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Sample records for hydrochloride tablets iv

  1. Quantitative Determination of Metformin Hydrochloride in Tablet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate a suitable method for the assay of metformin hydrochloride (HCl) in tablets containing croscarmellose sodium as an additive. Methods: Methanol and ethanol (99%) were assessed as solvents for sample preparation for the assay of metformin HCl in tablets containing croscarmellose ...

  2. Preparation of venlafaxine hydrochloride sustained-release tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Lingling

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To prepare venlafxine hydrochloride sustained-release tablets.Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose(HPMC and methyl cellulose(MC were used as main materials to prepare sustained-release tablets of velafaxine hydrochloride and the influence of important factors on in vitro release curves of venlafaxine hydrochloride sustained-release tablets was investigated.Results:The optimal prescription included 100 mg HPMC,25 mg MC,and 2.5% glidant in one tablet prepared with 30kN.The tablets were prepared with the method of wet granulation by NO.16 mesh sieve.The tablets exhibited good sustained-release property in phosphate buffered solution (pH=6.8.The as-prepared venlafxine hydrochloride sustained-release tablets have good sustained-release property.

  3. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ISONIAZID AND ETHAMBUTOL HYDROCHLORIDE COMBINATION TABLETS

    OpenAIRE

    Margret Chandira R; Jayakar B; Palanisamy P.

    2012-01-01

    Ethambutol hydrochloride and Isoniazid Drugs are used as Antituberculosis agents. It is mainly used in the initial Treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. Here in present study compressed tablet of Ethambutol hydrochloride and Isoniazid prepared by using HPMC, HPC, and PVPK -30 as binders. Compressed tablets of Ethambutol hydrochloride and Isoniazid were prepared by wet granulation method. Among different trials of F1 to F9 with wet granulation, the trial F1 showed satisfactory in-vitro drug re...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1660c - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride tablets/boluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride tablets/boluses. 520....1660c Oxytetracycline hydrochloride tablets/boluses. (a) Specifications. Each tablet or bolus contains 250, 500, or 1,000 milligrams of oxytetracycline hydrochloride. (b) Sponsors. For sponsors in § 510...

  5. 21 CFR 520.2345g - Tetracycline hydrochloride and sodium novobiocin tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tetracycline hydrochloride and sodium novobiocin... § 520.2345g Tetracycline hydrochloride and sodium novobiocin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains the equivalent of 60 milligrams of tetracycline hydrochloride and 60 milligrams of novobiocin, or...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1242b - Levamisole hydrochloride tablet or oblet (bolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride tablet or oblet (bolus... § 520.1242b Levamisole hydrochloride tablet or oblet (bolus). (a) Chemical name. (-)-2,3,5,6-Tetrahydro... using in severely debilitated animals. (2) It is used in a tablet for sheep as follows: (i) Amount. 0...

  7. Stability Indicating HPLC Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Trihexyphenidyl Hydrochloride, Trifluoperazine Hydrochloride and Chlorpromazine Hydrochloride from Tablet Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, simple, precise, rapid, selective and stability indicating reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride, trifluoperazine hydrochloride and chlorpromazine hydrochloride from combined tablet formulation. The method is based on reverse-phase using C-18 (250×4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size column. The separation is achieved using isocratic elution by methanol and ammonium acetate buffer (1% w/v, pH 6.5 in the ratio of 85:15 v/v, pumped at flow rate 1.0 mL/min and UV detection at 215 nm. The column is maintained at 30 °C through out the analysis. This method gives baseline resolution. The total run time is 15 min. Stability indicating capability is established buy forced degradation experiment. The method is validated for specificity, accuracy, precision and linearity as per International conference of harmonisation (ICH. The method is accurate and linear for quantification of trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride, trifluoperazine hydrochloride and Chlorpromazine hydrochloride between 5 - 15 μg/mL, 12.5- 37.5 μg/mL and 62.5 - 187.5 μg/mL respectively.

  8. Development and evaluation of microporous osmotic tablets of diltiazem hydrochloride

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    Afifa Bathool

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microporous osmotic tablet of diltiazem hydrochloride was developed for colon targeting. These prepared microporous osmotic pump tablet did not require laser drilling to deliver the drug to the specific site of action. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. The prepared tablets were coated with microporous semipermeable membrane and enteric polymer using conventional pan coating process. The incorporation of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS, a leachable pore-forming agent, could form in situ delivery pores while coming in contact with gastrointestinal medium. The effect of formulation variables was studied by changing the amounts of sodium alginate and NaCMC in the tablet core, osmogen, and that of pore-forming agent (SLS used in the semipermeable coating. As the amount of hydrophilic polymers increased, drug release rate prolonged. It was found that drug release was increased as the concentration of osmogen and pore-former was increased. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Differential scanning calorimetry results showed that there was no interaction between drug and polymers. Scanning electron microscopic studies showed the formation of pores after predetermined time of coming in contact with dissolution medium. The formation of pores was dependent on the amount of pore former used in the semipermeable membrane. in vitro results showed acid-resistant, timed release at an almost zero order up to 24 hours. The developed osmotic tablets could be effectively used for prolonged delivery of Diltiazem HCl.

  9. 21 CFR 520.2345h - Tetracycline hydrochloride, sodium novobiocin, and prednisolone tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tetracycline hydrochloride, sodium novobiocin, and... ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2345h Tetracycline hydrochloride, sodium novobiocin, and prednisolone tablets. (a... the first stage of parturition when administered during the last trimester of pregnancy and may...

  10. Fast and Convenient NIR Spectroscopy Procedure for Determination of Metformin Hydrochloride in Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyzowski, J.; Lenartowicz, M.; Sobańska, A. W.; Brzezińska, E.

    2017-09-01

    A rapid and convenient near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopic procedure for the determination of metformin hydrochloride in tablets is presented. Determination was based on calibration curves that were obtained using a range of standards containing different concentrations of metformin hydrochloride blended with polyvinylpyrrolidone. The raw spectra of the standards, neat PVP, metformin hydrochloride, and powdered tablets were processed using a Multiplicative Scatter Correction filter as well as by the derivative spectroscopy method to give a basis for the calibration curve construction. The results were validated by thin-layer chromatography followed by UV-densitometry.

  11. Simultaneous Estimation of Gemcitabine Hydrochloride and Capecitabine Hydrochloride in Combined Tablet Dosage Form by RP-HPLC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of gemcitabine hydrochloride and capecitabine hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form. An inertsil ODS-3 C-18 column having dimensions of 250×4.6 mm and particle size of 5 µm, with mobile phase containing a mixture of acetonitrile : water : triethyelamine in the ratio of (70 : 28 : 2v/v was used. The pH of mobile phase was adjusted to 4.0 with ortho-phosphoric acid. The flow rate was 1 mL/min and the column effluents were monitored at 260 nm. The retention time for gemcitabine hydrochloride and capecitabine hydrochloride was found to be 2.76 and 2.3 min respectively. The proposed method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and robustness. The method was found to be linear in the range of 10-50 µg/mL and 4-24 µg/mL for gemcitabine hydrochloride and capecitabine hydrochloride, with regression coefficient r = 0.999 and r = 0.999, respectively.

  12. [Influence of polymer type on the physical properties and the release study of papaverine hydrochloride from tablets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperek, Regina; Polski, Andrzej; Sobótka-Polska, Karolina; Poleszak, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Polymers are widely used in drug manufacturing. Researchers studied their impact on the bioavailability of active substances or on physical properties of tablets for many years. To study the influence of polymer excipients, such as microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 101, Avicel PH 102), croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone or polyvinylpyrrolidone, on the release profile of papaverine hydrochloride from tablets and on the physical properties of tablets. Six series of uncoated tablets were prepared by indirect method, with previous wet granulation. Tablets contained papaverine hydrochloride and various excipients. The physical properties of the prepared granules, tablets and the release profile of papaverine hydrochloride from tablets were examined. The content of papaverine hydrochloride from the release study were determined spectrophotometrically. All tablets met the pharmacopoeia requirements during following tests: the disintegration time of tablets, uncoated tablets resistance to abrasion, the weight uniformity and dose formulations, their dimensions, the resistance to crushing of tablets and the drug substance content in the tablet. In four cases more than 80% of papaverine was released up to 2 min, in one formula it was up to 5 min, and in last one up to 10 min. Tablets containing crospovidone disintegrated faster than tablets with croscarmellose sodium. Adding gelatinized starch to the tablet composition increased the disintegration time, hardness and delayed the release of papaverine. During the wet granulation process, granules containing polyvinylpyrrolidone were characterized by a suitable flow properties and slightly prolonged disintegration time. Tablets containing Avicel PH 102 compared to tablets with Avicel PH 101 had less weight loss during the test of mechanical resistance, improved hardness and faster release profile of papaverine from tablets.

  13. Effect of binders on 500mg metformin hydrochloride tablets produced by wet granulation

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    LUCIANA CATIA BLOCK

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Metformin hydrochloride (MH is an oral hypoglycemic agent and a high-dose drug that has poor flow and compression properties. In this study, the feasibility of developing adequate, low cost 500mg tablets of metformin hydrochloride by wet granulation was tested with several binders (Starch / PVP K30®; Starch 1500® /PVP K30®, PVP K30® and PVP K90® in a simple tablet press of the type used in small pharmaceutical laboratories. The drug powder was tested for ability to flow, by determining Carr’s Index (CI and the Hausner ratio (HR. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis were carried out on isolated MH and 1:1 (w/w binary mixtures with the excipients. The size distribution, friability, flow properties and drug content of the granules were analyzed, as were the hardness, friability, disintegration, dissolution and uniformity of the dosage form. The drug powder showed CI > 22% and HR > 1.25, characteristic of a poor flow powder, and no significant incompatibilities with the excipients. All the granules showed adequate flow properties and were suitable for pressing into tablets, all of which complied with pharmacopeial specifications. The starch /PVP K30® and starch 1500® /PVP K30® mixtures were best for producing 500 mg MH tablets. Keywords: Metformin hydrochloride. Tablets. Wet granulation. Binders.

  14. Development and evaluation of buccoadhesive tablet for selegiline hydrochloride based on thiolated polycarbophil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasnik, Mangesh N; Godse, Rutika D; Nair, Hema A

    2014-05-01

    Selegiline hydrochloride (SHCl), a monoamine oxidase B inhibitor, is used as an adjunct in the therapy of Parkinson's disease. This study is concerned with the preparation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal tablet for controlled systemic delivery of SHCl. Buccal absorption of selegiline can bypass its first-pass metabolism and improve bioavailability accompanied by greatly reduced metabolite formation, which is potentially of enhanced therapeutic value in patients with Parkinson's disease. Polycarbophil-cysteine (PCP-cys) conjugate, which is a thiolated derivative of the mucoadhesive polymer polycarbophil, was synthesized by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride-mediated amide bond coupling. Tablets of SHCl based on native and thiolated polycarbophil were prepared. The prepared tablets were evaluated for drug content, swelling behavior, mucoadhesive strength, in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation and in vitro cytotoxicity. PCP-cys tablets showed enhanced mucoadhesion and retarded drug release compared to polycarbophil tablets. Permeation data of SHCl from matrices prepared using the PCP-cys polymer revealed a significantly higher value of apparent permeability in comparison to polycarbophil, which supported the information in literature that thiolation imparts permeation enhancing properties to mucoadhesive polymers. In vitro cytotoxicity studies on PCP-cys using L-929 mouse fibroblast cell line indicated that conjugation with cysteine does not impart any apparent toxicity to polycarbophil. The results from the study indicate that the buccal delivery of SHCl using thiolated polycarbophil tablet could provide a way for improved therapy of Parkinson's disease.

  15. A validated HPTLC method for estimation of moxifloxacin hydrochloride in tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Vandana; Chaudhary, Alok Kumar

    2010-10-01

    A simple HPTLC method having high accuracy, precision and reproducibility was developed for the routine estimation of moxifloxacin hydrochloride in the tablets available in market and was validated for various parameters according to ICH guidelines. moxifloxacin hydrochloride was estimated at 292 nm by densitometry using Silica gel 60 F254 as stationary phase and a premix of methylene chloride: methanol: strong ammonia solution and acetonitrile (10:10:5:10) as mobile phase. Method was found linear in a range of 9-54 nanograms with a correlation coefficient >0.99. The regression equation was: AUC = 65.57 × (Amount in nanograms) + 163 (r(2) = 0.9908).

  16. RP-HPLC Estimation of Imipramine Hydrochloride and Diazepam in Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikantha, D; Raju, R R

    2015-01-01

    A simple and rapid reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous determination of imipramine hydrochloride and diazepam in pharmaceutical formulations. The elution was done in isocratic mode utilizing a mobile phase consisting of methanol:water:0.1M sodium acetate (30:50:20 v/v/v) on Chromosil C18 column with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and with detection at 243 nm. The measured retention time was 3.33±0.02 min for imipramine hydrochloride and 4.64±0.02 min for diazepam. Linearity was measured in the range 25-150 μg/ml for imipramine hydrochloride (r(2)=0.999) and in the range 5-30 μg/ml for diazepam (r(2)=0.9994), respectively. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.03 and 0.1 μg/ml for imipramine hydrochloride and 0.02 and 0.07 μg/ml for diazepam. Satisfactory validation was also obtained from recovery (100.95-101.52% for imipramine hydrochloride and 99.47-100.33% for diazepam) studies, intraday and interday precision (hydrochloride and diazepam in tablets.

  17. Determination of Montelukast Sodium and Bambuterol Hydrochloride in Tablets using RP HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Smita; Pore, Y V; Kuchekar, B S; Mane, Aruna; Khire, V G

    2009-01-01

    An accurate, specific and precise assay level gradient reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous determination of montelukast sodium and bambuterol hydrochloride in tablet dosage form. An inertsil ODS C-18, 5 mum column having 250x4.6 mm I.D. in gradient mode, with mobile phase A, containing 0.025 M sodium phosphate buffer: methanol (85:15) and mobile phase B, containing acetonitrile:methanol (85:15) was used at different time intervals. The flow rate was 1.5 ml/min and effluent was monitored at 218 nm. The retention times of montelukast sodium and bambuterol hydrochloride were 21.2 min and 5.8 min respectively. The linearity for both the drugs was in the range of 0.25-0.75 mg/ml with correlation coefficients of 0.9999 and 0.9996 for montelukast sodium and bambuterol hydrochloride, respectively.

  18. SIMULTANEOUS SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF MONTELUKAST SODIUM AND BAMBUTEROL HYDROCHLORIDE IN TABLETS

    OpenAIRE

    Patel Satish A; Patel Dhara J; Patel Natavarlal J.

    2011-01-01

    The present manuscript describe simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate, precise and economical first derivative spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of montelukast sodium and bambuterol hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form. The derivative spectrophotometric method was based on the determination of both the drugs at their respective zero crossing point (ZCP). The first order derivative spectra was obtained in chloroform and the determinations were made at 241 nm (ZC...

  19. Simultaneous estimation of Montelukast sodium and Bambuterol hydrochloride in tablets by spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, R K; Pangarkar, V B; Thomas, A B; Kothapalli, L P; Pawar, A A

    Two simple, rapid, accurate and precise methods have been developed for simultaneous estimation of Montelukast sodium and Bambuterol hydrochloride from tablet dosage form. In the first method, the first derivative spectrum was determined. Montelukast sodium showed zero crossing point at 209.5 nm and Bambuterol hydrochloride showed zero crossing point at 238.5 nm. The dA/dlambda was measured at 209.5 nm for Bambuterol hydrochloride and 238.5 nm for Montelukast sodium and calibration curves were plotted as dA/dlambda versus concentration respectively. Quantitative determination of Montelukast sodium and Bambuterol hydrochloride in tablets was carried out using calibration curve by interpolation method. In the second method, Multicomponent mode of analysis was used and the measurement of absorbances at two wavelengths, 283.6 nm (lambda-max of MKST) and 211.8 nm (working wavelength selected for BHC) in 95% methanol, was carried out. These methods were validated statistically as per ICH guidelines. The recovery studies confirm the accuracy of the proposed method.

  20. Effect of magnesium stearate concentration on dissolution properties of ranitidine hydrochloride coated tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunović, Alija; Vranić, Edina

    2007-08-01

    Most pharmaceutical formulations also include a certain amount of lubricant to improve their flowability and prevent their adhesion to the surfaces of processing equipment. Magnesium stearate is an additive that is most frequently used as a lubricant. Magnesium stearate is capable of forming films on other tablet excipients during prolonged mixing, leading to a prolonged drug liberation time, a decrease in hardness, and an increase in disintegration time. It is hydrophobic, and there are many reports in the literature concerning its adverse effect on dissolution rates. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two different concentrations of magnesium stearate on dissolution properties of ranitidine hydrochloride coated tablet formulations labeled to contain 150 mg. The uniformity content was also checked. During the drug formulation development, several samples were designed for choice of the formulation. For this study, two formulations containing 0,77 and 1,1% of magnesium stearate added in the manufacture of cores were chosen. Fraction of ranitidine hydrochloride released in dissolution medium was calculated from calibration curves. The data were analyzed using pharmacopeial test for similarity of dissolution profiles ( f2 equation), previously proposed by Moore and Flanner. Application of f2 equation showed differences in time-course of ranitidine hydrochloride dissolution properties. The obtained values indicate differences in drug release from analyzed ranitidine hydrochloride formulations and could cause differences in therapeutic response.

  1. Effect of Magnesium Stearate Concentration on Dissolution Properties of Ranitidine Hydrochloride Coated Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alija Uzunović

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Most pharmaceutical formulations also include a certain amount of lubricant to improve their flowability and prevent their adhesion to the surfaces of processing equipment. Magnesium stearate is an additive that is most frequently used as a lubricant. Magnesium stearate is capable of forming films on other tablet excipients during prolonged mixing, leading to a prolonged drug liberation time, a decrease in hardness, and an increase in disintegration time. It is hydrophobic, and there are many reports in the literature concerning its adverse effect on dissolution rates.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two different concentrations of magnesium stearate on dissolution properties of ranitidine hydrochloride coated tablet formulations labeled to contain 150 mg. The uniformity content was also checked.During the drug formulation development, several samples were designed for choice of the formulation. For this study, two formulations containing 0,77 and 1,1% of magnesium stearate added in the manufacture of cores were chosen. Fraction of ranitidine hydrochloride released in dissolution medium was calculated from calibration curves. The data were analyzed using pharmaco-peial test for similarity of dissolution profiles (f2 equation, previously proposed by Moore and Flanner.Application of f2 equation showed differences in time-course of ranitidine hydrochloride dissolution properties. The obtained values indicate differences in drug release from analyzed ranitidine hydrochloride formulations and could cause differences in therapeutic response.

  2. Formulation and evaluation of bilayer tablets of metoclopramide hydrochloride and diclofenac sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattani, Surendra G; Khabiya, Sohan S; Amrutkar, Jitendra R; Kushare, Sachin S

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of the present research work was to develop a bilayer tablet of metoclopramide hydrochloride (MTH) and diclofenac sodium (DS) in separate layers to avoid incompatibility and thus to maximize the efficacy of both drugs in combination for the effective treatment of migraine headaches. MTH and DS were formulated as immediate and sustained release layers respectively. In vitro dissolution kinetic studies of an optimized (D10) batch of DS in both sustained release layer and bilayer tablet forms show good linearity of regression coefficient 0.9773 (first order equation). The results reveal that an optimized immediate release layer (M5) of MTH and a sustained release layer (D10) of DS might be suitable for the treatment of migraine by sequential release of the two drugs in a bilayer tablet. Migraine is a type of recurring headache of moderate to severe intensity associated with gastrointestinal, neurological, and autonomic symptoms. In migraine, a combination of pretreatment with antiemetics is required for symptomatic treatment, when nausea and vomiting are severe. In our present research, we have selected the metoclopramide hydrochloride (MTH) active ingredient for study because it has an antiemetic effect and is a prokinetic agent. MTH is more effective to counteract gastric stasis associated with migraine, and it enhances the rate of absorption of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). In the present investigation we combine MTH and a second active ingredient, diclofenac sodium, as a formulated bilayer tablet to prevent degradation of MTH.

  3. Development and Characterization of Novel Floating-Mucoadhesive Tablets Bearing Venlafaxine Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghvendra Misra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation is concerned about the development of floating bioadhesive drug delivery system of venlafaxine hydrochloride which after oral administration exhibits a unique combination of floating and bioadhesion to prolong gastric residence time and increase drug bioavailability within the stomach. The floating bioadhesive tablets were prepared by the wet granulation method using different ratios of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K4MCR and Carbopol 934PNF as polymers. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 and citric acid were used as gas (CO2 generating agents. Tablets were characterized for floating properties, in vitro drug release, detachment force, and swelling index. The concentration of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose and Carbopol 934PNF significantly affects the in vitro drug release, floating properties, detachment force, and swelling properties of the tablets. The optimized formulation showed the floating lag time 72±2.49 seconds and duration of floating 24.50±0.74 hr. The in vitro release studies and floating behavior were studied in simulated gastric fluid (SGF at pH 1.2. Different drug release kinetics models were also applied. The in vitro drug release from tablets was sufficiently sustained (more than 18 hr and the Fickian transports of the drug from the tablets were confirmed. The radiological evidence suggests that the tablets remained buoyant and altered position in the stomach of albino rabbit and mean gastric residence time was prolonged (more than > 6 hr.

  4. Adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of triprolidine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, S I M; Habib, I H I

    2005-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of antihistaminic drug, viz. triprolidine hydrochloride (TripCl), at a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) is investigated. Chemical and electrical parameters affecting the adsorptive voltammetric measurements are optimized. Different modes of sweep, viz. direct current DC, normal pulse NP, differential pulse DP and square wave SW modes, over the potential range from -800 to -1400 mV, are used in the presence of 0.04 M Britton-Robinson buffer pH 11, with accumulation time 30 s, scan rate 50 mV/s and pulse amplitude 50 mV. The reduction process is irreversible and involved the transfer of two electrons and two protons. Their responses are linear over the concentration range 15-157 ng/ml with average correlation coefficient 0.9998, while the detection limit is 2.64, 6.24, 8.80 and 2.12 ng/ml for DC, DP, SW and NP mode, respectively. The differential pulse method has been applied successfully for the determination of the drug in Egyptian pharmaceutical preparation with mean recovery 99.55+/-0.67%.

  5. PHARMACOKINETICS OF DICLOFENAC SODIUM AND PAPAVERINE HYDROCHLORIDE AFTER ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF TABLETS TO RABBITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperek, Regina; Zimmer, Łukasz; Jawień, Wojciech; Poleszak, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis of diclofenac sodium (DIC) and papaverine hydrochloride (PAP) after oral administration of composed tablets to rabbits was developed. HPLC method for determination of DIC and PAP in rabbit plasma was developed and validated. Chromatographic separation of DIC, PAP and the IS was achieved on a Zorbax SB C18 5-µm column (150 mm x 4.6 mm) using methanol-water (55:45, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed that oral administration of a tablet composed of DIC and PAP do not change the pharmacokinetic parameters such as MRT, MAT, Cl and bioavailability of the active substances compared with single administration of DIC and PAP after single dose.

  6. Development and evaluation of controlled-release buccoadhesive verapamil hydrochloride tablets

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    Emami J.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study: Verapamil hydrochloride is a calcium channel blocker which is used in the control of supraventricular arrhythmia, hypertension and myocardial infraction. There are considerable inter-individual variations in serum concencentration of verpamil due to variation in the extent of hepatic metabolism. In this study controlled-release buccoadhesive tablets of verapamil hydrochloride (VPH were prepared in order to achieve constant plasma concentrations, to improve the bioavailability by the avoidance of hepatic first-pass metabolism, and to prevent frequent administration. Materials and methods: Tablets containing fixed amount of VPH were prepared by direct compression method using polymers like carbomer (CP, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC in various combination and ratios and evaluated for thickness, weight variation, hardness, drug content uniformity, swelling, mucoadhesive strength, drug release and possible interaction between ingredients. Results: All tablets were acceptable with regard to thickness, weight variation, hardness, and drug content. The maximum bioadhesive strength was observed in tablets formulated with a combination of CP-NaCMC followed by CP-HPMC and NaCMC-HPMC.  Decreasing the content of CP in CP-HPMC tablets or NaCMC in CP-NaCMC or NaCMC-HPMC systems resulted in decrease in detachment forces. Lower release rates were observed by lowering the content of CP in CP-HPMC containing formulations or NaCMC in tablets which contained CP-NaCMC or NaCMC-HPMC. The release behavior was non-Fickian controlled by a combination of diffusion and chain relaxation mechanisms and best fitted zero-order kinetics. Conclusion: The buccoadhesive VPH tablets containing 53% CP and 13.3% HPMC showed suitable release kinetics (n = 0.78, K0 zero order release = 4.11 mg/h, MDT = 5.66 h and adhesive properties and did not show any interaction between polymers and drug based on

  7. Six sigma: process of understanding the control and capability of ranitidine hydrochloride tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabukswar, Ar; Jagdale, Sc; Kuchekar, Bs; Joshi, Vd; Deshmukh, Gr; Kothawade, Hs; Kuckekar, Ab; Lokhande, Pd

    2011-01-01

    The process of understanding the control and capability (PUCC) is an iterative closed loop process for continuous improvement. It covers the DMAIC toolkit in its three phases. PUCC is an iterative approach that rotates between the three pillars of the process of understanding, process control, and process capability, with each iteration resulting in a more capable and robust process. It is rightly said that being at the top is a marathon and not a sprint. The objective of the six sigma study of Ranitidine hydrochloride tablets is to achieve perfection in tablet manufacturing by reviewing the present robust manufacturing process, to find out ways to improve and modify the process, which will yield tablets that are defect-free and will give more customer satisfaction. The application of six sigma led to an improved process capability, due to the improved sigma level of the process from 1.5 to 4, a higher yield, due to reduced variation and reduction of thick tablets, reduction in packing line stoppages, reduction in re-work by 50%, a more standardized process, with smooth flow and change in coating suspension reconstitution level (8%w/w), a huge cost reduction of approximately Rs.90 to 95 lakhs per annum, an improved overall efficiency by 30% approximately, and improved overall quality of the product.

  8. Simultaneous chemometric determination of pyridoxine hydrochloride and isoniazid in tablets by multivariate regression methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç, Erdal; Ustündağ, Ozgür; Baleanu, Dumitru

    2010-08-01

    The sole use of pyridoxine hydrochloride during treatment of tuberculosis gives rise to pyridoxine deficiency. Therefore, a combination of pyridoxine hydrochloride and isoniazid is used in pharmaceutical dosage form in tuberculosis treatment to reduce this side effect. In this study, two chemometric methods, partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR), were applied to the simultaneous determination of pyridoxine (PYR) and isoniazid (ISO) in their tablets. A concentration training set comprising binary mixtures of PYR and ISO consisting of 20 different combinations were randomly prepared in 0.1 M HCl. Both multivariate calibration models were constructed using the relationships between the concentration data set (concentration data matrix) and absorbance data matrix in the spectral region 200-330 nm. The accuracy and the precision of the proposed chemometric methods were validated by analyzing synthetic mixtures containing the investigated drugs. The recovery results obtained by applying PCR and PLS calibrations to the artificial mixtures were found between 100.0 and 100.7%. Satisfactory results obtained by applying the PLS and PCR methods to both artificial and commercial samples were obtained. The results obtained in this manuscript strongly encourage us to use them for the quality control and the routine analysis of the marketing tablets containing PYR and ISO drugs. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The effect of excipients on the release kinetics of diclofenac sodium and papaverine hydrochloride from composed tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperek, Regina; Trebacz, Hanna; Zimmer, Łukasz; Poleszak, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    For increased analgesic effect, new composed tablets containing diclofenac sodium (DIC) with an addition of papaverine hydrochloride (PAP) were prepared to investigate the mechanism of release of the active substances from tablets with different excipients in eight different formulations. To detect the possible interactions between active substances and excipients differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used. A shift of the melting point and enthalpy values of the physical mixtures of tablets components suggested a kind of interaction between components in certain formulations, however, the tabletting process was not disturbed in any of them. Kinetics of drug release from formulations was estimated by zero order, first order and Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas models using results of dissolution of DIC and PAP from tablets. The study revealed that the mechanism of release of active substances was dependent on the excipients contained in tablets and the best fitted kinetics models were obtained for formulations with potentially prolonged release of DIC and PAP.

  10. Formulation of bi-layer matrix tablets of tramadol hydrochloride: Comparison of rate retarding ability of the incorporated hydrophilic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Hasanul; Al-Masum, Abdullah; Sharmin, Florida; Reza, Selim; Sm Islam, Sm Ashraful

    2015-05-01

    Bi-layer tablets of tramadol hydrochloride were prepared by direct compression technique. Each tablet contains an instant release layer with a sustained release layer. The instant release layer was found to release the initial dose immediately within minutes. The instant release layer was combined with sustained release matrix made of varying quantity of Methocel K4M, Methocel K15MCR and Carbomer 974P. Bi-layer tablets were evaluated for various physical tests including weight variation, thickness and diameter, hardness and percent friability. Drug release from bi-layer tablet was studied in acidic medium and buffer medium for two and six hours respectively. Sustained release of tramadol hydrochloride was observed with a controlled fashion that was characteristic to the type and extent of polymer used. % Drug release from eight-hour dissolution study was fitted with several kinetic models. Mean dissolution time (MDT) and fractional dissolution values (T25%, T50% and T80%) were also calculated as well, to compare the retarding ability of the polymers. Methocel K15MCR was found to be the most effective in rate retardation of freely water-soluble tramadol hydrochloride compared to Methocel K4M and Capbomer 974P, when incorporated at equal ratio in the formulation.

  11. Design and development of controlled porosity osmotic tablet of diltiazem hydrochloride

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    Sadhana R Shahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims towards the design and development of extended release formulation of freely water-soluble drug diltiazem hydrochloride (DLTZ based on osmotic technology by using controlled porosity approach. DLTZ is an ideal candidate for a zero-order drug delivery system because it is freely water-soluble and has a short half-life (2-3 h. Sodium chloride (Osmogen was added to the core tablet to alter the solubility of DLTZ in an aqueous medium. Cellulose acetate (CA and sorbitol were used as semipermeable membrane and pore former, respectively. The effect of different formulation variables namely concentration of osmogen in the core tablet, % pore former, % weight gain, pH of the dissolution medium and agitation intensity on the in vitro release was studied. DLTZ release was directly proportional to % pore former and inversely proportional to % weight gain. The optimized formulation (F8 delivered DLTZ independent of pH and agitation intensity for 12 h at the upper level concentration of % pore former (25% w/w and middle level concentration of % weight gain (6% w/w. The comparative study of elementary osmotic pump (EOP and controlled porosity osmotic pump revealed that it superior than conventional EOP and also easier and cost effective to formulate.

  12. Elucidation of release characteristics of highly soluble drug trimetazidine hydrochloride from chitosan-carrageenan matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Wang, Linlin; Shao, Yang; Tian, Ye; Li, Conghao; Li, Ying; Mao, Shirui

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand the underlying drug release characteristics from matrix tablets based on the combination of chitosan (CS) and different types of carrageenans [kappa (κ)-CG, iota (ι)-CG, and lambda (λ)-CG]. Highly soluble trimetazidine hydrochloride (TH) was used as a model drug. First, characteristics of drug release from different formulations were investigated, and then in situ complexation capacity of CG with TH and CS was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Erosion and swelling of matrix were also characterized to better understand the drug-release mechanisms. Effects of pH and ionic strength on drug release were also studied. It was found that not only ι-CG and λ-CG could reduce the burst release of TH by the effect of TH-CG interaction, CS-ι-CG- and CS-λ-CG-based polyelectrolyte film could further modify the controlled-release behavior, but not CS-κ-CG. High pH and high ionic strength resulted in faster drug release from CS-κ-CG- and CS-ι-CG-based matrix, but drug release from CS-λ-CG-based matrix was less sensitive to pH and ionic strength. In conclusion, CS-λ-CG-based matrix tablets are quite promising as controlled-release drug carrier based on multiple mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Influence of dissolution media pH and USP1 basket speed on erosion and disintegration characteristics of immediate release metformin hydrochloride tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Divyakant; Wong, Benjamin; Huang, Yande; Tang, Dan; Hemenway, Jeffrey; Paruchuri, Srinivasa; Guo, Hang; Hsieh, Daniel; Timmins, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the influence of the pH of the dissolution medium on immediate release 850 mg metformin hydrochloride tablets. A traditional wet granulation method was used to manufacture metformin hydrochloride tablets with or without a disintegrant. Tablet dissolution was conducted using the USP apparatus I at 100 rpm. In spite of its pH-independent high solubility, metformin hydrochloride tablets dissolved significantly slower in 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2) and 50 mM pH 4.5 acetate buffer compared with 50 mM pH 6.8 phosphate buffer, the dissolution medium in the USP. Metformin hydrochloride API compressed into a round 1200 mg disk showed a similar trend. When basket rotation speed was increased from 100 to 250 rpm, the dissolution of metformin hydrochloride tablets was similar in all three media. Incorporation of 2% w/w crospovidone in the tablet formulation improved the dissolution although the pH-dependent trend was still evident, but incorporation of 2% w/w croscarmellose sodium resulted in rapid pH-independent tablet dissolution. In absence of a disintegrant in the tablet formulation, the dissolution was governed by the erosion-diffusion process. Even for a highly soluble drug, a super-disintegrant was needed in the formulation to overcome the diffusion layer limitation and change the dissolution mechanism from erosion-diffusion to disintegration.

  14. Formulation And Evaluation Of Bilayer Tablet for Bimodal Release of Venlafaxine Hydrochloride

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    Munira eMomin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research was to develop a bilayer tablet of venlafexine hydrochloride for bimodal drug release. In the present investigation authors have tried to explore Fenugreek Mucilage (FNM for bioadhesive sustained release layer. The attempt has been made to combine FNM with well studied bioahesive polymers like Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose, Carbopol and Xanthan Gum. The formulations were evaluated for swelling Index, ex-vivo bioadhesion, water uptake studies, in-vitro drug release and dissolution kinetics was studied. Substantial bioadhesion force (2.4±0.023 gms and tablet adhesion retention time (24±2 hrs was observed with FNM and HPMC combination at 80:20 ratio. The dissolution kinetics followed the Higuchi model (R2 =0.9913 via a non-Fickian diffusion controlled release mechanism after the initial burst. The 32 full factorial design was employed in the present study. The type of polymers used in combination with FNM (X1 and percent polymer replaced with FNM (X2 were taken as independent formulations variables. The selected responses, bioadhesion force (0.11-0.25±0.023gm, amount of drug released in 10 h, Y10 (78.20–95.78±1.24 % and bioadhesive strength, (19-24±2hrs presented good correlation with the selected independent variables. Statistical analysis (ANOVA of the optimized bilayer formulations showed no significant difference in the cumulative amount of drug release after 15 min, but significant difference (p < 0.05 in the amount of drug released after 1 hr till 12 h from optimized formulations was observed. The natural mucilage like FNM could be successfully incorporated into tablet with only 20% replacement with HPMC and it showed good bioadhesiveness and sustained drug release.

  15. [The use of natural and synthetic hydrophilic polymers in the formulation of metformin hydrochloride tablets with different profile release].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziejczyk, Michał Krzysztof; Kołodziejska, Justyna; Zgoda, Marian Mikołaj

    2012-01-01

    Metformin hydrochloride after buformin and phenformin belongs to the group of biguanid derivatives used as oral anti-diabetic drugs. The object of the study is the technological analysis and the potential effect of biodegradable macromolecular polymers on the technological and therapeutic parameters of oral anti-diabetic medicinal products with metformin hydrochloride: Siofor, Formetic, Glucophage, Metformax in doses of 500mg and 1000mg and Glucophage XR in a dose of 500 mg of modified release. Market therapeutic products containing 500 and 1000 mg of metformin hydrochloride in a normal formulation and 500 mg of metformin hydrochloride in a formulation of modified release were analyzed. Following research methods were used: technological analysis of tablets, study of disintegration time of tablets, evaluation of pharmaceutical availability of metformin hydrochloride from tested therapeutic products, mathematical and kinetic analysis of release profiles of metformin hydrochloride, statistical analysis of mean differences of release coefficients. The percentage of excipients in the XR formulation is higher and constitutes 50.5% of a tablet mass. However, in standard formulations the percentage is lower, between 5.5% and 12.76%. On the basis of the results of disintegration time studies, the analysed therapeutic products can be divided into two groups, regardless the dose. The first one are preparations with faster (not fast!) disintegration: Glucophage i Metformax. The second group are preparations with slower disintegration, more balanced in the aspect of a high dose of the biologically active substance: Formetic and Siofor. Products with a lower content of excipients (Metformax, Glucophage) disintegrate in a faster way. The disintegration rate of the products with a higher content of excipients (Formetic, Siofor) is slower. The appearance of metformin hydrochloride concentration in the gastrointestinal contents, balanced in time, caused by a slower disintegration

  16. Formulation and evaluation of taste mask pellets of granisetron hydrochloride as oro dispersible tablet

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    Nilesh Choudhary

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Orally disintegrating systems have carved a niche amongst the oral drug delivery systems due to the highest compliance of the patients, especially the geriatrics and pediatrics. In addition, patients suffering from dysphagia, motion sickness, repeated emesis and mental disorders prefer these medications because they cannot swallow large quantity of water. Further, drugs exhibiting satisfactory absorption from the oral mucosa or intended for immediate pharmacological action can be advantageously formulated in these dosage forms. However, the requirements of formulating these dosage forms with mechanical strength sufficient to withstand the rigors of handling and capable of disintegrating within a few seconds on contact with saliva are inextricable. The purpose of this research was to mask the bitter taste of granisetron hydrochloride. To mask the taste Kollicoat(r Smartseal 30D was used as coating polymer for pellet coating. The coated pellets of the drug was directly compressed with different superdisintegrant as AC-Di-Sol, Explotab and Kollidon CL in different concentration 5.0-7.5% w/w into an ODT. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, wet absorption ratio, in-vitro disintegration time and in vitro dissolution studies. Tablets exhibited quick disintegration characteristics with Kollidon CL in concentration 7.5% w/w i.e., within 20 seconds, which is characteristic of orally disintegrating dosage forms. More than 98% of drug was released from the formulations within 15 minutes. Formulations subjected to stability testing as per the ICH guidelines for 3 months, indicated stability with no change in taste, hardness, drug content, disintegration time and dissolution profiles. Thus, the results conclusively demonstrated successful masking of taste and rapid disintegration of the formulated dosage forms in the oral cavity.

  17. High-amylose sodium carboxymethyl starch matrices: development and characterization of tramadol hydrochloride sustained-release tablets for oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabais, Teresa; Leclair, Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    Substituted amylose (SA) polymers were produced from high-amylose corn starch by etherification of its hydroxyl groups with chloroacetate. Amorphous high-amylose sodium carboxymethyl starch (HASCA), the resulting SA polymer, was spray-dried to obtain an excipient (SD HASCA) with optimal binding and sustained-release (SR) properties. Tablets containing different percentages of SD HASCA and tramadol hydrochloride were produced by direct compression and evaluated for dissolution. Once-daily and twice-daily SD HASCA tablets containing two common dosages of tramadol hydrochloride (100 mg and 200 mg), a freely water-soluble drug, were successfully developed. These SR formulations presented high crushing forces, which facilitate further tablet processing and handling. When exposed to both a pH gradient simulating the pH variations through the gastrointestinal tract and a 40% ethanol medium, a very rigid gel formed progressively at the surface of the tablets providing controlled drug-release properties. These properties indicated that SD HASCA was a promising and robust excipient for oral, sustained drug-release, which may possibly minimize the likelihood of dose dumping and consequent adverse effects, even in the case of coadministration with alcohol.

  18. Enhanced bioavailability of buspirone hydrochloride via cup and core buccal tablets: formulation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mohamed A A; Elmeshad, Aliaa N; Fares, Ahmed R

    2014-03-10

    This work aims to prepare sustained release buccal mucoadhesive tablets of buspirone hydrochloride (BH) to improve its systemic bioavailability. The tablets were prepared according to 5×3 factorial design where polymer type was set at five levels (carbopol, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, sodium alginate, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and guar gum), and polymer to drug ratio at three levels (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1). Mucoadhesion force, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, percent BH released after 8 h (Q8h) and time for release of 50% BH (T(₅₀%)) were chosen as dependent variables. Additional BH cup and core buccal tablets were prepared to optimize BH release profile and make it uni-directional along with the tablets mucoadhesion. Tablets were evaluated in terms of content uniformity, weight variation, thickness, diameter, hardness, friability, swelling index, surface pH, mucoadhesion strength and time and in vitro release. Cup and core formula (CA10) was able to adhere to the buccal mucosa for 8h, showed the highest Q8h (97.91%) and exhibited a zero order drug release profile. Pharmacokinetic study of formula CA10 in human volunteers revealed a 5.6 fold increase in BH bioavailability compared to the oral commercial Buspar® tablets. Conducting level A in vitro/in vivo correlation showed good correlation (r²=0.9805) between fractions dissolved in vitro and fractions absorbed in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Citric Acid Suppresses the Bitter Taste of Olopatadine Hydrochloride Orally Disintegrating Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoyama, Mai; Uchida, Shinya; Tanaka, Shimako; Hakamata, Akio; Odagiri, Keiichi; Inui, Naoki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2017-01-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) are formulated to disintegrate upon contact with saliva, allowing administration without water. Olopatadine hydrochloride, a second-generation antihistamine, is widely used for treating allergic rhinitis. However, it has a bitter taste; therefore, the development of taste-masked olopatadine ODTs is essential. Some studies have suggested that citric acid could suppress the bitterness of drugs. However, these experiments were performed using solutions, and the taste-masking effect of citric acid on ODTs has not been evaluated using human gustatory sensation tests. Thus, this study evaluated citric acid's taste-masking effect on olopatadine ODTs. Six types of olopatadine ODTs containing 0-10% citric acid were prepared and subjected to gustatory sensation tests that were scored using the visual analog scale. The bitterness and overall palatability of olopatadine ODTs during disintegration in the mouth and after spitting out were evaluated in 11 healthy volunteers (age: 22.8±2.2 years). The hardness of the ODTs was >50 N. Disintegration time and dissolution did not differ among the different ODTs. The results of the gustatory sensation tests suggest that citric acid could suppress the bitterness of olopatadine ODTs in a dose-dependent manner. Olopatadine ODTs with a high content of citric acid (5-10%) showed poorer overall palatability than that of those without citric acid despite the bitterness suppression. ODTs containing 2.5% citric acid, yogurt flavoring, and aspartame were the most suitable formulations since they showed low bitterness and good overall palatability. Thus, citric acid is an effective bitterness-masking option for ODTs.

  20. Development of alternative methods for the determination of raloxifene hydrochloride in tablet dosage form

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    Fernanda Rodrigues Salazar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Three methods are proposed for the quantitative determination of raloxifene hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage form: ultraviolet method (UV high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and micellar capillary electrophoresis (MEKC. These methods were developed and validated and showed good linearity, precision and accuracy. Also they demonstrated to be specific and robust. The HPLC and MEKC methods were tested in regards to be stability indicating methods and they showed to have this attribute. The UV method used methanol as solvent and optimal wavelength at 284 nm, obeying Lambert-Beer law in these conditions. The chromatographic conditions for the HPLC method included: NST column C18 (250 x 4.6 mm x 5 µm, mobile phase water:acetonitrile:triethylamine (67:33:0,3 v/v, pH 3.5, flow rate 1.0 mL min-1, injection volume 20.0 µl, UV detection 287 nm and analysis temperature 30 °C. The MEKC method was performed on a fused-silica capillary (40 cm effective length x 50 µm i.d. using as background electrolyte 35.0 mmol L-1 borate buffer and 50.0 mmol L-1 anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS at pH 8.8. The capillary temperature was 32°C, applied voltage 25 kV, UV detection at 280 nm and injection was perfomed at 45 mBar for 4 s, hydrodimanic mode. In this MEKC method, potassium diclofenac (200.0 µg mL-1 was used as internal standard. All these methods were statistically analyzed and demonstrated to be equivalent for quantitative analysis of RLX in tablets and were successfully applied for the determination of the drug.

  1. Clinical study of 3g/L sodium hyaluronate eye drops with bromhexine hydrochloride tablets for dry eye

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    Hui-Qun Xu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the clinical efficacy of 3g/L sodium hyaluronate eye drops combined with bromhexine hydrochloride tablets on the treatment of dry eye. METHODS:Totally 200 patients with dry eye were randomly divided into the control group(n=100and observation group(n=100. Patients in two groups were given 3g/L sodium hyaluronate eye drops and physiotherapy. On the basis of this, the observation group were treated with bromhexine hydrochloride tablets. The inflammatory factors(IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IL-1βlevels and ocular symptom scores(OSDI, BUT, SⅠt, FLin the two groups were compared between before and after treatment. And the clinical efficacy and adverse reactions were evaluated. RESULTS: After treatment, the IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IL-1β, OSDI and FL scores in two groups were significantly lower than those before treatment, and BUT and SⅠt were significantly higher than those before treatment. Moreover, the improvement degree of the above indexes in the observation group were better than those in the control group, showing statistically significant difference(Pχ2=5.531, P=0.019, but there was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups(χ2=0.307, P=0.579. CONCLUSION:As for the patients with dry eye, the combination of 3g/L sodium hyaluronate eye drops with bromhexine hydrochloride tablets can significantly decrease the level of inflammatory factors, improve the eye symptoms and the clinical total efficiency, without increasing treatment-related adverse effects.

  2. Orodispersible tablets containing taste-masked solid lipid pellets with metformin hydrochloride: Influence of process parameters on tablet properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovick, Gustavo Freire; Kleinebudde, Peter; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Compaction of multiparticulates into tablets, particularly into orodispersible tablets (ODTs), is challenging. The compression of pellets, made by solid lipid extrusion/spheronization processes, presents peculiar difficulties since solid lipids usually soften or melt at relatively low temperature ranges and due to applied mechanical forces. Until now, there are no reports in literature about the development of ODTs based on solid lipid pellets. To investigate the feasibility of producing such tablets, a design of experiment (DoE) approach was performed to elucidate the influence of compression force and amount of two co-processed excipients (Ludiflash ® and Parteck ® ODT) on properties of the tablets (friability, tensile strength, and disintegration time). ODTs (15 mm, flat-faced) with solid lipid pellets (250-1000 µm in diameter) containing 500 mg of metformin HCl, presenting immediate drug release profile and taste-masked properties, were targeted. During compression, a strong lamination of the tablets containing Parteck ® ODT was observed. This phenomenon was prominently observed when high compression forces (≥5 kN) and high excipient amounts (≥40%; w/w) were used. On the other hand, the DoE focused on tablets with Ludiflash ® showed better results regarding the production of ODTs. A positive influence of the compression force on the tensile strength and disintegration time of the tablets, regarding specifications of the Ph. Eur., was observed. The increase in the amount of this excipient resulted in fast disintegrating tablets, however, a negative influence on the tensile strength was noticed. After optimization of the parameters and formulation, based on the DoE results and considering the Ph. Eur. specifications for tablets, ODTs based on lipid pellets containing metformin HCl presenting immediate release profile (85% drug release in less than 30 min) and taste-masked properties (determined by an electronic tongue) were successfully

  3. Design and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of sustained-release floating tablets of itopride hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sayed M; Ahmed Ali, Adel; Ali, Ahmed Ma; Hassan, Omiya A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to improve the bioavailability of itopride (ITO) and sustain its action by formulating as a floating dosage form. Sustained-release floating tablets of ITO hydrochloride (HCl) were prepared by direct compression using different hydrocolloid polymers such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and ethylcellulose and/or methacrylic acid polymers Eudragit RSPM and Carbopol 934P. The floating property was achieved using an effervescent mixture of sodium bicarbonate and anhydrous citric acid (1:1 mol/mol). Hardness, friability, content uniformity, and dissolution rate of the prepared floating tablets were evaluated. The formulation F 10 composed of 28.5% Eudragit RSPM, 3% NaHCO 3 , and 7% citric acid provided sustained drug release. In vitro results showed sustained release of F 10 where the drug release percentage was 96.51%±1.75% after 24 hours ( P =0.031). The pharmacokinetic results indicated that the area under the curve (AUC 0-∞ ) of the prepared sustained-release floating tablets at infinity achieved 93.69 µg·h/mL compared to 49.89 µg·h/mL for the reference formulation (Ganaton ® ) and the relative bioavailability of the sustained-release formulation F 10 increased to 187.80% ( P =0.022). The prepared floating tablets of ITO HCl (F 10 ) could be a promising drug delivery system with sustained-release action and enhanced drug bioavailability.

  4. Some variables affecting the characteristics of Eudragit E-sodium alginate polyelectrolyte complex as a tablet matrix for diltiazem hydrochloride

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    Yusif Rehab Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Eudragit E (EE-sodium alginate (SA polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs were prepared at pH 4 and 5.8 using sodium alginate of high (SAH and low viscosity (SAL. The optimum EE-SA complexation mass ratio was determined using viscosity measurements. Interactions between EE and SA in PECs were characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Diltiazem hydrochloride (DTZ HCl tablets were prepared using the prepared EE-SA PECs and their physical mixtures at different ratios as matrices. Tablets were evaluated for swelling characteristics and in vitro drug release. Tablets containing EE-SAH physical mixtures of ratios (1.5:1 and 1:3 as matrices were effective in achieving sustained release of DTZ HCl, where the percent drug released was significantly (p < 0.05 decreased compared to that from tablets either containing the same ratios of EE-SAL physical mixtures or the preformed EE- -SAH and EE-SAL PECs.

  5. Some variables affecting the characteristics of Eudragit E-sodium alginate polyelectrolyte complex as a tablet matrix for diltiazem hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusif, Rehab Mohammad; Abu Hashim, Irhan Ibrahim; El-Dahan, Marwa Salah

    2014-03-01

    Eudragit E (EE)-sodium alginate (SA) polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) were prepared at pH 4 and 5.8 using sodium alginate of high (SAH) and low viscosity (SAL). The optimum EE-SA complexation mass ratio was determined using viscosity measurements. Interactions between EE and SA in PECs were characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Diltiazem hydrochloride (DTZ HCl) tablets were prepared using the prepared EE-SA PECs and their physical mixtures at different ratios as matrices. Tablets were evaluated for swelling characteristics and in vitro drug release. Tablets containing EE-SAH physical mixtures of ratios (1.5:1 and 1:3) as matrices were effective in achieving sustained release of DTZ HCl, where the percent drug released was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased compared to that from tablets either containing the same ratios of EE-SAL physical mixtures or the preformed EE- -SAH and EE-SAL PECs.

  6. Formulation and evaluation of a sustained-release tablets of metformin hydrochloride using hydrophilic synthetic and hydrophobic natural polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadher, K J; Kakde, R B; Umekar, M J

    2011-03-01

    Metformin hydrochloride has relatively short plasma half-life, low absolute bioavailability. The need for the administration two to three times a day when larger doses are required can decrease patient compliance. Sustained release formulation that would maintain plasma level for 8-12 h might be sufficient for daily dosing of metformin. Sustained release products are needed for metformin to prolong its duration of action and to improve patient compliances. The overall objective of this study was to develop an oral sustained release metformin hydrochloride tablet by using hydrophilic Eudragit RSPO alone or its combination with hydrophobic natural polymers Gum copal and gum damar as rate controlling factor. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. The in vitro dissolution study was carried out using USP 22 apparatus I, paddle method and the data was analysed using zero order, first order, Higuchi, Korsmeyer and Hixson-Crowell equations. The drug release study revealed that Eudragit RSPO alone was unable to sustain the drug release. Combining Eudragit with gum Copal and gum Damar sustained the drug release for more than 12 h. Kinetic modeling of in vitro dissolution profiles revealed the drug release mechanism ranges from diffusion controlled or Fickian transport to anomalous type or non-Fickian transport. Fitting the in vitro drug release data to Korsmeyer equation indicated that diffusion along with erosion could be the mechanism of drug release.

  7. Formulation, preparation, and evaluation of novel orally disintegrating tablets containing taste-masked naproxen sodium granules and naratriptan hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Ulrike; Führling, Christian; Gieseler, Henning

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and manufacture novel freeze-dried orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) for migraine therapy containing taste-masked naproxen sodium and naratriptan hydrochloride. The formulation was optimized based on freeze-drying of sucrose solutions with different binders (hydroxyethylstarch, sodium alginate, methylcellulose, and gelatin) and varying amounts of Eudragit® E-coated naproxen sodium granules. Excellent product performance of the ODTs in terms of hardness and disintegration time (hydrochloride, and taste-masked naproxen sodium granules corresponding to 200 mg of naproxen were then added, and the final batches of ODTs for migraine therapy were produced. The ODTs were fully characterized, and subsequently stored for 1 month at room temperature and at 40°C. The amount of free naproxen sodium after freeze-drying and storage was below the threshold bitterness value, and the coating remained intact. Additionally, the particle size distribution of taste-masked granules was preserved, and more than 90 % naproxen sodium was released after 30 min. Naratriptan hydrochloride was dissolved immediately after disintegration, hence facilitating buccal absorption of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  8. Extractive Spectrophotometric Determination of Nortriptyline Hydrochloride Using Sudan II, IV and Black B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, A S; Saleh, H M

    2017-08-17

    A simple spectrophotometric methods has been developed for the determination of nortriptyline hydrochloride in pure and in pharmaceuticalformulations based on the formation of ion-pair complexes with sudun II (S II ), sudan (IV) (S IV ) and sudan black B (S BB ). The selectivity of the method was improved through extraction with chloroform. The optimum conditions for complete extracted colour development were assessed. The absorbance measurements were made at 534, 596 and 649 nm for S II , S IV and S BB complexes, respectively. The calibration graph was linear in the ranges 0.5- 280. 0.5- 37.5 and 0.5 - 31.0 μg ml -1 of the drug usiny the same reagents, respectively. The precision of the procedure was checked by calculating the relative standard deviation of ten replicate determinations on 15 μg ml -1 of nortriptyline HCI and was found to be 1.7, 1.3 and 1.55% using S II , S IV , and S BB complexes, respectively. The molar absorptivity and Sandell sensitivity for each ion-pair were calculated. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the deterniination of pure nortriptyline HCI and in pharmaceutical formulations, and the results demonstrated that the method is equally accurate, precise and reproducible as the official method.

  9. Development of a new benazepril hydrochloride chewable tablet and evaluation of its bioequivalence for treatment of heart failure in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, M; Chen, T; Zhou, D; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Q; Tang, S; Xiao, X

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a new chewable benazepril hydrochloride(BH) tablet, investigate its physical properties, and evaluate its bioequivalence with the branded formulation (Fortekor). A corrective agent was included in the formula to improve its palatability and convenience for administration to dogs. The tablet remained stable in light, heat, and humidity tests, and its physical properties such as hardness, uniformity of content, and dissolution rate were highly consistent with the technical standards. After single and repeated administrations to eight beagles and single dose to 14 mongrel dogs (0.5 mg/kg p.o.), plasma BH and its active metabolite, benazeprilat (BZ), were detected. There was no significant difference in the major pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax , Tmax, and AUC₀₋₂₄) between the two formulations. The 90% confidence intervals calculated for the ratios of area under the time-concentration curve (AUC₀₋₂₄) were 92.4-116.3% for BH and 89.9-102.3% for BZ, within the accepted range for bioequivalence of 80-125%. The results showed our new chewable tablet is bioequivalent to the commercial product and suitable for addition to the benazepril product family for the treatment of heart failure in dogs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. 75 FR 14444 - Determination That DIDREX (Benzphetamine Hydrochloride) Tablets, 25 Milligrams, Were Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... subsidiary of Pfizer Inc. Benzphetamine HCl 25-mg tablets are indicated in the management of exogenous obesity as a short-term (a few weeks) adjunct in a regimen of weight reduction based on caloric...

  11. Formulation and evaluation of sustained release matrix tablets of pioglitazone hydrochloride using processed Aloe vera mucilage as release modifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Choudhary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Natural gums and mucilage which hydrates and swells on contact with aqueous media are used as additives in the formulation of hydrophilic drug delivery system. Aim: The purpose of this study was to develop a new monolithic matrix system for complete delivery of Pioglitazone hydrochloride (HCl, in a zero-order manner over an extended time period using processed Aloe vera gel mucilage (PAG as a release modifier. Materials and Methods: The matrices were prepared by dry blending of selected ratios of polymer and ingredients using direct compression technique. Physicochemical properties of dried powdered mucilage of A. vera were studied. Various formulations of pioglitazone HCl and A. vera mucilage were prepared using different drug: Polymer ratios viz., 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 for PAG by direct compression technique. Results: The formulated matrix tablets were found to have better uniformity of weight and drug content with low statistical deviation. The swelling behavior and in vitro release rate characteristics were also studied. Conclusion: The study proved that the dried A. vera mucilage can be used as a matrix forming material for controlled release of Pioglitazone HCl matrix tablets.

