WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrodynamic cavitation process

  1. A novel brewing process via controlled hydrodynamic cavitation

    CERN Document Server

    Albanese, Lorenzo; Meneguzzo, Francesco; Pagliaro, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a completely new brewing equipment and process based upon controlled hydrodynamic cavitation, providing significant advantages in terms of lowered capital cost, reduced production time, enhanced energy and production efficiency, food safety, while preserving beer organoleptic qualities. Experiments carried out on real microbrewery volume scale using the new and conventional technology unquestionably confirm the relevance of the new findings. Impacts of these discoveries are potentially far reaching, as beer is the worldwide most widely consumed alcoholic beverage, therefore highly relevant to health, environment the economy and even to local identities.

  2. Disruption of Brewers' yeast by hydrodynamic cavitation: Process variables and their influence on selective release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasundaram, B; Harrison, S T L

    2006-06-01

    Intracellular products, not secreted from the microbial cell, are released by breaking the cell envelope consisting of cytoplasmic membrane and an outer cell wall. Hydrodynamic cavitation has been reported to cause microbial cell disruption. By manipulating the operating variables involved, a wide range of intensity of cavitation can be achieved resulting in a varying extent of disruption. The effect of the process variables including cavitation number, initial cell concentration of the suspension and the number of passes across the cavitation zone on the release of enzymes from various locations of the Brewers' yeast was studied. The release profile of the enzymes studied include alpha-glucosidase (periplasmic), invertase (cell wall bound), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; cytoplasmic) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH; cytoplasmic). An optimum cavitation number Cv of 0.13 for maximum disruption was observed across the range Cv 0.09-0.99. The optimum cell concentration was found to be 0.5% (w/v, wet wt) when varying over the range 0.1%-5%. The sustained effect of cavitation on the yeast cell wall when re-circulating the suspension across the cavitation zone was found to release the cell wall bound enzyme invertase (86%) to a greater extent than the enzymes from other locations of the cell (e.g. periplasmic alpha-glucosidase at 17%). Localised damage to the cell wall could be observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of cells subjected to less intense cavitation conditions. Absence of the release of cytoplasmic enzymes to a significant extent, absence of micronisation as observed by TEM and presence of a lower number of proteins bands in the culture supernatant on SDS-PAGE analysis following hydrodynamic cavitation compared to disruption by high-pressure homogenisation confirmed the selective release offered by hydrodynamic cavitation.

  3. Degradation of imidacloprid using combined advanced oxidation processes based on hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pankaj N; Bote, Sayli D; Gogate, Parag R

    2014-09-01

    The harmful effects of wastewaters containing pesticides or insecticides on human and aquatic life impart the need of effectively treating the wastewater streams containing these contaminants. In the present work, hydrodynamic cavitation reactors have been applied for the degradation of imidacloprid with process intensification studies based on different additives and combination with other similar processes. Effect of different operating parameters viz. concentration (20-60 ppm), pressure (1-8 bar), temperature (34 °C, 39 °C and 42 °C) and initial pH (2.5-8.3) has been investigated initially using orifice plate as cavitating device. It has been observed that 23.85% degradation of imidacloprid is obtained at optimized set of operating parameters. The efficacy of different process intensifying approaches based on the use of hydrogen peroxide (20-80 ppm), Fenton's reagent (H2O2:FeSO4 ratio as 1:1, 1:2, 2:1, 2:2, 4:1 and 4:2), advanced Fenton process (H2O2:Iron Powder ratio as 1:1, 2:1 and 4:1) and combination of Na2S2O8 and FeSO4 (FeSO4:Na2S2O8 ratio as 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4) on the extent of degradation has been investigated. It was observed that near complete degradation of imidacloprid was achieved in all the cases at optimized values of process intensifying parameters. The time required for complete degradation of imidacloprid for approach based on hydrogen peroxide was 120 min where as for the Fenton and advance Fenton process, the required time was only 60 min. To check the effectiveness of hydrodynamic cavitation with different cavitating devices, few experiments were also performed with the help of slit venturi as a cavitating device at already optimized values of parameters. The present work has conclusively established that combined processes based on hydrodynamic cavitation can be effectively used for complete degradation of imidacloprid.

  4. Degradation of diclofenac sodium using combined processes based on hydrodynamic cavitation and heterogeneous photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagal, Manisha V; Gogate, Parag R

    2014-05-01

    Diclofenac sodium, a widely detected pharmaceutical drug in wastewater samples, has been selected as a model pollutant for degradation using novel combined approach of hydrodynamic cavitation and heterogeneous photocatalysis. A slit venturi has been used as cavitating device in the hydrodynamic cavitation reactor. The effect of various operating parameters such as inlet fluid pressure (2-4 bar) and initial pH of the solution (4-7.5) on the extent of degradation have been studied. The maximum extent of degradation of diclofenac sodium was obtained at inlet fluid pressure of 3 bar and initial pH as 4 using hydrodynamic cavitation alone. The loadings of TiO2 and H2O2 have been optimised to maximise the extent of degradation of diclofenac sodium. Kinetic study revealed that the degradation of diclofenac sodium fitted first order kinetics over the selected range of operating protocols. It has been observed that combination of hydrodynamic cavitation with UV, UV/TiO2 and UV/TiO2/H2O2 results in enhanced extents of degradation as compared to the individual schemes. The maximum extent of degradation as 95% with 76% reduction in TOC has been observed using hydrodynamic cavitation in conjunction with UV/TiO2/H2O2 under the optimised operating conditions. The diclofenac sodium degradation byproducts have been identified using LC/MS analysis.

  5. Degradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol using a combination of hydrodynamic cavitation, chemical and advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagal, Manisha V; Gogate, Parag R

    2013-09-01

    In the present work, degradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a persistent organic contaminant with high toxicity and very low biodegradability has been investigated using combination of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) and chemical/advanced oxidation. The cavitating conditions have been generated using orifice plate as a cavitating device. Initially, the optimization of basic operating parameters have been done by performing experiments over varying inlet pressure (over the range of 3-6 bar), temperature (30 °C, 35 °C and 40 °C) and solution pH (over the range of 3-11). Subsequently, combined treatment strategies have been investigated for process intensification of the degradation process. The effect of HC combined with chemical oxidation processes such as hydrogen peroxide (HC/H2O2), ferrous activated persulfate (HC/Na2S2O8/FeSO4) and HC coupled with advanced oxidation processes such as conventional Fenton (HC/FeSO4/H2O2), advanced Fenton (HC/Fe/H2O2) and Fenton-like process (HC/CuO/H2O2) on the extent of degradation of DNP have also been investigated at optimized conditions of pH 4, temperature of 35 °C and inlet pressure of 4 bar. Kinetic study revealed that degradation of DNP fitted first order kinetics for all the approaches under investigation. Complete degradation with maximum rate of DNP degradation has been observed for the combined HC/Fenton process. The energy consumption analysis for hydrodynamic cavitation based process has been done on the basis of cavitational yield. Degradation intermediates have also been identified and quantified in the current work. The synergistic index calculated for all the combined processes indicates HC/Fenton process is more feasible than the combination of HC with other Fenton like processes.

  6. Biodiesel production process intensification using a rotor-stator type generator of hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crudo, Daniele; Bosco, Valentina; Cavaglià, Giuliano; Grillo, Giorgio; Mantegna, Stefano; Cravotto, Giancarlo

    2016-11-01

    Triglyceride transesterification for biodiesel production is a model reaction which is used to compare the conversion efficiency, yield, reaction time, energy consumption, scalability and cost estimation of different reactor technology and energy source. This work describes an efficient, fast and cost-effective procedure for biodiesel preparation using a rotating generator of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC). The base-catalyzed transesterification (methanol/sodium hydroxide) has been carried out using refined and bleached palm oil and waste vegetable cooking oil. The novel HC unit is a continuous rotor-stator type reactor in which reagents are directly fed into the controlled cavitation chamber. The high-speed rotation of the reactor creates micron-sized droplets of the immiscible reacting mixture leading to outstanding mass and heat transfer and enhancing the kinetics of the transesterification reaction which completes much more quickly than traditional methods. All the biodiesel samples obtained respect the ASTM standard and present fatty acid methyl ester contents of >99% m/m in both feedstocks. The electrical energy consumption of the HC reactor is 0.030kWh per L of produced crude biodiesel, making this innovative technology really quite competitive. The reactor can be easily scaled-up, from producing a few hundred to thousands of liters of biodiesel per hour while avoiding the risk of orifices clogging with oil impurities, which may occur in conventional HC reactors. Furthermore it requires minimal installation space due to its compact design, which enhances overall security.

  7. Application of Technology of Hydrodynamic Cavitation Processing High-Viscosity Oils for the Purpose of Improving the Rheological Characteristics of Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemenkov, Y. D.; Zemenkova, M. Y.; Vengerov, A. A.; Brand, A. E.

    2016-10-01

    There is investigated the technology of hydrodynamic cavitational processing viscous and high-viscosity oils and the possibility of its application in the pipeline transport system for the purpose of increasing of rheological properties of the transported oils, including dynamic viscosity shear stress in the article. It is considered the possibility of application of the combined hydrodynamic cavitational processing with addition of depressor additive for identification of effect of a synergism. It is developed the laboratory bench and they are presented results of modeling and laboratory researches. It is developed the hardware and technological scheme of application of the developed equipment at industrial objects of pipeline transport.

  8. Intensified depolymerization of aqueous polyacrylamide solution using combined processes based on hydrodynamic cavitation, ozone, ultraviolet light and hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapat, Amrutlal L; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-07-01

    The present work deals with intensification of depolymerization of polyacrylamide (PAM) solution using hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) reactors based on a combination with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ozone (O3) and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Effect of inlet pressure in hydrodynamic cavitation reactor and power dissipation in the case of UV irradiation on the extent of viscosity reduction has been investigated. The combined approaches such as HC+UV, HC+O3, HC+H2O2, UV+H2O2 and UV+O3 have been subsequently investigated and found to be more efficient as compared to individual approaches. For the approach based on HC+UV+H2O2, the extent of viscosity reduction under the optimized conditions of HC (3 bar inlet pressure)+UV (8 W power)+H2O2 (0.2% loading) was 97.27% in 180 min whereas individual operations of HC (3 bar inlet pressure) and UV (8 W power) resulted in about 35.38% and 40.83% intrinsic viscosity reduction in 180 min respectively. In the case of HC (3 bar inlet pressure)+UV (8 W power)+ozone (400 mg/h flow rate) approach, the extent of viscosity reduction was 89.06% whereas individual processes of only ozone (400 mg/h flow rate), ozone (400 mg/h flow rate)+HC (3 bar inlet pressure) and ozone (400 mg/h flow rate)+UV (8 W power) resulted in lower extent of viscosity reduction as 50.34%, 60.65% and 75.31% respectively. The chemical structure of the treated PAM by all approaches was also characterized using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectra and it was established that no significant chemical structure changes were obtained during the treatment. Overall, it can be said that the combination of HC+UV+H2O2 is an efficient approach for the depolymerization of PAM solution.

  9. Degradation of 4-chloro 2-aminophenol using a novel combined process based on hydrodynamic cavitation, UV photolysis and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Arati J; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-05-01

    The degradation of 4-chloro 2-aminophenol (4C2AP), an acute toxic organic compound, has been studied using different approaches based on the hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) with orifice plate as cavitating device, photolysis (UV) and ozonation (O3). The dependency of extent of degradation on operating parameters like operating pressure (2-5 bar), initial pH (3-8) and temperature (30-38 °C) have been established initially to maximize the efficacy of hydrodynamic cavitation. Subsequently the degradation has been studied using combined treatment strategies as HC+UV, HC+O3, UV+O3 and HC+UV+O3 at the established optimum parameters of operating temperature as 30 °C, initial pH of 6 and inlet pressure of 4 bar. The maximum extent of degradation as 96.85% and 73.6% reduction in TOC has been obtained using hydrodynamic cavitation in combination with UV photolysis and ozonation under the optimized operating conditions. The degradation products of 4C2AP have been identified using GC-MS. The present work has clearly established the efficacy of combined treatment approach (HC+UV+O3) for the removal of organic pollutant for the first time.

  10. Effect of hydrodynamic cavitation on zooplankton: A tool for disinfection

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Anil, A.C.; Venkat, K.; Gaonkar, C.; Kolwalkar, J.; Khandeparker, L.; Desai, D.V.; Mahulkar, A.V.; Ranade, V.V.; Pandit, A.B.

    Application of hydrodynamic cavitation for disinfection of water is gaining momentum, as it provides environmentally and economically sound options. In this effort, the effect of cavitating conditions created by differential pump valve opening...

  11. VibroCav: Hydrodynamic Vibration and Cavitation Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, T.W.

    2012-01-01

    Vibration and cavitation can be generated in many ways and serve many useful purposes. This study describes physical aspects of useful vibration and cavitation for a broad spectrum of applications at atmospheric or elevated pressures. After a review of available devices, hydrodynamic vibrating-body

  12. VibroCav: Hydrodynamic Vibration and Cavitation Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, T.W.

    2012-01-01

    Vibration and cavitation can be generated in many ways and serve many useful purposes. This study describes physical aspects of useful vibration and cavitation for a broad spectrum of applications at atmospheric or elevated pressures. After a review of available devices, hydrodynamic vibrating-body

  13. Enhanced decolorization of methyl orange using zero-valent copper nanoparticles under assistance of hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Song, Yuan; Wang, Shuai; Tao, Zheng; Yu, Shuili; Liu, Yanan

    2015-01-01

    The rate of reduction reactions of zero-valent metal nanoparticles is restricted by their agglomeration. Hydrodynamic cavitation was used to overcome the disadvantage in this study. Experiments for decolorization of methyl orange azo dye by zero-valent copper nanoparticles were carried out in aqueous solution with and without hydrodynamic cavitation. The results showed that hydrodynamic cavitation greatly accelerated the decolorization rate of methyl orange. The size of nanoparticles was decreased after hydrodynamic cavitation treatment. The effects of important operating parameters such as discharge pressure, initial solution pH, and copper nanoparticle concentration on the degradation rates were studied. It was observed that there was an optimum discharge pressure to get best decolorization performance. Lower solution pH were favorable for the decolorization. The pseudo-first-order kinetic constant for the degradation of methyl orange increased linearly with the copper dose. UV-vis spectroscopic and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analyses confirmed that many degradation intermediates were formed. The results indicated hydroxyl radicals played a key role in the decolorization process. Therefore, the enhancement of decolorization by hydrodynamic cavitation could due to the deagglomeration of nanoparticles as well as the oxidation by the in situ generated hydroxyl radicals. These findings greatly increase the potential of the Cu(0)/hydrodynamic cavitation technique for use in the field of treatment of wastewater containing hazardous materials.

  14. Hydrodynamic cavitation in combination with the ozone, hydrogen peroxide and the UV-based advanced oxidation processes for the removal of natural organic matter from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čehovin, Matej; Medic, Alojz; Scheideler, Jens; Mielcke, Jörg; Ried, Achim; Kompare, Boris; Žgajnar Gotvajn, Andreja

    2017-07-01

    Natural organic matter in drinking water is causing concern especially due to the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) by chlorine, as these are proven to have adverse health effects on consumers. In this research, humic acid was used as a source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in drinking water (up to 3mgL(-1)). The efficiency of DOC removal was studied by applying O3, H2O2/O3, H2O2/UV and O3/UV advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) alone and combined with hybrid hydrodynamic cavitation (HC), generated by an orifice plate, as this technology recently shows promising potential for the treatment of water, containing recalcitrant organic substances. It was observed that the combined treatment by HC could significantly affect the performance of the applied AOPs, with as little as 3-9 passes through the cavitation generators. For O3 and H2O2 dosages up to 2 and 4mgL(-1), respectively, and UV dosage up to 300mJcm(-2), HC enhanced DOC removal by 5-15% in all combinations, except for O3/UV AOPs. Overall, the potential benefits of HC for DOC removal were emphasized for low ratio between applied oxidants to DOC and high UV absorbance of the sample. Investigated DBPs formation potentials require special attention for H2O2/UV AOPs and combinations with HC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Metal of cavitation erosion of a hydrodynamic reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirzakov, A. G.; Brand, A. E.; Petryakov, V. A.; Gordievskaya, E. F.

    2017-02-01

    Cavitation erosion is a major cause of the petroleum equipment hydraulic erosion, which leads to the metal weight loss of the equipment and its breakdown, which can be followed by the full stop of the plant or company work. The probability of the metal weight loss and equipment failure can be reduced by the use of special protective coatings or rivets, made of the sacrificial metals, the use of which significantly increases the service life and the production equipment reliability. The article investigates the cavitation erosion effect, occurred under the condition of the advanced hydrodynamic cavitation on the hydrodynamic cavitation reactor. This article presents the results of the experiments and recommendations for increasing the operational resource.

  16. Hydrodynamic cavitation as an efficient method for the formation of sub-100 nm O/W emulsions with high stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiliang Zhang; Guangquan Wang; Yong Nie; Jianbing Ji

    2016-01-01

    Hydrodynamic cavitation, a newly developed process intensification technique, has demonstrated immense po-tential for intensifying diverse physical and chemical processes. In this study, hydrodynamic cavitation was ex-plored as an efficient method for the formation of sub-100 nm oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions with high stability. O/W emulsion with an average droplet size of 27 nm was successful y prepared. The average droplet size of O/W emulsions decreased with the increase of the inlet pressure, number of cavitation passes and surfac-tant concentration. The formed emulsion exhibited admirable physical stability during 8 months. Moreover, the hydrodynamic cavitation method can be generalized to fabricate large varieties of O/W emulsions, which showed great potential for large-scale formation of O/W emulsions with lower energy consumption.

  17. Optimization of biodiesel production in a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor using used frying oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayal, Dyneshwar; Pandit, Aniruddha B; Rathod, Virendra K

    2013-01-01

    The present work demonstrates the application of a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor for the synthesis of biodiesel with used frying oil as a feedstock. The synthesis involved the transesterification of used frying oil (UFO) with methanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. The effect of geometry and upstream pressure of a cavitating orifice plate on the rate of transesterification reaction has been studied. It is observed that the micro level turbulence created by hydrodynamic cavitation somewhat overcomes the mass transfer limitations for triphasic transesterification reaction. The significant effects of upstream pressure on the rate of formation of methyl esters have been seen. It has been observed that flow geometry of orifice plate plays a crucial role in process intensification. With an optimized plate geometry of 2mm hole diameter and 25 holes, more than 95% of triglycerides have been converted to methyl esters in 10 min of reaction time with cavitational yield of 1.28 × 10(-3) (Grams of methyl esters produced per Joule of energy supplied). The potential of UFO to produce good quality methyl esters has been demonstrated.

  18. Intensification of biogas production using pretreatment based on hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pankaj N; Gogate, Parag R; Csoka, Levente; Dregelyi-Kiss, Agota; Horvath, Miklos

    2016-05-01

    The present work investigates the application of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) for the pretreatment of wheat straw with an objective of enhancing the biogas production. The hydrodynamic cavitation reactor is based on a stator and rotor assembly. The effect of three different speeds of rotor (2300, 2500, 2700 rpm), wheat straw to water ratios (0.5%, 1% and 1.5% wt/wt) and also treatment times as 2, 4 and 6 min have been investigated in the work using the design of experiments (DOE) approach. It was observed that the methane yield of 31.8 ml was obtained with untreated wheat straw whereas 77.9 ml was obtained with HC pre-treated wheat straw confirming the favourable changes during the pre-treatment. The combined pre-treatment using KOH and HC gave maximum yield of biogas as 172.3 ml. Overall, it has been established that significant enhancement in the biogas production can be obtained due to the pretreatment using HC which can also be further intensified by combination with chemical treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bulk Viscosity and Cavitation in Boost-Invariant Hydrodynamic Expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Rajagopal, Krishna

    2009-01-01

    We solve second order relativistic hydrodynamics equations for a boost-invariant 1+1-dimensional expanding fluid with an equation of state taken from lattice calculations of the thermodynamics of strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma. We investigate the dependence of the energy density as a function of proper time on the values of the shear viscosity, the bulk viscosity, and second order coefficients, confirming that large changes in the values of the latter have negligible effects. Varying the shear viscosity between zero and a few times s/(4 pi), with s the entropy density, has significant effects, as expected based on other studies. Introducing a nonzero bulk viscosity also has significant effects. In fact, if the bulk viscosity peaks near the crossover temperature Tc to the degree indicated by recent lattice calculations in QCD without quarks, it can make the fluid cavitate -- falling apart into droplets. It is interesting to see a hydrodynamic calculation predicting its own breakdown, via cavitation, at th...

  20. Thermo-Hydrodynamic Analysis of a Plain Journal Bearing on the Basis of a New Mass Conserving Cavitation Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alakhramsing, S.; Van Ostayen, R.A.J.; Eling, R.P.T.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate prediction of cavitation is an important feature in hydrodynamic bearing modeling. Especially for thermo-hydrodynamic modeling, it is crucial to use a mass-conservative cavitation algorithm. This paper introduces a new mass-conserving Reynolds cavitation algorithm, which provides fast conve

  1. Role of cavitation in the phacoemulsification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Jaime

    2008-05-01

    To determine the role of cavitational energy as a mechanism responsible for the emulsification of the lens during phacoemulsification. Clinica Ophthalmologica Pasteur, Santiago, Chile. Cavitation and its relationship to phacoemulsification power were documented using a combination of light sources, high-speed video recording techniques, and computerized control and by monitoring environmental pressure. The suppression of cavitation from the phaco process was achieved by building an environmental hyperbaric system capable of retaining the phacoemulsification system's ability to provide irrigation, aspiration, and vacuum necessary at standard and elevated pressures. The pressure level was controlled and monitored through a computer interface alongside the simultaneous video monitoring of cavitation bubble creation changes during pressure rise or fall. Last, evaluation and measurement of phacoemulsification was performed on real cataract fragments in the presence and absence of cavitation. Cavitation around the phaco tip mainly occurred at longitudinal ultrasonic power levels of 30% or more. Cavitation bubble formation was observed during the backstroke or as the tip moved away from the lens material and collapsed during the forward displacement of the phaco tip. Cavitation at any power level was successfully suppressed when the pressure in the hyperbaric chamber increased beyond 2.0 bar (29.1 psi) above atmospheric pressure. Phacoemulsification performance in the presence or absence of cavitation was comparable. This study found strong evidence that cavitation plays no role in phacoemulsification, leaving the jackhammer effect as the only important mechanism responsible for the lens-disrupting power of phacoemulsification.

  2. Effect of geometry of hydrodynamically cavitating device on degradation of orange-G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharan, Virendra Kumar; Rizwani, Manav A; Malani, Aqeel A; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2013-01-01

    In this research work, we have carried out geometric optimization of different cavitating devices using degradation of orange-G dye [OG] as a model pollutant. Three different cavitating devices viz. orifice plate, circular venturi and slit venturi were optimized and the degradation of orange-G dye was studied. The optimization of all three cavitating devices was done in terms of fluid inlet pressure to the cavitating devices and cavitation number. The effect of pH and initial concentration of the dye on the degradation rate was also studied. The geometry of cavitating device (flow cross sectional area, perimeter, shape, etc.) was found to be an important parameter in getting the maximum cavitational effect using hydrodynamic cavitation. The cavitational yield of all three cavitating devices were compared on the basis of mg of total organic carbon (TOC) reduction per unit energy supplied. The slit venturi gives almost 50% higher degradation rate and cavitational yield among all three cavitating devices studied for the same amount of energy supplied.

  3. Hydrodynamic cavitation in micro channels with channel sizes of 100 and 750 micrometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooze, J.; André, M.; Gulik, van der G-J.S.; Fernandez Rivas, D.; Gardeniers, J.G.E.; Rebrov, E.V.; Schouten, J.C.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2012-01-01

    Decreasing the constriction size and residence time in hydrodynamic cavitation is predicted to give increased hot spot temperatures at bubble collapse and increased radical formation rate. Cavitation in a 100 × 100 μm2 rectangular micro channel and in a circular 750 μm diameter milli channel has be

  4. Hydrodynamic cavitation applied to industrial wastewater; Tratamiento de efluentes industriales mediante cavitacion hidrodinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito, Y.; Arrojo, S.

    2006-07-01

    The use environmental technology of the phenomenon known as cavitation has opened in the last new years alternatives for the treatment especially for industrial effluents. CIEMAT has designed and constructed a plant of cavitation hydrodynamics to take to end experiments that it allows us to show the possibilities of this technology as process of advanced oxidation of low cost. The experimentation has been made with water contaminated by substances like toluene and some derivatives, chloride organic compounds, xylenes, ammonia, wastewater from the ended of leather sector, there being achieved important reductions of the DQO (of the order of 60%) in short times. This work shows the results obtained in the experimentation of waters contaminated with toluene and p-nitrophenol. (Author)

  5. Influences of hydrodynamic conditions, nozzle geometry on appearance of high submerged cavitating jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutli Ezddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on visualization results of highly-submerged cavitating water jet obtained with digital camera, the influences of related parameters such as: injection pressure, nozzle diameter and geometry, nozzle mounting (for convergent / divergent flow, cavitation number and exit jet velocity, were investigated. In addition, the influence of visualization system position was also studied. All the parameters have been found to be of strong influence on the jet appearance and performance. Both hydro-dynamical and geometrical parameters are playing the main role in behavior and intensity of cavitation phenomenon produced by cavitating jet generator. Based on our considerable previous experience in working with cavitating jet generator, the working conditions were chosen in order to obtain measurable phenomenon. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35046

  6. Hydrodynamic Nuclei Concentration Technique in Cavitation Research and Comparison to Phase-Doppler Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Eric; Kröger, Willfried; Damaschke, Nils

    2015-12-01

    Small particles, especially bubbles in the micro-meter range, influence the cavitation of the propellers. The prediction of cavitation inception and water quality measurements are important in cavitation research. The Hydrodynamic Nuclei Concentration (HDNC) technique can be used for reliable bubble concentration measurements in fluid flows. The HDNC technique bases on the analysis of scattered light from the cavitation nuclei in the water. The HDNC technique can distinguish between bubbles and solid particles. The particle type classification is important, because the number concentration of solid particles is often much higher than the nuclei concentration in cavitation tunnels and in seawater. Verification experiments show, that the HDNC technique reaches similar capabilities in number concentration estimation as Phase Doppler (PD) technique in much shorter acquisition time.

  7. Synergetic effect of combination of AOP's (hydrodynamic cavitation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) on the degradation of neonicotinoid class of insecticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raut-Jadhav, Sunita [Vishwakarma Institute of Technology, Pune 411037 (India); Saharan, Virendra Kumar [Chemical Engineering Department, M. N. I. T, Jaipur, Rajasthan, 302001 (India); Pinjari, Dipak [Chemical Engineering Department, Institute of Chemical Technology, (ICT), Matunga, Mumbai, 400019 (India); Sonawane, Shirish, E-mail: shirishsonawane09@gmail.com [Chemical Engineering Department, N. I. T Warangal, Andhra Pradesh 506004 (India); Saini, Daulat, E-mail: dsaini2010@gmail.com [National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, 411008 (India); Pandit, Aniruddha, E-mail: dr.pandit@gmail.com [Chemical Engineering Department, Institute of Chemical Technology, (ICT), Matunga, Mumbai, 400019 (India)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Degradation of imidacloprid using hydrodynamic cavitation based techniques. • Combination of hydrodynamic cavitation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} shows substantial synergetic effect. • Synergetic coefficient of combined process is 22.79. • Degradation mechanism of imidacloprid has been proposed. -- Abstract: In the present work, degradation of imidacloprid (neonicotinoid class of insecticide) in aqueous solution has been systematically investigated using hydrodynamic cavitation and combination of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Initially, effect of different operating parameters such as inlet pressure to the cavitating device (5–20 bar) and operating pH (2–7.5) has been investigated. Optimization of process parameters was followed by the study of effect of combination of HC and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process on the rate of degradation of imidacloprid. Significant enhancement in the rate of degradation of imidacloprid has been observed using HC + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process which lead to a complete degradation of imidacloprid in 45 min of operation using optimal molar ratio of imidacloprid:H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as 1:40. Substantial synergetic effect has been observed using HC + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process which confer the synergetic coefficient of 22.79. An attempt has been made to investigate and compare the energy efficiency and extent of mineralization of individual and combined processes applied in the present work. Identification of the byproducts formed during degradation of imidacloprid has also been done using LC–MS analysis. The present work has established a fact that hydrodynamic cavitation in combination with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} can be effectively used for degradation of imidacloprid.

  8. Fundamental studies on cavitation melt processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanakis, I.; Hodnett, M.; Lebon, G. S. B.; Eskin, D. G.; Pericleous, K.

    2016-05-01

    The application of ultrasound to industrial casting processes has attracted research interest during the last 50 years. However, the transfer and scale-up of this advanced and promising technology to industry has been hindered by difficulties in treating large volumes of liquid metal due to the lack of understanding of certain fundamentals. In the current study experimental results on ultrasonic processing in deionised water and in liquid aluminium (Al) are reported. Cavitation activity was determined in both liquid environments and acoustic pressures were successfully measured using an advanced high-temperature cavitometer sensor. Results showed that highest cavitation intensity in the liquid bulk is achieved at lower amplitudes of the sonotrode tip than the maximum available, suggesting nonlinearity in energy transfer to the liquid, while the location of the sonotrode is seen to substantially affect cavitation activity within the liquid. Estimation of real-time acoustic pressures distributed inside a crucible with liquid Al was performed for the first time.

  9. Multi-focal laser surgery: cutting enhancement by hydrodynamic interactions between cavitation bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Toytman, Ilya; Simanovski, Dmitri; Palanker, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Transparent biological tissues can be precisely dissected with ultrafast lasers using optical breakdown in the tight focal zone. Typically, tissues are cut by sequential application of pulses, each of which produces a single cavitation bubble. We investigate the hydrodynamic interactions between simultaneous cavitation bubbles originating from multiple laser foci. Simultaneous expansion and collapse of cavitation bubbles can enhance the cutting efficiency by increasing the resulting deformations in tissue, and the associated rupture zone. An analytical model of the flow induced by the bubbles is presented and experimentally verified. The threshold strain of the material rupture is measured in a model tissue. Using the computational model and the experimental value of the threshold strain one can compute the shape of the rupture zone in tissue resulting from application of multiple bubbles. With the threshold strain of 0.7 two simultaneous bubbles produce a continuous cut when applied at the distance 1.35 time...

  10. Sonochemical and hydrodynamic cavitation reactors for laccase/hydrogen peroxide cotton bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Idalina; Martins, Madalena; Loureiro, Ana; Gomes, Andreia; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur; Silva, Carla

    2014-03-01

    The main goal of this work is to develop a novel and environmental-friendly technology for cotton bleaching with reduced processing costs. This work exploits a combined laccase-hydrogen peroxide process assisted by ultrasound. For this purpose, specific reactors were studied, namely ultrasonic power generator type K8 (850 kHz) and ultrasonic bath equipment Ultrasonic cleaner USC600TH (45 kHz). The optimal operating conditions for bleaching were chosen considering the highest levels of hydroxyl radical production and the lowest energy input. The capacity to produce hydroxyl radicals by hydrodynamic cavitation was also assessed in two homogenizers, EmulsiFlex®-C3 and APV-2000. Laccase nanoemulsions were produced by high pressure homogenization using BSA (bovine serum albumin) as emulsifier. The bleaching efficiency of these formulations was tested and the results showed higher whiteness values when compared to free laccase. The combination of laccase-hydrogen peroxide process with ultrasound energy produced higher whiteness levels than those obtained by conventional methods. The amount of hydrogen peroxide was reduced 50% as well as the energy consumption in terms of temperature (reduction of 40 °C) and operating time (reduction of 90 min).

  11. Numerical and Experimental Studies of Cavitation Behavior in Water-Jet Cavitation Peening Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-jet cavitation peening (WCP is a new technology for the surface modification of metallic materials. The cavitation behavior in this process involves complex and changeable physics phenomena, such as high speed, high pressure, multiple phases, phase transition, turbulence, and unstable features. Thus, the cavitation behavior and impact-pressure distribution in WCP have always been key problems in this field. Numerous factors affect the occurrence of cavitation. These factors include flow-boundary conditions, absolute pressure, flow velocity, flow viscosity, surface tension, and so on. Among these factors, pressure and vapor fraction are the most significant. Numerical simulations are performed to determine the flow-field characteristics of both inside and outside the cavitating nozzle of a submerged water jet. The factors that influence the cavitation intensity of pressure are simulated. Fujifilm pressure-sensitive paper is used to measure the distribution of impact pressure along the jet direction during the WCP process. The results show that submerged cavitation jets can induce cavitation both inside and outside a conical nozzle and a convergent-divergent nozzle when the inlet pressure is 32 MPa. Moreover, the shock wave pressure induced by the collapse of the bubble group reaches up to 300 MPa.

  12. Disinfection of bore well water with chlorine dioxide/sodium hypochlorite and hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifei; Jia, Aiyin; Wu, Yue; Wu, Chunde; Chen, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    The effect of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) on potable water disinfection of chemicals was investigated. The bore well water was introduced into HC set-up to examine the effect of HC alone and combination of HC and chemicals such as chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite. The effect of inlet pressure and geometrical parameters on disinfection was studied using HC alone and the results showed that increasing inlet pressure and using more and bigger holes of orifice plates can result in a higher disinfection rates. When HC was combined with chemicals, HC can reduce the doses of the chemicals and shorten the time of disinfection. It was also found that the decrease in bacteria concentration followed a first-order kinetic model. As for the experiment of combination of HC and sodium hypochlorite for disinfection, HC not only improves the disinfection rate but also degrades natural organic matter and chloroform. Compared with only sodium hypochlorite disinfection, combined processes get higher disinfection rate and lower production of chloroform, particularly the pretreatment with HC enhances the disinfection rate by 32% and there is a simultaneous reduction in production of chloroform by 39%.

  13. Detecting Inception of Hydrodynamic Cavitation Noise of Ships using Quadratic Phase Coupling Index as an Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sandhya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is ever increasing interest in underwater noise control onboard ships as part of concerted efforts to reduce ship’s radiated noise. Reduction of radiated noise is considered important as it will affect the performance of hydro-acoustic systems such as sonars, echo sounders, towed systems, etc. Out of three major sources of noise onboard ships, viz., machinery, propeller, and hydrodynamic noise, propeller noise is considered a major source beyond certain speed at which propellers cavitate produces cavitation noise. The inception speed of propeller cavitation is generally accompanied by sudden increase in radiated noise level of 8-15 dB when measured using a hydrophone placed on the seabed. This paper attempts to establish the concept of quadratic phase coupling index as an indicator to detect inception of cavitation of ship propellers. This concept was tested on actual ship radiated noise data measured at sea for evaluating its effectiveness.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 65, No. 1, January 2015, pp.53-62, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.65.7885

  14. Cavitation

    CERN Document Server

    Young, F Ronald

    1999-01-01

    First published by McGraw-Hill in 1989, this book provides a unified treatment of cavitation, a phenomenon which extends across the boundaries of many fields. The approach is wide-ranging and the aim is to give due consideration to the many aspects of cavitation in proportion to their importance. Particular attention is paid to the diverse situations in which cavitation occurs and to its practical applications.

  15. Cavitation simulation on marine propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Keun Woo

    is reproduced in the simulation. The overall results suggest the possibility of the cavitation model in the RANS solver to be used for practical applications in propeller design process as a complementary tool to the cavitation tunnel test and the other numerical methods. The outstanding issue for cloudy...... developed in the last decade. They show the potential for the simulation of propeller cavitation with robustness, but they are still to be more proved for practical applications. In the present work, hydrodynamic and numerical characteristics of several cavitation models developed for a viscous flow solver...... are investigated, and one of the cavitation models is verified for the cavitation simulation on marine propellers. Three cavitation models with a vapor transport equation and a cavitation model with a barotropic state law are implemented in the in-house RANS solver, EllipSys. The numerical results for cavitating...

  16. Multifocal laser surgery: cutting enhancement by hydrodynamic interactions between cavitation bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toytman, I; Silbergleit, A; Simanovski, D; Palanker, D

    2010-10-01

    Transparent biological tissues can be precisely dissected with ultrafast lasers using optical breakdown in the tight focal zone. Typically, tissues are cut by sequential application of pulses, each of which produces a single cavitation bubble. We investigate the hydrodynamic interactions between simultaneous cavitation bubbles originating from multiple laser foci. Simultaneous expansion and collapse of cavitation bubbles can enhance the cutting efficiency, by increasing the resulting deformations in tissue, and the associated rupture zone. An analytical model of the flow induced by the bubbles is presented and experimentally verified. The threshold strain of the material rupture is measured in a model tissue. Using the computational model and the experimental value of the threshold strain one can compute the shape of the rupture zone in tissue resulting from application of multiple bubbles. With the threshold strain of 0.7 two simultaneous bubbles produce a continuous cut when applied at the distance 1.35 times greater than that required in sequential approach. Simultaneous focusing of the laser in multiple spots along the line of intended cut can extend this ratio to 1.7. Counterpropagating jets forming during collapse of two bubbles in materials with low viscosity can further extend the cutting zone-up to approximately a factor of 1.5.

  17. Effect of hydrodynamic cavitation in the tissue erosion by pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yufeng; Gao, Xiaobin Wilson

    2016-09-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as an effective therapeutic modality in clinics. Besides the thermal ablation, tissue disintegration is also possible because of the interaction between the distorted HIFU bursts and either bubble cloud or boiling bubble. Hydrodynamic cavitation is another type of cavitation and has been employed widely in industry, but its role in mechanical erosion to tissue is not clearly known. In this study, the bubble dynamics immediately after the termination of HIFU exposure in the transparent gel phantom was captured by high-speed photography, from which the bubble displacement towards the transducer and the changes of bubble size was quantitatively determined. The characteristics of hydrodynamic cavitation due to the release of the acoustic radiation force and relaxation of compressed surrounding medium were found to associate with the number of pulses delivered and HIFU parameters (i.e. pulse duration and pulse repetition frequency). Because of the initial big bubble (~1 mm), large bubble expansion (up to 1.76 folds), and quick bubble motion (up to ~1 m s-1) hydrodynamic cavitation is significant after HIFU exposure and may lead to mechanical erosion. The shielding effect of residual tiny bubbles would reduce the acoustic energy delivered to the pre-existing bubble at the focus and, subsequently, the hydrodynamic cavitation effect. Tadpole shape of mechanical erosion in ex vivo porcine kidney samples was similar to the contour of bubble dynamics in the gel. Liquefied tissue was observed to emit towards the transducer through the punctured tissue after HIFU exposure in the sonography. In summary, the release of HIFU exposure-induced hydrodynamic cavitation produces significant bubble expansion and motion, which may be another important mechanism of tissue erosion. Understanding its mechanism and optimizing the outcome would broaden and enhance HIFU applications.

  18. Optimisation on pretreatment of rubber seed (Hevea brasiliensis) oil via esterification reaction in a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Awais; Chuah, Lai Fatt; Yusup, Suzana; Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír; Kamil, Ruzaimah Nik M

    2016-01-01

    Pretreatment of the high free fatty acid rubber seed oil (RSO) via esterification reaction has been investigated by using a pilot scale hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) reactor. Four newly designed orifice plate geometries are studied. Cavities are induced by assisted double diaphragm pump in the range of 1-3.5 bar inlet pressure. An optimised plate with 21 holes of 1mm diameter and inlet pressure of 3 bar resulted in RSO acid value reduction from 72.36 to 2.64 mg KOH/g within 30 min of reaction time. Reaction parameters have been optimised by using response surface methodology and found as methanol to oil ratio of 6:1, catalyst concentration of 8 wt%, reaction time of 30 min and reaction temperature of 55°C. The reaction time and esterified efficiency of HC was three fold shorter and four fold higher than mechanical stirring. This makes the HC process more environmental friendly.

  19. Numerical Analysis of Cavitation Processes in a Nozzle with Variable Cross-Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L. Zagordan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation approach addressing problems of cavitation processes and vapor-liquid two-phase flow dynamics research is discussed. The Navier-Stokes equations, supplemented by transport equation containing source terms, responsible for the interphase exchange, are solved to obtain hydrodynamic characteristics of the system. Mathematical model of unsteady conjugate heat-mass transfer between the bubble and the surrounding liquid is proposed to describe the evolution of a two-component (gas-vapor bubble. The model takes into account a spatial nonuniformity of the gas and liquid temperature fields as well as nonuniformity of the component concentration inside the bubble. A comparative analysis of the experimental data and computational results is carried out for different regimes of cavitating flows inside a two-dimensional nozzle with variable cross-section. The oscillation characteristics of hydrodynamic parameters and the gas-vapor bubbles behavior are investigated.

  20. On thermonuclear processes in cavitation bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigmatulin, R. I.; Lahey, R. T., Jr.; Taleyarkhan, R. P.; West, C. D.; Block, R. C.

    2014-09-01

    The theoretical and experimental foundations of so-called bubble nuclear fusion are reviewed. In the nuclear fusion process, a spherical cavitation cluster ˜ 10-2 m in diameter is produced of spherical bubbles at the center of a cylindrical chamber filled with deuterated acetone using a focused acoustic field having a resonant frequency of about 20 kHz. The acoustically-forced bubbles effectuate volume oscillations with sharp collapses during the compression stage. At the final stages of collapse, the bubble cluster emits 2.5 MeV D-D fusion neutron pulses at a rate of ˜ 2000 per second. The neutron yield is ˜ 10^5 s -1. In parallel, tritium nuclei are produced at the same yield. It is shown numerically that, for bubbles having sufficient molecular mass, spherical shock waves develop in the center of the cluster and that these spherical shock waves (microshocks) produce converging shocks within the interior bubbles, which focus energy on the centers of the bubbles. When these shock waves reflect from the centers of the bubbles, extreme conditions of temperature ( ˜ 10^8 K) and density ( ˜ 10^4 kg m -3) arise in a (nano)spherical region ( ˜ 10-7 m in size) that last for ˜ 10-12 s, during which time about ten D-D fusion neutrons and tritium nuclei are produced in the region. A paradoxical result in our experiments is that it is bubble cluster (not streamer) cavitation and the sufficiently high molecular mass of (and hence the low sound speed in) D-acetone ( C3D6O) vapor (as compared, for example, to deuterated water D2O) which are necessary conditions for the formation of convergent spherical microshock waves in central cluster bubbles. It is these waves that allow the energy to be sufficiently focused in the nanospherical regions near the bubble centers for fusion events to occur. The criticism to which the concept of 'bubble fusion' has been subjected in the literature, in particular, most recently in Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk (Physics - Uspekhi) journal, is

  1. Optimization of a heterogeneous catalytic hydrodynamic cavitation reactor performance in decolorization of Rhodamine B: application of scrap iron sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri Parsa, Jalal; Ebrahimzadeh Zonouzian, Seyyed Alireza

    2013-11-01

    A low pressure pilot scale hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) reactor with 30 L volume, using fixed scrap iron sheets, as the heterogeneous catalyst, with no external source of H2O2 was devised to investigate the effects of operating parameters of the HC reactor performance. In situ generation of Fenton reagents suggested an induced advanced Fenton process (IAFP) to explain the enhancing effect of the used catalyst in the HC process. The reactor optimization was done based upon the extent of decolorization (ED) of aqueous solution of Rhodamine B (RhB). To have a perfect study on the pertinent parameters of the heterogeneous catalyzed HC reactor, the following cases as, the effects of scrap iron sheets, inlet pressure (2.4-5.8 bar), the distance between orifice plates and catalyst sheets (submerged and inline located orifice plates), back-pressure (2-6 bar), orifice plates type (4 various orifice plates), pH (2-10) and initial RhB concentration (2-14 mg L(-1)) have been investigated. The results showed that the highest cavitational yield can be obtained at pH 3 and initial dye concentration of 10 mg L(-1). Also, an increase in the inlet pressure would lead to an increase in the ED. In addition, it was found that using the deeper holes (thicker orifice plates) would lead to lower ED, and holes with larger diameter would lead to the higher ED in the same cross-sectional area, but in the same holes' diameters, higher cross-sectional area leads to the lower ED. The submerged operation mode showed a greater cavitational effects rather than the inline mode. Also, for the inline mode, the optimum value of 3 bar was obtained for the back-pressure condition in the system. Moreover, according to the analysis of changes in the UV-Vis spectra of RhB, both degradation of RhB chromophore structure and N-deethylation were occurred during the catalyzed HC process.

  2. The cavitation erosion damage process of dynamically loaded journal bearings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yan-yan; CHENG Xian-hua

    2006-01-01

    The cavitation damage model was built using finite element analysis software MSC.Marc.This paper attempted to numerically analyze the action process based on damage mechanics when a jet created by bubble collapse acted on the bearing surface in the process of cavitation erosion.The numerical results show that the values of equivalent plastic strain and void volume fraction increase with time.The values of damage scalar are higher on the bearing surface and subsurface,and decrease when it approaches the interface of overlay and nickel layer.The strain history and damage evolvement of beating material acted on by jet impact load can be calculated efficiently using the proposed method,which develops a new method of analyzing cavitation erosion failure of thebearing surface.

  3. 局部空泡水翼性能研究%Research on the Hydrodynamic Performance of Partially Cavitating Hydrofoils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭睿博; 许劲松

    2013-01-01

    空泡对水翼的水动力特性具有重要的影响,使用数值模拟方法研究空泡特性及其机理有着广泛的工程应用价值.对二维NACA翼型的模拟结果表明,基于势流理论的边界元积分方法适用于局部空泡水翼的性能研究,翼型几何参数变化对空泡长度和升力性能均有显著影响,在水翼设计与使用过程中必须对空泡发生与变化给予充分关注.%Cavitation has extremely important influence on hydrodynamic performance of the hydrofoils.Numerical simulation is valuable for study on the characteristics and mechanism of cavitating flow.Application of a non-linear boundary element method on the partially cavitating hydrofoil shows that the lift performance of hydrofoils changes considerably with the occurrence and development of the partial cavitation.It must be completely concerned during hydrofoil design and operation.

  4. The efficiency of a new hydrodynamic cavitation pilot system on Artemia salina cysts and natural population of copepods and bacteria under controlled mesocosm conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Martina; Grego, Mateja; Turk, Valentina

    2016-04-15

    A study of the efficiency of hydrodynamic cavitation and separation was carried out to evaluate an innovative, environmentally safe and acceptable system for ballast water treatment for reducing the risk of introducing non-native species worldwide. Mesocosm experiments were performed to assess the morphological changes and viability of zooplankton (copepods), Artemia salina cysts, and the growth potential of marine bacteria after the hydrodynamic cavitation treatment with a different number of cycles. Our preliminary results confirmed the significant efficiency of the treatment since more than 98% of the copepods and A. salina cysts were damaged, in comparison with the initial population. The efficiency increased with the number of the hydrodynamic cavitation cycles, or in combination with a separation technique for cysts. There was also a significant decrease in bacterial abundance and growth rate, compared to the initial number and growth potential.

  5. Optimization of hydrodynamic cavitations reactor efficiency for biodiesel production by response surface methods (Case study: Sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Javadikia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Biofuels are considered as one of the largest sources of renewable fuels or replacement of fossil fuels. Combustion of plant-based fuels is the indirect use of solar energy. Biofuels significantly have less pollution than other fossil fuels and can easily generate from residual plant material. Waste and residues of foods and wastewater can also be a good source for biofuel production. Transesterification method (one of biodiesel production methods is the most common forms to produce mono-alkyl esters from vegetable oil and animal fats. The procedure aims are reduction the oil viscosity during the reaction between triglycerides and alcohol in the presence of a catalyst or without it. In this study, the method of transesterification with alkaline catalysts is used that it is the most common and most commercial biodiesel production method. In this study, configurations of made hydrodynamic cavitation reactor were studied to measure biodiesel fuel quality and enhanced device performance with optimum condition. The Design Expert software and response surface methodology were used to get this purpose. Materials and Methods Transesterification method was used in this study. The procedure aims were reduction of the oil viscosity during the reaction between triglycerides and alcohol in the presence of a catalyst or without it. Materials needed in the production of biodiesel transesterification method include: vegetable oil, alcohol and catalysts. The used oil in the production of biodiesel was sunflower oil, which was used 0.6 liters per each test in the production process base on titration method. Methanol with purity of 99.8 percent and the molar ratio of 6:1 to oil was used based on titration equation and according to the results of other researchers. The used catalyst in continuous production process was high-purity sodium hydroxide (99% that it is one of alkaline catalysts. Weight of hydroxide was 1% of the used oil weight in the

  6. Processing of Microalgae: Acoustic Cavitation and Hydrothermal Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenly, Justin Michael

    The production of energy dense fuels from renewable algal biomass feedstocks -- if sustainably developed at a sufficiently large scale -- may reduce the consumption of petroleum from fossil fuels and provide many environmental benefits. Achieving economic feasibility has several technical engineering challenges that arise from dilute concentration of growing algae in aqueous media, small cell sizes, and durable cell walls. For microalgae to be a sustainable source of biofuels and co-products, efficient fractionation and conversion of the cellular contents is necessary. Research was carried out to address two processing options for efficient microalgae biofuel production: 1. Ultrasonic cavitation for cell disruption and 2. Hydrothermal conversion of a model algal triglyceride. 1. Ultrasonic cell disruption, which relies on cavitating bubbles in the suspension to produce damaging shock waves, was investigated experimentally over a range of concentrations and species types. A few seconds of high intensity sonication at fixed frequency yielded significant cell disruption, even for the more durable cells. At longer exposure times, effectiveness was seen to decline and was attributed, using acoustic measurements, to ultrasonic power attenuation in the ensuing cloud of cavitating bubbles. Processing at higher cell concentrations slowed cell disintegration marginally, but increased the effectiveness of dissipating ultrasonic energy. A theoretical study effectively predicted optimal conditions for a variety of parameters that were inaccessible in this experimental investigation. In that study, single bubble collapse was modeled to identify operating conditions that would increase cavitation, and thus cell disruption. Simulations were conducted by varying frequency and pressure amplitude of the ultrasound wave, and initial bubble size. The simulation results indicated that low frequency, high sound wave amplitudes, and small initial bubble size generate the highest shock

  7. Dynamical behaviors of hydrodynamic cavitation bubble under ultrasound field%声场中水力空化泡的动力学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈壮志; 林书玉

    2011-01-01

    以水为工作介质,考虑了液体黏性、表面张力、可压缩性及湍流作用等情况,对文丘里管反应器中空化泡在声场作用下的动力学行为特性进行了数值研究.分析了超声波频率、声压及喉径比对空化泡运动特性以及空化泡崩溃时所形成泡温以及压力脉冲的影响.结果表明,超声将水力空化泡运动调制成稳态空化,有利于增强空化效果.%Considering liquid viscosity,surface tension,liquid compressibility and turbulence,the dynamical behaviors of cavitation bubble in venturi cavitation reactor are numerically investigated with using acoustic field regarding water as a work medium.The effects of acoustic frequency,acoustic pressure and ratio of throat to pipe diameter on cavitation bubble dynamics,bubble temperature and pressure pulse by rapid collapse of cavitation bubble are analysed.The results show that bubble motion of hydrodynamic cavitation modulated by ultrasound,becomes the high energy stable cavitation.It is favorable for enhancing the cavitation effect.

  8. Simultaneous treatment (cell disruption and lipid extraction) of wet microalgae using hydrodynamic cavitation for enhancing the lipid yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ilgyu; Han, Jong-In

    2015-06-01

    Simultaneous treatment (combining with cell disruption and lipid extraction) using hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) was applied to Nannochloropsis salina to demonstrate a simple and integrated way to produce oil from wet microalgae. A high lipid yield from the HC (25.9-99.0%) was observed compared with autoclave (16.2-66.5%) and ultrasonication (5.4-26.9%) in terms of the specific energy input (500-10,000 kJ/kg). The optimal conditions for the simultaneous treatment were established using a statistical approach. The efficiency of the simultaneous method was also demonstrated by comparing each separate treatment. The maximum lipid yield (predicted: 45.9% and experimental: 45.5%) was obtained using 0.89% sulfuric acid with a cavitation number of 1.17 for a reaction time of 25.05 min via response surface methodology. Considering its comparable extractability, energy-efficiency, and potential for scale-up, HC may be a promising method to achieve industrial-scale microalgae operation.

  9. Hydrodynamic erosion process of undisturbed clay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, G.; Visser, P.J.; Vrijling, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the hydrodynamic erosion process of undisturbed clay due to the turbulent flow, based on theoretical analysis and experimental results. The undisturbed clay has the unique and complicated characteristics of cohesive force among clay particles, which are highly different from dis

  10. Dynamic behaviors of cavitation bubble for the steady cavitating flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun CAI; Xiulan HUAI; Xunfeng LI

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, by introducing the flow velocity item into the classical Rayleigh-Plesset dynamic equation, a new equation, which does not involve the time term and can describe the motion of cavitation bubble in the steady cavitating flow, has been obtained. By solving the new motion equation using Runge-Kutta fourth order method with adaptive step size control, the dynamic behaviors of cavitation bubble driven by the varying pressure field downstream of a venturi cavitation reactor are numerically simulated. The effects of liquid temperature (corre-sponding to the saturated vapor pressure of liquid), cavitation number and inlet pressure of venturi on radial mo-tion of bubble and pressure pulse due to the radial motion are analyzed and discussed in detail. Some dynamic behaviors of bubble different from those in previous papers are displayed. In addition, the internal relationship between bubble dynamics and process intensification is also discussed. The simulation results reported in this work reveal the variation laws of cavitation intensity with the flow conditions of liquid, and will lay a foundation for the practical application of hydrodynamic cavitation technology.

  11. Some Cavitation Properties of Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Efremova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation properties of liquid must be taken into consideration in the engineering design of hydraulic machines and hydro devices when there is a possibility that in their operation an absolute pressure in the liquid drops below atmospheric one, and for a certain time the liquid is in depression state. Cold boiling, which occurs at a comparatively low temperature under a reduced absolute pressure within or on the surface of the liquid is regarded as hydrostatic cavitation if the liquid is stationary or as hydrodynamic cavitation, if the liquid falls into conditions when in the flow cross-section there is a sharply increasing dynamic pressure and a dropping absolute pressure.In accordance with the theory of cavitation, the first phase of cavitation occurs when the absolute pressure of the degassed liquid drops to the saturated vapour pressure, and the air dissolved in the liquid, leaving the intermolecular space, is converted into micro-bubbles of combined air and becomes a generator of cavitation “nuclei”. A quantitative estimate of the minimum allowable absolute pressure in a real, fully or partially degassed liquid at which a hydrostatic cavitation occurs is of practical interest.Since the pressure of saturated vapour of a liquid is, to a certain extent, related to the forces of intermolecular interaction, it is necessary to have information on the cavitation properties of technical solutions, including air solution in a liquid, as a solute may weaken intermolecular bonds and affect the pressure value of the saturated solvent vapour. In the experiment to carry out vacuum degassing of liquids was used a hydraulic air driven vacuum pump.The paper presents hydrostatic and hydrodynamic degassing liquid processes used in the experiment.The experimental studies of the cavitation properties of technical liquids (sea and distilled water, saturated NaCl solution, and pure glycerol and as a 49/51% solution in water, mineral oil and jet fuel enabled

  12. Cavitation erosion of laser processed Fe-Cr-Mn and Fe-Cr-Co alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Szkodo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper is attempt explanation how laser beam processing influence on the cavitation performance of the Fe-Cr-Mn and Fe-Cr-Co alloys. This kind of alloys are frequently used in Polish power plants to routine repairs of damaged blades working under cavitation loading.Design/methodology/approach: Padding welds of investigated alloys were tested for three cases: after laser melting, after laser heating of the solid state and without additional processing. Cw. CO2 laser was employed as a source of radiation. The rotating disk rig was used in cavitation erosion investigations. The chemical composition, microstructure, and phase identification of the processed and subjected to cavitation loading alloys were examined using light microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy, respectively.Findings: Phase transformation for processed and unprocessed alloys was observed. Obtained results revealed that laser processing contributes to delaying of austenite → martensite phase transformation. Kinetic of this transformation is different for investigated alloys and depends on the chemical composition and applied laser processing. Research limitations/implications: Reported research ought to be completed and full cavitation curves (volume loss in time for laser beam processed alloys must be done. Practical implications: For low intensity of cavitation loading, like in field conditions laser beam processing can increase of cavitation erosion resistance of investigated alloys due to increase of hardness.Originality/value: Confirmation that creation of the transformed and hardfacing structures by laser techniques leads in many cases to considerable changes in cavitation erosion properties of the processed materials.

  13. Hydrodynamic Study Of Column Bioleaching Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadowski Zygmunt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The modelling of flow leaching solution through the porous media has been considered. The heap bioleaching process can be tested using the column experimental equipment. This equipment was employed to the hydrodynamic studies of copper ore bioleaching. The copper ore (black shale ore with the support, inertial materials (glass small balls and polyethylene beads was used to the bioleaching tests. The packed beds were various composition, the ore/support ratio was changed. The correlation between the bed porosity and bioleaching kinetics, and copper recovery was investigated.

  14. Relativistic hydrodynamics on graphics processing units

    CERN Document Server

    Sikorski, Jan; Porter-Sobieraj, Joanna; Słodkowski, Marcin; Krzyżanowski, Piotr; Książek, Natalia; Duda, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    Hydrodynamics calculations have been successfully used in studies of the bulk properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma, particularly of elliptic flow and shear viscosity. However, there are areas (for instance event-by-event simulations for flow fluctuations and higher-order flow harmonics studies) where further advancement is hampered by lack of efficient and precise 3+1D~program. This problem can be solved by using Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) computing, which offers unprecedented increase of the computing power compared to standard CPU simulations. In this work, we present an implementation of 3+1D ideal hydrodynamics simulations on the Graphics Processing Unit using Nvidia CUDA framework. MUSTA-FORCE (MUlti STAge, First ORder CEntral, with a~slope limiter and MUSCL reconstruction) and WENO (Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillating) schemes are employed in the simulations, delivering second (MUSTA-FORCE), fifth and seventh (WENO) order of accuracy. Third order Runge-Kutta scheme was used for integration in the t...

  15. 孔板水力空化装置的数值模拟%Simulation of Hydrodynamic Cavitation Equipment with Orifice Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章昱; 李育敏; 计建炳

    2011-01-01

    基于FLUENT软件,采用]k-ω模型对孔板水力空化进行数值模拟,将相同条件下模拟所得的空化区与实验空化区进行比较.结果表明,模拟计算得到的汽含率分布与实验拍摄的汽含率分布相似,k-ω模型模拟结果与实验结果吻合.采用该模型分析了不同入口压力、孔板结构参数、液体物性参数对空化强度的影响,模拟结果表明,入口压力越大,空化强度越剧烈;增加孔径和孔的数量使空化强度减弱;增大液体密度和粘度使空化强度减弱;增大液体初始含气量使空化强度先增大后减小.%Based on the software FLUENT, the hydrodynamic cavitation with orifice plates was simulated using the k-ω model. The simulation results were compared with experimental data at the same situations, which showed that the distribution of vapor fraction by simulation was similar to that of experiment. The influences of inlet pressure, structures of orifice plate and physical characters of liquid on cavitation intensity were investigated by simulation using this model. The intensity of cavitation increased with increasing of inlet pressure and the orifice diameter and number. The intensity of cavitation decreased as the increase of density and viscosity of liquid, when the initial gas holdup increased, the intensity of cavitation increased first and then weaken.

