

    The existence of barrier beaches is crucial, as they act as a buffer zone to the associated wetlands, whilst they are sensitive to climate change. The present study offers an insight into the processes controlling the formation and evolution of the Gyra barrier beach (NW coast of the island of Lefkada) in the microtidal, tectonically very active Ionian Sea under the influence of regional climate change and human interference. Such investigations are sparse in the literature. Existing information regarding regional geology, sediment availability and human intervention is combined with the collection of geophysical data, field observations and simulations of nearshore hydro- and sediment dynamics, analysis of climatic variations with respect to offshore wind/wave patterns (including storminess), in situ measurements of recent morphometric changes (2006-2008) and historical shoreline changes (since the 1960s). The recent formation and evolution (mostly under retreat) of the Gyra barrier beach is shown to be the combined result of the regional seismotectonic setting, relative increase of sea level, coastal sediment transport patterns, as well as human impact (negative) on primarily terrestrial sediment influxes. The current erosional trend of the barrier beach is associated with a shift in the wind and wave direction (from SW to NW) of extreme storm events in the Ionian Sea since the 1980s. The regional climatic variations of the last decades are well correlated with the trend of the North Atlantic Oscillation.

  6. Brain vascular and hydrodynamic physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Protecting the brain in vulnerable infants undergoing surgery is a central aspect of perioperative care. Understanding the link between blood flow, oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption leads to a more informed approach to bedside care. In some cases, we need to consider how high can we let the partial pressure of carbon dioxide go before we have concerns about risk of increased cerebral blood volume and change in intracranial hydrodynamics? Alternatively, in almost all such cases, we have to address the question of how low can we let the blood pressure drop before we should be concerned about brain perfusion? This review, provides a basic understanding of brain bioenergetics, hemodynamics, hydrodynamics, autoregulation and vascular homeostasis to changes in blood gases that is fundamental to our thinking about bedside care and monitoring. PMID:24331089

  7. Hydrodynamic interactions in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Leonardo, R.; Keen, S.; Ianni, F.; Leach, J.; Padgett, M. J.; Ruocco, G.

    2008-09-01

    We measure hydrodynamic interactions between colloidal particles confined in a thin sheet of fluid. The reduced dimensionality, compared to a bulk fluid, increases dramatically the range of couplings. Using optical tweezers we force a two body system along the eigenmodes of the mobility tensor and find that eigenmobilities change logarithmically with particle separation. At a hundred radii distance, the mobilities for rigid and relative motions differ by a factor of 2, whereas in bulk fluids, they would be practically indistinguishable. A two dimensional counterpart of Oseen hydrodynamic tensor quantitatively reproduces the observed behavior, once the relevant boundary conditions are recognized. These results highlight the importance of dimensionality for transport and interactions in colloidal systems and proteins in biological membranes.

  8. Algorithm refinement for fluctuating hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Sarah A.; Bell, John B.; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2007-07-03

    This paper introduces an adaptive mesh and algorithmrefinement method for fluctuating hydrodynamics. This particle-continuumhybrid simulates the dynamics of a compressible fluid with thermalfluctuations. The particle algorithm is direct simulation Monte Carlo(DSMC), a molecular-level scheme based on the Boltzmann equation. Thecontinuum algorithm is based on the Landau-Lifshitz Navier-Stokes (LLNS)equations, which incorporate thermal fluctuations into macroscopichydrodynamics by using stochastic fluxes. It uses a recently-developedsolver for LLNS, based on third-order Runge-Kutta. We present numericaltests of systems in and out of equilibrium, including time-dependentsystems, and demonstrate dynamic adaptive refinement by the computationof a moving shock wave. Mean system behavior and second moment statisticsof our simulations match theoretical values and benchmarks well. We findthat particular attention should be paid to the spectrum of the flux atthe interface between the particle and continuum methods, specificallyfor the non-hydrodynamic (kinetic) time scales.

  9. Hydrodynamics from Landau initial conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Abhisek [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Gerhard, Jochen [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Germany; Torrieri, Giorgio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Física " Gleb Wataghin" (IFGW), Sao Paulo, Brazil; Read jr, Kenneth F. [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Wong, Cheuk-Yin [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    We investigate ideal hydrodynamic evolution, with Landau initial conditions, both in a semi-analytical 1+1D approach and in a numerical code incorporating event-by-event variation with many events and transverse density inhomogeneities. The object of the calculation is to test how fast would a Landau initial condition transition to a commonly used boost-invariant expansion. We show that the transition to boost-invariant flow occurs too late for realistic setups, with corrections of O (20 - 30%) expected at freezeout for most scenarios. Moreover, the deviation from boost-invariance is correlated with both transverse flow and elliptic flow, with the more highly transversely flowing regions also showing the most violation of boost invariance. Therefore, if longitudinal flow is not fully developed at the early stages of heavy ion collisions, 2+1 dimensional hydrodynamics is inadequate to extract transport coefficients of the quark-gluon plasma. Based on [1, 2

  10. Non-boost-invariant dissipative hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Florkowski, Wojciech; Strickland, Michael; Tinti, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The one-dimensional non-boost-invariant evolution of the quark-gluon plasma, presumably produced during the early stages of heavy-ion collisions, is analyzed within the frameworks of viscous and anisotropic hydrodynamics. We neglect transverse dynamics and assume homogeneous conditions in the transverse plane but, differently from Bjorken expansion, we relax longitudinal boost invariance in order to study the rapidity dependence of various hydrodynamical observables. We compare the results obtained using several formulations of second-order viscous hydrodynamics with a recent approach to anisotropic hydrodynamics, which treats the large initial pressure anisotropy in a non-perturbative fashion. The results obtained with second-order viscous hydrodynamics depend on the particular choice of the second-order terms included, which suggests that the latter should be included in the most complete way. The results of anisotropic hydrodynamics and viscous hydrodynamics agree for the central hot part of the system, ho...

  11. Towards Friction Control using laser-induced periodic Surface Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichstädt, J.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the study of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) and the description of their tribological properties in order to facilitate the knowledge for contact mechanical applications. To obtain laser parameters for LIPSS formation, we propose to execute two D

  12. CONTROLLING STORM WATER RUNOFF WITH TRADABLE CREDITS FOR IMPERVIOUS SURFACES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm water flow off impervious surface in a watershed can lead to stream degradation, habitat alteration, low base flows and toxic leading. We show that a properly designed tradable runoff credit (TRC) system creates economic incentives for landowners to employ best management p...

  13. Hydrodynamic Modeling of Nokoué Lake in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Zandagba

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nokoué Lake is a complex ecosystem, the understanding of which requires control of physical processes that have occurred. For this, the Surface Water Modeling System (SMS hydrodynamic model was calibrated and validated on the water depth data. The results of these simulations show a good match between the simulated and observed data for bottom roughness and turbulent exchange coefficients, of 0.02 m−1/3·s and 20 m2/s respectively. Once the ability of the model to simulate the hydrodynamics of the lake is testified, the model is used to simulate water surface elevation, exchanged flows and velocities. The simulation shows that the tidal amplitude is maximum at the inlet of the channel and decreases gradually from the inlet towards the lagoon’s main body. The propagation of the tidal wave is characterized by the dephasing and the flattening of the amplitude tide, which increases as we move away from the channel. This dephasing is characterized by a high and low tides delay of about 1 or 4 h and also depends on the tide amplitude and location. The velocities inside the lake are very low and do not exceed 0.03 m/s. The highest are obtained at the entrance of the channel. In a flood period, in contrast with the low-water period, incoming flows are higher than outflows, reinforced by the amplitude of the tide. An average renewal time of the lake has been estimated and corresponds during a flood period to 30 days for an average amplitude tide and 26.3 days on a high amplitude tide. In a low water period it is 40.2 days for an average amplitude tide and 30 days for a high amplitude tide. From the results obtained, several measures must be taken into account for the rational management of the lake water resources. These include a dam construction at the lake upstream, to control the river flows, and the dredging of the channel to facilitate exchanges with the sea.

  14. Hydrodynamics of catheter biofilm formation

    CERN Document Server

    Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar; Rodriguez-Perez, Daniel; Martinez-Escobar, Sergio; Fernandez-Barbero, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model is proposed to describe one of the most critical problems in intensive medical care units: the formation of biofilms inside central venous catheters. The incorporation of approximate solutions for the flow-limited diffusion equation leads to the conclusion that biofilms grow on the internal catheter wall due to the counter-stream diffusion of blood through a very thin layer close to the wall. This biological deposition is the first necessary step for the subsequent bacteria colonization.

  15. Soliton propagation in relativistic hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fogaça, D A; 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2007.03.104

    2013-01-01

    We study the conditions for the formation and propagation of Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) solitons in nuclear matter. In a previous work we have derived a KdV equation from Euler and continuity equations in non-relativistic hydrodynamics. In the present contribution we extend our formalism to relativistic fluids. We present results for a given equation of state, which is based on quantum hadrodynamics (QHD).

  16. Hydrodynamic Evolution of GRB Afterglow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a relativistic fireball which decelerates as it sweeps up ambient matter. Not only the radiative and adiabatic cases, but also the realistic intermediate cases are calculated. We perform numerical calcula-tion for various ambient media and sizes of beaming expansion, and find that the deceleration radius R0 may play an important role for the hydrodynamic evolution of GRB afterglow.

  17. Control of cavity acoustics by surface waviness in landing configurations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dala, L

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aviation industry’s interest towards cavity control methods rose accordingly due to the acoustic attenuation potential of such methods. However cost effective control devices which are also efficient over a wide range aircraft operations are yet...

  18. Formation control of surface marine craft using Lagrange multipliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihle, Ivar-Andre F.; Jouffroy, Jerome; Fossen, Thor I.

    on the total system. In this way, a formation can be assembled and stay together when exposed to external forces. A brief comparison with other control designs for a group of marine craft is done. Further, control laws for formation assembling (with dynamic positioning), and formation keeping during...

  19. Controllable surface morphology and properties via mist polymerization on a plasma-treated polymethyl methacrylate surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, S J; Wang, L; Xu, X J; Zhao, C H; Liu, X D

    2014-02-14

    Surface modification by grafting polymers on solid materials is an important strategy used to improve surface properties. This article reports that under appropriate conditions, very thin layers with desired morphologies may be constructed on a plasma-treated substrate by feeding a small quantity of a monomer with a mist stream carrying droplets produced from monomer solutions. We investigate the effects of process parameters that affect layer morphology, including exposure time to the mist stream, concentration of the monomer solution, and solvent selectivity. For a methyl methacrylate solution in ethanol, nanoparticles are uniformly grown with increasing monomer concentration or exposure time and finally form a porous layer at 3.65 mol L(-1) for 30 min. Decreasing solvent polarity not only affects surface morphology, but also increases hydrophobicity of the resulting surface. With 2,2,3,4,4,4-hexafluorobutyl methacrylate as the monomer, SEM and AFM micrographs indicated that mist polymerization results in numerous microspheres on the activated surface. These experimental results were interpreted by a mechanism in terms of an in situ polymerization accompanied by a phase transformation of the resulting polymer. Specifically, plasma treatment provides highly active cations and radicals to initiate very rapid polymerization, and the resulting polymers are consequently deposited from the liquid onto the surface under phase transition mechanisms.

  20. Recent progress in anisotropic hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strickland Michael

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The quark-gluon plasma created in a relativistic heavy-ion collisions possesses a sizable pressure anisotropy in the local rest frame at very early times after the initial nuclear impact and this anisotropy only slowly relaxes as the system evolves. In a kinetic theory picture, this translates into the existence of sizable momentum-space anisotropies in the underlying partonic distribution functions, 〈 pL2〉 ≪ 〈 pT2〉. In such cases, it is better to reorganize the hydrodynamical expansion by taking into account momentum-space anisotropies at leading-order in the expansion instead of as a perturbative correction to an isotropic distribution. The resulting anisotropic hydrodynamics framework has been shown to more accurately describe the dynamics of rapidly expanding systems such as the quark-gluon plasma. In this proceedings contribution, I review the basic ideas of anisotropic hydrodynamics, recent progress, and present a few preliminary phenomenological predictions for identified particle spectra and elliptic flow.

  1. Particle Mesh Hydrodynamics for Astrophysics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Philippe; Cottet, Georges-Henri; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    We present a particle method for the simulation of three dimensional compressible hydrodynamics based on a hybrid Particle-Mesh discretization of the governing equations. The method is rooted on the regularization of particle locations as in remeshed Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (rSPH). The rSPH method was recently introduced to remedy problems associated with the distortion of computational elements in SPH, by periodically re-initializing the particle positions and by using high order interpolation kernels. In the PMH formulation, the particles solely handle the convective part of the compressible Euler equations. The particle quantities are then interpolated onto a mesh, where the pressure terms are computed. PMH, like SPH, is free of the convection CFL condition while at the same time it is more efficient as derivatives are computed on a mesh rather than particle-particle interactions. PMH does not detract from the adaptive character of SPH and allows for control of its accuracy. We present simulations of a benchmark astrophysics problem demonstrating the capabilities of this approach.