  12. THE PROCESS OF MASS TRANSFER ON THE SOLID-LIQUID BOUNDARY LAYER DURING THE RELEASE OF DICLOFENAC SODIUM AND PAPAVERINE HYDROCHLORIDE FROM TABLETS IN A PADDLE APPARATUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperek, Regina; Zimmer, Lukasz; Poleszak, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The release study of diclofenac sodium (DIC) and papaverine hydrochloride (PAP) from two formulations of the tablets in the paddle apparatus using different rotation speeds to characterize the process of mass transfer on the solid-liquid boundary layer was carried out. The dissolution process of active substances was described by values of mass transfer coefficients, the diffusion boundary layer thickness and dimensionless numbers (Sh and Re). The values of calculated parameters showed that the release of DIC and PAP from tablets comprising potato starch proceeded faster than from tablets containing HPMC and microcrystalline cellulose. They were obtained by direct dependencies between Sh and Re in the range from 75 rpm to 125 rpm for both substances from all tablets. The description of the dissolution process with the dimensionless numbers make it possible to plan the drug with the required release profile under given in vitro conditions.

  13. Relative bioavailability of methadone hydrochloride administered in chewing gum and tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Angelo, H.R.; Bonde, J.

    1990-01-01

    Methadone administered in chewing gum in doses of 16.7-22.6 mg to seven patients in a study using an open balanced cross-over design, was compared with 20 mg of methadone given perorally as tablets. There was no significant difference in the AUC/D obtained after administration of chewing gum...... and tablets (p>0.05). It is concluded that the chewing gum formulation should be considered for further testing with respect to suppression of abstinence syndrome in narcotic addicts....

  14. Relative bioavailability of methadone hydrochloride administered in chewing gum and tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christrup, L L; Angelo, H R; Bonde, J; Kristensen, F; Rasmussen, S N

    1990-01-01

    Methadone administered in chewing gum in doses of 16.7-22.6 mg to seven patients in a study using an open balanced cross-over design, was compared with 20 mg of methadone given perorally as tablets. There was no significant difference in the AUC/D obtained after administration of chewing gum and tablets (p greater than 0.05). It is concluded that the chewing gum formulation should be considered for further testing with respect to suppression of abstinence syndrome in narcotic addicts.

  15. Design and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of sustained-release floating tablets of itopride hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed SM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sayed M Ahmed,1 Adel Ahmed Ali,2 Ahmed MA Ali,2,3 Omiya A Hassan2,4 1Department of Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, Assiut, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Deraya University, El-Minia Gadida, Egypt Purpose: The aim of the present study was to improve the bioavailability of itopride (ITO and sustain its action by formulating as a floating dosage form. Materials and methods: Sustained-release floating tablets of ITO hydrochloride (HCl were prepared by direct compression using different hydrocolloid polymers such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and ethylcellulose and/or methacrylic acid polymers Eudragit RSPM and Carbopol 934P. The floating property was achieved using an effervescent mixture of sodium bicarbonate and anhydrous citric acid (1:1 mol/mol. Hardness, friability, content uniformity, and dissolution rate of the prepared floating tablets were evaluated. The formulation F10 composed of 28.5% Eudragit RSPM, 3% NaHCO3, and 7% citric acid provided sustained drug release. Results: In vitro results showed sustained release of F10 where the drug release percentage was 96.51%±1.75% after 24 hours (P=0.031.The pharmacokinetic results indicated that the area under the curve (AUC0–∞ of the prepared sustained-release floating tablets at infinity achieved 93.69 µg·h/mL compared to 49.89 µg·h/mL for the reference formulation (Ganaton® and the relative bioavailability of the sustained-release formulation F10 increased to 187.80% (P=0.022. Conclusion: The prepared floating tablets of ITO HCl (F10 could be a promising drug delivery system with sustained-release action and enhanced drug bioavailability. Keywords: itopride HCl, oral drug delivery, stability study, bioavailability

  16. Estimation of Rabeprazole Sodium and Itopride Hydrochloride in Tablet Dosage Form Using Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Harum Rasheed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC method was developed, validated and used for the quantitative determination of rabeprazole sodium (RP and itopride hydrochloride (IH, from its tablet dosage form. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Phenomenex C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm, with a mobile phase comprising of a mixture of 50 mM ammonium acetate buffer and methanol (20:80v/v, pH 4.5 adjusted with acetic acid, at a flow rate of 1.3 mL/min with detection at 286 nm. Separation was completed in less than 10 min. As per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH guidelines the method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of quantitation and limit of detection. Linearity of RP was found to be in the range of 37.5-375 μg/mL and IH was found to be in the range of 5-50 μg/mL. The correlation coefficients were 0.9997 and 0.9995 for RB and IH respectively. The accuracy of the developed method was found to be 98.6-100.7 for RP and 99.42 -100.81 for IH. The experiment shows the developed method is free from interference of excipients. It indicates the developed RP-HPLC method is simple, linear, precise and accurate and it can be conveniently adopted for the routine quality control analysis of the tablet dosage form.

  17. Combined Effect of Synthetic and Natural Polymers in Preparation of Cetirizine Hydrochloride Oral Disintegrating Tablets: Optimization by Central Composite Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, Chandra Sekhar; Sahu, Prafulla Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to employ experimental design to formulate and optimize cetirizine hydrochloride oral disintegrating tablets (ODTs) by direct compression technique, using the mutual effect of synthetic croscarmellose sodium (CCS) and natural Hibiscus rosa-sinensis mucilage (HRM) as disintegrants in the formulation. Central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the influence of three levels each of CCS ( X 1 ) and HRM ( X 2 ) concentrations (independent variables) for investigated responses: disintegration time (DT) ( Y 1 ), % friability ( F ) ( Y 2 ), and % cumulative drug release (DR) ( Y 3 ) (dependent variables). This face-centered second-order model's reliability was verified by the probability and adequate precision values from the analysis of variance, while the significant factor effects influencing the studied responses were identified using multiple linear regression analysis. Perturbation and response surface plots were interpreted to evaluate the responses' sensitivity towards the variables. During optimization, the concentrations of the processed factors were evaluated, and the resulting values were in good agreement with predicted estimates endorsing the validity. Spectral study by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermograms from Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) demonstrated the drug-excipients compatibility of the optimized formulation. The optimized formulation has concentrations of 9.05 mg and 16.04 mg of CCS and HRM each, respectively, and the model predicted DT of 13.271 sec, F of 0.498, and DR of 99.768%.

  18. Combined Effect of Synthetic and Natural Polymers in Preparation of Cetirizine Hydrochloride Oral Disintegrating Tablets: Optimization by Central Composite Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Sekhar Patro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to employ experimental design to formulate and optimize cetirizine hydrochloride oral disintegrating tablets (ODTs by direct compression technique, using the mutual effect of synthetic croscarmellose sodium (CCS and natural Hibiscus rosa-sinensis mucilage (HRM as disintegrants in the formulation. Central composite design (CCD was applied to optimize the influence of three levels each of CCS (X1 and HRM (X2 concentrations (independent variables for investigated responses: disintegration time (DT (Y1, % friability (F (Y2, and % cumulative drug release (DR (Y3 (dependent variables. This face-centered second-order model’s reliability was verified by the probability and adequate precision values from the analysis of variance, while the significant factor effects influencing the studied responses were identified using multiple linear regression analysis. Perturbation and response surface plots were interpreted to evaluate the responses’ sensitivity towards the variables. During optimization, the concentrations of the processed factors were evaluated, and the resulting values were in good agreement with predicted estimates endorsing the validity. Spectral study by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and thermograms from Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC demonstrated the drug-excipients compatibility of the optimized formulation. The optimized formulation has concentrations of 9.05 mg and 16.04 mg of CCS and HRM each, respectively, and the model predicted DT of 13.271 sec, F of 0.498, and DR of 99.768%.

  19. Development and Validation of a Rapid RP-UPLC Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Bambuterol Hydrochloride and Montelukast Sodium from Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra, R; Vadla, C S; Puppala, U M; Patro, B; Murthy, Y L N; Parimi, A R

    2012-03-01

    A rapid, simple, sensitive and selective analytical method was developed by using reverse phase ultra performance liquid chromatographic technique for the simultaneous estimation of bambuterol hydrochloride and montelukast sodium in combined tablet dosage form. The developed method is superior in technology to conventional high performance liquid chromatography with respect to speed, resolution, solvent consumption, time, and cost of analysis. Elution time for the separation was 6 min and ultra violet detection was carried out at 210 nm. Efficient separation was achieved on BEH C18 sub-2-μm Acquity UPLC column using 0.025% (v/v) trifluoro acetic acid in water and acetonitrile as organic solvent in a linear gradient program. Resolutions between bambuterol hydrochloride and montelukast sodium were found to be more than 31. The active pharmaceutical ingredient was extracted from tablet dosage from using a mixture of methanol, acetonitrile and water as diluent. The calibration graphs were linear for bambuterol hydrochloride and montelukast sodium in the range of 6.25-37.5 μg/ml. The percentage recoveries for bambuterol hydrochloride and montelukast sodium were found to be in the range of 99.1-100.0% and 98.0-101.6%, respectively. The test solution was found to be stable for 7 days when stored in the refrigerator between 2-8°. Developed UPLC method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization specifications for method validation. This method can be successfully employed for simultaneous estimation of bambuterol hydrochloride and montelukast sodium in bulk drugs and formulations.

  20. Relative bioavailability of a newly developed 5-mg levomethadone hydrochloride IR tablet (L-Polamidon® 5 mg tablets) in comparison with the 5-mg levomethadone hydrochloride oral solution (L-Polamidon® solution for substitution) as reference product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Henning H; Wedemeyer, Ralf-Steven; Donath, Frank; Roscher, Katrin; Elvert, Gerd; Wagner, Daniel; Bley, Oliver; Vuia, Alexander; Todorova-Sanjari, Marina; Villalobos, Ramon; Schug, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    To establish the relative bioavailability (rBA) between two p.o. 5-mg levomethadone hydrochloride formulations, i.e., L-Polamidon® 5 mg tablets (test) vs. L-Polamidon® solution for substitution (reference). To assess the safety and tolerability of both formulations. A total of 33 healthy male subjects, aged 29 ± 6 years (BMI: 23.9 ± 2.5 kg/m2) completed this single center, open-label, randomized, 2-period cross-over study with single dose administrations under fasting conditions and coadministration with naltrexone for safety reasons. Administrations of both investigational products were separated by a washout period of at least 2 weeks, i.e., 13 treatmentfree days. The total dose for each subject was 2 x 5 mg resulting in 10 mg levomethadone hydrochloride. For pharmacokinetic evaluation, blood samples were withdrawn until 72 hours postdose. A validated non-stereoselective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy method (LC-MS/MS) was applied for the determination of levomethadone in plasma. The lower limit of quantitation was 0.100 ng/mL. Adverse events were descriptively analyzed in the study population. The geometric means of the parameters related with the extent of total exposure of levomethadone, i.e., AUC(0-tlast) and AUC(0-∞), were 244.422 ng x h/mL and 332.999 ng x h/mL for test and 246.837 ng x h/mL and 329.467 ng×h/mL for reference, respectively. The geometric means of the peak exposure for levomethadone, i.e., Cmax, were 8.923 ng/mL for test and 8.635 ng/mL for reference. The point estimates (PEs) of the Test/Reference (T/R) adjusted geometric mean ratios of AUC(0-last), AUC(0-∞), and C(max) were 99.20%, 101.42%, and 104.11%, respectively, and all of them showed 90%-confidence intervals (CIs) within the range of 80.00 - 125.00% as suggested by regulatory requirements for bioequivalence assessment In total, 21 subjects experienced 55 AEs during the study, the most frequently reported AE, i.e., headache, accounted for 13 out of the total

  1. Microsized graphite sensors for potentiometric determination of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride in pure powder, tablets, and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Nesrin K; Zaazaa, Hala E; Merey, Hanan A

    2011-01-01

    Two cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride (CZ) microsized graphite selective sensors were investigated with dibutylsebacate as a plasticizer in a polymeric matrix of carboxylated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-COOH) in the case of sensor 1, based on the interaction between the drug and the dissociated COOH groups in the PVC-COOH. Sensor 2 was based on the interaction between the drug and ammonium reineckate, which acted as anionic electroactive material in the presence of polyvinyl chloride matrix. The two sensors were constructed by using 2-hydroxy propyl beta-cyclodextrin as an ionophore, which has a significant influence on increasing the membrane sensitivity and selectivity of both sensors. Fast and stable Nernstian responses of 1 x 10(-5) - 1 x 10(-2) and 1 x 10(-4) - 1 x 10(-2) M for the two sensors, respectively, with slopes of 58.6 and 55.5 mV/decade, respectively, over the pH range 2-4 were obtained. The proposed method displayed useful analytical characteristics for determination of CZ in its pure powder form with average recoveries 99.95 +/- 0.23 and 99.61 +/- 0.34% for sensors 1 and 2, respectively, and in plasma with good recoveries. The sensors were also used to determine the intact drug in the presence of its degradate and, thus, could be used as stability-indicating methods. The obtained results by the proposed methods were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained by the U.S. Pharmacopeia method; no significant difference for either accuracy or precision was observed. Results obtained with the two electrodes revealed their performance characteristics, which were evaluated according to International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry recommendations.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine hydrochloride extended release tablets in hemodialysis patients with exploratory effect on pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawi, Amale; Alcorn, Harry; Berg, Jolene; Hines, Carey; Hait, Howard; Sciascia, Thomas

    2015-04-08

    Uremic pruritus is a common and deleterious condition among hemodialysis (HD) patients. Central gating of μ/κ opiate circuitry plays an important role in mediating and countering pruritogenic sensation. The objective of this study was to assess the safety and pharmacokinetics (PK) of the mixed μ-antagonist/κ-agonist nalbuphine, administered orally as nalbuphine HCl extended release (ER) tablets in HD patients, and explore its effect on pruritus. In this open-label multiple escalating dose study, 15 HD patients with pruritus and 9 matched healthy subjects were enrolled. Nalbuphine HCl ER dose was escalated from 30 mg QD to 240 mg BID over 15 days. A full PK profile was obtained under dialysis and non-dialysis conditions as a function of dose. Clearance during dialysis was determined by sampling dialysate and arterial/venous blood during dialysis. Pruritus severity was assessed twice daily using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Safety monitoring included extensive monitoring of EKG, blood pressure, and pulse oximetry. In HD patients, nalbuphine concentration peaked within 4-9 hours and attained steady state within 2-3 days, with no significant accumulation. Mean half-life was 14.2 hours, mean Cmax and AUCtau ranged between 13 and 83 ng/mL and 118 and 761 ng∙h/mL, respectively, with exposure increasing in a nearly dose-proportional fashion. Exposure in HD patients was about 2-fold higher than in healthy subjects. There was no meaningful difference between exposure on dialysis and non-dialysis days with 1% or less of the dose removed by dialysis. Nalbuphine suppressed itch in a dose-dependent manner, reducing mean VAS score from 4.0 to 1.2 at 180 mg and 0.4 at 240 mg. Nalbuphine HCl ER tablets can be safely administered to HD patients without dose adjustment up to 240 mg BID and may hold promise in treating uremic pruritus.

  3. Simultaneous release of diclofenac sodium and papaverine hydrochloride from tablets and pellets using the flow-through cell apparatus described by dimensionless equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperek, Regina

    2011-01-01

    The release of diclofenac sodium and papaverine hydrochloride from tablets and pellets using the flow-through cell apparatus was studied. The influence of excipients and of a size of the solid dosage forms on the amount of the released substances at the intervals of time using the different rates of flow of the dissolution medium was investigated. Physical parameters corresponding to the dissolution process as the mass transfer coefficient, the thickness of the boundary diffusion layer and the concentration of the saturated solution at this layer were calculated. The results of release were described by dimensionless equations.

  4. A randomized, double-blind study of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets versus oxycodone hydrochloride extended-release tablets for cancer pain: efficacy and safety in Japanese cancer patients (EXHEAL: a Phase III study of EXtended-release HydromorphonE for cAncer pain reLief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue S

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Satoshi Inoue,1 Yoji Saito,2 Satoru Tsuneto,3 Etsuko Aruga,4 Azusa Ide,1 Yasuyuki Kakurai5 1Clinical Development Department, R&D Division, Daiichi Sankyo, Tokyo,2Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Shimane University, Shimane, 3Human Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 4Department of Palliative Medicine, School of Medicine, Teikyo University, Tokyo, 5Biostatistics and Data Management Department, R&D Division, Daiichi Sankyo, Tokyo, Japan Background: In Japan, there are limited options for switching opioid analgesics. Hydromorphone is an opioid analgesic that is routinely used instead of morphine for cancer pain; however, it is not yet available in Japan. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of hydromorphone (DS-7113b extended-release tablets in opioid-naïve patients with cancer pain not relieved by non-opioid analgesics.Subjects and methods: This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial. A double-dummy method was used for blinding. Each randomized subject received either hydromorphone extended-release tablets plus placebo oxycodone hydrochloride extended-release tablets 4 mg/day (n=88 or placebo hydromorphone extended-release tablets plus oxycodone hydrochloride extended-release tablets 10 mg/day (n=93 orally for 7 days (once-daily dosing for hydromorphone and twice-daily dosing for oxycodone. The doses were adjusted as necessary. Efficacy was evaluated by change in visual analog scale (VAS score from baseline to completion of treatment.Results: The between-group difference in least squares mean changes in VAS score from baseline to completion or discontinuation of treatment was −0.4 mm (95% CI −5.9 to 5 mm by analysis of covariance where the baseline VAS score was used as a covariate. The upper limit of the 95% CI was below 10 mm, which was predefined as the noninferiority limit. This verified the noninferiority of hydromorphone tablets

  5. Determination of glibenclamide, metformin hydrochloride and rosiglitazone maleate by reversed phase liquid chromatographic technique in tablet dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havele Shweta S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, precise and accurate high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of metformin hydrochloride, rosiglitazone maleate, glibenclamide present in multicomponent dosage forms. Chromatography was performed on a 25 cm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5-μm particle, C18 column with 78:22 (v/v methanol: 20 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and UV detection at 238 nm for metformin hydrochloride, rosiglitazone maleate, and glibenclamide. The total elution time was shorter than 9 min. This method was found to be precise and reproducible. This proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of metformin hydrochloride, rosiglitazone maleate, glibenclamide as a bulk drug and in pharmaceutical formulation without any interference from the excipients.

  6. A Comparative In-Vitro Study for Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of the Domestic and Innovator Brands of Sertraline Hydrochloride Tablets Available in the Iranian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dastgiri 1,2, Mohammadreza Siahi 2, Elnaz Tamizi 2,3 *

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was aimed to assess the quality of Iranian and innovator sertraline hydrochloride (SER tablets available in the Iranian market. This study could make it possible to provide adequate evidences confirming the similar physicochemical quality of Iranian and imported SER products and could subsequently decrease the therapy costs owing to the more affordable costs of Iranian medicines compared to the imported ones. Methods: Seven products including one imported and six Iranian SER tablet brands were purchased from local pharmacy stores in Tabriz. Quantification of the amount of active ingredient in assay, uniformity of dosage units and dissolution tests were performed using an HPLC method recommended by USP monograph and other physicochemical properties were assessed in accordance with the USP general recommendations. Results: According to the obtained results, the amount of active ingredient in all the products met the acceptable range (%90 - %110; the content of all the studied products was uniform (AV ≤ 15; and all the products passed the dissolution test at the first stage (Q30 ≥ 85 %; the average weight of all the products was uniform with RSD% of less than 5%; except for one product with friability of 15.8% (due to the coating issue, all products' hardness (≤ 10 Kg and friability (≤ 1% were acceptable and all of them completely disintegrated after 30 min. Conclusion: The results of this study illustrated the acceptable quality of the most Iranian brands of SER compared to the innovator brand regarding the studied physicochemical properties.

  7. Formulation and Evaluation of a Sustained-Release Tablets of Metformin Hydrochloride Using Hydrophilic Synthetic and Hydrophobic Natural Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Wadher, K. J.; Kakde, R. B.; Umekar, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Metformin hydrochloride has relatively short plasma half-life, low absolute bioavailability. The need for the administration two to three times a day when larger doses are required can decrease patient compliance. Sustained release formulation that would maintain plasma level for 8-12 h might be sufficient for daily dosing of metformin. Sustained release products are needed for metformin to prolong its duration of action and to improve patient compliances. The overall objective of this study ...

  8. 76 FR 53908 - Determination That OPANA ER (Oxymorphone Hydrochloride) Extended-Release Tablets, 7.5 Milligrams...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... proceedings that could result in the withdrawal of approval of the ANDAs that refer to the listed drug. OPANA... relief of moderate to severe pain in patients requiring continuous, around-the-clock opioid treatment for... withdrawal of OPANA ER (oxymorphone HCl) extended-release tablets, 7.5 mg and 15 mg, from sale. We have also...

  9. Taste-masked and affordable donepezil hydrochloride orally disintegrating tablet as promising solution for non-compliance in Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Kai Bin; Tan, Yvonne Tze Fung; Peh, Kok Khiang

    2015-04-01

    Manufacturing process and superdisintegrants used in orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) formulation are often time discussed. However, the effect of suitable filler for ODT formulation is not explored thoroughly. The aim of this study was to develop a novel taste masked and affordable donepezil hydrochloride ODT with fast disintegration time and stable to improve medication compliance of Alzheimer's disease patient. The ODT was manufactured using simple wet-granulation method. Crospovidone XL-10 was used as superdisintegrant and optimization was done by comparing the effect of three grades of lactose monohydrate compound as filler: Starlac®, Flowlac® and Tablettose®. Formulations containing higher amount of colloidal silicon dioxide showed increase in hardness, weight, disintegration time and wetting time after stability study. Formulation E which containing 50% of Starlac® was found with shortest in vitro disintegration time (21.7 ± 1.67 s), in vivo disintegration time (24.0 ± 1.05 s) and in vitro disintegration time in artificial salvia (22.5 ± 1.67 s). Physical stability studies at 40 °C/75% RH for 6 months, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis and X-ray diffraction results showed that the formulation was stable. The drug-released profile showed that 80% of donepezil hydrochloride was released within 1 min. A single-dose, fasting, four-period, seven-treatment, double-blinded study involving 16 healthy human volunteers was performed to evaluate the palatability of ODT. Formulation VII containing 10 mg of ammonium glycyrrhizinate was able to mask the bitter taste of the drug. The product has the potential to be commercialized and it might serve as solution for non-compliance among the Alzheimer's disease patients.

  10. Extractive Spectrophotometric Determination of Nortriptyline Hydrochloride Using Sudan II, IV and Black B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Amin

    2017-08-01

    formulations based on the formation of ion-pair complexes with sudun II (SII, sudan (IV (SIV and sudan black B (SBB. The selectivity of the method was improved through extraction with chloroform. The optimum conditions for complete extracted colour development were assessed. The absorbance measurements were made at 534, 596 and 649 nm for SII, SIV and SBB complexes, respectively. The calibration graph was linear in the ranges 0.5- 280. 0.5- 37.5 and 0.5 – 31.0 μg ml−1 of the drug usiny the same reagents, respectively. The precision of the procedure was checked by calculating the relative standard deviation of ten replicate determinations on 15 μg ml−1 of nortriptyline HCI and was found to be 1.7, 1.3 and 1.55% using SII, SIV, and SBB complexes, respectively. The molar absorptivity and Sandell sensitivity for each ion-pair were calculated. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the deterniination of pure nortriptyline HCI and in pharmaceutical formulations, and the results demonstrated that the method is equally accurate, precise and reproducible as the official method.

  11. Chemometrics-assisted spectrophotometric green method for correcting interferences in biowaiver studies: Application to assay and dissolution profiling study of donepezil hydrochloride tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korany, Mohamed A.; Mahgoub, Hoda; Haggag, Rim S.; Ragab, Marwa A. A.; Elmallah, Osama A.

    2018-06-01

    A green, simple and cost effective chemometric UV-Vis spectrophotometric method has been developed and validated for correcting interferences that arise during conducting biowaiver studies. Chemometric manipulation has been done for enhancing the results of direct absorbance, resulting from very low concentrations (high incidence of background noise interference) of earlier points in the dissolution timing in case of dissolution profile using first and second derivative (D1 & D2) methods and their corresponding Fourier function convoluted methods (D1/FF& D2/FF). The method applied for biowaiver study of Donepezil Hydrochloride (DH) as a representative model was done by comparing two different dosage forms containing 5 mg DH per tablet as an application of a developed chemometric method for correcting interferences as well as for the assay and dissolution testing in its tablet dosage form. The results showed that first derivative technique can be used for enhancement of the data in case of low concentration range of DH (1-8 μg mL-1) in the three different pH dissolution media which were used to estimate the low drug concentrations dissolved at the early points in the biowaiver study. Furthermore, the results showed similarity in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 and dissimilarity in the other 2 pH media. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines and USP monograph for both assays (HCl of pH 1.2) and dissolution study in 3 pH media (HCl of pH 1.2, acetate buffer of pH 4.5 and phosphate buffer of pH 6.8). Finally, the assessment of the method greenness was done using two different assessment techniques: National Environmental Method Index label and Eco scale methods. Both techniques ascertained the greenness of the proposed method.

  12. Antiproliferative activity and interactions with cell-cycle related proteins of the organotin compound triethyltin(IV)lupinylsulfide hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, F; Sparatore, F; Cagnoli, M; Bruzzo, C; Novelli, F; Alama, A

    2001-03-14

    Organotin compounds, particularly tri-organotin, have demonstrated cytotoxic properties against a number of tumor cell lines. On this basis, triethyltin(IV)lupinylsulfide hydrochloride (IST-FS 29), a quinolizidine derivative, was synthesized and developed as a potential antitumor agent. This tin-derived compound exhibited potent antiproliferative effects on three different human cancer cell lines: teratocarcinoma of the ovary (PA-1), colon carcinoma (HCT-8) and glioblastoma (A-172). Cytotoxic activity was assessed by MTT and cell count assays during time course experiments with cell recovery after compound withdrawal. Significant cell growth inhibition (up to 95% in HCT-8 after 72 h of exposure), which also persisted after drug-free medium change, was reported in all the cell lines by both assays. In addition, the cytocidal effects exerted by IST-FS 29 appeared more consistent with necrosis or delayed cell death, rather than apoptosis, as shown by morphologic observations under light microscope, DNA fragmentation analysis and flow cytometry. In the attempt to elucidate whether this compound might affect genes playing a role in G1/S phase transition, the expressions of p53, p21(WAF1), cyclin D1 and Rb, mainly involved in response to DNA-damaging stress, were analyzed by Western blot. Heterogeneous patterns of expression during exposure to IST-FS 29 were evidenced in the different cell lines suggesting that these cell-cycle-related genes are not likely the primary targets of this compound. Thus, the present data seem more indicative of a direct effect of IST-FS-29 on macromolecular synthesis and cellular homeostasis, as previously hypothesized for other organotin complexes.

  13. Development and validation of an HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of artesunate and mefloquine hydrochloride in fixed-dose combination tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Henrique Andrade Nogueira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study developed and validated an HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of artesunate (AS and mefloquine hydrochloride (MQ in fixed-dose combination tablets, according to ICH guidelines. The chromatographic separation was carried out on an XBridge C18 (250 x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm particle size, Waters analytical column. The mobile phase included a 0.05 M monobasic potassium phosphate buffer (pH adjusted to 3.0 with phosphoric acid and acetonitrile (50 + 50, v/v. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min, and the run time was 13 minutes. A dual-wavelength approach was employed: AS detection was performed at 210 nm and MQ was detected at 283 nm, using a diode array detector. Stability of sample solutions was evaluated for 8 hours after preparation, during which time the solutions remained stable. Youden's test was employed to evaluate robustness. The method proved to be linear (r²>0.99, precise (RSD<2.0%, accurate, selective, and robust, proving to be appropriate for routine drug quality control analysis.

  14. Development and validation of a novel RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochloride, caffeine, cetirizine and nimesulide in tablet formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Dewani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection (HPLC–DAD procedure for the analysis of phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHE, paracetamol (PAR, caffeine anhydrous (CAF, cetirizine Dihydrochloride (CET, nimesulide (NIM in pharmaceutical mixture. Effective chromatographic separation of PHE, PAR, CAF, CET and NIM was achieved using a Kinetex-C18 (4.6 mm, 150 mm, 5 mm column with gradient elution of the mobile phase composed of 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.3 and acetonitrile. The elution was a three step gradient elution program step-1 started initially with 2% (by volume acetonitrile and 98% phosphate buffer (pH 3.3 for first 2 min. In step-2 acetonitrile concentration changed linearly to 20% up to 12 min the analysis was concluded by step-3 changing acetonitrile to 2% up to 20 min. The proposed HPLC method was statistically validated with respect to linearity, ranges, precision, accuracy, selectivity and robustness. Calibration curves were linear in the ranges of 5–100, 100–1000 and 10–200 mg/mL for PHE, PAR, CAF, CET and NIM respectively, with correlation coefficients >0.9996. The HPLC method was applied to tablet dosage form in which the analytes were successfully quantified with good recovery values with no interfering peaks from the excipients.

  15. Formulation and In Vitro Evaluation of Bilayer Tablets of Nebivolol Hydrochloride and Nateglinide for the Treatment of Diabetes and Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harika Ryakala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM and hypertension are two common diseases that often coexist. The most common cause of death in the diabetic patient is heart disease. In the present investigation we combine Nebivolol and Nateglinide for better patient compliance. IR layer was formulated using various superdisintegrants like Crospovidone, Croscarmellose sodium, and sodium starch glycolate and SR layer was formulated using polymers and gums like HPMC E15, ethyl cellulose, Gaur gum, and Xanthan gum. The disintegration and dissolution study of both layers showed that inclusion of surfactant (sodium lauryl sulphate to the tablet formulation (IR and dissolution medium (SR enhanced the release of drugs from both layers. Kinetic studies of optimized IR layer (NBL8 and SR layer (N9 showed good linearity with regression coefficient of 0.9714 (Higuchi model and 0.9931 (zero order kinetics, respectively. The above results reveal that the optimized IR layer of Nebivolol (NBL8 and SR layer of Nateglinide (N9 might be suitable for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension by sequential release of the two drugs in a bilayer tablet. IR-immediate release, SR-sustain release, NBL8-Nebivolol 8, N9-Nateglinide 9.

  16. Real-world dose-relativity, tablet burden, and cost comparison of conversion between sevelamer hydrochloride/carbonate and lanthanum carbonate monotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Michael S; Sibbel, Scott; Copley, J Brian; Wilson, Rosamund J; Brunelli, Steven M

    2014-10-01

    Sevelamer hydrochloride/carbonate (SH/C) and lanthanum carbonate (LC) are noncalcium-based phosphate binders used for the management of hyperphosphatemia in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The objectives of this study were to examine the dose-relativity, tablet burden, and cost difference of bidirectional conversion between SH/C and LC monotherapy in a large cohort of real-world patients with ESRD. This retrospective cohort study included three 30-day preconversion periods (days -90 to -61, -60 to -31, and -30 to -1) followed by three 30-day postconversion periods (days 1 to 30, 31 to 60, and 61 to 90); day 0 was the index date of conversion. The full analysis population (FAP) comprised two cohorts: SH/C to LC (S-L) converters and LC to SH/C (L-S) converters. The SH/C:LC dose-relativity ratio was assessed in the dose-relativity subset, defined as patients whose serum phosphate levels fell within a caliper range of ± 0.5 mg/dL in the final preconversion (days -30 to -1) and postconversion (days 61 to 90) periods. Tablet burden and phosphate binder costs were assessed in the FAP. Phosphate binder costs were based on average wholesale prices. The FAP contained a total of 303 patients, comprising the S-L (128 patients) and L-S (175 patients) converter cohorts. The dose-relativity subset contained 159 patients, 72 from the S-L cohort and 87 from the L-S cohort. The overall mean SH/C:LC dose-relativity ratio was 2.27 (95% CI, 2.04 to 2.52). In SH/C dose strata >800 to 2400, >2400 to 4800, >4800 to 7200, and >7200 mg/d, overall mean dose-relativity ratios were 0.79 (95% CI, 0.57 to 1.10), 1.45 (95% CI, 1.20 to 1.75), 2.05 (95% CI, 1.75 to 2.39), and 3.24 (95% CI, 2.89 to 3.66), respectively. The overall mean tablet burden was 6.6 tablets per day lower with LC monotherapy than with SH/C monotherapy (95% CI, -7.1 to -6.0; P 7800 mg/d was the inflection point at which conversion to LC resulted in mean cost savings. Patients requiring SH/C >7800 mg/d comprised

  17. Development and validation of a stability-indicating RP-HPLC method for determination of atomoxetine hydrochloride in tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sejal K; Patel, Natvarlal J

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a stability-indicating RP-HPLC method for the determination of atomoxetine hydrochloride (ATX) in the presence of its degradation products generated from forced decomposition studies. The drug substance was subjected to stress conditions of acid, base, oxidation, wet heat, dry heat, and photodegradation. In stability tests, the drug was susceptible to acid, base, oxidation, and dry and wet heat degradation. It was found to be stable under the photolytic conditions tested. The drug was successfully separated from the degradation products formed under stress conditions on a Phenomenex C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm id, 5 microm particle size) by using acetonitrile-methanol-0.032 M ammonium acetate (55 + 05 + 40, v/v/v) as the mobile phase at 1.0 mL/min and 40 degrees C. Photodiode array detection at 275 nm was used for quantitation after RP-HPLC over the concentration range of 0.5-5 microg/mL with a mean recovery of 100.8 +/- 0.4% for ATX. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the method is repeatable, specific, and accurate for the estimation of ATX. Because the method effectively separates the drug from its degradation products, it can be used as a stability-indicating method.

  18. A High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) Method for Simultaneous Determination of Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride and Naproxen Sodium in Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhole, R P; Shinde, S S; Chitlange, S S; Wankhede, S B

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and simple high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method with densitometry at 230 nm was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DPH) and naproxen sodium (NPS) from pharmaceutical preparation. The separation was carried out on aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60 F254 using mobile phase toluene:methanol:glacial acetic acid (7.5:1:0.2, v/v/v). The linearity range lies between 200 and 1200 ng/band for DPH and 1760 and 10,560 ng/band for NPS with correlation coefficients of 0.994 and 0.995, respectively. The R f value for DPH is 0.20 ± 0.05 and for NPS is 0.61 ± 0.06. % Recoveries of DPH and NPS was in the range of 99.70%-99.95% and 99.63%-99.95%, respectively. Limit of detection value for DPH was 13.21 ng/band and for NPS was 8.03 ng/band. Limit of quantitation value for DPH was 40.06 ng/band and for NPS was 24.34 ng/band. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines. In stability testing, DPH was found unstable to acid and alkaline hydrolysis, and DPH and NPS were found unstable to oxidation, whereas both the drugs were stable to neutral and photodegradation. The proposed method was successfully applied for the routine quantitative analysis of dosage form containing DPH and NPS.

  19. Influence of wellness education on first-line icotinib hydrochloride patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer and their family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanwei, Li; Minghui, Fang; Manman, Quan; Zhuchun, Yan; Dongying, Liu; Zhanyu, Pan

    2018-04-11

    This study aims to examine the effects of wellness education (WE) intervention on the behavioral change, psychological status, performance status on patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) undergoing icotinib hydrochloride treatment and their relationships with family caregivers. We conducted an intervention study involving 126 individuals with confirmed activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutation-positive stage IV NSCLC who received icotinib hydrochloride as first-line therapy between January 2014 and January 2016; their caregivers were also included in the study. For a period of 12 weeks, participants were randomly assigned into WE and control groups. The patients and family members in the WE group were provided with WE information about treatment, diet, social needs, rehabilitation, physical/mental health education, communication strategies, and patient care advice at least 3 times per week during treatment. Qualitative feedback of the participants was recorded during the intervention. Food Composition Database, the Family Environment Scale, patients/caregivers quality-of-life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung/Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer Scale), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were measured at baseline and for 12 weeks. Data were analyzed to compare the different outcomes. Of the 126 caregivers (64 WE and 62 control), 120 completed the study. We observed significant differences between the WE group and control group with respect to low daily calorie intake (31.0% vs 77.4%, p 0.05). After 12 weeks, WE intervention had improved scores on Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung-EWB and Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer Scale adaptation. In addition, the patients also showed improvements in HADS. WE interventions in patients with stage IV NSCLC undergoing icotinib hydrochloride treatment and their family resulted in strong intentions to engage in health-promoting behaviors related to

  20. Stability of i.v. admixture containing metoclopramide, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintzel, Polly E; Zhao, Ting; Wen, Bo; Sun, Duxin

    2014-12-01

    The chemical stability of a sterile admixture containing metoclopramide 1.6 mg/mL, diphenhydramine hydrochloride 2 mg/mL, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate 0.16 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection was evaluated. Triplicate samples were prepared and stored at room temperature without light protection for a total of 48 hours. Aliquots from each sample were tested for chemical stability immediately after preparation and at 1, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Metoclopramide, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate were selectively monitored using multiple-reaction monitoring. Samples were diluted differently for quantitation using three individual LC-MS/MS methods. To determine the drug concentration of the three compounds in the samples, three calibration curves were constructed by plotting the peak area or the peak area ratio versus the concentration of the calibration standards of each tested compound. Apixaban was used as an internal standard. Linearity of the calibration curve was evaluated by the correlation coefficient r(2). Constituents of the admixture of metoclopramide 1.6 mg/mL, diphenhydramine hydrochloride 2 mg/mL, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate 0.16 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection retained more than 90% of their initial concentrations over 48 hours of storage at room temperature without protection from light. The observed variability in concentrations of these three compounds was within the limits of assay variability. An i.v. admixture containing metoclopramide 1.6 mg/mL, diphenhydramine hydrochloride 2 mg/mL, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate 0.16 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection was chemically stable for 48 hours when stored at room temperature without light protection. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Single dose pharmacokinetics of fenspiride hydrochloride: phase I clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, B; Catalan, M; Roces, A; Jeanniot, J P; Honorato, J M

    1993-01-01

    The absolute bioavailability of fenspiride has been studied in twelve healthy volunteers. It was administered IV and orally in single doses of 80 mg fenspiride hydrochloride according to a randomised crossover pattern. Following IV administration, the plasma clearance of fenspiride was about 184 ml.min-1, and its apparent volume of distribution was moderately large (215 l). When given orally as a tablet, fenspiride exhibited fairly slow ab- sorption; the maximum plasma concentration (206 ng.ml-1) was achieved 6 h after administration. The absolute bioavailability was almost complete (90%). The tablet had slow release characteristics. The elimination half-life obtained from the plasma data was 14 to 16 h independent of the route of administration.

  2. Preparation and evaluation of mebeverine hydrochloride as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate and evaluate an antispasmodic drug, mebeverine hydrochloride (Mbv-HCl), as a local anesthetic mucoadhesive buccal tablet. Methods: Mbv-HCl loaded tablets were formulated, using a direct compression technique, with varying polymer concentrations including carbopol 934P alone, carbopol ...

  3. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-month trial of bupropion hydrochloride sustained-release tablets as an aid to smoking cessation in hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgareth, Oli Jacob; Hansen, Niels-Christian Gerner; Søes-Petersen, Ulrik

    2004-01-01

    Despite changes in smoking behavior, one-third of the Danish population continues to smoke. Many of these smokers are hospital employees. This 6-month, multicenter, parallel group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated treatment with bupropion hydrochloride sustained release...

  4. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-month trial of bupropion hydrochloride sustained-release tablets as an aid to smoking cessation in hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgareth, O.J.; Gerner Hansen, Niels-Christian; Soes-Petersen, U.

    2004-01-01

    (Zyban) compared with placebo as an aid to smoking cessation in health care workers. A total of 336 hospital employees who smoked at least 10 cigarettes daily were randomized (2:1) to 7 weeks of treatment with bupropion (n=222) or placebo (n=114). All participants were motivated to quit smoking......Despite changes in smoking behavior, one-third of the Danish population continues to smoke. Many of these smokers are hospital employees. This 6-month, multicenter, parallel group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated treatment with bupropion hydrochloride sustained release...... more frequently in the bupropion group than in the placebo group. Bupropion was effective as an aid to smoking cessation in a broad group of hospital employees in Denmark....

  5. Highly sensitive and selective spectrofluorimetric determination of metoclopramide hydrochloride in pharmaceutical tablets and serum samples using Eu3+ ion doped in sol-gel matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, M S; Aboaly, M M

    2010-06-30

    A simple, sensitive and selective spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of Metoclopramide hydrochloride (MCP) is developed. The MCP can remarkably enhances the luminescence intensity of the Eu(3+) ion doped in sol-gel matrix at lambda(ex)=380 nm in DMSO at pH 8.7. The intensity of the emission band of Eu(3+) ion doped in sol-gel matrix increases due to energy transfer from MCP to Eu(3+) in the excited state. The enhancement of the emission band of Eu(3+) ion doped in sol-gel matrix at 617 nm was found to be directly proportional to the concentration of MCP with a dynamic range of 5 x 10(-9) - 1.0 x 10(-6) mol L(-1) and detection limit of 2.2 x10(-11) mol L(-1). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the extended-release tramadol hydrochloride/acetaminophen fixed-dose combination tablet for the treatment of chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Lee, Chong-Suh

    2013-11-01

    Chronic low back pain is a common condition that is often difficult to treat. The combination of tramadol hydrochloride and acetaminophen in an extended-release formulation has been shown to provide rapid and long-lasting analgesic effects resulting from the synergistic activity of these 2 active ingredients. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of extended-release tramadol hydrochloride 75-mg/acetaminophen 650-mg fixed-dose combination tablets (TA-ER) for the treatment of chronic low back pain. This Phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study enrolled 245 patients with moderate to severe (≥4 cm on a 10-cm visual analog scale) chronic (≥3 months') low back pain insufficiently controlled by previous NSAIDs or cyclooxygenase-2-selective inhibitors and randomly assigned them to receive 4 weeks of either TA-ER or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was the percentage of patients with a pain intensity change rate ≥30% from baseline to final evaluation. Secondary end points included quality of life (Korean Short Form-36), functionality (Korean Oswestry Disability Index), and adverse events. The percentage of patients with a pain intensity change rate ≥30% was significantly higher (P Pain relief success rate from baseline was significantly higher with TA-ER versus placebo at days 8 and 15 but not at the final visit. Patients in the TA-ER group had significant improvements versus placebo in role-physical, general health, and reported health transition domains of the Korean Short Form-36 and significantly higher functional improvements in the personal care section of the Korean Oswestry Disability Index. Patient assessment of overall pain control as "very good" was also significantly higher with TA-ER than with placebo. Adverse events were reported more frequently with TA-ER than with placebo; the most common adverse events reported were nausea, dizziness, constipation, and vomiting. TA-ER was significantly more

  7. Artemisia annua dried leaf tablets treated malaria resistant to ACT and i.v. artesunate: Case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddy, Nsengiyumva Bati; Kalisya, Luc Malemo; Bagire, Pascal Gisenya; Watt, Robert L; Towler, Melissa J; Weathers, Pamela J

    2017-08-15

    Dried leaf Artemisia annua (DLA) has shown efficacy against Plasmodium sp. in rodent studies and in small clinical trials. Rodent malaria also showed resiliency against the evolution of artemisinin drug resistance. This is a case report of a last resort treatment of patients with severe malaria who were responding neither to artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) nor i.v. artesunate. Of many patients treated with ACTs and i.v. artesunate during the 6 mon study period, 18 did not respond and were subsequently treated with DLA Artemisia annua. Patients were given a dose of 0.5g DLA per os, twice daily for 5d. Total adult delivered dose of artemisinin was 55mg. Dose was reduced for body weight under 30kg. Clinical symptoms, e.g. fever, coma etc., and parasite levels in thick blood smears were tracked. Patients were declared cured and released from hospital when parasites were microscopically undetectable and clinical symptoms fully subsided. All patients were previously treated with Coartem® provided through Santé Rurale (SANRU) and following the regimen prescribed by WHO. Of 18 ACT-resistant severe malaria cases compassionately treated with DLA, all fully recovered. Of the 18, this report details two pediatric cases. Successful treatment of all 18 ACT-resistant cases suggests that DLA should be rapidly incorporated into the antimalarial regimen for Africa and possibly wherever else ACT resistance has emerged. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  8. Validation of the ultraviolet spectrophotometry method for the quality control of ciprofloxacin chlorhydrate in Ciprecu tablets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Navarro, Maikel; Rodriguez Hernandez, Yaslenis; Suarez Perez, Yania

    2014-01-01

    Quinolones are a group of antimicrobials of high clinical significance. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride monohydrate is a second-generation antibacterial fluoroquinolone for treatment of several infections and is marketed as eye drops, injections, capsule and tablets. To develop and to validate an ultraviolet spectrophotometric analytical method to be used in the quality control of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride monohydrate in newly manufactured Ciprecu tablets

  9. Formulation of Sustained-Release Diltiazem Matrix Tablets Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formulation of Sustained-Release Diltiazem Matrix Tablets Using Hydrophilic Gum Blends. A Moin, H.G Shivakumar. Abstract. Purpose: To develop sustained release matrix tablets of diltiazem hydrochloride (DTZ) using karaya gum (K) alone or in combination with locust bean gum (LB) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ...

  10. Naratriptan hydrochloride in extemporaneosly compounded oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y P; Trissel, L A; Fox, J L

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmaceutical acceptability and chemical stability of naratriptan hydrochloride in three extemporaneously compounded suspension formulations. The naratriptan-hydrochloride oral suspensions were prepared from 2.5-mg commercial tablets yielding a nominal naratriptan concentration of 0.5 mg/mL. The suspension vehicles selected for testing were Syrpalta, an equal-parts mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet, and an equal-parts mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet SF. The tablets were crushed and thoroughly triturated to a fine powder using a porcelain mortar and pestle. The powder was incorporated into a portion of the Syrpalta or Ora-Plus suspension vehicle and mixed until homogeneous. The mixtures were then brought to volume with Syrpalta, Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF, as appropriate. The suspensions were packaged in amber, plastic, screw-cap prescription bottles and stored at 23 deg C for seven days and 4 deg C for 90 days. An adequate suspension was never achieved in Syrpalta. The crushed-tablet powder did not produce a uniformly dispersed mixture and exhibited clumping and a high rate of sedimentation. A distinct layer of the solid tablet material settled immediately after shaking. Over the next four hours, a densely packed, yellow, caked layer formed at the bottom of the containers, making resuspension difficult. During storage, the caking became worse. Chemical analysis was not performed. The Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF suspensions had a slight greenish cast and were resuspended without difficulty by shaking for approximately ten seconds, yielding easily poured and homogeneous mixtures throughout the study. Visible settling and layering did not begin for four hours with the Ora-Sweet suspension and 24 hours for the Ora-Sweet SF suspension. High pressure liquid chromatographic analysis found that the naratriptan concentration in both suspension-vehicle combinations exhibited little or no loss for seven days at 23

  11. Butriptyline Hydrochloride and Imipramine Hydrochloride in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    used tricyclic antidepressants, imipramine hydrochloride, was undertaken in 28 patients suffering from non-psychotic depression in a doubleblind trial. Three criteria-side-effects, depression and anxiety-were observed at each visit. The scoring ...

  12. Pharmacokinetics after oral and intravenous administration of a single dose of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Cox, Sherry K

    2012-08-01

    To determine pharmacokinetics after IV and oral administration of a single dose of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 9 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (3 males, 5 females, and 1 of unknown sex). Tramadol (5 mg/kg, IV) was administered to the parrots. Blood samples were collected from -5 to 720 minutes after administration. After a 3-week washout period, tramadol (10 and 30 mg/kg) was orally administered to parrots. Blood samples were collected from -5 to 1,440 minutes after administration. Three formulations of oral suspension (crushed tablets in a commercially available suspension agent, crushed tablets in sterile water, and chemical-grade powder in sterile water) were evaluated. Plasma concentrations of tramadol and its major metabolites were measured via high-performance liquid chromatography. Mean plasma tramadol concentrations were > 100 ng/mL for approximately 2 to 4 hours after IV administration of tramadol. Plasma concentrations after oral administration of tramadol at a dose of 10 mg/kg were 100 ng/mL for approximately 6 hours after administration. Oral administration of the suspension consisting of the chemical-grade powder resulted in higher plasma tramadol concentrations than concentrations obtained after oral administration of the other 2 formulations; however, concentrations differed significantly only at 120 and 240 minutes after administration. Oral administration of tramadol at a dose of 30 mg/kg resulted in plasma concentrations (> 100 ng/mL) that have been associated with analgesia in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

  13. Cartap Hydrochloride Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Abhilash, Kpp; Victor, Peter John

    2016-08-01

    Cartap hydrochloride is a moderately hazardous nereistoxin insecticide that is increasingly used for deliberate self-harm in India. It can cause neuromuscular weakness resulting in respiratory failure. We report a patient with 4% Cartap hydrochloride poisoning who required mechanical ventilation for 36-hours. He recovered without any neurological deficits. We also review literature on Cartap hydrochloride poisoning. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  14. Penetapan Kadar Campuran Isoniazid dan Vitamin B6 dalam Sediaan Tablet Campuran Etambutol, Isoniazid dan Vitamin B6 Secara Spektrofotometri Derivatif dengan Metode Zero Crossing

    OpenAIRE

    Daulay, Elisa Fitri

    2016-01-01

    The compound of isoniazid and pyridoxine hydrochloride is one of combination in tablet. Determination of content of isoniazid and pyridoxine hydrochloride in tablet where not found in monography, either in the fourth edition Farmakope Indonesia (1995) or USP (United States Pharmacopeia) 30th edition (2007) that requires an analysis method that meets the test of validity in determining the content. The purpose of this research is to determine isoniazid and pyridoxine hydrochloride mixture us...

  15. Microencapsulation of tramadol hydrochloride and physicochemical evaluation of formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtaza, G.; Ahmad, M.

    2009-01-01

    The present project involves the microencapsulation of tramadol hydrochloride with ethocel using a non-solvent addition coacervation technique. The concentration of ethocel was varied to get a prolonged release profile. Then microparticles were compressed into tablets to study the variation of drug release between the microparticles and tablets. The microparticles were off white, aggregated and irregular in morphology having good percentage entrapment efficiency and percentage production yield. Dissolution study was made using USP XXIV apparatus I and II respectively, in 900 ml double distilled water at 50 rpm maintained at 37 degree C. An Initial burst effect was noted in the drug release behavior. Polyisobutylene concentration affected inversely the rate of drug release from microparticles. Dissolution media and stirring speed affected insignificantly (p>.05) the release pattern. Tramadol hydrochloride tablets showed good stability and reproducibility. UV and FTIR spectroscopy and X-Ray diffractometry proved that tramadol hydrochloride was completely and uniformly distributed in ethocel with out any strong interaction. The mechanism of drug release was anomalous diffusion that was best fit to Higuchi's equation. It can be concluded that multi-unit, slow-release tramadol hydrochloride microparticles can be formulated efficiently with non-solvent addition coacervation technique using ethocel. (author)

  16. IMPACT OF STRESS FACTORS ON OPTICAL ISOMERISM OF BENAZEPRIL HYDROCHLORIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kublin, Elżbieta; Czerwińska, Krystyna; Wyszomirska, Elżbieta; Zajaczkowską, Anna; Malanowicz, Ewa; Kaczmarska-Graczyk, Barbara; Mazurek, Aleksander P

    2015-01-01

    Benazepril hydrochloride contains two stereogenic centers, but is currently available as single enantiomer (S,S configuration) for the treatment of hypertension. Its enantiomer (R,R configuration) and the diastereoisomeric pair (R,S and S,R) can be regarded as impurities. Stereochemical stability of S,S isomer of benazepril hydrochloride and its potential susceptibility to conversion in the.active substance and in Lisonid tablets were examinated. The separation with the use of the TLC method with the following system: chromatographic plates Chiralplate and a mobile phase: methanol - acetonitrile - 1 mM copper(II) acetate (4 : 2 : 4, v/v/v) with saturation of glacial acetic acid for 1 h and the HPLC method system: Chiral AGP column (150 x 4.0 man x 5 µm) and a mobile phase: phosphate buffer pH = 6.0 - methanol (80 : 20, v/v) were obtained. Active substance - benazepril hydrochloride and Lisonid tablets 20 mg were subjected to the impact of different stress factors. Samples were examined after 1 and 6 weeks. It was found that none of the applied stress factors caused the transformation of the S,S enantiomer of benazepril hydrochloride in the substance and tablets to other identified stereoisomers - only the compound decomposition has occurred.

  17. [Effect of Food Thickeners on the Disintegration, Dissolution, and Drug Activity of Rapid Oral-disintegrating Tablets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Takashi; Kohda, Yukinao; Kudo, Kenzo

    2018-01-01

     For patients with dysphagia in medical facilities and nursing homes, food thickeners are routinely used to aid the ingestion of medicines such as tablets. However, some types of thickeners affect the disintegration and dissolution of tablets, such as rapidly-disintegrating magnesium oxide tablets and donepezil hydrochloride orally disintegrating tablets. Additionally, delayed disintegration and dissolution of tablets affect a drug's efficacy. As an example, with Voglibose orally disintegrating tablets, marked differences are observed in changes in glucose levels during glucose tolerance testing. When using food thickeners to aid tablet ingestion, it is therefore necessary to select a product that has little effect on drug disintegration, dissolution, and activity.

