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Sample records for hydrochloride ertapenem sodium

  1. Ertapenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ertapenem is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such ... pharmacist if you are allergic to ertapenem; other carbapenem antibiotics such as imipenem/cilastatin (Primaxin), doripenem (Doribax), ...

  2. RP-HPLC×HILIC chromatography for quantifying ertapenem sodium with a look at green chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Tahisa M; Medeiros, Ana C D; Salgado, Herida R N

    2016-11-01

    Ertapenem sodium is a polar and ionizable compound; therefore, it has little retention on traditional C18 columns in reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, even using a highly-aqueous mobile phase that can result in dewetting in the stationary phase. Thus, the most coherent process for ERTM is to develop a method for Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography. However, for the traditional methods in HILIC, the use of a highly organic mobile phase is necessary; usually an amount exceeding 80% acetonitrile is necessary. On the other hand, the RP-HPLC mode is considered for the analysis technique, which is more often used for quantification of substances, and new columns are often introduced to analyze different groups of compounds. Two new analytical methods have been developed for routine analysis. The proposed chromatographic method was adequate and advantageous by presenting simplicity, linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness, detection limits, and satisfactory quantification. Analytical methods are constantly undergoing changes and improvements. Researchers worldwide are rapidly adopting Green Chemistry. The development of new pharmaceutical methods based in Green chemistry has been encouraged by universities and the pharmaceutical industry. Issues related to green chemistry are in evidence and they have been featured in international journals of high impact. The methods described here have economic advantages and they feature an eco-friendly focus, which is discussed in this work. This work was developed with an environmental conscience, always looking to minimize the possible generated organic waste. Therefore, discussion on this aspect is included.

  3. Stability of Ranitidine Hydrochloride with Cefazolin Sodium, Cefbuperazone Sodium, Cefoxitin Sodium and Cephalothin Sodium during Simulated Y-Site Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, K; Miyamoto, Y; Kurata, N; Nakane, S; Gill, M A; Nishida, M

    2000-01-01

    The compatibility and stability of ranitidine hydrochloride when comixed with four cephalosporins (cefazolin sodium, cefoxitin sodium, cephalothin sodium and cefbuperazone sodium) during simulated Y-site injection were studied. The mixtures were prepared by mixing equal volumes (2 mL) of ranitidine hydrochloride (1mg/mL) and each tested cephalosporin (20 mg/mL) in a 10 mL glass test tube. All study mixtures were prepared in triplicate and stored at room temperature under normal fluorescent room lighting. The physical appearaance and pH of each mixture were recorded; the chemical stability of each drug was immediatedly determined by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography from samples stored for up to four hours after mixing. Stability was defined as the retention of more than 90% of the initial concentration of each drug. Visual inspection revealed no color or clarity change and the pH changes were less than 0.2 pH units in the tested mixtures for cefazolin and cefoxitin: however, there were significant pH changes for cefbuperazone and cephalothin after four hours of storage. Ranitidine retained greater than 90% of its original concentration within the tested period in the mixture with 20 mg/mL of each tested cephalosporin, except for cephalothin (86.6% of control). In the presence of 10 mg/mL cephalothin, however, ranitidine retained greater than 90% for four hours. Meanwhile, all four cephalosporins retained greater than 90% of their original concentrations for up to four hours in the mixture with ranitidine. From the results obtained, it is clear that ranitidine solution may be coadministered with a solution of either cefazolin, cefoxitin or cefbuperazone during Y-site administration for up to four hours after mxining. On the other hand, since ranitidine with cephalothin (20 mg/mL) fell below 90%, the amount of cephalothin should not exceed 10 mg/mL when coadminstered with ranitidine solution.

  4. SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF DICLOFENAC SODIUM AND TOLPERISONE HYDROCHLORIDE IN COMBINED PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Bhavesh Gevriya* and R.C. Mashru

    2013-01-01

    Three simple, rapid, precise and accurate spectrophotometric methods have been developed for simultaneous analysis of Tolperisone Hydrochloride (TOL) and Diclofenac Sodium (DIC) in their combined dosage form. Method A, Simultaneous equation method (Vierodt’s method) applies measurement of absorptivities at two wavelengths, 261.00 nm (λmax of Tolperisone Hydrochloride) and 279.00 nm, (λmax of Diclofenac Sodium) in zero order spectra. The concentrations can be calculated from the derived equati...

  5. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF TOLPERISONE HYDROCHLORIDE AND DICLOFENAC SODIUM IN SYNTHETIC MIXTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Patel Satish A; Hariyani Kaushik P

    2012-01-01

    The present manuscript describes simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate, precise and economical spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of Diclofenac sodium and Tolperisone hydrochloride in bulk and synthetic mixture. The method is based on the simultaneous equations for analysis of both the drugs using methanol as solvent. Diclofenac sodium has absorbance maxima at 281 nm and Tolperisone hydrochloride has absorbance maxima at 255 nm in methanol. The linearity was obtained in...

  6. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF TOLPERISONE HYDROCHLORIDE AND DICLOFENAC SODIUM IN SYNTHETIC MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Satish A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present manuscript describes simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate, precise and economical spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of Diclofenac sodium and Tolperisone hydrochloride in bulk and synthetic mixture. The method is based on the simultaneous equations for analysis of both the drugs using methanol as solvent. Diclofenac sodium has absorbance maxima at 281 nm and Tolperisone hydrochloride has absorbance maxima at 255 nm in methanol. The linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 2-20 μg/ml and 2-20 μg/ml for Diclofenac sodium and Tolperisone hydrochloride, respectively. The concentrations of the drugs were determined by using simultaneous equations at both the wavelengths. The mean recovery was 100.6 ± 0.41 and 99.64 ± 0.50 for Diclofenac sodium and Tolperisone hydrochloride, respectively. The method was successfully applied to laboratory prepared synthetic mixture because no interference from the mixture excipients was found. The suitability of this method for the quantitative determination of Diclofenac sodium and Tolperisone hydrochloride was proved by validation. The proposed method was found to be simple and sensitive for the routine quality control application of Diclofenac sodium and Tolperisone hydrochloride in combination. The results of analysis have been validated statistically and by recovery studies.

  7. Human serum paraoxonase-1 (hPON1): in vitro inhibition effects of moxifloxacin hydrochloride, levofloxacin hemihidrate, cefepime hydrochloride, cefotaxime sodium and ceftizoxime sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkeş, Cüneyt; Söyüt, Hakan; Beydemir, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of antibacterial drugs (moxifloxacin hydrochloride, levofloxacin hemihidrate, cefepime hydrochloride, cefotaxime sodium and ceftizoxime sodium) on human serum paraoxonase-1 (hPON1) enzyme activity from human serum in vitro conditions. For this purpose, hPON1 enzyme was purified from human serum using simple chromatographic methods. The antibacterial drugs exhibited inhibitory effects on hPON1 at low concentrations. Ki constants were calculated to be 2.641 ± 0.040 mM, 5.525 ± 0.817 mM, 35.092 ± 1.093 mM, 252.762 ± 5.749 mM and 499.244 ± 10.149 mM, respectively. The inhibition mechanism of moxifloxacin hydrochloride was competitive, whereas levofloxacin hemihidrate, cefepime hydrochloride, cefotaxime sodium and ceftizoxime sodium were noncompetitive inhibitors.

  8. Ertapenem: a new carbapenem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenholt, I

    2001-06-01

    Ertapenem is a new 1-beta-methyl carbapenem, stable to dehydropeptidase, which binds preferable to penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) 2 and 3. Ertapenem has a broad antibacterial spectrum with MIC90 values mode of action as shown by time-killing curves and exhibits a short PAE of 1.4 - 2.6 h against the Gram-positive strains but no PAE against Gram-negative strains. In an infection model in mice, it has been shown that ertapenem and imipenem were highly efficacious at a level of 2 mg/kg in bacterial clearance in comparison to ceftriaxone, cefepime, ceftazidime, cefazolin, cefonicid, cefotaxime and meropenem. In comparison to other available carbapenems, ertapenem has a long half-life of 4.5 h and is developed as a single daily dose carbapenem. The protein binding is dose-dependent and is estimated to 94% at concentrations under 100 mg/l and approximately 85% at 300 mg/l. Cmax after a dose of 1 g in healthy volunteers has been estimated to 190 mg/l. Given the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data, it may be predicted that ertapenem will have an effect on most Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus spp. and Acinetobacter spp. For pathogens with a MIC of 0.5 mg/l, the estimated T > MIC will be 50% (of 24 h) and for pathogens with a MIC of 1 mg/l 31%. For anaerobic bacteria with MIC values between 1-2 mg/l, the T > MIC may not be sufficient for bacterial eradication. However, clinical trials have to confirm this hypothesis.