  2. Transonic unsteady airloads on an energy efficient transport wing with oscillating control surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, M. C.; Ricketts, R. H.; Cazier, F. W., Jr.; Cunningham, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    An aspect ratio 10.8 supercritical wing with oscillating control surfaces is described. The wing is instrumental with 252 static orifices and 164 in situ dynamic pressure transducers for studying the effects of control surface deflection on steady and unsteady pressures at transonic speeds. Results from initial wind tunnel tests conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel are discussed. Unsteady pressure results are presented for two trailing edge control surfaces oscillating separately at the design Mach number of 0.78. Some experimental results are compared with analytical results obtained by using linear lifting surface theory.

  3. Escherichia coli control in a surface flow treatment wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, M E; Warner, B G; Slawson, R M

    2006-06-01

    A field experiment showed that numbers of Escherichia coli declined significantly when floating Lemna spp. plants were removed to create open water areas in a typical newly constructed surface flow treatment wetland in southern Ontario. It is suggested that E. coli declined immediately after Lemna removal because the Lemna was shading the water column from penetration by natural UV radiation, it was providing favourable attachment sites for the E. coli, and it was not allowing effective free exchange of oxygen from surface winds to the water column to maintain high enough dissolved oxygen supplies for predator zooplankton populations. Operators of wetland systems must have the specialized skills required to recognize the cause and the appropriate maintenance requirements to maintain efficient operation of such unconventional systems should E. coli numbers increase during the course of operation.

  4. Cell adhesion on Ti surface with controlled roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos-Asperilla, L.; Garcia-Alonso, M. C.; Escudero, M. L.; Alonso, C.

    2015-07-01

    In this report, the in situ interaction between Saos-2 osteoblast cells and a smooth Ti surface was examined over time. The adhesion kinetics and mechanisms of cellular proliferation were monitored by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The rate of Saos-2 attachment on Ti surfaces, obtained from the measurements performed with the QCM, is a first-order reaction, with k=2.10{sup -}3 min{sup -}1. The impedance measurements indicate that in the absence of cells, the Ti resistance diminishes over time (7 days), due to the presence of amino acids and proteins from the culture medium that have been adsorbed, while in the presence of osteoblasts, this decrease is much greater because of the compounds generated by the cells that accelerate the dissolution of Ti. (Author)

  5. Band energy control of molybdenum oxide by surface hydration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Keith T., E-mail: k.t.butler@bath.ac.uk; Walsh, Aron [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Crespo-Otero, Rachel [School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Buckeridge, John; Scanlon, David O. [University College London, Kathleen Lonsdale Materials Chemistry, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Bovill, Edward; Lidzey, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-07

    The application of oxide buffer layers for improved carrier extraction is ubiquitous in organic electronics. However, the performance is highly susceptible to processing conditions. Notably, the interface stability and electronic structure is extremely sensitive to the uptake of ambient water. In this study we use density functional theory calculations to asses the effects of adsorbed water on the electronic structure of MoO{sub x}, in the context of polymer-fullerene solar cells based on PCDTBT. We obtain excellent agreement with experimental values of the ionization potential for pristine MoO{sub 3} (010). We find that IP and EA values can vary by as much as 2.5 eV depending on the oxidation state of the surface and that adsorbed water can either increase or decrease the IP and EA depending on the concentration of surface water.

  6. Bag-breakup control of surface drag in hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kozlov, Dmitry; Sergeev, Daniil

    2016-04-01

    Air-sea interaction at extreme winds is of special interest now in connection with the problem of the sea surface drag reduction at the wind speed exceeding 30-35 m/s. This phenomenon predicted by Emanuel (1995) and confirmed by a number of field (e.g., Powell, et al, 2003) and laboratory (Donelan et al, 2004) experiments still waits its physical explanation. Several papers attributed the drag reduction to spume droplets - spray turning off the crests of breaking waves (e.g., Kudryavtsev, Makin, 2011, Bao, et al, 2011). The fluxes associated with the spray are determined by the rate of droplet production at the surface quantified by the sea spray generation function (SSGF), defined as the number of spray particles of radius r produced from the unit area of water surface in unit time. However, the mechanism of spume droplets' formation is unknown and empirical estimates of SSGF varied over six orders of magnitude; therefore, the production rate of large sea spray droplets is not adequately described and there are significant uncertainties in estimations of exchange processes in hurricanes. Herewith, it is unknown what is air-sea interface and how water is fragmented to spray at hurricane wind. Using high-speed video, we observed mechanisms of production of spume droplets at strong winds by high-speed video filming, investigated statistics and compared their efficiency. Experiments showed, that the generation of the spume droplets near the wave crest is caused by the following events: bursting of submerged bubbles, generation and breakup of "projections" and "bag breakup". Statistical analysis of results of these experiments showed that the main mechanism of spray-generation is attributed to "bag-breakup mechanism", namely, inflating and consequent blowing of short-lived, sail-like pieces of the water-surface film. Using high-speed video, we show that at hurricane winds the main mechanism of spray production is attributed to "bag-breakup", namely, inflating and

  7. Electroassisted Functionalization of Nitinol Surface, a Powerful Strategy for Polymer Coating through Controlled Radical Surface Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrotin, Bastien; Delhalle, Joseph; Dubois, Philippe; Mespouille, Laetitia; Mekhalif, Zineb

    2017-03-28

    Coating Nitinol (NiTi) surfaces with a polymer layer has become very appealing in the past few years owing to its increased attraction in the biomedical field. Although its intrinsic properties helped ensure its popularity, its extensive implementation is still hampered by its nickel inclusion, making it sensitive to pitting corrosion and therefore leading to the release of carcinogenic Ni(2+) ions. Among all recent ways to modify NiTi surfaces, elaboration of self-assembled monolayers is of great interest as their high order confers a reinforcement of the metal surface corrosion resistance and brings new functionalities to the metal for postmodification processes. In this work, we compare the electroassisted and thermally assisted self-assembling of 11-(2-bromoisobutyrate)-undecyl-1-phosphonic acid (BUPA) to the classical immersion process on NiTi surfaces initially submitted to a hydrothermal treatment. Among all tested conditions, the electroassisted grafting of BUPA at room temperature appears to be the most promising alternative, as it allows grafting in very short times (5-10 min), thus preventing its degradation. The thus-formed layer has been proven to be sufficient to enable the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate.

  8. Towards Friction Control using laser-induced periodic Surface Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Eichstädt, J.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the study of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) and the description of their tribological properties in order to facilitate the knowledge for contact mechanical applications. To obtain laser parameters for LIPSS formation, we propose to execute two D2-Experiments. For the transfer of results from static experiments to areas of LIPSS we propose the discrete accumulation of fluences. Areas covered by homogeneously distributed LIPSS were machined...

  9. Controlling liquid splash on superhydrophobic surfaces by a vesicle surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Meirong; Ju, Jie; Luo, Siqi; Han, Yuchun; Dong, Zhichao; Wang, Yilin; Gu, Zhen; Zhang, Lingjuan; Hao, Ruiran; Jiang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Deposition of liquid droplets on solid surfaces is of great importance to many fundamental scientific principles and technological applications, such as spraying, coating, and printing. For example, during the process of pesticide spraying, more than 50% of agrochemicals are lost because of the undesired bouncing and splashing behaviors on hydrophobic or superhydrophobic leaves. We show that this kind of splashing on superhydrophobic surfaces can be greatly inhibited by adding a small amount of a vesicular surfactant, Aerosol OT. Rather than reducing splashing by increasing the viscosity via polymer additives, the vesicular surfactant confines the motion of liquid with the help of wettability transition and thus inhibits the splash. Significantly, the vesicular surfactant exhibits a distinguished ability to alter the surface wettability during the first inertial spreading stage of ~2 ms because of its dense aggregates at the air/water interface. A comprehensive model proposed by this idea could help in understanding the complex interfacial interactions at the solid/liquid/air interface. PMID:28275735

  10. Specification And Control Of Surface Finish: Empiricism Versus Dogmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, K. J.; Obray, C.; Jungles, J.

    1985-06-01

    This paper reviews the development of the analysis of surface finish from the early attempts in the 1930s to the present day. The development of parameters used in surface analysis is shown in context with the instrumental techniques available at the time, and it is argued that characterization based on graphical and experimental convenience has influenced industrial practice. As the requirements of manufacture and functional performance have been stretched by advancing technology, many industrialists have been forced to accept the fact that existing specification practices are limited and have sought alternative descriptions based on well-established techniques; but these techniques themselves are limited, their suitability to in-process measurement being practically nonexistent. It is shown that attempts have been made recently to develop optical methods of assessing surface finish using traditional parameters such as Ra. This paper suggests that it may be time to look toward a new form of specification that is more suited to assessment by optical transducers, and some methods of assessment are proposed. To support this view, a simple low-cost device is discussed that can be calibrated to give Ra but that also presents information in a more relevant empirical way that may be more valid than the existing parameter specification.

  11. Surface topography analysis for dimensional quality control of replication at the micrometre scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balcon, M.; Marinello, F.; Tosello, Guido;

    2011-01-01

    Replication of geometrical features and surfaces are present at different production levels, from realization of moulds to final product. Geometrical features must be reproduced within specification limits, to ensure product functionality . In order to control the replication quality, mould...... and replica surfaces must be quantitatively analysed and compared. In the present work, reference simulated surfaces were considered and studied in order to evaluate the effectiveness and traceability of different analysis tools for replication quality control. Topographies were analysed simulating different...

  12. Entropy-limited hydrodynamics: a novel approach to relativistic hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guercilena, Federico; Radice, David; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2017-07-01

    We present entropy-limited hydrodynamics (ELH): a new approach for the computation of numerical fluxes arising in the discretization of hyperbolic equations in conservation form. ELH is based on the hybridisation of an unfiltered high-order scheme with the first-order Lax-Friedrichs method. The activation of the low-order part of the scheme is driven by a measure of the locally generated entropy inspired by the artificial-viscosity method proposed by Guermond et al. (J. Comput. Phys. 230(11):4248-4267, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.jcp.2010.11.043). Here, we present ELH in the context of high-order finite-differencing methods and of the equations of general-relativistic hydrodynamics. We study the performance of ELH in a series of classical astrophysical tests in general relativity involving isolated, rotating and nonrotating neutron stars, and including a case of gravitational collapse to black hole. We present a detailed comparison of ELH with the fifth-order monotonicity preserving method MP5 (Suresh and Huynh in J. Comput. Phys. 136(1):83-99, 1997, doi: 10.1006/jcph.1997.5745), one of the most common high-order schemes currently employed in numerical-relativity simulations. We find that ELH achieves comparable and, in many of the cases studied here, better accuracy than more traditional methods at a fraction of the computational cost (up to {˜}50% speedup). Given its accuracy and its simplicity of implementation, ELH is a promising framework for the development of new special- and general-relativistic hydrodynamics codes well adapted for massively parallel supercomputers.

  13. Optical mode control of surface-plasmon quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, V.; Bahriz, M.; Palomo, J.; Wilson, L. R.; Krysa, A. B.; Sirtori, C.; Austin, D. A.; Cockburn, J. W.; Roberts, J. S.; Colombelli, R.

    2007-04-01

    Surface-plasmon waveguides based on metallic strips can provide a two dimensional optical confinement. This concept has been successfully applied to quantum cascade lasers, processed as ridge waveguides, to demonstrate that the lateral extension of the optical mode can be influenced solely by the width of the device top contact. For devices operating at a wavelength of λ ≈7.5 μm, the room-temperature threshold current density was reduced from 6.3 kA/cm2 to 4.4 kA/cm2 with respect to larger devices with full top metallization.

  14. Adaptive Path Control of Surface Ships in Restricted Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    about the rudder model included in eq. (11), we assume exact knowledge of the rudder angle. Astrom and K9llstr6m18 note that all sensors have...properties of the ship o 11 and the control loop. Further, Astrom and Wittenmark have noted the fol- lowing conditions as necessary for the convergence...Symposium, VeL. 4, Annapolis, MD., Oct. 30-Nov. 3, 1978, pp. P 1-1 to P 1-13. 1-. Astrom , K.J., "Some Aspwcts, of the Control of Large Tankers

  15. Studying Polymer Transport on Soft and Hard Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanat

    2007-03-01

    We have employed experiments and simulations to understand the factors controlling the transport of polymers on surfaces. From an experimental viewpoint we have focused on the transport of DNA (single stranded) on lipid bilayers. We show that this behavior is slaved to the mobility of the lipids. More surprisingly, it appears that the transport of molecules adsorbed on surfaces follows the same dependence on lipid mobility as for molecules incorporated into the lipid layer. The ability to control this surface diffusion through the introduction of posts or varying the strength of adsorption (by the use of an AC field normal to the surfaces) will also be studied. Theoretically we have used molecular dynamics simulations of a polymer chain of length N dissolved in explicit solvent and adsorbed as a pancake at the solid-liquid interface to discriminate between respective influences on surface diffusion of hydrodynamics and adsorption energetics. Only for analytically-smooth surfaces do we observe a strong influence of hydrodynamics; the polymer lateral diffusion constant, D, scales as D 1/N^3/4, more weakly than for implicit solvent. For atomistic surface corrugation with uniform surface chemical makeup, D 1/N instead. This suggests that while we can understand the results for diffusion on lipid surfaces, more recent experimental observations of stronger N dependence for diffusion on hard solid surfaces originate not in hydrodynamic interactions but in spatially patchy energetic interactions.