  16. Improvement in cavitation erosion resistance of AISI 316L stainless steel by friction stir processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajian, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollah-zadeh, A., E-mail: zadeh@modares.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei-Nejad, S.S.; Assadi, H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hadavi, S.M.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, MA University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chung, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Engineering Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shokouhimehr, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Commercial AISI 316L plates with the initial grain size of 14.8 μm were friction stir processed (FSP) with different processing parameters, resulting in two fine-grained microstructures with the grain sizes of 4.6 and 1.7 μm. The cavitation erosion behavior, before and after FSP, was evaluated in terms of incubation time, cumulative mass loss and mean depth of erosion. A separate cavitation erosion test was performed on the transverse cross section of a FSP sample to reveal the effect of grain structure. It was observed that FSP samples, depending on their grain size, are at least 3–6 times more resistant than the base material against cavitation erosion. The improvement in cavitation erosion resistance is attributed to smaller grain structure, lower fraction of twin boundaries, and favorable crystallographic orientation of grains in FSP samples. The finer the grain size, the more cavitation erosion resistance was achieved. Moreover, the microstructures of eroded surfaces were studied using a scanning electron microscope equipped with EBSD, and an atomic force microscope. The mechanisms controlling the cavitation erosion damage in friction stir processed AISI 316L are also discussed.

  17. Application of signal processing techniques to the detection of tip vortex cavitation noise in marine propeller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Jeung-Hoon; HAN Jae-Moon; PARK Hyung-Gil; SEO Jong-Soo

    2013-01-01

    The tip vortex cavitation and its relevant noise has been the subject of extensive researches up to now.In most cases of experimental approaches,the accurate and objective decision of cavitation inception is primary,which is the main topic of this paper.Although the conventional power spectrum is normally adopted as a signal processing tool for the analysis of cavitation noise,a faithful exploration cannot be made especially for the cavitation inception.Alternatively,the periodic occurrence of bursting noise induced from tip vortex cavitation gives a diagnostic proof that the repeating frequency of the bursting contents can be exploited as an indication of the inception.This study,hence,employed the Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) analysis and the Detection of Envelope Modulation On Noise (DEMON) spectrum analysis,both which are appropriate for finding such a repeating frequency.Through the acoustical measurement in a water tunnel,the two signal processing techniques show a satisfactory result in detecting the inception of tip vortex cavitation.

  18. Cavitation bubble oscillation period as a process diagnostic during the laser shock peening process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, D.; Polese, C.

    2017-09-01

    Laser shock peening (LSP) technology is a laser-induced shock process implemented as a surface enhancement technique to introduce beneficial compressive residual stresses into metallic components. The process employs water to confine and enhance the pressure pulse delivered to the target. For thick water layers, or fully water immersed LSP, a cavitation bubble is generated by the surface vaporization of the LSP laser pulse. This research shows that the first bubble oscillation period of the cavitation bubble can be used to characterize effective and repeatable energy delivery to the target. High-speed shadowgraphy is implemented to show that variations in the bubble period occur before visual observations of dielectric breakdown in water. The diagnostic potential of the first bubble oscillation period is used to identify the dielectric breakdown threshold of water, which shows an increase with increasing water quality measured by water conductivity.

  19. FOREWORD: International Symposium of Cavitation and Multiphase Flow (ISCM 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    The International Symposium on Cavitation and Multiphase Flow (ISCM 2014) was held in Beijing, China during 18th-21st October, 2014, which was jointly organized by Tsinghua University, Beijing, China and Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China. The co-organizer was the State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Beijing, China. Cavitation and multiphase flow is one of paramount topics of fluid mechanics with many engineering applications covering a broad range of topics, e.g. hydraulic machinery, biomedical engineering, chemical and process industry. In order to improve the performances of engineering facilities (e.g. hydraulic turbines) and to accelerate the development of techniques for medical treatment of serious diseases (e.g. tumors), it is essential to improve our understanding of cavitation and Multiphase Flow. For example, the present development towards the advanced hydrodynamic systems (e.g. space engine, propeller, hydraulic machinery system) often requires that the systems run under cavitating conditions and the risk of cavitation erosion needs to be controlled. The purpose of the ISCM 2014 was to discuss the state-of-the-art cavitation and multiphase flow research and their up-to-date applications, and to foster discussion and exchange of knowledge, and to provide an opportunity for the researchers, engineers and graduate students to report their latest outputs in these fields. Furthermore, the participants were also encouraged to present their work in progress with short lead time and discuss the encountered problems. ISCM 2014 covers all aspects of cavitation and Multiphase Flow, e.g. both fundamental and applied research with a focus on physical insights, numerical modelling and applications in engineering. Some specific topics are: Cavitating and Multiphase Flow in hydroturbines, pumps, propellers etc. Numerical simulation techniques Cavitation and multiphase flow erosion and anti-erosion techniques Measurement techniques for cavitation and

  20. Image processing using proper orthogonal and dynamic mode decompositions for the study of cavitation developing on a NACA0015 foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothin, Sebastien; Billard, Jean-Yves; Djeridi, Henda

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the present study is to get a better understanding of the hydrodynamic instabilities of sheet cavities which develop along solid walls. The main objective is to highlight the spatial and temporal behavior of such a cavity when it develops on a NACA0015 foil at high Reynolds number. Experimental results show a quasi-steady, periodic, bifurcation domain, with aperiodic cavity behavior corresponding to σ/2 α values of 5.75, 5, 4.3 and 3.58. Robust mathematical methods of signal postprocessing (proper orthogonal decomposition and dynamic mode decomposition) were applied in order to emphasize the spatio-temporal nature of the flow. These new techniques put in evidence the 3D effects due to the reentrant jet instabilities or due to propagating shock wave mechanism at the origin of the shedding process of the cavitation cloud.

  1. A Displayer of Stellar Hydrodynamics Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigo, José Antonio Escartín; Senz, Domingo García

    The graphics display tool that we present here was originally developed to meet the needs of the Astronomy and Astrophysics group at the UPC (GAA). At present, it is used to display the plots obtained from hydrodynamic simulations using the SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) method. It is, however, a generic program that can be used for other multidimensional hydrodynamic methods. The application combines the most widely used features of other programs (most of them commercial) such as GnuPlot, Surfer, Grapher, IDL, Voxler, etc.

  2. Hydrodynamic Analysis to Process of Hydrostatic Extrusion for Tungsten Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuchi WANG; Zhaohui ZHANG; Shukui LI

    2001-01-01

    The hydrodynamic analysis to the process of the hydrostatic extrusion for tungsten alloy is carried through the hydrodynamic lubrication theory and Reynolds equation in this paper. The critical velocity equation when the hydrodynamic lubrication conditions appear between the surfaces of the work- piece and the die is obtained, and the relationship between the critical velocity and the extrusion parameters is discussed, which build the theoretical bases to the application of the hydrostatic extrusion for tungsten alloy.

  3. CAV-OX CAVITATION OXIDIATION PROCESS - MAGNUM WATER TECHNOLOGY, INC. - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report evaluates the ability of the CAV-OX cavitation oxidation process to remove volatile organic compounds (VOC) present in aqueous wastes. This report also presents economic data based on the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program demonstration and nine...

  4. Processing and Microstructure Characteristics of As-Cast A356 Alloys Manufactured via Ultrasonic Cavitation during Solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Yang; Jia, Shian; Nastac, Laurentiu

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies have showed that the microstructure and mechanical properties of A356 alloy can be significantly improved when ultrasonic cavitation and solidification processing is used. This is because during the fabrication of A356 castings, ultrasonic cavitation processing plays an important role in degassing and refining the as-cast microstructure. In the present study, A356 alloy and Al2O3/SiC nanoparticles are used as the matrix alloy and the reinforcements, respectively. Nanoparticles are injected into the molten alloy and dispersed by ultrasonic cavitation. Ultrasonic cavitation was also applied during solidification of these nanocomposites. The microstructure and nanoparticle distribution of the cast samples have been investigated in detail. The current experimental results indicated that ultrasonic cavitation during solidification will greatly improve the microstructure of the samples. Al2O3 and SiC nanoparticle reinforced nanocomposites have different nanoparticle distributions in the matrix.

  5. Cavitation simulation on marine propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Keun Woo

    flows on a 2D hydrofoil are compared with the experimental results. In the current implementation, three models with a vapor transport equation show numerical stability and equivalently good accuracy in simulating steady and unsteady sheet cavitation. More validations for cavitating flows on 3D...... hydrofoils and conventional/highly-skewed propellers are performed with one of three cavitation models proven in 2D analysis. 3D cases also show accuracy and robustness of numerical method in simulating steady and unsteady sheet cavitation on complicated geometries. Hydrodynamic characteristics of cavitation...

  6. Microstructural properties and cavitation behavior of hypereutectic Al-Si alloy obtained by rheocasting process

    OpenAIRE

    Ćosić, Milena; Dojčinović, Marina; Aćimović-Pavlović, Zagorka

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate possible application of AlSi alloy produced by rheocasting process in cavitation conditions. A rheocasting process was used to refine the as cast microstructure and improve the mechanical properties of Al18wt%Si alloy. Mechanical stirring was applied to the melt for different stirring time: 60,120,180s at different temperatures below the liquidus temperature of the alloy, using different stirring speed values, before pouring into a metallic mould. ...

  7. [New procedure for protein spinning: the hydrodynamic process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaigne, F; Liber, E; Carbillet, L; Boulet, M; Riel, R R

    1978-01-01

    In this text, we describe a new protein spinning process called hydrodynamic process. Parameters which are related to production of fibers and which can influence diameter and texture are explained extensively. In this process, a spinning dope is extruded through a spinnerette in a moving coagulation bath in which the fibers are coagulated, stretched and carried.

  8. Cavitation assisted delignification of wheat straw: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskalieva, Asylzat; Yimmou, Bob Mbouyem; Gogate, Parag R; Horvath, Miklos; Horvath, Peter G; Csoka, Levente

    2012-09-01

    Wheat is grown in most of the Indian and Chinese regions and after harvesting, the remaining straw offers considerable promise as a renewable source most suitable for papermaking and as a pulping resource. Delignification of wheat straw offers ample scope for energy conservation by way of the application of the process intensification principles. The present work reviews the pretreatment techniques available for improving the effectiveness of the conventional approach for polysaccharide component separation, softening and delignification. A detailed overview of the cavitation assisted delignification process has been presented based on the earlier literature illustrations and important operational guidelines have been presented for overall low-cost and amenable energy utilization in the processes. The effectiveness of the methods has been evaluated according to yield and properties of the isolated fibers in comparison to the conventional treatment. Also the experimental results of one such non-conventional treatment scheme based on the use of hydrodynamic cavitation have been presented for the pulping of wheat straw. The effect of hydrodynamically induced cavitation on cell wall matrix and its components have been characterized using FT-IR analysis with an objective of understanding the cavitation assisted digestion mechanism on straws. It has been observed that the use of hydrodynamic cavitation does not degrade the fibrillar structure of cellulose but causes relocalisation and partial removal of lignin. Overall it appears that considerable improvement can be obtained due to the use of pretreatment or alternate techniques for delignification, which is an energy intensive step in the paper making industries.

  9. Can Cavitation Be Anticipated?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Dress, W.B.; Hylton, J.O.; Kercel, S.W.

    1999-04-25

    The major problem with cavitation in pumps and hydraulic systems is that there is no effective (conventional) method for detecting or predicting its inception. The traditional method of recognizing cavitation in a pump is to declare the event occurring when the total head drops by some arbitrary value (typically 3%) in response to a pressure reduction at the pump inlet. However, the device is already seriously cavitating when this happens. What is actually needed is a practical method to detect impending rather than incipient cavitation. Whereas the detection of incipient cavitation requires the detection of features just after cavitation starts, the anticipation of cavitation requires the detection and identification of precursor features just before it begins. Two recent advances that make this detection possible. The first is acoustic sensors with a bandwidth of 1 MHz and a dynamic range of 80 dB that preserve the fine details of the features when subjected to coarse vibrations. The second is the application of Bayesian parameter estimation which makes it possible to separate weak signals, such as those present in cavitation precursors, from strong signals, such as pump vibration. Bayesian parameter estimation derives a model based on cavitation hydrodynamics and produces a figure of merit of how well it fits the acquired data. Applying this model to an anticipatory engine should lead to a reliable method of anticipating cavitation before it occurs. This paper reports the findings of precursor features using high-performance sensors and Bayesian analysis of weak acoustic emissions in the 100-1000kHz band from an experimental flow loop.

  10. Characteristics of Vibration Induced by Cavitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-yu; TAO Lei; LIU Shu-yan; QIAN Jian-jun

    2005-01-01

    Cavitation-induced vibration characteristics and the relations between the vibration and cavitation are studied. Cavitation vibrations are measured around a model hollow-jet valve by an accelerometer under cavitating and non-cavitating conditions. The measurement data is analyzed by FFT method. The corresponding cavitating flow patterns are photographed by a high-speed camera with an xenon flash lamp. The frequency band of the vibration induced by cavitation is determined. To compare the vibration intensities under different cavitation conditions, a definition of vibration acceleration level is introduced based on power spectral density of the vibration. By the analysis of vibration, the definitions of characteristic cavitation number are suggested. According to these cavitation numbers, the cavitation process is divided into three stages, that is, incipient cavitation, subcavitation and supercavitation.

  11. Correlating Inertial Acoustic Cavitation Emissions with Material Erosion Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, I.; Hodnett, M.; Zeqiri, B.; Frota, M. N.

    The standard ASTM G32-10 concerns the hydrodynamic cavitation erosion resistance of materials by subjecting them to acoustic cavitation generated by a sonotrode. The work reported extends this technique by detecting and monitoring the ultrasonic cavitation, considered responsible for the erosion process, specifically for coupons of aluminium-bronze alloy. The study uses a 65 mm diameter variant of NPL's cavitation sensor, which detects broadband acoustic emissions, and logs acoustic signals generated in the MHz frequency range, using NPL's Cavimeter. Cavitation readings were made throughout the exposure duration, which was carried out at discrete intervals (900 to 3600 s), allowing periodic mass measurements to be made to assess erosion loss under a strict protocol. Cavitation measurements and erosion were compared for different separations of the sonotrode tip from the material under test. The maximum variation associated with measurement of cavitation level was between 2.2% and 3.3% when the separation (λ) between the transducer horn and the specimen increased from 0.5 to 1.0 mm, for a transducer (sonotrode) displacement amplitude of 43.5 μm. Experiments conducted at the same transducer displacement amplitude show that the mass loss of the specimen -a measure of erosion- was 67.0 mg (λ = 0.5 mm) and 66.0 mg (λ = 1.0 mm).

  12. The role of ultrasonic cavitation in refining the microstructure of aluminum based nanocomposites during the solidification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Yang; Nastac, Laurentiu

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies showed that the microstructure and mechanical properties of aluminum based nanocomposites can be significantly improved when ultrasonic cavitation and solidification processing is used. This is because ultrasonic cavitation processing plays an important role not only in degassing and dispersion of the nanoparticles, but also in breaking up the dendritic grains and refining the as-cast microstructure. In the present study, A356 alloy and Al2O3 nanoparticles are used as the matrix alloy and the reinforcement, respectively. Nanoparticles were added into the molten A356 alloy and dispersed via ultrasonic cavitation processing. Ultrasonic cavitation was applied over various temperature ranges during molten alloy cooling and solidification to investigate the grain structure formation and the nanoparticle dispersion behavior. Optical Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy were used to investigate in detail the differences in the microstructure characteristics and the nanoparticle distribution. Experimental results indicated that the ultrasonic cavitation processing and Al2O3 nanoparticles play an important role for microstructure refinement. In addition, it was shown in this study that the Al2O3 nanoparticles modified the eutectic phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Numerical investigation of the hydroelastic response in cavitating flow around a flexible hydrofoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q.; Huang, B.; Wang, G. Y.; Wang, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the hydroelastic response of cavitating flows around a flexible hydrofoil. The numerical simulations are performed by solving the incompressible and unsteady Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations via the commercial CFD software ANSYS CFX. The k-ω SST turbulence model with the turbulence viscosity correction and the Kubota cavitation model are introduced to the present simulations. The results showed that the cavitation has significantly affected the foil deformation and the evolution of the transient cavity shape and the corresponding hydrodynamic response with time can be divided into three stages: during the development of the attached cavity, the cavity formed on the suction side of the flexible hydrofoil is much larger with a steeper slope of the cavity area, which is caused by the increase of the effective angle of attack due to the twist deformation. During the vortex-cavitation interaction process, the hydrodynamic loads for the rigid hydrofoil remain relatively flat, while that for the flexible hydrofoil fluctuates with high frequency because of the foil deformation, leading to a more complex cavitation pattern due to the interaction with the foil vibration. During the cavity shedding process, both the primary and the residual cavities shed downstream totally, together with the counter-rotational vortex structures, corresponding to a sharp drop in the hydrodynamic loads. The larger effective angle of attack leads to the advanced cavity inception of the next cavitation period.

  14. Effects of Laser Shock Processing on Morphologies and Mechanical Properties of ANSI 304 Stainless Steel Weldments Subjected to Cavitation Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Lu, Jin-Zhong; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Ma, Hai-Le; Luo, Kai-Yu; Dai, Feng-Ze

    2017-01-01

    Effects of laser shock processing (LSP) on the cavitation erosion resistance of laser weldments were investigated by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations, roughness tester, micro hardness tester, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) technology. The morphological microstructures were characterized. Cumulative mass loss, incubation period, erosion rate, and damaged surface areas were monitored during cavitation erosion. Surface roughness, micro-hardness, and residual stress were measured in different zones. Results showed that LSP could improve the damage of morphological microstructures and mechanical properties after cavitation erosion. The compressive residual stresses were generated during the process of LSP, which was an effective guarantee for the improvement of the above mentioned properties. PMID:28772652

  15. Cavitation instabilities and rotordynamic effects in turbopumps and hydroturbines turbopump and inducer cavitation, experiments and design

    CERN Document Server

    Salvetti, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The book provides a detailed approach to the physics, fluid dynamics, modeling, experimentation and numerical simulation of cavitation phenomena, with special emphasis on cavitation-induced instabilities and their implications on the design and operation of high performance turbopumps and hydraulic turbines. The first part covers the fundamentals (nucleation, dynamics, thermodynamic effects, erosion) and forms of cavitation (attached cavitation, cloud cavitation, supercavitation, vortex cavitation) relevant to hydraulic turbomachinery, illustrates modern experimental techniques for the characterization, visualization and analysis of cavitating flows, and introduces the main aspects of the hydrodynamic design and performance of axial inducers, centrifugal turbopumps and hydo-turbines. The second part focuses on the theoretical modeling, experimental analysis, and practical control of cavitation-induced fluid-dynamic and rotordynamic instabilities of hydraulic turbomachinery, with special emphasis on cavitating...

  16. Dynamics Models of Interacting Torques of Hydrodynamic Retarder Braking Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic retarder is a kind of assist braking device, which can transfer the vehicle kinetic energy into the heat energy of working medium. There are complicated three-dimensional viscous incompressible turbulent flows in hydrodynamic retarder, so that it is difficult to represent the parameters changing phenomenon and investigate the interactional law. In order to develop a kind of reliable theoretical model for internal flow field, in this study, the dynamics models of interacting torques between impellers and working fluid were constructed based on braking energy transfer principle by using Euler theory to describe the flow state in view of time scale. The model can truly represent the dynamic braking process.

  17. Wastewater treatment using hybrid treatment schemes based on cavitation and Fenton chemistry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagal, Manisha V; Gogate, Parag R

    2014-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes such as cavitation and Fenton chemistry have shown considerable promise for wastewater treatment applications due to the ease of operation and simple reactor design. In this review, hybrid methods based on cavitation coupled with Fenton process for the treatment of wastewater have been discussed. The basics of individual processes (Acoustic cavitation, Hydrodynamic cavitation, Fenton chemistry) have been discussed initially highlighting the need for combined processes. The different types of reactors used for the combined processes have been discussed with some recommendations for large scale operation. The effects of important operating parameters such as solution temperature, initial pH, initial pollutant concentration and Fenton's reagent dosage have been discussed with guidelines for selection of optimum parameters. The optimization of power density is necessary for ultrasonic processes (US) and combined processes (US/Fenton) whereas the inlet pressure needs to be optimized in the case of Hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) based processes. An overview of different pollutants degraded under optimized conditions using HC/Fenton and US/Fenton process with comparison with individual processes have been presented. It has been observed that the main mechanism for the synergy of the combined process depends on the generation of additional hydroxyl radicals and its proper utilization for the degradation of the pollutant, which is strongly dependent on the loading of hydrogen peroxide. Overall, efficient wastewater treatment with high degree of energy efficiency can be achieved using combined process operating under optimized conditions, as compared to the individual process.

  18. Hydrodynamic limit of symmetric exclusion processes in inhomogeneous media

    CERN Document Server

    Faggionato, A

    2010-01-01

    In \\cite{J} M. Jara has presented a method, reducing the proof of the hydrodynamic limit of symmetric exclusion processes to an homogenization problem, as unified approach to recent works on the field as \\cite{N}, \\cite{F1}, \\cite{F2} and \\cite{FJL}. Although not stated in \\cite{J}, the reduction of the hydrodynamic limit to an homogenization problem was already obtained (in a different way) in \\cite{N}, \\cite{F1}. This alternative and very simple relation between the two problems goes back to an idea of K.\\ Nagy \\cite{N}, is stated in \\cite{F1}[Section B] for exclusion processes on $\\bbZ^d$ and, as stressed in \\cite{F2}, is completely general. The above relation has been applied to \\cite{N}, \\cite{F1}, \\cite{F2} and \\cite{FJL} and could be applied to other symmetric exclusion processes, mentioned in \\cite{J}. In this short note we briefly recall this unified approach in a complete general setting. Finally, we recall how the homogenization problem has been solved in the above previous works.

  19. Influence of Leading-edge Suction on Hydrodynamic and Cavitation Performance of Hydrofoil%前缘抽吸对水翼水动力及空泡性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 郭海鹏; 张立新; 郭春雨

    2013-01-01

    为了研究船用水翼前缘抽吸设置对其水动力性能及空泡性能的影响,应用数值模拟的方法进行了系统的计算分析。首先,以NACA0012为研究对象,采用两种湍流模型对翼型绕流进行模拟,通过与实验值对比,确定了合理的湍流模型。随后,计算分析了船用水翼添加前缘抽吸作用后,升力系数、阻力系数和升阻比的变化情况,及对失速角的影响,结果表明船用水翼在前缘布置吸口后可以提高失速角,扩大稳定工作攻角范围,提升翼型升阻比,起到增效的作用。最后,计算了NACA0012翼型及在其前缘加吸口水翼的定常与非定常空泡流动的数值模拟,计算结果表明:定常流动时,在翼型前缘加上吸口,可使空泡尺寸减小,改善了水翼的空泡性能;非定常流动时,加上吸口,可使空泡周期变长,空泡变化范围减小,抑制大规模空泡云的脱落,减少对水翼表面的剥蚀作用,降低空泡对水翼性能的影响。%In order to study the influence of leading-edge suction on hydrodynamic and cavitation performance of hydrofoil, the numerical simulation method is used to calculate and analyze this pro-gram. First, two different turbulence models are used to computer the characteristics of NACA0012 airfoil, and one model is confirmed for the next calculation through comparing the results with tests. Then, the variation of lift coefficient, drag coefficient, lift drag ratio and stalling angle are analyzed while suction inlet is added at leading-edge of hydrofoil. The results show that the suction inlet can increase the stalling angle, enlarge the stable working angle limit, enhance lift drag ratio and improve the efficiency of the hydrofoil. In the end, the steady and unsteady cavitation flow around the NACA0012 airfoil and leading-edge suction hydrofoil are simulated. The results show that the suction inlet can make the cavitation bubble size

  20. 水力空化联合臭氧氧化灭藻技术的实际应用%Practical Application of Technology Combining Ozonation With Hydrodynamic Cavitation to Algae Removal From Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武志林; 王伟民; 李维新; 赵诣; 汤传栋; Giancarlo Cravotto

    2016-01-01

    Based on laboratory research and pilot experiments, an industrial water treatment system combining ozonation with hydrodynamic cavitation has been developed to remove algae from eutrophicated waterbodies. A comparative study was performed to compare the technologies of"complex cavitation/ozone","extrusion cavitation/ozone","suction cavitation/ozone","ozonation alone" and "orifice plate aperture" in water treatment efficiency, relative to chlorophyll a, UV254 , COD and NH3-N contents and turbidity in treated water. Meanwhile, comparison was done between"complex cavitation/o-zone" and "ozone alone" in some economic and technological indices, such as ozone utilization rate and net purification rate per unit of ozone and energy consumed. Results show that the technology of "complex cavitation/ozone" reached 44. 5% and 88. 9% in chlorophyll removal rate and 0. 89 and 1. 78 kW·h·m-3 in per unit energy consumption, respec-tively, during the period of stable discharge, when operated at 10 or 5 m3 ·h-1 . Moreover, the indices of turbidity, UV254 and COD all dropped significantly. The two technologies were also found better than the others in the other economic and technical indices. Therefore, it is concluded that the"hydrodynamic cavitation/ozone" system can be applied to quick and effective elimination of algae and chlorophyll, suppression of algal blooms, and reduction of ecological damage and eco-nomic losses that may be caused by algal blooms and dead algae.%在小试和中试试验的基础上,研制了一套水力空化联合臭氧灭藻及净化富营养化水体的工业化水处理系统.在工程运行中,比较了优化条件下复合空化-臭氧、正压空化-臭氧、抽吸空化-臭氧和单独臭氧氧化工艺以及孔板孔径对水体中叶绿素a、浊度、UV254、COD以及氨氮等的处理效果.同时,还对复合空化-臭氧和单独臭氧氧化工艺的臭氧利用率、臭氧和单位能耗的净化效率等经济技术指标进行了比

  1. Dynamical process of cavitation bubble adsorbed in gold nanoparticle under combined irradiations of laser and ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zheng; XU Jianyi; LIU Xiaojun

    2011-01-01

    Under combined irradiation of laser and ultrasound, cavitary bubbles are generated on the surface of gold nanoparticle. The laser-induced thermal effect, ultrasonic cavitation el- fect and the synergistic effect of laser and ultrasound are studied by mean

  2. Hydrodynamic pressure processing: Impact on the quality attributes of fresh and further-processed meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter reviews hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP) as an innovative, postharvest technology for enhancing the quality attributes of fresh and further-processed meat products. A variety of meat products have been tested for their response to the high pressure shockwaves of HDP. The st...

  3. An Anticipatory Model of Cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Dress, W.B., Jr.; Hylton, J.O.; Kercel, S.W.

    1999-04-05

    The Anticipatory System (AS) formalism developed by Robert Rosen provides some insight into the problem of embedding intelligent behavior in machines. AS emulates the anticipatory behavior of biological systems. AS bases its behavior on its expectations about the near future and those expectations are modified as the system gains experience. The expectation is based on an internal model that is drawn from an appeal to physical reality. To be adaptive, the model must be able to update itself. To be practical, the model must run faster than real-time. The need for a physical model and the requirement that the model execute at extreme speeds, has held back the application of AS to practical problems. Two recent advances make it possible to consider the use of AS for practical intelligent sensors. First, advances in transducer technology make it possible to obtain previously unavailable data from which a model can be derived. For example, acoustic emissions (AE) can be fed into a Bayesian system identifier that enables the separation of a weak characterizing signal, such as the signature of pump cavitation precursors, from a strong masking signal, such as a pump vibration feature. The second advance is the development of extremely fast, but inexpensive, digital signal processing hardware on which it is possible to run an adaptive Bayesian-derived model faster than real-time. This paper reports the investigation of an AS using a model of cavitation based on hydrodynamic principles and Bayesian analysis of data from high-performance AE sensors.

  4. Experimental and theoretical analyses on the ultrasonic cavitation processing of Al-based alloys and nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shian

    Strong evidence is showing that microstructure and mechanical properties of a casting component can be significantly improved if nanoparticles are used as reinforcement to form metal-matrix-nano-composite (MMNC). In this paper, 6061/A356 nanocomposite castings are fabricated using the ultrasonic stirring technology (UST). The 6061/A356 alloy and Al2O3/SiC nanoparticles are used as the matrix alloy and the reinforcement, respectively. Nanoparticles are injected into the molten metal and dispersed by ultrasonic cavitation and acoustic streaming. The applied UST parameters in the current experiments are used to validate a recently developed multiphase Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model, which is used to model the nanoparticle dispersion during UST processing. The CFD model accounts for turbulent fluid flow, heat transfer and the complex interaction between the molten alloy and nanoparticles using the ANSYS Fluent Dense Discrete Phase Model (DDPM). The modeling study includes the effects of ultrasonic probe location and the initial location where the nanoparticles are injected into the molten alloy. The microstructure, mechanical behavior and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite castings have been also investigated in detail. The current experimental results show that the tensile strength and elongation of the as-cast nanocomposite samples (6061/A356 alloy reinforced by Al2O 3 or SiC nanoparticles) are improved. The addition of the Al2O 3 or SiC nanoparticles in 6061/A356 alloy matrix changes the fracture mechanism from brittle dominated to ductile dominated.

  5. Techniques of Ultrasound Cavitation Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Skvortsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The control methods of ultrasonic cavitation applied now within the range from 20 kHz to 80 kHz use either control of ultrasound source parameters (amplitude, acoustic power, etc. or control of one of the cavitation effects (erosion of materials, sonoluminescence, power of acoustic noise, etc.. These methods provide effective management of technological processes, however, make it impossible to relate the estimated effect with parameters of pulsations of cavitation bubbles. This is, mainly, due to influence of a number of uncontrollable parameters, in particular, such as temperature, composition of liquid, gas content, etc. as well as because of the difficulty to establish interrelation between the estimated effect and parameters of pulsations. As a result, in most cases it is difficult to compare controlled parameters of ultrasonic cavitation among themselves, and quantitative characteristics of processes become depending on the type of ultrasonic installation and conditions of their measurement.In this regard, methods to determine parameters of bubble pulsations through sounding a cavitation area by low-intensity laser radiation or to record cavitation noise sub-harmonics reflecting dynamics of changing radius of cavitation bubbles are of interest. The method of optical sounding, via the analysis of spectral components of a scattered signal recorded by a photo-detector, allows us to define a phase of the bubbles collapse with respect to the sound wave and a moving speed of the bubbles wall, as well as to estimate a cavitation index within the light beam section.The method to record sub-harmonicas of cavitation noise allows us to define parameters of pulsations, average for cavitation areas.The above methods allow us both to study mechanisms of cavitation action and to form quantitative criteria of its efficiency based on the physical processes, rather than their consequences and are convenient for arranging a feedback in the units using

  6. Concurrent multiscale modelling of atomistic and hydrodynamic processes in liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markesteijn, Anton; Karabasov, Sergey; Scukins, Arturs; Nerukh, Dmitry; Glotov, Vyacheslav; Goloviznin, Vasily

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuations of liquids at the scales where the hydrodynamic and atomistic descriptions overlap are considered. The importance of these fluctuations for atomistic motions is discussed and examples of their accurate modelling with a multi-space–time-scale fluctuating hydrodynamics scheme are provided. To resolve microscopic details of liquid systems, including biomolecular solutions, together with macroscopic fluctuations in space–time, a novel hybrid atomistic–fluctuating hydrodynamics approach is introduced. For a smooth transition between the atomistic and continuum representations, an analogy with two-phase hydrodynamics is used that leads to a strict preservation of macroscopic mass and momentum conservation laws. Examples of numerical implementation of the new hybrid approach for the multiscale simulation of liquid argon in equilibrium conditions are provided. PMID:24982246

  7. Advanced Numerical Modeling of the Dispersion of Ceramic Nanoparticles during Ultrasonic Cavitation Processing and Solidification of 6061-based Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D.; Nastac, L.

    2015-06-01

    The metal-matrix-nano-composites (MMNCs) in this study consist of a 6061 alloy matrix reinforced with 1.0 wt.% SiC 50 nm diameter nanoparticles that are dispersed uniformly within the matrix in large volume using an ultrasonic cavitation dispersion technique (UCDS) available in the Solidification Laboratory at UA. The required ultrasonic parameters to achieve the required cavitation for adequate degassing and refining of the aluminium alloy as well as the fluid flow characteristics for uniform dispersion of the nanoparticles into the 6061 matrix are being investigated in this study by using an in-house developed CFD ultrasonic cavitation model. The multiphase CFD model accounts for turbulent fluid flow, heat transfer and solidification as well as the complex interaction between the solidifying alloy and nanoparticles by using the Ansys's Fluent Dense Discrete Phase Model (DDPM) and a particle engulfment and pushing (PEP) model. The PEP model accounts for the Brownian motion. SEM analysis was performed on the as-cast MMNC coupons processed via UCDS and confirmed the distribution of the nanoparticles predicted by the current CFD model. A parametric study was performed using the validated CFD model. The study includes the effects of magnitude of the fluid flow and ultrasonic probe location (gravity direction).

  8. Numerical and experimental investigation of the grain refinement of liquid metals through cavitation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghayeghi, R.; Ezzatneshan, E.; Bahai, H.; Nastac, L.

    2013-09-01

    An investigation was carried out on the grain refinement of molten AA5754 Aluminum alloy through intensive shearing. The results show intensive shearing via cavitation decreases the grain size significantly. The above hypothesis for structure refinement was evaluated and an experiment was performed to ensure the creditability of this assumption. Finally, it was simulated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. It was understood that shearing is the responsible mechanism for creation of cavitation bubbles and further collapse of them. It was also concluded the pressure which generated from the collapse of the bubble is well enough for braking the oxide layer and wetting them. It was proved that breaking of the oxide layer wets the impurity particles upon collapse of cavitation bubbles and provides additional nuclei and additional grain refinement. The suggested mechanism includes improved wetting by breaking the oxide layer through fatigue via continuous hitting of the micro-jets, local undercooling upon the collapse of cavitation bubbles, and pre-solidification inside fine capillaries.

  9. Numerical Prediction of Unsteady Behavior of Cavitating Flow on Hydrofoils using Bubble Dynamics Cavitation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur-E- Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical study with pressure-based finite volume method for prediction of non-cavitating and time dependent cavitating flow on hydrofoil. The phenomenon of cavitation is modeled through a mixture model. For the numerical simulation of cavitating flow, a bubble dynamics cavitation model is used to investigate the unsteady behavior of cavitating flow and describe the generation and evaporation of vapor phase. The non-cavitating study focuses on choosing mesh size and the influence of the turbulence model. Three turbulence models such as Spalart-Allmaras, Shear Stress Turbulence (SST k-ω model and Re-Normalization Group (RNG k-ε model with enhanced wall treatment are used to capture the turbulent boundary layer on the hydrofoil surface. The cavitating study presents an unsteady behavior of the partial cavity attached to the foil at different time steps for σ=0.8. Moreover, this study focuses on cavitation inception, the shape and general behavior of sheet cavitation, lift and drag forces for different cavitation numbers. Finally, the flow pattern and hydrodynamic characteristics are also studied at different angles of attack.

  10. Interaction of Microphysical Aerosol Processes with Hydrodynamics Mixing

    KAUST Repository

    Alshaarawi, Amjad

    2015-12-15

    This work is concerned with the interaction between condensing aerosol dynamics and hydrodynamic mixing within ow configurations in which aerosol particles form (nucleate) from a supersaturated vapor and supersaturation is induced by the mixing of two streams (a saturated stream and a cold one). Two canonical hydrodynamic configurations are proposed for the investigation. The First is the steady one-dimensional opposed-ow configuration. The setup consists of the two (saturated and cold) streams owing from opposite nozzles. A mixing layer is established across a stagnation plane in the center where nucleation and other aerosol dynamics are triggered. The second is homogeneous isotropic turbulence in a three-dimensional periodic domain. Patches of a hot saturated gas mix with patches of a cold one. A mixing layer forms across the growing interface where the aerosol dynamics of interest occur. In both configurations, a unique analogy is observed. The results reveal a complex response to variations in the mixing rates. Depending on the mixing rate, the response of the number density falls into one of two regimes. For fast mixing rates, the maximum reached number density of the condensing droplets increases with the hydrodynamic time. We refer to this as the nucleation regime. On the contrary, for low mixing rates, the maximum reached number density decreases with the hydrodynamic time. We refer to this as the consumption regime. It is shown that vapor scavenging by the aerosol phase is key to explaining the transition between these two regimes.

  11. Effect of Spray Particle Velocity on Cavitation Erosion Resistance Characteristics of HVOF and HVAF Processed 86WC-10Co4Cr Hydro Turbine Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R. K.; Kamaraj, M.; Seetharamu, S.; Pramod, T.; Sampathkumaran, P.

    2016-08-01

    The hydro plants utilizing silt-laden water for power generation suffer from severe metal wastage due to particle-induced erosion and cavitation. High-velocity oxy-fuel process (HVOF)-based coatings is widely applied to improve the erosion life. The process parameters such as particle velocity, size, powder feed rate, temperature, affect their mechanical properties. The high-velocity air fuel (HVAF) technology, with higher particle velocities and lower spray temperatures, gives dense and substantially nonoxidized coating. In the present study, the cavitation resistance of 86WC-10Co4Cr-type HVOF coating processed at 680 m/s spray particle velocity was compared with HVAF coatings made at 895, 960, and 1010 m/s. The properties such as porosity, hardness, indentation toughness, and cavitation resistance were investigated. The surface damage morphology has been analyzed in SEM. The cohesion between different layers has been examined qualitatively through scratch depth measurements across the cross section. The HVAF coatings have shown a lower porosity, higher hardness, and superior cavitation resistance. Delamination, extensive cracking of the matrix interface, and detachment of the WC grains were observed in HVOF coating. The rate of metal loss is low in HVAF coatings implying that process parameters play a vital role in achieving improved cavitation resistance.

  12. Enhancement of Hydrodynamic Processes in Oil Pipelines Considering Rheologically Complex High-Viscosity Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konakhina, I. A.; Khusnutdinova, E. M.; Khamidullina, G. R.; Khamidullina, A. F.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model of flow-related hydrodynamic processes for rheologically complex high-viscosity bitumen oil and oil-water suspensions and presents methods to improve the design and performance of oil pipelines.

  13. Hybrid alkali-hydrodynamic disintegration of waste-activated sludge before two-stage anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grübel, Klaudiusz; Suschka, Jan

    2015-05-01

    The first step of anaerobic digestion, the hydrolysis, is regarded as the rate-limiting step in the degradation of complex organic compounds, such as waste-activated sludge (WAS). The aim of lab-scale experiments was to pre-hydrolyze the sludge by means of low intensive alkaline sludge conditioning before applying hydrodynamic disintegration, as the pre-treatment procedure. Application of both processes as a hybrid disintegration sludge technology resulted in a higher organic matter release (soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)) to the liquid sludge phase compared with the effects of processes conducted separately. The total SCOD after alkalization at 9 pH (pH in the range of 8.96-9.10, SCOD = 600 mg O2/L) and after hydrodynamic (SCOD = 1450 mg O2/L) disintegration equaled to 2050 mg/L. However, due to the synergistic effect, the obtained SCOD value amounted to 2800 mg/L, which constitutes an additional chemical oxygen demand (COD) dissolution of about 35 %. Similarly, the synergistic effect after alkalization at 10 pH was also obtained. The applied hybrid pre-hydrolysis technology resulted in a disintegration degree of 28-35%. The experiments aimed at selection of the most appropriate procedures in terms of optimal sludge digestion results, including high organic matter degradation (removal) and high biogas production. The analyzed soft hybrid technology influenced the effectiveness of mesophilic/thermophilic anaerobic digestion in a positive way and ensured the sludge minimization. The adopted pre-treatment technology (alkalization + hydrodynamic cavitation) resulted in 22-27% higher biogas production and 13-28% higher biogas yield. After two stages of anaerobic digestion (mesophilic conditions (MAD) + thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD)), the highest total solids (TS) reduction amounted to 45.6% and was received for the following sample at 7 days MAD + 17 days TAD. About 7% higher TS reduction was noticed compared with the sample after 9

  14. Simulations of Steady Cavitating Flow in a Small Francis Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Laouari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The turbulent flow through a small horizontal Francis turbine is solved by means of Ansys-CFX at different operating points, with the determination of the hydrodynamic performance and the best efficiency point. The flow structures at different regimes reveal a large flow eddy in the runner and a swirl in the draft tube. The use of the mixture model for the cavity/liquid two-phase flow allowed studying the influence of cavitation on the hydrodynamic performance and revealed cavitation pockets near the trailing edge of the runner and a cavitation vortex rope in the draft tube. By maintaining a constant dimensionless head and a distributor vane opening while gradually increasing the cavitation number, the output power and efficiency reached a critical point and then had begun to stabilize. The cavitation number corresponding to the safety margin of cavitation is also predicted for this hydraulic turbine.

  15. Hydrodynamics of heavy liquid metal coolant processes and filtering apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert K Papovyants; Yuri I Orlov; Pyotr N Martynov; Yuri D Boltoev [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering named after A.I. Leypunsky Bondarenko sq. 1, 249033, Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    forces at a distance from the wall equal to S {<=} 0,2 d{sub p}. It is demonstrated that the filtration efficiency can be significantly influenced by the properties of the capillary-porous structure of the filter material: the fiber diameter, type of braiding providing the availability of stagnant zones, porosity and wetting angle. With some simplifying prerequisites, the evaluation of the dynamics of the sedimentation growth on the porous partition has been performed as a function of time. Analysis of the conditions of the hydrodynamic separation of filter entrained particles (d{sub p} {approx_equal} 2 {mu}m) by the coolant flow revealed that to realize this process, it is necessary that the wall flow velocity be about V = 0,2 m/s. The object of investigations was a broad class of filter materials, including metallo-ceramics, metallic grids, carbon cloth, glass-fibers, needle-pierced cloth made of metallic fibers, grainy materials (made of aluminium oxides). By the complex of technical characteristics, with the thermal stability, cleaning efficiency (fineness), impurity retention capacity and hydraulic resistance considered, the multi-layer siliceous textured cloth (SiO{sub 2}>95%, t 400 deg. C) and needle-pierced cloth made of 40 {mu}m-d. metallic fibers (X18H10T steel, t {<=} 400-550 deg. C) are recommended for HLMC cleaning. The routine monitoring of the filter operation is implemented based on its resistance and the reduction of the flow rate through the filter, induced by its clogging by impurities, the clogging being dependent on the concentration of suspensions in coolant. The investigations as conducted made it possible to construct high temperature filter specimens, including those for an output capacity of 900 m{sup 3}/h, in reference to operation and maintenance conditions of heavy liquid metal cooled nuclear power installations. (authors)

  16. Cavitation bioeffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Eitan

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic cavitation takes place when tiny gas bubbles oscillate, grow, and collapse in liquid under the influence of ultrasonic field. This study reviews cavitation bioeffects that are found both in vivo and in vitro when exposed to either low- or high-power acoustics. Proposed mechanisms are discussed here as well based on theoretical studies, simulations and test bench experiments. Bioeffects are induced in living tissue once the gas bubble is, for instance, within a blood vessel in close vicinity to the endothelium or to the red blood cells. Conditions for inducing various bioeffects are discussed - from severe damage, such as cell necrosis, to delicate alterations, such as increased permeability of cell membrane. Present and potential applications for therapeutic purpose from stone pulverization and tissue ablation to gene transfection and transdermal delivery are reviewed including the growing use of artificial microbubbles.

  17. Cavitation during wire brushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zou, Jun; Ji, Chen

    2016-11-01

    In our daily life, brush is often used to scrub the surface of objects, for example, teeth, pots, shoes, pool, etc. And cleaning rust and stripping paint are accomplished using wire brush. Wire brushes also can be used to clean the teeth for large animals, such as horses, crocodiles. By observing brushing process in water, we capture the cavitation phenomenon on the track of moving brush wire. It shows that the cavitation also can affect the surface. In order to take clear and entire pictures of cavity, a simplified model of one stainless steel wire brushing a boss is adopted in our experiment. A transparent organic tank filled with deionized water is used as a view box. And a high speed video camera is used to record the sequences. In experiment, ambient pressure is atmospheric pressure and deionized water temperature is kept at home temperature. An obvious beautiful flabellate cavity zone appears behind the moving steel wire. The fluctuation of pressure near cavity is recorded by a hydrophone. More movies and pictures are used to show the behaviors of cavitation bubble following a restoring wire. Beautiful tracking cavitation bubble cluster is captured and recorded to show.

  18. Cavitating behaviour analysis of Darrieus-type cross flow water turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumelas, V; Pellone, C; MaItre, T, E-mail: vivien.aumelas@hmg.inpg.f [Equipe Energetique, Grenoble-INP - LEGI (Laboratory of Geophysical and Industrial Flows) Domaine Universitaire - BP 53, Grenoble cedex 9, 38041 (France)

    2010-08-15

    The aim of this paper is to study the cavitating behaviour of bare Darrieus-type turbines. For that, the RANS code CAVKA, has been used. Under non-cavitating conditions, the power coefficient and the thrusts calculated with CAVKA are compared to experimental values obtained in the LEGI hydrodynamic tunnel. Under cavitating conditions, for several cavitation numbers, the numerical power coefficients and vapour structures are compared to experimental ones. Different blade profiles and camber lines are also studied for non-cavitating and cavitating conditions.

  19. Cavitating behaviour analysis of Darrieus-type cross flow water turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumelas, V.; Pellone, C.; Maître, T.

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the cavitating behaviour of bare Darrieus-type turbines. For that, the RANS code CAVKA, has been used. Under non-cavitating conditions, the power coefficient and the thrusts calculated with CAVKA are compared to experimental values obtained in the LEGI hydrodynamic tunnel. Under cavitating conditions, for several cavitation numbers, the numerical power coefficients and vapour structures are compared to experimental ones. Different blade profiles and camber lines are also studied for non-cavitating and cavitating conditions.

  20. Rotating Cavitation Supression Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT proposes development of a rotating cavitation (RC) suppressor for liquid rocket engine turbopump inducers. Cavitation instabilities, such as rotating...

  1. Intensification of degradation of methomyl (carbamate group pesticide) by using the combination of ultrasonic cavitation and process intensifying additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut-Jadhav, Sunita; Pinjari, Dipak V; Saini, Daulat R; Sonawane, Shirish H; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, the degradation of methomyl has been carried out by using the ultrasound cavitation (US) and its combination with H2O2, Fenton and photo-Fenton process. The study of effect of operating pH and ultrasound power density has indicated that maximum extent of degradation of 28.57% could be obtained at the optimal pH of 2.5 and power density of 0.155 W/mL. Application of US in combination with H2O2, Fenton and photo-Fenton process has further accelerated the rate of degradation of methomyl with complete degradation of methomyl in 27 min, 18 min and 9 min respectively. Mineralization study has proved that a combination of US and photo-Fenton process is the most effective process with maximum extent of mineralization of 78.8%. Comparison of energy efficiency and cost effectiveness of various processes has indicated that the electrical cost of 79892.34Rs./m(3) for ultrasonic degradation of methomyl has drastically reduced to 2277.00Rs./m(3), 1518.00Rs./m(3) and 807.58Rs./m(3) by using US in combination with H2O2, Fenton and photo-Fenton process respectively. The cost analysis has also indicated that the combination of US and photo-Fenton process is the most energy efficient and cost effective process.

  2. PROPERTIES OF NATURAL CAVITATION FLOWS AROUND A 2-D WEDGE IN SHALLOW WATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xin; LU Chuan-jing; LI Jie; CHEN Ying

    2011-01-01

    When a body navigates with cavity in shallow water,both flexible free surface and rigid bottom wall will produce great influences on the cavity shape and hydrodynamic performances,and further affect the motion attitude and stability of the body.In the present work,characteristics of the natural cavitating flow around a 2-D symmetrical wedge in shallow water were investigated and the influences of two type boundaries on the flow pattern were analyzed.The Volume Of Fluid (VOF) multiphaseflow method which is suitable for free surface problems was utilized,coupled with a natural cavitation model to deal with the mass-transfer process between liquid and vapor phases.Within the range of the cavitation number for computation (0.07-1.81),the cavity configurations would be divided into three types,viz.,stable type,transition type and wake-vortex type.In this article,the shapes of the free surface and the cavity surface,and the hydrodynamic performance of the wedge were discussed under the conditions of relatively small cavitation number ( < 0.256 ).The present numerical cavity lengths generally accord with experimental data.When the cavitation number was decreased,the cavity was found to become longer and thicker,and the scope of the deformation of the free surface also gradually extends.The free surface and the upper cavity surface correspond fairly to their shapes.However,the lower side of the cavity surface was rather leveled due to the influence of wall boundary.The lift and drag coefficients of this 2-D wedge basically keep linear relations with the natural cavitation number smaller than 0.157,whereas direct proportion for drag and inverse proportion for lift.

  3. Simulation of the mixing process in FCIs with hydrodynamic fragmentation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Qian; CAO Xuewu

    2007-01-01

    Fuel Coolant Interactions (FCIs) are important issues in nuclear reactor severe accident analysis. In FCIs,fragmentation model of molten droplets is a key factor to estimate degree of possible damage. In this paper, the mixing process in FCIs is studied by the simulation of MIXA experiment with hydrodynamic fragmentation model. The result shows that hydrodynamic fragmentation model underestimates the fragmentation rate of high temperature molten droplets under the condition of low Weber numbers. It is concluded that models based on thermal fragmentation mechanism should be adopted to analyze the FCI process and its consequence.

  4. Cavitation for improved sludge conversion into biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, A. H.; Bakker, T. W.; Kramer, H. J. M.

    2015-12-01

    In several studies the beneficial influence of pre-treatment of waste activated sludge with cavitation on the biogas production was demonstrated. It is however, still not fully certain whether this effect should be mainly contributed to an increase in conversion rate of organics into biogas by anaerobic bacteria, and how much cavitation increases the total biogas yield. An increase in yield is only the case if cavitation can further disrupt otherwise inaccessible cell membrane structures and long chain organic molecules. In this study the influence of hydrodynamic cavitation on sludge that was already digested for 30 days was investigated. The total biogas yield could indeed be increased. The effect of the backpressure behind the venturi tube on the yield could not yet be established.

  5. 航行器垂直入水空泡特性与流体动力研究%Research on Cavitation and Hydrodynamic of Vertical Water- Entry for Supercavitating Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡平超; 张宇文; 袁绪龙

    2011-01-01

    Study on caviting shape and hydrodynamic on vertical water - entry of supercavitating vehicles.Based on standard k - ε model, the unsteady cavity character in a longitudinal gravity force field was numerically simulated by using 3D dynamic mesh technique during the supercavitating vehicle vertical enter water.Result shows that the angle of attack is larger, the asymmetry of the cavity is more obvious, the cavity of the confronted stream surface is shorter and thinner, the cavity of the opposing stream surface is longer and thicker, and the time difference of the closed cavity of the confronted and the opposing stream surface is longer.The angle of attack is larger, the hydrodynamic coefficient is larger; at the same water - entry depth, the slop of the drag coefficient curve is approximate equivalent at different angle of attack, and the slop of the lift coefficient curve and the pitching moment coefficient curve is larger with a larger angle of attack.The result can be used for research on water - entry trajectory.%研究超空泡航行器垂直入水空泡形态与流体动力特性,针对空泡出现流体动力特性改变,为了确定入水参数,根据标准k-E模型,采用三维动网格技术,对超空泡航行器入水过程重力场下非定常空泡特性以及流体动力参数进行了数值仿真.得出结果,攻角越大,空泡形态不对称性越明显,迎流面空泡越短越薄,背流面空泡越长越厚,迎流面与背流面的空泡闭合时差越大,且流体动力系数越大.证明对同-入水深度时,从曲线上分析,阻力系数的斜率基本一致,升力系数与俯仰力矩系数的斜率随攻角的增大而增大.研究结果可为入水弹道的研究提供了流体动力参数.

  6. STUDY UPON THE CAVITATION PHENOMENON OF THE ROTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beazit ALI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of the hydrodynamics of cavitation implosion of a single bubble, consists inpressure and velocity fields determination, including the collapse velocity of the bubble wall. By analysis thetheoretic and experimental phenomenon it establish the implicit function which describes this phenomenon. Byapplication the  theorem for this implicit function it finds the criterion equation of phenomenon.Depending on operating condition various cavitation patterns can be observed on a body surface astravelling bubbles, attached sheet cavitation, shear cavitation or vortex cavitation. Leading edge attachedpartialcavitation is commonly encountered on rotor blades or on hydrofoil. It corresponds to the case for whichavapor cavity is attached in the vecinity of the leading edge and extends over a fraction of the foil surface. Itgenerally takes places at incidence angles for which a leading edge pressure peak occurs and reduced belowtheliquid vapor pressure. At the early phases of development, leading edge partial cavitation is steady.

  7. Microbubble Cavitation Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Vignon, Francois; Shi, William T; Powers, Jeffry E.; Everbach, E. Carr; Liu, Jinjin; Gao, Shunji; Xie, Feng; Porter, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound cavitation of microbubble contrast agents has a potential for therapeutic applications such as sonothrombolysis (STL) in acute ischemic stroke. For safety, efficacy, and reproducibility of treatment, it is critical to evaluate the cavitation state (moderate oscillations, stable cavitation, and inertial cavitation) and activity level in and around a treatment area. Acoustic passive cavitation detectors (PCDs) have been used to this end but do not provide spatial information.

  8. A THERMO-ELECTRO-HYDRODYNAMIC MODEL FOR VIBRATION-ELECTROSPINNING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Lan Xu; Liang Wang; Naeem Faraz

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a thermo-electro-hydrodynamic model of the vibration- electrospinning process is first established. The model can offer in-depth insight into physical understanding of many complex phenomena which can not be fully explained experimentally. It is a powerful tool to controlling over physical characters.

  9. A THERMO-ELECTRO-HYDRODYNAMIC MODEL FOR VIBRATION-ELECTROSPINNING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a thermo-electro-hydrodynamic model of the vibration- electrospinning process is first established. The model can offer in-depth insight into physical understanding of many complex phenomena which can not be fully explained experimentally. It is a powerful tool to controlling over physical characters.

  10. METHODS OF PHYSICAL MODELING OF HYDRODYNAMIC PROCESSES AT CASTING OF ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ju. Stetsenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of physical modeling of hydrodynamic processes of alloys molding is developed. It is shown that as a liquid it is necessary to use water and diethyl ether at molding of steel, silumins, tin-base bronzes and waterglycerine solutions.

  11. 水力空化水处理设备的控制系统设计%The Design of Control System for Hydrodynmic Cavitation Water Treatment Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志猛; 陈平; 邓橙; 苑英海; 朱孟府

    2012-01-01

    为了完成对水力空化水处理设备的自动控制,结合水力空化水处理技术工艺,应用PLC控制器和触摸屏技术,开发并设计一套水力空化水处理设备的控制系统.采用触摸屏作为人机界面,可实现pH、ORP、电导率、DO等水质参数实时检测、设定和修改等功能,并能方便直观地对水力空化水处理设备的工作过程进行监控.经过实际运行和调试,基于PLC和触摸屏的水力空化水处理设备的控制系统稳定性好、可靠性高、易于维护,提高了水力空化水处理设备的效率和自动化水平.%In order to complete automatic control of the hydrodynamic cavitation water treatment equipment, by adopting PLC and touch screen technologies, a control system of the hydrodynamic cavitation water treatment equipment is designed and developed it is based on technological process of the hydrodynamic cavitation water treatment. The system equips with touch screen as the human machine interface implementes the functions of real-time detection, parameter setting and modification of the water quality parameters such as pH, ORP, TDS and DO. Thus the operating process of the hydrodynamic cavitation water treatment equipment can be easily and directly perceived and controlled. The control system of the hydrodynamic cavitation water treatment equipment has good stability and reliability, and is easy to maintenance for enhancing operation efficiency and automation level after practically working and debugging.

  12. Prediction of Shock-Induced Cavitation in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundage, Aaron

    2013-06-01

    Fluid-structure interaction problems that require estimating the response of thin structures within fluids to shock loading has wide applicability. For example, these problems may include underwater explosions and the dynamic response of ships and submarines; and biological applications such as Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and wound ballistics. In all of these applications the process of cavitation, where small cavities with dissolved gases or vapor are formed as the local pressure drops below the vapor pressure due to shock hydrodynamics, can cause significant damage to the surrounding thin structures or membranes if these bubbles collapse, generating additional shock loading. Hence, a two-phase equation of state (EOS) with three distinct regions of compression, expansion, and tension was developed to model shock-induced cavitation. This EOS was evaluated by comparing data from pressure and temperature shock Hugoniot measurements for water up to 400 kbar, and data from ultrasonic pressure measurements in tension to -0.3 kbar, to simulated responses from CTH, an Eulerian, finite volume shock code. The new EOS model showed significant improvement over pre-existing CTH models such as the SESAME EOS for capturing cavitation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy/NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. Cavitation: Cavitation flow. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habercom, G. E., Jr.

    1980-05-01

    Reports on general aspects of cavitating flow are included. A wide range of theoretical, analytical, and experimental information is presented involving mathematical analysis, computer programs, and testing. Topics include marine engineering, hydrodynamic and aerodynamic configurations, symmetric and nonaxisymmetric shapes, and measuring technology. Data is given on surface piercing struts, helical inducers, pumps, liquid metal systems, and venturi tubes. Applications include dam outlets and spillways, vertical conduits, deep rock drilling, heat pipe stability, water entry, and liquid cryogenic systems. Discussions are made of flow characteristics, noise, nucleate boiling, perturbation problems, and allied subjects. This updated bibliography contains 253 abstracts.

  14. Cavitation in hydraulic turbines: the benefits of new processes and materials utilization; Cavitacao em turbinas hidraulicas: os beneficios da utilizacao de novos processos e novos materiais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Nelio Cesar de [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico

    1995-12-31

    Due to the introduction of new metallurgic technologies, this work proposes the substitution of the existing materials and processes used for the maintenance of electric turbines which present the cavitation effect. the methodology is presented. Considering the so far obtained results, it was concluded that by the utilization of the suggested techniques it is possible to obtain significant maintenance costs and time reduction 8 figs., 1 tab., 5 refs.

  15. Hydrodynamic solutions of spatially-varying 1D exclusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Greg; Chou, Tom

    2007-03-01

    We analyze the open boundary partially asymmetric exclusion process with smoothly varying internal hopping rates in the infinite-size, mean field limit. The mean field equations for particle densities are written in terms of Ricatti equations with the steady-state current J as a parameter. These equations are solved both analytically and numerically. Upon imposing the boundary conditions set by the injection and extraction rates, the currents J are found self-consistently. We find a number of cases where analytic solutions can be found exactly or approximated. Results for J from asymptotic analyses for slowly varying hopping rates agree extremely well with those from extensive Monte Carlo simulations, suggesting that mean field currents are exact as long as the hopping rates vary slowly over the lattice. If the forward hopping rate is greater than or less than the backward hopping rate throughout the entire chain, the three standard steady-state phases are preserved. Our analysis reveals the sensitivity of the current to the relative phase between the forward and backward hopping rate functions.

