WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrochloride oral suspension

  1. Compatibility of cholecalciferol, haloperidol, imipramine hydrochloride, levodopa/carbidopa, lorazepam, minocycline hydrochloride, tacrolimus monohydrate, terbinafine, tramadol hydrochloride and valsartan in SyrSpend SF PH4 oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonini, H C; Silva, S L; Cunha, C N; Brandão, M A F; Ferreira, A O

    2016-04-01

    A challenge with compounding oral liquid formulations is the limited availability of data to support the physical, chemical and microbiological stability of the formulation. This poses a patient safety concern and a risk for medication errors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of the following active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in 10 oral suspensions, using SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid) as the suspending vehicle: cholecalciferol 50,000 IU/mL, haloperidol 0.5 mg/mL, imipramine hydrochloride 5.0 mg/mL, levodopa/carbidopa 5.0/1.25 mg/mL, lorazepam 1.0 mg/mL, minocycline hydrochloride 10.0 mg/mL, tacrolimus monohydrate 1.0 mg/mL, terbinafine 25.0 mg/mL, tramadol hydrochloride 10.0 mg/mL and valsartan 4.0 mg/mL. The suspensions were stored both refrigerated (2 - 8 degrees C) and at controlled room temperature (20 - 25 degrees C). This is the first stability study for these APIs in SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid). Further, the stability of haloperidol,ilmipramine hydrochloride, minocycline, and valsartan in oral suspension has not been previously reported in the literature. Compatibility was assessed by measuring percent recovery at varying time points throughout a 90 days period. Quantification of the APIs was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV). Given the percentage of recovery of the APIs within the suspensions, the beyond-use date of the final preparations was found to be at least 90 days for most suspensions both refrigerated and at room temperature. Exceptions were: Minocycline hydrochloride at both storage temperatures (60 days), levodopa/carbidopa at room temperature (30 days), and lorazepam at room temperature (60 days). This suggests that compounded suspensions of APIs from different pharmacological classes in SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid) are stable.

  2. Feasibility of amlodipine besylate, chloroquine phosphate, dapsone, phenytoin, pyridoxine hydrochloride, sulfadiazine, sulfasalazine, tetracycline hydrochloride, trimethoprim and zonisamide in SyrSpend(®) SF PH4 oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Anderson O; Polonini, Hudson C; Silva, Sharlene L; Patrício, Fernando B; Brandão, Marcos Antônio F; Raposo, Nádia R B

    2016-01-25

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of 10 commonly used active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) compounded in oral suspensions using an internationally used suspending vehicle (SyrSpend(®) SF PH4 liquid): (i) amlodipine, (as besylate) 1.0mg/mL; (ii) chloroquine phosphate,15.0 mg/mL; (iii) dapsone, 2.0 mg/mL; (iv) phenytoin, 15.0 mg/mL; (v) pyridoxine hydrochloride, 50.0 mg/mL; (vi) sulfadiazine, 100.0 mg/mL; (vii) sulfasalazine, 100.0 mg/mL; (viii) tetracycline hydrochloride, 25.0 mg/mL; (ix) trimethoprim, 10.0 mg/mL; and (x) zonisamide, 10.0 mg/mL. All suspensions were stored both at controlled refrigeration (2-8 °C) and controlled room temperature (20-25 °C). Feasibility was assessed by measuring the percent recovery at varying time points throughout a 90-day period. API quantification was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV), via a stability-indicating method. Given the percentage of recovery of the APIs within the suspensions, the expiration date of the final products (API+vehicle) was at least 90 days for all suspensions with regard to both the controlled temperatures. This suggests that the vehicle is stable for compounding APIs from different pharmacological classes.

  3. Preparation and evaluation of taste masked oral suspension of arbidol hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to cover the bitter taste of arbidol hydrochloride (ARB and develop dry suspension with combination of solid dispersion and flavors. Taste masking was successfully done by solid dispersion using octadecanol as the carrier by fusion method. Suspending agents, carriers and other excipients were selected. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were performed to identify the physicochemical interaction between drug and carrier, DSC analysis indicated that ARB was amorphous in the solid dispersion, FTIR spectroscopy showed no interaction between drug and carrier. Taste masking was evaluated on six volunteers with a score of 4.9. The results demonstrated successful taste masking. Water was used to study the in vitro dissolution performance of the three formulations of commercial tablet, capsule and self-made suspension. The self-made suspension showed a lower and slower release, the insoluble carrier octadecanol blocked the drug dissolving from the solid dispersion. It was indicated from the primary stability study, the self-made suspensions were sensitive to high temperature, high humidity and strong light conditions, they should be stored in sealed containers away from heat, light and humidity.

  4. Oral suspensions of morphine hydrochloride for controlled release: rheological properties and drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, M E; López, G; Gallardo, V; Ruiz, M A

    2011-04-04

    Recent developments in pharmaceutical technology have facilitated the design and production of modified release formulas for drugs whose physical, chemical or biological properties impede release and thus might compromise their efficacy or safety. One such drug is morphine, whose short half-life requires repeated doses at short intervals. The use of biocompatible polymers such as ethylcellulose has made it possible to develop microencapsulated formulations which facilitate liquid, sustained-release pharmaceutical formulas for oral administration. We developed a stable final formulation of morphine with an acceptable release profile by comparing the rheological properties and stability of formulations with different thickeners (xanthan gum, Carbopol, and carboxymethylcellulose with microcrystalline cellulose) at different concentrations from 0.25% to 1.0%. Release assays in a Franz-type cell were done to determine the most suitable release profile for the formulation.

  5. 21 CFR 520.1242 - Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage forms. 520.1242 Section 520.1242 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1242 Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage...

  6. Stability of extemporaneously prepared rufinamide oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, David J; Liou, Yayin; Best, Robert; Zhao, Fang

    2010-03-01

    Rufinamide is an oral antiepileptic drug indicated for adjunctive therapy in treating generalized seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Currently, rufinamide is available as 200-mg and 400-mg tablets. A liquid dosage form does not exist at the present time. Lack of a suspension formulation may present an administration problem for many children and adults who are unable to swallow tablets. The availability of a liquid dosage form will provide an easy and accurate way to measure and administer the medication. To determine the stability of both sugar-containing and sugar-free rufinamide suspensions over a 90-day period. A suspension of rufinamide 40 mg/mL was prepared by grinding twelve 400-mg tablets of rufinamide tablets in a glass mortar. Sixty milliliters of Ora-Plus and 60 mL of either Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF (sugar free) were mixed and added to the powder to make a final volume of 120 mL. Three identical samples of each formulation were prepared and placed in 60-mL amber plastic bottles and were stored at room temperature. A 1-mL sample was withdrawn from each of the 6 bottles with a micropipette immediately after preparation and at 7, 14, 28, 56, and 90 days. After further dilution to an expected concentration of 0.4 mg/mL, the samples were assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Stability was defined as the retention of at least 90% of the initial concentration. At least 90% of the initial rufinamide concentration remained throughout the 90-day study period in both preparations. There were no detectable changes in color, odor, taste, and pH and no visible microbial growth. Extemporaneously compounded suspensions of rufinamide 40 mg/mL in a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF were stable for at least 90 days when stored in 59-mL amber polypropylene plastic bottles at room temperature.

  7. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: ciprofloxacin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera, M E; Manzo, R H; Junginger, H E; Midha, K K; Shah, V P; Stavchansky, S; Dressman, J B; Barends, D M

    2011-01-01

    Literature data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of new multisource and reformulated immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing ciprofloxacin hydrochloride as the only active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) are reviewed. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride's solubility and permeability, its therapeutic use and index, pharmacokinetics, excipient interactions and reported BE/bioavailability (BA) problems were taken into consideration. Solubility and BA data indicate that ciprofloxacin hydrochloride is a BCS Class IV drug. Therefore, a biowaiver based approval of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride containing IR solid oral dosage forms cannot be recommended for either new multisource drug products or for major scale-up and postapproval changes (variations) to existing drug products.

  8. 21 CFR 520.88c - Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension. 520.88c Section 520.88c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... orally, twice a day using a dosing pump. (2) Indications for use. Treatment of baby pigs under 10 pounds...

  9. Stability of extemporaneously prepared rosuvastatin oral suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Abdel Naser; Shtayah, Rania; Qadumi, Ayman; Ghanem, Mashour; Qedan, Rawan; Daibes, Marah; Awwad, Somud Abu; Jaradat, Nidal; Kittana, Naim

    2017-10-01

    The stability of an extemporaneously prepared rosuvastatin suspension stored over 30 days under various storage conditions was evaluated. Rosuvastatin suspension was extemporaneously prepared using commercial rosuvastatin tablets as the source of active pharmaceutical ingredient. The organoleptic properties, dissolution profile, and stability of the formulation were investigated. For the stability studies, samples of the suspension were stored under 2 storage conditions, room temperature (25 °C and 60% relative humidity) and accelerated stability chambers (40 °C and 75% relative humidity). Viscosity, pH, organoleptic properties, and microbial contamination were evaluated according to the approved specifications. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for the analysis and quantification of rosuvastatin in selected samples. Microbiological investigations were also conducted. The prepared suspension showed acceptable organoleptic properties. It showed complete release of rosuvastatin within 15 minutes. The pH of the suspension was 9.8, which remained unchanged during the stability studies. The microbiological investigations demonstrated that the preparation was free of any microbial contamination. In addition, the suspension showed stability within at least the period of use of a 100-mL rosuvastatin bottle. Extemporaneously prepared rosuvastatin 20-mg/mL suspension was stable for 30 days when stored at room temperature. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: ranitidine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortejärvi, H; Yliperttula, M; Dressman, J B; Junginger, H E; Midha, K K; Shah, V P; Barends, D M

    2005-08-01

    Literature and experimental data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence testing for the approval of immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing ranitidine hydrochloride are reviewed. According to the current Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), ranitidine hydrochloride should be assigned to Class III. However, based on its therapeutic and therapeutic index, pharmacokinetic properties and data related to the possibility of excipient interactions, a biowaiver can be recommended for IR solid oral dosage forms that are rapidly dissolving and contain only those excipients as reported in this study.

  11. Oral Midodrine Hydrochloride for Prevention of Orthostatic Hypotension during Early Mobilization after Hip Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, Øivind; Mehlsen, Jesper; Kjærsgaard-Andersen, Per

    2015-01-01

    or older and scheduled for total hip arthroplasty under spinal anesthesia to either 5 mg midodrine hydrochloride or placebo orally 1 h before mobilization at 6 and 24 h postoperatively. The primary outcome was the prevalence of OH (decrease in systolic or diastolic arterial pressures of > 20 or 10 mm...

  12. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: amitriptyline hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, R H; Olivera, M E; Amidon, G L; Shah, V P; Dressman, J B; Barends, D M

    2006-05-01

    Literature data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing amitriptyline hydrochloride are reviewed. Its therapeutic uses, its pharmacokinetic properties, the possibility of excipient interactions and reported BE/bioavailability (BA) problems are also taken into consideration. Literature data indicates that amitriptyline hydrochloride is a highly permeable active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Data on the solubility according to the current Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) were not fully available and consequently amitriptyline hydrochloride could not be definitively assigned to either BCS Class I or BCS Class II. But all evidence taken together, a biowaiver can currently be recommended provided that IR tablets are formulated with excipients used in existing approved products and that the dissolution meets the criteria defined in the Guidances.

  13. [A prospective multicenter randomized controlled clinical study on the efficacy and safety of Guaifenesin compound pseudoephedrine hydrochloride oral solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Quan

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate efficacy and safety of Guaifenesin compound pseudoephedrine hydrochloride oral solution for the treatment of cough, expectoration, nasal congestion and runny nose in children. This was a prospective multicenter randomized single-blind, parallel-controlled clinical study. A total of 10 centers participated in this study, the actual number of cases in line with the program was 412, of whom 205 cases in trial group were treated with Guaifenesin compound pseudoephedrine hydrochloride oral solution, and 207 cases in control group with ambroxol hydrochloride oral solution, treatment of both groups persisted for 7 days. The improvement rate of each single symptom and the combined symptoms and the overall effective rate were compared between the two groups. The adverse drug reactions and compliance were assessed as well. The treatment of both groups showed efficacy. Except sputum stickiness, the improvement of all symptoms in trial group was superior to that in the control group on the 3rd day after treatment (P Guaifenesin compound pseudoephedrine hydrochloride oral solution was 82.9% and the overall efficacy rate was 89.3%. Guaifenesin compound Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride oral solution had higher compliance and its adverse event rate was merely 0.92%. Guaifenesin compound pseudoephedrine hydrochloride oral solution showed significant efficacy and safety in children for treatment of cough, expectoration, nasal congestion and runny nose caused by common cold or acute tracheobronchitis.

  14. Second generation lipid nanoparticles (NLC) as an oral drug carrier for delivery of lercanidipine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranpise, Nisharani S; Korabu, Swati S; Ghodake, Vinod N

    2014-04-01

    Lercanidipine hydrochloride is a calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of hypertension. It is a poor water soluble drug with absolute bioavailability of 10%. The aim of this study was to design lercanidipine hydrochloride-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers to investigate whether the bioavailability of the same can be improved by oral delivery. Lercanidipine hydrochloride nanostructured lipid carriers were prepared by the method of solvent evaporation at a high temperature and solidification by freeze drying. The nanostructured lipid carriers were evaluated for particle size analysis, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug diffusion, ex vivo permeation studies and pharmacodynamic study. The resultant nanostructured lipid carriers had a mean size of 214.97 nm and a zeta potential of -31.6 ± 1.5 mV. More than 70% lercanidipine hydrochloride was entrapped in the NLCs. The SEM studies indicated the formation of type 2 nanostructured lipid carriers. The in vitro release studies demonstrated 19.36% release in acidic buffer pH 1.2 indicating that the drug entrapped in the nanostructured lipid carriers remains entrapped at acidic pH. The ex vivo studies indicated that the drug release was enhanced from 10% to 60.54% at blood pH in 24h. The in vivo pharmacodynamic study showed that NLCs released lercanidipine hydrochloride in a controlled manner for a prolonged period of time as compared to plain drug. These results clearly indicate that nanostructured lipid carriers are a potential controlled release formulation for lercanidipine hydrochloride and may be a promising drug delivery system for the treatment of hypertension. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: mefloquine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, S; Jantratid, E; Dressman, J B; Junginger, H E; Kopp, S; Midha, K K; Shah, V P; Stavchansky, S; Barends, D M

    2011-01-01

    Literature data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of immediate release solid oral dosage forms containing mefloquine hydrochloride as the only active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) are reviewed. The solubility and permeability data of mefloquine hydrochloride as well as its therapeutic use and therapeutic index, its pharmacokinetic properties, data related to the possibility of excipient interactions and reported BE/bioavailability studies were taken into consideration. Mefloquine hydrochloride is not a highly soluble API. Since no data on permeability are available, it cannot be classified according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System with certainty. Additionally, several studies in the literature failed to demonstrate BE of existing products. For these reasons, the biowaiver cannot be justified for the approval of new multisource drug products containing mefloquine hydrochloride. However, scale-up and postapproval changes (HHS-FDA SUPAC) levels 1 and 2 and most EU type I variations may be approvable without in vivo BE, using the dissolution tests described in these regulatory documents.

  16. Development and in vitro evaluation of fast-dissolving oral films of ondansetron hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Alipour

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ondansetron hydrochloride, a selective 5-HT3 receptor blocker, is an effective antiemetic drug with oral bioavailability of 60% and half-life of 4-5 hours. The present study was carried out to prepare fast dissolving films of ondansetron hydrochloride to increase patient compliance and improve efficacy of this drug. Films were prepared by solvent casting method, using poly vinyl alcohol, poly vinyl pyrrolidone and konjac glucomannan as film formers and PEG400 as plasticizer. Natural and synthetic sweeteners were used for masking bitterness of the drug. Satisfactory results were obtained from evaluation of physical characteristics of fast dissolving films of ondansetron hydrochloride including: thickness (0.37-0.39 mm, surface pH (6.77, folding endurance (up to 300 times and tensile strength (35.75-50.93 g/cm². Films were also subjected to an in vitro dissolution and release studies. In vitro drug release studies indicated 93-95% release in 5 min. Fast dissolving films of ondansetron could be a potential alternative for the currently marketed oral formulation, parenteral form and suppository with better patient compliance and higher bioavailability for the rapid control of emesis.

  17. Preparation, characterization and pharmacokinetics of doxycycline hydrochloride and florfenicol polyvinylpyrroliddone microparticle entrapped with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianqiang; Xie, Shuyu; Pan, Yuanhu; Qu, Wei; Tao, Yanfei; Chen, Dongmei; Huang, Lingli; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Yulian; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-05-01

    In order to effectively control the bacterial pneumonia in pigs, doxycycline hydrochloride (DoxHcl) and florfenicol (FF) microparticle suspension together with inclusion complexes was prepared by using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) as host molecules, polyvinylpyrroliddone (PVP) as polymer carriers and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as suspending agents. In vitro antibacterial activity, properties, stability and pharmacokinetics of the suspension were studied. The results demonstrated that DoxHcl and FF had a synergistic or additive antibacterial activity against Streptococcus suis, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Haemophilus parasuis. The size, polydispersity index and zeta potential of microparticles were 1.46 ± 0.06 μm, 0.30 ± 0.02 and 1.53 ± 0.04 mV, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of DoxHcl and FF was 45.28% ± 3.30% and 89.69% ± 2.71%, respectively. The re-dispersed time and sedimentation rate of the suspension were 1 min and 1. The suspension went through the 9-gage needle smoothly with withdrawal volume of 9.12 ± 0.87 mL/min. The suspension showed good stability when stored away from light, no irritation at the injection site and sustained release in PBS buffer. After intramuscular administration to pig, DoxHcl and FF could maintain over 0.15 μg/mL for 72 h. Compared to the control injection, the suspension increased the elimination half-life (T½ke) as well as mean residence time (MRT) of DoxHcl from 5.73 to 9.77 h and from 12.02 to 18.81 h, and those of FF from 12.02 to 26.19 h and from 12.02 to 28.16 h, respectively. The suspension increased the bioavailability of DoxHcl and FF by 1.74 and 1.13-fold, respectively. These results suggest that the compound suspension is a promising formulation for pig pneumonia therapy.

  18. Omeprazole/antacid-powder suspension--Santarus: Acitrel, Rapinex Powder for oral suspension, SAN 05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Santarus Inc., is developing an immediate-release formulation of omeprazole in combination with an antacid (sodium bicarbonate) as a powder for suspension, known as Acitrel [SAN 05], and also as Rapinex powder for oral suspension. Acitrel is based on technology licensed from the University of Missouri. Santarus have also licensed technology from Tulane and North Carolina Universities relating to potential treatments for GI diseases. Santarus have licensed exclusive, worldwide rights to patent applications covering specific combination-formulations of proton pump inhibitors and antacids for treating various upper GI diseases and disorders. Santarus plans to license development, distribution and marketing rights of Rapinex Powder for oral suspension 20mg outside the US, to one or more well established pharmaceutical companies. The US FDA has requested that Santarus pursue a name other than Rapinex for the product. Santarus is currently discussing potential alternative names for the product with the FDA. Santarus announced positive results, in August 2003, from a phase III trial comparing oral Acitrel (Rapinex 40mg) to intravenous cimetidine in preventing upper GI bleeding in 359 critically ill adult patients. Santarus has also completed an open-label clinical trial in 243 patients, including 97 patients with gastric ulcers, evaluating the safety of Rapinex 40mg for an 8-week period. In connection with the NDA for Rapinex 40mg, Santarus provided notice to the NDA holder for Prilosec delayed-release capsules and related patent owners that Rapinex 40mg does not infringe currently listed patents for Prilosec or that those patents are invalid.

  19. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: metoclopramide hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stosik, A G; Junginger, H E; Kopp, S; Midha, K K; Shah, V P; Stavchansky, S; Dressman, J B; Barends, D M

    2008-09-01

    Literature data are reviewed relevant to the decision for a biowaiver of immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing metoclopramide hydrochloride. In addition, new solubility data, obtained under Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) conditions are presented. Metoclopramide HCl is conservatively assigned to BCS Class III. Taken also into consideration excipient interactions reported in metoclopramide drug products, its pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic use and therapeutic index, a biowaiver can be recommended when: (a) the test product contains only excipients present also in metoclopramide HCl containing IR solid oral drug products approved in ICH or associated countries, for instance as presented in this paper, (b) in amounts in normal use in IR solid oral dosage forms, and (c) the test product and the comparator both comply with the criteria for very rapidly dissolving.

  20. Myoclonus precipitated by oral suspension of oxcarbazepine in idiopathic generalized epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Songqing; Luo, Rong; Mao, Meng; Huang, Liang

    2012-04-01

    Oxcarbazepine (OXC) is widely registered for the treatment of partial seizures and generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS). Myoclonic seizures induced by OXC are uncommon. We report a child with idiopathic generalized epilepsy who developed myoclonic seizures and had an abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG) when oral suspension of OXC was introduced. This study suggests that oral suspension of OXC can precipitate myoclonus.

  1. Metabolomic Analyses of Blood Plasma after Oral Administration of D-Glucosamine Hydrochloride to Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saburo Minami

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available D-Glucosamine hydrochloride (GlcN∙HCl is an endogenous amino monosaccharide synthesized from glucose that is useful in the treatment of joint diseases in both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to examine amino acid metabolism in dogs after oral administration of GlcN∙HCl. Accelerated fumarate respiration and elevated plasma levels of lactic acid and alanine were observed after administration. These results suggest that oral administration of GlcN∙HCl induces anaerobic respiration and starvation in cells, and we hypothesize that these conditions promote cartilage regeneration. Further studies are required to evaluate the expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β.

  2. Formulation development and rheological studies of palatable cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride dry powder suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Divakar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Because of its intense bitter taste and susceptibility to moisture Cefetamet Pivoxil (CPH is presently available only in the form of tablet. The aim of this study was to develop taste masked CPH dry powder suspension. Methods: Methods employed for formulations were: a Film coating of CPH using Eudragit E100 and subsequent adsorption on different carriers such as spray-dried lactose, sodium starch glycolate and spry-dried mannitol and b Complexation of CPH with three different ion exchange resins viz; indion 234, amberlite IRP64 and amberlite IRP69. Results: Taste evaluation as recognized by volunteers revealed that coating with eudragit E100 and subsequent adsorption on different carriers do not mask the bitter taste of the drug. Suspensions prepared using amberlite IRP64 and amberlite IRP69 were extremely palatable with no bitter after taste. They showed pseudoplastic flow behavior and were too viscous even after shearing for sufficient duration of time and exhibited poor pourability. The suspension made with indion 234 was palatable with slight or no bitter after taste. It demonstrated plastic flow with negligible thixotropy. It had moderate viscosity at rest and could be poured after a reasonable amount of shaking. CPH dry powder suspensions were very unstable under different conditions except under refrigeration. A 5% degradation of drug was occurred in reconstituted suspension in 4 days period when stored at room temperature. Conclusion: Dry powder suspension prepared with indion 234 with 5% overages was stable even after 4th day of reconstitution and palatable with slight or no bitter after taste

  3. Bioavailability of paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochloride and guaifenesin in a fixed-combination syrup versus an oral reference product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janin, Annick; Monnet, Joelle

    2014-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the bioavailability of paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochloride and guaifenesin in a new oral syrup with an established oral reference product. The secondary objective was to compare the safety of the new syrup and the reference product. This was a single-centre, open-label, randomized, reference-replicated, crossover study. Healthy adult volunteers received one dose of syrup and two separate doses of a reference oral liquid formulation in a randomized sequence over three study periods, with a washout interval of ≥ 7 days between study periods. Blood samples were taken regularly postdose and analysed for paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochloride and guaifenesin concentrations; adverse events were recorded. This study enrolled 45 subjects. For paracetamol and guaifenesin, the syrup and reference product were considered to be bioequivalent. Bioequivalence was not shown for phenylephrine hydrochloride. All adverse events were mild or moderate, most of which were considered formulation related. The syrup did not reach bioequivalence with the reference product, as bioequivalence could not be shown for phenylephrine hydrochloride. This may be due to differences in the excipients between the two products. Both the syrup and the reference product had a good safety profile and were well tolerated.

  4. Usefulness of oral loading of oxcarbazepine suspension in selected patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Gu, Namyi; Lee, Howard; Jang, In-Jin; Chu, Kon; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Cho, Joo-Youn; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Na, Hyun Jeong; Lee, Sang Kun

    2013-10-01

    Oral loading of oxcarbazepine tablet is effective and well tolerated to adequately achieve the therapeutic levels of its active metabolite, 10,11-dihydro-10-hydroxy-carbazepine (monohydroxy derivative, MHD) in epilepsy patients. The present study was performed to investigate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic profiles of oral loading of oxcarbazepine suspension in epilepsy patients with a high risk of recurrent seizures. Oxcarbazepine suspension was administered orally at a single loading dose of 30 mg/kg to 38 adult patients with recurrent seizures, who required rapid seizure control or temporarily discontinued antiepileptic drugs for diagnostic or pre-surgical evaluation. Plasma concentrations of oxcarbazepine and MHD were determined, and adverse events were assessed at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 24 hours after oral loading of oxcarbazepine suspension. 30 patients experienced ≥ 1 adverse event during the first 24 hours after oral loading of oxcarbazepine (e.g., dizziness, transient diplopia, nausea or vomiting), most of which occurred within 4 hours after loading, suggesting no temporal association with MHD plasma levels. 35 (92.1%) patients were still compliant with a maintenance dose of oxcarbazepine after discharge from hospital. 34 (89.4%) patients reached the lower therapeutic level of MHD (12 mg/l) at 4 hours after oral loading of oxcarbazepine suspension, which lasted up to 24 hours in most patients. No patient reached the supratherapeutic levels of MHD (> 35 mg/l) during the study. The mean plasma concentration-time curves and pharmacokinetic profiles of oral loading of oxcarbazepine suspension were similar to those of oral loading of oxcarbazepine tablet. Oral loading of oxcarbazepine suspension followed by maintenance dosing is well tolerated and effective in steadily achieving the therapeutic level of MHD in selected patients with epilepsy.

  5. 75 FR 26646 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Orbifloxacin Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... (NADA) filed by Intervet, Inc. The NADA provides for the veterinary prescription use of an oral...., Roseland, NJ 07068, filed NADA 141-305 that provides for veterinary prescription use of ORBAX (orbifloxacin) Oral Suspension for the treatment of various bacterial infections in dogs and cats. The NADA is...

  6. 21 CFR 520.88h - Amoxicillin trihydrate and clavulanate potassium for oral suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... daily. (ii) Indications for use. Treatment of feline skin and soft tissue infections, such as wounds... for oral suspension. 520.88h Section 520.88h Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE...

  7. Enhanced efficacy of clindamycin hydrochloride encapsulated in PLA/PLGA based nanoparticle system for oral delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauta, Pradipta Ranjan; Das, Niladri Mohan; Nayak, Debasis; Ashe, Sarbani; Nayak, Bismita

    2016-08-01

    Clindamycin hydrochloride (CLH) is a clinically important oral antibiotic with wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity that includes gram-positive aerobes (staphylococci, streptococci etc.), most anaerobic bacteria, Chlamydia and certain protozoa. The current study was focused to develop a stabilised clindamycin encapsulated poly lactic acid (PLA)/poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nano-formulation with better drug bioavailability at molecular level. Various nanoparticle (NPs) formulations of PLA and PLGA loaded with CLH were prepared by solvent evaporation method varying drug: polymer concentration (1:20, 1:10 and 1:5) and characterised (size, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, scanning electron microscope, differential scanning calorimetry [DSC] and Fourier transform infrared [FTIR] studies). The ratio 1:10 was found to be optimal for a monodispersed and stable nano formulation for both the polymers. NP formulations demonstrated a significant controlled release profile extended up to 144 h (both CLH-PLA and CLH-PLGA). The thermal behaviour (DSC) studies confirmed the molecular dispersion of the drug within the system. The FTIR studies revealed the intactness as well as unaltered structure of drug. The CLH-PLA NPs showed enhanced antimicrobial activity against two pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus faecalis and Bacillus cereus. The results notably suggest that encapsulation of CLH into PLA/PLGA significantly increases the bioavailability of the drug and due to this enhanced drug activity; it can be widely applied for number of therapies.

  8. Benzydamine hydrochloride buccal bioadhesive gels designed for oral ulcers: preparation, rheological, textural, mucoadhesive and release properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavana, Sinem Yaprak; Güneri, Pelin; Ertan, Gökhan

    2009-01-01

    This study developed and examined the characterization of Benzidamine hydrochloride (BNZ) bioadhesive gels as platforms for oral ulcer treatments. Bioadhesive gels were prepared with four different hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) types (E5, E15, E50 and K100M) with different ratios. Each formulation was characterized in terms of drug release, rheological, mechanical properties and adhesion to a buccal bovine mucosa. Drug release was significantly decreased as the concentration and individual viscosity of each polymeric component increased due to improved viscosity of the gel formulations. The amount of drug released for the formulations ranged from 0.76 +/- 0.07 and 1.14 +/- 0.01 (mg/cm2 +/- SD). Formulations exhibited pseudoplastic flow and all formulations, increasing the concentration of HPMC content significantly raised storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G''), dynamic viscosity (eta') at 37 degrees C. Increasing concentration of each polymeric component also significantly improved the hardness, compressibility, adhesiveness, cohesiveness and mucoadhesion but decreased the elasticity of the gel formulations. All formulations showed non-Fickian diffusion due to the relaxation and swelling of the polymers with water. In conclusion, the formulations studied showed a wide range of mechanical and drug diffusion characteristics. On the basis of the obtained data, the bioadhesive gel formulation which was prepared with 2.5% HPMC K 100M was determined as the most appropriate formulation for buccal application in means of possessing suitable mechanical properties, exhibiting high cohesion and bioadhesion.

  9. [Efficacy and safety of 3% mepivacaine hydrochloride injection for oral local anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Sheng; Zhu, Ya-Qin; Wu, Ying-Na; Cao, Dong

    2008-06-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of 3% mepivacaine hydrochloride injection for oral local anesthesia. 68 non-hypertension patients and 36 hypertension patients were randomly divided into 2 groups for local anesthesia. 2% lidocaine with adrenaline in same cartridge was as control group and 3% mepivacaine was as the experimental group. The onset time,duration and pain-free time of 2 anaesthetics were examined. The blood pressure and heart rate change, neural reaction and side effect of 2 groups were observed. SAS software package was used for statistical analysis. In the mepivacaine group, the average onset time was 111s, the duration time was 212s and pain-free time was 134 min ,which was similar to those of 2% lidocaine. Immediately after injection, 5 minutes and 10 minutes after injection of anesthesia, and post-operation, there were no significant changes in the systolic blood pressures between 2% lidocaine group and 3% mepivacaine group (P>0.05), but there were significant changes in diastolic blood pressures and heart rate (Pmepivacaine has quick onset, ideal anesthetic effect and little side effect on cardiovascular system.

  10. Riluzole 5 mg/mL oral suspension: for optimized drug delivery in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyer AM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ann Margaret Dyer, Alan Smith PharmaSci Consulting Limited, Nottingham, UK Abstract: The aim of the present work is to extensively evaluate the pharmaceutical attributes of currently available riluzole presentations. The article describes the limitations and risks associated with the administration of crushed tablets, including the potential for inaccurate dosing and reduced rate of absorption when riluzole is administered with high-fat foods, and the advantages that a recently approved innovative oral liquid form of riluzole confers on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS patients. The article further evaluates the patented and innovative controlled flocculation technology used in the pseudoplastic suspension formulation to reduce the oral anesthesia seen with crushed tablets, resulting in optimized drug delivery for riluzole. Riluzole is the only drug licensed for treating ALS, which is the most common form of motor neurone disease and a highly devastating neurodegenerative condition. The licensed indication is to extend life or the time to mechanical ventilation. Until recently, riluzole was only available as an oral tablet dosage form in the UK; however, an innovative oral liquid form, Teglutik® 5 mg/mL oral suspension, is now available. An oral liquid formulation provides an important therapeutic option for patients with ALS, >80% of who may become unable to swallow solid oral dosage forms due to disease-related dysphagia. Prior to the launch of riluzole oral suspension, the only way for many patients to continue to take riluzole as their disease progressed was through crushed tablets. A novel suspension formulation enables more accurate dosing and consistent ongoing administration of riluzole. There are clear and important advantages such as enhanced patient compliance compared with crushed tablets administered with food or via an enteral feeding tube and the potential for an improved therapeutic outcome and enhanced quality of life for

  11. Novel montelukast sodium-loaded stable oral suspension bioequivalent to the commercial granules in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Young Hun; Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Kim, Dong Shik; Kwon, Taek Kwan; Park, Jung Hee; Kim, Yong Il; Park, Jae-Hyun; Jin, Sung Giu; Kim, Kyung Soo; Cho, Kwan Hyung; Li, Dong Xun; Kim, Jong Oh; Yong, Chul Soon; Woo, Jong Soo; Choi, Han-Gon

    2016-04-01

    To develop a montelukast sodium-loaded stable oral suspension bioequivalent to the commercial granules in rats, several montelukast sodium-loaded suspensions were prepared with a suspending agent, stabilizers and anti-aggregation agents, and their stabilities were investigated by visually observing the sedimentation phenomenon and determining the concentration of the degradation product. Moreover, dissolution and pharmacokinetic studies of the optimized formulation were examined in rats compared to commercial montelukast sodium-loaded granules. Avicel RC-591 (Avicel), a suspending agent, prevented the sedimentation of these suspensions at >2.496 (w/v) per cent composition. Amongst the stabilizers tested, fumaric acid provided the lowest concentration of montelukast sulphoxide (a degradation product) in these suspensions at 40 °C, demonstrating its excellent stabilizing activity. Furthermore, as an anti-aggregation agent, glycerin gave lower amounts of degradation product than those with poloxamer 407 and Tween 80. In particular, montelukast-loaded oral suspension, an aqueous suspension containing montelukast sodium/Avicel/fumaric acid/glycerin at a concentration of 312/2496/15.6/62.4 (mg/100 ml), and the commercial granules exhibited similar dissolution profiles in 0.5% (w/v) aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulphate. Moreover, the pharmacokinetics in rats provided by this suspension was comparable to that of the commercial granules, suggesting that they were bioequivalent. In addition, it was physically and chemically stable at 40 °C for at least 6 months. Thus, this montelukast sodium-loaded oral suspension, with bioequivalence to the commercial granules and excellent stability, could be a prospective dosage form for the treatment of asthma.

  12. Effectiveness of Education Programs About Oral Antibiotic Suspensions in Pediatric Outpatient Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin Hu

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrated that when compared to reading a package insert or education sheet, a pharmacist's verbal education with photographic education materials was significantly more effective and time-saving in providing caregivers with the correct knowledge of oral antibiotic suspensions in pediatrics.

  13. Effect of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin on the stability of cisapride in oral suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutima Boonleang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cisapride (CIS is a gastrointestinal prokinetic agent. It has been associated with rare, but serious cardiac side effects.However, it does not affect psychomotor functions or induce central depressant adverse effects. As liquid formulations arerequired in a number of cases, an oral suspension of CIS was developed from CIS tablets. The objective of this study was toinvestigate the effect of hydroxypropyl--cyclodextrin (HP--CD on the stability of CIS in oral suspension with an ultimateaim to formulate a more stable CIS oral suspension. Six batches of CIS oral suspensions, namely, 0 (control, 0.3, 1.6, and 3%HP--CD containing formulations were prepared. They were stored at 5°C and 30°C. The amounts of CIS in the suspensionswere determined by a validated stability-indicating HPLC-DAD method. The stability was assessed based on the 90%remaining. The changes in the amounts of CIS over time were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and ANCOVA. At 5°C, HP--CD had no significant effect on the stability of CIS. CIS in all four formulations was stable for at least 12.5 months. At 30°C,HP--CD affected the stability of CIS. CIS was most stable in 0.3% HP--CD containing formulation with the observed t90 ofapproximately 11 months as compared to 7 months in control formulation.

  14. A new formulation for orally disintegrating tablets using a suspension spray-coating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Y; Irisawa, Y; Okimoto, K; Osawa, T; Yamashita, S

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to design a new orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) that has high tablet hardness and a fast oral disintegration rate using a new preparation method. To obtain rapid disintegration granules (RDGs), a saccharide, such as trehalose, mannitol, or lactose, was spray-coated with a suspension of corn starch using a fluidized-bed granulator (suspension method). As an additional disintegrant, crospovidone, light anhydrous silicic acid, or hydroxypropyl starch was also included in the suspension. The RDGs obtained possessed extremely large surface areas, narrow particle size distribution, and numerous micro-pores. When tabletting these RDGs, it was found that the RDGs increased tablet hardness by decreasing plastic deformation and increasing the contact frequency between granules. In all tablets, a linear relationship was observed between tablet hardness and oral disintegration time. From each linear correlation line, a slope (D/H value) and an intercept (D/H(0) value) were calculated. Tablets with small D/H and D/H(0) values could disintegrate immediately in the oral cavity regardless of the tablet hardness and were considered to be appropriate for ODTs. Therefore, these values were used as key parameters to select better ODTs. Of all the RDGs prepared in this study, mannitol spray-coated with a suspension of corn starch and crospovidone (2.5:1 w/w ratio) showed most appropriate properties for ODTs; fast in vivo oral disintegration time, and high tablet hardness. In conclusion, this simple method to prepare superior formulations for new ODTs was established by spray-coating mannitol with a suspension of appropriate disintegrants.

  15. RP-HPLC analytical method development and optimization for quantification of donepezil hydrochloride in orally disintegrating tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Kai Bin; Peh, Kok Khiang; Fung Tan, Yvonne Tze

    2013-09-01

    An easy, fast and validated RV-HPLC method was invented to quantify donepezil hydrochloride in drug solution and orally disintegrating tablet. The separation was carried out using reversed phase C-18 column (Agilent Eclipse Plus C-18) with UV detection at 268 nm. Method optimization was tested using various composition of organic solvent. The mobile phase comprised of phosphate buffer (0.01M), methanol and acetonitrile (50:30:20, v/v) adjusted to pH 2.7 with phosphoric acid (80%) was found as the optimum mobile phase. The method showed intraday precision and accuracy in the range of 0.24% to -1.83% and -1.83% to 1.99% respectively, while interday precision and accuracy ranged between 1.41% to 1.81% and 0.11% to 1.90% respectively. The standard calibration curve was linear from 0.125 μg/mL to 16 μg/mL, with correlation coefficient of 0.9997±0.00016. The drug solution was stable under room temperature at least for 6 hours. System suitability studies were done. The average plate count was > 2000, tailing factor method was used to assay donepezil hydrochloride in tablet and dissolution study of in-house manufactured donepezil orally disintegrating tablet and original Aricept.

  16. A randomized, crossover design study of sevelamer carbonate powder and sevelamer hydrochloride tablets in chronic kidney disease patients on haemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Stanley; Ross, Calum; Mitra, Sandip; Kalra, Philip; Heaton, Jeremy; Hunter, John; Plone, Melissa; Pritchard, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Background. Sevelamer carbonate is an improved, buffered form of sevelamer hydrochloride developed for the treatment of hyperphosphataemia in CKD patients. Sevelamer carbonate formulated as a powder for oral suspension presents a novel, patient-friendly alternative to tablet phosphate binders. This study compared the safety and efficacy of sevelamer carbonate powder with sevelamer hydrochloride tablets in CKD patients on haemodialysis. Methods. This was a multi-centre, open-label, randomized,...

  17. Improving oral bioavailability of metformin hydrochloride using water-in-oil microemulsions and analysis of phase behavior after dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Song, Jiaqi; Tian, Ning; Cai, Jie; Huang, Meihong; Xing, Qiao; Wang, Yalong; Wu, Chuanbin; Hu, Haiyan

    2014-10-01

    Microemulsions show significant promise for enhancing the oral bioavailability of biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class II drugs, but how about class III drugs remains unclear. Here we employed metformin hydrochloride (MET) as the model drug and prepared drug-loaded water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsions selecting different hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) surfactant systems, using HLB 8 as a cut-off. We examined the phase behaviors of microemulsions after dilution and attempted to correlate these behaviors to drug oral bioavailability. ME-A, including a lower content of surfactants (35%), underwent a transition of W/O emulsion and then became a stable O/W emulsion in a light milky appearance; ME-B, in contrast, introducing a higher content of surfactants (45%), still remained transparent or semitransparent upon dilution. Unexpectedly, ME-A showed significantly higher oral bioavailability, which can be reduced by blocking the lymphatic absorption pathway. Comparatively, the AUC of ME-B is lower, close to MET solution. Both microemulsions behaved similarly in intestinal perfusion test because of the dilution before perfusion, lacking of the important phase transition of W/O emulsion. These findings suggest that W/O microemulsions improve oral bioavailability of BCS class III drug by promoting lymphatic absorption. Analyzing the phase behavior of microemulsions after dilution may help predict the drug oral bioavailability and optimize formulations.

  18. Quality assessment of fluconazole capsules and oral suspensions compounded by pharmacies located in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Carine M; Cruz-Espindola, Crisanta; Thungrat, Kamoltip; Schick, Anthea E; Lewis, Thomas P; Boothe, Dawn M

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate pharmaceutical characteristics (strength or concentration, accuracy, and precision), physical properties, and bacterial contamination of fluconazole compounded products. SAMPLE Fluconazole compounded products (30- and 240-mg capsules; 30- and 100-mg/mL oral suspensions) from 4 US veterinary compounding pharmacies. PROCEDURES Fluconazole compounded products were ordered 3 times from each of 4 pharmacies at 7- or 10-day intervals. Generic fluconazole products (50- and 200-mg tablets; 10- and 40-mg/mL oral suspensions) served as references. Compounded products were evaluated at the time of receipt; suspensions also were evaluated 3 months later and at beyond-use dates. Evaluations included assessments of strength (concentration), accuracy, precision, physical properties, and bacterial contamination. Acceptable accuracy was defined as within ± 10% of the labeled strength (concentration) and acceptable precision as within ± 10%. Fluconazole was quantified by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS Physical characteristics of compounded products differed among pharmacies. Aerobic bacterial cultures yielded negative results. Capsules (30 and 240 mg) had acceptable accuracy (median, 96.3%; range, 87.3% to 135.2%) and precision (mean ± SD, 7.4 ± 6.0%). Suspensions (30 and 100 mg/mL) had poor accuracy (median, 73.8%; range, 53.9% to 95.2%) and precision (mean ± SD, 15.0 ± 6.9%). Accuracy and precision were significantly better for capsules than for suspensions. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Fluconazole compounded products, particularly suspensions, differed in pharmaceutical and physical qualities. Studies to evaluate the impact of inconsistent quality on bioavailability or clinical efficacy of compounded fluconazole products are indicated, and each study should include data on the quality of the compounded product evaluated.

  19. High-amylose sodium carboxymethyl starch matrices: development and characterization of tramadol hydrochloride sustained-release tablets for oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabais, Teresa; Leclair, Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    Substituted amylose (SA) polymers were produced from high-amylose corn starch by etherification of its hydroxyl groups with chloroacetate. Amorphous high-amylose sodium carboxymethyl starch (HASCA), the resulting SA polymer, was spray-dried to obtain an excipient (SD HASCA) with optimal binding and sustained-release (SR) properties. Tablets containing different percentages of SD HASCA and tramadol hydrochloride were produced by direct compression and evaluated for dissolution. Once-daily and twice-daily SD HASCA tablets containing two common dosages of tramadol hydrochloride (100 mg and 200 mg), a freely water-soluble drug, were successfully developed. These SR formulations presented high crushing forces, which facilitate further tablet processing and handling. When exposed to both a pH gradient simulating the pH variations through the gastrointestinal tract and a 40% ethanol medium, a very rigid gel formed progressively at the surface of the tablets providing controlled drug-release properties. These properties indicated that SD HASCA was a promising and robust excipient for oral, sustained drug-release, which may possibly minimize the likelihood of dose dumping and consequent adverse effects, even in the case of coadministration with alcohol.

  20. Bioequivalence study with lapatinib powder for oral suspension and the original tablet formulation in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Kevin M; Ferron-Brady, Geraldine; Lemmon, Colleen; Cartee, Leanne; Hollyfield, Hedy; D'Amelio, Anthony M; Piepszak, Alexandra; Swaby, Ramona F; Curran, David; Arya, Niki

    2015-01-01

    Lapatinib is approved for use in various therapeutic combinations for treating metastatic breast cancers that over-express HER2. To deliver the approved doses, up to six large tablets need to be ingested with the current 250-mg tablets. For ease of ingestion, a powder for oral suspension was developed. This study was an open-label, randomized, adaptive design, two-period crossover bioequivalence study of the powder for suspension relative to the commercial tablet at steady state following once daily dosing for 7 days in patients with advanced cancer. To minimize the number of cancer patients required for a pivotal bioequivalence study (144 in this case), a four-stage adaptive group sequential design with interim analyses after every 36 subjects was implemented to allow for early termination. Bioequivalence for the oral suspension relative to the commercial tablet was demonstrated in both the first (and only) interim analysis and the final analysis, as the 90% confidence intervals for the treatment comparison ratios for both AUC0-24 and Cmax were contained within the acceptance criteria (0.80, 1.25). Additionally, there was no statistical difference in tlag or tmax , suggesting no difference in the absorption rate between treatments. There were no unexpected safety findings during this study.

  1. HPLC法测定馥感啉口服液中盐酸麻黄碱和盐酸伪麻黄碱的含量%Determination of Ephedrine Hydrochloride and Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride in Fuganlin Oral Liquid by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾永长; 张莉; 曾晓燕; 陈艺文

    2015-01-01

    目的:采用高效液相色谱法建立同时测定馥感啉口服液中盐酸麻黄碱和盐酸伪麻黄碱含量的检测方法。方法使用Phenomenex Synergi Polar-RP柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,4μm),以甲醇-0.092%磷酸溶液(含0.04%三乙胺和0.02%二正丁胺)(1.5∶98.5)为流动相,流速:1.0 mL·min-1,检测波长为210 nm。结果盐酸麻黄碱和盐酸伪麻黄碱在进样1~100μg·mL-1范围内线性关系良好,平均回收率(n=6)分别为97.43%(RSD=0.80%)、98.59%(RSD=1.77%)。结论该方法操作简便、分离度好、稳定可靠,可同时快速测定盐酸麻黄碱和盐酸伪麻黄碱,为馥感啉口服液的质量评价提供科学依据。%Objective To establish a HPLC method to determine the content of ephedrine hydrochloride and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride in Fuganlin oral liquid. Methods The chromatographic conditions was as follows:Phenomenex Synergi Polar-RP column(250 mm ×4.6 mm, 4 μm), methanol-0.092 % phosphoric acid solution (containing 0.04 % triethylamine and 0.02 % di-n-butylamine)(1.5∶98.5)as the mobile phase, flow rate being 1.0 mL ·min-1, detection wavelength set as 210 nm. Results The linear range of ephedrine hydrochloride and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was 1~100 μg·mL-1,and the average recovery(n=6)was 97.43 % (RSD=0.80 %) and 98.59 %(RSD=1.77 %)respectively. Conclusion The method is simple,accurate and reliable,and can be used for the simultaneous determination of ephedrine hydrochloride and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride,which will provide a scientific basis for quality evaluation of Fuganlin oral liquid.

  2. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms based on biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) literature data: verapamil hydrochloride, propranolol hydrochloride, and atenolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelpoel, H; Welink, J; Amidon, G L; Junginger, H E; Midha, K K; Möller, H; Olling, M; Shah, V P; Barends, D M

    2004-08-01

    Literature data related to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) are presented on verapamil hydrochloride, propranolol hydrochloride, and atenolol in the form of BCS-monographs. Data on the qualitative composition of immediate release (IR) tablets containing these active substances with a Marketing Authorization (MA) in the Netherlands (NL) are also provided; in view of these MA's the assumption was made that these tablets were bioequivalent to the innovator product. The development of a database with BCS-related data is announced by the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP).

  3. [The effect of oral administration of roxatidine acetate hydrochloride 3 hours prior to the operation on pH and volume of gastric juice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, A; Andoh, K; Shima, T; Koga, Y; Hashimoto, Y

    1991-03-01

    The effect of roxatidine acetate hydrochloride, administered 3 hours prior to induction of anesthesia, on pH and volume of gastric juice was investigated in preoperative patients. In fifty patients, who were scheduled to undergo elective surgery, 150 mg of roxatidine acetate hydrochloride was administered orally 3 hours before the induction of anesthesia. The volume and pH of gastric juice were measured immediately after the induction of anesthesia. In 46 patients out of fifty, pH of gastric juice was more than 2.5, and its volume was below 25 ml. In another 4 patients, pH of gastric juice was more than 2.5, or its volume below 25 ml. We conclude that, oral administration of 150 mg roxatidine 3 hours preoperatively could be effective for the prevention of an aspiration pneumonitis.

  4. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of barnidipine hydrochloride, a calcium channel blocker, in man following oral administration of its sustained release formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramura, T; Watanabe, T; Higuchi, S; Hashimoto, K

    1997-02-01

    1. The metabolism and pharmacokinetics of barnidipine hydrochloride, a 1, 4-dihydropyridine calcium antagonist were evaluated following single oral administration of a sustained release formulation (SR) capsule comprising of quick and slow release pellets to healthy male volunteers. 2. Various metabolites were identified and quantitated by newly established GC-MS analytical methods. Major metabolites were the hydrolyzed product of the benzyl-pyrrolidinyl ester (M-3) in plasma and its oxidized pyridine product (M-4) in plasma and urine. The pyridine form of unchanged barnidipine and the N-debenzylated product were observed as minor metabolites. Therefore, the primary metabolic pathways in man are (a) hydrolysis of the benzylpyrrolidine ester, (b) N-debenzylation, and (c) oxidation of the dihydropyridine ring. 3. When the SR and normal capsules were administered at a dose of 10 mg to six subjects in a crossover design, AUC 0-infinity of unchanged drug, M-3 and 4 in each subject receiving the SR were 97 +/- 15, 85 +/- 31 and 76 +/- 21% respectively of those subjects receiving the normal formulation. The sum of the excretion of urinary metabolites for the SR formulation was 65 +/- 6% of that for the normal formulation. These data suggest that the absorption of the SR formulation is slightly reduced but that its bioavailability is comparable to that of the normal formulation.

  5. In vivo analysis of supersaturation/precipitation/absorption behavior after oral administration of pioglitazone hydrochloride salt; determinant site of oral absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yusuke; Sugihara, Masahisa; Kawakami, Ayaka; Imai, So; Itou, Takafumi; Murase, Hirokazu; Saiki, Kazunori; Kasaoka, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

    2017-08-30

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo supersaturation/precipitation/absorption behavior in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract based on the luminal concentration-time profiles after oral administration of pioglitazone (PG, a highly permeable lipophilic base) and its hydrochloride salt (PG-HCl) to rats. In the in vitro precipitation experiment in the classic closed system, while the supersaturation was stable in the simulated gastric condition, PG drastically precipitated in the simulated intestinal condition, particularly at a higher initial degree of supersaturation. Nonetheless, a drastic and moderate improvement in absorption was observed in vivo at a low and high dose of PG-HCl, respectively. Analysis based on the luminal concentration of PG after oral administration of PG-HCl at a low dose revealed that most of the dissolved PG emptied from the stomach was rapidly absorbed before its precipitation in the duodenum. At a high dose of PG-HCl, PG partly precipitated in the duodenum but was absorbed to some extent. Therefore, the extent of the absorption was mainly dependent on the duodenal precipitation behavior. Furthermore, a higher-than expected absorption after oral administration of PG-HCl from in vitro precipitation study may be due to the absorption process in the small intestine, which suppresses the precipitation by removal of the drug. This study successfully clarify the impact of the absorption process on the supersaturation/precipitation/absorption behavior and key absorption site for a salt formulation of a highly permeable lipophilic base based on the direct observation of in vivo luminal concentration. Our findings may be beneficial in developing an ideal physiologically based pharmacokinetic model and in vitro predictive dissolution tools and/or translating the in silico and in vitro data to the in vivo outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: amodiaquine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Anita; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Barends, Dirk M; Groot, D W; Kopp, Sabine; Polli, James E; Shah, Vinod P; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2012-12-01

    The present monograph reviews data relevant to applying the biowaiver procedure for the approval of immediate release (IR) multisource solid dosage forms containing amodiaquine hydrochloride (ADQ) as the single active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Both biopharmaceutical and clinical data of ADQ were assessed. Solubility studies revealed that ADQ meets the "highly soluble" criteria according to World Health Organization (WHO) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) but fails to comply with the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) specifications. Although metabolism hints at high permeability, available permeability data are too scanty to classify ADQ inequivocably as a Class I drug substance. According to WHO and EMA guidances, ADQ would be conservatively categorized as a Class III drug, whereas according to the US FDA specifications, it would fall into Class IV. ADQ has a wide therapeutic index. Furthermore, no cases of bioinequivalent products have been reported in the open literature. As risks associated with biowaiving appear minimal and requirements for "highly soluble" API are met in the WHO and EMA jurisdictions, the biowaiver procedure can be recommended for bioequivalence (BE) testing of multisource IR products containing ADQ as the only API, provided the test product contains excipients used in ADQ products approved in International Conference of Harmonisation and associated countries, and in similar amounts. Furthermore, both comparator and test should conform to "very rapidly dissolving" product criteria (≥85% dissolution of the API in 15 min at pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8) and the labeling should specify that the product not be coadministered with high-fat meals. If the comparator and/or test product fails to meet these criteria, BE needs to be established by pharmacokinetic studies in humans.