  18. Comparative bioavailability and tolerability of a single 20-mg dose of two fluoxetine hydrochloride dispersible tablet formulations in fasting, healthy Chinese male volunteers: an open-label, randomized-sequence, two-period crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shaojun; Liu, Yani; Wu, Jianhong; Li, Zhongfang; Zhao, Yan; Zhong, Dafang; Zeng, Fandian

    2010-10-01

    The proprietary formulation of fluoxetine hydrochloride is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class. Pharmacokinetic studies investigating the bioequivalence of generic and branded formulations are needed to market generic fluoxetine in China. The aim of this study was to compare the bioavailability and tolerability of the proposed generic formulation with the established reference formulation of fluoxetine hydrochloride 20 mg in a fasting, healthy Chinese male population. This 10-week, open-label, randomized-sequence, single-dose, 2-period crossover study was conducted in healthy native Han Chinese male volunteers. Eligible subjects were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive a single 20-mg dose of the test or reference formulation, followed by a 35-day washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. Doses were administered after a 12-hour overnight fast. For analysis of pharmacokinetic properties (including C(max), T(max), AUC(0-t), AUC(0-∞), and t(½)), blood samples were obtained over a 672-hour period after dosing. Plasma concentrations of fluoxetine and its active metabolite, norfluoxetine, were analyzed using a validated LC-MS/MS method. The formulations were to be considered bioequivalent if the ln-transformed ratios (test/ reference) of C(max) and AUC were within the predetermined bioequivalence range of 80% to 125%, as established by the US Food and Drug Administration, and if the P values were fasting, healthy Chinese male volunteers. Both formulations appeared to be well tolerated. Copyright © 2010 Excerpta Medica Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. In vitro quantitative ((1))H and ((19))F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging studies of fluvastatin™ in Lescol® XL tablets in a USP-IV dissolution cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qilei; Gladden, Lynn; Avalle, Paolo; Mantle, Michael

    2011-12-20

    Swellable polymeric matrices are key systems in the controlled drug release area. Currently, the vast majority of research is still focused on polymer swelling dynamics. This study represents the first quantitative multi-nuclear (((1))H and ((19))F) fast magnetic resonance imaging study of the complete dissolution process of a commercial (Lescol® XL) tablet, whose formulation is based on the hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) polymer under in vitro conditions in a standard USP-IV (United States Pharmacopeia apparatus IV) flow-through cell that is incorporated into high field superconducting magnetic resonance spectrometer. Quantitative RARE ((1))H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ((19))F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and imaging methods have been used to give information on: (i) dissolution media uptake and hydrodynamics; (ii) active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) mobilisation and dissolution; (iii) matrix swelling and dissolution and (iv) media activity within the swelling matrix. In order to better reflect the in vivo conditions, the bio-relevant media Simulated Gastric Fluid (SGF) and Fasted State Simulated Intestinal Fluid (FaSSIF) were used. A newly developed quantitative ultra-fast MRI technique was applied and the results clearly show the transport dynamics of media penetration and hydrodynamics along with the polymer swelling processes. The drug dissolution and mobility inside the gel matrix was characterised, in parallel to the ((1))H measurements, by ((19))F NMR spectroscopy and MRI, and the drug release profile in the bulk solution was recorded offline by UV spectrometer. We found that NMR spectroscopy and 1D-MRI can be uniquely used to monitor the drug dissolution/mobilisation process within the gel layer, and the results from ((19))F NMR spectra indicate that in the gel layer, the physical mobility of the drug changes from "dissolved immobilised drug" to "dissolved mobilised drug". Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  20. Colestipol hydrochloride prophylaxis of diarrhea during pelvic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stryker, J.A.; Chung, C.K.; Layser, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-three patients were randomized prior to pelvic radiotherapy to receive the bile acid-sequestering resin colestipol hydrochloride, 5 grams qid, during the entire time of their therapy or diphenoxylate hydrochloride and atropine sulfate 2.5-20 mg per day (control) if they experienced diarrhea. The colestipol patients also took diphenoxylate if they had diarrhea. The patients in the colestipol group often experienced nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps and 8 were forced to discontinue the drug. There was no difference in the weekly stool frequency between the colestipol and the control patients but the colestipol patients who took at least 50% of the prescribed dose required fewer diphenoxylate tablets than the controls. The data suggest that colestipol hydrochloride is not of value in preventing radiation-induced diarrhea because of the side effects associated with the drug, but the theory on which the use of bile acid-sequestering agents is based may be correct

  1. Fosaprepitant Dimeglumine, Palonosetron Hydrochloride, and Dexamethasone in Preventing Nausea and Vomiting Caused by Cisplatin in Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Head and Neck Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-13

    Nausea and Vomiting; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  2. Tablet telerounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Bartosz F; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Menon, Mani; Rogers, Craig G

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of remote rounding using commercially available standard tablets with videoconferencing system and assess patient satisfaction. Thirty-two patients with at least 2 postoperative days of hospital stay after robotic urologic procedures were included in the study. On the first postoperative day, the physician-patient encounter was performed as telerounding with videoconferencing due to the physician's duties scheduled in another affiliated hospital. On the second day, the personal bedside encounter took place. The tablet we used was an iPad2 (Apple, iOS 5.1; Apple, Cupertino, CA) with a videoconferencing application. A telerounding satisfaction survey was fulfilled by all patients on the touchscreen of the tablet. Average time of telerounding encounter was 4.5 minutes (range, 1.0-13.5 minutes), average age of the patient was 57.7 years (range, 19-80 years), and 19 were men (59%). Patients expressed a high level of satisfaction with 91% of patients stating that their care was better using telerounding and 97% of patients stating that telerounding should be a regular part of patient care in the hospital. Additionally, 94% of patients stated that they could easily communicate with their doctor over the telerounding system, 84% of patients agreed that they would feel comfortable with telerounding daily if they were hospitalized again and 81% of patients would prefer telerounding communication with their doctor than be directly seen by another doctor. Tablet telerounding using videoconferencing can be a strong supplementing tool in doctor-patient communication. It is convenient for the physician and increases the patient's hospital stay satisfaction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Interaction between lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and various irrigants: A nuclear magnetic resonance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidhya, Nirmal; Karthikeyan, Balasubramanian Saravana; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Abarajithan, Mohan; Nithyanandan, Sivasankaran

    2014-05-01

    Interaction between local anesthetic solution, lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline), and root canal irrigants such as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), and chlorhexidine (CHX) has not been studied earlier. Hence, the purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the chemical interaction between 2% lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and commonly used root canal irrigants, NaOCl, EDTA, and CHX. SAMPLES WERE DIVIDED INTO EIGHT EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS: Group I-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/3% NaOCl, Group II-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/17% EDTA, Group III- Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/2% CHX, Group IV-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/3% NaOCl, Group V-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/17% EDTA, Group VI-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/2% CHX, and two control groups: Group VII-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/deionized water and Group VIII-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/deionized water. The respective solutions of various groups were mixed in equal proportions (1 ml each) and observed for precipitate formation. Chemical composition of the formed precipitate was then analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and confirmed with diazotation test. In groups I and IV, a white precipitate was observed in all the samples on mixing the respective solutions, which showed a color change to reddish brown after 15 minutes. This precipitate was then analysed by NMR spectroscopy and was observed to be 2,6-xylidine, a reported toxic compound. The experimental groups II, III, V, and VI and control groups VII and VIII showed no precipitate formation in any of the respective samples, until 2 hours. Interaction between lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and NaOCl showed precipitate formation containing 2,6-xylidine, a toxic compound.

  4. Tablet Use within Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the scholarly literature related to tablet computer use in medicine. Forty-four research-based articles were examined for emerging categories and themes. The most studied uses for tablet computers include: patients using tablets to complete diagnostic survey instruments, medical professionals using tablet computers to view…

  5. Preparation of venlafaxine hydrochloride sustained-release tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel non-enzymatic glucose sensor was developed by electrodepositing copper film onto the graphene(GR substrate.The morphologies and structures of the nanocomposites were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM.The electrochemical performances of the Cu/GR nanocomposite film were investigated.The Cu/GR nanocomposite film showed good electrocatalytic activity towards glucose oxidation in alkaline solution.The Cu/GR nanocomposite film-based sensor displayed a linear concentration range from 8×10-6 to 9.4×10-4 mol/L with the sensitivity of 0.225 A·L·mol-1 and the detection limit (S/N=3 of 2.5 μmol/L for the detection of glucose.With an enhanced electrocatalytic property,high sensitivity and good stability.The as-prepared sensor is promising for the future development of nonenzymatic sensors.

  6. 21 CFR 520.2582 - Triflupromazine hydrochloride tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... preanesthetic.1 (2) The drug is administered orally to dogs and cats at a dosage level of 1 to 2 milligrams per pound of body weight daily; an initial dosage at the 2-milligrams level is suggested followed by daily doses at the 1-milligram level. Frequently, the drug may be withdrawn after 4 to 5 days, with drug...

  7. 21 CFR 520.2098 - Selegiline hydrochloride tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2098 Selegiline... physical examination findings after 2 months of therapy, increase dose to a maximum of 2 milligrams per...

  8. Pharmaceutical development of an amorphous solid dispersion formulation of elacridar hydrochloride for proof-of-concept clinical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawicki, E.; Schellens, J. H M; Beijnen, J. H.; Nuijen, B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: A novel tablet formulation containing an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) of elacridar hydrochloride was developed with the purpose to resolve the drug’s low solubility in water and to conduct proof-of-concept clinical studies. Significance: Elacridar is highly demanded for

  9. Accelerometric comparison of the locomotor pattern of horses sedated with xylazine hydrochloride, detomidine hydrochloride, or romifidine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sanromán, F Javier; Holmbak-Petersen, Ronald; Varela, Marta; del Alamo, Ana M; Santiago, Isabel

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the duration of effects on movement patterns of horses after sedation with equipotent doses of xylazine hydrochloride, detomidine hydrochloride, or romifidine hydrochloride and determine whether accelerometry can be used to quantify differences among drug treatments. 6 healthy horses. Each horse was injected IV with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (10 mL), xylazine diluted in saline solution (0.5 mg/kg), detomidine diluted in saline solution (0.01 mg/kg), or romifidine diluted in saline solution (0.04 mg/kg) in random order. A triaxial accelerometric device was used for gait assessment 15 minutes before and 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, and 120 minutes after each treatment. Eight variables were calculated, including speed, stride frequency, stride length, regularity, dorsoventral power, propulsive power, mediolateral power, and total power; the force of acceleration and 3 components of power were then calculated. Significant differences were evident in stride frequency and regularity between treatments with saline solution and each α2-adrenoceptor agonist drug; in speed, dorsoventral power, propulsive power, total power, and force values between treatments with saline solution and detomidine or romifidine; and in mediolateral power between treatments with saline solution and detomidine. Stride length did not differ among treatments. Accelerometric evaluation of horses administered α2-adrenoceptor agonist drugs revealed more prolonged sedative effects of romifidine, compared with effects of xylazine or detomidine. Accelerometry could be useful in assessing the effects of other sedatives and analgesics. Accelerometric data may be helpful in drug selection for situations in which a horse's balance and coordination are important.

  10. Clonidine Extended-Release Tablets for Pediatric Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rakesh; Segal, Scott; Kollins, Scott H.; Khayrallah, Moise

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the efficacy and safety of clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets (CLON-XR) in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: This 8-week, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose trial, including 3 weeks of dose escalation, of patients 6 to 17 years old with ADHD evaluated the…

  11. Variability in the 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine content of 'ecstasy' tablets in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, David Michael; Stribley, Vasoulla; Dargan, Paul Ivor; Davies, Susannah; Holt, David W; Ramsey, John

    2011-09-01

    Toxicity, such as hyperpyrexia, associated with the use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'ecstasy') appears to be related to serum MDMA concentrations. However, there does not appear to be a similar association with the number of tablets ingested, suggesting variation in the tablet content of MDMA. Although work has shown this variation in other areas of the world, no studies have reported on the variation of MDMA content in UK ecstasy tablets. Ecstasy tablets seized from individuals attending nightclubs were analysed qualitatively to determine if they contained MDMA and quantitatively to determine the MDMA content per tablet. The mean amount of MDMA hydrochloride in 101 seized ecstasy tablets was 58.7±22.9 mg per tablet, with a range of 20 mg to 131 mg per tablet. The majority (96.0%) of tablets contained less than 100 mg MDMA per tablet. There appeared to be a bimodal distribution of MDMA content at approximately 20-40 mg per tablet and 60-80 mg per tablet. There is variability in the MDMA content of ecstasy tablets in the UK. This variability could potentially put users at increased risk of acute harm due to inadvertent excess ingestion of MDMA, as they are unaware of the differences in the MDMA content. Repeat sampling and quantification of MDMA content of ecstasy tablets in the UK will allow better education of users about the potential harms associated with the variability in the MDMA content. In addition, it will provide information to allow the monitoring of changes in not only the MDMA content, but also other adulterants, in ecstasy tablets.

  12. The effect of polymorphism on powder compaction and dissolution properties of chemically equivalent oxytetracycline hydrochloride powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenberg, W; de Villiers, M M; Wurster, D E; Swanepoel, E; Dekker, T G; Lötter, A P

    1999-09-01

    In South Africa, oxytetracycline is identified as an essential drug; many generic products are on the market, and many more are being developed. In this study, six oxytetracycline hydrochloride powders were obtained randomly from manufacturers, and suppliers were compared. It was found that compliance to a pharmacopoeial monograph was insufficient to ensure the optimum dissolution performance of a simple tablet formulation. Comparative physicochemical raw material analysis showed no major differences with regard to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, powder dissolution, and particle size. However, the samples could be divided into two distinct types with respect to X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and thus polymorphism. The two polymorphic forms had different dissolution properties in water or 0.1 N hydrochloride acid. This difference became substantial when the dissolution from tablets was compared. The powders containing form A were less soluble than that containing form B.

  13. Clinical effect of venlafaxine combined with methylphenidate hydrochloride on narcolepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Bin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the clinical effect of venlafaxine sustained-release capsules combined with methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets on narcolepsy. Thirty-eight cases of narcoleptic patients were randomly divided into venlafaxine combined with methylphenidate hydrochloride treatment group (observation group, N = 19 and methylphenidate hydrochloride and clomipramine treatment group (control group, N = 19. After a total of 12-week treatment, clinical curative effect and adverse drug reactions were observed in 2 groups of patients. The results showed that effective rate of the treatment for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS in observation group was higher than that of the control group (15/19 vs 8/19, P = 0.044, and effective rate of the treatment for cataplexy in observation group was higher than that of the control group (13/19 vs 6/19, P = 0.048. The rate of adverse drug reactions in observation group was lower than that in the control group (χ2 = 8.889, P = 0.003. It was indicated that venlafaxine combined with methylphenidate had good curative effect on narcolepsy with EDS and cataplexy symptoms.

  14. Self-association of analgesics in aqueous solution: micellar properties of dextropropoxyphene hydrochloride and methadone hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, D; Tolley, J A

    1980-08-01

    The solution properties of several analgesics including dextropropoxyphene hydrochloride, methadone hydrochloride, dextromoramide acid tartrate and dipipanone hydrochloride have been examined using light scattering, conductivity, vapour pressure osmometry and surface tension techniques. A micellar pattern of association was established for dextropropoxyphene hydrochloride and methadone hydrochloride and critical micelle concentrations and aggregation numbers are reported. The hydrophobic contribution to the free energy of micellization of dextropropoxyphene was determined from measurement of the critical micelle concentration in the presence of added electrolyte.

  15. Mini-tablets versus pellets as promising multiparticulate modified release delivery systems for highly soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Dina M; Nafee, Noha; Abdallah, Osama Y

    2015-07-05

    Whether mini-tablets (tablets, diameters ≤6mm) belong to single- or multiple-unit dosage forms is still questionable. Accordingly, Pharmacopoeial evaluation procedures for mini-tablets are lacking. In this study, the aforementioned points were discussed. Moreover, their potential for oral controlled delivery was assessed. The antidepressant venlafaxine hydrochloride (Vx), a highly soluble drug undergoing first pass effect, low bioavailability and short half-life was selected as a challenging payload. In an attempt to weigh up mini-tablets versus pellets as multiparticulate carriers, Vx-loaded mini-tablets were compared to formulated pellets of the same composition and the innovator Effexor(®)XR pellets. Formulations were prepared using various polymer hydrogels in the core and ethyl cellulose film coating with increasing thickness. Mini-tablets (diameter 2mm) showed extended Vx release (<60%, 8h). Indeed, release profiles comparable to Effexor(®)XR pellets were obtained. Remarkably higher coating thickness was required for pellets to provide equivalent retardation. Ethyl cellulose in the core ensured faster release due to polymer migration to the surface and pore formation in the coat. mini-tablets showed higher stability to pellets upon storage. Industrially speaking, mini-tablets proved to be superior to pellets in terms of manufacturing, product quality and economical aspects. Results point out the urgent need for standardized evaluation procedures for mini-tablets. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Disintegration of highly soluble immediate release tablets: a surrogate for dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Abhay; Hunt, Robert L; Shah, Rakhi B; Sayeed, Vilayat A; Khan, Mansoor A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to investigate correlation between disintegration and dissolution for immediate release tablets containing a high solubility drug and to identify formulations where disintegration test, instead of the dissolution test, may be used as the acceptance criteria based on International Conference on Harmonization Q6A guidelines. A statistical design of experiments was used to study the effect of filler, binder, disintegrating agent, and tablet hardness on the disintegration and dissolution of verapamil hydrochloride tablets. All formulation variables, i.e., filler, binder, and disintegrating agent, were found to influence tablet dissolution and disintegration, with the filler and disintegrating agent exerting the most significant influence. Slower dissolution was observed with increasing disintegration time when either the filler or the disintegrating agent was kept constant. However, no direct corelationship was observed between the disintegration and dissolution across all formulations due to the interactions between different formulation components. Although all tablets containing sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as the disintegrating agent, disintegrated in less than 3 min, half of them failed to meet the US Pharmacopeia 30 dissolution criteria for the verapamil hydrochloride tablets highlighting the dependence of dissolution process on the formulation components other than the disintegrating agent. The results identified only one formulation as suitable for using the disintegration test, instead of the dissolution test, as drug product acceptance criteria and highlight the need for systematic studies before using the disintegration test, instead of the dissolution test as the drug acceptance criteria.

  17. In vitro quality evaluation of leading brands of ciprofloxacin tablets available in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Sahab; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Hossain, Md Saddam; Asaduzzaman, Md; Sarwar, Md Shahid; Rashid, Mamunur; Herrera-Calderon, Oscar

    2017-05-30

    Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that acts against a number of bacterial infections. The study was carried out to examine the in vitro quality control tests for ten leading brands of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride 500 mg tablet formulation, registered in Bangladesh by Directorate General of Drug Administration. The quality control parameters of ten different brands of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride 500 mg tablets were determined by weight variation, friability, hardness, disintegration, dissolution and assay tests. All the tablets were evaluated for conformity with United States Pharmacopoeia-National Formulary (USP-NF) and British Pharmacopoeia (BP) standards. Among ten brands of tablets Brand C had lower mean weight variation of 1.59% and Brand E had highest mean weight variation of 3.32%. For friability test Brand F had lowest mean friability (0.27%) and Brand G had highest mean friability (0.54%). Among ten brands mean lowest and highest hardness were founded in Brand G (4.49 kg/cm 2 ) and Brand F (7.13 kg/cm 2 ) respectively. The disintegration time for ten brands of ciprofloxacin tablet obtained were in the subsequent order: Brand G (8.19 min) leading brands of this tablet met the quality control parameters as per pharmacopoeial specifications except dissolution test for four brands (Brand J, Brand H, Brand I, and Brand F).

  18. Spectrophotometric determination of eflornithine hydrochloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate a spectrophotometric method for the quantitative determination of eflornithine hydrochloride as a pure compound and in pharmaceutical formulations. Methods: The method involved the reaction of the target compound with vanillin reagent at specific pH 5.6 to produce a green reddish color ...

  19. Spectrophotometric Determination of Eflornithine Hydrochloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate a spectrophotometric method for the quantitative determination of eflornithine hydrochloride as a pure compound and in pharmaceutical formulations. Methods: The method involved the reaction of the target compound with vanillin reagent at specific pH. 5.6 to produce a green reddish color ...

  20. Using Tablet on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algoufi, Rateeba

    2016-01-01

    Technological advancements in digital devices have made educational methodology to adopt new strategies and procedures to suit the Mobile learning era. Mobile devices such as tablets are growing to be the focus of research studies and educational use around the globe in the present day. With the influence of handy computing tablets in the hands of…

  1. Ghost tablet in feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Morishita, Yosuke; Urata, Haruo; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2017-12-01

    Recently, we encountered a female patient who identified the presence of a ghost tablet in her fecal matter. Interestingly, although the patient was prescribed potassium chloride capsules, elemental composition analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was unable to detect the presence of either potassium or chloride in the fecal tablet remnant.

  2. Quality by design I: Application of failure mode effect analysis (FMEA) and Plackett-Burman design of experiments in the identification of "main factors" in the formulation and process design space for roller-compacted ciprofloxacin hydrochloride immediate-release tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Raafat; Kona, Ravikanth; Dandu, Ramesh; Xie, Walter; Claycamp, Gregg; Hoag, Stephen W

    2012-12-01

    As outlined in the ICH Q8(R2) guidance, identifying the critical quality attributes (CQA) is a crucial part of dosage form development; however, the number of possible formulation and processing factors that could influence the manufacturing of a pharmaceutical dosage form is enormous obviating formal study of all possible parameters and their interactions. Thus, the objective of this study is to examine how quality risk management can be used to prioritize the number of experiments needed to identify the CQA, while still maintaining an acceptable product risk profile. To conduct the study, immediate-release ciprofloxacin tablets manufactured via roller compaction were used as a prototype system. Granules were manufactured using an Alexanderwerk WP120 roller compactor and tablets were compressed on a Stokes B2 tablet press. In the early stages of development, prior knowledge was systematically incorporated into the risk assessment using failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA). The factors identified using FMEA were then followed by a quantitative assessed using a Plackett-Burman screening design. Results show that by using prior experience, literature data, and preformulation data the number of experiments could be reduced to an acceptable level, and the use of FMEA and screening designs such as the Plackett Burman can rationally guide the process of reducing the number experiments to a manageable level.

  3. A validated high performance thin layer chromatography method for determination of yohimbine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Jihan M

    2013-01-01

    Yohimbine is an indole alkaloid used as a promising therapy for erectile dysfunction. A number of methods were reported for the analysis of yohimbine in the bark or in pharmaceutical preparations. In the present work, a simple and sensitive high performance thin layer chromatographic method is developed for determination of yohimbine (occurring as yohimbine hydrochloride) in pharmaceutical preparations and validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The method employed thin layer chromatography aluminum sheets precoated with silica gel as the stationary phase and the mobile phase consisted of chloroform:methanol:ammonia (97:3:0.2), which gave compact bands of yohimbine hydrochloride. Linear regression data for the calibration curves of standard yohimbine hydrochloride showed a good linear relationship over a concentration range of 80-1000 ng/spot with respect to the area and correlation coefficient (R(2)) was 0.9965. The method was evaluated regarding accuracy, precision, selectivity, and robustness. Limits of detection and quantitation were recorded as 5 and 40 ng/spot, respectively. The proposed method efficiently separated yohimbine hydrochloride from other components even in complex mixture containing powdered plants. The amount of yohimbine hydrochloride ranged from 2.3 to 5.2 mg/tablet or capsule in preparations containing the pure alkaloid, while it varied from zero (0) to 1.5-1.8 mg/capsule in dietary supplements containing powdered yohimbe bark. We concluded that this method employing high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) in quantitative determination of yohimbine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations is efficient, simple, accurate, and validated.

  4. Suppressed Release of Clarithromycin from Tablets by Crystalline Phase Transition of Metastable Polymorph Form I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Sadahiro; Watanabe, Narumi; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Mizoguchi, Midori; Iwamura, Takeru; Itai, Shigeru

    2015-08-01

    The pharmaceutical properties of clarithromycin (CAM) tablets containing the metastable form I of crystalline CAM were investigated. Although the dissolution rate of form I was higher than that of stable form II, the release of CAM from form I tablet was delayed. Disintegration test and liquid penetration test showed that the disintegration of the tablet delayed because of the slow penetration of an external solution into form I tablet. Investigation by scanning electron microscopy revealed that the surface of form I tablet was covered with fine needle-shaped crystals following an exposure to the external solution. These crystals were identified as form IV crystals by powder X-ray diffraction. The phenomenon that CAM releases from tablet was inhibited by fine crystals spontaneously formed on the tablet surface could be applied to the design of sustained-release formulation systems with high CAM contents by minimizing the amount of functional excipients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  5. Amorphization within the tablet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doreth, Maria; Hussein, Murtadha Abdul; Priemel, Petra A.

    2017-01-01

    , the feasibility of microwave irradiation to prepare amorphous solid dispersions (glass solutions) in situ was investigated. Indomethacin (IND) and polyvinylpyrrolidone K12 (PVP) were tableted at a 1:2 (w/w) ratio. In order to study the influence of moisture content and energy input on the degree of amorphization......, tablet formulations were stored at different relative humidity (32, 43 and 54% RH) and subsequently microwaved using nine different power-time combinations up to a maximum energy input of 90 kJ. XRPD results showed that up to 80% (w/w) of IND could be amorphized within the tablet. mDSC measurements...

  6. Android tablets for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Learn all you need to know about your Android tablet in one quick and easy reference! It's not a computer and it's not a smartphone-so what in the world is it? Whether you're new to Android or new to tablets altogether, you're about to experience mobile computing like never before with this fun, full-color guide! Inside, longtime and bestselling author Dan Gookin walks you through setting up your Android tablet, navigating the interface, browsing the web, setting up email, connecting to social media, finding plenty of apps, music, books, and movies to indulge your interests-and so much more.

  7. Two simple amine hydrochlorides from the soft coral Lobophytum strictum

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Two simple amine hydrochlorides, viz., 1-amino-1, 1-dimethyl-3-oxo-butane hydrochloride (1) (Diacetonamine) and 2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidone hydrochloride (2) have been isolated from the fraction of the methanolic extract of the soft coral...

  8. Stability-indicating spectrofluorimetric method for determination of itopride hydrochloride in raw material and pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walash, Mohamed I; Ibrahim, Fawzia; Eid, Manal I; El Abass, Samah Abo

    2013-11-01

    A simple, sensitive and rapid spectrofluorimetric method for determination of itopride hydrochloride in raw material and tablets has been developed. The proposed method is based on the measurement of the native fluorescence of the drug in water at 363 nm after excitation at 255 nm. The relative fluorescence intensity-concentration plot was rectilinear over the range of 0.1-2 μg/mL (2.5 × 10(-7)-5.06 × 10(-6) mole/L), with good correlation (r = 0.9999), limit of detection of 0.015 μg/mL and a lower limit of quantification of 0.045 μg/mL. The described method was successfully applied for the determination of itopride hydrochloride in its commercial tablets with average percentage recovery of 100.11 ± 0.32 without interference from common excipients. Additionally, the proposed method can be applied for determination of itopride in combined tablets with rabeprazole or pantoprazole without prior separation. The method was extended to stability study of itopride. The drug was exposed to acidic, alkaline, oxidative and photolytic degradation according to ICH guidelines. Moreover, the method was utilized to investigate the kinetics of the alkaline, acidic and oxidative degradation of the drug. A proposal for the degradation pathways was postulated.

  9. Cartap hydrochloride poisoning: A clinical experience

    OpenAIRE

    Boorugu, Hari K.; Chrispal, Anugrah

    2012-01-01

    Cartap hydrochloride, a nereistoxin analog, is a commonly used low toxicity insecticide. We describe a patient who presented to the emergency department with alleged history of ingestion of Cartap hydrochloride as an act of deliberate self-harm. The patient was managed conservatively. To our knowledge this is the first case report of Cartap hydrochloride suicidal poisoning. Cartap toxicity has been considered to be minimal, but a number of animal models have shown significant neuromuscular to...

  10. Simultaneous HPTLC Determination of Rabeprazole and Itopride Hydrochloride From Their Combined Dosage Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganthi, A; John, Sofiya; Ravi, T K

    2008-01-01

    A simple, precise, sensitive, rapid and reproducible HPTLC method for the simultaneous estimation of the rabeprazole and itopride hydrochloride in tablets was developed and validated. This method involves separation of the components by TLC on precoated silica gel G60F254 plate with solvent system of n-butanol, toluene and ammonia (8.5:0.5:1 v/v/v) and detection was carried out densitometrically using a UV detector at 288 nm in absorbance mode. This system was found to give compact spots for rabeprazole (Rf value of 0.23 0.02) and for itopride hydrochloride (Rf value of 0.75+/-0.02). Linearity was found to be in the range of 40-200 ng/spot and 300-1500 ng/spot for rabeprazole and itopride hydrochloride. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for rabeprazole were 10 and 20 ng/spot and for itopride hydrochloride were 50 and 100 ng/spot, respectively. The method was found to be beneficial for the routine analysis of combined dosage form.

  11. 21 CFR 522.1222b - Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine... RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1222b Ketamine.... Ketamine hydrochloride, (±),-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino) cyclohexanone hydrochloride, with promazine...

  12. 21 CFR 522.2470 - Tiletamine hydrochloride and zolazepam hydrochloride for injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hydrochloride for injection. 522.2470 Section 522.2470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... injection. (a) Specifications. Tiletamine hydrochloride and zolazepam hydrochloride for injection when... pound of body weight. The maximum total safe dose is 13.6 milligrams per pound of body weight. (ii) In...

  13. Floating Microparticulate Oral Diltiazem Hydrochloride Delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Delivery System for Improved Delivery to Heart ... Conclusion: Microparticulate floating (gastroretentive) oral drug delivery system of diltiazem prepared ..... treatment of cardiac disease. ... hydrochloride-loaded mucoadhesive microspheres.

  14. Grasp interaction with tablets

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    This book presents guidelines for a future device type: a tablet that allows ergonomic front- and back-of-device interaction. These guidelines help designers and developers of user interfaces to build ergonomic applications for tablet devices, in particular for devices that enable back-of-device interaction. In addition, manufacturers of tablet devices obtain arguments that back-of-device interaction is a promising extension of the interaction design space and results in increased input capabilities, enriched design possibilities, and proven usability. The guidelines are derived from empirical studies and developed to fit the users’ skills to the way the novel device type is held. Three particular research areas that are relevant to develop design guidelines for tablet interaction are investigated: ergonomic gestures, interaction areas, and pointing techniques.

  15. Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis of 32 Chemical Ingredients of a Chinese Patented Drug Sanhuang Tablet

    OpenAIRE

    Hau-Yee Fung; Yan Lang; Hing-Man Ho; Tin-Long Wong; Dik-Lung Ma; Chung-Hang Leung; Quan-Bin Han

    2017-01-01

    Sanhuang Tablet (SHT) is a Chinese patented drug commonly used for the treatment of inflammations of the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. It contains a special medicinal composition including the single compound berberine hydrochloride, extracts of Scutellariae Radix and Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, as well as the powder of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma. Despite advances in analytical techniques, quantitative evaluation of a Chinese patented drug like SHT remains a challenge due to the ...

  16. Formulation, Characterization and Physicochemical Evaluation of Ranitidine Effervescent Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to design, formulate and physicochemically evaluate effervescent ranitidine hydrochloride (HCl tablets since they are easily administered while the elderly and children sometimes have difficulties in swallowing oral dosage forms. Methods: Effervescent ranitidine HCl tablets were prepared in a dosage of 300 mg by fusion and direct compression methods. The powder blend and granule mixture were evaluated for various pre-compression characteristics, such as angle of repose, compressibility index, mean particle size and Hausner's ratio. The tablets were evaluated for post-compression features including weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content, dissolution time, carbon dioxide content, effervescence time, pH, content uniformity and water content. Effervescent systems with appropriate pre and post-compression qualities dissolved rapidly in water were selected as the best formulations. Results: The results showed that the flowability of fusion method is more than that of direct compression and the F5 and F6 formulations of 300 mg tablets were selected as the best formulations because of their physicochemical characteristics. Conclusion: In this study, citric acid, sodium bicarbonate and sweeteners (including mannitol, sucrose and aspartame were selected. Aspartame, mint and orange flavors were more effective for masking the bitter taste of ranitidine. The fusion method is the best alternative in terms of physicochemical and physical properties.

  17. Effects of MK-467 hydrochloride and hyoscine butylbromide on cardiorespiratory and gastrointestinal changes induced by detomidine hydrochloride in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapio, Heidi A; Raekallio, Marja R; Mykkänen, Anna; Mama, Khursheed; Mendez-Angulo, Jóse L; Hautajärvi, Heidi; Vainio, Outi M

    2018-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of MK-467 and hyoscine butylbromide on detomidine hydrochloride-induced cardiorespiratory and gastrointestinal changes in horses. ANIMALS 6 healthy adult horses. PROCEDURES Horses received detomidine hydrochloride (20 μg/kg, IV), followed 10 minutes later by MK-467 hydrochloride (150 μg/kg; DET-MK), hyoscine butylbromide (0.2 mg/kg; DET-HYO), or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (DET-S), IV, in a Latin square design. Heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, arterial and venous blood pressures, and cardiac output were measured; blood gases and arterial plasma drug concentrations were analyzed; selected cardiopulmonary variables were calculated; and sedation and gastrointestinal borborygmi were scored at predetermined time points. Differences among treatments or within treatments over time were analyzed statistically. RESULTS With DET-MK, detomidine-induced hypertension and bradycardia were reversed shortly after MK-467 injection. Marked tachycardia and hypertension were observed with DET-HYO. Mean heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure differed significantly among all treatments from 15 to 35 and 15 to 40 minutes after detomidine injection, respectively. Cardiac output was greater with DET-MK and DET-HYO than with DET-S 15 minutes after detomidine injection, but left ventricular workload was significantly higher with DET-HYO. Borborygmus score, reduced with all treatments, was most rapidly restored with DET-MK. Sedation scores and pharmacokinetic parameters of detomidine did not differ between DET-S and DET-MK. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE MK-467 reversed or attenuated cardiovascular and gastrointestinal effects of detomidine without notable adverse effects or alterations in detomidine-induced sedation in horses. Further research is needed to determine whether these advantages are found in clinical patients and to assess whether the drug influences analgesic effects of detomidine.

  18. Simultaneous HPTLC Determination of Rabeprazole and Itopride Hydrochloride From Their Combined Dosage Form

    OpenAIRE

    Suganthi, A.; John, Sofiya; Ravi, T. K.

    2008-01-01

    A simple, precise, sensitive, rapid and reproducible HPTLC method for the simultaneous estimation of the rabeprazole and itopride hydrochloride in tablets was developed and validated. This method involves separation of the components by TLC on precoated silica gel G60F254 plate with solvent system of n-butanol, toluene and ammonia (8.5:0.5:1 v/v/v) and detection was carried out densitometrically using a UV detector at 288 nm in absorbance mode. This system was found to give compact spots for ...

  19. Efficacy and influence factors of icotinib hydrochloride in treating advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X-H; Tian, T-D; Liu, H-M; Li, Q-J; Gao, Q-L; Li, L; Shi, B

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of icotinib hydrochloride in the treatment of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and discuss the influence factors on efficacy. 120 treatment-experienced patients confirmed by pathology or cytology with stage III B-IV non-small cell lung cancer took icotinib hydrochloride and erlotinib orally until the occurrence of disease progression or serious adverse reactions. Then, the efficacy of icotinib hydrochloride and the related influence factors were analyzed. In icotinib hydrochloride group, the response rate and the disease control rate were 30.00% and 65.00%, and the median progression-free survival time was 179 days (95% CI: 103.21-254.78); in erlotinib group, the response rate and the disease control rate were 25.00% and 56.70%, and the median progression-free survival time was 121 days (95% CI: 95.05-146.94). Moreover, the objective response rate and the disease control rate of second-line therapy were both superior to the third-line and above therapy. The objective response rate of patients with complete response/partial response/stable disease after the first-line therapy was higher than that of patients without response after the first-line therapy (picotinib hydrochloride is effective and safe in treating the treatment-experienced patients with advanced NSCLC, especially for patients with sensitive mutations.

  20. Dehydration of detomidine hydrochloride monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldre, K; Actiņš, A; Jaunbergs, J

    2011-10-09

    The thermodynamic stability of detomidine hydrochloride monohydrate has been evaluated on the basis of phase transition kinetics in solid state. A method free of empirical models was used for the treatment of kinetic data, and compared to several known solid state kinetic data processing methods. Phase transitions were monitored by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and thermal analysis. Full PXRD profiles were used for determining the phase content instead of single reflex intensity measurements, in order to minimize the influence of particle texture. We compared the applicability of isothermal and nonisothermal methods to our investigation of detomidine hydrochlorine monohydrate dehydration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A new tablet brittleness index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xingchu; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2015-06-01

    Brittleness is one of the important material properties that influences the success or failure of powder compaction. We have discovered that the reciprocal of diametrical elastic strain at fracture is the most suitable tablet brittleness indices (TBIs) for quantifying brittleness of pharmaceutical tablets. The new strain based TBI is supported by both theoretical considerations and a systematic statistical analysis of friability data. It is sufficiently sensitive to changes in both tablet compositions and compaction parameters. For all tested materials, it correctly shows that tablet brittleness increases with increasing tablet porosity for the same powder. In addition, TBI increases with increasing content of a brittle excipient, lactose monohydrate, in the mixtures with a plastic excipient, microcrystalline cellulose. A probability map for achieving less than 1% tablet friability at various combinations of tablet tensile strength and TBI was constructed. Data from marketed tablets validate this probability map and a TBI value of 150 is recommended as the upper limit for pharmaceutical tablets. This TBI can be calculated from the data routinely obtained during tablet diametrical breaking test, which is commonly performed for assessing tablet mechanical strength. Therefore, it is ready for adoption for quantifying tablet brittleness to guide tablet formulation development since it does not require additional experimental work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Thermoanalytical Investigation of Terazosin Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mohamed Abdel-Moety

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Thermal analysis (TGA, DTG and DTA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC have been used to study the thermal behavior of terazosin hydrochloride (TER. Methods: Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG, differential thermal analysis (DTA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC were used to determine the thermal behavior and purity of the used drug. Thermodynamic parameters such as activation energy (E*, enthalpy (H*, entropy (S* and Gibbs free energy change of the decomposition (G* were calculated using different kinetic models. Results: The purity of the used drug was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (99.97% and specialized official method (99.85% indicating to satisfactory values of the degree of purity. Thermal analysis technique gave satisfactory results to obtain quality control parameters such as melting point (273 ºC, water content (7.49% and ash content (zero in comparison to what were obtained using official method: (272 ºC, (8.0% and (0.02% for melting point, water content and ash content, respectively. Conclusion: Thermal analysis justifies its application in quality control of pharmaceutical compounds due to its simplicity, sensitivity and low operational costs. DSC data indicated that the degree of purity of terazosin hydrochloride is similar to that found by official method.

  3. Modified Synthesis of Erlotinib Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Barghi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: An improved and economical method has been described for the synthesis of erlotinib hydrochloride, as a useful drug in treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods: Erlotinib hydrochloride was synthesized in seven steps starting from 3, 4-dihydroxy benzoic acid. In this study, we were able to modify one of the key steps which involved the reduction of the 6-nitrobenzoic acid derivative to 6-aminobenzoic acid derivative. An inexpensive reagent such as ammonium formate was used as an in situ hydrogen donor in the presence of palladium/charcoal (Pd/C instead of hydrogen gas at high pressure. Results: This proposed method proceeded with 92% yield at room temperature. Synthesis of erlotinib was completed in 7 steps with overall yield of 44%.Conclusion: From the results obtained it can be concluded that the modified method eliminated the potential danger associated with the use of hydrogen gas in the presence of flammable catalysts. It should be mentioned that the catalyst was recovered after the reaction and could be used again.

  4. Formulation, evaluation, and comparison of bilayered and multilayered mucoadhesive buccal devices of propranolol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vishnu M; Prajapati, Bhupendra G; Patel, Madhabhai M

    2007-03-16

    The purpose of this research work was to establish mucoadhesive buccal devices of propranolol hydrochloride (PRH) in the forms of bilayered and multilayered tablets. The tablets were prepared using sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) and Carbopol-934 (CP) as bioadhesive polymers to impart mucoadhesion and ethyl cellulose (EC) to act as an impermeable backing layer. Buccal devices were evaluated by different parameters such as weight uniformity, content uniformity, thickness, hardness, surface pH, swelling index, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, in vitro drug release, and in vitro drug permeation. As compared with bilayered tablets, multilayered tablets showed slow release rate of drug with improved ex vivo bioadhesive strength and enhanced ex vivo mucoadhesion time. The mechanism of drug release was found to be non-Fickian diffusion (value of n between 0.5 and 1.0) for both the buccal devices. The stability of drug in both the optimized buccal devices was tested for 6 hours in natural human saliva; both the buccal devices were found to be stable in natural human saliva. The present study concludes that mucoadhesive buccal devices of PRH can be a good way to bypass the extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism and to improve the bioavailability of PRH.

  5. [Tablets and tablet production - with special reference to Icelandic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaftason, Jóhannes F; Jóhannesson, Thorkell

    2013-04-01

    Modern tablet compression was instituted in England in 1844 by William Brockedon (1787-1854). The first tablets made according to Brockedon´s procedures contained watersoluble salts and were most likely compressed without expedients. In USA a watershed occurred around 1887 when starch (amylum maydis) was introduced to disperse tablets in aqueous milieu in order to corroborate bioavailability of drugs in the almentary canal. About the same time great advances in tablet production were introduced by the British firm Burroughs Wellcome and Co. In Denmark on the other hand tablet production remained on low scale until after 1920. As Icelandic pharmacies and drug firms modelled themselves mostly upon Danish firms tablet production was first instituted in Iceland around 1930. The first tablet machines in Iceland were hand-driven. More efficent machines came after 1945. Around 1960 three sizeable tablet producers were in Iceland; now there is only one. Numbers of individual tablet species (generic and proprietary) on the market rose from less than 10 in 1913 to 500 in 1965, with wide variations in numbers in between. Tablets have not wiped out other medicinal forms for peroral use but most new peroral drugs have been marketed in the form of tablets during the last decades.

  6. Acute Psychotic Symptoms due to Benzydamine Hydrochloride Abuse with Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Ayhan Acar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzydamine hydrochloride is a locally acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Benzydamine hydrochloride overdose can cause stimulation of central nervous system, hallucinations, and psychosis. We presented a young man with psychotic symptoms due to benzydamine hydrochloride abuse. He received a total dose of 1000 mg benzydamine hydrochloride with alcohol for its hallucinative effects. Misuse of benzydamine hydrochloride must be considered in differential diagnosis of first-episode psychosis and physicians should consider possibility of abuse in prescribing.

  7. Immobilization of swift foxes with ketamine hydrochloride-xylazine hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesco, R.L.; Sovada, Marsha A.

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing need to develop field immobilization techniques that allow researchers to handle safely swift foxes (Vulpes velox) with minimal risk of stress or injury. We immobilized captive swift foxes to determine the safety and effectiveness of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride at different dosages. We attempted to determine appropriate dosages to immobilize swift foxes for an adequate field-handling period based on three anesthesia intervals (induction period, immobilization period, and recovery period) and physiologic responses (rectal temperature, respiration rate, and heart rate). Between October 1998–July 1999, we conducted four trials, evaluating three different dosage ratios of ketamine and xylazine (2.27:1.2, 5.68:1.2, and 11.4:1.2 mg/kg ketamine:mg/kg xylazine, respectively), followed by a fourth trial with a higher dosage at the median ratio (11.4 mg/kg ketamine:2.4 mg/kg xylazine). We found little difference in induction and recovery periods among trials 1–3, but immobilization time increased with increasing dosage (Pimmobilization period and recovery period increased in trial 4 compared with trials 1–3 (P≤0.03). There was a high variation in responses of individual foxes across trials, making it difficult to identify an appropriate dosage for field handling. Heart rate and respiration rates were depressed but all physiologic measures remained within normal parameters established for domestic canids. We recommend a dosage ratio of 10 mg/kg ketamine to 1 mg/kg xylazine to immobilize swift foxes for field handling.

  8. Pharmaceutical equivalence of metformin tablets with various binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Block

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Metformin hydrochloride is a high-dose drug widely used as an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent. As it is highly crystalline and has poor compaction properties, it is difficult to form tablets by direct compression. The aim of this study was to develop adequate metformin tablets, pharmaceutically equivalent to the reference product, Glucophage® (marketed as Glifage® in Brazil. Metformin 500mg tablets were produced by wet granulation with various binders (A = starch, B = starch 1500®, C = PVP K30®, D = PVP K90®. The tablets were analyzed for their hardness, friability, disintegration, dissolution, content uniformity and dissolution profile (basket apparatus at 50 rpm, pH 6.8 phosphate buffer. The 4 formulations, F1 (5% A and 5% C, F2 (5% B and 5% C, F3 (10% C and F4 (5% D, demonstrated adequate uniformity of content, hardness, friability, disintegration and total drug dissolution after 30 minutes (F1, F2 and F4, and after 60 minutes (F3. The drug release time profiles fitted a Higuchi model (F1, F2 and F3, similarly to the pharmaceutical reference, or a zero order model (F4. The dissolution efficiency for all the formulations was 75%, except for F3 (45%. F1 and F2 were thus equivalent to Glifage®. Keywords: dissolution; metformin; tablet; binder; pharmaceutical equivalence

  9. Teach yourself visually Fire tablets

    CERN Document Server

    Marmel, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Expert visual guidance to getting the most out of your Fire tablet Teach Yourself VISUALLY Fire Tablets is the comprehensive guide to getting the most out of your new Fire tablet. Learn to find and read new bestsellers through the Kindle app, browse the app store to find top games, surf the web, send e-mail, shop online, and much more! With expert guidance laid out in a highly visual style, this book is perfect for those new to the Fire tablet, providing all the information you need to get the most out of your device. Abundant screenshots of the Fire tablet graphically rich, touch-based Androi

  10. The Nebusarsekim Tablet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadhouders, H.A.I.

    2008-01-01

    During the summer of 2007 an internet hype was unleashed by the breaking news that an Old Testament name of some importance, figuring in the Book of Jeremiah Ch. 39, had been positively identified on a cuneiform clay tablet, viz. a bill of receipt from the time of this prophet's floruit. Many a

  11. 141 137 Effect of Guanidium Hydrochloride o

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-02

    Dec 2, 2008 ... Effect of Guanidium Hydrochloride on the Stability of Horse Skeletal. Muscle Myoglobin ... Proteins carry out the most important tasks in living organisms. To do so, most proteins fold spontaneously into a well defined three –.

  12. Cinacalcet hydrochloride for the treatment of hyperparathyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheyen, N.; Pilz, S.; Eller, K.; Kienreich, K.; Fahrleitner-Pammer, A.; Pieske, B.; Ritz, E.; Tomaschitz, A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Effective therapeutic strategies are warranted to reduce the burden of parathyroid hormone excess related morbidity and mortality. The calcimimetic agent cinacalcet hydrochloride is a promising treatment strategy in hyperparathyroidism. Areas covered: This review provides an overview

  13. Evaluation of Plantago major L. seed mucilage as a rate controlling matrix for sustained release of propranolol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Majid; Morteza-Semnani, Katayoun; Sagheb-Doust, Mehdi

    2013-03-01

    Polysaccharide mucilage derived from the seeds of Plantago major L. (family Plantaginaceae) was investigated for use in matrix formulations containing propranolol hydrochloride. HPMC K4M and tragacanth were used as standards for comparison. The hardness, tensile strength, and friability of tablets increased as the concentration of mucilage increased, indicating good compactibility of mucilage powders. The rate of release of propranolol hydrochloride from P. major mucilage matrices was mainly controlled by the drug/mucilage ratio. Formulations containing P. major mucilage were found to exhibit a release rate comparable to HPMC containing matrices at a lower drug/polymer ratio (drug/HPMC 2:1). These results demonstrated that P. major mucilage is a better release retardant compared to tragacanth at an equivalent content. The results of kinetic analysis showed that in F3 (containing 1:2 drug/mucilage) the highest correlation coefficient was achieved with the zero order model. The swelling and erosion studies revealed that as the proportion of mucilage in tablets was increased, there was a corresponding increase in percent swelling and a decrease in percent erosion of tablets. The DSC and FT-IR studies showed that no formation of complex between the drug and mucilage or changes in crystallinity of the drug had occurred.

  14. Evaluation of a Novel, Natural Locust Bean Gum as a Sustained Release and Mucoadhesive Component of Tizanidine Hcl Buccal Tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Harikrishnan.V

    2015-01-01

    Mucoadhesive polymers that bind to the gastric mucin or epithelial cell surface are useful in drug delivery for the purpose of increasing the intimacy and duration of contact of drug with the absorbing membrane. Mainly synthetic polymers are in use for this purpose. Probably the biodegradability of the synthetic polymers are questionable, In the present work mucoadhesive buccal tablets of Tizanidine hydrochloride (TZD HCl) were prepared by using locust bean gum that have better mucoadhesive p...

  15. Buccals tablets - literature search

    OpenAIRE

    Horáček, Jan

    2007-01-01

    BUCCAL TABLETS Jan Horáček ABSTRACT My diploma thesis was aimed at summarising information about phenomena of bioadhesion in connection with administration of drugs. The work describes anatomy and physiology of oral mucosa and differencies in various parts of oral cavity. It refers about advantages and limits of administrating drugs through the oral mucosa. The part called Bioadhesion / mucoadhesion includes definition, theories, influencing factors and description of methods to determinate b...

  16. [Clinical observation of icotinib hydrochloride for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Yang, Xin-jie; Sun, Yi-fen; Qin, Na; Lü, Jia-lin; Wu, Yu-hua; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Shu-cai

    2012-08-01

    To explore the efficacy and side effects of icotinib hydrochloride in the treatment of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The efficacy and side effects of icotinib hydrochloride in treatment of 59 cases with stage IV NSCIC and followed-up from March 2009 to January 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Twenty seven patients (45.8%) showed partial response (PR), 17 patients (28.8%) achieved SD, and 15 (25.4%) had progressive disease. The objective response rate (ORR) was 45.8% (27/59), and disease control rate (DCR) was 74.6% (44/59). Among the 23 patients with EGFR mutation, ORR was 73.9% (17/23), and DCR was 95.7% (22/23). Thirty six patients (61.0%) achieved remission of symptoms to varying degrees. The main symptoms relieved were cough, asthmatic suffocating, pain and hoarseness. The major adverse events were mild skin rash (35.6%) and diarrhea (15.3%). Others were dry skin, nausea and stomach problems. The efficacy of icotinib hydrochloride were related to the ECOG performance status, smoking history, EGFR mutation and rash significantly (P icotinib hydrochloride is effective and tolerable for patients with advanced NSCLC, especially with EGFR mutation.

  17. Preparation and evaluation of mebeverine hydrochloride as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In dental procedures, topical local anesthetic agents are applied in order to ensure a painless treatment without the .... Mucosal erosion or detachment time was determined. Swelling test. Swelling studies were conducted on approximately six buccal tablets. The tablets were weighed (W1) and placed individually in 5.

  18. Compound list: fluoxetine hydrochloride [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fluoxetine hydrochloride FLX 00158 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/...LATEST/Human/in_vitro/fluoxetine_hydrochloride.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/o...pen-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/fluoxetine_hydrochloride.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp....biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/fluoxetine_hydrochloride.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  19. Comparison of mosquito nets, proguanil hydrochloride, and placebo to prevent malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, C G; Watkins, W M; Carter, J Y; Munafu, C G

    1988-08-06

    One hundred and ninety students aged 6 to 18 at a boarding school 120 km west of Nairobi in the Rift Valley participated in a comparative trial of malaria prophylaxis. Treatment with a combination of amodiaquine 25 mg/kg over three days plus doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for five days cleared their blood of Plasmodium falciparum. They were then randomly divided into the following three groups matched for age and sex: one group slept under mosquito nets; one group received one or two tablets (100 mg each) of proguanil hydrochloride daily according to weight; one group received one or two placebo tablets daily which were the same size and colour as the proguanil tablets. Malaria was diagnosed when asexual P falciparum were seen on blood films and was treated with pyrimethamine-sulphadoxine. At the end of one school term 188 of the 190 students had completed the study. One new infection was found during 3893 days of follow up in the mosquito net group, eight new infections over 3667 days in the proguanil group, and 35 new infections over 3677 days in the placebo group, representing a reduction of 97.3% and 77.1% in attack rates for the mosquito net method and for treatment with proguanil respectively. Both provide effective protection from malaria.

  20. Tablets i skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Rasmus Fink

    2012-01-01

    Denne rapport afslutter CELMS undersøgelse af Odder Kommunes projekt med indførelse af iPads på alle kommunens skoler. Undersøgelsen har til formål at belyse om der er pædagogiske og læringsmæssige fordele forbundet med brugen af tablets i undervisningen i grundskolen og i givet fald hvilke...... designer og tablet’ens egenskaber i et generelt perspektiv. Rapporten afsluttes med en række anbefalinger til henholdsvis lærere og skoleledere med henblik på videre udvikling af indsatsen....

  1. 21 CFR 182.1047 - Glutamic acid hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glutamic acid hydrochloride. 182.1047 Section 182.1047 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1047 Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (a) Product. Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (b...

  2. 21 CFR 522.1662a - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride injection. 522.1662a... § 522.1662a Oxytetracycline hydrochloride injection. (a)(1) Specifications. The drug contains 50 milligrams of oxytetracycline hydrochloride in each milliliter of sterile solution. (2) Sponsor. See No...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1660b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules. 520.1660b... Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules. (a) Specifications. The drug is in capsule form with each capsule containing 125 or 250 milligrams of oxytetracycline hydrochloride. Oxytetracycline is the antibiotic...

  4. 21 CFR 522.1642 - Oxymorphone hydrochloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 522.1642 Oxymorphone hydrochloride injection. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 1 or 1.5 milligrams of oxymorphone hydrochloride per milliliter of aqueous solution containing 0.8 percent sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxymorphone hydrochloride injection. 522.1642...

  5. 21 CFR 522.536 - Detomidine hydrochloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Detomidine hydrochloride injection. 522.536... § 522.536 Detomidine hydrochloride injection. (a) Specification. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 10 milligrams of detomidine hydrochloride. (b) Sponsor. See 052483 in § 510.600(c) of...

  6. IVS Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    International VLBI Service (IVS) is an international collaboration of organizations which operate or support Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) components. The goals are: To provide a service to support geodetic, geophysical and astrometric research and operational activities. To promote research and development activities in all aspects of the geodetic and astrometric VLBI technique. To interact with the community of users of VLBI products and to integrate VLBI into a global Earth observing system.

  7. Design of simple UV Spectrophotometric and HPLC methods for assay of artesunate and amodiaquine in fixed dose tablet formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashie, Agatha Dei

    2013-07-01

    Artesunate and Amodiaquine combination is one of the first line drugs for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. To prevent treatment failures and emergence of resistant strains of the Plasmodium parasite, patients are entreated to comply with treatment regimens. Thus fixed dose tablet formulations came as a relieve to patients, ensuring proper compliance as the number of tablets to be taken was reduced. It is therefore important to develop simple methods of assay for these formulations to ensure that quality drugs are available and to prevent resistance to these drugs. This thesis describes Ultraviolet (UV) and High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) methods of assay for Artesunate (AS) and Amodiaduine Hydrochloride (AMQ) in fixed dose tablet formulations. The UV absorption spectroscopy was used to establish a wavelength of maximum absorption and the Beer’s plot generated. At 339nm, Amodiaquine Hydrochloride was assayed accurately in methanol with a high r"2 value of 0.998, an intra and inter day precision of Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) of 1.52% and 1.86% respectively. The Beer’s plot was obeyed in a concentration range of 3.5 - 24.8(µg/mL). The limit of detection and limit of quantification was 1.23(µg/mL) and 3.73(µg/mL) respectively. However the UV method could not be used to assay AS simultaneously with AMQ. A mobile phase of 60% acetonitrile and 40% of 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid, flow rate of 1ml/min, wavelength of detection of 225nm and a C_1_8 stationary phase are the parameters for the HPLC method. The r"2 for the HPLC method was 0.996 and 0.995 for Amodiaquine hydrochloride and Artesunate respectively. The intra and inter day precision were 1.07% and 1.42% respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.015%w/v and 0.0465%w/v for Amodiaquine hydrochloride and 0.054%w/v and 0.019%w/v for Artesunate respectively. The concentration ranges were 0.01 - 0.16%w/v for Amodiaquine hydrochloride and 0.01 – 0.2%w/v for

  8. In vitro evaluation of extemporaneously compounded slow-release capsules containing morphine sulfate or oxycodone hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowiak, Dana L; Green, Julie L; Bowman, Bill J

    2005-01-01

    The in vitro performance of extemporaneously compounded morphine sulfate and oxycodone hydrochloride slow-release capsules was evaluated. Capsules containing varying amoutns of morphine sulfate (15, 60, 200 mg) or oxycodone hydrochloride (10, 80, 200 mg) were prepared and provided by a Phoenix, Arizona, pharmacy. The capsules also contained 40% Methocel E4M Premium to slow the release of their active ingredient and sufficient lactose to fill the capsules. Three batches of each capsule strength were prepared, and replicates from each batch were evlauated using United Stated Pharmacopeia dissolution apparatus II. Samples were taken at regular time intervals over 24 hours. After 1 hour the pH of the dissolution medium was adjusted form 1.2 to 4.0, and after 2 hours the pH was adjusted to 6.8. The amount of drug released at each time point was determined spectrophotometrically. The compounded capsules released 14% to 23%, 67% to 85% and 93% to 98% of their active ingredient after 0.5, 4 and 12 hours, respectively. The relative standard deviations between the replicates from each batch were less than 10% for most time points. The percent of drug released over the first 4 hours was linear (r squared = 0.9409-0.9999) when plotted versus time 1/2, indicating adherence to the simplified Higuchi model. Statistical analysis of the Higuchi dissolution constants indicated a significant difference (P less than 0.05) between batch No.3 and the other two batches of 200-mg oxycodone hydrochloride capsules. There was also a statistical difference between most of the Higuchi dissolution constants for the different-strength slow-release capsules and most slow-release capsules and equivalent strength controlled-release manufactured tablets (P less than 0.05). Using 40% Methocel E4M Premium slowed the release of morphine sulfate and oxycodone hydrochloride from extemporaneously compounded capsules. The in vitro performance of the slow-release capsules showed little intrabatch variation

  9. Stability of midazolam hydrochloride injection 1-mg/mL solutions in polyvinyl chloride and polyolefin bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlage, Kelly; Earhart, Zachary; Green-Boesen, Kelly; Myrdal, Paul B

    2011-08-15

    The stability of midazolam hydrochloride injection 1-mg/mL solutions in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyolefin bags under varying conditions was evaluated. Triplicate solutions of midazolam hydrochloride 1-mg/mL were prepared in polyolefin and PVC i.v. bags by diluting midazolam hydrochloride injection 5 mg/mL with 5% dextrose injection. Bags were then stored under refrigeration (3-4 °C), exposed to light at room temperature (20-25 °C), or protected from light in amber bags at room temperature. Samples were taken immediately after preparation (day 0) and on days 1, 2, 3, 6, 13, 20, and 27 for analysis with a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay in order to determine solution concentration. Stability was defined as retention of at least 90% of the initial drug concentration. The pH of each solution was also measured weekly. Sterility of the i.v. bags was determined at the end of the study by microbiological testing with culture in growth media. Differences in concentrations under the various storage conditions and bags used were analyzed using analysis of variance. All solutions retained over 98% of the initial midazolam hydrochloride concentration, with no statistically significant (p ≥ 0.05) change in concentration over the four-week period. Stability was not affected by temperature, exposure to light, or bag type. The pH of all solutions remained between 3.2 and 3.4 throughout the study. Sterility after 28 days was retained. Midazolam hydrochloride 1-mg/mL solutions diluted in 5% dextrose injection remained stable over 27 days in both polyolefin and PVC i.v. bags, regardless of storage condition.