  16. Constructing stable 3D hydrodynamical models of giant stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlmann, Sebastian T.; Röpke, Friedrich K.; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Springel, Volker

    2017-02-01

    Hydrodynamical simulations of stellar interactions require stable models of stars as initial conditions. Such initial models, however, are difficult to construct for giant stars because of the wide range in spatial scales of the hydrostatic equilibrium and in dynamical timescales between the core and the envelope of the giant. They are needed for, e.g., modeling the common envelope phase where a giant envelope encompasses both the giant core and a companion star. Here, we present a new method of approximating and reconstructing giant profiles from a stellar evolution code to produce stable models for multi-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. We determine typical stellar stratification profiles with the one-dimensional stellar evolution code mesa. After an appropriate mapping, hydrodynamical simulations are conducted using the moving-mesh code arepo. The giant profiles are approximated by replacing the core of the giant with a point mass and by constructing a suitable continuation of the profile to the center. Different reconstruction methods are tested that can specifically control the convective behaviour of the model. After mapping to a grid, a relaxation procedure that includes damping of spurious velocities yields stable models in three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. Initially convectively stable configurations lead to stable hydrodynamical models while for stratifications that are convectively unstable in the stellar evolution code, simulations recover the convective behaviour of the initial model and show large convective plumes with Mach numbers up to 0.8. Examples are shown for a 2 M⊙ red giant and a 0.67 M⊙ asymptotic giant branch star. A detailed analysis shows that the improved method reliably provides stable models of giant envelopes that can be used as initial conditions for subsequent hydrodynamical simulations of stellar interactions involving giant stars.

  17. Coalescence control of elastomer clusters by fixed surface charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauer, Cornelius; Wu, Hua; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2010-02-04

    We studied the coalescence behavior of a fluorinated elastomer colloid, stabilized by fixed surface charges, with a glass transition temperature of about -20 degrees C, as a function of temperature under diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation (DLCA) conditions. We first measured the aggregation kinetics by in situ dynamic light scattering and then simulated it through the Smoluchowski approach (i.e., population balance equations) using the only unknown parameter, the fractal dimension D(f) of the clusters, as the fit parameter. It was found that the estimated D(f) value increased as the temperature increased, starting from 1.7 at 25 degrees C and reaching the upper limit of 3.0 for T > or = 55 degrees C. These results indicate that the coalescence extent increases as the temperature increases. Such temperature-dependent coalescence behavior cannot be explained by thermodynamic considerations, and it must be related to a certain kinetic resistance. We explain this effect by considering the resistance of the fixed charges to relocation on the particle surface, which decreases as the temperature increases.

  18. Controlling Surface Roughness to Enhance Mass Flow Rates in Nanochannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimon, Malgorzata; Emerson, David; Reese, Jason

    2012-11-01

    A very active field of research in fluid mechanics and material science is predicting the behavior of Newtonian fluids flowing over porous media with different wettabilities. Opposite effects have been observed: some state that wall roughness always suppresses fluid-slip, whereas others show that for some cases roughness may reduce the surface friction. In this work, MD simulations were carried out to further investigate physical mechanisms for liquid slip, and factors affecting it. A rough wall was formed by either periodically spaced rectangular protrusions or was represented by a cosine wave. The MD simulations were conducted to study Poiseuille and Couette flow of liquid argon in a nanochannel with hydrophilic kryptonian walls. The effect of wall roughness and interface wettability on the streaming velocity, and the slip-length at the walls, is observed to be significant. Our results show a dependency of mass flow rate on the type of flow and topography of the channel walls. For a fixed magnitude of the driving force, an increase in the mass flow rate, compared to the smooth surface, was observed for the wavy roughness, whereas the opposite effect was observed for Couette flow where a higher slip was obtained for rectangular gaps. The study is funded in the UK by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.

  19. Control and optimzation of sub-surface flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Controlling the flow of fluids (e.g. water, oil, natural gas or CO2) in subsurface porous media is a technical process with many mathematical challenges. The underlying physics can be described with coupled nearly-elliptic and nearly-hyperbolic nonlinear partial differential equations, which require

  20. Hydrodynamic Flow Control in Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-06

    propulsive thrust pro- duction is confined to oscillations of the caudal hydrofoil (Lighthill 1969; Webb 1975). The propul- sive hydrofoils of cetaceans...propulsive efficiency, considered the flukes as rigid hydrofoils (Parry 1949; Wu 1971; Lighthill 1975; Chopra and Kambe 1977; Fish 1993a, 1993b; 1998a; Liu...vertebrae of the skeleton (Long et al. 1997; Fish 1998b). As the angle of attack is increased, lift will increase faster than the drag for a hydrofoil

  1. Effects of Solution Hydrodynamics on Corrosion Inhibition of Steel by Citric Acid in Cooling Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashassi-Sorkhabi, H.; Asghari, E.; Mohammadi, M.

    2014-08-01

    Corrosion is a major problem in cooling water systems, which is often controlled using corrosion inhibitors. Solution hydrodynamics is one of the factors affecting corrosion inhibition of metals in these systems. The present work focuses on the study of the combined effects of citric acid concentration (as a green corrosion inhibitor) and fluid flow on corrosion of steel in simulated cooling water. Electrochemical techniques including Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used for corrosion studies. Laminar flow was simulated using a rotating disk electrode. The effects of solution hydrodynamics on inhibition performance of citric acid were discussed. The citric acid showed low inhibition performance in quiescent solution; however, when the electrode rotated at 200 rpm, inhibition efficiency increased remarkably. It was attributed mainly to the acceleration of inhibitor mass transport toward metal surface. The efficiencies were then decreased at higher rotation speeds due to enhanced wall shear stresses on metal surface and separation of adsorbed inhibitor molecules. This article is first part of authors' attempts in designing green inhibitor formulations for industrial cooling water. Citric acid showed acceptable corrosion inhibition in low rotation rates; thus, it can be used as a green additive to the corrosion inhibitor formulations.

  2. The characteristics of machined surface controlled by multi tip arrayed tool and high speed spindle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Woo; Choi, Soo Chang; Park, Jeong Woo; Lee, Deug Woo

    2010-07-01

    In this study, we propose one of the ultra-precision machining methods that can be adapted brittle material as well as soft material by using multi arrayed diamond tips and high speed spindle. Conventional machining method is too hard to control surface roughness and surface texture against brittle material because particles of grinding tools are irregular size and material can be fragile. Therefore we were able to design tool paths and machine controlled pattern on surface by multi arrayed diamond tips which has uniform size made in MEMS fabrication and high speed spindle of which maximum speed is about 300,000 rpm. We defined several parameters that can have effect on machining surface. Those are multi array of diamond tips (n * n), speed of the air spindle, and feeding rate. Surface roughness and surface texture can be controlled by those parameters for micro machining.

  3. Characteristics of machined surface controlled by cutting tools and conditions in machining of brittle material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Woo KIM; Soo-Chang CHOI; Jeung-Woo PARK; Deug-Woo LEE

    2009-01-01

    One of the ultra-precision machining methods was adapted for brittle material as well as soft material by using multi-arrayed diamond tips and high speed spindle. Conventional machining method is too hard to control surface roughness and surface texture against brittle material because the particles of grinding tools are irregular size and material can be fragile. Therefore, we were able to design tool paths and machine controlled pattern on surface by multi-arrayed diamond tips with uniform size made in MEMS fabrication and high speed spindle, and the maximum speed was about 3×105 r/min. We defined several parameters that can affect the machining surface. Those were multi-array of diamond tips (n×n), speed of air spindle and feeding rate. The surface roughness and surface texture can be controlled by those parameters for micro machining.

  4. Load-Induced Hydrodynamic Lubrication of Porous Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Tushar; Cremaldi, Joseph; Erickson, Jeffrey S; Pesika, Noshir S

    2015-08-19

    We present an exploratory study of the tribological properties and mechanisms of porous polymer surfaces under applied loads in aqueous media. We show how it is possible to change the lubrication regime from boundary lubrication to hydrodynamic lubrication even at relatively low shearing velocities by the addition of vertical pores to a compliant polymer. It is hypothesized that the compressed, pressurized liquid in the pores produces a repulsive hydrodynamic force as it extrudes from the pores. The presence of the fluid between two shearing surfaces results in low coefficients of friction (μ ≈ 0.31). The coefficient of friction is reduced further by using a boundary lubricant. The tribological properties are studied for a range of applied loads and shear velocities to demonstrate the potential applications of such materials in total joint replacement devices.

  5. Polymer surface functionalities that control human embryoid body cell adhesion revealed by high throughput surface characterization of combinatorial material microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Mei, Ying; Hook, Andrew L; Taylor, Michael; Urquhart, Andrew J; Bogatyrev, Said R; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G; Davies, Martyn C; Alexander, Morgan R

    2010-12-01

    High throughput materials discovery using combinatorial polymer microarrays to screen for new biomaterials with new and improved function is established as a powerful strategy. Here we combine this screening approach with high throughput surface characterization (HT-SC) to identify surface structure-function relationships. We explore how this combination can help to identify surface chemical moieties that control protein adsorption and subsequent cellular response. The adhesion of human embryoid body (hEB) cells to a large number (496) of different acrylate polymers synthesized in a microarray format is screened using a high throughput procedure. To determine the role of the polymer surface properties on hEB cell adhesion, detailed HT-SC of these acrylate polymers is carried out using time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), pico litre drop sessile water contact angle (WCA) measurement and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A structure-function relationship is identified between the ToF SIMS analysis of the surface chemistry after a fibronectin (Fn) pre-conditioning step and the cell adhesion to each spot using the multivariate analysis technique partial least squares (PLS) regression. Secondary ions indicative of the adsorbed Fn correlate with increased cell adhesion whereas glycol and other functionalities from the polymers are identified that reduce cell adhesion. Furthermore, a strong relationship between the ToF SIMS spectra of bare polymers and the cell adhesion to each spot is identified using PLS regression. This identifies a role for both the surface chemistry of the bare polymer and the pre-adsorbed Fn, as-represented in the ToF SIMS spectra, in controlling cellular adhesion. In contrast, no relationship is found between cell adhesion and wettability, surface roughness, elemental or functional surface composition. The correlation between ToF SIMS data of the surfaces and the cell adhesion demonstrates

  6. Annual Report: Hydrodynamics and Radiative Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Paul Drake

    2005-12-01

    We report the ongoing work of our group in hydrodynamics and radiative hydrodynamics with astrophysical applications. During the period of the existing grant, we have carried out two types of experiments at the Omega laser. One set of experiments has studied radiatively collapsing shocks, obtaining high-quality scaling data using a backlit pinhole and obtaining the first (ever, anywhere) Thomson-scattering data from a radiative shock. Other experiments have studied the deeply nonlinear development of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability from complex initial conditions, obtaining the first (ever, anywhere) dual-axis radiographic data using backlit pinholes and ungated detectors. All these experiments have applications to astrophysics, discussed in the corresponding papers either in print or in preparation. We also have obtained preliminary radiographs of experimental targets using our x-ray source. The targets for the experiments have been assembled at Michigan, where we also prepare many of the simple components. The above activities, in addition to a variety of data analysis and design projects, provide good experience for graduate and undergraduates students. In the process of doing this research we have built a research group that uses such work to train junior scientists.

  7. Movement Control of Robot Using Surface Electromyogram Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. S. K. Pahuja Sachin Sharma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Electromyogram signals or EMG signals are generated whenever there is any muscular activity. These signals can be detected easily over the surface of the body. As these signals are generated whenever there is any muscular activity, so, we can recognize any muscular activity made by the human by measuring the amplitude of the signal. Based on decision made upon the amplitude of the EMG signal we can take many decisions or we can make machine of our interest. In simplest form any disabled person can turn on or turn of the machines just by contracting his fist. In this paper we have made an offline prototype of such machine which, in our case, will move the robot in one direction whenever there will be a sign of muscle contraction in the recorded EMG signal.