  7. Development of asymmetric membrane capsules of metformin hydrochloride for oral osmotic controlled drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Teja Banala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric membrane capsules are one of the novel osmotic delivery devices which offer the delivery of a wide range of drugs in a controlled manner. In the present work, we developed a semi-automatic process by fabricating a hydraulic assisted mechanical robotic arm for the manufacturing of asymmetric membrane capsules and the process was validated in comparison with the manual procedure of manufacturing. The capsule walls were made by dip coating phase inversion process using cellulose acetate butyrate as polymer and propylene glycol as plasticizer/pore forming agent. The comparative examination of physical parameters in manual and semi-automatic process confirmed the consistency, reproducibility and efficiency of the semi-automatic process over manual procedure. The resulting asymmetric membrane wall was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy studies revealed the thin dense region supported on a thicker porous region. Fourier transform infrared studies showed phase inversion of the asymmetric membrane as compared to plain membrane. Osmotic release study and in vitro behavior was studied for controlled delivery of metformin hydrochloride as a model drug. In vitro release studies of the formulations showed that drug release was dependent on the concentration of pore forming agent, level of osmogents and independent of the media pH and agitation. The effect of the process variables on the drug release was optimized using 2 3 full factorial design and the release kinetics of the optimized formulation confirmed zero order kinetics with a controlled drug delivery of 13 h and the mechanism of drug release was found to be super case II transport.

  8. Extemporaneous Compounding of Oral Acitretin Suspension for Pediatric Patient with Generalized Pustular Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    Generalized pustular psoriasis is rare in children, but it can occur and affect an extensive body surface area of a child. Treatment regimens can include medications that are not available in pediatric dosage form. Acitretin is considered one of the treatment options for acute generalized pustular psoriasis in children, but, in Singapore, it is only available as Neotigason capsules. Extemporaneous compounding of the powder content in the capsules was developed for formulating the oral acitretin suspension with a standardized formulation table and compounding process at National Skin Centre. An appropriate beyond-use date of the extemporaneous preparation was assigned after reviewing the photostability data of acitretin, compatibility of the active ingredient and excipients, and United States Pharmacopeia guidelines. It is deemed appropriate to assign a beyond-use date of 14 days when the extemporaneous preparation is stored in amber glass bottles at 2 degrees C to 8 degrees C.

  9. Retrospective Comparison of Posaconazole Levels in Patients Taking the Delayed-Release Tablet versus the Oral Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durani, Urshila; Tosh, Pritish K; Barreto, Jason N; Estes, Lynn L; Jannetto, Paul J; Tande, Aaron J

    2015-08-01

    While posaconazole prophylaxis decreases the risk of invasive fungal infection compared to fluconazole, low bioavailability of the oral-suspension formulation limits its efficacy. A new delayed-release tablet formulation demonstrated an improved pharmacokinetic profile in healthy volunteers. However, serum levels for the two formulations have not been compared in clinical practice. This study compared achievement of therapeutic posaconazole levels in patients taking the delayed-release tablet to those taking the oral suspension. This retrospective cohort study included 93 patients initiated on posaconazole between 2012 and 2014 and had at least one serum posaconazole level measured. The primary measure was the proportion of patients achieving an initial therapeutic level (>700 ng/ml). An initial therapeutic posaconazole level was seen in 29 of 32 (91%) patients receiving tablets and 37 of 61 (61%) patients receiving suspension (P = 0.003). Among patients with a steady-state level measured 5 to 14 days after initiation, a therapeutic level was observed in 18 of 20 (90%) patients receiving tablets and 25 of 43 (58%) patients receiving suspension (P = 0.01). In these patients, the median posaconazole level of the tablet cohort (1655 ng/ml) was twice that of the suspension cohort (798 ng/ml) (P = 0.004). In this cohort study, the improved bioavailability of delayed-release posaconazole tablets translates into a significantly higher proportion of patients achieving therapeutic serum levels than in the cohort receiving the oral suspension. The results of this study strongly support the use of delayed-release tablets over suspension in patients at risk for invasive fungal infection.

  10. Glucosamine hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... combination of glucosamine hydrochloride, chondroitin sulfate, and manganese ascorbate. Some evidence suggests that this combination can improve ... combination of glucosamine hydrochloride, chondroitin sulfate, and calcium ascorbate twice daily reduces joint swelling and pain, as ...

  11. Expanding the application of the tablet processing workstation to support the sample preparation of oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opio, Alex Manuel; Nickerson, Beverly; Xue, Gang; Warzeka, John; Norris, Ken

    2011-06-01

    Sample preparation is the most time-consuming part of the analytical method for powder for oral suspension (POS) assay, purity, and preservative analysis, as this involves multiple dilution and filtration steps. The Tablet Processing Workstation (TPW) was used to automate the sample preparation of a POS formulation. Although the TPW is typically used to automate the preparation of solid oral dosage forms and powders, it contains all of the necessary components to perform POS sample preparation. The TPW exhibited acceptable repeatability in testing 3 lots using 10 replicate preparations per lot. Acceptable linearity of the drug and preservative in the presence of excipients was demonstrated over the range corresponding to 50-150% of intent. Accuracy showed suitable recoveries for all points evaluated. TPW results were shown to correlate to results obtained with the manual method. The TPW method was used to prepare samples in support of manufacturing scale-up efforts. With the efficiencies gained using the TPW, it was possible to analyze a large number of samples generated during process development activities for the POS formulation with minimal human intervention. The extensive data enabled trending of the manufacturing development runs and helped to identify optimization strategies for the process.

  12. Bioequivalence in dogs of a meloxicam formulation administered as a transmucosal oral mist with an orally administered pioneer suspension product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, P; Cheng, Z; Keefe, T J; Weich, E; Bryd, J; Cedergren, R; Cozzi, E

    2013-02-01

    A mucosal mist formulation of meloxicam, administered as a spray into the mouth (test article), was compared for bioequivalence to a pioneer meloxicam suspension for oral administration (reference article). Pharmacokinetic profiles and average bioequivalence were investigated in 20 dogs. The study design comprised a two-period, two-sequence, two-treatment cross-over design, with maximum concentration (C(max)) and area under plasma concentration-time curve to last sampling time (AUC(last)) used as pivotal bioequivalence variables. Bioequivalence of the products was confirmed, based on relative ratios of geometric mean concentrations (and 90% confidence intervals within the range 0.80-1.25) for C(max) of 101.9 (97.99-106.0) and for AUC(last) of 97.24 (94.44-100.1). The initial absorption of meloxicam was more rapid for the test article, despite virtually identical C(max) values for the two products. Mean elimination half-lives were 29.6 h (test article) and 30.0 h (reference article). The meloxicam plasma concentration-time profiles were considered in relation to published data on the inhibition of the cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2 isoenzymes by meloxicam.

  13. A comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of oxcarbazepine oral suspension between infants and children with epilepsy: a retrospective chart review at a single medical center in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu-Hao; Liu, Cheng-Chao; Fan, Pi-Chuan

    2014-02-01

    Few clinical studies have assessed the efficacy and safety of oxcarbazepine (OXC) oral suspension in Asian pediatric patients and particularly in infants. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the efficacy, tolerability, and side effects of OXC oral suspension in Taiwanese infants and children with various types of epilepsy. A retrospective review of the efficacy, tolerability, and side effects of OXC oral suspension in a tertiary medical center in Taiwan was conducted and included children (1-9 years old) and infants (epilepsy, which was classified into idiopathic partial, symptomatic partial, or multifocal subtypes. The OXC oral suspension (Trileptal(®); Novartis) was given in a gradual dose titration, from an initial 7.5 mg/kg/day to 30 mg/kg/day within 1 month in all cases. A total of 20 infants and 38 children were identified. There were no statistically significant differences between the children and infants in efficacy (75 vs. 82 %, p = 0.734) and adverse effects (30 vs. 21 %, p = 0.525) after OXC oral suspension treatment. The efficacy was significantly correlated with the epilepsy subtype (p epilepsy responded better to OXC oral suspension than those with multifocal epilepsy. OXC oral suspension is effective and well tolerated in both infants and children with partial epilepsy in Taiwan. Treatment efficacy was related to epilepsy subtype and number of combined AEDs before OXC treatment. Monotherapy had an excellent therapeutic response in partial epilepsy but not in multifocal epilepsy.

  14. Pharmacokinetics and effect of food after oral administration of prolonged-release tablets of ropinirole hydrochloride in Japanese patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, N; Hasegawa, K; Sakamoto, T

    2012-10-01

    Ropinirole hydrochloride, a dopamine receptor agonist with a non-ergot alkaloid structure, is highly selective for the dopamine D(2) /D(3) receptors. This study was conducted to evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy after repeated oral administration of prolonged-release tablets of ropinirole hydrochloride in the absence of L-dopa preparations in Japanese patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This was a multicenter, open-label, uncontrolled study. The total duration of participation in the study ranged from 56 to 63 weeks. In the study, the plasma concentrations of ropinirole, its major metabolite SK&F104557 (N-depropyl ropinirole) and another metabolite SK&F89124 (ropinirole hydroxylated at the seventh position of the indole ring) were assessed. Safety based on adverse events, haematology, biochemistry, urinalysis and electrocardiography (ECG) (standard 12-lead ECG) were evaluated, and vital signs (blood pressure/pulse rate) were measured. Efficacy based on the Japanese version of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Parts III (motor) and II [activities of daily living (ADL)] as well as tolerability was evaluated. After repeated oral administration of prolonged-release tablets of ropinirole hydrochloride in Japanese patients with PD, ropinirole, SK&F104557 and low levels of SK&F89124 were detected in plasma. The trough concentrations of ropinirole and the two metabolites increased in proportion to the dose when ropinirole hydrochloride prolonged-release tablets were administered at doses ranging from 2 to 16 mg/day. The plasma exposure to ropinirole and its two metabolites after intake of normal diet was comparable to that in the fasting state. The most common adverse events (10% or more) were somnolence, nausea, constipation, hallucination and nasopharyngitis. Most adverse events were mild or moderate in severity, and with no death. During the treatment period, serious adverse events were reported in five patients. Efficacy

  15. Efficacy and tolerance of repeated oral doses of tolperisone hydrochloride in the treatment of painful reflex muscle spasm: results of a prospective placebo-controlled double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratzel, H G; Alken, R G; Ramm, S

    1996-10-01

    The efficacy and safety of oral tolperisone hydrochloride (Mydocalm) in the treatment of painful reflex muscle spasm was assessed in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 138 patients, aged between 20 and 75 years, with painful reflex muscle spasm associated with diseases of the spinal column or proximal joints were enrolled in eight rehabilitation centers. Patients were randomized to receive either 300 mg tolperisone hydrochloride or placebo for a period of 21 days. Both treatment groups recovered during the 3 weeks rehabilitation program. However, tolperisone hydrochloride proved to be significantly superior to placebo: the change score of the pressure pain threshold as the primary target parameter significantly increased during therapy with tolperisone hydrochloride (P = 0.03, valid-case-analysis) compared to the results obtained on placebo treatment. The overall assessment of efficacy by the patient also demonstrated significant differences in favor of tolperisone hydrochloride. Best results were seen in patients aged between 40 and 60 years with a history of complaints shorter than 1 year and with concomitant physical therapy. The evaluation of safety data, i.e., adverse events, biochemical and hematological laboratory parameters, demonstrated no differences between tolperisone hydrochloride and placebo. As a conclusion tolperisone hydrochloride represents an effective and safe treatment of painful reflex muscle spasm without the typical side effects of centrally active muscle relaxants.

  16. HPLC method validation for modernization of the tetracycline hydrochloride capsule USP monograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad M. Hussien

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a continuation to our previous work aiming at development and validation of a reversed-phase HPLC for modernization of tetracycline-related USP monographs and the USP general chapter . Previous results showed that the method is accurate and precise for the assay of tetracycline hydrochloride and the limit of 4-epianhydrotetracycline impurity in the drug substance and oral suspension monographs. The aim of the current paper is to examine the feasibility of the method for modernization of USP tetracycline hydrochloride capsule monograph. Specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision were examined for tetracycline hydrochloride assay and 4-epianhydrotetracycline limit. The method was linear in the concentration range from 80% to 160% (r>0.9998 of the assay concentration (0.1 mg/mL for tetracycline hydrochloride and from 50% to 150% (r>0.997 of the acceptance criteria specified in tetracycline hydrochloride capsule monograph for 4-epianhydrotetracycline (NMT 3.0%. The recovery at three concentration levels for tetracycline hydrochloride assay was between 99% and 101% and the RSD from six preparations at the concentration 0.1 mg/mL is less than 0.6%. The recovery for 4-epianhydrotetracycline limit procedure over the concentration range from 50% to 150% is between 96% and 102% with RSD less than 5%. The results met the specified acceptance criteria.

  17. Utilization of posaconazole oral suspension or delayed-released tablet salvage treatment for invasive fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Hun; Benefield, Russell J; Ditolla, Kali

    2016-11-01

    Posaconazole may be useful for salvage treatment (ST) for invasive fungal infections (IFIs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of posaconazole ST with either posaconazole oral suspension (SUS) or delayed-released tablet (TAB) in patients with IFI. A retrospective review of patients who received posaconazole ST for IFI at the University of Utah Health Sciences Center between December 2007 and March 2014 was conducted. A total of 14 episodes of posaconazole ST for proven (9 episodes) and probable (5 episodes) IFI were identified in 14 patients. The median age was 54 years and the majority of patients (64.3%) had underlying haematological diseases. Posaconazole SUS and TAB were used in 11 episodes and 3 episodes respectively. The duration of posaconazole ST ranged from 28 to 370 days with a median of 65 days. Posaconazole ST with TAB achieved favourable serum posaconazole trough concentrations (median 1.4 μg mL(-1) ) compared to posaconazole SUS (median 1.0 μg mL(-1) ). The overall clinical success rate with posaconazole ST was 71.4% (10 of 14 episodes). One patient died of progression of IFI. Adverse events were noted in two patients. Posaconazole SUS or TAB may be used effectively for IFI ST.

  18. The role of sucralfate oral suspension in prevention of radiation induced mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Emami

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Mucositis is one of the most common complications of radiotherapy in head and neck cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate sucralfate mouthwash in prevention of radiation induced mucositis.
    • METHODS: A clinical randomized trial performed on 52 patients with head and neck cancers in Sayyed-Al-Shohada Hospital of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. These patients randomly assigned in 2 groups of 26 patients. Placebo and sucralfate was used for control and experimental patients respectiv ly, from the beginning of radiotherapy. Patients were visited weekly until the end of treatment. Grade of the mucositis was evaluated according to WHO grading scale.
    • RESULTS: Sucralfate significantly reduced the mean grade of mucositis in weeks one to four (with P-values of 0.02, 0.02, 0.001 and 0.004, respectively. Development of grade3 mucositis was also lower in sucralfate group (P-value = 0.0001. But, time interval between radiotherapy and appearance of mucositis was not statistically different in the two groups (P-value = 0.9
    • CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that using oral suspension of sucralfate reduced the grade of radiation-induced mucositis, but did not prevent or delay it.
    • KEYWORDS: Mucositis, radiotherapy, sucralfate, head and neck cancers.

  19. Comparative studies on the dissolution profiles of oral ibuprofen suspension and commercial tablets using biopharmaceutical classification system criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J C Rivera-Leyva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro dissolution studies for solid oral dosage forms have recently widened the scope to a variety of special dosage forms such as suspensions. For class II drugs, like Ibuprofen, it is very important to have discriminative methods for different formulations in physiological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, which will identify different problems that compromise the drug bioavailability. In the present work, two agitation speeds have been performed in order to study ibuprofen suspension dissolution. The suspensions have been characterised relatively to particle size, density and solubility. The dissolution study was conducted using the following media: buffer pH 7.2, pH 6.8, 4.5 and 0.1 M HCl. For quantitative analysis, the UV/Vis spectrophotometry was used because this methodology had been adequately validated. The results show that 50 rpm was the adequate condition to discriminate the dissolution profile. The suspension kinetic release was found to be dependent on pH and was different compared to tablet release profile at the same experimental conditions. The ibuprofen release at pH 1.0 was the slowest.

  20. Efficacy of combination chemotherapy using a novel oral chemotherapeutic agent, TAS-102, with irinotecan hydrochloride on human colorectal and gastric cancer xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukatsuka, Mamoru; Nakagawa, Fumio; Saito, Hitoshi; Sakata, Minoru; Uchida, Junji; Takechi, Teiji

    2015-03-01

    TAS-102 is a novel oral nucleoside antitumor agent consisting of trifluridine and tipiracil hydrochloride at a molar ratio of 1:0.5. TAS-102 was approved in Japan in March 2014 for the treatment of patients with unresectable, advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer that is refractory to standard therapies. In the present study, enhancement of the therapeutic efficacy using a combination therapy of TAS-102 and irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11) was evaluated in a colorectal and gastric cancer xenograft-bearing nude mouse model. TAS-102 was orally administered twice a day from day 1 to 14, and CPT-11 was administered intravenously on days 1 and 8. The growth-inhibitory activity was evaluated based on the tumor volume and the growth-delay period, which was estimated based on the period required to reach a tumor volume that was five-times greater than the initial volume (RTV5). The tumor growth-inhibitory activity and the RTV5 of the group receiving TAS-102 with CPT-11 were significantly superior to those of both agents as monotherapy for mice with KM12C, KM12C/5-FU, DLD-1/5-FU, and SC-2 xenografts (p<0.01). No significant decrease in body weight was observed. The present pre-clinical findings indicated that the combination of TAS-102 and CPT-11 is a promising treatment option for colorectal or gastric cancer, not only for chemo-naïve tumors, but also for recurrent tumors after 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  1. Bioavailability of paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochloride and guaifenesin in a fixed-combination syrup versus an oral reference product

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janin, Annick; Monnet, Joelle

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The primary objective of this study was to compare the bioavailability of paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochoride and guaifenesin in a new oral syrup with an established oral reference product...

  2. Development and validation of a microbial counting method for mebendazole oral suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Araújo de Assis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mebendazole is an important medicine used to treat helminth infections. These infections affect more than two billion people worldwide. The LAFEPE® (Recife-PE, Brazil produces the drug mebendazole oral suspension that contains the preservatives methylparaben and propylparaben in its formulation. Drugs that have antimicrobial properties due to preservatives must undergo neutralization of these compounds to allow microbial count testing according to recommendations by the official compendia. In order to obtain a validated method for microbial counting and to ensure its safety and reliability within the pharmaceutical industry, validation of preservative neutralization and of the method for microbial counting was performed according to the USP 30 and PDA Technical Report No. 33. The method used ATCC Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms, yeasts, most and culture media Tryptic Soy Agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar. The neutralizers were polysorbate 80 and lecithin. Recovery levels of over 70% of the microorganisms used in the test indicated the neutralization of antimicrobial activity and proved the absence of toxicity of neutralizers. The microbial counting method validated proved accurate, precise, robust and linear and can be safely used in routine operations.O mebendazol é um importante medicamento utilizado no tratamento de infecções por helmintos. Essas infecções afetam mais de dois bilhões de pessoas em todo o mundo. O LAFEPE (Recife-PE, Brasil produz o medicamento mebendazol suspensão oral, que possui em sua formulação os conservantes metilparabeno e propilparabeno. Em medicamentos que possuem propriedades antimicrobianas em decorrência dos conservantes faz-se necessária a neutralização da ação desses compostos para a realização do teste de contagem microbiana segundo preconizado pelos compêndios oficiais. A fim de obter um método de contagem microbiana validado e que garanta sua segurança e reprodutibilidade

  3. Determination of Ephedrine Hydrochloride and Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride in Heat Oral Solution for Children by HPLC%HPLC法测定小儿清热止咳口服液中盐酸麻黄碱和盐酸伪麻黄碱的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃晓媚; 韦薇; 黄妹春; 周征福; 陆红萍; 陈晓军; 黄园

    2012-01-01

    The HPLC determination method was used to detect the ephedrine hydrochloride and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride in heat oral solution for children by C18 ( 4. 6 mmX 250mm, 5jum ) and methanol-0. 02mol/L sodium dihydrogen phosphate ( with 0. 2% triethylamine,adjusted with phosphoric acid pH = 2. 5,9 : 91 ) were used as the mobile phase. The flow was set at 1.0ml · min-1,and the detection wavelength was 210nm. The precision and stability were fine in those conditions. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0. 102 ~1. 02jig for ephedrine hydrochloride ( r =0. 9999 ) and 0.1016~1. 6256jj.g for pseudoephedrine hydrochloride ( r =0. 9999 ). The average recovery rates ( n =6 ) was 97. 62% for ephedrine hydrochloride and 97. 55% for pseudoephedrine hydrochloride. The proposed method can be used in simultaneously quantitative analysis of ephedrine hydrochloride and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride in heat oral solution for children.%采用C18色谱柱(4.6 mmX250mm,5μm),以甲醇-0.02mol/L磷酸二氢钠溶液(含0.2%三乙胺,磷酸调pH值2.5,9:91)为流动相,流速1.0ml.rnin-1,检测波长210nm,建立反相高效液相色谱法测定小儿清热止咳口服液中盐酸麻黄碱和盐酸伪麻黄碱含量.结果表明,盐酸麻黄碱在0.102~1.02μg范围内与峰面积呈良好线性关系,r=0.9999,平均加样回收率为97.62%,RSD为1.56%(n=6);盐酸伪麻黄碱在0.1016~1.6256μg范围内与峰面积呈良好线性关系,r=0.9999,平均加样回收率为97.55%,RSD为1.84%(n=6).本方法分离度好,具有良好的重复性,可以同时测定小儿清热止咳口服液中盐酸麻黄碱和盐酸伪麻黄碱的含量.

  4. Simultaneous stability-indicating HPLC method for the determination of cisapride, methylparaben and propylparaben in oral suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutima Boonleang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A simultaneous stability-indicating HPLC method for the determination of cisapride, methylparaben and propylparabenin oral suspensions has been developed and validated. Baseline separation was achieved on a C18 column at room temperature(25°C by gradient elution with mobile phase consisting of solvent A: 10% v/v acetonitrile in 0.13% w/v sodium-1-pentanesulfonate pH 8 and solvent B: acetonitrile. The gradient program was as follows: 0-5 min: 20 to 56% solvent B; 5-7min: 56 to 85% solvent B; 7-10 min: 85% solvent B. The flow rate of mobile phase was 1.2 mL/min. The injection volume was20 L. Detection and peak purity assessments were performed by photo-diode array detector set at 275 nm with scan modein the range of 190-400 nm. The method was selective, accurate and precise. It provided chromatograms with good peak shapeand acceptable resolutions of greater than 4.4 for all analytes including the degradation products formed in oral suspensionsin about 8.5 min. All analyte peaks were pure. The accuracy of all analytes was in the range of 99.20-100.6%. The within-runand between-run relative standard deviations were less than 1.50%. The calibration curves for cisapride, methylparaben, andpropylparaben were linear over the concentration range of 10.0-75.0 g/mL, 8.0-100.0 g/mL, and 0.8-10.0 g/mL, respectivelywith r2 greater than 0.999. This developed method was successfully applied to the stability study of cisapride, methylparabenand propylparaben in oral suspension formulations.

  5. 盐酸氯米帕明口腔崩解片的制备工艺%Preparation Technology of Clomipramine Hydrochloride Orally Disintegrating Tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴杏梅; 谢燕萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To optimize the formulation of clomipramine hydrochloride orally disintegrating tablets by orthogonal experiment and to determine the dissolution. Method: The formulation of the tablets was optimized by orthogonal experiment based on four factors, those were the amount of microcrystalline cellulose, lactose, and sodium carboxymethl starch and the concentration of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, and 3 indices, those were disintegrating time (t1,), wetting time (t) and suspending stability (△A). The dissolution of the tablets was determined by HPLC. Result: The optimum preparation technical conditions for the tablets were as follows: the proportions of microcrystalline cellulose,lactose and the sodium carboxymethl starch and the concentration of hydroxypropyl cellulose was 30% ,30% >0. 75% and 1% respectively. The tablets disintegrated completely within 30s with mean td of 13. 2 s,t of 21.6 s,and △A of 0.001 2. Conclusion: The formula of the clomipramine hydrochloride orally disintegrating tablets is reasonable and valuable to be studied further.%目的:采用正交试验筛选盐酸氯米帕明口腔崩解片的处方,并测定其溶出度.方法:以微晶纤维素、乳糖、羧甲基淀粉钠的用量以及羟丙纤维素的浓度为考查因素,以口腔崩解片的崩解时间(td)、润湿时间(t)和混悬稳定性(ΔA)为评价指标进行正交试验,确定最佳处方;对优化处方所制样品测定其溶出度.结果:优选工艺为微晶纤维素30%、乳糖30%、羧甲基淀粉钠0.75%、羟丙纤维素的浓度是1%,所制样品平均td为13.2s,t为21.6s,ΔA为0.001 2;30 min内药物溶出超75%.结论:盐酸氯米帕明口腔崩解片处方设计合理,可进一步开发.

  6. Prospective, open-label study to validate proper use of the Versacloz™ (clozapine oral suspension kit by people with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre AD

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthony D Andre Interface Analysis Associates, Saratoga, CA, USA Purpose: This study was designed to validate that people with schizophrenia can correctly, safely, and effectively prepare doses of Versacloz™ using the Versacloz oral suspension kit and instructions for use (IFU.Materials and methods: This was a prospective, open-label, simulated-use validation study of 61 people with schizophrenia who were stabilized on clozapine or were clozapine-naive and stabilized on another antipsychotic treatment. Participants were randomized to one of two groups: untrained (n=46 and trained (n=15. Participants were asked to select the proper syringe and prepare two test doses of 1, 3.5, or 5 mL, as randomly assigned. Participants in the untrained group did not receive any training on using the kit, but had access to kit materials, including packaging and the IFU; both test dose preparations were unaided. Participants in the trained group received brief training from the moderator, and then prepared one test dose during training and one unaided test dose during the study period. Prepared placebo doses were not ingested. Performance and behavior were assessed in 14 critical tasks identified in the user failure mode and effects analysis. Test dose failures or dose errors (threshold ±0.1 mL were assessed. Subjective participant assessments of usability were captured in interviews and IFU comprehension was probed.Results: A total of 107 test doses were prepared: 92 and 15 by the untrained and trained groups, respectively. Overall success for unassisted dose preparation was 87.9%; all test failures (failure to shake the bottle or failure to obtain the correct test dose occurred in the untrained group. All participants selected the correct syringe for their assigned dose.Conclusion: This study shows that the Versacloz oral suspension kit and IFU can be correctly, safely, and effectively used to prepare doses by people with schizophrenia, with few instances of

  7. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Berberine in Rat Plasma after Oral Administration of Berberine Hydrochloride in Normal and Post Inflammation Irritable Bowel Syndrome Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zipeng Gong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, post inflammation irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS rats were firstly established by intracolonic instillation of acetic acid with restraint stress. Then the pharmacokinetics of berberine in the rat plasma were compared after oral administration of berberine hydrochloride (25 mg/kg to normal rats and PI-IBS rats. Quantification of berberine in the rat plasma was achieved by using a sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method. Plasma samples were collected at 15 different points in time and the pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed by WinNonlin software. Compared with the normal group, area under the plasma concentration vs. time curve from zero to last sampling time (AUC0–t and total body clearance (CL/F in the model group significantly increased or decreased, (2039.49 ± 492.24 vs. 2763.43 ± 203.14; 4999.34 ± 1198.79 vs. 3270.57 ± 58.32 respectively. The results indicated that the pharmacokinetic process of berberine could be altered in PI-IBS pathological conditions.

  8. Efficacy of emodepside/toltrazuril suspension (Procox® oral suspension for dogs) against mixed experimental Isospora felis/Isospora rivolta infection in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Gabriele; Kruedewagen, Eva; Kampkoetter, Andreas; Krieger, Klemens

    2011-08-01

    The coccidia Isospora felis and Isospora rivolta are intestinal parasites occurring worldwide in domestic cats. In young cats, they can be detected with higher prevalence.The effects of toltrazuril in the new combination product Procox(®) oral suspension for dogs containing 0.1 % emodepside and 2 % toltrazuril (0.9 mg emodepside + 18 mg toltrazuril per ml) were studied in eighteen kittens experimentally infected each with a total of 1 x 10(5) oocysts of a mixture of Isospora felis and Isospora rivolta. In the infectious material, the quantitative relation of I. felis and I. rivolta was about 1:5. Following a three-days period after infection, two groups of 6 kittens were treated during the prepatent period with either a single dose of 0.45 mg emodepside + 9 mg toltrazuril/kg body weight or 0.9 mg emodepside + 18 mg toltrazuril/kg body weight. A group of six kittens without any treatment served as a control. On day 5 post infection, the untreated kittens started the excretion of oocysts. Treatment with both toltrazuril doses significantly reduced oocyst excretion. Following the single higher dose, the reduction of oocysts of both Isospora spp. was more pronounced (96.7 % to 100 %) in comparison to the lower dose (57.2 % to 100 %). The Procox(®) application was well tolerated and no adverse events were seen with any of the applied dosages.When administered to kittens and as a single treatment during the prepatent period, Procox(®) is suitable to control the number of oocysts excreted in the faeces in case of an Isospora felis and Isospora rivolta infection.

  9. The effectiveness of benzydamine hydrochloride spraying on the endotracheal tube cuff or oral mucosa for postoperative sore throat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan-Shiou; Hung, Nan-Kai; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Kuo, Chang-Po; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Huang, Go-Shine; Cherng, Chen-Hwan; Wong, Chih-Shung; Chu, Chi-Hong; Wu, Ching-Tang

    2010-10-01

    The etiology of postoperative sore throat (POST) is considered to be the result of laryngoscopy, intubation damage, or inflated cuff compression of the tracheal mucosa. In this study, we compared the effectiveness in alleviating POST using different approaches to benzydamine hydrochloride (BH) administration by spraying the endotracheal tube (ET) cuff or the oropharyngeal cavity, or both. Three hundred eighty patients were included in this prospective and double-blind study, which was randomized into 4 groups: group A, oropharyngeal cavity spray of BH, and distilled water on the ET cuff; group B, both the oropharyngeal cavity and the ET cuff received BH spray; group C, the ET cuff received BH spray, and the oropharyngeal cavity received distilled water; and group D, distilled water sprayed on both the ET tube and into the oropharyngeal cavity. The patients were examined for sore throat (none, mild, moderate, severe) at 0, 2, 4, and 24 hours postextubation. The incidence of POST was 23.2%, 13.8%, 14.7%, and 40.4% in groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. POST occurred significantly less frequently in groups B and C compared with group D (odds ratio: 0.36; 95% confidence interval: 0.21-0.60; P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between groups A and D (odds ratio: 0.62; 95% confidence interval: 0.38-1.01). Moreover, there was no significant interaction between spraying BH over the oropharyngeal cavity and the ET cuff on the incidence of POST (P = 0.088). The severity of POST was significantly more intense in group D compared with groups B and C (P < 0.001). Group B had a significantly higher incidence of local numbness, burning, and/or stinging sensation compared with patients in group D (P < 0.05). This study indicates that spraying BH on the ET cuff decreases the incidence and severity of POST without increased BH-related adverse effects.

  10. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of sorafenib suspension, nanoparticles and nanomatrix for oral administration to rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-qing; Fan, Jie-ming; Liu, Ya-ou; Zhao, Bo; Jia, Zeng-rong; Zhang, Qiang

    2011-10-31

    Sorafenib is slightly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract due to its poor solubility in water. To improve its absorption, a novel nanoparticulate formulation-nanomatrix was used in the study. The nanomatrix was a system prepared from a porous material Sylysia(®) 350 and a pH sensitive polymer Eudragit(®). The formulations were optimized by orthogonal design (L(9)(3(4))) and their bioavailability were evaluated in rat, comparing to pH-sensitive Eudragit nanoparticles and suspension of sorafenib. In the formulations, the ratio of sorafenib to Eudragit(®) S100 was found to be more important determinant of the sorafenib bioavailability than the ratio of sorafenib to Sylysia(®) 350. As for the bioavailability, the AUC(0-36 h) of sorafenib nanomatrix was 13-33 times to that of sorafenib suspension, but only 16.8% to 40.8% that of Eudragit(®) S100 nanoparticles. This may be resulted from the different drug dispersion degree, release character and bioadhension activity. However, because all the materials used in the nanomatrix formulation are commonly adjuvant, safe, easy to get and cheap, above all, the nanomatrix formulation can solve the stability and scaling up problems in the nanoparticles, it had potential to develop into a product in the future.

  11. Preparation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of revaprazan hydrochloride nanosuspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Yang, Yonggang; Tian, Yongshou; Xu, Xinlan; Chen, Yang; Mu, Liwei; Zhang, Yaqiong; Fang, Liang

    2011-04-15

    Revaprazan hydrochloride (RH) is a new reversible proton pump inhibitor. However, due to poor water solubility, oral bioavailability of the drug was relatively low. To investigate the particle size reduction effect of RH on dissolution and absorption, three suspensions that containing different sized particles were prepared by high pressure homogenization and in vitro/in vivo evaluations were carried out. DSC and powder X-ray diffraction were used to study crystalline state of freeze dried powder of RH suspensions and the results showed that particles of RH microsuspension and nanosuspension remained in the same crystalline state as coarse suspension, but had lower lattice energy. In the in vitro dissolution test, both microsuspension and nanosuspension showed increased dissolution rate. In the in vivo evaluation, compared to coarse suspension, RH nanosuspension exhibited significant increase in AUC(0-t), C(max) and decrease in T(max), MRT. Nevertheless, RH microsuspension did not display any significant differences in these pharmacokinetic parameters compared to the coarse suspension. The findings revealed that particle size reduction can influence RH absorption in gastrointestinal tract and nanosuspension can enhance oral bioavailability of RH in rats.

  12. Erlotinib hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minna, John D; Dowell, Jonathan

    2005-05-01

    Erlotinib hydrochloride (Tarceva; OSI Pharmaceuticals/Genentech/Roche), a member of a class of targeted anticancer drugs that inhibit the activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor, was approved by the US FDA in November 2004 for the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer after failure of at least one prior chemotherapy regimen. It is the first such drug to demonstrate an increase in survival in Phase III trials in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

  13. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE PELLETS OF TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskara Haripriya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to develop and evaluate a better sustained release multiple unit pellets (MUP formulation of Tramadol hydrochloride. Dissolution and diffusion controlled systems have classically been of primary importance in oral delivery of medication because of their relative ease of production and cost compared with other methods of sustained or controlled delivery. Most of these systems are solids, although a few liquids and suspension have been recently introduced. The present work aimed at developing SR pellets of Tramadol HCl by Wurster process. FTIR studies showed no unacceptable extra peaks which confirm the absence of chemical interaction between the drug and polymer. Angle of repose, tapped density, bulk density values for the formulations were within the range which indicates that pellets prepared by Wurster process were satisfactory for further studies. The percentage drug content of Tramadol was determined by extraction with methanol and analyzed by using UV-visible spectrophotometer at 271nm.

  14. PHARMACOKINETICS OF TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE AND ITS METABOLITE O-DESMETHYLTRAMADOL FOLLOWING A SINGLE, ORALLY ADMINISTERED DOSE IN CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Jennifer L; Barbosa, Lorraine; Van Bonn, William G; Johnson, Shawn P; Gulland, Frances M D; Cox, Sherry K; Martin-Jimenez, Tomas

    2015-09-01

    Tramadol is a synthetic, centrally acting, opiate-like analgesic that is structurally related to codeine and morphine. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of tramadol hydrochloride and its major active metabolite O-desmethyltramadol (M1) in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). A single dose of tramadol was administered orally in fish at 2 mg/kg to a total of 15 wild California sea lions admitted for rehabilitation. Twenty-four total blood samples were collected post drug administration at 10, 20, 30, and 45 min and at 1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hr. Blood plasma was separated and stored at -80°C until analysis with high-performance liquid chromatography was performed to determine levels of tramadol and M1, the major active metabolite. The results indicate that the plasma levels of parent tramadol are low or negligible during the first 30-45 min and then reach the predicted mean maximum plasma concentration of 358 ng/ml at 1.52 hr. The M1 metabolite was not detectable in 21 of 24 plasma samples, below the level of quantification of 5 ng/ml in one sample, and detectable at 11 and 17 ng/ml in two of the samples. This study suggests that a 2 mg/kg dose would need to be administered every 6-8 hr to maintain concentrations of tramadol above the minimum human analgesic level for mild to moderate pain. Based on dosing simulations, a dose of 4 mg/kg q8 hr or q12 hr, on average, may represent an adequate compromise, but further studies are needed using a larger sample size. Pharmacodynamic studies are warranted to determine if tramadol provides analgesic effects in this species. The potential for tramadol toxicosis at any dose also has not been determined in this species.

  15. Reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous estimation of tolperisone hydrochloride and etodolac in a combined fixed dose oral formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mit J; Badmanaban, R; Patel, C N

    2011-04-01

    A reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of tolperisone hydrochloride (TOLP) and etodolac (ETD) in a combined fixed dose oral formulation. The analysis was carried out using a phenomenax C-18, pre-packed column. A mobile phase containing a phosphate buffer (pH 5.5) : Methanol : Acetonitrile : Tri-ethylamine (40 : 40 : 20 : 1.5), with the pH adjusted to orthophosphoric acid, was pumped at a flow rate of 1.0 ml min(1) with a UV-detector and PDA detection at 257 nm. Retention time was 3.91 minutes and 6.89 minutes for TOLP and ETD, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and specificity. The method showed good linearity in the range of 3 - 21 μg ml for TOLP μg / ml and 8 - 56 μg / ml for ETD. The detection limit of the proposed method was 0.16 μg / ml and 0.58 μg / ml for TOLP and ETD, respectively. The quantification limit of the proposed method was 0.51 μg / ml and 1.7 μg / ml for TOLP and ETD, respectively. The % recovery was within the range of 99.42 - 101.15 for TOLP and 98.63 - 100.94 for ETD. The percentage RSD for precision of the method was found to be less than 2%. The method was validated as per the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The developed method could be applied for routine analysis of TOLP and ETD in tablet dosage form.

  16. Suspension of the tongue to the digastric tendon following resection of the anterior mandibular arch for oral cancer prevents postoperative tongue fall and avoids the need for tracheostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resection of the anterior arch of the mandible leads to tongue fall and postoperative stridor because of the detachment of tongue musculature from the mandible. In this article, a simple method of tongue suspension is described which would prevent such complications and the need for tracheostomy. Settings and Design: This study was carried out on patients with oral cancer requiring resection of the anterior arch of the mandible as a part of the surgical resection at a tertiary centre. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 32 patients with oral cancer requiring resection of the anterior arch of the mandible as a part of the surgical resection. Following an appropriate resection of the oral cancer (including the anterior mandibular arch and neck dissection, a silk suture is used to loop the tongue musculature on either side to the intermediate tendon of the digastric muscle. Result: This technique of tongue suspension was used in 32 patients who required resection of the anterior mandibular arch for oral cancer. Prophylactic tracheostomy was not performed. One patient developed stridor at extubation and required temporary tracheostomy. All other patients could be successfully extubated within 12 h of surgery and none experienced postoperative stridor or sleep apnea. One other patient required temporary tracheostomy for pulmonary toilet as he developed aspiration pneumonitis related to nasogastric feed. Conclusion: This simple method of tongue suspension to the digastric tendon prevents postoperative tongue fall and obviates the need for tracheostomy in most instances.

  17. Clinical Study on Hydrochloride Ambroxol Oral Medication Treatment of Bronchitis%盐酸氨溴索口服液治疗支气管炎的临床探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩哜萍

    2015-01-01

    Objective Clinical effect of hydrochloride ambroxol oral medication treatment of bronchitis is to be investigated. Methods Choose 108 bronchitis patients who are treated in hospital from October 2013 to June 2014 and separate them into control group and study group according to random number table; patients in control group are given bromhexine medication treatment,while patients in study group are given hydrochloride ambroxol oral medication treatment and then compare treatment effects between two groups. Results Treatment effect in study group is much more favorable than that in control group; there is a treatment differential between two groups,and such a differential has statistic value(P<0.05). Conclusion Hydrochloride ambroxol oral medication is of efficacy in treatment of bronchitis; such a treatment approach is quite worthwhile to be promoted and applied clinical y.%目的:对盐酸氨溴索口服液治疗支气管炎的临床效果进行探究。方法选取于2013年10月~2014年6月收治的108例支气管炎患者,采用随机数字表法分为对照组和观察组,对照组患者给予溴己新治疗,观察组患者给予盐酸氨溴索口服液治疗,对两组患者治疗效果进行对比分析。结果观察组的治疗效果明显优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论使用盐酸氨溴索口服液治疗支气管炎效果较为显著,值得在临床实践中推广使用。

  18. A pharmacokinetic analysis of posaconazole oral suspension in the serum and alveolar compartment of lung transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakuria, L; Packwood, K; Firouzi, A; Rogers, P; Soresi, S; Habibi-Parker, K; Lyster, H; Zych, B; Garcia-Saez, D; Mohite, P; Patil, N; Sabashnikov, A; Capoccia, M; Chibvuri, M; Lamba, H; Tate, H; Carby, M; Simon, A; Leaver, N; Reed, A

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections cause significant morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Fungal prophylaxis following lung transplantation is not standardised, with transplant centres utilising a variety of regimens. Posaconazole is a broad-spectrum antifungal triazole that requires further investigation within the setting of lung transplantation. This prospective, single-centre, observational study explored the pharmacokinetics of posaconazole oral suspension (POS) in the early perioperative period following lung transplantation in 26 patients. Organ recipients were scheduled to receive 400mg POS twice daily for 6 weeks as primary antifungal prophylaxis. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of serum posaconazole levels was performed in accordance with local clinical protocols. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was sampled during routine bronchoscopies. Posaconazole levels were measured both in serum and BALF using mass spectrometry. Posaconazole levels were highly variable within lung transplant recipients during the perioperative period and did not achieve 'steady-state'. Serum posaconazole concentrations positively correlated with levels within the BALF (r=0.5527; P=0.0105). Of the 26 patients, 10 failed to complete the study for multiple reasons and so the trial was terminated early. Unlike study findings in stable recipients, serum posaconazole levels rarely achieved steady-state in the perioperative period; however, they do reflect the concentrations within the airways of newly transplanted lungs. The role of POS as primary prophylaxis in the perioperative period is uncertain, but if used TDM may be helpful for determining attainment of therapeutic levels.

  19. The comparison of extemporaneous preparations of omeprazole, pantoprazole oral suspension and intravenous pantoprazole on the gastric pH of critically ill-patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasamin Dabiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress-related mucosal disease occurs in many critically ill-patients within 24 h of admission. Proton pump inhibitor therapy has been documented to produce more potent inhibition of gastric acid secretion than histamine 2 receptor antagonists. This study aimed to compare extemporaneous preparations of omeprazole, pantoprazole oral suspension and intravenous (IV pantoprazole on the gastric pH in intensive care unit patients. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized single-blind-study. Patients of ≥ 16 years of age with a nasogastric tube, who required mechanical ventilation for ≥ 48 h, were eligible for inclusion. The excluded patients were those with active gastrointestinal bleeding, known allergy to omeprazole and pantoprazole and those intolerant to the nasogastric tube. Fifty-six patients were randomized to treatment with omeprazole suspension 2 mg/ml (40 mg every day, pantoprazole suspension 2 mg/ml (40 mg every day and IV pantoprazole (40 mg every day for up to 14 days. Gastric aspirates were sampled before and 1-2.5 h after the drug administration for the pH measurement using an external pH meter. Data were analyzed using SPSS (version 21.0. Results: In this study, 56 critically ill-patients (39 male, 17 female, mean age: 61.5 ± 15.65 years were followed for the control of the gastric pH. On each of the 14 trial days the mean of the gastric pH alteration was significantly higher in omeprazole and pantoprazole suspension-treated patients than in IV pantoprazole-treated patients (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Omeprazole and pantoprazole oral suspension are more effective than IV pantoprazole in increasing the gastric pH.

  20. Stability of refrigerated miglustat after preparation in InOrpha® flavored suspending excipient for compounding of oral solutions and suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riahi S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sofyen Riahi, Michael Ambühl, Jürgen Stichler, Dirk Bandilla Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Allschwil, Switzerland Background: Miglustat (Zavesca® is an oral treatment for type 1 Gaucher disease and Niemann–Pick disease type C. Patients with Niemann–Pick disease type C often have difficulties swallowing, and miglustat has an unpleasant taste. The stability of miglustat at 2°C–8°C prepared in InOrpha® suspending vehicle, a liquid taste-masking agent, was assessed.Methods: The contents of Zavesca® 100 mg capsules (a powder blend comprising miglustat and several excipients were transferred into InOrpha®. Although miglustat was soluble in InOrpha® at all concentrations tested, some of the excipients were not. An InOrpha® suspension containing 20 mg/mL miglustat was investigated initially. Subsequently, a pH-adjusted suspension of 20 mg/mL, and non-adjusted 10 and 5 mg/mL suspensions were evaluated. All suspensions were stored under refrigerated conditions. Physicochemical and microbiological challenge testing was performed at 0 hours and after 14 and 28 days. Degradation was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography, appearance was assessed visually, and pH was recorded. Suspensions were inoculated with seven species of bacteria, yeast, and mold, and growth evaluated using membrane filtration.Results: Miglustat 20 mg/mL suspension changed from yellow (0 hours to brown (days 14 and 28; pH remained stable at 7.4–7.6. Pure InOrpha® (pH 4.6 remained yellow throughout the study. Pure InOrpha® adjusted to pH 7.5 displayed a brownish discoloration after 9 days. Miglustat 5 and 20 mg/mL suspensions, adjusted to pH 6.5 and 4.4, respectively, remained yellow at days 14 and 28. Miglustat 10 mg/mL suspension (pH 7.3 changed from yellow to brown on day 9. No degradates were detected for any of the concentrations tested. There was no proliferation of microorganisms over the study period; in all cases the level of contamination was

  1. Simultaneous determination of ephedrine hydrochloride and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride in Maxing oral solution by HPLC%高效液相色谱法测定麻杏口服液中盐酸麻黄碱及盐酸伪麻黄碱的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏新; 黄爱文; 宋洪涛

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立 HPLC 法测定麻杏口服液中盐酸麻黄碱及盐酸伪麻黄碱的含量。方法采用 Phenomenex Hydro-RP (250 mm ×4.6 mm ,4μm)色谱柱,以乙腈(A)-0.1%磷酸溶液(含0.1%三乙胺)(B)为流动相,梯度洗脱(0~20 min ,3%→10% A),流速:1.0 ml/min ,检测波长:210 nm ,进样量:20μl。结果盐酸麻黄碱在0.99~39.6μg/ml范围内线性关系良好,r=0.9999,平均回收率为101.5%,RSD为1.77%(n=6);盐酸伪麻黄碱在1.09~43.6μg/ml范围内线性关系良好,r=0.9999,平均回收率为100.8%,RSD为1.96%(n=6)。结论本法简便、可靠、准确,可用于该制剂的质量控制。%Objective To establish an HPLC method for determination of ephedrine hydrochloride and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride in Maxing oral solution .Methods Phenomenex Hydro-RP (250 mm × 4 .6 mm ,4 μm) was adopted .Acetonit-nile (A) and 0 .1% phosphonic acid solution (0 .1% triethanolamine solution)(B) was used as gradient mobile phase(0-20 min , 3% →10% A)at flow rate was 1 .0 ml/min and the program of UV gradient absorbance detection was 210 nm .The sample vol-ume was 20 μl .Results A good linearity was obtained over the concentration range of 0 .99-39 .6 μg/ml for ephedrine hydro-chloride (r=0 .999 9) and 1 .09-43 .6 μg/ml for pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (r=0 .999 9) .The average recovery of ephed-rine hydrochloride was 101 .5% with RSD of 1 .77% (n=6) ,and the average recovery of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was 100 .8% with RSD of 1 .96% (n=6) .Conclusion This method was simple ,accurate and quick ,which could be used for deter-mination and quality control of Maxing oral solution with good selectivity and repeatability .

  2. 21 CFR 520.1242e - Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets. 520.1242e Section 520.1242e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1242e Levamisole hydrochloride...

  3. Transverse fascial suspension with muscle bow traction: advantages for full-thickness lip reconstruction involving the oral commissure using free flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kaoru; Adachi, Koji; Sekido, Mitsuru

    2012-07-01

    Large full-thickness oral defects involving the oral commissure continue to be a challenge for reconstructive surgeons. Although local flaps are the best option for full-thickness lip reconstruction, they are unavailable for large defects. In particular, recent advances in microsurgery have extended the available surgical options using free flaps, but for full-thickness large oral defects involving the oral commissure, it is still difficult to obtain good function and competence. The major disadvantages are the drooping and loosening of the reconstructed lip and the difficulty in restoring a natural oral commissure. We present two cases of lip reconstruction for full-thickness large defects involving the oral commissure in which free flaps with the muscle bow traction method were used to overcome these problems. In case 1, the lip was reconstructed with a free radial forearm-palmaris longus tendon composite flap. The tendon was sutured onto the orbicularis oris stumps. In case 2, the lip was reconstructed with a free anterolateral thigh flap including the fascia lata. A fascial strip in the flap was sutured to the residual orbicularis muscles. In each case, additional nonvascularised fascia lata was harvested and suspended the reconstructed lip in transverse direction as a muscle bow traction method. Both patients achieved good oral competence without medial deviation of the oral commissure and were able to resume a regular diet without drooping and loosening of the reconstructed lip. For large full-thickness oral defects involving the oral commissure, transverse fascial suspension with muscle bow traction is useful for functional and cosmetic reconstruction.

  4. Development of a stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatography method for assay of erythromycin ethylsuccinate in powder for oral suspension dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Kamarei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study an effective method was developed to assay erythromycin ethylsuccinate for an oral suspension dosage form. The chromatographic separation was achieved on an X-Terra™ C18 analytical column. A mixture of acetonitrile–ammonium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (0.025 mol L-1 (60:40, V/V (pH 7.0 was used as the mobile phase, effluent flow rate monitored at 1.0 mL min−1, and UV detection at 205 nm. In forced degradation studies, the effects of acid, base, oxidation, UV light and temperature were investigated showing no interference in the peak of drug. The proposed method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, robustness, precision and accuracy. The method was linear at concentrations ranging from 400 to 600 μg mL−1, precise (intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations <0.65, accurate (mean recovery; 99.5%. The impurities and degradation products of erythromycin ethylsuccinate were selectively determined with good resolution in both the raw material and the final suspension forms. The method could be useful for both routine analytical and quality control assays of erythromycin ethylsuccinate in commercial powder for an oral suspension dosage form and it could be a very powerful tool to investigate the chemical stability of erythromycin ethylsuccinate.