  10. Preparation and evaluation of doxycycline hydrochloride and bromhexine hydrochloride dosage forms for pigeons / Marga le Roux

    OpenAIRE

    Le Roux, Marga

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To prepare and evaluate three different dosage forms, containing doxycycline hydrochloride (HCI) and bromhexine hydrochloride (HCI) respectively and in combination, for the treatment of respiratory diseases in pigeons. Background: Birds have held a place in man's affection since the ancient Egyptians and Romans kept birds. Europeans have successfully bred birds, especially smaller birds and pigeons, for centuries. Only in recent years, however, have science and me...

  11. Development of fi lm forming formulation and technology of polymeric fi lm coating on Indotril tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Kucherenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In previous researches we grounded expedience of «Indotril» tablets development; formulation and technology of "Indotril" tablet cores were developed. Received tablet cores should be covered by protective polymeric film with the purpose of unpleasant taste elimination, increase of tablets expiration date. Objective. The aim of our investigation was to develop the film forming composition and technology of polymeric film coating on «Indotril» tablets in pseudo-fluidized layer. Materials and Methods. As “Indotril” tablets cores should be covered by protective polymeric film we performed research designed to select efficient film forming solution. Thus modern filming agents were studied, besides such factors were investigated: concentration of film forming suspension, increase of tablet coat in mass, air temperature under gas distribution grid. Obtained tablets were checked according to pharmacopeia methods. Results and discussion. First we studied tablet compression force influence on main parameters of «Indotril» cores tablets: on crushing strength, abrasion in pseudo-fluidized layer unit and disintegration. Then for further investigation we chose «Indotril» cores tablets with crushing strength near 70 H, abrasion - up to 0,5% and disintegration time - not more than 10 minutes. We performed research to select film forming solution for covering “Indotril” tablets in pseudo-fluidized layer unit. As filming agents we used different samples of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC by Japan company Shin-Etsu Chemical Co and English company Colorcon. Water HPMC solutions were prepared which contained plasticizer (propylene glycol, pigment (titanium IV dioxide and dye (tartrazine. Coating process of “Indotril” tablets was performed in laboratory pseudo-fluidized layer unit with the air temperature 75ºC under gas distribution grid. Variance analysis of experimental data on quality of coat surface showed insignificance as

  12. Fe (III) complex of mefloquine hydrochloride: Synthesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of the ongoing research for more effective antimalarial drug, Fe (III) complex of mefloquine hydrochloride (antimalarial drug) was synthesized using template method. Mefloquine was tentatively found to have coordinated through the hydroxyl and the two nitrogen atoms in the quinoline and piperidine in the structure, ...

  13. Cartap hydrochloride poisoning: A clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorugu, Hari K; Chrispal, Anugrah

    2012-01-01

    Cartap hydrochloride, a nereistoxin analog, is a commonly used low toxicity insecticide. We describe a patient who presented to the emergency department with alleged history of ingestion of Cartap hydrochloride as an act of deliberate self-harm. The patient was managed conservatively. To our knowledge this is the first case report of Cartap hydrochloride suicidal poisoning. Cartap toxicity has been considered to be minimal, but a number of animal models have shown significant neuromuscular toxicity resulting in respiratory failure. It is hypothesized that the primary effect of Cartap hydrochloride is through inhibition of the [(3)H]-ryanodine binding to the Ca(2+) release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum in a dose-dependent manner and promotion of extracellular Ca(2+) influx and induction of internal Ca(2+) release. This results in tonic diaphragmatic contraction rather than paralysis. This is the basis of the clinical presentation of acute Cartap poisoning as well as the treatment with chelators namely British Anti Lewisite and sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate.

  14. Simultaneous Estimation of Hydrochlorothiazide, Hydralazine Hydrochloride, and Reserpine Using PCA, NAS, and NAS-PCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Badyal, Pragya Nand; Rawal, Ravindra K

    2015-01-01

    In this study, new and feasible UV-visible spectrophotometric and multivariate spectrophotometric methods were described for the simultaneous determination of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), hydralazine hydrochloride (H.HCl), and reserpine (RES) in combined pharmaceutical tablets. Methanol was used as a solvent for analysis and the whole UV region was scanned from 200-400 nm. The resolution was obtained by using multivariate methods such as the net analyte signal method (NAS), principal component analysis (PCA), and net analyte signal-principal component analysis (NAS-PCA) applied to the UV spectra of the mixture. The results obtained from all of the three methods were compared. NAS-PCA showed a lot of resolved data as compared to NAS and PCA. Thus, the NAS-PCA technique is a combination of NAS and PCA methods which is advantageous to obtain the information from overlapping results.

  15. Simple and Inexpensive Methods Development for Determination of Venlafaxine Hydrochloride from Its Solid Dosage Forms by Visible Spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Raghubabu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, sensitive and cost effective visible spectrophotometric methods (M1 and M2 have been developed for the determination of venlafaxine hydrochloride from bulk and tablet dosage forms. The method M1 is based on the formation of green colored coordination complex by the drug with cobalt thiocyanate which is quantitatively extractable into nitro benzene with an absorption maximum of 626.4 nm. The method M2 involves internal salt formation of aconitic anhydride, dehydration product of citric acid [CIA] with acetic anhydride [Ac2O] to form colored chromogen with an absorption maximum of 561.2 nm. The calibration graph is linear over the concentration range of 10-50 µg/mL and 8-24 µg/mL for method M1 and M2 respectively. The proposed methods are applied to commercial available tablets and the results are statistically compared with those obtained by the reference method and validated by recovery studies. The results are found satisfactory and reproducible. These methods are applied successfully for the estimation of the venlafaxine hydrochloride in the presence of other ingredients that are usually present in dosage forms.

  16. Antinociceptive effects of tramadol hydrochloride after intravenous administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, Saskia; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Souza, Marcy J; Cox, Sherry; Keuler, Nicholas S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2013-02-01

    To determine the antinociceptive and sedative effects of tramadol in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) following IV administration. 11 healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. Tramadol hydrochloride (5 mg/kg, IV) and an equivalent volume (≤ 0.34 mL) of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution were administered to parrots in a complete crossover study design. Foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus was determined 30 to 60 minutes before (baseline) and 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after treatment administration; agitation-sedation scores were determined for parrots at each of those times. The estimated mean changes in temperature from the baseline value that elicited a foot withdrawal response were 1.65° and -1.08°C after administration of tramadol and saline solution, respectively. Temperatures at which a foot withdrawal response was elicited were significantly higher than baseline values at all 5 evaluation times after administration of tramadol and were significantly lower than baseline values at 30, 120, and 240 minutes after administration of saline solution. No sedation, agitation, or other adverse effects were observed in any of the parrots after administration of tramadol. Tramadol hydrochloride (5 mg/kg, IV) significantly increased the thermal nociception threshold for Hispaniolan Amazon parrots in the present study. Sedation and adverse effects were not observed. These results are consistent with results of other studies in which the antinociceptive effects of tramadol after oral administration to parrots were determined.

  17. Determination of dioxopromethazine hydrochloride by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemiluminescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yunhui; Wang Chunyan; Sun Jinying; Zhou Yongchang; You Tianyan; Wang Erkang; Fung Yingsing

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a rapid method for the determination of dioxopromethazine hydrochloride (DPZ), an antihistamine drug, by the capillary electrophoresis with electrochemiluminescene detection (CE-ECL) using tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) (Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ) reagent. This CE-ECL detection method has high sensitivity, good selectivity and reproducibility for DPZ analysis. Under the optimized conditions: separation capillary, 38 cm length (25 μm i.d.); sample injection, 10 s at 8 kV; separation voltage, 12.5 kV; running buffer, 20 mmol L -1 sodium phosphate of pH 6.0; detection potential, 1.15 V; 50 mmol L -1 of phosphate buffer (pH 7.14) containing 5 mmol L -1 of Ru(bpy) 3 2+ in ECL detection cell, the detection limit of DPZ was 0.05 μmol L -1 (S/N = 3). The linear range extended from 5 to 100 μmol L -1 . The linear curve obtained was Y = 181.62 + 9.28X with a correlation coefficient of 0.9970. The relative standard deviations of the ECL intensity and the migration time for six continuous injections of 5 μmol L -1 DPZ were 3.7% and 0.92%, respectively. The CE-ECL method was applied to analyze DPZ in real samples including tablets, rat serum and human urine, and satisfactory results were obtained without interference from samples matrix. The CE-ECL technique was proved to be a potential method for the detection of DPZ in clinic analysis

  18. Evaluating tamsulosin hydrochloride-released microparticles prepared using single-step matrix coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Atsushi; Shinoda, Tatsuki; Ito, Naoki; Baba, Keizo; Oku, Naoto; Mizumoto, Takao

    2011-04-15

    The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum composition for sustained-release of tamsulosin hydrochloride from microparticles intended for orally disintegrating tablets. Microparticles were prepared from an aqueous ethylcellulose dispersion (Aquacoa®), and an aqueous copolymer based on ethyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate dispersion (Eudragit®) NE30D), with microcrystalline cellulose as core particles with a fluidized bed coating process. Prepared microparticles were about 200 μm diameter and spherical. The microparticles were evaluated for in vitro drug release and in vivo absorption to assess bioequivalence in a commercial product, Harnal® pellets. The optimum ratio of Aquacoat® and Eudragit® NE30D in the matrix was 9:1. We observed similar drug release profiles in microparticles and Harnal® pellets. Higuchi model analysis of the in vitro drug release from microparticles was linear up to 80% release, typical of Fickian diffusion sustained-release profile. The in vivo absorption properties from microparticles were comparable to Harnal® pellets, and there was a linear relationship between in vitro drug release and in vivo drug release. In conclusion, this development produces microparticles in single-step coating, that provided a sustained-release of tamsulosin hydrochloride comparable to Harnal® pellets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Spectrophotometric Determination of Terbutaline Sulphate and Tetracycline Hydrochloride via ion pair Complex Formation Using Eosin Y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Y. Dhamra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the determination of terbutaline sulphate and tetracycline hydrochloride drugs in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method is based on the formation of binary complexes between these drugs and eosin Y in aqueous acetate buffered medium. Under the optimum conditions, the binary complexes showed absorption maxima at 545 nm. Beer's law was rectilinear over concentration range of 0.5-10 and 5-45 μg/mL, R2 were 0.9984 and 0.9988, RSD were ≤ 0.72 and ≤ 0.19 (n=5 with average recovery % 101.42 % and 100.08 % and the average recovery values of pharmaceutical formulations 101.48 and 98.01 for above drugs respectively. The limit of detection (LOD were 0.030 and 0.613 μg/mL and limit of quantitation (LOQ were 0.103 and 2.00 μg/mL with molar absorptivity values 3.169  103 and 6.347  103 l. mol-1. cm-1 and the relative standard deviation values ≤0.720 and ≤ 0.19 for both drugs respectively. No interference was observed from the excipients that are commonly present in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of terbutaline sulphate tablet and tetracycline hydrochloride capsule in their dosage forms.

  20. Spectrophotometric determination of terbutaline sulphate and tetracycline hydrochloride via ion pair complex formation using eosin y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhamra, M.Y.; Sabha, T.N.A.; Ghabsha, T.S.A.

    2014-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the determination of terbutaline sulphate and tetracycline hydrochloride drugs in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method is based on the formation of binary complexes between these drugs and eosin Y in aqueous acetate buffered medium. Under the optimum conditions, the binary complexes showed absorption maxima at 545 nm. Beer's law was rectilinear over concentration range of 0.5-10 and 5-45 micro g/mL, R/sub 2/ were 0.9984 and 0.9988, RSD were 0.72 and 0.19 (n=5) with average recovery 101.42 % and 100.08 % and the average recovery values of pharmaceutical formulations 101.48 and 98.01 for above drugs respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) were 0.030 and 0.613 micro g/mL and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 0.103 and 2.00 micro g/mL with molar absorptivity values 3.169 10/sup 3/ and 6.347 10/sup 3/l. mol/sup -1/. Cm/sup -1/ and the relative standard deviation values 0.720 and 0.19 for both drugs respectively. No interference was observed from the excipients that are commonly present in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of terbutaline sulphate tablet and tetracycline hydrochloride capsule in their dosage forms. (author)

  1. Efficacy and tolerability of itopride hydrochloride in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, K T; Veenasree; Leena, K B

    2003-06-01

    To document the clinical efficacy and tolerability of itopride hydrochloride in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia an open-label, non-comparative study, was undertaken at the Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, among patients with endoscopically confirmed diagnosis of non-ulcer dyspepsia or chronic gastritis. Itopride hydrochloride 50 mg (1 tablet) thrice a day for 2 weeks was administered among them. Relief of symptoms at the end of two weeks treatment, assessed as marked/complete, moderate, slight, none or worse; QT interval on ECG; adverse events; haemogram; serum chemistry for hepatic and renal functions. None had QT prolongation on ECG. At the end of 2 weeks' treatment, moderate to complete relief of symptoms was reported by 22 patients (73%), whereas 5 (17%) reproted slight improvement, and 3 (10%) reported no improvement. Clinical tolerability was excellent in 28 patients (93%) and good in 2 (7%). None of the patients had any prolongation of QT on ECG, nor did any patient show any abnormality in haemogram or serum chemistry during the treatment.

  2. Determination of antihypertensive drug moexipril hydrochloride based on the enhancement effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate at carbon paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Ali K

    2010-04-15

    Herein, an electrochemical differential pulse voltammetric method was developed for the determination of moexipril hydrochloride based on the enhancement effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The oxidation process has been carried out in Britton-Robinson buffer. Moexipril hydrochloride exhibits a well-defined irreversible oxidation peak over the entire pH range (2-11). The peak current varied linearly over the range from 4.0 x 10(-7) to 5.2 x 10(-6) mol L(-1). The limits of detection and quantification were 6.87 x 10(-8) mol L(-1) and 2.29 x 10(-7) mol L(-1), respectively. The recovery was found in the range from 99.65% to 100.76%. The relative standard deviation was found in the range from 0.429% to 0.845%. The proposed method possesses high sensitivity, accuracy and rapid response. Finally, this method was successfully used to determine moexipril hydrochloride in tablets. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development and evaluation of gastroretentive floating tablets of an antidepressant drug by thermoplastic granulation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal Ashok Pawar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken with an aim to formulate, develop and evaluate gastroretentive floating tablets of an antidepressant drug, Venlafaxine HCl (hydrochloride, which release the drug in a sustained manner over a period of 24 h. Three different hydrophobic retardants namely hydrogenated cottonseed oil, carnauba wax, cetyl alcohol and a hydrophilic polymer Methocel® (hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K15M were used in different combinations at different ratios for the preparation of tablets. The tablets were prepared by Hot Melt or Thermoplastic granulation method and evaluated for tablet thickness, hardness, weight variation, friability, floating lag time and in vitro drug release. Formulation F8 with hydrophilic polymer (Methocel® K15M and hydrophobic retardant (carnauba wax in the ratio 1:2.6 (approx. was considered as an optimized formulation. The optimized formulation showed satisfactory sustained drug release and remained buoyant on the surface of the medium for more than 24 h and its release profile was comparable with the marketed formulation (VENTAB-XL 37.5. It can also be concluded that floating drug delivery system of Venlafaxine HCl can be successfully formulated as an approach to increase gastric residence time and thereby improving its bioavailability.

  4. Asteroids IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Patrick; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Bottke, William F.

    . Asteroids, like planets, are driven by a great variety of both dynamical and physical mechanisms. In fact, images sent back by space missions show a collection of small worlds whose characteristics seem designed to overthrow our preconceived notions. Given their wide range of sizes and surface compositions, it is clear that many formed in very different places and at different times within the solar nebula. These characteristics make them an exciting challenge for researchers who crave complex problems. The return of samples from these bodies may ultimately be needed to provide us with solutions. In the book Asteroids IV, the editors and authors have taken major strides in the long journey toward a much deeper understanding of our fascinating planetary ancestors. This book reviews major advances in 43 chapters that have been written and reviewed by a team of more than 200 international authorities in asteroids. It is aimed to be as comprehensive as possible while also remaining accessible to students and researchers who are interested in learning about these small but nonetheless important worlds. We hope this volume will serve as a leading reference on the topic of asteroids for the decade to come. We are deeply indebted to the many authors and referees for their tremendous efforts in helping us create Asteroids IV. We also thank the members of the Asteroids IV scientific organizing committee for helping us shape the structure and content of the book. The conference associated with the book, "Asteroids Comets Meteors 2014" held June 30-July 4, 2014, in Helsinki, Finland, did an outstanding job of demonstrating how much progress we have made in the field over the last decade. We are extremely grateful to our host Karri Muinonnen and his team. The editors are also grateful to the Asteroids IV production staff, namely Renée Dotson and her colleagues at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, for their efforts, their invaluable assistance, and their enthusiasm; they made life as

  5. Immobilisation of impala (Aepyceros melampus with a ketamine hydrochloride / medetomidine hydrochloride combination, and reversal with atipamezole hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bush

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A combination of medetomidine hydrochloride (medetomidine and ketamine hydrochloride (ketamine was evaluated in 16 boma-confined and 19 free-ranging impalas (Aepyceros melampus to develop a non-opiate immobilisation protocol. In free-ranging impala a dose of 220 + 34 mg/kg medetomidine and 4.4 + 0.7 mg/kg ketamine combined with 7500 IU of hyaluronidase induced recumbency within 4.5+1.5 min, with good muscle relaxation, a stable heart rate and blood pH. PaCO2 was maintained within acceptable ranges. The animals were hypoxic with reduced oxygen saturation and low PaO2 in the presence of an elevated respiration rate, therefore methods for respiratory support are indicated. The depth of sedation was adequate for minor manipulations but additional anaesthesia is indicated for painful manipulations. Immobilisation was reversed by 467 + 108 mg/kg atipamezole hydrochloride (atipamezole intramuscularly, but re-sedation was observed several hours later, possibly due to a low atipamezole:medetomidine ratio of 2:1. Therefore, this immobilisation and reversal protocol would subject impalas to possible predation or conspecific aggression following reversal if they were released into the wild. If the protocol is used on free-ranging impala, an atipamezole:medetomidine ratio of 5:1 should probably be used to prevent re-sedation.

  6. 76 FR 45267 - Determination That INVERSINE (Mecamylamine Hydrochloride) Tablet and Six Other Drug Products Were...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... products that have been discontinued from marketing for reasons other than safety or effectiveness... From Sale for Reasons of Safety or Effectiveness AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... listed in this document were not withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or effectiveness. This...

  7. 78 FR 40484 - Determination That METADATE ER (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride) Extended-Release Tablet, 10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... marketing for reasons other than safety or effectiveness. ANDAs that refer to METADATE ER (methylphenidate... Withdrawn From Sale for Reasons of Safety or Effectiveness AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... safety or effectiveness. This determination will allow FDA to approve abbreviated new drug applications...

  8. 77 FR 7583 - Determination That WILPO (phentermine hydrochloride) Tablets, 8 Milligrams, Was Not Withdrawn...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... discontinued from marketing for reasons other than safety or effectiveness. ANDAs that refer to WILPO... Reasons of Safety or Effectiveness AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... Milligrams (mg), was not withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or effectiveness. This determination will...

  9. 76 FR 53907 - Determination That TALWIN COMPOUND (Aspirin; Pentazocine Hydrochloride) Tablets, 325 Milligrams...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ..., drug products that have been discontinued from marketing for reasons other than safety or effectiveness... 12.5 Milligram Base, Were Not Withdrawn From Sale for Reasons of Safety or Effectiveness AGENCY: Food...); equivalent to (EQ) 12.5 mg base, were not withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or effectiveness. This...

  10. 78 FR 2416 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Rybix® (Tramadol Hydrochloride) Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... sieve. An excipient is defined on www.thefreedictionary.com as ``an inactive substance that serves as...? LAW AND ANALYSIS: Pursuant to Subpart B of Part 177, 19 CFR 177.21 et seq., which implements Title III...

  11. Cartap hydrochloride poisoning: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sumesh Raj; Sheetal S.

    2014-01-01

    Cartap hydrochloride is a thiocarbamate insecticide used for control of chewing and sucking insects of all stages of development, on many crops. It is an analogue of nereistoxin. Poisoning with cartap is very rarely reported from India. We report a 46 year old man who consumed cartap with alcohol, presented with nausea & vomiting and improved with supportive measures. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000): 360-361

  12. Spectrophotometric determination of procainamide hydrochloride using sodium periodate

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Tamrah, S.; Al-Abbad, S.

    2015-01-01

    A simple spectrophotometric method has been described for the determination of procainamide hydrochloride. The method is based on the oxidation of procainamide hydrochloride by sodium periodate in the presence of sulfuric acid and measurement of the absorbance of the violet color formed at 531 nm. Parameters affecting the reaction were studied and conditions were optimized. Linear calibration graph was obtained from 50 to 700 μg ml−1 of procainamide hydrochloride and the limit of detection wa...

  13. Tablet splitting and weight uniformity of half-tablets of 4 medications in pharmacy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahaineh, Linda M; Gharaibeh, Shadi F

    2012-08-01

    Tablet splitting is a common practice for multiple reasons including cost savings; however, it does not necessarily result in weight-uniform half-tablets. To determine weight uniformity of half-tablets resulting from splitting 4 products available in the Jordanian market and investigate the effect of tablet characteristics on weight uniformity of half-tablets. Ten random tablets each of warfarin 5 mg, digoxin 0.25 mg, phenobarbital 30 mg, and prednisolone 5 mg were weighed and split by 6 PharmD students using a knife. The resulting half-tablets were weighed and evaluated for weight uniformity. Other relevant physical characteristics of the 4 products were measured. The average tablet hardness of the sampled tablets ranged from 40.3 N to 68.9 N. Digoxin, phenobarbital, and prednisolone half-tablets failed the weight uniformity test; however, warfarin half-tablets passed. Digoxin, warfarin, and phenobarbital tablets had a score line and warfarin tablets had the deepest score line of 0.81 mm. Splitting warfarin tablets produces weight-uniform half-tablets that may possibly be attributed to the hardness and the presence of a deep score line. Digoxin, phenobarbital, and prednisolone tablet splitting produces highly weight variable half-tablets. This can be of clinical significance in the case of the narrow therapeutic index medication digoxin.

  14. Spectrophotometric determination of procainamide hydrochloride using sodium periodate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Al-Tamrah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple spectrophotometric method has been described for the determination of procainamide hydrochloride. The method is based on the oxidation of procainamide hydrochloride by sodium periodate in the presence of sulfuric acid and measurement of the absorbance of the violet color formed at 531 nm. Parameters affecting the reaction were studied and conditions were optimized. Linear calibration graph was obtained from 50 to 700 μg ml−1 of procainamide hydrochloride and the limit of detection was 25 μg ml−1. The method was successfully applied for the determination of procainamide hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparation.

  15. Derivatization of labetalol hydrochloride for its spectrofluorimetric and spectrophotometric determination inhuman plasma: Application to stability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Mahmoud A.; Derayea, Sayed M.; Abdel-Lateef, Mohamed A.; El Hamd, Mohamed A.

    2018-02-01

    Two simple, selective and accurate methods were developed for the determination of Labetalol hydrochloride in pure form and pharmaceutical tablets. Both methods are based on derivatization of the studied drug with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBDsbnd Cl) in alkaline medium (pH 7.5).The reaction product was measured spectrofluorimetrically at 540 nm after excitation at 476 nm (method I) or spectrophotometrically at 480 nm (method II). The calibration graphs were rectilinear over the concentration ranges of 0.10-2.0 and 1.0-11.0 μg mL- 1 for methods I and II, respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the analysis of commercial tablets without interference from common excipients. Furthermore, the spectrofluorimetric method was utilized for the in vitro determination of labetalol in spiked human plasma, with a percent mean recovery (n = 3) of 97.80 ± 1.29%. Moreover, the spectrofluorimetric method was extended to examine the stability study of LBT under different stress conditions such as alkaline, acidic, oxidative, photolytic and a thermal degradation.

  16. How do tablet properties influence swallowing behaviours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Taniguchi, Hiroshige; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Hori, Kazuhiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Nakamura, Yuki; Sato, Hideaki; Inoue, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural performance of tablet swallowing was evaluated with different tablet conditions in terms of size, number and surface coating. Four different types of tablets were prepared: small or large, and with or without a surface coating. Fourteen normal male adults were instructed to swallow the prepared tablets with 15 ml of water. The number of tablets in one trial was changed from one to three. To evaluate swallowing and tablet transport, electromyographic activity was recorded in the left suprahyoid muscles, and videofluorographic images were examined. All tablet conditions (size, number and surface coating) affected the swallowing performance in terms of total number of swallows, electromyographic burst patterns and location of remaining tablets. Increases in the size and number of tablets increased the number of swallows and electromyographic burst area and duration. In addition, all of these parameters increased while swallowing tablets without a coating compared with tablets with a coating. Location of the remaining tablets was mainly within the mouth. This study only clarified the normal pattern of tablet swallowing under several conditions in healthy subjects, but the results may facilitate comprehensive evaluation and treatment planning in terms of administering medication to dysphagic patients. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  17. Development and evaluation of mathematical model to predict disintegration time of fast disintegrating tablets using powder characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, H; Arora, A; Tiwary, A K; Rana, V

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a mathematical model for predicting the disintegration time of fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) by estimating the powder characteristics of powder blend prior to compression. A combination of chitosan-alginate complex and glycine in the ratio of 50:50 was used for preparing FDTs. The developed mathematical model allowed water sorption time (WST), effective pore radius (R(eff.p)) and swelling Index (SI) of powder mixture as well as tablet crushing strength to be successfully correlated with disintegration time (DT) of FDTs. The predicted model showed that disintegration time of FDTs to be directly correlated with powder characteristics and inversely correlated with tablet crushing strength. Furthermore, a correlation of 0.97 was obtained when DT of FDTs was compared with SI/(WST * R(eff.p)). This correlation was not affected by inclusion of water soluble (ondansetron hydrochloride or metaclopramide hydrochloride) or water insoluble (domperidone) drugs in the powder blend or FDTs. These observations indicated the versatility of the mathematical model in predicting the disintegration time of FDTs by evaluating the selected characteristics of the powder blends without actually preparing the FDTs.

  18. Safety and efficacy of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride for the prophylaxis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Berg, J D; Duvenage, C S; Roskell, N S; Scott, T R

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride combination therapy for the prophylaxis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in at-risk nonimmune subjects in South Africa. This open-label trial was conducted at research sites in South Africa during the main malaria transmission season, February through July. The study volunteers were temporarily living in, or traveling to, a malaria-endemic area. They received I tablet of 250 mg atovaquone and 100 mg proguanil hydrochloride once daily for up to 10 weeks. Subjects were monitored using sequential clinical and laboratory assessments. Thick blood smears were stained and evaluated by a central laboratory. An immunochromatographic test for P. falciparum was also used for on-site patient management. Prophylactic success was summarized using a 95% confidence interval for the proportion of subjects who did not develop parasitemia or who withdrew due to a treatment-related adverse event. A total of 175 subjects (15% women) were enrolled in the trial. The mean duration of drug exposure was 8.9 weeks. The combination of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride was well tolerated. The most frequently reported adverse events considered possibly related to study treatment were headache (7%), abdominal pain (2%), increased cough (2%), and skin disorder (2%). No serious adverse events were reported, and no treatment-emergent effects were noted for any laboratory variables. One subject who was noncompliant with therapy developed parasitemia, and 3 subjects withdrew due to a treatment-related adverse event (2 subjects with headache and 1 with nausea and dizziness). The prophylaxis success rate was 97%. In this study, atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride combination therapy had an excellent safety and efficacy profile for prophylaxis of P. falciparum malaria in nonimmune subjects.

  19. Development and validation of an HPTLC method for the simultaneous estimation of Clonazepam and Paroxetine hydrochloride using a DOE approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purvi Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines simultaneous multiple response optimization using Derringer's desirability function for the development of an HPTLC method to detect Clonazepam and Paroxetine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage form. Central composite design (CCD was used to optimize the chromatographic conditions for HPTLC. The independent variables used for the optimization were the n-butanol content in the mobile phase, the chamber saturation time and the distance travelled. HPTLC separation was performed on aluminium plates pre-coated with silica gel 60 F254 as the stationary phase using n-butanol:glacial acetic acid:water (9:2:0.5% v/v/v as the mobile phase. Quantification was achieved based on a densitometric analysis of Clonazepam and Paroxetine hydrochloride over the concentration range of 40–240 ng/band and 300–1800 ng/band, respectively, at 288 nm. The method yielded compact and well-resolved bands at Rf of 0.77 ± 0.02 and 0.34 ± 0.02 for Clonazepam and Paroxetine hydrochloride, respectively. The linear regression analysis for the calibration plots produced r2 = 0.9958 and r2 = 0.9989 for Clonazepam and Paroxetine hydrochloride, respectively. The precision, accuracy, robustness, specificity, limit of detection and limit of quantitation of the method were validated according to the ICH guidelines. The factors evaluated in the robustness test were determined to have an insignificant effect on the selected responses. The results indicate that the method is suitable for the routine quality control testing of marketed tablet formulations.

  20. Galileo's Telescopy and Jupiter's Tablet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, P. D.

    2003-12-01

    A previous paper (BAAS 33:4, 1363, 2001) reported on the dramatic scene in Shakespeare's Cymbeline that features the descent of the deity Jupiter. The paper suggested that the four ghosts circling the sleeping Posthumus denote the four Galilean moons of Jupiter. The god Jupiter commands the ghosts to lay a tablet upon the prone Posthumus, but says that its value should not be overestimated. When Posthumus wakens he notices the tablet, which he calls a "book." Not only has the deity's "tablet" become the earthling's "book," but it appears that the book has covers which Posthumus evidently recognizes because without even opening the book he ascribes two further properties to it: rarity, and the very property that Jupiter had earlier attributed, viz. that one must not read too much into it. The mystery deepens when the Jovian gift undergoes a second metamorphosis, to "label." With the help of the OED, the potentially disparate terms "tablet," "book," and "label," may be explained by terms appropriate either to supernatural or worldly beings. "Tablet" may recognize the Mosaic artifact, whereas "book" and "label" are probably mundane references to Galileo's Sidereus Nuncius which appeared shortly before Cymbeline. The message of the Olympian god indicates therefore that the book is unique even as its contents have limited value. The first property celebrates the fact that Galileo's book is the first of its kind, and the second advises that all results except the discovery of Jupiter's moons have been reported earlier, in Hamlet.

  1. Comparison of different administration of ketamine and intravenous tramadol hydrochloride for postoperative pain relief and sedation after pediatric tonsillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenigun, Alper; Et, Tayfun; Aytac, Sirin; Olcay, Betul

    2015-01-01

    Tonsillectomy is the oldest and most frequently performed surgical procedure practiced by ear, nose, and throat physicians. In this study, our aim was to compare the analgesic effects of peritonsillar, rectal, as well as intravenous infiltration of ketamine and intravenous tramadol hydrochloride infiltration for postoperative pain relief and sedation after tonsillectomy in children. This randomized controlled study evaluated the effects of peritonsillar, intravenous, and rectal infiltration of ketamine in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy. One hundred twenty children who were categorized under American Society of Anesthesiologists classes I to II were randomized to 4 groups of 30 members each. Group 1 received intravenous (IV) ketamine (0.5 mg/kg), group 2 received rectal ketamine (0.5 mg/kg), group 3 received local peritonsillar ketamine (2 mg/kg), and the control group received IV tramadol hydrochloride infiltration (2 mg/kg). Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale scores and Wilson sedation scale were recorded at minutes 1, 15, 30, 60 as well as hours 2, 12, and 24 postoperatively. The patients were interviewed on the day after the surgery to assess the postoperative pain and sedation. All the routes of infiltration of ketamine were as effective as those of tramadol hydrochloride (P > 0.05). A statistically significant difference was observed between IV infiltrations and all groups during the assessments at hours 6 and 24. The analgesic efficacy of IV ketamine was found especially higher at hours 6 and 24 (P(6) = 0.045, P(24) = 0.011). Perioperative, low-dose IV, rectal, or peritonsillar ketamine infiltration provides efficient pain relief without any adverse effects in children who would undergo adenotonsillectomy.

  2. Development and Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Chlorhexidine Tablet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate mucoadhesive chlorhexidine tablets and evaluate their drug release characteristics and mechanism. Methods: Chlorhexidine buccal adhesive tablets were prepared by direct compression using a blend of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and chitosan as the bioadhesive polymers.

  3. Spectrophotometric assay of pioglitazone hydrochloride using permanganate in acidic and basic media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanakapura Basavaiah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pioglitazone hydrochloride (PGH is an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent used in the treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus. Potassium permanganate was found to oxidize PGH both in acidic and basic conditions, based on which two simple and sensitive methods were developed for its determination in bulk sample and tablets, and validated. In the first method (indirect method, PGH was reacted with a measured excess of standard permanganate in H2SO4 medium, and the residual oxidant was determined by measuring its absorbance at 550 nm. The second method (Direct method entails treating PGH with permanganate in NaOH medium, followed by the measurement of the resulting bluish-green manganite at 610 nm. Experimental variables affecting the reactions were studied and optimized. Under optimum conditions, linear relationships with good correlation coefficients were found between absorbance and concentration in the ranges, 1.25 – 25 µg mL-1 (Indirect method and 1-12 µg mL-1 (Direct method with respective molar absorptivity values of 1.10 × 104 and 2.77 × 104 l mol-1 cm-1. The limits of detection (LOD and quantification (LOQ were 0.36 and 1.08 (Indirect method and 0.23 and 0.69 µg mL-1 (Direct method. Intra-day and inter-day precisions were satisfactory, with %RSD values of ≤2.11, and the respective accuracies were excellent with %RE values of ≤2. The methods were also validated for robustness, ruggedness and selectivity. The methods were applied to the determination of PGH in its tablets with good accuracy and precision, and no interference from the tablet additives was encountered. The results were also compared with those obtained by a reference method.

  4. Principles of Tablet Computing for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzan, Harry, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    In the study of modern technology for the 21st century, one of the most popular subjects is tablet computing. Tablet computers are now used in business, government, education, and the personal lives of practically everyone--at least, it seems that way. As of October 2013, Apple has sold 170 million iPads. The success of tablets is enormous and has…

  5. Touch Screen Tablets and Emergent Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of touch screen tablets by young children is increasing in the home and in early childhood settings. The simple tactile interface and finger-based operating features of tablets may facilitate preschoolers' use of tablet application software and support their educational development in domains such as literacy. This article reviews…

  6. 21 CFR 520.812 - Enrofloxacin tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enrofloxacin tablets. 520.812 Section 520.812 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.812 Enrofloxacin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains either 22.7, 68.0, or 136.0 milligrams of enrofloxacin. (b) Sponsor. See No...

  7. TabletGaze: Unconstrained Appearance-based Gaze Estimation in Mobile Tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Qiong; Veeraraghavan, Ashok; Sabharwal, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    We study gaze estimation on tablets, our key design goal is uncalibrated gaze estimation using the front-facing camera during natural use of tablets, where the posture and method of holding the tablet is not constrained. We collected the first large unconstrained gaze dataset of tablet users, labeled Rice TabletGaze dataset. The dataset consists of 51 subjects, each with 4 different postures and 35 gaze locations. Subjects vary in race, gender and in their need for prescription glasses, all o...

  8. Non-invasive in situ identification and band assignments of diazepam, flunitrazepam and methadone hydrochloride with FT-near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hassan Refat H

    2011-03-20

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) has evolved into an important rapid, direct and non-invasive technique in drugs analysis. In this study, the suitability of NIR spectroscopy to identify two benzodiazepine derivatives, diazepam and flunitrazepam, and a synthetic opiate, methadone hydrochloride, inside USP vials and probe the solid-state form of diazepam presents in tablets has been explored. The results show the potential of NIR spectroscopy for rapid, in situ and non-destructive identification of drugs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 21 CFR 522.1222 - Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms. 522.1222 Section 522.1222 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1222 Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms. ...

  10. 21 CFR 524.1982 - Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1982 Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution. (a) Specifications. The drug is...

  11. Antihistaminic and cardiorespiratory effects of diphenhydramine hydrochloride in anesthetized dogs undergoing excision of mast cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Andrea; Valverde, Alexander; Sinclair, Melissa; Mosley, Cornelia; Singh, Ameet; Mutsaers, Anthony J; Hanna, Brad; Johnson, Ron; Gu, Yu; Beaudoin-Kimble, Michelle

    2017-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of IV diphenhydramine hydrochloride administration on cardiorespiratory variables in anesthetized dogs undergoing mast cell tumor (MCT) excision. DESIGN Randomized, blinded clinical trial. ANIMALS 16 client-owned dogs with MCTs. PROCEDURES In a standardized isoflurane anesthesia session that included mechanical ventilation, dogs received diphenhydramine hydrochloride (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], IV; n = 8) or an equivalent volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (IV; control treatment; 8) 10 minutes after induction. Cardiorespiratory variables were recorded throughout anesthesia and MCT excision, and blood samples for determination of plasma diphenhydramine and histamine concentrations were collected prior to premedication (baseline), throughout anesthesia, and 2 hours after extubation. RESULTS Cardiorespiratory values in both treatment groups were acceptable for anesthetized dogs. Mean ± SD diastolic arterial blood pressure was significantly lower in the diphenhydramine versus control group during tumor dissection (52 ± 10 mm Hg vs 62 ± 9 mm Hg) and surgical closure (51 ± 10 mm Hg vs 65 ± 9 mm Hg). Mean arterial blood pressure was significantly lower in the diphenhydramine versus control group during surgical closure (65 ± 12 mm Hg vs 78 ± 11 mm Hg), despite a higher cardiac index value. Plasma histamine concentrations were nonsignificantly higher than baseline during maximal manipulation of the tumor and surgical preparation in the diphenhydramine group and during surgical dissection in the control group. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE IV administration of diphenhydramine prior to MCT excision had no clear clinical cardiorespiratory benefits over placebo in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs.

  12. Carnauba wax as a promising excipient in melt granulation targeting the preparation of mini-tablets for sustained release of highly soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nart, Viviane; Beringhs, André O'Reilly; França, Maria Terezinha; de Espíndola, Brenda; Pezzini, Bianca Ramos; Stulzer, Hellen Karine

    2017-01-01

    Mini-tablets are a new tendency in solid dosage form design for overcoming therapeutic obstacles such as impaired swallowing and polypharmacy therapy. Among their advantages, these systems offer therapeutic benefits such as dose flexibility and combined drug release patterns. The use of lipids in the formulation has also drawn considerable interest as means to modify the drug release from the dosage form. Therefore, this paper aimed at developing sustained release mini-tablets containing the highly soluble drugs captopril and metformin hydrochloride. Carnauba wax was used as a lipid component in melt granulation, targeting the improvement of the drugs poor flowability and tabletability, as well as to sustain the drug release profiles in association with other excipients. To assist sustaining the drug release, Ethocel™ (EC) and Kollicoat® SR 30D associated with Opadry® II were employed as matrix-forming and reservoir-forming materials, respectively. The neat drugs, granules and the bulk formulations were evaluated for their angle of repose, compressibility index, Hausner ratio and tabletability. Mini-tablets were evaluated for their weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content and in-vitro drug release. The results indicated that melt granulation with carnauba wax improved the flow and the tabletability of the drugs, allowing the preparation of mini-tablets with adequate tensile strength under reduced compaction pressures. All mini-tablet formulations showed acceptable hardness (within the range of 1.16 to 3.93Kp) and friability (carnauba wax proved to be a promising excipient in melt granulation targeting the preparation of mini-tablets for sustained release of soluble drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Learning, Tablet, Culture-Coherence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norqvist, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents understandings of learning in schools where Internet-enabled Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are taken for granted. The context is a full-scale 1:1 tablet project in Danish municipality schools where this study bring forward expressions of learning from one class (12-13 year old children) in order to offer…

  14. Stability studies of lincomycin hydrochloride in aqueous solution and intravenous infusion fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czarniak P

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Petra Czarniak, Michael Boddy, Bruce Sunderland, Jeff D Hughes School of Pharmacy, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chemical stability of Lincocin® (lincomycin hydrochloride in commonly used intravenous fluids at room temperature (25°C, at accelerated-degradation temperatures and in selected buffer solutions.Materials and methods: The stability of Lincocin® injection (containing lincomycin 600 mg/2 mL as the hydrochloride stored at 25°C±0.1°C in sodium lactate (Hartmann’s, 0.9% sodium chloride, 5% glucose, and 10% glucose solutions was investigated over 31 days. Forced degradation of Lincocin® in hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, and hydrogen peroxide was performed at 60°C. The effect of pH on the degradation rate of lincomycin hydrochloride stored at 80°C was determined.Results: Lincomycin hydrochloride was found to maintain its shelf life at 25°C in sodium lactate (Hartmann’s solution, 0.9% sodium chloride solution, 5% glucose solution, and 10% glucose solution, with less than 5% lincomycin degradation occurring in all intravenous solutions over a 31-day period. Lincomycin hydrochloride showed less rapid degradation at 60°C in acid than in basic solution, but degraded rapidly in hydrogen peroxide. At all pH values tested, lincomycin followed first-order kinetics. It had the greatest stability near pH 4 when stored at 80°C (calculated shelf life of 4.59 days, and was least stable at pH 2 (calculated shelf life of 0.38 days.Conclusion: Lincocin® injection was chemically found to have a shelf life of at least 31 days at 25°C when added to sodium lactate (Hartmann’s solution, 0.9% sodium chloride solution, 5% glucose solution, and 10% glucose solution. Solutions prepared at approximately pH 4 are likely to have optimum stability. Keywords: lincomycin, stability, pH, intravenous fluids, IV additives

  15. Stage control of tablets manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Kucherenko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Today in Ukraine tuberculosis is the wide-spread infectious disease causing the death in most cases; about 700 thousand persons are suffering from it. In Ukraine epidemic of tuberculosis is progressing and spreading. In spite of all protective measures three inhabitants of our country contract tuberculosis per hour, every hour one patient dies and in common about 1.5% of the population is ill with tuberculosis. Isoniazid is antituberculous drug of the first line and it is the most effective one. Chemotherapy of tuberculosis requests long-lasting administration of antituberculous drugs that causes high risk of side effects. To prevent or lessen side effects of antituberculous medicines antioxidants use in complex therapy is perspective. Fulfilled investigations showed efficacy of combining two medical substances – isoniazid andthiotriazolin – in one dosage form. Objective.The aim of our investigation is working out the methods of standardization, in particularquantitative determination of isoniazid andthiotriazolin content in tablet mass by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Materials and Methods.During in-process investigations combined tableted remedy containing isoniazid andthiotriazolin and proper amount of adjuvants has been developed (it contains active substances isoniazid – 0.2 g,thiotriazolin – 0.05 g and adjuvants up to the 0.4 g of the tablet. During stage control of tablets manufacturingspecial attention is paid to the control of tablet mass quality. Especially it concerns quantitative determination of active substances in it. More and more attention is paid to modern physical-chemical methods of standardization in up-to-date analysis of drug products, such as ultraviolet spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC etc. In previous scientific investigations we proved the possibility of standardization of active substances artificial compound by HPLC method and optimal conditions of analysis performing

  16. Comparative Efficacy Of 1% Terbinafine Hydrochloride And 1% Butenafine Hydrochloride Cream In The Treatment Of Tinea Cruris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathi Sanjay K

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the comparative efficacy of 1% terbinafine hydrochloride and 1% butenafine hydrochloride cream in the treatment of Tinea cruris, was done taking with ten patients in each study group. They were found to be equipotent in one and two weeks treatment respectively.

  17. Quantitative Appearance Inspection for Film Coated Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Kazunari; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    The decision criteria for the physical appearance of pharmaceutical products are subjective and qualitative means of evaluation that are based entirely on human interpretation. In this study, we have developed a comprehensive method for the quantitative analysis of the physical appearance of film coated tablets. Three different kinds of film coated tablets with considerable differences in their physical appearances were manufactured as models, and their surface roughness, contact angle, color measurements and physicochemical properties were investigated as potential characteristics for the quantitative analysis of their physical appearance. All of these characteristics were useful for the quantitative evaluation of the physical appearances of the tablets, and could potentially be used to establish decision criteria to assess the quality of tablets. In particular, the analysis of the surface roughness and film coating properties of the tablets by terahertz spectroscopy allowed for an effective evaluation of the tablets' properties. These results indicated the possibility of inspecting the appearance of tablets during the film coating process.

  18. Contact Angle Measurements: an Alternative Approach Towards Understanding the Mechanism of Increased Drug Dissolution from Ethylcellulose Tablets Containing Surfactant and Exploring the Relationship Between Their Contact Angles and Dissolution Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tiaotiao; Hao, Jingqiang; Yang, Baixue; Hu, Beibei; Cui, Zhixiang; Li, Sanming

    2018-05-01

    The addition of surfactant in tablet was a well-defined approach to improve drug dissolution rate. While the selected surfactant played a vital role in improving the wettability of tablet by medium, it was equally important to improve the dissolution rate by permeation effect due to production of pores or the reduced inter-particle adhesion. Furthermore, understanding the mechanism of dissolution rate increased was significant. In this work, contact angle measurement was taken up as an alternative approach for understanding the dissolution rate enhancement for tablet containing surfactant. Ethylcellulose, as a substrate, was used to prepare tablet. Four surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS), dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), and sodium lauryl sulfonate (SLS), were used. Berberine hydrochloride, metformin hydrochloride, and rutin were selected as model drugs. The contact angle of tablet in the absence and presence of surfactant was measured to explore the mechanism. The dissolution test was investigated to verify the mechanism and to establish a correlation with the contact angle. The result showed that the mechanism was the penetration effect rather than the wetting effect. The dissolution increased with a reduction in the contact angle. DTAB was found to obtain the highest level of dissolution enhancement and the lowest contact angle, while SDS, SDBS, and SLS were found to be the less effective in both dissolution enhancement and contact angle decrease. Therefore, contact angle was a good indicator for dissolution behavior besides exploring the mechanism of increased dissolution, which shows great potential in formula screening.

  19. WATER HYACINTH: A POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVE RATE RETARDING NATURAL POLYMER USED IN SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLET DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabera eKhatun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years natural polymers have been widely used, because of their effectiveness and availability over synthetic polymers. In this present investigation matrix tablets of Metformin hydrochloride were formulated using Water hyacinth powder and its rate retardant activity was studied. Tablets were prepared using wet granulation method with 8% starch as granulating agent and 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% of Water hyacinth powder to the drug. In preformulation study, angle of repose, Carr’s Index and Hausner ratio were calculated. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM studies were performed and no interactions were found between drug and excipients. Weight variation, friability, hardness, thickness, diameter, and in vitro release study were performed with the prepared matrix tablets. Dissolution studies were conducted using USP type II apparatus at a speed of 100 rpm at 37oC ± 0.5 temperature, for 8 hours. All the formulations comply with both BP and USP requirements, but among all the formulations F-1 (5% of Water hyacinth was the best fitted formula. The drug release patterns were explained in different kinetic models such as Zero order, First order, Higuchi, Hixson Crowell and Korsmeyer-Peppas equations. The current investigation implies that Water hyacinth has the potential to be used as a rate-retarding agent in sustained release drug formulations.

  20. Water hyacinth: a possible alternative rate retarding natural polymer used in sustained release tablet design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Sabera; Sutradhar, Kumar B

    2014-01-01

    In recent years natural polymers have been widely used because of their effectiveness and availability over synthetic polymers. In this present investigation matrix tablets of Metformin hydrochloride were formulated using Water hyacinth powder and its rate retardant activity was studied. Tablets were prepared using wet granulation method with 8% starch as granulating agent and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% of Water hyacinth powder to the drug. In preformulation study, angle of repose, Carr's Index and Hausner ratio were calculated. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies were performed and no interactions were found between drug and excipients. Weight variation, friability, hardness, thickness, diameter, and in vitro release study were performed with the prepared matrix tablets. Dissolution studies were conducted using USP type II apparatus at a speed of 100 rpm at 37°C ± 0.5 temperature for 8 h. Though all the formulations comply with both BP and USP requirements, formulation F-1 (5% of Water hyacinth) was the best fitted formula. The drug release patterns were explained in different kinetic models such as Zero order, First order, Higuchi, Hixson Crowell, and Korsmeyer-Peppas equations. The current investigation implies that Water hyacinth has the potential to be used as a rate-retarding agent in sustained release drug formulations.

  1. Provesicular granisetron hydrochloride buccal formulations: in vitro evaluation and preliminary investigation of in vivo performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sami; El-Setouhy, Doaa Ahmed; El-Latif Badawi, Alia Abd; El-Nabarawi, Mohamed Ahmed

    2014-08-18

    Granisetron hydrochloride (granisetron) is a potent antiemetic that has been proven to be effective in acute and delayed emesis in cancer chemotherapy. Granisetron suffers from reduced oral bioavailability (≈60%) due to hepatic metabolism. In this study the combined advantage of provesicular carriers and buccal drug delivery has been explored aiming to sustain effect and improve bioavailability of granisetron via development of granisetron provesicular buccoadhesive tablets with suitable quality characteristics (hardness, drug content, in vitro release pattern, exvivo bioadhesion and in vivo bioadhesion behavior). Composition of the reconstituted niosomes from different prepared provesicular carriers regarding type of surfactant used and cholesterol concentration significantly affected both entrapment efficiency (%EE) and vesicle size. Span 80 proniosome-derived niosomes exhibited higher encapsulation efficiency and smaller particle size than those derived from span 20. Also, the effect of %EE and bioadhesive polymer type on in vitro drug release and in vivo performance of buccoadhesive tablets was investigated. Based on achievement of required in vitro release pattern (20-30% at 2h, 40-65% at 6h and 80-95% at 12h), in vivo swelling behavior, and in vivo adhesion time (>14 h) granisetron formulation (F19, 1.4 mg) comprising HPMC:carbopol 974P (7:3) and maltodextrin coated with the vesicular precursors span 80 and cholesterol (9:1) was chosen for in vivo study. In vivo pharmacokinetic study revealed higher bioavailability of buccal formulation relative to conventional oral formulation of granisetron (AUC0-∞ is 89.97 and 38.18 ng h/ml for buccal and oral formulation, respectively). A significantly lower and delayed Cmax (12.09±4.47 ng/ml, at 8h) was observed after buccal application compared to conventional oral tablet (31.66±10.15 ng/ml, at 0.5 h). The prepared provesicular buccoadhesive tablet of granisetron (F19) might help bypass hepatic first

  2. Spectrophotometric method of the determination of gold (III) by using imipramine hydrochloride and promethazine hydrochloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dembinski, B.; Kurzawa, M.; Szydlowska-Czerniak, A.

    2003-01-01

    Imipramine hydrochloride (IPM.HCl) and promethazine hydrochloride (PMT-HCl) were used for the spectrophotometric determination of gold (III) in the aqueous solution. The halides complexes of gold (III) created a coloured coupling with the studied drugs which were extractable in chloroform. These new compounds were characterized by IR,UV-VIS spectra and thermal and elemental analysis. Rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of gold (III) in the aqueous solution is described. The absorbance was found to be linear function of the gold (III) concentration in the range from 0.2 to 20 x10/sup -1/ mg. The ratio of complex (AuX/sub 4/) to the organic cation from drug in the obtained compounds was determined as 1:1. The method was satisfactorily applied to the analysis of gold (III). A great advantage of the proposed method is that the trace amounts of gold (III) can also be examined. (author)

  3. Dose Uniformity of Scored and Unscored Tablets: Application of the FDA Tablet Scoring Guidance for Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavarella, Anthony B; Khan, Mansoor A; Gupta, Abhay; Faustino, Patrick J

    This U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) laboratory study examines the impact of tablet splitting, the effect of tablet splitters, and the presence of a tablet score on the dose uniformity of two model drugs. Whole tablets were purchased from five manufacturers for amlodipine and six for gabapentin. Two splitters were used for each drug product, and the gabapentin tablets were also split by hand. Whole and split amlodipine tablets were tested for content uniformity following the general chapter of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Uniformity of Dosage Units , which is a requirement of the new FDA Guidance for Industry on tablet scoring. The USP weight variation method was used for gabapentin split tablets based on the recommendation of the guidance. All whole tablets met the USP acceptance criteria for the Uniformity of Dosage Units. Variation in whole tablet content ranged from 0.5 to 2.1 standard deviation (SD) of the percent label claim. Splitting the unscored amlodipine tablets resulted in a significant increase in dose variability of 6.5-25.4 SD when compared to whole tablets. Split tablets from all amlodipine drug products did not meet the USP acceptance criteria for content uniformity. Variation in the weight for gabapentin split tablets was greater than the whole tablets, ranging from 1.3 to 9.3 SD. All fully scored gabapentin products met the USP acceptance criteria for weight variation. Size, shape, and the presence or absence of a tablet score can affect the content uniformity and weight variation of amlodipine and gabapentin tablets. Tablet splitting produced higher variability. Differences in dose variability and fragmentation were observed between tablet splitters and hand splitting. These results are consistent with the FDA's concerns that tablet splitting can have an effect on the amount of drug present in a split tablet and available for absorption. Tablet splitting has become a very common practice in the United States and throughout the

  4. Colour Reproduction on Tablet Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Zorić

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of Internet and mobile devices client services and other print production are migrating more and more to online platforms. In a recent technology changeover it is obvious that there is growing number of printers as well need from the customers for the print service providers to expand their business to online and mobile platforms. With this technological transition there are some open questions regarding the possibilities of using the tablet devices for colour soft proofing and other colour related operations. As a display devices on a hardware level there are large similarities with the desktop display devices but the operating systems which are driving them are not yet colour smart. There have been some initial attempts to characterize the colour reproduction on this type of devices and find a possibility of using them not just for information content but also for colour managed content. In this study we have tested several tablets (Apple iPad2,Asus Transformer TF101, Samsung Galaxy Tab 1 with different display and OS technology and tested a software which is intended for colour managed viewing of the reproduction. We have measured the colour reproduction of the tablets with the digital version of the GretagMacbeth ColorChecker card and have calculated the colour differences between the colour chart data and the displayed data. We have calibrated the Ipad2 with the only existing colour management tool the Spyder Gallery and we have also tested the chart display with and without the colour correction of the software. We have found that there are differences in the colour reproduction of the display technologies and that the possibilities of a real colour managed workflow has yet to be resolved on the OS level of tablet and mobile devices

  5. Voltammetric Determination of Ivabradine Hydrochloride Using Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Electrode in Presence of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kamal Attia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A new sensitive sensor was fabricated for the determination of ivabradine hydrochloride (IH based on modification with multiwalled carbon nanotubes using sodium dodecyl sulfate as micellar medium to increase the sensitivity. Methods: The electrochemical behavior of IH was studied in Britton-Robinson buffer (pH: 2.0-11.0 using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry. Results: The voltammetric response was linear over the range of 3.984 x 10-6-3.475 x 10-5 mol L-1. The limits of detection and quantification were found to be 5.160 x 10-7 and 1.720 x 10-6 mol L-1, respectively. Conclusion: This method is suitable for determination of IH in tablets and plasma.

  6. Voltammetric Determination of Ivabradine Hydrochloride Using Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Electrode in Presence of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Ali Kamal; Abo-Talib, Nisreen Farouk; Tammam, Marwa Hosny

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: A new sensitive sensor was fabricated for the determination of ivabradine hydrochloride (IH) based on modification with multiwalled carbon nanotubes using sodium dodecyl sulfate as micellar medium to increase the sensitivity. Methods: The electrochemical behavior of IH was studied in Britton-Robinson buffer (pH: 2.0-11.0) using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry. Results: The voltammetric response was linear over the range of 3.984 x 10 -6 -3.475 x 10 -5 mol L -1 . The limits of detection and quantification were found to be 5.160 x 10 -7 and 1.720 x 10-6 mol L -1 , respectively. Conclusion: This method is suitable for determination of IH in tablets and plasma.

  7. Can Tablet Computers Enhance Faculty Teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Aditee P; Whicker, Shari A; Benjamin, Robert W; Hawley, Jeffrey; McGann, Kathleen A

    2015-06-01

    Learner benefits of tablet computer use have been demonstrated, yet there is little evidence regarding faculty tablet use for teaching. Our study sought to determine if supplying faculty with tablet computers and peer mentoring provided benefits to learners and faculty beyond that of non-tablet-based teaching modalities. We provided faculty with tablet computers and three 2-hour peer-mentoring workshops on tablet-based teaching. Faculty used tablets to teach, in addition to their current, non-tablet-based methods. Presurveys, postsurveys, and monthly faculty surveys assessed feasibility, utilization, and comparisons to current modalities. Learner surveys assessed perceived effectiveness and comparisons to current modalities. All feedback received from open-ended questions was reviewed by the authors and organized into categories. Of 15 eligible faculty, 14 participated. Each participant attended at least 2 of the 3 workshops, with 10 to 12 participants at each workshop. All participants found the workshops useful, and reported that the new tablet-based teaching modality added value beyond that of current teaching methods. Respondents developed the following tablet-based outputs: presentations, photo galleries, evaluation tools, and online modules. Of the outputs, 60% were used in the ambulatory clinics, 33% in intensive care unit bedside teaching rounds, and 7% in inpatient medical unit bedside teaching rounds. Learners reported that common benefits of tablet computers were: improved access/convenience (41%), improved interactive learning (38%), and improved bedside teaching and patient care (13%). A common barrier faculty identified was inconsistent wireless access (14%), while no barriers were identified by the majority of learners. Providing faculty with tablet computers and having peer-mentoring workshops to discuss their use was feasible and added value.