  8. Surface modification for polystyrene colloidal particles with controlled charge densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongman; Kwon, Oh-Sun; Shin, Kwanwoo; Song, Ju-Myung; Kim, Joon-Seop; Seo, Young-Soo; Tael, Giyoong; Jon, Sangyong

    2007-11-01

    A significant amount of polystyrene sulfonated acid (PSSA) and poly(styrene-ran-acrylic acid) (PSAA) random copolymer can be adsorbed by dispersion of PS particles via a swelling-quenching process. A THF-water mixed solvent was used in the swelling process and a large amount of pure water was used, to give a low concentration of THF% in quenching process. Our results showed that functional PSSA groups were randomly and tightly adsorbed to the PS particles. When the mol.% of charged segments was increased, the progressive adsorption of PSSA chains to the PS particles leads to an increase in the electrophoretic mobility and zeta-potential of aqueous dispersions. Thus, we were able to obtain well-distributed surface charge density on the PS particles.

  9. Hydration-controlled bacterial motility and dispersal on surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Wang, G.; Gulez, Gamze

    2010-01-01

    hydrated habitats, where water dynamics result in fragmented aquatic habitats connected by micrometric films, is debated. Here, we quantify the spatial dynamics of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 and its nonflagellated isogenic mutant as affected by the hydration status of a rough porous surface using......Flagellar motility, a mode of active motion shared by many prokaryotic species, is recognized as a key mechanism enabling population dispersal and resource acquisition in microbial communities living in marine, freshwater, and other liquid-replete habitats. By contrast, its role in variably...... an experimental system that mimics aquatic habitats found in unsaturated soils. The flagellar motility of the model soil bacterium decreased sharply within a small range of water potential (0 to −2 kPa) and nearly ceased in liquid films of effective thickness smaller than 1.5 μm. However, bacteria could rapidly...

  10. Galaxy clusters as hydrodynamics laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, Elke; Sheardown, Alexander; Fish, Thomas; ZuHone, John; Hunt, Matthew; Su, Yuanyuan; Kraft, Ralph P.; Nulsen, Paul; Forman, William R.; Churazov, Eugene; Randall, Scott W.; Jones, Christine; Machacek, Marie E.

    2017-08-01

    The intra-cluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters shows a wealth of hydrodynamical features that trace the growth of clusters via the infall of galaxies or smaller subclusters. Such hydrodynamical features include the wakes of the infalling objects as well as the interfaces between the host cluster’s ICM and the atmosphere of the infalling object. Furthermore, the cluster dynamics can be traced by merger shocks, bow shocks, and sloshing motions of the ICM.The characteristics of these dynamical features, e.g., the direction, length, brightness, and temperature of the galaxies' or subclusters' gas tails varies significantly between different objects. This could be due to either dynamical conditions or ICM transport coefficients such as viscosity and thermal conductivity. For example, the cool long gas tails of of some infalling galaxies and groups have been attributed to a substantial ICM viscosity suppressing mixing of the stripped galaxy or group gas with the hotter ambient ICM.Using hydrodynamical simulations of minor mergers we show, however, that these features can be explained naturally by the dynamical conditions of each particular galaxy or group infall. Specifically, we identify observable features to distinguish the first and second infall of a galaxy or group into its host cluster as well as characteristics during apocentre passage. Comparing our simulations with observations, we can explain several puzzling observations such as the long and cold tail of M86 in Virgo and the very long and tangentially oriented tail of the group LEDA 87445 in Hydra A.Using our simulations, we also assess the validity of the stagnation pressure method that is widely used to determine an infalling galaxy's velocity. We show that near pericentre passage the method gives reasonable results, but near apocentre it is not easily applicable.

  11. Stability Characteristics of a Combat Aircraft with Control Surface Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    on the LEF terms remain consis- 59 tent between equation (5.1) and (5.2) illustrating that there is not some fundamental change in the in- teraction...that prop~m is to aulate the control C write (6*) - c derr~vauv for the left lading edge flap Vven velum C wtit*(6,*) c ror q. alpha. bea, c witg(6

  12. Surface control system for the 15 meter hoop-column antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James B.; Ahl, Elvin L., Jr.; Butler, David H.; Peri, Frank, Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The 15-meter hoop-column antenna fabricated by the Harris Corporation under contract to the NASA Langley Research Center is described. The antenna is a deployable and restowable structure consisting of a central telescoping column, a 15-meter-diameter folding hoop, and a mesh reflector surface. The hoop is supported and positioned by 48 quartz cords attached to the column above the hoop, and by 24 graphite cords from the base of the antenna column. The RF reflective surface is a gold plated molybdenum wire mesh supported on a graphite cord truss structure which is attached between the hoop and the column. The surface contour is controlled by 96 graphite cords from the antenna base to the rear of the truss assembly. The antenna is actually a quadaperture reflector with each quadrant of the surface mesh shaped to produce an offset parabolic reflector. Results of near-field and structural tests are given. Controls structures and electromagnetics interaction, surface control system requirements, mesh control adjustment, surface control system actuator assembly, surface control system electronics, the system interface unit, and control stations are discussed.

  13. Hydrodynamic characteristics of UASB bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Siby; Tare, Vinod

    2011-10-01

    The hydrodynamic characteristics of UASB bioreactors operated under different organic loading and hydraulic loading rates were studied, using three laboratory scale models treating concocted sucrose wastewater. Residence time distribution (RTD) analysis using dispersion model and tanks-in-series model was directed towards the characterization of the fluid flow pattern in the reactors and correlation of the hydraulic regime with the biomass content and biogas production. Empty bed reactors followed a plug flow pattern and the flow pattern changed to a large dispersion mixing with biomass and gas production. Effect of increase in gas production on the overall hydraulics was insignificant.

  14. Disruptive Innovation in Numerical Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waltz, Jacob I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-06

    We propose the research and development of a high-fidelity hydrodynamic algorithm for tetrahedral meshes that will lead to a disruptive innovation in the numerical modeling of Laboratory problems. Our proposed innovation has the potential to reduce turnaround time by orders of magnitude relative to Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) codes; reduce simulation setup costs by millions of dollars per year; and effectively leverage Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) and future Exascale computing hardware. If successful, this work will lead to a dramatic leap forward in the Laboratory's quest for a predictive simulation capability.

  15. Turbulence Models of Hydrodynamic Lubrication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张直明; 王小静; 孙美丽

    2003-01-01

    The main theoretical turbulence models for application to hydrodynamic lubrication problems were briefly reviewed, and the course of their development and their fundamentals were explained. Predictions by these models on flow fields in turbulent Couette flows and shear-induced countercurrent flows were compared to existing measurements, and Zhang & Zhang' s combined k-ε model was shown to have surpassingly satisfactory results. The method of application of this combined k-ε model to high speed journal bearings and annular seals was summarized, and the predicted results were shown to be satisfactory by comparisons with existing experiments of journal bearings and annular seals.

  16. Sandbar-regulated hydrodynamic influences on river hydrochemistry at Mengabang Telipot River, Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Mei Kee; Sathiamurthy, Edlic; Suratman, Suhaimi; Tahir, Norhayati Mohd

    2012-12-01

    Influences of river hydrodynamic behaviours on hydrochemistry (salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen saturations and dissolved phosphorus) were evaluated through high spatial and temporal resolution study of a sandbar-regulated coastal river. River hydrodynamic during sandbar-closed event was characterized by minor dependency on tidal fluctuations, very gradual increase of water level and continual low flow velocity. These hydrodynamic behaviours established a hydrochemistry equilibrium, in which water properties generally were characterized by virtual absence of horizontal gradients while vertical stratifications were significant. In addition, the river was in high trophic status as algae blooms were visible. Conversely, river hydrodynamic in sandbar-opened event was tidal-controlled and showed higher flow velocity. Horizontal gradients of water properties became significant while vertically more homogenised and with lower trophic status. In essence, this study reveals that estuarine sandbar directly regulates river hydrodynamic behaviours which in turn influences river hydrochemistry.

  17. Collaborative Research: Fundamental studies of plasma control using surface embedded electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raja, Laxminarayan L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); PanneerChelvam, PremKumar [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Levko, Dimtry [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-02-26

    The proposed study will investigate the effect of active electron injection of from electrode surfaces To the best of our knowledge, no such a study has ever been attempted even though it could lead to the formation of whole new classes of plasma based devices and systems. We are motivated by recent articles and simple theory which gives strong reason to believe that embedded electronic devices can be used to exert control over the SEE coefficient of semiconductor surfaces (and maybe other surface types as well). Furthermore, the research will explore how such sub-surface electronic devices can best be used to exert control over an associated plasma.

  18. Highly-anisotropic hydrodynamics for central collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Ryblewski, Radoslaw

    2016-01-01

    The framework of leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics is supplemented with realistic equation of state and self-consistent freeze-out prescription. The model is applied to central proton-nucleus collisions. The results are compared to those obtained within standard Israel-Stewart second-order viscous hydrodynamics. It is shown that the resulting hadron spectra are highly-sensitive to the hydrodynamic approach that has been used.

  19. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic of Hydraulic Jumps in Spillways

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focus on the complex natural phenomena of hydraulic jumps using the numerical method Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). A hydraulic jump is highly turbulent and associated with turbulent energy dissipation, air entrainment, surface waves and spray and strong dissipative processes. It can be found not only in natural streams and in engineered open channels, but also in your kitchen sink at home. The dissipative features are utilized in hydropower spillways and stilling basins t...

  20. Hydrodynamics and evaporation of a sessile drop of capillary size

    CERN Document Server

    Barash, L Yu

    2010-01-01

    Fluid dynamics video of an evaporating sessile drop of capillary size is presented. The corresponding simulation represents the description taking into account jointly time dependent hydrodynamics, vapor diffusion and thermal conduction in an evaporating sessile drop. The fluid convection in the drop is driven by Marangoni forces associated with the temperature dependence of the surface tension. For the first time the evolution of the vortex structure in the drop during an evaporation process is obtained.

  1. Hydrodynamics and evaporation of a sessile drop of capillary size

    OpenAIRE

    Barash, L. Yu.

    2010-01-01

    Fluid dynamics video of an evaporating sessile drop of capillary size is presented. The corresponding simulation represents the description taking into account jointly time dependent hydrodynamics, vapor diffusion and thermal conduction in an evaporating sessile drop. The fluid convection in the drop is driven by Marangoni forces associated with the temperature dependence of the surface tension. For the first time the evolution of the vortex structure in the drop during an evaporation process...

  2. Hydrodynamic modeling of semi-planing hulls with air cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin I. Matveev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High-speed heavy loaded monohull ships can benefit from application of drag-reducing air cavities under stepped hull bottoms. The subject of this paper is the steady hydrodynamic modeling of semi-planing air-cavity hulls. The current method is based on a linearized potential-flow theory for surface flows. The mathematical model description and parametric calculation results for a selected configuration with pressurized and open air cavities are presented.

  3. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Model for Reactive Transport and Mineral Precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Redden, George; Meakin, Paul; Fang, Yilin

    2006-06-30

    A new Lagrangian particle model based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics was used to simulate pore scale precipitation reactions. The side-by-side injection of reacting solutions into two halves of a two-dimensional granular porous medium was simulated. Precipitation on grain surfaces occurred along a narrow zone in the middle of the domain, where the reacting solutes mixed to generate a supersaturated reaction product. The numerical simulations qualitatively reproduced the behavior observed in related laboratory experiments.

  4. Emergence of upstream swimming via a hydrodynamic transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Chih-Kuan; Ardon, Florencia; Roy, Anubhab; Koch, Donald L; Suarez, Susan S; Wu, Mingming

    2015-03-13

    We demonstrate that upstream swimming of sperm emerges via an orientation disorder-order transition. The order parameter, the average orientation of the sperm head against the flow, follows a 0.5 power law with the deviation from the critical flow shear rate (γ-γ_{c}). This transition is successfully explained by a hydrodynamic bifurcation theory, which extends the sperm upstream swimming to a broad class of near surface microswimmers that possess front-back asymmetry and circular motion.

  5. Hydrodynamics of Leidenfrost droplets in one-component fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng

    2013-04-24

    Using the dynamic van der Waals theory [Phys. Rev. E 75, 036304 (2007)], we numerically investigate the hydrodynamics of Leidenfrost droplets under gravity in two dimensions. Some recent theoretical predictions and experimental observations are confirmed in our simulations. A Leidenfrost droplet larger than a critical size is shown to be unstable and break up into smaller droplets due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the bottom surface of the droplet. Our simulations demonstrate that an evaporating Leidenfrost droplet changes continuously from a puddle to a circular droplet, with the droplet shape controlled by its size in comparison with a few characteristic length scales. The geometry of the vapor layer under the droplet is found to mainly depend on the droplet size and is nearly independent of the substrate temperature, as reported in a recent experimental study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 074301 (2012)]. Finally, our simulations demonstrate that a Leidenfrost droplet smaller than a characteristic size takes off from the hot substrate because the levitating force due to evaporation can no longer be balanced by the weight of the droplet, as observed in a recent experimental study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 034501 (2012)].

  6. Hydrodynamic modeling and explosive compaction of ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenig, C.; Holt, A.; Finger, M.; Kuhl, W.