  5. Cartap Hydrochloride Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Abhilash, Kpp; Victor, Peter John

    2016-08-01

    Cartap hydrochloride is a moderately hazardous nereistoxin insecticide that is increasingly used for deliberate self-harm in India. It can cause neuromuscular weakness resulting in respiratory failure. We report a patient with 4% Cartap hydrochloride poisoning who required mechanical ventilation for 36-hours. He recovered without any neurological deficits. We also review literature on Cartap hydrochloride poisoning.

  6. Preparation of oral osmotic pump tablets of terazosin hydrochloride%正交试验优化盐酸特拉唑嗪渗透泵控释片生产工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马廷升; 李高; 宋思才; 刘志华; 朱兰寸

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究盐酸特拉唑嗪渗透泵控释片生产的最佳工艺.方法 采用正交实验设计L3(34),以药物25 h累积释药百分率为评价指标筛选工艺.结果 优选实验因素:促渗剂用量为(w/w)20%、促渗透聚合物CMC-Na用量(w/w)为6%、包衣液增重(w/w)为4%、释药孔径为600μm.渗透泵控释片25 h累积释药百分率平均值为82.6%,RSD为2.65%(n=5).结论 由正交试验筛选制备盐酸特拉唑嗪渗透泵控释片的工艺条件是可靠的,为该药的靶向制剂、缓控制剂的药剂学研究奠定基础.%Objective To determine the best preparation craft of oral osmotic pump tablets of terazosin hydrochloride.Methods Taking the 25 h cumulative drug delivering percentage as the index, the oral osmotic pump tablets of terazosin hydrochloride were prepared by ultrasonic dispersing method with orthogonal design L9 (34 ). Results Optimal experiment factors were as follows: the dosage of penetration enhancers agent was 20% (ω/ω), the dosage of penetration enhancers polymer CMC-Na was 6% (ω/ω), the weight increment of coating liquid was 4% (ω/ω), and the aperture of drug delivering was 600 μm. The average cumulative delivering percentage of drug was 82. 6%, and RSD was 2. 65% (n=5). Conclusion The preparation of oral osmotic pump tablets of terazosin hydrochloride by ultrasonic dispersing method and orthogonal design is suitable, which lays the foundation for the extended-release preparation study.

  7. A Novel, Rapid, and Validated Stability-Indicating UPLC Method for the Estimation of Drotaverine Hydrochloride and Ibuprofen Impurities in Oral Solid Dosage Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay Kumar, Rekulapally; Rao, Vinay U; Anil Kumar, N; Venkata Subbaiah, B

    2015-01-01

    A novel, stability-indicating, reversed-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-UPLC) method was developed for the determination of pure drotaverine hydrochloride and ibuprofen in the presence of their impurities and degradation products. The method was developed using a Waters UPLC BEH C18, 100 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm column with a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min and detector wavelength at 210 nm. The mobile phase consisted of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer and acetonitrile. Drotaverine hydrochloride and ibuprofen were subjected to the stress conditions of oxidative, acid, base, photolytic, and thermal degradation. Degradation products resulting from the stress studies were well-resolved, thus confirming the test method as stability-indicating. Validation of the method was carried out as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines.

  8. Quantification of Lansoprazole in Oral Suspension by Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Hybrid Ion-Trap Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy D. Brown

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated to be used as a stability indicating assay for the study of a 3 mg/mL lansoprazole oral suspension. The method utilizes a UPLC (ultra-performance liquid chromatography column and unique mass spectrometric detection (ion-trap time-of-flight (IT-TOF to achieve a sensitive (LOD 2 ng/mL, accurate, and reproducible quantification of lansoprazole. This method reports an intraday and interday coefficient of variation of 2.98 ± 2.17% (n=5 for each concentration for each day and 3.07 ± 0.89% (n=20 for each concentration, respectively. Calibration curves (5–25 μg/mL were found to be linear with an R2 value ranging from 0.9972 to 0.9991 on 4 different days. Accuracy of the assay, expressed as % error, ranged from 0.30 to 5.22%. This method is useful for monitoring the stability of lansoprazole in oral suspension.

  9. A Novel, Rapid, and Validated Stability-Indicating UPLC Method for the Estimation of Drotaverine Hydrochloride and Ibuprofen Impurities in Oral Solid Dosage Form

    OpenAIRE

    KUMAR, Rekulapally; Rao, Vinay; Kumar, N; SUBBAIAH, B.

    2015-01-01

    A novel, stability-indicating, reversed-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-UPLC) method was developed for the determination of pure drotaverine hydrochloride and ibuprofen in the presence of their impurities and degradation products. The method was developed using a Waters UPLC BEH C18, 100 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm column with a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min and detector wavelength at 210 nm. The mobile phase consisted of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer and acetonitrile. Drotaver...

  10. HPLC法测定小儿清热止咳口服液中盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱和苦杏仁苷的含量%Content Determination of Ephedrine Hydrochloride, Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride and Amygdalin in Xiao'er Qingre Zhike Oral Solution by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佩; 翟字; 王曼泽

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立同时测定小儿清热止咳口服液中盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱和苦杏仁苷含量的方法.方法:采用高效液相色谱法.色谱柱为Platisil ODS柱,流动相为乙腈-0.1%磷酸溶液(含0.1%三乙胺)=5:95,流速为1.0 mL·min-1,检测波长为215nm,进样量为10 μL,柱温为30℃.结果:盐酸麻黄碱进样量在0.146~4.85 μg范围内与峰面积积分值呈良好的线性关系(r=0.999 9),平均加样回收率为99.4%,RSD=1.0%;盐酸伪麻黄碱进样量在0.157~5.23 μg范围内与峰面积积分值呈良好的线性关系(r=0.999 9),平均加样回收率为99.6%,RSD=1.7%;苦杏仁苷进样量在0.297~9.90μg范围内与峰面积积分值呈良好线性关系(r=0.9999),平均加样回收率为98.9%,RSD=0.7%.结论:该方法简便、灵敏、准确,可用于小儿清热止咳口服液的质量控制.%OBJECTIVE: To establish the method for the content determination of ephedrine hydrochloride, pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and amygdalin in Xiao'er qingre zhike oral solution. METHODS: HPLC method was adopted. The determination was performed on Platisil ODS column with mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid solution (containing 0.1% triethylamine, 5:95) at the flow rate of 1.0 mL·min-1. The detection wavelength was set at 215 nm and injection volume was 10 μL. The column temperature was 30 ℃ RESULTS: The linear range of ephedrine hydrochloride was 0.146~4.85 μg (r=0.999 9) with an average recovery of 99.4% (RSD=1.0%). The linear range of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was 0.157~5.23 ug (r= 0.999 9) with an average recovery of 99.6% (RSD=1.7%). The linear range of amygdalin was 0.297~9.90 μg (r=0.999 9) with an average recovery of 98.9% (RSD=0.7% ) . CONCLUSION: The method is simple, sensitive and accurate, which can be used for the quality control of Xiao'er qingre zhike oral solution.

  11. Effect of pH on acid production from sorbitol in washed cell suspensions of oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfas, S; Maki, Y; Birkhed, D; Edwardsson, S

    1990-01-01

    The acid production from sorbitol and glucose was studied under anaerobic conditions in resting cell suspensions of bacteria from the predominant sorbitol-fermenting human dental plaque flora, belonging to the genera Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Actinomyces. The acid production activity of the bacterial cells was followed by titration with alkali, at environmental pH 7.0, 6.0 and 5.0 after addition of carbohydrate solution. The metabolic end products formed in the suspensions were analyzed thereafter by isotachophoretic and enzymatic methods. The results showed that sorbitol was fermented at a slower rate than glucose. Lowering the environmental pH decreased the acid production activity from the two carbohydrates. Compared with glucose, the catabolism of sorbitol was affected to greater extent by the pH conditions. The total amount of acids formed from sorbitol was considerably less than from glucose. Lactic acid, which was the major end product in glucose-challenged suspensions, was produced only in low concentrations from sorbitol by all strains tested. The ratio strong (formic + lactic)/weak acids was moreover lower for sorbitol than for glucose. The present results further illustrate some of the mechanisms behind the low cariogenic potential of this sugar substitute.

  12. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms based on biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) literature data: chloroquine phosphate, chloroquine sulfate, and chloroquine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeeck, R K; Junginger, H E; Midha, K K; Shah, V P; Barends, D M

    2005-07-01

    Literature data on the properties of chloroquine phosphate, chloroquine sulfate, and chloroquine hydrochloride related to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) are reviewed. The available information indicates that these chloroquine salts can be classified as highly soluble and highly permeable, i.e., BCS class I. The qualitative composition of immediate release (IR) tablets containing these Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) with a Marketing Authorization (MA) in Belgium (BE), Germany (DE), Finland (FI), and The Netherlands (NL) is provided. In view of these MA's and the critical therapeutic indication of chloroquine, it is assumed that the registration authorities had evidence that these formulations are bioequivalent to the innovator. It is concluded that IR tablets formulated with these excipients are candidates for a biowaiver.

  13. High-performance column liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of buclizine, tryptophan, pyridoxine, and cyanocobalamin in tablets and oral suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuminek, Gislaine; Stulzer, Hellen K; Tagliari, Monika P; Oliveira, Paulo R; Bernardi, Larissa S; Rauber, Gabriela S; Cardoso, Simone G

    2011-01-01

    An HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of buclizine, tryptophan, pyridoxine, and cyanocobalamin in pharmaceutical formulations. The chromatographic separation was carried out on an RP-C18 column using a mobile phase gradient of methanol, 0.015 M phosphate buffer (pH 3.0), and 0.03 M phosphoric acid at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and UV detection at 230, 280, and 360 nm, respectively, for buclizine, tryptophan, pyridoxine, and cyanocobalamin. The method validation yielded good results with respect to linearity (r>0.999), specificity, precision, accuracy, and robustness. The RSD values for intraday and interday precision were below 1.82 and 0.63%, respectively, and recoveries ranged from 98.11 to 101.95%. The method was successfully applied for the QC analysis of buclizine, tryptophan, pyridoxine, and cyanocobalamin in tablets and oral suspension.

  14. Bioequivalence of Donepezil Hydrochloride Orally Disintegrating Tablets in Healthy Volunteers%盐酸多奈哌齐口腔崩解片人体生物等效性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋薇; 杨静; 冯智军; 丁莉坤; 李雪晴; 周伦; 杨林; 文爱东

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究盐酸多奈哌齐口腔崩解片与盐酸多奈哌齐片人体的生物等效性.方法:20名男性健康志愿者随机交叉单剂量口服盐酸多奈哌齐口腔崩解片(受试制剂)与盐酸多奈哌齐片(参比制剂)5 mg,用液质联用法测定人血浆中多奈哌齐的浓度,用DAS 2.1软件计算药动学参数,并评价两制剂的生物等效性.结果:口服受试制剂和参比制剂药动学参数分别为Cmax(8.56±2.10)和(8.08±1.78) ng·ml-1,tmax(2.65±0.74)和(3.05±0.83)h,t1/2 (70.31±19.54)和(71.15±18.47)h,AUC0~216(373.76±94.15)和(353.04±81.42) ng·h·m1-1,AUC0~∞(420.30±110.99)和(399.80±108.56) ng·h·ml-1.受试制剂AUG~216的90%置信区间在参比制剂的等效范围内.结论:两种盐酸多奈哌齐制剂生物等效.%Objective; To study the bioequivalenee of donepezil hydrochloride orally disintegrating tablets and donepezil hydrochlo-ride tablets. Method: 20 healthy male volunteers were enrolled in a randomized crossover study in which the subjects were randomly assigned to receive single dose of 5 mg orally disintegrating tablets (test preparation) or donepezil hydrochloride tablets ( reference preparation). Plasma concentrations of donepezil were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. The pharma-cokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 2. 1 software. Result; The main pharmacokinetic parameters of test and reference preparations after oral administration were as follows;^ of (8.56 ±2. 10) and (8.08 ± 1.78) ng ml"' ,tmax of (2.65 ±0.74) and(3.05 ± 0.83) h,tI/2 of (70.31 ±19.54) and (71.15 ± 18.47) h,AUC0_m of (373.76 ±94.15) and (353.04 ± 81.42) ng -h -ml-', AUC0_, of (420. 30 ±110.99) and (399. 80 ± 108.56) ng -h ml"1. The 90% confidential intervals (CI) of AUC0_2]6 of the test preparation was in the bioequivalent range of the reference preparation. Conclusion; The two kinds of donepezil formulations are bio-equivalent.

  15. The effects of nifekalant hydrochloride on the spatial dispersion of repolarization after direct current defibrillation in patients with oral amiodarone and β-blocker therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Maeda

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: NIF suppressed the deterioration of the SDR after ICD shock. This might be one of the mechanisms by which NIF suppresses recurrence of ventricular tachyarrhythmia just after ICD shock in patients with oral amiodarone and β-blocker therapy.

  16. 盐酸哌甲酯速溶膜抗疲劳作用及其机制的研究%Study of anti-fatigue effect of methylphenidate hydrochloride oral fast dissolving films and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利红; 徐平华; 武娜; 沈成英; 袁海龙; 韩晋

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the anti-fatigue effect of methylphenidate hydrochloride oral fast dissolving films (MPH-OFDF) and its mechanism .Methods 60 mice were randomly divided into 6 groups as:normal control group (physiological sa-line) ,model group (physiological saline) ,Yiqiyangxue oral liquids positive group (7 .00 mg/kg) ,MPH-OFDF high-dose group (5 .20 mg/kg) ,MPH-OFDF middle-dose group (2 .60 mg/kg) and MPH-OFDF low-dose group (1 .30 mg/kg) .Besides the normal control group ,model group and positive group were orally administered ,the other groups are administered with the drug once daily sublingually daily for consecutive 15 days .The mice were put in the load-weighted swimming test 30 min after the last oral administration ,then the anti-fatigue effect was assessed based on recording exhausting swimming time and detec-ting the levels of serum lactale dehydrogenase (LDH) ,creatine kinase (CK) ,triglycerides (TG) in mice .Results Compared with control group ,the middle-dose and the high-dose MPH could prolong the exhausting swimming time (P<0 .05 ,P<0 .01) and decrease the activity of LDH and CK significantly (P<0 .05 ,P<0 .01);in addition the middle-dose MPH could decrease the content of TG (P<0 .05) .Conclusion The MPH had marked anti-fatigue effect that may be associated with reduced ser-um LDH ,CK and TG .%目的:研究盐酸哌甲酯(methylphenidate hydrochloride ,MPH)口腔速溶膜(oral fast dissolving films ,OFDF)抗疲劳作用及其机制。方法将60只小鼠随机分为6组:正常对照组(生理盐水)、游泳对照组(生理盐水)、益气养血口服液阳性组(7 mg/kg)、MPH-OFDF高、中、低剂量组(5.2、2.6、1.3 mg/kg)。正常对照组、游泳对照组及阳性组小鼠予以灌胃,其他组小鼠每天舌下给药1次,连续15 d ,末次给药30 min后进行负重游泳实验,记录小鼠游泳至力竭的时间,并检测小鼠血清乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)、肌酸激酶(CK)

  17. Compound Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride Oral Solution Treatment of Upper Airway Cough Syndrome 93 Cases of Clinical Observation%美敏伪麻溶液治疗上气道咳嗽综合征93例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓荣

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察美敏伪麻溶液治疗上呼吸道咳嗽综合征(UACS)的临床疗效、安全性.方法:93例UACS患者随机分为治疗组48例,给予美敏伪麻溶液,对照组45例,给予复方磷酸可待因溶液.观察两组患者治疗前后咳嗽症状积分、卡他症状群积分.结果:美敏伪麻溶液组临床总有效率为85.42%,复方磷酸可待因溶液组临床总有效率为77.78%,治疗效果无显著差异(P>0.05);在改善咳嗽症状方面,第7d与第14d比较差异有统计学意义(P0.05); In improving the symptoms of cough, 7 days and 14 days the difference was statistically significant (PO.05). In improving the symptoms of catarrh, 1 day, 2 days and 3 days the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion:Compound pseudoephedrine hydrochloride oral solution for the control card syndrome and cough syndrome was better than the compound codeine phosphate solution.

  18. Formulation and optimization of ethosomes for transdermal delivery of ropinirole hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashish D; Patel, C N; Shah, Dinesh R

    2013-10-01

    The present study focuses on the formulation of ethosomal gel of ropinirole hydrochloride (ropinirole HCl), an anti-Parkinsonian drug, for delivery as a carrier for transdermal application. The ethosomes were prepared using different concentrations of phospholipids (2-5 % w/v), ethanol (20-50 % w/v), ropinirole HCl (5 % w/v) and water. They were optimized using 3(2) full factorial designs to study the effect of independent variables, concentrations of ethanol and lecithin on dependent variables, entrapment efficiency and in-vitro drug release at 24 hrs. The drug release profile exhibited Higuchi's and zero order kinetics. From the regression analysis, it was observed that independent variables had significant effect on response variables. Formulations were optimized using contour plot and response surface plot. The optimized formulation was found to be RS10 containing 30 % w/v ethanol and 4% w/v lecithin. The optimized formulation was evaluated for assay, particle characteristics, zeta potential, skin retention and stability. Ethosomal gel was prepared by incorporation of optimized ethosomal suspension into gel base. The ethosomal gel was characterized for physical appearance, pH, content uniformity, rheological behaviour, skin-retention, in-vitro and in-vivo drug release and stability. From the results it can fairly be concluded that ethosomes are capable of delivering ropinirole hydrochloride into systemic circulation by transdermal route. The amounts thus delivered are also equitable to those delivered orally and are delivered at a rate slow enough to achieve longer blood levels.

  19. Trifluridine and Tipiracil Hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about trifluridine and tipiracil hydrochloride and a collection of links to more information about the use of this combination drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  20. Tramadol hydrochloride 75 mg/dexketoprofen 25 mg oral fixed-dose combination in moderate-to-severe acute pain: sustained analgesic effect over a 56-h period in the postoperative setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero Matamala, A; Bertolotti, M; Contini, M P; Guerrero Bayón, C; Nizzardo, A; Paredes Lario, I; Pizà Vallespir, B; Scartoni, S; Tonini, G; Capriati, A; Pellacani, A

    2017-06-01

    Multimodal analgesia constitutes a common strategy in pain management. A tramadol hydrochloride 75 mg/dexketoprofen 25 mg oral fixed combination (TRAM/DKP 75 mg/25 mg) has been recently registered and released in Europe for the treatment of moderate-to-severe acute pain. This paper provides additional analyses on the results of two phase III clinical trials (DEX-TRA-04 and DEX-TRA-05) on postoperative pain to document its sustained effect. The analysis was applied to a modified intention-to-treat population (mITT, n = 933) of patients undergoing active treatment from the first dose, to assess the sustained effect of TRAM/DKP 75 mg/25 mg on pain intensity (PI-VAS 0-100) over 56 h from first drug intake. The superior analgesic effect of TRAM/DKP 75 mg/25 mg over 56 h in terms of difference in PI-VAS (mean [SE]) was shown for DEX-TRA-04 (-11.0 [0.55] over dexketoprofen 25 mg and -9.1 [0.55] over tramadol 100 mg, P ≤ 0.0001) and for DEX-TRA-05 (-10.4 [0.51] over dexketoprofen 25 mg and -8.3 [0.51] over tramadol 100 mg, P ≤ 0.0001). The statistical analysis performed on data coming from both studies confirms the superior sustained analgesia of TRAM/DKP 75 mg/25 mg over tramadol 100 mg and dexketoprofen 25 mg. These results are consistent with the previously published data obtained on the ITT population and strongly support the role of this oral fixed-dose combination in the treatment of moderate-to-severe acute pain. Copyright 2017 Clarivate Analytics.

  1. Modification of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with nebivolol hydrochloride for improvement of oral bioavailability in treatment of hypertension: polyethylene glycol versus chitosan oligosaccharide lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstündağ-Okur, Neslihan; Yurdasiper, Aysu; Gündoğdu, Evren; Gökçe, Evren Homan

    2016-02-01

    Nebivolol (NB)-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were prepared and modified with chitosan oligosaccharide lactate (COL) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) stearate for improvement of its oral bioavailability. Compritol, poloxamer and lecithin were used for the preparation of SLNs by homogenisation method. After in vitro characterisation effect of lipase, pepsin, or pancreatin on degradation and release rate were investigated. Cytotoxicity and permeation were studied on Caco-2 cells. As COL concentration increased in SLNs, size and zeta potential increased. PEG concentration was reversely proportional to particle size with no change in zeta potential. Encapsulation efficiencies (EEs) were determined as 84-98%. DSC confirmed solubilisation of NB in lipid matrix. A sustained release with no burst effect was determined. The presence of enzymes affected the release. SLNs did not reveal cytotoxicity and highest permeability was obtained with PEG modification. PEG-modified SLNs could be offered as a promising strategy for oral delivery of NB.

  2. Randomized and double-blind controlled clinical trial of tilidine hydrochloride oral solution for analgesia%盐酸替利定口服液用于镇痛的随机双盲对照临床试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙莉; 李潇潇; 梁军成; 朱天岳; 谢启伟; 刘端祺; 谢广茹; 徐国柱; 邓艳萍

    2013-01-01

    目的 评价盐酸替利定口服液的有效性和安全性.方法 用多中心随机双盲平行对照方法,以盐酸吗啡片为对照药.144例手术后中、重度疼痛的患者分为2组,试验组(73例)口服替利定1支和安慰剂1片;对照组(71例):安慰剂1支和吗啡1片.58例癌性疼痛患者分为2组,试验组(26例)口服替利定每天2支×4次,同时口服安慰剂;对照组(32例)口服吗啡每天2片×4次,同时口服安慰剂,疗程均5天.以疼痛强度差(PID)作为镇痛效果主要疗效判定指标.结果 术后与癌性的疼痛患者,试验组与对照组PID值的差异均无统计学意义.药物不良反应主要有头晕、恶心、呕吐等.结论 替利定可治疗各种手术后引起的急性中重度疼痛和慢性癌性疼痛,与吗啡相似,是一种强效、安全的镇痛药.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tilidine hydrochloride oral solution for analgesia. Methods A multicenter, randomized, double blind, parallel group controlled study was performed with tilidine as the test drug and morphine hydrochloride tablets as control for the treatment of moderate and severe pain. One hundres fourty - four postoperative pain patients were received single treatment with tilidine ( single oral tilidine and morphine placebo, n =13) or morphine ( single oral morphine and tilidine placebo, n = 71). Fifty eight cancer patients were received 5 days treatment with tilidine or morphine. Pain intensity difference (PID) was evaluated as the primary analgesic effect criteria. Results There was no significant difference in PID between the test group and the control one both in the controlled trail of postoperative pain and that of chronic cancer pain. The most common adverse reactions of tilidine were dizziness, nausea and vomiting et al. Conclusion The analgesic effect and adverse effects of tilidine were similar to that of morphine, which indicated tilidine was an effective and safe analgesic for postoperative

  3. 21 CFR 520.1242b - Levamisole hydrochloride tablet or oblet (bolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride tablet or oblet (bolus). 520.1242b Section 520.1242b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1242b Levamisole hydrochloride tablet...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1242c - Levamisole hydrochloride and piperazine dihydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride and piperazine dihydrochloride. 520.1242c Section 520.1242c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1242c Levamisole hydrochloride...

  5. Non-pigmented fixed drug eruption induced by eprazinone hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Kenichi; Tsuboi, Hiromi; Maejima, Hideki; Arai, Satoru; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2005-12-01

    A 68-year-old woman developed an upper respiratory tract infection in November 2002 and was treated with eprazinone hydrochloride, serrapeptase, carbocysteine and clarithromycin. Three days after the start of treatment, the patient noted erythema on her axilla, buttock and inguinal regions. The erythema subsided in 7 days although slight pigmentation remained. However, 7 days later the pigmentation completely disappeared. Oral eprazinone hydrochloride was given as a challenge, and 1 day later the erythema re-appeared in the same areas as on initial presentation (axilla, buttock, and inguinal regions). A fixed erythema without lasting pigmentation is attributed to eprazinone hydrochloride. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed as having a nonpigmented fixed drug eruption associated with eprazinone hydrochloride.

  6. 21 CFR 520.1640 - Oxibendazole suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxibendazole suspension. 520.1640 Section 520.1640... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1640 Oxibendazole suspension. (a) Specifications. The suspension contains 10 percent oxibendazole. (b) Sponsor. See 000069 in §...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1806 - Piperazine suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine suspension. 520.1806 Section 520.1806... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1806 Piperazine suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of suspension contains piperazine monohydrochloride equivalent...

  8. Delayed-release oral suspension of omeprazole for the treatment of erosive esophagitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease in pediatric patients: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Monzani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Alice Monzani, Giuseppina Oderda1Department of Pediatrics, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Novara, ItalyAbstract: Omeprazole is a proton-pump inhibitor indicated for gastroesophageal reflux disease and erosive esophagitis treatment in children. The aim of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of delayed-release oral suspension of omeprazole in childhood esophagitis, in terms of symptom relief, reduction in reflux index and/or intragastric acidity, and endoscopic and/or histological healing. We systematically searched PubMed, Cochrane and EMBASE (1990 to 2009 and identified 59 potentially relevant articles, but only 12 articles were suitable to be included in our analysis. All the studies evaluated symptom relief and reported a median relief rate of 80.4% (range 35%–100%. Five studies reported a significant reduction of the esophageal reflux index within normal limits (<7% in all children, and 4 studies a significant reduction of intra-gastric acidity. The endoscopic healing rate, reported by 9 studies, was 84% after 8-week treatment and 95% after 12-week treatment, the latter being significantly higher than the histological healing rate (49%. In conclusion, omeprazole given at a dose ranging from 0.3 to 3.5 mg/kg once daily (median 1 mg/kg once daily for at least 12 weeks is highly effective in childhood esophagitis.Keywords: proton pump inhibitors, children, ranitidine, H2-blockers

  9. Taste-masking effect of physical and organoleptic methods on peppermint-scented orally disintegrating tablet of famotidine based on suspension spray-coating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Takeshi; Uchida, Shinya; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2012-01-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) are useful for improving benefits for patients of various ages. Masking the unpleasant taste of a drug is an important factor in the compliance of patients who take ODTs. We evaluated the taste acceptability effects of various taste-masking methods on bitter famotidine ODTs as a clinical pharmacological study. The following methods were tested to compare taste-masking effects: physical masking by spray-coating famotidine with ethyl cellulose versus organoleptic masking with added sweetener and flavor. The ODT samples were prepared as single or combinations of each taste-masking method using a novel suspension spray-coating method including a placebo. A total of 31 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind study and asked to score their bitterness, sweetness and total palate impressions by 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). VAS scores were significantly improved by the physical and organoleptic methods as compared to without taste-masked ODTs. Furthermore, the combination of both taste-masking methods was most effective for improving palatability and VAS scores were similar to those of placebo ODTs. The results of this study suggest that different taste-masking mechanisms function cooperatively.

  10. Data Mining of Association between Oral Terbinafine Hydrochloride and Hearing Impairment%口服盐酸特比萘芬与听力障碍相关性数据挖掘研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅; 曹玉莹; 王丽伟

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To detect the adverse event signal between oral terbinafine hydrochloride and hearing impairment.Methods:AERS-DM is a knowledge-aggregated database of the adverse events after de-duplicating, normalizing the FDA AERS da-ta.This study used the method of proportional reporting ratio, reporting odds ratio for data mining.Using the PRR, a signal is de-tected if the number of co-occurrences is 3 or more and the PRR is 2 or more with an associated χ2 value of 4 or more.For the ROR, a signal is detected, if the lower limit of the 95% two-sided confidence interval exceeds 1.Results: The result shows ad-verse event signals PRR and ROR are detected.The PRR=3.77>2,χ2 =20.39 >4,the number of co-occurrences is more than 3, a signal is detected.The ROR=3.78, the 95% two-sided confidence interval is (2.03,7.03), the lower limit exceeds 1, a signal is detected.Conclusion:The result shows there is association between oral terbinafine hydrochloride and hearing impairment in AERS-DM by detecting the adverse event signal.%目的:检测口服盐酸特比萘芬引起听力障碍的药品不良反应信号。方法:AERS-DM是对美国不良反应报告系统AERS数据进行去重、标准化与知识聚合的不良反应数据库,本研究在AERS-DM中进行数据挖掘,计算不良反应信号比例报告比值比( proportional ADR reporting ratio,PRR)和报告比值比( reporting odds ratio,ROR)。 PRR的判定标准为:当药物引起不良反应例数>3,PRR≥2,四格表χ2≥4,则提示生成不良反应信号。 ROR的判定标准为:当ROR95%可信区间下限>1则提示生成不良反应信号。结果:检测到PRR和ROR不良反应信号。 PRR=3.77>2,χ2=20.39>4,药物引起不良反应例数>3,提示生成不良反应信号;ROR=3.78,ROR的95%可信区间(2.03,7.03),下限>1,提示生成不良反应信号。结论:基于AERS-DM数据检测不良反应信号结果表明口服盐酸特比萘

  11. A prospective multicenter randomized controlled clinical study on the efficacy and safety of Guaifenesin compound pseudoephedrine hydrochloride oral solution%愈酚伪麻口服溶液有效性和安全性的多中心、随机对照临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    愈酚伪麻口服溶液临床研究协作组

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate efficacy and safety of Guaifenesin compound pseudoephedrine hydrochloride oral solution for the treatment of cough,expectoration,nasal congestion and runny nose in children.Method This was a prospective multicenter randomized single-blind,parallel-controlled clinical study.A total of 10 centers participated in this study,the actual number of cases in line with the program was 412,of whom 205 eases in trial group were treated with Guaifenesin compound pseudoephedrine hydrochloride oral solution,and 207 cases in control group with ambroxol hydrochloride oral solution,treatment of both groups persisted for 7 days.The improvement rate of each single symptom and the combined symptoms and the overall effective rate were compared between the two groups.The adverse drug reactions and compliance were assessed as well.Result The treatment of both groups showed efficacy.Except sputum stickiness,the improvement of all symptoms in trial group was superior to that in the control group on the 3rd day after treatment(P<0.05)and except nasal congestion,the efficacy in all the other symptoms of trial group was better than that in the control group as well on the 7th day(P<0.01).The improvement rate for combined symptoms of Guaifenesin compound pseudoephedrine hydrochloride oral solution was 82.9%and the overall efficacy rate was 89.3%.Guaifenesin compound Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride oral solution had higher compliance and its adverse event rate was merely 0.92%.Conclusion Guaifenesin compound pseudoephedrine hydrochloride oral solution showed significant efficacy and safety in children for treatment of cough,expectoration,nasal congestion and runny nose caused by common cold or acute tracheobronchitis.%目的 评价愈酚伪麻口服溶液治疗儿童咳嗽、咯痰和鼻塞、流涕等症状的有效性和安全性.方法 采用前瞻性、多中心、随机、单盲、平行对照临床研究.共10个中心参与本研究,实

  12. Amitriptyline-related peripheral neuropathy relieved during pyridoxine hydrochloride administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, G G; Huff, M R; Fredericks, S

    1982-11-01

    Tricyclic antidepressants rarely cause peripheral neuropathy. In fact, this class of drugs has been used to control the symptoms of pain and paresthesia that accompany peripheral neuropathy. We report peripheral paresthesias that occurred in a 39-year-old female during five years of amitriptyline administration. The patient's symptoms were relieved by oral pyridoxine hydrochloride, associated with elevated plasma pyridoxal phosphate.

  13. Study on Bioequivalence of Ambroxol Hydrochloride Oral Disintegrating Tablets in Healthy Volunteers%盐酸氨溴索口腔崩解片的人体生物等效性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈白莹; 夏铮铮; 常宏

    2013-01-01

    目的:对生产工艺重大改变前、后盐酸氨溴索口腔崩解片在健康人体的生物等效性进行对比研究.方法:20名健康男性受试者按交叉试验设计方案分别口服受试制剂和参比制剂各30 mg,采集服药后48 h内的动态血标本,以普拉克索为内标,采用液-质联用(LC-MS)法测定血浆中盐酸氨溴索的质量浓度,并用DAS 2.0软件统计分析药动学参数.结果:参比制剂和受试制剂药动学参数分别为:cmax (84.96±32.46)、(90.86±44.81)ng/ml,tmax(1.7±0.7)、(1.4±0.3)h,AUC0-48 h(678.85±235.17)、(663.87±214.37)ng·h/ml,t1/2(9.8±1.9)、(9.7±2.0)h,主要药动学参数无显著性差异.结论:生产工艺重大改变前、后生产的两种制剂生物等效.%OBJECTIVE:To study the bioequivalence of Ambroxol hydrochloride oral disintegrating tablets in healthy volunteers after significant change of manufacturing technology.METHODS:Test preparation and reference preparation each 30 mg were given to 20 male healthy volunteers in randomized two-way crossover design.Blood samples were collected within 48 h after medication using pramipexole as internal standard.Plasma concentrations of ambroxol hydrochloride were determined by LC-MS,and pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed using DAS 2.0 software.RESULTS:The pharmacokinetics parameters of test preparation and reference preparation were as follows:cmax(84.96 ± 32.46)ng/ml and (90.86 ± 44.81) ng/ml;tmax(1.7 ± 0.7) h and (1.4 ± 0.3) h; AUC0-48 h(678.85 ± 235.17) ng·h/ml and (663.87 ± 214.37)ng·h/ml;t1/2(9.8 ± 1.9) h and (9.7 ± 2.0)h,respectively.There was no significant difference in main pharmacokinetic parameters of them.CONCLUSIONS:Two preparations are bioequivalent after significant change of manufacturing technology.

  14. Clinical Evaluation of Oral Valaciclovir Hydrochloride Tablets Pidotimod Tablets in the Treatment of Recurrent Genital Herpes%评价口服盐酸伐昔洛韦片联合匹多莫德片治疗复发性生殖器疱疹的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何志光; 姜乐

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析和评价口服盐酸伐昔洛韦片联合口服匹多莫德片治疗复发性生殖器疱疹的临床疗效。方法选取我院2014年4月~2015年10月收治的82例复发性生殖器疱疹患者,按照抽签法将患者平均分为观察组和对照组,观察组患者接受盐酸伐昔洛韦片联合匹多莫德片的治疗,对照组患者仅接受盐酸伐昔洛韦片的治疗,比较临床疗效。结果观察组患者治疗有效率更高(97.56%vs.80.49%,χ2=4.493,P<0.05)、复发率更低(43.90%vs.70.73%,P<0.05)。结论盐酸伐昔洛韦片联合匹多莫德片口服治疗复发性生殖器疱疹临床疗效显著,可提高患者治疗有效率、降低复发率。%Objective Clinical analysis and evaluation of oral and oral valaciclovir hydrochloride tablets pidotimod tablets in the treatment of recurrent genital herpes.MethodsIn our hospital from April 2014 to October 2015, 82 cases of recurrence of genital herpes patients, according to the draw method patients were divided into the observation group and the control group and observation group patients were treated with valaciclovir hydrochloride valacyclovir tablets combined with pidotimod tablets, patients in the control group only received the treatment of valaciclovir hydrochloride tablets, compared the clinical efifcacy.Results The effective rate of the observation group was higher (97.56%vs. 80.49%, χ2=4.493,P< 0.05), and the recurrence rate was lower (43.90%vs. 70.73%,P < 0.05). Conclusion Hydrochloride cutting valacyclovir tablets combined with pidotimod tablets oral in the treatment of recurrent genital herpes clinical curative effect significantly, improve treatment efficiency and reduce the recurrence rate.

  15. Neuroprotection against vascular dementia after acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride: P300 event related potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture can be used to treat various nervous system diseases. Here, 168 vascular dementia patients were orally administered donepezil hydrochloride alone (5 mg/day, once a day for 56 days, or combined with acupuncture at Shenting (DU24, Tianzhu (BL10, Sishencong (Extra, Yintang (Extra, Renzhong (DU26, Neiguan (PC6, Shenmen (HT7, Fengchi (GB20, Wangu (GB12 and Baihui (DU20 (once a day for 56 days. Compared with donepezil hydrochloride alone, P300 event related potential latency was shorter with an increased amplitude in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. Mini-Mental State Examination score was also higher. Moreover, these differences in P300 latency were identified within different infarcted regions in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. These findings indicate that acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride noticeably improves cognitive function in patients with vascular dementia, and exerts neuroprotective effects against vascular dementia.

  16. Neuroprotection against vascular dementia after acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride:P300 event related potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Liu; Xiu-juan Wang; Zhe-cheng Zhang; Rong Xue; Ping Li; Bo Li

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture can be used to treat various nervous system diseases. Here, 168 vascular dementia patients were orally administered donepezil hydrochloride alone (5 mg/day, once a day for 56 days), or combined with acupuncture atShenting (DU24),Tianzhu (BL10),Sishencong (Extra), Yintang (Extra),Renzhong (DU26),Neiguan (PC6),Shenmen (HT7),Fengchi (GB20),Wangu (GB12) andBaihui (DU20) (once a day for 56 days). Compared with donepezil hydrochloride alone, P300 event related potential latency was shorter with an increased ampli-tude in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. Mini-Mental State Examination score was also higher. Moreover, these differences in P300 latency were identiifed within different infarcted regions in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. These ifndings indicate that acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride noticeably improves cognitive function in patients with vascular dementia, and exerts neuroprotective effects against vascular dementia.

  17. 玻璃酸钠注射液联合氨基葡萄糖等药物治疗膝关节骨关节炎的疗效观察%Efficacy of Oral Administration of Glucosamine Hydrochloride Combined with Sodium Hyaluronate for Knee Joint Osteoarthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐汝玺

    2013-01-01

      目的:观察玻璃酸钠联合氨基葡萄糖等药物对膝关节骨性关节炎的治疗效果及不良反应。方法:选择笔者所在医院收治的78例患者,随机分为两组,治疗组口服氨基葡萄糖及抗骨质增生中成药的基础上,进行关节腔内注射玻璃酸钠25 mg,每周1次,连续注射5次后与同期只需口服上述药物的对照组进行疗效评定。结果:注射玻璃酸钠组在痊愈率及总有效率中均明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:玻璃酸钠联合氨基葡萄糖等药物治疗膝关节骨关节炎具有良好效果,无明显不良反应,是一种安全的方法。%  Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of oral administration of glucosamine hydrochloride combined with sodium hyaluronate for knee joint osteoarthritis .Method:78 patients with knee joint osteoarthritis were randomly divided in to group A and group B. In group A patients were treated with glucosamine hydrochloride combined with intra-articular injection of sodium hyaluronate(25 mg/week for five weeks).In group B patients were treated with glucosamine hydrochloride. Therapeutic effect were evaluated. Result:Group A showed better efficacy than group B(P<0.05). Conclusion:The efficacy of oral administration of glucosamine hydrochloride combined with sodium hyaluronate for knee joint osteoarthritis has good efficacy. no obvious bad effect,is a safe and effective technique.

  18. Interaction of articaine hydrochloride with prokaryotic membrane lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygre, Henning; Moe, Grete; Nerdal, Willy; Holmsen, Holm

    2009-01-01

    Local anesthetics are the most commonly used drugs in dentistry, with a wide range of effects, including antimicrobial activity. High antimicrobial effects have recently been reported on oral microbes from articaine hydrochloride, revealed by the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration. Additionally, articaine has recently been used as an alkaline component in endodontic materials with a proposed antibacterial activity. However, the detailed mechanisms of action have not been discussed. We determined the Langmuir surface pressure/molecular area isotherms of prokaryotic lipid monolayers, as well as the phospholipid phase transitions, by employing differential scanning calorimetry on unilamellar prokaryotic liposomes (bilayers). Articaine hydrochloride was found to interact with the prokaryotic membrane lipids in both monolayers and bilayers. An increase of the phospholipid molecular area of acidic glycerophospholipids as well as a decrease in phase transition temperature and enthalpy were found with increasing articaine hydrochloride concentration. The thermodynamic changes by adding articaine hydrochloride to prokaryotic membrane lipids are potentially related to the effects observed from antimicrobial peptides resulting from membrane insertion, aggregate composition, pore formation, and lysis. Interaction of articaine hydrochloride with prokaryotic membrane lipids is indicated. Hence, further research is necessary to gain insight into where these compounds exert their effects at the molecular level.

  19. 21 CFR 520.1289 - Lufenuron suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lufenuron suspension. 520.1289 Section 520.1289 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1289 Lufenuron suspension....

  20. 21 CFR 520.903b - Febantel suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Febantel suspension. 520.903b Section 520.903b... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.903b Febantel suspension. (a) Specifications. The suspension contains 9.3 percent (2.75 grams per ounce) febantel. (b) Sponsor. See 000859...

  1. 21 CFR 520.45a - Albendazole suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Albendazole suspension. 520.45a Section 520.45a... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.45a Albendazole suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of suspension contains 45.5 milligrams (mg) (4.55 percent) or...

  2. 21 CFR 520.905a - Fenbendazole suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fenbendazole suspension. 520.905a Section 520.905a... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.905a Fenbendazole suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of suspension contains 100 milligrams (mg) fenbendazole....

  3. A combined approach of chemical enhancers and sonophoresis for the transdermal delivery of tizanidine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutalik, Srinivas; Parekh, Harendra S; Davies, Nigel M; Udupa, Nayanabhirama

    2009-02-01

    The effects of chemical enhancers and sonophoresis on the transdermal permeation of tizanidine hydrochloride (TIZ) across mouse skin were investigated. Parameters including drug solubility, apparent partition coefficient (APC), drug permeation, and degradation in skin were determined. Low frequency ultrasound was also applied in the presence and absence of chemical enhancers to assess whether drug permeation improved. APC values indicated that TIZ preferentially partitions into intercellular spaces and does not form a reservoir, with the drug also exhibiting good enzymatic stability in skin. Most of the enhancers studied significantly increased the permeation rate of TIZ through full thickness mouse skin in comparison with TIZ formulated in phosphate buffer. Maximum enhancement was observed for TIZ formulated as a suspension in 50% v/v aqueous ethanol containing 5% v/v citral. Sonophoresis significantly (p synergistic effect was noted when sonophoresis was applied in the presence of chemical enhancers. The results suggest that the formulation of TIZ with an appropriate penetration enhancer may be useful in the development of a therapeutic system to deliver TIZ across the skin for a prolonged period, i.e. 24 hr. The application of ultrasound in association with chemical enhancers, such as the combination of 5% v/v citral in 50% v/v aqueous ethanol, could further serve as a non-oral and non-invasive drug delivery modality for the immediate therapeutic effect of muscle relaxants such as TIZ.

  4. Simultaneous Determination of Ephedrine Hydrochloride,D-pseudo-ephedrine and Amygdalin in Xuanfei Zhike Oral Liquid by RP-HPLC%RP-HPLC同时测定宣肺止咳口服液中盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱及苦杏仁苷含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘睿; 王宁; 刘志辉

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立同时测定宣肺止咳口服液中盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱、苦杏仁苷含量的高效液相色谱测定方法.方法:采用Hedera ODS-2色谱柱(4.6 mm × 250 mm,5 μm);以乙腈-0.2%磷酸水溶液为流动相梯度洗脱;紫外检测波长210nm,0~24 min流速为1.0 mL·min(-1),用于检测盐酸麻黄碱和盐酸伪麻黄碱;27~55 min流速为0.7 mL·min(-1),用于检测苦杏仁苷,柱温25℃.结果:盐酸伪麻黄碱、盐酸麻黄碱、苦杏仁苷分别在0.043 2~0.684 μg(r=0.999 9),0.048 8~0.976 μg(r =0.999 9),0.047 0~0.940 8 μg(r=0.999 8)线性关系良好;平均回收率(n=6)分别为96.15%,96.09%,95.74%,RSD分别为0.78%,1.18%,1.80%.结论:该法可以用于宣肺止咳口服液中盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱、苦杏仁苷的含量测定.%Objective: To establish an HPLC method for determination of ephedrine hydrochloride, D-pseudo-ephedrine and amygdalin in Xuanfei Zhike Oral Liquid. Method: The separation was performed on an Hedera ODS-2 (4.6 mm ×250 mm, 5 μm); the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-0.2% phosphoric acid (5: 95 ) with the flow rate of 1 mL· min- 1 for the determination of ephedrine hydrochloride, D-pseudo-ephedrine and 0. 7 mL·min-1 for amygdalin, UV detection wavelength was at 210 nm and column temperature was 25 ℃. Result: ephedrine hydrochloride, D-pseudo-ephedrine and amygdalin were linear in the range of 0. 043 2-0. 684 μg ( r = 0. 999 9), 0. 048 8-0. 976 μg ( r = 0. 999 9) and 0. 047 0-0. 940 8 μg ( r = 0. 999 8 ), the average recoveries (n =6) of ephedrine hydrochloride, D-pseudo-ephedrine and amygdalin were 96. 15% , 96. 09% and95. 74% with RSD of 0.78%, 1.18% and 1.80% respectively. Conclusion: This method is rapid and accurate for the simultaneous analysis of ephedrine hydrochloride, D-pseudo-ephedrine and amygdalin and can provide a reliable way for the quality control for Xuanfei Zhike Oral Liquid.

  5. The effect of combined therapy with external use of wishful golden cream and oral use of glucosamine hydrochloride on knee osteoarthritis%如意金黄膏联合盐酸氨基葡萄糖治疗膝骨性关节炎疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宵宵; 黄香妹; 王庆来; 吕存贤; 张帆; 张里援

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of combined therapy with external use of wishful golden cream and oral use of glucosamine hydrochloride on knee osteoarthritis.Methods 200 patients with knee osteoarthritis were divided into treatment group and control group according to the order of treatment.Control group were given one piece of oral glucosamine at a time,three times a day.It consisted of six weeks treatment for lcowrse,two courses per year.Treatment group were given oral glucosamine plus external usage of wishful golden cream every other day with a new one.It consisted of 14 days for a course,two courses per year.Results All patients were followed up for 1year.The efficien rate of the treatment group was 85.0%,and significantly higher than than of the control group (73.0%) ( x2 =4.34,P < 0.05 ).Conclusion Combined therapy with wishful golden cream and oral usage of glucosamine hydrochloride on knee osteoarthritis could significantly improve the clinical symptoms.It was more effective than oral treatment with glucosamine hydrochloride alone and it had great clinical value.%目的 探讨如意金黄膏外敷联合盐酸氨基葡萄糖口服治疗膝骨性关节炎的疗效.方法 选择膝骨性关节炎患者200例,按照就诊顺序分为两组,各100例.对照组予以口服盐酸氨基葡萄糖,每次1粒,3次/d,6周为1个疗程,每年2个疗程.治疗组在对照组口服盐酸氨基葡萄糖基础上外敷如意金黄膏,隔日更换1次,14 d为1个疗程,每年2个疗程.结果 两组患者均随访1年,治疗组治疗有效率(85.0%)明显高于对照组(73.0%)(x2=4.34,P<0.05).结论 如意金黄膏外敷联合盐酸氨基葡萄糖口服治疗膝骨性关节炎能明显改善患者的临床症状,疗效优于单纯的盐酸氨基葡萄糖口服治疗.

  6. 梯度洗脱HPLC法测定盐酸氨溴索口服溶液中甜味剂含量%Gradient HPLC determination of sweeteners in ambroxol hydrochloride oral solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李薇; 金薇; 乐健; 杨永健

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立高效液相色谱法测定盐酸氨溴索口服溶液中4种甜味剂(安赛蜜、糖精钠、阿司帕坦、甜菊糖、甜菊素)的方法,并在2011年度国家药品质量评价性抽验工作中,按照所建方法对盐酸氨溴索口服溶液中的4种甜味剂进行测定和评价.方法:采用Agilent SB-C18 (4.6 mm×150 mm,5 μm)柱,流动相A为0.02 mol·L-1磷酸二氢铵缓冲液(pH 4.4),流动相B为乙腈,流速1.0 mL·min-1,线性梯度洗脱,检测波长为200 nm(糖精钠、阿司帕坦、甜菊糖、甜菊素)和226 nm(安赛蜜).结果:安赛蜜、糖精钠、阿司帕坦和甜菊糖、甜菊素分离完全,各辅料均无干扰,线性范围分别为0.00561 ~0.225 mg· mL-1(r=1.0000)、0.00106 ~0.106 mg· mL-1(r=1.0000)、0.00522 ~0.209 mg· mL-1(r =0.9999)和0.00517~0.296 mg· mL-1(r=1.0000);检测限分别为0.4 ng,0.4 ng,1.6 ng和15.5 ng;定量限分别为1.3 ng,1.5 ng,5.2 ng和51.7 ng;平均加样回收率(n=6)分别为98.8% (RSD=0.5%),99.5%(RSD=0.3%),100.6%(RSD=0.2%),99.1% (RSD=1.1%).结论:本法具有较高的选择性,结果稳定,通过测定甜味剂的含量可监控制剂生产过程中辅料投料是否与处方一致.%Objective: To develop a method for determination of sweeteners in ambroxol hydrochloride oral solution including potassium acesulfame, sodium saccharine, aspartame and stevioside/steviosin. Methods: The separation was conducted on an Agilent SB - C18(4. 6 mm × 150 mm,5 μm) and coupled with DAD at 200 nm( sodium saccharine , aspartame and stevioside/steviosin) and 226 nm ( potassium acesulfame). The mobile phase consisted of 0. 02 mol · L-1 ammonium dihydrogen phosphate( pH 4. 4 ) ( A) and acetonitrile ( B ) with gradient program. The flow rate was 1. 0 mL · min . Results:Good separation of 4 sweeteners and other excipients were achieved. The linear ranges of potassium acesulfame,sodium saccharinem,aspartame and stevioside were 0. 00561 -0. 225 mg · mL-1 (r = 1.0000) ,0.00106 -0

  7. A novel formulation for mebeverine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hamid, Sameh M; Abdel-Hady, Seham E; El-Shamy, Abdel-Hamid A; El-Dessouky, Hadir F

    2007-10-01

    The antispasmodic drug mebeverine hydrochloride was formulated into a film-forming gel to be used as a topical local anesthetic. A mixture of cellulose derivatives was used as a base. Additives were used to enhance the release as well as the residence time. Formulations were characterized in terms of drug release, mucoadhesion and rheology. Clinically, the selected formula has shown faster onset (p = 0.0156), longer duration (p = 0.0313), better film residence (p = 0.0313), and no foreign body sensation (p = 0.0313) in comparison to Solcoseryl dental paste. Histopathological examination showed no change in inflammatory cells count, concluding that this topical anesthetic is efficacious and safe orally.

  8. Formulation, Development and Evaluation of delayed release capsules of Duloxetine Hydrochloride made of different Enteric Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Yerramsetty

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Delayed release systems have acquired a centre stage in the arena of pharmaceutical research and development. The present study involves formulation and evaluation of Duloxetine Hydrochloride delayed release capsules. Duloxetine Hydrochloride is an acid labile drug. It degrades in the acidic environment of the stomach thus leading to therapeutic inefficacy. Therefore it is necessary to bypass the acidic pH of the stomach which can be achieved by formulating delayed release dosage form by using different enteric polymers. Protection of drug from acidic environment is done by coating the drug with enteric polymers by using suspension layering technique in Fluidized bed processor (FBP with different enteric polymers like HPMCAS (Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose Acetate Succinate, Acryl EZE and HPMCP (Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose phthalate.The formulation (E12 of delayed release capsules of Duloxetine Hydrochloride containing HPMCP (HP-55: HP- 50 as enteric polymer can be taken as optimized

  9. 21 CFR 582.5676 - Pyridoxine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pyridoxine hydrochloride. 582.5676 Section 582.5676 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5676 Pyridoxine hydrochloride. (a) Product. Pyridoxine hydrochloride....