  8. Specifications development for "Karbatril" codenamed tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Kucherenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. According to current legislation of Ukraine the specifications of tablets include the following indicators: description, identification, average weight, disintegration and assay. The aim of the study. The development of specifications and project of quality control methods for "Karbatril" codenamed tablets. Materials and methods. During the study we analyzed 6 series of tablets "Karbatril." For the description, identification, determination of the average mass, disintegration, active ingredients quantify of "Karbatril" codenamed tablets we used appropriate methods and instruments. Results and discussion. Tablets "Karbatril" were analyzed for the following parameters: - Overview - Tablets white or nearly white; - Average weight - during the study the average weight of 6 series of obtained tablets ranged from 339,0 mg to 369,9 mg according to SPU from 337,0 mg to 373,0 mg; - Disintegration – according to SPU the disintegration for tablet without shell shall not exceed 15 min. Analyzed tablets disintegrated in the period from 5 to 10 minutes; - Identification and quantification of the active ingredients of tablets were conducted using modified HPLC methods. During the identification obtained chromatograms show compliance with SPU. In quantitative determination of the active ingredients content in "Karbatril" codenamed tablets we found carbamazepine from 148.18 mg to 150.19 mg, thiotriazoline - from 98.93 mg to 99.71 mg. This data is consistent to SPU which regulates content of carbamazepine - 150 mg ± 7,5%, thiotriazoline - 100 mg ± 10%. Conclusions. This study has developed specification for "Karbatril" codenamed tablets and also methods of HPLC qualitative and quantitative determination of active ingredients. In the specification the following parameters are included: description, identification, average weight, disintegration and assay. The study drafted quality control methods which are planned to be later offered to the

  9. Pharmaceutical and analytical evaluation of triphalaguggulkalpa tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Savarikar, Shreeram S.; Barbhind, Maneesha M.; Halde, Umakant K.; Kulkarni, Alpana P.

    2011-01-01

    Aim of the Study: Development of standardized, synergistic, safe and effective traditional herbal formulations with robust scientific evidence can offer faster and more economical alternatives for the treatment of disease. The main objective was to develop a method of preparation of guggulkalpa tablets so that the tablets meet the criteria of efficacy, stability, and safety. Materials and Methods: Triphalaguggulkalpa tablet, described in sharangdharsanhita and containing guggul and triphala p...

  10. Malarone (atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride): a review of its clinical development for treatment of malaria. Malarone Clinical Trials Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looareesuwan, S; Chulay, J D; Canfield, C J; Hutchinson, D B

    1999-04-01

    The continuing spread of drug-resistant malaria emphasizes the need for new antimalarial drugs. Atovaquone is a broad-spectrum antiprotozoal drug with a novel mechanism of action, via inhibition of parasite mitochondrial electron transport, and a favorable safety profile. Early studies with atovaquone alone for treatment of malaria demonstrated good initial control of parasitemia but an unacceptable rate of recrudescent parasitemia. Parasites isolated during recrudescence after treatment with atovaquone alone were resistant to atovaquone in vitro. The combination of atovaquone and proguanil is synergistic in vitro, and clinical studies demonstrated enhanced efficacy of the combination compared to either drug alone for treatment of malaria. Malarone, a fixed-dose combination of 250 mg of atovaquone and 100 mg of proguanil hydrochloride, is available in many countries for treatment of acute, uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. At the recommended dose (in adults, four tablets once a day for three days), the overall cure rate was > 98% in more than 500 patients with falciparum malaria. In four randomized, controlled clinical trials, treatment with atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride was significantly more effective than mefloquine (Thailand), amodiaquine (Gabon), chloroquine (Peru and the Philippines) or chloroquine plus pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine (Philippines). In clinical trials where the comparator drug was highly effective, treatment with atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride was equally effective. Parasites isolated during recrudescence after treatment with the combination of atovaquone and proguanil were not resistant to atovaquone in vitro. The most commonly reported adverse events in clinical trials (abdominal pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and coughing) occurred with similar frequency in patients treated with a comparator drug. Malarone is a safe and effective new agent for treatment of malaria.

  11. Efficacy and Safety of Drotaverine Hydrochloride in Children with Recurrent Abdominal Pain: A Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Manish; Shah, Dheeraj; Akhtar, Hina

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Drotaverine hydrochroride in children with recurrent abdominal pain. Double blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. Pediatric Gastroenterology clinic of a teaching hospital. 132 children (age 4-12 y) with recurrent abdominal pain (Apley Criteria) randomized to receivedrotaverine (n=66) or placebo (n=66) orally. Children between 4-6 years of age received 10 mL syrup orally (20 mg drotaverine hydrochloride or placebo) thrice daily for 4 weeks while children >6 years of age received one tablet orally (40 mg drotaverine hydrochloride or placebo) thrice daily for 4 weeks. Primary: Number of episodes of pain during 4 weeks of use of drug/placebo and number of pain-free days. Secondary: Number of school days missed during the study period, parental satisfaction (on a Likert scale), and occurrence of solicited adverse effects. Reduction in number of episodes of abdominal pain [mean (SD) number of episodes 10.3 (14) vs 21.6 (32.4); P=0.01] and lesser school absence [mean (SD) number of school days missed 0.25 (0.85) vs 0.71 (1.59); P=0.05] was noticed in children receiving drotaverine in comparison to those who received placebo. The number of pain-free days, were comparable in two groups [17.4 (8.2) vs 15.6 (8.7); P=0.23]. Significant improvement in parental satisfaction score was noticed on Likert scale by estimation of mood, activity, alertness, comfort and fluid intake. Frequency of adverse events during follow-up period was comparable between children receiving drotaverine or placebo (46.9% vs 46.7%; P=0.98). Drotaverine hydrochloride is an effective and safe pharmaceutical agent in the management of recurrent abdominal pain in children.

  12. Tablet surface characterisation by various imaging techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitavuopio, Paulus; Rantanen, Jukka; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise tablet surfaces using different imaging and roughness analytical techniques including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser profilometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The test materials compressed were potassium chloride (KCl......) and sodium chloride (NaCl). It was found that all methods used suggested that the KCl tablets were smoother than the NaCl tablets and higher compression pressure made the tablets smoother. Imaging methods like optical microscopy and SEM can give useful information about the roughness of the sample surface...

  13. IV treatment at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other IV treatments you may receive after you leave the hospital include: Treatment for hormone deficiencies Medicines for severe nausea that cancer chemotherapy or pregnancy may cause Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for pain (this is IV ...

  14. Formulation and evaluation of tramadol hydrochloride rectal suppositories

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem M; Taher M; Sanaullah S; Najmuddin M; Ali Javed; Humaira S; Roshan S

    2008-01-01

    Rectal suppositories of tramadol hydrochloride were prepared using different bases and polymers like PEG, cocoa butter, agar and the effect of different additives on in vitro release of tramadol hydrochloride was studied. The agar-based suppositories were non-disintegrating/non-dissolving, whereas PEGs were disintegrating/dissolving and cocoa butter were melting suppositories. All the prepared suppositories were evaluated for various physical parameters like weight variation, drug content a...

  15. Development and evaluation of fixed dose bi therapy sublingual tablets for treatment stress hypertension and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A El-Nabarawi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A stress induced rise in the blood pressure. Some believe that patients with hypertension are characterized by a generalized state of increased anxiety. Aim: The purpose of this study is to prepare a fixed dose bi therapy using bisoprolol hemifumarate (BH as antihypertensive drug and buspirone hydrochloride (BuHCl as anxiolytic drug, which can be used to treat both diseases concomitantly. Using sublingual tablets is hopeful to improve the BuHCl poor oral bioavailability and to facilitate administration to patients experiencing problems with swallowing. Materials and Methods: A total of 5mg BH and 10mg BuHCl were selected based on compatibility study. A 3×22 full factorial design was adopted for the optimization of the tablets prepared by direct compression method. The effects of the filler type, the binder molecular weight, and the binder type were studied. The prepared formulae were evaluated according to their physical characters as hardness, friability, disintegration time (new modified method and in vivo disintegration time and wetting properties. In vitro drugs dissolute, permeation through the buccal mucosa and the effect of storage were analyzed by a new valid high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC method. Bioavailability study of the selected formula study was carried out and followed by the clinical. Results: The optimized tablet formulation showed accepted average weight, hardness, wetting time, friability, content uniformity, disintegration time (less than 3 min. Maximum drug release could be achieved with in 10 min. In addition enhancing drug permeation through the buccal mucosa and, the maximum concentration of the drug that reached the blood was in the first 10 min which means a rapid onset of action and improved the extent of both drug′s absorption. Conclusion: The results revealed that sublingual (F6 tablets containing both drugs would maintain rapid onset of action, and increase bioavailability. BuHCl with BH

  16. 78 FR 34108 - Determination That SUBOXONE (Buprenorphine Hydrochloride and Naloxone Hydrochloride) Sublingual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... naloxone HCl) sublingual tablets, 2 mg/0.5 mg and 8 mg/2 mg, are the subject of NDA 20-733, held by Reckitt Benckiser Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Reckitt), and initially approved on October 8, 2002. SUBOXONE is indicated...,'' http://www.rb.com/site/rkbr/templates/mediainvestorsgeneral2.aspx?pageid=1332&cc=GB , Reckitt Benckiser...

  17. Quality-by-design III: application of near-infrared spectroscopy to monitor roller compaction in-process and product quality attributes of immediate release tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kona, Ravikanth; Fahmy, Raafat M; Claycamp, Gregg; Polli, James E; Martinez, Marilyn; Hoag, Stephen W

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study is to use near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) coupled with multivariate chemometric models to monitor granule and tablet quality attributes in the formulation development and manufacturing of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIP) immediate release tablets. Critical roller compaction process parameters, compression force (CFt), and formulation variables identified from our earlier studies were evaluated in more detail. Multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square (PLS) models were developed during the development stage and used as a control tool to predict the quality of granules and tablets. Validated models were used to monitor and control batches manufactured at different sites to assess their robustness to change. The results showed that roll pressure (RP) and CFt played a critical role in the quality of the granules and the finished product within the range tested. Replacing binder source did not statistically influence the quality attributes of the granules and tablets. However, lubricant type has significantly impacted the granule size. Blend uniformity, crushing force, disintegration time during the manufacturing was predicted using validated PLS regression models with acceptable standard error of prediction (SEP) values, whereas the models resulted in higher SEP for batches obtained from different manufacturing site. From this study, we were able to identify critical factors which could impact the quality attributes of the CIP IR tablets. In summary, we demonstrated the ability of near-infrared spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics as a powerful tool to monitor critical quality attributes (CQA) identified during formulation development.

  18. Product development of pumpkin tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamgoed, T.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of pumpkin tablet was studied and the drying conditions of pumpkin using a double drum dryer were optimized. The study factors were drying agents (maltodextrin D.E.13-16 andtapioca flour at different levels (3 and 5%, drying temperatures (130 and 140oC and drum dryer speeds (4 and 5 rpm. The results showed that the optimal conditions were using 3% maltodextrin D.E.13-16, dryingtemperature of 130oC and drum dryer speed of 4 rpm. The moisture, fat, bulk density, reducing sugars and granulometric retention of the obtained pumpkin powder were 3.39%, 1.42%, 1.004 g/ml, 12.63% and 0.67%, respectively and L*, a* and b* values were 73.85, -0.60 and 35.23, respectively. A study of suitable amount of icing sugar using different contents for tablet production (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% was performedand showed that using 20% icing sugar was the most acceptable. The obtained pumpkin tablet was subjected to chemical, physical and microbiological analysis. The ash, moisture, protein, fat, fiber and carbohydratecontents were 1.87, 3.60, 3.34, 1.00, 2.26 and 87.99%, respectively. The reducing sugars and β-carotene contents were 5.44±0.61% and 3.79±0.57 mg/100g, respectively. The Aw, hardness and solubility were 0.56,3.25 kgf and 25.00 %, respectively. The L*, a* and b* values were 79.85, 0.28 and 23.64, respectively. The total microbial count and the yeast and mould count were <10 CFU/g. The shelf life of the pumpkin tabletwas at least 4 months at room temperature (35±2oC.

  19. Review of moxifloxacin hydrochloride ophthalmic solution in the treatment of bacterial eye infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlene Miller

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Darlene MillerAbrams Ocular Microbiology Laboratory, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Anne Bates Leach Eye Hospital, Miller School of Medicine-University of Miami, FL, USAAbstract: Moxifloxacin hydrochloride ophthalmic solution 0.5% (Vigamox® is the ocular formulation/adaptation of moxifloxacin. Moxifloxacin is a broad spectrum 8-methoxyfluoroquinolone which terminates bacterial growth by binding to DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II and topoisomerase IV, essential bacterial enzymes involved in the replication, translation, repair and recombination of deoxyribonucleic acid. Affinity for both enzymes improves potency and reduces the probability of selecting resistant bacterial subpopulations. Vigamox is a bactericidal, concentration dependent, anti-infective. It is preservative free, and well tolerated with minimal ocular side effects. It provides increased penetration into ocular tissues and fluids with improved activity against Streptococci and Staphylococci species and moderate to excellent activity against clinically relevant, gram- negative ocular pathogens.Keywords: moxifloxacin, vigamox, pharmacodynamic indices, minimal inhibitory concentrations

  20. Tablet-teknologi i fysioterapi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Lene; Støve, Morten Pallisgaard; Harbo, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Projektbaggrund og formål: Med projektet har vi ønsket at udvikle, afdække, implementere og afprøve funktionalitet og design af en app-baseret elektronisk genoptræningsportal. I projektet er der afprøvet en app. rettet mod fysioterapeuten og en app. rettet mod patienten. Formålet var at afdække u...... undervisning i teknologien samt løbende support højt, hvorfor tidsaspektet for deltagerne bliver vigtig. Reference: www.ucviden.dk, Duus, L & Støve Morten P, 2014. Tablet-teknologi i Fysioterapi....

  1. Transforming the Classroom With Tablet Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Lana; Miles, Elizabeth

    Identifying the most effective models for integrating new technology into the classroom and understanding its effects on educational outcomes are essential for nurse educators. This article describes an educational intervention with tablet technology (iPads) using an innovative case-based learning model in a nursing program. Students reported positive learning outcomes when using the tablet technology for learning course content.

  2. 21 CFR 520.1510 - Nitenpyram tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... order of a licensed veterinarian. (d) Conditions of use—(1) Dogs—(i) Amount—(A) One 11.4-mg tablet for dogs weighing less than 25 pounds (lb) or one 57-mg tablet for dogs weighing more than 25 lb, as needed...

  3. How Tablets Are Utilized in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditzler, Christine; Hong, Eunsook; Strudler, Neal

    2016-01-01

    New technologies are a large part of the educational landscape in the 21st century. Emergent technologies are implemented in the classroom at an exponential rate. The newest technology to be added to the daily classroom is the tablet computer. Understanding students' and teachers' perceptions about the role of tablet computers is important as this…

  4. Breaking of scored tablets : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, E; Barends, D M; Frijlink, H W

    The literature was reviewed regarding advantages, problems and performance indicators of score lines. Scored tablets provide dose flexibility, ease of swallowing and may reduce the costs of medication. However, many patients are confronted with scored tablets that are broken unequally and with

  5. Tablet Keiti: Does it Contain Astronomical Instructions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    Ethnographic data collected on Easter Island in the late XIX and first half of the XX century suggest that the extant rongorongo tablets contain songs, legends or other chanted traditions. However, we have yet to succeed in relating any one of the rongorongo texts to one of the many legends...... collected by ethnographers. An interesting observation is that, while none of the Rapanuis with whom early visitors to the island were acquainted mentioned anything about astronomy in the context of rongorongo tablets, the only piece of rongorongo texts whose meaning we are certain of is the “calendar...... tablet Mamari”. In the four lines of this tablet, also known as rongorongo text C, we encounter 30 moon glyphs arranged in a pattern that mirrors the Rapa Nui lunar calendar as recorded by early Western visitors. This presentation argues that yet another rongorongo item – tablet Keiti, also known as text...

  6. Gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.M.; Chernish, S.M.; Rosenek, B.D.; Brunelle, R.L.; Hargrove, B.; Wellman, H.N.

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the gastric emptying time of pharmaceutical dosage forms in a clinical setting, a relatively simple dual-radionuclide technique was developed. Placebo tablets of six different combinations of shape and size were labeled with indium-111 DTPA and enteric coated. Six volunteers participated in a single-blind and crossover study. Tablets were given in the morning of a fasting stomach with 6 oz of water containing /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate and continuously observed with a gamma camera. A scintigraph was obtained each minute. The results suggested that the size, shape, or volume of the tablet used in this study had no significant effect in the rate of gastric emptying. The tablets emptied erratically and unpredictably, depending upon their time of arrival in the stomach in relation to the occurrence of interdigestive myoelectric contractions. The method described is a relatively simple and accurate technique to allow one to follow the gastric emptying of tablets

  7. Spectrophotometric Quantification of Vilazodone Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form Using Quality by Design Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, S.S.; Kumar, B.V.V.R.K.; Beg, S.; Behera, S.

    2015-01-01

    The present work deals with development and validation of a novel, robust, precise and accurate spectrophotometric method, for the estimation of vilazodone hydrochloride in tablets using the principle of Quality by Design (QbD). A fractional factorial design (FFD) was employed for initial parameter screening. Further the screened parameters were subjected to central composite design (CCD) for evaluating method robustness and method optimization. Different statistical parameters were evaluated to decide appropriateness of experimental data. Vilazodone shows absorption maximum at 285 nm using methanol. Factor screening slit width and sampling interval were identified as critical method variables, which were further evaluated by a CCD. Good linearity was obtained for vilazodone in the range of 5-60 μg/ mL with R"2 > 0.999. The method was found to be accurate with good average % recovery (more than 100 %). Developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Based on QbD development of spectrophotometric method ensured that quality is built into the method. The method was robust and can be applied for determination of the vilazodone in pharmaceutical dosage form. (author)

  8. Pharmacokinetics of propafenone hydrochloride sustained-release capsules in male beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Liping; Qian, Yafang; Cheng, Minlu; Gu, Pan; He, Yanna; Xu, Xiaowen; Ding, Li

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric assay for propafenone and its application to a pharmacokinetic study of propafenone administered as a new propafenone hydrochloride sustained-release capsule (SR-test), as an instant-release tablet (IR-reference) and as the market leader sustained-release capsule (Rythmol, SR-reference) in male beagle dogs (n=8). In Study A comparing SR-test with IR-reference in a crossover design T max and t 1/2 of propafenone for SR-test were significantly higher than those for IR-reference while C max and AUC were lower demonstrating the sustained release properties of the new formulation. In Study B comparing SR-test with SR-reference the observed C max and AUC of propafenone for SR-test (124.5±140.0 ng/mL and 612.0±699.2 ng·h/mL, respectively) were higher than for SR-reference (78.52±72.92 ng/mL and 423.6±431.6 ng·h/mL, respectively) although the differences were not significant. Overall, the new formulation has as good if not better sustained release characteristics to the market leader formulation.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of propafenone hydrochloride sustained-release capsules in male beagle dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development and validation of a liquid chromatography–mass spectrometric assay for propafenone and its application to a pharmacokinetic study of propafenone administered as a new propafenone hydrochloride sustained-release capsule (SR-test, as an instant-release tablet (IR-reference and as the market leader sustained-release capsule (Rythmol, SR-reference in male beagle dogs (n=8. In Study A comparing SR-test with IR-reference in a crossover design Tmax and t1/2 of propafenone for SR-test were significantly higher than those for IR-reference while Cmax and AUC were lower demonstrating the sustained release properties of the new formulation. In Study B comparing SR-test with SR-reference the observed Cmax and AUC of propafenone for SR-test (124.5±140.0 ng/mL and 612.0±699.2 ng·h/mL, respectively were higher than for SR-reference (78.52±72.92 ng/mL and 423.6±431.6 ng·h/mL, respectively although the differences were not significant. Overall, the new formulation has as good if not better sustained release characteristics to the market leader formulation.

  10. Mathematical tablets from Tell Harmal

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This work offers a re-edition of twelve mathematical tablets from the site of Tell Harmal, in the borders of present-day Baghdad. In ancient times, Tell Harmal was Šaduppûm, a city representative of the region of the Diyala river and of the kingdom of Ešnunna, to which it belonged for a time. These twelve tablets were originally published in separate articles in the beginning of the 1950s and mostly contain solved problem texts. Some of the problems deal with abstract matters such as triangles and rectangles with no reference to daily life, while others are stated in explicitly empirical contexts, such as the transportation of a load of bricks, the size of a vessel, the number of men needed to build a wall and the acquisition of oil and lard. This new edition of the texts is the first to group them, and takes into account all the recent developments of the research in the history of Mesopotamian mathematics. Its introductory chapters are directed to readers interested in an overview of the mathematical con...

  11. Solubility and bioavailability improvement of pazopanib hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbrink, Maikel; Groenland, Stefanie L; Huitema, Alwin D R; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H; Steeghs, Neeltje; Nuijen, Bastiaan

    2018-06-10

    The anti-cancer drug pazopanib hydrochloride (PZH) has a very low aqueous solubility and a variable oral bioavailability. A new pharmaceutical formulation with an improved solubility may enhance the bioavailability and reduce the variability. A broad selection of polymer excipients was tested for their compatibility and solubilizing properties by conventional microscopic, thermal and spectrometric techniques. A wet milling and mixing technique was used to produce homogenous powder mixtures. The dissolution properties of the formulation were tested by a pH-switch dissolution model. The final formulation was tested in vivo in cancer patient following a dose escalation design. Of the tested mixture formulations, the one containing the co-block polymer Soluplus® in a 8:1 ratio with PZH performed best in terms of in vitro dissolution properties. The in vivo results indicated that 300 mg of the developed formulation yields similar exposure and a lower variability (379 μg/mL∗h (36.7% CV)) than previously reported values for the standard PZH formulation (Votrient®) at the approved dose of 800 mg. Furthermore, the expected plasma-C through levels (27.2 μg/mL) exceeds the defined therapeutic efficacy threshold of 20 μg/mL. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of Clinical Efficacies of Preoperatively Initiated Naproxen Sodium-Codeine Phosphate in Combination, Diclofenac Potassium, and Benzydamine Hydrochloride for Pain, Edema, and Trismus After Extraction of Impacted Lower Third Molar: A Randomized Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigerim, Levent; Eroglu, Cennet Neslihan

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical efficacies of naproxen sodium-codeine phosphate in combination, benzydamine hydrochloride, and diclofenac potassium for pain, edema, and trismus after lower third molar extraction. Ninety healthy volunteers in whom impacted third molar extraction was indicated were randomly distributed into 3 groups. One hour before the tooth-extraction process, patients were administered one of the following drugs: naproxen sodium, 550 mg, and codeine phosphate, 30 mg, in a tablet; diclofenac potassium, 50 mg, in a coated pill; or benzydamine hydrochloride, 50 mg, in a coated pill. Pain assessment was conducted via a visual analog scale; edema assessment, by measuring the distances between predetermined facial landmarks; and trismus assessment, by measuring interincisal distance. Regarding rescue analgesics (paracetamol, 500 mg), the number and time of use by patients were recorded. Naproxen sodium-codeine phosphate was more effective for pain, edema, and trismus than diclofenac potassium and benzydamine hydrochloride (P hydrochloride yielded similar clinical responses to diclofenac potassium (P > .05). No drug-related side effects were observed. Naproxen sodium-codeine phosphate constitutes the drug of choice after the extraction of a patient's impacted lower third molar. Benzydamine hydrochloride has similar efficacy to diclofenac potassium, and it can be used as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesic drug. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A critical review on tablet disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quodbach, Julian; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Tablet disintegration is an important factor for drug release and can be modified with excipients called tablet disintegrants. Tablet disintegrants act via different mechanisms and the efficacy of these excipients is influenced by various factors. In this review, the existing literature on tablet disintegration is critically reviewed. Potential disintegration mechanisms, as well as impact factors on the disintegration process will be discussed based on experimental evidence. Search terms for Scopus and Web of Science included "tablet disintegration", "mechanism tablet disintegration", "superdisintegrants", "disintegrants", "swelling force", "disintegration force", "disintegration mechanisms", as well as brand names of commonly applied superdisintegrants. References of identified papers were screened as well. Experimental data supports swelling and shape recovery as main mechanisms of action of disintegrants. Other tablet excipients and different manufacturing techniques greatly influence the disintegration process. The use of different excipients, experimental setups and manufacturing techniques, as well as the demand for original research led to a distinct patchwork of knowledge. Broader, more systematic approaches are necessary not only to structure the past but also future findings.

  14. Terahertz Technology: A Boon to Tablet Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, M. P.; Sonawane, Y. H.; Joshi, O. U.

    2009-01-01

    The terahertz gap has a frequency ranges from ∼0.3 THz to ∼10 THz in the electromagnetic spectrum which is in between microwave and infrared. The terahertz radiations are invisible to naked eye. In comparison with x-ray they are intrinsically safe, non-destructive and non-invasive. Terahertz spectroscopy enables 3D imaging of structures and materials, and the measurement of the unique spectral fingerprints of chemical and physical forms. Terahertz radiations are produced by a dendrimer based high power terahertz source and spectroscopy technologies. It resolves many of the questions left unanswered by complementary techniques, such as optical imaging, Raman and infrared spectra. In the pharmaceutical industries it enables nondestructive, internal, chemical analysis of tablets, capsules, and other dosage forms. Tablet coatings are a major factor in drug bioavailability. Therefore tablet coatings integrity and uniformity are of crucial importance to quality. Terahertz imaging gives an unparalleled certainty about the integrity of tablet coatings and the matrix performance of tablet cores. This article demonstrates the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the analysis of tablet coating thickness by illustrating the technique on tablets. PMID:20490288

  15. Preparation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of metformin hydrochloride rectal dosage forms for treatment of patients with type II diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, Abdel-Azim; Lila, Ahmad; Abd-Allah, Fathy; Nada, Aly

    2017-06-01

    Metformin hydrochloride (MtHCL) is an oral antidiabetic drug and has many other therapeutic benefits. It has poor bioavailability, narrow absorption window and extensive liver metabolism. Moreover, children and elders face difficulty to swallow the commercial oral tablets. Preparation, in vitro/in vivo evaluation of MtHCL suppositories for rectal administration to solve some of these problems. Suppository fatty bases (Witepsol ® , Suppocire ® and Massa ® ; different grades) and PEG bases 1000, 4000 and 6000 (different ratios), were used to prepare rectal suppository formulations each containing 500 mg drug. These were characterized for manufacturing defects, and pharmacotechnical performance and formulations showing superior results were subjected to bioavailability testing in human volunteers compared with the commercial oral tablet (Ref) applying LC-MS/MS developed analytical technique. The preparation method produced suppositories with satisfactory characteristics and free of manufacturing defects. The fatty bases were superior compared with PEG bases regarding the physical characteristics. Three formulations were chosen for bioavailability testing and the results showed comparable bioavailability compared to the Ref. The fatty bases showed superior characteristics compared with the PEG bases. MtHCL formulated in selected fatty bases could be a potential alternative to the commercial oral tablets particularly for pediatric and geriatric patients.

  16. A Simple RP-HPLC Method for Quantitation of Itopride HCl in Tablet Dosage Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengada, Rajan Vs; Mohamed, Saleem Ts; Ramkanth, S; Alagusundaram, M; Ganaprakash, K; Madhusudhana, Chetty C

    2010-10-01

    An isocratic reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection at 220 nm has been developed for the quantification of itopride hydrochloride in tablet dosage form. The quantification was carried out using C(8) column (250 mm × 4.6 mm), 5-μm particle size SS column. The mobile phase comprised of two solvents (Solvent A: buffer 1.4 mL ortho-phosphoric acid adjusted to pH 3.0 with triethyl amine and Solvent B: acetonitrile). The ratio of Solvent A: Solvent B was 75:25 v/v. The flow rate was 1.0 mL (-1)with UV detection at 220 nm. The method has been validated and proved to be robust. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 80-120% with coefficient of correlation 0.9995. The percentage recovery for itopride HCl was 100.01%. The proposed method was validated for its selectivity, linearity, accuracy, and precision. The method was found to be suitable for the quality control of itopride HCl in tablet dosage formulation.

  17. Dissolution test for glibenclamide tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Aparecida dos Santos Gianotto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop and validate a dissolution test for glibenclamide tablets. Optimal conditions to carry out the dissolution test are 500 mL of phosphate buffer at pH 8.0, paddles at 75 rpm stirring speed, time test set to 60 min and using equipment with six vessels. The derivative UV spectrophotometric method for determination of glibenclamide released was developed, validated and compared with the HPLC method. The UVDS method presents linearity (r² = 0.9999 in the concentration range of 5-14 µg/mL. Precision and recoveries were 0.42% and 100.25%, respectively. The method was applied to three products commercially available on the Brazilian market.

  18. Comparative investigations of tablet crushing force testers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnergaard, Jørn; Jensen, C.G.; Poulsen, L.

    2005-01-01

    The performance of 16 tablet breaking force testers was evaluated in terms of accuracy, reproducibility and repeatability. Three tablet formulations with different plastic or brittle deformation mechanisms and with target breaking forces of 50, 100 and 150 N were tested. Statistically significant...... by the concept of components of variance was 5-7 % depending on the model tablet excipient. The standard deviation within testers (repeatability) was affected by the type of model formulation showing increasing variability with increasing brittleness of the compressed material. No specific effect of altering...

  19. Teach yourself visually Windows 8 tablets

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    A visual guide to all the features of the new Windows 8 Tablet This must-have resource features visually rich, step-by-step instructions that show you how to get the most enjoyment from your Windows 8 tablet. Learn about the exciting new Metro UI, optimized specifically for touch devices. The most popular and commonly used apps and functions are covered too, along with the basics of syncing with a network, setting up e-mail, watching videos, listening to music, and common productivity tasks. This book provides all the guidance needed to enjoy all the best the new Windows 8 tablets have to offe

  20. Controlled-release tablet formulation of isoniazid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, N K; Kulkarni, K; Talwar, N

    1992-04-01

    Guar (GG) and Karaya gums (KG) alone and in combination with hydroxy-propylmethylcellulose (HPMC) were evaluated as release retarding materials to formulate a controlled-release tablet dosage form of isoniazid (1). In vitro release of 1 from tablets followed non-Fickian release profile with rapid initial release. Urinary excretion studies in normal subjects showed steady-state levels of 1 for 13 h. In vitro and in vivo data correlated (r = 0.9794). The studies suggested the potentiality of GG and KG as release retarding materials in formulating controlled-release tablet dosage forms of 1.

  1. Android Tablet Application Development For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Felker, Donn

    2011-01-01

    Get up to speed on the hottest opportunity in the application development arena App development for tablets is a booming business. Android tablets, including the popular Motorola Xoom, are gaining market share at breakneck speed, and this book can have even novice programmers creating great Android apps specifically for tablets quickly and easily. A little Java knowledge is helpful but not essential to get started creating apps. Android expert Donn Felker helps you get the Android environment up and running, use XML to create application menus, create an icon for your app, and submit your app

  2. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart Nnn... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride B Appendix B to Subpart NNN of Part 63 Protection of...—Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride 1. Scope This method was... hydrochloric acid that is liberated when hydroxylamine hydrochloride reacts with formaldehyde to form...

  3. 21 CFR 522.1662b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride with lidocaine injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride with lidocaine... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1662b Oxytetracycline hydrochloride with lidocaine injection. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 50 or 100 milligrams of oxytetracycline hydrochloride and 2 percent lidocaine...

  4. 21 CFR 524.1662b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, polymyxin B sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1662b Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the ointment contains oxytetracycline hydrochloride equivalent...

  5. 21 CFR 524.1662a - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1662a Oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone spray. (a) Specifications. Each 3-ounce unit of oxytetracycline hydrochloride and hydrocortisone spray contains 300...

  6. Clinical pharmacology of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerahee, M

    1999-05-01

    Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride is a new antimalarial combination that is used for treatment and prophylaxis of malaria. The clinical pharmacology of atovaquone and proguanil was reviewed. Atovaquone is a highly lipophilic compound with low aqueous solubility, the absorption of which is limited by the rate and extent of dissolution. Dietary fat increases the rate and extent of atovaquone absorption, increasing AUC two- to threefold and C(max) fivefold over fasting. Proguanil is rapidly and extensively absorbed regardless of food intake. Atovaquone is highly protein bound (> 99%) but does not displace other highly protein bound drugs in vitro, indicating significant drug interactions arising from displacement are unlikely. Atovaquone is predominantly eliminated unchanged in feces, with negligible excretion in urine. Proguanil is partially metabolized and partially excreted unchanged in urine. Its principal metabolite, cycloguanil, is also excreted in urine. Metabolism of proguanil is mediated in the liver by the cytochrome P450 3A and 2C subfamilies. The elimination half-life of atovaquone is 2 to 3 days in adults and 1 to 2 days in children. The elimination half-lives of proguanil and cycloguanil are 12 to 15 hours in adults and children. Dosage adjustments based on body weight categories in children (1/4 dose for 11-20 kg, 1/2 dose for > 20-30 kg, 3/4 dose for > 30-40 kg, and full dose for > 40 kg) achieve plasma concentrations that are safe and effective during prophylaxis and treatment of malaria. No dose adjustments for race, proguanil metabolizer status, gender, or elderly patients are needed, or for patients with mild to moderately impaired renal or hepatic function. The clinical pharmacology of atovaquone and proguanil provides a rationale for the dosing regimens recommended for treatment and prophylaxis of malaria.

  7. Placental transfer of ritodrine hydrochloride in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Seiichiro; Akahane, Masuo; Uzuki Katsuya; Inagawa, Akira; Sakai, Keiichiro; Sakai, Akira

    1984-01-01

    This study examines the placental passage of ritodrine hydrochloride in relation to the drug's effects on the fetal circulation. Studies were carried out on nine mulliparous pregnant (120-140 days) ewes with chronically implanted cannulae of measurements of maternal and fetal arterial pressures and for blood sampling. One group of animals received sequential infusions of doses ranging from 0.1 to 30 μg/kg per min for 30 min (group 1). A second group was given a constant infusion of the drug at a dose of 3.0 μg/kg per min for 4 h (group 2). The peak concentrations of ritodrine in maternal and fetal blood were determined by radioimmunoassay. In group 1 they were 313.4 +- 24.1 ng/ml (mean +-S.E.) and 12.6 +- 3.7 ng/ml at the finish of 30.0 ug/kg per min infusion for maternal and fetal blood, respectively. In group 2, maternal drug levels were 81.3 +- 20.4 ng/ml after 30 min and 95.9 +- 17.1 ng/ml after 4 h of the infusion. Fetal plasma concentrations increased slowly from trace levels at 30 min to 3.3 +- 0.7 ng/ml at 4 h. Fetal blood pressure and heart rate did not show any significant changes during and after the infusion of ritodrine in both treatment groups. The findings demonstrate the maternal administration of ritodrine produces no significant effects on the circulatory system of the fetal lamb because of the low transplacental passage of this drug. (author)

  8. Generation IV national program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preville, M.; Sadhankar, R.; Brady, D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the Generation IV National Program. This program involves evolutionary and innovative design with significantly higher efficiencies (∼50% compared to present ∼30%) - sustainable, economical, safe, reliable and proliferation resistant - for future energy security. The Generation IV Forum (GIF) effectively leverages the resources of the participants to meet these goals. Ten countries signed the GIF Charter in 2001

  9. Performance of tablet disintegrants: impact of storage conditions and relative tablet density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quodbach, Julian; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Tablet disintegration can be influenced by several parameters, such as storage conditions, type and amount of disintegrant, and relative tablet density. Even though these parameters have been mentioned in the literature, the understanding of the disintegration process is limited. In this study, water uptake and force development of disintegrating tablets are analyzed, as they reveal underlying processes and interactions. Measurements were performed on dibasic calcium phosphate tablets containing seven different disintegrants stored at different relative humidities (5-97%), and on tablets containing disintegrants with different mechanisms of action (swelling and shape recovery), compressed to different relative densities. Disintegration times of tablets containing sodium starch glycolate are affected most by storage conditions, which is displayed in decreased water uptake and force development kinetics. Disintegration times of tablets with a swelling disintegrant are only marginally affected by relative tablet density, whereas the shape recovery disintegrant requires high relative densities for quick disintegration. The influence of relative tablet density on the kinetics of water uptake and force development greatly depends on the mechanism of action. Acquired data allows a detailed analysis of the influence of storage conditions and mechanisms of action on disintegration behavior.

  10. Geometry optimization of antimuscarinic, anticholinergic and antispasmodic aprophen hydrochloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, F.; Akhter, N.

    2013-01-01

    Aprophen hydrochloride extensively used as anticholinergic, antimuscarinnin and antispasmodic agent. Structure based drug designed is based on the firm understanding of molecular recognition between active site group and interacting molecules ,it is strategy that become as integral part of modem drug discovery. The aim of present study is find out the minimum potential energy for aprophen hydrochloride. The potential energy of the molecule in molecular mechanics calculated by using force field concept. Potential energy effect the inter action of drug molecule with receptor these properties could be use to synthesize new drug candidates with improve pharmacological and therapeutic activity. (author)

  11. Microstructure of Tablet-Pharmaceutical Significance, Assessment, and Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2017-05-01

    To summarize the microstructure - property relationship of pharmaceutical tablets and approaches to improve tablet properties through tablet microstructure engineering. The main topics reviewed here include: 1) influence of material properties and manufacturing process parameters on the evolution of tablet microstructure; 2) impact of tablet structure on tablet properties; 3) assessment of tablet microstructure; 4) development and engineering of tablet microstructure. Microstructure plays a decisive role on important pharmaceutical properties of a tablet, such as disintegration, drug release, and mechanical strength. Useful information on mechanical properties of a powder can be obtained from analyzing tablet porosity-pressure data. When helium pycnometry fails to accurately measure true density of a water-containing powder, non-linear regression of tablet density-pressure data is a useful alternative method. A component that is more uniformly distributed in a tablet generally exerts more influence on the overall tablet properties. During formulation development, it is highly recommended to examine the relationship between any property of interest and tablet porosity when possible. Tablet microstructure can be engineered by judicious selection of formulation composition, including the use of the optimum solid form of the drug and appropriate type and amount of excipients, and controlling manufacturing process.

  12. Safety of a benazepril and pimobendan combination tablet in adult healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, E A; Strehlau, G; Giraudel, J M; King, J N

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the safety of a combination tablet of benazepril and pimobendan, Fortekor PLUS ® , in a randomized, blinded, parallel-group design study in healthy adult beagle dogs. The test article, Fortekor PLUS ® tablets, was administered orally twice daily for 6 months at one, two, and four times the highest recommended dosage of 0.5 mg/kg benazepril hydrochloride/0.25 mg/kg pimobendan (four males and four females per group). An additional control group was sham-dosed. Fortekor PLUS ® did not induce any treatment-related effects on body weight, food consumption, neurological, ophthalmologic or physical assessments over the 6-month treatment period. The test article was possibly associated with an increased frequency of occasional vomiting. Fortekor PLUS ® was associated with small, but significant, increases in heart rate and reductions in PR and QT intervals, which were assessed by electrocardiography. These effects were most probably related to reflex tachycardia secondary to reduced systemic blood pressure. Statistically significant changes in some clinical pathology variables were noted after test article administration, but were considered to be of no clinical relevance as values remained within reference ranges and/or were not dose-dependent. No treatment-related macroscopic or microscopic findings were observed. In conclusion, Fortekor PLUS ® tablets were well tolerated in healthy adult dogs when administered at one, two, and four times the highest recommended dosage for 6 months. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Tablets for Learning in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Mikkel

    Based on a small-scale literature review this paper identifies the top 10 affordances of post PC tablets (sometimes referred to as ‘tablet computers’) for higher education in settings where the technology is used for learning. The review shows that the predominant affordances of the technology...... are related to its ability to support engaging, inclusive, and/or collaborative learning, to provide flexibility in place, and to include multimedia and interactive content in teaching practice. However, performing the review also revealed that the notion of tablets for learning is equivocal. As a consequence......, the concepts of tabletcasts and tabletcasting are introduced as one possible framing for future research on tablets as an educational technology....

  14. Portable Tablets in Science Museum Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronemann, Sigurd Trolle

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of portable tablets in learning, their impact has received little attention in research. In five different projects, this media-ethnographic and design-based analysis of the use of portable tablets as a learning resource in science museums investigates how young people...... is identified. It is argued that, paradoxically, museums’ decisions to innovate by introducing new technologies, such as portable tablets, and new pedagogies to support them conflict with many young people’s traditional ideas of museums and learning. The assessment of the implications of museums’ integration...... of portable tablets indicates that in making pedagogical transformations to accommodate new technologies, museums risk opposing didactic intention if pedagogies do not sufficiently attend to young learners’ systemic expectations to learning and to their expectations to the digital experience influenced...

  15. Pharmacokinetic Studies on Metoprolol - Eudragit Matrix Tablets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Zero order release of drug was observed from all the tablets. ... Conclusion: It can be concluded from this single-dose study that the reference and test ... effect [2]. The mean time to reach maximum plasma concentration and mean elimination.

  16. Lattice-Boltzmann Simulation of Tablet Disintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiaolong; Sun, Ning; Gersappe, Dilip

    Using the lattice-Boltzmann method, we developed a 2D model to study the tablet disintegration involving the swelling and wicking mechanisms. The surface area and disintegration profile of each component were obtained by tracking the tablet structure in the simulation. Compared to pure wicking, the total surface area is larger for swelling and wicking, which indicates that the swelling force breaks the neighboring bonds. The disintegration profiles show that the tablet disintegrates faster than pure wicking, and there are more wetted active pharmaceutical ingredient particles distributed on smaller clusters. Our results indicate how the porosity would affect the disintegration process by changing the wetting area of the tablet as well as by changing the swelling force propagation.

  17. Distribution of crushing strength of tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnergaard, Jørn

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of a given set of data is important since most parametric statistical tests are based on the assumption that the studied data are normal distributed. In analysis of fracture mechanics the Weibull distribution is widely used and the derived Weibull modulus is interpreted as a mate...... data from nine model tablet formulations and four commercial tablets are shown to follow the normal distribution. The importance of proper cleaning of the crushing strength apparatus is demonstrated....

  18. Penggunaan Tablet di Binus Online Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Agus Putranto; Wawan Saputra

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of e-learning can improve learning effectiveness and flexibility. Features of e-learning that are important in teaching and learning activities are tasks features, discussion forums and discussion face to face in a video conference. BINUS Online Learning is a program that offers students to conduct online lectures. Online BINUS need to think about software and hardware that must be provided in a tablet. Therefore, this study will analyze the use of the tablet which will be used fo...

  19. Electronic acquisition of OSCE performance using tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hochlehnert, Achim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs often involve a considerable amount of resources in terms of materials and organization since the scores are often recorded on paper. Computer-assisted administration is an alternative with which the need for material resources can be reduced. In particular, the use of tablets seems sensible because these are easy to transport and flexible to use.Aim: User acceptance concerning the use of tablets during OSCEs has not yet been extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate tablet-based OSCEs from the perspective of the user (examiner and the student examinee.Method: For two OSCEs in Internal Medicine at the University of Heidelberg, user acceptance was analyzed regarding tablet-based administration (satisfaction with functionality and the subjective amount of effort as perceived by the examiners. Standardized questionnaires and semi-standardized interviews were conducted (complete survey of all participating examiners. In addition, for one OSCE, the subjective evaluation of this mode of assessment was gathered from a random sample of participating students in semi-standardized interviews.Results: Overall, the examiners were very satisfied with using tablets during the assessment. The subjective amount of effort to use the tablet was found on average to be “hardly difficult”. The examiners identified the advantages of this mode of administration as being in particular the ease of use and low rate of error. During the interviews of the examinees, acceptance for the use of tablets during the assessment was also detected.Discussion: Overall, it was found that the use of tablets during OSCEs was well accepted by both examiners and examinees. We expect that this mode of assessment also offers advantages regarding assessment documentation, use of resources, and rate of error in comparison with paper-based assessments; all of these aspects should be followed up on in

  20. Tablets Helping Elderly and Disabled People

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Mercedes de; Ruiz-Mezcua, Belén; Sánchez-Pena, José Manuel; García-Crespo, Ángel; Iglesias, Ana; Pajares, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    Proceedings of: Ambient Assisted Living Joint Programme Forum 2011 (AAL JP Forum 2011), Lecce (Italy), September 26-28, 2011 The article introduces the basics by which tablets are considered as appropriate tools for integration and promotion of the elderly in the digital world. To prove this, the paper presents three research projects carried out by CESyA that integrate Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR), Voice Synthesis, subtitling, audiodescription or audio navigation tools into tablets ...

  1. Attitudes towards Smart Phones and Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Ansarin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the perceptions of advantages of smart phones and tablets on basic and general English students' language learning, self-sufficiency, and interest using smart phones and tablets at an Iranian university college during one university term. Through a survey administered to 333 basic and general English students and through selective observations and interviews, the following questions were examined: 1 Students' perceived impact of smart phones and tablets on increasing their confidence throughout the course,2  Students’ perceived comfort/enjoyment with smart phones and tablets for the students at the beginning and end of the semester,3 Students' perceived impact of devices through a comparison between pre and post survey measures on improvement of reading comprehension, reading speed, vocabulary and spelling, motivation, and preparing them for class tests and quizzes. Tablets were evaluated more positively than smart phones by the students as a means to increase confidence. Both tablets and smart phones were evaluated positively, both as a means of improving students’ motivation to learn, and as a means to develop reading comprehension, spelling, and vocabulary. However, students’ expectations regarding the impact of such devices on their reading speed, preparation for tests and quizzes, as well as comfort and enjoyment were not met.

  2. Evaluation of Tablets Divisibility in Pharmacoeconomic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Yemsen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Divisibility and dose homogeneity in scored tablets which form a part of the drugs those are in tablet forms in Turkey and have an extensive implementation area in drug therapy have a high importance for patient compliance and safety. In this study, it is aimed to evaluate Turkey%u2019s pharmaceutical market about cost differences of dividing scored tablets which has different unit quantities of the same active substance. Material and Method: In Turkey%u2019s pharmaceutical market, to detect cost differences of dividing scored tablets which has different unit quantities of the same active substance, All Drug%u2019s Price List that has been published on Turkish Medicine and Medical Devices Agency%u2019s web site is evaluated by using cost-minimization analysis method. Results: It is determined that the use of scored tablets make a price advantage of about 70%. Discussion: In conclusion, on package leaflets and outer packaging information those are prepared for the use of patients, the warning %u201CDon%u2019t divide, crack or swallow the tablets unless otherwise recommended by your doctor.%u201D should be stated and it is considered that it would be useful if the patient is informed about divisibility by the pharmacist.

  3. Neptunium (IV) oxalate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luerkens, D.W.

    1983-07-01

    The equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate in nitric/oxalic acid solutions was determined at 22 0 C, 45 0 C, and 60 0 C. The concentrations of nitric/oxalic acid solutions represented a wide range of free oxalate ion concentration. A mathematical solubility model was developed which is based on the formation of the known complexes of neptunium (IV) oxalate. the solubility model uses a simplified concentration parameter which is proportional to the free oxalate ion concentration. The solubility model can be used to estimate the equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate over a wide range of oxalic and nitric acid concentrations at each temperature

  4. Development of method of tritium labeling of pharmacological preparate of drotaverine hydrochloride (NOSPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.A.; Djuraeva, G.T.; Shukurov, B.V.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The method for tritium labeling of pharmacological preparate of drotaverine hydrochloride (no spa) was developed. Drotaverine hydrochloride was labeled by thermally activated tritium in apparatus for tritium labeling. The optimum regime of labeling was selected. The system of purification of tritium labeled drotaverine hydrochloride by thin layer chromatography (TLC) has been developed. The TLC system of purification of tritium labeled drotaverine hydrochloride was developed. Tritium labeled preparation of drotaverine hydrochloride was purified by TLC on silicagel in system isopropanol: ammonia: water (8:1:1). We found appearance of additional fractions in tritium labeled preparation of drotaverine hydrochloride that testifies to partial transformation of drotaverine hydrochloride during procedure of labeling. Application of TLC for purification of tritium labeled preparation allows to purify completely drotaverine hydrochloride of by-products. The output of purified tritium labeled preparation of drotaverine hydrochloride was about 25 %. The received preparation had specific radioactivity - 3,2 MBq/mg, radiochemical purity of a preparation was 95 %. TLC purification seems inexpensive, fast and suitable for purification of tritium-labeled drotaverine hydrochloride. Thus developed method allows obtain tritium labeled preparation of drotaverine hydrochloride (no - spa), suitable for medical and biologic researches

  5. Evaluation of Certain Pharmaceutical Quality Attributes of Lisinopril Split Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairi M. S. Fahelelbom

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tablet splitting is an accepted practice for the administration of drugs for a variety of reasons, including dose adjustment, ease of swallowing and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of lisinopril tablets as a result of splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitting device. The impact of the splitting technique of lisinopril (Zestril® tablets, 20 mg on certain physical parameters such as weight variation, friability, disintegration, dissolution and drug content were studied. Splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitter resulted in a minute but statistically significant average weight loss of <0.25% of the tablet to the surrounding environment. The variability in the weight of the hand-split tablet halves was more pronounced (37 out of 40 tablet halves varied by more than 10% from the mean weight than when using the tablet splitter (3 out of 40 tablet halves. The dissolution and drug content of the hand-split tablets were therefore affected because of weight differences. However, the pharmacopoeia requirements for friability and disintegration time were met. Hand splitting of tablets can result in an inaccurate dose and may present clinical safety issues, especially for drugs with a narrow therapeutic window in which large fluctuations in drug concentrations are undesirable. It is recommended to use tablets with the exact desired dose, but if this is not an option, then a tablet splitter could be used.

  6. Comparative pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur hydrochloride and ceftiofur sodium after administration to water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Haiying; Feng, Xin; Peng, Jianbo; Liang, Liu; Lu, Chunyan; Tiwari, Roshan V; Tang, Shusheng; He, Jiakang

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate pharmacokinetics and bioavailability after administration of ceftiofur hydrochloride and ceftiofur sodium to water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). ANIMALS 5 healthy adult water buffalo (3 males and 2 nonlactating females). PROCEDURES All animals received a dose (2.2 mg/kg) of 3 ceftiofur products (2 commercially available suspensions of ceftiofur hydrochloride [CEF1 and CEF2, IM] and ceftiofur sodium [CEF3, IV]). Blood samples were collected for up to 196 hours. Concentrations of ceftiofur in plasma were determined by use of high-performance liquid chromatography, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated on the basis of noncompartmental methods. RESULTS Most of the pharmacokinetic parameters, except for bioavailability and the area under the concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity, were significantly different between the 2 products administered IM. Mean ± SD bioavailability of CEF1 and CEF2 was 89.57 ± 32.84% and 86.28 ± 11.49%, respectively, which indicated good absorption of both products. In addition, there was a longer drug residence time for CEF1 than for CEF2. Data analysis for CEF1 revealed a flip-flop phenomenon. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, there was good absorption of CEF1, and CEF1 had a longer drug residence time in vivo than did CEF2. On the basis of pharmacokinetic parameters and the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility, a dosage regimen of 2.2 mg/kg administered at 48- and 36-hour intervals for CEF1 and CEF2, respectively, could be an appropriate choice for the treatment of buffalo with infectious diseases.

  7. Amantadine hydrochloride in the treatment of parkinsonism: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjective mood elevation was not confirmed by statistical analysis. Gait, voice control, jaw tremor and salivation showed no statistical improvement, while eye convergence may be adversely affected. Side-effects were minimal. Amantadine hydrochloride (Symmetrel, Geigy) appears to have real value in the treatment of ...

  8. Systematic analysis of trimazolin hydrochloride as adrenergic vasoconstrictor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Goran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Trimazolin-hydrochloride, which is used as a pharmaceutically active component (adrenergic vasoconstrictor for the production of decongestive preparations, was investigated in this paper by performing systematic analysis. In domestic and foreign pharmacopoeias, as well as in scientific and patent literature, there are no data on trimazolin and the methods of its investigation. Systematic analysis involves two investigation phases. A complete physicochemical characterization of the synthesized substance was done by previous investigation. In the second phase, a chemical structure of the synthesized pharmacologically active substance was confirmed to a certain degree of certainty by using the absorption spectroscopic methods (FTIR, UV-VIS, 1H-NMR. The spectroscopic methods used proved to be successful at identifying and investigating the purity of trimazolin hydrochloride. Liquid (RP-HPLC chromatography was used for the analysis of trimazolin hydrochloride in the nasal preparation (Adrianol. The method of titrimetric analysis was developed with the aim of quantitative determination of trimazolin hydrochloride in decongestive preparations.

  9. Pharmaceutical development of an intravenous dosage form of diacetylmorphine hydrochloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klous, Marjolein G.; Nuijen, Bastiaan; van den Brink, Wim; van Ree, Jan M.; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2004-01-01

    A solid dosage form for multiple use was developed for parenteral administration of diacetylmorphine in a clinical trial on co-prescription of heroin to heroin addicts. A 300-mg/mL diacetylmorphine hydrochloride solution was lyophilised as 10-mL aliquots in 30-mL glass vials, to be reconstituted to

  10. Effect of donepezil hydrochloride on normal-tension glaucoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yukiko; Sugiyama, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Tsunehiko; Utsunomiya, Keita; Ogura, Yasuharu; Narabayashi, Isamu

    2007-01-01

    Peroral donepezil hydrochloride is claimed to be effective for Alzheimer disease, by elevating concentration of acetylcholine in the brain resulting in improved recognition and intracerebral circulation. It has been reported that some cases of normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) show cerebral circulation similar to patients of Alzheimer disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of donepezil hydrochloride on NTG. This study was made on 10 eyes of 5 NTG patients who showed cerebral circulation similar to Alzheimer disease by 123 I-iofetamine (IMP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The series comprised 3 males and 2 females. Their age ranged from 64 to 79 years, average 69 years. They were given donepezil hydrochloride at the daily dosis of 5 mg for 6 months. Circulation in the optic nervehead was measured by laser speckle flowmetry. Circulation in the brain and optic nervehead significantly increased after 6 months of treatment. MD value by Humphrey tonometer improved in 5 eyes (50%). There was no change in intraocular pressure. Peroral donepezil hydrochloride may improve optic neuropathy in NTG through its neuroprotective action. (author)

  11. Determination of methadone hydrochloride in a maintenance dosage formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, T J; Thompson, R D

    1975-07-01

    A colorimetric method for direct quantitative assay of methadone hydrochloride in liquid oral dosage forms is presented. The procedure involves the formation of a dye complex with bromothymol blue buffer solution. The resultant complex is extracted with benzene and measured spectrophotometrically. Duplicate tests on the formulation showed 99.2% of the labeled amount of methadone.

  12. Surface tension of compositions of polyhexametyleneguanidine hydrochloride - surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumargaliyeva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We made up songs bactericidal polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride (metacyde with the surface-active substances - anionic sodium dodecylsulfate, cationic cetylpyridinium bromide, and nonionic Tween-80 and measured the surface tension of water solutions. The study showed that the composition metacyde with surface-active agents have a greater surface activity than the individual components.

  13. Formulation of Extended-Release Metformin Hydrochloride Matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Various metformin hydrochloride formulations containing a hydrophobic carrier (stearic acid) and a hydrophilic polymer (polyethylene oxide) were prepared using a 32 factorial design. ... The release data were subjected to various release kinetic models and also compared with those of a commercial brand.

  14. Amides and Hydrazides from Amine and Hydrazine Hydrochlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shama, Sami A.; Tran, Thuan L.

    1978-01-01

    This safe and efficient procedure for the synthesis of N-substituted amides and hydrazides is a modification of the Schotten-Bausmann procedure in which the amine or hydrazide is replaced by the corresponding hydrochloride salt, and the use of alkali is eliminated. (Author/BB)

  15. The efficacy of two bupivacaine hydrochloride injection products

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-06-06

    Jun 6, 1996 ... stances majority of o the survey t the time hamstrung g staff. itive hes to ... hydrochloride injection products was investigated in patients who ... upon the concentration, dose, route of application, and ... Practice guidelines.~.5 .... GUIdelines on Ihe Qualoty. safety and efficacy Of mra.cmal prOducts for human.

  16. Interactive effect of dietary protein level and zilpaterol hydrochloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bonsmara type steers were used to determine the effect of dietary zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) in combination with different dietary crude protein (CP) levels (100, 120 and 140 g CP/kg) on growth performance and meat quality. Treatment groups (T) consisted of 12 steers each. T1 – 100 g CP/kg + 0.15 mg ZH/kg live weight ...