  16. Superhigh Temperatures and Acoustic Cavitation

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, V B; Miller, M B; Sermyagin, A V; Topolnikov, A S

    2003-01-01

    The experimental results on thermonuclear synthesis under acoustic cavitation have been analyzed with the account of the latest data and their discussion. The analysis testifies that this avenue of research is a very promising one. The numerical calculations of the D(d, n)^{3}He reaction rate in the deuterated acetone (C_{3}D_{6}O) under the influence of ultrasound depending on T environment temperature within the range T=249-295 K have been carried out within the framework of hydrodynamic model. The results show that it is possible to improve substantially the effect/background relationship in experiments by decreasing the fluid temperature twenty-thirty degrees below zero.

  17. DETECTION OF CAVITATION IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP BY VIBRATION METHODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Yongyan; YUAN Shouqi; PAN Zhongyong; YUAN Jianping

    2008-01-01

    For the purpose of detecting the cavitation of centrifugal pump onsite and real time, the vibration signals on varied operation conditions of both cavitation and non-cavitation obtained through acceleration sensors were analyzed. When cavitation occurs, the cavities near the leading edge of the blade will appear periodic oscillating, which will induce quasi-synchronous vibration. The frequency of the quasi-synchronous vibration symmetrically appears on the two sides of the blade passing frequency, by which the cavitation incipiency can be detected. During the developing process of the cavitation, as the severe complexity of the unsteady flow, it is very difficult to detect the development of cavitation by classical analysis methods. Fractal method of Higuchi is successfully used for detecting the incipiency, fully development of cavitation and the development between them.

  18. AN EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL PREDICTION OF MARINE PROPELLER NOISE UNDER CAVITATING AND NON-CAVITATING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Bagheri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the hydrodynamics and noise prediction of a five blade marine propeller were analyzed through numerical and experimental methods under variety operational conditions. The hydrodynamics of the propeller was studied and the characteristic curves were presented in both numerical and experimental methods. Inception and development of sheet cavitation conditions are obtained in both numerical and experimental methods. The cavitation was started and developed by either increasing the propeller rotational speed in constant pressure or decreasing pressure, while the velocity was kept constant. Good agreements are observed between numerical and experimental results, qualitatively and quantitatively. The noise of the propeller was analyzed through Computational fluid dynamics (CFD method, based on the formulation of Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H. Similarly, the experimental results collected from hydrophones were compared with numerical simulations. Finally, the effects of reflection in cavitation tunnel were obtained by considering overall sound pressure levels in numerical and experimental results.

  19. THE WALL EFFECT ON VENTILATED CAVITATING FLOWS IN CLOSED CAVITATION TUNNELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xin; LU Chuan-jing; LI Jie; PAN Zhan-cheng

    2008-01-01

    For ventilated cavitating flows in a closed water tunnel, the wall effect may exert an important influence on cavity shape and hydrodynamics. An isotropic mixture multiphase model was established to study the wall effect based on the RANS equations,coupled with a natural cavitation model and the RaNG k-ε turbulent model. The governing equations were discrctized using the finite volume method and solved by the Gauss-Seidel linear equation solver on the basis of a segregation algorithm. The algebraic multigrid approach was carried through to accelerate the convergence of solution. The steady ventilated cavitating flows in water tunnels of different diameter were simulated for a conceptual underwater vehicle model which had a disk cavitator. It is found that the choked cavitation number derived is close to the approximate solution of natural cavitating flow for a 3-D disk. The critical ventilation rate falls with decreasing diameter of the water tunnel. However, the cavity size and drag coefficient are rising with the decrease in tunnel diameter for the same ventilation rate, and the cavity size will be much different in water tunnels of different diameter even for the same ventilated cavitation number.

  20. Determination of sulfuric acid concentration for anti-cavitation characteristics of Al alloy by two step anodizing process to forming nano porous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Kim, Seong-Kweon; Jeong, Jae-Yong; Kim, Seong-Jong

    2014-12-01

    Al alloy is a highly active metal but forms a protective oxide film having high corrosion resistance in atmosphere environment. However, the oxide film is not suitable for practical use, since the thickness of the film is not uniform and it is severly altered with formation conditions. This study focused on developing an aluminum anodizing layer having hardness, corrosion resistance and abrasion resistance equivalent to a commercial grade protective layer. Aluminum anodizing layer was produced by two-step aluminum anodizing oxide (AAO) process with different sulfuric acid concentrations, and the cavitation characteristics of the anodized coating layer was investigated. In hardness measurement, the anodized coating layer produced with 15 vol.% of sulfuric acid condition had the highest value of hardness but exhibited poor cavitation resistance due to being more brittle than those with other conditions. The 10 vol.% of sulfuric acid condition was thus considered to be the optimum condition as it had the lowest weight loss and damage depth.

  1. Microbubble cavitation imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignon, Francois; Shi, William T; Powers, Jeffry E; Everbach, E Carr; Liu, Jinjin; Gao, Shunji; Xie, Feng; Porter, Thomas R

    2013-04-01

    Ultrasound cavitation of microbubble contrast agents has a potential for therapeutic applications such as sonothrombolysis (STL) in acute ischemic stroke. For safety, efficacy, and reproducibility of treatment, it is critical to evaluate the cavitation state (moderate oscillations, stable cavitation, and inertial cavitation) and activity level in and around a treatment area. Acoustic passive cavitation detectors (PCDs) have been used to this end but do not provide spatial information. This paper presents a prototype of a 2-D cavitation imager capable of producing images of the dominant cavitation state and activity level in a region of interest. Similar to PCDs, the cavitation imaging described here is based on the spectral analysis of the acoustic signal radiated by the cavitating microbubbles: ultraharmonics of the excitation frequency indicate stable cavitation, whereas elevated noise bands indicate inertial cavitation; the absence of both indicates moderate oscillations. The prototype system is a modified commercially available ultrasound scanner with a sector imaging probe. The lateral resolution of the system is 1.5 mm at a focal depth of 3 cm, and the axial resolution is 3 cm for a therapy pulse length of 20 μs. The maximum frame rate of the prototype is 2 Hz. The system has been used for assessing and mapping the relative importance of the different cavitation states of a microbubble contrast agent. In vitro (tissue-mimicking flow phantom) and in vivo (heart, liver, and brain of two swine) results for cavitation states and their changes as a function of acoustic amplitude are presented.

  2. Coupled discrete element and smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of the die filling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breinlinger, Thomas; Kraft, Torsten

    2016-11-01

    Die filling is an important part of the powder compaction process chain, where defects in the final part can be introduced—or prevented. Simulation of this process is therefore a goal for many part producers and has been studied by some researchers already. In this work, we focus on the influence of the surrounding air on the powder flow. We demonstrate the implementing and coupling of the discrete element method for the granular powder and the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method for the gas flow. Application of the method to the die filling process is demonstrated.

  3. Cumulative distribution functions associated with bubble-nucleation processes in cavitation

    KAUST Repository

    Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2010-11-15

    Bubble-nucleation processes of a Lennard-Jones liquid are studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Waiting time, which is the lifetime of a superheated liquid, is determined for several system sizes, and the apparent finite-size effect of the nucleation rate is observed. From the cumulative distribution function of the nucleation events, the bubble-nucleation process is found to be not a simple Poisson process but a Poisson process with an additional relaxation time. The parameters of the exponential distribution associated with the process are determined by taking the relaxation time into account, and the apparent finite-size effect is removed. These results imply that the use of the arithmetic mean of the waiting time until a bubble grows to the critical size leads to an incorrect estimation of the nucleation rate. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  4. Study on cavitation effect of mechanical seals with laser-textured porous surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T.; Chen, H. l.; Liu, Y. H.; Wang, Q.; Liu, Z. B.; Hou, D. H.

    2012-11-01

    Study on the mechanisms underlying generation of hydrodynamic pressure effect associated with laser-textured porous surface on mechanical seal, is the key to seal and lubricant properties. The theory model of mechanical seals with laser-textured porous surface (LES-MS) based on cavitation model was established. The LST-MS was calculated and analyzed by using Fluent software with full cavitation model and non-cavitation model and film thickness was predicted by the dynamic mesh technique. The results indicate that the effect of hydrodynamic pressure and cavitation are the important reasons to generate liquid film opening force on LST-MS; Cavitation effect can enhance hydrodynamic pressure effect of LST-MS; The thickness of liquid film could be well predicted with the method of dynamic mesh technique on Fluent and it becomes larger as the increasing of shaft speed and the decreasing of pressure.

  5. Cavitation in Hydraulic Machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, M.

    1996-11-01

    The main purpose of this doctoral thesis on cavitation in hydraulic machinery is to change focus towards the coupling of non-stationary flow phenomena and cavitation. It is argued that, in addition to turbulence, superimposed sound pressure fluctuations can have a major impact on cavitation and lead to particularly severe erosion. For the design of hydraulic devices this finding may indicate how to further limit the cavitation problems. Chapter 1 reviews cavitation in general in the context of hydraulic machinery, emphasizing the initial cavitation event and the role of the water quality. Chapter 2 discusses the existence of pressure fluctuations for situations common in such machinery. Chapter 3 on cavitation dynamics presents an algorithm for calculating the nucleation of a cavity cluster. Chapter 4 describes the equipment used in this work. 53 refs., 55 figs.,10 tabs.

  6. Cavitation passive control on immersed bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Khodayar; Dorostkar, Mohammad Mortezazadeh; Katal, Ali

    2017-03-01

    This paper introduces a new idea of controlling cavitation around a hydrofoil through a passive cavitation controller called artificial cavitation bubble generator (ACG). Cyclic processes, namely, growth and implosion of bubbles around an immersed body, are the main reasons for the destruction and erosion of the said body. This paper aims to create a condition in which the cavitation bubbles reach a steady-state situation and prevent the occurrence of the cyclic processes. For this purpose, the ACG is placed on the surface of an immersed body, in particular, the suction surface of a 2D hydrofoil. A simulation was performed with an implicit finite volume scheme based on a SIMPLE algorithm associated with the multiphase and cavitation model. The modified k-ɛ RNG turbulence model equipped with a modification of the turbulent viscosity was applied to overcome the turbulence closure problem. Numerical simulation of water flow over the hydrofoil equipped with the ACG shows that a low-pressure recirculation area is produced behind the ACG and artificially generates stationary cavitation bubbles. The location, shape, and size of this ACG are the crucial parameters in creating a proper control. Results show that the cavitation bubble is controlled well with a well-designed ACG.

  7. Cavitation passive control on immersed bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Khodayar; Dorostkar, Mohammad Mortezazadeh; Katal, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a new idea of controlling cavitation around a hydrofoil through a passive cavitation controller called artificial cavitation bubble generator (ACG). Cyclic processes, namely, growth and implosion of bubbles around an immersed body, are the main reasons for the destruction and erosion of the said body. This paper aims to create a condition in which the cavitation bubbles reach a steady-state situation and prevent the occurrence of the cyclic processes. For this purpose, the ACG is placed on the surface of an immersed body, in particular, the suction surface of a 2D hydrofoil. A simulation was performed with an implicit finite volume scheme based on a SIMPLE algorithm associated with the multiphase and cavitation model. The modified k-ɛ RNG turbulence model equipped with a modification of the turbulent viscosity was applied to overcome the turbulence closure problem. Numerical simulation of water flow over the hydrofoil equipped with the ACG shows that a low-pressure recirculation area is produced behind the ACG and artificially generates stationary cavitation bubbles. The location, shape, and size of this ACG are the crucial parameters in creating a proper control. Results show that the cavitation bubble is controlled well with a well-designed ACG.

  8. The use of hydrodynamic disintegration as a means to improve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-09-15

    Sep 15, 2008 ... Disintegration by hydrodynamic cavitation has a positive effect on the degree and rate of sludge anaerobic digestion. ... (ball mill, ultrasonic), oxidation (ozone and hydrogen per- .... American Public Health Association, Wash-.

  9. HYDRODYNAMIC AND THERMODYNAMIC EFFECTS IN PHASE INVERSION EMULSIFICATION PROCESS OF EPOXY RESIN IN WATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-ze Xu; Yu-zhe Wu; Jian-mao Yang

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism of phase inversion emulsification process (PIE) was studied for waterborne dispersion of highly viscous epoxy resin using non-ionic polymeric surfactants. Drop deformation and breakup, rheological properties,conductivity, and particle size measurements reveal the micro-structural transition amid emulsification. It is revealed that strong flow causes water drop to burst with the formation of droplets and huge interface. Phase inversion corresponds to an abrupt rheological transition from a type of viscous melt with weak elasticity to a highly elastic type of aqueous gel. This implies that the phase inversion equivalent to a curvature inversion. Based on this, a geometric model is postulated to correlate process variables to the particle size. The coverage and conformation of the surfactant plays key role for the particle size of the final emulsion. The interactions of thermodynamic and hydrodynamic effects are also discussed. It is concluded that the thermodynamics control the PIE while the hydrodynamics drives the creation of interface and involves every step of PIE.

  10. Cavitation dispersion of carbon nanotubes and modification of cement systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSEV Boris Vladimirovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most common research areas in construction material science deals with the development of new efficient methods to increase strength properties of materials. One of such methods is modification of composite matrices with carbon nanotubes. The characteristics of nanomodified concretes to a great extent depend on selected method of introduction of carbon nanotubes into material. The predispersion of CNT in mixing water with plasticizing additive through ultrasound impact on the environment with colloid and other types of particles including nanoparticles is the most frequently used scientific method which provides even distribution of nanoparticles in cement. In some works the separation of agglomerated CNT in suspension was conducted by means of ultrasound treatment. The further analysis showed that the main drawbacks of ultrasound dispersion are high energy output and low performance. That causes inconvenience for application of them in manufacturing process. The methods of cavitation dispersion which were developed in the late 90ies in the XXI century today are becoming commonly used in practice. The work presents the results of dispersion of multi-layer nanotubes performed on the hydrodynamic cavitation equipment. It was determined that the use of such equipment makes it possible to produce stable and even carbon dispersions and to introduce and distribute them uniformly in concrete in the same way as in the case when ultrasound treatment is performed. The advantages of this technology are considerable decrease of energy consumption and possibility to treat enormous amounts of liquids which are necessary for modification of concrete in real production process.

  11. Hydrodynamics of Ship Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslin, John P.; Andersen, Poul

    This book deals with flows over propellers operating behind ships, and the hydrodynamic forces and moments which the propeller generates on the shaft and on the ship hull.The first part of the text is devoted to fundamentals of the flow about hydrofoil sections (with and without cavitation......) and about wings. It then treats propellers in uniform flow, first via advanced actuator disc modelling, and then using lifting-line theory. Pragmatic guidance is given for design and evaluation of performance, including the use of computer modelling.The second part covers the development of unsteady forces...... arising from operation in non-uniform hull wakes. First, by a number of simplifications, various aspects of the problem are dealt with separately until the full problem of a non-cavitating, wide-bladed propeller in a wake is treated by a new and completely developed theory. Next, the complicated problem...

  12. Numerical investigation of cavitation flow in journal bearing geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, M.; Schmidt, M.; Stücke, P.

    2013-04-01

    The appearance of cavitation is still a problem in technical and industrial applications. Especially in automotive internal combustion engines, hydrodynamic journal bearings are used due to their favourable wearing quality and operating characteristics. Cavitation flows inside the bearings reduces the load capacity and leads to a risk of material damages. Therefore an understanding of the complex flow phenomena inside the bearing is necessary for the design development of hydrodynamic journal bearings. Experimental investigations in the fluid domain of the journal bearing are difficult to realize founded by the small dimensions of the bearing. In the recent years more and more the advantages of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are used to investigate the detail of the cavitation flows. The analysis in the paper is carried out in a two-step approach. At first an experimental investigation of journal bearing including cavitation is selected from the literature. The complex numerical model validated with the experimental measured data. In a second step, typically design parameters, such as a groove and feed hole, which are necessary to distribute the oil supply across the gap were added into the model. The paper reflects on the influence of the used design parameters and the variation of the additional supply flow rate through the feed hole regarding to cavitation effects in the bearing. Detailed pictures of the three-dimensional flow structures and the cavitation regions inside the flow film of the bearing are presented.

  13. Hydrodynamic extensional stress during the bubble bursting process for bioreactor system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thanh Tinh; Lee, Eun Gyo; Lee, In Su; Woo, Nam Sub; Han, Sang Mok; Kim, Young Ju; Hwang, Wook Ryol

    2016-11-01

    Cell damage, one of critical issues in the bioreactor design for animal cell culture, is caused mainly from the bubble bursting at the free surface subjected to strong extensional flows. In this work, extensive computational studies are performed to investigate bubble bursting process in great details. Extensive numerical simulations are performed for a wide range of bubble diameters (from 0.5 to 6 mm) and the surface tension values (from 0.03 to 0.072 N/m), with which effects of the bubble size and surfactant (PF68) concentration on the hydrodynamic stress are investigated. For all the cases, the maximum extensional stress appears at the instance when receding films impact each other at the bottom of the bubble. A model equation based on numerical simulations is presented to predict the maximum extensional stress as a function of the bubble diameter and the surface tension. The bubble diameter has turned out to contribute significantly the maximum hydrodynamic extensional stress. In addition, the bubble collapsed time and the affected volume around a bubble subjected to the critical extensional stress are investigated. The extensional stress estimation is reported as a function of the bubble size and the surface tension. The influence of the bubble size on the maximum stress dominates and extensional stress reaches up to the order of 104 Pa for bubble size of 0.5 mm.

  14. Dynamics of Vortex Cavitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the mechanisms with which tip vortex cavitation is responsible for broadband pressure fluctuations on ship propellers. Hypotheses for these are described in detail by Bosschers (2009). Validation is provided by three main cavitation-tunnel experiments, one on a model propeller

  15. Numerical Study on Characteristics of 3D Cavitating Hydrofoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The commercial software ANSYS CFX, APDL and Workbench are applied for modeling the hydrodynamic and structural interactions and characteristics of an elastic hydrofoil by means of a two-way FSI method. The SST (Shear Stress Transport turbulence model and the simplified Rayleigh-Plesset equations are employed for the cavitating flow simulation. Both CFX and APDL solvers are set to be transient. The fluid and solid computational domains are sequentially solved to simulate the interactions between the hydrofoil and the cavitating flow. The results show that the difference in stiffness of common metal materials has trifling effects on hydrofoil performance. But variations in cavitation number and angle of attack will dramatically affect the hydrodynamic and structural interactions and characteristics.

  16. Cavitating Flow over a Mini Hydrofoil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Xian-Wu; JI Bin; ZHANG Yao; XU Hong-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    We consider a cavitating flow over a mini hydrofoil (foil profile: Clark-Y-11.7) having a 14 mm chord length in a cavitation tunnel at various cavitation numbers. Experimental observations show that cavitating flows over a miniature hydrofoil display several types of cavitation behavior, such as cavitation inception, sheet cavitation, cloud cavitation and super cavitation with the decreasing cavitation number. Under the same cavitation conditions, cavitation over a mini hydrofoil would be suppressed in comparison to cavitation over an ordinary hydrofoil. This cavitation scale effect is suspected to be caused by the Reynolds number.%We consider a cavitating flow over a mini hydrofoil (foil profile:Clark-Y-11.7) having a 14mm chord length in a cavitation tunnel at various cavitation numbers.Experimental observations show that cavitating flows over a miniature hydrofoil display several types of cavitation behavior,such as cavitation inception,sheet cavitation,cloud cavitation and super cavitation with the decreasing cavitation number.Under the same cavitation conditions,cavitation over a mini hydrofoil would be suppressed in comparison to cavitation over an ordinary hydrofoil.This cavitation scale effect is suspected to be caused by the Reynolds number.

  17. NONLINEAR PERTURBATION METHOD FOR CALCULATING AXISYMMETRIC CAVITATIONAL FLOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl Buivol

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of a cavity under the influence of perturbations of various origins is evaluated. The model is based on hydrodynamics of flows with free boundaries and the theory of small perturbations. Specific analysis is provided for cavitational flows behind cones

  18. The Analysis of the High Speed Wire Drawing Process of High Carbon Steel Wires Under Hydrodynamic Lubrication Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliga M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work the analysis of the wire drawing process in hydrodynamic dies has been done. The drawing process of φ5.5 mm wire rod to the final wire of φ1.7 mm was conducted in 12 passes, in drawing speed range of 5-25 m/s. For final wires of φ1.7 mm the investigation of topography of wire surface, the amount of lubricant on the wire surface and the pressure of lubricant in hydrodynamic dies were determined. Additionally, in the work selected mechanical properties of the wires have been estimated.

  19. The Analysis of the High Speed Wire Drawing Process of High Carbon Steel Wires Under Hydrodynamic Lubrication Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Suliga M.

    2015-01-01

    In this work the analysis of the wire drawing process in hydrodynamic dies has been done. The drawing process of φ5.5 mm wire rod to the final wire of φ1.7 mm was conducted in 12 passes, in drawing speed range of 5-25 m/s. For final wires of φ1.7 mm the investigation of topography of wire surface, the amount of lubricant on the wire surface and the pressure of lubricant in hydrodynamic dies were determined. Additionally, in the work selected mechanical properties of the wires have been estima...

  20. Experimental Research on the Marine Hydrodynamic Action on the Consolidation Process of the Sediments in the Yellow River Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiu-juan; JIA Yong-gang; LI Xiang-ran; SHAN Hong-xian

    2011-01-01

    Based on the in-situ measurements,the impact of the marine hydrodynamics,such as wave and tide,in the rapidly deposited sediments consolidation process was studied.In the tide flat of Diaokou delta-lobe,one 2m×1m×1m test pit was excavated.The seabed soils were dug and dehydrated,and then the powder of the soil was mixed with seawater to be fluid sediments.And an iron plate covered part of the test pit to cut off the effect of the marine hydrodynamics.By field-testing methods,like static cone penetration test(SPT)and vane shear test(VST),the variation of strength is measured as a function of time,and the marine hydrodynamics impact on the consolidation process of the sediments in the Yellow River estuary was studied.It is shown that the self-consolidated sediments'strength linearly increases with the depth.In the consolidation process,in the initial,marine hydrodynamics play a decisive role,about 1.5 times as much as self-consolidated in raising the strength of the sea-bed soils,and with the extension of the depth the role of the hydrodynamics is reduced.In the continuation of the consolidation process,the trend of the surface sediments increased-strength gradually slows down under the water dynamics,while the sediments below 50 cm are in opposite ways.As a result,the rapidly deposited silt presents a nonuniform consolidation state,and the crust gradually forms.The results have been referenced in studying the role of the hydrodynamics in the soil consolidation process.

  1. U-shaped Vortex Structures in Large Scale Cloud Cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yantao; Peng, Xiaoxing; Xu, Lianghao; Hong, Fangwen

    2015-12-01

    The control of cloud cavitation, especially large scale cloud cavitation(LSCC), is always a hot issue in the field of cavitation research. However, there has been little knowledge on the evolution of cloud cavitation since it is associated with turbulence and vortex flow. In this article, the structure of cloud cavitation shed by sheet cavitation around different hydrofoils and a wedge were observed in detail with high speed camera (HSC). It was found that the U-shaped vortex structures always existed in the development process of LSCC. The results indicated that LSCC evolution was related to this kind of vortex structures, and it may be a universal character for LSCC. Then vortex strength of U-shaped vortex structures in a cycle was analyzed with numerical results.

  2. Flood hazards analysis based on changes of hydrodynamic processes in fluvial systems of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simas, Iury; Rodrigues, Cleide

    2016-04-01

    The metropolis of Sao Paulo, with its 7940 Km² and over 20 million inhabitants, is increasingly being consolidated with disregard for the dynamics of its fluvial systems and natural limitations imposed by fluvial terraces, floodplains and slopes. Events such as floods and flash floods became particularly persistent mainly in socially and environmentally vulnerable areas. The Aricanduva River basin was selected as the ideal area for the development of the flood hazard analysis since it presents the main geological and geomorphological features found in the urban site. According to studies carried out by Anthropic Geomorphology approach in São Paulo, to study this phenomenon is necessary to take into account the original hydromorphological systems and its functional conditions, as well as in which dimensions the Anthropic factor changes the balance between the main variables of surface processes. Considering those principles, an alternative model of geographical data was proposed and enabled to identify the role of different driving forces in terms of spatial conditioning of certain flood events. Spatial relationships between different variables, such as anthropogenic and original morphology, were analyzed for that purpose in addition to climate data. The surface hydrodynamic tendency spatial model conceived for this study takes as key variables: 1- The land use present at the observed date combined with the predominant lithological group, represented by a value ranging 0-100, based on indexes of the National Soil Conservation Service (NSCS-USA) and the Hydraulic Technology Center Foundation (FCTH-Brazil) to determine the resulting balance of runoff/infiltration. 2- The original slope, applying thresholds from which it's possible to determine greater tendency for runoff (in percents). 3- The minimal features of relief, combining the curvature of surface in plant and profile. Those three key variables were combined in a Geographic Information System in a series of

  3. Synchronized passive imaging of single cavitation events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateau, Jérôme; Aubry, Jean-François; Pernot, Mathieu; Chauvet, Daurian; Boch, Anne-Laure; Fink, Mathias; Tanter, Mickaël

    2011-09-01

    Passive cavitation detection techniques are usually of relatively low sensitivity to single cavitation events. Moreover, a single-element transducer is generally used, so that the spatial localization of these cavitation events is not possible, or is limited to the probing volume. To both detect and localize single cavitation events over an extended volume, the following experimental set-up has been used and validated: cavitation is induced with a focused single-element transducer (mean frequency 660 kHz, f♯ = 1) driven by a high power (up to 5 kW) electric burst of a few cycles, and the acoustic emission of the bubbles is recorded on a standard linear array (4-7 MHz), mounted on the side of the single element to probe its focal spot. Both the frequencies and the geometry used are appropriate to in vivo implementation. The recording of ultrasonic radio-frequency (RF) data was performed simultaneously on 64 channels of the array and was synchronized with the pulsed excitation. A single cavitation event results in a high frequency and coherent wave front on the RF data. Thanks to synchronization, these RF data are beam-formed to localize the event with a axial resolution of 0.3 mm. A small number of discrete events could also be separated with this method. Besides, B-mode images obtained with the linear array prior to passive detection allowed the positioning of the events within the tissue structure. This technique has been used first ex vivo on freshly harve pig and sheep thigh muscle: with a two cycle excitation, a 9 MPa cavitation threshold was found. Cavitation detection was also achieved in vivo with a five cycle burst excitation in sheep thigh muscle for a peak acoustic pressure of 11MPa. This technique could provide useful information in order to better understand, control and monitor the initiation phase of the histotripsy process.

  4. Modeling rainfall-runoff processes using smoothed particle hydrodynamics with mass-varied particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tsang-Jung; Chang, Yu-Sheng; Chang, Kao-Hua

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a novel treatment of adopting mass-varied particles in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is proposed to solve the shallow water equations (SWEs) and model the rainfall-runoff process. Since SWEs have depth-averaged or cross-section-averaged features, there is no sufficient dimension to add rainfall particles. Thus, SPH-SWE methods have focused on modeling discharge flows in open channels or floodplains without rainfall. With the proposed treatment, the application of SPH-SWEs can be extended to rainfall-runoff processes in watersheds. First, the numerical procedures associated with using mass-varied particles in SPH-SWEs are introduced and derived. Then, numerical validations are conducted for three benchmark problems, including uniform rainfall over a 1D flat sloping channel, nonuniform rain falling over a 1D three-slope channel with different rainfall durations, and uniform rainfall over a 2D plot with complex topography. The simulated results indicate that the proposed treatment can avoid the necessity of a source term function of mass variation, and no additional particles are needed for the increase of mass. Rainfall-runoff processes can be well captured in the presence of hydraulic jumps, dry/wet bed flows, and supercritical/subcritical/transcritical flows. The proposed treatment using mass-varied particles was proven robust and reliable for modeling rainfall-runoff processes. It can provide a new alternative for investigating practical hydrological problems.

  5. Fundamentals of Cavitation

    CERN Document Server

    Franc, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The present book is aimed at providing a comprehensive presentation of cavitation phenomena in liquid flows. It is further backed up by the experience, both experimental and theoretical, of the authors whose expertise has been internationally recognized. A special effort is made to place the various methods of investigation in strong relation with the fundamental physics of cavitation, enabling the reader to treat specific problems independently. Furthermore, it is hoped that a better knowledge of the cavitation phenomenon will allow engineers to create systems using it positively. Examples in the literature show the feasibility of this approach.

  6. Temperature measurements in cavitation bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutier-Delgosha, Olivier

    2016-11-01

    Cavitation is usually a nearly isothermal process in the liquid phase, but in some specific flow conditions like hot water or cryogenic fluids, significant temperature variations are detected. In addition, a large temperature increase happens inside the cavitation bubbles at the very end of their collapse, due to the fast compression of the gas at the bubble core, which is almost adiabatic. This process is of primary interest in various biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, where the mechanisms of bubble collapse plays a major role. To investigate the amplitude and the spatial distribution of these temperature variations inside and outside the cavitation bubbles, a system based on cold wires has been developed. They have been tested in a configuration of a single bubble obtained by submitting a small air bubble to a large amplitude pressure wave. Some promising results have been obtained after the initial validation tests. This work is funded by the Office of Naval Research Global under Grant N62909-16-1-2116, Dr. Salahuddin Ahmed & Ki-Han Kim program managers.

  7. Hybrid reactor based on combined cavitation and ozonation: from concept to practical reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogate, P R; Mededovic-Thagard, S; McGuire, D; Chapas, G; Blackmon, J; Cathey, R

    2014-03-01

    The present work gives an in depth discussion related to the development of a hybrid advanced oxidation reactor, which can be effectively used for the treatment of various types of water. The reactor is based on the principle of intensifying degradation/disinfection using a combination of hydrodynamic cavitation, acoustic cavitation, ozone injection and electrochemical oxidation/precipitation. Theoretical studies have been presented to highlight the uniform distribution of the cavitational activity and enhanced generation of hydroxyl radicals in the cavitation zone, as well as higher turbulence in the main reactor zone. The combination of these different oxidation technologies have been shown to result in enhanced water treatment ability, which can be attributed to the enhanced generation of hydroxyl radicals, enhanced contact of ozone and contaminants, and the elimination of mass transfer resistances during electrochemical oxidation/precipitation. Compared to the use of individual approaches, the hybrid reactor is expected to intensify the treatment process by 5-20 times, depending on the application in question, which can be confirmed based on the literature illustrations. Also, the use of Ozonix® has been successfully proven while processing recycled fluids at commercial sites on over 750 oil and natural gas wells during hydraulic operations around the United States. The superiority of the hybrid process over conventional chemical treatments in terms of bacteria and scale reduction as well as increased water flowability and better chemical compatibility, which is a key requirement for oil and gas applications, has been established. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Instability and breakup of cavitation bubbles within diesel drops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Lü; Zhi Ning; Kai Yan; Juan Fu; Chunhua Sun

    2015-01-01

    A modified mathematical model is used to study the effects of various forces on the stability of cavitation bubbles within a diesel droplet. The principal finding of the work is that viscous forces of fluids stabilize the cavitation bubble, while inertial force destabilizes the cavitation bubble. The droplet viscosity plays a dominant role on the stability of cavitation bubbles compared with that of air and bubble. Bubble–droplet radius ratio is a key factor to control the bubble stability, especially in the high radius ratio range. Internal hydrodynamic and surface tension forces are found to stabilize the cavitation bubble, while bubble stability has little relationship with the external hydrodynamic force. Inertia makes bubble breakup easily, however, the breakup time is only slightly changed when bubble growth speed reaches a certain value (50 m·s−1). In contrast, viscous force makes bubble hard to break. With the increasing initial bubble–droplet radius ratio, the bubble growth rate increases, the bubble breakup radius decreases, and the bubble breakup time becomes shorter.

  9. Influence of process parameters on the cavitation resistance of arc thermally sprayed cobalt stainless steel; Influencia dos parametros de processo na resistencia a cavitacao de uma liga inoxidavel com cobalto aspergido a arco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pukasiewicz, A. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Capra, A.R.; Chandelier, J. da L. [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LACTEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: anderson.geraldo@lactec.org.br; Paredes, R.S.C. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2006-07-01

    In this work the influence of the arc thermal spraying process on the microstructure, oxide volumetric fraction, porosity and cavitation resistance was studied. The characterization was performed by optical and electrical microscopy, microhardness and ultrasonic cavitation test, ASTM G32-96 in AS895HY cobalt stainless steel. The increase in air pressure, 280 to 410 kPa, modified the oxide fraction from 17,2 +- 3,6% to 10,9 +-1,8%, in the samples without pre-heating treatment. With 120 deg C pre-heating treatment the oxide fraction increase from 24,1 +- 2,8% to 12,8 +- 1,9% when the air pressure was modified from 280 to 550 kPa. The mass loss in vibration-induced cavitation were 1,55 and 1,42 mg/h for 410 kPa AS895HY samples, with and without pre heating treatment, and 2,12 mg/h for 280 kPa samples without pre heating treatment. The results showed that the process parameters modified the microstructure and the cavitation resistance of the arc thermal spraying coatings. (author)

  10. Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Processes in Long Bay of the Carolinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y.; Xu, K.; He, R.; Wren, P. A.; Gong, Y.; Quigley, B.; Tarpley, D.

    2010-12-01

    The coastline along Long Bay of the Carolinas is a fast-growing and heavily-developed area supporting local populations, infrastructure, and a large tourism industry. Myrtle Beach and its adjacent sandy beaches are popular tourist destinations that attract millions of visitors each year, representing one of the state’s most essential natural resources. The economy of this region is closely related to the stability of the sandy beaches, which are vulnerable to coastal erosion during severe storm events. Quantifying the sediment transport processes in the nearshore and inner continental shelf regions is thus critical for both understanding the regional sediment budget and implementing effective coastal management. As a first step toward investigating the sediment transport processes, a three-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic-sediment transport model for Long Bay in the Carolinas has been developed. The model, based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), spans from Cape Fear estuary in NC to Winyah Bay estuary in SC. It considers the delivery of fluvial sediment from the Cape Fear and Pee Dee Rivers, resuspension from seabed, and transport of suspended sediment by ambient currents and waves calculated using Simulating WAve Nearshore model (SWAN). Our model simulations are driven by observed wind fields, which were collected at nearby meteorological stations maintained by National Data Buoy Center as well as at six buoys by the Palmetto Wind Research Project at Coastal Carolina University. Spatially varying sea bed conditions consisting of both hard bottoms and sandy bodies are applied in the calculation. The model is one-way nested inside a large-scale coastal circulation model that covers both the Middle Atlantic Bight and the South Atlantic Bight and provides dynamically consistent and numerically accurate circulation open boundary conditions. Modeling results indicate both wind-driven currents and storm-induced waves are capable of resuspending sandy

  11. Cavitation-aided grain refinement in aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atamanenko, T.V.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with grain refinement under the influence of ultrasonic-driven cavitation in aluminium casting processes. Three major goals of this research were: (1) to identify the mechanism of the cavitation-aided grain refinement at different stages of solidification; (2) to reveal the

  12. Cavitation-aided grain refinement in aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atamanenko, T.V.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with grain refinement under the influence of ultrasonic-driven cavitation in aluminium casting processes. Three major goals of this research were: (1) to identify the mechanism of the cavitation-aided grain refinement at different stages of solidification; (2) to reveal the conditi

  13. Hydrodynamic mean-field solutions of 1D exclusion processes with spatially varying hopping rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Greg; O'Brien, John; Chou, Tom

    2006-03-01

    We analyse the open boundary partially asymmetric exclusion process with smoothly varying internal hopping rates in the infinite-size, mean-field limit. The mean-field equations for particle densities are written in terms of Ricatti equations with the steady-state current J as a parameter. These equations are solved both analytically and numerically. Upon imposing the boundary conditions set by the injection and extraction rates, the currents J are found self-consistently. We find a number of cases where analytic solutions can be found exactly or approximated. Results for J from asymptotic analyses for slowly varying hopping rates agree extremely well with those from extensive Monte Carlo simulations, suggesting that mean-field currents asymptotically approach the exact currents in the hydrodynamic limit, as the hopping rates vary slowly over the lattice. If the forward hopping rate is greater than or less than the backward hopping rate throughout the entire chain, the three standard steady-state phases are preserved. Our analysis reveals the sensitivity of the current to the relative phase between the forward and backward hopping rate functions.

  14. 3-D hydrodynamic modelling of flood impacts on a building and indoor flooding processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gems, Bernhard; Mazzorana, Bruno; Hofer, Thomas; Sturm, Michael; Gabl, Roman; Aufleger, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Given the current challenges in flood risk management and vulnerability assessment of buildings exposed to flood hazards, this study presents three-dimensional numerical modelling of torrential floods and its interaction with buildings. By means of a case study application, the FLOW-3D software is applied to the lower reach of the Rio Vallarsa torrent in the village of Laives (Italy). A single-family house on the flood plain is therefore considered in detail. It is exposed to a 300-year flood hydrograph. Different building representation scenarios, including an entire impervious building envelope and the assumption of fully permeable doors, light shafts and windows, are analysed. The modelling results give insight into the flooding process of the building's interior, the impacting hydrodynamic forces on the exterior and interior walls, and further, they quantify the impact of the flooding of a building on the flow field on the surrounding flood plain. The presented study contributes to the development of a comprehensive physics-based vulnerability assessment framework. For pure water floods, this study presents the possibilities and limits of advanced numerical modelling techniques within flood risk management and, thereby, the planning of local structural protection measures.

  15. Multidimensional upwind hydrodynamics on unstructured meshes using graphics processing units - I. Two-dimensional uniform meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paardekooper, S.-J.

    2017-08-01

    We present a new method for numerical hydrodynamics which uses a multidimensional generalization of the Roe solver and operates on an unstructured triangular mesh. The main advantage over traditional methods based on Riemann solvers, which commonly use one-dimensional flux estimates as building blocks for a multidimensional integration, is its inherently multidimensional nature, and as a consequence its ability to recognize multidimensional stationary states that are not hydrostatic. A second novelty is the focus on graphics processing units (GPUs). By tailoring the algorithms specifically to GPUs, we are able to get speedups of 100-250 compared to a desktop machine. We compare the multidimensional upwind scheme to a traditional, dimensionally split implementation of the Roe solver on several test problems, and we find that the new method significantly outperforms the Roe solver in almost all cases. This comes with increased computational costs per time-step, which makes the new method approximately a factor of 2 slower than a dimensionally split scheme acting on a structured grid.

  16. Hydrodynamic mean-field solutions of 1D exclusion processes with spatially varying hopping rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, Greg; O' Brien, John; Chou, Tom [Department of Biomathematics and Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2006-03-10

    We analyse the open boundary partially asymmetric exclusion process with smoothly varying internal hopping rates in the infinite-size, mean-field limit. The mean-field equations for particle densities are written in terms of Ricatti equations with the steady-state current J as a parameter. These equations are solved both analytically and numerically. Upon imposing the boundary conditions set by the injection and extraction rates, the currents J are found self-consistently. We find a number of cases where analytic solutions can be found exactly or approximated. Results for J from asymptotic analyses for slowly varying hopping rates agree extremely well with those from extensive Monte Carlo simulations, suggesting that mean-field currents asymptotically approach the exact currents in the hydrodynamic limit, as the hopping rates vary slowly over the lattice. If the forward hopping rate is greater than or less than the backward hopping rate throughout the entire chain, the three standard steady-state phases are preserved. Our analysis reveals the sensitivity of the current to the relative phase between the forward and backward hopping rate functions.

  17. Cavitation guide for control valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tullis, J.P. [Tullis Engineering Consultants, Logan, UT (United States)

    1993-04-01

    This guide teaches the basic fundamentals of cavitation to provide the reader with an understanding of what causes cavitation, when it occurs, and the potential problems cavitation can cause to a valve and piping system. The document provides guidelines for understanding how to reduce the cavitation and/or select control valves for a cavitating system. The guide provides a method for predicting the cavitation intensity of control valves, and how the effect of cavitation on a system will vary with valve type, valve function, valve size, operating pressure, duration of operation and details of the piping installation. The guide defines six cavitation limits identifying cavitation intensities ranging from inception to the maximum intensity possible. The intensity of the cavitation at each limit Is described, including a brief discussion of how each level of cavitation influences the valve and system. Examples are included to demonstrate how to apply the method, including making both size and pressure scale effects corrections. Methods of controlling cavitation are discussed providing information on various techniques which can be used to design a new system or modify an existing one so it can operate at a desired level of cavitation.

  18. Physical-chemical hydrodynamics of the processes of sorption-membrane technology of LRW treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander D Efanov; Pyotr N Martynov; Yuri D Boltoev; Ivan V Yagodkin; Nataliya G Bogdanovich; Sergey S Skvortsov; Alexander R Sokolovsky; Elena V Ignatova; Gennady V Grigoriev; Vitaly V Grigorov [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering named after A.I. Leypunsky Bondarenko sq. 1, 249033, Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Liquid radioactive NPP waste is generated, when radioactive water is collected and mixed from various routine and non-routine process measures being performed in accordance with the operating regulations of reactor units with water coolant. The main sources of LRW are the primary loop water coolant, deactivation, regeneration and rinse waters, waste laundry and showers water producing the initial averaged LRW as well as spent fuel element cooling pond water and water of biological protection tanks. LRW handling can be substantially advanced, in particular, through development and introduction of the non-conventional sorption-membrane technology of NPP LRW treatment, being developed at SSC RF IPPE. This technology makes use of natural inorganic sorbents (tripolite, zeolite, ion-exchange materials) and filtering nano-structured metallic and ceramic membranes (titanium, zirconium, chromium and other or their oxides, carbides and nitrides). The efficiency of the sorption membrane technology is associated just with the investigation of the physical-chemical processes of sorption, coagulation and sedimentation under the conditions of forced and free convection occurring in LRW. Besides, it is necessary to take into consideration that the hydrodynamics of the flows of LRW being decontaminated by membrane filtration depends on the structure and composition of the porous composition pare 'nano-structured membrane-substrate'. Neglecting these peculiarities can result in drastic reduction of the time of stable LRW filtration, reduction of the operability resource of filtration systems or in quick mechanical destruction of porous materials. The paper presents the investigation results on: -the effect of the convection flows being generated by air bubbling or LRW stirring by agitator on the static sorption conditions (sorption time, medium pH, sorbent dispersity, sorbent concentration in liquid medium) and on the efficiency of

  19. Cavitation in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennen, Christopher Earls

    2015-10-06

    We generally think of bubbles as benign and harmless and yet they can manifest the most remarkable range of physical effects. Some of those effects are the stuff of our everyday experience as in the tinkling of a brook or the sounds of breaking waves at the beach. But even these mundane effects are examples of the ability of bubbles to gather, focus and radiate energy (acoustic energy in the above examples). In other contexts that focusing of energy can lead to serious technological problems as when cavitation bubbles eat great holes through ships' propeller blades or cause a threat to the integrity of the spillways at the Hoover Dam. In liquid-propelled rocket engines, bubbles pose a danger to the stability of the propulsion system, and in artificial heart valves they can cause serious damage to the red blood cells. In perhaps the most extraordinary example of energy focusing, collapsing cavitation bubbles can emit not only sound, but also light with black body radiation temperatures equal to that of the sun (Brennen 1995 Cavitation and bubble dynamics). But, harnessed carefully, this almost unique ability to focus energy can also be put to remarkably constructive use. Cavitation bubbles are now used in a remarkable range of surgical and medical procedures, for example to emulsify tissue (most commonly in cataract surgery or in lithotripsy procedures for the reduction of kidney and gall stones) or to manipulate the DNA in individual cells. By creating cavitation bubbles non-invasively thereby depositing and focusing energy non-intrusively, one can generate minute incisions or target cancer cells. This paper will begin by briefly reviewing the history of cavitation phenomena and will end with a vision of the new horizons for the amazing cavitation bubble.

  20. Cavitation characteristics of pit structure in ultrasonic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI LiXin; XU WeiLin; ZHANG FaXing; LI NaiWen; ZHANG YiChi; HUANG DeFa

    2009-01-01

    Bubble collecting, bubble holding and micro-bubble ejecting characteristics of pit structure and the influence of cavitation bubble on the development of erosion pit are investigated by means of highspeed photography experiments. Pits tend to collect and hold wandering cavitation bubbles. The air holding phenomenon of pits can be a destination of the incubation period in the process of cavitation erosion. The holding bubble tends to eject micro-bubbles from the top of holding cavitation bubble,making the pit a source of nuclei. With bubbles being held in pits, the diameters of pits increase rapidly.But in the given experiment condition, there is a specific stable value beyond which the diameter of pits will not increase. This characteristic will be helpful in understanding and predicting the cavitation erosion process.

  1. Effect of cavitation bubble collapse on hydraulic oil temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈伟; 张健; 孙毅; 张迪嘉; 姜继海

    2016-01-01

    Cavitation bubble collapse has a great influence on the temperature of hydraulic oil. Herein, cone-type throttle valve experiments are carried out to study the thermodynamic processes of cavitation. First, the processes of growth and collapse are analysed, and the relationships between the hydraulic oil temperature and bubble growth and collapse are deduced. The effect of temperature is then considered on the hydraulic oil viscosity and saturated vapour pressure. Additionally, an improved form of the Rayleigh–Plesset equation is developed. The effect of cavitation on the hydraulic oil temperature is experimentally studied and the effects of cavitation bubble collapse in the hydraulic system are summarised. Using the cone-type throttle valve as an example, a method to suppress cavitation is proposed.

  2. Biological Effects of Acoustic Cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    rectified diffusion. 56 III. STABLE CAVITATION A. Introduction There are manv areas associated with the biological effects of ultrasound in which the...used said as cavitation indicators. Further, if clinical ultrasound systems are found to be inducing cavitation , either stable or transient, it will...O BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ACOUSTIC CAVITATION by Lawrence A. Crum -- Physical Acoustics Research Laboratory Department of Physics and Astronomy ’ CTE

  3. A novel ultrasonic cavitation enhancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Rivas, David; Verhaagen, Bram; Galdamez Perez, Andres; Castro-Hernandez, Elena; Zwieten, van Ralph; Schroen, Karin

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a Cavitation Intensifying Bag as a versatile tool for acoustic cavitation control. The cavitation activity is spatially controlled by the modification of the inner surface of the bag with patterned pits of microscopic dimensions. We report on different measurements such as the transmiss

  4. A novel ultrasonic cavitation enhancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivas, Fernandez D.; Verhaagen, B.; Galdamez Perez, Andres; Castro-Hernandez, Elena; Zwieten, Van Ralph; Schroen, Karin

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a Cavitation Intensifying Bag as a versatile tool for acoustic cavitation control. The cavitation activity is spatially controlled by the modification of the inner surface of the bag with patterned pits of microscopic dimensions. We report on different measurements such as the transm

  5. Characteristic analysis of unsteady viscous flow around a cavitating propeller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on viscous multiphase flow theory, this paper presents some recent validation results with a hybrid grid and sliding mesh solving Unsteady Navier-Stokes (N-S) and Bubble Dynamics equations as applied to prediction of pressure, velocity and vapor volume fraction in the wake in an uniform inflow. Comparable to experimental results, numerical predictions of sheet cavitation, tip vortex cavitation and hub vortex cavitation are in agreement with the corresponding experimental data, the same as numerical predictions of pressure in wake. Tip vortex cavitation is the most important to generate the pressure fluctuation within the near wake. The characteristics such as blade and shaft rate frequency of propeller pressure in wake coincide with its geometric model and parameters. With increasing distance from propeller disk, the pressure signals at blade frequency de-crease. The process of attenuation becomes fast with the decreased advance coefficient and cavitation number.

  6. Acoustic cavitation movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, Lawrence A.

    2003-04-01

    Acoustic cavitation is a phenomenon that occurs on microsecond time scales and micron length scales, yet, it has many macroscopic manifestations. Accordingly, it is often difficult, at least for the author, to form realistic physical descriptions of the specific mechanisms through which it expresses itself in our macroscopic world. For example, there are still many who believe that cavitation erosion is due to the shock wave that is emitted by bubble implosion, rather than the liquid jet created on asymmetric collapse...and they may be right. Over the years, the author has accumulated a number of movies and high-speed photographs of cavitation activity, which he uses to form his own visual references. In the time allotted, he will show a number of these movies and photographs and discuss their relevance to existing technological problems. A limited number of CDs containing the presented materials will be available to interested individuals. [Work supported in part by the NIH, USAMRMC, and the ONR.

  7. Cavitation in liquid helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, R. D.; Kagiwada, R.; Barmatz, M.; Rudnick, I.

    1963-11-15

    Ultrasonic cavitation was induced in liquid helium over the temperature range 1.2 to 2.3 deg K, using a pair of identical transducers. The transducers were calibrated using a reciprocity technique and the cavitation threshold was determined at 90 kc/s. It was found that this threshold has a sharp peak at the lambda point, but is, at all temperatures quite low, with an approximate range of 0.001 to 0.01 atm. The significance of the results is discussed. (auth)

  8. Taming Acoustic Cavitation

    CERN Document Server

    Rivas, David Fernandez; Enriquez, Oscar R; Versluis, Michel; Prosperetti, Andrea; Gardeniers, Han; Lohse, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video we show acoustic cavitation occurring from pits etched on a silicon surface. By immersing the surface in a liquid, gas pockets are entrapped in the pits which upon ultrasonic insonation, are observed to shed cavitation bubbles. Modulating the driving pressure it is possible to induce different behaviours based on the force balance that determines the interaction among bubbles and the silicon surface. This system can be used for several applications like sonochemical water treatment, cleaning of surfaces with deposited materials such as biofilms.

  9. Key roles of micro-particles in water on occurrence of cavitation-erosion of hydro-machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG JiaDao; CHEN HaoSheng; QIN Li; LI YongJian; CHEN DaRong

    2008-01-01

    It has been believed for about one hundred years that the cavitation directly induces the cavitation erosion. It is proposed in this research that cavitation is only the necessary condition but not the sufficient condition of the cavitation erosion. The experiment performed on the rotary disk cavitation system shows that the mi-cro-particles in the fluid play indispensable roles in the cavitation erosion process, and the generation of the erosion pits on the steel surface is also affected by the particles' size. These cracks and deformations on the sample surface indicate that the erosion is the result of the mechanical behavior. Numerical calculations are also provided to support this mechanism.

  10. Efficiency of thermal relaxation by radiative processes in protoplanetary discs: constraints on hydrodynamic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malygin, M. G.; Klahr, H.; Semenov, D.; Henning, Th.; Dullemond, C. P.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Hydrodynamic, non-magnetic instabilities can provide turbulent stress in the regions of protoplanetary discs, where the magneto-rotational instability can not develop. The induced motions influence the grain growth, from which formation of planetesimals begins. Thermal relaxation of the gas constrains origins of the identified hydrodynamic sources of turbulence in discs. Aims: We aim to estimate the radiative relaxation timescale of temperature perturbations in protoplanetary discs. We study the dependence of the thermal relaxation on the perturbation wavelength, the location within the disc, the disc mass, and the dust-to-gas mass ratio. We then apply thermal relaxation criteria to localise modes of the convective overstability, the vertical shear instability, and the zombie vortex instability. Methods: For a given temperature perturbation, we estimated two timescales: the radiative diffusion timescale tthick and the optically thin emission timescale tthin. The longest of these timescales governs the relaxation: trelax = max (tthick, tthin). We additionally accounted for the collisional coupling to the emitting species. Our calculations employed the latest tabulated dust and gas mean opacities. Results: The relaxation criterion defines the bulk of a typical T Tauri disc as unstable to the development of linear hydrodynamic instabilities. The midplane is unstable to the convective overstability from at most 2au and up to 40au, as well as beyond 140au. The vertical shear instability can develop between 15au and 180au. The successive generation of (zombie) vortices from a seeded noise can work within the inner 0.8au. Conclusions: A map of relaxation timescale constrains the origins of the identified hydrodynamic turbulence-driving mechanisms in protoplanetary discs. Dynamic disc modelling with the evolution of dust and gas opacities is required to clearly localise the hydrodynamic turbulence, and especially its non-linear phase.

  11. Cavitation Instabilities in Inducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    gas handling turbomachines . The fluctuation of the cavity length is plotted in Fig.8 under the surge mode oscillation vi . The major differences...Cavitation Instabilities of Turbomachines .” AIAA Journal of Propulsion and Power, Vol.17, No.3, 636-643. [5] Tsujimoto, Y., (2006), “Flow Instabilities in

  12. Acoustic cavitation and sonochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stricker, L.

    2013-01-01

    Sonochemistry is the use of cavitation for achieving a chemical conversion. When microbubbles are driven in the nonlinear regime, localized extreme temperatures (up to 10000 K) and pressures (up to 1000 bar) can be reached upon collapse, the surrounding liquid remaining ambient,thus giving origin to

  13. Ozone and Cavitation Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon, Ernestina; Traversoni, Leonardo

    2009-09-01

    From laboratory measurements it is well known that the addition of ozone and cavitation enhances the properties of both, understanding for that the ones related to disinfection and carbon removal from waste water. This paper shows modeling of such phenomena that gives some light to the understanding of it and also provides the opportunity to improve the effectiveness of the current procedures.

  14. Numerical Modeling of Unsteady Cavitating Flows around a Stationary Hydrofoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Ducoin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to evaluate the predictive capability of three popular transport equation-based cavitation models for the simulations of partial sheet cavitation and unsteady sheet/cloud cavitating flows around a stationary NACA66 hydrofoil. The 2D calculations are performed by solving the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equation using the CFD solver CFX with the k-ω SST turbulence model. The local compressibility effect is considered using a local density correction for the turbulent eddy viscosity. The calculations are validated with experiments conducted in a cavitation tunnel at the French Naval Academy. The hydrofoil has a fixed angle of attack of α=6° with a Reynolds number of Re = 750,000 at different cavitation numbers σ. Without the density modification, over-prediction of the turbulent viscosity near the cavity closure reduces the cavity length and modifies the cavity shedding characteristics. The results show that it is important to capture both the mean and fluctuating values of the hydrodynamic coefficients because (1 the high amplitude of the fluctuations is critical to capturing the extremes of the loads to ensure structural safety and (2 the need to capture the frequency of the fluctuations, to avoid unwanted noise, vibrations, and accelerated fatigue issues.

  15. Hydrodynamic filtration in microfluidic channels as size-selection process for giant unilamellar vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Youngjun; Heo, Youhee; Shin, Kwanwoo; Yi, Gi-Ra

    2013-04-01

    We have developed hydrodynamic filtration method in microfluidic device for the efficient size-selection of polydisperse lipid vesicles for giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), in which vesicles were formed by electroformation method. Combining pinched flow channel design before hydrodynamic filtration, GUVs were flowed and guided to filtration channels, in which small lipid vesicles were further filtered and GUV were remained in main flow channels. For increasing the selectivity of GUV in outlets, length of slit section, or relative flow rate were controlled and drain channels were introduced for avoiding back flow. At higher flow rate in a pinched flow, the fraction of recovered GUVs (>10 microm) were increased, in which most of small vesicles were filtered.

  16. Numerical simulation and experimental visualization of the separated cavitating boundary layer over NACA2412

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozák Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation is physical phenomenon of crucial impact on the operation range and service lifetime of the hydraulic machines (pumps, turbines, valves etc.. Experimental measurement of cavitation is expensive and time consuming process, while some important characteristic of the flow are difficult to measure due to the nature of the phenomenon. Current possibilities of computational fluid dynamics provide a way for deeper understanding of cavitation which is important for many applications in the hydraulic machines industry such as expanding operation range or extending lifetime of the hydraulic machines. Simplified model consists of NACA 2412 hydrofoil with 8 degrees angle of attack fixed in between the walls of cavitation tunnel. Present investigation focuses on comparison of vapor volume fractions obtained by 3D CFD simulations and high speed visualization of the real cavitation phenomena. Several operating regimes corresponding to different cavitation numbers are studied with aim to assess the dynamics of the separated cavitating sheets/clouds

  17. Propeller Cavitation in Non-Uniform Flow and Correlation with the Near Pressure Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alves Pereira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study is carried out in a cavitation tunnel on a propeller operating downstream of a non-uniform wake. The goal of this work is to establish quantitative correlations between the near pressure field and the cavitation pattern that takes place on the propeller blades. The pressure field is measured at the walls of the test section and in the near wake of the propeller and is combined with quantitative high-speed image recording of the cavitation pattern. Through harmonic analysis of the pressure data and image processing techniques that allow retrieving the cavitation extension and volume, we discuss the potential sources that generate the pressure fluctuations. Time correlations are unambiguously established between pressure peak fluctuations and cavitation collapse events, based on the Rayleigh collapse time. Finally, we design a model to predict the cavitation-induced pressure fluctuations from the derivation of the cavitation volume acceleration. A remarkable agreement is observed with the actual pressure field.

  18. Numerical 3D flow simulation of attached cavitation structures at ultrasonic horn tips and statistical evaluation of flow aggressiveness via load collectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottyll, S.; Skoda, R.

    2015-12-01

    A compressible inviscid flow solver with barotropic cavitation model is applied to two different ultrasonic horn set-ups and compared to hydrophone, shadowgraphy as well as erosion test data. The statistical analysis of single collapse events in wall-adjacent flow regions allows the determination of the flow aggressiveness via load collectives (cumulative event rate vs collapse pressure), which show an exponential decrease in agreement to studies on hydrodynamic cavitation [1]. A post-processing projection of event rate and collapse pressure on a reference grid reduces the grid dependency significantly. In order to evaluate the erosion-sensitive areas a statistical analysis of transient wall loads is utilised. Predicted erosion sensitive areas as well as temporal pressure and vapour volume evolution are in good agreement to the experimental data.

  19. Implicit large eddy simulation of unsteady cloud cavitation around a plane- convex hydrofoil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗先武; 季斌

    2015-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the erosive cavitation behavior around a plane convex hydrofoil. The Zwart-Gerber-Belamri cavitation model is implemented in a library form to be used with the OpenFOAM. The implicit large eddy simulation (ILES) is app- lied to analyze the three dimensional unsteady cavitating flow around a plane convex hydrofoil. The numerical results in the cases under the hydrodynamic-conditions, which were experimentally tested at the high speed cavitation tunnel of the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), clearly show the sheet cavitation development, the shedding and the collapse of vapor clouds. It is noted that the cavitation evolutions including the maximum vapor length, the detachment and the oscillation frequency, are captured fairly well. Furthermore, the pressure pulses due to the cavitation development as well as the complex vortex structures are reasona- bly well predicted. Consequently, it may be concluded that the present numerical method can be used to investigate the unsteady cavitation around hydrofoils with a satisfactory accuracy.