  10. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in the presence of diethylaminoethyl-dextran hydrochloride polymer and their SERS activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikac, L.; Jurkin, T.; Štefanić, G.; Ivanda, Mile; Gotić, Marijan

    2017-09-01

    The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized upon γ-irradiation of AgNO3 precursor suspensions in the presence of diethylaminoethyl-dextran hydrochloride (DEAE-dextran) cationic polymer as a stabilizer. The dose rate of γ-irradiation was 32 kGy h-1, and absorbed doses were 30 and 60 kGy. The γ-irradiation of the precursor suspension at acidic or neutral pH conditions produced predominantly the silver(I) chloride (AgCl) particles, because of the poor solubility of AgCl already present in the precursor suspension. The origin of AgCl in the precursor suspension was due to the presence of chloride ions in DEAE-dextran hydrochloride polymer. The addition of ammonia to the precursor suspension dissolved the AgCl precipitate, and the γ-irradiation of such colourless suspension at alkali pH produced a stable aqueous suspension with rather uniform spherical AgNPs of approximately 30 nm in size. The size of AgNPs was controlled by varying the AgNO3/DEAE-dextran concentration in the suspensions. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activities of synthesized AgNPs were examined using organic molecules rhodamine 6G, pyridine and 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA). The NaBH4 was used as SERS aggregation agent. The SERS results have shown that in the presence of synthesized AgNPs, it was possible to detect low concentration of tested compounds.

  11. Randomised clinical trial: sodium alginate oral suspension is non-inferior to omeprazole in the treatment of patients with non-erosive gastroesophageal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, C-T; Hsu, C-M; Wang, C-C; Chang, J-J; Sung, C-M; Lin, C-J; Chen, L-W; Su, M-Y; Chen, T-H

    2013-11-01

    The burden of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is increasing in the Asia area and the majority of GERD patients have non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). To evaluate the efficacy and safety of sodium alginate suspension compared to omeprazole in adult subjects with NERD. In this 4-week, double-blind, parallel study, 195 NERD subjects were randomised to one of two treatment groups: sodium alginate suspension 20 mL three times a day and omeprazole 20 mg once daily. The primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage of patients achieving adequate heartburn or regurgitation relief at day 28 assessed by patient diary. The secondary efficacy endpoints included percentage of patients achieving adequate heartburn or regurgitation relief, change from baseline of the Reflux Disease Questionnaire total score at day 14 and 28 from baseline, and patients' overall satisfaction. In this study, 183 subjects were included in the intent-to-treat population, and 172 subjects were included in the per-protocol population. Non-inferiority of sodium alginate to omeprazole was demonstrated in the intent-to-treat population [difference, 2.7% (53.3% vs. 50.5%, P = 0.175), 95% lower confidence interval -11.9%, above the preset margin of -19%]. All of the secondary efficacy endpoints were comparable between two groups. The incidence of adverse event was relatively low and there was no difference between the two groups (5.4% vs. 5.5% for sodium alginate vs. omeprazole). No severe adverse event was noted in this study. The study showed that sodium alginate was as effective as omeprazole for symptomatic relief in patients with non-erosive reflux disease (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01338077). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Evaluation of the effects of oral water and low-density barium sulphate suspension on bowel appearance on FDG-PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, Michael A.; Setty, Bindu N.; Kalra, Mannudeep; Holalkere, Nagaraj Setty; Mueller, Peter R.; Sahani, Dushyant V. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of Abdominal Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Cronin, Carmel G. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of Abdominal Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Fischman, Alan J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-01-15

    The purpose of this study is to assess which of five bowel preparation regimes offers superior bowel distension and to assess if these regimes adversely affect FDG activity on PET/CT imaging. The study conformed to HIPAA regulations. Ninety patients were divided into five groups of 18 who received no oral contrast agent (group A); 900 ml of water orally (group B); or 900, 1,350, or 1,800 ml of LDB (groups C, D, E, respectively). PET/CT examinations were assessed quantitatively (bowel diameter, SUV) and qualitatively (visual assessment grading scale) for bowel distension and FDG activity by two blinded readers. ANOVA was utilized to determine if a statistically significant difference (SSD) existed between the groups in terms of distension and FDG uptake. Qualitatively superior bowel distension was observed in group C (LDB) compared to B (water) and greater distension was noted with increased volumes of LDB in C, D, and E. Quantitatively there was an SSD in mean distension between groups C and B (P < 0.001 except duodenum). Qualitatively and quantitatively there was no significant difference in bowel FDG uptake among the groups (P > 0.05). LDB as an oral contrast agent provides superior bowel distension over water and does not induce increased FDG bowel activity. (orig.)

  13. Effect of racecadotril granules combined with compound ocimum oil oral suspension on acute diarrhea in infants%消旋卡多曲联合服药对婴幼儿急性水样泻的治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕妮; 朱昌琼

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察消旋卡多曲颗粒联合复方丁香罗勒口服混悬液治疗婴幼儿急性水样泻的疗效及安全性.方法 筛选84例符合条件的腹泻婴幼儿,随机分为两组:对照组为43例,给予消旋卡多曲颗粒治疗;治疗组为41例,在对照组的基础上加用复方丁香罗勒口服混悬液治疗,观察两组疗效.结果 治疗组的大便性状改善时间和总病程较对照组短,两组比较有显著性差异(t值分别为2.019、2.021,均P<0.05);治疗组的有效率明显高于对照组,两组比较有显著性差异(χ2=4.484,P<0.05).结论 消旋卡多曲颗粒联合复方丁香罗勒口服混悬液治疗婴幼儿急性水样泻,较单一应用消旋卡多曲颗粒可较快减少腹泻次数,缩短病程,无明显不良反应.%Objective To observe the efficacy and security of the treatment of infantile acute diarrhea by using racecadotril granules combined with compound ocimum oil oral suspension. Methods Eighty-four cases of acute diarrhea were randomly divided into two groups, 43 cases in control group and 41 cases in treatment group. Both groups were treated with racecadotril granules,and compound ocimum oil oral suspension was given to the treatment group besides. The clinical efficacy of two groups was observed. Results Diarrhea time and total duration in the treatment group were shorter than those in the control group, and there were statistically significant differences ( t value was 2. 019 and 2. 021, respectively, both P <0. 05 ). The effective rate in the treatment group was significantly higher than that in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (x2= 4. 484, P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Compared with the treatment with only racecadotril granules, the treatment of infantile acute diarrhea by using racecadotril granules combined with compound ocimum oil oral suspension can reduce the frequency of diarrhea quickly and shorten duration of diarrhea without significant adverse reactions.

  14. Intra-articular (IA) ropivacaine microparticle suspensions reduce pain, inflammation, cytokine, and substance p levels significantly more than oral or IA celecoxib in a rat model of arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinow, Barrett; Werling, Jane; Bendele, Alison; Gass, Jerome; Bogseth, Roy; Balla, Kelly; Valaitis, Paul; Hutchcraft, Audrey; Graham, Sabine

    2015-02-01

    Current therapeutic treatment options for osteoarthritis entail significant safety concerns. A novel ropivacaine crystalline microsuspension for bolus intra-articular (IA) delivery was thus developed and studied in a peptidoglycan polysaccharide (PGPS)-induced ankle swelling rat model. Compared with celecoxib controls, both oral and IA, ropivacaine IA treatment resulted in a significant reduction of pain upon successive PGPS reactivation, as demonstrated in two different pain models, gait analysis and incapacitance testing. The reduction in pain was attended by a significant reduction in histological inflammation, which in turn was accompanied by significant reductions in the cytokines IL-18 and IL-1β. This may have been due to inhibition of substance P, which was also significantly reduced. Pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that the analgesic effects outlasted measurable ropivacaine levels in either blood or tissue. The results are discussed in the context of pharmacologic mechanisms both of local anesthetics as well as inflammatory arthritis.

  15. Cinacalcet hydrochloride (Sensipar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Currently, >300,000 patients with end-stage renal disease require dialysis. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a serious complication of end-stage renal disease and can lead to renal osteodystrophy and other organ failure. Vitamin D sterols and phosphate binders are used to treat hyperparathyroidism, but they can cause hypercalcemia, which contributes to vascular and soft-tissue calcification. Cinacalcet (Sensipar) is the first agent in its class that treats secondary hyperparathyroidism by increasing the sensitivity of calcium sensing receptors. It is also indicated for the treatment of hypercalcemia in patients with parathyroid carcinoma. All clinical trials concluded that cinacalcet is effective for the reduction of parathyroid hormone, serum calcium, phosphorus, and calcium-phosphate product levels. Cinacalcet is available as a once-daily oral therapy. Adverse effects are generally mild. PMID:16200170

  16. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FLOATING TABLETS OF TIZANIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adimoolam Senthil

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to develop floating matrix tablets of tizanidine hydrochloride for prolongation of gastric residence time in order to overcome its low bioavailability (34–40% and short biological half life (4.2 h. Tizanidine hydrochloride floating tablets were prepared by the direct compression method, using different viscosity grades of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC K4M and K15M. Tizanidine hydrochloride is an orally administered prokinetic agent that facilitates or restores motility throughout the length of the gastrointestinal tract. Tablets were evaluated for various physical parameters and floating properties. Further, tablets were studied for in-vitro drug release characteristics in 12 hours. Drug release from floating matrix tablets was sustained over 12 h with buoyant properties. DSC study revealed that there was no drug and excipient interaction. Based on the release kinetics, all formulations best fitted the Higuchi, first-order model and non-Fickian as the mechanism of drug release. The optimized formulation (F9 released 75% of drug at the end of 10 hours by in-vitro release study.

  17. Cartap hydrochloride poisoning: A clinical experience

    OpenAIRE

    Hari K Boorugu; Anugrah Chrispal

    2012-01-01

    Cartap hydrochloride, a nereistoxin analog, is a commonly used low toxicity insecticide. We describe a patient who presented to the emergency department with alleged history of ingestion of Cartap hydrochloride as an act of deliberate self-harm. The patient was managed conservatively. To our knowledge this is the first case report of Cartap hydrochloride suicidal poisoning. Cartap toxicity has been considered to be minimal, but a number of animal models have shown significant neuromuscular to...

  18. 21 CFR 522.1222b - Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine... RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1222b Ketamine.... Ketamine hydrochloride, (±),-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino) cyclohexanone hydrochloride, with promazine...

  19. Thermoanalytical Investigation of Terazosin Hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Mohamed Abdel-Moety; Ali Kamal Attia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Thermal analysis (TGA, DTG and DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) have been used to study the thermal behavior of terazosin hydrochloride (TER). Methods: Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to determine the thermal behavior and purity of the used drug. Thermodynamic parameters such as activation energy (E*), enthalpy (∆H*), entropy (∆S*) and Gibbs free energy change of the decomp...

  20. Combination therapy for erectile dysfunction: a randomized, double blind, unblinded active-controlled, cross-over study of the pharmacodynamics and safety of combined oral formulations of apomorphine hydrochloride, phentolamine mesylate and papaverine hydrochloride in men with moderate to severe erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, P I; Rubio-Aurioles, E; Castell, R; Castaneda, J; Ponce de Leon, R; Hurley, D; Lipezker, M; Loehr, L A; Lowrey, F

    2002-02-01

    Oral therapy has become first line treatment for patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction (ED). Studies have shown that sildenafil may not be effective in all patients, and has been associated with a variety of adverse effects and an adverse interaction with nitrates and inhibitors of cytochrome P450 enzymes. The objective was to compare the efficacy and safety of three different oral combinations with the highest dose of sildenafil in men with moderate to severe ED. Randomized, double blind, unblinded active-controlled, Phase II study was carried out at three sites in Mexico. After a 4-week placebo run-in period, patients received all four of the following treatments using a 4-way cross-over design: 40 mg phentolamine (PM) +6 mg apomorphine (Apo); 40 mg PM +150 mg papaverine (Pap); 40 mg PM +6 mg Apo +150 mg Pap (Tricombo); 100 mg sildenafil (SC). With the exception of sildenafil tablets, all study medication was blinded. Moderate to severe ED was defined as a less than 50% vaginal penetration success rate during the placebo run-in period. A total of 44 patients were enrolled, of whom 36 completed all four treatment periods. All treatments produced a significant effect in primary efficacy variable (Sexual Encounter Profile) compared to baseline, however, no statistically significant differences were found between treatments. A significant period effect was observed. Also, the four treatments were found not to differ significantly in five out of six secondary efficacy variables. The lowest incidence of treatment-related adverse events (AE) occurred in the 40 mg PM +6 mg Apo group (9.8%), followed by 100 mg SC (15%), and the other two combinations (16.7 and 17.5%, respectively). Nasocongestion and headache were the most frequently reported AE. An oral combination of vasoactive agents may provide an alternative approach to sildenafil. Based on these results a combination of phentolamine and apomorphine warrants further clinical investigation.

  1. Beagle狗口服盐酸脂壬仲胺180天的安全性评价%Toxicity of aliphatic nonyl secondary amine hydrochloride administed orally for 180 days in Beagle dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱平; 孙辉业; 刘宝兴; 廖明阳; 沈伽弟; 孙永立; 袁本利; 余寿忠; 瞿文生; 王和枚; 郑德琪; 李培忠

    2003-01-01

    目的: 评价Beagle狗口服盐酸脂壬仲胺(aliphatic nonyl secondary amine hydrochloride, ANSA)6 mon产生的毒性作用, 提供毒性反应的靶器官及其损害的可逆性,确定无毒反应剂量.方法:本试验设ANSA 8.0、2.0和 0.5 mg*kg-1 3个剂量组,分别相当于人临床拟用剂量的56、14和 3.5 倍;相当于狗有效治疗剂量的64、16和4倍.另设空白对照组.每组Beagle犬6只,雌雄各半.每周给药 6 d,每天口服1次,连续 180 d.结果:8.0 mg*kg-1组动物先后于给药后出现眼球向外眼角上方斜视,结膜下部充血,瞬膜呈半闭合状态,瞳孔对光反射迟纯,精神不振,严重者出现肌肉颤抖.这些症状约在药后 40 min 开始出现,持续约 8 h,第2天完全恢复正常.2.0 mg*kg-1组约2/6动物出现同样症状,但症状较轻.0.5 mg*kg-1组和对照组动物未见异常,病理组织学检查未见Beagle狗给予供试品后造成的直接脏器损伤.各组13项血液学和17项血液生化学指标均在正常范围之内.结论:在本次试验条件下,盐酸脂壬仲胺的无毒反应剂量为 0.5 mg*kg-1.

  2. The effects of clomipramine hydrochloride in cats with psychogenic alopecia: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Petra A; Torres, Sheila; Jessen, Carl

    2006-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of clomipramine hydrochloride in cats with psychogenic alopecia. Twenty-five cats were randomly assigned to receive clomipramine hydrochloride (0.5 mg/kg orally q 24 hours) or placebo for 56 days. Eleven cats in each group completed the trial. The results of this study showed that clomipramine hydrochloride failed to demonstrate significant changes in the number of grooming bouts, hair regrowth, and the area of alopecia in cats with psychogenic alopecia when compared to a placebo. It was uncertain whether these results reflected a lack of drug efficacy, insufficient treatment duration, or an insufficient number of cases enrolled.

  3. EDITORIAL: Colloidal suspensions Colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, Andrei; Kegel, Willem; van Duijneveldt, Jeroen

    2011-05-01

    Special issue in honour of Henk Lekkerkerker's 65th birthday Professor Henk N W Lekkerkerker is a world-leading authority in the field of experimental and theoretical soft condensed matter. On the occasion of his 65th birthday in the summer of 2011, this special issue celebrates his many contributions to science. Henk Lekkerkerker obtained his undergraduate degree in chemistry at the University of Utrecht (1968) and moved to Calgary where he received his PhD in 1971. He moved to Brussels as a NATO fellow at the Université Libre de Bruxelles and was appointed to an assistant professorship (1974), an associate professorship (1977) and a full professorship (1980) in physical chemistry at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. In 1985 he returned to The Netherlands to take up a professorship at the Van 't Hoff Laboratory, where he has been ever since. He has received a series of awards during his career, including the Onsager Medal (1999) of the University of Trondheim, the Bakhuys Roozeboom Gold Medal (2003) of the Royal Dutch Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW), the ECIS-Rhodia European Colloid and Interface Prize (2003), and the Liquid Matter Prize of the European Physical Society (2008). He was elected a member of KNAW in 1996, was awarded an Academy Chair position in 2005, and has held several visiting lectureships. Henk's work focuses on phase transitions in soft condensed matter, and he has made seminal contributions to both the theoretical and experimental aspects of this field. Here we highlight three major themes running through his work, and a few selected publications. So-called depletion interactions may lead to phase separation in colloid-polymer mixtures, and Henk realised that the partitioning of polymer needs to be taken into account to describe the phase behaviour correctly [1]. Colloidal suspensions can be used as model fluids, with the time- and length-scales involved leading to novel opportunities, notably the direct observation of capillary waves at a

  4. High Performace Liquid Chromtographic Determination of Nicardipine Hydrochloride in Human Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. R. Krishnaiah

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the estimation of nicardipine hydrochloride in human plasma. Varying amount of nicardipine hydrochloride (2.5 to 150 ng/0.5 mL and fixed quantity (100 ng/0.5 mL of nifedipine (internal standard was added to blank human plasma, and a single step extraction was carried out with ethyl acetate. The mixture was centrifuged, ethyl acetate layer separated, dried and reconstituted with 100 μL of acetonitrile. Twenty microliters of this solution was injected into a reverse phase C-18 column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile: 0.02 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate (pH 4.0 in the ratio of 60:40 v/v and the eluents were monitored at 239 nm. The method was validated for its linearity, precision and accuracy. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 5-150 ng/0.5 mL of plasma and the lower detection limit was 2.5 ng/0.5 mL of plasma. The intra- and inter-day variation was found to be less than 2.5% indicating that the method is highly precise. The mean recovery of nicardipine hydrochloride from plasma samples was 89.6±2.60%. The proposed HPLC method was applied for the estimation of nicardipine hydrochloride in human plasma after oral administration of an immediate release nicardipine hydrochloride capsule (dose 30 mg to 6 adult male volunteers. There was no interference of either the drug metabolites or other plasma components with the proposed HPLC method for the estimation of nicardipine hydrochloride in human plasma. Due to its simplicity, sensitivity, high precision and accuracy, the proposed HPLC method may be used for biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic evaluation of nicardipine hydrochloride and its formulations in humans

  5. BRAIN TARGETING OF FLUNARIZINE HYDROCHLORIDE BY SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES FOR PROPHYLAXIS OF MIGRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Surjyanarayan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Flunarizine hydrochloride, a piperazine derivative, is a selective Ca++ channel blocker coupled with its antihistaminic property claimed to be effective in prophylaxis of migraine. Oral bioavailability of Flunarizine hydrochloride is very low (less then 18% due to poor water solubility and extensive first pass metabolism. Hence the aim of the present study was to develop Flunaruzine hydrochloride loaded sold lipid nanoparticles to improve drug diffusion profile and hence the oral bioavailability. Flunarizine hydrochloride nanosuspension stabilised by poloxamer F-68 was first prepared by high speed homogenization and was lyophilized to obtain nanoparticle using mannitol (1:1 w/v as cryoprotectant. Developed nanoparticle was characterized for its particle size and size distribution, drug content and % drug entrapment. In vitro dissolution study using dissolution bag (12000 D and ex vivo study in rat ileum were carried out using simulated intestinal fluid as dissolution medium. Droplet size, Zeta potential, % drug content and % drug entrapment of the nanoparticles of the Flunarizine hydrochloride were found to be 282±50nm with PdI=0.424±0.028, 34.9±7.36mV, 98.3±0.26% and 67±0.55% respectively. In vitro, ex vivo permeation study revealed that cumulative percentage drug permeated was found to be 75.66±0.9% and 69±1.4% in 8 hrs. Data of the ex vivo release study indicated that drug release was controlled by combination of lipid swelling, erosion and diffusion through the hydrated lipid matrix. From the results it could be considered that the developed Flunarizine hydrochloride nanoparticles may be an alternative for the prophylaxis of migraine.

  6. Nanoemulsion liquid preconcentrates for raloxifene hydrochloride: optimization and in vivo appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsheikh MA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Manal A Elsheikh,1 Yosra SR Elnaggar,1 Eman Y Gohar,2 Ossama Y Abdallah11Department of Pharmaceutics, 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Alexandria University, Alexandria, EgyptAbstract: Raloxifene hydrochloride (RLX is a selective estrogen-receptor modulator for treatment of osteoporosis and prevention of breast and endometrial cancer. By virtue of extensive presystemic clearance, RLX bioavailability is only 2%. The current study aimed to tailor and characterize RLX-loaded self-nanoemulsifying drug-delivery systems (SNEDDS using bioactive excipients affecting drug metabolism. The potential of oral nanocarriers to enhance RLX delivery to endocrine target organs was assessed in fasted and fed female Wistar rats using high-performance liquid chromatography. RLX was loaded in the dissolved and dispersed status in the alkalinized (A-SNEDDS and nonalkalinized (NA-SNEDDS systems, respectively. Optimization and assessment relied on solubility studies, emulsification efficiency, phase diagrams, dilution robustness, cloud point, particle size, zeta potential (ZP, polydispersity index (PDI, and transmission electron microscopy. In vitro release was assessed using dialysis bag versus dissolution cup methods. NA-SNEDDS were developed with suitable globule size (38.49 ± 4.30 nm, ZP (31.70 ± 3.58 mV, PDI (0.31 ± 0.02, and cloud point (85°C. A-SNEDDS exhibited good globule size (35 ± 2.80 nm, adequate PDI (0.28 ± 0.06, and lower ZP magnitude (-21.20 ± 3.46 mV. Transmission electron microscopy revealed spherical globules and contended data of size analysis. Release studies demonstrated a nonsignificant enhancement of RLX release from NA-SNEDDS compared to drug suspension with the lowest release shown by A-SNEDDS. A conflicting result was elucidated from in vivo trial. A significant enhancement in RLX uptake by endocrine organs was observed after nanocarrier administration compared to RLX suspension. In vivo studies reflected a poor in vitro

  7. Nanoemulsion liquid preconcentrates for raloxifene hydrochloride: optimization and in vivo appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikh, Manal A; Elnaggar, Yosra S R; Gohar, Eman Y; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    2012-01-01

    Raloxifene hydrochloride (RLX) is a selective estrogen-receptor modulator for treatment of osteoporosis and prevention of breast and endometrial cancer. By virtue of extensive presystemic clearance, RLX bioavailability is only 2%. The current study aimed to tailor and characterize RLX-loaded self-nanoemulsifying drug-delivery systems (SNEDDS) using bioactive excipients affecting drug metabolism. The potential of oral nanocarriers to enhance RLX delivery to endocrine target organs was assessed in fasted and fed female Wistar rats using high-performance liquid chromatography. RLX was loaded in the dissolved and dispersed status in the alkalinized (A-SNEDDS) and nonalkalinized (NA-SNEDDS) systems, respectively. Optimization and assessment relied on solubility studies, emulsification efficiency, phase diagrams, dilution robustness, cloud point, particle size, zeta potential (ZP), polydispersity index (PDI), and transmission electron microscopy. In vitro release was assessed using dialysis bag versus dissolution cup methods. NA-SNEDDS were developed with suitable globule size (38.49 ± 4.30 nm), ZP (31.70 ± 3.58 mV), PDI (0.31 ± 0.02), and cloud point (85°C). A-SNEDDS exhibited good globule size (35 ± 2.80 nm), adequate PDI (0.28 ± 0.06), and lower ZP magnitude (-21.20 ± 3.46 mV). Transmission electron microscopy revealed spherical globules and contended data of size analysis. Release studies demonstrated a nonsignificant enhancement of RLX release from NA-SNEDDS compared to drug suspension with the lowest release shown by A-SNEDDS. A conflicting result was elucidated from in vivo trial. A significant enhancement in RLX uptake by endocrine organs was observed after nanocarrier administration compared to RLX suspension. In vivo studies reflected a poor in vitro/in vivo correlation, recommended nanocarrier administration before meals, and did not reveal any advantage for drug loading in the solubilized form (A-SNEDDS). To conclude, NA-SNEDDS possessed superior in

  8. Design and development of polyethylene oxide based matrix tablets for verapamil hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Vidyadhara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation an attempt has been made to increase therapeutic efficacy, reduced frequency of administration and improved patient compliance by developing controlled release matrix tablets of verapamil hydrochloride. Verapamil hydrochloride was formulated as oral controlled release matrix tablets by using the polyethylene oxides (Polyox WSR 303. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of polymer level and type of fillers namely lactose (soluble filler, swellable filler (starch 1500, microcrystalline cellulose and dibasic calcium phosphate (insoluble fillers on the release rate and mechanism of release for verapamil hydrochloride from matrix tablets prepared by direct compression process. Higher polymeric content in the matrix decreased the release rate of drug. On the other hand, replacement of lactose with anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate and microcrystalline cellulose has significantly retarded the release rate of verapamil hydrochloride. Biopharmaceutical evaluation of satisfactory formulations were also carried out on New Zealand rabbits and parameters such as maximum plasma concentration, time to reach peak plasma concentration, area under the plasma concentration time curve (0-t and area under first moment curve (0-t were determined. In vivo pharmacokinetic study proves that the verapamil hydrochloride from matrix tablets showed prolonged release and were be able to sustain the therapeutic effect up to 24 h.

  9. [Clinical evaluation of roxatidine acetate hydrochlorides as a preanesthetic medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, M; Chihara, E; Ibuki, T; Ashida, H; Fukushima, H; Tanaka, Y

    2001-02-01

    Roxatidine acetate hydrochloride capsule is slowly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, and its acid suppressive effect on the stomach is long-lasting compared with other H2-blockers. The reduction of gastric juice in perioperative period is considered advantageous for patients not only because it decreases the risk for aspiration pneumonia but also because it reduces the risk of bronchial spasm induced by gastroesophageal reflux of acidic gastric content. The effects of single oral administration of roxatidine acetate hydrochloride 150 mg at night before the operation on the volume and pH of gastric juice were investigated during anesthesia using two types of anesthetic agents (isoflurane and propofol) in 93 patients of three age groups (group Y: age 20-40, group M: age 41-64, group O: age 65 roxatidine on reduction of gastric juice was found at the time of anesthetic induction and 2 hours after the induction in any age group with either anesthetic agent. The serum concentration of roxatidine at the time of induction was much higher in group O. The value of residual concentration of roxatidine 20 hours after oral intake was estimated from the intraoperative measurements of serum concentration. The results suggest that single administration at night before the operation is sufficient for the oldest group, but an additive dose is recommended for the younger groups.

  10. Urinary incontinence - retropubic suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marchetti-Krantz (MMK) procedure; Laparoscopic retropubic colposuspension; Needle suspension; Burch colposuspension ... bladder. There are two ways to do retropubic suspension: open surgery or laparoscopic surgery. Either way, surgery ...

  11. Suspension Trauma / Orthostatic Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Science and Technology Assessment Printer Friendly Version Suspension Trauma/Orthostatic Intolerance Safety and Health Information Bulletin ... information about the hazards of orthostatic intolerance and suspension trauma when using fall arrest systems. This bulletin: ...

  12. Collapsing granular suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Kadau, D.; Andrade Jr, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2009-01-01

    A 2D contact dynamics model is proposed as a microscopic description of a collapsing suspension/soil to capture the essential physical processes underlying the dynamics of generation and collapse of the system. Our physical model is compared with real data obtained from in situ measurements performed with a natural collapsing/suspension soil. We show that the shear strength behavior of our collapsing suspension/soil model is very similar to the behavior of this collapsing suspension soil, for...

  13. "Tetracycline hydrochloride chemical burn" as self-inflicted mucogingival injury: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundoor Manjunath Dayakar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Injuries to oral soft tissue can be accidental, iatrogenic, and factitious trauma. Chemical, thermal, and physical agents are the main causative agents for oral soft-tissue burns. The present case describes the chemical burn of oral mucosa caused by tetracycline hydrochloride and its management. Diagnosis was made on the basis of definitive history elicited from the patient. The early detection of the lesion by the patient and immediate institution of therapeutic measures ensure a rapid cure and possible prevention of further mucogingival damage. In addition, we believe that proper guidance and education of the patient is an important prophylactic measure in preventing this self-inflicting injury.

  14. The discussion on several key questions in human bioequivalence study of oral preparation of terazosin hydrochloride%对盐酸特拉唑嗪口服制剂人体生物等效性试验几个关键问题的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强桂芬; 杨漫; 张娅喃; 刘曼; 张丹; 刘会臣

    2011-01-01

    Generic drug, as the main variety researched and developed in China, needs to be validated by the human bioequivalence study before marketing. The quality of human bioequivalence study relates to the quality of numerous drugs, therefore influences drug safety and efficacy for the great majority of people. We summarized some methods of work and experience in the human bioequivalence study of oral preparation of terazosin hydrochlo-ride. In this paper, we discuss several key issues including study design, test preparation and reference preparation , selection and number of subjects, clinical monitoring, and the collection, treatment and detection of biological samples. We want to supply constructive suggestions for the normalization and higher quality of human bioequivalence study in the future.%我国的药品研究开发以仿制药为主,仿制药上市前通常需要进行人体生物等效性试验.人体生物等效性试验的质量直接关系到众多药品的质量,进而影响到广大人民群众的用药安全和疗效.作者在完成盐酸特拉唑嗪口服制剂人体生物等效性试验中总结了一些做法和体会,通过探讨试验设计、受试制剂和参比制剂、受试者选择和例数、临床监护、生物样品采集、处理和检测等几个关键问题,旨在为今后人体生物等效性试验的规范化和质量提高提供一些建设性意见.

  15. Pharmacokinetic study of benfotiamine and the bioavailability assessment compared to thiamine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Feifan; Cheng, Zeneng; Li, Sanwang; Liu, Xingling; Guo, Xin; Yu, Peng; Gu, Zhenkun

    2014-06-01

    Benfotiamine is a lipid-soluble thiamine precursor which can transform to thiamine in vivo and subsequently be metabolized to thiamine monophosphate (TMP) and thiamine diphosphate (TDP). This study investigated the pharmacokinetic profiles of thiamine and its phosphorylated metabolites after single- and multiple-dose administration of benfotiamine in healthy Chinese volunteers, and assessed the bioavailability of orally benfotiamine administration compared to thiamine hydrochloride. In addition, concentration of hippuric acid in urine which is produced in the transformation process of benfotiamine was determined. The results showed that thiamine and its phosphorylated metabolites exhibited different pharmacokinetic characteristics in plasma, blood and erythrocyte, and one-compartment model provided the best fit for pharmacokinetic profiles of thiamine. The transformation process of benfotiamine to thiamine produced large amount of hippuric acid. No accumulation of hippuric acid was observed after multiple-dose of benfotiamine. Compared to thiamine hydrochloride, the bioavailability of thiamine in plasma and TDP in erythrocyte after oral administration of benfotiamine were 1147.3 ± 490.3% and 195.8 ± 33.8%, respectively. The absorption rate and extent of benfotiamine systemic availability of thiamine were significantly increased indicating higher bioavailability of thiamine from oral dose of benfotiamine compared to oral dose of thiamine hydrochloride.

  16. Thermoanalytical Investigation of Terazosin Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mohamed Abdel-Moety

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Thermal analysis (TGA, DTG and DTA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC have been used to study the thermal behavior of terazosin hydrochloride (TER. Methods: Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG, differential thermal analysis (DTA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC were used to determine the thermal behavior and purity of the used drug. Thermodynamic parameters such as activation energy (E*, enthalpy (H*, entropy (S* and Gibbs free energy change of the decomposition (G* were calculated using different kinetic models. Results: The purity of the used drug was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (99.97% and specialized official method (99.85% indicating to satisfactory values of the degree of purity. Thermal analysis technique gave satisfactory results to obtain quality control parameters such as melting point (273 ºC, water content (7.49% and ash content (zero in comparison to what were obtained using official method: (272 ºC, (8.0% and (0.02% for melting point, water content and ash content, respectively. Conclusion: Thermal analysis justifies its application in quality control of pharmaceutical compounds due to its simplicity, sensitivity and low operational costs. DSC data indicated that the degree of purity of terazosin hydrochloride is similar to that found by official method.

  17. Acute Psychotic Symptoms due to Benzydamine Hydrochloride Abuse with Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Ayhan Acar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzydamine hydrochloride is a locally acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Benzydamine hydrochloride overdose can cause stimulation of central nervous system, hallucinations, and psychosis. We presented a young man with psychotic symptoms due to benzydamine hydrochloride abuse. He received a total dose of 1000 mg benzydamine hydrochloride with alcohol for its hallucinative effects. Misuse of benzydamine hydrochloride must be considered in differential diagnosis of first-episode psychosis and physicians should consider possibility of abuse in prescribing.

  18. Spectrophotometric simultaneous estimation of ranitidine hydrochloride and ondansetron hydrochloride from tablet formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillai S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Three simple, accurate, economical and reproducible UV spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous estimation of two component drug mixture of ranitidine hydrochloride and ondansetron hydrochloride from combined tablet dosage form have been developed. First developed method involves formation and solving of simultaneous equations at 267.2 nm and 314.4 nm. Second method was developed making use of first order derivative spectroscopy using 340.8 nm and 276.0 nm as zero crossing points for estimation of ranitidine hydrochloride and ondansetron hydrochloride respectively. Third method is based on two wavelength calculation, wavelengths selected for estimation of ranitidine hydrochloride were 266.1 nm and 301.8 nm and for ondansetron hydrochloride 305.7 nm and 319.2 nm. The results of analysis have been validated statistically and by recovery studies.

  19. Spectrophotometric determination of diphenhydramine hydrochloride using dipicrylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsa, F A; Maghssoudi, R H

    1976-05-01

    A spectrophotometric procedure for the determination of diphenhydramine hydrochloride based on the reaction with dipicrylamine was developed. A yellow complex forms and is easily extractable by chloroform at pH 5. The mole ratio of diphenydramine hydrochloride to dipicrylamine in the complex is 1:3. The absorbance of the complex obeys Beer's law over the concentration range of 3-10 mug of diphenhydramine hydrochloride per ml of chloroform. This procedure can be carried out in the presence of other compounds without interference.

  20. Stability Indicating HPLC Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Trihexyphenidyl Hydrochloride, Trifluoperazine Hydrochloride and Chlorpromazine Hydrochloride from Tablet Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, simple, precise, rapid, selective and stability indicating reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride, trifluoperazine hydrochloride and chlorpromazine hydrochloride from combined tablet formulation. The method is based on reverse-phase using C-18 (250×4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size column. The separation is achieved using isocratic elution by methanol and ammonium acetate buffer (1% w/v, pH 6.5 in the ratio of 85:15 v/v, pumped at flow rate 1.0 mL/min and UV detection at 215 nm. The column is maintained at 30 °C through out the analysis. This method gives baseline resolution. The total run time is 15 min. Stability indicating capability is established buy forced degradation experiment. The method is validated for specificity, accuracy, precision and linearity as per International conference of harmonisation (ICH. The method is accurate and linear for quantification of trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride, trifluoperazine hydrochloride and Chlorpromazine hydrochloride between 5 - 15 μg/mL, 12.5- 37.5 μg/mL and 62.5 - 187.5 μg/mL respectively.

  1. A Novel Synthesis of Difloxacin Hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Difloxacin hydrochloride, one of aryl-fluoro quinolone antibiotic, has been synthesized in seven steps from 2, 4-dichloro-5-fluoroacetophenone via oxalylation, ethoxymethylenation,amination, cyclization, hydrolysis, decarbonylation and N-methylpiperazination. Additional four new intermediates are produced.

  2. A novel asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    Arava, Veera R; Laxminarasimhulu Gorentla; Pramod K. Dubey

    2012-01-01

    A novel route to asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride by the application of (R)-tert-butanesulfinamide and regioselective N-alkylation of the naphthyl ethyl sulfinamide intermediate is described.

  3. A novel asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veera R. Arava

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel route to asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride by the application of (R-tert-butanesulfinamide and regioselective N-alkylation of the naphthyl ethyl sulfinamide intermediate is described.

  4. A novel asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorentla, Laxminarasimhulu; Dubey, Pramod K

    2012-01-01

    Summary A novel route to asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride by the application of (R)-tert-butanesulfinamide and regioselective N-alkylation of the naphthyl ethyl sulfinamide intermediate is described. PMID:23019473

  5. Application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in predicting drug–drug interactions for sarpogrelate hydrochloride in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min JS

    2016-09-01

    , desipramine, imipramine, dextromethorphan, and tolterodine following single and multiple sarpogrelate hydrochloride oral doses were within the range of ≥1.25, but <2-fold, indicating that sarpogrelate hydrochloride is a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6 in vivo. Collectively, the predicted low DDIs suggest that sarpogrelate hydrochloride has limited potential for causing significant DDIs associated with CYP2D6 inhibition. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the feasibility of applying the PBPK approach to predicting the DDI potential between sarpogrelate hydrochloride and drugs metabolized by CYP2D6. Therefore, it would be beneficial in designing and optimizing clinical DDI studies using sarpogrelate as an in vivo CYP2D6 inhibitor. Keywords: sarpogrelate hydrochloride, M-1, CYP2D6 inhibition, PBPK modeling

  6. Pharmacokinetics of barnidipine hydrochloride, a new dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, in the rat, dog and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramura, T; Watanabe, T; Higuchi, S; Hashimoto, K

    1995-11-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of a new calcium antagonist barnidipine hydrochloride, a stereochemically pure enantiomer, was studied after intravenous and oral dosing to the rat and dog, and oral to man. 2. After intravenous dosing, plasma concentrations of barnidipine hydrochloride declined bi-exponentially with the terminal half-lives of 0.6 h in the rat and 4.1 h in the dog. The blood clearance was 5.2 l/h/kg in the rat and 3.3 l/h/kg in the dog, and was comparable with hepatic blood flow in both species. 3. After oral dosing, plasma concentrations of barnidipine hydrochloride peaked rapidly (0.3-0.4 h in the rat and dog, 1.0-1.6 h in man). Cmax and AUC rose non-linearly with increasing doses in all three species. 4. The absolute bioavailability was low (11-18% in the rat and 6-9% in the dog), suggesting a marked first-pass metabolism.

  7. FORMULATION AND DISSOLUTION STUDY OF DILTIAZEM HYDROCHLORIDE IMMEDIATE RELEASE TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAHMAIAH BONTHAGARALA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main aim and objective of the work is to formulate immediate release tablets using different direct compression vehicles (DCV’S in different ratios. Methods: In the present study, design of oral immediate release tablets of Diltiazem hydrochloride by direct compression technique was carried out. Results: The main motive is to compare the dissolution profile of these formulations and conclude the best formulation which release drug at a faster rate . To determine the best fit dissolution profile for the dosage forms. Diltiazem hydrochloride tablets were formulated by using microcrystalline cellulose (diluent, potato starch, acacia (binder and magnesium stearate (lubricant. The granules were compressed into tablets and were subjected to dissolution studies. The dissolution profile of the formulation F2 was found to have better dissolution rate compared to others. Conclusion: The Invitro dissolution studies of all the formulations were conducted and the results were obtained, it was concluded that formulation F2 was the best with fast release of drug compared to others.

  8. Collapsing granular suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadau, D; Andrade, J S; Herrmann, H J

    2009-11-01

    A 2D contact dynamics model is proposed as a microscopic description of a collapsing suspension/soil to capture the essential physical processes underlying the dynamics of generation and collapse of the system. Our physical model is compared with real data obtained from in situ measurements performed with a natural collapsing/suspension soil. We show that the shear strength behavior of our collapsing suspension/soil model is very similar to the behavior of this collapsing suspension soil, for both the unperturbed and the perturbed phases of the material.

  9. 78 FR 34108 - Determination That SUBOXONE (Buprenorphine Hydrochloride and Naloxone Hydrochloride) Sublingual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That SUBOXONE (Buprenorphine Hydrochloride and... (buprenorphine hydrochloride (HCl) and naloxone HCl) sublingual tablets, 2 milligrams (mg)/0.5 mg and 8 mg/2 mg... to approve abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for buprenorphine HCl and naloxone...

  10. Suspension trauma; Le traumatisme de suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudel, S. [Le Centre de sante et de services sociaux du rocher Perce, Chandler, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed the precautions that should be taken to avoid falls from wind turbines or transmission towers. Suspension trauma was explained by a medical doctor in terms of physiology and the body's normal circulation and the elements that disturb normal physiology when in suspension. The trauma occurs following a fall, which carries the risk of 1or more disorders, such as massive hemorrhage, high cardiac pulse, and constriction of blood vessels. Nausea, vertigo, cardiac arrhythmia and sweating occur 15 to 20 minutes following the fall. The presentation emphasized the importance of having qualified personnel at the site and wearing proper harnesses and equipment that supports the neck. figs.

  11. Characterizing dense suspensions: two case studies from the pharmaceutical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, David J.; Khawaja, Nazia; Kazakevich, Irina; Bhattacharjee, Himanshu; Heslinga, Michael; Dalton, Chad

    2015-11-01

    Liquid suspensions of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient powders are present as pharmaceutical dosage forms in the form of oral suspensions and injectables. We present two case studies, both dense (~ 30-40%) suspensions, in which the physical characterization of the product, specifically, particle size & shape and rheology were key to understanding the key product attributes as pertaining to the manufacturing process and to patient administration. For the one case study, an oral suspension, identifying variations in particle morphology during the wet milling of the product was key to the product understanding necessary to modify the milling process. Rheological measurements were applied as well. For the second case study, an injectable, results from different particle size measurement techniques and rheological measurements indicated the possibility of flocculation in a formulation. Additionally, measurements were obtained to assess the ``injectability'' of the product via rheometer and texture analyzer measurements and Poiseuille flow modeling. As a result, the relevant shear rate regime for this drug product administration was identified.

  12. Research on School Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iselin, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Schools across the nation report increases in the use of punitive disciplinary methods (e.g., suspension). The need for these disciplinary practices to address serious student misconduct is undisputed. What research has questioned is why some students seem to be suspended more often than others, what effects suspension has on students, and whether…

  13. Octenidine hydrochloride in hydatid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindis, Mustafa; Arikan, Yuksel; Cetinkaya, Zafer; Polat, Coskun; Yilmaz, Sezgin; Akbulut, Gökhan; Dilek, Osman Nuri; Gokce, Ozcan

    2004-01-01

    Hydatid disease is still endemic in many devoloping countries and continues to be an important cause of morbidity. The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro scolicidal effects of octenidine hydrochloride in different concentrations using different exposure times. After hydatid cyst liquid was left to precipitate for 1 h to obtain cystic sand, various concentrations of octenidine (undiluted, 1% and 0.1% diluted) were added to concentrated hydatid cyst sediments for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, and 60 min, and scolicidal effects of octenidine were compared with 20% saline and control group for the same times. It was found that undiluted octenidine had a strong scolicidal effect at 15 min compared to saline at 20%. One percent octenidine had a scolicidal effect at 30 min. However, 0.1% octenidine did not have enough scolicidal effect in 1 h. It was concluded that undiluted and 1% diluted octenidine might be used for scolicidal purpose in the treatment of hydatid disease.

  14. Compound list: fluoxetine hydrochloride [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fluoxetine hydrochloride FLX 00158 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/...LATEST/Human/in_vitro/fluoxetine_hydrochloride.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/o...pen-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/fluoxetine_hydrochloride.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp....biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/fluoxetine_hydrochloride.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  15. 21 CFR 182.1047 - Glutamic acid hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glutamic acid hydrochloride. 182.1047 Section 182.1047 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1047 Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (a) Product. Glutamic acid hydrochloride....

  16. Bioavailability of three rufinamide oral suspensions compared with the marketed 400-mg tablet formulation: results from a randomized-sequence, open-label, four-period, four-sequence crossover study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, David John; Aluri, Jagadeesh; Boyd, Peter; Whayman, Matthew; Narurkar, Milind; Delargy, Hugh; Bibbiani, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Rufinamide is indicated for the adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in patients aged ≥4 years. The primary purpose of this study was to compare the relative bioavailability and other pharmacokinetics of rufinamide administered as a 400-mg tablet formulation (reference) with 10 mL of a newly developed 40-mg/mL suspension (test) manufactured using 3 different homogenization speeds in healthy subjects under fed conditions. The study also explored whether homogenization speed had any effect on rufinamide pharmacokinetics when administered as a suspension formulation. This was a randomized, open-label, crossover, single-dose study in healthy, fed subjects aged 18 to 55 years (inclusive), conducted at a single center in the United Kingdom. Subjects were randomized to 1 of 4 treatment sequences, with each sequence consisting of 4 treatment periods. In each treatment period, subjects received a single dose of either the reference product (400-mg rufinamide tablet) or the test product (10 mL of rufinamide suspension [40 mg/mL] manufactured using 3 different homogenization speeds [1800, 2100, and 3000 revolutions per minute (rpm)]). Serial blood samples were collected for 72 hours after dosing for the measurement of rufinamide in plasma. Primary comparisons between test (suspension) and reference (tablet) formulations focused on AUC from 0 to 72 hours (AUC(0-72 h)) and C(max). The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the ratios of geometric least squares means and associated 90% CIs of AUC(0-72 h) and C(max) were within the predetermined range of 80%-125%, according to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) requirements. Tolerability was assessed by subject interviews, physical examinations, and laboratory tests. Twenty-four healthy subjects were randomized: 8 were male and 16 were female; 22 white, 1 black, and 1 Asian subjects were enrolled. Mean (SD) age was 29.8 (10.0) years. Mean

  17. The debate concerning oral anticoagulation: whether to suspend oral anticoagulants during dental treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    António, Natália; Castro, Graça; Ramos, Domingos; Machado, António; Gonçalves, Lino; Macedo, Tice; Providência, Luís A

    2008-04-01

    The management of patients taking long-term oral anticoagulants who require dental surgery is still highly controversial. The risk of bleeding associated with dental treatment under oral anticoagulants must be weighed against the risk of thromboembolism associated with suspension of antithrombotic therapy. Mortality and morbidity associated with thromboembolic events are higher than those associated with hemorrhagic events after minor oral surgery procedures. Evidence-based information does not support oral anticoagulant suspension before minor oral surgery. The authors propose a management protocol for chronically anticoagulated patients who require a dental procedure, to reduce both thromboembolic risk and the risk of bleeding.

  18. Microfluidic Bead Suspension Hopper

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Alexander K.; MacConnell, Andrew B.; Paegel, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    Many high-throughput analytical platforms, from next-generation DNA sequencing to drug discovery, rely on beads as carriers of molecular diversity. Microfluidic systems are ideally suited to handle and analyze such bead libraries with high precision and at minute volume scales; however, the challenge of introducing bead suspensions into devices before they sediment usually confounds microfluidic handling and analysis. We developed a bead suspension hopper that exploits sedimentation to load b...

  19. The Mystical Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Santiesteban Oliva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mistical suspension, silence, time, absolute, ontology, ineffability, aletheiaIn the mystical ecstasy there is a sensorial and intellectual suspension when contemplating the absolute, the ontological Being. Silence is not only significant: it is revealing. The greatest expression of experience inner silence . The word is insufficient when the ontological reality is revealed. Revelation or truth , the Greek concept of aletheia, takes on greater significance in that transcendental experience. It is also suspended phenomenological time and remains eternity open.

  20. 中国健康男性受试者单次口服盐酸伊伐布雷定前后心率与血药浓度的变化%Pharmacokinetics of single oral dose of ivabradine hydrochloride and effect on heart rate in healthy male volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许莉; 蒋娟娟; 谢爽; 娄莹; 王莉; 庞会敏; 田蕾; 李一石

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigated the pharmacokinetics of single oral dose of ivabradine hydrochloride and evaluate its effect on heart rate in healthy male Chinese volunteers.Methods:Thirty-six volunteers were randomized to 3 groups:ivabradine 5 mg(n =12),10 mg(n =12),and 20 mg(n =12).Blood samples were collected at 0.25,0.5,0.75,1,1.5,2,4,6,8,12,and 24 h,and heart rates were recorded at 2,6,12,and 24 h after single dose administration of ivabradine.The plasma concentrations of invabradine were determined by HPLC-MS/ MS method.Results:After single dose administration,the Cmax was (9.67 ±4.55),(23.1 ± 13.0),and (46.9 ± 18.5) ng· mL-1 for 5,10,and 20 mg hydrochloride ivabradine respectively,Tmax was (1.0 ± 0.5),(1.0 ± 0.4),and (0.9 ± 0.5) h respectively.Resting heart rate was reduced at 2 h and returned to baseline at 6 h.The maximum decrease percentage of heart rate was (5.27 ± 10.96) %,(5.86 ± 12.50) %,and (10.17 ± 8.90) %,respectively.There was a significant lag time between peak plasma concentration of ivabradine and maximum bradycardic effect.The peak plasma concentration of ivabradine appeared at 45 min to 1 h after administration,while the maximum decrease of heart rate appeared at 2 h.Conclusion:This study shows that ivabradine could decrease the Chinese male healthy volunteer resting heart rate in a dose-dependent effect.%目的:评价中国健康受试者单次口服盐酸伊伐布雷定后血药浓度的变化及对心率的影响.方法:36例受试者随机分为3组,分别单次口服伊伐布雷定5,10,20 mg(每组n=12),在规定的时间内采集血样(药前,药后0.25,0.5,0.75,1,1.5,2,4,6,8,12,24 h)和测量心率(药前,药后2,6,12,24 h).采用HPLC-MS/MS法测定血浆中的盐酸伊伐布雷定浓度.结果:受试者单次口服盐酸伊伐布雷定5,10,20 mg后,达峰浓度Cmax分别为(9.67±4.55),(23.1±13.0),(46.9±18.5) ng·mL-1,达峰时间Tmax分别为(1.0±0.5),(1.0±0.4)和(0.9±0.5)h.单次服药后2h,

  1. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of oral ibuprofen suspension in treatment of neonatal patent ductus arteriosus%布洛芬治疗新生儿动脉导管未闭的有效性及安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    门晓英; 张丽范

    2010-01-01

    目的 评价口服布洛芬混悬剂治疗新生儿动脉导管未闭的有效性及安全性. 方法 将2006年1月至2009年12月收治的新生儿动脉导管未闭128例作为观察组,口服布洛芬混悬剂治疗;将2003年1月至2005年12月收治的新生儿动脉导管未闭92例作为对照组,采用吲哚美辛治疗;比较两组患者的疗效及不良反应发生情况. 结果 观察组的关闭情况明显优于对照组,且不良反应发生率明显少于对照组,两组比较,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05). 结论 口服布洛芬混悬剂治疗新生儿动脉导管未闭疗效满意,且不良反应少,值得临床推广应用.%Objective To observe the efficacy and safety of oral ibuprofen suspension in treatment of neonatal patent ductus arteriosus. Methods From January 2006 to December 2009 in our hospital,128 cases with neonatal patent ductus arteriosus were accepted as the observation group,treated with oral Ibuprofen Suspension:from January 2003 to December 2005 in our hospital,92 cases with neonatal patent ductus arteriosus were accepted as the control group,treated with lndomethacin.Efficacy and adverse reaction of two groups were compared. Results The closure of the observation group was better than the control group,and the incidence of adverse events was less than the control group,the differences between two groups were statistically significant(P<0.05). Conclusion Oral ibuprofen suspension in treatment of neonatal patent ductus arteriosus had satisfactory effect and less adverse reaction,it was worthy of clinic application.

  2. Cartap hydrochloride poisoning: A clinical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari K Boorugu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cartap hydrochloride, a nereistoxin analog, is a commonly used low toxicity insecticide. We describe a patient who presented to the emergency department with alleged history of ingestion of Cartap hydrochloride as an act of deliberate self-harm. The patient was managed conservatively. To our knowledge this is the first case report of Cartap hydrochloride suicidal poisoning. Cartap toxicity has been considered to be minimal, but a number of animal models have shown significant neuromuscular toxicity resulting in respiratory failure. It is hypothesized that the primary effect of Cartap hydrochloride is through inhibition of the [ 3 H]-ryanodine binding to the Ca 2+ release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum in a dose-dependent manner and promotion of extracellular Ca 2+ influx and induction of internal Ca 2+ release. This results in tonic diaphragmatic contraction rather than paralysis. This is the basis of the clinical presentation of acute Cartap poisoning as well as the treatment with chelators namely British Anti Lewisite and sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate.

  3. 21 CFR 556.350 - Levamisole hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride. 556.350 Section 556.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs...