  9. Toxicity of naproxen sodium and its mixture with tramadol hydrochloride on fish early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehonova, Pavla; Plhalova, Lucie; Blahova, Jana; Doubkova, Veronika; Prokes, Miroslav; Tichy, Frantisek; Fiorino, Emma; Faggio, Caterina; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2017-08-31

    Pharmaceuticals occur in water bodies as a consequence of their incomplete removal during waste water treatment processes. The occurence of pharmaceuticals in surface waters as well as their possible impact on aquatic vertebrates have received considerable attention in recent years. However, there is still a lack of informations on the chronic effects of widely used drugs as well as their possible mixture toxicity on non-target aquatic vertebrates as well as their possible mixture toxicity. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of naproxen sodium on early life stages of fish and evaluate its mixture toxicity with tramadol hydrochloride, which was assessed in our earlier study as a single substance. Two embryo-larval toxicity tests with common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were performed according to the OECD guideline 210 (Fish, Early-life Stage Toxicity Test) in order to assess the subchronic toxicity of naproxen sodium and tramadol hydrochlorid-naproxen sodium mixture at the concentrations of 10; 50; 100 and 200 μg/L. These experiments were conducted for 32 days. The subchronic exposure to naproxen sodium and naproxen sodium and tramadol hydrochloride mixture had a strong effect on the early life stages of common carp. Hatching, developmental rate, morphology, histopathology and, in the case of the naproxen sodium and tramadol hydrochloride mixture, mortality were influenced. The bioindicators of oxidative stress were also influenced. The LOEC was determined at 10 μg/L for both naproxen sodium and naproxen sodium and tramadol hydrochloride mixture. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF DICLOFENAC SODIUM AND TOLPERISONE HYDROCHLORIDE IN COMBINED PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavesh Gevriya* and R.C. Mashru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three simple, rapid, precise and accurate spectrophotometric methods have been developed for simultaneous analysis of Tolperisone Hydrochloride (TOL and Diclofenac Sodium (DIC in their combined dosage form. Method A, Simultaneous equation method (Vierodt’s method applies measurement of absorptivities at two wavelengths, 261.00 nm (λmax of Tolperisone Hydrochloride and 279.00 nm, (λmax of Diclofenac Sodium in zero order spectra. The concentrations can be calculated from the derived equations. Method B, Q-Absorbance equation method. It involves formation of Q-absorbance equation at 233.50 nm (isoabsorptive point and 261.00 nm (λmax of Tolperisone Hydrochloride in zero order spectra. Method C, Zero crossing first derivative spectrophotometry involves measurement of absorbance at 249.20 nm (for Tolperisone Hydrochloride and 227.40 nm (for Diclofenac Sodium in first derivative spectra. Developed methods were validated according to ICH guidelines. The calibration graph follows Beer’s law in the range of 6.0 to 18.0 μg/ml for Tolperisone Hydrochloride and 2.0 to 6.0 μg/ml for Diclofenac Sodium with R square value greater than 0.999. Accuracy of all methods was determined by recovery studies and showed % recovery between 98 to 102%. Intraday and interday precision was checked for all methods and mean %RSD was found to be less than 2 for all the methods. The methods were successfully applied for estimation of Tolperisone Hydrochloride and Diclofenac Sodium in marketed formulation.

  11. Stability of piperacillin sodium-tazobactam sodium and ranitidine hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection during simulated Y-site administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J S; Burm, J P; Jhee, S S; Chin, A; Ulrich, R W; Gill, M A

    1994-09-15

    The stability of piperacillin sodium plus tazobactam sodium and ranitidine hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection during simulated Y-site administration was studied. Triplicate test solutions of piperacillin 40 mg/mL plus tazobactam 5 mg/mL (as the sodium salts) or piperacillin 80 mg/mL plus tazobactam 10 mg/mL (as the sodium salts) were mixed 1:1 with ranitidine 0.5 and 2.0 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride salt). The solutions were stored at 23 degrees C, and samples were removed at zero, one, two, and four hours for measurement of drug concentration by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. At the time of sampling and before any dilution, each sample was visually inspected for color and precipitation, and pH was determined. At all sampling times, the concentrations of piperacillin, tazobactam, and ranitidine were > 90% of initial concentrations. There were no substantial changes in pH or color. Tazobactam 5 mg/mL (as the sodium salt) and ranitidine 0.5 and 2 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride salt) in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were stable for up to four hours during simulated Y-site administration. Piperacillin 80 mg/mL plus tazobactam 10 mg/mL (as the sodium salts) and ranitidine 0.5 and 2 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride salt) were stable for up to four hours during simulated Y-site administration.

  12. Stability of Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride, Lorazepam, and Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Stored in Polypropylene Syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Collin R; Halford, Zachery; MacKay, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting is problematic for many patients undergoing chemotherapy. Multiple-drug treatments have been developed to mitigate chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. A patient-controlled infusion of diphenhydramine hydrochloride, lorazepam, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate has been studied in patients who are refractory to first-line therapy. Unfortunately, the physical and chemical compatibility of this three-drug combination is not available in the published literature. Chemical compatibility was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Visual observation was employed to detect change in color, clarity, or gas evolution. Turbidity and pH measurements were performed in conjunction with visual observation at hours 0, 24, and 48. Results showed that diphenhydramine hydrochloride 4 mg/mL, lorazepam 0.16 mg/mL, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate 0.27 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride stored in polypropylene syringes were compatible, and components retained greater than 95% of their original concentration over 48 hours when stored at room temperature.

  13. Chemical compatibility of cefmetazole sodium with ranitidine hydrochloride during simulated Y-site administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, K; Gill, M A; Okamoto, M P; Takagi, J

    1993-01-01

    The stability of cefmetazole sodium and ranitidine hydrochloride was studied under conditions simulating administration via a Y-injection site into a primary infusion line. Cefmetazole sodium was reconstituted with both 0.9% sodium chloride injection (50 mL or 100 mL) and 5% dextrose injection (50 mL) to produce premixing concentrations of cefmetazole 10 and 20 mg/mL. Ranitidine hydrochloride injection was diluted with 50 mL 0.9% sodium chloride injection to give premixing concentrations of ranitidine 1 mg/mL. To simulate Y-site administration, 2 mL of cefmetazole was mixed with 2 mL of ranitidine in a 10-mL glass test tube. All study mixtures were prepared in triplicate and stored at room temperature (22-23 degrees C) under normal fluorescent room lighting. Samples of these admixtures were inspected for visual changes and tested for pH. The concentrations of two drugs were immediately determined by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic assay methods after mixing and at 1, 2, and 4 hours. No visual changes were observed. The pH in the admixtures was influenced by concentrations of the two drugs. The pH of each single-drug solution did not change during the study period. On the other hand, the pH of any admixtures of cefmetazole and ranitidine solutions prepared with 0.9% sodium chloride or 5% dextrose injection, decreased. Cefmetazole in any of the admixtures with ranitidine retained greater than 95% of its original concentration for 4 hours.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of chlorhexidine gluconate, sodium hypochlorite and octenidine hydrochloride in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirali, Resmiye E; Bodur, Haluk; Sipahi, Bilge; Sungurtekin, Elif

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and octenidine hydrochloride (OCT) in different concentrations against endodontic pathogens in vitro. Agar diffusion procedure was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the tested materials. Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans and the mixture of these were used for this study. In the agar diffusion test, 5.25% NaOCl exhibited better antimicrobial effect than the other concentrations of NaOCl for all strains. All concentrations of OCT were effective against C. albicans and E. faecalis. Some 0.2% CHX was ineffective on all microorganisms. Antibacterial effectiveness of all experimental solutions decreased on the mixture of all strains. Decreasing concentrations of NaOCl resulted in significantly reduced antimicrobial effect. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2010 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  15. Status Epilepticus and Delirium Associated with Ertapenem in a Very Elderly Patient with Chronic Kidney Disease and Silent Ischaemic Cerebrovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huimin; Chew, Samuel T H

    2015-12-01

    An 85-year-old female with chronic kidney disease and newly acquired seizures on oral phenytoin received intravenous ertapenem 500 mg once daily for a urinary tract infection and bacteraemia involving extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli. After three ertapenem doses, she developed seizures which self-aborted. Corrected phenytoin level was sub-therapeutic initially, but became therapeutic following a phenytoin dose increase. On Day 14 of ertapenem, the patient suffered another episode of seizure. Ertapenem was stopped. On Day 15, she developed status epilepticus lasting 2 days, requiring intravenous lorazepam, sodium valproate and phenytoin. The last episode of seizure occurred 3 days after discontinuation of ertapenem, with a dramatic recovery of her Glasgow Coma Scale and resolution of delirium. At the time of writing, she has remained seizure free for over 2 years. A retrospective audit of the emergency department notes revealed that she had a course of ertapenem in another institution prior, which also led to two seizure episodes-once 8 days after starting ertapenem, another 3 days after stopping ertapenem. Despite using a renal-adjusted ertapenem dose, each dip in her creatinine clearance level was associated with seizures, preceded by delirium each time. Naranjo assessment score was 6, suggesting a probable relationship between the seizures and ertapenem.

  16. Novel nanostructured enoxaparin sodium-PLGA hybrid carriers overcome tumor multidrug resistance of doxorubicin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Wu, Lei; Kou, Longfa; Xu, Meng; Sun, Jin; Wang, Yongjun; Fu, Qiang; Zhang, Peng; He, Zhonggui

    2016-11-20

    Novel enoxaparin sodium-PLGA hybrid nanocarries (EPNs) were successfully designed for sustained delivery of hydrophilic cationic doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) and to overcome multidrug resistance (MDR). By incorporation of the negative polymer of enoxaparin sodium (ES), DOX was highly encapsulated into EPNs with an encapsulation efficiency of 92.49%, and ES effectively inhibited the proliferation of HUVEC cell lines. The in vivo pharmacokinetics study after intravenous injection indicated that DOX-loaded EPNs (DOX-EPNs) exhibited a higher area under the curve (AUC) and a longer half-life (t1/2) in comparison with DOX solution (DOX-Sol). The biodistribution study demonstrated that DOX-EPNs increased the DOX level in plasma and decreased the accumulation of DOX in liver and spleen. Compared with DOX-Sol, DOX-EPNs increased the cytotoxicity in P-gp over-expressing MCF-7/Adr cells, attributed to the higher intracellular efficiency of DOX produced by the EPNs. DOX-EPNs entered into resistant tumor cells by multiple endocytosis pathways, which resulted in overcoming the multidrug resistance of MCF-7/Adr cells by escaping the efflux induced by P-gp transporters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Spectrophotometric and chemometric methods for determination of imipenem, ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, dexamethasone sodium phosphate, paracetamol and cilastatin sodium in human urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kosasy, A. M.; Abdel-Aziz, Omar; Magdy, N.; El Zahar, N. M.

    2016-03-01

    New accurate, sensitive and selective spectrophotometric and chemometric methods were developed and subsequently validated for determination of Imipenem (IMP), ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIPRO), dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DEX), paracetamol (PAR) and cilastatin sodium (CIL) in human urine. These methods include a new derivative ratio method, namely extended derivative ratio (EDR), principal component regression (PCR) and partial least-squares (PLS) methods. A novel EDR method was developed for the determination of these drugs, where each component in the mixture was determined by using a mixture of the other four components as divisor. Peak amplitudes were recorded at 293.0 nm, 284.0 nm, 276.0 nm, 257.0 nm and 221.0 nm within linear concentration ranges 3.00-45.00, 1.00-15.00, 4.00-40.00, 1.50-25.00 and 4.00-50.00 μg mL- 1 for IMP, CIPRO, DEX, PAR and CIL, respectively. PCR and PLS-2 models were established for simultaneous determination of the studied drugs in the range of 3.00-15.00, 1.00-13.00, 4.00-12.00, 1.50-9.50, and 4.00-12.00 μg mL- 1 for IMP, CIPRO, DEX, PAR and CIL, respectively, by using eighteen mixtures as calibration set and seven mixtures as validation set. The suggested methods were validated according to the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and the results revealed that they were accurate, precise and reproducible. The obtained results were statistically compared with those of the published methods and there was no significant difference.