  17. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2016.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  18. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2014.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  19. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2015.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  20. SAGE IV Pathfinder

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Utilizing a unique, new occultation technique involving imaging, the SAGE IV concept will meet or exceed the quality of previous SAGE measurements at a small...

  1. Study of drug release and tablet characteristics of silicone adhesive matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolia, Gaurav; Li, S Kevin

    2012-11-01

    Matrix tablets of a model drug acetaminophen (APAP) were prepared using a highly compressible low glass transition temperature (T(g)) polymer silicone pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) at various binary mixtures of silicone PSA/APAP ratios. Matrix tablets of a rigid high T(g) matrix forming polymer ethyl cellulose (EC) were the reference for comparison. Drug release study was carried out using USP Apparatus 1 (basket), and the relationship between the release kinetic parameters of APAP and polymer/APAP ratio was determined to estimate the excipient percolation threshold. The critical points attributed to both silicone PSA and EC tablet percolation thresholds were found to be between 2.5% and 5% w/w. For silicone PSA tablets, satisfactory mechanical properties were obtained above the polymer percolation threshold; no cracking or chipping of the tablet was observed above this threshold. Rigid EC APAP tablets showed low tensile strength and high friability. These results suggest that silicone PSA could eliminate issues related to drug compressibility in the formulation of directly compressed oral controlled release tablets of poorly compressible drug powder such as APAP. No routinely used excipients such as binders, granulating agents, glidants, or lubricants were required for making an acceptable tablet matrix of APAP using silicone PSA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Astronomy Learning Activities for Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Morris, Frank

    2015-08-01

    Four web-based tools allow students to manipulate astronomical data to learn concepts in astronomy. The tools are HTML5, CSS3, Javascript-based applications that provide access to the content on iPad and Android tablets. The first tool “Three Color” allows students to combine monochrome astronomical images taken through different color filters or in different wavelength regions into a single color image. The second tool “Star Clusters” allows students to compare images of stars in clusters with a pre-defined template of colors and sizes in order to produce color-magnitude diagrams to determine cluster ages. The third tool adapts Travis Rector’s “NovaSearch” to allow students to examine images of the central regions of the Andromeda Galaxy to find novae. After students find a nova, they are able to measure the time over which the nova fades away. A fourth tool, Proper Pair, allows students to interact with Hipparcos data to evaluate close double stars are physical binaries or chance superpositions. Further information and access to these web-based tools are available at www.astro.indiana.edu/ala/.

  3. A COMPARATIVE CLINICAL STUDY BETWEEN IV ESMOLOL AND IV FENTANYL ON ATTENUATION OF HAEMODYNAMIC RESPONSES TO LARYNGOSCOPY AND INTUBATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Lais Mustaque

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Laryngoscopy and intubation is an integral part for providing general anaesthesia to patients undergoing various types of surgery. It also plays an important role in critical care units viz. for providing mechanical ventilation. It is a very essential tool in the hands of anaesthesiologist in maintaining airway. The present study is undertaken to determine and compare the efficacy of single bolus dose of IV esmolol 1 mg/kg and IV fentanyl 2 mcg/kg in attenuating the haemodynamic responses to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation and to ascertain the effectiveness of esmolol hydrochloride and fentanyl citrate in suppressing sympathetic responses. MATERIAL & METHODS The study was conducted under the Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh, during the period July 2013 to June 2014. For this purpose, 150 patients of either sex between 20-50 years of ASA I & II physical status were selected after obtaining informed and written consent and were divided into two groups namely, Group E receiving IV esmolol (1 mg/kg and Group F receiving IV fentanyl (2 mcg/kg. RESULTS Inj. fentanyl 2 mcg/kg IV administered 5 minutes before laryngoscopy and intubation was able to prevent adverse haemodynamic changes better than Inj. esmolol 1 mg/kg IV administered 3 minutes prior to laryngoscopy and intubation during elective surgeries under general anaesthesia. CONCLUSION Hence, from the findings of this study we can conclude that IV bolus dose of fentanyl 2 mcg/kg administered 5 minutes before laryngoscopy and intubation can attenuate the sympathetic response to laryngoscopy and intubation without any side effects of the drug in healthy patients undergoing elective surgeries under general anaesthesia.

  4. Direct visualization of in vitro drug mobilization from Lescol XL tablets using two-dimensional (19)F and (1)H magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Gladden, Lynn F; Mantle, Michael D

    2014-02-03

    This article reports the application of in vitro multinuclear ((19)F and (1)H) two-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study both dissolution media ingress and drug egress from a commercial Lescol XL extended release tablet in a United States Pharmacopeia Type IV (USP-IV) dissolution cell under pharmacopoeial conditions. Noninvasive spatial maps of tablet swelling and dissolution, as well as the mobilization and distribution of the drug are quantified and visualized. Two-dimensional active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) mobilization and distribution maps were obtained via (19)F MRI. (19)F API maps were coregistered with (1)H T2-relaxation time maps enabling the simultaneous visualization of drug distribution and gel layer dynamics within the swollen tablet. The behavior of the MRI data is also discussed in terms of its relationship to the UV drug release behavior.

  5. Effect of repeated compaction of tablets on tablet properties and work of compaction using an instrumented laboratory tablet press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamlen, Michael John Desmond; Martini, Luigi G; Al Obaidy, Kais G

    2015-01-01

    The repeated compaction of Avicel PH101, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCP) powder, 50:50 DCP/Avicel PH101 and Starch 1500 was studied using an instrumented laboratory tablet press which measures upper punch force, punch displacement and ejection force and operates using a V-shaped compression profile. The measurement of work compaction was demonstrated, and the test materials were ranked in order of compaction behaviour Avicel PH101 > DCP/Avicel PH101 > Starch > DCP. The behaviour of the DCP/Avicel PH101 mixture was distinctly non-linear compared with the pure components. Repeated compaction and precompression had no effect on the tensile fracture strength of Avicel PH101 tablets, although small effects on friability and disintegration time were seen. Repeated compaction and precompression reduced the tensile strength and the increased disintegration time of the DCP tablets, but improved the strength and friability of Starch 1500 tablets. Based on the data reported, routine laboratory measurement of tablet work of compaction may have potential as a critical quality attribute of a powder blend for compression. The instrumented press was suitable for student use with minimal supervisor input.

  6. Angular circulation speed of tablets in a vibratory tablet coating pan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rahul; Wassgren, Carl

    2013-03-01

    In this work, a single tablet model and a discrete element method (DEM) computer simulation are developed to obtain the angular circulation speed of tablets in a vibratory tablet coating pan for range of vibration frequencies and amplitudes. The models identify three important dimensionless parameters that influence the speed of the tablets: the dimensionless amplitude ratio (a/R), the Froude number (aω2/g), and the tablet-wall friction coefficient, where a is the peak vibration amplitude at the drum center, ω is the vibration angular frequency, R is the drum radius, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. The models predict that the angular circulation speed of tablets increases with an increase in each of these parameters. The rate of increase in the angular circulation speed is observed to decrease for larger values of a/R. The angular circulation speed reaches an asymptote beyond a tablet-wall friction coefficient value of about 0.4. Furthermore, it is found that the Froude number should be greater than one for the tablets to start circulating. The angular circulation speed increases as Froude number increases but then does not change significantly at larger values of the Froude number. Period doubling, where the motion of the bed is repeated every two cycles, occurs at a Froude number larger than five. The single tablet model, although much simpler than the DEM model, is able to predict the maximum circulation speed (the limiting case for a large value of tablet-wall friction coefficient) as well as the transition to period doubling.

  7. Development of Oral Flexible Tablet (OFT) Formulation for Pediatric and Geriatric Patients: a Novel Age-Appropriate Formulation Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Prabagaran; Kandasamy, Ruckmani

    2017-08-01

    Development of palatable formulations for pediatric and geriatric patients involves various challenges. However, an innovative development with beneficial characteristics of marketed formulations in a single formulation platform was attempted. The goal of this research was to develop solid oral flexible tablets (OFTs) as a platform for pediatrics and geriatrics as oral delivery is the most convenient and widely used mode of drug administration. For this purpose, a flexible tablet formulation using cetirizine hydrochloride as model stability labile class 1 and 3 drug as per the Biopharmaceutical Classification System was developed. Betadex, Eudragit E100, and polacrilex resin were evaluated as taste masking agents. Development work focused on excipient selection, formulation processing, characterization methods, stability, and palatability testing. Formulation with a cetirizine-to-polacrilex ratio of 1:2 to 1:3 showed robust physical strength with friability of 0.1% (w/w), rapid in vitro dispersion within 30 s in 2-6 ml of water, and 0.2% of total organic and elemental impurities. Polacrilex resin formulation shows immediate drug release within 30 min in gastric media, better taste masking, and acceptable stability. Hence, it is concluded that ion exchange resins can be appropriately used to develop taste-masked, rapidly dispersible, and stable tablet formulations with tailored drug release suitable for pediatrics and geriatrics. Flexible formulations can be consumed as swallowable, orally disintegrating, chewable, and as dispersible tablets. Flexibility in dose administration would improve compliance in pediatrics and geriatrics. This drug development approach using ion exchange resins can be a platform for formulating solid oral flexible drug products with low to medium doses.

  8. Floating matrix tablets based on low density foam powder: effects of formulation and processing parameters on drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streubel, A; Siepmann, J; Bodmeier, R

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and physicochemically characterize single unit, floating controlled drug delivery systems consisting of (i). polypropylene foam powder, (ii). matrix-forming polymer(s), (iii). drug, and (iv). filler (optional). The highly porous foam powder provided low density and, thus, excellent in vitro floating behavior of the tablets. All foam powder-containing tablets remained floating for at least 8 h in 0.1 N HCl at 37 degrees C. Different types of matrix-forming polymers were studied: hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), polyacrylates, sodium alginate, corn starch, carrageenan, gum guar and gum arabic. The tablets eroded upon contact with the release medium, and the relative importance of drug diffusion, polymer swelling and tablet erosion for the resulting release patterns varied significantly with the type of matrix former. The release rate could effectively be modified by varying the "matrix-forming polymer/foam powder" ratio, the initial drug loading, the tablet geometry (radius and height), the type of matrix-forming polymer, the use of polymer blends and the addition of water-soluble or water-insoluble fillers (such as lactose or microcrystalline cellulose). The floating behavior of the low density drug delivery systems could successfully be combined with accurate control of the drug release patterns.

  9. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy and tolerability of itopride hydrochloride and domperidone in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Prabha; Das, H S; Desai, Nutan; Kalokhe, S; Patil, S

    2004-08-01

    Prokinetic drugs are widely used for treatment of non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD). To assess the efficacy and tolerability of a new prokinetic agent, itopride hydrochloride in patients of NUD and compare it with domperidone. Fifty-six patients who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. Patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy to rule out organic pathology as a cause for their symptoms. The patient's symptoms were graded on a 4-point scale (0 to 3) at the beginning of treatment and at the end of Week-one and Week-two Patients were randomly allocated to receive either one tablet of itopride hydrochloride 50mg three times daily or one tablet of domperidone 10mg three times daily for two weeks. Pre-treatment and post-treatment hemogram, liver function and renal function tests, prolactin level and ECG were done in all patients. The response to therapy was evaluated by assessing the relief of symptoms at the end of two weeks on a 5-point scale. Statistical analysis was done using two-tailed paired t-test; Wilcoxon matched pairs ranks sum test, Mann-Whitney-U test and chi-square test as applicable. Of the fifty-five patients enrolled in the study (age range of 18-60 yrs, median age of 35yrs), 26 were males and twenty nine were females. They had a median duration of symptoms for 4 weeks. Twenty-seven patients received itopride and 28 received domperidone. One patient did not follow up in the domperidone group, thus 54 patients were evaluable for analysis. Moderate to complete symptomatic relief was observed in 22 (81%) patients in the itopride group and 19 patients (70%) in the domperidone group (p > 0.05, NS). Both the drugs were well tolerated and neither caused prolongation of QT interval nor any abnormality in any serum biochemistry values. Therapy with itopride resulted in good symptomatic relief, was safe, well tolerated and comparable in efficacy to domperidone in relieving the symptoms of NUD. By virtue of its efficacy and

  10. Characterization of the Roman curse tablet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Zhang, Boyang; Fu, Lin

    2017-08-01

    The Roman curse tablet, produced in ancient Rome period, is a metal plate that inscribed with curses. In this research, several techniques were used to find out the physical structure and chemical composition of the Roman curse tablet, and testified the hypothesis that whether the tablet is made of pure lead or lead alloy. A sample of Roman Curse Tablet from the Johns Hopkins Archaeological Museum was analyzed using several different characterization techniques to determine the physical structure and chemical composition. The characterization techniques used were including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Because of the small sample size, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) cannot test the sample. Results from optical microscopy and SEM, enlarged images of the sample surface were studied. The result revealed that the sample surface has a rough, non-uniform, and grainy surface. AFM provides three-dimensional topography of the sample surface, studying the sample surface in atomic level. DSC studies the thermal property, which is most likely a lead-alloy, not a pure lead. However, none of these tests indicated anything about the chemical composition. Future work will be required due to the lack of measures finding out its chemical composition. Therefore, from these characterization techniques above, the Roman curse tablet sample is consisted of lead alloy, not pure lead.

  11. Iodine tablets and a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paile, W.

    1992-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is one of the major substances released during severe nuclear accidents. Radioactive iodine is easily gasified, and if present in fallout it can enter the lungs, and thereby the circulatory system, with the inhalation of air. Once in a body, radioactive iodine accumulates in the thyroid and may result in tumours in the thyroid and, in extreme cases, impaired thyroid function. Accumulation of radioactive iodine can be prevented by taking non-radioactive, 'cold' iodine as tablets. Iodine tablets dilute the radioactive iodine that has entered the body. A dose of iodine also paralyses the thyroid temporarily by saturating its iodine-carrying capacity. To be useful iodine tablets should be taken immediately when a radioactive emission has occurred. If the tablets are taken too early or too late, they give little protection. Iodine tablets should not be taken just to be on the safe side, since their use may involve harmful side effects. Dosing instructions should also be followed with care. (orig.)

  12. Optimization of process parameters for a quasi-continuous tablet coating system using design of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyadi, Christine; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Chan, Lai Wah

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and optimize the critical process parameters of the newly developed Supercell quasi-continuous coater for optimal tablet coat quality. Design of experiments, aided by multivariate analysis techniques, was used to quantify the effects of various coating process conditions and their interactions on the quality of film-coated tablets. The process parameters varied included batch size, inlet temperature, atomizing pressure, plenum pressure, spray rate and coating level. An initial screening stage was carried out using a 2(6-1(IV)) fractional factorial design. Following these preliminary experiments, optimization study was carried out using the Box-Behnken design. Main response variables measured included drug-loading efficiency, coat thickness variation, and the extent of tablet damage. Apparent optimum conditions were determined by using response surface plots. The process parameters exerted various effects on the different response variables. Hence, trade-offs between individual optima were necessary to obtain the best compromised set of conditions. The adequacy of the optimized process conditions in meeting the combined goals for all responses was indicated by the composite desirability value. By using response surface methodology and optimization, coating conditions which produced coated tablets of high drug-loading efficiency, low incidences of tablet damage and low coat thickness variation were defined. Optimal conditions were found to vary over a large spectrum when different responses were considered. Changes in processing parameters across the design space did not result in drastic changes to coat quality, thereby demonstrating robustness in the Supercell coating process. © 2010 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists

  13. 77 FR 7581 - Determination That KAPVAY (Clonidine Hydrochloride) Extended-Release Tablets, 0.2 Milligram, Was...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... marketing for reasons other than safety or effectiveness. ANDAs that refer to KAPVAY (clonidine... From Sale for Reasons of Safety or Effectiveness AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... or effectiveness. This determination will allow FDA to approve abbreviated new drug applications...

  14. Sensitive spectrophotometric determination of metoclopramide hydrochloride in dosage forms and spiked human urine using vanillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zenita Devi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new spectrophotometric method which is simple, sensitive, selective and rapid is described for the determination of metoclopramide hydrochloride (MCP in bulk drug and in dosage forms using vanillin as the chromogenic agent. The method is based on the condensation reaction between primary aromatic amine group present in MCP with aromatic aldehyde, vanillin to produce an intense yellow colored product. The resulting Schiff’s base shows an absorption maximum at 410 nm and the reaction product is stable for more than one day. The reaction was carried out in acetic acid and perchloric acid medium. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range 1.5–15.0 μg ml−1 MCP with a molar absorptivity of 1.89 × 104 l mol−1 cm−1. The limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ were found to be 0.51 and 1.55 μg ml−1, respectively. The method was statistically evaluated by calculating percent relative error (% RE for accuracy and percent relative standard deviation (% RSD for precision, and was applied successfully to the determination of MCP in tablets, in injection and also in spiked human urine. No interference was observed from common additives found in pharmaceutical preparations. The results obtained by the proposed method were validated statistically by comparing the results with those of the reference method by applying the Student’s t-test and F-test. The accuracy and reliability of the method were further ascertained by performing recovery tests via standard-addition technique.

  15. A Stability-Indicating HPLC Method for the Determination of Memantine Hydrochloride in Dosage Forms through Derivatization with 1-Fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalalizadeh, Hassan; Raei, Mahdi; Tafti, Razieh Fallah; Farsam, Hassan; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Souri, Effat

    2014-01-01

    Memantine is chemically a tricyclic amine and is used for Parkinson’s disease and movement disorders. Although several HPLC methods with different derivatization reagents have been developed for the determination of memantine in biological fluids, there are some complications which limit the use of these methods in routine analysis of memantine in in vitro tests. We established a simple, sensitive, precise, and accurate HPLC method for the quantification of memantine in dosage forms. Pre-column derivatization of memantine was performed with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and the reaction product was separated on a Nova-Pak C18 column. A mixture of acetonitrile and sodium dihydrogenphosphate (pH 2.5; 0.05 M) (70: 30, v/v) was used as the mobile phase. UV detection was performed at 360 nm. Forced degradation studies were performed on a powdered tablet sample of memantine hydro-chloride using acidic (0.1 M hydrochloric acid), basic (0.1 M sodium hydroxide), oxidative (10% hydrogen peroxide), thermal (105°C), photolytic, and humidity conditions. Good linearity (r2=0.999) was obtained over the range of 1–12 μg mL−1 of memantine hydrochloride with acceptable within-day and between-day precision values in the range of 0.05–0.95%. The proposed method was used for the assay determination and dissolution rate study of memantine dosage forms with excellent specificity. PMID:24959398

  16. Support vector regression and artificial neural network models for stability indicating analysis of mebeverine hydrochloride and sulpiride mixtures in pharmaceutical preparation: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguib, Ibrahim A.; Darwish, Hany W.

    2012-02-01

    A comparison between support vector regression (SVR) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) multivariate regression methods is established showing the underlying algorithm for each and making a comparison between them to indicate the inherent advantages and limitations. In this paper we compare SVR to ANN with and without variable selection procedure (genetic algorithm (GA)). To project the comparison in a sensible way, the methods are used for the stability indicating quantitative analysis of mixtures of mebeverine hydrochloride and sulpiride in binary mixtures as a case study in presence of their reported impurities and degradation products (summing up to 6 components) in raw materials and pharmaceutical dosage form via handling the UV spectral data. For proper analysis, a 6 factor 5 level experimental design was established resulting in a training set of 25 mixtures containing different ratios of the interfering species. An independent test set consisting of 5 mixtures was used to validate the prediction ability of the suggested models. The proposed methods (linear SVR (without GA) and linear GA-ANN) were successfully applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical tablets containing mebeverine hydrochloride and sulpiride mixtures. The results manifest the problem of nonlinearity and how models like the SVR and ANN can handle it. The methods indicate the ability of the mentioned multivariate calibration models to deconvolute the highly overlapped UV spectra of the 6 components' mixtures, yet using cheap and easy to handle instruments like the UV spectrophotometer.

  17. Tablet computers for recording tuberculosis data at a community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tablet computers for recording tuberculosis data at a community health centre in King Sabata Dalindyebo Local Municipality, ... South African Family Practice ... They expressed a desire to extend the use of tablets to other areas of their work.

  18. Formulation of Fast-Dissolving Tablets of Promethazine Theoclate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    tablet containing β-cyclodextrin, crospovidone, and camphor, using direct compression method. A 33 full factorial design ... fast dissolving tablets (FDT) is the use of ... All the raw materials were passed ..... delivery systems: critical review in.

  19. The Women at work in the Linear B Tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nosch, Marie-Louise Bech

    2003-01-01

    The article investigates the role of women in Mycenaean society according to the Linear B tablets......The article investigates the role of women in Mycenaean society according to the Linear B tablets...

  20. Evaluation of disintegration and dissolution of chloroquine tablets in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of disintegration and dissolution of chloroquine tablets in some States in Northern Nigeria. ... This study seeks to assess the quality of chloroquine tablets in some States in Northern Nigeria by determining ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  1. RP-HPLC Determination of vitamins B1, B3, B6, folic acid and B12 in multivitamin tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOTE VLADIMIROV

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Asimple and sensitive reversed-phase, ion-pair HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of B-group vitamins, thiamine chloride hydrochloride (B1, nicotinamide (B3, pyridoxine hydrochloride (B6 and folic acid in Pentovit® coated tablets. The cyanocobalamine (B12 was determined separately, because of its low concentration in the investigated multivitamin preparation. RP-HPLC analysis was performed with a LKB 2150 HPLC system, equipped with a UV/VIS Waters M484 detector. The procedures for the determination of B1, B2, B6 and folic acid were carried out on a Supelcosil ABZ+ (15 cm 4.6 mm; 5 µm column with methanol-5mM heptanesulphonic acid sodium salt 0.1%triethylamine TEA(25:75 V/V; pH 2.8 as themobile phase. For the determination of B12 a Suplex pKb-100 (15 cm 4.6 mm; 5 µm column andmethanol–water (22:78 V/V as themobile phase were used. The column effluentsweremonitored at 290 nm for B 1, B3, B6 and folic acid, and at 550 nm for B12. The obtained results and statistical parameters for all the investigated vitamins of the B-group in Pentovit® coated tablets were satisfactory and ranged from 90.4 % to 108.5 % (RSD. from 0.5% to 4.1 %. The parameters for the validation of the methods are given.

  2. Cyclodextrins as excipients in tablet formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Jaime; Adeoye, Oluwatomide; Cabral-Marques, Helena Maria; Lobo, José Manuel Sousa

    2018-04-22

    This paper aims to provide a critical review of cyclodextrins as excipients in tablet formulations, highlighting: (i) the principal pharmaceutical applications of cyclodextrins; (ii) the most relevant technological aspects in pharmaceutical formulation development; and (iii) the actual regulatory status of cyclodextrins. Moreover, several illustrative examples are presented. Cyclodextrins can be used as complexing excipients in tablet formulations for low-dose drugs. By contrast, for medium-dose drugs and/or when the complexation efficiency is low, the methods to enhance the complexation efficiency play a key part in reducing the cyclodextrin quantity. In addition, these compounds are used as fillers, disintegrants, binders and multifunctional direct compression excipients of the tablets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Resveratrol cocrystals with enhanced solubility and tabletability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhengzheng; Li, Wanying; Sun, Wei-Jhe; Lu, Tongbu; Tong, Henry H Y; Sun, Changquan Calvin; Zheng, Ying

    2016-07-25

    Two new 1:1 cocrystals of resveratrol (RES) with 4-aminobenzamide (RES-4ABZ) and isoniazid (RES-ISN) were synthesized by liquid assisted grinding (LAG) and rapid solvent removal (RSR) methods using ethanol as solvent. Their physiochemical properties were characterized using PXRD, DSC, solid state and solution NMR, FT-IR, and HPLC. Pharmaceutically relevant properties, including tabletability, solubility, intrinsic dissolution rate, and hygroscopicity, were evaluated. Temperature-composition phase diagram for RES-ISN cocrystal system was constructed from DSC data. Both cocrystals show higher solubility than resveratrol over a broad range of pH. They are phase stable and non-hygroscopic even under high humidity conditions. Importantly, both cocrystals exhibit improved solubility and tabletability compared with RES, which make them more suitable candidates for tablet formulation development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Damage-tolerance strategies for nacre tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengnan; Zhu, Xinqiao; Li, Qiyang; Wang, Rizhi; Wang, Xiaoxiang

    2016-05-01

    Nacre, a natural armor, exhibits prominent penetration resistance against predatory attacks. Unraveling its hierarchical toughening mechanisms and damage-tolerance design strategies may provide significant inspiration for the pursuit of high-performance artificial armors. In this work, relationships between the structure and mechanical performance of nacre were investigated. The results show that other than their brick-and-mortar structure, individual nacre tablets significantly contribute to the damage localization of nacre. Affected by intracrystalline organics, the tablets exhibit a unique fracture behavior. The synergistic action of the nanoscale deformation mechanisms increases the energy dissipation efficiency of the tablets and contributes to the preservation of the structural and functional integrity of the shell. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of intravenously and orally administered sotalol hydrochloride in horses and effects on surface electrocardiogram and left ventricular systolic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broux, B; De Clercq, D; Decloedt, A; De Baere, S; Devreese, M; Van Der Vekens, N; Ven, S; Croubels, S; van Loon, G

    2016-02-01

    Arrhythmias are common in horses. Some, such as frequent atrial or ventricular premature beats, may require long-term anti-arrhythmic therapy. In humans and small animals, sotalol hydrochloride (STL) is often used for chronic oral anti-arrhythmic therapy. STL prolongs repolarization and the effective refractory period in all cardiac tissues. No information on STL pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics in horses is available and the aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of intravenously (IV) and orally (PO) administered STL and the effects on surface electrocardiogram and left ventricular systolic function. Six healthy horses were given 1 mg STL/kg bodyweight either IV or PO. Blood samples to determine plasma STL concentrations were taken before and at several time points after STL administration. Electrocardiography and echocardiography were performed at different time points before and after IV STL administration. Mean peak plasma concentrations after IV and PO administration of STL were 1624 ng/mL and 317 ng/mL, respectively. The oral bioavailability was intermediate (48%) with maximal absorption after 0.94 h, a moderate distribution and a mean elimination half-life of 15.24 h. After IV administration, there was a significant increase in QT interval, but no significant changes in other electrocardiographic and echocardiographic parameters. Transient transpiration was observed after IV administration, but no adverse effects were noted after a single oral dose of 1 mg/kg STL in any of the horses. It was concluded that STL has an intermediate oral bioavailability in the horse and might be useful in the treatment of equine arrhythmias. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimization of fast dissolving etoricoxib tablets prepared by sublimation technique

    OpenAIRE

    Patel D; Patel M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop fast dissolving tablets of etoricoxib. Granules containing etoricoxib, menthol, crospovidone, aspartame and mannitol were prepared by wet granulation technique. Menthol was sublimed from the granules by exposing the granules to vacuum. The porous granules were then compressed in to tablets. Alternatively, tablets were first prepared and later exposed to vacuum. The tablets were evaluated for percentage friability and disintegration time. A 3 2 ...

  7. Tablet PC Support of Students' Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Kothaneth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of rapid technology development, it comes as no surprise that technology continues to impact the educational domain, challenging traditional teaching and learning styles. This study focuses on how students with different learning styles use instructional technology, and in particular, the tablet PC, to enhance their learning experience. The VARK model was chosen as our theoretical framework as we analyzed responses of an online survey, both from a quantitative and qualitative standpoint. Results indicate that if used correctly, the tablet PC can be used across different learning styles to enrich the educational experience.

  8. IV access in dental practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, J J

    2009-04-01

    Intravenous (IV) access is a valuable skill for dental practitioners in emergency situations and in IV sedation. However, many people feel some apprehension about performing this procedure. This article explains the basic principles behind IV access, and the relevant anatomy and physiology, as well as giving a step-by-step guide to placing an IV cannula.

  9. Portable Tablets in Science Museum Learning: Options and Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronemann, Sigurd Trolle

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of portable tablets in learning, their impact has received little attention in research. In five different projects, this media-ethnographic and design-based analysis of the use of portable tablets as a learning resource in science museums investigates how young people's learning with portable tablets matches the…

  10. Ispaghula Husk-Based Extended Release Tablets of Diclofenac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate extended-release tablets of diclofenac sodium based on ispaghula husk. Methods: Tablets with varying proportions of diclofenac sodium and ispaghula husk were formulated by wet granulation technique at a fixed compression force of 10 kN. The formulated tablets were evaluated for ...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1409 - Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. 520.1409... Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 0.5 milligram of methylprednisolone and 300 milligrams of aspirin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) NAS/NRC...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1157 - Iodinated casein tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iodinated casein tablets. 520.1157 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1157 Iodinated casein tablets. (a) Specifications. Each 1-gram tablet contains 25 milligrams of iodinated casein. (b) Sponsor...

  13. The Formulation of Diclofenac Sodium Hydrogel Tablets | Onyechi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dissolution data fitted to Higuchi and Hixson-Crowell equations indicating the existence of diffusion mechanism controlling diclofenac release from the tablets. Keywords: Sustained release, diclofenac sodium hydrogel tablets, Voltarol retard tablets, film coating, dissolution profiles. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical ...

  14. Double-layer Tablets of Lornoxicam: Validation of Quantification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Double-layer Tablets of Lornoxicam: Validation of Quantification Method, In vitro Dissolution and Kinetic Modelling. ... Satisfactory results were obtained from all the tablet formulations met compendial requirements. The slowest drug release rate was obtained with tablet cores based on PVP K90 (1.21 mg%.h-1).

  15. Quality of Artesunate Tablets Sold in Pharmacies in Kumasi, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The study was carried out to evaluate the quality of artesunate tablets sold in retail and wholesale pharmacies in Kumasi, Ghana. In particular, the study sought to ascertain the presence or otherwise of counterfeit artesunate tablets in Kumasi. Method: Artesunate tablets were purchased from pharmacies in Kumasi ...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V potassium tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium tablets. 520.1696d Section... Penicillin V potassium tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to 125 milligrams (200,000 units) or 250 milligrams (400,000 units) of penicillin V. (b) Sponsors. See...

  17. 21 CFR 520.434 - Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. 520.434 Section 520.434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chlorphenesin carbamate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 400 milligrams of chlorphenesin...

  18. Formulation and Evaluation of Ascorbic acid Tablets by Direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the tableting properties of microcrystalline starch (MCS) used as a direct compression excipient in the formulation of ascorbic acid tablets and to compare with the properties of tablets produced using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). METHODS: MCS was obtained by partial hydrolysis of cassava ( ...

  19. Fast Dissolving Tablets of Aloe Vera Gel | Madan | Tropical Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The objective of this work was to prepare and evaluate fast dissolving tablets of the nutraceutical, freeze dried Aloe vera gel. Methods: Fast dissolving tablets of the nutraceutical, freeze-dried Aloe vera gel, were prepared by dry granulation method. The tablets were evaluated for crushing strength, disintegration ...

  20. Formulation and Evaluation of Ascorbic acid Tablets by Direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formulation and Evaluation of Ascorbic acid Tablets by Direct Compression using Microcrystalline Starch as a Direct Compression Excipient. ... Abstract. PURPOSE: To evaluate the tableting properties of microcrystalline starch (MCS) used as a direct ... RESULTS: Mechanical properties of tablets formulated with MCS were

  1. 21 CFR 520.1200 - Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets... Ivermectin, fenbendazole, and praziquantel tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains either: (1) 68 micrograms (µg) ivermectin, 1.134 grams fenbendazole, and 57 milligrams (mg) praziquantel; or...

  2. The tabletting properties of Stearolac-S | Onyechi | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    press was used to determine the unit ejection force of tablets made from the direct compression formulations. The effects of the excipients on tablet hardness, friability, disintegration and dissolution rate were also evaluated. Tablets containing 3 - 4 % w/w STEAROLAC-S gave unit ejection force values comparable to those ...

  3. Optimization of the formulation of fast disintegrating tablets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, Herman Vincent van

    1987-01-01

    Chapter 1 presents general information on tableting and is an introduction to the other chapters. Chapter 2 covers the mechanism of action of tablet disintegrants, in particular modern super disintegrants. The results indicate that when the tablets contain a slightly swelling but hydrophilic

  4. Fundamentals of ionic conductivity relaxation gained from study of procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride at ambient and elevated pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnarowska, Z; Swiety-Pospiech, A; Grzybowska, K; Hawelek, L; Paluch, M; Ngai, K L

    2012-04-28

    The pharmaceuticals, procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride, are glass-forming as well as ionically conducting materials. We have made dielectric measurements at ambient and elevated pressures to characterize the dynamics of the ion conductivity relaxation in these pharmaceuticals, and calorimetric measurements for the structural relaxation. Perhaps due to their special chemical and physical structures, novel features are found in the ionic conductivity relaxation of these pharmaceuticals. Data of conductivity relaxation in most ionic conductors when represented by the electric loss modulus usually show a single resolved peak in the electric modulus loss M(")(f) spectra. However, in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride we find in addition another resolved loss peak at higher frequencies over a temperature range spanning across T(g). The situation is analogous to many non-ionic glass-formers showing the presence of the structural α-relaxation together with the Johari-Goldstein (JG) β-relaxation. Naturally the analogy leads us to name the slower and faster processes resolved in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride as the primary α-conductivity relaxation and the secondary β-conductivity relaxation, respectively. The analogy of the β-conductivity relaxation in procaine HCl and procainamide HCl with JG β-relaxation in non-ionic glass-formers goes further by the finding that the β-conductivity is strongly related to the α-conductivity relaxation at temperatures above and below T(g). At elevated pressure but compensated by raising temperature to maintain α-conductivity relaxation time constant, the data show invariance of the ratio between the β- and the α-conductivity relaxation times to changes of thermodynamic condition. This property indicates that the β-conductivity relaxation has fundamental importance and is indispensable as the precursor of the α-conductivity relaxation, analogous to the relation found

  5. Adsorption of dodecylamine hydrochloride on graphene oxide in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chen

    Full Text Available Cationic surfactants in water are difficult to be degraded, leading to serious water pollution. In this work, graphene oxide (GO was used as an adsorbent for removing Dodecylamine Hydrochloride (DACl, a representative cationic surfactant. X-ray diffraction (XRD, FT-IR spectroscopy and atomic force microscope (AFM were used to characterize the prepared GO. The adsorption of DACl on GO have been investigated through measurements of adsorption capacity, zeta potential, FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The experimental results have shown that the adsorption kinetics could be described as a rate-limiting pseudo second-order process, and the adsorption isotherm agreed well with the Freundlich model. GO was a good adsorbent for DACl removal, compared with coal fly ash and powdered activated carbon. The adsorption process was endothermic, and could be attributed to electrostatic interaction and hydrogen bonding between DACl and GO. Keywords: Graphene oxide, Dodecylamine hydrochloride, Adsorption isotherm, Adsorption mechanisms

  6. Disposable screen-printed sensors for determination of duloxetine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alarfaj Nawal A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A screen-printed disposable electrode system for the determination of duloxetine hydrochloride (DL was developed using screen-printing technology. Homemade printing has been characterized and optimized on the basis of effects of the modifier and plasticizers. The fabricated bi-electrode potentiometric strip containing both working and reference electrodes was used as duloxetine hydrochloride sensor. The proposed sensors worked satisfactorily in the concentration range from 1.0 × 10-6-1.0 × 10-2 mol L-1 with detection limit reaching 5.0 × 10-7 mol L-1 and adequate shelf life of 6 months. The method is accurate, precise and economical. The proposed method has been applied successfully for the analysis of the drug in pure and in its dosage forms. In this method, there is no interference from any common pharmaceutical additives and diluents. Results of the analysis were validated statistically by recovery studies.

  7. Internet Economics IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    edts.): Internet Economics IV Technical Report No. 2004-04, August 2004 Information Systems Laboratory IIS, Departement of Computer Science University of...level agreements (SLA), Information technology (IT), Internet address, Internet service provider 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18... technology and its economic impacts in the Internet world today. The second talk addresses the area of AAA protocol, summarizing authentication

  8. Uranium (IV) carboxylates - I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satpathy, K C; Patnaik, A K [Sambalpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1975-11-01

    A few uranium(IV) carboxylates with monochloro and trichloro acetic acid, glycine, malic, citric, adipic, o-toluic, anthranilic and salicylic acids have been prepared by photolytic methods. The I.R. spectra of these compounds are recorded and basing on the spectral data, structure of the compounds have been suggested.

  9. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  10. Chemoreactomic analysis of thiamine disulfide, thiamine hydrochloride, and benfotiamine molecules

    OpenAIRE

    O. A. Gromova; I. Yu. Torshin; L. V. Stakhovskaya; L. E. Fedotova

    2017-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the interactions that could indicate the potential pharmacological properties of the molecules of thiamin, thiamine disulfide, and others.Material and methods. The investigators simulated the properties of thiamine disulfide (bistiamin) versus those of the reference molecules of thiamin hydrochloride and benfotiamine. The study was performed using chemoreactomic simulation that is the newest area in post-genome pharmacology.Results and discussion. Chemoreactomic analysis...

  11. Microparticulate drug delivery system containing tramadol hydrochloride for pain treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciurba, Adriana; Todoran, Nicoleta; Vari, C E; Lazăr, Luminita; Al Hussein, Stela; Hancu, G

    2014-01-01

    The current trend of replacing conventional pharmaceutical forms is justified because most substances administered in this form give fluctuations of therapeutic concentrations and often outside the therapeutic range. In addition, these formulations offer a reduction in the dose or the number of administrations, thus increasing patient compliance. In the experiment, we developed an appropriate technology for the preparation of gelatin microspheres containing tramadol hydrochloride by emulsification/cross-linking method. The formulated microspheres were characterized by product yield, size distribution, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release of tramadol hydrochloride. Data obtained from in vitro release studies were fitted to various mathematical models to elucidate the transport mechanisms. The kinetic models used were zero-order, first-order, Higuchi Korsmeyer-Peppas and Hopfenberg. Spherical microspheres were obtained, with free-flowing properties. The entrapment efficiency of tramadol hydrochloride in microparticles was 79.91% and product yield -94.92%. As the microsphere size was increased, the entrapment efficiency increased. This was 67.56, 70.03, 79.91% for formulations MT80-250, MT8-500 and, MT250-500. High entrapment efficiency was observed for MT250-500 formulation. The gelatin microspheres had particle sizes ranging from 80 to 500 microm. The drug was released for a period of 12 hours with a maximum release of 96.02%. Of the three proposed formulations, MT250-500 presented desirable properties and optimal characteristics for the therapy of pain. Release of tramadol hydrochloridi was best fitted to Korsmeyer-Peppas equation because the Akaike Information Criterion had the lowest values for this kinetic model. These results suggest the opportunity to influence the therapeutic characteristics of gelatin microspheres to obtain a suitable drug delivery system for the oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride.

  12. Enantiospecific synthesis of (1- sup 3 H)-(+)-pseudoephedrine hydrochloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, J.A.; Scharver, J.D. (Burroughs Wellcome Co., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (USA). Chemical Development Labs.)

    1990-06-01

    The naturally occurring dextrorotary enantiomer (+)-pseudoephedrine was synthesized in the ({sup 3}H)-labelled form with specific activity 17.5 Ci/mmol suitable for development of a radioimmunoassay procedure. The chirally specific route from L-alanine to (1-{sup 3}H)-d-pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was based on the use of {alpha}-amino acids as chiral educts for asymmetric products. (author).

  13. Minocycline hydrochloride nanoliposomes inhibit the production of TNF-α in LPS-stimulated macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available D Liu, P S YangShandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine, College of Stomatology, Shandong University, Shandong Province, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: As an adjunctive treatment of chronic periodontitis, it seems that the application of periocline or the other antimicrobials is effective against periodontopathogens. In this study, nanoliposomes were investigated as carriers of minocycline hydrochloride and the inhibition effects of minocycline hydrochloride nanoliposomes on the proliferation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α of macrophages were elucidated.Methods: After stimulation with 10 µg/mL LPS, murine macrophages (ANA-1 were treated with 10, 20, 40, 50 and 70 µg/mL 2% minocycline hydrochloride nanoliposomes, minocycline hydrochloride solution, and periocline for 6, 12, 24, 48 and 60 hours, respectively. A tetrazolium (MTT assay was used to evaluate macrophages cell proliferation rate and the levels of TNF-α mRNA were measured by SYBR Green Real Time PCR.Results: Ten to 70 µg/mL 2% minocycline hydrochloride nanoliposomes, minocycline hydrochloride solution, and periocline showed dose- and time-dependent inhibition of ANA-1 proliferation. Minocycline hydrochloride nanoliposomes showed dose- and ratio-dependent inhibition of LPS-stimulated TNF-α secretion of ANA-1. The inhibition effect of 10 µg/mL minocycline hydrochloride nanoliposomes was significantly better than that of two positive control groups, and equated to that of 60 or 70 µg/mL periocline. The expression of TNF-α mRNA in experimental group continued to reduce linearly with time.Conclusion: All three preparations of minocycline hydrochloride showed dose- and time-dependent inhibition of proliferation of ANA-1. Minocycline hydrochloride nanoliposomes have stronger and longer inhibition effect on LPS-stimulated TNF-α secretion of macrophages cell than minocycline hydrochloride solution and periocline

  14. Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride for treatment of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremsner, P G; Looareesuwan, S; Chulay, J D

    1999-05-01

    Safe and effective new drugs are needed for treatment of malaria. Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride is a new antimalarial combination that has recently become available in many countries. Data from clinical trials evaluating atovaquone/proguanil for treatment of malaria were reviewed. In 10 open-label clinical trials, treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria with 1000 mg atovaquone and 400 mg proguanil hydrochloride (or the equivalent based on body weight in patients proguanil has been used to provide radical cure of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections prior to initiation of placebo-controlled trials of malaria prophylaxis. Recurrent parasitemia occurred within 28 days in 0 of 99 subjects who subsequently received prophylaxis with atovaquone/proguanil and 1 of 81 subjects who subsequently received placebo. Atovaquone/proguanil is also effective for treatment of malaria caused by the other three Plasmodium species that cause malaria in humans. For treatment of vivax malaria, therapy with primaquine in addition to atovaquone/proguanil is needed to prevent relapse from latent hepatic hypnozoites. Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride is a safe and effective combination for treatment of malaria.

  15. Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride for prophylaxis of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, G D; Kremsner, P G; Sukwa, T Y; van der Berg, J D; Shapiro, T A; Scott, T R; Chulay, J D

    1999-05-01

    The spread of drug-resistant malaria and appreciation of side effects associated with existing antimalarial drugs emphasize the need for new drugs to prevent malaria. The combination of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride was previously shown to be safe and highly effective for treatment of malaria, including multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. We reviewed results of clinical trials that evaluated either a fixed-dose combination of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride for malaria prophylaxis or atovaquone alone for causal prophylactic activity against P. falciparum. In three placebo-controlled trials, 331 subjects received 250 mg atovaquone and 100 mg proguanil hydrochloride (or an equivalent dose based on body weight in children) once daily for 10 to 12 weeks. The overall efficacy for preventing parasitemia was 98%. Among 175 nonimmune volunteers taking the same dose of atovaquone/proguanil once daily for 10 weeks while temporarily residing in a malaria-endemic area, malaria developed in one patient who was noncompliant with therapy. Results of volunteer challenge studies indicate that both atovaquone and proguanil have causal prophylactic activity directed against the liver stages of P. falciparum. Adverse events occurred with similar or lower frequencies in subjects treated with atovaquone/proguanil compared to placebo. Less than 1% of patients discontinued from these studies due to a treatment-related adverse event. A fixed-dose combination of atovaquone and proguanil hydrocloride is a promising new alternative for malaria prophylaxis.

  16. A novel and rapid microbiological assay for ciprofloxacin hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Cristina Laignier Cazedey

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports a simple, fast and sensitive microbiological assay applying the turbidimetric method for the determination of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIPRO HCl in ophthalmic solutions. The validation method yielded good results and included excellent linearity, precision, accuracy and specificity. The bioassay is based on the inhibitory effect of CIPRO HCl upon the strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 used as the test microorganism. The results were treated statistically by analysis of variance (ANOVA and were found to be linear (r=0.9994, in the range of 14.0–56.0 µg/mL, precise (intraday RSD%=2.06; interday RSD%=2.30 and accurate (recovery=99.71%. The turbidimetric assay was compared to the UV spectrophotometric and HPLC methods for the same drug. The turbidimetric bioassay described on this paper for determination of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride in ophthalmic solution is an alternative to the physicochemical methods disclosed in the literature and can be used in quality control routine. Keywords: Antibiotics, Fluoroquinolones, Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, Quality control, Microbiological assay, Turbidimetric method

  17. Multivariate modelling of the tablet manufacturing process with wet granulation for tablet optimization and in-process control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, J.A; Coenegracht, P.M J; Lerk, C.F

    1997-01-01

    The process of tablet manufacturing with granulation is described as a two-step process. The first step comprises wet granulation of the powder mixture, and in the second step the granules are compressed into tablets. For the modelling of the pharmaceutical process of wet granulation and tableting,

  18. Prediction of effects of punch shapes on tableting failure by using a multi-functional single-punch tablet press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Osamura

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We previously determined “Tableting properties” by using a multi-functional single-punch tablet press (GTP-1. We proposed plotting “Compactability” on the x-axis against “Manufacturability” on the y-axis to allow visual evaluation of “Tableting properties”. Various types of tableting failure occur in commercial drug production and are influenced by the amount of lubricant used and the shape of the punch. We used the GTP-1 to measure “Tableting properties” with different amounts of lubricant and compared the results with those of tableting on a commercial rotary tableting machine. Tablets compressed with a small amount of lubricant showed bad “Manufacturability”, leading to sticking of powder on punches. We also tested various punch shapes. The GTP-1 correctly predicted the actual tableting results for all punch shapes. With punches that were more likely to cause tableting failure, our system predicted the effects of lubricant quantity in the tablet formulation and the occurrence of sticking in the rotary tableting machine.

  19. Compressibility of tableting materials and properties of tablets with glyceryl behenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mužíková Jitka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the compressibility of directly compressible tableting materials with dry binders, spray-dried lactose and microcrystalline cellulose, and glyceryl dibehenate at various concentrations. Compressibility was evaluated by means of the energy profile of compression and tensile strength of tablets. Release rate of the active ingredient, salicylic acid, from the tablets was also examined. In the case of microcrystalline cellulose, a higher concentration of glyceryl dibehenate increased the strength of tablets, while this did not occur in the case of spray-dried lactose. Increasing concentration of glyceryl dibehenate prolonged the release of salicylic acid; however, no statistically significant difference was found compared to the type of the dry binder used

  20. Denaturation/Renaturation of Organophosphorus Acid Anhydrolase (OPAA) Using Guanidinium Hydrochloride and Urea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ong, K. K; Sun, Z; Cheng, T. C; Wei, Y; Yuan, J. M; Yin, R

    2004-01-01

    .... Using organophosphorus acid anhydrolase (OPAA) as the model protein, a guanidinium hydrochloride and urea denaturation/renaturation study was conducted and measured both optically and enzymatically...

  1. Chemical stability of diphenhydramine hydrochloride from an elixir and lidocaine hydrochloride from a viscous solution when mixed together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishnu D

    2006-01-01

    The stability of diphenhydramine hydrochloride (from an elixir) and lidocaine hydrochloride (from a viscous solution) in a mixture (1:1) was studied using a stability-indicating high-peformance liquid chromatographic assay method. The concentrations of the drugs were related directly to peak heights and the percent relative standard deviations based on five injections were 1.4 for diphenhydramine and 1.3 for lidocaine. The products of hydrolysis from the both the drugs and a number of excipients present in the dosage forms did not interfere with the developed assay procedure. The mixture was stable for at least 21 days when stored in amber-colored bottles at room temperature. The pH value of the mixture remained constant, and the physical appearance did not change during the study period.

  2. Use of xylazine hydrochloride-ketamine hydrochloride for immobilization of wild leopards (Panthera pardus fusca) in emergency situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsare, Aniruddha V; Athreya, Vidya R

    2010-06-01

    In India, leopards (Panthera pardus fusca) inhabit human-dominated landscapes, resulting in encounters that require interventions to prevent harm to people, as well as the leopards. Immobilization is a prerequisite for any such intervention. Such emergency field immobilizations have to be carried out with limited tools, often amidst large uncontrollable crowds. An effective and practicable approach is discussed, based on 55 wild leopard immobilizations undertaken between January 2003 and April 2008. A xylazine hydrochloride (1.4 +/- 0.3 mg/kg)--ketamine hydrochloride (5 +/- 2 mg/kg) mixture was used for immobilization of leopards, based on estimated body weight. When weight could not be estimated, a standard initial dose of 50 mg of xylazine--150 mg of ketamine was used. Supplemental doses (50-75 mg) of only ketamine were used as required. No life-threatening adverse effects of immobilization were documented for at least 1 mo postimmobilization.

  3. Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, N.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report evaluates Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) IV as part of the second phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) effort. The EDA IV concept was compared to the VA reference design using criteria from the Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations (CRWMS M and O 1999b) and (CRWMS M and O 1999f). Briefly, the EDA IV concept arranges the waste packages close together in an emplacement configuration known as line load. Continuous pre-closure ventilation keeps the waste packages from exceeding their 350 C cladding and 200 C (4.3.6) drift wall temperature limits. This EDA concept keeps relatively high, uniform emplacement drift temperatures (post-closure) to drive water away from the repository and thus dry out the pillars between emplacement drifts. The waste package is shielded to permit human access to emplacement drifts and includes an integral filler inside the package to reduce the amount of water that can contact the waste form. Closure of the repository is desired 50 years after first waste is emplaced. Both backfill and drip shields will be emplaced at closure to improve post-closure performance. The EDA IV concept includes more defense-in-depth layers than the VA reference design because of its backfill, drip shield, waste package shielding, and integral filler features. These features contribute to the low dose-rate to the public achieved during the first 10,000 years of repository life as shown in Figure 3. Investigation of the EDA IV concept has led to the following general conclusions: (1) The total life cycle cost for EDA IV is about $21.7 billion which equates to a $11.3 billion net present value (both figures rounded up). (2) The incidence of design basis events for EDA IV is similar to the VA reference design. (3) The emplacement of the waste packages in drifts will be similar to the VA reference design. However, heavier equipment may be required because the shielded waste package will be heavier. (4) The heavier

  4. Astronomical Content in Rongorongo Tablet Keiti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Rafal

    2011-01-01

    Th e fi eld of rongorongo research: the study of Easter Island’s native script is in a peculiar state at the moment. While relative progress has been made in structural and statistical analysis in the last decades, at the level of both single glyphs as well as entire texts, little to no advanceme...... has been achieved in the actual decipherment. To shed new light on rongorongo research, a hypothesis regarding the contents of tablet Keiti, one of the 25 obtained artifacts, is proposed. Th e content, as well as the meaning, of all but one of these 25 rongorongo texts is still unknown....... In this publication, an interpretation for the recto side of tablet Keiti is presented. It is argued that the tablet contains astronomical observations or instructions regarding the Rapa Nui lunar calendar, and is similar in content to the only other rongorongo text whose function has been partially ascertained......: tablet Mamari. If the calendrical contents of this artifact were confi rmed, this would be a major boost to our understanding of Oceania’s only native script....

  5. Research on Mobile Learning Activities Applying Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurilovas, Eugenijus; Juskeviciene, Anita; Bireniene, Virginija

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to present current research on mobile learning activities in Lithuania while implementing flagship EU-funded CCL project on application of tablet computers in education. In the paper, the quality of modern mobile learning activities based on learning personalisation, problem solving, collaboration, and flipped class methods is…

  6. ( Phaseolus lunatus ) starch as a tablet disintegrant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) was evaluated. The starch from the seeds was extracted and its disintegrant ability was compared with that of maize starch BP in paracetamol based tablets at concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 %w/w. The following properties of the starch ...

  7. Comparative bioequivalence assessment of aspirin tablets marketed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: In the last few years, aspirin has become a life saver against cardiovascular accidents. This investigation was carried out to determine possible bioequivalence between regular aspirin and soluble aspirin tablets marketed in Nigeria. Methods: The in vivo bioavailability profiles of three commercial brands of aspirin ...

  8. Evaluation of tablet disintegrant properties of microcrystalline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at exploring the application of microcrystalline cellulose from cassava fermentation waste as a disintegrant in the formulation of paracetamol tablets for immediate release. Alkali delignification of the dried cassava fermentation fibres, followed by bleaching and acid depolymerisation was employed in ...

  9. Optimization of Premix Powders for Tableting Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todo, Hiroaki; Sato, Kazuki; Takayama, Kozo; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2018-05-08

    Direct compression is a popular choice as it provides the simplest way to prepare the tablet. It can be easily adopted when the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is unstable in water or to thermal drying. An optimal formulation of preliminary mixed powders (premix powders) is beneficial if prepared in advance for tableting use. The aim of this study was to find the optimal formulation of the premix powders composed of lactose (LAC), cornstarch (CS), and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) by using statistical techniques. Based on the "Quality by Design" concept, a (3,3)-simplex lattice design consisting of three components, LAC, CS, and MCC was employed to prepare the model premix powders. Response surface method incorporating a thin-plate spline interpolation (RSM-S) was applied for estimation of the optimum premix powders for tableting use. The effect of tablet shape identified by the surface curvature on the optimization was investigated. The optimum premix powder was effective when the premix was applied to a small quantity of API, although the function of premix was limited in the case of the formulation of large amount of API. Statistical techniques are valuable to exploit new functions of well-known materials such as LAC, CS, and MCC.

  10. Development and characterization of orodispersible tablets of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Orodispersible tablets of famotidine were prepared using camphor as subliming agent and sodium starch glycollate together with crosscarmellose sodium as superdisintegrants. The formulations were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content, wetting time, in vitro and in-vivo dispersion, mouth ...

  11. Playful subversions: young children and tablet use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel; Pajares Tosca, Susana

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on data from empirical studies of small children (4-8 year olds) using tablets in educational settings, we explore the ways they resist the expected use of the various applications in order to invent their own forms of interaction. We propose the category of playful subversion to conceptu...

  12. Bioadhesive Controlled Release Clotrimazole Vaginal Tablets | Bhat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study indicates the possible use of suitable mixtures of natural and semi-synthetic cellulosic polymers for the preparation of clotrimazole mucoadhesive tablets for application as a vaginal controlled delivery system. Keywords: Clotrimazole, Swelling, Cellulosic polymers, Guar gum, Bioadhesion, Release ...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1380 - Methocarbamol tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1380 Methocarbamol tablets...) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is administered to dogs and cats as an adjunct to therapy for acute...

  14. 21 CFR 520.804 - Enalapril tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.804 Enalapril tablets. (a...). Enalapril maleate is administered as conjunctive therapy with furosemide and digoxin in the treatment of...

  15. Spectrophotometric Determination of Trimipramine in Tablet Dosage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric procedures for determination of trimipramine in tablet dosage form. Methods: The methods were based on the interaction of trimipramine as n-electron donor with the ο-acceptor, iodine and various π-acceptors, namely: chloranil (CH), ...

  16. Optimized furosemide taste masked orally disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abbas Ibrahim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Optimized orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs containing furosemide (FUR were prepared by direct compression method. Two factors, three levels (32 full factorial design was used to optimize the effect of taste masking agent (Eudragit E100; X1 and superdisintegarant; croscarmellose sodium (CCS; X2 on tablet properties. A composite was prepared by mixing ethanolic solution of FUR and Eudragit E100 with mannitol prior to mixing with other tablet ingredients. The prepared ODTs were characterized for their FUR content, hardness, friability and wetting time. The optimized ODT formulation (F1 was evaluated in term of palatability parameters and the in vivo disintegration. The manufactured ODTs were complying with the pharmacopeia guidelines regarding hardness, friability, weight variation and content. Eudragit E100 had a very slightly enhancing effect on tablets disintegration. However, the effects of both Eudragit E100 (X1 and CCS (X2 on ODTs disintegration time (Y1 were insignificant (p > 0.05. Moreover, X1 exhibited antagonistic effect on the dissolution after 5 and 30 min (D5 and D30, respectively, but only its effect on D30 is significant (p = 0.0004. Furthermore, the optimized ODTs formula showed good to acceptable taste in term of palatability, and in vivo disintegration time of this formula was about 10 s.

  17. BIOWAIVER STUDY OF ORAL TABLETTED ETHYLCELLULOSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    classification of drugs on the basis of their solubility and permeability. ..... velocity of drug release was slower from tablets with low polymer ... when the drug solubility is high, (b) loading dose in the polymeric matrix is large and (c) lack of.