  4. Cartap hydrochloride poisoning: A clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorugu, Hari K; Chrispal, Anugrah

    2012-01-01

    Cartap hydrochloride, a nereistoxin analog, is a commonly used low toxicity insecticide. We describe a patient who presented to the emergency department with alleged history of ingestion of Cartap hydrochloride as an act of deliberate self-harm. The patient was managed conservatively. To our knowledge this is the first case report of Cartap hydrochloride suicidal poisoning. Cartap toxicity has been considered to be minimal, but a number of animal models have shown significant neuromuscular toxicity resulting in respiratory failure. It is hypothesized that the primary effect of Cartap hydrochloride is through inhibition of the [(3)H]-ryanodine binding to the Ca(2+) release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum in a dose-dependent manner and promotion of extracellular Ca(2+) influx and induction of internal Ca(2+) release. This results in tonic diaphragmatic contraction rather than paralysis. This is the basis of the clinical presentation of acute Cartap poisoning as well as the treatment with chelators namely British Anti Lewisite and sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1676 - Pyridoxine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hydrochloride that is prepared by chemical synthesis. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food... chapter; meat products as defined in § 170.3(n)(29) of this chapter; milk products as defined in § 170.3(n)(31) of this chapter; plant protein products as defined in § 170.3(n)(33) of this chapter; and...

  6. Release of azithromycin extended release for oral suspension and evaluation of in vitro-in vivo correlation in beagle dogs%阿奇霉素缓释干混悬剂释放度测定及Beagle犬体内外相关性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阚淑玲; 谢卫锋; 周永强

    2012-01-01

    目的 进行阿奇霉素缓释干混悬剂体外释放度的测定及比格犬体内外相关性评价.方法 按2010版中国药典释放度测定法测定阿奇霉素缓释干混悬剂体外释放度,用液相色谱-串联质谱(LC/MS/MS)法测定阿奇霉素在比格犬体内的血药浓度,并用WinNonlin Professional v5.2进行数据处理.结果 以体内吸收分数(fa)对体外累积释放度(F)进行线性回归,得方程fa=1.1553F-52.931(r=0.9475).结论 体内吸收分数与体外累积释放度具有良好的相关性,阿奇霉素缓释干混悬剂所采用的释放度测定方法合理,可以较好反映体内吸收情况.%Objective To study the release of azithromycin extended release for oral suspension and to evaluate the correlation between in vitro and in vivo in Beagle dogs. Methods Release test method in azithromycin extended release for oral suspension adopted by ChP was used for determination of release in vitro. The concentrations of azithromycin in Beagle plasma were determined by LC/MS/MS. Results The linear equation based on the accumulation( F ) and absorption percentage( fa )was fa = 1. 1553F -52. 931 and the correlation coefficient was 0. 9475. Conclusion To a certain extent,the vitro release test in ChP could reflect the vivo absorption.

  7. 33 CFR 156.113 - Compliance with suspension order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under the procedure contained in paragraph (b) of this section may appeal that ruling in writing, except... delay in presenting a written appeal under paragraph (c) of this section would have a significant... facility operator may request reconsideration of the suspension order either orally or in writing to the...

  8. 21 CFR 520.300a - Cambendazole suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cambendazole suspension. 520.300a Section 520.300a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.300a Cambendazole...

  9. Effect of binders on 500mg metformin hydrochloride tablets produced by wet granulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIANA CATIA BLOCK

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Metformin hydrochloride (MH is an oral hypoglycemic agent and a high-dose drug that has poor flow and compression properties. In this study, the feasibility of developing adequate, low cost 500mg tablets of metformin hydrochloride by wet granulation was tested with several binders (Starch / PVP K30®; Starch 1500® /PVP K30®, PVP K30® and PVP K90® in a simple tablet press of the type used in small pharmaceutical laboratories. The drug powder was tested for ability to flow, by determining Carr’s Index (CI and the Hausner ratio (HR. Differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis were carried out on isolated MH and 1:1 (w/w binary mixtures with the excipients. The size distribution, friability, flow properties and drug content of the granules were analyzed, as were the hardness, friability, disintegration, dissolution and uniformity of the dosage form. The drug powder showed CI > 22% and HR > 1.25, characteristic of a poor flow powder, and no significant incompatibilities with the excipients. All the granules showed adequate flow properties and were suitable for pressing into tablets, all of which complied with pharmacopeial specifications. The starch /PVP K30® and starch 1500® /PVP K30® mixtures were best for producing 500 mg MH tablets. Keywords: Metformin hydrochloride. Tablets. Wet granulation. Binders.

  10. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MUCOADHESIVE MICROSPHERES OF PIOGLITAZONE HYDROCHLORIDE USING A NATURAL POLYMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobeen Mohd.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to design a controlled release dosage form for a thiazolidinedione oral hypoglycemic drug i.e., pioglitazone hydrochloride employing a natural polymer. The present study was also aimed to increase the biological half-life by developing it in the form of sustained release microspheres. The present study aimed at employing a natural polymer in formulating the mucoadhesive microspheres and estimate its effect over the controlled release of the drug from the formulation. The microspheres of pioglitazone hydrochloride were prepared by employing sodium alginate as a cell forming polymer and by using a natural bio-adhesive polymer viz. goru gum in the ratios of 1:1, 1:1.5 and 1:2, by orifice ion gelation method with varying concentrations of calcium chloride. Six batches of microspheres (MS1 – MS6 were prepared. The microspheres were evaluated for various micromeritic properties and it was observed that all the batches exhibited free-flowing properties. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that the microspheres were almost spherical in shape and discrete. The FTIR results showed that there were no interactions between the drug and the excipients. The in vitro release profile indicated that all the batches of microspheres showed controlled and prolonged drug release over an extended period, with acceptable release kinetics. The work demonstrated that among all the formulations of microspheres, the microspheres of the formulation MS4 are promising candidates for the sustained release of pioglitazone hydrochloride.

  11. Rheology of organoclay suspension

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hato, MJ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available -1 Colloid & Polymer Science Volume 289, Number 10, 1119-1125, DOI: 10.1007/s00396-011-2438-4 Rheology of organoclay suspension Mpitloane Joseph Hato, Ke Zhang, Suprakas Sinha Ray and Hyoung Jin Choi Abstract We have studied the rheological...

  12. Alternatives to Student Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinett, David

    2012-01-01

    Seven years ago, James A. Garfield High School in East Los Angeles set a school record with 613 student suspensions, out of a total enrollment of 5,000 students. The school, made famous by the 1988 film "Stand and Deliver", was no stranger to the high rates of student discipline all too common within the Los Angeles Unified School…

  13. Viscosity of colloidal suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, E.G.D. [Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States); Schepper, I.M. de [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Simple expressions are given for the effective Newtonian viscosity as a function of concentration as well as for the effective visco-elastic response as a function of concentration and imposed frequency, of monodisperse neutral colloidal suspensions over the entire fluid range. The basic physical mechanisms underlying these formulae are discussed. The agreement with existing experiments is very good.

  14. Experimental design and optimization of raloxifene hydrochloride loaded nanotransfersomes for transdermal application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Syed Mahmood, Muhammad Taher, Uttam Kumar Mandal Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM, Pahang Darul Makmur, Malaysia Abstract: Raloxifene hydrochloride, a highly effective drug for the treatment of invasive breast cancer and osteoporosis in post-menopausal women, shows poor oral bioavailability of 2%. The aim of this study was to develop, statistically optimize, and characterize raloxifene hydrochloride-loaded transfersomes for transdermal delivery, in order to overcome the poor bioavailability issue with the drug. A response surface methodology experimental design was applied for the optimization of transfersomes, using Box-Behnken experimental design. Phospholipon® 90G, sodium deoxycholate, and sonication time, each at three levels, were selected as independent variables, while entrapment efficiency, vesicle size, and transdermal flux were identified as dependent variables. The formulation was characterized by surface morphology and shape, particle size, and zeta potential. Ex vivo transdermal flux was determined using a Hanson diffusion cell assembly, with rat skin as a barrier medium. Transfersomes from the optimized formulation were found to have spherical, unilamellar structures, with a ­homogeneous distribution and low polydispersity index (0.08. They had a particle size of 134±9 nM, with an entrapment efficiency of 91.00%±4.90%, and transdermal flux of 6.5±1.1 µg/cm2/hour. Raloxifene hydrochloride-loaded transfersomes proved significantly superior in terms of amount of drug permeated and deposited in the skin, with enhancement ratios of 6.25±1.50 and 9.25±2.40, respectively, when compared with drug-loaded conventional liposomes, and an ethanolic phosphate buffer saline. Differential scanning calorimetry study revealed a greater change in skin structure, compared with a control sample, during the ex vivo drug diffusion study. Further, confocal laser

  15. [Antiseptics on the base of Octenidine Hydrochloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovskií, N N; Reshetnikov, E A; Rubashnaia, I E; Mal'nikova, G N; Mitiukov, A P

    1997-01-01

    Comparative evaluation of laboratory and clinical investigation of antiseptic preparations on the base of octenidin-hydrochloride and bigluconate chlorhexidine in 537 patients was carried out. Statistically valid decrease in dissemination through the operation field and surgical wound after application of octenidin containing solutions was determined. It was established as well that these preparations were more effective fools of protection of the operation wound from its microbial contamination in comparison with antiseptic solutions widely spread to date in surgical practice.

  16. 抗抑郁药Duloxetine Hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾建国; 晋展

    2003-01-01

    @@ 日本Shionogi公司获得了Eli Lilly公司的授权,对其研制的一种对5-羟色胺(5-HT)和去甲肾上腺素(NE)的摄取有双重抑制作用的化合物Duloxetine Hydrochloride (Cymbalta(R),LY-264453,LY-248686)进行了进一步的开发.

  17. Effect of iptakalim hydrochloride on hemodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-leiZHU; HaiWANG; Wen-binXIAO

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of iptakalim hydrochloride (Ipt) on hemodynamics. METHODS: Effect of Ipt on hemodynamics were studied in anesthetized nomotensive dogs, conscious nomotensive rats (NTR), and stroke prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRsp), respectively. RESULTS: In pentobarbital anesthetized nomotensive dogs, Ipt at doses of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5,1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg iv could dose-dependently decrease blood pressure (BP), with the decrease of systolic BP equivalent

  18. Cartap hydrochloride poisoning: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sumesh Raj; Sheetal S.

    2014-01-01

    Cartap hydrochloride is a thiocarbamate insecticide used for control of chewing and sucking insects of all stages of development, on many crops. It is an analogue of nereistoxin. Poisoning with cartap is very rarely reported from India. We report a 46 year old man who consumed cartap with alcohol, presented with nausea & vomiting and improved with supportive measures. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000): 360-361

  19. Cryonic Suspension and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, George P.; Hall, Clare

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes three central problems which adversely affect use, development, and perfection of cryonic suspension of individuals: the extent to which a physician may be guilty of malpractice in assisting with a suspension; the need for a recognition of suspension; and the present effect of the law's anachronistic treatment of estate devolution upon a…

  20. Stability of paclitaxel with ondansetron hydrochloride or ranitidine hydrochloride during simulated Y-site administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burm, J P; Jhee, S S; Chin, A; Moon, Y S; Jeong, E; Nii, L; Fox, J L; Gill, M A

    1994-05-01

    The stability of paclitaxel with either ondansetron hydrochloride or ranitidine hydrochloride during simulated Y-site injection at room temperature was studied. Triplicate test solutions of paclitaxel 0.3 and 1.2 mg/mL were admixed 1:1 with ondansetron 0.03 and 0.3 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride salt) or ranitidine 0.5 and 2.0 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride salt). Also, paclitaxel 1.2 mg/mL was admixed 1:1:1 with ondansetron 0.3 mg/mL and ranitidine 2.0 mg/mL. The solutions were stored in glass containers at room temperature, and samples were removed at zero, one, two, and four hours for immediate assay. At the time of the assay and before any dilution, each sample was visually inspected for clarity, color, and precipitation, and the pH was determined. Drug concentrations were measured by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic procedures. Throughout the study, more than 90% of the initial concentrations of paclitaxel, ondansetron, and ranitidine remained in the solutions. No precipitates, color changes, or haziness was seen. The changes in pH were minor. Paclitaxel in concentrations of 0.3 and 1.2 mg/mL was stable when mixed with either ondansetron (0.03 or 0.3 mg/mL, as the hydrochloride salt) or ranitidine (0.5 or 2.0 mg/mL, as the hydrochloride salt) and stored in glass containers for four hours. Paclitaxel 1.2 mg/mL was also stable when mixed with both ondansetron 0.3 mg/mL and ranitidine 2.0 mg/mL and stored in glass containers for four hours.

  1. Simultaneous determination of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and cetrizine hydrochloride by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed using Shimadzu HPLC-VP series, LC-10 ATV pump, SPD10 AVP and C8 column, for simultaneous determination of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and cetrizine hydrochloride in three marketed tablet formulations (extended release. The mobile phase consists of phosphate buffer of pH 7.0 and acetonitrile HPLC grade in the ratio of 1:1. The flow rate was maintained at 1 ml/min and the ultraviolet detection was done at 242 nm, which is the isosbestic point. Linearity coefficients, assay values, recovery studies and repeatability studies showed that the method is accurate and precise.

  2. Effect of matrine hydrochloride on liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li-bo; XU Feng; MA Wen-hui

    2008-01-01

    Objective Searching the function that the Injection of the matrine hydrochloride prevents and cures acute chemical liver injury of mice、 immunity liver injury of mice and chronic liver injury of rats. Methods Acute hepatic injury models of mice induced by Chemical poison carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), thioacetamide(TAA), D-galactosamine(D-GalN), immunity hepatic injury model of mice induced by BCG and fat polysaccharide (LPS), chronic liver injury model of rats induced by CCI, were introduced in the experiment. The serum ALT and AST were measured in acute hepatic injury experiments. Serum ALT, AST, AKP, ALB, TP, BiL-T, ereatinine, triglyceride, sialie acid, larninin, hyaluronic acid, type Ⅲ proeollagen and type Ⅳ collagen, hepatic hydroxyproline (HyP) of rats in chronic liver injury animals were determined after Injection of the matrine hydrochloride. Results The Injection of the matrine hydrochloride reduced serum ALT and AST level of acute chemical liver injury of mice induced by CCl4, TAA and D-GaIN. The index of the liver and the spleen of immunity liver injury of mice induced by BCG and LPS were decreased after the injection of matrine hydrochloride treatment. Compared with the model group, the injection may obviously inhibited serum ALT, AST, TP, AKP, TRI, BiL-T, creatinine, triglyceride, sialic acid, laminin , hyaluronic acid , type Ⅲ procollagen and type Ⅳ collagen activity of chronic liver injury of rats induced by CCl4, elevated ALB、A/G, reduced the liver HyP, decreased the index of the liver and the spleen. The liver visual observation, the pathology inspection and the HAI grading result showed the injection may reduce the inflammatory activity in liver tissue, restrain the liver cell damage, reduce the pseudolobuli formation. Conclusions The Injection of matrine hydrochloride had the protective function to acute chemical hepatic injury of mice induced by CCl4、TAA、D-GalN、immunity hepatic injury of mice induced by the BCG and LPS and

  3. Prednisone and vardenafil hydrochloride for refractory levamisole-induced vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrell, Joshua; Kranc, Christina L

    2016-08-01

    Levamisole is an immunomodulatory drug that was previously used to treat various medical conditions, including parasitic infections, nephrotic syndrome, and colorectal cancer. Over the last few years, increasing amounts of levamisole have been used as an adulterant in cocaine. Levamisole-cut cocaine has become a concern because it is known to cause a necrotizing purpuric rash, autoantibody production, and life-threatening leukopenia. Mixed histologic findings of vasculitis and thrombosis are characteristic of levamisole-induced purpura. The recommended management of levamisole-induced vasculitis currently involves withdrawal of the culprit along with supportive treatment. We describe a patient with levamisole-induced vasculitis who continued to develop skin lesions despite self-reported cocaine cessation. Complete resolution of cutaneous disease occurred with the addition of oral prednisone and vardenafil hydrochloride, suggesting the possibility of a new treatment option in patients with refractory disease. In addition, we review the clinical presentation, disease course, diagnostic approach, laboratory findings, histology, and management of levamisole-induced vasculitis. The harmful effects of levamisole-cut cocaine are serious enough that public alerts have been issued to increase awareness. Clinicians should consider the possibility of levamisole exposure in cocaine users presenting with any combination of fever, neutropenia, and necrotic skin lesions, especially in acral areas including the ears.

  4. Formulation and Evaluation of Hydrotropic Solublization Based Suspensions of Griseofulvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Shete,

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Hydrotropes increases the solubility of organics in water. Objective of present investigation was to enhance the solubility of griseofulvin using the technique of hydrotropic solubilization technique and convert them into suitable oral liquid dosage form (suspension useful for enhancement of bioavailability. Methods: 0.5M, 1M, 2M of the hydrotropes (tri sodium citrate, urea, sodium acetate, sodium benzoate and sodium salicylates were used to study the saturation solubility. Solubility was found to be greater with sodium benzoate. Suspensions were prepared by using sodium benzoate solution, greseofulvin, xanthan gum, acacia, sodium alginate as a aqueous phase, dispersed phase and suspending agents respectively. Prepared suspensions were characterized for appearance of phases, density, particle size of dispersed Phase, pourability, sedimentationvolume and invitro drug release. Results: All formulations of sodium benzoate suspension were uniformly distributed, density in the range of 1.020 to 1.050gm/ml, particle size of the dispersed phase was 10μm to 20μm, suspensions were easily pourable from the bottle and sedimentation volume in the rage of 0.5-1. More than 70% drug release was obtained at the end of the 45 minutes. Conclusions: Hydrotropic solublization technique for preparation of suspensions of poor water soluble drugs will gave stability to the formulation and helps in enhancement of bioavailability of greseofulvin.

  5. Dense Suspension Splash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wendy; Dodge, Kevin M.; Peters, Ivo R.; Ellowitz, Jake; Klein Schaarsberg, Martin H.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2014-03-01

    Upon impact onto a solid surface at several meters-per-second, a dense suspension plug splashes by ejecting liquid-coated particles. We study the mechanism for splash formation using experiments and a numerical model. In the model, the dense suspension is idealized as a collection of cohesionless, rigid grains with finite surface roughness. The grains also experience lubrication drag as they approach, collide inelastically and rebound away from each other. Simulations using this model reproduce the measured momentum distribution of ejected particles. They also provide direct evidence supporting the conclusion from earlier experiments that inelastic collisions, rather than viscous drag, dominate when the suspension contains macroscopic particles immersed in a low-viscosity solvent such as water. Finally, the simulations reveal two distinct routes for splash formation: a particle can be ejected by a single high momentum-change collision. More surprisingly, a succession of small momentum-change collisions can accumulate to eject a particle outwards. Supported by NSF through its MRSEC program (DMR-0820054) and fluid dynamics program (CBET-1336489).

  6. 21 CFR 520.1660b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules. 520.1660b Section 520.1660b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules. (a) Specifications. The drug is in capsule form with each capsule...

  7. 21 CFR 520.2345a - Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules. 520.2345a... Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 50, 100, 125, 250, or 500... as in paragraph (c) of this section: (1) No. 000009: 250 mg per capsule. (2) No. 000069: 125, 250, or...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1242f - Levamisole hydrochloride gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride gel. 520.1242f Section 520.1242f Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Levamisole hydrochloride gel. (a) Specifications. The drug is a gel containing 11.5 percent...

  9. 21 CFR 522.1222 - Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms. 522.1222 Section 522.1222 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1222 Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms. ...

  10. 21 CFR 310.529 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect repellents. 310.529 Section 310.529 Food and Drugs... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for oral use as insect repellents. (a) Thiamine hydrochloride... insect repellent (an orally administered drug product intended to keep insects away). There is a lack...

  11. Vibrational spectra of pilocarpine hydrochloride crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bento, R.R.F. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Freire, P.T.C. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: tarso@fisica.ufc.br; Teixeira, A.M.R.; Silva, J.H. [Universidade Regional do Cariri, Crato, CE (Brazil). Dept. Ciencias Fisicas e Biologicas; Lima Junior, J.A. [Universidade Estadual do Ceara (UECE), Limoeiro do Norte, CE (Brazil); Oliveira, M.C.F. de; Andrade-Neto, M. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Romero, N.R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Pontes, F.M. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Bauru, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias

    2009-03-15

    Pilocarpine is a natural substance with potential application in the treatment of several diseases. In this work Fourier Transform (FT)-Raman spectrum and the Fourier Transform infra red (FT-IR) spectrum of pilocarpine hydrochloride C{sub 11} H{sub 17} N{sub 2} O{sup +}{sub 2} .Cl{sup -1} were investigated at 300 K. Vibrational wavenumber and wave vector have been predicted using density functional theory (B3LYP) calculations with the 6-31 G(d,p) basis set. A comparison with experiment allowed to assign most of the normal modes of the crystal. (author)

  12. [Neuropharmacological studies on tolperisone hydrochloride (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Y; Ishii, Y; Suzuki, T; Murayama, S

    1979-10-01

    Neuropharmacological properties of tolperisone hydrochloride (2,4'-dimethyl-3-piperidinopropiophenone hydrochloride) were investigated in mice, rats and cats. Tolperisone inhibited the spontaneous movement and methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity in mice and the ED50 was approx. 50 mg/kg, s.c. At this dose, tolperisone did not prolong the pentobarbital-induced sleeping time. Tolperisone inhibited convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol, nicotine and maximum electric shock, but did not affect convulsions induced by strychnine and picrotoxin. Tolperisone induced muscle relaxation in mice and rats in several pharmacological tests, but did not affect neuro-muscular transmission. Tolperisone did not affect conditioned avoidance response in rats and methamphetamine-induced rotational behaviour in nigro-lesioned rats. Tolperisone reduced decerebrated rigidity in cats with i.v. administration of 5 approximately 10 mg/kg and intraduodenal administration of 50 approximately 100 mg/kg. Tolperisone elicited a slight drowsy pattern in the spontaneous EEG of cats at 5 approximately 10 mg/kg, i.v., and inhibited the EEG arousal response and pressor response to stimulation of mesencephalic reticular formation or posterior hypothalamic area. These results suggest that inhibition of the activity in the gamma pathway descending from the mesencephalic reticular formation may be involved in the mechanism of muscle relaxant action of tolperisone.

  13. Neuroprotective effect of penehyclidine hydrochloride on focal cerebral ischemiareperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuicui Yu; Junke Wang

    2013-01-01

    Penehyclidine hydrochloride can promote microcirculation and reduce vascular permeability. However, the role of penehyclidine hydrochloride in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury remains unclear. In this study, in vivo middle cerebral artery occlusion models were established in experimental rats, and penehyclidine hydrochloride pretreatment was given via intravenous injection prior to model establishment. Tetrazolium chloride, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling and immunohistochemical staining showed that, penehyclidine hydrochloride pretreatment markedly attenuated neuronal histopathological changes in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum, reduced infarction size, increased the expression level of Bcl-2, decreased the expression level of caspase-3, and inhibited neuronal apoptosis in rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Xanthine oxidase and thiobarbituric acid chromogenic results showed that penehyclidine hydrochloride upregulated the activity of superoxide dismutase and downregulated the concentration of malondialdehyde in the ischemic cerebral cortex and hippocampus, as well as reduced the concentration of extracellular excitatory amino acids in rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. In addition, penehyclidine hydrochloride inhibited the expression level of the NR1 subunit in hippocampal nerve cells in vitro following oxygen-glucose deprivation, as detected by PCR. Experimental findings indicate that penehyclidine hydrochloride attenuates neuronal apoptosis and oxidative stress injury after focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, thus exerting a neuroprotective effect.

  14. Identification of polymorphism in ethylone hydrochloride: synthesis and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheux, Chad R; Alarcon, Idralyn Q; Copeland, Catherine R; Cameron, T Stanley; Linden, Anthony; Grossert, J Stuart

    2016-08-01

    Ethylone, a synthetic cathinone with psychoactive properties, is a designer drug which has appeared on the recreational drug market in recent years. Since 2012, illicit shipments of ethylone hydrochloride have been intercepted with increasing frequency at the Canadian border. Analysis has revealed that ethylone hydrochloride exists as two distinct polymorphs. In addition, several minor impurities were detected in some seized exhibits. In this study, the two conformational polymorphs of ethylone hydrochloride have been synthesized and fully characterized by FTIR, FT-Raman, powder XRD, GC-MS, ESI-MS/MS and NMR ((13) C CPMAS, (1) H, (13) C). The two polymorphs can be distinguished by vibrational spectroscopy, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The FTIR data are applied to the identification of both polymorphs of ethylone hydrochloride (mixed with methylone hydrochloride) in a laboratory submission labelled as 'Ocean Snow Ultra'. The data presented in this study will assist forensic scientists in the differentiation of the two ethylone hydrochloride polymorphs. This report, alongside our recent article on the single crystal X-ray structure of a second polymorph of this synthetic cathinone, is the first to confirm polymorphism in ethylone hydrochloride. © 2015 Canada Border Services Agency. Drug Testing and Analysis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2015 Canada Border Services Agency. Drug Testing and Analysis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrochemiluminescence for determination of cloperastine hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) behavior of cloperastine hydrochloride. Methods ECL intensity of tris (2,2′-bipyridyl) rutheniumo(Ⅱ) was enhanced, the method for the determination of cloperastine hydrochloride was established using capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with electrochemilumolinescence (ECL) detection. Results Under the optimum conditions, ECL intensity varied linearly with cloperastine hydrochloride concentration from 7.0×10-6g/mL to 1.0×10-4g/mL. The detection l...

  16. COMPARISON OF DROTAVERINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND VALETHAMATE BROMIDE ON CERVICAL DILATATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallika Selvaraj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM To compare the two drugs drotaverine hydrochloride and valethamate bromide and their effects on cervical dilatation and labour duration. METHODOLOGY It is a prospective study undertaken at Government Rajaji Hospital on 150 randomly selected primigravidae patients. RESULTS The duration of active phase of first stage of labour was significantly reduced (p value 0.003, rate of cervical dilatation was higher (p value 0.0001 with drotaverine hydrochloride. CONCLUSION Drotaverine hydrochloride is a safe, potent and effective drug to be used in the active phase of labour.

  17. 48 CFR 209.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 209.407... OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 209.407 Suspension....

  18. 75 FR 27923 - Nonprocurement Debarment and Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... 3150-AI76 Nonprocurement Debarment and Suspension AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final... nonprocurement debarment and suspension. These regulations cover grants, cooperative agreements and other...) guidance on nonprocurement debarment and suspension found in OMB's regulations. DATES: Effective June...

  19. Vehicle with tilting suspension system

    OpenAIRE

    Festini, Andrea; Tonoli, Andrea; Cavalli, Fabio; Carabelli, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    The patent is relative to the application of a tilting suspension on a snowmobile to improve its drive feeling and safety. At high speed the introduction of the tilting suspension reduce the rollover risk during cornering. The vehicle can tilt as a motorcycle and its lateral dimensions can be reduced not compromising the vehicle stability

  20. Clinical efficacy of efonidipine hydrochloride, a T-type calcium channel inhibitor, on sympathetic activities. Examination using spectral analysis of heart rate/blood pressure variabilities and {sup 123}I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Kenji; Nomura, Masahiro; Nishikado, Akiyoshi; Uehara, Kouzoh; Nakaya, Yutaka; Ito, Susumu [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2003-02-01

    Dihydropyridine Ca antagonists cause reflex tachycardia related to their hypotensive effects. Efonidipine hydrochloride has inhibitory effects on T-type Ca channels, even as it inhibits reflex tachycardia. In the present study, the influence of efonidipine hydrochloride on heart rate and autonomic nervous function was investigated. Using an electrocardiogram and a tonometric blood pressure measurement, autonomic nervous activity was evaluated using spectral analysis of heart rate/systolic blood pressure variability. Three protocols were used: a single dose of efonidipine hydrochloride was administered orally to healthy subjects with resting heart rate values of 75 beats/min or more (high-heart rate (HR) group) and to healthy subjects with resting heart rate values less than 75 beats/min (low-HR group); efonidipine hydrochloride was newly administered to untreated patients with essential hypertension, and autonomic nervous activity was investigated after a 4-week treatment period; and patients with high heart rate values ({>=}75 beats/min) who had been treated with a dihydropyridine L-type Ca channel inhibitor for 1 month or more were switched to efonidipine hydrochloride and any changes in autonomic nervous activity were investigated. In all protocols, administration of efonidipine hydrochloride decreased the heart rate in patients with a high heart rate, reduced sympathetic nervous activity, and enhanced parasympathetic nervous activity. In addition, myocardial scintigraphy with {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine showed significant improvement in the washout rate and heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratio of patients who were switched from other dihydropyridine Ca antagonists to efonidipine hydrochloride. Efonidipine hydrochloride inhibits increases in heart rate and has effects on the autonomic nervous system. It may be useful for treating hypertension and angina pectoris, and may also have a cardiac protective function. (author)

  1. Behavioral effects of mefloquine in tail suspension and light/dark tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, John Michael; Slivicki, Richard; Dahl, Rachel; Dong, Xia; Dwyer, Matt; Holley, Weston; Knott, Crissa

    2015-01-01

    Mefloquine hydrochloride has been used widely in the past few decades for malaria prophylaxis and treatment. However, in recent years, it has fallen out of favor due to reports of exposure being linked to numerous neuropsychiatric effects, including emotional disturbances. In this study we examined the effects of different doses (5, 25, or 100 mg/kg) of mefloquine relative to vehicle on male C57BL/6 J mice in two tests of emotional behavior, the light-dark box and the tail suspension test. It was found that mefloquine exposure reduced anxiety-linked behaviors in the light-dark box and reduced total immobility times in the tail suspension test, especially at higher doses. Our results lend support to the notion that mefloquine exposure could induce emotional disinhibition.

  2. "Sustained release formulation of Metoclopramide Hydrochloride "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabbagh MA

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research, several formulations containing, an anti emetic agent (Metoclopramide hydrochloride, a hydrophilic polymer (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and a hydrophobic polymer (ethylcellulose 10 cP were prepared by direct compression. Different factors such as: the effect of different ratios of the polymers, particle size, pressure force and differences of release in acidic and distilled water as media were investigated. After developing the ideal formulation, the effect of changing the ratio of drug in core: coating on the formulation was investigated. Coating of tablets with ethylcellulose, changed the release mechanism of drug and shifted it to near zero order release. The results showed that except when matrices were coated with ethylcellulose, drug release was proportioned to the square root of time, which might be due to the change of release pattern from matrix to reservoir system.

  3. Effect of sertraline hydrochloride on dialysis hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dheenan, S; Venkatesan, J; Grubb, B P; Henrich, W L

    1998-04-01

    Hemodialysis hypotension (HH) is a very common disorder and has a multifactorial etiology. Autonomic dysfunction occurs in up to 50% of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and plays a key role in HH in some patients. Sertraline hydrochloride, a central nervous system serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has been shown to be an effective treatment of hypotension caused by autonomic dysfunction in disorders such as neurocardiogenic syncope and idiopathic orthostatic hypotension. This study sought to determine whether sertraline was effective in ameliorating HH. A retrospective chart analysis was performed that included nine consecutive patients (aged > or = 54 years, time on hemodialysis > or = 2.2 years) placed on sertraline (50 to 100 mg/d) for depression who also had HH (defined as prehemodialysis systolic blood pressure [SBP] or = 40 mm Hg decrease in SBP during hemodialysis, SBP sertraline. The data from a 6-week pre-sertraline period were compared with the data from a 6-week sertraline period (defined as 6 weeks after drug begun). Blood pressure medications were unchanged during the trial period of sertraline. However, nadir mean arterial pressure recorded during a given dialysis session in the pre-sertraline period (55+/-4 mm Hg) was significantly lower than that recorded in the sertraline period (68+/-5 mm Hg; P sertraline period was significantly lower than that during the pre-sertraline period (mean, 0.6+/-0.2 episodes per session v 1.4+/-0.3 episodes per session; P sertraline period was also significantly less than that during the pre-sertraline period (mean, 1.7+/-0.8 interventions v 11.0+/-3.0 interventions; P sertraline hydrochloride reduces HH in some patients with ESRD. A possible mechanism for this effect is sertraline-induced attenuation of the paradoxical sympathetic withdrawal that may underlie HH in some patients with ESRD.

  4. Dyeing Characteristics of Chitosan Biguanidine Hydrochloride Treated Wool Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xue; HE JIN-xin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chitosan biguanidine hydrochloride(CGH)has been synthesized by the guanidineylation reaction of chitosan with dicyandiamide.The structures of CGH were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and 13CNMR spectra.

  5. Antifungal activity of hydrochloride salts of tylophorinidine and tylophorinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Mini; Parab, Rajashri R; Manju, Sreedharannair L; Desai, Dattatraya C; Mahajan, Girish B

    2012-09-01

    The antimicrobial efficacy of two phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids, tylophorinidine hydrochloride (TdnH) and tylophorinine hydrochloride (TnnH), isolated from the plant Tylophora indica (local name, Antamul) was evaluated. These were screened for in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activities. Both compounds exhibited potent antifungal activity displaying minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) in the range of 2-4 microg/mL for TdnH and 0.6-2.5 microg/mL for TnnH against Candida species.

  6. Treatment of allergic conjunctivitis with olopatadine hydrochloride eye drops

    OpenAIRE

    Eiichi Uchio

    2008-01-01

    Eiichi UchioDepartment of Ophthalmology, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, Fukuoka, JapanAbstract: Olopatadine hydrochloride exerts a wide range of pharmacological actions such as histamine H1 receptor antagonist action, chemical mediator suppressive action, and eosinophil infiltration suppressive action. Olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% ophthalmic solution (Patanol®) was introduced to the market in Japan in October 2006. In a conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC) test, olopatadine...

  7. COMPARISON OF DROTAVERINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND VALETHAMATE BROMIDE ON CERVICAL DILATATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mallika Selvaraj; Sumathi

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the two drugs drotaverine hydrochloride and valethamate bromide and their effects on cervical dilatation and labour duration. METHODOLOGY It is a prospective study undertaken at Government Rajaji Hospital on 150 randomly selected primigravidae patients. RESULTS The duration of active phase of first stage of labour was significantly reduced (p value 0.003), rate of cervical dilatation was higher (p value 0.0001) with drotaverine hydrochloride. CONCLUS...

  8. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Drotaverine Hydrochloride and Paracetamol in Tablet

    OpenAIRE

    Mahaparale Sonali; Telekone R; Raut R; Damle S; Kasture P

    2010-01-01

    Two simple, accurate and reproducible spectrophotometric methods; Q analysis and first order derivative method have been described for the simultaneous estimation of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in combined tablet dosage form. Absorption maxima of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in distilled water were found to be 303.5 nm and 243.5 nm respectively. Beer′s law was obeyed in the concentration range 5-50 µg/ml for drotaverine and 5-60 µg/ml for paracetamo...

  9. Oral Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Oral Medication The first treatment for type 2 diabetes blood ... new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money ...

  10. Formulation development and systematic optimization of stabilized ziprasidone hydrochloride capsules devoid of any food effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sabyasachi; Shankar, K Ravi; Prasad Y, Rajendra

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a stable capsule formulation of ziprasidone hydrochloride which can be administered without regards to food intake. The unstable anhydrous form of ziprasidone hydrochloride was stabilized employing hot-melt extrusion and further optimized by 3(2) central composite design. The formulation was optimized after establishing acceptable ranges for response variables like disintegration time, dissolution and impurity profile. A crossover fasted and fed in vivo study was conducted in human volunteers to assess the food-effect of optimized formulation vis-à-vis the marketed brand. The optimized formulation met in-house specifications for various response variables. Further, high values of correlation coefficient vouch the adequate selection of experimental design and its high prognostic ability. In our study, no significant difference was observed between the Cmax and AUC values after administration of the optimized formulation in fasted and fed states. On the contrary, there was a statistically significant increase in the Cmax and AUC values after oral administration of Zeldox in fed state in comparison to fasted state. The present study describes the successful development of a stable formulation of 20 mg of ziprasidone devoid of any food-effects.

  11. Randomized Controlled Trial of Levamisole Hydrochloride as Adjunctive Therapy in Severe Falciparum Malaria With High Parasitemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maude, Richard J.; Silamut, Kamolrat; Plewes, Katherine; Charunwatthana, Prakaykaew; Ho, May; Abul Faiz, M.; Rahman, Ridwanur; Hossain, Md Amir; Hassan, Mahtab U.; Bin Yunus, Emran; Hoque, Gofranul; Islam, Faridul; Ghose, Aniruddha; Hanson, Josh; Schlatter, Joel; Lacey, Rachel; Eastaugh, Alison; Tarning, Joel; Lee, Sue J.; White, Nicholas J.; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Dondorp, Arjen M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Cytoadherence and sequestration of erythrocytes containing mature stages of Plasmodium falciparum are central to the pathogenesis of severe malaria. The oral anthelminthic drug levamisole inhibits cytoadherence in vitro and reduces sequestration of late-stage parasites in uncomplicated falciparum malaria treated with quinine. Methods. Fifty-six adult patients with severe malaria and high parasitemia admitted to a referral hospital in Bangladesh were randomized to receive a single dose of levamisole hydrochloride (150 mg) or no adjuvant to antimalarial treatment with intravenous artesunate. Results. Circulating late-stage parasites measured as the median area under the parasite clearance curves were 2150 (interquartile range [IQR], 0–28 025) parasites/µL × hour in patients treated with levamisole and 5489 (IQR, 192–25 848) parasites/µL × hour in controls (P = .25). The “sequestration ratios” at 6 and 12 hours for all parasite stages and changes in microvascular blood flow did not differ between treatment groups (all P > .40). The median time to normalization of plasma lactate (<2 mmol/L) was 24 (IQR, 12–30) hours with levamisole vs 28 (IQR, 12–36) hours without levamisole (P = .15). Conclusions. There was no benefit of a single-dose of levamisole hydrochloride as adjuvant to intravenous artesunate in the treatment of adults with severe falciparum malaria. Rapid parasite killing by intravenous artesunate might obscure the effects of levamisole. PMID:23943850

  12. A Study on the Control of Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride Release from Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose Matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, H.; Chung, Y.S. [Department of Chemistry, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea); Bang, M.S. [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Chonan National Technical College, Chonnam (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    Hydroxypropylmethylcelluloses (HPMC) are cellulose ethers which may be used as the basis for hydrophilic matrices for controlled release oral delivery and offer the advantages of being non-toxic and relatively inexpensive. In this work, we designed new drug release system using HPMC as matrix, manufactured by direct compression technology and have investigated the effects of the controlling factors on drug release from a swellable hydrophillic delivery system. It was found that the release rate of the drug decreased with increasing the polymer molecular weight and the polymer content in tablets, and was independent of compaction pressure and pH of dissolution fluids. Especially, the ability of the anionic surfactant, sodium laurylsulfate, to retard the release of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride from HPMC was characterised. With increasing the concentration of the sodium laurylsulfate within the matrix, drug release rate decreased. It is believed that, provided the pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and the sodium laurylsulfate are oppositely charged, they will bind together in situ within the HPMC matrix, leading to reduced drug release rates. 23 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Dexpanthenol pastille and benzydamine hydrochloride spray for the prevention of post-operative sore throat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulhas, N; Canpolat, H; Cicek, M; Yologlu, S; Togal, T; Durmus, M; Ozcan Ersoy, M

    2007-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the effectiveness of dexpanthenol pastille and benzydamine hydrochloride spray on the prevention of a sore throat. One hundred and eighty patients undergoing general anaesthesia, who were ASA I-II and with their ages ranging between 15 and 70 years, were randomly allocated to three groups, each consisting of 60 patients. For group B, four puffs of benzydamine hydrochloride were sprayed into the mouth initially 30 min before the operation and repeatedly 5 min before anaesthesia induction. For group D, two pastilles of dexpanthenol were administered orally to be sucked 30 min before the operation. For group P, four puffs of distilled water were sprayed into the mouth initially 30 min before the operation. Post-operatively, patients were evaluated for a sore throat for the duration of 24 h. The incidence of a sore throat was significantly lower for group D when compared with group B and group P. The incidence of a sore throat was similar for group B and group P. According to the sore throat grading system, the number of patients experiencing no complaints was significantly higher for group D when compared with group B and group P. The number of patients achieving moderate scores was significantly higher for group B when compared with group D. The administration of 200 mg of dexpanthenol prophylactically before endotracheal intubation is effective in the prevention of post-operative sore throat.

  14. Charge-assisted bond N(+)H mediates the gelation of amorphous lurasidone hydrochloride during dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shuai; Wang, Shanshan; Li, Zhen; Wang, Xiaojie; Ma, Di; Liang, Shujun; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Jianjun; Wei, Yuanfeng

    2017-02-25

    Lurasidone hydrochloride (LH), the hydrochloride form of lurasidone with a charge-assisted bond N(+)H, is an atypical antipsychotropic agent for the treatment of schizophrenia. As a BCS class II drug, LH has a low oral bioavailability mainly due to its poor water solubility and low dissolution. In order to improve its solubility, amorphization of LH was performed and characterized. Unexpectedly, the dissolution rate of amorphous LH was much lower than that of crystalline LH. In addition, the amorphous LH powders quickly aggregated when contacting the dissolution media (water, 37°C), and formed a sticky gel adhering on the paddle. The follow-up polarized light microscope, XRPD, DSC, and FTIR analysis found that amorphous LH transformed to crystalline LH during dissolution. On the other hand, no such gelation phenomenon of amorphous lurasidone was observed under the same dissolution condition. However, the gel would reform when dropping concentrated hydrochloric acid slowly into the bottom of the medium during the dissolution of amorphous lurasidone, and XRPD/DSC/FTIR results indicated that the regenerated gel was consisted of crystalline LH, suggesting that the charge-assisted bond N(+)H in the structure of LH mediated the gel formation of amorphous LH during its dissolution process.

  15. Formulation Development and Characterization of Meclizine Hydrochloride Sublimated Fast Dissolving Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemula, Sateesh Kumar; Vangala, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    The intention of present research is to formulate and develop the meclizine hydrochloride fast dissolving tablets using sublimation method to enhance the dissolution rate. In this study an attempt was made to fasten the drug release from the oral tablets by incorporating the superdisintegrants and camphor as sublimating agent. The prepared fast dissolving tablets were subjected to precompression properties and characterized for hardness, weight variation, friability, wetting time, water absorption ratio, and disintegration time. From in vitro release studies, the formulation F9 exhibited fast release profile of about 98.61% in 30 min, and disintegration time 47 sec when compared with other formulations. The percent drug release in 30 min (Q 30) and initial dissolution rate for formulation F9 was 98.61 ± 0.25%, 3.29%/min. These were very much higher compared to marketed tablets (65.43 ± 0.57%, 2.18%/min). The dissolution efficiency was found to be 63.37 and it is increased by 1.4-fold with F9 FDT tablets compared to marketed tablets. Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies revealed that there was no possibility of interactions. Thus the development of meclizine hydrochloride fast dissolving tablets by sublimation method is a suitable approach to improve the dissolution rate.

  16. Pharmacokinetics study of extended release formulations of buspirone hydrochloride in Beagle dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Meng-cun; LI Jing-lai; CHEN Yan; WANG Xiao-ying; QIAO Jian-zhong; ZHANG Zhen-qing; RUAN Jin-xiu

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) properties of extended release formulations of buspirone hydrochloride in Beagle dogs. Methods A randomized, two period, two treatment, two sequence crossover bioequivalenee study was designed; six healthy Beagle dogs were randomly divided into two groups, each group was orally given buspirone tablets or buspirone extended capsule containing 15 mg buspirone hydrochloride. Blood samples (about 1 mL) were collected in heparinized tubes before dosing and at 0.33, 0.67, 1,2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 18, 24 h after administration, and were then immediately centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15 min. The pharmacokinetics (PK) properties of the drugs were evaluated using the liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method. Results The mean tmax was 4.7, 0.8 h and Cmax values was 1.8, 6.9 μg·L-1, respectively for the sustained-release test (capsule) and reference formulation (tablet). When compared to the tablets, the residence time of the sustained capsules was dramatically prolonged and Cmax Was reduced (P<0.01). The initial release speed was slow and stable. The bioavailability was similar to the common tablets. Conclusions The sustained capsule had showed good pharmacokinetics property of sustained-release in the Beagle dogs.

  17. Oral myiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Thalaimalai Saravanan; Mathan A Mohan; Meera Thinakaran; Saneem Ahammed

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability ...

  18. Unifying suspension and granular rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, François; Guazzelli, Élisabeth; Pouliquen, Olivier

    2011-10-28

    Using an original pressure-imposed shear cell, we study the rheology of dense suspensions. We show that they exhibit a viscoplastic behavior similarly to granular media successfully described by a frictional rheology and fully characterized by the evolution of the friction coefficient μ and the volume fraction ϕ with a dimensionless viscous number I(v). Dense suspension and granular media are thus unified under a common framework. These results are shown to be compatible with classical empirical models of suspension rheology and provide a clear determination of constitutive laws close to the jamming transition.

  19. A Post Hoc Analysis of D-Threo-Methylphenidate Hydrochloride (Focalin) Versus D,l-Threo-Methylphenidate Hydrochloride (Ritalin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Margaret; Wasdell, Michael; Patin, John

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clinical measures of the benefit/risk ratio in a post hoc analysis of a clinical trial of d-threo-methylphenidate hydrochloride (d-MPH) and d,l-threo-methylphenidate hydrochloride (d,l-MPH). Method: Data from a phase III clinical trial was used to compare equimolar doses of d-MPH and d,l-MPH treatment for…

  20. Simultaneous Estimation of Gemcitabine Hydrochloride and Capecitabine Hydrochloride in Combined Tablet Dosage Form by RP-HPLC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of gemcitabine hydrochloride and capecitabine hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form. An inertsil ODS-3 C-18 column having dimensions of 250×4.6 mm and particle size of 5 µm, with mobile phase containing a mixture of acetonitrile : water : triethyelamine in the ratio of (70 : 28 : 2v/v was used. The pH of mobile phase was adjusted to 4.0 with ortho-phosphoric acid. The flow rate was 1 mL/min and the column effluents were monitored at 260 nm. The retention time for gemcitabine hydrochloride and capecitabine hydrochloride was found to be 2.76 and 2.3 min respectively. The proposed method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and robustness. The method was found to be linear in the range of 10-50 µg/mL and 4-24 µg/mL for gemcitabine hydrochloride and capecitabine hydrochloride, with regression coefficient r = 0.999 and r = 0.999, respectively.

  1. 5 CFR 919.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 919.1015 Section 919.1015 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an...

  2. 49 CFR 238.427 - Suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 238.427 Section 238.427... Equipment § 238.427 Suspension system. (a) General requirements. (1) Suspension systems shall be designed to... equipment. (2) Passenger equipment shall meet the safety performance standards for suspension...

  3. 78 FR 2622 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  4. 77 FR 2646 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  5. 29 CFR 1472.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 1472.670 Section 1472.670 Labor Regulations... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1472.670 Suspension. Suspension means an... CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension...

  6. 22 CFR 1008.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 1008.670 Section 1008.670 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1008.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and...

  7. 75 FR 5890 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  8. 7 CFR 3017.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 3017.1015 Section 3017.1015 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 3017.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a suspending official under subpart G of this part that...

  9. 19 CFR 146.82 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 146.82 Section 146.82 Customs Duties U... (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Penalties; Suspension; Revocation § 146.82 Suspension. (a) For cause. The... for a period not to exceed 90 days. Upon order of the Board the suspension may be continued....

  10. 50 CFR 13.27 - Permit suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permit suspension. 13.27 Section 13.27... GENERAL PERMIT PROCEDURES Permit Administration § 13.27 Permit suspension. (a) Criteria for suspension... Government. Such suspension shall remain in effect until the issuing officer determines that the...

  11. 15 CFR 29.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 29.670 Section 29.670... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 29.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement),...

  12. 39 CFR 957.27 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 957.27 Section 957.27 Postal Service... SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.27 Suspension. (a) Any firm or individual suspended under chapter 3, section 7 of the Postal Service Purchasing Manual who believes that the suspension has not been...

  13. 48 CFR 2909.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 2909.407... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 2909.407 Suspension. (a) The Senior... authorized to make an exception, regarding suspension by another agency suspending official under...

  14. 77 FR 9856 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  15. 41 CFR 105-68.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 105-68.1015 Section 105-68.1015 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations...-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.1015 Suspension. Suspension is...

  16. 29 CFR 98.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension. 98.1015 Section 98.1015 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a suspending official under subpart G of this part that...

  17. 2 CFR 182.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 182.670 Section 182.670 Grants... Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a recipient from... guidance on nonprocurement debarment and suspension (2 CFR part 180, which implements Executive...

  18. 28 CFR 83.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 83.670 Section 83.670... WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement),...

  19. 77 FR 7537 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  20. 78 FR 2624 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  1. 31 CFR 19.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 19.1015 Section 19.1015 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a...

  2. 75 FR 4000 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and ]...

  3. 22 CFR 1508.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 1508.1015 Section 1508.1015 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1508.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a suspending official under subpart G...

  4. 45 CFR 1641.11 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1641.11 Section 1641.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION DEBARMENT, SUSPENSION AND REMOVAL OF RECIPIENT AUDITORS Suspension § 1641.11 Suspension. (a) IPAs suspended from providing...

  5. 45 CFR 1173.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1173.670 Section 1173.670 Public... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1173.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement),...

  6. 22 CFR 1509.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 1509.670 Section 1509.670 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and...

  7. 43 CFR 43.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 43.670 Section 43.670 Public... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 43.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a..., subpart 9.4) and 2 CFR part 180. Suspension of a recipient is a distinct and separate action...

  8. 49 CFR 570.61 - Suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 570.61 Section 570.61... 10,000 Pounds § 570.61 Suspension system. (a) Suspension condition. Ball joint seals shall not be cut... bushings shall not be cracked, extruded out from or missing from suspension joints. Radius rods shall...

  9. 13 CFR 147.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 147.670 Section 147...-FREE WORKPLACE (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 147.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement),...

  10. 78 FR 5734 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  11. 29 CFR 1471.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 1471.1015 Section 1471.1015 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a...

  12. 2 CFR 180.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 180.1015 Section 180.1015 Grants... Reserved OMB GUIDELINES TO AGENCIES ON GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 180.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a suspending official under subpart G of...

  13. 14 CFR 1267.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 1267.670 Section 1267.670... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1267.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement),...

  14. 31 CFR 20.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 20.670 Section 20.670...-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement),...

  15. 76 FR 2596 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  16. 22 CFR 208.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 208.1015 Section 208.1015 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 208.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a suspending official under subpart G...

  17. 29 CFR 94.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension. 94.670 Section 94.670 Labor Office of the... § 94.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a... Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive Order...

  18. 49 CFR 32.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 32.670 Section 32.670 Transportation... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 32.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and...

  19. 77 FR 2650 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...) that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  20. 21 CFR 1405.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 1405.670 Section 1405.670 Food and... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1405.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement),...

  1. 45 CFR 630.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 630.670 Section 630.670 Public Welfare... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action... CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension...

  2. 24 CFR 21.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 21.670 Section 21.670... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 21.670 Suspension. Suspension means an... CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension...

  3. 7 CFR 3021.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 3021.670 Section 3021.670 Agriculture... Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a recipient from... Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive Order...

  4. 22 CFR 210.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 210.670 Section 210.670 Foreign... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency..., subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement),...

  5. 10 CFR 607.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 607.670 Section 607.670 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 607.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and...

  6. 75 FR 9111 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  7. 20 CFR 439.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 439.670 Section 439.670 Employees... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 439.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and...

  8. 21 CFR 1404.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 1404.1015 Section 1404.1015 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a suspending official under subpart G...

  9. 34 CFR 84.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 84.670 Section 84.670 Education Office of... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and...

  10. 76 FR 9666 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY...), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule because of... measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension will not occur and...

  11. 22 CFR 1006.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 1006.1015 Section 1006.1015 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1006.1015 Suspension. Suspension is an action taken by a suspending official under subpart G of...

  12. 22 CFR 312.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension. 312.670 Section 312.670 Foreign... § 312.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a... Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and Executive Order...

  13. 45 CFR 1155.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1155.670 Section 1155.670 Public... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1155.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and...

  14. 45 CFR 1206.1-4 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1206.1-4 Section 1206.1-4 Public... GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Suspension and Termination of Assistance § 1206.1-4 Suspension. (a) General. The responsible Corporation official may...