  20. Research on Cavitation Regions of Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal Based on Dynamic Mesh Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huilong Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the cavitation area of the Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal, three-dimensional microgap inner flow field of the Upstream Pumping Mechanical Seal was simulated with multiphase flow cavitation model and dynamic mesh technique based on hydrodynamic lubrication theory. Furthermore, the simulated result was compared with the experimental data. The results show that the simulated result with the Zwart-Gerber-Belamri cavitation model was much closer to the experimental data. The area of cavitation inception mainly occurred at the concave side of the spiral groove and surrounding region without spiral grooves, which was nearly covered by the inner diameter to roots of grooves; in addition, the region near the surface of the stationary ring was primary cavitation location. The area of cavitation has little relationship with the medium pressure; however, it became larger following increasing rotating speed in the range of researched operating conditions. Moreover the boundary of cavitated area was transformed from smooth to rough, which occurred in similar film thickness. When cavitation number was decreasing, which was conducive to improving the lubrication performance of sealed auxiliary, it made the sealing stability decline.

  1. Detecting cavitation in vivo from shock-wave therapy devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matula, Thomas J.; Yu, Jinfei; Bailey, Michael R.

    2005-04-01

    Extracorporeal shock-wave therapy (ESWT) has been used as a treatment for plantar faciitis, lateral epicondylitis, shoulder tendonitis, non-unions, and other indications where conservative treatments have been unsuccessful. However, in many areas, the efficacy of SW treatment has not been well established, and the mechanism of action, particularly the role of cavitation, is not well understood. Research indicates cavitation plays an important role in other ultrasound therapies, such as lithotripsy and focused ultrasound surgery, and in some instances, cavitation has been used as a means to monitor or detect a biological effect. Although ESWT can generate cavitation easily in vitro, it is unknown whether or not cavitation is a significant factor in vivo. The purpose of this investigation is to use diagnostic ultrasound to detect and monitor cavitation generated by ESWT devices in vivo. Diagnostic images are collected at various times during and after treatment. The images are then post-processed with image-processing algorithms to enhance the contrast between bubbles and surrounding tissue. The ultimate goal of this research is to utilize cavitation as a means for optimizing shock wave parameters such as amplitude and pulse repetition frequency. [Work supported by APL internal funds and NIH DK43881 and DK55674.

  2. Investigation of model capability in capturing vertical hydrodynamic coastal processes: a case study in the north Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKiver, W. J.; Sannino, G.; Braga, F.; Bellafiore, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we consider a numerical study of hydrodynamics in the coastal zone using two different models, SHYFEM (shallow water hydrodynamic finite element model) and MITgcm (Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model), to assess their capability to capture the main processes. We focus on the north Adriatic Sea during a strong dense water event that occurred at the beginning of 2012. This serves as an interesting test case to examine both the models strengths and weaknesses, while giving an opportunity to understand how these events affect coastal processes, like upwelling and downwelling, and how they interact with estuarine dynamics. Using the models we examine the impact of setup, surface and lateral boundary treatment, resolution and mixing schemes, as well as assessing the importance of nonhydrostatic dynamics in coastal processes. Both models are able to capture the dense water event, though each displays biases in different regions. The models show large differences in the reproduction of surface patterns, identifying the choice of suitable bulk formulas as a central point for the correct simulation of the thermohaline structure of the coastal zone. Moreover, the different approaches in treating lateral freshwater sources affect the vertical coastal stratification. The results indicate the importance of having high horizontal resolution in the coastal zone, specifically in close proximity to river inputs, in order to reproduce the effect of the complex coastal morphology on the hydrodynamics. A lower resolution offshore is acceptable for the reproduction of the dense water event, even if specific vortical structures are missed. Finally, it is found that nonhydrostatic processes are of little importance for the reproduction of dense water formation in the shelf of the north Adriatic Sea.

  3. Principles and effects of acoustic cavitation - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina GÂMBUŢEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, food industry has shown a real interest in ultrasound use because of its effect on physical, biochemical and microbial properties of food systems. In order to better understand how the acoustic cavity effects could be best applied in food industry, a review on acoustic cavitation and its effects was done. The present paper describes in detail the basic principles underlying the effects of ultrasounds on food processing applications. It also provides theoretical background on acoustic cavitation and ultrasound production method. Moreover, harnessing mechanic, optic, chemical and biological effects of acoustic cavitation in food industry were briefly highlighted.

  4. Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration on Cavitation Bubbles of Grinding Fluid in Honing Process%超声振动对珩磨加工过程中磨削液气泡空化作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝锡晶; 郭策

    2015-01-01

    为了对超声珩磨下的磨削液空化泡进行合理预测和控制,在分析磨削液空化机理的基础上,从气泡的控制方程出发,数值对比了超声珩磨与传统珩磨对磨削液气泡运动特性的影响,并研究了声压幅值和超声频率对磨削液气泡空化的作用,最后利用声强测量仪对磨削液气泡的空化强度进行了定量测量. 结果表明:超声珩磨下气泡会发生膨胀及压缩的动力学过程,而传统珩磨下气泡会直接被压缩,且超声珩磨下气泡的溃灭速度比传统珩磨高两个数量级;当声压幅值较低时(pacavitation bubbles of grinding fluid under ultrasonic honing,based on the analysis of cavitation mechanism of grinding fluid,bubble dynamics behaviors under ultrasonic honing and traditional honing were simulated numerically respectively. Effects of acoustic amplitude and ultrasonic frequency on cavitation bubble of grinding fluid were discussed. Acoustic cavitation intensity of grinding was measured employing acoustimeter quantitatively. The results show that the bubble under ultrasonic honing can present the dynamics process of expansion and compression,but the bubble under traditional honing can be compressed directly. The collapse velocity of the bubble under ultrasonic honing is higher two magnitudes than that of traditional honing. For lower acoustic amplitude (pacavitation of grinding fluid may not occur. As increasing acoustic amplitude (pa≥p0+ph),the cavitation intensity of grinding fluid is growing increased. The cavitation intensity of grinding fluid can

  5. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF LOCAL HYDRODYNAMICS AND MASS EXCHANGE PROCESSES OF COOLANT IN FUEL ASSEMBLIES OF PRESSURIZED WATER REACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Dmitriev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental studies of local hydrodynamics and mass exchange of coolant flow behind spacer and mixing grids of different structural versions that were developed for fuel assemblies of domestic and foreign nuclear reactors are presented in the article. In order to carry out the study the models of the following fuel assemblies have been fabricated: FA for VVER and VBER, FA-KVADRAT for PWR-reactor and FA for KLT-40C reactor. All the models have been fabricated with a full geometrical similarity with full-scale fuel assemblies. The study was carried out by simulating the flow of coolant in a core by air on an aerodynamic test rig. In order to measure local hydrodynamic characteristics of coolant flow five-channel Pitot probes were used that enable to measure the velocity vector in a point by its three components. The tracerpropane method was used for studying mass transfer processes. Flow hydrodynamics was studied by measuring cross-section velocities of coolant flow and coolant rates according to the model cells. The investigation of mass exchange processes consisted of a study of concentration distribution for tracer in experimental model, in determination of attenuation lengths of mass transfer processes behind mixing grids, in calculating of inter-cellar mass exchange coefficient. The database on coolant flow in fuel assemblies for different types of reactors had been accumulated that formed the basis of the engineering substantiation of reactor cores designs. The recommendations on choice of optimal versions of mixing grids have been taken into consideration by implementers of the JSC “OKBM Afrikantov” when creating commissioned fuel assemblies. The results of the study are used for verification of CFD-codes and CFD programs of detailed cell-by-cell calculation of reactor cores in order to decrease conservatism for substantiation of thermal-mechanical reliability.

  6. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF CAVITATION FLOW UNDER HIGH PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei-guo; ZHANG Ling-xin; SHAO Xue-ming

    2011-01-01

    The numerical simulation of cavitation flow on a 2D NACA0015 hydrofoil under high pressure and temperature is performed. The Singhal's cavitation model is adopted combined with an improved RNG k-ε turbulence model to study the cavitation flow. The thermal effect in the cavitation flow is taken into account by introducing the energy equation with a source term based on the latent heat transfer. The code is validated by a case of a hydrofoil under two different temperatures in a comparison between the simulation and the experiment. Computational results show that the latent heat of vaporization has a significant impact on the cavitation process in the high temperature state, and the cavity in the high temperature state is thinner and shorter than that in a normal state with the same cavitation number, due to the fact that the heat absorption in the cavitation area reduces the local temperature and the saturated vapor pressure. This numerical study provides some guidance for the design of machineries in the High Pressure and Temperature (HPT) state.

  7. Cavitating vortex characterization based on acoustic signal detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digulescu, A.; Murgan, I.; Candel, I.; Bunea, F.; Ciocan, G.; Bucur, D. M.; Dunca, G.; Ioana, C.; Vasile, G.; Serbanescu, A.

    2016-11-01

    In hydraulic turbines operating at part loads, a cavitating vortex structure appears at runner outlet. This helical vortex, called vortex rope, can be cavitating in its core if the local pressure is lower that the vaporization pressure. An actual concern is the detection of the cavitation apparition and the characterization of its level. This paper presents a potentially innovative method for the detection of the cavitating vortex presence based on acoustic methods. The method is tested on a reduced scale facility using two acoustic transceivers positioned in ”V” configuration. The received signals were continuously recorded and their frequency content was chosen to fit the flow and the cavitating vortex. Experimental results showed that due to the increasing flow rate, the signal - vortex interaction is observed as modifications on the received signal's high order statistics and bandwidth. Also, the signal processing results were correlated with the data measured with a pressure sensor mounted in the cavitating vortex section. Finally it is shown that this non-intrusive acoustic approach can indicate the apparition, development and the damping of the cavitating vortex. For real scale facilities, applying this method is a work in progress.

  8. Shock Waves in Cloud Cavitation

    OpenAIRE

    Brennen, C. E.; Reisman, G. E.; Wang, Y.-C.

    1997-01-01

    Thie paper described experimental and computational investigations of the dynamics of clouds of cavitation bubbles. Recent studies have confirmed that the interactions between bubbles as they are manifest in the dynamics of bubble clouds lead to generation of very large impulsive pressures which, in turn, cause substantial enhancement of the radiated noise and the material damage which results from this form of cavitation. The experimental program focuses on cloud cavitation formed on th...

  9. A novel ultrasonic cavitation enhancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas, Fernandez D.; Verhaagen, B.; Galdamez Perez, Andres; Castro-Hernandez, Elena; Zwieten, van, D.M.; Schroen, Karin

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a Cavitation Intensifying Bag as a versatile tool for acoustic cavitation control. The cavitation activity is spatially controlled by the modification of the inner surface of the bag with patterned pits of microscopic dimensions. We report on different measurements such as the transmission of ultrasound, temperature increase inside the bag during sonication. Several applications of interest to other scientific activities are also demonstrated.

  10. Hydrodynamic and morphological processes in Yangtze Estuary: State-of-the-art research and its applications by Hohai University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-hai ZHENG

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the state-of-the-art research and its applications developed at Hohai University relating to the hydrodynamic and morphological processes in the Yangtze Estuary. Longitudinal, lateral, and horizontal flow circulations have been revealed based on the measurements with acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP. The hydrodynamic mechanism at diversion points as well as the changing patterns of flow and sediment flux in the Yangtze Estuary has been investigated through long-term data analysis. A field survey has been carried out to detect the saltwater intrusion from the North Branch to South Branch. Different numerical models of flow motion, sediment transport, and saltwater intrusion have been developed to simulate the complicated processes and to evaluate the effects of engineering projects. The morphological processes of wetlands over a time scale of decades have been analyzed with an established database. Ideas for further research on the bio-geomorphological model system and long-term evolution mechanisms are put forward.

  11. Effects of Laser Shock Processing on Cavitation Erosion Resistance of Laser Weldments%激光冲击强化对激光焊接件气蚀行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 罗开玉; 鲁金忠; 张永康; 冯爱新

    2013-01-01

    Effects of laser shock processing (LSP) on cavitation erosion behaviors of ANSI 304 stainless steel thick sheets treated by laser welding are investigated. Mechanical properties and microstructure of laser weldments are measured and observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), microhardness, electronic balance and scanning electron microscope (SEM) tests in order to investigate cavitation erosion resistance of laser weldments. Results show that with the increment of LSP pulse energies after cavitation erosion, the martensite intensity is improved relatively and the removal of martensite is restrained, the hardness increases, and the cumulative mass loss and damaged surface areas of laser weldments decrease. Meanwhile, the martensite grains are fined, and undulations and upheavals become shallower and sparser, and the growth and propagation of the cracks on the surface are restrained. Thus, cavitation erosion resistance of laser weldments is enhanced. In addition, cavitation erosion resistance of laser welding zone (LWZ) is better than that of heat-affected zone (HAZ).%采用高能激光束对厚板激光焊接件进行激光冲击强化(LSP)处理,并利用X射线衍射仪(XRD)、显微硬度仪、高精度电子天平和扫描电镜(SEM)观察分析手段研究了激光冲击强化对激光焊接件抗气蚀性能的影响.试验结果表明,增加激光冲击强化脉冲能量气蚀后,激光焊接件马氏体强度相对提高、马氏体剥落得到抑制,表面和横截面硬度增加,累积质量损失和表面气蚀破坏面积减小.随着激光能量的增加,马氏体晶粒细化,气蚀后表面起伏组织变浅、变疏,表面裂纹萌生扩展得到减缓抑制,因此激光焊接件抗气蚀性能增强.另外,激光焊接件焊缝区的抗气蚀性能优于热影响区(HAZ)的抗气蚀性能.

  12. Coherent-Phase Monitoring Of Cavitation In Turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Jen-Yi

    1996-01-01

    Digital electronic signal-processing system analyzes outputs of accelerometers mounted on turbomachine to detect vibrations characteristic of cavitation. Designed to overcome limitation imposed by interference from discrete components. System digitally implements technique called "coherent-phase wide-band demodulation" (CPWBD), using phase-only (PO) filtering along envelope detection to search for unique coherent-phase relationship associated with cavitation and to minimize influence of large-amplitude discrete components.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Crater Creating Process in Dynamic Replacement Method by Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilewicz Andrzej

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical base of SPH method, including the governing equations, discussion of importance of the smoothing function length, contact formulation, boundary treatment and finally utilization in hydrocode simulations are presented. An application of SPH to a real case of large penetrations (crater creating into the soil caused by falling mass in Dynamic Replacement Method is discussed. An influence of particles spacing on method accuracy is presented. An example calculated by LS-DYNA software is discussed. Chronological development of Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics is presented. Theoretical basics of SPH method stability and consistency in SPH formulation, artificial viscosity and boundary treatment are discussed. Time integration techniques with stability conditions, SPH+FEM coupling, constitutive equation and equation of state (EOS are presented as well.

  14. Processing Binary and Fuzzy Logic by Chaotic Time Series Generated by a Hydrodynamic Photochemical Oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Pier Luigi; Giubila, Maria Sole; Heron, B Mark

    2017-02-03

    This work demonstrates the computational power of a hydrodynamic photochemical oscillator based on a photochromic naphthopyran, generating aperiodic time series. The chaotic character of the time series is tested by calculating its largest Lyapunov exponent and the correlation dimension of its attractor after building its phase space through the Takens' theorem. Then, the chaotic dynamic is shown to be suitable to implement all the fundamental Boolean two-inputs-one-output logic gates. Finally, the strategy to implement Fuzzy logic systems (FLSs) based on the time series is described. Such FLSs promise to be useful in the field of Computational Linguistics that is concerned with the development of artificial intelligent systems able to transform collections of numerical data in natural language texts.

  15. The numerical study of the cavitation-structure interaction around 3D flexible hydrofoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-liang, Hu; Ying, Chen; Chuan-jing, Lu

    2015-12-01

    The closely coupled approach combined the Finite Volume Method (FVM) solver and the Finite Element Method (FEM) solver is applied to simulation the cavitation-structure interaction of a 3D cantilevered flexible hydrofoil in water tunnel. In the cavitating flow, the elastic hydrofoil would deform or vibrate in bending and twisting mode. And the motion of the foil would affect the characteristics of the cavity and the hydrodynamic load on the foil in turn. With smaller cavitation numbers (σv=2.15), the frequency spectrum of the lift on the foil would contain two frequencies which are associated to the cavity shedding and the first bend frequency of the hydrofoil. With larger cavitation number (σv=2.55), the frequency of the lift is completely dominated by the natural frequency of the foil.

  16. Controlled Cavitation in Microfluidic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, Ed; le Gac, Severine; Tsuji, Kinko; Ohl, C.D.

    2007-01-01

    We report on cavitation in confined microscopic environments which are commonly called microfluidic or lab-on-a-chip systems. The cavitation bubble is created by focusing a pulsed laser into these structures filled with a lght-absorbing liquid. At hte center of a 20 mu m thick and 1 mm wide channel,

  17. Cavitationally induced biodegradability enhancement of a distillery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padoley, K V; Saharan, Virendra Kumar; Mudliar, S N; Pandey, R A; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2012-06-15

    Hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) was evaluated as a pretreatment option for the complex/recalcitrant biomethanated distillery wastewater (B-DWW). The effect of various process parameters such as inlet pressure, dilution and reaction time on reduction of COD/TOC and enhancement of biodegradability index (BI:BOD(5):COD ratio) of the B-DWW was studied with an aim to maximize the biodegradability index and reducing the toxicity of the distillery wastewater. It was observed that higher operating pressure (13 bar) yielded the maximum BI whereas the lower pressure (5 bar) is suitable for the reduction in the toxicity of B-DWW. The toxicity of the distillery wastewater was analyzed by measuring the COD, TOC and color of the wastewater sample. The HC pretreatment under optimized conditions leads to a BI of 0.32, COD and TOC reduction of 32.24% and 31.43%, respectively along with a color reduction by 48%. These results indicate the potential of HC as a pretreatment option for enhancing the biodegradability index of the recalcitrant wastewater such as B-DWW along with reduced toxicity of wastewater as observed from COD, TOC and color reduction profile under optimized conditions.

  18. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF CAVITATING FLOWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Lei

    2003-01-01

    A new model, which involves viscous and multi-phase effects, was given to study cavitating flows. A local compressible model was established by introducing a density-pressure function to account for the two-phase flow of water/vapor and the transition from one phase to the other. An algorithm for calculating variable-density N-S equations of cavitating flow problem was put forward. The present method yields reasonable results for both steady and unsteady cavitating flows in 2D and 3D cases. The numerical results of unsteady character of cavitating flows around hydrofoils coincide well with experimental data. It indicates the feasibility to apply this method to a variety of cavitating flows of practical problems.

  19. Modeling of Hydrodynamic Processes at a Large Leak of Water into Sodium in the Fast Reactor Coolant Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Perevoznikov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a physicomathematical model of the processes that occur in a sodium circuit with a variable flow cross-section in the case of a water leak into sodium. The application area for this technique includes the possibility of analyzing consequences of this leak as applied to sodium–water steam generators in fast neutron reactors. Hydrodynamic processes that occur in sodium circuits in the event of a water leak are described within the framework of a one-dimensional thermally nonequilibrium three-component gas–liquid flow model (sodium–hydrogen–sodium hydroxide. Consideration is given to the results of a mathematical modeling of experiments involving steam injection into the sodium loop of a circulation test facility. That was done by means of the computer code in which the proposed model had been implemented.

  20. Modeling of hydrodynamic processes at a large leak of water into sodium in the fast reactor coolant circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perevoznikov, Sergey; Shvetsov, Yuriy; Kamayev, Aleksey; Paknomov, Ilia; Borisov, Viacheslav; Pazan, Gennadiy; Mizeabasov, Oleg; Korzun, Olga [Joint Stock Company State Scientific Centre of the Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering named after A.I. Leypunsky, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, we describe a physicomathematical model of the processes that occur in a sodium circuit with a variable flow cross-section in the case of a water leak into sodium. The application area for this technique includes the possibility of analyzing consequences of this leak as applied to sodium-water steam generators in fast neutron reactors. Hydrodynamic processes that occur in sodium circuits in the event of a water leak are described within the framework of a one-dimensional thermally nonequilibrium three-component gas-liquid flow model (sodium-hydrogen-sodium hydroxide). Consideration is given to the results of a mathematical modeling of experiments involving steam injection into the sodium loop of a circulation test facility. That was done by means of the computer code in which the proposed model had been implemented.

  1. A piezoelectric polymer cavitation sensor installed in an emulsion generation microchannel device and an evaluation of cavitation state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Takefumi; Yabumoto, Masaki; Suzumori, Koichi

    2016-07-01

    In previous works, ultrasonic emulsification was realized using small microchannel devices oscillated by piezoelectric transducers. By using the devices, the emulsification in the flow process was also realized. In these devices, the driving frequency was higher than 2 MHz. This value is higher than the maximum audible field. On the other hand, the frequency is too high to utilize the cavitation effect. This is because the cavitation threshold depends on the frequency. The aim of this study is to confirm the cavitation state in the microchannel device using a piezoelectric polymer sensor. A micropatterned cavitation detection sensor has been fabricated by a photolithography technique and evaluated in a high-intensity ultrasound field. The emulsification state in the microchannel device has been evaluated using the fabricated sensor.

  2. Mapping of cavitational activity in a pilot plant dyeing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis Grande, G; Giansetti, M; Pezzin, A; Rovero, G; Sicardi, S

    2015-11-01

    C). Different liquid flow rates were tested to investigate the effect of the hydrodynamics characterising the equipment. The mapping of the cavitation intensity in the pilot-plant machinery was performed to achieve with the following goals: (a) to evaluate the influence of turbulence on the cavitation intensity, and (b) to determine the optimal distance from the ultrasound device at which a fabric should be positioned, this parameter being a compromise between the cavitation intensity (higher next to the transducer) and the US field uniformity (achieved at some distance from this device). By carrying out dyeing tests of wool fabrics in the prototype unit, consistent results were confirmed by comparison with the mapping of cavitation intensity.

  3. Numerical Study on the Inhibition of Cavitation in Piping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Sun Seok; Lee, Sang Jun; Kim, Youn-Jea

    Abrupt closing valve in piping systems is sometimes resulted in cavitation due to the occurrence of high pressure difference. The bubbles generating by cavitation influence operating pressure and then those generate shock wave and vibration. These phenomena can consequentially cause to corrosion and erosion. So, the cavitation is the important factor to consider reliability of piping systems and mechanical lifetime. This paper investigated the various inhibition methods of cavitation in piping systems in which butterfly valves are installed. To prevent cavitation occurrence, it is desirable to analyze its characteristics between the upstream and downstream of process valve. Results show that the fluid velocity is fast when a working fluid passed through butterfly valve. The pressure of these areas was not only under saturation vapor pressure of water, but also cavitation was continuously occurred. We confirmed that the effect of existence of inserted orifice and influence to break condition under saturation vapor pressure of water. Results were graphically depicted by pressure distribution, velocity distribution, and vapor volume fraction.

  4. Cavitation modeling for steady-state CFD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanimann, L.; Mangani, L.; Casartelli, E.; Widmer, M.

    2016-11-01

    Cavitation in hydraulic turbomachines is an important phenomenon to be considered for performance predictions. Correct analysis of the cavitation onset and its effect on the flow field while diminishing the pressure level need therefore to be investigated. Even if cavitation often appears as an unsteady phenomenon, the capability to compute it in a steady state formulation for the design and assessment phase in the product development process is very useful for the engineer. In the present paper the development and corresponding application of a steady state CFD solver is presented, based on the open source toolbox OpenFOAM®. In the first part a review of different cavitation models is presented. Adopting the mixture-type cavitation approach, various models are investigated and developed in a steady state CFD RANS solver. Particular attention is given to the coupling between cavitation and turbulence models as well as on the underlying numerical procedure, especially the integration in the pressure- correction step of pressure-based solvers, which plays an important role in the stability of the procedure. The performance of the proposed model is initially assessed on simple cases available in the open literature. In a second step results for different applications are presented, ranging from airfoils to pumps.

  5. Preparation of graphene by jet cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhigang; Li, Jinzhi; Yi, Min; Zhang, Xiaojing; Ma, Shulin

    2011-09-01

    Despite its bright prospects, graphene faces challenges including issues concerning mass production. Here we present a totally green approach whereby common crystal graphite can be exfoliated into graphene sheets in aqueous solution by jet cavitation. This is possible mainly because the tensile stress caused by graphite-solution interfacial reflection of compressive waves acts an intensive 'suction disk' on the graphite flakes. We confirm the presence of graphene sheets by diverse characterizations. The graphene yield by our method is estimated as ~ 4 wt%, which could potentially be improved by further processing. The method, of a mechanical nature, is powerful compared to the traditional low-throughput micromechanical cleavage. Our work here illustrates jet cavitation as a facile, low cost, timesaving and laborsaving route, which can potentially be scaled up to mass production of graphene.

  6. Dynamic response of cavitating turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, S. L.

    1976-01-01

    Stimulated by the pogo instability encountered in many liquid propellant rockets, the dynamic behavior of cavitating inducers is discussed. An experimental facility where the upstream and downstream flows of a cavitating inducer could be perturbed was constructed and tested. The upstream and downstream pressure and mass flow fluctuations were measured. Matrices representing the transfer functions across the inducer pump were calculated from these measurements and from the hydraulic system characteristics for two impellers in various states of cavitation. The transfer matrices when plotted against the perturbing frequency showed significant departure from steady state or quasi-steady predictions especially at higher frequencies.

  7. Destruction Mechanism of ZnAl4 as Cast Alloy Subjected to Cavitational Erosion Using Different Laboratory Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasionowski R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main reason of a cavitational destruction is the mechanical action of cavitation pulses onto the material’s surface. The course of cavitation destruction process is very complex and depends on the physicochemical and structural features of a material. A resistance to cavitation destruction of the material increases with the increase of its mechanical strength, fatigue resistance as well as hardness. Nevertheless, the effect of structural features on the material’s cavitational resistance has been not fully clarified. In the present paper, the cavitation destruction of ZnAl4 as cast alloy was investigated on three laboratory stands: vibration, jet-impact and flow stands. The destruction mechanism of ZnAl4 as cast alloy subjected to cavitational erosion using various laboratory stands is shown in the present paper.

  8. Flow Instabilities in Cavitating and Non-Cavitating Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    stall and surge may occur in non-cavitating turbomachines at flow rates smaller than design. Rotating stall is a local instability at the...turbomachinery which is basically not dependent on the hydraulic system in which the turbomachine is installed. The stalled region rotates faster than impeller...rate and without significant head decrease. So, it is required to confirm the absence of cavitation instabilities, whenever the turbomachine is

  9. Microleakage of Cavit, CavitW, CavitG and IRM by impedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquot, B M; Panighi, M M; Steinmetz, P; G'Sell, C

    1996-07-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the sealing ability of four temporary filling materials over 9 days using a new electrochemical technique. Fifty-two extracted human maxillary bicuspids were selected and prepared for the measurements. They were divided into four groups of 12 teeth each, in addition to two positive and two negative controls. After preparation of the endodontic access cavity the sealing ability was registered. After a randomization procedure one group was obturated with IRM, another group with Cavit, a third group with CavitW and the last group with CavitG. The sealability was measured just after obturation (time 0) and after days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7 and 9. The results showed that the IRM group was significantly more watertight than the different Cavit formulations. Throughout the experiment no significant difference was noticed between the Cavit and CavitW groups (P > 0.05). The CavitG group was significantly less watertight throughout the measurements (P < 0.05).

  10. Experimental Investigation on Cavitating Flow Shedding over an Axisymmetric Blunt Body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Changli; WANG Guoyu; HUANG Biao

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, most researchers focus on the cavity shedding mechanisms of unsteady cavitating flows over different objects, such as 2D/3D hydrofoils, venturi-type section, axisymmetric bodies with different headforms, and so on. But few of them pay attention to the differences of cavity shedding modality under different cavitation numbers in unsteady cavitating flows over the same object. In the present study, two kinds of shedding patterns are investigated experimentally. A high speed camera system is used to observe the cavitating flows over an axisymmetric blunt body and the velocity fields are measured by a particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique in a water tunnel for different cavitation conditions. The U-type cavitating vortex shedding is observed in unsteady cavitating flows. When the cavitation number is 0.7, there is a large scale cavity rolling up and shedding, which cause the instability and dramatic fluctuation of the flows, while at cavitation number of 0.6, the detached cavities can be conjunct with the attached part to induce the break-off behavior again at the tail of the attached cavity, as a result, the final shedding is in the form of small scale cavity and keeps a relatively steady flow field. It is also found that the interaction between the re-entrant flow and the attached cavity plays an important role in the unsteady cavity shedding modality. When the attached cavity scale is insufficient to overcome the re-entrant flow, it deserves the large cavity rolling up and shedding just as that at cavitation number of 0.7. Otherwise, the re-entrant flow is defeated by large enough cavity to induce the cavity-combined process and small scale cavity vortexes shedding just as that of the cavitation number of 0.6. This research shows the details of two different cavity shedding modalities which is worthful and meaningful for the further study of unsteady cavitation.

  11. Research on the induction motor current signature for centrifugal pump at cavitation condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Luo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation is a major undesirable phenomenon for centrifugal pump because it can cause hydraulic performance deterioration, pump damage by pitting and material erosion, and structural vibration and noise. Cavitation can appear within the entire range of the operating conditions; therefore, it must be prevented by all means. Sensorless monitoring technology based on motor current signature analysis is non-intrusive and economic for monitoring motor-driven equipment. Thus, this technology is suitable for centrifugal pump systems. The motor current signature for centrifugal pump load at the cavitation condition is the basis of this technology. However, systematic research is lacking on sensorless monitoring technology based on motor current signature. As a result, the tentative exploration for motor current signature at cavitation load was conducted in this study. The results show that the stator current is still a sinusoidal alternating current strictly to the law of sine. Moreover, the root mean square of the current fluctuates because of different flow regimes in the cavitation progress and decreases because vapor density is smaller than water density when cavitation is fully formed. For the stator current spectrum, the noise level, noise distribution, rotation speed, and vane pass frequency components show features in the cavitation process. These indicator indexes change according to the stage of cavitation development. Thus, the motor current signature analysis is found to be a feasible and cost-effective method for the stages of cavitation condition.

  12. Fracture of elastomers by cavitation

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdi, Adel

    2014-01-01

    Cavitation phenomenon is studied in rubber-like materials by combining experimental, theoretical and numerical approaches. Specific tests are carried out on a Styrene Butadiene Rubber to point out main characteristics of cavitation phenomenon. Hydrostatic depression is numerically modelled using finite element method. Numerical results are compared to Ball\\'s and Hou & Abeyaratne\\'s models with regard to cavity nucleation in the material. Both models well fit experimental observations suggesting that the cavitation nucleation in elastomers depends on the confinement degree of the specimen. Finally, critical hydrostatic pressure and critical global deformation are proved to govern cavitation nucleation in the studied material. Critical loadings are identified by comparing experimental and numerical load-displacement curves. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Cavitation inception from bubble nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Knud Aage

    2015-01-01

    , and experimental investigations of bubbles and cavitation inception have been presented. These results suggest that cavitation nuclei in equilibrium are gaseous voids in the water, stabilized by a skin which allows diffusion balance between gas inside the void and gas in solution in the surrounding liquid....... The cavitation nuclei may be free gas bubbles in the bulk of water, or interfacial gaseous voids located on the surface of particles in the water, or on bounding walls. The tensile strength of these nuclei depends not only on the water quality but also on the pressure-time history of the water. A recent model......The tensile strength of ordinary water such as tap water or seawater is typically well below 1 bar. It is governed by cavitation nuclei in the water, not by the tensile strength of the water itself, which is extremely high. Different models of the nuclei have been suggested over the years...

  14. Transient flow processes in pipelines. Visualisation and calculation of cavitation in pipeline systems behind fast-closing control valves; Transiente Stroemungsvorgaenge in Rohrleitungen. Visualisierung und Berechnung von Kavitation in Rohrleitungssystemen hinter schnellschliessenden Regelklappen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudlik, A.; Schlueter, S. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany); Prasser, H.M. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    In this article, experimental results of the current BMBF research project are introduced. The transient pressure curves when closing a control valve quickly are measured and compared with the predictions of the project software. Flow visualisation shows that the computer model of the concentrated steam cavitation can be used in the application of the characterisation process. Due to the reduction in pressure in cavitating system, there is outgassing of air, which remains as dispersed phase in condensation and dampens the sudden condensation. For long periods of time with system pressures below the saturation partial pressures of the released gases, one must expect a reduced speed of wave propagation. [Deutsch] In diesem Beitrag werden Versuchsergebnisse des laufenden BMBF-Forschungsvorhabens vorgestellt. Es werden die transienten Druckverlaeufe beim Schnellschluss einer Regelklappe gemessen und mit den Vorhersagen der Projektsoftware verglichen. Die berechneten Druckspitzen liegen im Bereich der gemessenen Werte. Stroemungsvisualisierungen zeigen, dass das Rechenmodell der konzentrierten Dampfkavitation bei Anwendung des Charakteristikenverfahrens anwendbar ist. Es kommt durch die Druckabsenkung im kavitierenden System zur Ausgasung von Luft, die bei der Kondensation als disperse Phase verbleibt und die Kondensationsschlaege daempft. Fuer laengere Zeitperioden mit Systemdruecken unterhalb der Saettigungspartialdruecke der geloesten Gase muss mit einer verminderten Wellenausbreitungsgeschwindigkeit gerechnet werden. (orig.)

  15. PRESSURE CHARACTERISTICS OF CAVITATION CONTROL BY AERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Zhi-yong; LU Yang-quan; JU Wen-jie; CAI Xin-ming; DING Chun-sheng

    2005-01-01

    This experimental investigation was systematically conducted with the aid of a non-circulating water tunnel in the Hydraulics Laboratory at Zhejiang University of Technology in China.The test velocity is between 20m/s and 40m/s.The least air concentration to prevent cavitation erosion lies between 1.7% and 4.5%.Pressure waveforms with and without aeration in cavitation and cavitation erosion regions were measured.Time-averaged pressure profiles with and without aeration were compared.Pressure characteristics corresponding to least air concentration to prevent cavitation erosion in cavitation and cavitation erosion regions were analyzed.

  16. Relativistic hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Luciano, Rezzolla

    2013-01-01

    Relativistic hydrodynamics is a very successful theoretical framework to describe the dynamics of matter from scales as small as those of colliding elementary particles, up to the largest scales in the universe. This book provides an up-to-date, lively, and approachable introduction to the mathematical formalism, numerical techniques, and applications of relativistic hydrodynamics. The topic is typically covered either by very formal or by very phenomenological books, but is instead presented here in a form that will be appreciated both by students and researchers in the field. The topics covered in the book are the results of work carried out over the last 40 years, which can be found in rather technical research articles with dissimilar notations and styles. The book is not just a collection of scattered information, but a well-organized description of relativistic hydrodynamics, from the basic principles of statistical kinetic theory, down to the technical aspects of numerical methods devised for the solut...

  17. Thermodynamic and stochastic theory of hydrodynamic and power-producing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J.

    1992-09-16

    Thermodynamics of the transport processes of diffusion, thermal conduction, and viscous flow at a macroscopic level are developed for the simplest cases of one-dimensional transport in fluids for individual linear and nonlinear processes approaching a stationary non-equilibrium state. Formulation has started of thermodynamic and stochastic theory of combinations of transport processes. Global thermodynamic and stochastic theory of open chemical systems frar from equilibrium is continued with analysis of a broad class of isothermal, multicomponent reaction mechanisms with multiple steady states with assumed local equilibrium. Stationary solutions are obtained of the master equation for single and multi-intermediate autocatalytic chemical systems. A kinetic potential is identified that governs the deterministic time evolution of coupled tank reactors. A second-order response theory was developed to investigate the effects of external periodic perturbations on a chemical reaction at a stable steady state in an open reactor.

  18. Designing and interpreting laboratory experiments for hydrodynamical, biogeochemical, and ecological processes in rivers (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packman, A. I.

    2009-12-01

    In this talk, I will articulate a general philosophy for the design of laboratory experiments for fluvial processes; discuss important concepts of scaling, scale limitation, and process coupling that should be considered in designing experiments and interpreting experimental results; and provide concrete examples of how this approach can be used to probe river mechanics, sedimentary biogeochemistry, benthic/hyporheic ecology, and downstream migration of reactive solutes and particles. It is challenging to design laboratory experiments to probe fluvial processes because river systems show extremely strong interactions over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Biological and ecological processes are especially difficult to study in the laboratory because they are influenced by a wide range of system conditions, and we do not currently have a strong theoretical basis to quantitatively generalize experimental observations. Further, many seemingly basic and invariant chemical and biological properties - such as sorption coefficients, reaction rate constants, respiration rates, and nutrient uptake rates - change over space and time in fluvial systems because these environments are highly dynamic over a wide range of temporal scales, show strong longitudinal connectivity, and have strong heterogeneity in the surrounding and underlying sediments. Laboratory studies can be used to systematically investigate these effects, thereby providing considerable insight into generally important controlling mechanisms, with the caveat that larger-scale drivers and process interactions must be considered when translating the results to the field. Laboratory experiments can best be targeted to discriminate alternate hypotheses regarding important governing processes, and to independently test the effects of each important variable. Once this information is obtained, it should be codified in the form of quantitative, theoretical relationships that can be subsequently evaluated in

  19. Wetland evolution in the Qinghai Lake area, China, in response to hydrodynamic and eolian processes during the past 1100 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dada; Wünnemann, Bernd; Hu, Yanbo; Frenzel, Peter; Zhang, Yongzhan; Chen, Kelong

    2017-04-01

    The Daotanghe riverine wetland in close proximity to the Qinghai Lake was investigated to demonstrate the interrelationships between Qinghai Lake hydrodynamic processes, eolian mobility and ecological conditions during the past 1100 years in response to climate change. We used ostracod assemblages from various sites east of Qinghai Lake and from the sediment core QW15 of Daotanghe Pond and combined them with grain size and geochemical data from the same core. The statistical extraction of grain size endmembers (EM) revealed three different transportation processes responsible for pond-related fluvio-lacustrine, pure fluvial and eolian deposits. Identified seasonal effects (eolian mobility phase) and timing of ice cover are possible tracers for the competing influence between the Asian summer monsoon and the Westerlies in the Daotanghe Wetland and surrounding area. Our results show that ostracod associations and sediment properties are evidence of a fluvio-lacustrine fresh water environment without ingression of Qinghai Lake into the wetland. Hydrodynamic variations coupled with phases of eolian input indicate highly variable water budgets in response to climate-induced effective moisture supply. The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) until about 1270 CE displays generally moist and warm climate conditions with minor fluctuations, likely in response to variations in summer monsoon intensity. The three-partite period of the Little Ice Age (LIA), shows hydrologically unstable conditions between 1350 and 1530 CE with remarkably colder periods, assigned to a prolonged seasonal ice cover. Pond desiccation and replacement by fluvial deposits occurred between 1530 and 1750 CE, superimposed by eolian deposits. The phase 1730-1900 CE is recorded by the re-occurrence of a pond environment with reduced eolian input. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on ostracod abundances shows similar trends. All three phases of the LIA developed during a weak summer monsoon influence, favoring

  20. Modeling liquid hydrogen cavitating flow with the full cavitation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.B.; Qiu, L.M.; Qi, H.; Zhang, X.J.; Gan, Z.H. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2008-12-15

    Cavitation is the formation of vapor bubbles within a liquid where flow dynamics cause the local static pressure to drop below the vapor pressure. This paper strives towards developing an effective computational strategy to simulate liquid hydrogen cavitation relevant to liquid rocket propulsion applications. The aims are realized by performing a steady state computational fluid dynamic (CFD) study of liquid hydrogen flow over a 2D hydrofoil and an axisymmetric ogive in Hord's reports with a so-called full cavitation model. The thermodynamic effect was demonstrated with the assumption of thermal equilibrium between the gas phase and liquid phase. Temperature-dependent fluid thermodynamic properties were specified along the saturation line from the ''Gaspak 3.2'' databank. Justifiable agreement between the computed surface pressure, temperature and experimental data of Hord was obtained. Specifically, a global sensitivity analysis is performed to examine the sensitivity of the turbulent computations to the wall grid resolution, wall treatments and changes in model parameters. A proper near-wall model and grid resolution were suggested. The full cavitation model with default model parameters provided solutions with comparable accuracy to sheet cavitation in liquid hydrogen for the two geometries. (author)

  1. COLLISION PROCESS DETAILS CONTROL THE HYDRODYNAMICS AND HEAT TRANSFER IN FLUIDIZED BED REACTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masayuki; Horio

    2005-01-01

    In the '90s DEM simulation research was successful in exploring its potential in the simulation of fluidization phenomenaand in its application to the design of fluidized-bed processes. Nevertheless, not much progress has been made regardingthe realistic treatment of collision processes that are critical in determining macroscopic mode of fluidization. All throughthe second half of the '90s, the author investigated/demonstrated the issue by introducing different surface interactionscaused by formation of liquid and/or solid bridges, van der Waals force and the existence of surface roughness. In the firstpart of the presentation these are to be summarized and the tasks remaining are discussed. In the second part, are pre-sented the results from a newly developed force-deformation meter to demonstrate the significance of the surfaceroughness and its elasto-plastic characteristics.

  2. Theoretical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Milne-Thomson, L M

    2011-01-01

    This classic exposition of the mathematical theory of fluid motion is applicable to both hydrodynamics and aerodynamics. Based on vector methods and notation with their natural consequence in two dimensions - the complex variable - it offers more than 600 exercises and nearly 400 diagrams. Prerequisites include a knowledge of elementary calculus. 1968 edition.

  3. Hydrodynamic bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Bonneau, Dominique; Souchet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    This Series provides the necessary elements to the development and validation of numerical prediction models for hydrodynamic bearings. This book describes the rheological models and the equations of lubrication. It also presents the numerical approaches used to solve the above equations by finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements methods.

  4. Ship Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrance, Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Explores in a non-mathematical treatment some of the hydrodynamical phenomena and forces that affect the operation of ships, especially at high speeds. Discusses the major components of ship resistance such as the different types of drags and ways to reduce them and how to apply those principles for the hovercraft. (GA)

  5. On the hydrodynamics of rocket propellant engine inducers and turbopumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Agostino, L.

    2013-12-01

    The lecture presents an overview of some recent results of the work carried out at Alta on the hydrodynamic design and rotordynamic fluid forces of cavitating turbopumps for liquid propellant feed systems of modern rocket engines. The reduced order models recently developed for preliminary geometric definition and noncavitating performance prediction of tapered-hub axial inducers and centrifugal turbopumps are illustrated. The experimental characterization of the rotordynamic forces acting on a whirling four-bladed, tapered-hub, variable-pitch high-head inducer, under different load and cavitation conditions is presented. Future perspectives of the work to be carried out at Alta in this area of research are briefly illustrated.

  6. Vibration Characteristics Induced by Cavitation in a Centrifugal Pump with Slope Volute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation is one of the instability sources in centrifugal pump, which would cause some unexpected results. The goal of this paper was to analyze the influence of cavitation process on different frequency bands in a centrifugal pump with slope volute. And special attention was paid to low frequency signals, which were often filtered in the reported researches. Results show that at noncavitation condition, vibration level is closely related to flow structure interior pump. At partial flow rates, especially low flow rates, vibration level increases rapidly with the onset of rotating stall. At cavitation condition, it is proved that cavitation process has a significant impact on low frequency signals. With cavitation number decreasing, vibration level first rises to a local maximum, then it drops to a local minimum, and finally it rises again. At different flow rates, vibration trends in variable frequency bands differ obviously. Critical point inferred from vibration level is much larger than that from 3% head drop, which indicates that cavitation occurs much earlier than that reflected in head curve. Also, it is noted that high frequency signals almost increase simultaneously with cavitation occurring, which can be used to detect cavitation in centrifugal pump.

  7. Visualization of cavitation bubbles; Visualisation de bulles de cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouvellon, M.; Fournel, Th.; Ducottet, Ch. [Universite Jean Monnet, 31 Saint-Etienne (France). Laboratoire Traitement du Signal et Instrumentation-UMR CNRS 5516

    1999-07-01

    A high frequency ultrasonic reactor allows the degradation of some organic compounds which are not or poorly biodegradable by usual methods in industrial flows. The propagation of an ultrasonic wave in a liquid induces cavitation phenomena. The implosion of cavitation bubble locally causes a temperature of about several thousand Kelvins and a pressure of about several hundred bars. Such conditions allow the creation of the hydroxyl radicals and then the oxidation of organic compounds. The aim of this paper is to describe the method used to visualize cavitation bubbles in an ultrasonic reactor at a frequency of 500 kHz. The experimental set-up and the measurement of both the bubble radius and the fringe separation are presented. (authors)

  8. Numerical analysis of the effects of radiation heat transfer and ionization energy loss on the cavitation Bubble's dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdi, M. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, R. [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shams, M., E-mail: shams@kntu.ac.ir [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Pardis St., Molla-Sadra Ave, Vanak. Sq., P.O. Box: 19395-1999, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-13

    A numerical scheme for simulating the acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation was developed. Bubble instantaneous radius was obtained using Gilmore equation which considered the compressibility of the liquid. A uniform temperature was assumed for the inside gas during the collapse. Radiation heat transfer inside the bubble and the heat conduction to the bubble was considered. The numerical code was validated with the experimental data and a good correspondence was observed. The dynamics of hydrofoil cavitation bubble were also investigated. It was concluded that the thermal radiation heat transfer rate strongly depended on the cavitation number, initial bubble radius and hydrofoil angle of attack. -- Highlights: → Heat transfer and ionization energy losses were analyzed in the cavitation bubble. → Radiation of hydrodynamic bubble was approximately equal to the black body. → Radiation heat transfer did not affect the bubble dynamic. → Conduction decreased the bubble pressure and increased the bubble temperature. → Ionization decreased the temperature and increased the pressure in the bubble.

  9. Experimental and simulation investigations of acoustic cavitation in megasonic cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Krishna; Keswani, Manish; Shende, Hrishikesh; Deymier, Pierre; Raghavan, Srini; Eschbach, Florence; Sengupta, Archita

    2007-03-01

    Extreme ultra-violet (EUV) lithography has become the technique of choice to print the ever-shrinking nanoscale features on the silicon wafer. For successful transfer of patterns on to the wafer, the EUV photomask cannot contain defects greater than 30 nm. Megasonic cleaning is a very successful cleaning technique for removal of particles on photomasks, but also causes a relatively high amount of damage to the fragile EUV photomasks thin film structures. Though it is believed that acoustic cavitation is the primary phenomenon responsible for cleaning as well as pattern damage, a fundamental picture of the acoustic cavitation mechanisms in play during megasonic cleaning has not yet clearly emerged. In this study, we characterize the role of acoustic cavitation in megasonic cleaning by examining the effects of acoustic power densities, cleaning solution properties, and dissolved gas content on cavitation via experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. MD is an atomistic computation technique capable of modeling atomic-level and nanoscale processes accurately making it well suited to study the effect of cavitation on nano-sized particles and patterns.

  10. Bulk cavitation extent modeling: An energy-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplin, J. James

    Bulk cavitation is a phenomenon that occurs when a negative-pressure or tension wave causes a liquid to rupture, or cavitate, over space. It is a process which causes resident microbubbles to grow to many times their original size, forming a bubble cloud. Such bubble clouds are observed in shallow underwater explosions, where negative-pressure waves are formed after shock waves reflect off the water surface; they are also observed in shock wave lithotripsy, shock wave histotripsy, ultrasonic cleaning, and other applications. Models had been developed for predicting the size and shape of such bulk cavitation regions. This work introduces a model that accounts for energy "lost" to bulk cavitation which in turn influences the extent that is dependent on the rate at which the passing negative-pressure wave dissipates. In-laboratory underwater experiments utilizing a spark source for high-amplitude pressure pulse generation, hydrophones and high-speed videography validate the energy transfer from tension wave to bubble cloud formation. These experiments are supplemented by computational fluid dynamics simulations. A cavitation absorption coefficient is introduced and parameterized for accurate prediction of cloud extent.

  11. Radiation Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castor, J I

    2003-10-16

    The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correct description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is

  12. Influence of the working electrode area on the cavitation-corrosion behaviour of a duplex stainless steel in aqueous LiBr solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Garcia, D.M.; Blasco-Tamarit, E.; Igual-Munoz, A.; Garcia-Anton, J. [Valencia Univ. Politecnica, Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear. ETSI Industriales, Valencia (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Cavitation erosion can occur in almost all hydrodynamic systems and turbo machines, e.g. pumps, valves, marine propeller and hydraulic turbines. It causes serious material damage. Corrosion problems associated with cavitation can appear on different points in LiBr absorption machines. Many efforts have been made to solve this problem, such as optimizing the design of the flow-handling component and selecting better materials and coatings to resist the cavitation erosion-corrosion. A better understanding of cavitation erosion-corrosion mechanisms is very important for the selection materials and coatings. The objective of the present work was to study the influence of the exposed area of the working electrode on the corrosion behaviour of a duplex stainless steel (EN 1.4462) in a 992 g/l LiBr solution under static conditions (without cavitation) and dynamic conditions (with cavitation) at 25 C. Potentiodynamic cyclic curves were obtained under static and dynamic conditions exposing different areas of the working electrode: 1.6 mm diameter (0.02 cm{sup 2} area ), 4 mm diameter (0.12 cm{sup 2} area), 6 mm diameter (0.28 cm{sup 2} area) and 8 mm diameter (0.5 cm{sup 2} area). The dynamic conditions were generated using an ultrasonic cavitation facility in a three-electrode electrochemical cell. The Potentiodynamic Cyclic curves obtained with and without cavitation have been compared and different tendencies were observed. Cavitation increased the cathodic current density when the exposed area to the solution is large (6 mm and 8 mm diameters). This behaviour was not observed during the tests with smaller electrode areas (1.6 mm and 4 mm diameters). In all cases, cavitation increased the anodic current densities independently of the exposed area to the solution. Besides, cavitation favoured the pitting corrosion, since lower pitting potentials were obtained under cavitation conditions than under static conditions. (authors)

  13. Applications of a curvature correction turbulent model for computations of unsteady cavitating flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, G. Y.; Huang, B.; Hu, C. L.

    2015-01-01

    A Curvature Correction model (CCM) based on the original k-epsilon model is proposed to simulate unsteady cavitating flows. The objective of this study is to validate the CCM model and further investigate the unsteady vortex behaviors of cavitating flows around a Clark-Y hydrofoil. Compared with the original k-epsilon model, predicted results are improved in terms of the cavity detachment and hydrofoil fluctuations. Results show that streamline curvature correction of CCM model overcomes the over-predictions of turbulence kinetic energy and eddy viscosity in cavitating vertical region with the original k-epsilon model, which leads to better simulation abilities for the unsteady cavitating flow computations. Based on computations, it is proved that the vortex structure is significantly modified by the transient cavitation, especially with respect to the cavity shedding behaviors. Complex vortex interactions and corresponding cavity shedding process near hydrofoil trailing edge lead to various load frequencies.

  14. Effect of entropy on the nucleation of cavitation bubbles in water under tension

    CERN Document Server

    Menzl, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Water can exist in a metastable liquid state under tension for long times before the system relaxes into the vapor via cavitation, i.e., bubble nucleation. Microscopic information on the cavitation process can be extracted from experimental data by use of the nucleation theorem, which relates measured cavitation rates to the size of the critical bubble. To apply the nucleation theorem to experiments performed along an isochoric path, for instance, in cavitation experiments in mineral inclusions, knowledge of the bubble entropy is required. Using computer simulations, we compute the entropy of bubbles in water as a function of their volume over a wide range of tensions from free energy calculations. We find that the bubble entropy is an important contribution to the free energy which significantly lowers the barrier to bubble nucleation, thereby facilitating cavitation. Furthermore, the bubble entropy per surface area depends on the curvature of the liquid--vapor interface, decreasing approximately linearly wi...

  15. Numerical study on fatigue damage properties of cavitation erosion for rigid metal materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guogang Wang; Guang Ma; Dongbai Sun; Hongying Yu; Huimin Meng

    2008-01-01

    Cavitation erosion is an especially destructive and complex phenomenon. To understand its basic mechanism, the fatigue process of materials during cavitation erosion was investigated by numerical simulation technology. The loading spectrum used was generated by a spark-discharged electrode. Initiation crack life and true stress amplitude was used to explain the cavitation failure period and damage mechanism. The computational results indicated that the components of different materials exhibited various fatigue lives under the same external conditions. When the groove depth was extended, the initiation crack life decreased rapidly, while the true stress amplitude was increased simultaneously. This gave an important explanation to the accelerating material loss rate during cavitation erosion. However, when the groove depth was fixed and the length varied, the fatigue life became complex, more fluctuant than that happened in depth. The results also indicate that the fatigue effect of cavitation plays an important role in contributing to the formation and propagation of characteristic pits.

  16. Observation of the inception and evolution of a cavitation cloud in tissue with ultrafast ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieur, Fabrice; Zorgani, Ali; Catheline, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    The local application of ultrasound is known to improve drug intake by tumors. Cavitating bubbles are one of the contributing effects. A setup where two ultrasound transducers are placed confocally is used to generate cavitation in ex vivo tissue. As the transducers emit a series of short bursts, the creation and evolution of the cavitation activity is monitored using an ultrafast ultrasound imaging system. This system capable of frame rates up to 10000 frames per second provides several tens of images between consecutive bursts. A cross-correlation between consecutive images used for speckle tracking shows a decorrelation of the imaging signal due to changes induced by the cavitation cloud. This post-processed sequence of images reveals that once bubbles have been created in the tissue, they remain for a short time even when no ultrasound is applied. The evolution of the size and place of the cavitation cloud between bursts show a repeatable pattern through a burst sequence.

  17. Numerical investigation of cavitating flow behind the cone of a poppet valve in water hydraulic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of cavitating flow th rough water hydraulic poppet valves were performed using advanced RNG k-eps ilon turbulence model. The flow was turbulent, incompressible and unsteady, for Reyno lds numbers greater than 43 000. The working fluid was water, and the structure o f the valve was simplified as a two dimensional axisymmetric geometrical model. Flow field visualization was numerically achieved. The effects of inlet velocity , outlet pressure, opening size as well as poppet angle on cavitation intensity in the poppet valve were numerically investigated. Experimental flow visualization was conducted to capture cavitation images near the orifice in the poppet valve with 30° poppet angle using high speed video camera. The binary cavitating flo w field distribution obtained from digital processing of the original cavitation i mage showed a good agreement with the numerical result.

  18. Experimental Investigation of Cavitation Signatures in an Automotive Torque Converter Using a Microwave Telemetry Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Anderson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A unique experimental investigation of cavitation signatures in an automotive torque converter under stall conditions is reported. A quantitative criterion is proposed for predicting early and advanced cavitation in terms of suitable nondimensional pump speeds. The dimensionless pump speed that marks early cavitation is obtained by relating this parameter to the appearance of charge-pressure–dependent pressure fluctuations in the differential pressure transducer readings. The differential pressure transducers were mounted at well-defined locations in the pump passage of a torque converter. The data were transmitted by a wireless telemetry system mounted on the pump housing. Data were received and processed by a ground-based data acquisition system. Automatic transmission fluid exhibited cavitation for charge pressures of 70–130 psi and pump speeds of 1000– 2250 rpm. Advanced cavitation was marked by operating conditions that exhibited a 2% or more torque degradation from the converter's noncavitating performance.

  19. Numerical investigation of cavitation flow inside spool valve with large pressure drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jian; Pan, Dingyi; Xie, Fangfang; Shao, Xueming

    2015-12-01

    Spool valves play an important role in fluid power system. Cavitation phenomena happen frequently inside the spool valves, which cause structure damages, noise and lower down hydrodynamic performance. A numerical tools incorporating the cavitation model, are developed to predict the flow structure and cavitation pattern in the spool valve. Two major flow states in the spool valve chamber, i.e. flow-in and flow-out, are studies. The pressure distributions along the spool wall are first investigated, and the results agree well with the experimental data. For the flow-in cases, the local pressure at the throttling area drops much deeper than the pressure in flow-out cases. Meanwhile, the bubbles are more stable in flow-in cases than those in flow-out cases, which are ruptured and shed into the downstream.

  20. The dynamics of cavity clusters in ultrasonic (vibratory) cavitation erosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, I.; Mørch, Knud Aage

    1980-01-01

    The erosion of solids caused by cavitating liquids is a result of the concerted collapse of clusters of cavities. In vibratory cavitation equipment the clusters grow and collapse adjacent to a solid surface and are typically of hemispherical or cylindrical form. In the present paper the collapse...... process of these clusters is described and the collapse equations are developed and solved. The theoretical results are compared with results from high-speed photography of the clusters and with the initial stages of cavitation erosion on metal specimens. Experimental and theoretical results show...... the ambient pressure. Therefore the collapse velocity of the individual cavities increases towards the cluster center, which explains that the erosion, being caused by the individual cavities, occurs predominantly in this region. Likewise, the pressure increase at the cluster boundary explains why materials...

  1. Sonoporation of adherent cells under regulated ultrasound cavitation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muleki Seya, Pauline; Fouqueray, Manuela; Ngo, Jacqueline; Poizat, Adrien; Inserra, Claude; Béra, Jean-Christophe

    2015-04-01

    A sonoporation device dedicated to the adherent cell monolayer has been implemented with a regulation process allowing the real-time monitoring and control of inertial cavitation activity. Use of the cavitation-regulated device revealed first that adherent cell sonoporation efficiency is related to inertial cavitation activity, without inducing additional cell mortality. Reproducibility is enhanced for the highest sonoporation rates (up to 17%); sonoporation efficiency can reach 26% when advantage is taken of the standing wave acoustic configuration by applying a frequency sweep with ultrasound frequency tuned to the modal acoustic modes of the cavity. This device allows sonoporation of adherent and suspended cells, and the use of regulation allows some environmental parameters such as the temperature of the medium to be overcome, resulting in the possibility of cell sonoporation even at ambient temperature.

  2. Bubble-bubble interaction: A potential source of cavitation noise

    CERN Document Server

    Ida, Masato

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between microbubbles through pressure pulses has been studied to show that it can be a source of cavitation noise. A recent report demonstrated that the acoustic noise generated by a shrimp originates from the collapse of a cavitation bubble produced when the shrimp closes its snapper claw. The recorded acoustic signal contains a broadband noise that consists of positive and negative pulses, but a theoretical model for single bubbles fails to reproduce the negative ones. Using a nonlinear multibubble model we have shown here that the negative pulses can be explained by considering the interaction of microbubbles formed after the cavitation bubble has collapsed and fragmented: Positive pulses produced at the collapse of the microbubbles hit and impulsively compress neighboring microbubbles to generate reflected pulses whose amplitudes are negative. Discussing the details of the noise generation process, we have found that no negative pulses are generated if the internal pressure of the reflecti...

  3. Bacterial hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lauga, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass, and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micron scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically-complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, we review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.