  18. Thermodynamic studies of drug–α-cyclodextrin interactions in water at 298.15 K: Procaine hydrochloride/lidocaine hydrochloride/tetracaine hydrochloride/ranitidine hydrochloride + α-cyclodextrin + H2O systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, Vasim R.; Terdale, Santosh S.; Hundiwale, Dilip G.; Patil, Kesharsingh J.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The encapsulation of guest tetracaine hydrochloride TC·HCl (C 15 H 24 N 2 O 2 ·HCl), in α-cyclodextrin cavities in aqueous solutions at 298.15 K. -- Highlights: • The osmotic coefficient measurements are reported for PC·HCl/LC·HCl/TC·HCl/RT·HCl + 0.1 m α-CD + water at 298.15 K. • The concentration variation of mean activity coefficients of drug molecules in water–α-CD solutions has been studied. • The transfer Gibbs free energies have been calculated using the activity data. • Pair and triplet interaction parameters and equilibrium constant (log K) values are also estimated. • The results are discussed with emphasis on host–guest interaction concepts. -- Abstract: The osmotic coefficient measurements have been carried out for ternary aqueous solutions containing a fixed concentration of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) of ∼0.1 mol · kg −1 and varying the concentrations (∼0.012 to ∼0.21 mol · kg −1 ) of drugs Procaine hydrochloride (PC·HCl), Lidocaine hydrochloride (LC·HCl), Tetracaine hydrochloride (TC·HCl) and Ranitidine hydrochloride (RT·HCl) at 298.15 K using vapour pressure osmometry. The water activities for each ternary system were measured and used to obtain the activity coefficients of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) and drugs following the methodology developed by Robinson and Stokes for isopiestic measurements. The transfer Gibbs free energies of electrolyte (or drug) from water to an aqueous nonelectrolyte (α-CD) solutions (ΔG tr E ) and that of nonelectrolyte (α-CD) from water to an aqueous electrolyte (or drug) solutions (ΔG tr N ) have been calculated using the activity data. These were further used for the estimation of pair and triplet interaction parameters. By applying the method based on the application of the McMillan–Mayer theory of virial coefficients to transfer free energy data, the salting constant (k s ) values have been estimated at 298.15 K. The equilibrium constant (log K) values for the

  19. Development and Validation of an HPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Rifampicin, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, and Ethambutol Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellini, Paula R; Lages, Eduardo B; Franco, Pedro H C; Nogueira, Fernando H A; César, Isabela C; Pianetti, Gerson A

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis treatment consists of a fixed dose combination of rifampicin (RIF), isoniazid (INH), pyrazinamide (PYZ), and ethambutol hydrochloride (EMB). The combined treatment using various drugs is necessary for patient curing, without recrudescence, and for prevention of drug-resistant mutants, which may occur during treatment. An HPLC-diode array detector (DAD) method for the simultaneous determination of RIF, INH, PYZ, and EMB in fixed dose combination tablets was developed and validated. Chromatographic experiments were performed on an Agilent 1200 HPLC system, and the separation was carried out on a Purospher STAR RP18e (250×4.6 mm id, 5 μm, Merck) analytical column. Gradient elution was carried out with a mobile phase of 20 mM monobasic sodium phosphate buffer with 0.2% triethylamine (pH 7.0) and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. The total run time was 12 min, and the re-equilibration time was 5 min. EMB detection was performed at 210 nm, and RIF, INH, and PYZ were detected at 238 nm, using a DAD. The method proved to be specific, linear (r2>0.99), precise (RSD<2%), accurate, and robust and may be applied to the QC analysis of pharmaceutical formulations.

  20. Spectrophotometric and Spectrofluorimetric Methods for the Determination of Dothiepin Hydrochloride in its Pure and Dosage Forms using Eosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walash, M. I.; Belal, F.; El-Enany, N.; Elmansi, H.

    2010-01-01

    Spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods were developed for the determination of dothiepin hydrochloride (DOP) in different dosage forms. The spectrophotometric method (Method I) is based on formation of a binary complex with eosin at 540 nm in acetate buffer of pH3.7. The absorbance-concentration plot is rectilinear over the range 1–10 μg/mL with LOD of 0.18 μg/mL and LOQ of 0.54 μg/mL. The spectroflurimetric method (Method II) is based on the quantitative quenching effect of Dothiepin on the native fluorescence of eosin at the same pH. The quenching of the fluorescence of eosin was measured at 543 nm after excitation at 304 nm. The fluorescence-concentration plot is rectilinear over the range 0.3–8 μg/ mL with LOD of 0.11 μg/mL and LOQ of 0.34 μg/mL. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the analysis of commercial tablets and capsules containing the drug. Statistical comparison of the results with those of the reference method revealed good agreement and proved that there were no significant differences in the accuracy and precision between the two methods respectively. PMID:23675210

  1. Smartphones, tablets and mobile applications for radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, András; Talanow, Roland; Bágyi, Péter

    2013-05-01

    Smartphones are phone devices that may also be used for browsing, navigation and running smaller computer programs called applications. One may consider them as compact personal computers which are primarily to be used for making phone calls. Tablets or "tablet PCs" are fully functioning standalone computers the size of a thin LCD monitor that use the screen itself for control and data input. Both of these devices may be categorized based on the mobile operating system that they use. The aim of this study is to illustrate how smartphones and tablets can be used by diagnostic imaging professionals, radiographers and residents, and to introduce relevant applications that are available for their field. A search was performed on iTunes, Android Market, Blackberry App World, and Windows Phone Marketplace for mobile applications pertinent to the field of diagnostic imaging. The following terms were applied for the search strategy: (1) radiology, (2) X-ray, (3) ultrasound, (4) MRI, (5) CT, (6) radiographer, (7) nuclear medicine. Two radiologists and one radiology resident reviewed the results. Our review was limited to english-language software. Additional applications were identified by reviewing the list of similar software provided in the description of each application. We downloaded and installed all applications that appeared relevant to an appropriate mobile phone or tablet device. We identified and reviewed a total of 102 applications. We ruled out 1 non-English application and 20 other applications that were created for entertainment purposes. Thus our final list includes 81 applications in the following five categories: diagnostic reading, decision support applications, medical books, interactive encyclopedias, and journal reading programs. Smartphones and tablets offer new opportunities for diagnostic imaging practitioners; these easy-to-use devices equipped with excellent display may be used for diagnostic reading, reference, learning, consultation, and for

  2. Smartphones, tablets and mobile applications for radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Székely, András, E-mail: andras.szekely@gmail.com [Kenézy Hospital Department of Radiology, 4043 Debrecen, Bartók Béla út 2-26 (Hungary); Talanow, Roland, E-mail: roland@talanow.info [P.O. Box 1570, Lincoln, CA 95648 (United States); Bágyi, Péter [Kenézy Hospital Department of Radiology, 4043 Debrecen, Bartók Béla út 2-26 (Hungary)

    2013-05-15

    Background: Smartphones are phone devices that may also be used for browsing, navigation and running smaller computer programs called applications. One may consider them as compact personal computers which are primarily to be used for making phone calls. Tablets or “tablet PCs” are fully functioning standalone computers the size of a thin LCD monitor that use the screen itself for control and data input. Both of these devices may be categorized based on the mobile operating system that they use. The aim of this study is to illustrate how smartphones and tablets can be used by diagnostic imaging professionals, radiographers and residents, and to introduce relevant applications that are available for their field. Materials and methods: A search was performed on iTunes, Android Market, Blackberry App World, and Windows Phone Marketplace for mobile applications pertinent to the field of diagnostic imaging. The following terms were applied for the search strategy: (1) radiology, (2) X-ray, (3) ultrasound, (4) MRI, (5) CT, (6) radiographer, (7) nuclear medicine. Two radiologists and one radiology resident reviewed the results. Our review was limited to english-language software. Additional applications were identified by reviewing the list of similar software provided in the description of each application. We downloaded and installed all applications that appeared relevant to an appropriate mobile phone or tablet device. Results: We identified and reviewed a total of 102 applications. We ruled out 1 non-English application and 20 other applications that were created for entertainment purposes. Thus our final list includes 81 applications in the following five categories: diagnostic reading, decision support applications, medical books, interactive encyclopedias, and journal reading programs. Conclusion: Smartphones and tablets offer new opportunities for diagnostic imaging practitioners; these easy-to-use devices equipped with excellent display may be used for

  3. Developing a mapping tool for tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Alan; Collins, Nathan; Krus, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Digital field mapping offers significant benefits when compared with traditional paper mapping techniques in that it provides closer integration with downstream geological modelling and analysis. It also provides the mapper with the ability to rapidly integrate new data with existing databases without the potential degradation caused by repeated manual transcription of numeric, graphical and meta-data. In order to achieve these benefits, a number of PC-based digital mapping tools are available which have been developed for specific communities, eg the BGS•SIGMA project, Midland Valley's FieldMove®, and a range of solutions based on ArcGIS® software, which can be combined with either traditional or digital orientation and data collection tools. However, with the now widespread availability of inexpensive tablets and smart phones, a user led demand for a fully integrated tablet mapping tool has arisen. This poster describes the development of a tablet-based mapping environment specifically designed for geologists. The challenge was to deliver a system that would feel sufficiently close to the flexibility of paper-based geological mapping while being implemented on a consumer communication and entertainment device. The first release of a tablet-based geological mapping system from this project is illustrated and will be shown as implemented on an iPad during the poster session. Midland Valley is pioneering tablet-based mapping and, along with its industrial and academic partners, will be using the application in field based projects throughout this year and will be integrating feedback in further developments of this technology.

  4. Smartphones, tablets and mobile applications for radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Székely, András; Talanow, Roland; Bágyi, Péter

    2013-01-01

    Background: Smartphones are phone devices that may also be used for browsing, navigation and running smaller computer programs called applications. One may consider them as compact personal computers which are primarily to be used for making phone calls. Tablets or “tablet PCs” are fully functioning standalone computers the size of a thin LCD monitor that use the screen itself for control and data input. Both of these devices may be categorized based on the mobile operating system that they use. The aim of this study is to illustrate how smartphones and tablets can be used by diagnostic imaging professionals, radiographers and residents, and to introduce relevant applications that are available for their field. Materials and methods: A search was performed on iTunes, Android Market, Blackberry App World, and Windows Phone Marketplace for mobile applications pertinent to the field of diagnostic imaging. The following terms were applied for the search strategy: (1) radiology, (2) X-ray, (3) ultrasound, (4) MRI, (5) CT, (6) radiographer, (7) nuclear medicine. Two radiologists and one radiology resident reviewed the results. Our review was limited to english-language software. Additional applications were identified by reviewing the list of similar software provided in the description of each application. We downloaded and installed all applications that appeared relevant to an appropriate mobile phone or tablet device. Results: We identified and reviewed a total of 102 applications. We ruled out 1 non-English application and 20 other applications that were created for entertainment purposes. Thus our final list includes 81 applications in the following five categories: diagnostic reading, decision support applications, medical books, interactive encyclopedias, and journal reading programs. Conclusion: Smartphones and tablets offer new opportunities for diagnostic imaging practitioners; these easy-to-use devices equipped with excellent display may be used for

  5. Degree of corneal anaesthesia after topical application of 0.4% oxybuprocaine hydrochloride and 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution in clinically normal cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, W B; Jean, G St; Sithole, F; Little, E; Jean, K Yvorchuk-St

    2016-06-01

    The use of corneal anaesthesia is necessary for a range of clinical purposes. Therefore, we assessed and compared the efficacy of corneal anaesthesia after application of 0.4% oxybuprocaine hydrochloride and 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution in clinically normal cattle. The 24 clinically normal cows were allocated into two groups. Cows in group 1 (n = 12) received 0.2 mL of 0.4% oxybuprocaine hydrochloride with fluorescein ophthalmic solution in one eye and 0.2 mL of sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) with fluorescein in the contralateral eye (control). Group 2 (n = 12) received 0.2 mL of 0.4% oxybuprocaine hydrochloride with fluorescein ophthalmic solution in one eye and 0.2 mL of 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride with fluorescein in the contralateral eye (control). In each group, corneal touch threshold was determined by Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer for both eyes immediately prior to topical administration of solutions, at 1 min and 5 min after administration of topical solutions and every 5 min thereafter for a total of 75 min. Significant corneal anaesthesia was noted immediately following topical application of both oxybuprocaine and proparacaine as compared with controls, with maximal corneal anaesthesia noted 1 min after administration. Both oxybuprocaine and proparacaine produced significant corneal anaesthesia for the duration of the 75-min study. Neither oxybuprocaine hydrochloride nor proparacaine hydrochloride treatment resulted in visible adverse effects. There are limited data available demonstrating the efficacy and duration of corneal anaesthetic agents in cattle. Both oxybuprocaine hydrochloride and proparacaine hydrochloride should be considered practical options for providing corneal anaesthesia in cattle in a clinical setting. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  6. Effect of intravenous administration of tramadol hydrochloride on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Christine M; Souza, Marcy J; Greenacre, Cheryl B; Cox, Sherry K; Rohrbach, Barton W

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of IV administration of tramadol hydrochloride on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane (ISOMAC) that prevented purposeful movement of rabbits in response to a noxious stimulus. Six 6- to 12-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. A baseline ISOMAC was determined by clamping a pedal digit with sponge forceps until gross purposeful movement was detected or a period of 60 seconds elapsed. Subsequently, tramadol (4.4 mg/kg) was administered IV and the posttreatment ISOMAC (ISOMAC(T)) was measured. Mean +/- SD ISOMAC and ISOMAC(T) values were 2.33 +/- 0.13% and 2.12 +/- 0.17%, respectively. The ISOMAC value decreased by 9 +/- 4% after tramadol was administered. Plasma tramadol and its major metabolite (M1) concentrations at the time of ISOMAC(T) determination varied widely (ranges, 181 to 636 ng/mL and 32 to 61 ng/mL, respectively). Intervals to determination of ISOMAC(T) and plasma tramadol and M1 concentrations were not correlated with percentage change in the ISOMAC. Heart rate decreased significantly immediately after tramadol administration but by 10 minutes afterward was not different from the pretreatment value. Systolic arterial blood pressure decreased to approximately 60 mm Hg for approximately 5 minutes in 3 rabbits after tramadol administration. No adverse effects were detected. As administered, tramadol had a significant but clinically unimportant effect on the ISOMAC in rabbits. Higher doses of tramadol may provide clinically important reductions but may result in a greater degree of cardiovascular depression.

  7. Bioadhesive drug delivery system of diltiazem hydrochloride for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    residence time and promising drug release, and thus can be selected for further ... adhesive tablet in terms of flexibility and comfort. ... needed due to short biological half-life (t1/2, 4 h). ... work deals with the formulation and ... in digital balance.

  8. A sputnik IV saga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Charles A.

    2009-12-01

    The Sputnik IV launch occurred on May 15, 1960. On May 19, an attempt to deorbit a 'space cabin' failed and the cabin went into a higher orbit. The orbit of the cabin was monitored and Moonwatch volunteer satellite tracking teams were alerted to watch for the vehicle demise. On September 5, 1962, several team members from Milwaukee, Wisconsin made observations starting at 4:49 a.m. of a fireball following the predicted orbit of Sputnik IV. Requests went out to report any objects found under the fireball path. An early morning police patrol in Manitowoc had noticed a metal object on a street and had moved it to the curb. Later the officers recovered the object and had it dropped off at the Milwaukee Journal. The Moonwarch team got the object and reported the situation to Moonwatch Headquarters at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. A team member flew to Cambridge with the object. It was a solid, 9.49 kg piece of steel with a slag-like layer attached to it. Subsequent analyses showed that it contained radioactive nuclei produced by cosmic ray exposure in space. The scientists at the Observatory quickly recognized that measurements of its induced radioactivity could serve as a calibration for similar measurements of recently fallen nickel-iron meteorites. Concurrently, the Observatory directorate informed government agencies that a fragment from Sputnik IV had been recovered. Coincidently, a debate in the UN Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space involved the issue of liability for damage caused by falling satellite fragments. On September 12, the Observatory delivered the bulk of the fragment to the US Delegation to the UN. Two days later, the fragment was used by US Ambassador Francis Plimpton as an exhibit that the time had come to agree on liability for damage from satellite debris. He offered the Sputnik IV fragment to USSR Ambassador P.D. Morozov, who refused the offer. On October 23, Drs. Alla Massevitch and E.K. Federov of the USSR visited the

  9. Development and evaluation of ofloxacin orally disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badrinath Pralhadrao Mohite

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bitter taste of ofloxacin, a broad spectrum bactericidal agent, is masked and orally disintegrating tablets were formulated. The bitter taste is masked by forming complex between drug and weak cation exchange resins, Tulsion 335 and Indion 204. Effect of pH and drug:resin ratio on the drug loading was studied. Maximum drug loading was observed at pH 6. Ratio of 1:2 of drug:resin masked almost complete bitterness of ofloxacin. Formation of complexes was confirmed by IR spectroscopy. Physical characterization of taste masked complexes was carried out. Present work envisages the taste masking of ofloxacin and development of orally disintegrating tablets. The effect of pH and resin quantities on drug loading were studied to find the optimum conditions of drug loading for complete taste masking. Effect of superdisintegrants like sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium and polyplasdone XL at varying level on physical parameters of compressed tablets was also assessed. The formulations containing 5 % w/w polyplasdone XL showed about 90 % of drug release within 5 minutes. No significant differences were observed in the physical parameters of resinates as well as tablets prepared from Tulsion 335 and Indion 204.O gosto amargo de ofloxacina, agente bactericida de largo espectro, é mascarado e formularam-se comprimidos dispersíveis. O sabor amargo é mascarado pela formação de complexo entre o fármaco e resinas de troca catiônica fraca, Tulsion 335 e Indion 204. Efeito do pH e da proporção fármaco: resina sobre a carga de fármaco foi estudada. Carga de fármaco máxima foi observada em pH 6. Proporção 1:2 do fármaco: resina mascarou quase completamente o gosto amargo de ofloxacina. A formação de complexos foi confirmada por espectroscopia no IV. Caracterização física dos complexos de sabor mascarado foi realizada. O presente trabalho preconiza o mascaramento do gosto de ofloxacina e desenvolvimento decomprimidos por via oral, se

  10. Key Technical Aspects Influencing the Accuracy of Tablet Subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Maíra T; Sá-Barreto, Lívia C L; Gratieri, Taís; Gelfuso, Guilherme M; Silva, Izabel C R; Cunha-Filho, Marcílio S S

    2017-05-01

    Tablet subdivision is a common practice used mainly for dose adjustment. The aim of this study was to investigate how the technical aspects of production as well as the method of tablets subdivision (employing a tablet splitter or a kitchen knife) influence the accuracy of this practice. Five drugs commonly used as subdivided tablets were selected. For each drug, the innovator drug product, a scored-generic and a non-scored generic were investigated totalizing fifteen drug products. Mechanical and physical tests, including image analysis, were performed. Additionally, comparisons were made between tablet subdivision method, score, shape, diluent composition and coating. Image analysis based on surface area was a useful tool as an alternative assay to evaluate the accuracy of tablet subdivision. The tablet splitter demonstrates an advantage relative to a knife as it showed better results in weight loss and friability tests. Oblong, coated and scored tablets had better results after subdivision than round, uncoated and non-scored tablets. The presence of elastic diluents such as starch and dibasic phosphate dehydrate conferred a more appropriate behaviour for the subdivision process than plastic materials such as microcrystalline cellulose and lactose. Finally, differences were observed between generics and their innovator products in all selected drugs with regard the quality control assays in divided tablet, which highlights the necessity of health regulations to consider subdivision performance at least in marketing authorization of generic products.

  11. 21 CFR 524.1662 - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.1662 Section 524.1662 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1662 Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. ...

  12. 21 CFR 522.1662 - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms. 522.1662 Section 522.1662 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1662 Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable...

  13. Sustained release of verapamil hydrochloride from sodium alginate microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhana, S Ayesha; Shantakumar, S M; Shyale, Somashekar; Shalam, Md; Narasu, Laxmi

    2010-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop sustained release microcapsules of verapamil hydrochloride (VH) using biodegradable polymers. For this purpose microcapsules embedded verapamil hydrochloride were prepared using sodium alginate alone and also by incorporating some co polymers like methyl cellulose (MC), sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (SCMC) , poly vinyl pyrollidone (PVP) and xanthan gum by employing complex emulsion method of microencapsulation. Microcapsules were prepared in various core: coat ratios to know the effect of polymer and co polymers on drug release. Overall ten formulations were prepared and evaluated for flow behaviour, sieve analysis, drug entrapment efficiency, in vitro dissolution studies, stability studies, including scanning electron microscopy and DSC. The resulting microcapsules were discrete, large, spherical and also free flowing. The drug content in all the batches of microcapsules was found to be uniform. The release was depended on core: coat ratio and nature of the polymers. FTIR analysis revealed chemical integrity between Verapamil hydrochloride (VH), sodium alginate and between the copolymers. Among the four copolymers used methyl cellulose retarded the drug release more than the other three, hence the same formulation was subjected for in vivo studies. The drug release from the microcapsules was found to be following non fickian diffusion. Mechanism of drug release was diffusion controlled first order kinetics. Drug diffusion co efficient and correlation co efficient were also assessed by using various mathematical models. In vivo result analysis of pharmacokinetic parameters revealed that t max of reference and test formulations were almost same. From the study it was concluded that, sustained release Verapamil hydro chloride microcapsules could be achieved with success using sodium alginate alone and also in combination with other biodegradable polymers.

  14. The Vindolanda Tablets and the Ancient Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Kasper Grønlund

    The Vindolanda Tablets are rightly famous for the insights they provide into the life of Roman auxiliaries on the province of Britain’s northern frontier around the turn of the first century AD. Various authors over the years have dealt with the archaeological excavations at Vindolanda, the evide......The Vindolanda Tablets are rightly famous for the insights they provide into the life of Roman auxiliaries on the province of Britain’s northern frontier around the turn of the first century AD. Various authors over the years have dealt with the archaeological excavations at Vindolanda......, the aim is to investigate how best to comprehend the economic system attested at Vindolanda and to consider the wider implications for studies of the ancient economy in general. This is accomplished by a three-step approach: first, the nature of the Vindolandan evidence is assessed, and the state...

  15. [Safety evaluation of niuhuang jiedu tablet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu-Ling; Miao, Jia-wei; Li, Jing; Sung, An-Sheng; Liu, Jie

    2014-09-01

    Realgar-containing Niuhuang Jiedu tablet (NHJD) has been applied in clinic for more than 800 years. However, because realgar contains arsenic (As), it has aroused wide concerns and controversies both at home and abroad. Currently, there are two misunderstandings about realgar-containing Chinese patent medicines. First, some people exaggerated realgar's toxicity as that of arsenic. Second, they recommended to remove realgar from traditional Chinese medicine compounds. In this paper, the authors summarized the advance in studies on NHJD, and proposed different opinions: (1) It is inappropriate to take total As as the index in safety evaluation of NHJD. (2) The toxicity of NHJD is dependent on the dose and duration of administration. (3) Realgar is an active ingredient of NHJD, and shall be deeply studied. Classic realgar-containing traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions, such as Niuhuang Jiedu tablet, shall be evaluated with rigorous modern scientific basis, with the aim to guide rational and safe application.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of tablet dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, Kevin P

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the technique of choice for measuring hydration, and its effects, during dissolution of tablets since it non-invasively maps (1)H nuclei associated with 'mobile' water. Although most studies have used MRI systems with high-field superconducting magnets, low-field laboratory-based instruments based on permanent magnet technology are being developed that provide key data for the formulation scientist. Incorporation of dissolution hardware, in particular the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus 4 flow-through cell, allows measurements under controlled conditions for comparison against other dissolution methods. Furthermore, simultaneous image acquisition and measurement of drug concentration allow direct comparison of the drug release throughout the hydration process. The combination of low-field MRI with USP-4 apparatus provides another tool to aid tablet formulation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuroprotection against vascular dementia after acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride: P300 event related potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture can be used to treat various nervous system diseases. Here, 168 vascular dementia patients were orally administered donepezil hydrochloride alone (5 mg/day, once a day for 56 days, or combined with acupuncture at Shenting (DU24, Tianzhu (BL10, Sishencong (Extra, Yintang (Extra, Renzhong (DU26, Neiguan (PC6, Shenmen (HT7, Fengchi (GB20, Wangu (GB12 and Baihui (DU20 (once a day for 56 days. Compared with donepezil hydrochloride alone, P300 event related potential latency was shorter with an increased amplitude in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. Mini-Mental State Examination score was also higher. Moreover, these differences in P300 latency were identified within different infarcted regions in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. These findings indicate that acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride noticeably improves cognitive function in patients with vascular dementia, and exerts neuroprotective effects against vascular dementia.

  18. COMPARISON OF HYDROCORTISONE 10 MG TABLETS: TABLET HARDNESS OPTIMISED FOR ADULT USE HAS NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES FOR PAEDIATRIC USE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saimbi, Sarina; Madden, Valerie; Stirling, Heather; Yahyouche, Asma; Batchelor, Hannah

    2016-09-01

    Children's medicines are not always readily available as an age appropriate product and manipulation of adult products is often required. Recently the commercial manufacturing process for 10 mg hydrocortisone tablets has changed and the compression force increased due to tablets fracturing on removal from the blister pack. However, this change led to parents of children requiring hydrocortisone reporting that the tablets were more difficult to manipulate.This study evaluated 10 mg hydrocortisone tablets for their suitability for manipulation in order to deliver an appropriate dose to children (2 mg dose). The physical properties of tablets with the old and new compression force were compared as well as the accuracy of obtaining the paediatric dose. The tablets compared were hydrocortisone Auden 10 mg tablets (Brand A, PL16876/002)-these are the newer, harder tablets- and hydrocortisone 10 mg tablets (Brand B, PL17507/0097). Tablet physical properties including friability (Copley FRV200) and tablet hardness (Copley TBF1000) were compared. The accuracy of split doses (halve and quarter tablets) were recorded on a Sartorius analytical balance. The accuracy of the 2 mg paediatric dosing was assessed by crushing the tablet, adding 10 mL of water and extracting 2 mL. The concentration was measured using UV analysis (Jenway Genova Plus) according to a calibration curve (wavelength=246 nm). Two devices were used to crush the tablets: a spoon onto a plate and a commercially available crushing device (Apothecary Ezy Crush Pill Crusher With Ergo Grip). As anticipated Brand A tablets were harder (51.85 ±5.1 N) compared to Brand B (30.99±4.1 N). Brand A tablets passed the friability testing with Auden tablets which are known to be harder tablets and therefore more force is required to crush these. Some of the experimental work within this project was conducted by Andrew Hackett and Kameron Paul-Thaper whilst at the University of Birmingham on work

  19. Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride: a review of nonclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudney, M; Gutteridge, W; Zeman, A; Dickins, M; Woolley, J L

    1999-05-01

    Safe and effective antimalarial drugs are needed for treatment and prophylaxis of malaria. The combination of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride is a new antimalarial drug combination that has recently become available in many countries. Data were reviewed from nonclinical studies evaluating the microbiology, secondary pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride. Atovaquone is highly active against asexual erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro (IC50 0.7-6 nM) and in animal models. Proguanil per se has only weak antimalarial activity in vitro (IC50 2.4-19 microM), and its effectiveness depends on the active metabolite cycloguanil (IC50 0.5-2.5 nM). The combination of atovaquone and proguanil is synergistic in vitro. Both drugs also have activity against gametocytes and pre-erythrocytic (hepatic) stages of malaria parasites. Atovaquone is a ubiquinone antagonist that inhibits mitochondrial electron transport and collapses mitochondrial membrane potential. The proguanil metabolite cycloguanil is a dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor, but the mode of action of proguanil is unknown. In screening evaluations of secondary pharmacology, neither atovaquone nor proguanil had activity that adversely affected gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, or central or autonomic nervous system functions at clinically relevant concentrations. After oral administration, atovaquone exposure is extensive in rats but limited in dogs, while proguanil and cycloguanil exposure is extensive in dogs but limited in rats. In both species, toxicity was related to proguanil exposure, the principal manifestations being salivation, emesis, and loss of body weight. Neither atovaquone nor proguanil was teratogenic or mutagenic. An increased incidence of hepatic adenomas and adenocarcinomas was seen in mice, but not rats, after lifetime exposure to atovaquone, and appears to be related to species-specific differences in hepatic enzymatic activity

  20. [Clinical effect of atomoxetine hydrochloride in 66 children with narcolepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shen; Ding, Changhong; Wu, Husheng; Fang, Fang; Wang, Xiaohui; Ren, Xiaotun

    2015-10-01

    To observe the efficacy and safety of atomoxetine hydrochloride in children with narcolepsy. Totally 66 patients with narcolepsy who were conformed international classification of sleep disturbances (ICSD-2) diagnostic criteria treated with atomoxetine hydrochloride seen from November 2010 to December 2014 were enrolled into this study, 42 of them were male and 24 female, mean age of onset was 7.5 years (3.75-13.00 years), mean duration before diagnosis was 1.75 years (0.25-5.00 years). Complete blood count, liver and kidney function, multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), polysomnography (PGS), neuroimaging and electroencephalography (EEG) were performed for each patient. For some of the children HLA-DR2 gene and serum markers of infection were tested. The 66 cases were followed up from 2 to 49 months (average 18 months) to observe the clinical efficacy and adverse reactions. In 62 cases excessive daytime sleepiness was improved, in 11 cases (16.7%) it was controlled (16.7%), in 29 cases (43.9%) the treatment was obviously effective and in 22 (33.3%) it was effective; cataplexy occurred in 54 cases, in 18 (33.3%) it was controlled, in 19 (35.2%) the treatment was obviously effective and in 10 (18.5%) effective; night sleep disorders existed in 55 cases, in 47 cases it was improved, in 14 (25.5%) it was controlled, in 20 (36.4%) the treatment was obviously effective and in 13 (23.6%) effective; hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucination was present in 13 cases, in only 4 these symptoms were controlled. Sleep paralysis existed in 4 cases, it was controlled in only 1 case. In 18 cases attention and learning efficiency improved.Anorexia occurred in 18 cases, mood disorder in 5 cases, depression in 2 cases, nocturia, muscle tremors, involuntary tongue movement each occurred in 1 case. P-R interval prolongation and atrial premature contraction were found in 1 case. Atomoxetine hydrochloride showed good effects in patients with narcolepsy on excessive daytime sleepiness

  1. Formulation studies for mirtazapine orally disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Simay; Aytekin, Eren; Yavuz, Burçin; Bozdağ Pehlivan, Sibel; Ünlü, Nurşen

    2016-01-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) recently have gained much attention to fulfill the needs for pediatric, geriatric, and psychiatric patients with dysphagia. Aim of this study was to develop new ODT formulations containing mirtazapine, an antidepressant drug molecule having bitter taste, by using simple and inexpensive preparation methods such as coacervation, direct compression and to compare their characteristics with those of reference product (Remereon SolTab). Coacervation method was chosen for taste masking of mirtazapine. In vitro characterization studies such as diameter and thickness, weight variation, tablet hardness, tablet friability and disintegration time were performed on tablet formulations. Wetting time and in vitro dissolution tests of developed ODTs also studied using 900 mL 0.1 N HCl medium, 900 mL pH 6.8 phosphate buffer or 900 mL pH 4.5 acetate buffer at 37 ± 0.2 °C as dissolution medium. Ratio of Eudragit® E-100 was chosen as 6% (w/w) since the dissolution profile of A1 (6% Eudragit® E-100) was found closer to the reference product than A2 (4% Eudragit® E-100) and A3 (8% Eudragit® E-100). Group D, E and F formulations were presented better results in terms of disintegration time. Dissolution results indicated that Group E and F formulations showed optimum properties in all three dissolution media. Formulations D1, D4, D5, E3, E4, F1 and F5 found suitable as ODT formulations due to their favorable disintegration times and dissolution profiles. Developed mirtazapine ODTs were found promising in terms of showing the similar characteristics to the original formulation.

  2. Evaluation of the ease of taking mini-tablets compared with other tablet formulations in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yoshiyuki; Uchida, Shinya; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2016-03-10

    "Mini-tablets" (MTs) are tablets of diameter≤3mm and have been widely studied and developed. However, reports comparing MTs with other tablet formulations are few. We wished to evaluate the ease of taking a MT quantitatively in comparison with an orally disintegrating mini-tablet (ODMT), conventional tablet (CT) and conventional orally disintegrating tablet (ODT). Four types of tablets were prepared. We prepared tablets of two diameters (3mm for MTs and ODMTs vs. 8mm for CTs and ODTs) and two formulations (MTs and CTs vs. ODMTs and ODTs). Our randomized crossover trial in 18 healthy volunteers (8 men and 10 women; mean age, 22.5years) indicated that the visual analog scale (VAS) score for the ease and amount of water required for intake of MTs was significantly lower than those of CTs. An ODMT required the least amount of water and smallest VAS score for the ease of taking a tablet. Our results showed that the advantage of MTs with regard to the ease of taking and decreased amount of water required was exerted for a unit of dosing comprising tablets. These data suggested the usefulness of MTs and the importance of the number of MTs for comfortable consumption by patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Iodine tablets - many benefits and few disadvantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paile, W.

    1996-01-01

    The number of thyroid cancers among children has increased steeply around Chernobyl after the nuclear catastrophe. An iodine tablet taken at the right time would have protected the thyroid from the effects of radioiodine. Nuclear fallout may contain large amounts of radioactive iodine. If this enters the body, either through inhalation or ingestion, most of it ends up in the thyroid. As a result, the thyroid may be exposed to a considerable radiation dose. High doses endanger the functioning of the thyroid, and even smaller doses may cause benign or malignant tumours in the thyroid. Sensitivity of the thyroid to radiation depends largely on the person's age. The younger the child, the higher the risk. Adults probably have a low risk. It has not been shown that people over 40 years of age would have any risk of contracting radiation-induced thyroid cancer. Iodine tablets are particularly important for children. Iodine has fewer side effects than had been thought previously. At least for children, the risk of side effects caused by one dose of iodine is so small that it can be ignored when considering whether iodine should be given in a fallout situation. The risk increases with age. It must unconditionally be left for the authorities to decide who should be given iodine tablets and when. (orig.)

  4. Seaweed tablet: a natural source of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briones, Annabelle V.; Ambal, Wilhelmina O.; Monroyo, Evangelina C.; Bonifacio, Teresita S.; Sison, Fe M.

    1997-01-01

    Species of seaweeds namely: Halymenia durvillaei, Laurencia flexilis and Sargassum gigantifolium were processed into dried form and formulated as tablet. Prior to tablet formulation, the seaweeds were assayed for iodine and trace elements. The seaweeds that exhibited significance values of iodine and trace elements were further analyzed for the presence of heavy metals followed by acute oral toxicity test (LD 50 ). Among the seaweeds evaluated, H. durvilaei was found to contain high level of iodine (0.255% w/w) and magnesium (1.65% w/w) with sufficient amount of zinc (25.69 ppm) and phosporous (11.68 ppm). Analysis of heavy metals showed minute amount of mercury (0.0055 ppm), cadmium (0.67 ppm) and lead (1.80 ppm). The median lethal dose (LD 50 ) of H. durvillaei administered orally in Swiss male mice is 119.1489 ± 4.9873 g/kg. Tablet formulation was based on the U.S. recommended daily allowance of 0.15 mg. of iodine per adult and children. The final product was comparable to imported Kelp pills (available in the local market) in terms of physical properties and iodine content. (Author)

  5. ESR accident dosimetry using medicine tablets coated with sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, A.; Miki, T.; Ikeya, M.

    1990-01-01

    Properties of radiation-induced radicals in medicine tablets were investigated using electron spin resonance (ESR). A sharp ESR signal sensitive to gamma ray irradiation was observed in the sugar coating part of the tablets. The signal has anisotropic g values of g 1 = 2.0009, g 2 = 2.0007 and g 3 = 2.0002. The signal grows linearly with dose at least up to about 20 Gy. No fading was observed at room temperature even when exposed to sunlight. The dose to artificially irradiated tablets was estimated using the signal intensity and a previously determined calibration curve. The signal in sugar coated tablets can be utilised for dose measurements. In particular, the wide distribution of sugar coated tablets allows the use of the tablets as accident dosemeters. (author)

  6. The variability of ecstasy tablets composition in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togni, Loraine R; Lanaro, Rafael; Resende, Rodrigo R; Costa, Jose L

    2015-01-01

    The content of ecstasy tablets has been changing over the years, and nowadays 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is not always present in the tablets. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition in the seized tablets labeled as ecstasy. We analyzed samples from 150 different seizures made by Sao Paulo's State Police by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. MDMA was present in 44.7% of the analyzed samples, and another twenty different active substances were identified in these tablets, such as caffeine, 2C-B, piperazines, amphetamines, phencyclidine, and others. Methamphetamine was present in 22% of these samples. The results demonstrate a huge shift in the pattern of trafficking of synthetic drugs, where MDMA has been replaced in tablets mostly by illicit psychoactive substances, in a clear attempt to bypass the law. The great variability in the tablets composition may lead to an increased risk of drug poisoning. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. 'Tablet burden' in patients with metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milic, Marina; Foster, Anna; Rihawi, Karim; Anthoney, Alan; Twelves, Chris

    2016-03-01

    The implications for patients with cancer, of the 'tablet burden' resulting from increasing use of oral anticancer drugs and medication for co-morbidities have not previously been well explored. We sought to (i) quantify tablet burden in women with metastatic breast cancer (MBC), (ii) establish which groups of drug contribute most to this burden and (iii) gain insight into patients' attitudes towards oral anti-cancer treatment. One hundred patients with MBC anonymously completed a questionnaire describing their medication histories and attitudes towards their tablets. The patients (mean age 60, range 31-95) were all female and taking a median of six tablets (range 0-31) daily; 37 patients were taking >10 tablets. Oral anticancer treatment constituted the category of treatment taken by the highest proportion of patients, followed by symptomatic cancer treatments, proton pump inhibitors and cardiovascular medication. Numerically, however, symptomatic drugs accounted for 44% of all tablets and specific anti-cancer treatment for 15%; medication not directly related to the cancer accounted for the remaining 40% of tablets. A quarter of patients reported inconvenience in taking their tablets, the main reason being tablet size and one third reported forgetting their tablets at least once a week. Nearly two thirds of patients expressing a preference favoured oral anticancer treatment, the commonest reason being greater convenience. Tablet burden is considerable for many patients with MBC and can be problematic. A significant proportion of tablets represent treatment for co-morbidities, the significance of which may be questionable in women with MBC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Replacing Smartphones With Mini Tablet Technology: An Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneval, Rhonda; Mechtel, Marci

    Handheld technology allows students to access point-of-care resources throughout the clinical experience. To assess the viability of replacing student smartphones with tablets, an evaluation project was undertaken. Overall, students were equally dissatisfied with the 2 types of tablets that were evaluated. Students saw the potential usefulness of tablets to manage clinical assignments, interact with the learning management system, and communicate with faculty, but not for retrieving information currently accessible on their phones.

  9. Evaluation of powder and tableting properties of chitosan

    OpenAIRE

    Picker-Freyer, Katharina M.; Brink, Diana

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the process of tablet formation and the properties of the resulting tablets for 3 N-deacetylated chitosans, with a degree of deacetylation of 80%, 85%, or 90%. Material properties, such as water content, particle size and morphology, glass transition temperature, and molecular weight were studied. The process of tablet formation was analyzed by 3-D modeling, Heckel analysis, the pressure time function, and energy calculations in combination with elastic re...

  10. Preventive distribution and plans of iodine tablets stocks management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This official note includes two parts: one concerns the new preventive distribution of iodine tablets on the areas defined by the Particular Intervention Plans (P.P.I.) around nuclear facilities and the other one the setting up of iodine tablets stocks beyond the P.P.I. areas. In annexe is a guide for the elaboration of stocks management plans for steady iodine tablets. (N.C.)

  11. Development of natural gum based fast disintegrating tablets of glipizide

    OpenAIRE

    Antesh Kumar Jha; Dipak Chetia

    2012-01-01

    Dysphagia and risk of choking are leading causes of patient non-compliance in the self-administration of conventional tablets. To overcome these limitations of conventional tablets fast-disintegrating tablets were developed, using natural gums. Natural gums were evaluated for bulk swelling capacity. Powder mix containing natural gums and glipizide was evaluated for water sorption, swelling index and capillary action. For faster onset and immediate hypoglycemic action, the fast disintegrating ...

  12. Profil Disolusi Terbanding Tablet Rifampisin Merek Dan Generik

    OpenAIRE

    Nurtanti, Mutiara Poetri; Kusuma, Anjar Mahardian; Siswanto, Agus

    2010-01-01

    Obat generik saat ini masih dipandang sebelah mata oleh masyarakat karena alasan kualitas dari obat generik lebih rendah dibandingkan obat merek. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui perbandingan profil disolusi rifampisin tablet merek (A, B, C) dengan tablet rifampisin generik (D, E). Parameter penting dalam menentukan mutu obat dalam bentuk tablet adalah penetapan kekerasan, penetapan waktu hancur dan uji disolusi. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan berdasarkan produk yang beredar di pasaran ya...

  13. Tablet-Based Functional MRI of the Trail Making Test: Effect of Tablet Interaction Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahta Karimpoor

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Trail Making Test (TMT is widely used for assessing executive function, frontal lobe abilities, and visual motor skills. Part A of this pen-and-paper test (TMT-A involves linking numbers randomly distributed in space, in ascending order. Part B (TMT-B alternates between linking numbers and letters. TMT-B is more demanding than TMT-A, but the mental processing that supports the performance of this test remains incompletely understood. Functional MRI (fMRI may help to clarify the relationship between TMT performance and brain activity, but providing an environment that supports real-world pen-and-paper interactions during fMRI is challenging. Previously, an fMRI-compatible tablet system was developed for writing and drawing with two modes of interaction: the original cursor-based, proprioceptive approach, and a new mode involving augmented reality to provide visual feedback of hand position (VFHP for enhanced user interaction. This study characterizes the use of the tablet during fMRI of young healthy adults (n = 22, with half of the subjects performing TMT with VFHP and the other half performing TMT without VFHP. Activation maps for both TMT-A and TMT-B performance showed considerable overlap between the two tablet modes, and no statistically differences in brain activity were detected when contrasting TMT-B vs. TMT-A for the two tablet modes. Behavioral results also showed no statistically different interaction effects for TMT-B vs. TMT-A for the two tablet modes. Tablet-based TMT scores showed reasonable convergent validity with those obtained by administering the standard pen-and-paper TMT to the same subjects. Overall, the results suggest that despite the slightly different mechanisms involved for the two modes of tablet interaction, both are suitable for use in fMRI studies involving TMT performance. This study provides information for using tablet-based TMT methods appropriately in future fMRI studies involving patients and healthy

  14. Double-Track Electrochemical Green Approach for Simultaneous Dissolution Profiling of Naproxen Sodium and Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Mostafa A; Fawaz, Esraa M; El-Rahman, Mohamed K Abd; Abdel-Moety, Ezzat M

    2017-11-30

    Acquisition of the dissolution profiles of more than single active ingredient in a multi-analyte pharmaceutical formulation is a mandatory manufacturing practice that is dominated by utilization of the off-line separation-based chromatographic methods. This contribution adopts a new "Double-Track" approach with the ultimate goal of advancing the in-line potentiometric sensors to their most effective applicability for simultaneous acquisition of the dissolution profiles of two active ingredients in a binary pharmaceutical formulation. The unique abilities of these sensors for real-time measurements is the key driver for adoption of "green analytical chemistry" (GAC) principles aiming to expand the application of eco-friendly analytical methods With the aim of performing a side-by-side comparison, this work investigates the degree of adherence of ISEs to the 12 principles of GAC in multicomponent dissolution profiling with respect to the HPLC. For the proof of concept, a binary mixture of naproxen sodium (NAPR) and diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DIPH) marketed as Aleve pm ® tablets was selected as a model for which dissolution profiles were attained by two techniques. The first "Double-Track" in-line strategy depends on dipping two highly integrated membrane sensors for continuous monitoring of the dissolution of each active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) by tracing the e.m.f change over the time scale. For the determination of NAPR, sensor I was developed using tridodecyl methyl ammonium chloride as an anion exchanger, while sensor II was developed for the determination of DIPH using potassium tetrakis (4-chlorophenyl) borate as a cation exchanger. The second off-line strategy utilizes a separation-based HPLC method via off-line tracking the increase of peak area by UV detection at 220nm over time using a mobile phase of acetonitrile: water (90:10) pH 3. The advantages of the newly introduced "Double-Track" approach regarding GAC principles are highlighted, and

  15. Propionyl-L-carnitine hydrochloride for treatment of mild to moderate colonic inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merra, Giuseppe; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Laterza, Lucrezia; Pizzoferrato, Marco; Poscia, Andrea; Scaldaferri, Franco; Arena, Vincenzo; Fiore, Francesca; Cittadini, Achille; Sgambato, Alessandro; Franceschi, Francesco; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2012-09-28

    To assess clinical and endoscopic response to propionyl-L-carnitine hydrochloride (PLC) in colonic inflammatory bowel disease. Patients suffering from mild to moderate ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) colitis, with disease activity index (DAI) between 3 and 10 and under stable therapy with oral aminosalicylates, mercaptopurine or azathioprine, for at least 8 wk prior to baseline assessments, were considered suitable for enrollment. Fourteen patients were enrolled to assume PLC 2 g/d (two active tablets twice daily) orally. Clinical-endoscopic and histological activity were assessed by DAI and histological index (HI), respectively, following a colonoscopy performed immediately before and after 4 wk treatment. Clinical response was defined as a lowering of at least 3 points in DAI and clinical remission as a DAI score ≤ 2. Histological response was defined as an improvement of HI of at least 1 point. We used median values for the analysis. Differences pre- and post-treatment were analyzed by Wilcoxon signed rank test. All patients enrolled completed the study. One patient, despite medical advice, took deflazacort 5 d before follow-up colonoscopy examination. No side effects were reported by patients during the trial. After treatment, 71% (SE 12%) of patients achieved clinical response, while 64% (SE 13%) obtained remission. Separating UC from CD patients, we observed a clinical response in 60% (SE 16%) and 100%, respectively. Furthermore 60% (SE 16%) of UC patients and 75% (SE 25%) of CD patients were in clinical remission after therapy. The median DAI was 7 [interquartile range (IQR): 4-8] before treatment and decreased to 2 (IQR: 1-3) (P stability; none showed HI worsening. Median HI decreased from 1 (IQR: 1-2), to 0.5 (IQR: 0-1) at the endoscopic control in the whole population (P < 0.01), while it changed from 1 (IQR: 1-2) to 0.5 (IQR: 0-1) in UC patients (P < 0.01) and from 1.5 (IQR: 1-2) to 0.5 (IQR: 0-1) in CD patients (P = not significant

  16. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC, ATOMIC ABSORPTION AND CONDUCTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Anis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Six simple and sensitive spectroscopic and conductometric procedures (A-F were developed for the determination of tramadol hydrochloride. Methods A, B and C are based on the reaction of cobalt (II thiocyanate with tramadol to form a stable ternary complex, which could be measured by spectrophotometric (method A, atomic absorption (method B or conductometric (method C procedures. Methods D and E depend on the reaction of molybdenum thiocyanate with tramadol to form a stable ternary complex, measured by spectrophotometric means (method D or by atomic absorption procedures (method E, while method F depends on the formation of an ion pair complex between the studied drug and bromothymol blue which is extractable into methylene chloride. Tramadol hydrochloride could be assayed in the range of 80-560 and 40-–220 μg ml-1, 1-15 mg ml-1 and 2.5-22.5, 1.25-11.25 and 5-22 μg ml-1 using methods A,B,C,D,E and F, respectively. Various experimental conditions were studied. The results obtained showed good recoveries. The proposed procedures were applied successfully to the analysis of tramadol in its pharmaceutical preparations and the results were favorably comparable with the official method.

  17. Growth of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride and its characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, G.; Pari, S., E-mail: sparimyur@gmail.com

    2016-11-15

    Single crystal of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride by slow evaporation method is reported. The grown crystal characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, UV–Vis–NIR and fluorescence spectroscopy. It is established that the crystal falls under the monoclinic system and space group P21/c with the cell parameters as: a=8.565 Å, b=12.943 Å, c=6.272 Å, α=γ=90°, β=103.630º. UV–Vis–NIR spectrum shows indirect allowed transition with a band gap of 5.21 eV and other optical properties are measured. The crystal is also shown to have a high transmittance in the visible region. The third order nonlinear property and optical limiting have been investigated using Z-Scan technique. Complex impedance spectrum measured at the dc conductivity. Dependence of dielectric constant, dielectric loss and ac conductivity on frequency at different temperature of applied ac field is analyzed. The mechanical behavior has been assessed by Vickers microhardness indenter. The thermal behavior of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride was analyzed using TG/DTA thermal curves. From the thermal study, the material was found to possess thermal stability up to 174 °C. The predicted NLO properties, UV–Vis transmittance and Z-scan studies indicate that is an attractive material for photonics optical limiting applications.

  18. Chemoreactomic analysis of thiamine disulfide, thiamine hydrochloride, and benfotiamine molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Gromova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the interactions that could indicate the potential pharmacological properties of the molecules of thiamin, thiamine disulfide, and others.Material and methods. The investigators simulated the properties of thiamine disulfide (bistiamin versus those of the reference molecules of thiamin hydrochloride and benfotiamine. The study was performed using chemoreactomic simulation that is the newest area in post-genome pharmacology.Results and discussion. Chemoreactomic analysis has shown that thiamine disulfide can inhibit the molecular receptors involved in blood pressure regulation: adrenoceptors, vasopressin receptor, and angiotensin receptor. Thiamine disulfide can inhibit the reuptake of serotonin, increase its levels, inhibit benzodiazepine receptor and dopamine reuptake, and enhance neuronal acetylcholine release to a large extent than benfotiamine. These molecular effects are consistent with the sedative and anticonvulsant action profile of thiamine disulfide. Simulation has indicated that thiamine disulfide has neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, normolipidemic, and antitumor activities.Conclusion. The simulation results are confirmed by the available clinical and experimental findings and indicate the virtually unstudied molecular mechanisms of action of thiamine disulfide, benfotiamine, and thiamin hydrochloride

  19. Oxymetazoline hydrochloride cream for facial erythema associated with rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nupur U; Shukla, Shweta; Zaki, Jessica; Feldman, Steven R

    2017-10-01

    Rosacea is a chronic skin condition characterized by transient and persistent erythema of the central face. The symptom of persistent erythema can be particularly frustrating for both patients and physicians as it is difficult to treat. Areas covered: Current treatment options for the treatment of rosacea include metronidazole, azelaic acid, sodium sulfacetamide-sulfur, and brimonidine. Until recently, brimonidine gel was the only option approved specifically for the treatment of facial erythema. However, oxymetazoline hydrochloride 1% cream is a newly FDA approved topical medication for adult rosacea patients. A primarily alpha-1a agonist, oxymetazoline hydrochloride (HCl) is thought to diminish erythema through vasoconstriction. Our paper seeks to evaluate evidence for topical oxymetazoline HCl with respect to its efficacy and safety for its approved indication of treating the persistent erythema associated with rosacea. Expert commentary: While assessment of available clinical trial data indicates that the medication is as effective as other available treatment for controlling rosacea-associated erythema with minimal risk of adverse effects, studies of long-term duration and direct comparison will be necessary to establish its place in treatment guidelines and clinical practice. As further evidence becomes available, the real-world clinical potential of topical oxymetazoline cream will become clearer.

  20. Intestinal Anisakiasis Treated Successfully with Prednisolone and Olopatadine Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Toyoda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristic of gastrointestinal anisakiasis is severe abdominal pain after eating raw fish. Intestinal anisakiasis is more uncommon than gastric anisakiasis. Most patients with intestinal anisakiasis need hospitalization because anisakiasis can cause intestinal obstruction, ileus, peritonitis or intestinal perforation. We report a case of intestinal anisakiasis. A 43-year-old woman presented with symptoms of intermittent abdominal pain 2 days after eating raw fish. Her brother had eaten the same food and had been suffering from gastric anisakiasis. Abdominal ultrasonography in this patient showed localized jejunal wall thickening with dilated lumen of proximal jejunum and ascites. According to the clinical course and examinations, she was diagnosed with intestinal anisakiasis. Administration of prednisolone 5 mg/day and olopatadine hydrochloride 10 mg/day improved her symptoms quickly without hospitalization. Prednisolone was administered for 10 days, and olopatadine hydrochloride was administered for a total of 6 weeks according to ultrasonographic findings. Six months after the treatment, the abdominal ultrasonography demonstrated normal findings. This case demonstrates that ultrasonography was quite useful for the diagnosis and surveillance of intestinal anisakiasis. Furthermore, treatment with corticosteroid and an antiallergic agent could be an option for patients with intestinal anisakiasis.

  1. Transepithelial transport of biperiden hydrochloride in Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalos, Ivana S; Rodríguez, Yanina I; Lozano, Verónica; Cereseto, Marina; Mussini, Maria V; Spinetto, Marta E; Chiale, Carlos; Pesce, Guido

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this research has been to determine the biperiden hydrochloride permeability in Caco-2 model, in order to classify it based on the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). The World Health Organization (WHO) as well as many other authors have provisionally assigned the drug as BCS class I (high solubility-high permeability) or III (high solubility-low permeability), based on different methods. We determined biperiden BCS class by comparing its permeability to 5 pre-defined compounds: atenolol and ranitidine hydrochloride (low permeability group) and metoprolol tartrate, sodium naproxen and theophylline (high permeability group). Since biperiden permeability was higher than those obtained for high permeability drugs, we classified it as a BCS class I compound. On the other hand, as no differences were obtained for permeability values when apical to basolateral and basolateral to apical fluxes were studied, this drug cannot act as a substrate of efflux transporters. As a consequence of our results, we suggest that the widely used antiparkinsonian drug, biperiden, should be candidate for a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hepatic imaging in stage IV-S neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franken, E.A. Jr.; Smith, W.L.; Iowa Univ., Iowa City; Cohen, M.D.; Kisker, C.T.; Platz, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    Stage IV-S neuroblastoma describes a group of infants with tumor spread limited to liver, skin, or bone marrow. Such patients, who constitute about 25% of affected infants with neuroblastoma, may expect spontaneous tumor remission. We report 18 infants with Stage IV-S neuroblastoma, 83% of whom had liver involvement. Imaging investigations included Technetium 99m sulfur colloid scan, ultrasound, and CT. Two patterns of liver metastasis were noted: ill-defined nodules or diffuse tumor throughout the liver. Distinction of normal and abnormal liver with diffuse type metastasis could be quite difficult, particularly with liver scans. We conclude that patients with Stage IV-S neuroblastoma have ultrasound or CT examination as an initial workup, with nuclear medicine scans reserved for followup studies. (orig.)

  3. Placing wireless tablets in clinical settings for patient education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stribling, Judy C; Richardson, Joshua E

    2016-04-01

    The authors explored the feasibility and possible benefit of tablet-based educational materials for patients in clinic waiting areas. We distributed eight tablets preloaded with diagnosis-relevant information in two clinic waiting areas. Patients were surveyed about satisfaction, usability, and effects on learning. Technical issues were resolved. Thirty-seven of forty patients completed the survey. On average, the patients were satisfied in all categories. Placing tablet-based educational materials in clinic waiting areas is relatively easy to implement. Patients using tablets reported satisfaction across three domains: usability, education, and satisfaction.

  4. Placing wireless tablets in clinical settings for patient education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy C. Stribling, MA, MLS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The authors explored the feasibility and possible benefit of tablet-based educational materials for patients in clinic waiting areas. Methods: We distributed eight tablets preloaded with diagnosis-relevant information in two clinic waiting areas. Patients were surveyed about satisfaction, usability, and effects on learning. Technical issues were resolved. Results: Thirty-seven of forty patients completed the survey. On average, the patients were satisfied in all categories. Conclusions: Placing tablet-based educational materials in clinic waiting areas is relatively easy to implement. Patients using tablets reported satisfaction across three domains: usability, education, and satisfaction.

  5. Ginger Orally Disintegrating Tablets to Improve Swallowing in Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Ayumu; Funato, Hiroki; Nakai, Megumi; Iizuka, Michiro; Abe, Noriaki; Yagi, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Hisashi; Jobu, Kohei; Yokota, Junko; Hirose, Kahori; Hyodo, Masamitsu; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We previously prepared and pharmaceutically evaluated ginger orally disintegrating (OD) tablets, optimized the base formulation, and carried out a clinical trial in healthy adults in their 20 s and 50s to measure their effect on salivary substance P (SP) level and improved swallowing function. In this study, we conducted clinical trials using the ginger OD tablets in older people to clinically evaluate the improvements in swallowing function resulting from the functional components of the tablet. The ginger OD tablets were prepared by mixing the excipients with the same amount of mannitol and sucrose to a concentration of 1% ginger. Eighteen healthy older adult volunteers aged 63 to 90 were included in the swallowing function test. Saliva was collected before and 15 min after administration of the placebo and ginger OD tablets. Swallowing endoscopy was performed by an otolaryngologist before administration and 15 min after administration of the ginger OD tablets. A scoring method was used to evaluate the endoscopic swallowing. Fifteen minutes after taking the ginger OD tablets, the salivary SP amount was significantly higher than prior to ingestion or after taking the placebo (pginger OD tablets. Our findings showed that the ginger OD tablets increased the salivary SP amount and improved swallowing function in older people with appreciably reduced swallowing function.