    1977-09-01

    High-density ceramics with high-strength microstructure were achieved by explosive compaction. Well-characterized Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, AlN, and boron powders were explosively compacted in both cylindrical and flat plate geometries. In cylindrical geometries compacted densities between 91 and 98 percent of theoretical were achieved. Microhardness measurements indicated that the strength and integrity of the microstructure were comparable to conventionally fabricated ceramics, even though all samples with densities greater than 90 percent theoretical contained macrocracks. Fractured surfaces evaluated by SEM showed evidence of boundary melting. Equation of state data for porous Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ were used to calculate the irreversible work done on the sample as a function of pressure. This was expressed as a percentage of the total sample which could be melted. Calculations show that very little melting can be expected in samples shocked to less than 3 GPa. Significant melting and grain boundary fusion can be expected in samples shocked to pressures greater than 8 GPa. Hydrodynamic modeling of right cylinder compaction with detonation at one end was attempted by using a two-dimensional computer code. The complications of this analysis led to experiments using plane shock waves. Flat-plate compaction assemblies were designed and analyzed by 2-D hydrodynamic codes. The use of porous shock attenuators was evaluated. Experiments were performed on aluminum oxide powders in plane wave geometry. Microstructure evaluations were made as a function of location in the flat plate samples. 11 figures, 1 table.

  7. Cell adhesion on Ti surface with controlled roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgos-Asperilla, Laura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this report, the in situ interaction between Saos-2 osteoblast cells and a smooth Ti surface was examined over time. The adhesion kinetics and mechanisms of cellular proliferation were monitored by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The rate of Saos-2 attachment on Ti surfaces, obtained from the measurements performed with the QCM, is a first-order reaction, with k=2.10−3 min−1. The impedance measurements indicate that in the absence of cells, the Ti resistance diminishes over time (7 days, due to the presence of amino acids and proteins from the culture medium that have been a dsorbed, while in the presence of osteoblasts, this decrease is much greater because of the compounds generated by the cells that accelerate the dissolution of Ti.En este trabajo, se ha estudiado la interacción in situ entre células osteoblásticas Saos-2 y una superficie de Ti de rugosidad controlada a lo largo del tiempo. El estudio de la cinética y los mecanismos de proliferación celular de adhesión se ha realizado a través de la microbalanza de cristal de cuarzo (QCM y espectroscopía de impedancia electroquímica (EIS. La velocidad de adhesión de los osteoblastos sobre la superficie de Ti obtenida a través de medidas con la QCM, sigue una reacción de primer orden, con k=2×10−3 min−1. Los ensayos de impedancia indican que, en ausencia de las células, la resistencia del Ti disminuye con el tiempo (7 días, debido a la presencia de aminoácidos y proteínas del medio de cultivo que se han adsorbido, mientras que en presencia de células, esta disminución es mucho mayor debido a los productos metabólicos generados por las células que aceleran la disolución del Ti.

  8. Control technology for surface treatment of materials using induction hardening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, J.B.; Skocypec, R.D. [Sandia National Labs., NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    In the industrial and automotive industries, induction case hardening is widely used to provide enhanced strength, wear resistance, and toughness in components made from medium and high carbon steels. The process uses significantly less energy than competing batch process, is environmentally benign, and is a very flexible in-line manufacturing process. As such, it can directly contribute to improved component reliability, and the manufacture of high-performance lightweight parts. However, induction hardening is not as widely used as it could be. Input material and unexplained process variations produce significant variation in product case depth and quality. This necessitates frequent inspection of product quality by destructive examination, creates higher than desired scrap rates, and causes de-rating of load stress sensitive components. In addition, process and tooling development are experience-based activities, accomplished by trial and error. This inhibits the use of induction hardening for new applications, and the resultant increase in energy efficiency in the industrial sectors. In FY96, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement under the auspices of the Technology Transfer Initiative and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles was completed. A multidisciplinary team from Sandia National Labs and Delphi Saginaw Steering Systems investigated the induction hardening by conducting research in the areas of process characterization, computational modeling, materials characterization, and high speed data acquisition and controller development. The goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of closed-loop control for a specific material, geometry, and process. Delphi Steering estimated annual savings of $2-3 million per year due to reduced scrap losses, inspection costs, and machine down time if reliable closed-loop control could be achieved. A factor of five improvement in process precision was demonstrated and is now operational on the factory floor.

  9. Control of Surface Attack by Gallium Alloys in Electrical Contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-28

    and atmospheric control but does not allow visual observation of the contact brushes. This machine is a small homopolar motor built from mild steel...collectors,gallium, homopolar devices,liquid metals,~- is. ABSTRACT ICNI.. .. w 41N"w -~dv.mp.d Wrllt by Itabata" * Electrical contact between a copp’er...32 5 Test rig with felt metal brushes 32 6 Homopolar test apparatus 33 7 Rewetting of alloy track 33 8 Alloy track after running with finger 34 brushes

  10. Doping Control Via Molecularly Engineered Surface Ligand Coordination

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Mingjian

    2013-08-05

    A means to control the net doping of a CQD solid is identified via the design of the bidentate ligand crosslinking the material. The strategy does not rely on implementing different atmospheres at different steps in device processing, but instead is a robust strategy implemented in a single processing ambient. We achieve an order of magnitude difference in doping that allows us to build a graded photovoltaic device and maintain high current and voltage at maximum power-point conditions. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. An approach to the synthesis of separate surface automatic flight control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, J.; Henry, S.

    1973-01-01

    A method is presented for the analysis of separate surface automatic flight control systems. The feasibility of such systems is demonstrated by the analysis of an example system, a separate surface wing-leveler for a Cessna 172. This example system employs a separate surface aileron with 15% of the basic airplane roll control power. A 90% reduction in bank-angle gust response can be obtained when compared with the basic airplane. The system does not feed back to the pilot's wheel. When failed (even hardover) the pilot retains more than adequate control of the airplane.

  12. Numerical simulation of hydrodynamic flows in the jet electric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarychev, V. D.; Granovskii, A. Yu; Nevskii, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    On the basis of concepts from magnetic hydrodynamics the mathematical model of hydrodynamic flows in the stream of electric arc plasma, obtained between the rod electrode and the target located perpendicular to the flat conductive, was developed. The same phenomenon occurs in the welding arc, arc plasma and other injection sources of charged particles. The model is based on the equations of magnetic hydrodynamics with special boundary conditions. The obtained system of equations was solved by the numerical method of finite elements with an automatic selection of the time step. Calculations were carried out with regard to the normal plasma inleakage on the solid conducting surface and the surface with the orifice. It was found that the solid surface facilitates three swirling zones. Interaction of these zones leads to the formation of two stable swirling zones, one of which is located at a distance of two radii from the axis and midway between the electrodes, another is located in the immediate vicinity of the continuous electrode. In this zone plasma backflow scattering fine particles is created. Swirling zones are not formed by using the plane electrode with an orifice. Thus, the fine particles can pass through it and consolidate.

  13. Controlled modification of the structure of polymer surfaces by chemically grafting inorganic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Lambert Oréfice

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Many chemical and physical methods, such as plasma, e-beam, sputtering, CVD and others, have been used to modify the structure of polymer surfaces by depositing thin inorganic films. Most of these techniques are based upon the use of high energy sources that ultimately can damage either chemically or physically polymer surfaces. Moreover, these methods are usually not versatile enough to allow the design of structurally and chemically tailored surfaces through the control of the distribution of chemical functionalities throughout the surface. In this work, inorganic species were introduced onto polymer substrates in a controlled manner by performing a sequence of chemical reactions at the surface. Sulfonation followed by silanization reactions were used to graft alkoxysilane species at the surface of poly(aryl sulfones. The heterogeneous chemical modification of poly(aryl sulfones was monitored by FTIR-ATR (Attenuated Total Reflection - FTIR. Model compounds were used to study the chemical reactions occurring during the grafting procedure. The results showed that the developed procedure can allow a controlled introduction of inorganic species onto polymer surfaces. Furthermore, in order to prove that this procedure enables the deposition of specific chemical functionalities onto polymer surfaces that can be used to create chemically and structurally tailored surfaces, silicate films were deposited on previously silanated PAS bioactive glass composites. In vitro tests showed that the surface modified composite can enhance the rates of hydroxy-carbonate-apatite precipitation.

  14. Some open questions in hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Dyndal, Mateusz

    2014-01-01

    When speaking of unsolved problems in physics, this is surprising at first glance to discuss the case of fluid mechanics. However, there are many deep open questions that come with the theory of fluid mechanics. In this paper, we discuss some of them that we classify in two categories, the long term behavior of solutions of equations of hydrodynamics and the definition of initial (boundary) conditions. The first set of questions come with the non-relativistic theory based on the Navier-Stokes equations. Starting from smooth initial conditions, the purpose is to understand if solutions of Navier-Stokes equations remain smooth with the time evolution. Existence for just a finite time would imply the evolution of finite time singularities, which would have a major influence on the development of turbulent phenomena. The second set of questions come with the relativistic theory of hydrodynamics. There is an accumulating evidence that this theory may be relevant for the description of the medium created in high en...

  15. Control surface plasmon polaritons propagation efficiently with only one holographic line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Juan; Chen, Yue-Gang

    2017-04-01

    Controlling surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) propagation on metal surface is significant for wide applications. Simple and effective structures are needed for SPP propagation controlling. In this paper, the line holography method is proposed to design a simple structure to control SPP wave propagation. The designed structure is composed of only one metal line, rather than a number of grooves in the holograms designed by the common surface electromagnetic wave holography method (SWH). The holographic line structure can control SPPs propagation effectively. Through the line holography method, two holographic line structures are designed to focus aside a plane SPP wave to one or two points. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used to simulate the control process. Results show that the holographic line can control the SPP wave propagation with efficiency of 55%, higher than that of the common SWH method (19%).

  16. Terminal Sliding Mode Control with Unidirectional Auxiliary Surfaces for Hypersonic Vehicles Based on Adaptive Disturbance Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naibao He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel flight control scheme is proposed using the terminal sliding mode technique, unidirectional auxiliary surfaces and the disturbance observer model. These proposed dynamic attitude control systems can improve control performance of hypersonic vehicles despite uncertainties and external disturbances. The terminal attractor is employed to improve the convergence rate associated with the critical damping characteristics problem noted in short-period motions of hypersonic vehicles. The proposed robust attitude control scheme uses a dynamic terminal sliding mode with unidirectional auxiliary surfaces. The nonlinear disturbance observer is designed to estimate system uncertainties and external disturbances. The output of the disturbance observer aids the robust adaptive control scheme and improves robust attitude control performance. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed terminal sliding mode with unidirectional auxiliary surfaces.

  17. Control of surface ripple amplitude in ion beam sputtered polycrystalline cobalt films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colino, Jose M., E-mail: josemiguel.colino@uclm.es [Institute of Nanoscience, Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Campus de la Fabrica de Armas, Toledo 45071 (Spain); Arranz, Miguel A. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real 13071 (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    We have grown both polycrystalline and partially textured cobalt films by magnetron sputter deposition in the range of thickness (50-200 nm). Kinetic roughening of the growing film leads to a controlled rms surface roughness values (1-6 nm) increasing with the as-grown film thickness. Ion erosion of a low energy 1 keV Ar+ beam at glancing incidence (80{sup o}) on the cobalt film changes the surface morphology to a ripple pattern of nanometric wavelength. The wavelength evolution at relatively low fluency is strongly dependent on the initial surface topography (a wavelength selection mechanism hereby confirmed in polycrystalline rough surfaces and based on the shadowing instability). At sufficiently large fluency, the ripple wavelength steadily increases on a coarsening regime and does not recall the virgin surface morphology. Remarkably, the use of a rough virgin surface makes the ripple amplitude in the final pattern can be controllably increased without affecting the ripple wavelength.

  18. Hydrodynamics coalescence collision of three liquid drops in 3D with smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Acevedo-Malavé

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method (SPH has been useful to model continuous fluid. This method is employed to obtain approximate numerical solutions of the equations in fluid dynamics by replacing the fluid with a set of particles. These particles may be interpreted as corresponding to interpolation points from which properties of the fluid can be determined. The SPH method is particularly useful when the fluid motion produces a big deformation and a large velocity of the whole fluid. In this study, the SPH method is applied to simulate for the first time the hydrodynamic collision of three equal-size liquid drops in the three-dimensional space. Ranges of value for the droplets collision velocity are chosen giving rise to the following different results for the collision: permanent coalescence, fragmentation, and flocculation of the drops. The velocity vector fields formed inside the drops during the collision process are presented. Three possible scenarios for fragmentation of liquid drops are shown. Multiple satellite drops arise from the ligaments on the surface of the formed bigger drop.

  19. Locally controlled globally smooth ground surface reconstruction from terrestrial point clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Rychkov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Approaches to ground surface reconstruction from massive terrestrial point clouds are presented. Using a set of local least squares (LSQR) planes, the "holes" are filled either from the ground model of the next coarser level or by Hermite Radial Basis Functions (HRBF). Global curvature continuous as well as infinitely smooth ground surface models are obtained with Partition of Unity (PU) using either tensor product B-Splines or compactly supported exponential function. The resulting surface function has local control enabling fast evaluation.