  15. 22 CFR 133.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 133.670 Section 133.670 Foreign... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 133.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that...-wide Debarment and Suspension (Nonprocurement), that implements Executive Order 12549 and...

  16. 75 FR 60 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... Part 64 [Docket ID FEMA-2008-0020; Internal Agency Docket No. FEMA-8111] Suspension of Community... Insurance Program (NFIP), that are scheduled for suspension on the effective dates listed within this rule... floodplain management measures prior to the effective suspension date given in this rule, the suspension...

  17. 21 CFR 520.2002 - Propiopromazine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2002... may produce significant depression. (3) For use only by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian....

  18. 21 CFR 520.222 - Bunamidine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Taenia taeniaeformis. (2) It is administered to cats and dogs at the rate of 25 to 50 milligrams per... oral administration to dogs for the treatment of the tapeworms Dipylidium caninum, Taenia...

  19. Paradoxical ratcheting in cornstarch suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinbrot, Troy; Siu, Theo; Rutala, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Cornstarch suspensions are well known to exhibit strong shear thickening, and we show as a result that they must - and do - climb vertically vibrating rods and plates. This occurs because when the rod moves upward, it shears the suspension against gravity, and so the fluid stiffens, but when the rod moves downward, the suspension moves with gravity, and so the fluid is more compliant. This causes the fluid to be dragged up by the upstroke more than it is dragged down by the downstroke, effectively ratcheting the fluid up the rod every cycle. We show experimentally and computationally that this effect is paradoxically caused by gravity - and so goes away when gravity is removed - and we show that the suspension can be made to balance on the uphill side of an inclined rod in an analog of the inverted ``Kapitza pendulum,'' closely related to the recent report by Ramachandran & Nosonovsky, Soft Matter 10, 4633 (2014).

  20. Hydrodynamic shocks in microroller suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmotte, Blaise; Driscoll, Michelle; Chaikin, Paul; Donev, Aleksandar

    2017-09-01

    We combine experiments, large-scale simulations, and continuum models to study the emergence of coherent structures in a suspension of magnetically driven microrollers sedimented near a floor. Collective hydrodynamic effects are predominant in this system, leading to strong density-velocity coupling. We characterize a uniform suspension and show that density waves propagate freely in all directions in a dispersive fashion. When sharp density gradients are introduced in the suspension, we observe the formation of a shock. Unlike Burgers' shocklike structures observed in other active and driven confined hydrodynamic systems, the shock front in our system has a well-defined finite width and moves rapidly compared to the mean suspension velocity. We introduce a continuum model demonstrating that the finite width of the front is due to far-field nonlocal hydrodynamic interactions and governed by a geometric parameter, the average particle height above the floor.

  1. Protocols to study the physiology of oral biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, José A; Abranches, Jacqueline; Koo, Hyun; Marquis, Robert E; Burne, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    The oral cavity harbors several hundred different bacterial species that colonize both hard (teeth) and soft tissues, forming complex populations known as microbial biofilms. It is widely accepted that the phenotypic characteristics of bacteria grown in biofilms are substantially different from those grown in suspensions. Because biofilms are the natural habitat for the great majority of oral bacteria, including those contributing to oral diseases, a better understanding of the physiology of adherent populations is clearly needed to control oral microbes in health and disease. In this chapter, we use oral streptococci as examples for studying the physiology of oral biofilms.

  2. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This spectacle in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three performances for...

  3. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three perfo...

  4. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local pop...

  5. Pharmacokinetics of diltiazem hydrochloride delay-onset sustained-release pellet capsules in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Qing Yan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacokinetics (PK of ordinary tablets and sustained release capsules of diltiazem hydrochloride in human clinical trials had been studied. The PK of diltiazem hydrochloride delay-onset sustained-release pellet capsules, a new dosage form, has not been reported, although it is very important to clinical use. In this paper, we investigated the PK of diltiazem hydrochloride delay-onset sustained-release pellet capsules and the food influence in Chinese healthy volunteers. The PK parameters indicated that the diltiazem hydrochloride delay-onset sustained-release pellet capsules appeared marked characteristics of delayed and controlled release. An opened-label, randomized and parallel clinical trial was conducted in 36 Chinese healthy volunteers with single oral dose (90 mg, 180 mg or 270 mg and a multiple oral dose (90 mg d-1×6 d administration. The effect of food on the PK of one single oral dose (360 mg was investigated in 24 healthy Chinese volunteers. Plasma diltiazem concentration was determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed by PKSolver (Ver 2.0. All clinical studies were conducted in the Clinical Pharmacological Center (No. JDX1999064 of Xiangya Hospital Affiliated Central South University, China. The PK parameters suggested that the new formulation had marked characteristics of delayed and controlled release of diltiazem, and food intake did not alter significantly diltiazem pharmacokinetic parameters.Embora a farmacocinética (PK do cloridrato de diltiazem nas formas de comprimidos de liberação imediata e cápsulas de liberação modificada em ensaios clínicos já tenha sido relatada, a pesquisa da PK do cloridrato de diltiazem na forma de cápsulas com peletes de liberação retardada e sustentada ainda é muito importante. Neste trabalho, propusemos avaliar a farmacocinética do cloridrato de diltiazem administrado através desta nova forma

  6. The 14-day repeated dose liver micronucleus test with methapyrilene hydrochloride using young adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kenji; Ochi, Akimu; Koda, Akira; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Doi, Takaaki

    2015-03-01

    The repeated dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay using young adult rats has the potential to detect genotoxic hepatocarcinogens that can be integrated into a general toxicity study. The assay methods were thoroughly validated by 19 Japanese facilities. Methapyrilene hydrochloride (MP), known to be a non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, was examined in the present study. MP was dosed orally at 10, 30 and 100mg/kg/day to 6-week-old male Crl:CD (SD) rats daily for 14 days. Treatment with MP resulted in an increase in micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) with a dosage of only 100mg/kg/day. At this dose level, cytotoxicity followed by regenerative cell growth was noted in the liver. These findings suggest that MP may induce clastogenic effects indirectly on the liver or hepatotoxicity of MP followed by regeneration may cause increase in spontaneous incidence of MNHEPs.

  7. Anamorelin hydrochloride in the treatment of cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currow, David C; Abernethy, Amy P

    2014-04-01

    Anamorelin hydrochloride is an orally active ghrelin receptor agonist in development by Helsinn, for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cachexia. In preclinical and clinical studies, the potent affinity of anamorelin for the ghrelin receptor is associated with significant appetite-enhancing activity and resultant improvements in body weight, lean body mass, and handgrip strength compared with placebo. The accompanying stimulatory effects on growth hormone and IGF-1 are not associated with tumor growth, and overall survival in patients with cancer is not compromised. Anamorelin is well tolerated with no dose-limiting toxicities identified to date. The findings of ongoing Phase III studies are needed to confirm the significant potential of anamorelin to treat NSCLC cachexia.

  8. Lower lip suspension with gore-tex suture: technique and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutela, John Paul; Davis, Jared; Zeiderman, Matthew; Kelishadi, Sharooz Sean; Wilhelmi, Bradon

    2014-01-01

    Oral incompetence is a problem frequently experienced after free-flap reconstruction of the oral cavity for patients with oral carcinoma. We describe an interesting treatment modality to deal with this pathology. A 60-year-old woman diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of her oral floor was treated with chemoradiation with complete response, and after suffering recurrence underwent composite mandibulectomy via visor flap and immediate fibular free flap reconstruction. Postoperatively, she was treated with adjuvant chemoradiation and developed oral incompetence months afterward. We performed lower lip suspension with Gore-Tex (Gore - Flagstaff, Arizona) suture with good functional and aesthetic outcome. As of 9 months postoperatively, oral competence was achieved with good functional and aesthetic outcome. This approach is a viable, simple means of restoring oral competence secondary to loss of static control of the lower lip.

  9. Stability of cefozopran hydrochloride in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Przemysław; Skibiński, Robert; Paczkowska, Magdalena; Garbacki, Piotr; Talaczyńska, Alicja; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta; Jelińska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The influence of pH on the stability of cefozopran hydrochloride (CZH) was investigated in the pH range of 0.44-13.00. Six degradation products were identified with a hybrid ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometer. The degradation of CZH as a result of hydrolysis was a pseudo-first-order reaction. As general acid-base hydrolysis of CZH was not occurred in the solutions of hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, acetate, borate and phosphate buffers, kobs = kpH because specific acid-base catalysis was observed. Specific acid-base catalysis of CZH consisted of the following reactions: hydrolysis of CZH catalyzed by hydrogen ions (kH+), hydrolysis of dications (k1H2O), monocations (k2H2O) and zwitter ions (k3H2O) and hydrolysis of zwitter ions (k1OH-) and monoanions (k2OH-) of CZH catalyzed by hydroxide ions. The total rate of the reaction was equal to the sum of partial reactions: [Formula: see text]. CZH similarly like other fourth generation cephalosporin was most stable at slightly acidic and neutral pH and less stable in alkaline pH. The cleavage of the β-lactam ring resulting from a nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon in the β-lactam moiety is the preferred degradation pathway of β-lactam antibiotics in aqueous solutions.

  10. Development and Evaluation of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles of Raloxifene Hydrochloride for Enhanced Bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar Kushwaha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Raloxifene hydrochloride (RL-HCL is an orally selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM with poor bioavailability of nearly 2% due to its poor aqueous solubility and extensive first pass metabolism. In order to improve the oral bioavailability of raloxifene, raloxifene loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN have been developed using Compritol 888 ATO as lipid carrier and Pluronic F68 as surfactant. Raloxifene loaded SLN were prepared by solvent emulsification/evaporation method, and different concentrations of surfactant, and homogenization speed were taken as process variables for optimization. SLN were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, surface morphology, and crystallinity of lipid and drug. In vitro drug release studies were performed in phosphate buffer of pH 6.8 using dialysis bag diffusion technique. Particle sizes of all the formulations were in the range of 250 to 1406 nm, and the entrapment efficiency ranges from 55 to 66%. FTIR and DSC studies indicated no interaction between drug and lipid, and the XRD spectrum showed that RL-HCL is in amorphous form in the formulation. In vitro release profiles were biphasic in nature and followed Higuchi model of release kinetics. Pharmacokinetics of raloxifene loaded solid lipid nanoparticles after oral administration to Wistar rats was studied. Bioavailability of RL-HCL loaded SLN was nearly five times than that of pure RL-HCL.

  11. Bioavailability enhancement of glucosamine hydrochloride by chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shuai; Zhang, Qizhi; Wang, Yanfeng; Lee, Benjamin; Betageri, Guru V; Chow, Moses S S; Huang, Min; Zuo, Zhong

    2013-10-15

    Glucosamine, as a dietary supplement for management of osteoarthritis, has a low and erratic oral bioavailability due to its transport-mediated absorption and presystemic loss in liver and GI tract. The present study described an effective approach to improve glucosamine intestinal absorption and hence its bioavailability using chitosan. Effects of chitosan on intestinal permeability and pharmacokinetics of glucosamine were evaluated in Caco-2 cell monolayer and rats, respectively. In addition, randomized crossover pharmacokinetic studies in beagle dogs were performed to evaluate the oral bioavailabilities of the developed glucosamine oral formulations containing chitosan (QD-Glu solution and QD-Glu tablet) in comparison to its commercial products. Caco-2 permeability studies demonstrated that chitosan could enhance the absorptive transport of glucosamine by 1.9-4.0-fold via the reversible opening of the cell tight junction. After oral administration of glucosamine solutions containing chitosan in rats, it was found that 0.5% (w/v) chitosan exhibited the highest enhancement in Cmax (2.8-fold) and AUC0-∞ (2.5-fold) of glucosamine. Further pharmacokinetic studies in beagle dogs demonstrated that QD-Glu solution and QD-Glu tablet showed much higher relative bioavailabilities of 313% and 186%, when comparing with Wellesse™ solution and Voltaflex™ tablet, respectively. In conclusion, chitosan could serve as a promising oral absorption enhancer for glucosamine.

  12. Iontophoretic transdermal delivery of buspirone hydrochloride in hairless mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khalili, Mohammad; Meidan, Victor M; Michniak, Bozena B

    2003-01-01

    The transdermal delivery of buspirone hydrochloride across hairless mouse skin and the combined effect of iontophoresis and terpene enhancers were evaluated in vitro using Franz diffusion cells. Iontophoretic delivery was optimized by evaluating the effect of drug concentration, current density, and pH of the vehicle solution. Increasing the current density from 0.05 to 0.1 mA/cm2 resulted in doubling of the iontophoretic flux of buspirone hydrochloride, while increasing drug concentration from 1% to 2% had no effect on flux. Using phosphate buffer to adjust the pH of the drug solution decreased the buspirone hydrochloride iontophoretic flux relative to water solutions. Incorporating buspirone hydrochloride into ethanol:water (50:50 vol/vol) based gel formulations using carboxymethylcellulose and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose had no effect on iontophoretic delivery. Incorporation of three terpene enhancers (menthol, cineole, and terpineol) into the gel resulted in a synergistic effect when combined with iontophoresis. Menthol was the most active enhancer, and when combined with iontophoresis it was possible to deliver 10 mg/cm2/day of buspirone hydrochloride.

  13. EVALUATION OF THE THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY OF LEVAMISOLE HYDROCHLORIDE ON THIRD-STAGE LARVAE OF Lagochilascaris minor IN EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulcinéa Maria Barbosa CAMPOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lagochilascariosis, a disease caused by Lagochilascaris minor, affects the neck, sinuses, tonsils, lungs, the sacral region, dental alveoli, eyeballs and the central nervous system of humans. A cycle of autoinfection may occur in human host tissues characterized by the presence of eggs, larvae and adult worms. This peculiarity of the cycle hinders therapy, since there are no drugs that exhibit ovicidal, larvicidal and vermicidal activity. Given these facts, we studied the action of levamisole hydrochloride on third-stage larvae in the migration phase (G1 and on encysted larvae (G3 of L. minor. To this end, 87 inbred mice of the C57BL/6 strain were divided into test groups comprising 67 animals (G1-37; G3-30 and a control group (G2-10; G4-10 with 20 animals. Each animal was inoculated orally with 2,000 infective eggs of the parasite. The animals of the test groups were treated individually with a single oral dose of levamisole hydrochloride at a concentration of 0.075 mg. The drug was administered either 30 minutes prior to the parasite inoculation (G1 animals or 120 days after the inoculation (G3 animals. The mice in the control groups were not treated with the drug. After the time required for the migration and the encysting of L. minor larvae, all the animals were euthanized and their tissues examined. The data were analyzed using the Student's unpaired t-test and the Levene test. The groups showed no statistically significant difference. Levamisole hydrochloride was ineffective on third-stage larvae of L. minor. These findings explain the massive expulsion of live adult worms, as well as the use of long treatment schemes, owing to the persistence of larvae and eggs in human parasitic lesions.

  14. EVALUATION OF THE THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY OF LEVAMISOLE HYDROCHLORIDE ON THIRD-STAGE LARVAE OF Lagochilascaris minor IN EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED MICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Dulcinéa Maria Barbosa; Barbosa, Alverne Passos; Oliveira, Jayrson Araújo; Barbosa, Carlos Augusto Lopes; Lobo, Tamara Flavia Correa; Silva, Luana Gabriella; Thomaz, Douglas Vieira; Peixoto, Josana de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Lagochilascariosis, a disease caused by Lagochilascaris minor, affects the neck, sinuses, tonsils, lungs, the sacral region, dental alveoli, eyeballs and the central nervous system of humans. A cycle of autoinfection may occur in human host tissues characterized by the presence of eggs, larvae and adult worms. This peculiarity of the cycle hinders therapy, since there are no drugs that exhibit ovicidal, larvicidal and vermicidal activity. Given these facts, we studied the action of levamisole hydrochloride on third-stage larvae in the migration phase (G1) and on encysted larvae (G3) of L. minor. To this end, 87 inbred mice of the C57BL/6 strain were divided into test groups comprising 67 animals (G1-37; G3-30) and a control group (G2-10; G4-10) with 20 animals. Each animal was inoculated orally with 2,000 infective eggs of the parasite. The animals of the test groups were treated individually with a single oral dose of levamisole hydrochloride at a concentration of 0.075 mg. The drug was administered either 30 minutes prior to the parasite inoculation (G1 animals) or 120 days after the inoculation (G3 animals). The mice in the control groups were not treated with the drug. After the time required for the migration and the encysting of L. minor larvae, all the animals were euthanized and their tissues examined. The data were analyzed using the Student's unpaired t-test and the Levene test. The groups showed no statistically significant difference. Levamisole hydrochloride was ineffective on third-stage larvae of L. minor. These findings explain the massive expulsion of live adult worms, as well as the use of long treatment schemes, owing to the persistence of larvae and eggs in human parasitic lesions.

  15. EVALUATION OF THE THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY OF LEVAMISOLE HYDROCHLORIDE ON THIRD-STAGE LARVAE OF Lagochilascaris minor IN EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAMPOS, Dulcinéa Maria Barbosa; BARBOSA, Alverne Passos; OLIVEIRA, Jayrson Araújo; BARBOSA, Carlos Augusto Lopes; LOBO, Tamara Flavia Correa; SILVA, Luana Gabriella; THOMAZ, Douglas Vieira; PEIXOTO, Josana de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Lagochilascariosis, a disease caused by Lagochilascaris minor, affects the neck, sinuses, tonsils, lungs, the sacral region, dental alveoli, eyeballs and the central nervous system of humans. A cycle of autoinfection may occur in human host tissues characterized by the presence of eggs, larvae and adult worms. This peculiarity of the cycle hinders therapy, since there are no drugs that exhibit ovicidal, larvicidal and vermicidal activity. Given these facts, we studied the action of levamisole hydrochloride on third-stage larvae in the migration phase (G1) and on encysted larvae (G3) of L. minor. To this end, 87 inbred mice of the C57BL/6 strain were divided into test groups comprising 67 animals (G1-37; G3-30) and a control group (G2-10; G4-10) with 20 animals. Each animal was inoculated orally with 2,000 infective eggs of the parasite. The animals of the test groups were treated individually with a single oral dose of levamisole hydrochloride at a concentration of 0.075 mg. The drug was administered either 30 minutes prior to the parasite inoculation (G1 animals) or 120 days after the inoculation (G3 animals). The mice in the control groups were not treated with the drug. After the time required for the migration and the encysting of L. minor larvae, all the animals were euthanized and their tissues examined. The data were analyzed using the Student's unpaired t-test and the Levene test. The groups showed no statistically significant difference. Levamisole hydrochloride was ineffective on third-stage larvae of L. minor. These findings explain the massive expulsion of live adult worms, as well as the use of long treatment schemes, owing to the persistence of larvae and eggs in human parasitic lesions. PMID:27253745

  16. Formulation and evaluation of taste mask pellets of granisetron hydrochloride as oro dispersible tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Choudhary

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Orally disintegrating systems have carved a niche amongst the oral drug delivery systems due to the highest compliance of the patients, especially the geriatrics and pediatrics. In addition, patients suffering from dysphagia, motion sickness, repeated emesis and mental disorders prefer these medications because they cannot swallow large quantity of water. Further, drugs exhibiting satisfactory absorption from the oral mucosa or intended for immediate pharmacological action can be advantageously formulated in these dosage forms. However, the requirements of formulating these dosage forms with mechanical strength sufficient to withstand the rigors of handling and capable of disintegrating within a few seconds on contact with saliva are inextricable. The purpose of this research was to mask the bitter taste of granisetron hydrochloride. To mask the taste Kollicoat(r Smartseal 30D was used as coating polymer for pellet coating. The coated pellets of the drug was directly compressed with different superdisintegrant as AC-Di-Sol, Explotab and Kollidon CL in different concentration 5.0-7.5% w/w into an ODT. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, wet absorption ratio, in-vitro disintegration time and in vitro dissolution studies. Tablets exhibited quick disintegration characteristics with Kollidon CL in concentration 7.5% w/w i.e., within 20 seconds, which is characteristic of orally disintegrating dosage forms. More than 98% of drug was released from the formulations within 15 minutes. Formulations subjected to stability testing as per the ICH guidelines for 3 months, indicated stability with no change in taste, hardness, drug content, disintegration time and dissolution profiles. Thus, the results conclusively demonstrated successful masking of taste and rapid disintegration of the formulated dosage forms in the oral cavity.

  17. 78 FR 2416 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Rybix® (Tramadol Hydrochloride) Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... (Tramadol Hydrochloride) Tablets AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... (tramadol hydrochloride) tablets. Based upon the facts presented, CBP has concluded in the final determination that India is the country of origin of the Rybix (tramadol hydrochloride) tablets for purposes of...

  18. Spectrophotometric determination of meclizine hydrochloride and pyridoxine hydrochloride in laboratory prepared mixtures and in their pharmaceutical preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Maha M.; Elzanfaly, Eman S.; El-Zeiny, Mohamed B.; Ramadan, Nesreen K.; Kelani, Khadiga M.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, three rapid, simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of meclizine hydrochloride in the presence of pyridoxine hydrochloride without previous separation. The methods under study are dual wavelength (DWL), ratio difference (RD) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT). On the other hand, pyridoxine hydrochloride (PYH) was determined directly at 291 nm. The methods obey Beer's law in the range of (5-50 μg/mL) for both compounds. All the methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines where the accuracy was found to be 98.29, 99.59, 100.42 and 100.62% for DWL, RD, CWT and PYH; respectively. Moreover the precision of the methods were calculated in terms of %RSD and it was found to be 0.545, 0.372, 1.287 and 0.759 for DWL, RD,CWT and PYH; respectively. The selectivity of the proposed methods was tested using laboratory prepared mixtures and assessed by applying the standard addition technique. So, they can be used for the routine analysis of pyridoxine hydrochloride and meclizine hydrochloride in quality-control laboratories.

  19. Stability of ranitidine hydrochloride in total parenteral nutrient solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S E; Bayliff, C D

    1985-03-01

    The stability of ranitidine hydrochloride was studied in a standard total parenteral nutrition (TPN) solution. The Canadian formulation of ranitidine hydrochloride (25 mg/mL) was added in 100-, 200-, and 300-mg doses to approximately 1200 mL of a TPN solution and allowed to stand at room temperature (23 degrees C) for seven days. During this time, samples were drawn at least once a day, and the ranitidine concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The ranitidine concentration declined at roughly the same rate regardless of the initial concentration. During the study period, each of the three different concentrations declined to less than 70% of the initial concentration. Approximately 10% of the initial concentration was lost in 48 hours. Ranitidine hydrochloride admixtures were stable for up to 48 hours at room temperature in this standard TPN solution.

  20. Temperature-dependent THz vibrational spectra of clenbuterol hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, YuPing; Lei, XiangYun; Yue, Ai; Zhang, Zhenwei

    2013-04-01

    Using the high-resolution Terahertz Time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and the standard sample pellet technique, the far-infrared vibrational spectra of clenbuterol hydrochloride (CH), a β 2-adrenergic agonist for decreasing fat deposition and enhancing protein accretion, were measured in temperature range of 77-295 K. Between 0.2 and 3.6 THz (6.6-120.0 cm-1), seven highly resolved spectral features, strong line-narrowing and a frequency blue-shift were observed with cooling. However, ractopamine hydrochloride, with some structural and pharmacological similarities to clenbuterol hydrochloride, showed no spectral features, indicating high sensitivity and strong specificity of THz-TDS. These results could be used for the rapid and nondestructive CH residual detection in food safety control.

  1. Spectrophotometric estimation of pioglitazone hydrochloride in tablet dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basniwal Pawan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, rapid, and precise methods - linear regression equation (LRE and standard absorptivity - were developed and validated for the estimation of pioglitazone hydrochloride in tablet dosage form. The maximum absorbance (lmax of pioglitazone hydrochloride was found to be 269.8 nm in methanol:water:hydrochloric acid (250:250:1. Beer-Lambert law was obeyed in the concentration range of 10-50 µg/ml, and the standard absorptivity was found to be 253.97 dl/g/cm. Both the methods were validated for linearity, accuracy, precision (days, analysts, and instrument variation, and robustness (solvent composition. The numerical values for all parameters lie within the acceptable limits. Pioglitazone hydrochloride was estimated in the range of 99.58-99.97% by LRE method and 100.25-100.75% by standard absorptivity method. At 99% confidence limit, the F-test value for the methods was found to be 1.8767.

  2. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaparale, Sonali; Telekone, R S; Raut, R P; Damle, S S; Kasture, P V

    2010-01-01

    Two simple, accurate and reproducible spectrophotometric methods; Q analysis and first order derivative method have been described for the simultaneous estimation of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in combined tablet dosage form. Absorption maxima of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in distilled water were found to be 303.5 nm and 243.5 nm respectively. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range 5-50 mug/ml for drotaverine and 5-60 mug/ml for paracetamol. In Q analysis method, two wavelengths were selected at isobestic point (277 nm) and lambda(max) of paracetamol (243.5 nm). In first order derivative method, zero crossing point for drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol were selected at 303.5 nm and 243.5 nm, respectively. The results of two methods were validated statistically and recovery studies were found to be satisfactory.

  3. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahaparale Sonali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, accurate and reproducible spectrophotometric methods; Q analysis and first order derivative method have been described for the simultaneous estimation of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in combined tablet dosage form. Absorption maxima of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in distilled water were found to be 303.5 nm and 243.5 nm respectively. Beer′s law was obeyed in the concentration range 5-50 µg/ml for drotaverine and 5-60 µg/ml for paracetamol. In Q analysis method, two wavelengths were selected at isobestic point (277 nm and λmax of paracetamol (243.5 nm. In first order derivative method, zero crossing point for drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol were selected at 303.5 nm and 243.5 nm, respectively. The results of two methods were validated statistically and recovery studies were found to be satisfactory.

  4. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalaimalai Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy.

  5. Spotlight on anagrelide hydrochloride for the treatment of essential thrombocythemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anita Sarma,1 Donal P Mclornan,1,2 Claire N Harrison2 1Department of Haematology, King’s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, 2Department of Haematology, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK Abstract: Anagrelide (ANA hydrochloride is an oral imidazoquinazoline registered as an orphan drug in Europe. It is indicated as a second-line agent for the reduction of thrombocytosis in high-risk essential thrombocythemia (ET in Europe and in any myeloproliferative neoplasm-associated thrombocytosis and for the amelioration of thrombo-hemorrhagic events in the context of myeloproliferative neoplasm in the USA and Japan. The compound has been in clinical use for almost two decades with approval in the European Union (EU for over a decade. The licensed indication encompasses the apparently specific action of the drug to reduce the platelet count; however, the precise mode of action of ANA remains unclear. Here, we review the current data from two large phase 3 studies, PT-1 and ANAHDRET, and a phase 4 post-approval observational study EXELS. All of these studies were conducted in the EU and therefore pertain to ET as the only licensed indication. Data from these studies suggest that ANA is on the whole as effective as the most commonly used agent hydroxycarbamide (HC. Although ANA, when compared to HC, appears to be slightly less effective in preventing arterial thrombosis and myelofibrotic transformation, it is associated with lower risk of venous thrombosis. Since the initial data from the PT-1 study, a caution has been recommended for the combined use of ANA and aspirin as this may provoke excess hemorrhage. ET is a clinically and biologically heterogeneous condition, and these biological variations may in part explain some of the clinical differences observed in various studies in response to specific treatments. No new toxicities of ANA have emerged in the past decade, which means that clinicians and patients can be reassured

  6. Control of quadriaxial cardan suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novozhilov, I. V.

    1984-04-01

    A quadriaxial Cardan suspension is to be servomechanically controlled so as to stabilize a definite orientation of the platform during arbitrary motion of the frame. The problem is solved with the use of five orthogonal systems of coordinates tied one to the platform, one to each of the three gimbals, and one to the frame respectively. The suspension is assumed to be structurally perfectly rigid and to be part of a gyroscopic indicator-stabilization system. The corresponding dynamic equations are written as equations for angular momenta and several variants of control, for the various rotations, are constructed. One such variant, a more intricate one, is course-vertical control. Dynamic control of the suspension in a stationary frame, to ensure any arbitrarily prescribed angular evolutions of the platform, is also considered and the procedure for constructing such a control is outlined.

  7. A novel method of producing a microcrystalline beta-sitosterol suspension in oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Leena I; Rantanen, Jukka T; von Bonsdorff, Anna K

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method of producing a microcrystalline oral suspension containing beta-sitosterol in oil for the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia. beta-Sitosterol pseudopolymorphs with different water contents were crystallized from acetone and acetone-water solutions. Structural a...

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of ritodrine and isoxsuprine hydrochlorides using 4-aminoantipyrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revanasiddappa, H D; Manju, B G

    2000-01-01

    A simple, accurate, and rapid method for the quantitative determination of ritodrine hydrochloride (RTH) and isoxsuprine hydrochloride (ISH) in both pure and dosage forms, is described. The method is based on the development of pink colored product as a result of the condensation of 4-aminoantipyrine with phenols in the presence of an alkaline oxidizing agent. The resulting products are measured at 510 nm for both drugs, with molar absorptivities of 0.98 x 10(4) and 1.20 x 10(4) L/mol x cm for RTH and ISH, respectively. A study of the effect of commonly associated excipients revealed that they did not cause interference.

  9. Enantiomeric Separation of Meptazinol Hydrochloride by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUYun-qiu; CHENYan; LINi; QIUZhui-bai

    2004-01-01

    Aim To establish a capillary electrophoresis method for enantiomerie separation of meptazinol hydrochloride. Methods The separation conditions such as cyclodextrin(CD)type, buffer pH, concentration of 2,3,6-O-triInethyl-β-cyclodextrin and organic additives were optimized. An optimum concentration was 30 mmol·L-1 phosphate (pH 7.02)with 10% (W/V) TM-β-CD and 2% acetonitrile. Results Basehne resolution of the enantiomer was readily achieved using 2,3,6-O-trimethyl-β-cyclodextrin. Conclusion This is a convenient method for fast enantiomeric resolution of meptazinol hydrochloride.

  10. [Effect of topical exhedrine hydrochloride on muco-ciliary transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatica, L; Fiorella, R

    1983-07-30

    The time of nasal M.C.T. (Mucus Ciliar Transport) was studied by the indirect objective method of bleu-sky in 30 healthy subjects before and after the application of efedrina hydrochloride in water solution associated with timolo, eucaliptolo, mentolo essence of canfora monobramata and clorbutamolo. The time of nasal M.C.T., regular in the 87% of the subjects during the first determination was found extended in almost all of the cases after the application of vasoconstrictor (85%). This experimental data may be caused both by a direct effect of efedrina hydrochloride and by the substances associated in the solution and their physical characteristics.

  11. The Rheology of Concentrated Suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas Acrivos

    2004-09-07

    Research program on the rheological properties of flowing suspensions. The primary purpose of the research supported by this grant was to study the flow characteristics of concentrated suspensions of non-colloidal solid particles and thereby construct a comprehensive and robust theoretical framework for modeling such systems quantitatively. At first glance, this seemed like a modest goal, not difficult to achieve, given that such suspensions were viewed simply as Newtonian fluids with an effective viscosity equal to the product of the viscosity of the suspending fluid times a function of the particle volume fraction. But thanks to the research findings of the Principal Investigator and of his Associates, made possible by the steady and continuous support which the PI received from the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the subject is now seen to be more complicated and therefore much more interesting in that concentrated suspensions have been shown to exhibit fascinating and unique rheological properties of their own that have no counterpart in flowing Newtonian or even non-Newtonian (polymeric) fluids. In fact, it is generally acknowledged that, as the result of these investigations for which the PI received the 2001 National Medal of Science, our understanding of how suspensions behave under flow is far more detailed and comprehensive than was the case even as recently as a decade ago. Thus, given that the flow of suspensions plays a crucial role in many diverse physical processes, our work has had a major and lasting impact in a subject having both fundamental as well as practical importance.

  12. Omeprazole/Antacid-powder suspension-Santarus: omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate powder-Santarus, SAN 05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Santarus Inc. is developing an immediate-release formulation of omeprazole in combination with an antacid (sodium bicarbonate) as a powder for suspension, known as Acitreltrade mark [SAN 05] and also as Rapinex powder for oral suspension. This omeprazole powder suspension will be used to treat gastrointestinal haemorrhage, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, heartburn and peptic ulcers. Acitreltrade mark is based on technology licensed from the University of Missouri. Santarus have also licensed technology from Tulane and North Carolina Universities relating to potential treatments for gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Santarus has licensed exclusive, worldwide rights to patent applications covering specific combination formulations of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and antacids for treating various upper GI diseases and disorders. Santarus plans to license the development, distribution and marketing rights of omeprazole powder for oral suspension 20 mg outside the US, to one or more well established pharmaceutical companies. The US FDA has requested that Santarus pursue a name other than Rapinex for the product. Santarus is currently discussing potential alternative names for the product with the FDA. Santarus announced positive results in August 2003 from a phase III trial comparing oral Acitrel (Rapinex 40 mg) with intravenous cimetidine in preventing upper GI bleeding in 359 critically ill adult patients. Santarus has also completed an open-label clinical trial in 243 patients, including 97 patients with gastric ulcers, evaluating the safety of this omeprazole 40 mg powder suspension for an 8-week period. In connection with the NDA for omeprazole powder suspension 40 mg, Santarus provided notice to the NDA holder for Prilosec delayed-release capsules and related patent owners that omeprazole powder suspension 40 mg does not infringe currently listed patents for Prilosec or that those patents are invalid.

  13. Active Control of Suspension Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper some recent research on active control of very long suspension bridges, is presented. The presentation is based on research work at Aalborg University, Denmark. The active control system is based on movable flaps attached to the bridge girder. Wind load on bridges with or without...... flaps attached to the girder is briefly presented. A simple active control system is discussed. Results from wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section show that flaps can be used effectively to control bridge girder vibrations. Flutter conditions for suspension bridges with and without flaps...

  14. Oral Thrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding mothers In addition to the distinctive white mouth lesions, infants may have trouble feeding or be fussy ... candidiasis (yeast infection) patient information. American Academy of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology. http://www.aaomp.org/public/oral-candidiasis.php. ...

  15. 高效液相色谱法测定复方奥美拉唑干混悬剂中的有关物质及奥美拉唑磺酰化物的含量%HPLC determination of relevant substances and omeprazole sulphone in compound omeprazole powder for oral suspension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱迎军; 李昌亮; 黄莉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish an HPLC method to determine the relevant substances and omeprazole sulphone in compound omeprazole powder for oral suspension. Methods Agilent-C8 column (4. 6 mm×200 mm, 5 μm) was used at 280 nm. The mobile phase consisted of 0.01 mol · L-1 dibasic sodium phosphate (adjusted to pH 7. 6 with phosphate acid) -acetonitrile (75 : 25), the flow rate was 1. 0 mL · min-1, the column temperature was 40℃, and the injection volume was 20 μL. Results There was good linearity for omeprazole sulphone at 0. 2-1.0 μg · mL-1 (r=1. 0, n= 5). The average recovery was 99.6% (n=6), RSD=0. 2%. Conclusion The method is simple, efficient and accurate.%目的 建立复方奥美拉唑干混悬剂中有关物质及奥美拉唑磺酰化物的测定方法.方法 色谱柱:Agilent-C8(4.6 mm×200 mm,5 μm);流动相:0.01 mol·L-1磷酸氢二钠(用磷酸调节pH值至7.6)-乙腈(75:25);检测波长:280 nm;流速:1.0 mL·min-1;柱温:40℃;进样量:20μL.结果 奥美拉唑磺酰化物在0.2~1.0μg·ML-1与峰面积呈良好的线性关系(r=1.0,n=5).平均回收率99.6%,RSD= 0.2% (n=6).结论 本方法 简便、迅速、准确.

  16. Oral Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    鈴木, 規子; スズキ, ノリコ; Noriko, SUZUKI

    2004-01-01

    The major oral functions can be categorized as mastication, swallowing, speech and respiratory functions. Dysfunction of these results in dysphagia, speech disorders and abnormal respiration (such as Sleep Apnea). These functions relate to dentistry in the occurrence of : (1) oral preparatory and oral phases, (2) articulation disorders and velopharyngeal incompetence (VPI), and (3) mouth breathing, respiratory and blowing disorders. These disorders are related to oral and maxillofacial diseas...

  17. Six sigma: process of understanding the control and capability of ranitidine hydrochloride tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabukswar, Ar; Jagdale, Sc; Kuchekar, Bs; Joshi, Vd; Deshmukh, Gr; Kothawade, Hs; Kuckekar, Ab; Lokhande, Pd

    2011-01-01

    The process of understanding the control and capability (PUCC) is an iterative closed loop process for continuous improvement. It covers the DMAIC toolkit in its three phases. PUCC is an iterative approach that rotates between the three pillars of the process of understanding, process control, and process capability, with each iteration resulting in a more capable and robust process. It is rightly said that being at the top is a marathon and not a sprint. The objective of the six sigma study of Ranitidine hydrochloride tablets is to achieve perfection in tablet manufacturing by reviewing the present robust manufacturing process, to find out ways to improve and modify the process, which will yield tablets that are defect-free and will give more customer satisfaction. The application of six sigma led to an improved process capability, due to the improved sigma level of the process from 1.5 to 4, a higher yield, due to reduced variation and reduction of thick tablets, reduction in packing line stoppages, reduction in re-work by 50%, a more standardized process, with smooth flow and change in coating suspension reconstitution level (8%w/w), a huge cost reduction of approximately Rs.90 to 95 lakhs per annum, an improved overall efficiency by 30% approximately, and improved overall quality of the product.

  18. Development and characterization of in-situ gel for ophthalmic formulation containing ciprofloxacin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makwana, S B; Patel, V A; Parmar, S J

    2016-01-01

    In situ gels are systems which are applied as solutions or suspensions and are capable of undergoing rapid sol-to-gel transformation triggered by external stimulus such as temperature, pH etc. on instillation. The aim of the present study was to formulate and evaluate pH responsive in-situ gel for ophthalmic delivery. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride is popularly used as a broad spectrum antibiotic in the treatment of corneal ulcers of ocular infections. However, rapid dilution on instillation, wash out, poor retention of drug concentration delimit the therapeutic benefits of the drug when used in form of conventional eye drops. Sodium alginate, an ophthalmic gel forming mucoadhesive polymer was chosen as polymer which undergoes instantaneous gel formation due to formation of calcium alginate by virtue of its interaction with divalent cation (Ca(+2)) present in lachrymal fluid. Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC K4M and E5 0LV) was further incorporated as a viscosity enhancer in order to achieve the desired consistency so as to facilitate sustained drug release. The developed formulations were evaluated for clarity, pH measurement, gelling capacity, drug content, rheological study, and in vitro drug release. Thus, in situ gel based systems containing gums can be a valuable approach for ophthalmic drug delivery when compared to conventional systems.

  19. Formulation and Evaluation of Multilayered Tablets of Pioglitazone Hydrochloride and Metformin Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ankamma Chowdary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus a continuous therapy is required which is a more complex one. As in these patients there may be a defect in both insulin secretion and insulin action exists. Hence, the treatment depends on the pathophysiology and the disease state. In the present study, multilayered tablets of pioglitazone hydrochloride 15 mg and metformin hydrochloride 500 mg were prepared in an attempt for combination therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pioglitazone HCl was formulated as immediate release layer to show immediate action by direct compression method using combination of superdisintegrants, namely, crospovidone and avicel PH 102. Crospovidone at 20% concentration showed good drug release profile at 2 hrs. Metformin HCl was formulated as controlled release layer to prolong the drug action by incorporating hydrophilic polymers such as HPMC K4M by direct compression method and guar gum by wet granulation method in order to sustain the drug release from the tablets and maintain its integrity so as to provide a suitable formulation. The multilayered tablets were prepared after carrying out the optimization of immediate release layer and were evaluated for various precompression and postcompression parameters. Formulation F13 showed 99.97% of pioglitazone release at 2 hrs in 0.1 N HCl and metformin showed 98.81% drug release at 10 hrs of dissolution in 6.8 pH phosphate buffer. The developed formulation is equivalent to innovator product in view of in vitro drug release profile. The results of all these evaluation tests are within the standards. The procedure followed for the formulation of these tablets was found to be reproducible and all the formulations were stable after accelerated stability studies. Hence, multilayered tablets of pioglitazone HCl and metformin HCl can be a better alternative way to conventional dosage forms.

  20. Diffusion Coefficients ofl-Lysine Hydrochloride and l-Arginine Hydrochloride in Their Aqueous Solutions at 25℃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The diffusion coefficients** ofl-lysine hydrochloride andl-arginine hydrochloride in their aqueous solu- tions at 25℃ were determined by the metallic diaphragm cell method which is characterized by accuracy, promptness and convenience. Meanwhile, the densities and viscosities of the solutions were also determined. Based on all these data a semi-empirical model for correlating the diffusion coefficients of solid organic salts in their aqueous solutions at 25℃ was proposed. The fitting result of this model is comparatively satisfactory. Compared to a former model, Gordon Model, this model can avoid a number of difficulties and arduous work.

  1. Producing a highly concentrated coal suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokudzu, K.; Atsudzima, T.; Kiyedzuka, Y.

    1983-06-03

    Coal from wet and dry grinding is loaded into a mixer with a mixer arm with the acquisition of a highly concentrated suspension. Foamers (for instance, alkylbenzolsulfonate) and foam stabilizers (for instance diethanolamide of lauric acid) are added in a ratio of 10 to (2 to 5). The high fluidity of the suspension is maintained by injecting air into the suspension and an 80 percent concentration of the suspension is achieved.

  2. Rheology and structural arrest of casein suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Dahbi, Louisa; Alexander, M.; Trappe, Véronique; Dhont, J. K. G.; Schurtenberger, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The rheology of milk powder suspensions is investigated up to very high concentrations, where structural arrest occurs. The main component of the milk powder investigated is casein, so that the suspensions can be regarded as casein suspensions. Four concentration regimes are identified. For effective casein volume fractions less than 0.54 the concentration dependence of the zero-shear viscosity is similar to that of hard-sphere suspensions. However, due to the elastic deformation of the casei...

  3. Modeling of curvilinear suspension flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeffrey F.; Boulay, Fabienne

    1996-11-01

    The curvilinear parallel-plate and cone-and-plate rheometric flows of monodisperse noncolloidal suspensions have been modeled. Although nonuniform in shear rate, dotγ, the parallel-plate flow has been shown experimentally(A. W. Chow, S. W. Sinton, J. H. Iwayima & T. S. Stephens 1994 Phys. Fluids) 6, 2561. not to exhibit particle migration, contrary to predictions of prior suspension-flow modeling. Predictions of nonuniform particle volume fraction, φ, by the suspension-balance model(P. R. Nott & J. F. Brady 1994 J. Fluid Mech.) 275, 157. for parallel-plate and cone-and-plate flow without normal stress differences are presented. The ``nonmigration'' in parallel-plate flow may be attributed to bulk suspension normal stress differences: assuming the bulk stress has the form Σ ~ η dotγ Q(φ) with η the fluid viscosity, nonmigration is predicted for parallel-plate flow provided that Q_33 = (1/2) Q_11 at the bulk φ of interest, with 1 the flow direction and 3 the vorticity direction. Extending the model to include normal stress differences satisfying this requirement, a range of migration behavior is predicted for the cone-and-plate flow depending upon the ratio Q_11/Q_22.

  4. Shear Thinning of Noncolloidal Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Quesada, Adolfo; Tanner, Roger I.; Ellero, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Shear thinning—a reduction in suspension viscosity with increasing shear rates—is understood to arise in colloidal systems from a decrease in the relative contribution of entropic forces. The shear-thinning phenomenon has also been often reported in experiments with noncolloidal systems at high volume fractions. However its origin is an open theoretical question and the behavior is difficult to reproduce in numerical simulations where shear thickening is typically observed instead. In this letter we propose a non-Newtonian model of interparticle lubrication forces to explain shear thinning in noncolloidal suspensions. We show that hidden shear-thinning effects of the suspending medium, which occur at shear rates orders of magnitude larger than the range investigated experimentally, lead to significant shear thinning of the overall suspension at much smaller shear rates. At high particle volume fractions the local shear rates experienced by the fluid situated in the narrow gaps between particles are much larger than the averaged shear rate of the whole suspension. This allows the suspending medium to probe its high-shear non-Newtonian regime and it means that the matrix fluid rheology must be considered over a wide range of shear rates.

  5. Dynamics of the colloidal suspensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai-yan; MA Hong-ru

    2006-01-01

    This article offers a survey on our current knowledge of the dynamics of the colloidal suspension,where each particle experiences the friction force with solvent,hydrodynamic interaction,and potential force from surrounding particles and thermodynamic force.It further contains a summary of the basic concepts about microstructures and equilibrium properties,and of analytical and numerical methods,which are relevant for the theoretical description of the suspensions.The description of the dynamics of colloidal particles,based on the generalized Smoluchowski equation,is justified for the time scale accessible in DLS experiments.The combined influence of hard sphere or electrostatic potential and solvent-mediated hydrodynamic interaction on the short-time dynamics of monodisperse suspensions is investigated in detail.A thorough study of tracer-diffusion in hard sphere and charge-stabilized suspensions is presented.Mean-square displacements and long-time tracer-diffusion coefficients are calculated with two alternative approximations,i.e.,a mode-coupling scheme and a single relaxation time ansatz.

  6. Suspension-Firing of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the second of two papers, describing probe measurements of deposit buildup and removal (shedding), conducted in a 350 MWth suspension-fired boiler, firing straw and wood. Investigations of deposit buildup and shedding have been made by use of an advanced online deposit probe and a s...

  7. 76 FR 1174 - Drugs for Human Use; Drug Efficacy Study Implementation; Oral Prescription Drugs Offered for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ..., phenylephrine hydrochloride, phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride, and guaifenesin, was marketed under NDA 11-694..., phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride, and guaifenesin, was marketed under NDA 11-694. Actifed-C Expectorant, containing codeine phosphate, triprolidine hydrochloride, pseudoephedrine hydrochloride, and guaifenesin, was...

  8. 7 CFR 3015.123 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension. 3015.123 Section 3015.123 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Grant and Subgrant Closeout, Suspension and Termination § 3015.123 Suspension. (a) When a recipient has materially failed to comply with the...

  9. 36 CFR 1212.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 1212.670 Section... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1212.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a recipient...

  10. 48 CFR 609.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 609.407 Section 609.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 609.407 Suspension....

  11. 48 CFR 1409.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1409.407 Section 1409.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 1409.407 Suspension....

  12. 25 CFR 23.52 - Grant suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grant suspension. 23.52 Section 23.52 Indians BUREAU OF... Grant Administration Provisions and Requirements § 23.52 Grant suspension. (a) When a grantee has... assistance, suspend the grant. The notice preceding the suspension shall include the effective date of...

  13. 36 CFR 223.141 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 223.141 Section... DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Suspension and Debarment of Timber Purchasers § 223.141 Suspension. (a) The suspending official may, in the public interest, suspend a purchaser on the basis...

  14. 32 CFR 552.79 - Suspension action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension action. 552.79 Section 552.79 National... Suspension action. (a) When suspended for cause, immediately notify the company and the agent, in writing, of the reason. When the installation commander determines that suspension should be extended...

  15. 41 CFR 105-74.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 105-74.670...-GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 105-74.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a recipient...

  16. 45 CFR 1210.3-3 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1210.3-3 Section 1210.3-3 Public... § 1210.3-3 Suspension. (a) The ACTION State Director may suspend a Volunteer for up to 30 days in order... Volunteer. Suspension is not warranted if the State Director determines that sufficient grounds...

  17. 21 CFR 26.16 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 26.16 Section 26.16 Food and Drugs... Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.16 Suspension. (a) Each party has the right... after such notification, the contested authority will be suspended. (d) Upon the suspension of...

  18. 32 CFR 776.82 - Interim suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim suspension. 776.82 Section 776.82... Complaint Processing Procedures § 776.82 Interim suspension. (a) Where the Rules Counsel determines there is... interim suspension, pending completion of a professional responsibility investigation. The...

  19. 49 CFR 393.207 - Suspension systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension systems. 393.207 Section 393.207... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.207 Suspension systems. (a) Axles. No axle positioning part shall be cracked, broken, loose or...

  20. 75 FR 24494 - Nonprocurement Debarment and Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ...; ] ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION 2 CFR Chapter 58 Nonprocurement Debarment and Suspension AGENCY: U.S... proposed debarment and suspension regulations. These proposed regulations will apply to nonprocurement... Management and Budget (OMB) in a document on nonprocurement debarment and suspension published in the...

  1. 48 CFR 509.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 509.407 Section 509.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 509.407 Suspension....

  2. 48 CFR 2009.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Suspension. 2009.407 Section 2009.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 2009.407 Suspension....

  3. 21 CFR 522.1289 - Lufenuron suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lufenuron suspension. 522.1289 Section 522.1289 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Lufenuron suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous suspension contains...

  4. 32 CFR 552.80 - Suspension period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension period. 552.80 Section 552.80 National... Suspension period. All solicitation privileges suspended by installation commanders will be for a specific time. Normally, it will not exceed 2 years. When the suspension period expires, the agent may...

  5. 48 CFR 409.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 409.407 Section 409.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension and Ineligibility 409.407 Suspension....

  6. 22 CFR 127.8 - Interim suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim suspension. 127.8 Section 127.8 Foreign... Interim suspension. (a) The Managing Director of the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls or the Director of the Office of Defense Trade Controls Compliance is authorized to order the interim suspension...

  7. 40 CFR 36.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 36.670 Section 36.670... REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 36.670 Suspension. Suspension means... contracts (48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4) and the common rule, Government-wide Debarment and...

  8. 38 CFR 48.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 48.670...) GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 48.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a recipient...

  9. 32 CFR 26.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 26.670 Section 26.670 National... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 26.670 Suspension. Suspension means an action taken by a Federal agency that immediately prohibits a recipient...

  10. 25 CFR 558.5 - License suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false License suspension. 558.5 Section 558.5 Indians NATIONAL... MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS § 558.5 License suspension. (a) If, after the issuance of a gaming license, the... tribe shall suspend such license and shall notify in writing the licensee of the suspension and...

  11. 48 CFR 9.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 9.407 Section 9.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 9.407 Suspension....

  12. 22 CFR 34.20 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 34.20 Section 34.20 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY DEBT COLLECTION Collection Adjustments § 34.20 Suspension. The suspension of collection action shall be made in accordance with the standards set forth...

  13. 48 CFR 909.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 909.407 Section 909.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 909.407 Suspension....

  14. 48 CFR 2509.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Suspension. 2509.407 Section 2509.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 2509.407 Suspension....

  15. 48 CFR 309.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 309.407 Section 309.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 309.407 Suspension....

  16. 48 CFR 809.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 809.407 Section 809.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 809.407 Suspension....

  17. 48 CFR 1509.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Suspension. 1509.407 Section 1509.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension and Ineligibility 1509.407 Suspension....

  18. 48 CFR 1309.407 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1309.407 Section 1309.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 1309.407 Suspension....

  19. 34 CFR 682.705 - Suspension proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension proceedings. 682.705 Section 682.705....705 Suspension proceedings. (a) Scope. (1) A suspension by the Secretary removes a lender's... limitation or a termination proceeding. (2) If the Secretary begins a limitation or a termination...

  20. 34 CFR 668.85 - Suspension proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension proceedings. 668.85 Section 668.85 Education... Proceedings § 668.85 Suspension proceedings. (a) Scope and consequences. (1) The Secretary may suspend an... a suspension proceeding against a third-party servicer, the Secretary also may begin a...

  1. Release Characteristics of Diltiazem Hydrochloride Wax-Matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    diltiazem hydrochloride-wax matrix granules with sintering. ... The drug release was by Higuchi controlled diffusion mechanism and it followed ... of plastic matrix tablets. Polymer films with different permeability have been .... More so, with increase in temperature and ..... characterization of ibuprofen-cetyl alcohol beads by.