  18. Validated Spectrophotometric Assay of Cefepime Hydrochloride and Cefuroxime Sodium Using a Tetrazolium Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa S. Elazazy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of micro amounts of cefepime hydrochloride and cefuroxime sodium is described. The method is based on reduction of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC by the cited drugs in slightly alkaline medium leading to formation of a highly colored formazan derivative. Different variables affecting the color development were investigated and optimized. Absorbance measurements were made at 483 nm. Under the proposed conditions, this method is applicable over concentration range of 4–50 µg ml-1 with molar absorpitivities ranging from 5.208 x 103–1.217 x 104 L.mol-1.cm-1 and Sandell's sensitivities ranging from 1.007 x 10-3–2.727 x10-3 µg cm-2. The proposed method was successfully applied for analysis of the cited drugs in formulations and the recovery percentages ranged from 99.47 to 99.8%. The results obtained demonstrated that the proposed method is equally accurate, precise and reproducible as the reported methods thus it is recommended for quality control and routine analysis where time, cost effectiveness and high specificity of analytical techniques are of great importance.

  19. Stability of Fentanyl Citrate, Hydromorphone Hydrochloride, Ketamine Hydrochloride, Midazolam, Morphine Sulfate, and Pentobarbital Sodium in Polypropylene Syringes

    OpenAIRE

    Collin Anderson; Mark MacKay

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Determine the stability of fentanyl 10 mcg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride, fentanyl 10 mcg/mL in 5% dextrose, fentanyl 50 mcg/mL, hydromorphone 100 mcg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride, ketamine 10 mg/mL, midazolam 0.4 mg/mL in 5% dextrose, midazolam 5 mg/mL, morphine 1 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride, morphine 1 mg/mL in 5% dextrose, and pentobarbital 50 mg/mL when stored as single drug entities at room temperature in polypropylene syringes. Methods: Four 5 mL samples of each drug and concentra...

  20. High-amylose sodium carboxymethyl starch matrices: development and characterization of tramadol hydrochloride sustained-release tablets for oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabais, Teresa; Leclair, Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    Substituted amylose (SA) polymers were produced from high-amylose corn starch by etherification of its hydroxyl groups with chloroacetate. Amorphous high-amylose sodium carboxymethyl starch (HASCA), the resulting SA polymer, was spray-dried to obtain an excipient (SD HASCA) with optimal binding and sustained-release (SR) properties. Tablets containing different percentages of SD HASCA and tramadol hydrochloride were produced by direct compression and evaluated for dissolution. Once-daily and twice-daily SD HASCA tablets containing two common dosages of tramadol hydrochloride (100 mg and 200 mg), a freely water-soluble drug, were successfully developed. These SR formulations presented high crushing forces, which facilitate further tablet processing and handling. When exposed to both a pH gradient simulating the pH variations through the gastrointestinal tract and a 40% ethanol medium, a very rigid gel formed progressively at the surface of the tablets providing controlled drug-release properties. These properties indicated that SD HASCA was a promising and robust excipient for oral, sustained drug-release, which may possibly minimize the likelihood of dose dumping and consequent adverse effects, even in the case of coadministration with alcohol.

  1. Development and validation of a rapid RP-UPLC method for the simultaneous estimation of bambuterol hydrochloride and montelukast sodium from tablets

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    R Yanamandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, simple, sensitive and selective analytical method was developed by using reverse phase ultra performance liquid chromatographic technique for the simultaneous estimation of bambuterol hydrochloride and montelukast sodium in combined tablet dosage form. The developed method is superior in technology to conventional high performance liquid chromatography with respect to speed, resolution, solvent consumption, time, and cost of analysis. Elution time for the separation was 6 min and ultra violet detection was carried out at 210 nm. Efficient separation was achieved on BEH C18 sub-2-μm Acquity UPLC column using 0.025% (v/v trifluoro acetic acid in water and acetonitrile as organic solvent in a linear gradient program. Resolutions between bambuterol hydrochloride and montelukast sodium were found to be more than 31. The active pharmaceutical ingredient was extracted from tablet dosage from using a mixture of methanol, acetonitrile and water as diluent. The calibration graphs were linear for bambuterol hydrochloride and montelukast sodium in the range of 6.25-37.5 μg/ml. The percentage recoveries for bambuterol hydrochloride and montelukast sodium were found to be in the range of 99.1-100.0% and 98.0-101.6%, respectively. The test solution was found to be stable for 7 days when stored in the refrigerator between 2-8Ί. Developed UPLC method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization specifications for method validation. This method can be successfully employed for simultaneous estimation of bambuterol hydrochloride and montelukast sodium in bulk drugs and formulations.

  2. Some variables affecting the characteristics of Eudragit E-sodium alginate polyelectrolyte complex as a tablet matrix for diltiazem hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusif, Rehab Mohammad; Abu Hashim, Irhan Ibrahim; El-Dahan, Marwa Salah

    2014-03-01

    Eudragit E (EE)-sodium alginate (SA) polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) were prepared at pH 4 and 5.8 using sodium alginate of high (SAH) and low viscosity (SAL). The optimum EE-SA complexation mass ratio was determined using viscosity measurements. Interactions between EE and SA in PECs were characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Diltiazem hydrochloride (DTZ HCl) tablets were prepared using the prepared EE-SA PECs and their physical mixtures at different ratios as matrices. Tablets were evaluated for swelling characteristics and in vitro drug release. Tablets containing EE-SAH physical mixtures of ratios (1.5:1 and 1:3) as matrices were effective in achieving sustained release of DTZ HCl, where the percent drug released was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased compared to that from tablets either containing the same ratios of EE-SAL physical mixtures or the preformed EE- -SAH and EE-SAL PECs.

  3. A study of selective spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of Itopride hydrochloride and Rabeprazole sodium binary mixture: Resolving sever overlapping spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Heba M.

    2015-02-01

    Itopride hydrochloride (IT) and Rabeprazole sodium (RB) are co-formulated together for the treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Three simple, specific and accurate spectrophotometric methods were applied and validated for simultaneous determination of Itopride hydrochloride (IT) and Rabeprazole sodium (RB) namely; constant center (CC), ratio difference (RD) and mean centering of ratio spectra (MCR) spectrophotometric methods. Linear correlations were obtained in range of 10-110 μg/μL for Itopride hydrochloride and 4-44 μg/mL for Rabeprazole sodium. No preliminary separation steps were required prior the analysis of the two drugs using the proposed methods. Specificity was investigated by analyzing the synthetic mixtures containing the two cited drugs and their capsules dosage form. The obtained results were statistically compared with those obtained by the reported method, no significant difference was obtained with respect to accuracy and precision. The three methods were validated in accordance with ICH guidelines and can be used for quality control laboratories for IT and RB.

  4. Stability indicating high performance thin-layer chromatographic method for simultaneous estimation of pantoprazole sodium and itopride hydrochloride in combined dosage form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deepak Bageshwar; Vineeta Khanvilkar; Vilasrao Kadam

    2011-01-01

    A specific, precise and stability indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method for simultaneous estimation of pantoprazole sodium and itopride hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations was developed and validated. The method employed TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 as the stationary phase. The solvent system consisted of methanol:water:ammonium acetate; 4.0:1.0:0.5 (v/v/v). This system was found to give compact and dense spots for both itopride hydrochloride (Rf value of 0.55__+0.02) and pantoprazole sodium (Rf value of 0.85+0.04). Densitometric analysis of both drugs was carried out in the reflectance- absorbance mode at 289 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed a good linear relationship with R2=0.9988___0.0012 in the concentration range of 100--400 ng for pantoprazole sodium. Also, the linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed a good linear relationship with R2=0.9990_+0.0008 in the concentration range of 200-1200 ng for itopride hydrochloride. The method was validated for specificity, precision, robustness and recovery. Statistical analysis proves that the method is repeatable and selective for the estimation of both the said drugs. As the method could effectively separate the drug from its degradation products, it can be employed as a stability indicating method.

  5. Ertapenem susceptibility of extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selby Edward B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections caused by multiply drug resistant organisms such as extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are increasing. Carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem are the antibiotics commonly used to treat these agents. There is limited clinical data regarding the efficacy of the newest carbapenem, ertapenem, against these organisms. Ertapenem susceptibility of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae clinical isolates were evaluated and compared to imipenem to determine if imipenem susceptibility could be used as a surrogate for ertapenem susceptibility. Methods 100 ESBL isolates (n = 34 E. coli and n = 66 K. pneumoniae collected from 2005–2006 clinical specimens at WRAMC were identified and tested for susceptibility by Vitek Legacy [bioMerieux, Durham, NC]. Ertapenem susceptibility was performed via epsilometer test (E-test [AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden]. Results 100% of ESBL isolates tested were susceptible to ertapenem. 100% of the same isolates were also susceptible to imipenem. Conclusion These results, based on 100% susceptibility, suggest that ertapenem may be an alternative to other carbapenems for the treatment of infections caused by ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Clinical outcomes studies are needed to determine if ertapenem is effective for the treatment of infection caused by these organisms. However, due to lack of resistant isolates, we are unable to conclude whether imipenem susceptibility accurately predicts ertapenem susceptibility.

  6. Effect of low concentration sodium dodecyl sulfate on the electromigration of palonosetron hydrochloride stereoisomers in micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shao-Qiang; Wang, Gui-Xia; Guo, Wen-Bo; Guo, Xu-Ming; Zhao, Min

    2014-05-16

    The effect of low concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the separation of palonosetron hydrochloride (PALO) stereoisomers by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) has been investigated. It was found that the addition of SDS prolongs the migration time and the migration order of four stereoisomers changes regularly with the SDS concentration. Good separations for all the four stereoisomers were achieved at appropriate SDS concentration. The effect of SDS on the electromigration (mobilities) of PALO stereoisomers has been studied, in order to explain its effect on the separation by MEKC. It was found that low concentrations of SDS added into the separation media forms negatively charged complexes with PALO stereoisomers and hence reverses their electromigration direction. Furthermore, the migration order between two enantiomeric pairs is also reversed because the enantiomeric pair with a bigger positive mobility than that of another pair turns to have a bigger negative mobility when bound with SDS. Based on these results, the effect of SDS on the MEKC separation of PALO stereoisomers was elucidated reasonably. The performance of the developed chiral MEKC method was validated by the analysis of a real sample.