  4. Nanoflow hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Dyre, Jeppe C.; Daivis, Peter J.;

    2011-01-01

    We show by nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations that the Navier-Stokes equation does not correctly describe water flow in a nanoscale geometry. It is argued that this failure reflects the fact that the coupling between the intrinsic rotational and translational degrees of freedom becomes...... important for nanoflows. The coupling is correctly accounted for by the extended Navier-Stokes equations that include the intrinsic angular momentum as an independent hydrodynamic degree of freedom. © 2011 American Physical Society....

  5. Developing a CD-CBM Anticipatory Approach for Cavitation - Defining a Model-Based Descriptor Consistent Across Processes, Phase 1 Final Report Context-Dependent Prognostics and Health Assessment: A New Paradigm for Condition-based Maintenance SBIR Topic No. N98-114

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Dress, W.B.; Kercel, S.W.

    1999-06-01

    The objective of this research, and subsequent testing, was to identify specific features of cavitation that could be used as a model-based descriptor in a context-dependent condition-based maintenance (CD-CBM) anticipatory prognostic and health assessment model. This descriptor is based on the physics of the phenomena, capturing the salient features of the process dynamics. The test methodology and approach were developed to make the cavitation features the dominant effect in the process and collected signatures. This would allow the accurate characterization of the salient cavitation features at different operational states. By developing such an abstraction, these attributes can be used as a general diagnostic for a system or any of its components. In this study, the particular focus will be pumps. As many as 90% of pump failures are catastrophic. They seem to be operating normally and fail abruptly without warning. This is true whether the failure is sudden hardware damage requiring repair, such as a gasket failure, or a transition into an undesired operating mode, such as cavitation. This means that conventional diagnostic methods fail to predict 90% of incipient failures and that in addressing this problem, model-based methods can add value where it is actually needed.

  6. Numerical Study of Unsteady Cavitating Flows around a Hydrofoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Bel Hadj Taher

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report the results of a numerical investigation on unsteady cavitating flows around a circular leading edge (CLE hydrofoil. The objective of this study is to properly predict the appearance of cavitation pocket, its development and its detachment causing adverse effects on industrial systems such as microscopic plastic deformations at the solid walls. For this reason it is very important to study the influence of turbulence models on simulation results. We present a closing of the hydrodynamic equation system by a transport equation of an active scalar (volume fraction of the vapor phase with a source terms. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD code used is ANSYS CFX. Before comparing the capability of the different turbulent models to predict unsteady behavior of cavitating flow along the hydrofoil, the study of the influence of the mesh resolution was performed in cavitating condition. This investigation was performed, on CLE hydrofoil, by monitoring the influence of for progressively finer meshes on the values of the drag CD and lift CL coefficients. Moreover, a study of the influence of the normal dimensionless distance to the wall (y+ was carried out on the hydrofoil surface. For the unsteady flow, a comparison of different turbulence models with the experiment leads to study the interaction of these models with the vapor pocket (detachment and collapse of vapor pocket. Two turbulence models were tested in this study: modified k-ε model and large eddy simulation (LES. In the present work, the predictions of velocity and pressure evolutions in the vicinity of the hydrofoil are compared to experimental data.

  7. Cavitation Effects in Centrifugal Pumps- A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Binama

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation is one of the most challenging fluid flow abnormalities leading to detrimental effects on both the centrifugal pump flow behaviors and physical characteristics. Centrifugal pumps’ most low pressure zones are the first cavitation victims, where cavitation manifests itself in form of pitting on the pump internal solid walls, accompanied by noise and vibration, all leading to the pump hydraulic performance degradation. In the present article, a general description of centrifugal pump performance and related parameters is presented. Based on the literature survey, some light were shed on fundamental cavitation features; where different aspects relating to cavitation in centrifugal pumps were briefly discussed

  8. Marine litter on the floor of deep submarine canyons of the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea: The role of hydrodynamic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubau, Xavier; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic; Rayo, Xavier; Rivera, Jesus; Amblas, David

    2015-05-01

    Marine litter represents a widespread type of pollution in the World's Oceans. This study is based on direct observation of the seafloor by means of Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives and reports litter abundance, type and distribution in three large submarine canyons of the NW Mediterranean Sea, namely Cap de Creus, La Fonera and Blanes canyons. Our ultimate objective is establishing the links between active hydrodynamic processes and litter distribution, thus going beyond previous, essentially descriptive studies. Litter was monitored using the Liropus 2000 ROV. Litter items were identified in 24 of the 26 dives carried out in the study area, at depths ranging from 140 to 1731 m. Relative abundance of litter objects by type, size and apparent weight, and distribution of litter in relation to depth and canyon environments (i.e. floor and flanks) were analysed. Plastics are the dominant litter component (72%), followed by lost fishing gear, disregarding their composition (17%), and metal objects (8%). Most of the observed litter seems to be land-sourced. It reaches the ocean through wind transport, river discharge and after direct dumping along the coastline. While coastal towns and industrial areas represent a permanent source of litter, tourism and associated activities relevantly increase litter production during summer months ready to be transported to the deep sea by extreme events. After being lost, fishing gear such as nets and long-lines has the potential of being harmful for marine life (e.g. by ghost fishing), at least for some time, but also provides shelter and a substrate on which some species like cold-water corals are capable to settle and grow. La Fonera and Cap de Creus canyons show the highest mean concentrations of litter ever seen on the deep-sea floor, with 15,057 and 8090 items km-2, respectively, and for a single dive litter observed reached 167,540 items km-2. While most of the largest concentrations were found on the canyon floors at

  9. Pump Cavitation Noise Estimation from Acceleration Signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Do Hwan; Ha, Che Woong [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The cavitation noise can be measured directly by using pressure sensing devices. However, penetration of pipes or pump casings is inevitable to install the devices. This increases the risk of leaks. In an effort to reduce that risk, a cavitation noise estimation model based on vibration signals has been proposed. In the present study, the applicability of cavitation noise estimation methods including the previously proposed model is investigated. In order to assess the severity of cavitation, the cavitation noise estimation is necessary. In the present study, the cavitation noise is estimated by using acceleration signals measured outside of pumps and the theory of the statistical energy analysis. The applicability and limit of the cavitation noise estimation from the acceleration signals are examined by comparing the cavitation noise obtained from the pressure signal. The results suggest that the acoustic cavitation inception can be detected by the cavitation noise estimation from acceleration signals. The accuracy of the cavitation noise estimates is highly dependent on the locations of the pump casing that accelerometers attached on and the cut-off frequency of high pass filtering.

  10. Cavitation pulse extraction and centrifugal pump analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Hong Lind Shaoran [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China); Yu, Bo; Qing, Biao [Xihua University, Chengdu (China)

    2017-03-15

    This study extracted cavitation pulses from hydrophone signals sampled in a centrifugal pump and analyzed their characteristics. The modified and simplified Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) algorithm was proposed for extracting cavitation pulses from strong background noise. Experimental results showed that EMD can effectively suppress noise and obtain clear cavitation pulses, facilitating the identification of the number of pulses associated with the degree of cavitation. The cavitation characteristics were modeled to predict the value of incipient cavitation. Then, we proposed a method for detecting the wear of the impeller surface. That is, the information on the impeller surface of the centrifugal pump, including the roughness of the impeller surface and its wear trends, were quantified based on the net positive suction head available of incipient cavitation. The findings indicate that the proposed technique is suitable for condition monitoring of the pump.

  11. Superplasticity and cavitation in an aluminum-magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Donghyun

    2000-10-01

    Fundamental issues related to the forming performance of superplastic metals include the mechanisms of flow and cavitation occurring during the forming process. Cavitation beyond a critical amount is damaging to the mechanical behavior of fabricated parts. Therefore, the role of process parameters which influence cavitation must be precisely documented and understood. In this study, (1) the mechanism of deformation, (2) cavity formation and growth, and (3) the effect of forming parameters on cavitation are systematically investigated in a fine grain Al-4.7%Mg-0.8%Mn-0.4%Cu alloy. The mechanical flow response of the alloy is characterized by a new type of step strain-rate test which preserves the initial microstructure of the alloy. Under isostructural condition, sigmoidal log s vs. log 3˙ relationship is determined and then analyzed by using a grain-mantle based quantitative model1 for superplastic flow. The activation energies in both grain-mantle creep and core creep are analyzed, and the overall controlling mechanism is found to be dislocation glide and climb. Grain-mantle creep rate in the low strain-rate region is found to be enhanced many times due to a high concentration of vacancies near grain boundaries. Cavitation caused by superplastic straining under uniaxial tension is evaluated by the SEM (for frame associated with superplastic deformation. In the model, faster cavity growth is predicted for lower m and for smaller cavity density when cavity stress fields are not overlapping. Observed cavitation quantitatively agrees with the present model, but diffusional growth is found to be too slow, which cannot explain the observed nanoscale void growth behavior. Another parameter affecting the degree of cavitation is the imposed stress-state. Cavity growth rate as well as cavity nucleation rate increase with the level of mean hydrostatic tension. For a fixed cavitation volume fraction, V, the principal surface strains, 31 and 32 , for the various stress

  12. Numerical prediction of cavitating flow around a hydrofoil using pans and improved shear stress transport k-omega model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang De-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction accuracies of partially-averaged Navier-Stokes model and improved shear stress transport k-ω turbulence model for simulating the unsteady cavitating flow around the hydrofoil were discussed in this paper. Numerical results show that the two turbulence models can effectively reproduce the cavitation evolution process. The numerical prediction for the cycle time of cavitation inception, development, detachment, and collapse agrees well with the experimental data. It is found that the vortex pair induced by the interaction between the re-entrant jet and mainstream is responsible for the instability of the cavitation shedding flow.

  13. PREFACE: 9th International Symposium on Cavitation (CAV2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, M.; Müller, A.

    2015-12-01

    It is our pleasure and privilege to welcome all the participants of the 9th International Symposium on Cavitation (CAV2015) to Lausanne. Since its initiation in 1986 in Sendai, Japan, the CAV symposium has grown to become the world's foremost event dedicated to cavitation. Hosted by EPFL (Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) and staged at the SwissTech Convention Center, CAV2015 is a unique opportunity to exchange with leading scientists and industry experts about the latest advances in theoretical modelling, numerical simulation and experimentation related to cavitation phenomena with a special emphasis on practical applications. The topics covered by CAV2015 include cavitation in ¬fluid machinery and fuel systems, bubble dynamics, cavitation erosion, advanced numerical simulation, sonochemistery, biomedicine and experimental techniques. CAV2015 will also host an exhibition of leading providers of state of the art measurement equipment, including high-speed imaging systems, non-intrusive velocimetry, pressure sensors, as well as numerical solvers. We have accepted over 190 papers, which will be presented in four parallel sessions. The proceedings will appear in the open access Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS), which is part of the IOP Conference Series. All published papers are fully citable and upon publication will be free to download in perpetuity. We would like to thank all the reviewers for their great help during the selection process. We will also propose six plenary speakers to highlight cavitation issues in different fields. Finally, we would like to warmly thank our sponsors for their valuable support and the local Organizing Committee for the efforts in setting up this important event. We look forward to seeing you in Lausanne!

  14. Experimental Observations of Cavitating Flows Around a Hydrofoil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Min-di; WANG Guo-yu; DONG Zi-qiao; LI Xiang-bin; GAO De-ming

    2008-01-01

    The cavitation around a hydrofoil is studied experimentally tO shed light on the multiphase fluid dynamies.Different cavitation regimes are studied by using high speed visualization and particle image velocimetry(PIV).As decreasing the cavitation number,four cavitating flow regimes are observed:incipient cavitation,sheet cavitation,cloud cavitation,and supercavitation.From the incipient cavitation to the cloud cavitation,bubbles become more and more.Phenomena with large-scale vortex structure and rear re-entrant jet associated with the cloud cavitation,and subsequent development in the supercavitation are described.The velocity in the cavitation regions in the different cavitation conditions is low compared to that of the free stream.The large velocity gradient is also observed in the cavitating flow region near the suHace of the hydrofoil.

  15. Stochastic-field cavitation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumond, J., E-mail: julien.dumond@areva.com [AREVA Nuclear Professional School, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); AREVA GmbH, Erlangen, Paul-Gossen-Strasse 100, D-91052 Erlangen (Germany); Magagnato, F. [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kaiserstrasse 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Class, A. [AREVA Nuclear Professional School, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Nonlinear phenomena can often be well described using probability density functions (pdf) and pdf transport models. Traditionally, the simulation of pdf transport requires Monte-Carlo codes based on Lagrangian “particles” or prescribed pdf assumptions including binning techniques. Recently, in the field of combustion, a novel formulation called the stochastic-field method solving pdf transport based on Eulerian fields has been proposed which eliminates the necessity to mix Eulerian and Lagrangian techniques or prescribed pdf assumptions. In the present work, for the first time the stochastic-field method is applied to multi-phase flow and, in particular, to cavitating flow. To validate the proposed stochastic-field cavitation model, two applications are considered. First, sheet cavitation is simulated in a Venturi-type nozzle. The second application is an innovative fluidic diode which exhibits coolant flashing. Agreement with experimental results is obtained for both applications with a fixed set of model constants. The stochastic-field cavitation model captures the wide range of pdf shapes present at different locations.

  16. Stochastic-field cavitation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumond, J.; Magagnato, F.; Class, A.

    2013-07-01

    Nonlinear phenomena can often be well described using probability density functions (pdf) and pdf transport models. Traditionally, the simulation of pdf transport requires Monte-Carlo codes based on Lagrangian "particles" or prescribed pdf assumptions including binning techniques. Recently, in the field of combustion, a novel formulation called the stochastic-field method solving pdf transport based on Eulerian fields has been proposed which eliminates the necessity to mix Eulerian and Lagrangian techniques or prescribed pdf assumptions. In the present work, for the first time the stochastic-field method is applied to multi-phase flow and, in particular, to cavitating flow. To validate the proposed stochastic-field cavitation model, two applications are considered. First, sheet cavitation is simulated in a Venturi-type nozzle. The second application is an innovative fluidic diode which exhibits coolant flashing. Agreement with experimental results is obtained for both applications with a fixed set of model constants. The stochastic-field cavitation model captures the wide range of pdf shapes present at different locations.

  17. Size effects on cavitation instabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2006-01-01

    In metal-ceramic systems the constraint on plastic flow leads to so high stress triaxialities that cavitation instabilities may occur. If the void radius is on the order of magnitude of a characteristic length for the metal, the rate of void growth is reduced, and the possibility of unstable cavi...... as the void grows to a size well above the characteristic material length....

  18. In Vivo Microbubble Cavitation Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vignon, F.; Shi, W.; Liu, J.; Xie, F.; Gao, S.; Drvol, L.; Lof, J.; Everbach, C.; Porter, T.; Powers, J.

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is the second cause of death and leading cause of disabilityworldwide. Less than 5% of ischemic stroke patients receive the state-of-the art treatment of a thrombolytic drug tPA, and only about 10% of these gain additional benefit from it. Ultrasound (US)-inducedmicrobubble (MB) cavitation ha

  19. PREDICTION OF PODDED PROPELLER CAVITATION USING AN UNSTEADY SURFACE PANEL METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The unsteady sheet cavitation of podded propeller was predicted by using a surface panel method. The interaction between propeller and pod was treated with the iterative calculation of induced velocity potential, and the method of induced velocity potential can save a great deal of storage and computation time compared to the method of induced velocity. The induced velocity potential of unit singularity on every pod panel to every key blade panel and of unit singularity on every key blade panel and its wake panel to every pod panel were calculated when the key blade is at every angle position. Based on the wake model of the conventional single propeller, a new wake model of podded propeller was constructed. The propeller is analyzed only on the key blade in order to save computation time and memory space. The method can be used to calculate the hydrodynamics performance and cavitation of propeller in uniform and non-uniform inflows. It can give the unsteady force and cavitation shape of propeller. The propeller cavitation range determined by the present method agrees with the observation results of cavity image given in cavitation tunnel well, and this proves the practicability of the method.

  20. Introduction to Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jeon, Sangyong

    2015-01-01

    We give a pedagogical review of relativistic hydrodynamics relevant to relativistic heavy ion collisions. Topics discussed include linear response theory derivation of 2nd order viscous hydrodynamics including the Kubo formulas, kinetic theory derivation of 2nd order viscous hydrodynamics, anisotropic hydrodynamics and a brief review of numerical algorithms. Emphasis is given to the theory of hydrodynamics rather than phenomenology.

  1. Numerical Investigation Cavitation Buckets for Hydrofoil Parametrically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Salih KARAALİOĞLU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation is a general fluid mechanics phenomenon that is appeared in system such as pumps, turbines, marine propellers and hydrofoils which induces pressure and velocity fluctuation in the fluid (Brennen, 2013. Cavitation can be defined as the formation of vapour regions due to a decrease in local pressure. Undesirable consequences which can cause a fall in the performance of a system, structural failure, production of noise and vibration, material damage, are encountered due to cavitation (Uşar, 2015. In this study, cavitation was analysed using a bucket diagram. Bucket diagram represents the cavitation behaviour of a wing, fin or propeller blade in a two dimensional sense. This diagram is plotted as a function of section (hydrofoil angle of attack (α versus section cavitation number (σ. Pressure distribution can be calculated on two dimensional geometry of hydrofoil by using BEM (Boundary Element Method and cavitation bucket diagram can be computed. The cavitation inception case and partial cavitation cases have been investigated and the results of the present BEM were successfully compared with those of given in literature in the past and each other. While a constant source-dipole panel method has been used to calculate the pressure distribution at cavitation inception case, PCPAN programme that solves the sheet type of cavity on the hydrofoil by potential based panel method, has been used to calculate pressure distribution for the cases of partial cavitation. Effects of maximum hydrofoil thickness, maximum camber and location of maximum camber on cavitation have been analyzed by means of cavitation bucklet diagrams. All results are discussed in a detailed manner.

  2. Experimental measurements of the cavitating flow after horizontal water entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tat Nguyen, Thang; Hai, Duong Ngoc; Quang Thai, Nguyen; Phuong, Truong Thi

    2017-10-01

    Water-entry cavitating flow is of considerable importance in underwater high-speed applications. That is because of the drag-reduction effect that concerns the presence of a cavity around moving objects. Though the study of the flow has long been carried out, little data are documented in literature so far. Besides, currently, in the case of unsteady flow, experimental measurements of some flow parameters such as the cavity pressure still encounter difficulties. Hence continuing research efforts are of important significance. The objective of this study is to investigate experimentally the unsteady cavitating flow after the horizontal water entry of projectiles. An experimental apparatus has been developed. Qualitative and quantitative optical visualizations of the flow have been carried out by using high-speed videography. Digital image processing has been applied to analyzing the recorded flow images. Based on the known correlations between the ellipsoidal super-cavity’s size and the corresponding cavitation number, the cavity pressure has been measured by utilizing the data of image processing. A comparison between the partial- and super-cavitating flow regimes is reported. The received results can be useful for the design of high-speed underwater projectiles.

  3. Prediction of cryogenic cavitation around hydrofoil by an extensional Schnerr-Sauer cavitation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, T. Z.; Wei, Y. J.; Wang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Developing a robust computational strategy to address the rich physics characteristic involved in the thermodynamic effects on the cryogenic cavitation remains a challenging problem. The objective of this present study is to model the numerical methodology to simulate the cryogenic cavitation by implanting the thermodynamic effects to the Schnerr-Sauer cavitation model, and coupling the energy equation considered the latent heat. For this purpose, cavitating flows are investigated over a three dimensional hydrofoil in liquid hydrogen and nitrogen. Experimental measurements of pressure and temperature are utilized to validate the extensional Schnerr-Sauer cavitation model. Specifically, the further analysis of the cavitation solution with respect to the thermodynamic term is conducted. The results show that the extensional Schnerr-Sauer cavitation model predicts better accuracy to the quasi-steady cavitation over hydrofoil in the two cryogenic fluids.

  4. Elastic cavitation, tube hollowing, and differential growth in plants and biological tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, A.

    2010-07-01

    Elastic cavitation is a well-known physical process by which elastic materials under stress can open cavities. Usually, cavitation is induced by applied loads on the elastic body. However, growing materials may generate stresses in the absence of applied loads and could induce cavity opening. Here, we demonstrate the possibility of spontaneous growth-induced cavitation in elastic materials and consider the implications of this phenomenon to biological tissues and in particular to the problem of schizogenous aerenchyma formation. Copyright © EPLA, 2010.

  5. Submarine hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Renilson, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This book adopts a practical approach and presents recent research together with applications in real submarine design and operation. Topics covered include hydrostatics, manoeuvring, resistance and propulsion of submarines. The author briefly reviews basic concepts in ship hydrodynamics and goes on to show how they are applied to submarines, including a look at the use of physical model experiments. The issues associated with manoeuvring in both the horizontal and vertical planes are explained, and readers will discover suggested criteria for stability, along with rudder and hydroplane effectiveness. The book includes a section on appendage design which includes information on sail design, different arrangements of bow planes and alternative stern configurations. Other themes explored in this book include hydro-acoustic performance, the components of resistance and the effect of hull shape. Readers will value the author’s applied experience as well as the empirical expressions that are presented for use a...

  6. Investigation of Boundary Effects on the Natural Cavitating Flow around a 2D Wedge in Shallow Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available When a cavitated body moves in shallow water, both flexible free surface and rigid bottom wall will produce great influence on the cavity pattern and hydrodynamics to change the motion attitude and stability of the body. In this paper, a single-fluid multiphase flow method coupled with a natural cavitation model was employed to study the effects of two kinds of boundaries on the natural cavitating flow around a two-dimensional symmetry wedge in shallow water. Within the range of the cavitation number for computation (0.05 ~ 2.04, the cavity pattern would be divided into three types, namely, stable type, transition type and wake-vortex type. The shape of the free surface is fairly similar to that of the cavity's upper surface with well right-and-left symmetry. However, when the immersion depth and the cavitation number are decreasing, the symmetry of the cavity shape is destroyed due to the influence of bottom wall effects. When the cavitation number is less than about 0.1, with the immersion depth going down, free surface effects exerts a stronger influence on the drag coefficient of this 2D wedge, whereas wall effects bring a stronger influence on the lift coefficient.

  7. Hydrodynamic Optimization Method and Design Code for Stall-Regulated Hydrokinetic Turbine Rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, D.; Jonkman, J.; Musial, W.

    2009-08-01

    This report describes the adaptation of a wind turbine performance code for use in the development of a general use design code and optimization method for stall-regulated horizontal-axis hydrokinetic turbine rotors. This rotor optimization code couples a modern genetic algorithm and blade-element momentum performance code in a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) that allows for rapid and intuitive design of optimal stall-regulated rotors. This optimization method calculates the optimal chord, twist, and hydrofoil distributions which maximize the hydrodynamic efficiency and ensure that the rotor produces an ideal power curve and avoids cavitation. Optimizing a rotor for maximum efficiency does not necessarily create a turbine with the lowest cost of energy, but maximizing the efficiency is an excellent criterion to use as a first pass in the design process. To test the capabilities of this optimization method, two conceptual rotors were designed which successfully met the design objectives.

  8. Scalability of Hydrodynamic Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Shikui

    2009-01-01

    Many hydrodynamic processes can be studied in a way that is scalable over a vastly relevant physical parameter space. We systematically examine this scalability, which has so far only briefly discussed in astrophysical literature. We show how the scalability is limited by various constraints imposed by physical processes and initial conditions. Using supernova remnants in different environments and evolutionary phases as application examples, we demonstrate the use of the scaling as a powerful tool to explore the interdependence among relevant parameters, based on a minimum set of simulations. In particular, we devise a scaling scheme that can be used to adaptively generate numerous seed remnants and plant them into 3D hydrodynamic simulations of the supernova-dominated interstellar medium.

  9. Cavitation study of a pump-turbine at turbine mode with critical cavitation coefficient condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Yang, D.; Xu, J. W.; Liu, J. T.; Jiao, L.

    2016-05-01

    To study the cavitation phenomenon of a pump-turbine at turbine mode when it ran at the critical cavitation coefficient condition, a high-head model pump-turbine was disperse using hexahedron grid. Three dimensional, steady cavitating flow was numerically studied using SST k-ω model. It is confirmed that ZGB cavitation model and SST k-ω model are useful ways to study the two-phase cavitation flow in pump-turbine. Mass flow inlet and pressure outlet were specified at the casing inlet and draft tube outlet, respectively. The static pressure was set according to the cavitation coefficient. The steady cavitating flows at critical cavitation coefficient condition were analysed. The cavitation area in the runner was investigated. It was found that the pressure of the suction on the blade surface was decreasing gradually with the decrease of the cavitation coefficient. In addition, the vortex flow in the draft tube was observed at the critical cavitation coefficient. It was found that the vortex flow appeared at the center of the draft tube inlet with the decreasing of the cavitation coefficient. Compared with the experimental data, the simulation results show reasonable agreement with the experimental data.

  10. Memory-Effect on Acoustic Cavitation

    OpenAIRE

    Yavaṣ, Oğuz; Leiderer, Paul; Park, Hee K.; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Poon, Chie C.; Tam, Andrew C.

    1994-01-01

    The formation of bubbles at a liquid-solid interface due to acoustic cavitation depends particularly on the preconditions of the interface. Here, it wiIl be shown that following laser-induced bubble formation at the interface the acoustic cavitation efficiency is strongly enhanced. Optical reflectance measurements reveal that this observed enhancement of acoustic cavitation due to preceding laser-induced bubble formation, which could be termed as memory effect, decays in a few hundred microse...

  11. Measuring Dynamic Transfer Functions of Cavitating Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baun, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    A water-flow test facility has been built to enable measurement of dynamic transfer functions (DTFs) of cavitating pumps and of inducers in such pumps. Originally, the facility was intended for use in an investigation of the effects of cavitation in a rocket-engine low-pressure oxygen turbopump. The facility can also be used to measure DTFs of cavitating pumps in general

  12. The domain of validity of fluid dynamics and the onset of cavitation in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Denicol, Gabriel S; Jeon, Sangyong

    2015-01-01

    If the bulk viscosity of QCD matter is large, the effective pressure of the hot and dense matter created in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions can become negative, leading to instabilities in the evolution of the plasma. In the context of heavy ion collisions, this effect is sometimes referred to as cavitation. In this contribution we discuss the onset of cavitation in event-by-event hydrodynamic simulations of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions at LHC energies. We estimate how large the bulk viscosity of the QGP has to be in the QCD (pseudo) phase transition region in order for the effective pressure of the system to actually become negative.

  13. Cavitation Nuclei: Experiments and Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Knud Aage

    2009-01-01

    The Swedish astrophysicist and Nobel Prize winner Hannes Alfven said: Theories come and go - the experiment is here forever. Often a theory, which we set up to describe an observed physical phenomenon, suffers from the lack of knowledge of decisive parameters, and therefore at best the theory...... becomes insufficient. Contrary, the experiment always reveals nature itself, though at prevailing experimental conditions. With essential parameters being out of control and even maybe unidentified, apparently similar experiments may deviate way beyond our expectations. However, these discrepancies offer...... us a chance to reflect on the character of the unknown parameters. In this way non-concordant experimental results may hold the key to the development of better theories - and to new experiments for the testing of their validity. Cavitation and cavitation nuclei are phenomena of that character....

  14. CAVITATION NUCLEI: EXPERIMENTS AND THEORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MфRCH K. A.

    2009-01-01

    The Swedish astrophysicist and Nobel Prize winner Hannes Alfvén said: Theories come and go ─ the experiment is here forever. Often a theory, which we set up to describe an observed physical phenomenon, suffers from the lack of knowledge of decisive parameters, and therefore at best the theory becomes insufficient. Contrary, the experiment always reveals nature itself, though at prevailing experimental conditions. With essential parameters being out of control and even maybe unidentified, apparently similar experiments may deviate way beyond our expectations. However, these discrepancies offer us a chance to reflect on the character of the unknown parameters. In this way non-concordant experimental results may hold the key to the development of better theories – and to new experiments for the testing of their validity. Cavitation and cavitation nuclei are phenomena of that character.

  15. Mesenteric lymph node cavitation syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh; James; Freeman

    2010-01-01

    The mesenteric lymph node cavitation syndrome consists of central necrosis of mesenteric lymph nodes and may occur with either celiac disease or a sprue-like intestinal disease that fails to respond to a gluten-free diet. Splenic hypofunction may also be present. The cause is not known but its development during the clinical course of celiac disease is usually indicative of a poor prognosis for the intestinal disorder, a potential for signif icant compli-cations including sepsis and malignancy, particularly...

  16. Acoustic Cavitation and Bubble Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-15

    Achilles tendon of a cow. Presently ceramic piezoelectrics are widely used to generate ultrasonic signals, as they are relatively inexpensive and can...the application of a negative pressure could result in a rupture of the liquid while d’Alembert refused to accept this view. The rise of cavitation as a...contraction resulted in the liquid undergoing a tensile stress, eventually ending in the rupture of the liquid. The temperature at which rupture occurred was

  17. Breaking beer bottles with cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunny; Fontana, Jake; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter; Shelley, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Hitting the top of a beer bottle, nearly full of water, with an open hand can cause the bottle to break, with the bottom separating from upper section. We have studied this phenomenon using a high-speed camera, and observed the formation, coalescence and collapse of bubbles. The breaking of glass is due to cavitation, typically occurring near the bottom edge. We make numerical estimates of the relevant physical parameters, and compare these with experimental observations.

  18. Cavitation on hydrofoils with sinusoidal leading edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, H.

    2015-12-01

    Cavitation characteristics of hydrofoils with sinusoidal leading edge were examined experimentally at a Reynolds number of 7.2 × 105. The hydrofoils had an underlying NACA 634-021 profile and an aspect ratio of 4.3. The sinusoidal leading edge geometries included three amplitudes of 2.5%, 5%, and 12% and two wavelengths of 25% and 50% of the mean chord length. Results revealed that cavitation on the leading edge-modified hydrofoils existed in pockets behind the troughs whereas the baseline hydrofoil produced cavitation along its entire span. Moreover, cavitation on the modified hydrofoils appeared at consistently lower angles of attack than on the baseline hydrofoil.

  19. A benchmark experiment on gas cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Franz; Honza, Rene

    2014-08-01

    Cavitation research is often a matter of experiments conducted in complex machinery. There, it is extremely difficult to look into one of the most important issues of cavitation which is nucleation. This work investigates gas cavitation under well-defined flow conditions. Nuclei are placed in wall bound cavities and are exposed to a radial gap flow featuring independent pressure and shear stress. A reciprocating bubble generation is achieved. Bubble frequency and size are evaluated which turn out to depend on pressure and wall shear stress. The experiment lends itself to systematic research in cavitation.

  20. Relativistic Hydrodynamics on Graphic Cards

    CERN Document Server

    Gerhard, Jochen; Bleicher, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    We show how to accelerate relativistic hydrodynamics simulations using graphic cards (graphic processing units, GPUs). These improvements are of highest relevance e.g. to the field of high-energetic nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC where (ideal and dissipative) relativistic hydrodynamics is used to calculate the evolution of hot and dense QCD matter. The results reported here are based on the Sharp And Smooth Transport Algorithm (SHASTA), which is employed in many hydrodynamical models and hybrid simulation packages, e.g. the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics model (UrQMD). We have redesigned the SHASTA using the OpenCL computing framework to work on accelerators like graphic processing units (GPUs) as well as on multi-core processors. With the redesign of the algorithm the hydrodynamic calculations have been accelerated by a factor 160 allowing for event-by-event calculations and better statistics in hybrid calculations.

  1. Ultrasonic cavitation for disruption of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenly, Justin M; Tester, Jefferson W

    2015-05-01

    Challenges with mid-stream fractionation steps in proposed microalgae biofuel pathways arise from the typically dilute cell density in growth media, micron scale cell sizes, and often durable cell walls. For microalgae to be a sustainable source of biofuels and co-products, efficient fractionation by some method will be necessary. This study evaluates ultrasonic cell disruption as a processing step that fractionates microalgae. A range of species types with different sizes and cell wall compositions were treated. The initial seconds of sonication offered the most significant disruption, even for the more durable Nannochloropsis cells. Following this initial period, diminishing effectiveness was attributed, by acoustic measurements, to attenuation of the ultrasound in the ensuing cloud of cavitating bubbles. At longer exposure times, differences between species were more pronounced. Processing higher concentrations of Isochrysis slowed cell disintegration only marginally, making the expenditure of energy more worthwhile.

  2. RANS computations for identification of 1-D cavitation model parameters: application to full load cavitation vortex rope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alligné, S.; Decaix, J.; Müller, A.; Nicolet, C.; Avellan, F.; Münch, C.

    2016-11-01

    Due to the massive penetration of alternative renewable energies, hydropower is a key energy conversion technology for stabilizing the electrical power network by using hydraulic machines at off design operating conditions. At full load, the axisymmetric cavitation vortex rope developing in Francis turbines acts as an internal source of energy, leading to an instability commonly referred to as selfexcited surge. 1-D models are developed to predict this phenomenon and to define the range of safe operating points for a hydropower plant. These models involve several parameters that have to be calibrated using experimental and numerical data. The present work aims to identify these parameters with URANS computations with a particular focus on the fluid damping rising when the cavitation volume oscillates. Two test cases have been investigated: a cavitation flow in a Venturi geometry without inlet swirl and a reduced scale model of a Francis turbine operating at full load conditions. The cavitation volume oscillation is forced by imposing an unsteady outlet pressure conditions. By varying the frequency of the outlet pressure, the resonance frequency is determined. Then, the pressure amplitude and the resonance frequency are used as two objectives functions for the optimization process aiming to derive the 1-D model parameters.

  3. Cavitation Generated by Amplitude Modulated HIFU: Investigation on the Inertial Cavitation Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Bruno; Saletes, Izella; Béra, Jean-Christophe

    2007-05-01

    An experimental investigation on cavitation threshold was carried out in order to compare monochromatic and dichromatic ultrasound excitations in their ability to generate inertial cavitation on a target. Using a cavitation activity spectral criterion, a precise inertial cavitation threshold could be extracted in every case considered. The results showed that these thresholds could be very different depending on the type of excitation used. More precisely, for the parameters investigated in the present study, the ratio between monochromatic and dichromatic thresholds decreased when cavitation thresholds are increased. The potential application of this study to purely ultrasonic thrombolysis is discussed.

  4. Phase-shift nano-emulsions induced cavitation and ablation during high intensity focused ultrasound exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yangzi; Yin, Hui; Chang, Nan; Wan, Mingxi

    2017-03-01

    Phase-shift Nano-emulsions (PSNEs) with a small initial diameter in nanoscale have the potential to leak out of the blood vessels and to accumulate at target point of tissue. At desired location, PSNEs can undergo acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) process, change into gas bubbles and enhance focused ultrasound efficiency. The aim of this work was to provide spatial and temporal information on PSNE induced cavitation and ablation effects during pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) exposure. The PSNEs were composed of perfluorohaxane (PFH) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), and then uniformly distributed in a transparent polyacrylamide phantom. The Sonoluminescence (SL) method was employed to visualize the cavitation distribution and formation process of PSNEs induced cavitation. For the phantom which was used for ablation observation, heat sensitive BSA was added. When the temperature generated by ultrasound exposure was high enough to denature BSA, the transparent phantom would turn out white lesions. The shape of the lesion and the formation process were compared with those of cavitation. Each of the pulse contained 12 cycles for a duration of 10 µs. And the duty cycle changed from 1:10 to 1:40. The total "on" time of HIFU was 2s. PSNE can evidently accelerate cavitation emitting bright SL in pre-focal region. The cavitation was generated layer by layer towards the transducer. The formed bubble wall can block acoustic waves transmitting to the distal end. And the lesion appeared to be separated into two parts. One in pre-focal region stemmed from one point and grew quickly toward the transducer. The other in focal region was formed by merging some small white dots, and grew much slower. The influence of duty cycle has also been examined. The lower duty cycle with longer pulse-off time would generate more intense cavitation, however, smaller lesion. Bubble cloud gradually developed within phantom would greatly influence the cavitation and ablation

  5. Cavitation instabilities of an inducer in a cryogenic pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Jin; Sung, Hyung Jin; Choi, Chang-Ho; Kim, Jin-Sun

    2017-03-01

    Inducers assist cryogenic pumps to operate safely under cavitation conditions by increasing the pressure of the impeller inlet, but create cavitation instabilities. The use of cryogenic fluids requires special attention because of safety and handling concerns. To examine the cavitation instabilities of a cryogenic pump, two kinds of working fluids, water and liquid oxygen, were employed. The cavitation instabilities were measured with an accelerometer installed on the pump casing. The flow coefficient and the head slightly decrease with decreases in the cavitation number before the cavitation breakdown. These trends are true of both fluids. Several cavitation instabilities were identified with the accelerometer. At lower flow coefficients, super-synchronous rotating cavitation was found in a similar cavitation number range for both fluids. At higher flow coefficients, the cavitation numbers of the cavitation instabilities in the liquid oxygen test are smaller than those of the water test.

  6. Bilateral and multiple cavitation sounds during upper cervical thrust manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunning James

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The popping produced during high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA thrust manipulation is a common sound; however to our knowledge, no study has previously investigated the location of cavitation sounds during manipulation of the upper cervical spine. The primary purpose was to determine which side of the spine cavitates during C1-2 rotatory HVLA thrust manipulation. Secondary aims were to calculate the average number of pops, the duration of upper cervical thrust manipulation, and the duration of a single cavitation. Methods Nineteen asymptomatic participants received two upper cervical thrust manipulations targeting the right and left C1-2 articulation, respectively. Skin mounted microphones were secured bilaterally over the transverse process of C1, and sound wave signals were recorded. Identification of the side, duration, and number of popping sounds were determined by simultaneous analysis of spectrograms with audio feedback using custom software developed in Matlab. Results Bilateral popping sounds were detected in 34 (91.9% of 37 manipulations while unilateral popping sounds were detected in just 3 (8.1% manipulations; that is, cavitation was significantly (P Conclusions Cavitation was significantly more likely to occur bilaterally than unilaterally during upper cervical HVLA thrust manipulation. Most subjects produced 3–4 pops during a single rotatory HVLA thrust manipulation targeting the right or left C1-2 articulation; therefore, practitioners of spinal manipulative therapy should expect multiple popping sounds when performing upper cervical thrust manipulation to the atlanto-axial joint. Furthermore, the traditional manual therapy approach of targeting a single ipsilateral or contralateral facet joint in the upper cervical spine may not be realistic.

  7. Feedback between tidal hydrodynamics and morphological changes induced by natural process and human interventions in a wave-dominated tidal inlet: Xiaohai, Hainan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Wenping; SHEN Jian; JIA Jianjun

    2009-01-01

    The feedback between morphological evolution and tidal hydrodynamics in a wave-dominated tidal inlet, Xiaohai, China is investigated through data analysis and numerical model experiments. His-torically, Xiaohai Inlet had two openings, located at the north and south of Neizhi Island (a rocky outcrop), respectively. The evolution of Xiaohai Inlet was dominated by the natural process be-fore 1972. In addition to the natural process, human interventions, including the closure of the north opening, 50% of freshwater reduction, and increase of land reclamation, have altered tidal hydrodynamics and morphological evolution since 1972. A series of numerical model simulations were conducted to investigate the influence of morphological changes on the hydrodynamics and the influence of human activities on the inlet evolution. The natural process has caused narrowing and shoaling of the inlet throat, development of the flood-tidal delta, and shoaling of the tidal channel inside the lagoon. Human interventions have accelerated these changes. Consequently, the tidal propagation from the offshore into the lagoon has been impeded and the tidal energy has been dissipated substantially. Tidal current has changed from ebb-dominant to flood-dominant in most parts of the inlet system whereas the inlet throat has remained as ebb-dominant, the tidal prism has decreased consistently, and sediment has continued to deposit inside the inlet. As a result, the changes of morphology, hydrodynamics, and sediment transport show a positive feedback. The human interventions have had both advantageous and adverse influences on the stability of the inlet. The closure of the North Opening has decreased the longshore sediment input to the inlet, and increased the tidal prism, ebb velocity, and sediment transport in the south opening, thus enhancing the inlet's stability. However, reducing the river discharge and landfill of the tidal flats has resulted in a decrease of the tidal prism, the ebb velocity

  8. Cavitation Erosion Characteristics of Nitrocarburized and HPDL-Treated Martensitic Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, B. K.; Arya, Vivek; Mann, B. S.

    2012-06-01

    This article deals with plasma ion-nitrocarburising and high power diode laser (HPDL) surface treatment of 13Cr4Ni and X10CrNiMoV1222 martensitic stainless steels to enhance their cavitation erosion resistance. These steels are commonly used in hydro turbines and boiler feed pumps. These treated steels have been evaluated for cavitation erosion resistance and it has been observed that the plasma ion-nitrocarburising process has significantly enhanced the cavitation erosion resistance as compared to untreated steel whereas HPDL-treated steels have shown marginal improvement. This is due to formation of high hardness nitrides during nitrocarburising and formation of moderate hardness martensitic phase due to rapid heating and cooling rates involved in HPDL treatment. The cavitation erosion and micro-hardness data of plasma ion-nitrocarburized as well as HPDL-treated steel samples and their comparison with hard deposits such as stellite and HVOF coating form the main part of the article.

  9. Prediction of cavitation damage on spillway using K-nearest neighbor modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei Kermani, E; Barani, G A; Ghaeini-Hessaroeyeh, M

    2015-01-01

    Cavitation is a common and destructive process on spillways that threatens the stability of the structure and causes damage. In this study, based on the nearest neighbor model, a method has been presented to predict cavitation damage on spillways. The model was tested using data from the Shahid Abbaspour dam spillway in Iran. The level of spillway cavitation damage was predicted for eight different flow rates, using the nearest neighbor model. Moreover, based on the cavitation index, five damage levels from no damage to major damage have been determined. Results showed that the present model predicted damage locations and levels close to observed damage during past floods. Finally, the efficiency and precision of the model was quantified by statistical coefficients. Appropriate values of the correlation coefficient, root mean square error, mean absolute error and coefficient of residual mass show the present model is suitable and efficient.

  10. Numerical investigation of cavitating flow behind the cone of a poppet valve in water hydraulic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高红; 傅新; 杨华勇; TSUKIJITetsuhiro

    2002-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynarmics(CFD) simulations of cavitating flow throuth water hydraulic poppet valves were performed using advanced RNG κ-epsilon turbulence model. The flow was turbulent, incom-pressible and unsteady, for Reynolds nurnbers greater than 43 000.The working fluid was water, and the structure of the valve was simplified as a two dimensionl axisynmmetric gecomtrical model. Flow Field vlsual-ization was numerically achieved. The effects of inlet velocity, outlet pressure, opening size as wall as popet angle on cavitation intensity in the poppet valve were numerically investigated. Experimentall flow visualization was coonducted to capture cavitation images near the orifice in the poppet valve with 30° poppet angle using high speed video camera.The binary cavitafing flow field distrilxrdon obtalned frcra digital processing of the original cavitation image showed a gtxxt agreement with the ntmaerieal result

  11. Natural and laser-induced cavitation in corn stems: On the mechanisms of acoustic emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mario Bilmes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Water in plant xylem is often superheated, and therefore in a meta-stable state. Under certain conditions, it may suddenly turn from the liquid to the vapor state. This cavitation process produces acoustic emissions. We report the measurement of ultrasonic acoustic emissions (UAE produced by natural and induced cavitation in corn stems. We induced cavitation and UAE in vivo, in well controlled and reproducible experiments, by irradiating the bare stem of the plants with a continuous-wave laser beam. By tracing the source of UAE, we were able to detect absorption and frequency filtering of the UAE propagating through the stem. This technique allows the unique possibility of studying localized embolism of plant conduits, and thus to test hypotheses on the hydraulic architecture of plants. Based on our results, we postulate that the source of UAE is a transient "cavity oscillation"' triggered by the disruptive effect of cavitation inception.

  12. Natural and laser-induced cavitation in corn stems: On the mechanisms of acoustic emissions

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández, E; Bilmes, G M; 10.4279/PIP.040003

    2012-01-01

    Water in plant xylem is often superheated, and therefore in a meta-stable state. Under certain conditions, it may suddenly turn from the liquid to the vapor state. This cavitation process produces acoustic emissions. We report the measurement of ultrasonic acoustic emissions (UAE) produced by natural and induced cavitation in corn stems. We induced cavitation and UAE in vivo, in well controlled and reproducible experiments, by irradiating the bare stem of the plants with a continuous-wave laser beam. By tracing the source of UAE, we were able to detect absorption and frequency filtering of the UAE propagating through the stem. This technique allows the unique possibility of studying localized embolism of plant conduits, and thus to test hypotheses on the hydraulic architecture of plants. Based on our results, we postulate that the source of UAE is a transient "cavity oscillation" triggered by the disruptive effect of cavitation inception.

  13. Interaction of cavitation bubbles on a wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremond, Nicolas; Arora, Manish; Dammer, Stephan M.; Lohse, Detlef

    2006-01-01

    We report experimental and numerical investigations on the dynamics of the cavitation of bubbles on a solid surface and the interaction between them with the help of controlled cavitation nuclei: hemispherical bubbles are nucleated from hydrophobic microcavities that act as gas traps when the substr

  14. MICRO-COURSE OF CAVITATION EROSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhaoyun

    2008-01-01

    By cavitation tests and scanning electron microscope (SEM) microanalysis, the micro- appearance of cavitation samples is studied. It is the first time that the micro-appearance of metals is pursued successfully. According to the changing course of the micro-appearance of metals, the damaging course of cavitation erosion is determined. The destructive way of collapsing bubbles on the metal surface is known. Firstly cavitation pinholes appear on the metal surface, then cracks generate and grow under the action of collapsing bubbles. When cracks connect each other, small pieces are removed from pinhole wall and pinholes develop into cavitation pits. When the previous surface is removed completely, new pinholes are produced again on the new surface. A pinhole is the result of the powerful striking of a micro-liquid jet ejected by a large collapsed bubble near the surface. At some stages, cracks grow in the way of fatigue. The corrosion phenomenon is observed during the cavitation erosion. The cavitation pattern can be used to explain the cavitation pregnancy and the changing regulation of sample surface.

  15. Improved Large-Scale Inundation Modelling by 1D-2D Coupling and Consideration of Hydrologic and Hydrodynamic Processes - a Case Study in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, J. M.; Bierkens, M. F.; Van Beek, R.; Winsemius, H.; Haag, A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics of fluvial floods is paramount to accurate flood hazard and risk modeling. Currently, economic losses due to flooding constitute about one third of all damage resulting from natural hazards. Given future projections of climate change, the anticipated increase in the World's population and the associated implications, sound knowledge of flood hazard and related risk is crucial. Fluvial floods are cross-border phenomena that need to be addressed accordingly. Yet, only few studies model floods at the large-scale which is preferable to tiling the output of small-scale models. Most models cannot realistically model flood wave propagation due to a lack of either detailed channel and floodplain geometry or the absence of hydrologic processes. This study aims to develop a large-scale modeling tool that accounts for both hydrologic and hydrodynamic processes, to find and understand possible sources of errors and improvements and to assess how the added hydrodynamics affect flood wave propagation. Flood wave propagation is simulated by DELFT3D-FM (FM), a hydrodynamic model using a flexible mesh to schematize the study area. It is coupled to PCR-GLOBWB (PCR), a macro-scale hydrological model, that has its own simpler 1D routing scheme (DynRout) which has already been used for global inundation modeling and flood risk assessments (GLOFRIS; Winsemius et al., 2013). A number of model set-ups are compared and benchmarked for the simulation period 1986-1996: (0) PCR with DynRout; (1) using a FM 2D flexible mesh forced with PCR output and (2) as in (1) but discriminating between 1D channels and 2D floodplains, and, for comparison, (3) and (4) the same set-ups as (1) and (2) but forced with observed GRDC discharge values. Outputs are subsequently validated against observed GRDC data at Óbidos and flood extent maps from the Dartmouth Flood Observatory. The present research constitutes a first step into a globally applicable approach to fully couple

  16. Microstructure and Cavitation Erosion Properties of Ceramic Coatings Fabricated on Ti-6Al-4V Alloy by Pack Carburizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibin; Cui, Zhenduo; Li, Zhaoyang; Zhu, Shengli; Yang, Xianjin

    2014-08-01

    In this study, Ti-6Al-4V alloy was processed by pack carburizing to improve the cavitation erosion behavior. X-ray diffraction and scanning-electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that a uniform and crack-free ceramic coating formed on the surface of the treated samples. The coating layer comprised primary TiC and less oxide. Cavitation erosion experiment results indicated that the treated samples have the factor of 3.44 to 6.68 increase in cavitation erosion resistance ( R e) as compared with the as-received sample. The ceramic coatings with high hardness and good metallurgical bonding were responsible for the enhanced cavitation erosion properties. When the coatings were treated at condition of high temperature and/or long time, the R e was enervated due to the thin oxide film formed at the outermost surface. Cavitation erosion mechanism for the coatings was characterized as brittle mode by SEM observation of the worn surfaces.

  17. Comparison of Different Mathematical Models of Cavitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota HOMA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation occurs during the flow when local pressure drops to the saturation pressure according to the temperature of the flow. It includes both evaporation and condensation of the vapor bubbles, which occur alternately with high frequency. Cavitation can be very dangerous, especially for pumps, because it leads to break of flow continuity, noise, vibration, erosion of blades and change in pump’s characteristics. Therefore it is very important for pump designers and users to avoid working in cavitation conditions. Simulation of flow can be very useful in that and can indicate if there is risk of cavitating flow occurrence. As this is a multiphase flow and quite complicated phenomena, there are a few mathematical models describing it. The aim of this paper is to make a short review of them and describe their approach to model cavitation. It is desirable to know differences between them to model this phenomenon properly.

  18. Reflections on cavitation nuclei in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Knud Aage

    2007-01-01

    The origin of cavitation bubbles, cavitation nuclei, has been a subject of debate since the early years of cavitation research. This paper presents an analysis of a representative selection of experimental investigations of cavitation inception and the tensile strength of water. At atmospheric...... to explaining why the tensile strength of water varies so dramatically between the experiments reported. A model for calculation of the critical pressure of skin-covered free gas bubbles as well as that of interfacial gaseous nuclei covered by a skin is presented. This model is able to bridge the apparently...... pressure, the possibility of stabilization of free gas bubbles by a skin has been documented, but only within a range of bubble sizes that makes them responsible for tensile strengths up to about 1.5 bar, and values reaching almost 300 bar have been measured. However, cavitation nuclei can also be harbored...

  19. Cavitation occurrence around ultrasonic dental scalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felver, Bernhard; King, David C; Lea, Simon C; Price, Gareth J; Damien Walmsley, A

    2009-06-01

    Ultrasonic scalers are used in dentistry to remove calculus and other contaminants from teeth. One mechanism which may assist in the cleaning is cavitation generated in cooling water around the scaler. The vibratory motion of three designs of scaler tip in a water bath has been characterised by laser vibrometry, and compared with the spatial distribution of cavitation around the scaler tips observed using sonochemiluminescence from a luminol solution. The type of cavitation was confirmed by acoustic emission analysed by a 'Cavimeter' supplied by NPL. A node/antinode vibration pattern was observed, with the maximum displacement of each type of tip occurring at the free end. High levels of cavitation activity occurred in areas surrounding the vibration antinodes, although minimal levels were observed at the free end of the tip. There was also good correlation between vibration amplitude and sonochemiluminescence at other points along the scaler tip. 'Cavimeter' analysis correlated well with luminol observations, suggesting the presence of primarily transient cavitation.

  20. Hydrodynamics of insect spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, On Shun; Lauga, Eric

    2010-11-01

    Microorganism motility plays important roles in many biological processes including reproduction. Many microorganisms propel themselves by propagating traveling waves along their flagella. Depending on the species, propagation of planar waves (e.g. Ceratium) and helical waves (e.g. Trichomonas) were observed in eukaryotic flagellar motion, and hydrodynamic models for both were proposed in the past. However, the motility of insect spermatozoa remains largely unexplored. An interesting morphological feature of such cells, first observed in Tenebrio molitor and Bacillus rossius, is the double helical deformation pattern along the flagella, which is characterized by the presence of two superimposed helical flagellar waves (one with a large amplitude and low frequency, and the other with a small amplitude and high frequency). Here we present the first hydrodynamic investigation of the locomotion of insect spermatozoa. The swimming kinematics, trajectories and hydrodynamic efficiency of the swimmer are computed based on the prescribed double helical deformation pattern. We then compare our theoretical predictions with experimental measurements, and explore the dependence of the swimming performance on the geometric and dynamical parameters.

  1. Steady State Thermo-Hydrodynamic Analysis of Two-Axial groove and Multilobe Hydrodynamic Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bhagat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Steady state thermo-hydrodynamic analysis of two axial groove and multi lobe oil journal bearings is performed in this paper. To study the steady state thermo-hydrodynamic characteristics Reynolds equation is solved simultaneously along with the energy equation and heat conduction equation in bush and shaft. The effect of groove geometry, cavitation in the fluid film, the recirculation of lubricant, shaft speed has also been taken into account. Film temperature in case of three-lobe bearing is found to be high as compared to other studied bearing configurations. The data obtained from this analysis can be used conveniently in the design of such bearings, which are presented in dimensionless form.

  2. Lubrication and thermal characteristics of mechanical seal with porous surface based on cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huilong, Chen; Muzi, Zuo; Tong, Liu; Yu, Wang; Cheng, Xu; Qiangbo, Wu

    2014-04-01

    The theory model of mechanical seals with laser-textured porous surface (LST-MS) was established. The liquid film of LST-MS was simulated by the Fluent software, using full cavitation model and non-cavitation model separately. Dynamic mesh technique and relationship between viscosity and temperature were applied to simulate the internal flow field and heat characteristics of LST-MS, based on the more accurate cavitation model. Influence of porous depth ratio porous diameter ɛ and porous density SP on lubrication performance and the variation of lubrication and thermal properties with shaft speed and sealing pressure were analyzed. The results indicate that the strongest hydrodynamic pressure effect and the biggest thickness of liquid film are obtained when ɛ and SP are respectively about 0.025 and 0.5 which were thought to be the optimum value. The frictional heat leads to the increase of liquid film temperature and the decrease of medium viscosity with the shaft speed increasing. The hydrodynamic pressure effect increases as shaft speed increasing, however it decreases as the impact of frictional heat.

  3. SOME REMARKS ON HYDROFOIL CAVITATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ARNDT Roger E.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews numerical and experimental investigations of sheet/cloud cavitation carried out at the St.Anthony Falls Laboratory and at two collaborating facilities (Versuchsanstalt Für Wasserbau,Obernach,Germany and Osaka University,Japan) for more than a decade.Although significant advances have been made in the analysis of this flow several issues are still unresolved.The purpose of this paper is to examine the overall features of the problem,review the progress made to date and suggest avenues for new investigation.

  4. Enterobacter Asburiae Pneumonia with Cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seung Woo; Heo, Jeong Nam; Park, Choong Ki [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Enterobacter species have increasingly been identified as pathogens over the past several decades. These bacterial species have become more important because most are resistant to cephalothin and cefoxitin, and can produce extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamase. Enterobacter asburiae (E. asburiae) is a gram-negative rod of the family Enterobacteriaceae, named in 1986. Since then, there has been only one clinical report of E. asburiae pneumonia. We report a case of E. asburiae pneumonia with cavitation and compare it with the previous case.

  5. Study on cavitation characteristics of horizontal axis tidal turbine%水平轴潮流能水轮机空化特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亮; 房良; 张学伟

    2015-01-01

    采用C FD (计算流体力学)数值模拟的方法,对水平轴潮流能水轮机的空化特性进行研究。重点讨论叶片空化的特性和对水轮机水动力性能的影响,得出不同空化数下叶片空化程度和位置及对水动力性能的损耗。在相同空化数下,分别研究来流速度及叶轮旋转角速度对叶片空化情况的影响,得出不同工况下叶片的空化区域,针对空化区域的不同研究水动力性能的降低程度。结果表明:叶片的空化程度及区域不仅和空化数有关,还受到叶尖速比的影响;空化的发生并不一定会严重影响水轮机的水动力性能,空化对水动力性能的影响关键在于空化发生的区域,只有当空化数低于一定数值,叶片中段发生空化时,才会大幅影响水动力性能。%T he cavitation characteristics of horizontal axis tidal turbine w as studied by using CFD (computational fluid dynamics)numerical simulation method .The cavitation characteristics of blade and the effect of hydrodynamic performance were focused on ,the extent and location of cavitation on the blade in different cavitation number ,and the loss of the hydrodynamic performance was obtained meanwhile .At the same cavitation number ,the impact of the flow velocity and the angular velocity of rotation were studied ,the region of cavitation on the blade in different situation was obtained ,and then the reduction of hydrodynamic performances of the turbine were studied at the different region of cavitation .The results show that the extent and region of cavitation is not only associated with the cavitation number ,but also affected by the tip speed ratio ;the occurrence of cavitation will not neces‐sarily affect the hydrodynamic performance of the turbine ,the key of the influence of the cavitation on the hydrodynamic performance is the area of cavitation ,which would greatly affect on the hydrody‐namic performance only when the

  6. Inertial cavitation in theranostic nanoemulsions with simultaneous pulsed laser and low frequency ultrasound excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Bastien; Wei, Chen-Wei; Xia, Jinjun; Pelivanov, Ivan M.; Lombardo, Michael; Perez, Camilo; Matula, Thomas J.; Pozzo, Danilo; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasound-induced inertial cavitation is a mechanical process used for site-localized therapies such as non-invasive surgery. Initiating cavitation in tissue requires very high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and low-frequencies. Hence, some applications like thrombolysis require targeted contrast agents to reduce peak intensities and the potential for secondary effects. A new type of theranostic nanoemulsion has been developed as a combined ultrasound (US)/photoacoustic(PA) agent for molecular imaging and therapy. It includes a nanoscale emulsion core encapsulated with a layer of gold nanospheres at the water/ oil interface. Its optical absorption exhibits a spectrum broadened up to 1100 nm, opening the possibility that 1064 nm light can excite cavitation nuclei. If optically-excited nuclei are produced at the same time that a low-frequency US wave is at peak negative pressure, then highly localized therapies based on acoustic cavitation may be enabled at very low US pressures. We have demonstrated this concept using a low-cost, low energy, portable 1064 nm fiber laser in conjunction with a 1.24 MHz US transducer for simultaneous laser/US excitation of nanoemulsions. Active cavitation detection from backscattered signals indicated that cavitation can be initiated at very low acoustic pressures (less than 1 MPa) when laser excitation coincides with the rarefaction phase of the acoustic wave, and that no cavitation is produced when light is delivered during the compressive phase. US can sustain cavitation activity during long acoustic bursts and stimulate diffusion of the emulsion, thus increasing treatment speed. An in vitro clot model has been used to demonstrate combined US and laser excitation of the nanoemulsion for efficient thrombolysis.

  7. Simulations of Cavitating Cryogenic Inducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorney, Dan (Technical Monitor); Hosangadi, Ashvin; Ahuja, Vineet; Ungewitter, Ronald J.