  20. Diffuse emission and control of copper in urban surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, M A; Steiner, M

    2002-01-01

    Copper washed off from roofs and roads is considered to be a major contribution to diffuse copper pollution of urban environments. In order to guarantee sustainable protection of soils and water, the long-term strategy is to avoid or replace copper containing materials on roofs and fagades. Until achievement of this goal, a special adsorber system is suggested to control the diffuse copper fluxes by retention of copper by a mixture of granulated iron-hydroxide (GEH) and calcium carbonate. Since future stormwater runoff concepts are based on decentralised runoff infiltration into the underground, solutions are proposed which provide for copper retention in infiltration sites using GEH adsorption layers. The example of a large copper façade of which the runoff is treated in an adsorption trench reveals the first full-scale data on façade runoff and adsorber performance. During the first year of investigation average façade runoff concentrations in the range of 1-10 mg Cu/l are reduced by 96-99% in the adsorption ditch.

  1. Method for Correcting Control Surface Angle Measurements in Single Viewpoint Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burner, Alpheus W. (Inventor); Barrows, Danny A. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method of determining a corrected control surface angle for use in single viewpoint photogrammetry to correct control surface angle measurements affected by wing bending. First and second visual targets are spaced apart &om one another on a control surface of an aircraft wing. The targets are positioned at a semispan distance along the aircraft wing. A reference target separation distance is determined using single viewpoint photogrammetry for a "wind off condition. An apparent target separation distance is then computed for "wind on." The difference between the reference and apparent target separation distances is minimized by recomputing the single viewpoint photogrammetric solution for incrementally changed values of target semispan distances. A final single viewpoint photogrammetric solution is then generated that uses the corrected semispan distance that produced the minimized difference between the reference and apparent target separation distances. The final single viewpoint photogrammetric solution set is used to determine the corrected control surface angle.

  2. High Efficiency Hydrodynamic DNA Fragmentation in a Bubbling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lanhui; Jin, Mingliang; Sun, Chenglong; Wang, Xiaoxue; Xie, Shuting; Zhou, Guofu; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C. T.; Shui, Lingling

    2017-01-01

    DNA fragmentation down to a precise fragment size is important for biomedical applications, disease determination, gene therapy and shotgun sequencing. In this work, a cheap, easy to operate and high efficiency DNA fragmentation method is demonstrated based on hydrodynamic shearing in a bubbling system. We expect that hydrodynamic forces generated during the bubbling process shear the DNA molecules, extending and breaking them at the points where shearing forces are larger than the strength of the phosphate backbone. Factors of applied pressure, bubbling time and temperature have been investigated. Genomic DNA could be fragmented down to controllable 1-10 Kbp fragment lengths with a yield of 75.30-91.60%. We demonstrate that the ends of the genomic DNAs generated from hydrodynamic shearing can be ligated by T4 ligase and the fragmented DNAs can be used as templates for polymerase chain reaction. Therefore, in the bubbling system, DNAs could be hydrodynamically sheared to achieve smaller pieces in dsDNAs available for further processes. It could potentially serve as a DNA sample pretreatment technique in the future.

  3. Efficacy of pyriproxyfen for control of stored-product psocids (Psocoptera) on concrete surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen was evaluated as a surface treatment for control of three stored-product psocid pests, Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel, L. decolor (Pearman), and L. paeta Pearman (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae). Nymphs were exposed for 35 d on a concrete surface treated with...

  4. Effect of seat surface inclination on postural control during reaching in preterm children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna; van der Heide, Jolanda C.; Fock, Johanna M.; Stremmelaar, Elisabeth; van Eykern, Leo A.; Otten, Bert

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose Because it is debatable whether seat surface inclination improves motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP), the effect of seat surface tilting on postural control and quality of reaching was studied. Subjects The subjects were 58 children with CP aged 2 to 11 years

  5. Hydrodynamic effects of air sparging on hollow fiber membranes in a bubble column reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lijun; Law, Adrian Wing-Keung; Fane, Anthony G

    2013-07-01

    Air sparging is now a standard approach to reduce concentration polarization and fouling of membrane modules in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). The hydrodynamic shear stresses, bubble-induced turbulence and cross flows scour the membrane surfaces and help reduce the deposit of foulants onto the membrane surface. However, the detailed quantitative knowledge on the effect of air sparging remains lacking in the literature due to the complex hydrodynamics generated by the gas-liquid flows. To date, there is no valid model that describes the relationship between the membrane fouling performance and the flow hydrodynamics. The present study aims to examine the impact of hydrodynamics induced by air sparging on the membrane fouling mitigation in a quantitative manner. A modelled hollow fiber module was placed in a cylindrical bubble column reactor at different axial heights with the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) monitored under constant flux conditions. The configuration of bubble column without the membrane module immersed was identical to that studied by Gan et al. (2011) using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA), to ensure a good quantitative understanding of turbulent flow conditions along the column height. The experimental results showed that the meandering flow regime which exhibits high flow instability at the 0.3 m is more beneficial to fouling alleviation compared with the steady flow circulation regime at the 0.6 m. The filtration tests also confirmed the existence of an optimal superficial air velocity beyond which a further increase is of no significant benefit on the membrane fouling reduction. In addition, the alternate aeration provided by two air stones mounted at the opposite end of the diameter of the bubble column was also studied to investigate the associated flow dynamics and its influence on the membrane filtration performance. It was found that with a proper switching interval and membrane module orientation, the membrane fouling can be effectively

  6. An electrochemically switched smart surface for peptide immobilization and conformation control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Sun, Chun-Lin; Shen, Rong; Cao, Xiao-Yan; Zhou, Bo; Bai, De-Cheng; Zhang, Hao-Li

    2014-08-06

    We report an electrochemically switched smart surface for controlled peptide immobilization and conformation control. This dynamic surface is based on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) containing surface-bound trimethoxybenzene moieties, which can undergo electrochemically modulated surface activation to be stepwisely converted to two catechol derivatives. This new smart surface can be used to realize stepwise immobilization of a peptide, and more importantly, to control peptide conformation on a surface. We demonstrate herein that with one electrochemical activation step, a linear peptide containing an RGD sequence can be attached onto the SAMs. With the subsequence activation step, the attached linear RGD peptide can be converted into cyclic conformation. The SAMs bounded with linear and cyclic RGD exhibit different adhesion behaviors to fibroblasts cells. The reaction procedure can be well-monitored by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical surface enhanced Raman microscopy (EC-SERS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is believed this robust smart surface can find wide applications in surface immobilization of bioactive moieties.

  7. Hydraulic visibility and effective cross sections based on hydrodynamical modeling of flow lines gained by satellite altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancamaria, S.; Garambois, P. A.; Calmant, S.; Roux, H.; Paris, A.; Monnier, J.; Santos da Silva, J.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrodynamic laws predict that irregularities in a river bed geometry produce spatial and temporal variations in the water level, hence in its slope. Conversely, observation of these changes is a goal of the SWOT mission with the determination of the discharge as a final objective. In this study, we analyse the relationship between river bed undulations and water surface for an ungauged reach of the Xingu river, a first order tributary of the Amazon river. It is crosscut more than 10 times by a single ENVISAT track over a hundred of km. We have determined time series of water levelsat each of these crossings, called virtual stations (VS), hence slopes of the flow line. Using the discharge series computed by Paiva et al. (2013) between 1998 and 2009, Paris et al. (submitted) determined at each VS a rating curve relating these simulated discharge with the ENVISAT height series. One parameter of these rating curves is the zero-flow depth Z 0 . We show that it is possible to explain the spatial and temporal variations of the water surface slope in terms of hydrodynamical response of the longitudinal changes of the river bed geometry given by the successive values of Z 0 . Our experiment is based on an effective, single thread representation of a braided river, realistic values for the Manning coefficient and river widths picked up on JERS images. This study confirms that simulated flow lines are consistent with water surface elevations (WSE) and slopes gained by satellite altimetry. Hydrodynamical signatures are more visible where the river bed geometry varies significantly, and for reaches with a strong downstream control. Therefore, this study suggests that the longitudinal variations of the slope might be an interesting criteria for the question of river segmentation into elementary reaches for the SWOT mission which will provide continuous measurements of the water surface elevation, the slope and the reach width.

  8. Storm dissolved organic matter : surface and sub-surface erosion controls its composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Marie; Jeanneau, Laurent; Gruau, Gérard; Petitjean, Patrice; Pierson-Wickmann, Anne-Catherine

    2016-04-01

    degraded and more hydrophobic molecules than during base-flow conditions. Flood events were also responsible for contribution to the river of high quantity of runoff solutions containing a high amount of POM, and DOM in high quantity with the same characteristics than soil solutions. In river, the modification of DOM quality is also recorded short time after its appearance in soil solutions. For the first time, the composition of soil solution DOM has been investigated during flood events. Results evidence the concomitant evolution of hydraulic gradient, DOM concentration and composition in runoff, soils solutions and stream water. These results highlight the contribution of surface and sub-surface erosion in the production of storm stream DOM.

  9. The role of moisture on controlling dust emissions from crusted supply-limited surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, James; Wiggs, Giles F. S.; Thomas, David S. G.; Washington, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Dust emissions from crusted surfaces are both highly variable and difficult to measure directly. Seasonal changes in surface soil moisture, temperature, evaporation, surface roughness, and sediment supply result in a highly complex surface condition that remains to be fully described in the context of wind erosion potential. A highly intensive project on Makgadikgadi Pan, Botswana using the PI-SWERL (portable wind tunnel) combined with surface measurements of crust and soil properties has led to a new understanding of the time sensitive controls on wind erosion from these surfaces. The PI-SWERL is a highly portable wind tunnel that applies a shear stress to the surface using a motor-controlled rotating annular blade and measures resulting dust emissions with a PM10 monitor (DustTrak TSI Inc.). We undertook a sequence of tests with the PI-SWERL to obtain both the wind erosion threshold (using a slowly increasing shear velocity) and a dust emission flux (using a constant shear velocity) across a 12 km by 12 km grid across the pan surface. A total of just over 1500 wind tunnel tests and 3000 correlated measurements of a variety of surface properties including crust thickness, surface and subsurface soil moisture, shearing strength (shear vane), normal stress resistance (penetrometer), and surface roughness were conducted in August 2011 and August through October 2012. Two sets of results are presented providing discussion on: 1) Spatial variations in surface characteristics 2) Temporal variation in the control of surface characteristics and climatic conditions on potential dust emissions. These results show that wind erosion potential is best described by measurements of normal stress resistance rather than shearing strength at low dust emission fluxes, but despite their frequent use in wind erosion studies of crusted surfaces neither metric provided a good explanation of higher dust emission fluxes. Surface soil moisture explained the most variation in both dust

  10. PreC and C Regions of Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus Facilitate Persistent Expression of Surface Antigen of Chimeric WHV-HBV Virus in the Hydrodynamic Injection BALB/c Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weimin; Liu, Yan; Lin, Yong; Pan, Danzhen; Yang, Dongliang; Lu, Mengji; Xu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    In the hydrodynamic injection (HI) BALB/c mouse model with the overlength viral genome, we have found that woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) could persist for a prolonged period of time (up to 45 weeks), while hepatitis B virus (HBV) was mostly cleared at week four. In this study, we constructed a series of chimeric genomes based on HBV and WHV, in which the individual sequences of a 1.3-fold overlength HBV genome in pBS-HBV1.3 were replaced by their counterparts from WHV. After HI with the WHV-HBV chimeric constructs in BALB/c mice, serum viral antigen, viral DNA (vDNA), and intrahepatic viral antigen expression were analyzed to evaluate the persistence of the chimeric genomes. Interestingly, we found that HI with three chimeric WHV-HBV genomes resulted in persistent antigenemia in mice. All of the persistent chimeric genomes contained the preC region and the part of the C region encoding the N-terminal 1–145 amino acids of the WHV genome. These results indicated that the preC region and the N-terminal part of the C region of the WHV genome may play a role in the persistent antigenemia. The chimeric WHV-HBV genomes were able to stably express viral antigens in the liver and could be further used to express hepadnaviral antigens to study their pathogenic potential. PMID:28230775

  11. Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Controllable Electrical Conductivity and Water Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lijun; Guan, Jipeng; Li, Zhixiang; Zhao, Jingxin; Ye, Cuicui; You, Jichun; Li, Yongjin

    2017-02-14

    A facile and versatile strategy for fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces with controllable electrical conductivity and water adhesion is reported. "Vine-on-fence"-structured and cerebral cortex-like superhydrophobic surfaces are constructed by filtering a suspension of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), using polyoxymethylene nonwovens as the filter paper. The nonwovens with micro- and nanoporous two-tier structures act as the skeleton, introducing a microscale structure. The MWCNTs act as nanoscale structures, creating hierarchical surface roughness. The surface topography and the electrical conductivity of the superhydrophobic surfaces are controlled by varying the MWCNT loading. The vine-on-fence-structured surfaces exhibit "sticky" superhydrophobicity with high water adhesion. The cerebral cortex-like surfaces exhibit self-cleaning properties with low water adhesion. The as-prepared superhydrophobic surfaces are chemically resistant to acidic and alkaline environments of pH 2-12. They therefore have potential in applications such as droplet-based microreactors and thin-film microextraction. These findings aid our understanding of the role that surface topography plays in the design and fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with different water-adhesion properties.