  6. [Formulation optimization of panax notoginsenoside orally fast disintegration tablets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Wei, Li; Chen, Ting

    2008-07-01

    To optimize the formulation of panax notoginsenoside orally fast disintegrating tablets. Mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose (PH 102) and lactose 80 were used as diluent. A polynomial regression algorithm was used to evaluate the relationship between the controlling factor, compacting pressure and diluent ratio, and disintegration time, tensile strength of tablets. Optimum formulation and process parameters could be determined by contrast the contour plot of tensile strength to that of disintegration time. The disintegration time and tensile strength of panax notoginsenoside oral disintegrating tablets were good, and the taste was satisfactory. Panax notoginsenoside oral disintegrating tablets achieve the goal of design and this method can be fairly used in formulation screening.

  7. Pediatric Dispersible Tablets: a Modular Approach for Rapid Prototyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Jonas; Huwyler, Jörg; Kühl, Peter; Dischinger, Angela

    2016-08-01

    The design of pediatric formulations is challenging. Solid dosage forms for children have to meet the needs of different ages, e.g. high number of dosing increments and strengths. A modular formulation strategy offering the possibility of rapid prototyping was applied. Different tablet compositions and the resulting tablet characteristics were investigated for dispersible tablets using customized analytical methods. Fluid bed granules were blended with extragranular components, and compressed to tablets. Disintegration behavior was studied with a Texture Analyzer and a Tensiometer. Methods for determination of disintegration time and water uptake of tablets were developed with a Texture Analyzer, and a Tensiometer, respectively. Twenty-two different tablet formulations were prepared and analyzed with respect to disintegration time, hardness, friability, and viscosity. Multivariate data analysis revealed a high impact of type and amount of viscosity enhancer on the disintegration behavior of tablets. An optimized formulation was selected with a disintegration time of 24 s. Methods providing additional information on the disintegration behavior of dispersible tablets compared to standard pharmacopoeia methods were established. Selecting the right type and level of viscosity enhancer and superdisintegrant was critical for developing pediatric tablets with a disintegration time of less than 30 s but still pleasant mouth feel.

  8. Diaquatetrabromidotin(IV trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ye

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [SnBr4(H2O2]·3H2O, forms large colourless crystals in originally sealed samples of tin tetrabromide. It constitutes the first structurally characterized hydrate of SnBr4 and is isostructural with the corresponding hydrate of SnCl4. It is composed of SnIV atoms octahedrally coordinated by four Br atoms and two cis-related water molecules. The octahedra exhibit site symmetry 2. They are arranged into columns along [001] via medium–strong O—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the two lattice water molecules (one situated on a twofold rotation axis while the chains are interconnected via longer O—H...Br hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  9. Cyclopentadienyluranium(IV) acetylacetonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnall, K.W.; Edwards, J.; Rickard, C.E.F.; Tempest, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    Cyclopentadienyluranium(IV) acetylacetonate complexes, (eta 5 C 5 H 5 )UClsub(3-x)(acac)sub(x), where x = 1 or 2, and the corresponding bis triphenylphosphine oxide (tppo) complexes have been prepared. The bis cyclopentadienyl complexes, (eta 5 C 5 H 5 ) 2 U(acac) 2 and (eta 5 C 5 H 5 ) 2 UCl(acac)(tppo) 2 have also been prepared and are stable with respect to disproportionation, whereas (eta 5 C 5 H 5 ) 2 UCl(acac) is not. The IR and UV/visible spectra of the complexes are reported, together with some additional information on the UCl 2 (acac) 2 thf and -tppo systems. (author)

  10. A new optical sensor for spectrophotometric determination of uranium (VI) and thorium (IV) in acidic medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elhefnawy, O.A. [Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority (NRRA), Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Safeguards and Physical Protection Dept.

    2017-07-01

    A spectrophotometric method was developed for U(VI) and Th(IV) determination in acidic medium by using proposed optical sensor. This sensor is base on the complexation reaction of the ionophore midodrine hydrochloride (L) with U(VI)/Th(IV) in plasticized (o-NPOE) high molecular weight (PVC). Several parameters such as effect of acidic medium, response time and sensor compositions were studied. The determination of the complexes stoichiometry was also studied using Job's method. The complexes stoichiometry were measured at the absorbance spectra 302 nm and the results were found to be 1:1 for both complexes U(VI)-L and Th(IV)-L. The complexation reaction was extremely rapid at room temperature; it takes 5, 10 min to complete the complexation reaction in U(VI) and Th(IV), respectively. Under the optimum conditions the calibration curves of U(VI)/Th(IV) determination, have good linearity at different acidic medium nitric, sulfuric, and phosphoric acids with low detection and quantification limits. The accuracy and precision studies proved that the proposed optical sensor is valid and qualified for U(VI)/Th(IV) spectrophotometric determination in different acidic medium. The selectivity of the proposed optical sensor was studied. The proposed optical sensor was applied successfully for U(VI)/Th(IV) determination in research and development (R and D) nuclear waste samples with satisfactory results. A comparative study of the proposed optical sensor with other previous spectrophotometric sensors for U(VI)/Th(IV) determination, proved the high efficiency of the proposed optical sensor, that it presents wide linear range and low detection limit. The proposed optical sensor could be applied for a quantitative determination of U(VI)/Th(IV) in acidic waste samples.

  11. A new optical sensor for spectrophotometric determination of uranium (VI) and thorium (IV) in acidic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhefnawy, O.A.

    2017-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method was developed for U(VI) and Th(IV) determination in acidic medium by using proposed optical sensor. This sensor is base on the complexation reaction of the ionophore midodrine hydrochloride (L) with U(VI)/Th(IV) in plasticized (o-NPOE) high molecular weight (PVC). Several parameters such as effect of acidic medium, response time and sensor compositions were studied. The determination of the complexes stoichiometry was also studied using Job's method. The complexes stoichiometry were measured at the absorbance spectra 302 nm and the results were found to be 1:1 for both complexes U(VI)-L and Th(IV)-L. The complexation reaction was extremely rapid at room temperature; it takes 5, 10 min to complete the complexation reaction in U(VI) and Th(IV), respectively. Under the optimum conditions the calibration curves of U(VI)/Th(IV) determination, have good linearity at different acidic medium nitric, sulfuric, and phosphoric acids with low detection and quantification limits. The accuracy and precision studies proved that the proposed optical sensor is valid and qualified for U(VI)/Th(IV) spectrophotometric determination in different acidic medium. The selectivity of the proposed optical sensor was studied. The proposed optical sensor was applied successfully for U(VI)/Th(IV) determination in research and development (R and D) nuclear waste samples with satisfactory results. A comparative study of the proposed optical sensor with other previous spectrophotometric sensors for U(VI)/Th(IV) determination, proved the high efficiency of the proposed optical sensor, that it presents wide linear range and low detection limit. The proposed optical sensor could be applied for a quantitative determination of U(VI)/Th(IV) in acidic waste samples.

  12. Interaction study of aspirin or clopidogrel on pharmacokinetics of donepezil hydrochloride in rats by HPLC-fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Mitsuhiro; Nishiwaki, Junichiro; Yamane, Tomoko; Ohwaki, Yuichi; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y; Nakashima, Kenichiro

    2007-06-01

    The present study aims to investigate the possibility of interaction of aspirin (Asp) or clopidogrel (CG) on donepezil (DP) hydrochloride in rats by HPLC-fluorescence detection. The separation of DP was achieved in ca. 13 min without interference of Asp and CG on the chromatogram. DP levels in rat plasma with a single administration of DP (5 mg/kg, i.p., group I) and those with a co-administration of Asp (200 mg/kg, p.o., group II or 200 mg/kg, i.p., group III) or CG (5 mg/kg, p.o., group IV) were monitored. The DP concentrations determined in rat plasma ranged from 25.0 to 336.1 ng/mL. Pharmacokinetic parameters for these groups were calculated and compared with one another. No significant difference was observed on the comparison of group I with other groups except for the mean resident time of group IV (p = 0.012). These basic findings may help clinical inference when DP is co-administered with Asp and CG to human. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. 78 FR 1247 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Tablet Computers, Media...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... Wireless Communication Devices, Tablet Computers, Media Players, and Televisions, and Components Thereof... devices, including wireless communication devices, tablet computers, media players, and televisions, and... wireless communication devices, tablet computers, media players, and televisions, and components thereof...

  14. Systematic evaluation of common lubricants for optimal use in tablet formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Shubhajit; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2018-05-30

    As an essential formulation component for large-scale tablet manufacturing, the lubricant preserves tooling by reducing die-wall friction. Unfortunately, lubrication also often results in adverse effects on tablet characteristics, such as prolonged disintegration, slowed dissolution, and reduced mechanical strength. Therefore, the choice of lubricant and its optimal concentration in a tablet formulation is a critical decision in tablet formulation development to attain low die-wall friction while minimizing negative impact on other tablet properties. Three commercially available tablet lubricants, i.e., magnesium stearate, sodium stearyl fumerate, and stearic acid, were systematically investigated in both plastic and brittle matrices to elucidate their effects on reducing die-wall friction, tablet strength, tablet hardness, tablet friability, and tablet disintegration kinetics. Clear understanding of the lubrication efficiency of commonly used lubricants as well as their impact on tablet characteristics would help future tablet formulation efforts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the performance characteristics of bilayer tablets: Part II. Impact of environmental conditions on the strength of bilayer tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottala, Niranjan; Abebe, Admassu; Sprockel, Omar; Bergum, James; Nikfar, Faranak; Cuitiño, Alberto M

    2012-12-01

    Ambient air humidity and temperature are known to influence the mechanical strength of tablets. The objective of this work is to understand the influence of processing parameters and environmental conditions (humidity and temperature) on the strength of bilayer tablets. As part of this study, bilayer tablets were compressed with different layer ratios, dwell times, layer sequences, material properties (plastic and brittle), first and second layer forces, and lubricant concentrations. Compressed tablets were stored in stability chambers controlled at predetermined conditions (40C/45%RH, 40C/75%RH) for 1, 3, and 5 days. The axial strength of the stored tablets was measured and a statistical model was developed to determine the effects of the aforementioned factors on the strength of bilayer tablets. As part of this endeavor, a full 3 × 2(4) factorial design was executed. Responses of the experiments were analyzed using PROC GLM of SAS (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, North Carolina, USA). A model was fit using all the responses to determine the significant interactions (p < 0.05). Results of this study indicated that storage conditions and storage time have significant impact on the strength of bilayer tablets. For Avicel-lactose and lactose-Avicel tablets, tablet strength decreased with the increasing humidity and storage time. But for lactose-lactose tablets, due to the formation of solid bridges upon storage, an increase in tablet strength was observed. Significant interactions were observed between processing parameters and storage conditions on the strength of bilayer tablets.

  16. Compatibility and stability of morphine sulphate and naloxone hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride for injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistner, Charlotte; Ensom, Mary H H; Decarie, Diane; Lauder, Gillian; Carr, Roxane R

    2013-05-01

    Naloxone may be administered in conjunction with morphine to reduce the risk of opioid-induced pruritis. Combining these drugs for coadministration may be beneficial, but little is known about their physical compatibility and stability in combined solutions. To describe the physical compatibility and stability of morphine sulphate and naloxone hydrochloride (at various concentrations) in IV admixtures. The physical compatibility and stability of admixtures of morphine 1000 μg/mL and naloxone 4 μg/mL, 12.5 μg/mL, and 25 μg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride were studied. For each concentration of naloxone, one bag was stored at room temperature (22°C) for 72 h and one bag was stored under refrigeration (4°C) for 30 days. For all preparations, physical characteristics, including pH, colour, and formation of precipitate, were evaluated. The samples were also analyzed by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Stability was defined as the retention of at least 90% of the initial concentration. No notable changes in pH or colour and no macroprecipitation were observed in any of the preparations after storage at 22°C for up to 72 h or at 4°C for up to 30 days. All preparations maintained more than 90% of the initial concentrations of morphine and naloxone at the end of the respective study periods. The calculated lower limit of the 95% confidence interval also indicated that 90% or more of the initial concentration remained at the end of each study period. Admixtures of morphine sulphate and naloxone hydrochloride were stable for 72 h at room temperature and for 30 days with refrigeration.

  17. Measurement and correlation of solubility of cefmenoxime hydrochloride in pure solvents and binary solvent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jinxiu; Xie, Chuang; Yin, Qiuxiang; Tao, Linggang; Lv, Jun; Wang, Yongli; He, Fang; Hao, Hongxun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of cefmenoxime hydrochloride in pure and binary solvents was determined. • The experimental solubility data were correlated by thermodynamic models. • A model was employed to calculate the melting temperature of cefmenoxime hydrochloride. • Mixing thermodynamic properties of cefmenoxime hydrochloride were calculated. - Abstract: The solubility of cefmenoxime hydrochloride in pure solvents and binary solvent mixtures was measured at temperatures from (283.15 to 313.15) K by using the UV spectroscopic method. The results reveal that the solubility of cefmenoxime hydrochloride increases with increasing temperature in all solvent selected. The solubility of cefmenoxime hydrochloride reaches its maximum value when the mole fraction of isopropanol is 0.2 in the binary solvent mixtures of (isopropanol + water). The modified Apelblat equation and the NRTL model were successfully used to correlate the experimental solubility in pure solvents while the modified Apelblat equation, the CNIBS/R–K model and the Jouyban–Acree model were applied to correlate the solubility in binary solvent mixtures. In addition, the mixing thermodynamic properties of cefmenoxime hydrochloride in different solvents were also calculated based on the NRTL model and experimental solubility data.

  18. Analgesic Effect of Intraperitoneal Bupivacaine Hydrochloride After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy: a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamdari, Nasser Malekpour; Bakhtiyari, Mahmood; Gholizadeh, Barmak; Shariati, Catrine

    2018-03-01

    The indications for sleeve gastrectomy as a primary procedure for the surgical treatment of morbid obesity have increased worldwide. Pain is the most common complaint for patients on the first day after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. There are various methods for decreasing pain after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy such as the use of intraperitoneal bupivacaine hydrochloride. This clinical trial was an attempt to discover the effects of intraperitoneal bupivacaine hydrochloride on alleviating postoperative pain after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. In general, 120 patients meeting the inclusion criteria were enrolled. Patients were randomly allocated into two interventions and control groups using a balanced block randomization technique. One group received intraperitoneal bupivacaine hydrochloride (30 cm 3 ), and the other group served as the control one and did not receive bupivacaine hydrochloride. Diclofenac suppository and paracetamol injection were administered to both groups for postoperative pain management. The mean subjective postoperative pain score was significantly decreased in patients who received intraperitoneal bupivacaine hydrochloride within the first 24 h after the surgery; thus, the instillation of bupivacaine hydrochloride was beneficial in managing postoperative pain. The intraoperative peritoneal irrigation of bupivacaine hydrochloride (30 cm 3 , 0.25%) in sleeve gastrectomy patients was safe and effective in reducing postoperative pain, nausea, and vomiting (IRCT2016120329181N4).

  19. Carbon Break Even Analysis: Environmental Impact of Tablets in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Fadi Safieddine; Imad Nakhoul

    2016-01-01

    With the growing pace of tablets use and the large focus it is attracting especially in higher education, this paper looks at an important aspect of tablets; their carbon footprint. Studies have suggested that tablets have positive impact on the environment; especially since tablets use less energy than laptops or desktops. Recent manufacturers’ reports on the carbon footprint of tablets have revealed that a significant portion, as much as 80%, of the carbon footprint of tablets comes from pr...

  20. Effect of protective coating of aspirin tablets with acrylatemethacrylate copolymers on tablet disintegration times and dissolution rates

    OpenAIRE

    Okor R; Eichie F; Uhumwangho M; Aka-Aha A

    2007-01-01

    Tablets of aspirin (a moisture degradable drug) have been film coated with two analogous Eudragit RL and RS copolymers designated here as A and B which differ only in their cation content in the ratio 2:1 (A:B). A, is therefore more hydrophilic than B. The tablets were film coated with ethanol solutions of these two polymers. Film coating with either A or B significantly reduced the moisture uptake potentials of the tablets but caused an increase in the disintegration times of the tablets and...

  1. Developmental rates of immatures of three Chrysomya species (Diptera: Calliphoridae) under the effect of methylphenidate hydrochloride, phenobarbital, and methylphenidate hydrochloride associated with phenobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Fábio; Alonso, Marcela A; Souza, Carina M; Thyssen, Patrícia J; Linhares, Arício X

    2014-05-01

    Entomotoxicology is focused on obtaining data on necrophagous entomofauna, for criminal investigations purposes. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of methylphenidate hydrochloride, phenobarbital, and their association on the developmental rate, larval and pupal survivorship, and the interval of emergence of adults of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Considering the therapeutic dose (TD) of methylphenidate hydrochloride (0.29 mg/Kg), the concentrations tested were 10× TD, 50× TD, and 100× TD. For phenobarbital, the concentrations used were 1× TD (=150 mg/Kg), 3.3× TD, and 6.7× TD. For the association of the drugs, the combinations used were 10× TD-methylphenidate hydrochloride plus 1× TD-phenobarbital, 50× TD-methylphenidate hydrochloride plus 3.3× TD-phenobarbital, and 100× TD-methylphenidate hydrochloride plus 6.7× TD-phenobarbital. The control group, without addition of drug, was maintained under the same conditions of temperature (25 ± 1 °C), humidity (70 ± 10%), and photoperiod (12 h). Specimens of each group were weighed every 12 h until pupariation. The developmental rate of the three Chrysomya species immatures was monitored. For C. albiceps the developmental time was delayed in 24 h for methylphenidate hydrochloride group and in 12 h for the phenobarbital and the drugs association groups. The effect was observed only at specific ages for C. megacephala, without altering the developmental time. For C. putoria, the developmental time was delayed in 12 h for methylphenidate hydrochloride group and in 24 h for the phenobarbital and the drugs association groups. The emergence interval was similar among all experimental groups, but larval and pupal viabilities were affected in different ways.

  2. Effect of Gamma irradiation on the antimicrobial activity of selenomorphiline hydrochloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashand, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of selenomorphiline hydrochloride on dell growth of two steains of bacteria bacillus subtilis as a gram positive and esherichia coli as a gram negative strain and asperagillus flavus as a fungal strain were investigated in batch broth culture supplemented with different concentrations (50, 100, 150, 200, 300 and 400 mg/ml) of irradiated se (1,2,4 KGY) and its control (non irradiated). The data showed that the antibacterial activity of selenomorphiline hydrochloride is concentration and time depenent. The doses 2 doses 2 and 3 KGY of Gamma-radiation were actually the most effective doses activating selenomorphiline hydrochloride as antibiotic

  3. Quantization of buspirone hydrochloride in pure and pharmaceutical formulation by spectrophotometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, A.A.; Mumtaz, A.; Sabri, M.U.

    2008-01-01

    A simple and sensitive method is described for the determination of bus pirone hydrochloride in bulk drug and in formulations employing spectrophotometric technique. The method is based on the interaction orbuspirone hydrochloride with ammonium molybdate in acidic media and the absorbance is measured at 700 nm. Beer's Law is obeyed in the range of 5 macro g to 350 micro g/ml and RSD is 0.96% for buspirone hydrochloride. Analytical data for the determination of pure compound is presented along with the application of the proposed method for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulation. (author)

  4. UV Spectrophotometric Method for theEstimation of Itopride Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    K. R. Gupta; R. R. Joshi; R. B. Chawla; S. G. Wadodkar

    2010-01-01

    Three simple, precise and economical UV methods have been developed for the estimation of itopride hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations. Itopride hydrochloride in distilled water shows the maximum absorbance at 258.0 nm (Method A) and in first order derivative spectra of the same shows sharp peak at 247.0 nm, when n = 1 (Method B). Method C utilises area under curve (AUC) in the wavelength range from 262.0-254.0 nm for analysis of itopride hydrochloride. The drug was found to obey Bee...

  5. Systems of pyridine, piperidine, piperazine, morpholine hydrochlorides-terbium (dysprosium) chloride-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajfutdinova, R.K.; Sharafutdinova, A.A.; Murinov, Yu.I.

    1988-01-01

    The isothermal cross section method at 25 and 50 deg C is applied to study pyridine hydrochloride-terbium chloride-water (1) piperidine hydrochloride-dysprosium chloride-water (2), piperazine dihydrochloride-dysprosium chloride-water (3) and morpholine hydrochloride-terbium chloride (4) systems. Solubility isotherma prove the formation of incongruently soluble compound of the TbCl 3 x6C 5 H 5 NxHCl composition systems (1). The individuality of the new solid phase is proved by the chemical and DTA methods. Systems (2-4) are of a simple eutonic type

  6. Congenital bilateral neuroblastoma (stage IV-S): case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Hee; Lee, Hee Jung; Woo, Seong Ku; Lee, Sang Rak; Kim, Heung Sik

    2002-01-01

    Congenital neonatal neuroblastoma is not uncommon but bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma is rare, accounting for about ten percent of neuroblastomas in children. We report the US the MR findings of a stage IV-S congenital bilateral neuroblastoma occurring in a one-day-old neonate

  7. Keyboards: from Typewriters to Tablet Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintautas Grigas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of Lithuanian keyboards is reviewed. Keyboards are divided up to three categories according to flexibility of their adaptation for typing of Lithuanian texts: 1 mechanical typewriter keyboards (heavily adaptable, 2 electromechanical desktop or laptop computer keyboards, and 3 programmable touch screen tablet computer keyboards (easily adaptable. It is discussed how they were adapted for Lithuanian language, with solutions in other languages are compared. Both successful and unsuccessful solutions are discussed. The reasons of failures as well as their negative impact on writing culture and formation of bad habits in the work with computer are analyzed. The recommendations how to improve current situation are presented.

  8. Tramadol and acetaminophen tablets for dental pain.

    OpenAIRE

    Medve, R. A.; Wang, J.; Karim, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare the efficacy and time to analgesia of a new tramadol/acetaminophen combination tablet to those of tramadol or acetaminophen (APAP) alone. A meta-analysis was performed of 3 separate single-dose, double-blind, parallel-group trials in patients with moderate or severe pain following extraction of 2 or more third molars. Patients in each study were evenly randomized to a single dose of tramadol/APAP (75 mg/650 mg), tramadol 75 mg, APAP 650 mg, ibuprofen 40...

  9. Pharmacologic studies on ET-26 hydrochloride in a rat model of lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Jiang, Junli; Yang, Jun; Chen, Jun; Zhu, Zhaoqiong; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Wensheng

    2017-11-15

    ET-26 hydrochloride (ET-26 HCl) is a promising sedation-hypnotic compound with stable hemodynamic features that elicits virtually no adrenocortical suppression. However, whether it preserves better pharmacologic characteristics in a rat model of sepsis is not known. This study compared the survival rate, levels of corticosterone and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and histologic injury in the lungs and kidneys of rats suffering from sepsis treated with ET-26 HCl, etomidate, or normal saline (NS). Rats were given lipopolysaccharide (1mg/kg body weight, i.v.) to establish a sepsis model. Thirty minutes after lipopolysaccharide administration, ET-26 HCl, etomidate or NS were given as a bolus injection at equivalent doses. Plasma levels of corticosterone, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured 1, 2, 4, 6 and 24h after administration. Histologic injury was observed at the time of death or 24h after drug administration. The survival rate for rats in the etomidate, ET-26 HCl and NS groups was 40%, 90% and 90%, respectively. Corticosterone concentrations in the etomidate group were lower than those in the other groups 1h after administration of hypnotic compounds. Concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the ET-26 HCl group and NS group were not significantly different, but were significantly lower than those in the etomidate group. The injury scores of kidneys and lungs in the etomidate group were higher than those in ET-26 HCl and NS groups. ET-26 HCl showed virtually no suppression of corticosterone synthesis, lower concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, higher survival rate, and less organ injury in rats suffering from sepsis compared with the etomidate group. It may be safer to induce anesthesia using ET-26 HCl, rather than etomidate, in patients suffering from sepsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mixed ion-exchanger chemically modified carbon paste ion-selective electrodes for determination of triprolidine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousry M. Issa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Triprolidine hydrochloride (TpCl ion-selective carbon paste electrodes were constructed using Tp-TPB/Tp-CoN and Tp-TPB/Tp-PTA as ion-exchangers. The two electrodes revealed Nernstian responses with slopes of 58.4 and 58.1 mV decade−1 at 25 °C in the ranges 6 × 10−6–1 × 10−2 and 2 × 10−5–1 × 10−2 M for Tp-TPB/Tp-CoN and Tp-TPB/Tp-PTA, respectively. The potentials of these electrodes were independent of pH in the ranges of 2.5–7.0 and 4.5–7.0, and detection limits were 6 × 10−6 and 1 × 10−5 M for Tp-TPB/Tp-CoN and Tp-TPB/Tp-PTA, respectively. The electrodes showed a very good selectivity for TpCl with respect to a large number of inorganic cations and compounds. The standard addition, potentiometric titration methods and FIA were applied to the determination of TpCl in pure solutions and pharmaceutical preparations. The results obtained were in close agreement with those found by the official method. The mean recovery values were 100.91% and 97.92% with low coefficient of variation values of 0.94%, and 0.56% in pure solutions, 99.82% and 98.53% with coefficient of variation values of 2.20%, and 0.73% for Actifed tablet and Actifed syrup, respectively, using the Tp-TPB/Tp-CoN electrode, and 98.85%, and 99.18% with coefficient of variation values of 0.48% and 0.85% for Actifed tablet and Actifed syrup, respectively, using the Tp-TPB/Tp-PTA electrode.

  11. Active Reading Behaviors in Tablet-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palilonis, Jennifer; Bolchini, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Active reading is fundamental to learning. However, there is little understanding about whether traditional active reading frameworks sufficiently characterize how learners study multimedia tablet textbooks. This paper explores the nature of active reading in the tablet environment through a qualitative study that engaged 30 students in an active…

  12. Equivalency of Paper versus Tablet Computer Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravert, Russell D.; Gomez-Scott, Jessica; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2015-01-01

    Survey responses collected via paper surveys and computer tablets were compared to test for differences between those methods of obtaining self-report data. College students (N = 258) were recruited in public campus locations and invited to complete identical surveys on either paper or iPad tablet. Only minor homogeneity differences were found…

  13. Students' Opinions on the Use of Tablet Computers in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Muharrem; Aytaç, Tufan

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important tools for the integration of ICT in education, especially with tablet computers, has been employed in Turkey through the FATIH Project. This study aimed to determine students' views on the use of tablet computers in learning and teaching processes. Eighty-four first-year high school students studying at three schools in…

  14. Tablet use in primary education: Adoption hurdles and attitude determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; Ben Allouch, Soumaya; Ruijter, Laura P.

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, six primary schools recently participated in a pilot program, creating an educational environment in which children use a tablet PC. In these six schools, two studies are conducted. The first study highlights the process by which primary schools adopted tablet PCs by means of

  15. Graphics Tablet Technology in Second Year Thermal Engineering Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Antonio; Cejudo, José Manuel; Domínguez, Fernando; Rodríguez, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Graphics tablet technology is well known in markets such as manufacturing, graphics arts and design but it has not yet found widespread acceptance for university teaching. A graphics tablet is an affordable teaching tool that combines the best features from traditional and new media. It allows developing a progressive, interactive lecture (as a…

  16. Tablet Use in Primary Education: Adoption Hurdles and Attitude Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deursen, Alexander J. A. M.; ben Allouch, Somaya; Ruijter, Laura P.

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, six primary schools recently participated in a pilot program, creating an educational environment in which children use a tablet PC. In these six schools, two studies are conducted. The first study highlights the process by which primary schools adopted tablet PCs by means of interviews based on diffusion of innovation theory.…

  17. Enhancing the Classroom Experience: Instructor Use of Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jeff; Hill, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Instructors continually search for innovative approaches to interact with and engage students in the classroom. The tablet offers a potential innovation for this purpose. Tablet devices from Apple, Microsoft, and other hardware vendors have overcome many of the challenges of the past (e.g. cost and limited applications) to become useful tools for…

  18. Exploring the Use of Tablets for Student Teaching Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joseph A.; Wesley, Whitney M.; Yerrick, Randy

    2016-01-01

    While research on the use of tablets in the field of education is emerging, existing research on the use of this tool for the purposes of student teaching supervision is very limited. This study aimed to explore the application of iPad tablets for student teacher supervision in a teacher preparation program at a large state university in the…

  19. Tablet-Based Education to Reduce Depression-Related Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Catherine; Winkelman, Megan; Wong, Shane Shucheng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the efficacy of a tablet-based multimedia education application, the Project Not Alone Depression Module, in improving depression literacy and reducing depression stigma among a community-based mental health clinic population. Methods: A total of 93 participants completed either a tablet-based multimedia…

  20. Endometrial safety of ultra-low-dose estradiol vaginal tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, James; Nachtigall, Lila; Ulrich, Lian G

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17ß-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy.......To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17ß-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy....

  1. Endometrial safety of ultra-low-dose estradiol vaginal tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, James; Nachtigall, Lila; Ulrich, Lian G

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17β-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy.......To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17β-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy....

  2. Effect of antacids in didanosine tablet on bioavailability of isoniazid.

    OpenAIRE

    Gallicano, K; Sahai, J; Zaror-Behrens, G; Pakuts, A

    1994-01-01

    The antacids in two didanosine placebo tablets had no significant effect on the plasma pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of 300 mg of isoniazid administered to 12 healthy volunteers. These results suggest that isoniazid bioavailability will be unaffected by the antacids in didanosine tablets when the two medications are administered simultaneously to human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients.

  3. Effect of antacids in didanosine tablet on bioavailability of isoniazid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallicano, K; Sahai, J; Zaror-Behrens, G; Pakuts, A

    1994-04-01

    The antacids in two didanosine placebo tablets had no significant effect on the plasma pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of 300 mg of isoniazid administered to 12 healthy volunteers. These results suggest that isoniazid bioavailability will be unaffected by the antacids in didanosine tablets when the two medications are administered simultaneously to human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients.

  4. Effect Of Formulating Additives On The Properties Of Ibuprofen Tablets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the comparative effects of different formulating additives and film coating on the properties of ibuprofen tablets was made. The tested properties were hardeness (H), friability (F), the disintegration time (D) and dissolution characteristics of ibuprofen tablets. The hardeness, friability, the hardeness friability ratio ...

  5. Tablets in English Class: Students' Activities Surrounding Online Dictionary Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Leona

    2015-01-01

    Tablets have become increasingly popular among young people in Sweden and this rapid increase also resonates in school, especially in classrooms for younger children. The aim of the present study is to analyze and describe how the students deal with the open instructions for a task of using online dictionaries on tablets. Specific focus is on how…

  6. 21 CFR 520.2150b - Stanozolol chewable tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....2150b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... treatment in dogs. (2) Administered orally to small breeds of dogs, 1/2 to 1 tablet twice daily for several weeks; to large breeds of dogs, 1 to 2 tablets twice daily for several weeks. (3) Federal law restricts...

  7. 21 CFR 520.2362 - Thenium closylate tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....2362 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) Conditions of use. (1) The tablets are administered orally to dogs as a single day treatment of canine... Uncinaria stenocephala (hookworms). Dogs weighing 10 pounds and over are administered 1 tablet as a single...

  8. Design and Evaluation of an Oral Floating Matrix Tablet of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop floating matrix tablets of salbutamol sulphate using ethyl cellulose and acrycoat S-100 as polymers, and sodium bicarbonate, citric acid and tartaric acid as gas generating agents. Methods: Twenty four formulations were prepared and segregated into four major categories, A to D. The floating tablets ...

  9. Absorption from iron tablets given with different types of meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, L; Björn-Rasmussen, E; Ekenved, G; Garby, L; Rossander, L; Pleehachinda, R; Suwanik, R; Arvidsson, B

    1978-09-01

    The absorption of iron from tablets given with 5 types of meals was studied in 153 subjects. The meals were: a hamburger meal with beans and potatoes, a simple breakfast meal, a Latin American meal composed of black beans, rice and maize and two Southeast Asian meals composed of rice, vegetables and spices served with and without fish. The groups were directly compared by relating the absorption from the iron tablets to the absorption from a standardized reference dose of iron given on an empty stomach. The composition of meals with respect to content of meat or fish or the presence of large amounts of phytates seemed to have no influence on the absorption of iron from tablets. The absorption from iron tablets was about 40% higher when they were given with rice meals than when they were given with the other meals studied. The average decrease in absorption by meals was about 50-60% based on a comparison when tablets were given on an empty stomach. When tablets from which the iron was released more slowly were used, the absorption increased by about 30% except when they were given with rice meals, where the absorption was unchanged. The differences among the meals in their effect on the absorption of iron from tablets thus disappeared when the slow-release tablets were given.

  10. Absorption from iron tablets given with different types of meals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallberg, L; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E; Ekenved, G; Garby, L; Rossander, L; Pleehachinda, R; Suwanik, R; Arvidsson, B

    1978-01-01

    The absorption from iron tablets given with 5 types of meals was studied in 153 subjects. The meals were: a hamburger meal with beans and potatoes, a simple breakfast meal, a Latin American meal composed of black beans, rice and maize and two Southeast Asian meals composed of rice, vegetables, and spices served with and without fish. The groups were directly compared by relating the absorption from the iron tablets to the absorption from a standardized reference dose of iron given on an empty stomach. The composition of meals with respect to content of meat or fish or the presence of large amounts of phytates seemed to have no influence on the absorption of iron from tablets. The absorption from iron tablets was about 40% higher when they were given with rice meals than when they were given with the other meals studied. The average decrease in absorption by meals was about 50-60% based on a comparison when tablets were given on an empty stomach. When tablets from which the iron was released more slowly were used, the absorption increased by about 30% except when they were given with rice meals, where the absorption was unchanged. The differences among the meals in their effect on the absorption of iron from tablets thus disappeared when the slow-release tablets were given.

  11. Determination of Letrozole in Tablet Formulations by Reversed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of Letrozole in Tablet Formulations by Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography. ... The assay values for the two branded letrozole tablets tested were 99.2 and 100.2 %, respectively with % relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.781 and 0.568, respectively. The bench top stability data of the ...

  12. Absorption from iron tablets given with different types of meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallberg, L.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.; Ekenved, G.; Garby, L.; Rossander, L.; Pleehachinda, R.; Suwanik, R.; Arvidsson, B.

    1978-01-01

    The absorption from iron tablets given with 5 types of meals was studied in 153 subjects. The meals were: a hamburger meal with beans and potatoes, a simple breakfast meal, a Latin American meal composed of black beans, rice and maize and two Southeast Asian meals composed of rice, vegetables, and spices served with and without fish. The groups were directly compared by relating the absorption from the iron tablets to the absorption from a standardized reference dose of iron given on an empty stomach. The composition of meals with respect to content of meat or fish or the presence of large amounts of phytates seemed to have no influence on the absorption of iron from tablets. The absorption from iron tablets was about 40% higher when they were given with rice meals than when they were given with the other meals studied. The average decrease in absorption by meals was about 50-60% based on a comparison when tablets were given on an empty stomach. When tablets from which the iron was released more slowly were used, the absorption increased by about 30% except when they were given with rice meals, where the absorption was unchanged. The differences among the meals in their effect on the absorption of iron from tablets thus disappeared when the slow-release tablets were given. (author)

  13. Evaluation of some anionic exchange resins as potential tablet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of resin concentration and compression force on the properties of tablets using the selected resin was investigated. In addition, the disintegrant efficacy of the selected resin in the tablet formulations containing either a basic drug, e.g., dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DMP), or an acidic drug, e.g., diclofenac ...

  14. The influence of granulating solvents on drug release from tablets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... significantly lower than the other wet granulated tablets, but higher than the matrix tablets. The granulating solvent influenced the release of drug which increased with increase in the water content. Key Words: Grewia gum: Granulating solvents; Release mechanisms. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioresources Vol.1(1) 2004: ...

  15. The rationale of scored tablets as dosage form.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenhuis, N.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Barends, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to get insight into the rationale of scored tablets. This was pursued by studying patient's reasons for subdividing ("breaking") scored and unscored tablets. Patients who picked up their prescriptions in 5 community pharmacies in The Netherlands were questioned. Two-hundred

  16. Formulation of Fast-Dissolving Tablets of Promethazine Theoclate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To optimize and formulate promethazine theoclate fast-dissolving tablets that offer a suitable approach to the treatment of nausea and vomiting. Method: The solubility of promethazine theoclate was increased by formulating it as a fast-dissolving tablet containing β-cyclodextrin, crospovidone, and camphor, using ...

  17. Optimization and Formulation of Orodispersible Tablets of Meloxicam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 98.5% and fast drug release rate of 99.5% within 30 min, as compared with the conventional tablet (49.5%) . Conclusion: It is feasible to formulate orodispersible tablets of meloxican with acceptable disintegration time, rapid drug release and good hardness, which could be amenable to replication on an industrial scale.

  18. Comparative photostability study of Fancimef tablet and its active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fancimef tablet is one of the multi-component drugs recently introduced into malaria therapy to combat the resistant strains of Plasmodium parasite. Like most complex organic compounds, it is expected that the organic compounds in Fancimef tablet will absorb light spectra leading to its photodecomposition and all its ...

  19. Tensile and shear methods for measuring strength of bilayer tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shao-Yu; Li, Jian-Xin; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2017-05-15

    Both shear and tensile measurement methods have been used to quantify interfacial bonding strength of bilayer tablets. The shear method is more convenient to perform, but reproducible strength data requires careful control of the placement of tablet and contact point for shear force application. Moreover, data obtained from the shear method depend on the orientation of the bilayer tablet. Although more time-consuming to perform, the tensile method yields data that are straightforward to interpret. Thus, the tensile method is preferred in fundamental bilayer tableting research to minimize ambiguity in data interpretation. Using both shear and tensile methods, we measured the mechanical strength of bilayer tablets made of several different layer combinations of lactose and microcrystalline cellulose. We observed a good correlation between strength obtained by the tensile method and carefully conducted shear method. This suggests that the shear method may be used for routine quality test of bilayer tablets during manufacturing because of its speed and convenience, provided a protocol for careful control of the placement of the tablet interface, tablet orientation, and blade is implemented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Challenges in detecting magnesium stearate distribution in tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakio, Satu; Vajna, Balázs; Farkas, István; Salokangas, Henri; Marosi, György; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2013-03-01

    Magnesium stearate (MS) is the most commonly used lubricant in pharmaceutical industry. During blending, MS particles form a thin layer on the surfaces of the excipient and drug particles prohibiting the bonding from forming between the particles. This hydrophobic layer decreases the tensile strength of tablets and prevents water from penetrating into the tablet restraining the disintegration and dissolution of the tablets. Although overlubrication of the powder mass during MS blending is a well-known problem, the lubricant distribution in tablets has traditionally been challenging to measure. There is currently no adequate analytical method to investigate this phenomenon. In this study, the distribution of MS in microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) tablets was investigated using three different blending scales. The crushing strength of the tablets was used as a secondary response, as its decrease is known to result from the overlubrication. In addition, coating of the MCC particles by MS in intact tablets was detected using Raman microscopic mapping. MS blending was more efficient in larger scales. Raman imaging was successfully applied to characterize MS distribution in MCC tablets despite low concentration of MS. The Raman method can provide highly valuable visual information about the proceeding of the MS blending process. However, the measuring set-up has to be carefully planned to establish reliable and reproducible results.

  1. Simultaneous determination of naltrexone and bupropion in their co-formulated tablet utilizing green chromatographic approach with application to human urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif A. Abdel-Gawad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, simple and accurate micellar HPLC-method was adopted and validated for concurrent quantification of naltrexone hydrochloride (NTX and bupropion hydrochloride (BUP. The proposed method was conducted on RP-18 LiChrosorb® column (150 mm × 4.6 mm i.d. 5-µm particle size at 25 °C, as a stationary phase and a mixture of 0.175 M sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, 0.3% triethanolamine (TEA and 12% n-propanol in 0.02 M ortho (o-phosphoric acid of pH 3.5 as a developing system. It was pumped at a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min, with ultraviolet detection at 210 nm. The linearity ranges were 0.5–15.0 µg/mL and 1.2–18.0 µg/mL, with detection limits of 0.10 and 0.31 µg/mL and quantification limits of 0.30 and 0.93 µg/mL for NTX and BUP, respectively. The studied drugs were successfully quantified by applying the proposed method in their co-formulated tablet. The cited method was also applied for in-vitro quantification of BUP in spiked human urine without prior extraction.

  2. Multilayer Films and Capsules of Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose and Polyhexamethylenguanidine Hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzenko, Nataliia; Gabchak, Oleksandra; Pakhlov, Evgenij

    The complexation of polyhexamethylenguanidine hydrochloride (PHMG) and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) was investigated for different conditions. Mixing of equiconcentrated aqueous solutions of the polyelectrolytes was found to result in the formation of an insoluble interpolyelectrolyte complex with an overweight of carboxymethylcellulose. A step-by-step formation of stable, irreversibly adsorbed multilayer film of the polymers was demonstrated using the quartz crystal microbalance method. Unusually thick polymer shells with a large number of loops and tails of the polyanion were formed by the method of layer-by-layer self-assembly of PHMG and CMC on spherical CaCO3 particles. Hollow multilayer capsules stable in neutral media were obtained by dissolution of the inorganic matrix in EDTA solution.

  3. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Poly(hexamethylene biguanide Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique C. Mattoso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the characterization of commercially available Poly(hexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB, a polymer with biocidal activity and several interesting properties that make this material suitable as a building block for supramolecular chemistry and “smart” materials. We studied polymer structure in water solution by dynamic light scattering, surface tension and capacitance spectroscopy. It shows typical surfactant behavior due to amphiphilic structure and low molecular weight. Spectroscopic (UV/Vis, FT-NIR and thermal characterization (differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, and thermogravimetric analysis, TGA were performed to give additional insight into the material structure in solution and solid state. These results can be the foundation for more detailed investigations on usefulness of PHMB in new complex materials and devices.

  4. Adsorption of dodecylamine hydrochloride on graphene oxide in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Li, Hongqiang; Song, Shaoxian; Weng, Xiaoqing; He, Dongsheng; Zhao, Yunliang

    Cationic surfactants in water are difficult to be degraded, leading to serious water pollution. In this work, graphene oxide (GO) was used as an adsorbent for removing Dodecylamine Hydrochloride (DACl), a representative cationic surfactant. X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR spectroscopy and atomic force microscope (AFM) were used to characterize the prepared GO. The adsorption of DACl on GO have been investigated through measurements of adsorption capacity, zeta potential, FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The experimental results have shown that the adsorption kinetics could be described as a rate-limiting pseudo second-order process, and the adsorption isotherm agreed well with the Freundlich model. GO was a good adsorbent for DACl removal, compared with coal fly ash and powdered activated carbon. The adsorption process was endothermic, and could be attributed to electrostatic interaction and hydrogen bonding between DACl and GO.

  5. Graphics tablet technology in second year thermal engineering teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carrillo Andrés

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphics tablet technology is well known in markets such as manufacturing, graphics arts and design but they have not yet found widespread acceptance for university teaching. A graphics tablet is an affordable and efficient teaching tool that combines the best features from traditional and new media. It allows developing a progressive, interactive lecture (as a traditional blackboard does. However, the tablet is more versatile, being able to integrate graphic material such as tables, graphs, colours, etc. In addition to that, lecture notes can be saved and posted on a course website. The objective of this paper is to show the usefulness of tablet technology in undergraduate engineering teaching by sharing experiences made using a graphics tablet for lecturing a second year Thermal Engineering course. Students’ feedback is definitely positive, though there are some caveats regarding technical and operative problems.

  6. Multispectral UV imaging for determination of the tablet coating thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novikova, Anna; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Zeitler, J. Axel

    2017-01-01

    The applicability of off-line multispectral ultraviolet (UV) imaging in combination with multivariate data analysis was investigated to determine the coating thickness and its distribution on the tablet surface during lab scale coating. The UV imaging results were compared with the weight gain...... measured for each individual tablet and the corresponding coating thickness and its distribution measured by terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI). Three different tablet formulations were investigated, two of which contained UV active tablet cores. Three coating formulations were applied: Aquacoat® ECD (a mainly...... translucent coating) and Eudragit® NE (a turbid coating containing solid particles). It was shown that UV imaging is a fast and non-destructive method to predict individual tablet weight gain as well as coating thickness. The coating thickness distribution profiles determined by UV imaging correlated...

  7. Actual and Potential Pedagogical Use of Tablets in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenni Rikala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the potential of tablet technology for teaching and learning. In autumn 2012, we conducted a focused survey comprising quantitative and qualitative questions with Finnish teachers (N = 171, from 54 schools. We focused on perceived pedagogical opportunities and the actualized pedagogical potential of tablets at schools. The survey results indicate that the actual usefulness of tablets in schools was significantly less than what teachers perceived as the pedagogical potential. However, the results demonstrate the positive impact these devices are having on teaching and learning, as well as prompting changes in pedagogical perspectives. Teachers stated that tablets can diversify and enhance teaching and learning in many ways, particularly in supporting learners’ motivation and independent learning, and promoting engaging teaching methods. Nevertheless, teachers voiced concern that the student-to-device ratio at the moment is too low, thus serving as a barrier to widespread use of tablets.

  8. Use of tablets for instruction and learning in microbiology labs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Karen Louise; Jelsbak, Vibe Alopaeus; Georgsen, Marianne

    of this project are to develop a technological infrastructure to support students’ work in the lab and to develop teaching and learning resources. Our research question is: How is teaching and learning in the laboratory influenced by the tablets and the following multimodal teaching and learning materials...... and taken notes by hand. Use of tablets in the lab offers new opportunities. In September 2012, nine tablets were introduced into one of the labs of the college. Groups of students use the tablets to access documents, watch video instructions, and to document results and procedures digitally. The objectives......? The empirical part of the project has been documented through field observations in the lab (in writing and with photos). We have found the following to be characteristic of the work of the students: the students use the tablets collaboratively, take more photos than requested, use the video based instructions...

  9. Demonstration of pharmaceutical tablet coating process by injection molding technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Vibha; Brancazio, David; Harinath, Eranda; Martinez, Alexander R; Desai, Parind M; Jensen, Keith D; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Braatz, Richard D; Myerson, Allan S; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2018-01-15

    We demonstrate the coating of tablets using an injection molding (IM) process that has advantage of being solvent free and can provide precision coat features. The selected core tablets comprising 10% w/w griseofulvin were prepared by an integrated hot melt extrusion-injection molding (HME-IM) process. Coating trials were conducted on a vertical injection mold machine. Polyethylene glycol and polyethylene oxide based hot melt extruded coat compositions were used. Tablet coating process feasibility was successfully demonstrated using different coating mold designs (with both overlapping and non-overlapping coatings at the weld) and coat thicknesses of 150 and 300 μm. The resultant coated tablets had acceptable appearance, seal at the weld, and immediate drug release profile (with an acceptable lag time). Since IM is a continuous process, this study opens opportunities to develop HME-IM continuous processes for transforming powder to coated tablets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A classification system for tableting behaviors of binary powder mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changquan Calvin Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to predict tableting properties of a powder mixture from individual components is of both fundamental and practical importance to the efficient formulation development of tablet products. A common tableting classification system (TCS of binary powder mixtures facilitates the systematic development of new knowledge in this direction. Based on the dependence of tablet tensile strength on weight fraction in a binary mixture, three main types of tableting behavior are identified. Each type is further divided to arrive at a total of 15 sub-classes. The proposed classification system lays a framework for a better understanding of powder interactions during compaction. Potential applications and limitations of this classification system are discussed.

  11. Monitoring tablet surface roughness during the film coating process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitavuopio, Paulus; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Rantanen, Jukka

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change of surface roughness and the development of the film during the film coating process using laser profilometer roughness measurements, SEM imaging, and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Surface roughness and texture changes developing during...... the process of film coating tablets were studied by noncontact laser profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). An EDX analysis was used to monitor the magnesium stearate and titanium dioxide of the tablets. The tablet cores were film coated with aqueous hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, and the film...... coating was performed using an instrumented pilot-scale side-vented drum coater. The SEM images of the film-coated tablets showed that within the first 30 minutes, the surface of the tablet cores was completely covered with a thin film. The magnesium signal that was monitored by SEM-EDX disappeared after...

  12. Formulation and evaluation of glipizide floating-bioadhesive tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayvadan K. Patel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was formulation and in vitro evaluation of floating-bioadhesive tablets to lengthen the stay of glipizide in its absorption area. Effervescent tablets were made using chitosan (CH, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, carbopolP934 (CP, polymethacrylic acid (PMA, citric acid, and sodium bicarbonate. Tablets with 5% effervescent base had longer lag time than 10%. The type of polymer had no significant effect on the floating lag time. All tablets floated atop the medium for 23-24 hr. Increasing carbopolP934 caused higher bioadhesion than chitosan (p < 0.05. All formulations showed a Higuchi, non-Fickian release mechanism. Tablets with 10% effervescent base, 80% CH/20% HPMC, or 80% CP/20% PMA seemed desirable.

  13. Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendroth-Asmussen, Lisa; Aksglaede, Lise; Gernow, Anne B

    2016-01-01

    molecular genetic analyses confirmed glycogen storage disease Type IV with the finding of compound heterozygosity for 2 mutations (c.691+2T>C and c.1570C>T, p.R524X) in the GBE1 gene. We conclude that glycogen storage disease Type IV can cause early miscarriage and that diagnosis can initially be made...

  14. Sinomenine Hydrochloride Protects against Polymicrobial Sepsis via Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response to infection, is the major cause of death in intensive care units (ICUs. The mortality rate of sepsis remains high even though the treatment and understanding of sepsis both continue to improve. Sinomenine (SIN is a natural alkaloid extracted from Chinese medicinal plant Sinomenium acutum, and its hydrochloride salt (Sinomenine hydrochloride, SIN-HCl is widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA. However, its role in sepsis remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of SIN-HCl in sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP in BALB/c mice and the corresponding mechanism. SIN-HCl treatment improved the survival of BALB/c mice that were subjected to CLP and reduced multiple organ dysfunction and the release of systemic inflammatory mediators. Autophagy activities were examined using Western blotting. The results showed that CLP-induced autophagy was elevated, and SIN-HCl treatment further strengthened the autophagy activity. Autophagy blocker 3-methyladenine (3-MA was used to investigate the mechanism of SIN-HCl in vitro. Autophagy activities were determined by examining the autophagosome formation, which was shown as microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3 puncta with green immunofluorescence. SIN-HCl reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine release and increased autophagy in peritoneal macrophages (PM. 3-MA significantly decreased autophagosome formation induced by LPS and SIN-HCl. The decrease of inflammatory cytokines caused by SIN-HCl was partially aggravated by 3-MA treatment. Taken together, our results indicated that SIN-HCl could improve survival, reduce organ damage, and attenuate the release of inflammatory cytokines induced by CLP, at least in part through regulating autophagy activities.

  15. Ion-Pair Extractive Spectrophotometric Assay of Terbinafine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceuticals and Spiked Urine Using Bromocresol Purple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem Qarah, N. A.; Basavaiah, K.; Swamy, N.

    2016-09-01

    Two simple, rapid, selective, and sensitive methods were developed and validated for the determination of terbinafi ne hydrochloride (TBH) in pharmaceuticals and urine. The fi rst method (method A) is based on the formation of a yellow ion-pair complex of TBH and bromocresol purple (BCP), a sulfonephthalein dye, in Walpole buffer of pH 3.61, which was extracted into chloroform and investigated at 420 nm. For the second method (method B) the drug-dye ion-pair was broken in alkaline KOH medium, and the resulting free dye color was measured at 610 nm. All variables were studied to optimize the reaction conditions. The regression analysis of Beer's law plots showed good correlation in the concentration ranges of 1-10 and 0.1-2.0 μg/mL for method A and method B, respectively. Molar absorptivity values were 2.99 × 104, and 1.51×105 L/(mol × cm) for measurements by these methods. The methods were also validated for limits of detection (LOD) and quantifi cation (LOQ), intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision, selectivity, robustness and ruggedness. The composition of the ion-pair (drug-dye) used in the method A was found to be 1:1 by both mole-ratio and Job's methods. The developed methods were applied to tablets, and the results were in good agreement with the label claim and those of the reference method. Because of its high sensitivity, method A was applied to spiked human urine with percent recoveries in the range 96.58-107.3 and a standard deviation <2%.

  16. About the structure and stability of complex carbonates of thorium (IV), cerium (IV), zirconium (IV), hafnium (IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervin, Jacqueline

    1972-01-01

    This research thesis addressed the study of complex carbonates of cations of metals belonging to the IV A column, i.e. thorium (IV), zirconium (IV), hafnium (IV), and also cerium (IV) and uranium (VI), and more particularly focused on ionic compounds formed in solution, and also on the influence of concentration and nature of cations on stability and nature of the formed solid. The author first presents methods used in this study, discusses their precision and scope of validity. She reports the study of the formation of different complex ions which have been highlighted in solution, and the determination of their formation constants. She reports the preparation and study of the stability domain of solid complexes. The next part reports the use of thermogravimetric analysis, IR spectrometry, and crystallography for the structural study of these compounds

  17. [Troubleshooting of bioinequivalence of compound valsartan tablets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Da; Zhang, Yi-Fan; Zhan, Yan; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Zhong, Da-Fang

    2014-04-01

    The study aims to evaluate the bioequivalence of valsartan hydrochlorothiazide tablets, and to investigate the potential cause of bioinequivalence. This was a single-center study with an open, randomized double-way crossover design. Test and reference preparations containing 160 mg of valsartan and 25 mg of hydrochlorothiazide were given to 36 healthy male volunteers. Plasma concentrations of valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide were determined simultaneously by LC-MS/MS. The pharmacokinetic parameters and relative bioavailability were calculated, while the bioequivalence between test and reference preparations were evaluated. The dissolution profiles of test and reference preparations in four different mediums were determined via dissolution test and HPLC. The similarity was investigated according to the similarity factors (f2). The F(o-t) and F(0-infinity) were (139.4 +/- 65.2)% and (137.5 +/- 61.2)% for valsartan of test preparations. It led to get the conclusion that test and reference preparations were not bioequivalent for valsartan. A significant difference was observed between test and reference tablets in the valsartan dissolution test of pH 1.2 hydrochloric acid solution. The key factor of the bioinequivalence might be that dissolution of valsartan in acid medium has marked difference between two preparations.

  18. Relationships between response surfaces for tablet characteristics of placebo and API-containing tablets manufactured by direct compression method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Tsuji, Takahiro; Shirotori, Kaede; Oishi, Takuya; Kosugi, Atsushi; Kumada, Shungo; Hirai, Daijiro; Takayama, Kozo; Onuki, Yoshinori

    2017-10-30

    In this study, we evaluated the correlation between the response surfaces for the tablet characteristics of placebo and active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)-containing tablets. The quantities of lactose, cornstarch, and microcrystalline cellulose were chosen as the formulation factors. Ten tablet formulations were prepared. The tensile strength (TS) and disintegration time (DT) of tablets were measured as tablet characteristics. The response surfaces for TS and DT were estimated using a nonlinear response surface method incorporating multivariate spline interpolation, and were then compared with those of placebo tablets. A correlation was clearly observed for TS and DT of all APIs, although the value of the response surfaces for TS and DT was highly dependent on the type of API used. Based on this knowledge, the response surfaces for TS and DT of API-containing tablets were predicted from only two and four formulations using regression expression and placebo tablet data, respectively. The results from the evaluation of prediction accuracy showed that this method accurately predicted TS and DT, suggesting that it could construct a reliable response surface for TS and DT with a small number of samples. This technique assists in the effective estimation of the relationships between design variables and pharmaceutical responses during pharmaceutical development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Biowaiver Monographs for Immediate Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms: Proguanil Hydrochloride.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plöger, Gerlinde F; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Groot, D I R K W; Langguth, Peter; Mehta, Mehul U; Parr, Alan; Polli, James E; Shah, Vinod P; Tajiri, Tomokazu; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2018-01-01

    Literature data relevant to the decision to waive in vivo bioequivalence testing for the approval of generic immediate release solid oral dosage forms of proguanil hydrochloride are reviewed. To clarify the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) classification, experimental solubility and

  20. Thermal stability study of crystalline and novel spray-dried amorphous nilotinib hydrochloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbrink, Maikel; Vromans, Herman; Schellens, Jan Hm; Beijnen, Jos H; Nuijen, Bastiaan

    2018-01-01

    The thermal characteristics and the thermal degradation of crystalline and amorphous nilotinib hydrochloride (NH) were studied. The spray drying technique was successfully utilized for the amorphization of NH and was evaluated by spectroscopic techniques and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).