  7. RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Cefepime Hydrochloride and Tazobactam Sodium in Bulk and Pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar R. Tamboli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A precise, accurate, sensitive and robust RP-HPLC method was developed for cefepime hydrochloride and tazobactam sodium in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation. Chromatographic separation was achieved on PrincetonSPHER-100 C-18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm at ambient temperature. A binary mobile phase consisting of 25 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer, pH 6.2 and acetonitrile (94 : 6, v/v was delivered through a column at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Measurement was performed at a wavelength 210 nm. The method was linear over the concentration range of 4–24 µg/mL ( for cefepime and 0.5–3.0 µg/mL ( for tazobactam. The percentage content found for cefepime was 101.12 ± 0.49 and for tazobactam was 101.33 ± 1.17 in the pharmaceutical formulation. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, sensitivity and robustness as per ICH Q2 (R1 guideline.

  8. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery: focus on ertapenem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto de Lalla

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Fausto de LallaLibero Docente of Infectious Diseases, University of Milano, Milano, ItalyAbstract: Despite improvement in infection control measures and surgical practice, surgical site infections (SSIs remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In colorectal surgery, perioperative administration of a suitable antimicrobial regimen that covers both anaerobic and aerobic bacteria is universally accepted. In a prospective, double-blind, randomized study ertapenem was recently found to be more effective than cefotetan, a parenteral cephalosporin so broadly used as to be considered as gold standard in the prevention of SSIs following colorectal surgery. In this adequate and well controlled study, the superiority of ertapenem over cefotetan was clearly demonstrated from the clinical and bacteriological points of view. However, data that directly compares ertapenem with other antimicrobial regimen effective in preventing SSIs following colorectal surgery are lacking; furthermore, the possible risk of promotion of carbapenem resistance associated with widespread use of ertapenem prophylaxis as well as the ertapenem effects on the intestinal gut flora are of concern. Further comparative studies of ertapenem versus other widely used prophylactic regimens for colorectal surgery in patients submitted to mechanical bowel preparation versus no preparation as well as further research on adverse events of antibiotic prophylaxis, including emergence of resistance and Clostridium difficile infection, seem warranted.Keywords: colorectal surgery, surgical prophylaxis, ertapenem

  9. Novel spectroscopic methods for determination of Cromolyn sodium and Oxymetazoline hydrochloride in binary mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, Omar; El-Kosasy, A. M.; Magdy, N.; El Zahar, N. M.

    2014-10-01

    New accurate, sensitive and selective spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods were developed and subsequently validated for determination of Cromolyn sodium (CS) and Oxymetazoline HCl (OXY) in binary mixture. These methods include ‘H-point standard addition method (HPSAM) and area under the curve (AUC)' spectrophotometric method and first derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic (FDSFS) method. For spectrophotometric methods, absorbances were recorded at 241.5 nm and 274.9 nm for HPSAM and the wavelength was selected in ranges 232.0-254.0 nm and 216.0-229.0 nm for AUC method, where the concentration was obtained by applying Cramer's rule. For FDSFS method, the first-derivative synchronous fluorescence signal was measured at 290.0 nm, using Δλ = 145.0 nm. The suggested methods were validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and the results revealed that they were precise and reproducible. All the obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported method and there was no significant difference.

  10. Influence of Sodium Alginate on Hypoglycemic Activity of Metformin Hydrochloride in the Microspheres Obtained by the Spray Drying

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Szekalska, Marta; Wróblewska, Magdalena; Sosnowska, Katarzyna; Winnicka, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

      Alginate microspheres with metformin hydrochloride were prepared by the spray drying method in order to improve residence time of drug in the stomach. Nine formulations (F1-F9) with various drug : polymer ratio (1 : 2, 1 : 1, and 2 : 1...

  11. Ertapenem for treatment of osteomyelitis: a case series

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    Johnson Melissa D

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ertapenem is a once-daily broad spectrum carbapenem that is increasingly used to treat polymicrobial osteomyelitis due to diabetic foot and traumatic wound infections. However, limited data exists on ertapenem use for osteomyelitis. This study aimed to characterize outcomes and adverse effects with empiric use of ertapenem for osteomyelitis. Findings A total of 112 patients presenting to Duke, Durham Regional or Durham VA Medical Centers with a suspected diagnosis of osteomyelitis and ertapenem use from 11/2001 to 8/2009 were screened, and 12 subjects met inclusion criteria for the study. Mean age was 60 ± 16 years, 68% were female, 75% were Caucasian, and the most common comorbidities included diabetes (58%, peripheral vascular disease (42%, and history of tobacco use (75%. Over half of the patients presented to a primary care clinic or emergency room greater than six months after the onset of clinical symptoms. Bone culture was obtained for diagnostic guidance in only two cases; and surgical intervention was pursued in three cases. Patients received a mean duration of 34.6 ± 7.8 days of therapy, and in three cases, subsequent suppressive oral antibiotics were given. Six (50% patients met criteria for clinical success, defined as resolution of clinical signs and symptoms of infection such that discontinuation of antibiotics was deemed appropriate at end of ertapenem therapy, without recurrence at one year follow-up. No adverse drug effects were noted. Conclusions In this case series of mostly community-acquired, lower extremity osteomyelitis, bone biopsy was infrequent, and an average six-week course of empiric ertapenem was well-tolerated with curative rates of 50% at one year.

  12. Farmacokinetiek van ertapenem in een doseerregime van driemaal per week bij chronische hemodialysepatiënten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, M.S.; De Man, P.; Rietveld, A.P.; Touw, D.J.; Geerlings, C.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the pharmacokinetics of and the exposure to ertapenem in chronic haemodialysis patients using a thrice-weekly dosage regimen. DESIGN AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 10 patients treated with ertapenem for an infection due to ertapenem-susceptible bacteria. The mi

  13. Pharmacokinetics of ertapenem in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Sander P; van Altena, Richard; Akkerman, Onno W; van Soolingen, Dick; van der Laan, Tridia; de Lange, Wiel C M; Kosterink, Jos G W; van der Werf, Tjip S; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) is becoming more challenging because of increased levels of drug resistance against second-line TB drugs. One promising group of antimicrobial drugs is carbapenems. Ertapenem is an attractive carbapenem for

  14. Glucosamine hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... combination of glucosamine hydrochloride, chondroitin sulfate, and manganese ascorbate. Some evidence suggests that this combination can improve ... combination of glucosamine hydrochloride, chondroitin sulfate, and calcium ascorbate twice daily reduces joint swelling and pain, as ...

  15. Pharmacokinetics of Linezolid and Ertapenem in experimental parapneumonic pleural effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsakis Aristidis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the extent of linezolid and ertapenem penetration into the empyemic fluid using a rabbit model of empyema. Methods An empyema was created via the intrapleural injection of Escherichia coli bacteria (ATCC 35218 into the pleural space of New Zealand white rabbits. After an empyema was verified by thoracocentesis, 24 hours post inoculation, linezolid (10 mg/kg and ertapenem (60 mg/kg were administered intravenously into 10 and 8 infected empyemic rabbits, respectively. Antibiotic levels were determined in samples of pleural fluid and blood serum, collected serially at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours, after administration each of the two antibiotics. Results Linezolid as well as ertapenem penetrate well into the empyemic pleural fluid, exhibiting a slower onset and decline compared to the corresponding blood serum levels. Equilibration between blood serum and pleural fluid compartments seems to occur at 1.5 hours for both linezolid and ertapenem, with peak pleural fluid levels (Cmaxpf of 2.02 ± 0.73 «mu»g/ml and Cmaxpf of 3.74 ± 1.39 «mu»g/ml, correspondingly occurring 2 hours post antibiotics administration and decreasing very slowly thereafter. The serum concentrations for both antibiotics were significantly lower from the corresponding pleural fluid ones during the 8 hours collecting data, with the exception of samples collected at the 1st hour (Cmaxserum of 2.1 ± 1.2 «mu»g/ml for linezolid and Cmaxserum of 6.26 ± 2.98 «mu»g/ml for ertapenem. Conclusion Pleural fluid levels of both antibiotics are inhibitory for common specified pathogens causing empyema.

  16. Observing the Efficacy of Diclofenac Sodium Lidocaine Hydrochloride on Severe Migraine%双氯芬酸钠/盐酸利多卡因治疗中重度偏头痛疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志海

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨双氯芬酸钠/盐酸利多卡因治疗中重度偏头痛的临床疗效.方法:将53例偏头痛患者分为两组:双氯芬酸钠/盐酸利多卡因(奥尔芬)治疗组,阿司匹林治疗组.于治疗前后采用视觉模拟疼痛评分(VAS)测定患者疼痛程度进行疗效比较.结果:双氯芬酸钠/盐酸利多卡因治疗组疗效优于阿司匹林治疗组(p<0.01).结论:双氯芬酸钠/盐酸利多卡因对偏头痛的镇痛程度及起效时间均优于阿司匹林.%Objective: To investigate the clinical treatment of diclofenac sodium / lidocaine hydrochloride on severe migraine. Method: 53 patients with migraine were divided into two groups: diclofenac sodium / lidocaine hydrochloride ( Ao Erfen) treatment group and aspirin treatment group. Visual Analog Pain Score (VAS ) was used to determine the pain degree of the patients before and after treatment, thus to compare their treatment efficacy. Result: Diclofenac sodium / lidocaine hydrochloride group was more effective than aspirin group ( P <0. 01 ). Conclusion: Diclofenac sodium / lidocaine hydrochloride had a better effect than aspirin in terms of pain relief and onset time.