  2. Study on the syhthesis process of tetracaine hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenli; Zhao, Jie; Cui, Yujie

    2017-05-01

    Tetrachloride hydrochloride is a local anesthetic with long-acting ester, and it is usually present in the form of a hydrochloride salt. Firsleb first synthesized the tetracaine by experiment in 1928, which is one of the recognized clinical potent anesthetics. This medicine has the advantages of stable physical and chemical properties, the rapid role and long maintenance. Tetracaine is also used for ophthalmic surface anesthesia as one of the main local anesthetic just like conduction block anesthesia, mucosal surface anesthesia and epidural anesthesia. So far, the research mainly engaged in its clinical application research, and the research strength is relatively small in the field of synthetic technology. The general cost of the existing production process is high, and the yield is low. In addition, the reaction time is long and the reaction conditions are harsh. In this paper, a new synthetic method was proposed for the synthesis of tetracaine hydrochloride. The reaction route has the advantages of few steps, high yield, short reaction time and mild reaction conditions. The cheap p-nitrobenzoic acid was selected as raw material. By esterification with ethanol and reaction with n-butyraldehyde (the reaction process includes nitro reduction, aldol condensation and hydrogenation reduction), the intermediate was transesterified with dimethylaminoethanol under basic conditions. Finally, the PH value was adjusted in the ethanol solvent. After experiencing 4 steps reaction, the crude tetracaine hydrochloride was obtained.

  3. Surface tension of compositions of polyhexametyleneguanidine hydrochloride - surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumargaliyeva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We made up songs bactericidal polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride (metacyde with the surface-active substances - anionic sodium dodecylsulfate, cationic cetylpyridinium bromide, and nonionic Tween-80 and measured the surface tension of water solutions. The study showed that the composition metacyde with surface-active agents have a greater surface activity than the individual components.

  4. 21 CFR 524.1982 - Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution. 524.1982 Section 524.1982 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... longterm toxicity of proparacaine is unknown. Prolonged use may possibly delay wound healing. (d...

  5. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis caused by terazosin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Laura M; Wilkerson, Michael G; Perri, Anthony J; Kelly, Brent C

    2008-04-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a rare cutaneous eruption mainly provoked by drugs. A case of AGEP in a 74-year-old male that was attributed to the ingestion of terazosin hydrochloride is presented. This is the first reported case of this association in medical literature. The history, clinical presentation, and pathogenesis of AGEP are discussed.

  6. Cradle-to-gate life cycle inventory of vancomycin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Celia; Overcash, Michael

    2010-02-15

    A life cycle analysis on the cradle-to-gate production of vancomycin hydrochloride, which begins at natural resource extraction and spans through factory (gate) production, not only shows all inputs, outputs, and energy usage to manufacture the product and all related supply chain chemicals, but can highlight where process changes would have the greatest impact on raw material and energy consumption and emissions. Vancomycin hydrochloride is produced by a low-yield fermentation process that accounts for 47% of the total cradle-to-gate energy. The fermentation step consumes the most raw materials and energy cradle-to-gate. Over 75% of the total cradle-to-gate energy consumption is due to steam use; sterilization within fermentation is the largest user of steam. Aeration and agitation in the fermentation vessels use 65% of the cradle-to-gate electrical energy. To reduce raw materials, energy consumption, and the associated environmental footprint of producing vancomycin hydrochloride, other sterilization methods, fermentation media, nutrient sources, or synthetic manufacture should be investigated. The reported vancomycin hydrochloride life cycle inventory is a part of a larger life cycle study of the environmental consequences of the introduction of biocide-coated medical textiles for the prevention of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) nosocomial infections.

  7. Asymmetric Synthesis of (+)-(11 R,12S)-Mefloquine Hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The asymmetric synthesis of (+)-(11R,12S)-mefloquine hydrochloride, an antimalarial drug, was accomplished from commercially available 2-trifluoromethylaniline, ethyl 4,4,4-trifluoroacetoacetate and cyclopentanone in 7 steps with a 14% overall yield. The key steps were proline-catalyzed asymmetric direct aldol reaction and Beck-mann rearrangement. The absolute configuration was assigned by a Mosher's method.

  8. Human pharmacokinetics of the muscle relaxant, eperisone hydrochloride by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melilli, Barbara; Piazza, Cateno; Vitale, Daniela Cristina; Marano, Maria Rosa; Pecori, Andrea; Mattana, Paolo; Volsi, Valentina Li; Iuculano, Carmelo; Cardì, Francesco; Drago, Filippo

    2011-06-01

    Eperisone hydrochloride (4'-ethyl-2-methyl-3-piperidinopropiophenone hydrochloride) is a muscle relaxant agent, widely used in the treatment of patients with muscular contractures, low back pain or spasticity. Because of its mechanism of action (inhibition of gamma-efferent firing and local vasodilatation activity), side effects on central nervous system are rarely observed. A sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry method for determination of eperisone in human plasma has been developed, with a lower limit of quantification of 0.01 ng/mL. The method was applied to a pharmacokinetic study in 12 healthy volunteers given eperisone 100 mg as single dose on day 1 and three times daily on days 2 to 4. Eperisone was rapidly absorbed after oral administration (T (max) = 1.6 h) as it was expected by its fast-onset relaxant activity. Moreover, eperisone underwent a rapid elimination from the body (biological half-life 1.87 h), which was not modified during the repeated dosing as suggested by the C (max) cumulation observed, not different from that expected for a t (1/2) of 1.87 h as suggested by the similar and negligible plasma concentration values (0.063 and 0.067 ng/mL) measured on day 4 before the morning dose and 12 h after evening dose, thus ruling out any potential risk for drug accumulation. Thus, the pharmacokinetic characteristics of eperisone provide further justification for its tolerability in patients with low back pain or spastic palsy, in which the drug is given for periods ranging from few days to several months, respectively.

  9. Freeze-dried Xanthan/Guar Gum Nasal Inserts for the Delivery of Metoclopramide Hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Mohamed Hassan; Girase, Mohan

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged residence of drug formulation in the nasal cavity is important for the enhancing intranasal drug delivery. The objective of the present study was to develop a mucoadhesive in-situ gelling nasal insert which would enable the reduced nasal mucociliary clearance in order to improve the bioavailability of metoclopramide hydrochloride. Metoclopramide hydrochloride is a potent antiemetic and effective for preventing emesis induced by cancer chemotherapy, migraine, pregnancy and gastroparesis. It undergoes hepatic first pass metabolism and both the absolute bioavailability and the plasma concentrations are subjected to wide inter-individual variation showing values between 32% and 98%. Oral antiemetic often gets vomited out before the systemic absorption compelling parenteral administration which results in low patient compliance. Adverse effect of metoclopramide HCL on CNS caused by high plasma peaks can be avoided through sustained formulation. A novel combination of xanthan gum and guar gum was used to prepare the nasal inserts and the effect of blend ratio of xanthan gum and guar gum on drug release from in-situ gelling nasal inserts and on other insert properties such as bioadhesion potential and water uptake was studied. PXRD was used to determine the effect of freeze-drying on crystalline nature of formulation. The viscosities of xanthan gum in combination with guar gum were observed to be higher than that of single polymer solutions. This is because of the synergistic rheological interaction between xanthan and guar gum. There is a substantial loss in crystalline nature of the formulation after freeze-drying. The best nasal inserts formulation containing xanthan gum and guar gum ratio 1:5, showed good release (91.83%) as well as bioadhesion which may result in an increase in the nasal residence time.

  10. Efficacy of natural antimicrobials in toothpaste formulations against oral biofilms in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaik, M.J.; Busscher, H.J.; Jager, D.; Slomp, A.M.; Abbas, F.; Mei, H.C. van der

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacies of two toothpaste formulations containing natural antimicrobials (herbal extracts and chitosan) against oral biofilms of different composition and maturational status. Methods: Bacteria from a buffer suspension or fresh saliva were adhered for 2 h

  11. Efficacy of natural antimicrobials in toothpaste formulations against oral biofilms in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaik, M.J.; Busscher, H.J.; Jager, D.; Slomp, A.M.; Abbas, F.; Mei, H.C. van der

    Objectives: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacies of two toothpaste formulations containing natural antimicrobials (herbal extracts and chitosan) against oral biofilms of different composition and maturational status. Methods: Bacteria from a buffer suspension or fresh saliva were adhered for 2 h

  12. Characteristics of Students Who Reenroll after Serving a Disciplinary Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Matthew T.; Janosik, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if students who reenroll following a disciplinary suspension had significant common characteristics. Gender, GPA at time of suspension, class status at time of suspension, type of violation(s) that resulted in suspension, number of disciplinary incidents prior to suspension, and length of suspension were…

  13. Micellization behavior of mixtures of amphiphilic promazine hydrochloride and cationic aniline hydrochloride in aqueous and electrolyte solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rub, Malik Abdul; Azum, Naved; Asiri, Abdullah M. [King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Khan, Farah [Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India); Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G. [Research Center for Advanced Materials Science, King Khalid University, Abha (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-10-15

    We studied the influence of cationic hydrotrope aniline hydrochloride on the micellization behavior of cationic amphiphilic phenothiazine drug promazine hydrochloride in the presence and absence of 50mmol kg{sup -1} NaCl. The experimental critical micelle concentration (CMC) values came out to be lower than ideal CMC (CMCid) values, signifying attractive interactions between the two components in mixed micelles. NaCl further decreases the CMC of pure PMZ and aniline hydrochloride as well as their mixture due to screening of the electrostatic repulsion among the polar head groups. The bulk properties of solution were examined by using different theoretical models for justification and comparison of results. The micellar mole fraction of aniline hydrochloride (X{sup Rub}{sub ,} X{sup M}{sub 1}, X{sup Rod}{sub 1} and X{sup id}{sub 1}) was evaluated by different proposed models, showing greater contribution of hydrotrope in mixed micelle. The negative values of interaction parameter (β) indicate synergistic interactions and negative values of β further decrease by the addition of salt in mixed systems. From the CMC values as a function of temperature, various thermodynamic properties have been evaluated and discussed in detail.

  14. Chemical Immobilization of Sloth Bears (Melursus ursinus) with Ketamine Hydrochloride and Xylazine Hydrochloride: Hematology and Serum Biochemical Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeraselvam, M; Sridhar, R; Perumal, P; Jayathangaraj, M G

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to define the physiological responses of captive sloth bears immobilized with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride and to determine and compare the values of hematology and serum biochemical parameters between sexes. A total of 15 sloth bears were immobilized using combination of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride drugs at the dose rate of 5.0 milligram (mg) per kg body weight and 2.0 mg per kg body weight, respectively. The use of combination of these drugs was found satisfactory for the chemical immobilization of captive sloth bears. There were no significant differences observed in induction time and recovery time and physiological parameters such as heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature between sexes. Health related parameters comprising hematological values like packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), erythrocyte indices, and so forth and biochemical values like total protein, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, alkaline amino-transferase (ALT), aspartate amino-transferase (AST), and so forth were estimated in 11 (5 males and 6 females) apparently healthy bears. Comparison between sexes revealed significant difference in PCV (P sloth bears for appropriate line treatment.

  15. Chemical Immobilization of Sloth Bears (Melursus ursinus with Ketamine Hydrochloride and Xylazine Hydrochloride: Hematology and Serum Biochemical Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Veeraselvam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to define the physiological responses of captive sloth bears immobilized with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride and to determine and compare the values of hematology and serum biochemical parameters between sexes. A total of 15 sloth bears were immobilized using combination of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride drugs at the dose rate of 5.0 milligram (mg per kg body weight and 2.0 mg per kg body weight, respectively. The use of combination of these drugs was found satisfactory for the chemical immobilization of captive sloth bears. There were no significant differences observed in induction time and recovery time and physiological parameters such as heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature between sexes. Health related parameters comprising hematological values like packed cell volume (PCV, hemoglobin (Hb, red blood cell count (RBC, erythrocyte indices, and so forth and biochemical values like total protein, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine, alkaline amino-transferase (ALT, aspartate amino-transferase (AST, and so forth were estimated in 11 (5 males and 6 females apparently healthy bears. Comparison between sexes revealed significant difference in PCV (P<0.05 and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC (P<0.05. The study might help to evaluate health profiles of sloth bears for appropriate line treatment.

  16. SUSTAINED RELEASE ITOPRIDE HYDROCHLORIDE MATRIX TABLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BHUPENDRA, PRAJAPATI, NIKLESH PATEL, HITESH

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral route gets the highest priority for thedelivery of the drug as well as better patient compliance incase of self delivery dosage formulation. The aim ofpresent investigation was undertaken with the objective offormulating sustain release formulation of Itopridehydrochloride for oral drug delivery. Itopride hydrochlorideis highly water soluble prokinetic drug.Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M (lower viscositygrade and K100M (higher viscosity grade were used as amatrix forming agents to control the release of drug. HPMCK4M and HPMC K100M were used individually as well asin combination with different proportion in the preparationof the Sustained release formulation. 32 factorial designswere applied to the polymer concentration that affects thedrug release profile. Reduced equation for drug release at2hr,6hr,and10hrwere22 1 2 1 Q 37.644 5.41X 3.25X 2.017X ,26 1 2 1 Q 72.367 8.05X 4.4X 3.75X ,and10 1 1 2 90.844 5.8 2.633 2.8 2 Q X X X Xrespectively. Optimized batch F019 shows good tabletproperties like hardness(7-9kg/cm2, thickness(4.48mm,friability(0.024%,assay(99.3% and nearly similar drugrelease profile to the targeted reference drug release profileand it was indicated by similarity factor (f2=86.04.

  17. Oral histoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Karthikeya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal disease that takes various clinical forms, among which oral lesions are rare. The disseminated form of the disease that usually occurs in association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is one of the AIDS-defining diseases. Isolated oral histoplasmosis, without systemic involvement, with underlying immunosuppression due to AIDS is very rare. We report one such case of isolated oral histoplasmosis in a HIV-infected patient.

  18. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Omeprazole Granule and Suspension Forms in Children: A Randomized, Parallel Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, S; Dehghanzadeh, G; Haghighat, M; Mirzaei, R; Rahimi, H R

    2016-03-01

    Although, omeprazole is widely used for treatment of gastric acid-mediated disorders. However, its pharmacokinetic and chemical instability does not allow simple aqueous dosage form formulation synthesis for therapy of, especially child, these patients. The aim of this study was at first preparation of suspension dosage form omeprazole and second to compare the blood levels of 2 oral formulations/dosage forms of suspension & granule by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The omeprazole suspension was prepared; in this regard omeprazole powder was added to 8.4% sodium bicarbonate to make final concentration 2 mg/ml omeprazole. After that a randomized, parallel pilot trial study was performed in 34 pediatric patients with acid peptic disorder who considered usage omeprazole. Selected patients were received suspension and granule, respectively. After oral administration, blood samples were collected and analyzed for omeprazole levels using validated HPLC method. The mean omeprazole blood concentration before usage the next dose, (trough level) were 0.12±0.08 µg/ml and 0.18±0.15 µg/ml for granule and suspension groups, respectively and mean blood level after dosing (C2 peak level) were 0.68±0.61 µg/ml and 0.86±0.76 µg/ml for granule and suspension groups, respectively. No significant changes were observed in comparison 2 dosage forms 2 h before (P=0.52) and after (P=0.56) the last dose. These results demonstrate that omeprazole suspension is a suitable substitute for granule in pediatrics.

  19. Particle Suspension Mechanisms - Supplemental Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, M B

    2011-03-03

    This supplemental material provides a brief introduction to particle suspension mechanisms that cause exfoliated skin cells to become and remain airborne. The material presented here provides additional context to the primary manuscript and serves as background for designing possible future studies to assess the impact of skin cells as a source of infectious aerosols. This introduction is not intended to be comprehensive and interested readers are encouraged to consult the references cited.

  20. Robust Tensioned Kevlar Suspension Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joseph B.; Naylor, Bret J.; Holmes, Warren A.

    2012-01-01

    One common but challenging problem in cryogenic engineering is to produce a mount that has excellent thermal isolation but is also rigid. Such mounts can be achieved by suspending the load from a network of fibers or strings held in tension. Kevlar fibers are often used for this purpose owing to their high strength and low thermal conductivity. A suite of compact design elements has been developed to improve the reliability of suspension systems made of Kevlar.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan Hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG; HuiXia

    2001-01-01

    Chitin 1 is a biodegradable and nontoxic polysaccharide widely spread among marine and terrestrial invertebrates and fungi. It is usually obtained from waste materials of the sea food-processing industry, mainly shells of crab, shrimp, prawn and krill. Native chitin occurs in such natural composite materials usually combined with inorganics, proteins, lipids and pigments. Its isolation calls for chemical treatments to eliminate these contaminants, some of which maybe coimmercially explored. By treating crude chitin with aqueous 40~50% sodium hydroxide at 110~115℃ chitosan is obtained. However, the fully deacetylated product is rarely obtained due to the risks of side reactions and chain deplolymerization. Chitosan and chitin are closely related since both are linear polysaccharides containing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose and 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose units joined by β (1→4) glycosidic bonds. They can be distinguished by their contents of the above-mentioned units and by their solubilities in aqueous media. The acetylated units predominate in chitin while chitosan chains contain mostly deacetylated units. Chitin is soluble in a very limited number of solvents while chitosan is soluble in aqueous dilute solutions of a number of mineral and organic acids, being the most common ones, the hydrochloric and acetic acids. In aqueous dilute acid media chitosan forms salts, producing polyelectrolyte chains bearing positive charges on the nitrogen atoms of their amine groups. In fact the salt of chitosan may be formed in a separate step or as a consequence of the presence of acid in the water suspension of the neutralized form of chitosan.  ……

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan Hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Chitin 1 is a biodegradable and nontoxic polysaccharide widely spread among marine and terrestrial invertebrates and fungi. It is usually obtained from waste materials of the sea food-processing industry, mainly shells of crab, shrimp, prawn and krill. Native chitin occurs in such natural composite materials usually combined with inorganics, proteins, lipids and pigments. Its isolation calls for chemical treatments to eliminate these contaminants, some of which maybe coimmercially explored. By treating crude chitin with aqueous 40~50% sodium hydroxide at 110~115℃ chitosan is obtained. However, the fully deacetylated product is rarely obtained due to the risks of side reactions and chain deplolymerization. Chitosan and chitin are closely related since both are linear polysaccharides containing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose and 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose units joined by β (1→4) glycosidic bonds. They can be distinguished by their contents of the above-mentioned units and by their solubilities in aqueous media. The acetylated units predominate in chitin while chitosan chains contain mostly deacetylated units. Chitin is soluble in a very limited number of solvents while chitosan is soluble in aqueous dilute solutions of a number of mineral and organic acids, being the most common ones, the hydrochloric and acetic acids. In aqueous dilute acid media chitosan forms salts, producing polyelectrolyte chains bearing positive charges on the nitrogen atoms of their amine groups. In fact the salt of chitosan may be formed in a separate step or as a consequence of the presence of acid in the water suspension of the neutralized form of chitosan.

  3. The Influence of Chitosan on the Oral Bioavailability of Acyclovir-a Comparative Bioavailability Study in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubbinga, M.; Nguyen, M.A.; Staubach, P.; Teerenstra, S.; Langguth, P.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The effects of chitosan hydrochloride on the oral absorption of acyclovir in humans were studied to confirm the absorption enhancing effects reported for in vitro and rat studies, respectively. METHODS: A controlled, open-label, randomized, 3-phase study was conducted in 12 healthy human vo

  4. Preclinical Metabolism and Disposition of SB939 (Pracinostat), an Orally Active Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, and Prediction of Human Pharmacokinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayaraman, Ramesh; Reddy, Venkatesh Pilla; Pasha, Mohammed Khalid; Wang, Haishan; Sangthongpitag, Kanda; Yeo, Pauline; Hu, Chang Yong; Wu, Xiaofeng; Xin, Liu; Goh, Evelyn; New, Lee Sun; Ethirajulu, Kantharaj

    2011-01-01

    The preclinical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties of Pracinostat [(2E)-3-[2-butyl-1-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl]-N-hydroxyarylamide hydrochloride; SB939], an orally active histone deacetylase inhibitor, were characterized and its human pharmacokin

  5. The Influence of Chitosan on the Oral Bioavailability of Acyclovir-a Comparative Bioavailability Study in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubbinga, M.; Nguyen, M.A.; Staubach, P.; Teerenstra, S.; Langguth, P.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The effects of chitosan hydrochloride on the oral absorption of acyclovir in humans were studied to confirm the absorption enhancing effects reported for in vitro and rat studies, respectively. METHODS: A controlled, open-label, randomized, 3-phase study was conducted in 12 healthy human

  6. The Influence of Chitosan Cross-linking on the Properties of Alginate Microparticles with Metformin Hydrochloride-In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekalska, Marta; Sosnowska, Katarzyna; Zakrzeska, Agnieszka; Kasacka, Irena; Lewandowska, Alicja; Winnicka, Katarzyna

    2017-01-22

    Sodium alginate is a polymer with unique ability to gel with different cross-linking agents in result of ionic and electrostatic interactions. Chitosan cross-linked alginate provides improvement of swelling and mucoadhesive properties and might be used to design sustained release dosage forms. Therefore, the aim of this research was to develop and evaluate possibility of preparing chitosan cross-linked alginate microparticles containing metformin hydrochloride by the spray-drying method. In addition, influence of cross-linking agent on the properties of microparticles was evaluated. Formulation of microparticles prepared by the spray drying of 2% alginate solution cross-linked by 0.1% chitosan was characterized by good mucoadhesive properties, high drug loading and prolonged metformin hydrochloride release. It was shown that designed microparticles reduced rat glucose blood level, delayed absorption of metformin hydrochloride and provided stable plasma drug concentration. Additionally, histopathological studies of pancreas, liver and kidneys indicated that all prepared microparticles improved degenerative changes in organs of diabetic rats. Moreover, no toxicity effect and no changes in rats behavior after oral administration of chitosan cross-linked alginate microparticles were noted.

  7. Formulation and evaluation of a sustained-release tablets of metformin hydrochloride using hydrophilic synthetic and hydrophobic natural polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K J Wadher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metformin hydrochloride has relatively short plasma half-life, low absolute bioavailability. The need for the administration two to three times a day when larger doses are required can decrease patient compliance. Sustained release formulation that would maintain plasma level for 8-12 h might be sufficient for daily dosing of metformin. Sustained release products are needed for metformin to prolong its duration of action and to improve patient compliances. The overall objective of this study was to develop an oral sustained release metformin hydrochloride tablet by using hydrophilic Eudragit RSPO alone or its combination with hydrophobic natural polymers Gum copal and gum damar as rate controlling factor. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. The in vitro dissolution study was carried out using USP 22 apparatus I, paddle method and the data was analysed using zero order, first order, Higuchi, Korsmeyer and Hixson-Crowell equations. The drug release study revealed that Eudragit RSPO alone was unable to sustain the drug release. Combining Eudragit with gum Copal and gum Damar sustained the drug release for more than 12 h. Kinetic modeling of in vitro dissolution profiles revealed the drug release mechanism ranges from diffusion controlled or Fickian transport to anomalous type or non-Fickian transport. Fitting the in vitro drug release data to Korsmeyer equation indicated that diffusion along with erosion could be the mechanism of drug release.

  8. Formulation and evaluation of a sustained-release tablets of metformin hydrochloride using hydrophilic synthetic and hydrophobic natural polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadher, K J; Kakde, R B; Umekar, M J

    2011-03-01

    Metformin hydrochloride has relatively short plasma half-life, low absolute bioavailability. The need for the administration two to three times a day when larger doses are required can decrease patient compliance. Sustained release formulation that would maintain plasma level for 8-12 h might be sufficient for daily dosing of metformin. Sustained release products are needed for metformin to prolong its duration of action and to improve patient compliances. The overall objective of this study was to develop an oral sustained release metformin hydrochloride tablet by using hydrophilic Eudragit RSPO alone or its combination with hydrophobic natural polymers Gum copal and gum damar as rate controlling factor. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. The in vitro dissolution study was carried out using USP 22 apparatus I, paddle method and the data was analysed using zero order, first order, Higuchi, Korsmeyer and Hixson-Crowell equations. The drug release study revealed that Eudragit RSPO alone was unable to sustain the drug release. Combining Eudragit with gum Copal and gum Damar sustained the drug release for more than 12 h. Kinetic modeling of in vitro dissolution profiles revealed the drug release mechanism ranges from diffusion controlled or Fickian transport to anomalous type or non-Fickian transport. Fitting the in vitro drug release data to Korsmeyer equation indicated that diffusion along with erosion could be the mechanism of drug release.

  9. Contact angle hysteresis of microbead suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghmare, Prashant R; Mitra, Sushanta K

    2010-11-16

    Microbead suspensions are often used in microfluidic devices for transporting biomolecules. An experimental investigation on the wettability of microbead suspension is presented in this study. The variation in the surface tension and the equilibrium contact angle with the change in the volume fraction of the microbead is presented here. The surface tension of the microbead suspension is measured with the pendant drop technique, whereas the dynamic contact angle measurements, i.e., advancing and receding contact angles, are measured with the sessile drop technique. An equilibrium contact angle of a suspension with particular volume fraction is determined by computing an average over the measured advancing and receding contact angles. It is observed that the surface tension and the equilibrium contact angle determined from advancing and receding contact angles vary with the magnitude of the microbeads volume fraction in the suspension. A decrease in the surface tension with an increase in the volume fraction of the microbead suspension is observed. The advancement and the recession in contact line for dynamic contact angle measurements are achieved with the motorized dosing mechanism. For microbead suspensions, the advancement of the contact line is faster as compared to the recession of the contact line for the same flow rate. The presence of microbeads assists in the advancement and the recession of the contact line of the suspension. A decrease in the equilibrium contact angles with an increase in the microbead suspension volume fraction is observed. Inclusion of microbeads in the suspension increases the wetting capability for the considered combination of the microbead suspension and substrate. Finally, empirical correlations for the surface tension and the contact angle of the suspension as a function of microbead volume fraction are proposed. Such correlations can readily be used to develop mechanistic models for the capillary transport of microbead

  10. Fundamentals of ionic conductivity relaxation gained from study of procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride at ambient and elevated pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnarowska, Z; Swiety-Pospiech, A; Grzybowska, K; Hawelek, L; Paluch, M; Ngai, K L

    2012-04-28

    The pharmaceuticals, procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride, are glass-forming as well as ionically conducting materials. We have made dielectric measurements at ambient and elevated pressures to characterize the dynamics of the ion conductivity relaxation in these pharmaceuticals, and calorimetric measurements for the structural relaxation. Perhaps due to their special chemical and physical structures, novel features are found in the ionic conductivity relaxation of these pharmaceuticals. Data of conductivity relaxation in most ionic conductors when represented by the electric loss modulus usually show a single resolved peak in the electric modulus loss M(")(f) spectra. However, in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride we find in addition another resolved loss peak at higher frequencies over a temperature range spanning across T(g). The situation is analogous to many non-ionic glass-formers showing the presence of the structural α-relaxation together with the Johari-Goldstein (JG) β-relaxation. Naturally the analogy leads us to name the slower and faster processes resolved in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride as the primary α-conductivity relaxation and the secondary β-conductivity relaxation, respectively. The analogy of the β-conductivity relaxation in procaine HCl and procainamide HCl with JG β-relaxation in non-ionic glass-formers goes further by the finding that the β-conductivity is strongly related to the α-conductivity relaxation at temperatures above and below T(g). At elevated pressure but compensated by raising temperature to maintain α-conductivity relaxation time constant, the data show invariance of the ratio between the β- and the α-conductivity relaxation times to changes of thermodynamic condition. This property indicates that the β-conductivity relaxation has fundamental importance and is indispensable as the precursor of the α-conductivity relaxation, analogous to the relation found

  11. Disposable screen-printed sensors for determination of duloxetine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alarfaj Nawal A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A screen-printed disposable electrode system for the determination of duloxetine hydrochloride (DL was developed using screen-printing technology. Homemade printing has been characterized and optimized on the basis of effects of the modifier and plasticizers. The fabricated bi-electrode potentiometric strip containing both working and reference electrodes was used as duloxetine hydrochloride sensor. The proposed sensors worked satisfactorily in the concentration range from 1.0 × 10-6-1.0 × 10-2 mol L-1 with detection limit reaching 5.0 × 10-7 mol L-1 and adequate shelf life of 6 months. The method is accurate, precise and economical. The proposed method has been applied successfully for the analysis of the drug in pure and in its dosage forms. In this method, there is no interference from any common pharmaceutical additives and diluents. Results of the analysis were validated statistically by recovery studies.

  12. [Clinical evaluation of roxatidine acetate hydrochloride injection as preanesthetic medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanishi, M; Enomoto, A; Shimada, Y; Kurokawa, Y

    1991-09-01

    The effects of single intravenous administration of roxatidine acetate hydrochloride 75 mg on the volume and pH of gastric juice were investigated in 43 patients undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia. The drug was given 1 hour before anesthesia. The percentages of patients with gastric pH above 2.5 and gastric juice volume under 25 ml were 95.3% and 97.7% at the time of induction of anesthesia and at the time of extubation, respectively. As for overall assessment on gastric secretion, 93.0% was judged as very effective. In 2 cases, pricking sensations were observed at the time of injection, but these symptoms disappeared without any treatment within a few minutes. No other adverse reactions nor abnormal laboratory test findings were observed. In conclusion, roxatidine acetate hydrochloride administered intravenously 1 hour prior to anesthesia is thought to be useful to prevent acid aspiration pneumonitis.

  13. Thermal Analysis Applied to Verapamil Hydrochloride Characterization in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Irene Yoshida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermogravimetry (TG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC are useful techniques that have been successfully applied in the pharmaceutical industry to reveal important information regarding the physicochemical properties of drug and excipient molecules such as polymorphism, stability, purity, formulation compatibility among others. Verapamil hydrochloride shows thermal stability up to 180 °C and melts at 146 °C, followed by total degradation. The drug is compatible with all the excipients evaluated. The drug showed degradation when subjected to oxidizing conditions, suggesting that the degradation product is 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid derived from alkyl side chain oxidation. Verapamil hydrochloride does not present the phenomenon of polymorphism under the conditions evaluated. Assessing the drug degradation kinetics, the drug had a shelf life (t90 of 56.7 years and a pharmaceutical formulation showed t90 of 6.8 years showing their high stability.

  14. Linear scleroderma after contusion and injection of mepivacaine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Takashi; Niiyama, Shiro; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2010-05-15

    A 36-year-old woman initially was treated for a contusion by local injection of mepivacaine hydrochloride into the left dorsum of the foot. Approximately 3 months after the injury and injection, linear sclerotic plaques originating from the site of contusion and injection were recognized. These progressed in extent and severity over a period of 3 years, when she presented to our clinic. By biopsy, swelling of collagen fibers in the lower dermis was revealed and the condition was diagnosed as linear scleroderma. Our present case had multiple linear sclerotic plaques of the left lower extremity, the distribution of which was consistent with Blaschko lines. It was also revealed that the initial sclerotic plaque was at the site of the contusion and local mepivacaine hydrochloride injection. Our present case is interesting in that the findings suggest a correlation between linear scleroderma plaque occurrence and the contusion or injection of mepivacaine.

  15. Experimental oral and nasal transmission of rabies virus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, K M; Casey, G A

    1979-01-01

    Weanling female white Swiss mice were exposed to challenge virus standard rabies virus and street virus isolates from various domestic and wild animals. Virus was given free choice as suspension or as infected mouse brain by stomach tube, by single injection of suspension into the oral cavity of unanesthetized mice, by repeated injection into the oral cavity of anesthetized mice and by single application to the external nares of anesthetized mice. Challenge virus standard virus in mouse brain suspension and a suspension of skunk salivary glands infected with street virus (titers greater than or equal to 10(6)MICLD50/0.03 ml) consistently produced high rates of infection in mice exposed intranasally, low to high rates of infection in mice exposed by forced feeding and other artificial methods of oral exposure and very low rates of infection when given free choice. Street virus isolates passaged intracerebrally in mice had titers less than or equal to 10(4.5) MICLD50/0.03 ml and rarely caused rabies in mice exposed orally or nasally by any method. The results indicate that with the isolates used, virus of high titer (greater than or equal to 10(6)MICLD50/0.03 ml) is required to consistently produce infection in mice by the nasal route and that the mucosa of the nasal cavity probably is the chief route of infection even after oral administration.

  16. Formulation, development and evaluation of patient friendly dosage forms of metformin, Part-I: Orally disintegrating tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Mohapatra Ashutosh; Parikh Rajesh; Gohel Mukesh

    2008-01-01

    Metformin hydrochloride is an orally administered antihyperglycemic agent, used in the management of non-insulin-dependant (type-2) diabetes mellitus. Difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia) is common among all age groups, especially in elderly and pediatrics. Unfortunately, a high percentage of patients suffering from type-2 diabetes are elderly people showing dysphagia. In this study, orally disintegrating tablets were prepared using direct compression and wet granulation method. First, the ta...

  17. Synthesis of /sup 14/C-Bucromarone succinate and hydrochloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, C.; Verny, M.; Maurizis, J.-C.; Payard, M.; Faurie, M.

    1986-08-01

    /sup 14/C-Bucromarone, 2-(4-(3-N,N dibutylamino propoxy) 3,5-dimethyl benzoyl) chromone, was synthesized from (U-/sup 14/C) oxalic acid. The labelling takes place at the first step of the synthesis, giving /sup 14/C-Bucromarone succinate (specific activity 7.45 mCi/mmol) and /sup 14/C-Bucromarone hydrochloride (specific activity 7.5 mCi/mmol).

  18. Enantiospecific synthesis of (1- sup 3 H)-(+)-pseudoephedrine hydrochloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, J.A.; Scharver, J.D. (Burroughs Wellcome Co., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (USA). Chemical Development Labs.)

    1990-06-01

    The naturally occurring dextrorotary enantiomer (+)-pseudoephedrine was synthesized in the ({sup 3}H)-labelled form with specific activity 17.5 Ci/mmol suitable for development of a radioimmunoassay procedure. The chirally specific route from L-alanine to (1-{sup 3}H)-d-pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was based on the use of {alpha}-amino acids as chiral educts for asymmetric products. (author).

  19. OPTIMIZATION OF CONCENTRATION OF POLYHEXANIDE HYDROCHLORIDE IN MULTIPURPOSE SOLUTION.

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, A.; Ali, A.; M.T.Zzaman; Chauhan, S.; V.Handa

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of foreign pathogenic microorganisms like viruses, bacteria, yeast, fungi and protozoa which can inadvertently be introduced into eye via contact lens and hence disinfection is a vital part. Multifunctional solutions are generally intended to combine the action of cleaning disinfecting, rinsing lubricating deproteinising and soaking in one single product.In order to optimization of concentration of Polyhexanide hydrochloride in multipurpose solution some microbiological stu...

  20. Clinical effect of venlafaxine combined with methylphenidate hydrochloride on narcolepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Bin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the clinical effect of venlafaxine sustained-release capsules combined with methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets on narcolepsy. Thirty-eight cases of narcoleptic patients were randomly divided into venlafaxine combined with methylphenidate hydrochloride treatment group (observation group, N = 19 and methylphenidate hydrochloride and clomipramine treatment group (control group, N = 19. After a total of 12-week treatment, clinical curative effect and adverse drug reactions were observed in 2 groups of patients. The results showed that effective rate of the treatment for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS in observation group was higher than that of the control group (15/19 vs 8/19, P = 0.044, and effective rate of the treatment for cataplexy in observation group was higher than that of the control group (13/19 vs 6/19, P = 0.048. The rate of adverse drug reactions in observation group was lower than that in the control group (χ2 = 8.889, P = 0.003. It was indicated that venlafaxine combined with methylphenidate had good curative effect on narcolepsy with EDS and cataplexy symptoms.

  1. Mucoadhesive microspheres of propranolol hydrochloride for nasal delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandagi P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin A microspheres of propranolol hydrochloride for intranasal systemic delivery were developed with the aim to avoid first pass metabolism, to improve the patient compliance, to use an alternative therapy to conventional dosage form, to achieve controlled blood level profiles, and to improve the therapeutic efficacy of propranolol hydrochloride in the treatment of various cardiovascular disorders and as a prophylactic for migraine. Gelatin A microspheres were prepared by emulsion crosslinking method using glutaradehyde as a crosslinking agent. Gelatin and chitosan were used as polymer and co polymer respectively. All the prepared microspheres were evaluated for physical characteristics, such as particle size, incorporation efficiency, swelling index, in vitro bioadhesion using rat jejunum and in vitro drug release in pH 6.6 phosphate buffer. Average particle size of microspheres was found to be in the size range 1-50 mm. Increase in drug and polymer concentration in the formulation increased incorporation efficiency. All the microsphers showed good bioadhesive properties and swelling indices and good sustained release of drug. The data indicates that propranolol hydrochloride release followed Higuchi′s matrix and Peppa′s model. Stability studies showed stability of formulation at all the conditions to which they were subjected.

  2. A novel kind of TSV slurry with guanidine hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Hong; Yuling, Liu; Baoguo, Zhang; Xinhuan, Niu; Liying, Han

    2015-10-01

    The effect of a novel alkaline TSV (through-silicon-via) slurry with guanidine hydrochloride (GH) on CMP (chemical mechanical polishing) was investigated. The novel alkaline TSV slurry was free of any inhibitors. During the polishing process, the guanidine hydrochloride serves as an effective surface-complexing agent for TSV CMP applications, the removal rate of barrier (Ti) can be chemically controlled through tuned selectivity with respect to the removal rate of copper and dielectric, which is helpful to modifying the dishing and gaining an excellent topography performance in TSV manufacturing. In this paper, we mainly studied the working mechanism of the components of slurry and the skillful application guanidine hydrochloride in the TSV slurry. Project supported by the Major National Science and Technology Special Projects (No. 2009ZX02308), the Fund Project of Hebei Provincial Department of Education, China (No. QN2014208), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (No. E2013202247), and Colleges and Universities Scientific research project of Hebei Province, China (No. Z2014088).

  3. Spectrophotometric estimation of betahistine hydrochloride in tablet formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aims to develop simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method for estimation of Betahistine hydrochloride in tablet dosage forms. Materials and Methods: For method I and II, in a series of 10 ml volumetric flask, aliquots of standard drug solution (100 μg/ml in double distilled water were transferred and diluted with same so as to give several dilutions in concentration range of 15-90 μg/ml and 10-80 μg/ml respectively of betahistine hydrochloride. To 5 ml of each dilution taken in a separating funnel, (5 ml of methyl orange for method I and 5 ml of bromo phenol blue for method II reagent and 5 ml of chloroform was added. Reaction mixture was shaken gently for 5 min and allowed to stand so as to separate aqueous and chloroform layer. Absorbance maxima measured at 421.6 nm and 412 nm for method I and II respectively. Results: The recovery studies were found close to 100 % that indicates accuracy and precision of the proposed methods. The statistical analysis was carried out and results of which were found satisfactory. Standard deviation values were found low that indicated reproducibility of the proposed methods. Conclusion: Based on results the developed methods could be used for routine estimation of betahistine hydrochloride from tablet formulations.

  4. Drag Reduction of Bacterial Cellulose Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ogata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drag reduction due to bacterial cellulose suspensions with small environmental loading was investigated. Experiments were carried out by measuring the pressure drop in pipe flow. It was found that bacterial cellulose suspensions give rise to drag reduction in the turbulent flow range. We observed a maximum drag reduction ratio of 11% and found that it increased with the concentration of the bacterial cellulose suspension. However, the drag reduction effect decreased in the presence of mechanical shear.

  5. Use of xylazine hydrochloride-ketamine hydrochloride for immobilization of wild leopards (Panthera pardus fusca) in emergency situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsare, Aniruddha V; Athreya, Vidya R

    2010-06-01

    In India, leopards (Panthera pardus fusca) inhabit human-dominated landscapes, resulting in encounters that require interventions to prevent harm to people, as well as the leopards. Immobilization is a prerequisite for any such intervention. Such emergency field immobilizations have to be carried out with limited tools, often amidst large uncontrollable crowds. An effective and practicable approach is discussed, based on 55 wild leopard immobilizations undertaken between January 2003 and April 2008. A xylazine hydrochloride (1.4 +/- 0.3 mg/kg)--ketamine hydrochloride (5 +/- 2 mg/kg) mixture was used for immobilization of leopards, based on estimated body weight. When weight could not be estimated, a standard initial dose of 50 mg of xylazine--150 mg of ketamine was used. Supplemental doses (50-75 mg) of only ketamine were used as required. No life-threatening adverse effects of immobilization were documented for at least 1 mo postimmobilization.

  6. Time Varying Behavior of the Loudspeaker Suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bo Rohde; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2007-01-01

    The suspension part of the electrodynamic loudspeaker is often modelled as a simple linear spring with viscous damping, however the dynamic behaviour of the suspension is much more complicated than predicted by such a simple model. At higher levels the compliance becomes non-linear and often...... changes during excitation at high levels. This paper investigates how the compliance of the suspension depends on the excitation, i.e. level and frequency content. The measurements are compared with other known measurement methods of the suspension....

  7. Oral Histoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, Gillian A; Nelson, Brenda L

    2017-02-20

    A 44-year-old female presented to her general dentist with the chief complaint of a painful mouth sore of 2 weeks duration. Clinical examination revealed an irregularly shaped ulcer of the buccal and lingual attached gingiva of the anterior mandible. A biopsy was performed and microscopic evaluation revealed histoplasmosis. Histoplasmosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulate, is the most common fungal infection in the United States. Oral lesions of histoplasmosis are generally associated with the disseminated form of histoplasmosis and may present as a fungating or ulcerative lesion of the oral mucosa. The histologic findings and differential diagnosis for oral histoplasmosis are discussed.

  8. Oral leukoplakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The idea of identifying oral lesions with a precancerous nature, i.e. in the sense of pertaining to a pathologic process with an increased risk for future malignant development, of course is to prevent frank malignancy to occur in the affected area. The most common oral lesion with a precancerous...... nature is oral leukoplakia, and for decades it has been discussed how to treat these lesions. Various treatment modalities, such as systemic therapies and surgical removal, have been suggested. The systemic therapies tested so far include retinoids, extracts of green tea, inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2...

  9. Oral pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2008-05-01

    Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth.

  10. Herpes - oral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000606.htm Herpes - oral To use the sharing features on this page, ... 374. Read More Atopic dermatitis Cancer Fever Genital herpes Mouth ulcers Vesicles Review Date 8/14/2015 Updated ...

  11. Interaction between lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and various irrigants: A nuclear magnetic resonance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidhya, Nirmal; Karthikeyan, Balasubramanian Saravana; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Abarajithan, Mohan; Nithyanandan, Sivasankaran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Interaction between local anesthetic solution, lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline), and root canal irrigants such as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), and chlorhexidine (CHX) has not been studied earlier. Hence, the purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the chemical interaction between 2% lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and commonly used root canal irrigants, NaOCl, EDTA, and CHX. Materials and Methods: Samples were divided into eight experimental groups: Group I-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/3% NaOCl, Group II-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/17% EDTA, Group III- Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/2% CHX, Group IV-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/3% NaOCl, Group V-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/17% EDTA, Group VI-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/2% CHX, and two control groups: Group VII-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/deionized water and Group VIII-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/deionized water. The respective solutions of various groups were mixed in equal proportions (1 ml each) and observed for precipitate formation. Chemical composition of the formed precipitate was then analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and confirmed with diazotation test. Results: In groups I and IV, a white precipitate was observed in all the samples on mixing the respective solutions, which showed a color change to reddish brown after 15 minutes. This precipitate was then analysed by NMR spectroscopy and was observed to be 2,6-xylidine, a reported toxic compound. The experimental groups II, III, V, and VI and control groups VII and VIII showed no precipitate formation in any of the respective samples, until 2 hours. Conclusion: Interaction between lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and NaOCl showed precipitate formation containing 2,6-xylidine, a toxic compound

  12. Stability of ranitidine hydrochloride and amino acids in parenteral nutrient solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, L; Parks, R B; Lampasona, V; Mullins, R E

    1985-12-01

    The stability of ranitidine hydrochloride in parenteral nutrient (PN) solutions and the effect of ranitidine hydrochloride on the amino acids in the PN solutions were studied. Six PN solutions (three each with amino acid contents of 2.125 and 4.25%) were prepared. Each PN solution also contained dextrose 25%, electrolytes, trace elements, vitamins, and heparin sodium. Ranitidine hydrochloride injection was added to four of the PN samples. Of the final samples, two contained no ranitidine, two contained ranitidine hydrochloride 50 micrograms/mL, and two contained ranitidine hydrochloride 100 micrograms/mL. Admixtures of ranitidine hydrochloride at the two concentrations in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were also prepared. Samples were observed for color change and tested for pH during storage at room temperature. Concentrations of amino acids were measured after 24 hours in samples without ranitidine and in samples containing ranitidine hydrochloride 100 micrograms/mL. Ranitidine hydrochloride content was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography at 12, 24, and 48 hours. No visual changes or pH changes occurred by 24 hours. All PN solutions became darker by 48 hours. The presence of ranitidine hydrochloride did not substantially affect amino acid concentrations. At 24 hours, at least 90% of the initial ranitidine concentrations remained in all samples. In three of the four PN samples at 48 hours, less than 90% of initial ranitidine concentrations remained. Ranitidine hydrochloride in concentrations of 50 and 100 micrograms/mL in parenteral nutrient solutions containing 4.25 and 2.125% crystalline amino acids is stable for 24 hours at room temperature. Under these conditions, concentrations of the amino acids contained in the PN solutions were not affected by the addition of ranitidine hydrochloride.

  13. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of memantine hydrochloride in rat plasma using sensitive fluorometric derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mei-Fen; Zhou, Wei; Tong, Xin-Yi; Chen, Yi-Le; Cai, Yi; Li, Yan; Duan, Geng-Li

    2011-02-01

    In this study, we investigated a simple, sensitive and reliable liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method for the determination of memantine hydrochloride in rat plasma which was based on derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl). For the first time, FMOC-Cl was introduced into derivatization of memantine hydrochloride in rat plasma. The amino groups of memantine hydrochloride and amantadine hydrochloride (internal standard) were trapped with FMOC-Cl to form memantine hydrochloride-FMOC-Cl and amantadine hydrochloride-FMOC-Cl compositions, which can be very compatible for LC-FLD. Precipitation of plasma proteins by acetonitrile was followed by vortex mixing and centrifugation. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C(18) column (DIAMONSIL 150 × 4.6 mm, id 5 μm) with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The retention times of memantine hydrochloride-FMOC-Cl and amantadine hydrochloride-FMOC-Cl compositions were 23.69 and 40.27 min, respectively. Optimal conditions for the derivatization of memantine hydrochloride were also described. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 25 ng/mL for memantine hydrochloride in plasma, the linear range was 0.025-5.0 μg/mL in plasma with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9999. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra-day and inter-day assays were 4.46-12.19 and 5.23-11.50%, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to the determination of memantine hydrochloride in rat plasma samples.

  14. Disparities in Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2020: Oral Health Objectives Site Map Disparities in Oral Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Oral health ... to get and keep dental insurance. Disparities in Oral Health Some of the oral health disparities that exist ...

  15. Strong cation exchange resin for improving physicochemical properties and sustaining release of ranitidine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study strong cation exchange resin (Amberlite IRP69 was used to improve the physicochemical properties of ranitidine hydrochloride such as taste and bulk properties and to sustain dissolution rate. Drug-resin complexes were prepared using batch method. Drug loading was done under different processing conditions such as temperature, pH, drug-resin ratio, and drug concentration to get the optimum condition for resinate preparation. Resinate prepared under optimized condition was tested for taste, bulk properties and release rate. Degree of bitterness of ranitidine was found to reduce to zero after complexation with resin. Improvement in flow properties was also observed. Angle of repose for resinate was found to be 33.21 o as compared to 42.27 o for ranitidine HCl. Effect of dissolution medium and particle size on in vitro release of drug from resinate was also investigated. Resinate with drug to resin ratio of 2:3 and particle size> 90 µm showed about 90% of drug release within 12 h. The orodispersible tablet formulated from the resinate containing 10% croscarmellose sodium disintegrated within 35 sec in oral cavity and showed similar dissolution profile as the resinate. Tablets were found stable after stability studies with no change in dissolution profile.

  16. Transepithelial transport of ambroxol hydrochloride across human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetinová, Vera; Smetanová, Libuse; Kholová, Dagmar; Svoboda, Zbynek; Kvetina, Jaroslav

    2009-09-01

    This study aimed i) to characterize the transepithelial transport of the mucolytic agent ambroxol hydrochloride across the intestinal barrier, ii) to classify the ambroxol according to Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) and iii) to predict ambroxol absorption in humans. Transport of ambroxol (100, 300 and 1000 micromol/l) was studied in a human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2 in apical to basolateral and basolateral to apical direction, under iso-pH 7.4 and pH-gradient (6 vs. 7.4) conditions. The relative contribution of the paracellular route was estimated using Ca2+-free transport medium. Ambroxol samples from receiver compartments were analysed by HPLC with UV detection (242 nm). Results showed that ambroxol transport is linear with time, pH-dependent and direction-independent, displays non-saturable (first-order) kinetics. Thus, the transport seems to be transcellular mediated by passive diffusion. Estimated high solubility and high permeability (P(app) = 45 x 10(-6) cm/s) of ambroxol rank it among well absorbed compounds and class I of BCS. It can be expected that the oral dose fraction of ambroxol absorbed in human intestine is high.

  17. Impact of release characteristics of sinomenine hydrochloride dosage forms on its pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Sun; Jie-Ming Shi; Tian-Hong Zhang; Kun Gao; Jing-Jing Mao; Bing Li; Ying-Hua Sun; Zhong-Gui He

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of release behavior of sustained-release dosage forms of sinomenine hydrochloride dosage forms, including commercial 12-h sustained-release tablets and 24-h sustained-release pellets prepared in our laboratory, was examined. The two dosage forms were orally administrated to beagle dogs, and then the in vivo formulation was achieved by mixing slow- and rapid-of the sustained-release pellets were scarcely influenced by the pH of the dissolution medium. Release from the 12-h sustained-release tablets was markedly quicker than that from the 24-h sustained-release pellets, the cumulative release up to 12-h was 99.9% vs68.7%. From release pellets had longer tmax and lower Cmax compared to the 12-h sustained-release tablets, the tmax being 2.67±0.52 h vs9.83±0.98 h and the Cmax being 1 334.45±368.76 ng/mL vs 893.12±292.55 ng/mL, respectively. However, the AUC0-tn preparations were statistically bioequivalent. Furthermore,percentage absorption in vivo and the cumulative percentage release in vitro.CONCLUSION: The in vitro release properties of the dosage forms strongly affect their pharmacokinetic behavior in vivo. Therefore, managing the in vitro release behavior of dosage forms is a promising strategy for obtaining the optimal in vivo pharmacokinetic characteristics and safe therapeutic drug concentration-time curves.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL LIPID BASED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR RALOXIFENE HYDROCHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaykumar Nekkanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipid-based delivery systems are becoming increasingly popular as carriers of drugs due to their ability to overcome barriers to oral absorption. The objective of the present study was to prepare novel lipid-based formulation of a sparingly soluble drug, Raloxifene hydrochloride (RLX to increase its saturation solubility and dissolution velocity for enhancing bioavailability while reducing systemic variability. Lipid-based formulations were prepared using melt solubilization technique. The liquid formulations were converted into a solid intermediate by adsorbing onto an inert carrier and blended with excipients for encapsulation. The solid state properties, surface morphology and in-vitro release characteristics of the lipid formulations were investigated and compared with commercial formulation. The characterization of lipid formulations using Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM indicated that the drug is completely enveloped in the lipid core. The dissolution characteristics of lipid based formulation filled in hard gelatin capsules showed faster rate of drug dissolution as compared to commercial tablet formulation (Fiona®. The in-vitro release studies in fed state simulated intestinal fluid (FeSSIF and fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF media indicated that, the variability in fed and fasted conditions was significantly reduced with lipid based formulation. The results from this study suggest the potential use of lipid based formulation a means of improving solubility, dissolution and concomitantly the bioavailability of a sparingly soluble drug like RLX.