  12. Relativistic Hydrodynamics for Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    Relativistic hydrodynamics is essential to our current understanding of nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies (current experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, forthcoming experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider). This is an introduction to relativistic hydrodynamics for graduate students. It includes a detailed…

  13. Hydrodynamic models of a Cepheid atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    Instead of computing a large number of coarsely zoned hydrodynamic models covering the entire atmospheric instability strip, the author computed a single model as well as computer limitations allow. The implicit hydrodynamic code of Kutter and Sparks was modified to include radiative transfer effects in optically thin zones.

  14. Hydrodynamic correlation functions in nematic liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.; Carle, D.; Laidlaw, W.G.

    1976-01-01

    The result, recently discovered by Forster, that the strength factors of the nonpropagating modes in certain hydrodynamic correlation functions in nematic liquid crystals are not fully determined by the hydrodynamic matrix is reconsidered. Using time reversal and space inversion symmetry one finds t

  15. Hydrodynamic Overview at Hot Quarks 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn

    2016-01-01

    This presents an overview of relativistic hydrodynamic modeling in heavy-ion collisions prepared for Hot Quarks 2016, at South Padre Island, TX, USA. The influence of the initial state and viscosity on various experimental observables are discussed. Specific problems that arise in the hydrodynamical modeling at the Beam Energy Scan are briefly discussed.

  16. Measurement of the hydrodynamic resistance of microdroplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakiela, Slawomir

    2016-10-07

    Here, we demonstrate a novel method of measurement which determines precisely the hydrodynamic resistance of a droplet flowing through a channel. The obtained results show that the hydrodynamic resistance of a droplet in a microchannel achieves its maximum for lengths of the droplet ranging from 3w to 4w and that interactions between beads in a train exist.

  17. Hydrodynamic correlation functions in nematic liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.; Carle, D.; Laidlaw, W.G.

    1976-01-01

    The result, recently discovered by Forster, that the strength factors of the nonpropagating modes in certain hydrodynamic correlation functions in nematic liquid crystals are not fully determined by the hydrodynamic matrix is reconsidered. Using time reversal and space inversion symmetry one finds t

  18. Surface Energy and Work Function Control of AlOx/Al Surfaces by Fluorinated Benzylphosphonic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Ffion; Ford, William E; Scholz, Frank; Nelles, Gabriele; Sandford, Graham; von Wrochem, Florian

    2016-05-11

    The performance of organic electronic devices can be significantly improved by modifying metal electrodes with organic monolayers, which alter the physical and chemical nature of the interface between conductor and semiconductor. In this paper we examine a series of 12 phosphonic acid compounds deposited on the native oxide layer of aluminum (AlOx/Al), an electrode material with widespread applications in organic electronics. This series includes dodecylphosphonic acid as a reference and 11 benzylphosphonic acids, seven of which are fluorinated, including five newly synthesized derivatives. The monolayers are experimentally characterized by contact angle goniometry and by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and work function data obtained by low-intensity XPS are correlated with molecular dipoles obtained from DFT calculations. We find that monolayers are formed with molecular areas ranging from 17.7 to 42.9 Å(2)/molecule, and, by the choice of appropriate terminal groups, the surface energy can be tuned from 23.5 mJ/m(2) to 70.5 mJ/m(2). Depending on the number and position of fluorine substituents on the aromatic rings, a variation in the work function of AlOx/Al substrates over a range of 0.91 eV is achieved, and a renormalization procedure based on molecular density yields a surprising agreement of work function changes with interface dipoles as expected from Helmholtz' equation. The ability to adjust energetics and adhesion at organic semiconductor/AlOx interfaces has immediate applications in devices such as OLEDs, OTFTs, organic solar cells, and printed organic circuits.

  19. Quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics for central collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Alqahtani, Mubarak; Strickland, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We use quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics to study an azimuthally-symmetric boost-invariant quark-gluon plasma including the effects of both shear and bulk viscosities. In quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics, a single finite-temperature quasiparticle mass is introduced and fit to the lattice data in order to implement a realistic equation of state. We compare results obtained using the quasiparticle method with the standard method of imposing the equation of state in anisotropic hydrodynamics and viscous hydrodynamics. Using these three methods, we extract the primordial particle spectra, total number of charged particles, and average transverse momentum for various values of the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio eta/s. We find that the three methods agree well for small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, eta/s, but differ at large eta/s. We find, in particular, that when using standard viscous hydrodynamics, the bulk-viscous correction can drive the primordial particle spectra negative...

  20. Hydrodynamic Approaches in Relativistic Heavy Ion Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    de Souza, Rafael Derradi; Kodama, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    We review several facets of the hydrodynamic description of the relativistic heavy ion collisions, starting from the historical motivation to the present understandings of the observed collective aspects of experimental data, especially those of the most recent RHIC and LHC results. In this report, we particularly focus on the conceptual questions and the physical foundations of the validity of the hydrodynamic approach itself. We also discuss recent efforts to clarify some of the points in this direction, such as the various forms of derivations of relativistic hydrodynamics together with the limitations intrinsic to the traditional approaches, variational approaches, known analytic solutions for special cases, and several new theoretical developments. Throughout this review, we stress the role of course-graining procedure in the hydrodynamic description and discuss its relation with the physical observables through the analysis of a hydrodynamic mapping of a microscopic transport model. Several questions to...

  1. Hydrodynamics research of wastewater treatment bioreactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Nan-qi; ZHANG Bing; ZHOU Xue-fei

    2009-01-01

    To optimize the design and improve the performance of wastewater treatment bioreactors, the review concerning the hydrodynamics explored by theoretical equations, process experiments, modeling of the hydrody-namics and flow field measurement is presented. Results of different kinds of experiments show that the hydro-dynamic characteristics can affect sludge characteristics, mass transfer and reactor performance significantly. A-long with the development of theoretical equations, turbulence models including large eddy simulation models and Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models are widely used at present. Standard and modified k-ε models are the most widely used eddy viscosity turbulence models for simulating flows in bioreactors. Numericalsimulation of hydrodynamics is proved to be efficient for optimizing design and operation. The development of measurement techniques with high accuracy and low intrusion enables the flow filed in the bioreactors to be transparent. Integration of both numerical simulation and experimental measurement can describe the hydrody-namics very well.

  2. Hydrodynamic Forces on Macromolecules Protruding from Lipid Bilayers Due to External Liquid Flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Peter; Jönsson, Bengt

    2015-11-24

    It has previously been observed that an externally applied hydrodynamic shear flow above a fluid lipid bilayer can change the local concentration of macromolecules that are associated with the lipid bilayer. The external liquid flow results in a hydrodynamic force on molecules protruding from the lipid bilayer, causing them to move in the direction of the flow. However, there has been no quantitative study about the magnitude of these forces. We here use finite element simulations to investigate how the magnitude of the external hydrodynamic forces varies with the size and shape of the studied macromolecule. The simulations show that the hydrodynamic force is proportional to the effective hydrodynamic area of the studied molecule, Ahydro, multiplied by the mean hydrodynamic shear stress acting on the membrane surface, σhydro. The parameter Ahydro depends on the size and shape of the studied macromolecule above the lipid bilayer and scales with the cross-sectional area of the molecule. We also investigate how hydrodynamic shielding from other surrounding macromolecules decreases Ahydro when the surface coverage of the shielding macromolecules increases. Experiments where the protein streptavidin is anchored to a supported lipid bilayer on the floor of a microfluidic channel were finally performed at three different surface concentrations, Φ = 1%, 6%, and 10%, where the protein is being moved relative to the lipid bilayer by a liquid flow through the channel. From photobleaching measurements of fluorescently labeled streptavidin we found the experimental drift data to be within good accuracy of the simulated results, less than 12% difference, indicating the validity of the results obtained from the simulations. In addition to giving a deeper insight into how a liquid flow can affect membrane-associated molecules in a lipid bilayer, we also see an interesting potential of using hydrodynamic flow experiments together with the obtained results to study the size and

  3. The fractal characteristic change in the Huanghe River Estuary due to the hydrodynamic conditions' variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Yonggang; Fu Yuanbin; Xu Guohui; Shan Hongxian; Cao Xueqing

    2003-01-01

    The study area lies in the subaqueous delta, which came into being in 1964~1976. One oil-field road has been built for exploring petroleum to form a wave barrier. The hydrodynamic conditions on the north side of the road are relatively violent, on the contrary the hydrodynamic conditions on the south side of the road are nearly placid. This makes the study area a natural laboratory for studying the influence of the hydrodynamic conditions on the fractal characteristics of the tidal flat. Selecting an area is named Case Ⅰ on the side of stronger hydrodynamic activities and an area is named Case Ⅱ on the other side. Measuring the topography and sampling and analyzing the granulometrical composition, it is found that the hydrodynamic conditions have fatal influence on the surface fractal dimensions and the granulometrical fractal dimensions of the area. In Case Ⅰ, which has strong hydrodynamic conditions, the surface fractal dimensions are obviously larger than those of Case Ⅱ, and the granulometrical fractal dimensions are relatively smaller than those of Case Ⅱ, the surface fractal dimensions of Case Ⅰ decrease quickly with the increase of grid size; the granulometrical fractal dimensions are disperse, while the hydrodynamic conditions of Case Ⅱ are just reverse. A sampling line and a core sampling on each side of the road are selected. It is found that on the south side of the road the granulometrical fractal dimensions vary regularly in the line and with the depth, the farther apart from the road, the smaller the fractal dimensions, and the deeper the sampling position the larger the fractal dimensions, while granulometrical fractal dimensions on the north side of the road have no such regularity pattern. The mechanism of the influence of the hydrodynamic conditions on the fractal characteristics is discussed.

  4. Variable Structure Disturbance Rejection Control for Nonlinear Uncertain Systems with State and Control Delays via Optimal Sliding Mode Surface Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of variable structure control for nonlinear systems with uncertainty and time delays under persistent disturbance by using the optimal sliding mode surface approach. Through functional transformation, the original time-delay system is transformed into a delay-free one. The approximating sequence method is applied to solve the nonlinear optimal sliding mode surface problem which is reduced to a linear two-point boundary value problem of approximating sequences. The optimal sliding mode surface is obtained from the convergent solutions by solving a Riccati equation, a Sylvester equation, and the state and adjoint vector differential equations of approximating sequences. Then, the variable structure disturbance rejection control is presented by adopting an exponential trending law, where the state and control memory terms are designed to compensate the state and control delays, a feedforward control term is designed to reject the disturbance, and an adjoint compensator is designed to compensate the effects generated by the nonlinearity and the uncertainty. Furthermore, an observer is constructed to make the feedforward term physically realizable, and thus the dynamical observer-based dynamical variable structure disturbance rejection control law is produced. Finally, simulations are demonstrated to verify the effectiveness of the presented controller and the simplicity of the proposed approach.

  5. Surface developmental dyslexia is as prevalent as phonological dyslexia when appropriate control groups are employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wybrow, Dean P; Hanley, J Richard

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations of the incidence of developmental surface and phonological dyslexia using reading-age-matched control groups have identified many more phonological dyslexics (poor nonword reading relative to irregular-word reading) than surface dyslexics (poor irregular-word reading relative to nonword reading). However, because the measures that have been used to estimate reading age include irregular-word reading ability, they appear inappropriate for assessing the incidence of surface dyslexia. The current study used a novel method for generating control groups whose reading ability was matched to that of the dyslexic sample. The incidence of surface dyslexia was assessed by comparing dyslexic performance with that of a control group who were matched with the dyslexics on a test of nonword reading. The incidence of phonological dyslexia was assessed with reference to a control group who were matched with the dyslexics at irregular-word reading. These control groups led to the identification of an approximately equal number of children with surface and phonological dyslexia. It appeared that selecting control participants who were matched with dyslexics for reading age led to the recruitment of individuals with relatively high nonword reading scores relative to their irregular-word reading scores compared with other types of control group. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. Decoherent Histories and Hydrodynamic Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Halliwell, J J

    1998-01-01

    For a system consisting of a large collection of particles, a set of variables that will generally become effectively classical are the local densities (number, momentum, energy). That is, in the context of the decoherent histories approach to quantum theory, it is expected that histories of these variables will be approximately decoherent, and that their probabilites will be strongly peaked about hydrodynamic equations. This possibility is explored for the case of the diffusion of the number density of a dilute concentration of foreign particles in a fluid. It is shown that, for certain physically reasonable initial states, the probabilities for histories of number density are strongly peaked about evolution according to the diffusion equation. Decoherence of these histories is also shown for a class of initial states which includes non-trivial superpositions of number density. Histories of phase space densities are also discussed. The case of histories of number, momentum and energy density for more general...