    2004-01-01

    Simulations of cavitating turbopump inducers at their design flow rate are presented. Results over a broad range of Nss, numbers extending from single-phase flow conditions through the critical head break down point are discussed. The flow characteristics and performance of a subscale geometry designed for water testing are compared with the fullscale configuration that employs LOX. In particular, thermal depression effects arising from cavitation in cryogenic fluids are identified and their impact on the suction performance of the inducer quantified. The simulations have been performed using the CRUNCH CFD[R] code that has a generalized multi-element unstructured framework suitable for turbomachinery applications. An advanced multi-phase formulation for cryogenic fluids that models temperature depression and real fluid property variations is employed. The formulation has been extensively validated for both liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen by simulating the experiments of Hord on hydrofoils; excellent estimates of the leading edge temperature and pressure depression were obtained while the comparisons in the cavity closure region were reasonable.

  8. Study of Cavitation Shedding Dynamics on a NACA0015 Hydrofoil Using X-Ray Densitometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Harish; Wu, Juliana; Ceccio, Steven

    2016-11-01

    Cavitation dynamics on the NACA0015 hydrofoil at several attack angles are found to be spectrally rich, being multi-modal with abrupt changes in Strouhal number with change in cavitation number. Present study focusses on identifying the physical mechanisms responsible for the change in cavitation dynamics on a NACA0015 hydrofoil in a re-circulating water tunnel using time resolved X-ray densitometry. Time-resolved void fraction flow fields obtained using X-ray densitometry, synchronized with acoustic noise measurements using a hydrophone, are used to identify different flow features and mechanisms that are responsible for the change in the observed spectral behavior. It is shown that under higher cavitation numbers, the shedding mechanism is predominantly re-entrant liquid flow based, but as the cavitation number drops many different processes are at play. At lower cavitation numbers, the shed cavity cloud collapse arrests cavity growth and this results in altered cycle dynamics and hence the Strouhal number. In addition, propagation bubbly shock waves are also found to be a dominant mechanism of shedding for certain conditions. The multi-modal nature of the acoustic pressure signature is explained by presence of different flow features, which could be concurrent or alternating. Office of Naval Research.

  9. Cavitation inception by the backscattering of pressure waves from a bubble interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahira, Hiroyuki; Ogasawara, Toshiyuki; Mori, Naoto; Tanaka, Moe

    2015-10-01

    The secondary cavitation that occurs by the backscattering of focused ultrasound from a primary cavitation bubble caused by the negative pressure part of the ultrasound (Maxwell, et al., 2011) might be useful for the energy exchange due to bubble oscillations in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). The present study is concerned with the cavitation inception by the backscattering of ultrasound from a bubble. In the present experiment, a laser-induced bubble which is generated by a pulsed focused laser beam with high intensity is utilized as a primary cavitation bubble. After generating the bubble, focused ultrasound is emitted to the bubble. The acoustic field and the bubble motion are observed with a high-speed video camera. It is confirmed that the secondary cavitation bubble clouds are generated by the backscattering from the laser-induced bubble. The growth of cavitation bubble clouds is analyzed with the image processing method. The experimental results show that the height and width of the bubble clouds grow in stepwise during their evolution. The direct numerical simulations are also conducted for the backscattering of incident pressure waves from a bubble in order to evaluate a pressure field near the bubble. It is shown that the ratio of a bubble collapse time t0 to a characteristic time of wave propagation tS, η = t0/ts, is an important determinant for generating negative pressure region by backscattering. The minimum pressure location by the backscattering in simulations is in good agreement with the experiment.

  10. Mitigation of tip vortex cavitation by means of air injection on a Kaplan turbine scale model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivetti, A.; Angulo, M.; Lucino, C.; Liscia, S.

    2014-03-01

    Kaplan turbines operating at full-load conditions may undergo excessive vibration, noise and cavitation. In such cases, damage by erosion associated to tip vortex cavitation can be observed at the discharge ring. This phenomenon involves design features such as (1) overhang of guide vanes; (2) blade profile; (3) gap increasing size with blade opening; (4) suction head; (5) operation point; and (6) discharge ring stiffness, among others. Tip vortex cavitation may cause erosion at the discharge ring and draft tube inlet following a wavy pattern, in which the number of vanes can be clearly identified. Injection of pressurized air above the runner blade centerline was tested as a mean to mitigate discharge ring cavitation damage on a scale model. Air entrance was observed by means of a high-speed camera in order to track the air trajectory toward its mergence with the tip vortex cavitation core. Post-processing of acceleration signals shows that the level of vibration and the RSI frequency amplitude decrease proportionally with air flow rate injected. These findings reveal the potential mitigating effect of air injection in preventing cavitation damage and will be useful in further tests to be performed on prototype, aiming at determining the optimum air flow rate, size and distribution of the injectors.

  11. Simulation and Experimental Study on Cavitating Water Jet Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; He, Kai; Cai, Jiannan; Hu, Shaojie; Li, Jiuhua; Du, Ruxu

    2017-01-01

    Cavitating water jet technology is a new kind of water jet technology with many advantages, such as energy-saving, efficient, environmentally-friendly and so on. Based on the numerical simulation and experimental verification in this paper, the research on cavitating nozzle has been carried out, which includes comparison of the cleaning ability of the cavitating jet and the ordinary jet, and comparison of cavitation effects of different structures of cavitating nozzles.

  12. Numerical simulation of multiphase cavitating flows around an underwater projectile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The present simulation investigates the multiphase cavitating flow around an underwater projectile.Based on the Homogeneous Equilibrium Flow assumption,a mixture model is applied to simulate the multiphase cavitating flow including ventilated cavitation caused by air injection as well as natural cavitation that forms in a region where the pressure of liquid falls below its vapor pressure. The transport equation cavitating model is applied.The calculations are executed based on a suite of CFD code.The hyd...

  13. Detection of cavitation vortex in hydraulic turbines using acoustic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candel, I.; Bunea, F.; Dunca, G.; Bucur, D. M.; Ioana, C.; Reeb, B.; Ciocan, G. D.

    2014-03-01

    Cavitation phenomena are known for their destructive capacity in hydraulic machineries and are caused by the pressure decrease followed by an implosion when the cavitation bubbles find an adverse pressure gradient. A helical vortex appears in the turbine diffuser cone at partial flow rate operation and can be cavitating in its core. Cavity volumes and vortex frequencies vary with the under-pressure level. If the vortex frequency comes close to one of the eigen frequencies of the turbine, a resonance phenomenon may occur, the unsteady fluctuations can be amplified and lead to important turbine and hydraulic circuit damage. Conventional cavitation vortex detection techniques are based on passive devices (pressure sensors or accelerometers). Limited sensor bandwidths and low frequency response limit the vortex detection and characterization information provided by the passive techniques. In order to go beyond these techniques and develop a new active one that will remove these drawbacks, previous work in the field has shown that techniques based on acoustic signals using adapted signal content to a particular hydraulic situation, can be more robust and accurate. The cavitation vortex effects in the water flow profile downstream hydraulic turbines runner are responsible for signal content modifications. Basic signal techniques use narrow band signals traveling inside the flow from an emitting transducer to a receiving one (active sensors). Emissions of wide band signals in the flow during the apparition and development of the vortex embeds changes in the received signals. Signal processing methods are used to estimate the cavitation apparition and evolution. Tests done in a reduced scale facility showed that due to the increasing flow rate, the signal -- vortex interaction is seen as modifications on the received signal's high order statistics and bandwidth. Wide band acoustic transducers have a higher dynamic range over mechanical elements; the system's reaction time

  14. Numerical simulation of 3-D incompressible, multi-phase flows over cavitating projectiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owis, F.M.; Nayfeh, A.H. [Blacksburg State University, Dept. of Engineering Science and Mechanics, MC 0219, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, VA (United States)

    2004-04-01

    The hydrodynamic cavitation over axisymmetric projectiles is computed using the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for multi-fluid elements. The governing equations are discretized on a structured grid using an upwind difference scheme with flux limits. A preconditioning dual-time stepping method is used for the unsteady computations. The Eigen-system is derived for the Jacobian matrices. This Eigen-system is suitable for high-density ratio multi-fluid flows and it provides high numerical stability and fast convergence. This method can be used to compute single- as well as multi-phase flows. Cavitating flows over projectiles with different geometries are computed and the results are in good agreement with available experimental data and other published computations. (authors)

  15. The mass loss process in dwarf galaxies from 3D hydrodynamical simulations: the role of dark matter and starbursts

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz, Luciana O; Lanfranchi, Gustavo A; Caproni, Anderson

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological models predict a much larger number of low mass dark matter haloes than has been observed in the Local Group of galaxies. One possible explanation is the increased difficulty of detecting these haloes if most of the visible matter is lost at early evolutionary phases through galactic winds. In this work we study the current models of triggering galactic winds in dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph) from supernovae, and study, based on 3D hydrodynamic numerical simulations, the correlation of the mass loss rates and important physical parameters as the dark matter halo mass and its radial profile, and the star formation rate. We find that the existence of winds is ubiquitous, independent on the gravitational potential. Our simulations revealed that the Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) may play a major role on pushing matter out of these systems, even for very massive haloes. The instability is responsible for 5 - 40% of the mass loss during the early evolution of the galaxy, ...

  16. Modeling of Unsteady Sheet Cavitation on Marine Propeller Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros A. Kinnas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsteady sheet cavitation is very common on marine propulsor blades. The authors summarize a lifting-surface and a surface-panel model to solve for the unsteady cavitating flow around a propeller that is subject to nonaxisymmetric inflow. The time-dependent extent and thickness of the cavity were determined by using an iterative method. The cavity detachment was determined by applying the smooth detachment criterion in an iterative manner. A nonzeroradius developed vortex cavity model was utilized at the tip of the blade, and the trailing wake geometry was determined using a fully unsteady wake-alignment process. Comparisons of predictions by the two models and measurements from several experiments are given.

  17. A cavitation aggressiveness index within the Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes methodology for cavitating flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOUKOUVINIS P.; BERGELES G.; GAVAISES M

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a methodology within the Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) solvers for cavitating flows capable of predicting the flow regions of bubble collapse and the potential aggressiveness to material damage. An aggressiveness index is introduced, called cavitation aggressiveness index (CAI) based on the total derivative of pressure which identifies surface areas exposed to bubble collapses, the index is tested in two known cases documented in the open literature and seems to identify regions of potential cavitation damage.

  18. Cavitation studies on axi-symmetric underwater body with pumpjet propulsor in cavitation tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Suryanarayana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A pumpjet propulsor (PJP was designed for an underwater body (UWB with axi-symmetric configuration. Its performance was predicted through CFD study and models were manufactured. The propulsor design was evaluated for its propulsion characteristics through model tests conducted in a Wind Tunnel (WT. In the concluding part of the study, evaluation of the cavitation performance of the pumpjet was undertaken in a cavitation tunnel (CT. In order to assess the cavitation free operation speeds and depths of the body, cavitation tests of the PJP were carried out in behind condition to determine the inception cavitation numbers for rotor, stator and cowl. The model test results obtained were corrected for full scale Reynolds number and subsequently analyzed for cavitation inception speeds at different operating depths. From model tests it was also found that the cavitation inception of the rotor takes place on the tip face side at higher advance ratios and cavitation shifts towards the suction side as the RPS increases whereas the stator and cowl are free from cavitation.

  19. Real processing (RP) I: The principle of minimal entropy production (PME) of irreversible thermodynamics and the principle of minimal deformation (PMD) of hydrodynamics, their dependence and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Bernhard

    1996-02-01

    The principle of minimal entropy production (PME) of irreversible thermodynamics is generalized to determine process parameters in process engineering with well-known mathematical methods. This useful instrument applied to industrial processes is called real processing (RP). A special form of the PME is the principle of minimal deformation (PMD) which allows for applications in hydrodynamics (HD). A second and independent derivation of the PMD takes a similar way as the derivation of the statement of Helmholtz and Rayleigh (SHR). The generalization of SHR then leads to the PMD derived within HD. Next in a similar way. starting directly from the Navier-Stokes equation (NSE) can lead in a third way to the PMD. Several applications of the PMD are given: An analytical and numerical application of PMD is given for the entrance flow of tubes. Physical and analytical applications are the Crocco-Vazsonyi-type equations opening new possibilities of analytical treatment of process engineering problems. Process engineering models may be replaced by applications of PMD. In particular, turbulence may be treated as the answer of nature on PMD. A basic mathematical treatment of these subjects is possible by the gradient field theory (GFT), a particular method of vector analysis stemming from the Clebsch Ansatz for vector fields, which can be ordered from the author together with an advanced detailed mathematical treatment of these subjects.

  20. Effects of complex hydrodynamic processes on the horizontal and vertical distribution of Tc-99 in the Irish Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olbert, Agnieszka I., E-mail: indiana.olbert@nuigalway.ie [Civil Engineering Department, Environmental Change Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Hartnett, Michael; Dabrowski, Tomasz [Civil Engineering Department, Environmental Change Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Kelleher, Kevin [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, 3 Clonskeagh Square, Clonskeagh Road, Dublin 14 (Ireland)

    2010-12-01

    The increased discharge of Tc-99 from the Sellafield plant following the commissioning of the Enhance Actinide Removal Plant in 1994 was reflected in higher Tc-99 activity concentrations over much of the Irish Sea. The presence of this radionuclide in the marine environment is of concern not only because of its long half life but also high bio-concentration factor in commercially valuable species, such Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) and common lobster (Homarus gammarus). Accurate predictions of the transport, and spatial and temporal distributions of Tc-99 in the Irish Sea have important environmental and commercial implications. In this study, transport of the Tc-99 material was simulated in order to develop an increased understanding of long-term horizontal and vertical distributions. In particular, impact of seasonal hydrodynamic features such as the summer stratification on the surface-to-bottom Tc-99 ratio was of interest. Also, material retention mechanisms within the western Irish Sea were explored and flushing rates under various release conditions and meteorological forcing were estimated. The results show that highest vertical gradients are observed between June and July in the deepest regions of the North Channel and the western Irish Sea where radionuclide-rich saline-poor water overlays radionuclide-poor saline-rich Atlantic water masses. Strong correlation between top-to-bottom ratio of Tc-99 and strength of stratification was found. Flushing studies demonstrate that as the stratification intensifies, residence times within the western Irish Sea increase. In stratified waters of the gyre Tc-99 material is flushed out from the upper layer much quicker than from the bottom zone. The research also shows that in the gyre the biologically active upper layers above the thermocline are likely to contain higher concentrations than the near-bed region. Long-term horizontal and vertical distributions as determined in this study provide a basis for

  1. Hydrodynamic processes, velocity structure and stratification in natural turbidity currents: Results inferred from field data in the Var Turbidite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migeon, Sébastien; Mulder, Thierry; Savoye, Bruno; Sage, Françoise

    2012-03-01

    The Var Turbidite System (NW Mediterranean Sea) is fed during the present-day highstand sea level by large earthquake-induced ignitive turbidity currents, low-density turbidity currents resulting from retrogressive failures triggered on the upper continental slope, and hyperpycnal flows related to the Var River floods. Using a large dataset including bathymetric data, side-scan sonar images, seismic-reflection profiles, cores and photographs of the seafloor, this paper attempts to better constrain the hydrodynamic behaviour of debris flows and turbidity currents along the Upper and Middle Valley of the Var Turbidite System. The drastic change of the seafloor morphology between the Upper and the Middle Valley suggests that gravity flows undergo rapid transformation from cohesive to fully turbulent behaviour. This transformation is related to a hydraulic jump caused by an abrupt decrease in slope angle at the transition between the Upper and the Middle Valley and is associated with en masse deposition and elevation of the seafloor. Strong seafloor erosion prevails in the Middle Valley, suggesting that, for a low and constant slope angle, turbulent flows must regain a balance between concentration and flow thickness rapidly after they experience hydraulic jump. The internal stratification and vertical grain-size distribution within turbulent flows are inferred from the distribution of fine- to coarse-grained turbidites found in cores located along the crest of the Var Sedimentary Ridge with a decreasing elevation above the floor of the Middle Valley. The theoretical vertical velocity profile deduced from the vertical grain-size distribution exhibits a general trend and an inflection of the gradient curve different from those of the velocity profiles classically obtained using numerical modelling.

  2. Prkci is required for a non-autonomous signal that coordinates cell polarity during cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, In Kyoung; Soloff, Rachel; Izuhara, Audrey K; Lakeland, Daniel L; Wang, Charles; Mariani, Francesca V

    2016-08-01

    Polarized epithelia define boundaries, spaces, and cavities within organisms. Cavitation, a process by which multicellular hollow balls or tubes are produced, is typically associated with the formation of organized epithelia. In order for these epithelial layers to form, cells must ultimately establish a distinct apical-basal polarity. Atypical PKCs have been proposed to be required for apical-basal polarity in diverse species. Here we show that while cells null for the Prkci isozyme exhibit some polarity characteristics, they fail to properly segregate apical-basal proteins, form a coordinated ectodermal epithelium, or participate in normal cavitation. A failure to cavitate could be due to an overgrowth of interior cells or to an inability of interior cells to die. Null cells however, do not have a marked change in proliferation rate and are still capable of undergoing cell death, suggesting that alterations in these processes are not the predominant cause of the failed cavitation. Overexpression of BMP4 or EZRIN can partially rescue the phenotype possibly by promoting cell death, polarity, and differentiation. However, neither is sufficient to provide the required cues to generate a polarized epithelium and fully rescue cavitation. Interestingly, when wildtype and Prkci(-/-) ES cells are mixed together, a polarized ectodermal epithelium forms and cavitation is rescued, likely due to the ability of wildtype cells to produce non-autonomous polarity cues. We conclude that Prkci is not required for cells to respond to these cues, though it is required to produce them. Together these findings indicate that environmental cues can facilitate the formation of polarized epithelia and that cavitation requires the proper coordination of multiple basic cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, cell death, and apical-basal polarization.

  3. The hydrodynamics of colloidal gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Zsigmond; Wang, Gang; Swan, James

    2015-12-14

    Colloidal gels are formed during arrested phase separation. Sub-micron, mutually attractive particles aggregate to form a system spanning network with high interfacial area, far from equilibrium. Models for microstructural evolution during colloidal gelation have often struggled to match experimental results with long standing questions regarding the role of hydrodynamic interactions. In nearly all models, these interactions are neglected entirely. In the present work, we report simulations of gelation with and without hydrodynamic interactions between the suspended particles executed in HOOMD-blue. The disparities between these simulations are striking and mirror the experimental-theoretical mismatch in the literature. The hydrodynamic simulations agree with experimental observations, however. We explore a simple model of the competing transport processes in gelation that anticipates these disparities, and conclude that hydrodynamic forces are essential. Near the gel boundary, there exists a competition between compaction of individual aggregates which suppresses gelation and coagulation of aggregates which enhances it. The time scale for compaction is mildly slowed by hydrodynamic interactions, while the time scale for coagulation is greatly accelerated. This enhancement to coagulation leads to a shift in the gel boundary to lower strengths of attraction and lower particle concentrations when compared to models that neglect hydrodynamic interactions. Away from the gel boundary, differences in the nearest neighbor distribution and fractal dimension persist within gels produced by both simulation methods. This result necessitates a fundamental rethinking of how dynamic, discrete element models for gelation kinetics are developed as well as how collective hydrodynamic interactions influence the arrest of attractive colloidal dispersions.

  4. Cell mechanics in biomedical cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianxi; Manmi, Kawa; Liu, Kuo-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the deformation behaviours of cellular entities, such as coated microbubbles and liposomes subject to a cavitation flow, become increasingly important for the advancement of ultrasonic imaging and drug delivery. Numerical simulations for bubble dynamics of ultrasound contrast agents based on the boundary integral method are presented in this work. The effects of the encapsulating shell are estimated by adapting Hoff's model used for thin-shell contrast agents. The viscosity effects are estimated by including the normal viscous stress in the boundary condition. In parallel, mechanical models of cell membranes and liposomes as well as state-of-the-art techniques for quantitative measurement of viscoelasticity for a single cell or coated microbubbles are reviewed. The future developments regarding modelling and measurement of the material properties of the cellular entities for cutting-edge biomedical applications are also discussed. PMID:26442142

  5. Reflections on cavitation nuclei in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Knud Aage

    2007-01-01

    The origin of cavitation bubbles, cavitation nuclei, has been a subject of debate since the early years of cavitation research. This paper presents an analysis of a representative selection of experimental investigations of cavitation inception and the tensile strength of water. At atmospheric...... on the surface of particles and bounding walls. Such nuclei can be related to the full range of tensile strengths measured, when differences of experimental conditions are taken into consideration. The absence or presence of contamination on surfaces, as well as the structure of the surfaces, are central...... to explaining why the tensile strength of water varies so dramatically between the experiments reported. A model for calculation of the critical pressure of skin-covered free gas bubbles as well as that of interfacial gaseous nuclei covered by a skin is presented. This model is able to bridge the apparently...

  6. Two-Phase Cavitating Flow in Turbomachines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandor I. Bernad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cavitating flows are notoriously complex because they are highly turbulent and unsteady flows involving two species (liquid/vapor with a large density difference. These features pose a unique challenge to numerical modeling works. The study briefly reviews the methodology curently employed for industrial cavitating flow simulations using the two-phase mixture model. The two-phase mixture model is evaluated and validated using benchmark problem where experimental data are available. A 3D cavitating flow computation is performed for the GAMM Francis runner. The model is able to qualitatively predict the location and extent of the 3D cavity on the blade, but further investigation are needed to quatitatively assess the accuracy for real turbomachinery cavitating flows.

  7. Numerical analysis of cavitation within slanted axial-flow pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张睿; 陈红勋

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the cavitating flow within a slanted axial-flow pump is numerically researched. The hydraulic and cavitation performance of the slanted axial-flow pump under different operation conditions are estimated. Compared with the experimental hydraulic performance curves, the numerical results show that the filter-based model is better than the standard k-e model to predict the parameters of hydraulic performance. In cavitation simulation, compared with the experimental results, the proposed numerical method has good predicting ability. Under different cavitation conditions, the internal cavitating flow fields within slanted axial-flow pump are investigated. Compared with flow visualization results, the major internal flow features can be effectively grasped. In order to explore the origin of the cavitation performance breakdown, the Boundary Vorticity Flux (BVF) is introduced to diagnose the cavitating flow fields. The analysis results indicate that the cavitation performance drop is relevant to the instability of cavitating flow on the blade suction surface.

  8. Assessment of Cavitation Erosion with a Multiphase Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Z.R.

    2012-01-01

    Cavitation erosion is one of the remarkable catastrophic consequences of cavitation. Predicting the cavitation aggressiveness quantitatively and predicting the most probable location of cavitation erosion are complex problems that currently still motivate an important amount of basic and applied res

  9. Hydrodynamics of pronuclear migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazockdast, Ehssan; Needleman, Daniel; Shelley, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Microtubule (MT) filaments play a key role in many processes involved in cell devision including spindle formation, chromosome segregation, and pronuclear positioning. We present a direct numerical technique to simulate MT dynamics in such processes. Our method includes hydrodynamically mediated interactions between MTs and other cytoskeletal objects, using singularity methods for Stokes flow. Long-ranged many-body hydrodynamic interactions are computed using a highly efficient and scalable fast multipole method, enabling the simulation of thousands of MTs. Our simulation method also takes into account the flexibility of MTs using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory as well as their dynamic instability. Using this technique, we simulate pronuclear migration in single-celled Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Two different positioning mechanisms, based on the interactions of MTs with the motor proteins and the cell cortex, are explored: cytoplasmic pulling and cortical pushing. We find that although the pronuclear complex migrates towards the center of the cell in both models, the generated cytoplasmic flows are fundamentally different. This suggest that cytoplasmic flow visualization during pronuclear migration can be utilized to differentiate between the two mechanisms.

  10. Visualization of fluid turbulence and acoustic cavitation during phacoemulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognetto, Daniele; Sanguinetti, Giorgia; Sirotti, Paolo; Brezar, Edoardo; Ravalico, Giuseppe

    2005-02-01

    To describe a technique for visualizing fluid turbulence and cavitational energy created by ultrasonic phaco tips. University Eye Clinic of Trieste, Trieste, Italy. Generation of cavitational energy by the phaco tip was visualized using an optical test bench comprising several components. The technique uses a telescope system to expand a laser light source into a coherent, collimated beam of light with a diameter of approximately 50.0 mm. The expanded laser beam shines on the test tube containing the tip activated in a medium of water or ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD). Two precision optical collimators complete the optical test bench and form the system used to focus data onto a charge-coupled device television camera connected to a recorder. Images of irrigation, irrigation combined with aspiration, irrigation/aspiration, and phacosonication were obtained with the tip immersed in a tube containing water or OVD. Optical image processing enabled acoustic cavitation to be visualized during phacosonication. The system is a possible means of evaluating a single phaco apparatus power setting and comparing phaco machines and techniques.

  11. VOID GROWTH AND CAVITATION IN NONLINEAR VISCOELASTIC SOLIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张赟; 黄筑平

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the growth of a pre-existing void in a nonlinear viscoelastic material subjected to remote hydrostatic tensions with different loading rates. The constitutive relation of this viscoelastic material is the one recently proposed by the present authors, which may be considered as a generalization of the non-Gaussian statistical theory in rubber elasticity. As the first order approximation, the above constitutive relation can be reduced to the "neo-Hookean" type viscoelastic one.Investigations of the influences of the material viscosity and the loading rate on the void growth, or on the cavitation are carried out. It is found that: (1) for generalized "inverse Langevin approximation"nonlinear viscoelastic materials, the cavitation limit does not exist, but there is a certain (remote)stress level at which the void will grow rapidly; (2) for generalized "Gaussian statistics" (neo-Hookean type) viscoelastic materials, the cavitation limit exists, and is an increasing function of the loading rate.The present discussions may be of importance in understanding the material failure process under high triaxial stress.

  12. Modelling multi-phase liquid-sediment scour and resuspension induced by rapid flows using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) accelerated with a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourtakas, G.; Rogers, B. D.

    2016-06-01

    A two-phase numerical model using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is applied to two-phase liquid-sediments flows. The absence of a mesh in SPH is ideal for interfacial and highly non-linear flows with changing fragmentation of the interface, mixing and resuspension. The rheology of sediment induced under rapid flows undergoes several states which are only partially described by previous research in SPH. This paper attempts to bridge the gap between the geotechnics, non-Newtonian and Newtonian flows by proposing a model that combines the yielding, shear and suspension layer which are needed to predict accurately the global erosion phenomena, from a hydrodynamics prospective. The numerical SPH scheme is based on the explicit treatment of both phases using Newtonian and the non-Newtonian Bingham-type Herschel-Bulkley-Papanastasiou constitutive model. This is supplemented by the Drucker-Prager yield criterion to predict the onset of yielding of the sediment surface and a concentration suspension model. The multi-phase model has been compared with experimental and 2-D reference numerical models for scour following a dry-bed dam break yielding satisfactory results and improvements over well-known SPH multi-phase models. With 3-D simulations requiring a large number of particles, the code is accelerated with a graphics processing unit (GPU) in the open-source DualSPHysics code. The implementation and optimisation of the code achieved a speed up of x58 over an optimised single thread serial code. A 3-D dam break over a non-cohesive erodible bed simulation with over 4 million particles yields close agreement with experimental scour and water surface profiles.

  13. AN ATTRIBUTION OF CAVITATION RESONANCE: VOLUMETRIC OSCILLATIONS OF CLOUD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Zhi-gang; LI Sheng-cai; LIU Shu-hong; LI Shuang; CHEN Hui

    2009-01-01

    In order to further verify the proposed theory of cavitation resonance, as well as to proceed the investigations into microscopic level, a series of studies are being carried out on the Warwick venturi. The analysis of the oscillation characteristics of the cavitation resonance has conclusively verified the macro-mechanism proposed through previous studies on other cavitating flows by the authors. The initial observations using high-speed photographic approach have revealed a new attribution of cavitation resonance. That is, the volumetric oscillation of cavitation cloud is associated with the cavitation resonance, which is a collective behaviour of the bubbles in the cloud.

  14. Model of Light Scattering in Cavitation Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Skvortsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The offered work presents analysis of extinction mechanisms and justification of light scattering model in ultrasonic cavitation area to justify a control method of ultrasonic cavitation through its optical sounding by low-intensity laser radiation and through photo-detector record of last radiation.The analysis of the extinction mechanisms has shown that the most essential mechanism causing a change of the transmission coefficient with time is dispersion on pulsating cavitation bubbles. Other extinction mechanisms lead to the time-constant reduction of last radiation intensity and can be taken into consideration by normalizing a recorded transmission coefficient for a previously measured liquid transmission coefficient when there is no cavitation.The feature of light scattering on the cavitation bubbles is primary dispersion in a forward direction that is connected with great values of bubbles radius from units to hundreds of micrometers. In case of single bubbles, dispersion can be described by Mi's theory, and, as to the cavitation area, it is reasonable to use the theory of V. Tversky for multiple light scattering. Thus, dispersion section, according to the paradox of extinction, can be considered to be equal to doubled geometrical section of a bubble. With increasing bubble radius the transmission coefficient monotonically decreases. So, the law of bubble pulsations and the model of light scattering define the law of changing transmission coefficient.Therefore, the cavitation area with its optical sounding acts as a peculiar opto-acoustic modulator. Thus, the demodulated signal of a photo-detector comprises information on pulsations of bubbles.The paper examines the influence of cavitation area thickness and bubbles concentration on the transmission coefficient. It shows a type of transmission coefficient dependence on the radius of cavitation bubbles.The optical sounding method is attractive because it allows us to obtain data on the

  15. Hydrodynamics of Explosion Experiments and Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kedrinskii, Valery K

    2005-01-01

    Hydronamics of Explosion presents the research results for the problems of underwater explosions and contains a detailed analysis of the structure and the parameters of the wave fields generated by explosions of cord and spiral charges, a description of the formation mechanisms for a wide range of cumulative flows at underwater explosions near the free surface, and the relevant mathematical models. Shock-wave transformation in bubbly liquids, shock-wave amplification due to collision and focusing, and the formation of bubble detonation waves in reactive bubbly liquids are studied in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on the investigation of wave processes in cavitating liquids, which incorporates the concepts of the strength of real liquids containing natural microinhomogeneities, the relaxation of tensile stress, and the cavitation fracture of a liquid as the inversion of its two-phase state under impulsive (explosive) loading. The problems are classed among essentially nonlinear processes that occur unde...

  16. Numerical analysis of the interactions of sheet cavitation and cloud cavitation around a hydrofoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, D. Z.; Zhang, D. S.; Wang, H. Y.; Shi, W. D.; Shi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Partial cavitation and cloud cavitation on NACA66(MOD) was studied based on PANS turbulence model combined with the Zwart cavitation model. The results agree well with the data from the experimental results. The existence of a kind of unsteady characteristics of cloud cavitation is analysed in details. The reasons for the inhibition mechanism of the sheet cavitation are discussed. Pressure shock wave occurs near the tailing edge of the hydrofoil when the collapse of cloud is so large leading to great influence on the cavity closed to the leading edge. The evolution of the pressure peak and its propagation toward the leading edge were investigated through the study of the time domain signal of the monitor points along the streamline of flow. Finally, the propagation of the pressure wave on the suction side was further investigated through analysing the spatial-time history of wall pressure.

  17. Monitoring of transient cavitation induced by ultrasound and intense pulsed light in presence of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazgarnia, Ameneh; Shanei, Ahmad; Shanei, Mohammad Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in medical treatment is invention of a minimally invasive approach in order to induce lethal damages to cancer cells. Application of high intensity focused ultrasound can be beneficial to achieve this goal via the cavitation process. Existence of the particles and vapor in a liquid decreases the ultrasonic intensity threshold required for cavitation onset. In this study, synergism of intense pulsed light (IPL) and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) has been investigated as a means of providing nucleation sites for acoustic cavitation. Several approaches have been reported with the aim of cavitation monitoring. We conducted the experiments on the basis of sonochemiluminescence (SCL) and chemical dosimetric methods. The acoustic cavitation activity was investigated by determining the integrated SCL signal acquired over polyacrylamide gel phantoms containing luminol in the presence and absence of GNPs in the wavelength range of 400-500 nm using a spectrometer equipped with cooled charged coupled devices (CCD) during irradiation by different intensities of 1 MHz ultrasound and IPL pulses. In order to confirm these results, the terephthalic acid chemical dosimeter was utilized as well. The SCL signal recorded in the gel phantoms containing GNPs at different intensities of ultrasound in the presence of intense pulsed light was higher than the gel phantoms without GNPs. These results have been confirmed by the obtained data from the chemical dosimetry method. Acoustic cavitation in the presence of GNPs and intense pulsed light has been suggested as a new approach designed for decreasing threshold intensity of acoustic cavitation and improving targeted therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Numerical prediction of impact force in cavitating flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, B [Department of Thermal Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Tsinghua Univeersity, Beijing, 100084 (China); Wang, H, E-mail: bszhu@mail.tsinghua.edu.c [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    An analytical method including a macroscopic cavitation model based on the homogeneous flow theory and a microscopic cavitation model based on the bubble dynamic was proposed for the prediction of the impact force caused by cavitation bubbles collapse in cavitating flows. A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) solver incorporated the macroscopic cavitation model was applied to simulate the unsteady cavitating flows. Based on the simulated flow field, the evolution of the cavitation bubbles was determined by a microscopic cavitation model from the resolution of a Rayleigh-Plesset equation including of the effects of the surface tension, the viscosity and compressibility of fluid, thermal conduction and radiation, the phase transition of water vapor at interface and chemical reactions. The cavitation flow around a hydrofoil was simulated to validate the macroscopic cavitation model. A good quantitative agreement was obtained between the prediction and the experiment. The proposed analytical method was applied to predict the impact force at cavitation bubbles collapse on a KT section in cavitating flows. It was found that the shock pressure caused by cavitation bubble collapse is very high. The impact force was predicted accurately comparing with the experimental data.

  19. Impact of hydrodynamics on pollutant degradation and energy efficiency of VUV/UV and H2O2/UV oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Mehdi; Mohseni, Madjid

    2015-12-01

    The Vacuum-UV/UV process, an incipient catalyst/chemical-free advanced oxidation process (AOP), is potentially a cost-effective solution for the removal of harmful micropollutants from water. Utilizing a novel mechanistic numerical model, this work aimed to establish a thorough understanding of the degradation mechanisms in the VUV/UV process operating under continuous flow conditions, when compared with the widely applied H2O2/UV AOP. Of particular interest was the examination of the impact of flow characteristics (hydrodynamics) on the degradation efficacy of a target micropollutant during the VUV/UV and H2O2/UV AOPs. While hydroxyl radical (OH) oxidation was the dominant degradation pathway in both processes, the degradation efficacy of the VUV/UV process showed much stronger correlation with the extent of mixing in the photoreactor. Under a uniform flow regime, the degradation efficiency of the target pollutant achieved by the H2O2/UV process with 2- and 5 ppm H2O2 was greater than that provided by the VUV/UV process. Nonetheless, introduction of mixing and circulation zones to the VUV/UV reactor resulted in superior performance compared with the H2O2/UV AOP. Based on the electrical energy-per-order (EEO) analysis, incorporation of circulation zones resulted in a reduction of up to 50% in the overall energy cost of the VUV/UV AOP, while the corresponding reduction for the 5-ppm H2O2/UV system was less than 5%. Furthermore, the extent of OH scavenging of natural organic matter (NOM) on energy efficiency of the VUV/UV and H2O2/UV AOPs under continuous flow conditions was assessed using the EEO analysis.

  20. A numerical study of cavitating flows in high-pressure diesel injection nozzle holes using a two-fluid model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiang; SU WanHua

    2009-01-01

    Cavitating flows inside a diesel injection nozzle hole were simulated using a two-fluid model. Attention was focused on the complex cavitation processes and flow characteristics under constant inlet pres-sure and fluctuant inlet pressure modes. To validate the two-fluid model, model predictions were compared with the experimental data available in the literatures, and good agreement was achieved. The numerical results show that the appearance of supercavitation in the diesel nozzle hole induces obvious changes of flow field structures and exit flow conditions, The distributions of liquid phase turbulent kinetic energy and exit velocity profiles corresponding to the supercavitation regime indicate the potential for promoting the primary breakup of a diesel jet. Furthermore, the upstream pressure fluctuations significantly influence the cavitation processes. Both partial cavitation and supercavitation show unsteady behaviors as the rapid rise or fall of upstream pressure.

  1. Bilateral and multiple cavitation sounds during upper cervical thrust manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, James; Mourad, Firas; Barbero, Marco; Leoni, Diego; Cescon, Corrado; Butts, Raymond

    2013-01-15

    The popping produced during high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA) thrust manipulation is a common sound; however to our knowledge, no study has previously investigated the location of cavitation sounds during manipulation of the upper cervical spine. The primary purpose was to determine which side of the spine cavitates during C1-2 rotatory HVLA thrust manipulation. Secondary aims were to calculate the average number of pops, the duration of upper cervical thrust manipulation, and the duration of a single cavitation. Nineteen asymptomatic participants received two upper cervical thrust manipulations targeting the right and left C1-2 articulation, respectively. Skin mounted microphones were secured bilaterally over the transverse process of C1, and sound wave signals were recorded. Identification of the side, duration, and number of popping sounds were determined by simultaneous analysis of spectrograms with audio feedback using custom software developed in Matlab. Bilateral popping sounds were detected in 34 (91.9%) of 37 manipulations while unilateral popping sounds were detected in just 3 (8.1%) manipulations; that is, cavitation was significantly (P thrust manipulation was 3.57 (95% CI: 3.19, 3.94) and the mean number of pops per subject following both right and left C1-2 thrust manipulations was 6.95 (95% CI: 6.11, 7.79). The mean duration of a single audible pop was 5.66 ms (95% CI: 5.36, 5.96) and the mean duration of a single manipulation was 96.95 ms (95% CI: 57.20, 136.71). Cavitation was significantly more likely to occur bilaterally than unilaterally during upper cervical HVLA thrust manipulation. Most subjects produced 3-4 pops during a single rotatory HVLA thrust manipulation targeting the right or left C1-2 articulation; therefore, practitioners of spinal manipulative therapy should expect multiple popping sounds when performing upper cervical thrust manipulation to the atlanto-axial joint. Furthermore, the traditional manual therapy approach of

  2. Effect of Solution Temperature for Al Alloy Anodizing on Cavitation Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Jun [Kunsan National University, Kunsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Hyung; Kim, Seong Jong [Mokpo National Maritime University, Haeyangdaehak-ro 91, Mokpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The commercialization of aluminum had been delayed than other metals because of its high oxygen affinity. Anodizing is a process in which oxide film is formed on the surface of a valve metal in an electrolyte solution by anodic oxidation reaction. Aluminum has thin oxide film on surface but the oxide film is inhomogeneous having a thickness only in the range of several nanometers. Anodizing process increases the thickness of the oxide film significantly. In this study, porous type oxide film was produced on the surface of aluminum in sulfuric acid as a function of electrolyte temperature, and the optimum condition were determined for anodizing film to exhibit excellent cavitation resistance in seawater environment. The result revealed that the oxide film formed at 10 ℃ represented the highest cavitation resistance, while the oxide film formed at 15 ℃ showed the lowest resistance to cavitation in spite of its high hardness.

  3. Cavitation Measurement during Sonic and Ultrasonic Activated Irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macedo, Ricardo; Verhaagen, Bram; Rivas, David Fernandez; Versluis, Michel; Wesselink, Paul; van der Sluis, Luc

    Introduction: The aims of this study were to quantify and to visualize the possible occurrence of transient cavitation (bubble formation and implosion) during sonic and ultrasonic (UAI) activated irrigation. Methods: The amount of cavitation generated around several endodontic instruments was

  4. Advanced experimental and numerical techniques for cavitation erosion prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Chahine, Georges; Franc, Jean-Pierre; Karimi, Ayat

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the cavitation erosion phenomenon and state-of-the-art research in the field. It is divided into two parts. Part 1 consists of seven chapters, offering a wide range of computational and experimental approaches to cavitation erosion. It includes a general introduction to cavitation and cavitation erosion, a detailed description of facilities and measurement techniques commonly used in cavitation erosion studies, an extensive presentation of various stages of cavitation damage (including incubation and mass loss), and insights into the contribution of computational methods to the analysis of both fluid and material behavior. The proposed approach is based on a detailed description of impact loads generated by collapsing cavitation bubbles and a physical analysis of the material response to these loads. Part 2 is devoted to a selection of nine papers presented at the International Workshop on Advanced Experimental and Numerical Techniques for Cavitation Erosion (Gr...

  5. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE TIP CLEARANCE FLOWS ON THE UNSTEADY CAVITATING FLOWS IN A THREE-DIMENSIONAL INDUCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OKITA K.; UGAJIN H.; MATSUMOTO Y.

    2009-01-01

    To clarify the influences of the tip clearance flows on the unsteady cavitating flow,the three-dimensional unsteady cavitating flows through both the two-dimensional cascades and the three-dimensional inducer with and without tip clearance are performed numerically.The governing equations for the compressible fluid flow with the DES turbulence model are employed with the assumption of the isentropic process of liquid phase.The evolution of cavities is represented as the source/sink of vapor phase.The basic equations in the curve linear coordinate are solved by the finite difference method.As the results of the three-dimensional cavitating flows through the two-dimensional cascades,the tip clearance flows from the pressure side to the suction side of the blade produces the tip vortex cavitation,which affects the sheet cavitation on the leading edge of the next blade and enhances the blockage effect near the casing than the flows without tip clearance.On the other hand,in the case of the three-dimensional inducer,the large backflow cavitation is observed around the inlet of the inducer,where the cavities are developed on the casing by the tip clearance flows.The large pressure gradient between the non-cavitating pressure side and the cavitating suction side enhances the tip clearance flows.The calculation considering the tip clearance reproduces the developed cavitation region similar to that of experimental visualizations.Additionally,the backflow cavitation rotates with the speed slower than the rotation speed of the inducer.Then,the rotation of backflow cavitation causes the periodic fluctuation of the outlet pressure greater than that of the inlet pressure.

  6. A new smoothed particle hydrodynamics non-Newtonian model for friction stir welding: Process modeling and simulation of microstructure evolution in a magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wenxiao; Li, Dongsheng; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Ahzi, Said; Khraisheh, Marwan; Khaleel, Moe

    2013-09-01

    We present a new smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) model for friction stir welding (FSW). FSW has broad commercial application in the marine, aerospace, rail, and automotive industries. However, development of the FSW process for each new application has remained largely empirical. Few established numerical modeling techniques have been developed that can explain and predict important features of the process physics involved in FSW. This is particularly true in the areas of material flow and mixing mechanisms. In this paper, we present a novel modeling approach to simulate FSW that may have significant advantages over current finite element or finite difference based methods. Unlike traditional grid-based methods, Lagrangian particle methods such as SPH can simulate the dynamics of interfaces, large material deformations, and the material’s strain and temperature history without employing complex tracking schemes. Three-dimensional simulations of FSW on AZ31 Mg alloy are performed. The temperature history and distribution, grain size, microhardness as well as the texture evolution are presented. Numerical results are found to be in good agreement with experimental observations.

  7. Thermodynamic and stochastic theory of hydrodynamic and power-producing processes. [Annual report], September 1991--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J.

    1992-09-16

    Thermodynamics of the transport processes of diffusion, thermal conduction, and viscous flow at a macroscopic level are developed for the simplest cases of one-dimensional transport in fluids for individual linear and nonlinear processes approaching a stationary non-equilibrium state. Formulation has started of thermodynamic and stochastic theory of combinations of transport processes. Global thermodynamic and stochastic theory of open chemical systems frar from equilibrium is continued with analysis of a broad class of isothermal, multicomponent reaction mechanisms with multiple steady states with assumed local equilibrium. Stationary solutions are obtained of the master equation for single and multi-intermediate autocatalytic chemical systems. A kinetic potential is identified that governs the deterministic time evolution of coupled tank reactors. A second-order response theory was developed to investigate the effects of external periodic perturbations on a chemical reaction at a stable steady state in an open reactor.

  8. Hydrodynamics research of wastewater treatment bioreactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Nan-qi; ZHANG Bing; ZHOU Xue-fei

    2009-01-01

    To optimize the design and improve the performance of wastewater treatment bioreactors, the review concerning the hydrodynamics explored by theoretical equations, process experiments, modeling of the hydrody-namics and flow field measurement is presented. Results of different kinds of experiments show that the hydro-dynamic characteristics can affect sludge characteristics, mass transfer and reactor performance significantly. A-long with the development of theoretical equations, turbulence models including large eddy simulation models and Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models are widely used at present. Standard and modified k-ε models are the most widely used eddy viscosity turbulence models for simulating flows in bioreactors. Numericalsimulation of hydrodynamics is proved to be efficient for optimizing design and operation. The development of measurement techniques with high accuracy and low intrusion enables the flow filed in the bioreactors to be transparent. Integration of both numerical simulation and experimental measurement can describe the hydrody-namics very well.

  9. Hydrodynamic Nambu Brackets derived by Geometric Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Blender, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A geometric approach to derive the Nambu brackets for ideal two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics is suggested. The derivation is based on two-forms with vanishing integrals in a periodic domain, and with resulting dynamics constrained by an orthogonality condition. As a result, 2D hydrodynamics with vorticity as dynamic variable emerges as a generic model, with conservation laws which can be interpreted as enstrophy and energy functionals. Generalized forms like surface quasi-geostrophy and fractional Poisson equations for the stream-function are also included as results from the derivation. The formalism is extended to a hydrodynamic system coupled to a second degree of freedom, with the Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection as an example. This system is reformulated in terms of constitutive conservation laws with two additive brackets which represent individual processes: a first representing inviscid 2D hydrodynamics, and a second representing the coupling between hydrodynamics and thermodynamics. The results can b...

  10. Hydrodynamic effects on coalescence.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimiduk, Thomas G.; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Grillet, Anne Mary; Baer, Thomas A.; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Loewenberg, Michael (Yale University, New Haven, CT); Gorby, Allen D.; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2006-10-01

    The goal of this project was to design, build and test novel diagnostics to probe the effect of hydrodynamic forces on coalescence dynamics. Our investigation focused on how a drop coalesces onto a flat surface which is analogous to two drops coalescing, but more amenable to precise experimental measurements. We designed and built a flow cell to create an axisymmetric compression flow which brings a drop onto a flat surface. A computer-controlled system manipulates the flow to steer the drop and maintain a symmetric flow. Particle image velocimetry was performed to confirm that the control system was delivering a well conditioned flow. To examine the dynamics of the coalescence, we implemented an interferometry capability to measure the drainage of the thin film between the drop and the surface during the coalescence process. A semi-automated analysis routine was developed which converts the dynamic interferogram series into drop shape evolution data.

  11. Pseudopotential multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for cavitation bubble collapse with high density ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ming-Lei; Zhu, Chang-Ping; Yao, Cheng; Yin, Cheng; Jiang, Xiao-Yan

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of the cavitation bubble collapse is a fundamental issue for the bubble collapse application and prevention. In the present work, the modified forcing scheme for the pseudopotential multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model developed by Li Q et al. [Li Q, Luo K H and Li X J 2013 Phys. Rev. E 87 053301] is adopted to develop a cavitation bubble collapse model. In the respects of coexistence curves and Laplace law verification, the improved pseudopotential multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model is investigated. It is found that the thermodynamic consistency and surface tension are independent of kinematic viscosity. By homogeneous and heterogeneous cavitation simulation, the ability of the present model to describe the cavitation bubble development as well as the cavitation inception is verified. The bubble collapse between two parallel walls is simulated. The dynamic process of a collapsing bubble is consistent with the results from experiments and simulations by other numerical methods. It is demonstrated that the present pseudopotential multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model is applicable and efficient, and the lattice Boltzmann method is an alternative tool for collapsing bubble modeling. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274092 and 1140040119) and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. SBK2014043338).

  12. Combined slurry and cavitation erosion resistance of HVOF spray coated SS 410 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarendra, H. J.; Prathap, M. S.; Karthik, S.; Abhishek, A. M.; Madhu surya, K. C.; Gujjar gowda, S.; Anilkumar, T.

    2016-09-01

    The hydro turbine materials surface is degraded due to the slurry erosion and cavitation. The solid particles carried by water impacting the material results in slurry erosion. The damage occurred due to slurry erosion is the concern, when considered individually. The erosion damage is observed to be severe when slurry erosion and cavitation are combined. The hydro turbine material, martensitic stainless (SS 410) is surface modified with 80Ni-Cr by High Velocity Oxy Fuel spray process. The coated material subjected to post thermal treatment at a temperature of 950 ° C, soaked at 1 h, 2 h and 3 h are subjected to combined slurry and cavitation erosion test. The cavitation is created by using Cavitation Inducers. The tests are conducted by using silica sand as the erodent with three different sizes of 150, 200 and 300 μm. The results are compared with the as-received specimen. The results confirmed the effect of heat treatment on the end results, as the coated thermal treated specimens showed better erosion resistance against the as-received specimen. The eroded specimens are characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope. The thermal treated HVOF coated specimens shown the better erosion resistance.

  13. Elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication

    CERN Document Server

    Dowson, D; Hopkins, D W

    1977-01-01

    Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication deals with the mechanism of elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication, that is, the lubrication regime in operation over the small areas where machine components are in nominal point or line contact. The lubrication of rigid contacts is discussed, along with the effects of high pressure on the lubricant and bounding solids. The governing equations for the solution of elasto-hydrodynamic problems are presented.Comprised of 13 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication and representation of contacts by cylinders, followed by a discussio

  14. Elementary classical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chirgwin, B H; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A; Plumpton, C

    1967-01-01

    Elementary Classical Hydrodynamics deals with the fundamental principles of elementary classical hydrodynamics, with emphasis on the mechanics of inviscid fluids. Topics covered by this book include direct use of the equations of hydrodynamics, potential flows, two-dimensional fluid motion, waves in liquids, and compressible flows. Some general theorems such as Bernoulli's equation are also considered. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental principles of fluid hydrodynamics, with emphasis on ways of studying the motion of a fluid. Basic c

  15. Influence of microparticle size on cavitation noise during ultrasonic vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ge

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The cavitation noise in the ultrasonic vibration system was found to be influenced by the size of microparticles added in water. The SiO2 microparticles with the diameter smaller than 100 μm reduced the cavitation noise, and the reason was attributed to the constrained oscillation of the cavitation bubbles, which were stabilized by the microparticles.

  16. Noise Caused by Cavitating Butterfly and Monovar Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    HASSIS, H.

    1999-08-01

    An experimental study of the effects of cavitation was carried out through an analysis of cavitating Butterfly and Monovar values. Focus is particularly placed on both unsteady pressure and acoustic pressure fluctuations. In this paper, the effects of cavitation on local fluctuation pressure (turbulence), acoustic propagation (damping and sound velocity), resonance frequencies and level of noise are presented.

  17. Static and Transient Cavitation Threshold Measurements for Mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraga, F.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1999-11-14

    Transient and static cavitation thresholds for mercury as a function of the cover gas (helium or air), and pressure are reported. Both static and transient cavitation onset pressure thresholds increase linearly with cover gas pressure. Additionally, the cavitation thresholds as a function of dissolved gases were also measured and are reported.

  18. Real-time two-dimensional imaging of microbubble cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignon, Francois; Shi, W. T.; Powers, J. E.; Liu, J.; Drvol, L.; Lof, J.; Everbach, C.; Gao, S.; Xie, F.; Porter, T.

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasound cavitation of microbubble contrast agents has a potential for therapeutic applications, including sonothrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke. For safety, efficacy, and reproducibility of treatment, it is critical to evaluate the cavitation state (e.g. stable versus inertial forms of cavitation) and intensity in and around a treatment area. Acoustic Passive Cavitation Detectors (PCDs) have been used but do not provide spatial information. This paper presents a prototype of a 2D cavitation imager capable of producing images of the dominant cavitation state and intensity in a region of interest at a frame rate of 0.6Hz. The system is based on a modified ultrasound scanner (iE33, Philips) with a sector imaging probe (S5-1). Cavitation imaging is based on the spectral analysis of the acoustic signal radiated by the cavitating microbubbles: ultraharmonics of the excitation frequency indicate stable cavitation, while noise bands indicate inertial cavitation. The system demonstrates the capability to robustly identify stable and inertial cavitation thresholds of Definity microbubbles (Lantheus) in a vessel phantom through 3 ex-vivo human temporal bones, as well as to spatially map cavitation activities.

  19. The numerical research of runner cavitation effects on spiral vortex rope in draft tube of Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Zhou, L. J.; Wang, Z. W.

    2015-12-01

    The spiral cavitating vortex rope developed in the draft tube of Francis turbine under part load condition maybe causes serious pressure fluctuations and power swings, which threatens the safety and stability of the power plant operations. Many works have been performed to explore the mechanisms of it. In this paper, the runner cavitation and spiral vortex rope under part load conditions were studied to investigate the relations of runner cavitation and the spiral vortex rope. The results proved the existence of obvious interaction between them. The swirl flow at the runner outlet plays an important role in the formation of vortex rope. And the periodic procession of vortex rope in turn intensifies the uneven pressure distribution near the runner outlet and causes the asymmetric cavitation on the runner blades, which then give rise to the modification of swirl flow at the runner blades and thereby affects the characteristics of vortex rope.

  20. Experimental study of laser-induced hydrodynamical and thermochemical processes by means of a laser brightness amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokoshev, Valerii G.; Klimovskii, Ivan I.; Galkin, Arkadii F.; Orlov, Vitalii N.; Abramov, Dmitrii V.; Taranenko, Mihail A.; Danilof, S. U.; Arakelian, Sergei M.

    1998-06-01

    Provided is the experimental study of the laser melting, treatment and oxidation of metals and alloys (steel, copper, brass, titanium and others) in a real time by the laser brightness amplifier on the basis of a copper laser. The image processing of obtained results has been carried out by computer. Worked out is the technique of measuring of the oxide layer growth by registration of movement of the interference minima (maxima) in reflective ability for radiation of the copper laser reflected from the inhomogeneous distribution of oxide over the cross section of the interaction zone. The results are compared with introduced theoretical models.

  1. Intensification of the Reverse Cationic Flotation of Hematite Ores with Optimization of Process and Hydrodynamic Parameters of Flotation Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poperechnikova, O. Yu; Filippov, L. O.; Shumskaya, E. N.; Filippova, I. V.

    2017-07-01

    The demand of high grade iron ore concentrates is a major issue due to the depletion of rich iron-bearing ores and high competitiveness in the iron ore market. Iron ore production is forced out to upgrade flowsheets to decrease the silica content in the pelettes. Different types of ore have different mineral composition and texture-structural features which require different mineral processing methods and technologies. The paper presents a comparative study of the cationic and anionic flotation routes to process a fine-grain oxidized iron ore. The modified carboxymethyl cellulose was found as the most efficient depressant in reverse cationic flotation. The results of flotation optimization of hematite ores using matrix of second-order center rotatable uniform design allowed to define the collector concentration, impeller rotation speed and air flowrate as the main flotation parameters impacting on the iron ore concentrate quality and iron recovery in a laboratory flotation machine. These parameters have been selected as independent during the experiments.

  2. Modelling vaporous cavitation on fluid transients

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the problem of modelling vaporous cavitation in transmission lines is presented. The two-phase homogeneous equilibrium vaporous cavitation model which has been developed is compared with the conventional column separation model. The latter predicts unrealistically high pressure spikes because of a conflict arising from the prediction of negative cavity sizes if the pressure is not permitted to fall below the vapour pressure, or the prediction of negative absolute pressures if the cavity size remains positive. This is verified by a comparison of predictions with previously published experimental results on upstream, midstream and downstream cavitation. The new model has been extended to include frequency-dependent friction. The characteristics predicted by the frequency-dependent friction model show close correspondence with experimental data.

  3. Cavitation erosion of NiAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, A. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, British Columbia (Canada)]|[Univ. of British Columbia (Canada). Metals and Materials Engineering Dept.; Salvi, R. [Univ. of British Columbia (Canada). Metals and Materials Engineering Dept.; Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1999-02-01

    Vibratory cavitation erosion tests were carried out on as-cast NiAl intermetallic compounds containing 46.5 to 62.1 at. pct Ni. The erosion rate decreased with increasing nickel content by over two orders of magnitude, from a high of 16.4 to 0.11 mg{center_dot}h{sup {minus}1}. These low erosion rates exhibited by the nickel-rich alloys containing 58 and 62.1 at. pct Ni, the interruptions in their mass loss with time, and the unusual effects associated with surface finish and intensity of cavitation were found to be associated with the stress-induced martensitic transformation. Alloys containing 58 to 62 at. pct Ni have the potential for use as materials for the cavitation protection of hydraulic machinery.

  4. Analogy between fluid cavitation and fracture mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Mullen, R. L.; Braun, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    When the stresses imposed on a fluid are sufficiently large, rupture or cavitation can occur. Such conditions can exist in many two-phase flow applications, such as the choked flows, which can occur in seals and bearings. Nonspherical bubbles with large aspect ratios have been observed in fluids under rapid acceleration and high shear fields. These bubbles are geometrically similar to fracture surface patterns (Griffith crack model) existing in solids. Analogies between crack growth in solid and fluid cavitation are proposed and supported by analysis and observation (photographs). Healing phenomena (void condensation), well accepted in fluid mechanics, have been observed in some polymers and hypothesized in solid mechanics. By drawing on the strengths of the theories of solid mechanics and cavitation, a more complete unified theory can be developed.

  5. Hydrodynamical properties of recombinant spider silk proteins: Effects of pH, salts and shear, and implications for the spinning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Jérémie; Lefèvre, Thierry; Gauthier, Martin; Gagné, Stéphane M; Auger, Michèle

    2013-09-01

    We have investigated the effect of pH, salts and shear on the hydrodynamical diameter of recombinant major ampullate (MA) rMaSpI silk proteins in solution as a function of time using (1) H solution NMR spectroscopy. The results indicate that the silk proteins in solution are composed of two diffusing populations, a high proportion of "native" solubilized proteins and a small amount of high molecular weight oligomers. Similar results are observed with the MA gland content. Salts help maintaining the proteins in a compact form in solution over time and inhibit aggregation, the absence of salts triggering protein assembly leading to a gel state. Moreover, the aggregation kinetics of rMaSpI at low salt concentration accelerates as the pH is close to the isoelectric point of the proteins, suggesting that the pH decrease tends to slow down aggregation. The data also support the strong impact of shear on the spinning process and suggest that the assembly is driven by a nucleation conformational conversion mechanism. Thus, the adjustment of the physicochemical conditions in the ampulla seems to promote a stable, long term storage. In addition, the optimization of protein conformation as well as their unfolding and aggregation propensity in the duct leads to a specifically organized structure.