  17. Carbapenem stewardship: does ertapenem affect Pseudomonas susceptibility to other carbapenems? A review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, David P; Carmeli, Yehuda; Crank, Christopher W; Goff, Debra A; Graber, Christopher J; Lima, Ana Lucia L; Goldstein, Ellie J C

    2012-01-01

    The group 2 carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem and, more recently, doripenem) have been a mainstay of treatment for patients with serious hospital infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae and other difficult-to-treat Gram-negative pathogens as well as mixed aerobic/anaerobic infections. When ertapenem, a group 1 carbapenem, was introduced, questions were raised about the potential for ertapenem to select for imipenem- and meropenem-resistant Pseudomonas. Results from ten clinical studies evaluating the effect of ertapenem use on the susceptibility of Pseudomonas to carbapenems have uniformly shown that ertapenem use does not result in decreased Pseudomonas susceptibility to these antipseudomonal carbapenems. Here we review these studies evaluating the evidence of how ertapenem use affects P. aeruginosa as well as provide considerations for ertapenem use in the context of institutional stewardship initiatives.

  18. In vitro antianaerobic activity of ertapenem (MK-0826) compared to seven other compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoellman, Dianne B; Kelly, Linda M; Credito, Kim; Anthony, Lauren; Ednie, Lois M; Jacobs, Michael R; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2002-01-01

    Ertapenem, imipenem, meropenem, ceftriaxone, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, clindamycin, and metronidazole were agar dilution MIC tested against 431 anaerobes. Imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem were the most active beta-lactams (MICs at which 50% of the strains are inhibited [MIC(50)s], 0.125 to 0.25 microg/ml; MIC(90)s, 1.0 to 2.0 microg/ml). Time-kill studies revealed that ertapenem at two times the MIC was bactericidal for 9 of 10 strains after 48 h. The kinetics for other beta-lactams were similar to those of ertapenem.

  19. SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF FEXOFENADINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND MONTELUKAST SODIUM IN BULK DRUG AND MARKETED FORMULATION BY RP-HPLC METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravisankar M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A new simple and precise accurate RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of Montelukast Sodium and Fexofenadine in tablet formulations. The chromatographic separation was performed in Water symmetry C8 (150X4.6mm 5µm and mobile phase 0.05 m potassium di hydrogen ortho phosphate: acetonitrile in the ratio of 35:65 and the pH – 6 adjusted by triethylamine.The flow rate was 1.0ml/min and the wavelength selected for the quantization was 226 nm. The retention time was found to be 2.127 min for Fexofenadine and 5.650 min for Montelukast sodium .The linearity were found to be in the range of 4.8 - 28.8 µg/ml and 0.4 – 2.4 µg/ml for Fexofenadine and Montelukast respectively with the correlation co efficient of 0.999.The mean recoveries for Fexofenadine and Montelukast were 99.85 % and 100.19 % respectively, and relative standard deviation was less than 2%. Precision were performed as per ICH guidelines with the result shows relative standard deviation not more than 2%.The assay value for Fexofenadine and Montelukast were found to be 100.55 % and 100.40 % respectively.

  20. 反相高效液相色谱法测定盐酸倍他司汀氯化钠注射液中主药含量%Content Determination of Betahistine Hydrochloride in Betahistine Hydrochloride Sodium Chloride Injection by RP-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逯小萌

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立测定盐酸倍他司汀氯化钠注射液中盐酸倍他司汀含量的反相高效液相色谱( RP-HPLC )法。方法色谱柱为Thermo-C18柱(250 mm ×4.6 mm,5μm),流动相为0.01 mol/L醋酸钠缓冲液(含0.004 mol/L庚烷磺酸钠,0.2%三乙胺,用冰醋酸调节pH=4.0)-甲醇(70:30),流速为1.0 mL/min,柱温为30℃,检测波长为261 nm。结果盐酸倍他司汀进样量在0.1023~1.0230μg范围内与峰面积呈良好线性关系( r=0.9999),平均回收率为99.61%,RSD=0.21%( n=9)。结论该方法准确度、灵敏度及重复性均较好,可用于盐酸倍他司汀氯化钠注射液中盐酸倍他司汀的含量测定。%Objective To establish an RP-HPLC method for the Content Determination of betahistine hydrochloride in Betahistine Hy-drochloride Sodium Chloride Injection. Methods The chromatographic column was Thermo-C18 column(250 mm × 4. 6 mm,5 μm);the mobile phase was 0. 01 mol/L sodium acetate buffer(containing 0. 004 mol/L heptane sulfonic acid sodium salt,0. 2% triethylamine,regu-lated to pH 4. 0 glacial acetic acid)-methanol(70 :30);the flow rate was 1. 0 mL/min;the column temperature was 30 ℃;the detection wavelength was 261 nm. Results Betahistine hydrochloride showed good linear relationship with the peak area in the range of 0. 102 3-1. 023 00 μg( r=0. 999 9),the average recovery was 99. 61%,RSD=0. 21%( n=9). Conclusion This method is accurate,sensitive and repeatable,and can be used as the content determination of betahistine hydrochloride in Betahistine Hydrochloride Sodium Chloride Injection.

  1. A practical thrice weekly ertapenem dosage regime for chronic hemodialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, M.; De Man, P.; Rietveld, A.; Touw, D.; Geerlings, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ertapenem is a parenteral carbapenem. In patients undergoing hemodialysis a dosage reduction of 50%, as a dose of 0.5 gram once daily, is advised. Hospital admission or specialised home care is needed to administer ertapenem. As these patients are already visiting the hospital 3 times a

  2. Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Methods for the Determination of Fluorometholone in Its Mixtures with Sodium Cromoglycate and Tetrahydrozoline Hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bagary, Ramzia I; Fouad, Marwa A; El-Shal, Manal A; Tolba, Enas H

    2016-07-01

    Two stability-indicating reversed-phase liquid chromatographic methods were developed and validated for the determination of fluorometholone (FLU) in its mixtures with sodium cromoglycate (SCG) and tetrahydrozoline hydrochloride (THZ). The first HPLC method (Method 1) was based on isocratic elution of FLU and SCG along with their alkaline degradation products on a reversed phase C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm id)-ACE Generix 5, using a mobile phase consisting of methanol-water (70 : 30, v/v), pH adjusted to 2.5 using orthophosphoric acid at a flow rate of 1.2 mL min(-1) Quantitation was achieved with UV detection at 240 nm. The second HPLC method (Method 2) was based on isocratic elution of FLU, its alkaline degradation product and THZ on a reversed phase C8 column (250 × 4.6 mm)-ACE Generix 5, using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-50 mM potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (40 : 60, v/v) at a flow rate of 2 mL min(-1) Quantitation was achieved by applying dual-wavelength detection, where FLU and its alkaline degradation product were detected at 240 nm and THZ was detected at 215 nm at ambient temperatures. Linearity, accuracy and precision were found to be acceptable over the concentration range of 5-50 and 10-500 μg mL(-1) for FLU and SCG (Method 1) and over the concentration range of 5-80 and 5-60 μg mL(-1) for FLU and THZ (Method 2), respectively. Besides, the FLU alkaline degradation product was verified using IR, NMR and LC-MS spectroscopy. The two proposed methods could be successfully applied for the routine analysis of the studied drugs either in their pure bulk powders or in their pharmaceutical preparations without any preliminary separation step.

  3. Chemometrics-Assisted UV Spectrophotometric and RP-HPLC Methods for the Simultaneous Determination of Tolperisone Hydrochloride and Diclofenac Sodium in their Combined Pharmaceutical Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohel, Nikunj Rameshbhai; Patel, Bhavin Kiritbhai; Parmar, Vijaykumar Kunvarji

    2013-01-01

    Chemometrics-assisted UV spectrophotometric and RP-HPLC methods are presented for the simultaneous determination of tolperisone hydrochloride (TOL) and diclofenac sodium (DIC) from their combined pharmaceutical dosage form. Chemometric methods are based on principal component regression and partial least-square regression models. Two sets of standard mixtures, calibration sets, and validation sets were prepared. Both models were optimized to quantify each drug in the mixture using the information included in the UV absorption spectra of the appropriate solution in the range 241-290 nm with the intervals λ = 1 nm at 50 wavelengths. The optimized models were successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of these drugs in synthetic mixture and pharmaceutical formulation. In addition, an HPLC method was developed using a reversed-phase C18 column at ambient temperature with a mobile phase consisting of methanol:acetonitrile:water (60:30:10 v/v/v), pH-adjusted to 3.0, with UV detection at 275 nm. The methods were validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, sensitivity, specificity, and robustness in the range of 3-30 μg/mL for TOL and 1-10 μg/mL for DIC. The robustness of the HPLC method was tested using an experimental design approach. The developed HPLC method, and the PCR and PLS models were used to determine the amount of TOL and DIC in tablets. The data obtained from the PCR and PLS models were not significantly different from those obtained from the HPLC method at 95% confidence limit.

  4. In vitro activity of ertapenem versus ceftriaxone against Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with highly diverse ceftriaxone MIC values and effects of ceftriaxone resistance determinants: ertapenem for treatment of gonorrhea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unemo, Magnus; Golparian, Daniel; Limnios, Athena; Whiley, David; Ohnishi, Makoto; Lahra, Monica M; Tapsall, John W

    2012-07-01

    Clinical resistance to the currently recommended extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs), the last remaining treatment options for gonorrhea, is being reported. Gonorrhea may become untreatable, and new treatment options are crucial. We investigated the in vitro activity of ertapenem, relative to ceftriaxone, against N. gonorrhoeae isolates and the effects of ESC resistance determinants on ertapenem. MICs were determined using agar dilution technique or Etest for international reference strains (n = 17) and clinical N. gonorrhoeae isolates (n = 257), which included the two extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains H041 and F89 and additional isolates with high ESC MICs, clinical ESC resistance, and other types of clinical high-level and multidrug resistance (MDR). Genetic resistance determinants for ESCs (penA, mtrR, and penB) were sequenced. In general, the MICs of ertapenem (MIC(50) = 0.032 μg/ml; MIC(90) = 0.064 μg/ml) paralleled those of ceftriaxone (MIC(50) = 0.032 μg/ml; MIC(90) = 0.125 μg/ml). The ESC resistance determinants mainly increased the ertapenem MIC and ceftriaxone MIC at similar levels. However, the MIC ranges for ertapenem (0.002 to 0.125 μg/ml) and ceftriaxone (ceftriaxone-resistant isolates (MIC = 0.5 to 4 μg/ml) had ertapenem MICs of 0.016 to 0.064 μg/ml. Accordingly, ertapenem had in vitro advantages over ceftriaxone for isolates with ceftriaxone resistance. These in vitro results suggest that ertapenem might be an effective treatment option for gonorrhea, particularly for the currently identified ESC-resistant cases and possibly in a dual antimicrobial therapy regimen. However, further knowledge regarding the genetic determinants (and their evolution) conferring resistance to both antimicrobials, and clear correlates between genetic and phenotypic laboratory parameters and clinical treatment outcomes, is essential.