  7. Hydrodynamic stability and stellar oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H M Antia

    2011-07-01

    Chandrasekhar’s monograph on Hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic stability, published in 1961, is a standard reference on linear stability theory. It gives a detailed account of stability of fluid flow in a variety of circumstances, including convection, stability of Couette flow, Rayleigh–Taylor instability, Kelvin–Helmholtz instability as well as the Jean’s instability for star formation. In most cases he has extended these studies to include effects of rotation and magnetic field. In a later paper he has given a variational formulation for equations of non-radial stellar oscillations. This forms the basis for helioseismic inversion techniques as well as extension to include the effect of rotation, magnetic field and other large-scale flows using a perturbation treatment.

  8. Integration of quantum hydrodynamical equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyanova, Vera G.; Sanin, Andrey L.

    2007-04-01

    Quantum hydrodynamics equations describing the dynamics of quantum fluid are a subject of this report (QFD).These equations can be used to decide the wide class of problem. But there are the calculated difficulties for the equations, which take place for nonlinear hyperbolic systems. In this connection, It is necessary to impose the additional restrictions which assure the existence and unique of solutions. As test sample, we use the free wave packet and study its behavior at the different initial and boundary conditions. The calculations of wave packet propagation cause in numerical algorithm the division. In numerical algorithm at the calculations of wave packet propagation, there arises the problem of division by zero. To overcome this problem we have to sew together discrete numerical and analytical continuous solutions on the boundary. We demonstrate here for the free wave packet that the numerical solution corresponds to the analytical solution.

  9. Nonstandard Gaits in Unsteady Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Michael; Rowley, Clarence

    2016-11-01

    Marine biology has long inspired the design and engineering of underwater vehicles. The literature examining the kinematics and dynamics of fishes, ranging from undulatory anguilliform swimmers to oscillatory ostraciiform ones, is vast. Past numerical studies of these organisms have principally focused on gaits characterized by sinusoidal pitching and heaving motions. It is conceivable that more sophisticated gaits could perform better in some respects, for example as measured by thrust generation or by cost of transport. This work uses an unsteady boundary-element method to numerically investigate the hydrodynamics and propulsive efficiency of high-Reynolds-number swimmers whose gaits are encoded by Fourier series or by Jacobi elliptic functions. Numerical results are presented with an emphasis on identifying particular wake structures and modes of motion that are associated with optimal swimming. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research through MURI Grant N00014-14-1-0533.

  10. Introduction to Magneto-Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Guy

    Magneto-Hydrodynamics (hereafter MHD) describes plasmas on large scales and more generally electrically conducting fluids. This description does not discriminate between the various fluids that constitute the medium. In laboratory, it allows to globally describe a plasma machine, for instance a toroidal nuclear fusion reactor like a Tokamak. In astrophysics it plays an essential role in the description of cosmic objects and their environments, as well as the media, such as the interstellar or the intergalactic medium. A set of phenomena are specific to MHD description. Some of them will be presented in this lecture such as the tension effect, confinement, magnetic diffusivity, magnetic field freezing, Alfvén waves, magneto-sonic waves, reconnection. A celebrated phenomenon of MHD will not be introduced in this brief lecture, namely the dynamo effect.

  11. Sliding Mode Control Design for a Class of SISO Systems with Uncertain Sliding Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofeng Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of designing a sliding mode controller with uncertain sliding surface for a class of uncertain single-input-single-output systems is studied. The design case is handled by using the invariant transformation first in order to separate the sliding mode and the reaching mode of the sliding mode control system. It is shown that the sliding mode design needs not to consider the uncertainties of the sliding surface, which can be handled in the reaching phase design. The results generalize the robust design of the reaching phase such that one specific reaching phase design may agree with several sliding surfaces.

  12. A formulation of consistent particle hydrodynamics in strong form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Satoko; Makino, Junichiro

    2017-03-01

    In fluid dynamical simulations in astrophysics, large deformations are common and surface tracking is sometimes necessary. The smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method has been used in many such simulations. Recently, however, it has been shown that SPH cannot handle contact discontinuities or free surfaces accurately. There are several reasons for this problem. The first one is that SPH requires that the density is continuous and differentiable. The second one is that SPH does not have consistency, and thus the accuracy is of the zeroth-order in space. In addition, we cannot express accurate boundary conditions with SPH. In this paper, we propose a novel, high-order scheme for particle-based hydrodynamics of compressible fluid. Our method is based on a kernel-weighted high-order fitting polynomial for intensive variables. With this approach, we can construct a scheme which solves all of the three problems described above. For shock capturing, we use a tensor form of von Neumann-Richtmyer artificial viscosity. We have applied our method to many test problems and obtained excellent results. Our method is not conservative, since particles do not have mass or energy, but only their densities. However, because of the Lagrangian nature of our scheme, the violation of the conservation laws turned out to be small. We name this method Consistent Particle Hydrodynamics in Strong Form (CPHSF).

  13. Sliding mode control of wind-induced vibrations using fuzzy sliding surface and gain adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenozhi, Suresh; Yu, Wen

    2016-04-01

    Although fuzzy/adaptive sliding mode control can reduce the chattering problem in structural vibration control applications, they require the equivalent control and the upper bounds of the system uncertainties. In this paper, we used fuzzy logic to approximate the standard sliding surface and designed a dead-zone adaptive law for tuning the switching gain of the sliding mode control. The stability of the proposed controller is established using Lyapunov stability theory. A six-storey building prototype equipped with an active mass damper has been used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller towards the wind-induced vibrations.

  14. The hydrodynamics of dolphin drafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihs Daniel

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drafting in cetaceans is defined as the transfer of forces between individuals without actual physical contact between them. This behavior has long been surmised to explain how young dolphin calves keep up with their rapidly moving mothers. It has recently been observed that a significant number of calves become permanently separated from their mothers during chases by tuna vessels. A study of the hydrodynamics of drafting, initiated in the hope of understanding the mechanisms causing the separation of mothers and calves during fishing-related activities, is reported here. Results Quantitative results are shown for the forces and moments around a pair of unequally sized dolphin-like slender bodies. These include two major effects. First, the so-called Bernoulli suction, which stems from the fact that the local pressure drops in areas of high speed, results in an attractive force between mother and calf. Second is the displacement effect, in which the motion of the mother causes the water in front to move forwards and radially outwards, and water behind the body to move forwards to replace the animal's mass. Thus, the calf can gain a 'free ride' in the forward-moving areas. Utilizing these effects, the neonate can gain up to 90% of the thrust needed to move alongside the mother at speeds of up to 2.4 m/sec. A comparison with observations of eastern spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris is presented, showing savings of up to 60% in the thrust that calves require if they are to keep up with their mothers. Conclusions A theoretical analysis, backed by observations of free-swimming dolphin schools, indicates that hydrodynamic interactions with mothers play an important role in enabling dolphin calves to keep up with rapidly moving adult school members.

  15. Enhanced Cu-to-Cu direct bonding by controlling surface physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Po-Hao; Liang, Sin-Yong; Song, Jenn-Ming; Huang, Shang-Kun; Chiu, Ying-Ta; Hung, Chih-Pin

    2017-03-01

    Cu-to-Cu direct bonding is one of the key technologies for three-dimensional (3D) chip stacking. This research proposes a new concept to enhance Cu-to-Cu direct bonding through the control of surface physical properties. A linear relationship between bonding strength and the H/\\sqrt{R} value of the bonding face (H: subsurface hardness, R: surface roughness) was found. Low vacuum air plasma and thermal annealing were adopted to adjust the surface physical conditions. Instead of surface activation, an acceleration in copper atom diffusion due to plasma-induced compressive stress accounts for the improvement in bonding strength.

  16. Controlled uniform coating from the interplay of Marangoni flows and surface-adsorbed macromolecules

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hyoungsoo; Um, Eujin; Jacobi, Ian; Button, Ernie; Stone, Howard A

    2016-01-01

    Surface coatings and patterning technologies are essential for various physicochemical applications. In this Letter, we describe key parameters to achieve uniform particle coatings in binary solutions: First, multiple sequential Marangoni flows, set by solute and surfactant simultaneously, prevent non-uniform particle distributions and continuously mix suspended materials during droplet evaporation. Second, we show the importance of particle-surface interactions that can be established by surface-adsorbed macromolecules. To achieve a uniform deposit in a binary mixture a small concentration of surfactant and surface-adsorbed polymer (0.05 wt% each) is sufficient, which offers a new physicochemical avenue for control of coatings.

  17. Control of bacterial biofilm growth on surfaces by nanostructural mechanics and geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, A. K.; Hochbaum, A. I.; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, J.

    2011-12-01

    Surface-associated communities of bacteria, called biofilms, pervade natural and anthropogenic environments. Mature biofilms are resistant to a wide range of antimicrobial treatments and therefore pose persistent pathogenic threats. The use of surface chemistry to inhibit biofilm growth has been found to only transiently affect initial attachment. In this work, we investigate the tunable effects of physical surface properties, including high-aspect-ratio (HAR) surface nanostructure arrays recently reported to induce long-range spontaneous spatial patterning of bacteria on the surface. The functional parameters and length scale regimes that control such artificial patterning for the rod-shaped pathogenic species Pseudomonas aeruginosa are elucidated through a combinatorial approach. We further report a crossover regime of biofilm growth on a HAR nanostructured surface versus the nanostructure effective stiffness. When the 'softness' of the hair-like nanoarray is increased beyond a threshold value, biofilm growth is inhibited as compared to a flat control surface. This result is consistent with the mechanoselective adhesion of bacteria to surfaces. Therefore by combining nanoarray-induced bacterial patterning and modulating the effective stiffness of the nanoarray—thus mimicking an extremely compliant flat surface—bacterial mechanoselective adhesion can be exploited to control and inhibit biofilm growth.

  18. Light-responsive smart surface with controllable wettability and excellent stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yin-Ning; Li, Jin-Jin; Zhang, Qing; Luo, Zheng-Hong

    2014-10-21

    Novel fluorinated gradient copolymer was designed for smart surface with light-responsive controllable wettability and excellent stability. The switchable mechanism and physicochemical characteristics of the as-prepared surface decorated by designed polymeric material were investigated by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum, scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Thanks to the functional film and surface roughening, etched silicon surface fabricated by copolymer involving spiropyran (Sp) moieties possesses a fairly large variation range of WCA (28.1°) and achieves the transformation between hydrophilicity (95.2° 109.2°) relative to blank sample (109.2°). The synthetic strategy and developed smart surface offer a promising application in coating with controllable wettability, which bridge the gap between chemical structure and material properties.

  19. Ultrafast helicity control of surface currents in topological insulators with near-unity fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastl, Christoph; Karnetzky, Christoph; Karl, Helmut; Holleitner, Alexander W

    2015-03-26

    In recent years, a class of solid-state materials, called three-dimensional topological insulators, has emerged. In the bulk, a topological insulator behaves like an ordinary insulator with a band gap. At the surface, conducting gapless states exist showing remarkable properties such as helical Dirac dispersion and suppression of backscattering of spin-polarized charge carriers. The characterization and control of the surface states via transport experiments is often hindered by residual bulk contributions. Here we show that surface currents in Bi2Se3 can be controlled by circularly polarized light on a picosecond timescale with a fidelity near unity even at room temperature. We reveal the temporal separation of such ultrafast helicity-dependent surface currents from photo-induced thermoelectric and drift currents in the bulk. Our results uncover the functionality of ultrafast optoelectronic devices based on surface currents in topological insulators.

  20. Hydrodynamic growth and mix experiments at National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Caggiano, J.; Casey, D.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D. S.; Edwards, J.; Grim, G.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hamza, A.; Hsing, W.; Hurricane, O.; Kilkenny, J.; Kline, J.; Knauer, J.; Landen, O.; McNaney, J.; Mintz, M.; Nikroo, A.; Parham, T.; Park, H.-S.; Pino, J.; Raman, K.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Rowley, D.; Tipton, R.; Weber, S.; Yeamans, C.

    2016-03-01

    Hydrodynamic growth and its effects on implosion performance and mix were studied at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Spherical shells with pre-imposed 2D modulations were used to measure Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth in the acceleration phase of implosions using in-flight x-ray radiography. In addition, implosion performance and mix have been studied at peak compression using plastic shells filled with tritium gas and imbedding localized CD diagnostic layer in various locations in the ablator. Neutron yield and ion temperature of the DT fusion reactions were used as a measure of shell-gas mix, while neutron yield of the TT fusion reaction was used as a measure of implosion performance. The results have indicated that the low-mode hydrodynamic instabilities due to surface roughness were the primary culprits to yield degradation, with atomic ablator-gas mix playing a secondary role.