  6. A HIGH-SPEED PHOTOGRAPHIC STUDY OF ULTRASONIC CAVITATION NEAR RIGID BOUNDARY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Li-xin; XU Wei-lin; TIAN Zhong; LI Nai-wen

    2008-01-01

    This article investigated an existing steady pattern of collapse and rebound (disintegration and aggregation) of cavitation bubbles near rigid boundary in acoustic field. A deformation process of cavitation bubble was accomplished in two acoustic cycles, namely, a spherical bubble collapsed towards the boundary to its minimum volume and then rebounded and grew into a toroidal bubble (or two individual bubbles) in one acoustic cycle, and the toroidal bubble (or two individual bubbles) collapsed towards the center offing to its minimum volume, and then rebounded into a spherical bubble in the next acoustic cycle. Inertia force plays a key role in the transition between these two states. The microjet produced during the collapse of spherical bubble and the shock wave produced during the collapse of toroidal bubble (or two individual bubbles) impacts the boundary alternately. A cavitation bubble operating in this pattern can thus be an effective corrosion mechanism of rigid boundary.

  7. Lowering of the cavitation threshold in aqueous suspensions of porous silicon nanoparticles for sonodynamic therapy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sviridov, A. P., E-mail: asagittarius89@gmail.com; Osminkina, L. A. [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Nikolaev, A. L. [Faculty of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kudryavtsev, A. A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Science, 142290 Pushino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, A. N. [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Theoretical Physics and Applied Mathematics Department, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Timoshenko, V. Yu. [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-21

    A significant decrease of the cavitation threshold in aqueous suspensions of porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) with sizes about 100 nm as compared with pure water was observed for ultrasound irradiation (USI) with therapeutic frequency (0.88 MHz) and intensities (about 1 W/cm{sup 2}). This effect is explained by porous morphology of PSi NPs, which promotes the nucleation of cavitation bubbles. In vitro experiments revealed a suppression of the proliferation of cancer cells with the introduced PSi NPs after exposure to USI related to the enhanced cavitation processes, which led to the cell destruction. The obtained results demonstrate that PSi NPs are prospective for applications as sonosensitizers in mild cancer therapy.

  8. Modeling Cavitation in ICE Pistons Made with Isothermal Forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Astanin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Possible causes for cavitations in parts made with an Al-Si eutectic alloy AK12D (AlSi12 were explored with mathematical and physical modeling with involved acoustic emission. Pores were formed from micro-cracks, which appear during the early stages of a deformation process, with the help of micro-stresses appearing at phase boundaries (Al/Si interface due to thermal expansion. At the design stage of isothermal forgings of such products it is recommended to provide a scheme of the deformed shape, which is under uniform compression, to compensate for the inter-phase stresses.

  9. On the mechanism of explosive eruption of mount erebus volcano: the dynamics of the rupture structure in a cavitating layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol'shakova, E. S.; Kedrinskiy, V. K.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental simulation of rupture development in heavily cavitating magma melt flow in volcanic conduits and its effect on the structure of explosive volcanic eruptions. The dynamics of the state of a layer of distilled water (similar in the density of cavitation nuclei to magma melt) under shock-wave loading was studied. The experiments were performed using electromagnetic hydrodynamic shock tubes (EM HST) with maximum capacitor bank energy of up to 100 J and 5 kJ. It was found that the topology of the rupture formed on the membrane surface did not change during its development. Empirical estimates were obtained for the proportion of the capacitor bank energy expended in the development of the rupture and the characteristic time of its existence. The study revealed a number of fundamentally new physical effects in the cavity dynamics in a cavitating medium: a cavitation “boundary layer” is formed on the surface of the quasi-empty rupture, which is transformed into a cluster of high energy density upon closure of the flow.

  10. Single-phase and modified turbulence models for simulation of unsteady cavitating flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basuki, W.; Schnerr, G.H.; Yuan, W. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this research is to provide a physical complete and numerical efficient simulation method to predict developed cavitation in hydrodynamic turbomachinery as well as in micro fluid dynamic applications, e.g. in high pressure injection nozzles of combustion engines. Cavitating two-phase flows are always very unstable, highly unsteady, 3-D and turbulent. To understand cavitation dynamics and its interaction with viscous effects like boundary layers and separation, we introduce the single-phase turbulence k - {omega} model of Wilcox without modifications with respect to dispersed structures of bubbly liquids, which overestimates viscous effects in the transitional regime between the vapor and liquid phase and tends to suppress typical cavitation instabilities. Consequently our further approach consists of modifications of the single-phase Wilcox model to account for the strong nonlinear variation of the turbulent viscosity {mu}{sub t}, depending on the local void fraction {alpha}. The key issue of all numerical methods for simulation of cavitating flows is the treatment of the sudden density change of the fluid, in cold water up to 40.000:1, embedded in a global incompressible liquid flow. Here the two-phase fluid is modeled as dispersed mixture of an incompressible liquid and tiny vapor bubbles which grow or collapse, accordingly to the local static pressure and their convective transport. Therefore, the standard VOF method for capturing distinct interfaces without phase transition, e.g. free surface flow or single bubbles, is extended to include phase transition of dispersed mixtures. For simulation of bubble dynamics we apply the Rayleigh equation, which is completed by an energy balance to account for thermal effects, if hot water or if technical fluids others than water, e.g. refrigerants, with high vapor densities are considered. By using our CFD tool CAVKA we present examples of cavitating flow around hydrofoils and through single hole injection

  11. The Hydroelastic Response of a Flexible Surface-Piercing Strut in Wetted, Ventilated, and Cavitating Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Casey; Ward, Jacob; Young, Yin Lu; Felli, Mario; Falchi, Massimo; Ceccio, Steven

    2016-11-01

    High-speed and highly loaded lifting surfaces are prone to ventilation and cavitation. Increasing use of compliant materials (e.g. composites) in such systems necessitates a better understanding of the fluid-structure interactions of lifting surfaces in multiphase flow. Experiments on a flexible surface-piercing hydrofoil have been performed in a towing tank and a free-surface cavitation tunnel. The objectives are (i) to demonstrate the effects of material compliance upon hydrodynamic performance and stability of multiphase flow regimes, and (ii) to quantify the effects of multiphase flow upon the structural response and hydroelastic stability of flexible lifting bodies. A non-optical shape-sensing method is developed, which permits 3D bending and twisting deformations of the hydrofoil to be accurately inferred. The effects of the foil's compliance on hydrodynamic loads, structural motions and flow regimes are discussed. Partial immersion of the hydrofoil causes a mode-dependent change in added-mass that can encourage coalescence of higher modes. At the same time, increasing flow speed and ventilated flow decrease the damping associated with certain modes. Unsteady cavity shedding modulates the system parameters, causing a broadening of the frequency response. The authors would like to acknowledge the support of Dr. Ki-Han Kim under ONR Grant Number N00014-13-1-0383 and N00014-16-1-2433.

  12. Optimization of cavitation venturi tube design for pico and nano bubbles generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Yu; Peng Felicia⇑

    2015-01-01

    Hydrodynamic cavitaion venturi tube technique is used for pico and nano bubble generations in coal column flotation. In order to determine the optimal design of hydrodynamic cavitation venture tube for pico and nano bubble generation, a four-factor three-level Central Composite Design of Experimental was conducted for investigating four important design parameters of cavitation venturi tube governing the median size and the volume of pico and nano bubbles. The test results showed that maximum volume of pico and nano bubbles, 65–75%, and minimum mean pico and nano bubble size, 150–240 nm, were achieved at the medium ratio of the diameter of outlet of the venturi-tube and diam-eter of throat (3–4), medium outlet angle (11–13?), high inlet angle (26–27?) and high ratio of the length of the throat and the diameter of throat (2.3–3). Study the effects of the producing pico and nano bubbles on fine coal flotation was performed in a 5 cm diameter 260 cm height flotation column. The optimal percentage of pico and nano bubbles was about 70%, which produced maximum combustible material recovery of 86%with clean coal ash content of 11.7%.

  13. Sonic effervescence: A tutorial on acoustic cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apfel, R.E. [Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8286 (United States)

    1997-03-01

    This article on acoustic cavitation is a revision of a tutorial lecture presented at the Acoustical Society of America meeting in Austin, Texas, on 28 November 1994. The general approach adopted here differs from a review article in stressing the overarching themes that come under the category of acoustic cavitation, rather than being an encyclopedic reference on the topic. When possible, specific order-of-magnitude estimates have been given so that the reader can better understand the particular phenomena being described. The basic physics is discussed, and applications are reviewed with the goal of putting them in a useful context. {copyright} {ital 1997 Acoustical Society of America.}

  14. Dynamics of cavitating cascades. [transfer functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennen, C. E.; Acosta, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    The unsteady dynamics of cavitating cascades and inducer pumps were studied with a view to understanding (and possibly predicting) the dynamic characteristics of these devices. The chronology of the research is summarized as well as the final conculsions for each task. The construction of a dynamic pump test facility and its use in making experimental measurements of the transfer function is described as well as tests conducted using a scale model of the low pressure liquid oxygen turbopump inducer in the shuttle main engine. Auto-oscillation and unsteady inlet flow characteristics are discussed in addition to blade cavity influence and bubbly cavitation.

  15. Cavitation wear resistance of engine bearing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rac, Aleksandar

    1994-04-01

    The resistance to cavitation erosion of aluminum alloy, and cast and sinte-red lead-bronze, materials which are most frequently used for engine bearings, has been evaluated. The tests were carried out in motor oil at a temperature of 80 C, using a magnetostrictive vibratory tester (20 kHz). The results showed that the cavitation erosion resistance was the greatest in cast lead-bronze. On the contrary, sintered lead-bronze, though of the same chemical composition, had the greatest erosion rate. Additionally, the investigation of the overlay plated bearings showed the overlay was nonresistive to this type of wear.

  16. A mesoscale quantification method of cavitation in semicrystalline polymers using X-ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, E. [IFP Energies nouvelles, 1 et 4 avenue de Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex (France); Brusselle-Dupend, N., E-mail: nadege.brusselle@ifpen.fr [IFP Energies nouvelles, 1 et 4 avenue de Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex (France); Epsztein, T. [TECHNIP, rue Jean Hure, 76580 Le Trait (France)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} X-ray microtomography to quantify cavitation in strained semicrystalline polymers. {yields} Method based on correlation of the linear attenuation coefficient with 3-D porosity. {yields} Validation of the mesoscale quantification method. {yields} Application: cavitation process investigation in PVF2 from unloaded specimens. {yields} Effect of the triaxiality ratio and of the stretching degree on cavitation process. - Abstract: The ability of X-ray microtomography to quantify the cavitation in highly strained semicrystalline polymers is investigated on polyvinylidene fluoride. The cavitation phenomenon is studied on Circumferentially Notched Round Bars tested in tension. The tensile deformation induces void formation as attested by the whitening of the notch and SEM observations. The aim of this paper is to highlight the interest of a non destructive method based on X-ray microtomography in order to quantify the developed porosity in the cavited area and to follow step by step after relaxation, or continuously the evolution of the porosity during a tensile test. As voids may have a submicrometric size, as attested by SEM images in PVF2, the X-ray microtomography does not intend to image all the voids but to quantify them as a whole, including the non resolved voids. The method is designed to be used either with a laboratory microtomograph or with a synchrotron microtomography device. The quantification uses the correlation between the attenuation coefficient of the material and the porosity developed in the material. The measure is first validated on synchrotron images. Then the method is adapted to the laboratory microtomography prone to beam hardening artefacts. The results obtained with both devices are compared to each other and compared to the results obtained from local SEM analysis. Finally, the analysis of notched tensile specimens with varying notch root radius is investigated after interrupted tests. The analyses of the in situ tensile

  17. Effect of cavitation on comminution of mica powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChuwenGuo; LinshengLiu; 等

    2002-01-01

    The cavitation abrasive water jet was used in the comminution of mica.By applying a cavitation nozzle in the abrasive water jet system to enhance the effect of cavitation and friction,better comminution results were obtained.The JME-200CX transmission electron microscope was used for observing the size distribution of particles.As using cavitation abrasive water jet,the relative comminution effect is raised by more than 25% compared with using abrasive water jet oly.It can be concluded that the effect of cavitation is much more significant than that of impacting in the comminution of mica.

  18. Effect of cavitation on comminution of mica powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The cavitation abrasive water jet was used in the comminution of mica. By applying a cavitation nozzle in the abrasive water jet system to enhance the effect of cavitation and friction, better comminution results were obtained. The JME-200CX transmission electron microscope was used for observing the size distribution of particles. As using cavitation abrasive water jet, the relative comminution effect is raised by more than 25% compared with using abrasive water jet only. Itcan be concluded that the effect of cavitation is much more significant than that of impacting in the comminution of mica.

  19. Quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Alqahtani, Mubarak

    2016-01-01

    We study an azimuthally-symmetric boost-invariant quark-gluon plasma using quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics including the effects of both shear and bulk viscosities. We compare results obtained using the quasiparticle method with the standard anisotropic hydrodynamics and viscous hydrodynamics. We consider the predictions of the three methods for the differential particle spectra and mean transverse momentum. We find that the three methods agree for small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, $\\eta/s$, but show differences at large $\\eta/s$. Additionally, we find that the standard anisotropic hydrodynamics method shows suppressed production at low transverse-momentum compared to the other two methods, and the bulk-viscous correction can drive the primordial particle spectra negative at large $p_T$ in viscous hydrodynamics.

  20. Hydrodynamics of Pumps

    OpenAIRE

    Brennen, Christopher Earls

    1994-01-01

    The subject of this monograph is the fluid dynamics of liquid turbomachines, particularly pumps. Rather than attempt a general treatise on turbomachines, we shall focus attention on those special problems and design issues associated with the flow of liquid through a rotating machine. There are two characteristics of a liquid that lead to these special problems, and cause a significantly different set of concerns than would occur in, say, a gas turbine. These are the potential for cavitation ...

  1. Validation of full cavitation model in cryogenic fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO XiaoLi; ZHANG XiaoBin; QIU LiMin; GAN ZhiHua

    2009-01-01

    Numerical simulation of cavitation in cryogenic fluids is important in improving the stable operation of he propulsion system in liquid-fuel rocket. It also represents a broader class of problems where the fluid is operating close to its critical point and the thermal effects of cavitation are pronounced. The present article focuses on simulating cryogenic cavitation by implementing the "full cavitation model", coupled with energy equation, in conjunction with iteraUve update of the real fluid properties at local temperatures. Steady state computations are then conducted on hydrofoil and ogive in liquid nitrogen and hydrogen respectively, based on which we explore the mechanism of cavitation with thermal ef-fects. Comprehensive comparisons between the simulation results and experimental data as well as previous computations by other researchers validate the full cavitation model in cryogenic fluids. The sensitivity of cavity length to cavitation number is also examined.

  2. Effects of cavitation on performance of automotive torque converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Ju

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation is a phenomenon whereby vapor bubbles of a flowing liquid are formed in a local region where the pressure of the liquid is below its vapor pressure. It is well known that cavitation in torque converters occurs frequently when a car with an automatic transmission makes an abrupt start. Cavitation is closely related to a performance drop and noise generation at a specific operating condition in a car and a torque converter itself. This study addressed the relation between cavitation and performance in an automotive torque converter in a quantitative and qualitative manner using numerical simulations. The cavitation was calculated at various operating conditions using a commercial flow solver with the homogeneous cavitation model, and the torque converter performance was compared with the experimental data. Numerical results well match to the data and indicate that the cavitation causes significant performance drop, as the pump speed increases or both speed ratio and reference pressure decrease.

  3. Laser-nucleated acoustic cavitation in focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerold, Bjoern; Kotopoulis, Spiros; McDougall, Craig; McGloin, David; Postema, Michiel; Prentice, Paul

    2011-04-01

    Acoustic cavitation can occur in therapeutic applications of high-amplitude focused ultrasound. Studying acoustic cavitation has been challenging, because the onset of nucleation is unpredictable. We hypothesized that acoustic cavitation can be forced to occur at a specific location using a laser to nucleate a microcavity in a pre-established ultrasound field. In this paper we describe a scientific instrument that is dedicated to this outcome, combining a focused ultrasound transducer with a pulsed laser. We present high-speed photographic observations of laser-induced cavitation and laser-nucleated acoustic cavitation, at frame rates of 0.5×10(6) frames per second, from laser pulses of energy above and below the optical breakdown threshold, respectively. Acoustic recordings demonstrated inertial cavitation can be controllably introduced to the ultrasound focus. This technique will contribute to the understanding of cavitation evolution in focused ultrasound including for potential therapeutic applications.

  4. Prevention of Pressure Oscillations in Modeling a Cavitating Acoustic Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Klenow

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation effects play an important role in the UNDEX loading of a structure. For far-field UNDEX, the structural loading is affected by the formation of local and bulk cavitation regions, and the pressure pulses resulting from the closure of the cavitation regions. A common approach to numerically modeling cavitation in far-field underwater explosions is Cavitating Acoustic Finite Elements (CAFE and more recently Cavitating Acoustic Spectral Elements (CASE. Treatment of cavitation in this manner causes spurious pressure oscillations which must be treated by a numerical damping scheme. The focus of this paper is to investigate the severity of these oscillations on the structural response and a possible improvement to CAFE, based on the original Boris and Book Flux-Corrected Transport algorithm on structured meshes [6], to limit oscillations without the energy loss associated with the current damping schemes.

  5. Spatial-temporal ultrasound imaging of residual cavitation bubbles around a fluid-tissue interface in histotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hong; Xu, Shanshan; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Runna; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2015-05-01

    Cavitation is considered as the primary mechanism of soft tissue fragmentation (histotripsy) by pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound. The residual cavitation bubbles have a dual influence on the histotripsy pulses: these serve as nuclei for easy generation of new cavitation, and act as strong scatterers causing energy "shadowing." To monitor the residual cavitation bubbles in histotripsy, an ultrafast active cavitation imaging method with relatively high signal-to-noise ratio and good spatial-temporal resolution was proposed in this paper, which combined plane wave transmission, minimum variance beamforming, and coherence factor weighting. The spatial-temporal evolutions of residual cavitation bubbles around a fluid-tissue interface in histotripsy under pulse duration (PD) of 10-40 μs and pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 0.67-2 kHz were monitored by this method. The integrated bubble area curves inside the tissue interface were acquired from the bubble image sequence, and the formation process of histotripsy damage was estimated. It was observed that the histotripsy efficiency decreased with both longer PDs and higher PRFs. A direct relationship with a coefficient of 1.0365 between histotripsy lesion area and inner residual bubble area was found. These results can assist in monitoring and optimization of the histotripsy treatment further.

  6. Ultrasonic cavitation for obtainment of nanometric sized particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A.; Guzmán, R.; Espinosa, J.; Estrada, J.

    2016-02-01

    This project aims to determine the possibility of obtaining nanometric size particles of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) from commercial micron-sized powders, through the physical principle of ultrasonic cavitation, in order to be used as supply material in coatings made through a process of thermal spray by flame. The tests are performed on a Hielscher UIP 1000hd Ultrasonics equipment, in a 20 micron wave amplitude and in times of 6, 8, 12, 18 and 24 hours. The determination of the particle size is done through image processing using ImageJ software, obtained by the technique of scanning electron microscopy (SEM); while the elemental composition of the processed samples is analyzed through the technique of energy dispersing spectroscopy (EDS). The results show that Al2O3 and TiO2 have a reduction behaviour of the particles size after being subjected to ultrasonic cavitation, however is only reached the nanometric size in the TiO2 samples.

  7. Cavitation inception by the backscattering of pressure waves from a bubble interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahira, Hiroyuki, E-mail: takahira@me.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Ogasawara, Toshiyuki, E-mail: oga@me.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Mori, Naoto, E-mail: su101064@edu.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Tanaka, Moe [Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai-shi, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2015-10-28

    The secondary cavitation that occurs by the backscattering of focused ultrasound from a primary cavitation bubble caused by the negative pressure part of the ultrasound (Maxwell, et al., 2011) might be useful for the energy exchange due to bubble oscillations in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). The present study is concerned with the cavitation inception by the backscattering of ultrasound from a bubble. In the present experiment, a laser-induced bubble which is generated by a pulsed focused laser beam with high intensity is utilized as a primary cavitation bubble. After generating the bubble, focused ultrasound is emitted to the bubble. The acoustic field and the bubble motion are observed with a high-speed video camera. It is confirmed that the secondary cavitation bubble clouds are generated by the backscattering from the laser-induced bubble. The growth of cavitation bubble clouds is analyzed with the image processing method. The experimental results show that the height and width of the bubble clouds grow in stepwise during their evolution. The direct numerical simulations are also conducted for the backscattering of incident pressure waves from a bubble in order to evaluate a pressure field near the bubble. It is shown that the ratio of a bubble collapse time t{sub 0} to a characteristic time of wave propagation t{sub S}, η = t{sub 0}/t{sub s}, is an important determinant for generating negative pressure region by backscattering. The minimum pressure location by the backscattering in simulations is in good agreement with the experiment.

  8. Cavitation inception following shock wave passage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohl, C.D.

    2002-01-01

    Cavitation bubble nucleation following the passage of an extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter pulse is investigated experimentally and numerically. In the experiments two configurations are considered: Free passage of the shock wave, and reflection of the shock wave from a rigid reflector. The nuc

  9. Classification of lubricants according to cavitation criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meged, Y.; Venner, C.H.; Napel, ten W.E

    1995-01-01

    Cavitation in lubrication liquids has long been known to be detrimental to components in hydraulic systems. Damage has been detected in journal bearings, especially under severe dynamic loading, gears, squeeze film dampers and valves. These findings have led to intensive studies of metal resistance

  10. The making of a cavitation children's book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry de Frahan, Marc; Patterson, Brandon; Lazar, Erika

    2016-11-01

    Engaging young children in science is particularly important to future scientific endeavors. From thunderstorms to the waterpark, children are constantly exposed to the wonders of fluid dynamics. Among fluid phenomena, bubbles have always fascinated children. Yet some of the most exciting aspects of bubbles, such as cavitation, are scarcely known to non-experts. To introduce cavitation to a five year old audience, we wrote "Brooke Bubble Breaks Things", a children's book about the adventures of a cavitation bubble learning about all the things she could break. In this talk, we discuss how a children's book is made by walking through the steps involved in creating the book from concept to publication. We focus on strategies for successfully communicating a technical message while balancing entertainment and fidelity to nature. To provide parents, teachers, and young inquiring minds with a detailed explanation of the physics and applications of cavitation, we also created a website with detailed explanations, animations, and links to further information. We aim to convince the fluids community that writing picture books is an intellectually stimulating and fun way of communicating fluids principles and applications to children. ArtsEngine Microgrant at the University of Michigan.

  11. On cavitation instabilities with interacting voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2012-01-01

    voids so far apart that the radius of the plastic zone around each void is less than 1% of the current spacing between the voids, can still affect each others at the occurrence of a cavitation instability such that one void stops growing while the other grows in an unstable manner. On the other hand...

  12. Cavitation inception following shock wave passage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohl, C.D.

    2002-01-01

    Cavitation bubble nucleation following the passage of an extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter pulse is investigated experimentally and numerically. In the experiments two configurations are considered: Free passage of the shock wave, and reflection of the shock wave from a rigid reflector. The nuc

  13. Cavitation of a Physically Associating Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Satish; Kundu, Santanu

    Self-assembly of block copolymers in selective solvents form ordered structures such as micelles, vesicles, and physically crosslinked gels due to difference in their interaction with solvents. These gels have wide range of applications in tissue engineering, food science and biomedical field due to their tunable properties and responsiveness with changing environmental conditions. Pressurization of a defect inside a physically associating gel can lead to elastic instability (cavitation) leading to failure of the gel. The failure behavior involves dissociation of physical networks. A thermoreversible, physically associating gel with different volume fractions of a triblock copolymer, poly (methyl methacrylate)-poly (n-butyl acrylate)-poly (methyl methacrylate) [PMMA-PnBA-PMMA] in 2-ethyl 1-hexanol, a midblock selective solvent, is considered here. Mechanical properties were investigated using shear rheology and cavitation experiments. The experimental data is fitted with a constitutive model that captures the stiffening behavior followed by softening behavior of a physical gel. Finite element analysis has been performed on cavitation rheology geometry to capture the failure behavior and to calculate energy release rate during cavitation experiments.

  14. Modeling of Cavitating Flow through Waterjet Propulsors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-18

    break down due to massive suction side flow separation (stall). In Figure 3, photographs from tunnel testing and computed results are shown. The...128, pp. 1308-1323. Mishra C. & Peles, Y. (2005) "Cavitation in flow through a micro- orifice inside a silicon micro- channel,’ Phvs. Fluids 17

  15. Measuring cavitation and its cleaning effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagen, Bram; Fernandez Rivas, David

    2016-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of techniques for measuring the presence and amount of cavitation, and for quantifying the removal of contaminants, are provided. After reviewing chemical, physical, and biological studies, a universal cause for the cleaning effects of bubbles cannot yet be concluded.

  16. Ultrasound induced by CW laser cavitation bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korneev, N; Montero, P Rodriguez; Ramos-Garcia, R; Ramirez-San-Juan, J C; Padilla-Martinez, J P, E-mail: korneev@inaoep.mx [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apt. Postal 51 y 216 CP72000, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    The generation of ultrasound by a collapsing single cavitation bubble in a strongly absorbing liquid illuminated with a moderate power CW laser is described. The ultrasound shock wave is detected with hydrophone and interferometric device. To obtain a stronger pulse it is necessary to adjust a liquid absorption and a beam diameter. Their influence can be qualitatively understood with a simple model.

  17. Modelling cavitating flow around underwater missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Petitpas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse interface model of Saurel et al. (2008 is used for the computation of compressible cavitating flows around underwater missiles. Such systems use gas injection and natural cavitation to reduce drag effects. Consequently material interfaces appear separating liquid and gas. These interfaces may have a really complex dynamics such that only a few formulations are able to predict their evolution. Contrarily to front tracking or interface reconstruction method the interfaces are computed as diffused numerical zones, that are captured in a routinely manner, as is done usually with gas dynamics solvers for shocks and contact discontinuity. With the present approach, a single set of partial differential equations is solved everywhere, with a single numerical scheme. This leads to very efficient solvers. The algorithm derived in Saurel et al. (2009 is used to compute cavitation pockets around solid bodies. It is first validated against experiments done in cavitation tunnel at CNU. Then it is used to compute flows around high speed underwater systems (Shkval-like missile. Performance data are then computed showing method ability to predict forces acting on the system.

  18. Control of Propeller Cavitation in Operational Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijdag, A.

    2009-01-01

    Off design conditions can have a severe impact on ship propulsion system behaviour. Resistance increase for instance leads to a higher engine loading, and can also easily lead to a decrease of cavitation inception speed with respect to calm water conditions. Wakefield variations due to ship motions,

  19. Cavitation for improved sludge conversion into biogas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, A.H.; Bakker, T.W.; Kramer, H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In several studies the beneficial influence of pre-treatment of waste activated sludge with cavitation on the biogas production was demonstrated. It is however, still not fully certain whether this effect should be mainly contributed to an increase in conversion rate of organics into biogas by anaer

  20. Real-time visualization of joint cavitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N Kawchuk

    Full Text Available Cracking sounds emitted from human synovial joints have been attributed historically to the sudden collapse of a cavitation bubble formed as articular surfaces are separated. Unfortunately, bubble collapse as the source of joint cracking is inconsistent with many physical phenomena that define the joint cracking phenomenon. Here we present direct evidence from real-time magnetic resonance imaging that the mechanism of joint cracking is related to cavity formation rather than bubble collapse. In this study, ten metacarpophalangeal joints were studied by inserting the finger of interest into a flexible tube tightened around a length of cable used to provide long-axis traction. Before and after traction, static 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired. During traction, rapid cine magnetic resonance images were obtained from the joint midline at a rate of 3.2 frames per second until the cracking event occurred. As traction forces increased, real-time cine magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated rapid cavity inception at the time of joint separation and sound production after which the resulting cavity remained visible. Our results offer direct experimental evidence that joint cracking is associated with cavity inception rather than collapse of a pre-existing bubble. These observations are consistent with tribonucleation, a known process where opposing surfaces resist separation until a critical point where they then separate rapidly creating sustained gas cavities. Observed previously in vitro, this is the first in-vivo macroscopic demonstration of tribonucleation and as such, provides a new theoretical framework to investigate health outcomes associated with joint cracking.

  1. Cavitation Bubble Nucleation by Energetic Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C.D.

    1998-12-01

    In the early sixties, experimental measurements using a bubble chamber confirmed quantitatively the thermal spike theory of bubble nucleation by energetic particles: the energy of the slow, heavy alpha decay recoils used in those experiments matched the calculated bubble nucleation energy to within a few percent. It was a triumph, but was soon to be followed by a puzzle. Within a couple of years, experiments on similar liquids, but well below their normal boiling points, placed under tensile stress showed that the calculated bubble nucleation energy was an order of magnitude less than the recoil energy. Why should the theory work so well in the one case and so badly in the other? How did the liquid, or the recoil particle, "know" the difference between the two experiments? Another mathematical model of the same physical process, introduced in 1967, showed qualitatively why different analyses would be needed for liquids with high and low vapor pressures under positive or negative pressures. But, the quantitative agreement between the calculated nucleation energy and the recoil energy was still poor--the former being smaller by a factor of two to three. In this report, the 1967 analysis is extended and refined: the qualitative understanding of the difference between positive and negative pressure nucleation, "boiling" and "cavitation" respectively, is retained, and agreement between the negative pressure calculated to be needed for nucleation and the energy calculated to be available is much improved. A plot of the calculated negative pressure needed to induce bubble formation against the measured value now has a slope of 1.0, although there is still considerable scatter in the individual points.

  2. Real-Time Observation of Thrombus Growth Process in an Impeller of a Hydrodynamically Levitated Centrifugal Blood Pump by Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Murashige, Tomotaka; Kosaka, Ryo; Fujiwara, Tatsuki; Nishida, Masahiro; Maruyama, Osamu

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the thrombus formation in cardiovascular devices such as rotary blood pumps is the most important issue in developing more hemocompatible devices. The objective of this study was to develop a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) method to visualize the thrombus growth process within a rotary blood pump and investigate the optical properties of the thrombus. An in vitro thrombogenic test was conducted using fresh porcine blood and a specially designed hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump with a transparent bottom. The pump rotating at 3000 rpm circulated the blood at 1.0 L/min. The bottom surface of the pump was illuminated with white light pulsed at the same frequency as the pump rotation, and the backward-scattered light was imaged using the HSI system. Using stroboscopic HSI and an image construction algorithm, dynamic spectral imaging at wavelengths ranging from 608 to 752 nm within the rotating pump was achieved. After completing the experiment, we collected the red thrombus formed in the pump impeller and quantified the thrombus hemoglobin concentration (Hbthrombus ). The spectrum changed around the center of the impeller, and the area of change expanded toward the impeller flow path. The shape corresponded approximately to the shape of the thrombus. The spectrum change indicated that the light scattering derived from red blood cells decreased. The Hbthrombus was 4.7 ± 1.3 g/dL versus a total hemoglobin of 13 ± 0.87 g/dL. The study revealed that Hbthrombus was reduced by the surrounding blood flow.

  3. Impact of urban effluents on summer hypoxia in the highly turbid Gironde Estuary, applying a 3D model coupling hydrodynamics, sediment transport and biogeochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajaunie-Salla, Katixa; Wild-Allen, Karen; Sottolichio, Aldo; Thouvenin, Bénédicte; Litrico, Xavier; Abril, Gwenaël

    2017-10-01

    Estuaries are increasingly degraded due to coastal urban development and are prone to hypoxia problems. The macro-tidal Gironde Estuary is characterized by a highly concentrated turbidity maximum zone (TMZ). Field observations show that hypoxia occurs in summer in the TMZ at low river flow and a few days after the spring tide peak. In situ data highlight lower dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations around the city of Bordeaux, located in the upper estuary. Interactions between multiple factors limit the understanding of the processes controlling the dynamics of hypoxia. A 3D biogeochemical model was developed, coupled with hydrodynamics and a sediment transport model, to assess the contribution of the TMZ and the impact of urban effluents through wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and sewage overflows (SOs) on hypoxia. Our model describes the transport of solutes and suspended material and the biogeochemical mechanisms impacting oxygen: primary production, degradation of all organic matter (i.e. including phytoplankton respiration, degradation of river and urban watershed matter), nitrification and gas exchange. The composition and the degradation rates of each variable were characterized by in situ measurements and experimental data from the study area. The DO model was validated against observations in Bordeaux City. The simulated DO concentrations show good agreement with field observations and satisfactorily reproduce the seasonal and neap-spring time scale variations around the city of Bordeaux. Simulations show a spatial and temporal correlation between the formation of summer hypoxia and the location of the TMZ, with minimum DO centered in the vicinity of Bordeaux. To understand the contribution of the urban watershed forcing, different simulations with the presence or absence of urban effluents were compared. Our results show that in summer, a reduction of POC from SO would increase the DO minimum in the vicinity of Bordeaux by 3% of saturation. Omitting

  4. Effect of morphology of hydrophobic surfaces on cavitation kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LUZAR,ALENKA; LEUNG,KEVIN

    2000-04-24

    Cavitation has been suggested to be a possible source of long range interactions between mesoscopic hydrophobic surfaces. While evaporation is predicted by thermodynamics, little is known about its kinetics. Glauber dynamics Monte Carlo simulations of a lattice gas close to liquid-gas coexistence and confined between partially drying surfaces are used to model the effect of water confinement on the dynamics of surface-induced phase transition. Specifically, they examine how kinetics of induced evaporation change as the texture of hydrophobic surfaces is varied. Evaporation rates are considerably slowed with relatively small amount of hydrophilic coverage. However, the distribution of hydrophilic patches is found to be crucial, with the homogeneous one being much more effective in slowing the formation of vapor tubes which triggers the evaporation process. They estimate the free energy barrier of vapor tube formation via transition state theory, using a constrained forward-backward umbrella sampling technique applied to the metastable, confined liquid. Furthermore, to relate simulation rates to experimental ones, they perform simulations using the mass-conserving Kawasaki algorithm. They predict evaporation time scales that range from hundreds of picoseconds in the case of mesoscopic surfaces {approximately} 10{sup 4} nm{sup 2} to tens of nanoseconds for smaller surfaces {approximately} 40 nm{sup 2}, when the two surfaces are {approximately} 10 solvent layers apart. The present study demonstrates that cavitation is kinetically viable in real systems and should be considered in studies of processes at confined geometry.

  5. Hydrodynamics and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Oz, Yaron

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes how the AdS/CFT correspondence (the Holographic Principle) relates field theory hydrodynamics to perturbations of black hole (brane) gravitational backgrounds. The hydrodynamics framework is first presented from the field theory point of view, after which the dual gravitational description is outlined, first for relativistic fluids and then for the nonrelativistic case. Further details of the fluid/gravity correspondence are then discussed, including the bulk geometry and the dynamics of the black hole horizon.

  6. Physical and chemical effects of acoustic cavitation in selected ultrasonic cleaning applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Nor Saadah Mohd; Babgi, Bandar; Alghamdi, Yousef; Aksu, Mecit; Madhavan, Jagannathan; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2016-03-01

    Acoustic cavitation in a liquid medium generates several physical and chemical effects. The oscillation and collapse of cavitation bubbles, driven at low ultrasonic frequencies (e.g., 20 kHz), can generate strong shear forces, microjets, microstreaming and shockwaves. Such strong physical forces have been used in cleaning and flux improvement of ultrafiltration processes. These physical effects have also been shown to deactivate pathogens. The efficiency of deactivation of pathogens is not only dependent on ultrasonic experimental parameters, but also on the properties of the pathogens themselves. Bacteria with thick shell wall are found to be resistant to ultrasonic deactivation process. Some evidence does suggest that the chemical effects (radicals) of acoustic cavitation are also effective in deactivating pathogens. Another aspect of cleaning, namely, purification of water contaminated with organic and inorganic pollutants, has also been discussed in detail. Strong oxidising agents produced within acoustic cavitation bubbles could be used to degrade organic pollutants and convert toxic inorganic pollutants to less harmful substances. The effect of ultrasonic frequency and surface activity of solutes on the sonochemical degradation efficiency has also been discussed in this overview.

  7. Investigation of Two-Phase Flow in AxialCentrifugal Impeller by Hydrodynamic Modeling Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Lomakin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a methodology to study the flow in the wet part of the pump with fundamentally new axial-centrifugal impeller by methods of hydrodynamic modeling in the software package STAR CCM +. The objective of the study was to determine the normal and cavitation characteristics of the pump with a new type of wet part, as well as optimization of the geometrical parameters of the pump. Authors solved this problem using an example of the hot coolant pump, which should meet high requirements for cavitation quality and efficiency (hydraulic efficiency up to 87%, critical value of NPSH to 2.2 m.Also, the article focuses on the methods of numerical solution of two-phase flow simulation in a pump that are needed for a more accurate simulation of cavitation in the pump and research work in liquids with high gas content.Hydrodynamic modeling was performed on a computing cluster at the department E-10 of BMSTU for pump flow simulation in unsteady statement of problem using the computational grid size to 1.5 million cells. Simultaneously, the experimental model of the pump was made by 3D printing and tested at the stand in the BMSTU. Test results, which were compared with the calculated data are also given in the article. Inaccuracy of the calculation of pump head does not exceed 5%.The simulation results may be of interest to specialists in the field of hydrodynamic modeling, and for designers of such pumps. The authors also report production of a full-length prototype of the pump in order to conduct further testing for the verification of the data in the article, primarily in terms of cavitation characteristics.

  8. Diagnosing non-cavitated lesions in epidemiological studies: practical and scientific considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana Christina; Mestrinho, Heliana Dantas

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been growing interest in diagnosing non-cavitated lesions in epidemiological studies involving large numbers of preschool children, schoolchildren and young adults. In this context, assessment of lesions characteristics indicating whether or not there is ongoing mineral loss is also considered relevant. The reasoning sustained by these studies is that diagnosis of the caries process limited to the cavitated level is no longer in accordance with current state-of-the-art knowledge in cariology. This paper highlights one topic of the lecture entitled "Caries Process: Evolving Evidence and Understanding," presented at the 18th Congress of the Brazilian Association for Oral Health Promotion (Associação Brasileira de Odontologia de Promoção de Saúde - ABOPREV) in April 2013. In the framework of epidemiological studies, the interest in diagnosing active and inactive non-cavitated lesions was elucidated. However, relevant questions associated with the diagnosis of non-cavitated lesions that might raise concerns among researchers and health administrators were not addressed. The present paper aims to bring these questions into discussion. The contribution of this discussion in terms of developing the understanding of caries decline is analyzed by using data from a caries trends study of Brazilian preschool children residing in the Federal District of Brazil as an example. The inclusion of active and inactive non-cavitated lesions in the diagnosis of the caries process allowed us to demonstrate that, in Brazilian 1- to 5-year-old children, caries prevalence decreased significantly from 1996 to 2006, simultaneously with a reduction in the rate of caries progression.

  9. Study of cavitation bubble dynamics during Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy by high-speed camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian J.; Xuan, Jason R.; Yu, Honggang; Devincentis, Dennis

    2016-02-01

    Although laser lithotripsy is now the preferred treatment option for urolithiasis, the mechanism of laser pulse induced calculus damage is still not fully understood. This is because the process of laser pulse induced calculus damage involves quite a few physical and chemical processes and their time-scales are very short (down to sub micro second level). For laser lithotripsy, the laser pulse induced impact by energy flow can be summarized as: Photon energy in the laser pulse --> photon absorption generated heat in the water liquid and vapor (super heat water or plasma effect) --> shock wave (Bow shock, acoustic wave) --> cavitation bubble dynamics (oscillation, and center of bubble movement , super heat water at collapse, sonoluminscence) --> calculus damage and motion (calculus heat up, spallation/melt of stone, breaking of mechanical/chemical bond, debris ejection, and retropulsion of remaining calculus body). Cavitation bubble dynamics is the center piece of the physical processes that links the whole energy flow chain from laser pulse to calculus damage. In this study, cavitation bubble dynamics was investigated by a high-speed camera and a needle hydrophone. A commercialized, pulsed Ho:YAG laser at 2.1 mu;m, StoneLightTM 30, with pulse energy from 0.5J up to 3.0 J, and pulse width from 150 mu;s up to 800 μs, was used as laser pulse source. The fiber used in the investigation is SureFlexTM fiber, Model S-LLF365, a 365 um core diameter fiber. A high-speed camera with frame rate up to 1 million fps was used in this study. The results revealed the cavitation bubble dynamics (oscillation and center of bubble movement) by laser pulse at different energy level and pulse width. More detailed investigation on bubble dynamics by different type of laser, the relationship between cavitation bubble dynamics and calculus damage (fragmentation/dusting) will be conducted as a future study.

  10. Diagnosing non-cavitated lesions in epidemiological studies: practical and scientific considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Christina Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, there has been growing interest in diagnosing non-cavitated lesions in epidemiological studies involving large numbers of preschool children, schoolchildren and young adults. In this context, assessment of lesions characteristics indicating whether or not there is ongoing mineral loss is also considered relevant. The reasoning sustained by these studies is that diagnosis of the caries process limited to the cavitated level is no longer in accordance with current state-of-the-art knowledge in cariology. This paper highlights one topic of the lecture entitled "Caries Process: Evolving Evidence and Understanding," presented at the 18th Congress of the Brazilian Association for Oral Health Promotion (Associação Brasileira de Odontologia de Promoção de Saúde - ABOPREV in April 2013. In the framework of epidemiological studies, the interest in diagnosing active and inactive non-cavitated lesions was elucidated. However, relevant questions associated with the diagnosis of non-cavitated lesions that might raise concerns among researchers and health administrators were not addressed. The present paper aims to bring these questions into discussion. The contribution of this discussion in terms of developing the understanding of caries decline is analyzed by using data from a caries trends study of Brazilian preschool children residing in the Federal District of Brazil as an example. The inclusion of active and inactive non-cavitated lesions in the diagnosis of the caries process allowed us to demonstrate that, in Brazilian 1- to 5-year-old children, caries prevalence decreased significantly from 1996 to 2006, simultaneously with a reduction in the rate of caries progression.

  11. Lamellar Thickness and Stretching Temperature Dependency of Cavitation in Semicrystalline Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaotao; Jiang, Zhiyong; Fu, Lianlian; Lu, Ying; Men, Yongfeng

    2014-01-01

    Polybutene-1 (PB-1), a typical semicrystalline polymer, in its stable form I shows a peculiar temperature dependent strain-whitening behavior when being stretched at temperatures in between room temperature and melting temperature of the crystallites where the extent of strain-whitening weakens with the increasing of stretching temperature reaching a minima value followed by an increase at higher stretching temperatures. Correspondingly, a stronger strain-hardening phenomenon was observed at higher temperatures. The strain-whitening phenomenon in semicrystalline polymers has its origin of cavitation process during stretching. In this work, the effect of crystalline lamellar thickness and stretching temperature on the cavitation process in PB-1 has been investigated by means of combined synchrotron ultrasmall-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering techniques. Three modes of cavitation during the stretching process can be identified, namely “no cavitation” for the quenched sample with the thinnest lamellae where only shear yielding occurred, “cavitation with reorientation” for the samples stretched at lower temperatures and samples with thicker lamellae, and “cavitation without reorientation” for samples with thinner lamellae stretched at higher temperatures. The mode “cavitation with reorientation” occurs before yield point where the plate-like cavities start to be generated within the lamellar stacks with normal perpendicular to the stretching direction due to the blocky substructure of the crystalline lamellae and reorient gradually to the stretching direction after strain-hardening. The mode of “cavitation without reorientation” appears after yield point where ellipsoidal shaped cavities are generated in those lamellae stacks with normal parallel to the stretching direction followed by an improvement of their orientation at larger strains. X-ray diffraction results reveal a much improved crystalline orientation for samples with thinner lamellae

  12. Computational Analyses of Cavitating Flows in Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tiezhi Sun; Yingjie Wei; Cong Wang∗

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the fundamental characteristics and the thermodynamic effects of cavitating flows in liquid hydrogen. For this purpose, numerical simulation of cavitating flows are conducted over a three dimensional hydrofoil in liquid hydrogen. Firstly, the efficiency of this computational methodology is validated through comparing the simulation results with the experimental measurements of pressure and temperature. Secondly, after analysing the cavitating flows in liquid hydrogen and water, the characteristics under cryogenic conditions are highlighted. The results show that the thermodynamic effects play a significant role in the cavity structure and the mass transfer, the dimensionless mass transfer rate of liquid hydrogen is much larger, and the peak value is about ninety times as high as water at room temperature. Furthermore, a parametric study of cavitating flows on hydrofoil is conducted by considering different cavitation number and dimensionless thermodynamic coefficient. The obtained results provide an insight into the thermodynamic effect on the cavitating flows.

  13. Comminution of Mica by Cavitation Abrasive Water Jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Chu-wen; LIU Lin-sheng; HAN Dong-tai; LI Ai-min; ZHANG Dong-hai

    2003-01-01

    The comminution of mica with an abrasive water jet is mainly based on three knids of effects, that is, high-speed collision, cavitating effect and shearing effect. Cavitation abrasive water jet was applied for the comminution of mica because cavitation abrasive water jet can make full use of the three effects mentioned above. Besides high speed impacting among particles,cavitation and shearing were also enhanced due to the divergent angle at the outlet of the cavitation nozzle.A JME-200CX transmission electron microscope was used for observing the size distribution of particles.Variance analysis on the experimental results indicates that the effect of cavitation is much more significant than that of collision.The effect of pressure on comminution results becomes less with the decrease of the particle size.

  14. Cavitation erosion behavior of nickel-aluminum bronze weldment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小亚; 闫永贵; 许振明; 李建国

    2003-01-01

    Cavitation erosion behavior of nickel-aluminum bronze(NAB)weldment in 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution was studied by magnetostrictive vibratory device for cavitation erosion.The results show that cavitation erosion resistance of the weld zone(WZ)of the weldment is superior to that of the base metal.SEM observation of eroded specimens reveals that the phases undergoing selective attack by the stress of cavitation erosion at the early stage of cavitation erosion are:martensite in the WZ,α phase in the heat-affected zone(HAZ)and eutectoidal phase in the base metal; the microcracks causing cavitation damage initiate at the phase boundaries.

  15. Cavitation measurement during sonic and ultrasonic activated irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Ricardo; Verhaagen, Bram; Rivas, David Fernandez; Versluis, Michel; Wesselink, Paul; van der Sluis, Luc

    2014-04-01

    The aims of this study were to quantify and to visualize the possible occurrence of transient cavitation (bubble formation and implosion) during sonic and ultrasonic (UAI) activated irrigation. The amount of cavitation generated around several endodontic instruments was measured by sonochemiluminescence dosimetry inside 4 root canal models of human dimensions and varying complexity. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the sonochemiluminescence in the root canal was visualized with long-exposure photography. Instrument oscillation frequency, ultrasonic power, and file taper influenced the occurrence and amount of cavitation. In UAI, cavitation was distributed between the file and the wall extending beyond the file and inside lateral canals/isthmuses. In sonic activated irrigation, no cavitation was detected. Cavitation was shown to occur in UAI at clinically relevant ultrasonic power settings in both straight and curved canals but not around sonically oscillating instruments, driven at their highest frequency. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Thermal spray and weld repair alloys for the repair of cavitation damage in turbines and pumps: A technical note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Boy, J.; Zatorski, Ray; Stephenson, L. D.

    2005-06-01

    The cavitation and erosion resistance of 21 thermal spray coatings and four weld repair materials were investigated in the laboratory using cavitation jet and slurry erosion testing. Of the thermal spray coatings, Stellite® 6 deposited by the high velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) process had the lowest cavitation rate (11.7 mg/h). This was higher than the corresponding cavitation rate (3.2 mg/h) of 308 stainless steel weld metal currently used as a reference. In the slurry erosion testing, the volume loss of Stellite® 6 applied by the HVOF process was 5.33 cubic mm/h, much lower than the corresponding loss (11.17 cubic mm/h) in the currently used stainless steel 304 reference. Furthermore, the electrochemical potential difference between the carbon steel and HVOF sprayed Stellite 6 coating was 0.25 volts, half the potential difference between the 304 stainless steel carbon steel substrate, and will result in reduced galvanic corrosion of the substrate near the contact areas. Stellite 6 deposited by the HVOF process was recommended for repair of damage resulting from erosion and subsequent cavitation by caused by surface roughening.

  17. Detached eddy simulation of unsteady cavitation and pressure fluctuation around 3-D NACA66 hydrofoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang De-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The unsteady cavitating flow and pressure fluctuation around the 3-D NACA66 hydrofoil were simulated and validated based on detached eddy simulation turbulence model and a homogeneous cavitation model. Numerical results show that detached eddy simulation can predict the evolution of cavity inception, sheet cavitation growth, cloud cavitation shedding, and breakup, as well as the pressure fluctuation on the surface of hydrofoil. The sheet cavitation growth, detachment, cloud cavitation shedding are responsible for the features of the pressure fluctuation.

  18. Time-evolving statistics of cavitation damage on metallic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diodati, P; Marchesoni, F

    2002-11-01

    The statistics of surface damage on polycrystalline aluminium plates caused by acoustic cavitation is studied experimentally as a function of time. Cavitation is shown to produce a uniform distribution of crater-like holes with different depth, area and eccentricity. Most notably, the size distribution of such craters evolves with time from a gamma function into a power law. By contrast, on the surface of a martensitic Cu-Ni-Al crystal cavitation damage generates ramified patterns, reminiscent of a fractal object.

  19. L-Area Cavitation Tests Final Analysis - Limits Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, D.C.

    2001-06-26

    The L-Area cavitation test was designed to better define the onset of cavitation in the reactor system. The onset of gas evolution in the effluent piping and pump cavitation was measured using state-of-the-art equipment to provide data with a high confidence and low uncertainty level. The limits calculated from the new data will allow an approximate two percent increase in reactor power if the reactor is effluent temperature-limited with no compromise in reactor safety.

  20. Cavitation-based hydro-fracturing simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Ren, Fei; Cox, Thomas S.

    2016-11-22

    An apparatus 300 for simulating a pulsed pressure induced cavitation technique (PPCT) from a pressurized working fluid (F) provides laboratory research and development for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), oil, and gas wells. A pump 304 is configured to deliver a pressurized working fluid (F) to a control valve 306, which produces a pulsed pressure wave in a test chamber 308. The pulsed pressure wave parameters are defined by the pump 304 pressure and control valve 306 cycle rate. When a working fluid (F) and a rock specimen 312 are included in the apparatus, the pulsed pressure wave causes cavitation to occur at the surface of the specimen 312, thus initiating an extensive network of fracturing surfaces and micro fissures, which are examined by researchers.

  1. The cavitational erosion resistance of the B2-type Fe-Al casting alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jasionowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the destruction of turbo-machinery components is very complex, because it consists of processes of erosion and corrosion. The most dangerous factor is the cavitation phenomenon, which is very difficult to eliminate through the use of design solutions. It causes deterioration of the operating characteristics of machinery and equipment, such as water turbines, steam turbines, centrifugal pumps, screw vessels, cylinder liners with water-cooled engines, acoustic probe. The most commonly used method of limiting the destruction of cavitation phenomenon is the optimum choice of parameters of geometric and hydraulic machines, the appropriate design of elements and streamlined flow and providing working conditions of flow devices. The above-mentioned methods by design, the size of flow devices are limited, so better action to prevent the flow of erosion may use the material for greater resistance to erosion and cavitation corrosion is the alloy of intermetallic FeAl phase, which production costs are low compared to cast steel and cast iron alloy based on chromium and nickel.The paper presents results of an investigation carried out for cavitational resistance of the B2-type Fe-Al casting alloys using a flux-impact measuring device. The intermetallic FeAl alloys proved to have good resistance to this type of erosion in comparison to other construction materials, investigated by flux-impact device.

  2. Cavitated Bifurcation for Incompressible Hyperelastic Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任九生; 程昌钧

    2002-01-01

    The spherical cavitated bifurcation for a hyperelastic solid sphere made of the incompressible Valanis-Landel material under boundary dead-loading is examined. The analytic solution for the bifurcation problem is obtained. The catastrophe and concentration of stresses are discussed. The stability of solutions is discussed through the energy comparison.And the growth of a pre-existing micro-void is also observed.

  3. Impact of acoustic cavitation on food emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasulya, Olga; Bogush, Vladimir; Trishina, Victoria; Potoroko, Irina; Khmelev, Sergey; Sivashanmugam, Palani; Anandan, Sambandam

    2016-05-01

    The work explores the experimental and theoretical aspects of emulsification capability of ultrasound to deliver stable emulsions of sunflower oil in water and meat sausages. In order to determine optimal parameters for direct ultrasonic emulsification of food emulsions, a model was developed based on the stability of emulsion droplets in acoustic cavitation field. The study is further extended to investigate the ultrasound induced changes to the inherent properties of raw materials under the experimental conditions of sono-emulsification.

  4. Single bubble sonoluminescence and stable cavitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qian; QIAN Menglu

    2004-01-01

    A single bubble trapped at an antinode of an acoustic standing wave field in water can emit 50ps-140ps light pulses, called "single bubble sonoluminescence" (SBSL). It arouses much interest in physical acoustics because of its highly non-linear characteristics, high concentration of energy, and stable cavitation behavior. In this paper, bubble stability, the dynamic behavior of bubbles, non-invasive measurement of driving acoustic pressure and Mie scattering method are introduced.

  5. Photoacoustic cavitation for theranostics: mechanism, current progress and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Y.; Qin, D.; Wan, M.

    2015-12-01

    As an emerging cavitation technology, photoacoustic cavitation (PAC) means the formation of bubbles in liquids using focused laser and pre-established ultrasound synchronously. Its significant advantages include the decreased threshold of each modality and the precise location of cavitation determined by the focused laser. In this paper, a brief review of PAC is presented, including the physical mechanism description, the classic experimental technology, the representative results in variety of media, and its applications in biomedical imaging and therapy. Moreover, some preliminary results of PAC in perfluoropentane (PFP) liquid and PFP droplets investigated by passive cavitation detection (PCD) in our group are also presented.

  6. Understanding Cavitation Intensity through Pitting and Pressure Pulse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, A.; Singh, S.; Choi, J.-K.; Chahine, G.

    2011-11-01

    Cavitation erosion is of interest to the designers of ship propulsion devices because of its detrimental effects. One of the difficulties of predicting cavitation erosion is that the intensity of cavitation is not well predicted or defined. In this work we attempt to define the intensity of a cavitation erosion field through analysis of cavitation induced erosion pits and pressure pulses. In the pitting tests, material samples were subjected to cavitation field for a short duration of time selected within the test sample's incubation period, so that the test sample undergoes plastic deformation only. The sample material reacts to these cavitation events by undergoing localized permanent deformation, called pits. The resulting pitted sample surfaces were then optically scanned and analyzed. The pressure signals under cavitating jets and ultrasonic horns, for different conditions, were experimentally recorded using high frequency response pressure transducers. From the analysis of the pitting data and recorded pressure signals, we propose a model that describes the statistics, which in the future can be used to define the cavitation field intensity. Support for this work was provided by Office of Naval Research (ONR) under contract number N00014-08-C-0450, monitored by Dr. Ki-Han Kim.

  7. Modeling Unsteady Cavitation Effects and Dynamic Loads in Cryogenic Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There currently are no analytical or CFD tools that can reliably predict unsteady cavitation dynamics in liquid rocket turbopumps. Cavitation effects, particularly...

  8. Anisotropic hydrodynamics -- basic concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Florkowski, Wojciech; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Strickland, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Due to the rapid longitudinal expansion of the quark-gluon plasma created in relativistic heavy ion collisions, potentially large local rest frame momentum-space anisotropies are generated. The magnitude of these momentum-space anisotropies can be so large as to violate the central assumption of canonical viscous hydrodynamical treatments which linearize around an isotropic background. In order to better describe the early-time dynamics of the quark gluon plasma, one can consider instead expanding around a locally anisotropic background which results in a dynamical framework called anisotropic hydrodynamics. In this proceedings contribution we review the basic concepts of the anisotropic hydrodynamics framework presenting viewpoints from both the phenomenological and microscopic points of view.

  9. Visualization of cavitation in flanged poppet valve; Tsubatsuki popetto bennai no cavitation no kashika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iijima, A.; Tsukiji, T. [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Tochigi (Japan); Sumita, T. [Tokimec Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-01-15

    Only half-cut models are dealt with in reports made available so far about experiments on the visualization of cavitation in what is called a flanged poppet valve, which is a valve whose cone-shaped poppet is provided with flanges at its end and periphery for reduction in fluid force. In the present report, a valve is drilled from three directions in an experiment for visualizing flows near the poppet valve flanges, which is for three-dimensional model visualization. The shapes of the poppet valve flanges are changed in various ways for the study of cavitation generation limits. (translated by NEDO)

  10. Dispersive hydrodynamics: Preface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondini, G.; El, G. A.; Hoefer, M. A.; Miller, P. D.

    2016-10-01

    This Special Issue on Dispersive Hydrodynamics is dedicated to the memory and work of G.B. Whitham who was one of the pioneers in this field of physical applied mathematics. Some of the papers appearing here are related to work reported on at the workshop "Dispersive Hydrodynamics: The Mathematics of Dispersive Shock Waves and Applications" held in May 2015 at the Banff International Research Station. This Preface provides a broad overview of the field and summaries of the various contributions to the Special Issue, placing them in a unified context.

  11. Hydrodynamic modelling of hydrostatic magnesium extrusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moodij, E.; Rooij, de M.B.; Schipper, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    Wilson’s hydrodynamic model of the hydrostatic extrusion process is extended to meet the geometry found on residual billets. The transition from inlet to work zone of the process is not considered sharp as in the model of Wilson but as a rounded edge, modelled by a parabolic function. It is shown th

  12. Hydrodynamics and Roughness of Irregular Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    principle component analysis (PCA) similar to that used by Preston (2009) for ship- mounted multibeam data. Several variables derived from the...complex boundaries as well as characterization of acoustic and optical processes. Turbulent processes at the seabed are at the foundation of littoral...nearshore hydrodynamics, turbulence over rough beds influences optical and acoustic properties. Bed roughness also directly affects acoustic propagation in

  13. Disruptive Innovation in Numerical Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waltz, Jacob I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-06

    We propose the research and development of a high-fidelity hydrodynamic algorithm for tetrahedral meshes that will lead to a disruptive innovation in the numerical modeling of Laboratory problems. Our proposed innovation has the potential to reduce turnaround time by orders of magnitude relative to Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) codes; reduce simulation setup costs by millions of dollars per year; and effectively leverage Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) and future Exascale computing hardware. If successful, this work will lead to a dramatic leap forward in the Laboratory's quest for a predictive simulation capability.