  5. The treatment of diabetic foot infections: focus on ertapenem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Edmonds

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael EdmondsDiabetic Foot Clinic, King’s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London, UKAbstract: Clinically, 3 distinct stages of diabetic foot infection may be recognized: localized infection, spreading infection and severe infection. Each of these presentations may be complicated by osteomyelitis. Infection can be caused by Gram-positive aerobic, and Gramnegative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, singly or in combination. The underlying principles are to diagnose infection, culture the bacteria responsible and treat aggressively with antibiotic therapy. Localized infections with limited cellulitis can generally be treated with oral antibiotics on an outpatient basis. Spreading infection should be treated with systemic antibiotics. Severe deep infections need urgent admission to hospital for wide-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. Clinical and microbiological response rates have been similar in trials of various antibiotics and no single agent or combination has emerged as most effective. Recently, clinical and microbiological outcomes for patients treated with ertapenem were equivalent to those for patients treated with piperacillin/tazobactam. It is also important to judge the need for debridement and surgery, to assess the arterial supply to the foot and consider revascularization either by angioplasty or bypass if the foot is ischemic. It is also important to achieve metabolic control. Thus infection in the diabetic foot needs full multidisciplinary treatment.Keywords: diabetes, foot, infection, antibiotics, ertapenem

  6. Ertapenem-associated neurotoxicity in the Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) population: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ursula C; Fowler, Mallory A

    2017-09-06

    Context Ertapenem, a broad spectrum carbapenem antibiotic, is used often in Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) patients due to increased risk factors for multi-drug resistant (MDR) infections in this population. Neurotoxicity, specifically seizures, due to ertapenem is a known adverse effect and has been described previously. Other manifestations such as delirium and visual hallucinations have rarely been reported, and no literature, to the best of our knowledge, specifically describes these effects solely in the SCI population. Findings Four cases of mental status changes and hallucinations in SCI patients attributed to ertapenem therapy are described. Onset of symptoms began between one and six days following initiation of ertapenem and resolved between two to 42 days following discontinuation. Based on the Naranjo probability scale, a probable relationship exists between the adverse events and ertapenem for three out of the four cases. Possible overestimation of renal function and hypoalbuminemia may be contributing factors to the noted adverse reactions. Conclusion/Clinical Relevance The cases described highlight the importance of recognizing ertapenem-associated hallucinations in SCI patients. The population is particularly vulnerable due to risk factors for MDR infections necessitating ertapenem use, possible overestimation of renal function, and a high prevalence of hypoalbuminemia.

  7. The effect of inorganic cations Ca2+ and Al3+ on the release rate of propranolol hydrochloride from sodium carboxymethylcellulose matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Mohammadi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study: Several methods are available for control release of propranolol hydrochloride (PLH. The aim of the present study was to develop a novel technique to sustain PLH release from matrices. Materials and methods: Matrices of PLH containing sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na CMC and various amounts of the inorganic cations Ca2+ and Al3+ were prepared. Dissolution of the matrices was carried out using the USP apparatus I. Analysis of release data was performed by some model independent and dependent approaches.    Results: The release of PLH was affected by incorporation of different amounts (milliequivalents, meq of Ca2+ and Al3+. When the Ca2+amount increased from 0- 0.375 meq, the fraction of PLH which released within 480 min was augmented from 0.74 to 1 apparently via disintegrating effect of the cation. Al3+in the range 0- 0.125 meq, decreased the fractional release from 0.74 to 0.37 presumably by in situ cross- linking with polymer. Al3+ between 0.125 and 0.5 meq enhanced the release from 0.37 to 1 possibly due to the disintegrating effect. Among model independent metrics, the mean release time (MRT failed to represent the effect of the cations on the release but the release efficiency (RE as well as a suggested mean release rate (MRR correlated well with the experimental release rate. Due to the complexity of the release, the only suitable kinetic model was the Weibull distribution. The minimum and maximum Weibull release rate constants for matrices containing Al3+ were 0.0007-0.017 1/min. The corresponding values for the matrices with Ca2+ were 0.0029-0.0082 1/min. Conclusion: Through careful choice of the amount of Al3+in NaCMC matrices the release of PLH can be controlled at a desired rate. The best model independent approach is MRR and the most accurate model dependent method is Weibull distribution to describe the release data.

  8. Clinical Analysis on the Treatment of Peptic Ulcer by Ranitidine Hydrochloride Tablets Combine Omeprazole Sodium for Injection%雷尼替丁联合奥美拉唑治疗消化性溃疡的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓春

    2015-01-01

    目的:探究消化性溃疡患者采用雷尼替丁联合奥美拉唑综合治疗的效果。方法选取2013年2月~2014年3月收治的40例消化性溃疡患者进行治疗,随机分组,实验组23例患者采用雷尼替丁和奥美拉唑的综合治疗,对照组17例患者选择雷尼替丁的治疗,对比疗效。结果实验组患者治疗有效率为91.30%,复发率为8.7%,对照组治疗有效率为76.47%,复发率为29.4%。两组患者的治疗效果和复发率差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论消化性溃疡患者采用雷尼替丁和奥美拉唑的综合治疗,能够缓解恶心等胃肠道反应,复发率低,效果显著。%Objective To explore the effect on the treatment of peptic ulcer by ranitidine hydrochloride tablets combine omeprazole sodium for injection. Methods We divided the 40 patients into control group(17 cases)and experimental group(23 cases). Al the cases were chosen from February 2013 to March 2014. The patients in the experimental group adopted the ranitidine hydrochloride tablets combine omeprazole sodium for injection treatment and the control group adopted the ranitidine hydrochloride tablets treatment. We compared the difference beteen the two groups. Results The effective rate in the experimental group was 91.30%,and the recurrence rate was 8.7%. The effective rate in the control group was 76.47%,and the recurrence rate was 29.4%. It was in a high treatment efficiency and obvious difference between the two groups and the statistical y significant(P<0.05). Conclusion The patients with peptic ulcer adopt the ranitidine hydrochloride tablets combine omeprazole sodium for injection treatment wil obviously al eviate gastrointestinal reactions such as nausea. The recurrence rate was lower than others.

  9. Erlotinib hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minna, John D; Dowell, Jonathan

    2005-05-01

    Erlotinib hydrochloride (Tarceva; OSI Pharmaceuticals/Genentech/Roche), a member of a class of targeted anticancer drugs that inhibit the activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor, was approved by the US FDA in November 2004 for the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer after failure of at least one prior chemotherapy regimen. It is the first such drug to demonstrate an increase in survival in Phase III trials in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

  10. Association between hypoalbuminemia and mortality among subjects treated with ertapenem versus other carbapenems: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusman, O; Farbman, L; Tredler, Z; Daitch, V; Lador, A; Leibovici, L; Paul, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether ertapenem, being highly protein bound, is less effective than other carbapenems in the presence of hypoalbuminemia. In a prospective cohort study, we included adults with clinically and microbiologically documented infections caused by carbapenem-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae who were hospitalized in a tertiary medical center from March 2010 to September 2012. We tested whether hypoalbuminemia (serum albumin carbapenem drug and the interaction between albumin and the carbapenem. Of 279 individual subjects included, 173 were treated with ertapenem and 106 with I/M. The odds ratio (OR) for 30-day mortality with hypoalbuminemia was 4.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1-10.1) among subjects with ertapenem versus 1.2 (95% CI 0.5-2.70) with I/M (p = 0.02 for difference between groups). In the regression model, the interaction between carbapenem type and albumin levels was significant (p = 0.03); for ertapenem lower albumin levels were associated with increased 30-day mortality (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.19-5.05), while for I/M the change was not significant (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.31-1.41). The model suggests that the risk of death for ertapenem-treated subjects quintupled when albumin was 2 g/dL compared to 4 g/dL. Hypoalbuminemia was associated with mortality significantly more among subjects treated with ertapenem compared to subjects treated with I/M. The effectiveness of current dosing schemes of ertapenem in subjects with significant hypoalbuminemia should be revisited.

  11. Ertapenem Articulating Spacer for the Treatment of Polymicrobial Total Knee Arthroplasty Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Radoicic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs are the primary cause of early failure of the total knee arthroplasty (TKA. Polymicrobial TKA infections are often associated with a higher risk of treatment failure. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of ertapenem loaded spacers in the treatment of polymicrobial PJI. Methods. There were 18 patients enrolled; nine patients with polymicrobial PJI treated with ertapenem loaded articulating spacers were compared to the group of 9 patients treated with vancomycin or ceftazidime loaded spacers. Results. Successful reimplantation with revision implants was possible in 66.67%. Ertapenem spacers were used in 6 cases in primary two-stage procedure and in 3 cases in secondary spacer exchange. Successful infection eradication was achieved in all cases; final reimplantation with revision knee arthroplasty implants was possible in 6 cases. Conclusion. Ertapenem can be successfully used as antimicrobial addition to the cement spacers in two-stage revision treatment of polymicrobial PJIs. However, this type of spacer may also be useful in the treatment of infections caused by monomicrobial extended spectrum beta-lactamases producing gram-negative bacilli. Further clinical studies are required to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ertapenem spacers in the treatment of polymicrobial and monomicrobial PJIs.