  19. Development and Characterization of Novel Floating-Mucoadhesive Tablets Bearing Venlafaxine Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghvendra Misra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation is concerned about the development of floating bioadhesive drug delivery system of venlafaxine hydrochloride which after oral administration exhibits a unique combination of floating and bioadhesion to prolong gastric residence time and increase drug bioavailability within the stomach. The floating bioadhesive tablets were prepared by the wet granulation method using different ratios of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K4MCR and Carbopol 934PNF as polymers. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 and citric acid were used as gas (CO2 generating agents. Tablets were characterized for floating properties, in vitro drug release, detachment force, and swelling index. The concentration of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose and Carbopol 934PNF significantly affects the in vitro drug release, floating properties, detachment force, and swelling properties of the tablets. The optimized formulation showed the floating lag time 72±2.49 seconds and duration of floating 24.50±0.74 hr. The in vitro release studies and floating behavior were studied in simulated gastric fluid (SGF at pH 1.2. Different drug release kinetics models were also applied. The in vitro drug release from tablets was sufficiently sustained (more than 18 hr and the Fickian transports of the drug from the tablets were confirmed. The radiological evidence suggests that the tablets remained buoyant and altered position in the stomach of albino rabbit and mean gastric residence time was prolonged (more than > 6 hr.

  20. Use of vancomycin hydrochloride for treatment of Clostridium difficile enteritis in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, S M; Gries, C L; Kirchner, B K; Smith, G D; Francis, P C

    1994-02-01

    As part of an 18-month carcinogenicity study, 680 Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) received daily gavage doses of fenazaquin, an experimental miticide. Mortality associated with severe enteritis was noticed beginning when the hamsters were 4 months old and ranged from one to five deaths per month until the hamsters were about 10 months old, when 41 deaths occurred in a 1-month period. Ante- and postmortem findings were consistent with those reported for antibiotic-induced enteritis in hamsters. Clostridium difficile was isolated from 12 of the 13 samples of cecal contents analyzed. Toxin assays of C. difficile isolates collected from 11 affected animals were positive for both cyto- and enterotoxins. Daily oral administration of vancomycin hydrochloride at a dose of 20 mg/kg was initiated when the hamsters were about 10 months old. Deaths due to C. difficile enteritis were significantly decreased within 2 weeks, and treatment was continued for 3 months. A trial withdrawal period for a subset of 64 hamsters (approximately 16% of the total population) was initiated to evaluate survival after discontinuation of the antibiotic treatment. Clostridium difficile enteritis recurred within 2 weeks and caused 19 deaths during the next month; therefore, these hamsters were returned to daily vancomycin treatment for the remainder of the study. With the exception of severe gaseous distention of the ceca, which caused death in 17 (< 4% of the total population) of the affected hamsters, vancomycin treatment did not cause any major adverse effects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Bioequivalence Studies of a Reformulated Dutasteride and Tamsulosin Hydrochloride Combination Capsule and a Commercially Available Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurczewski, Renee; Bowen, Chet; Collins, David; Zhu, John; Serbest, Gulyeter; Manyak, Michael

    2017-01-27

    A dutasteride 0.5 mg and tamsulosin hydrochloride 0.4 mg combination (DTC) capsule (Duodart(®) ) was reformulated to reduce the capsule size and enhance product stability. Bioequivalence of the reformulated DTC capsule with the commercial formulation was evaluated in 2 single-dose, open-label, randomized, 2-way crossover studies in healthy adult male volunteers. Subjects in a fasted or fed state received a single oral dose of either the reformulated DTC or the commercial formulation followed by a 28-day washout period between treatments. Blood samples were taken predose and up to 72 hours postdose for pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis of dutasteride and tamsulosin serum concentrations. From the serum concentration-vs-time data, a noncompartmental method was used to calculate the maximum observed serum concentration (Cmax ) and area under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC0-t ) for dutasteride and tamsulosin, and AUC0-∞ for tamsulosin. The 90% confidence intervals for the ratios of the Cmax and AUC0-t (for dutasteride and tamsulosin) and for AUC0-∞ (for tamsulosin) were all completely contained within the range of 80% to 125%; therefore, the reformulated DTC capsule is bioequivalent to the commercial formulation under both fed and fasted states.

  2. Statistical optimization of controlled release microspheres containing cetirizine hydrochloride as a model for water soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Say, Khalid M; El-Helw, Abdel-Rahim M; Ahmed, Osama A A; Hosny, Khaled M; Ahmed, Tarek A; Kharshoum, Rasha M; Fahmy, Usama A; Alsawahli, Majed

    2015-01-01

    The purpose was to improve the encapsulation efficiency of cetirizine hydrochloride (CTZ) microspheres as a model for water soluble drugs and control its release by applying response surface methodology. A 3(3) Box-Behnken design was used to determine the effect of drug/polymer ratio (X1), surfactant concentration (X2) and stirring speed (X3), on the mean particle size (Y1), percentage encapsulation efficiency (Y2) and cumulative percent drug released for 12 h (Y3). Emulsion solvent evaporation (ESE) technique was applied utilizing Eudragit RS100 as coating polymer and span 80 as surfactant. All formulations were evaluated for micromeritic properties and morphologically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The relative bioavailability of the optimized microspheres was compared with CTZ marketed product after oral administration on healthy human volunteers using a double blind, randomized, cross-over design. The results revealed that the mean particle sizes of the microspheres ranged from 62 to 348 µm and the efficiency of entrapment ranged from 36.3% to 70.1%. The optimized CTZ microspheres exhibited a slow and controlled release over 12 h. The pharmacokinetic data of optimized CTZ microspheres showed prolonged tmax, decreased Cmax and AUC0-∞ value of 3309 ± 211 ng h/ml indicating improved relative bioavailability by 169.4% compared with marketed tablets.

  3. FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE FLOATING TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Palla

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tramadol hydrochloride is a synthetic opioid used as a centrally acting analgesic and effective in both experimental and clinical pain. The half-life of the drug is about 5.5 hours and oral dose is 50 to 100 mg every 4 to 6 hours. To reduce the frequency of administration and to improve patient compliance, a sustained-release formulation of tramadol is desirable. The directly compressible floating tablets of Tramadol HCl were formulated using varying amounts of carbopol-934, HPMC K100M, and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis polymers along with other requisite excipients. Sodium bicarbonate was incorporated as a gas-generating agent. The concentration of the polymers increased gradually to attain the optimised formulation. In-vitro drug release profile and floatational characteristics of the formulations were determined. The studies indicated successful formulation of gastroretentive compressed matrices with excellent sustained release and hydrodynamic balance. From FTIR studies no interaction was found between the Tramadol HCl and polymers. Comparison of the dissolution profiles of the optimized formulation, with optimal composition of HPMC: Hibiscus rosa sinensis; 100:100, with that of marketed formulation indicated analogy of drug release performance with each other. The optimized formulation F10 was found to exhibit first–order kinetics which shows the diffusion along with polymer relaxation and polymer erosion of drug from the tablet.

  4. Transdermal delivery of lercanidipine hydrochloride: effect of chemical enhancers and ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Pallavi K; Suthar, Neelam A; Menon, Jyothsna; Deshpande, Praful B; Avadhani, Kiran; Kulkarni, Raghavendra V; Mutalik, Srinivas

    2013-08-01

    The effects of permeation enhancers and sonophoresis on the transdermal permeation of lercanidipine hydrochloride (LRDP) across mouse skin were investigated. Parameters including drug solubility, partition coefficient, drug degradation and drug permeation in skin were determined. Tween-20, dimethyl formamide, propylene glycol, poly ethylene glycol (5% v/v) and different concentration of ethanol were used for permeation enhancement. Low frequency ultrasound was also applied in the presence and absence of permeation enhancers to assess its effect on augmenting the permeation of drug. All the permeation enhancers, except propylene glycol, increased the transdermal permeation of LRDP. Sonophoresis significantly increased the cumulative amount of LRDP permeating through the skin in comparison to passive diffusion. A synergistic effect was noted when sonophoresis was applied in presence of permeation enhancers. The results suggest that the formulation of LRDP with an appropriate penetration enhancer may be useful in the development of a therapeutic system to deliver LRDP across the skin for a prolonged period (i.e., 24 h). The application of ultrasound in association with permeation enhancers could further serve as non-oral and non-invasive drug delivery modality for the immediate therapeutic effect.

  5. 39 CFR 955.28 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 955.28 Section 955.28 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE BEFORE THE POSTAL SERVICE BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS § 955.28 Suspension. (a) Whenever at any time it appears that the parties are in agreement as to...

  6. Time Variance of the Suspension Nonlinearity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Pedersen, Bo Rohde

    2008-01-01

    . This paper investigates the changes in compliance the driving signal can cause, this includes low level short duration measurements of the resonance frequency as well as high power long duration measurements of the non-linearity of the suspension. It is found that at low levels the suspension softens...

  7. Active suspension for a field sprayer boom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Skovsgaard; Sørensen, Paul Haase

    1998-01-01

    The possibilities of implementing an active boom suspension is investigated. The performance improvement of an active suspension over a traditional passive one is studied in simulation, and shows a significant improvement. A closed-loop control system involving two ultrasonic distance transducers...

  8. 34 CFR 85.1015 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 85.1015 Section 85.1015 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT..., pending completion of an agency investigation and any judicial or administrative proceedings that may...

  9. 36 CFR 25.3 - Supervision; suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision; suspensions. 25.3 Section 25.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL MILITARY PARKS; LICENSED GUIDE SERVICE REGULATIONS § 25.3 Supervision; suspensions. (a) The...

  10. Ultrasonic characterization of shear thickening suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Benjamin Lenihan

    This dissertation describes the characterization of an inherently inhomogeneous medium capable of shear thickening. An aqueous suspension of cornstarch represents an important exemplar of such physical systems. The physics underlying the behavior of such shear thickening suspensions is incompletely understood. Characterization of these suspensions may provide valuable clues into the underlying mechanisms that result in shear thickening behavior. The goal of this thesis is to characterize the acoustic properties of suspensions of cornstarch in density-matched cesium chloride aqueous solutions. A review of the literature indicated that almost no information concerning the ultrasonic characteristics of suspensions of starches had been reported other than studies monitoring the gelatinization of starches not relevant to the shear stiffening of ungelatinized suspensions. Each chapter began with a discussion and validation of the specific experimental techniques and methods of analysis necessary for each type of measurement. Ultrasonic measurement of the group velocity, the frequency-dependent attenuation properties, the frequency-dependent phase velocity, and the frequency-dependent backscatter properties of the suspensions of cornstarch are reported. Initially counterintuitive results including negative (phase velocity) dispersion and a decrease in the measured backscatter coefficient with increasing particle concentration are understood in terms of widely accepted physical models. In sum, these studies represent an advancement of the understanding of the physics underlying the interaction between ultrasound and suspensions and lay the groundwork for future studies probing the physics of the shear thickening.

  11. Alternatives to Suspension: A Government Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas G.; Zoldy, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Student discipline and the ineffectiveness of out-of-school suspension is examined in light of the Ontario (Canada) legislative reform that supported a greater emphasis on progressive discipline alternatives to out-of-school suspension. Alternative discipline herein is explored via the behavior education plan, the school survival group, and…

  12. 25 CFR 242.7 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension. 242.7 Section 242.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.7 Suspension. All commercial fishing operations may be suspended by order of the Secretary at...

  13. 32 CFR 552.77 - Suspension approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension approval. 552.77 Section 552.77 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND....77 Suspension approval. The installation commander will personally approve all cases in...

  14. 49 CFR 238.227 - Suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 238.227 Section 238.227 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 238.227 Suspension system. On or after November 8, 1999— (a) All passenger equipment...

  15. 32 CFR 1609.5 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 1609.5 Section 1609.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM UNCOMPENSATED PERSONNEL § 1609.5 Suspension. The Director of Selective Service may suspend from duty any uncompensated...

  16. Physical-chemical characterization of binary systems of metformin hydrochloride with triacetyl-beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Giovanna; Capasso, Gaetano; Maestrelli, Francesca; Cirri, Marzia; Mura, Paola

    2007-11-05

    Interaction products of metformin hydrochloride (MF.HCl), an oral anti-hyperglycaemic agent highly soluble in water, with triacetyl-beta-cyclodextrin (TAbetaCyD), a hydrophobic CyD derivative practically insoluble in water, were prepared to evaluate their suitability for the development of a sustained-release dosage form of the drug. Equimolar MF.HCl-TAbetaCyD solid compounds were obtained by different techniques, i.e., physical mixing, kneading, co-grinding, sealed-heating, and spray-drying, in order to investigate and compare their effectiveness and influence on the physical-chemical properties of the final products. Differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used for the solid-state characterization of the different MF.HCl-TAbetaCyD systems, whereas their in vitro dissolution properties were determined according to the dispersed amount method. According to the results of solid-state studies, the ability of the different preparation methods to promote effective interactions between drug and CyD varied in the order: spray-drying>co-grinding>kneading>sealed-heating approximately physical mixing. The same effectiveness rank order was observed also in dissolution studies. In fact the time to dissolve 100% drug varied increased from 1 min, for pure drug, to 3, 7, 40, 120 up to 420 min for physically mixed, sealed-heated, kneaded, co-ground and spray-dried products, respectively. Thus the drug-TA(CyD products obtained by spray drying and co-grinding were selected as the best candidates for the future development of a suitable prolonged-release oral dosage form of MF.HCl.

  17. Superior Serum Concentrations with Posaconazole Delayed-Release Tablets Compared to Suspension Formulation in Hematological Malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Posaconazole (PCZ), approved for prophylaxis against invasive fungal disease in high-risk patients, is commercially available orally as a suspension formulation (PCZ-susp) and as a delayed-release tablet (PCZ-tab). We evaluated the serum steady-state concentrations (Css) of PCZ stratified by the administered formulation for antifungal prophylaxis in patients with myeloid malignancies (n = 150). The primary outcome was the attainment rate of the target Css of ≥700 ng/ml. Secondary outcomes inc...

  18. 78 FR 27971 - Determination That REV-EYES (Dapiprazole Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution), 0.5%, Was Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That REV-EYES (Dapiprazole Hydrochloride... determined that REV-EYES (dapiprazole hydrochloride ophthalmic solution), 0.5%, was not withdrawn from sale... refer to a listed drug. REV-EYES (dapiprazole hydrochloride ophthalmic solution), 0.5%, is the...

  19. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  20. Effects of metomindate hydrochloride and tricaine methanesulfonate on the short term cortisol response in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of metomidate hydrochloride and tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) on cortisol stress response of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were examined during 10 minutes of sedation. Channel catfish were assigned to three treatments: 1. Metomidate hydrochloride (12.5 mg/L), 2. MS-222 (100...

  1. A practical synthesis of sarpogrelate hydrochloride and in vitro platelet aggregation inhibitory activities of its analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A convenient approach for the preparation of sarpogrelate hydrochloride was developed.Two series of sarpogrelate hydrochloride analogues were designed and synthesized in order to improve their platelet aggregation inhibitory activities, biological tests suggested that these compounds have platelet aggregation inhibitory activities to some extent.

  2. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart Nnn... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride B Appendix B to Subpart NNN of Part 63 Protection of...—Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride 1. Scope This method was specifically developed for water-soluble phenolic resins that have a relatively high free-formaldehyde...

  3. Automobile active suspension system with fuzzy control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少军; 黄中华; 陈毅章

    2004-01-01

    A quarter-automobile active suspension model was proposed. High speed on/off solenoid valves were used as control valves and fuzzy control was chosen as control method . Based on force analyses of system parts, a mathematical model of the active suspension system was established and simplified by linearization method. Simulation study was conducted with Matlab and three scale coefficients of fuzzy controller (ke, kec, ku) were acquired. And an experimental device was designed and produced. The results indicate that the active suspension system can achieve better vibration isolation performance than passive suspension system, the displacement amplitude of automobile body can be reduced to 55%. Fuzzy control is an effective control method for active suspension system.

  4. Next Generation Suspension Dynamics Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunk, Peter Randall [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Higdon, Jonathon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chen, Steven [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This research project has the objective to extend the range of application, improve the efficiency and conduct simulations with the Fast Lubrication Dynamics (FLD) algorithm for concentrated particle suspensions in a Newtonian fluid solvent. The research involves a combination of mathematical development, new computational algorithms, and application to processing flows of relevance in materials processing. The mathematical developments clarify the underlying theory, facilitate verification against classic monographs in the field and provide the framework for a novel parallel implementation optimized for an OpenMP shared memory environment. The project considered application to consolidation flows of major interest in high throughput materials processing and identified hitherto unforeseen challenges in the use of FLD in these applications. Extensions to the algorithm have been developed to improve its accuracy in these applications.

  5. Suspension-Firing of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashir, Muhammad Shafique; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming;

    2012-01-01

    , followed the same trends. Ash transformation was investigated by bulk ash analysis of the fuel, fly, and bottom ash during straw and/or wood suspension firing. Bulk ash analysis of fly ashes showed that the contents of volatile elements (K, Cl, S) were slightly greater than in the fuel ash, while Ca and Si...... in the analysis of the data. The first is the integral deposit formation rate (IDF-rate) found by dividing the integral mass change over integral time intervals (of order several hours) by the time interval. The IDF-rate is similar to deposit formation rates based on total deposit mass uptake divided by probe...... smoothing the derivatives to remove excessive noise. The DDF-rate was influenced by flue gas temperature and straw share, while changes in probe surface temperature had no significant influence. The IDF-rate, qualitatively related to the ratio between the time-integrated DDF-rate and the integration time...

  6. Liquid Chromatographic Methods for the Determination of Vildagliptin in the Presence of its Synthetic Intermediate and the Simultaneous Determination of Pioglitazone Hydrochloride and Metformin Hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    El-Bagary, Ramzia I.; Elkady, Ehab F.; Ayoub, Bassam M.

    2011-01-01

    Two reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RP-LC) methods are described for the determination of two binary mixtures of hypoglycemic agents. In the first method, vildagliptin (VDG) was determined in the presence of 3-amino-1-adamantanol (AAD), a synthetic intermediate and impurity of VDG. In the second method, pioglitazone hydrochloride (PGZ) and metformin hydrochloride (MET) were simultaneously determined in their binary mixture. Chromatographic separation in the two methods was achieved on ...

  7. Effects of levamisole hydrochloride on cellular immune response and flock performance of commercial broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OA Oladele

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Levamisole hydrochloride (Lev.HCl has been acclaimed to boost immune response particularly in immunocompromised state. Its routine use as an immunomodulator in poultry production is yet to be well embraced, thus its effects of on cellular immunity and flock performance of commercial broilers were evaluated. One hundred and fifty Anak broiler chicks were separated into two groups of 75 each. Broilers in group 1 were sensitized with 150µg of Staphylococcus aureus antigen each at 4 and 5 weeks, while those in group 2 were not sensitized. Each group was further divided into subgroups A, B, and C. Levamisole hydrochloride (40 mg/kg was administered orally to 1A and 2A at 45 and 46 days of age and to 1B and 2B at 47 and 48 days of age, while 1C and 2C were not treated. At 47 days of age, 12 broilers from all subgroups were challenged with 75µg of S. aureus antigen each at the right wattle. Wattle thickness was measured till 72 hours post challenge (pc and delayed wattle reaction (DWR was determined. Tissues were harvested at 72 hours pc for histopathology. Morbidity, mortality and live weights at 8 weeks of age were recorded. DWR peaked at 4 hours pc in 1A (2.22 ± 0.21 mm and 1B (2.96 ± 0.21 mm and 24 hours pc in 1C (3.39 ± 0.34 mm, the difference being significant (p<0.05. Inflammatory lesions were observed in wattles of sensitized subgroups and were more severe in 1C. Mortality rates were 4.17% and 29.17% in 1A and 1C respectively. Mean live weights in A and B i.e. 1.57± 0.06 kg and 1.56 ± 0.06 kg respectively, were significantly higher (p<0.0 than 1.43 ± 0.08 kg in C. Levamisole enhanced DTH via an early response, improved broiler liveability, and its anti-inflammatory property was confirmed.

  8. Chitosan coated vancomycin hydrochloride liposomes: Characterizations and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenlei; Liu, Junli; Gao, Jinhua; Chen, Shilei; Huang, Guihua

    2015-11-10

    The present work evaluated the feasibility of chitosan coated liposomes (c-Lips) for the intravenous delivery of vancomycin hydrochloride (VANH), a water-soluble antibiotic for the treatment of gram-positive bacterial infections like osteomyelitis, arthritis, endocarditis, pneumonia, etc. The objective of this research was to develop a suitable drug delivery system in vivo which could improve therapeutic efficacy and decrease side effects especially nephrotoxicity. Firstly, the vancomycin hydrochloride liposomes (VANH-Lips) were prepared by modified reverse phase evaporation method, then the chitosan wrapped vancomycin hydrochloride liposomes (c-VANH-Lips) nanosuspension was formulated by the method of electrostatic deposition. Based on the optimized results of single-factor screening experiment, the c-VANH-Lips were found to be relatively uniform in size (220.40 ± 3.56 nm) with a narrow polydispersity index (PI) (0.21 ± 0.03) and a positive zeta potential (25.7 ± 1.12 mV). The average drug entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug loading (DL) were 32.65 ± 0.59% and 2.18 ± 0.04%, respectively. The in vitro release profile of c-VANH-Lips possessed a sustained release Characterization and the release behavior was in accordance with the Weibull equation. Hemolysis experiments showed that its intravenous injection had preliminary safety. In vivo, after intravenous injection to mice, c-VANH-Lips showed a longer retention time and higher AUC values compared with the VANH injection (VANH-Inj) and VANH-Lips. In addition, biodistribution results clearly demonstrated that c-VANH-Lips preferentially decreased the drug distribution in kidney of mice after intravenous injection. These results revealed that injectable c-VANH-Lips may serve as a promising carrier for VANH to increase therapeutic efficacy on gram-positive bacterial infections and reduce nephrotoxicity, which provides significantly clinical value for long-term use of VANH.

  9. Multicomposite ultrathin capsules for sustained ocular delivery of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Dipankar; Gupta, Girish; Bhadra, Sulekha; Umamaheshwari, R B; Jain, Narendra

    2004-07-16

    The present work is intended to develop a sustained bioadhesive drug delivery system for delivery of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride in Cul-de-Sac for sustained and effective antimicrobial chemotherapy. For this, ultrathin multicomposite capsular systems were selected. Multicomposite ultrathin capsules are molecular assemblies of tailored architecture having layer-by-layer adsorption of oppositely charged macromolecules onto colloidal particles. In the present study colloidal calcium phosphate core and gluateraldehyde fixed RBCs were used as core on which alginate (-vely charged) and polyallylamine hydrochloride (+vely charged) polyelectrolyte coating was deposited alternatively upto 10th layer. The coating in each subsequent layer was determined by changes in zeta potential. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride was loaded in the capsules by incubation with the capsules suspended in phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4. The cores of the capsules were then removed by treatment with 0.1N HCl for calcium phosphate core and by sodium hypochlorite for RBC cored capsules. The hollow ciprofloxacin HCl loaded capsules were the evaluated in-vitro for pattern of layer-by-layer drug loading, drug release, stability at various temperatures and ionic concentrations and corneal retention. The core removal process was found to have minimal effects on drug loading in capsules. The drug loading was found to be higher for RBC cored hollow capsules and hence release rate was lower as compared to calcium cored hollow capsules. Draize test for corneal irritancy proved that the capsules were not irritating. The capsules were found to deliver the ciprofloxacin in cul-de-sac of rabbit's eyes for prolonged period. Based on corneal retention studies and tear drug concentration, the capsules can be considered for suitable and safe use for sustained ocular delivery of drugs.

  10. Indirect Electrochemical Oxidation of 4-Amino-dimethyl-aniline Hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The indirect electrochemical oxidation of 4-amino-dimethyl-aniline hydrochloride containing wastewater generated from vanillin production is presented. Experiments were conducted at a constant current density of 30 mA/cm2 via a Ti/Ru-Ti-Sn ternary oxide coated anode and an undivided reactor. During the various stages of the electrolysis, parameters such as the values of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) were determined in order to evaluate the feasibility of the electrochemical treatment. The energy consumption and the current efficiency during the electrolysis were calculated. The present study proves the effectiveness of the electrochemical treatment for wastewater resulted from vanillin production.

  11. Verapamil hydrochloride release characteristics from new copolymer zwitterionic matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Bistra; Kamenska, Elena; Ivanov, Ivo; Momekov, George; Rachev, Dimitar; Georgiev, George

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize stable copolymer (vinyl acetate-co-3-dimethyl[methacryloyloxyethyl] ammonium propane sulfinate) zwitterionic latex with different compositions for the first time by emulsifier-free emulsion copolymerization. Throughout the course of the study, a proposal was made for the explanation of the relationship between the "overshooting" phenomenon (a swelling kinetics with a maximum) and the specific self-association of the zwitterionic copolymers. The zwitterionic monomer unit mole fraction, pH, and ionic strength effects on this relationship, on the swelling kinetics of the zwitterionic copolymers, and on the sustained verapamil hydrochloride release from the model tablets were established by the study's authors.

  12. Formulation optimization of hydrodynamically balanced oral controlled release bioadhesive tablets of tramadol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhupinder; Rani, Ashu; Babita; Ahuja, Naveen; Kapil, Rishi

    2010-01-01

    The directly compressible floating-bioadhesive tablets of tramadol were formulated using varying amounts Carbopol 971P (CP) and hydroxy-propylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), along with other requisite excipients. In vitro drug release profile, floatational characteristics and ex vivo bioadhesive strength using texture analyzer were determined, and systematically optimized using a 3(2) central composite design (CCD). The studies indicated successful formulation of gastroretentive compressed matrices with excellent controlled release, mucoadhesion and hydrodynamic balance. Comparison of the dissolution profiles of the optimized formulation, with optimal composition of CP:HPMC :: 80.0:125.0, with that of the marketed controlled release formulation other indicated analogy of drug release performance with each other. Validation of optimization study using eight confirmatory experimental runs indicated very high degree of prognostic ability of CCD with mean  SEM of â0.06%  0.37. Further, the study successfully unravels the effect of the polymers on the selected response variables.

  13. 76 FR 32366 - Determination That ORLAAM (Levomethadyl Acetate Hydrochloride) Oral Solution, 10 Milligrams...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ...), and approved on July 9, 1993. ORLAAM is indicated for the management of opiate dependence, reserved for use in treatment of opiate-addicted patients who fail to show an acceptable response to other adequate treatments for opiate addiction, either because of insufficient effectiveness or the inability...

  14. Clarithromycin suspension: bioequivalence studies on two different strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koytchev, Rossen; Ozalp, Yildiz; Erenmemisoglu, Aydin; van der Meer, Mike John; Alpan, Recep Serdar

    2004-09-01

    Two studies were performed in different groups of volunteers, with the aim to prove the bioequivalence of test (Klaromin) and reference clarithromycin (CAS 81103-11-9) suspensions containing in 5 mL either 125 mg (study 1) or 250 mg (study 2) of the drug, administered as an oral dose of 10 mL. Each study was conducted according to an open, randomized, single-dose, two-period cross-over design in healthy volunteers with a wash-out period from 7 to 14 days. Blood samples were taken up to 24 h in both studies, and concentrations of clarithromycin and its principal active 14-hydroxy metabolite were determined by HPLC. In the first study, the 90% confidence interval for intra-individual ratios of AUC0-t and Cmax of clarithromycin were between 0.84 and 1.03 (AUC0-t) and between 0.89 and 1.03 (Cmax). In the second study, i.e. after administration of clarithromycin suspension 250mg/5mL, the 90% confidence interval for intra-individual ratios of AUC0-inf and Cmax of clarithromycin were between 1.01 and 1.17 (AUC0-inf) and between 1.01 and 1.16 (Cmax). All these values were within the acceptance ranges for bioequivalence studies. In both studies, the 90% confidence interval for intra-individual ratios of AUC0-inf and Cmax of 14-hydroxy-clarithromycin were also within the acceptance ranges. In the light of the results of the studies reported here it can be concluded that the clarithromycin test formulations are bioequivalent to the respective reference formulations, i.e. suspensions containing 125 mg/5 mL and 250 mg/5 mL of the drug.

  15. Oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options.

  16. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treville Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency.

  17. Oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetic study of cetrizine HCl in Iranian healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Derakhshandeh, K.; M. Mohebbi

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameters and bioavailability of a selective histamine (H1)-receptor antagonist, cetirizine hydrochloride (CTZ), following administration of a single oral dose of the drug. The properties of a test compound were compared with those of a reference product in a randomized cross-over study in 12 volunteers. Blood samples were collected at selected time intervals up to 24 h and plasma concentrations of CTZ were determined usi...

  18. Review of drug treatment of oral submucous fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chole, Revant H; Gondivkar, Shailesh M; Gadbail, Amol R; Balsaraf, Swati; Chaudhary, Sudesh; Dhore, Snehal V; Ghonmode, Sumeet; Balwani, Satish; Mankar, Mugdha; Tiwari, Manish; Parikh, Rima V

    2012-05-01

    This study undertook a review of the literature on drug treatment of oral submucous fibrosis. An electronic search was carried out for articles published between January 1960 to November 2011. Studies with high level of evidence were included. The levels of evidence of the articles were classified after the guidelines of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. The main outcome measures used were improvement in oral ulceration, burning sensation, blanching and trismus. Only 13 publications showed a high level of evidence (3 randomized controlled trials and 10 clinical trials/controlled clinical trials), with a total of 1157 patients. Drugs like steroids, hyaluronidase, human placenta extracts, chymotrypsin and collagenase, pentoxifylline, nylidrin hydrochloride, iron and multivitamin supplements including lycopene, have been used. Only systemic agents were associated with few adverse effects like gastritis, gastric irritation and peripheral flushing with pentoxifylline, and flushingly warm skin with nylidrin hydrochloride; all other side-effects were mild and mainly local. Few studies with high levels of evidence were found. The drug treatment that is currently available for oral submucous fibrosis is clearly inadequate. There is a need for high-quality randomized controlled trials with carefully selected and standardized outcome measures.

  19. Self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme of motor-driven active suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuai; Sun, Weichao

    2017-09-01

    Active suspension systems have advantages on mitigating the effects of vehicle vibration caused by road roughness, which are one of the most important component parts in influencing the performances of vehicles. However, high amount of energy consumption restricts the application of active suspension systems. From the point of energy saving, this paper presents a self-powered criterion of the active suspension system to judge whether a motor-driven suspension can be self-powered or not, and then a motor parameter condition is developed as a reference to design a self-powered suspension. An energy regeneration implementation scheme is subsequently proposed to make the active suspension which has the potential to be self-powered achieve energy-saving target in the real application. In this implementation scheme, operating electric circuits are designed based on different working status of the actuator and power source and it is realizable to accumulate energy from road vibration and supply energy to the actuator by switching corresponding electric circuits. To apply the self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme, an active suspension system is designed with a constrained H∞ controller and calculation results indicate that it has the capability to be self-powered. Simulation results show that the performances of the self-powered active suspension are nearly the same as those of the active suspension with an external energy source and can achieve energy regeneration at the same time.

  20. Outpatient titration of carbidopa/levodopa enteral suspension (Duopa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Rajesh; Lyons, Kelly E

    2017-05-01

    Carbidopa/levodopa enteral suspension (CLES; Duopa) is a suspension or gel formulation of carbidopa/levodopa that is approved by the USA Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease patients with motor fluctuations. CLES is delivered at a constant rate continuously throughout the day into the jejunum through an infusion pump via a PEG-J tube implanted surgically. The efficacy of CLES was established in the USA based on a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active controlled, parallel group and 12-week study, in which mean daily OFF time was reduced by 4.0 h, compared to 1.9 h with oral immediate release carbidopa/levodopa. The CLES hardware consists of a cassette containing the drug, a pump to deliver the drug and tubing to connect the PEG-J to the pump. It is critical to understand the appropriate conversion of the carbidopa/levodopa daily dosages to the CLES dosage and how to program the pump and titrate CLES to achieve the most effective dose. We describe one methodology for patient selection, outpatient titration and pump programming.

  1. (-)-Epicatechin Attenuates Degradation of Mouse Oxidative Muscle Following Hindlimb Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Icksoo; Hüttemann, Maik; Malek, Moh H

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a 14-day hindlimb suspension (HS) with and without (-)-epicatechin supplementation to determine whether (-)-epicatechin treatment can attenuate the loss in muscle degradation, angiogenesis, and mitochondrial signaling in oxidative skeletal muscle. Adult mice were randomized into 3 groups: (a) control (C); (b) HS with vehicle (HS-V); and (c) HS with (-)-epicatechin (HS-(-)-Epi). Animals in the HS-(-)-Epi group received (-)-epicatechin (1.0 mg · kg(-1) of body mass) twice daily through oral gavage. For markers related to muscle degradation, the HS-V group had significantly higher protein expression compared with the control and HS-(-)-Epi groups. Moreover, protein expression for myosin heavy chain type I was significantly reduced by approximately 45% in the HS-V group compared with the control and HS-(-)-Epi groups. In addition, capillarity contact and capillary-to-fiber ratio were significantly higher in the HS-(-)-Epi group compared with the HS-V group. Furthermore, protein expression for thrombospondin-1 was significantly higher in HS-V group compared with the control and HS-(-)-Epi groups. Hindlimb suspension also significantly reduced protein expression for mitochondrial signaling compared with the control and HS-(-)-Epi groups. These findings suggest that (-)-epicatechin supplementation attenuates degradation in oxidative muscles after HS.

  2. Characterization of cell suspensions from solid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallavicini, M.

    1985-07-10

    The desirable features of cells in suspension will necessarily be dependent upon the use for which the cells were prepared. Adequate cell yield or recovery is defined by the measurement to be performed. Retention of cellular morphology is important for microscopic identification of cell types in a heterogenous cell suspension, and may be used to determine whether the cells in suspension are representative of those in the tumor in situ. Different dispersal protocols may yield cells with different degrees of clonogenicity, as well as altered biochemical features, such as loss of cellular proteins, surface antigens, nucleotide pools, etc. The quality of the cell suspension can be judged by the degree of cell clumping and level of cellular debris, both of which impact on flow cytometric measurements and studies in which the number of cells be known accurately. Finally, if the data measured on the cells in suspension are to be extrapolated to phenomena occurring in the tumor in situ, it is desirable that the cells in suspension are representative of those in the solid tumor in vivo. This report compares characteristics of tumor cell suspensions obtained by different types of selected disaggregation methods. 33 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Restructuring and aging in a capillary suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koos, Erin; Kannowade, Wolfgang; Willenbacher, Norbert

    2014-12-01

    The rheological properties of capillary suspensions, suspensions with small amounts of an added immiscible fluid, are dramatically altered with the addition of the secondary fluid. We investigate a capillary suspension to determine how the network ages and restructures at rest and under applied external shear deformation. The present work uses calcium carbonate suspended in silicone oil (11 % solids) with added water as a model system. Aging of capillary suspensions and their response to applied oscillatory shear is distinctly different from particulate gels dominated by the van der Waals forces. The suspensions dominated by the capillary force are very sensitive to oscillatory flow, with the linear viscoelastic regime ending at a deformation of only 0.1% and demonstrating power-law aging behavior. This aging persists for long times at low deformations or for shorter times with a sudden decrease in the strength at higher deformations. This aging behavior suggests that the network is able to rearrange and even rupture. This same sensitivity is not demonstrated in shear flow where very high shear rates are required to rupture the agglomerates returning the apparent viscosity of capillary suspensions to the same viscosity as for the pure vdW suspension. A transitional region is also present at intermediate water contents wherein the material response depends very strongly on the type, strength, and duration of the external forcing.

  4. Rheology of nanocrystalline cellulose aqueous suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei-Sabet, Sadaf; Hamad, Wadood Y; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G

    2012-12-11

    The rheological properties and microstructure of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) aqueous suspensions have been investigated at different concentrations. The suspension is isotropic up to 3 wt %, and phase separates to liquid crystalline and isotropic domains at higher concentrations where the samples exhibit a fingerprint texture and the viscosity profile shows a three-region behavior, typical of liquid crystals. The suspension behaves as a rheological gel at even higher concentrations where the viscosity profile shows a single shear thinning behavior over the whole range of shear rates investigated. The effects of ultrasound energy and temperature on the rheological properties and structure of these suspensions were studied using polarized optical microscopy and rheometry. Our results indicate that the amount of applied ultrasound energy affects the microstructure of the suspensions and the pitch of the chiral nematic domains. The viscosity profile is changed significantly at low shear rates, whereas the viscosity of biphasic suspensions at intermediate and high shear rates decreased with increasing temperature. This suggests that, between 30 and 40 °C, structural rearrangement takes place. At higher concentrations of about 10 wt %, the temperature has no significant effect on viscosity; however, a marked increase in viscosity has been observed at around 50 °C. Finally, the Cox-Merz rule was found to fail after a critical concentration, thereby implying significant structural formation. This critical concentration is much higher for sonicated compared to unsonicated suspensions.

  5. The Advanced Virgo monolithic fused silica suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aisa, D.; Aisa, S.; Campeggi, C.; Colombini, M. [University of Perugia and INFN Perugia (Italy); Conte, A. [University of Roma Sapienza and INFN Roma (Italy); Farnesini, L. [University of Perugia and INFN Perugia (Italy); Majorana, E.; Mezzani, F. [University of Roma Sapienza and INFN Roma (Italy); Montani, M. [University of Urbino and INFN Firenze (Italy); Naticchioni, L.; Perciballi, M. [University of Roma Sapienza and INFN Roma (Italy); Piergiovanni, F. [University of Urbino and INFN Firenze (Italy); Piluso, A. [University of Perugia and INFN Perugia (Italy); Puppo, P., E-mail: paola.puppo@roma1.infn.it [University of Roma Sapienza and INFN Roma (Italy); Rapagnani, P. [University of Roma Sapienza and INFN Roma (Italy); Travasso, F. [University of Perugia and INFN Perugia (Italy); Vicerè, A. [University of Urbino and INFN Firenze (Italy); Vocca, H. [University of Perugia and INFN Perugia (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    The detection of gravitational waves is one of the most challenging prospects faced by experimental physicists. Suspension thermal noise is an important noise source at operating frequencies between approximately 10 and 30 Hz, and represents a limit to the sensitivity of the ground based interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Its effects can be reduced by minimizing the losses and by optimizing the geometry of the suspension fiber as well as its attachment system. In this proceeding we will describe the mirrors double stage monolithic suspension system to be used in the Advanced Virgo (AdV) detector. We also present the results of the thermal noise study, performed with the help of a finite elements model, taking into account the precise geometry of the fibers attachment systems on the suspension elements. We shall demonstrate the suitability of this suspension for installation in AdV. - Highlights: • Suspension system design for the test masses of the gravitational wave detectors. • Finite element model studies. • Suspension thermal noise studies.

  6. Vehicle lateral dynamics stabilization using active suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobný V.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the investigation of active nonlinear suspension control in order to stabilize the lateral vehicle motion in similar way as systems like ESP do. The lateral stabilization of vehicle based on braking forces can be alternatively provided by the different setting of suspension forces. The basis of this control is the nonlinear property of the tyres. The vehicle has at least four wheels and it gives one or more redundant vertical forces that can be used for the different distribution of vertical suspension forces in such a way that resulting lateral and/or longitudinal forces create the required correction moment for lateral dynamic vehicle stabilization.

  7. SLIDING MODE CONTROL FOR ACTIVE AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Nonlinear control methods are presented based on theory of sliding mode control (SMC) or variable structure control (VSC) for application to active automobile suspensions. Requirements of reducing manufacturing cost and energy consumption of the active suspension system may be satisfiedby reasonable design of the sliding surface and hydraulic servo system. Emphasis is placed on the study of the discrete sliding mode control method (DSMC) applicable for a new sort of speed on-off solenoid valves of anti-dust capability and low price. Robustness and effectiveness of the feedback linearized controller in typical road conditions are demonstrated by numerical results fora quarter-car suspension model.

  8. Cell Suspension Culture of Neem Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The establishment of suspension culture system for neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) cells and the suspension culture condition was studied. It shows that the neem cell suspension culture system was best in B5 liquid medium, 2.0~4.0mg/L NAA with direct spill method. Based on the integrated analysis of cell biomass, Azadirachtin content and productivity, the optimum culture conditions were B5 liquid medium, 2.0-4.0 mg/L NAA, 3% sucrose at 25 ℃. The optimum rotating speed of the shaker and broth content d...

  9. Oral calcitonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy RC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald C Hamdy,1,2 Dane N Daley11Osteoporosis Center, College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, 2Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Johnson City, TN, USAAbstract: Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through β-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ. Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis failed to

  10. [Examination of effectiveness of olopatadine hydrochloride in atopic dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Tadamichi; Mashiko, Maki; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2005-02-01

    Subjective/objective symptoms (itching, papula, erythema, lichenification, desquamation, scratching, erosion) and the levels of IgE, LDH, interleukin (IL) -6, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) were compared before and after administering olopatadine hydrochloride (ALLELOCK tablets) to 17 atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. Subject/objective symptoms improved significantly after administering the agent, and the total dosage of the combined topical steroids was also significantly decreased after administration (p<0.05), although IgE, IL-6 and LDH levels did not change, TARC was significantly decreased (p<0.05). The correlation between the levels of IgE, IL-6, LDH and TARC before and after the administration was examined. There was a positive correlation between IgE and TARC (r=0.62, p<0.01) and between IL-6 and TARC (r=0.78, p<0.01). Olopatadine hydrochloride is therefore useful in improving the symptoms in AD, and TARC may be used as an indicator of the symptom improvement.

  11. Growth of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride and its characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, G.; Pari, S.

    2016-11-01

    Single crystal of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride by slow evaporation method is reported. The grown crystal characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, UV-Vis-NIR and fluorescence spectroscopy. It is established that the crystal falls under the monoclinic system and space group P21/c with the cell parameters as: a=8.565 Å, b=12.943 Å, c=6.272 Å, α=γ=90°, β=103.630º. UV-Vis-NIR spectrum shows indirect allowed transition with a band gap of 5.21 eV and other optical properties are measured. The crystal is also shown to have a high transmittance in the visible region. The third order nonlinear property and optical limiting have been investigated using Z-Scan technique. Complex impedance spectrum measured at the dc conductivity. Dependence of dielectric constant, dielectric loss and ac conductivity on frequency at different temperature of applied ac field is analyzed. The mechanical behavior has been assessed by Vickers microhardness indenter. The thermal behavior of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride was analyzed using TG/DTA thermal curves. From the thermal study, the material was found to possess thermal stability up to 174 °C. The predicted NLO properties, UV-Vis transmittance and Z-scan studies indicate that is an attractive material for photonics optical limiting applications.

  12. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC, ATOMIC ABSORPTION AND CONDUCTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Anis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Six simple and sensitive spectroscopic and conductometric procedures (A-F were developed for the determination of tramadol hydrochloride. Methods A, B and C are based on the reaction of cobalt (II thiocyanate with tramadol to form a stable ternary complex, which could be measured by spectrophotometric (method A, atomic absorption (method B or conductometric (method C procedures. Methods D and E depend on the reaction of molybdenum thiocyanate with tramadol to form a stable ternary complex, measured by spectrophotometric means (method D or by atomic absorption procedures (method E, while method F depends on the formation of an ion pair complex between the studied drug and bromothymol blue which is extractable into methylene chloride. Tramadol hydrochloride could be assayed in the range of 80-560 and 40-–220 μg ml-1, 1-15 mg ml-1 and 2.5-22.5, 1.25-11.25 and 5-22 μg ml-1 using methods A,B,C,D,E and F, respectively. Various experimental conditions were studied. The results obtained showed good recoveries. The proposed procedures were applied successfully to the analysis of tramadol in its pharmaceutical preparations and the results were favorably comparable with the official method.

  13. Modulation of venlafaxine hydrochloride release from press coated matrix tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gohel M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to prepare novel modified release press coated tablets of venlafaxine hydrochloride. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K100M were used as release modifier in core and coat, respectively. A 3 2 full factorial design was adopted in the optimization study. The drug to polymer ratio in core and coat were chosen as independent variables. The drug release in the first hour and drug release rate between 1 and 12 h were chosen as dependent variables. The tablets were characterized for dimension analysis, crushing strength, friability and in vitro drug release. A check point batch, containing 1:2.6 and 1:5.4 drug to polymer in core and coat respectively, was prepared. The tablets of check point batch were subjected to in vitro drug release in dissolution media with pH 5, 7.2 and distilled water. The kinetics of drug release was best explained by Korsmeyer and Peppas model (anomalous non-Fickian diffusion. The systematic formulation approach enabled us to develop modified release venlafaxine hydrochloride tablets.

  14. TRIMETAZIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE TRANSDERMAL PATCH: FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION

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    Sarfaraz Md

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to formulate and evaluate matrix-type transdermal formulations containing trimetazidine hydrochloride with polymers such as carboxymethyl chitosan and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC 5cps by solvent evaporation technique with glycerin, as plasticizer. The prepared patches were tested for their physicochemical characteristics such as thickness, weight variation, drug content uniformity, folding endurance and tensile strength. The partition coefficient study was performed using n-octanol as the organic phase and phosphate buffer pH 7.4 as an aqueous phase and it was found to be 1.01. In-vitro release studies of trimetazidine hydrochloride-loaded patches in phosphate buffer (pH, 7.4 exhibited drug release in the range of 89.40 to 92.10 % in 24 hrs. The parameter flux (J was calculated and it was in the range of 1.325 to 2.898 mg/cm2/hr. Based on optimization studies, patches containing carboxymethyl chitosan patches were chosen as optimized formulation. Skin irritation studies were performed on optimized transdermal patch and were found to be free of irritation. The patches were subjected to short term stability studies and were found stable. FTIR studies revealed no interactions between drug and excipients. Data of in vitro release from optimized patches were fit in to different equations and kinetic models such as zero order, first-order, Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas models to explain release kinetics.

  15. 维拉佐酮盐酸盐%vilazodone hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李赛

    2011-01-01

    由Trovis Pharma LLC制药公司研制的维拉佐酮盐酸盐(vilazodone hydrochloride)于2011年1月21日由FDA批准上市,商品名为Viibryd,用于治疗成年人重度抑郁症(major depressive disorder,MDD)[1].Viibryd将以10 mg、20 mg和40 mg片剂上市.Viibryd中文化学名称:5-[4-[4-(5-氰基-1H-吲哚-3-基)丁基]-1-哌嗪基]-2-苯并呋喃草酰胺盐酸盐;英文化学名称:5-[4-[4-(5-cyano-1 H-indol-3-yl)butyl]-1 -piperaz-inyl]-2-benzofurancarboxamide hydrochloride;分子式:C26-H27N5O2 ·HCl;分子量:477.99;CAS登记号:163521-08-2.

  16. Structural characterisation and dehydration behaviour of siramesine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Anne; Tian, Fang; de Diego, Heidi Lopez; Frydenvang, Karla; Rantanen, Jukka; Elema, Michiel Ringkjøbing; Hovgaard, Lars

    2009-10-01

    In this study the crystal structures of siramesine hydrochloride anhydrate alpha-form and siramesine hydrochloride monohydrate were determined, and this structural information was used to explain the physicochemical properties of the two solid forms. In the crystal structure of the monohydrate, each water molecule is hydrogen bonded to two chloride ions, and thus the water is relatively strongly bound in the crystal. No apparent channels for dehydration were observed in the monohydrate structure, which could allow transmission of structural information during dehydration. Instead destructive dehydration occurred, where the elimination of water from the monohydrate resulted in the formation of an oily phase, which subsequently recrystallised into one or more crystalline forms. Solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate of the anhydrate alpha-form and the monohydrate in aqueous media were investigated and both were found to be lower for the monohydrate compared to the anhydrate alpha-form. Finally, the interactions between water molecules and chloride ions in the monohydrate as well as changes in packing induced by water incorporation could be detected by spectroscopic techniques.

  17. OPTIMIZATION OF CONCENTRATION OF POLYHEXANIDE HYDROCHLORIDE IN MULTIPURPOSE SOLUTION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arora

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of foreign pathogenic microorganisms like viruses, bacteria, yeast, fungi and protozoa which can inadvertently be introduced into eye via contact lens and hence disinfection is a vital part. Multifunctional solutions are generally intended to combine the action of cleaning disinfecting, rinsing lubricating deproteinising and soaking in one single product.In order to optimization of concentration of Polyhexanide hydrochloride in multipurpose solution some microbiological studies were performed by taking five microorganisms which are more prevalent in the infected eye condition. The nutrient agar and sabourad's agar media were used for bacteria and yeast mould respectively. The media were prepared as per I.P and sterilised by autoclaving and poured into Petri plates. The media when cooled to 42°C, 0.5 ml of the culture was added.The optimum concentration of Polyhexanide hydrochloride is 0.0002% which is an effective concentration against five microorganisms that are most prevalent in the infected eye condition.It was concluded that the multipurpose solution containing 2.0 g/ml of polyhexanide were found to be better in terms of antimicrobial activity

  18. Modulation of venlafaxine hydrochloride release from press coated matrix tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohel, M C; Soni, C D; Nagori, S A; Sarvaiya, K G

    2008-01-01

    The aim of present study was to prepare novel modified release press coated tablets of venlafaxine hydrochloride. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K100M were used as release modifier in core and coat, respectively. A 3(2) full factorial design was adopted in the optimization study. The drug to polymer ratio in core and coat were chosen as independent variables. The drug release in the first hour and drug release rate between 1 and 12 h were chosen as dependent variables. The tablets were characterized for dimension analysis, crushing strength, friability and in vitro drug release. A check point batch, containing 1:2.6 and 1:5.4 drug to polymer in core and coat respectively, was prepared. The tablets of check point batch were subjected to in vitro drug release in dissolution media with pH 5, 7.2 and distilled water. The kinetics of drug release was best explained by Korsmeyer and Peppas model (anomalous non-Fickian diffusion). The systematic formulation approach enabled us to develop modified release venlafaxine hydrochloride tablets.

  19. Formulation and evaluation of transdermal patches of papaverine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Samip

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal patches of papaverine hydrochloride were prepared by the solvent casting method using ethyl cellulose: PVP, PVA: PVP and Eudragit RL-100: Eudragit RS-100 using different ratios. The physicochemical parameters such as flexibility, thickness, smoothness, weight variation, moisture content, hardness and tensile strength were evaluated for the prepared patches. The formulation exhibited flexibility, uniform thickness and weight, smoothness, good drug content (92 to 96%, and little moisture content. The in vitro diffusion studies were carried out using modified Keshery-Chein cell using cellophane as the diffusion membrane and the formulation followed the Higuchi diffusion mechanism. The formulation containing PVA: PVP as polymers showed faster release rate (hydrophilic polymers compared to Eudragit RL-100: Eudragit RS-100 (hydrophobic polymers or combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers (ethyl cellulose and PVP. The stability studies indicated that all the patches maintained good physicochemical properties and drug content after storing the patches in different storage conditions. Compatibility studies indicated that there was no interaction between the drug and polymers. In vivo studies showed that papaverine hydrochloride helps in decreasing the effect of isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis. Hence, the aim of the present study was to prepare the sustained release formulation (Transdermal patches of the drug using different blend of polymers. The formulated patches containing the hydroplilic polymers showed best release rate of drug.

  20. Formulation and evaluation of tramadol hydrochloride rectal suppositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rectal suppositories of tramadol hydrochloride were prepared using different bases and polymers like PEG, cocoa butter, agar and the effect of different additives on in vitro release of tramadol hydrochloride was studied. The agar-based suppositories were non-disintegrating/non-dissolving, whereas PEGs were disintegrating/dissolving and cocoa butter were melting suppositories. All the prepared suppositories were evaluated for various physical parameters like weight variation, drug content and hardness. The PEG and cocoa butter suppositories were evaluated for macromelting range, disintegration and liquefaction time. In vitro release study was performed by USP type I apparatus. The prepared suppositories were within the permissible range of all physical parameters. In vitro drug release was in the order of PEG>Agar>cocoa butter. Addition of PVP, HPMC in agar suppositories retards the release. The mechanism of drug release was diffusion controlled and follows first order kinetics. The results suggested that blends of PEG of low molecular weight (1000 with high molecular weight (4000 and 6000 in different percentage and agar in 10% w/w as base used to formulate rapid release suppositories. The sustained release suppositories can be prepared by addition of PVP, HPMC in agar-based suppositories and by use of cocoa butter as base.