  14. Shape Optimization of Three-Way Reversing Valve for Cavitation Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myeong Gon; Han, Seung Ho [Donga Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Cha Suk [Baek San Hi-Tech Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    A pair of two-way valves typically is used in automotive washing machines, where the water flow direction is frequently reversed and highly pressurized clean water is sprayed to remove the oil and dirt remaining on machined engine and transmission blocks. Although this valve system has been widely used because of its competitive price, its application is sometimes restricted by surging effects, such as pressure ripples occurring in rapid changes in water flow caused by inaccurate valve control. As an alternative, one three-way reversing valve can replace the valve system because it provides rapid and accurate changes to the water flow direction without any precise control device. However, a cavitation effect occurs because of the complicated bottom plug shape of the valve. In this study, the cavitation index and percent of cavitation (POC) were introduced to numerically evaluate fluid flows via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. To reduce the cavitation effect generated by the bottom plug, the optimal shape design was carried out through a parametric study, in which a simple computer-aided engineering (CAE) model was applied to avoid time consuming CFD analysis and difficulties in achieving convergence. The optimal shape design process using full factorial design of experiments (DOEs) and an artificial neural network meta-model yielded the optimal waist and tail length of the bottom plug with a POC value of less than 30%, which meets the requirement of no cavitation occurrence. The optimal waist length, tail length and POC value were found to 6.42 mm, 6.96 mm and 27%, respectively.

  15. Shape optimization of three-way reversing valve for cavitation reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myeong Gon; Han, Seung Ho [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Cha Suk [Baek San Hi-Tech Co., Ltd., Yangsan(Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    A pair of two-way valves typically is used in automotive washing machines, where the water flow direction is frequently reversed and highly pressurized clean water is sprayed to remove the oil and dirt remaining on machined engine and transmission blocks. Although this valve system has been widely used because of its competitive price, its application is sometimes restricted by surging effects, such as pressure ripples occurring in rapid changes in water flow caused by inaccurate valve control. As an alternative, one three-way reversing valve can replace the valve system because it provides rapid and accurate changes to the water flow direction without any precise control device. However, a cavitation effect occurs because of the complicated bottom plug shape of the valve. In this study, the cavitation index and percent of cavitation (POC) were introduced to numerically evaluate fluid flows via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. To reduce the cavitation effect generated by the bottom plug, the optimal shape design was carried out through a parametric study, in which a simple computer-aided engineering (CAE) model was applied to avoid time-consuming CFD analysis and difficulties in achieving convergence. The optimal shape design process using full factorial design of experiments (DOEs) and an artificial neural network meta-model yielded the optimal waist and tail length of the bottom plug with a POC value of less than 30%, which meets the requirement of no cavitation occurrence. The optimal waist length, tail length and POC value were found to 6.42 mm, 6.96 mm and 27%, respectively.

  16. INTERFERENCE OF SIDE STRUT WITH THE NATURAL CAVITATING FLOWS AROUND A SUBMERGED VEHICLE IN WATER TUNNEL EXPERIMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xin; YAO Yan; LU Chuan-jing; CHEN Ying; CAOJia-yi

    2011-01-01

    To apply the measurements of model experiment in water tunnel to the actual sailing condition,it is necessary to know accurately the strut effect and its rule.In the present work,the corresponding interferences of one-side strut and two-side strut on the natural cavitating flows around a submerged vehicle in water tunnel were investigated numerically,using the homogeneous equilibrium two-phase model coupled with a natural cavitation model.The numerical simulation results show that the strut types have distinct effects on the hydrodynamic properties.For the same given upstream velocity and downstream pressure,the existence of the strut leads to an increment of natural cavitation number,reduces the low-pressure region and depresses the pressure on the vehicle surface near the sides of strut.In the case of given cavitaiton number,the influences of the two-side strut on the drag and lift coefficients are both enhanced along with the increment of attack angle,however the influence of the one-side strut gradually gets stronger on the drag coefficient but weaker on the lift coefficient contrarily.In addition,based on the present numerical results,a correction method by introducing the sigmoidal logistic function is proposed to eliminate the interference from the foil-shaped strut.

  17. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF ROCK FAILURE PROCESS IN UNIAXIAL COMPRESSION USING SMOOTHED PARTICLE HYDRODYNAMICS%单轴压缩条件下岩石破坏的光滑粒子流体动力学数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小平; 赵毅; 钱七虎

    2015-01-01

    The problem of rock failure is discontinuous one. The numerical results depend on meshes and computational efficiency is low when finite element method is applied to simulate the failure of rock. Standard smoothed particle hydrodynamics(SPH) method is mesh-free numerical one,which is mainly applied to model the problem of fluid. In this paper,a corrected smoothed particle hydrodynamics,in which constitutive relation of fluid is replaced by constitutive relation of elasto-brittle solid and Weibull statistical approach is used to describe the heterogeneity of the rock-like materials,is developed to simulate the failure of heterogeneous elasto-brittle rock. The corrected smoothed particle hydrodynamics overcomes the shortcomings of finite element method. The numerical results is independence of meshes and computational efficiency is high when the corrected smoothed particle hydrodynamics is applied to simulate growth and coalescence of cracks. The corrected smoothed particle hydrodynamics is helpful to understanding and predicting complex fracture processes of rock-like materials.%岩石破坏问题是非连续问题。采用传统的有限元方法模拟岩石破坏时,计算结果依赖于网格,计算效率低。光滑粒子流体动力学(SPH)法主是一种模拟流体的无网格方法。对SPH法进行改进,将SPH法中流体的本构关系修正为弹脆性固体的本构关系,采用Weibull统计方法描述岩石材料的非均匀性,使SPH法能有效地模拟各向异性弹脆性岩石的破坏。改进的SPH法克服了有限元的缺点,在模拟裂纹启裂、扩展和连接时,计算结果不依赖网格,计算效率高。通过对单轴压缩条件下岩石破坏的数值计算结果表明:改进的SPH法能有效地理解和预测岩石材料的复杂破裂过程。

  18. Hydrodynamic pressure processing to improve meat quality and safety%高压水冲击波加工在改善肉类品质方面的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琦; 靳烨

    2011-01-01

    Hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP)is a new method to improve meat quality and safety ,The instantaneous tenderizing that is observed in HDP-treated meat is most likely due to the direct physical disruption that occurs within and between myofibrils due to the high-pressure shock wave.As a kind of nonthermal process,HDP processing can also reduce bacterial population and microbial flora in meat.%HDP(Hydrodynamic pressure processing)技术是一项用于改善肉品嫩度、提高肉品安全性、延长肉品货架期的新兴技术.HDP技术通过使肌肉结构物理性断裂从而使肉得到嫩化,并且它作为一种非热处理可杀死肉中非致病细菌,降低肉中微生物菌落数,从而延长肉品的货架期.

  19. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-10-05

    This code is a highly modular framework for developing smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations running on parallel platforms. The compartmentalization of the code allows for rapid development of new SPH applications and modifications of existing algorithms. The compartmentalization also allows changes in one part of the code used by many applications to instantly be made available to all applications.

  20. Hydrodynamic aspect of caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franci Gabrovsek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available From a hydrological point of view, active caves are a series of connected conduits which drain water through an aquifer. Water tends to choose the easiest way through the system but different geological and morphological barriers act as flow restrictions. The number and characteristics of restrictions depends on the particular speleogenetic environment, which is a function of geological, geomorphological, climatological and hydrological settings. Such a variety and heterogeneity of underground systems has presented a challenge for human understanding for many centuries. Access to many underground passages, theoretical knowledge and recent methods (modeling, water pressure-resistant dataloggers, precise sensors etc. give us the opportunity to get better insight into the hydrodynamic aspect of caves. In our work we tried to approach underground hydrodynamics from both theoretical and practical points of view. We present some theoretical background of open surface and pressurized flow in underground rivers and present results of some possible scenarios. Moreover, two case studies from the Ljubljanica river basin are presented in more detail: the cave system between Planinsko polje and Ljubljansko barje, and the cave system between Bloško polje and Cerkniško polje. The approach and methodology in each case is somewhat different, as the aims were different at the beginning of exploration. However, they both deal with temporal and spatial hydrodynamics of underground waters. In the case of Bloško polje-Cerkniško polje system we also explain the feedback loop between hydrodynamics and Holocene speleogenesis.

  1. Observation of Self-Cavitating Envelope Dispersive Shock Waves in Yttrium Iron Garnet Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janantha, P A Praveen; Sprenger, Patrick; Hoefer, Mark A; Wu, Mingzhong

    2017-07-14

    The formation and properties of envelope dispersive shock wave (DSW) excitations from repulsive nonlinear waves in a magnetic film are studied. Experiments involve the excitation of a spin wave step pulse in a low-loss magnetic Y_{3}Fe_{5}O_{12} thin film strip, in which the spin wave amplitude increases rapidly, realizing the canonical Riemann problem of shock theory. Under certain conditions, the envelope of the spin wave pulse evolves into a DSW that consists of an expanding train of nonlinear oscillations with amplitudes increasing from front to back, terminated by a black soliton. The onset of DSW self-cavitation, indicated by a point of zero power and a concomitant 180° phase jump, is observed for sufficiently large steps, indicative of the bidirectional dispersive hydrodynamic nature of the DSW. The experimental observations are interpreted with theory and simulations of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  2. Cavitation-induced ignition of cryogenic hydrogen-oxygen fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, V. V.; Muratov, C. B.; Ponizovskaya-Devine, E.; Foygel, M.; Smelyanskiy, V. N.

    2011-03-01

    The Challenger disaster and purposeful experiments with liquid hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (Ox) tank breaches demonstrated that cryogenic H2/Ox fluids always self-ignite in the process of their sudden mixing. Here, we propose a cavitation-induced self-ignition mechanism that may be realized under these conditions. In one possible scenario, self-ignition is caused by the strong shock waves generated by the collapse of pure Ox vapor bubble near the surface of the Ox liquid that may initiate detonation of the gaseous H2/Ox mixture next to the gas-liquid interface. This effect is further enhanced by H2/Ox combustion inside the collapsing bubble in the presence of admixed H2 gas.

  3. Cavitation-induced ignition of cryogenic hydrogen-oxygen fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Osipov, V V; Ponizovskya-Devine, E; Foygel, M; Smelyanskiy, V N

    2011-01-01

    The Challenger disaster and purposeful experiments with liquid hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (Ox) tanks demonstrated that cryogenic H2/Ox fluids always self-ignite in the process of their mixing. Here we propose a cavitation-induced self-ignition mechanism that may be realized under these conditions. In one possible scenario, self-ignition is caused by the strong shock waves generated by the collapse of pure Ox vapor bubble near the surface of the Ox liquid that may initiate detonation of the gaseous H2/Ox mixture adjacent to the gas-liquid interface. This effect is further enhanced by H2/Ox combustion inside the collapsing bubble in the presence of admixed H2 gas.

  4. Dynamics of a single cavitating and reacting bubble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauke, Guillermo; Fuster, Daniel; Dopazo, Cesar

    2007-06-01

    Some of the studies on the dynamics of cavitating bubbles often consider simplified submodels assuming uniform fluid properties within the gas bubbles, ignoring chemical reactions, or suppressing fluid transport phenomena across the bubble interface. Another group of works, to which the present contribution belongs, includes the radial dependence of the fluid variables. Important fluid processes that occur inside the gas bubble, such as chemical reactions, and across the bubble interface, such as heat and mass transfer phenomena, are here considered also. As a consequence, this model should yield more realistic results. In particular, it is found that water evaporation and condensation are fundamental transport phenomena in estimating the dissociation reactions of water into OH. The thermal and mass boundary layers and the radial variation of the chemical concentrations also seem essential for accurate predictions.

  5. Water treatment technologies for CBM water, including cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makysmentz, B.; Lyon, F.L. [Newpark Resources Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada). Newpark Environmental Water Solutions

    2006-07-01

    The reasons for treating CBM water, end uses, reverse osmosis, pretreatment for reverse osmosis, and Newpark case studies are described. CBM water can be treated to make it suitable for injection, re-use, irrigation, or surface discharge. Usually the total dissolved solids (TDS) must be reduced by ion exchange or reverse osmosis with pretreatment. The concept of reverse osmosis and three types of applicable membrane processes are described: microfiltration and ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and electrodialysis. The technologies used for pretreatment depend on the water quality and treatment goals, e.g. coagulation, flocculation and sand media filtration, softening, ion exchange, and nanofiltration. A Newpark case study is described for a water treatment plant at Boulder, Wyoming where evaporation was replaced by cavitation technology. The suitability of various treatment methods for Alberta CBM water is discussed. 21 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Compressible Turbulent Flow Numerical Simulations of Tip Vortex Cavitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khatami, F.; Weide, van der E.T.A.; Hoeijmakers, H.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    For an elliptic Arndt’s hydrofoil numerical simulations of vortex cavitation are presented. An equilibrium cavitation model is employed. This single-fluid model assumes local thermodynamic and mechanical equilibrium in the mixture region of the flow, is employed. Furthermore, for characterizing the

  7. Pressure and velocity dependence of flow-type cavitation erosion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Auret, JG

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available of underpressure expands for the higher velocity vOz. Thus cavitation bubbles leave this region farther downstream and the erosion zone shifts down- stream. At the same time, cavitation damage will in- crease because of the larger...

  8. Cavitation Measurement during Sonic and Ultrasonic Activated Irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macedo, R.G.; Verhaagen, B.; Fernandez Rivas, David; Versluis, Andreas Michel; Wesselink, P.R.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this study were to quantify and to visualize the possible occurrence of transient cavitation (bubble formation and implosion) during sonic and ultrasonic (UAI) activated irrigation. Methods The amount of cavitation generated around several endodontic instruments was measured

  9. Cavitation measurement during sonic and ultrasonic activated irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macedo, R.; Verhaagen, B.; Fernandez Rivas, D.; Versluis, M.; Wesselink, P.; van der Sluis, L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this study were to quantify and to visualize the possible occurrence of transient cavitation (bubble formation and implosion) during sonic and ultrasonic (UAI) activated irrigation. Methods The amount of cavitation generated around several endodontic instruments was measured

  10. Suppression of Fatigue Crack Propagation of Duralumin by Cavitation Peening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Soyama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It was demonstrated in the present paper that cavitation peening which is one of the mechanical surface modification technique can suppress fatigue crack propagation in duralumin. The impacts produced when cavitation bubble collapses can be utilised for the mechanical surface modification technique in the same way as laser peening and shot peening, which is called “cavitation peening”. Cavitation peening employing a cavitating jet in water was used to treat the specimen made of duralumin Japanese Industrial Standards JIS A2017-T3. After introducing a notch, fatigue test was conducted by a load-controlled plate bending fatigue tester, which has been originally developed. The fatigue crack propagation behavior was evaluated and the relationship between the fatigue crack propagation rate versus stress intensity factor range was obtained. From the results, the fatigue crack propagation rate was drastically reduced by cavitation peening and the fatigue life of duralumin plate was extended 4.2 times by cavitation peening. In addition, the fatigue crack propagation can be suppressed by 88% in the stable crack propagation stage by cavitation peening.

  11. Examples of oil cavitation erosion in positive displacement pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halat, J. A.; Ellis, G. O.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of cavitation flow on piston type, positive displacement, hydraulic pumps are discussed. The operating principles of the pump and the components which are most subject to erosion effects are described. The mechanisms of cavitation phenomena are identified from photographic records. Curves are developed to show the solubility of air in water, oil-water emulsion, and industrial hydraulic oil.

  12. Progress in numerical simulation of cavitating water jets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Guoyi; SHMIZU Seiji

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews recent progress made toward modeling of cavitation and numerical simulation of cavitating water jets.Properties of existing cavitation models are discussed and a compressible mixture flow method for the numerical simulation of highspeed water jets accompanied by intensive cavitation is introduced.Two-phase fluids media of cavitating flow are treated as a homogeneous bubbly mixture and the mean flow is computed by solving Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations for compressible fluid.The intensity of cavitation is evaluated by the gas volume fraction,which is governed by the compressibility of bubble-liquid mixture corresponding to the status of mean flow field.Numerical results of cavitating water jet issuing from an orifice nozzle are presented and its applicability to intensively cavitating jets is demonstrated.However,the effect of impact pressure caused by collapsing of bubbles is neglected,and effectively coupling of the present compressible mixture flow method with the dynamics of bubbles remains to be a challenge.

  13. Real-Time Two-Dimensional Imaging of Microbubble Cavitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vignon, F.; Shi, W.T.; Powers, J.E.; Liu, J.; Drvol, L.; Lof, J.; Everbach, C.; Gao, S.; Xie, F.; Porter, T.

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound cavitation of microbubble contrast agents has a potentialfor therapeutic applications, including sonothrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke. For safety, efficacy, and reproducibility of treatment, it is critical to evaluate the cavitation state (e.g. stable versus inertial forms of cavitat

  14. Cavitation Measurement during Sonic and Ultrasonic Activated Irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macedo, R.G.; Verhaagen, B.; Fernandez-Rivas, D.; Versluis, M.; Wesselink, P.R.; Sluis, van der L.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this study were to quantify and to visualize the possible occurrence of transient cavitation (bubble formation and implosion) during sonic and ultrasonic (UAI) activated irrigation. Methods The amount of cavitation generated around several endodontic instruments was measure

  15. Cavitation measurement during sonic and ultrasonic activated irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macedo, R.; Verhaagen, B.; Fernandez Rivas, D.; Versluis, M.; Wesselink, P.; van der Sluis, L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this study were to quantify and to visualize the possible occurrence of transient cavitation (bubble formation and implosion) during sonic and ultrasonic (UAI) activated irrigation. Methods The amount of cavitation generated around several endodontic instruments was measured

  16. Rudder gap cavitation: Fundamental understanding and its suppression devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Shin Hyung, E-mail: shr@snu.ac.k [Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Research Institute of Marine Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanangno, Gwanak-ku, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Changmin; Lee, Hee Bum [Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jungkeun [Jungseok Research Institute of International Logistics and Trade, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    With the increasing size and speed of cargo ships, which results in high speed flow in propeller slipstream, cavitation is frequently observed on and around the rudder system. Among the various types of cavitation on the rudder system, the rudder gap cavitation is the most difficult one to control and suppress. For the development of rudder gap cavitation suppression devices, both experimental and numerical analyses of the physical phenomenon are warranted. In the present study, experiments of the incipient cavitation and pressure measurement were carried out for typical cargo ship rudder sections with and without the suppression devices, which were suggested by the author. The experiments were simulated using computational fluid dynamics tools and the results were compared in terms of the cavitation inception and surface pressure distribution. Fundamental understanding of the rudder gap cavitation inception was obtained along with its relevance to the surface pressure distribution. It is confirmed that the gap flow blocking devices effectively suppress the rudder gap cavitation and, at the same time, augment lift.

  17. Hydrodynamics of the Dirac spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yizhuang, E-mail: yizhuang.liu@stonybrook.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Warchoł, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.warchol@uj.edu.pl [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, PL-30348 Krakow (Poland); Zahed, Ismail, E-mail: ismail.zahed@stonybrook.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    We discuss a hydrodynamical description of the eigenvalues of the Dirac spectrum in even dimensions in the vacuum and in the large N (volume) limit. The linearized hydrodynamics supports sound waves. The hydrodynamical relaxation of the eigenvalues is captured by a hydrodynamical (tunneling) minimum configuration which follows from a pertinent form of Euler equation. The relaxation from a phase of unbroken chiral symmetry to a phase of broken chiral symmetry occurs over a time set by the speed of sound.

  18. NUMERICAL VALIDATION OF COMPUTATIONAL MODEL FOR SHEET CAVITATING FLOWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A computational modeling for the sheet cavitating flows is presented. The cavitation model is implemented in a viscous Navier-Stokes solver. The cavity interface and shape are determined using an iterative procedure matching the cavity surface to a constant pressure boundary. The pressure distribution, as well as its gradient on the wall, is taken into account in updating the cavity shape iteratively. Numerical computations are performed for the sheet cavitating flows at a range of cavitation numbers across the hemispheric headform/cylinder body with different grid numbers. The influence of the relaxation factor in the cavity shape updating scheme for the algorithm accuracy and reliability is conducted through comparison with other two cavity shape updating numerical schemes.The results obtained are reasonable and the iterative procedure of cavity shape updating is quite stable, which demonstrate the superiority of the proposed cavitation model and algorithms.

  19. Analysis on Velocity Characteristics of Cavitation Flow Around Hydrofoil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang-bin; LIU Shu-yan; WANG Guo-yu; ZHANG Bo; ZHANG Min-di

    2010-01-01

    The time-averaged velocity distributions in flows around a hydronautics hydrofoil were measured by using a digit-al particle image velocimeter (DPIV) system. The results show that the velocity distribution in the whole flow field depends on the development of cavitation structures with the decreasing of cavitation number. The high-fluctuation region with lower velocity relates to the cavitation area. The lowest velocity distribution in the cavity core becomes more uniform, and its in-fluence becomes smaller gradually as moving to downstream. The main-stream velocity distribution is even, then fluctuate and even at last. In the supercavitation stage, the fluid velocity in the cavitation region, corresponding to the front of the hydrofoil's suction surface, has a distribution close to the main stream, while the fluid velocity in other cavitation area is lower.

  20. Study of the cavitating instability on a grooved Venturi profile

    CERN Document Server

    Danlos, Amélie; Ravelet, Florent; Coutier-Delgosha, Olivier; Bakir, Farid

    2012-01-01

    Cavitation is a limiting phenomenon in many domains of fluid mechanics. Instabilities of a partial cavity developed on an hydrofoil, a converging-diverging step or in an inter-blade channel in turbomachinery, have already been investigated and described in many previous works. The aim of this study is to evaluate a passive control method of the sheet cavity. According to operating conditions, cavitation can be described by two different regimes: an unstable regime with a cloud cavitation shedding and a stable regime with only a pulsating sheet cavity. Avoiding cloud cavitation can limit structure damages since a pulsating sheet cavity is less agressive. The surface condition of a converging-diverging step, like a Venturi-type obstacle, is here studied as a solution for a passive control of the cavitation. This study discusses the effect of an organized roughness, in the shape of longitudinal grooves, on the developed sheet cavity. Analyzes conducted with Laser Doppler Velocimetry, visualisations and pressure ...

  1. A THERMODYNAMIC CAVITATION MODEL APPLICABLE TO HIGH TEMPERATURE FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Min Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation is not only related with pressure, but also affected by temperature. Under high temperature, temperature depression of liquids is caused by latent heat of vaporization. The cavitation characteristics under such condition are different from those under room temperature. The paper focuses on thermodynamic cavitation based on the Rayleigh-Plesset equation and modifies the mass transfer equation with fully consideration of the thermodynamic effects and physical properties. To validate the modified model, the external and internal flow fields, such as hydrofoil NACA0015 and nozzle, are calculated, respectively. The hydrofoil NACA0015's cavitation characteristic is calculated by the modified model at different temperatures. The pressure coefficient is found in accordance with the experimental data. The nozzle cavitation under the thermodynamic condition is calculated and compared with the experiment.

  2. Flow and cavitation characteristics of water hydraulic poppet valves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖义德; 刘银水; 黄艳; 李壮云

    2002-01-01

    Two types of poppet valves were tested, one is a poppet with a sharp-edged seats, and the other is that with a chamfered seat. During the tests, the effects of backpressure and poppet lift on flow characteristics were considered. Cavitation inception was detected by the appearance and rapid growth of a particular low frequency component of the outlet pressure fluctuation of valve when cavitation occurs. Experimental results show cavitation, back pressure, valve opening and its geometrical shape have significant effects on the flow characteristics of valve. The flow coefficient of throttle with water used as working medium is 0. 85~0. 95 when there is no cavitation. The pressure drop of flow saturation decreases with the increasing of poppet lift. The sharp-edged throttle has stronger anti-cavitation ability than the chamfered one.

  3. A PRESSURE-BASED ALGORITHM FOR CAVITATING FLOW COMPUTATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ling-xin; ZHAO Wei-guo; SHAO Xue-ming

    2011-01-01

    A pressure-based algorithm for the prediction of cavitating flows is presented. The algorithm employs a set of equations including the Navier-Stokes equations and a cavitation model explaining the phase change between liquid and vapor. A pressure-based method is used to construct the algorithm and the coupling between pressure and velocity is considered. The pressure correction equation is derived from a new continuity equation which employs a source term related to phase change rate instead of the material derivative of density Dp/Dt.Thispressure-based algorithm allows for the computation of steady or unsteady,2-Dor 3-D cavitating flows. Two 2-D cases, flows around a flat-nose cylinder and around a NACA0015 hydrofoil, are simulated respectively, and the periodic cavitation behaviors associated with the re-entrant jets are captured. This algorithm shows good capability of computating time-dependent cavitating flows.

  4. An Investigation on the Nature of Micro Cavitation Bubbles on the Movement of Undersea Vessels and Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Asalie; Hoffman, Derek; Mancas, Stefan C

    2014-01-01

    To further understand their nature, micro cavitation bubbles were systematically diffused around the exterior of a test body (tube) fully submerged in a water tank. The primary purpose was to assess the feasibility of applying micro cavitation as a means of depth control for underwater vehicles, mainly but not limited to submarines. Ideally, the results would indicate the use of micro cavitation as a more efficient alternative to underwater vehicle depth control than the conventional ballast tank method. The current approach utilizes the Archimedes' principle of buoyancy to alter the density of the object affected, making it less than, or greater than the density of the surrounding fluid. However, this process is too slow for underwater vehicles to react to sudden obstacles inherent in their environment. Rather than altering its internal density, this research aimed to investigate the response that would occur if the density of its environment was manipulated instead. In theory, and in a hydrostatic fluid, di...

  5. Ultrasonic cavitation erosion of 316L steel weld joint in liquid Pb-Bi eutectic alloy at 550°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yucheng; Chang, Hongxia; Guo, Xiaokai; Li, Tianqing; Xiao, Longren

    2017-11-01

    Liquid lead-bismuth eutectic alloy (LBE) is applied in the Accelerator Driven transmutation System (ADS) as the high-power spallation neutron targets and coolant. A 19.2kHz ultrasonic device was deployed in liquid LBE at 550°C to induce short and long period cavitation erosion damage on the surface of weld joint, SEM and Atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to map out the surface properties, and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) was applied to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of elements in the micro region of the surface. The erosion mechanism for how the cavitation erosion evolved by studying the element changes, their morphology evolution, the surface hardness and the roughness evolution, was proposed. The results showed that the pits, caters and cracks appeared gradually on the erode surface after a period of cavitation. The surface roughness increased along with exposure time. Work hardening by the bubbles impact in the incubation stage strengthened the cavitation resistance efficiently. The dissolution and oxidation corrosion and cavitation erosion that simultaneously happened in liquid LBE accelerated corrosion-erosion process, and these two processes combined to cause more serious damage on the material surface. Contrast to the performance of weld metal, base metal exhibited a much better cavitation resistance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Combined experimental and computational investigation of the cavitating flow in an orifice plate with special emphasis on surrogate-based optimization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, XianLin; Huang, Biao; Chen, Tairan; Liu, Ying; Qiu, Si Cong [School of Mechanical and Vehicular Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing (China); Zhao, Jing [China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, Beijing (China)

    2017-01-15

    We investigated the influence of geometrical parameters of the orifice plate on the cavitation structures, and optimized these parameters by using a surrogate-based model with special emphasis on the concentration of hydroxyl radical released. The results show that for the orifice plate of the hydrodynamic cavitation system, the possible location of the inception of the cavity spreads to throat and divergent section of the venturi geometry. Based on the surrogate model and global sensitivity assessment, the diameter of throat Dt and diameter of inlet Din significantly influenced the size of the cavity, while the length of throat Lt had little effect on both cavitation intensity and flow rate. It should be noted that when Lt is decreased, the size of cavity would be slightly decreased but the flow rate increased clearly. The increase of the diverging section is in favor of the size of cavity. By comparing the experimental measurements on the concentration of Methylene blue, the optimum geometry of the orifice plate for best cavitational activity is proposed.

  7. RANS computations for identification of 1-D cavitation model parameters: application to full load cavitation vortex rope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alligné, S.; Decaix, J.; Müller, A.; Nicolet, C.; Avellan, F.; Münch, C.

    2017-04-01

    Due to the massive penetration of alternative renewable energies, hydropower is a key energy conversion technology for stabilizing the electrical power network by using hydraulic machines at off design operating conditions. At full load, the axisymmetric cavitation vortex rope developing in Francis turbines acts as an internal source of energy, leading to an instability commonly referred to as self-excited surge. 1-D models are developed to predict this phenomenon and to define the range of safe operating points for a hydropower plant. These models require a calibration of several parameters. The present work aims at identifying these parameters by using CFD results as objective functions for an optimization process. A 2-D Venturi and 3-D Francis turbine are considered.

  8. Cavitation instability in bulk metallic glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai L.H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experiments have shown that fracture surfaces of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs usually exhibit an intriguing nanoscale corrugation like fractographic feature mediated by nanoscale void formation. We attribute the onset of this nanoscale corrugation to TTZs (tension transformation zones mediated cavitation. In our recent study, the spall experiments of Zr-based BMG using a single-stage light gas gun were performed. To uncover the mechanisms of the spallation damage nucleation and evolution, the samples were designed to be subjected to dynamic tensile loadings of identical amplitude but with different durations by making use of the multi-stress pulse and the double-flyer techniques. It is clearly revealed that the macroscopic spall fracture in BMGs originates from the nucleation, growth and coalescence of micro-voids. Then, a microvoid nucleation model of BMGs based on free volume theory is proposed, which indicates that the nucleation of microvoids at the early stage of spallation in BMGs is resulted from diffusion and coalescence of free volume. Furthermore, a theoretical model of void growth in BMGs undergoing remote dynamic hydrostatic tension is developed. The critical condition of cavitation instability is obtained. It is found that dynamic void growth in BMGs can be well controlled by a dimensionless inertial number characterizing the competition between intrinsic and extrinsic time scales. To unveil the atomic-level mechanism of cavitation, a systematic molecular dynamics (MD simulation of spallation behaviour of a binary metallic glass with different impact velocities was performed. It is found that micro-void nucleation is determined TTZs while the growth is controlled by shear transformation zones (STZs at atomic scale.

  9. Spatial-temporal three-dimensional ultrasound plane-by-plane active cavitation mapping for high-intensity focused ultrasound in free field and pulsatile flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ting; Hu, Hong; Bai, Chen; Guo, Shifang; Yang, Miao; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-07-01

    Cavitation plays important roles in almost all high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applications. However, current two-dimensional (2D) cavitation mapping could only provide cavitation activity in one plane. This study proposed a three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound plane-by-plane active cavitation mapping (3D-UPACM) for HIFU in free field and pulsatile flow. The acquisition of channel-domain raw radio-frequency (RF) data in 3D space was performed by sequential plane-by-plane 2D ultrafast active cavitation mapping. Between two adjacent unit locations, there was a waiting time to make cavitation nuclei distribution of the liquid back to the original state. The 3D cavitation map equivalent to the one detected at one time and over the entire volume could be reconstructed by Marching Cube algorithm. Minimum variance (MV) adaptive beamforming was combined with coherence factor (CF) weighting (MVCF) or compressive sensing (CS) method (MVCS) to process the raw RF data for improved beamforming or more rapid data processing. The feasibility of 3D-UPACM was demonstrated in tap-water and a phantom vessel with pulsatile flow. The time interval between temporal evolutions of cavitation bubble cloud could be several microseconds. MVCF beamformer had a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at 14.17dB higher, lateral and axial resolution at 2.88times and 1.88times, respectively, which were compared with those of B-mode active cavitation mapping. MVCS beamformer had only 14.94% time penalty of that of MVCF beamformer. This 3D-UPACM technique employs the linear array of a current ultrasound diagnosis system rather than a 2D array transducer to decrease the cost of the instrument. Moreover, although the application is limited by the requirement for a gassy fluid medium or a constant supply of new cavitation nuclei that allows replenishment of nuclei between HIFU exposures, this technique may exhibit a useful tool in 3D cavitation mapping for HIFU with high speed, precision and resolution

  10. Effect of a bubble nucleation model on cavitating flow structure in rarefaction wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, N.; Schmidt, A.

    2017-07-01

    This paper explains research examining processes accompanying underwater explosions near the free surface. Particular attention is paid to the effect of heterogeneous nucleation on cavitating flow induced by underwater explosions near the free surface. Variation of the size spectrum of produced bubbles and influence of this process on flow structure are studied. The cavitating liquid is considered as a two-phase bubbly medium described in the framework of the Euler-Lagrange approach treating the carrier phase (liquid) as a continuum and the dispersed phase (bubbles) as a set of test particles. More detailed descriptions of a mathematical model, numerical method, and algorithm validation are observed in the authors' previous paper [see, Petrov and Schmidt (Exp Thermal Fluid Sci 60:367-373, 2015)].

  11. Effect of state of stress on the cavitation behavior of Al 5083 superplastic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Namas; Kalu, Peter [Dept. of Mech. Eng., Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Khraisheh, Marwan K. [Dept. of MEch. Eng., Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2005-07-01

    In this paper we address the controversial issue of nucleation of cavities in Al 5083 alloys and their subsequent growth to coalescence and failure. We focus on the origin and growth of cavities not only during the primary processing of Al 5083 in sheet forms, but also during the manufacture of these sheets into SPF (superplastic forming) components. Experimental observations of pre-existing cavities in this alloy are made using optical and electron microscopy. The role of sheet rolling direction, and the state of stress during superplastic deformation on the cavity formation and coalescence are also discussed. The effect of the state of stress (uniaxial, plane strain, balanced biaxial, and tri-axial) on the growth characteristics of cavitation is also examined. It is found that the uniaxial model based cavitation cannot directly be extended to predict the behavior of more complex stress states, unless great care is taken to identify the right strain measure for the mapping process. (orig.)

  12. Effect of a bubble nucleation model on cavitating flow structure in rarefaction wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, N.; Schmidt, A.

    2016-12-01

    This paper explains research examining processes accompanying underwater explosions near the free surface. Particular attention is paid to the effect of heterogeneous nucleation on cavitating flow induced by underwater explosions near the free surface. Variation of the size spectrum of produced bubbles and influence of this process on flow structure are studied. The cavitating liquid is considered as a two-phase bubbly medium described in the framework of the Euler-Lagrange approach treating the carrier phase (liquid) as a continuum and the dispersed phase (bubbles) as a set of test particles. More detailed descriptions of a mathematical model, numerical method, and algorithm validation are observed in the authors' previous paper [see, Petrov and Schmidt (Exp Thermal Fluid Sci 60:367-373, 2015)].

  13. Peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitation in pathological myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marticorena-Álvarez, P; Clement-Fernández, F; Iglesias-Ussel, L

    2014-08-01

    A 54 year old woman with pathological myopia, presented with an elevated, yellowish-white lesion at the inferior border of the myopic conus in her left eye. The optical coherence tomography (OCT) demonstrated an intrachoroidal hyporeflective space. The fluorescein angiography examination (FA) showed early hypofluorescence with delayed staining, with no leakage of contrast. Recognition of «peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitation» as an own entity associated with pathological myopia is important to avoid confusion with other possible retinal lesions which require further investigation and treatment. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Cavitation erosion of copper and aluminium in water at elevated-temperature

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Auret, JG

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation erosion tests were carried out in tap water on aluminium and copper samples in a rotating disk cavitations test apparatus, to study the effect of water temperature on cavitation dynamics and cavitation erosion. A shift in the position...

  15. Numerical 3D analysis of cloud cavitation shedding frequency on a circular leading edge hydrofoil with a barotropic cavitation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, M.; Skoda, R.

    2015-12-01

    A compressible density-based time-explicit low Mach number consistent viscous flow solver is utilised in combination with a barotropic cavitation model for the analysis of cloud cavitation on a circular leading edge (CLE) hydrofoil. For 5° angle of attack, cloud structure and shedding frequency for different cavitation numbers are compared to experimental data. A strong grid sensitivity is found in particular for high cavitation numbers. On a fine grid, a very good agreement with validation data is achieved even without explicit turbulence model. The neglect of viscous effects as well as a two-dimensional set-up lead to a less realistic prediction of cloud structures and frequencies. Comparative simulations with the Sauer-Schnerr cavitation model and modified pre-factors of the mass transfer terms underestimate the measured shedding frequency.

  16. Annual Report: Hydrodynamics and Radiative Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Paul Drake

    2005-12-01

    We report the ongoing work of our group in hydrodynamics and radiative hydrodynamics with astrophysical applications. During the period of the existing grant, we have carried out two types of experiments at the Omega laser. One set of experiments has studied radiatively collapsing shocks, obtaining high-quality scaling data using a backlit pinhole and obtaining the first (ever, anywhere) Thomson-scattering data from a radiative shock. Other experiments have studied the deeply nonlinear development of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability from complex initial conditions, obtaining the first (ever, anywhere) dual-axis radiographic data using backlit pinholes and ungated detectors. All these experiments have applications to astrophysics, discussed in the corresponding papers either in print or in preparation. We also have obtained preliminary radiographs of experimental targets using our x-ray source. The targets for the experiments have been assembled at Michigan, where we also prepare many of the simple components. The above activities, in addition to a variety of data analysis and design projects, provide good experience for graduate and undergraduates students. In the process of doing this research we have built a research group that uses such work to train junior scientists.

  17. Hydrodynamic Modeling and Its Application in AUC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Mattia; Byron, Olwyn

    2015-01-01

    The hydrodynamic parameters measured in an AUC experiment, s(20,w) and D(t)(20,w)(0), can be used to gain information on the solution structure of (bio)macromolecules and their assemblies. This entails comparing the measured parameters with those that can be computed from usually "dry" structures by "hydrodynamic modeling." In this chapter, we will first briefly put hydrodynamic modeling in perspective and present the basic physics behind it as implemented in the most commonly used methods. The important "hydration" issue is also touched upon, and the distinction between rigid bodies versus those for which flexibility must be considered in the modeling process is then made. The available hydrodynamic modeling/computation programs, HYDROPRO, BEST, SoMo, AtoB, and Zeno, the latter four all implemented within the US-SOMO suite, are described and their performance evaluated. Finally, some literature examples are presented to illustrate the potential applications of hydrodynamics in the expanding field of multiresolution modeling.

  18. Mechanics of submerged jet cavitating action: material properties, exposure time and temperature effects on erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutli, Ezddin A.F.; Nedeljkovic, Milos S. [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Belgrade (RS); Radovic, Nenad A. [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (RS)

    2008-05-15

    Experimental setup with a submerged cavitating jet has been used for the study of influences of material, exposure time and working fluid temperature on the erosion process. Each of the parameters has been varied separately, and the results of erosion are analyzed in detail. Additionally, comparison of experiments with nitrated and non-nitrated material has been made in order to study the enhancement (mostly reflected as the prolonged incubation time) of erosion resistance achieved by nitrating the specimen surface. (orig.)

  19. Experimental investigation of the flow-induced vibration of hydrofoils in cavitating flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoyu; Wu, Qin; Huang, Biao; Gao, Yuan

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the correlation between fluid induced vibration and unsteady cavitation behaviours. Experimental results are presented for a modified NACA66 hydrofoil, which is fixed at α=8°. The high-speed camera is synchronized with a single point Laser Doppler Vibrometer to analyze the transient cavitating flow structures and the corresponding structural vibration characteristics. The results showed that, with the decreasing of the cavitation number, the cavitating flows in a water tunnel display several types of cavitation patterns, such as incipient cavitation, sheet cavitation and cloud cavitation. The cavity shedding frequency reduces with the decrease of the cavitation number. As for the cloud cavitation regime, the trend of the vibration velocity goes up with the growth of the attached cavity, accompanied with small amplitude fluctuations. Then the collapse and shedding of the large-scale cloud cavities leads to substantial increase of the vibration velocity fluctuations.

  20. Status and future of hydrodynamical model atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Ludwig, H G

    2004-01-01

    Since about 25 years ago work has been dedicated to the development of hydrodynamical model atmospheres for cool stars (of A to T spectral type). Despite their obviously sounder physical foundation in comparison with standard hydrostatic models, their general application has been rather limited. In order to understand why this is, and how to progress, we review the present status of hydrodynamical modelling of cool star atmospheres. The development efforts were and are motivated by the theoretical interest of understanding the dynamical processes operating in stellar atmospheres. To show the observational impact, we discuss examples in the fields of spectroscopy and stellar structure where hydrodynamical modelling provided results on a level qualitatively beyond standard models. We stress present modelling challenges, and highlight presently possible and future observations that would be particularly valuable in the interplay between model validation and interpretation of observables, to eventually widen the ...

  1. Relativistic Hydrodynamics with Wavelets

    CERN Document Server

    DeBuhr, Jackson; Anderson, Matthew; Neilsen, David; Hirschmann, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    Methods to solve the relativistic hydrodynamic equations are a key computational kernel in a large number of astrophysics simulations and are crucial to understanding the electromagnetic signals that originate from the merger of astrophysical compact objects. Because of the many physical length scales present when simulating such mergers, these methods must be highly adaptive and capable of automatically resolving numerous localized features and instabilities that emerge throughout the computational domain across many temporal scales. While this has been historically accomplished with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) based methods, alternatives based on wavelet bases and the wavelet transformation have recently achieved significant success in adaptive representation for advanced engineering applications. This work presents a new method for the integration of the relativistic hydrodynamic equations using iterated interpolating wavelets and introduces a highly adaptive implementation for multidimensional simulati...

  2. Burst Mechanisms in Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Knobloch, E

    1999-01-01

    Different mechanisms believed to be responsible for the generation of bursts in hydrodynamical systems are reviewed and a new mechanism capable of generating regular or irregular bursts of large dynamic range near threshold is described. The new mechanism is present in the interaction between oscillatory modes of odd and even parity in systems of large but finite aspect ratio, and provides an explanation for the bursting behavior observed in binary fluid convection. Additional applications of the new mechanism are proposed.

  3. Relativistic cosmological hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, J

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the relativistic cosmological hydrodynamic perturbations. We present the general large scale solutions of the perturbation variables valid for the general sign of three space curvature, the cosmological constant, and generally evolving background equation of state. The large scale evolution is characterized by a conserved gauge invariant quantity which is the same as a perturbed potential (or three-space curvature) in the comoving gauge.

  4. Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert

    2014-08-07

    From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms.

  5. Catastrophic Cracking Courtesy of Quiescent Cavitation

    CERN Document Server

    Daily, D Jesse; Thomson, Scott L; Truscott, Tadd T

    2012-01-01

    A popular party trick is to fill a glass bottle with water and hit the top of the bottle with an open hand, causing the bottom of the bottle to break open. We investigate the source of the catastrophic cracking through the use of high-speed video and an accelerometer attached to the bottom of a glass bottle. Upon closer inspection, it is obvious that the acceleration caused by hitting the top of the bottle is followed by the formation of bubbles near the bottom. The nearly instantaneous acceleration creates an area of low pressure on the bottom of the bottle where cavitation bubbles form. Moments later, the cavitation bubbles collapse at roughly 10 times the speed of formation, causing the bottle to break. The accelerometer data shows that the bottle is broken after the bubbles collapse and that the magnitude of the bubble collapse is greater than the initial impact. The fluid dynamics video highlights that this trick will not work if the bottle is empty nor if it is filled with a carbonated fluid because the...

  6. Cavitation and pore blocking in nanoporous glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, C; Kalies, G; Enke, D; Klank, D

    2011-09-06

    In gas adsorption studies, porous glasses are frequently referred to as model materials for highly disordered mesopore systems. Numerous works suggest that an accurate interpretation of physisorption isotherms requires a complete understanding of network effects upon adsorption and desorption, respectively. The present article deals with nitrogen and argon adsorption at different temperatures (77 and 87 K) performed on a series of novel nanoporous glasses (NPG) with different mean pore widths. NPG samples contain smaller mesopores and significantly higher microporosity than porous Vycor glass or controlled pore glass. Since the mean pore width of NPG can be tuned sensitively, the evolution of adsorption characteristics with respect to a broadening pore network can be investigated starting from the narrowest nanopore width. With an increasing mean pore width, a H2-type hysteresis develops gradually which finally transforms into a H1-type. In this connection, a transition from a cavitation-induced desorption toward desorption controlled by pore blocking can be observed. Furthermore, we find concrete hints for a pore size dependence of the relative pressure of cavitation in highly disordered pore systems. By comparing nitrogen and argon adsorption, a comprehensive insight into adsorption mechanisms in novel disordered materials is provided.

  7. Passive cavitation imaging with ultrasound arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgaonkar, Vasant A; Datta, Saurabh; Holland, Christy K; Mast, T Douglas

    2009-12-01

    A method is presented for passive imaging of cavitational acoustic emissions using an ultrasound array, with potential application in real-time monitoring of ultrasound ablation. To create such images, microbubble emissions were passively sensed by an imaging array and dynamically focused at multiple depths. In this paper, an analytic expression for a passive image is obtained by solving the Rayleigh-Sommerfield integral, under the Fresnel approximation, and passive images were simulated. A 192-element array was used to create passive images, in real time, from 520-kHz ultrasound scattered by a 1-mm steel wire. Azimuthal positions of this target were accurately estimated from the passive images. Next, stable and inertial cavitation was passively imaged in saline solution sonicated at 520 kHz. Bubble clusters formed in the saline samples were consistently located on both passive images and B-scans. Passive images were also created using broadband emissions from bovine liver sonicated at 2.2 MHz. Agreement was found between the images and source beam shape, indicating an ability to map therapeutic ultrasound beams in situ. The relation between these broadband emissions, sonication amplitude, and exposure conditions are discussed.

  8. Characterization of the cavitating flow in converging-diverging nozzle based on experimental investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Pavel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation phenomena occuring in converging-diverging nozzle (Venturi tube are described in the paper. A closed test circuit with possibility to control both flow rate and static pressure level were used. Loss coefficient was evaluated for different sigma numbers resulting in full „static“ characterization of the nozzle. Visualizations of the cavitation pattern development were acquired and matched with evolution of the loss coefficient. Three cavitation regimes are described: partial cavitation, fully developed cavitation, supercavitation.

  9. Nanoscale particles in technological processes of beneficiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I. Popel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cavitation is a rather common and important effect in the processes of destruction of nano- and microscale particles in natural and technological processes. A possible cavitation disintegration of polymineral nano- and microparticles, which are placed into a liquid, as a result of the interaction of the particles with collapsed cavitation bubbles is considered. The emphasis is put on the cavitation processes on the interface between liquid and fine solid particles, which is suitable for the description of the real situations.Results: The results are illustrated for the minerals that are most abundant in gold ore. The bubbles are generated by shock loading of the liquid heated to the boiling temperature. Possibilities of cavitation separation of nano- and microscale monomineral fractions from polymineral nano- and microparticles and of the use of cavitation for beneficiation are demonstrated.Conclusion: The cavitation disintegration mechanism is important because the availability of high-grade deposits in the process of mining and production of noble metals is decreasing. This demands for an enhancement of the efficiency in developing low-grade deposits and in reprocessing ore dumps and tailings, which contain a certain amount of noble metals in the form of finely disseminated fractions. The cavitation processes occuring on the interface between liquid and fine solid particles are occasionally more effective than the bulk cavitation processes that were considered earlier.

  10. Elasto-hydrodynamic network analysis of colloidal gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, James; Varga, Zsigmond

    Colloidal gels formed at low particle volume fractions result from a competition between two rate processes: aggregation of colloids and compaction of pre-gel aggregates. Recent work has shown that the former process is highly sensitive to the nature of the hydrodynamic interactions between suspended colloids. This same sensitivity to hydrodynamic flows within the gel leads to pronounced differences in the spectrum of relaxation times and response to deformation of the gel. This talk explores those differences and their consequences through computational simulations and the framework of elasto-hydrodynamic network analysis. We demonstrate a significant impact of hydrodynamic interactions between gelled colloids on macroscopic gel dynamics and rheology as well as the effect of hydrodynamic screening in gelled materials.

  11. Experimental evaluation of numerical simulation of cavitating flow around hydrofoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dular, M.; Bachert, R.; Stoffel, B. [Darmstadt Univ. of Technology, Lab. for Turbomachinery and Fluid Power (Germany); Sirok, B. [Ljubljana Univ., Lab. for Water and Turbine Machines (Slovenia)

    2005-08-01

    Cavitation in hydraulic machines causes different problems that can be related to its unsteady nature. An experimental and numerical study of developed cavitating flow was performed. Until now simulations of cavitating flow were limited to the self developed 'in house' CFD codes. The goal of the work was to experimentally evaluate the capabilities of a commercial CFD code (Fluent) for simulation of a developed cavitating flow. Two simple hydrofoils that feature some 3D effects of cavitation were used for the experiments. A relatively new technique where PIV method combined with LIF technique was used to experimentally determine the instantaneous and average velocity and void ratio fields (cavity shapes) around the hydrofoils. Distribution of static pressure on the hydrofoil surface was determined. For the numerical simulation of cavitating flow a bubble dynamics cavitation model was used to describe the generation and evaporation of vapour phase. An unsteady RANS 3D simulation was performed. Comparison between numerical and experimental results shows good correlation. The distribution and size of vapour structures and the velocity fields agree well. The distribution of pressure on the hydrofoil surface is correctly predicted. The numerically predicted shedding frequencies are in fair agreement with the experimental data. (authors)

  12. Numerical research on unsteady cavitating flow over a hydrofoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homa, D.; Wróblewski, W.

    2016-10-01

    Cavitation is a widely known phenomenon in pumps and water turbines installations. It can lead to significant damage of blades and walls of the rotor therefore it is crucial during pump designing and exploitation to avoid working in flow conditions, that enabled cavitation to occur. Nowadays numerical simulations of flow can provide valuable information concerning pressure and velocity distribution and can indicate if there is a risk of cavitating flow appearance. There are a few mathematical models which describe cavitating flow. In the paper Schnerr & Sauer model was chosen for simulation. Aim of the paper is to verify its utility in case of different cavitating flow regimes over Clark-Y hydrofoil. After performing the grid independence study four different cavitation regimes were investigated. The vapour areas appearance, their shapes and changes in time were observed. The assumption of isothermal, two - phase flow was made. The calculations were performed using OpenFOAM and were compared to the available measurements data. The presented results concerned sheet and cloud cavitation regimes.

  13. Ultrasound line-by-line scanning method of spatial-temporal active cavitation mapping for high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ting; Zhang, Siyuan; Fu, Quanyou; Xu, Zhian; Wan, Mingxi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented an ultrasound line-by-line scanning method of spatial-temporal active cavitation mapping applicable in a liquid or liquid filled tissue cavities exposed by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Scattered signals from cavitation bubbles were obtained in a scan line immediately after one HIFU exposure, and then there was a waiting time of 2 s long enough to make the liquid back to the original state. As this pattern extended, an image was built up by sequentially measuring a series of such lines. The acquisition of the beamformed radiofrequency (RF) signals for a scan line was synchronized with HIFU exposure. The duration of HIFU exposure, as well as the delay of the interrogating pulse relative to the moment while HIFU was turned off, could vary from microseconds to seconds. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated in tap-water and a tap-water filled cavity in the tissue-mimicking gelatin-agar phantom as capable of observing temporal evolutions of cavitation bubble cloud with temporal resolution of several microseconds, lateral and axial resolution of 0.50 mm and 0.29 mm respectively. The dissolution process of cavitation bubble cloud and spatial distribution affected by cavitation previously generated were also investigated. Although the application is limited by the requirement for a gassy fluid (e.g. tap water, etc.) that allows replenishment of nuclei between HIFU exposures, the technique may be a useful tool in spatial-temporal cavitation mapping for HIFU with high precision and resolution, providing a reference for clinical therapy.

  14. 基于高速摄像实验的开放腔体圆柱壳入水空泡流动研究∗%An exp erimental study of water-entry cavitating flows of an end-closed cylindrical shell based on the high-sp eed imaging technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路中磊; 魏英杰; 王聪; 孙钊

    2016-01-01

    disturbances of pressure distribution and velocity field occur around the leading edge of the cylindrical shell, then the extended intensity of the cross section of the cavity shows variation in this process, which can be defined as fluctuation cavitation pattern. It appears that the re-entrant flow after the pinch-off at the trailing edge of cavity, then the laminar-turbulent transition is waken as a consequence of the re-entrant flow moving upstream, which flow pattern involved in this structure occurs as cloud cavitation.

  15. Effects of fluid thermophysical properties on cavitating flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Tairan; Huang, Biao; Wang, Guoyu; Wang, Kun [Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing (China)

    2015-10-15

    We studied the thermo-fluid cavitating flows and evaluated the effects of physical properties on cavitation behaviors. The thermo-fluid (including liquid nitrogen, liquid hydrogen and hot water) cavitating flows around a 2D hydrofoil were numerically investigated. The Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the enthalpy-based energy equation, transport equation-based cavitation model, and the k- ω SST turbulence model were applied. The thermodynamic parameter ∑, defined as ∑=(P{sub v}{sup 2}L{sup 2})/(P{sub l}{sup 2}C{sub v}T{sub ∞} √ε{sub I}) was used to assess the thermodynamic effects on cavitating flows. The results manifest that the thermal energy solution case yields a substantially shorter and mushier cavity attached on the hydrofoil due to the thermodynamic effects, which shows better agreement with the experimental data. The temperature drop inside the cavity decreases the local saturated vapor pressure and hence increases the local cavitation number; it could delay or suppress the occurrence and development of the cavitation behavior. The thermodynamic effects can be evaluated by thermophysical properties under the same free-stream conditions; the thermodynamic parameter ∑ is shown to be critical in accurately predicting the thermodynamic effects on cavitating flows. The surrogate-based global sensitivity analysis of liquid nitrogen cavitating flow suggests that ρ{sub v}, C{sub l} and L could significantly influence temperature drop and cavity structure in the existing numerical framework, while ρv plays the dominant role on temperature drop when properties vary with changing temperature. The liquid viscosity ml slightly affects the flow structure but hardly affects the temperature distribution.

  16. Numerical investigation of tip clearance cavitation in Kaplan runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforova, K.; Semenov, G.; Kuznetsov, I.; Spiridonov, E.

    2016-11-01

    There is a gap between the Kaplan runner blade and the shroud that makes for a special kind of cavitation: cavitation in the tip leakage flow. Two types of cavitation caused by the presence of clearance gap are known: tip vortex cavitation that appears at the core of the rolled up vortex on the blade suction side and tip clearance cavitation that appears precisely in the gap between the blade tip edge and the shroud. In the context of this work numerical investigation of the model Kaplan runner has been performed taking into account variable tip clearance for several cavitation regimes. The focus is put on investigation of structure and origination of mechanism of cavitation in the tip leakage flow. Calculations have been performed with the help of 3-D unsteady numerical model for two-phase medium. Modeling of turbulent flow in this work has been carried out using full equations of Navier-Stokes averaged by Reynolds with correction for streamline curvature and system rotation. For description of this medium (liquid-vapor) simplification of Euler approach is used; it is based on the model of interpenetrating continuums, within the bounds of this two- phase medium considered as a quasi-homogeneous mixture with the common velocity field and continuous distribution of density for both phases. As a result, engineering techniques for calculation of cavitation conditioned by existence of tip clearance in model turbine runner have been developed. The detailed visualization of the flow was carried out and vortex structure on the suction side of the blade was reproduced. The range of frequency with maximum value of pulsation was assigned and maximum energy frequency was defined; it is based on spectral analysis of the obtained data. Comparison between numerical computation results and experimental data has been also performed. The location of cavitation zone has a good agreement with experiment for all analyzed regimes.

  17. Counterbalancing the use of ultrasound contrast agents by a cavitation-regulated system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjouy, C; Fouqueray, M; Lo, C W; Muleki Seya, P; Lee, J L; Bera, J C; Chen, W S; Inserra, C

    2015-09-01

    The stochastic behavior of cavitation can lead to major problems of initiation and maintenance of cavitation during sonication, responsible of poor reproducibility of US-induced bioeffects in the context of sonoporation for instance. To overcome these disadvantages, the injection of ultrasound contrast agents as cavitation nuclei ensures fast initiation and lower acoustic intensities required for cavitation activity. More recently, regulated-cavitation devices based on the real-time modulation of the applied acoustic intensity have shown their potential to maintain a stable cavitation state during an ultrasonic shot, in continuous or pulsed wave conditions. In this paper is investigated the interest, in terms of cavitation activity, of using such regulated-cavitation device or injecting ultrasound contrast agents in the sonicated medium. When using fixed applied acoustic intensity, results showed that introducing ultrasound contrast agents increases reproducibility of cavitation activity (coefficient of variation 62% and 22% without and with UCA, respectively). Moreover, the use of the regulated-cavitation device ensures a given cavitation activity (coefficient of variation less 0.4% in presence of UCAs or not). This highlights the interest of controlling cavitation over time to free cavitation-based application from the use of UCAs. Interestingly, during a one minute sonication, while ultrasound contrast agents progressively disappear, the regulated-cavitation device counterbalance their destruction to sustain a stable inertial cavitation activity.

  18. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF VENTILATED CAVITATING FLOW AROUND A 2D FOIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xin; LU Chuan-jing

    2005-01-01

    By using a pressure-based method and the finite volume method in the framework of the time-dependent Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, the authors studied the unsteady process of ventilated cavities generated forcing air through an orifice in a 2D hydrofoil without natural cavitation physically. The computation was carried out with the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) technique to track the gas-liquid two-phase interface. The results of simulation indicate that the ventilation rate is an important parameter in determining the morphology of cavity. There exists a critical value to convert sheet cavity into supercavity. A high ventilation rate can induce a two-phase interface fluctuation and enable the ventilated cavitating flow to present a characteristic of periodicity.

  19. Cavitation-erosion mechanism of laser cladded SiC particle reinforced metal matrix composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chun-hua; ZHANG Song; YANG Hong-gang; ZHU Sheng-long; MAN Hau-chung; CAI Qing-kui

    2005-01-01

    With 2 kW continuous wave Nd-YAG laser,SiC ceramic powder was laser-cladded on the AA6061 aluminium alloy surface.Within the range of process parameters investigated,the parameters were optimized to produce the SiCp reinforced metal matrix composites(MMC) modified layer on AA6061 alloy surface.After being treated,the modified layer is crack-free,porosity free,and has good metallurgical bond with the substrate.The microstructure and chemical composition of the modified layer were analyzed by such detection devices as scanning electronic microscope(SEM-EDX) and X-ray diffractometer(XRD).The performance of electrochemical corrosion and cavitation erosion and their mechanism were estimated by the microhardness tester,potentiostat and ultrasonicinduced cavitation device.

  20. Experimental investigation of time-dependent cavitation in an oscillatory squeeze film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiaoyang; SUN Meili; WANG Wen; D.C.SUN; ZHANG Zhiming; WANG Xiaojing

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of time-dependent cavitation and tensile stress in an oscillatory oil squeeze film were investigated experimentally. The test apparatus was a simple thrust bearing consisting of two parallel circular plates separated by a thin viscous oil film. During the test, one plate was at rest while the other (transparent) oscillated in a direction normal to its surface. This test configuration was chosen to avoid the rotational motion and complicated geometry of a squeeze film journal bearing. The frequency of oscillation was in the range of 5 to 50 Hz and was controlled by an electro-magnetic exciter. The process of cavity formation and its subsequent development was recorded by a high-speed video camera. Concomitant pressure in the oil film was measured both within and without the cavitation region. It was found that both tensile stress and cavities existed in a squeeze film under certain working conditions.