  12. Detection of plasmid-mediated IMP-1 metallo-β-lactamase and quinolone resistance determinants in an ertapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae isolate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-rong CHEN; Hong-wei ZHOU; Jia-chang CAI; Rong ZHANG; Gong-xiang CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mechanism of carbapenem resistance and the occurrence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr in a clinical isolate of Enterobacter cloacae. Methods: An ertapenem-resistant E. cloacae ZY106, which was isolated from liquor puris of a female gastric cancer patient in a Chinese hospital, was investigated. Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by agar dilution method. Conjugation experiments, isoelectric focusing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and DNA sequence analyses of plasmid-mediated carbapenemases and quinolone resistance determinants were preformed to confirm the genotype. Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) were examined by urea-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Urea-SDS-PAGE). Results: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MCs) of imipenem, mer-openem, and ertapenem for ZY106 were 2,4, and 16 ug/ml, respectively. Conjugation studies with Escherichia coli resulted in the transfer of significantly reduced carbapenem susceptibility. ZY106 produced IMP-1 metallo-p-lactamase and CTX-M-3 extended-spectrum P-lactamase, and E. coli transconjugant produced IMP-1. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant qnrSI was detected in ZY106. Transfer of the qnrSI-encoding-plasmid into E. coli by conjugation resulted in intermediate resistance to ciprofloxacin in E. coli transconjugant. Urea-SDS-PAGE analysis of OMPs showed that ZY106 lacked an OMP of approximately 38 KDa. Conclusion: It is the first IMP-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae in China and the first report of a clinical isolate that harbors both blaIMP and qnrS genes as well. The blaIMP-1, blaCTX-M-3, and qnrSl are encoded at three different plasmids. IMP-1 combined with the loss of an OMP possibly resulted in ertapenem resistance and reduced imipenem and mero-penem susceptibility in E. cloacae.

  13. HPLC法测定双氯芬酸钠盐酸利多卡因注射液的有关物质%Determination of Diclofenac sodium and Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection related substances by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春盈; 张玉英

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To establish a HPLC method for the determination of Diclofenac sodium and Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection related substances. Methods:The sample was analyzed on a C18(250mm×4.6mm,5μm)column with mobile phase consisting of methonal-4% Acetic Acid (65∶35). The flow rate was 1.0mL/min and the detection wavelength was 245nm. Results: The peaks of Diclofenac, Lidocaine and its impurities were completely separated. The regression equation for related substances was A=22.139 ×C+2.3422,r=0.9995 (n=5). The detection limit was 0.0089%. Conclusions: This method is convenient, quick and reproducible for the quantitative determination of Diclofenac sodium and Lidocaine Hydrochloride Injection in the related substances.%目的:建立HPLC法测定复方制剂双氯芬酸钠盐酸利多卡因注射液中的有关物质。方法:采用反相高效液相色谱法,以自身对照法计算双氯芬酸钠盐酸利多卡因注射液有关物质的量。用C18(250mm×4.6mm,5μm)色谱柱,以甲醇-4%冰醋酸溶液(65∶35)为流动相,流速1.0mL/min,于波长为245nm处检测。结果:双氯芬酸钠与利多卡因杂质完全分离,有关物质的线性回归方程为A=22.139×C+2.3422,相关系数为r=0.9995(n=5);方法的最低检出限为0.0089%。结论:实验证明该法简便快捷,能准确地测定样品的有关物质。

  14. Ertapenem: the new carbapenem 5 years after first FDA licensing for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Olaf; Derendorf, Hartmut; Welte, Tobias

    2007-02-01

    Ertapenem, a parenteral broad-spectrum 1-beta-methyl-carbapenem, was licensed 5 years ago for clinical practice in the US and Europe. The substance has a good in vitro activity against many common aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Its in vitro activity against Enterobacteriaceae carrying plasmid- or chromosomal-mediated beta-lactamases, including AmpC- and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, is especially clinically significant. Advantages concerning in vitro activity and low potential for so-called 'collateral damage', and development of own resistance during therapy, as shown in several randomized, controlled clinical trials, make ertapenem an excellent treatment choice for complicated aerobic and anaerobic mix infections caused by ertapenem-sensitive bacteria. On the other hand, due to its limited activity against Acinetobacter spp., enterococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, it is less suitable for late-onset nosocomial infections. International guidelines recommend the initial empirical use of ertapenem for intra-abdominal infections, skin and skin-structure infections, acute pelvic infections, complicated urinary tract infections and pneumonia (both community-acquired and 'early-onset' nosocomial) in a dose of 1.0 g administered once daily. However, recent results from pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling studies in critically ill patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia and adipose volunteers with a body mass index of > or = 20 kg/m(2) showed that the standard dose of 1.0 g/day may not provide adequate free, protein-unbound drug concentrations in plasma and organ tissues. Therefore, a shortening of the dosage interval or continuous infusion of ertapenem should be considered to ensure optimal free concentrations in these particular populations.

  15. Cartap Hydrochloride Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Abhilash, Kpp; Victor, Peter John

    2016-08-01

    Cartap hydrochloride is a moderately hazardous nereistoxin insecticide that is increasingly used for deliberate self-harm in India. It can cause neuromuscular weakness resulting in respiratory failure. We report a patient with 4% Cartap hydrochloride poisoning who required mechanical ventilation for 36-hours. He recovered without any neurological deficits. We also review literature on Cartap hydrochloride poisoning.

  16. Determination of degree of ionization of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly[1-[4-(3-carboxy-4 hydroxyphenylazo)benzene sulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt] (PAZO) in layer-by-layer films using vacuum photoabsorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Q; Gomes, P J; Ribeiro, P A; Jones, N C; Hoffmann, S V; Mason, N J; Oliveira, O N; Raposo, M

    2013-01-08

    Electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions govern most of the properties of supramolecular systems, which is the reason determining the degree of ionization of macromolecules has become crucial for many applications. In this paper, we show that high-resolution ultraviolet spectroscopy (VUV) can be used to determine the degree of ionization and its effect on the electronic excitation energies of layer-by-layer (LbL) films of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly[1-[4-(3-carboxy-4 hydroxyphenylazo)benzene sulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt] (PAZO). A full assignment of the VUV peaks of these polyelectrolytes in solution and in cast or LbL films could be made, with their pH dependence allowing us to determine the pK(a) using the Henderson-Hasselbach equation. The pK(a) for PAZO increased from ca. 6 in solution to ca. 7.3 in LbL films owing to the charge transfer from PAH. Significantly, even using solutions at a fixed pH for PAH, the amount adsorbed on the LbL films still varied with the pH of the PAZO solutions due to these molecular-level interactions. Therefore, the procedure based on a comparison of VUV spectra from solutions and films obtained under distinct conditions is useful to determine the degree of dissociation of macromolecules, in addition to permitting interrogation of interface effects in multilayer films.

  17. Study of the interaction between glucosamine hydrochloride and sodium dodecylsulphate micelles using conductometric, isothermal calorimetry, zeta-potential titrations, and NMR NOESY

    OpenAIRE

    Alves,Marcos Roberto de Abreu; VIRTUOSO, Luciano Sindra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of an anti-inflammatory agent, the bulky counterion named glucosamine (Gl+), in sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) in 2 ways: 1) by titration of SDS solutions with different concentrations of Gl+; and 2) by titration of Gl+ with SDS solution with concentration close to the critical micellar concentration (cmc) (7.7 mM). In procedure 1, micellisation study by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) showed that the increase in Gl+ concentrat...

  18. Biochemical and Structural Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis beta-Lactamase with the Carbapenems Ertapenem and Doripenem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L Tremblay; F Fan; J Blanchard

    2011-12-31

    Despite the enormous success of {beta}-lactams as broad-spectrum antibacterials, they have never been widely used for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) due to intrinsic resistance that is caused by the presence of a chromosomally encoded gene (blaC) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our previous studies of TB BlaC revealed that this enzyme is an extremely broad-spectrum {beta}-lactamase hydrolyzing all {beta}-lactam classes. Carbapenems are slow substrates that acylate the enzyme but are only slowly deacylated and can therefore act also as potent inhibitors of BlaC. We conducted the in vitro characterization of doripenem and ertapenem with BlaC. A steady-state kinetic burst was observed with both compounds with magnitudes proportional to the concentration of BlaC used. The results provide apparent K{sub m} and k{sub cat} values of 0.18 {micro}M and 0.016 min{sup -1} for doripenem and 0.18 {micro}M and 0.017 min{sup -1} for ertapenem, respectively. FTICR mass spectrometry demonstrated that the doripenem and ertapenem acyl-enzyme complexes remain stable over a time period of 90 min. The BlaC-doripenem covalent complex obtained after a 90 min soak was determined to 2.2 {angstrom}, while the BlaC-ertapenem complex obtained after a 90 min soak was determined to 2.0 {angstrom}. The 1.3 {angstrom} diffraction data from a 10 min ertapenem-soaked crystal revealed an isomerization occurring in the BlaC-ertapenem adduct in which the original {Delta}2-pyrroline ring was tautomerized to generate the {Delta}1-pyrroline ring. The isomerization leads to the flipping of the carbapenem hydroxyethyl group to hydrogen bond to carboxyl O2 of Glu166. The hydroxyethyl flip results in both the decreased basicity of Glu166 and a significant increase in the distance between carboxyl O2 of Glu166 and the catalytic water molecule, slowing hydrolysis.

  19. HPLC法测定氨酚麻美糖浆中苯甲酸钠的含量%Determination of Sodium Benzoate in Paracetamol, Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride and Dextromethorphane Syrup by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜; 卢丹; 王冬

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立氨酚麻美糖浆中苯甲酸钠含量测定方法。方法:采用HPLC法测定,色谱柱为Thermo C18(4.6 mm ×100 mm,2.4μm),流动相为0.05 mol· L-1磷酸二氢钾溶液(用磷酸调节pH值至3.5±0.1)-甲醇(38∶62),检测波长为215 nm,进样量2μL。结果:苯甲酸钠在40.14~281.01μg· mL-1浓度范围内线性关系良好,平均回收率为99.0%( RSD=1.5%)。结论:所建方法专属性好,准确,重复性好,可为氨酚麻美糖浆中有效检测防腐剂苯甲酸钠的含量提供参考。%Objective:To establish an HPLC method for determining the content of sodium benzoate in paracetamol , pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and dextromethorphane syrup.Methods:The determination was performed on a column Thermo C 18 (4.6 mm ×100 mm, 2.4 μm) with a mixture of 0.05 mol· L-1 potassium dihydrogenphosphate solution (adjusted pH with phosphoric acid to 3.5 ±0.1) and methanol (38∶62) as mobile phase, the wavelength was 215 nm and the injection volume was 2μL.Results:A good linearity was obtained in range of 40.14-281.01 μg · mL-1 of sodium benzoate and the average recovery was 99.0%( RSD=1.5%) .Conclu-sion:This method is specific and accurate with good repeatability.It would take a good role in the control of sodium benzoate in their mixture syrup.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of ertapenem in critically ill patients with acute renal failure undergoing extended daily dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Olaf; Hafer, Carsten; Langhoff, Anita; Kaever, Volkhard; Kumar, Vipul; Welte, Tobias; Haller, Hermann; Fliser, Danilo; Kielstein, Jan T

    2009-01-01

    Extended (daily) dialysis (EDD) is an increasingly popular mode of renal replacement therapy in the ICU (intensive care unit) as it combines the advantages of intermittent haemodialysis (IHD) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), i.e. excellent detoxification accompanied by cardiovascular tolerability. The aim of this study was to evaluate pharmacokinetics (PK) of ertapenem, the newest carbapenem with once-daily dosing, in critically ill patients with anuric acute renal failure (ARF) undergoing EDD. In a single-centre, prospective, open-label study six ICU patients with ARF undergoing EDD were treated with 1 g ertapenem given as a single intravenous dose. EDD was performed using a high-flux dialyzer (polysulphone, 1.3 m(2)). Blood and dialysate flow were 160 mL/min, and the length of treatment was 480 min. Plasma samples were collected at different time-points up to 24 h after medication. Drug concentrations were determined by a validated LC-MS method. Free drug concentrations were estimated using a two-class binding site equation. After a single dose of 1000 mg free ertapenem, protein-unbound plasma concentrations exceeded a MIC(90) value of 2 mg/L for >20 h after dosing. The clearance of the tested dialyzer was 38.5 +/- 14.2 mL/min. In contrast to patients undergoing regular IHD, in which a dose reduction is required, our data suggest that in patients treated with EDD a standard dose of ertapenem (1 g/day), i.e. dose for patients without renal failure, is required to maintain adequate plasma drug levels.

  1. Comparative Study of Univariate Spectrophotometry and Multivariate Calibration for the Determination of Levamisole Hydrochloride and Closantel Sodium in a Binary Mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, Omar; Hussien, Emad M; El Kosasy, Amira M; Ahmed, Neven

    2016-07-01

    Six simple, accurate, reproducible, and selective derivative spectrophotometric and chemometric methods have been developed and validated for the determination of levamisole HCl (Lev) either alone or in combination with closantel sodium (Clo) in the pharmaceutical dosage form. Lev was determined by first-derivative, first-derivative ratio, and mean-centering methods by measuring the peak amplitude at 220.8, 243.8, and 210.4 nm, respectively. The methods were linear over the concentration range 2.0-10.0 μg/mL Lev. The methods exhibited a high accuracy, with recovery data within ±1.9% and RSD <1.3% (n = 9) for the determination of Lev in the presence of Clo. Fortunately, Lev showed no significant UV absorbance at 370.6 nm, which allowed the determination of Clo over the concentration range 16.0-80.0 μg/mL using zero-order spectra, with a high precision (RSD <1.5%, n = 9). Furthermore, principal component regression and partial least-squares with optimized parameters were used for the determination of Lev in the presence of Clo. The recovery was within ±1%, with RSD <1.0% (n = 9) and root mean square error of prediction ≤1.0. The proposed methods were validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The proposed methods were used in the determination of Lev and Clo in a binary mixture and a pharmaceutical formulation, with high accuracy and precision.

  2. Routine Ertapenem Prophylaxis for Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Prostate Biopsy does Not Select for Carbapenem Resistant Organisms: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Maxim G; Page, Matthew J; McLachlan, Alice G; Studd, Rodney C; Blackmore, Timothy K

    2017-03-10

    Sepsis after transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy is an increasing problem in this era of rising antibiotic resistance. Although ertapenem prophylaxis has proved effective at our institution to reduce this, it has raised local and regional antimicrobial stewardship concerns. We investigated the possible selective effect of single dose ertapenem prophylaxis on fecal colonization with carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Patients underwent a rectal swab prior to receiving prebiopsy ertapenem prophylaxis. A second swab was obtained at followup 4 to 6 weeks later. Swabs were screened for carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae using an enhanced CDC (Centers for Disease Control) method. Prebiopsy swabs were also screened for extended spectrum β-lactamase producing and ciprofloxacin resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Patients were monitored for post-biopsy sepsis. A total of 326 patients were enrolled in the study. At baseline 6.4% and 9.0% of patients had colonization with extended spectrum β-lactamase producing and ciprofloxacin resistant Enterobacteriaceae, respectively. Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae were not detected at baseline or followup in any patients. Colonization with nonfermentative organisms with intrinsic ertapenem resistance was detected in 29.4% of patients at baseline and followup (p = 1.0). Three cases (0.9%, 95% CI 0.2-2.8) of probable post-biopsy sepsis were identified during the study period. None was bacteremic or required intensive care unit admission. Single dose ertapenem prophylaxis did not appear to have a significant selective effect on fecal colonization with carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae or other ertapenem resistant gram-negative organisms in this outpatient group. It is highly effective prophylaxis for transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. In the right setting ertapenem may represent a useful prophylactic option to prevent post-transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy sepsis. Copyright © 2017

  3. Risk Factors for Resistance to β-Lactam/β-Lactamase Inhibitors and Ertapenem in Bacteroides Bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Janessa M; Avdic, Edina; Tamma, Pranita D; Zhang, Long; Carroll, Karen C; Cosgrove, Sara E

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for the development of resistance to β-lactams/β-lactamase inhibitors (βL/βLIs) and ertapenem among Bacteroides species bacteremia. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of 101 adult patients with Bacteroides species bacteremia at a 1,051-bed tertiary care medical center. The duration of exposure to βL/βLIs (odds ratio [OR], 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 2.31) was the only independent risk factor for resistance. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. 玻璃酸钠注射液联合氨基葡萄糖等药物治疗膝关节骨关节炎的疗效观察%Efficacy of Oral Administration of Glucosamine Hydrochloride Combined with Sodium Hyaluronate for Knee Joint Osteoarthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐汝玺

    2013-01-01

      目的:观察玻璃酸钠联合氨基葡萄糖等药物对膝关节骨性关节炎的治疗效果及不良反应。方法:选择笔者所在医院收治的78例患者,随机分为两组,治疗组口服氨基葡萄糖及抗骨质增生中成药的基础上,进行关节腔内注射玻璃酸钠25 mg,每周1次,连续注射5次后与同期只需口服上述药物的对照组进行疗效评定。结果:注射玻璃酸钠组在痊愈率及总有效率中均明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:玻璃酸钠联合氨基葡萄糖等药物治疗膝关节骨关节炎具有良好效果,无明显不良反应,是一种安全的方法。%  Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of oral administration of glucosamine hydrochloride combined with sodium hyaluronate for knee joint osteoarthritis .Method:78 patients with knee joint osteoarthritis were randomly divided in to group A and group B. In group A patients were treated with glucosamine hydrochloride combined with intra-articular injection of sodium hyaluronate(25 mg/week for five weeks).In group B patients were treated with glucosamine hydrochloride. Therapeutic effect were evaluated. Result:Group A showed better efficacy than group B(P<0.05). Conclusion:The efficacy of oral administration of glucosamine hydrochloride combined with sodium hyaluronate for knee joint osteoarthritis has good efficacy. no obvious bad effect,is a safe and effective technique.

  5. Comparative antimicrobial susceptibility of aerobic and facultative bacteria from community-acquired bacteremia to ertapenem in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fung Chang-Phone

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ertapenem is a once-a-day carbapenem and has excellent activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic, facultative, and anaerobic bacteria. The susceptibility of isolates of community-acquired bacteremia to ertapenem has not been reported yet. The present study assesses the in vitro activity of ertapenem against aerobic and facultative bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with community-acquired bacteremia by determining and comparing the MICs of cefepime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin. The prevalence of extended broad spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL producing strains of community-acquired bacteremia and their susceptibility to these antibiotics are investigated. Methods Aerobic and facultative bacteria isolated from blood obtained from hospitalized patients with community-acquired bacteremia within 48 hours of admission between August 1, 2004 and September 30, 2004 in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Taiwan, were identified using standard procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated by Etest according to the standard guidelines provided by the manufacturer and document M100-S16 Performance Standards of the Clinical Laboratory of Standard Institute. Antimicrobial agents including cefepime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin were used against the bacterial isolates to test their MICs as determined by Etest. For Staphylococcus aureus isolates, MICs of oxacillin were also tested by Etest to differentiate oxacillin-sensitive and oxacillin-resistant S. aureus. Results Ertapenem was highly active in vitro against many aerobic and facultative bacterial pathogens commonly recovered from patients with community-acquired bacteremia (128/159, 80.5 %. Ertapenem had more potent activity than ceftriaxone, piperacillin

  6. 盐酸莫西沙星氯化钠注射液与氟康唑注射液的配伍稳定性考察%Study on Compatible Stability of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride and Sodium Chlorid Injection Mixed with Fluconazole Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 张丽梅

    2011-01-01

    目的 考察盐酸莫西沙星氯化钠注射液与氟康唑注射液的配伍稳定性.方法 分别观察配伍液在室温(20±1)℃下放置8 h内的外观并测定pH变化,用紫外分光光度法测定主药含量.结果 两药配伍后4 h内,外观、pH、含量均无明显变化.结论 盐酸莫西沙星氯化钠注射液与氟康唑注射液在4 h内可以配伍使用.%Objective To observe the compatibility of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride and sodium Chloride Injection with Fluconazole Injec-tion. Methods The change in appearance and pH value of the compatible solution placed at room temperature (20 ± 1) ℃ for 8 h was ob-served, while the content of moxifloxacin and fluconazole was determined by UV spectrophotometry as well. Results There were no signifi-cant changes in appearance, pH value and concentration after the mixture of the two drugs within 4 h. Conclusion Moxifloxacin Hydrochlo-ride and Sodium Chloride Injection can be mixed with Fluconazole Injection for use within 4 h.

  7. Cartap hydrochloride poisoning: A clinical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari K Boorugu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cartap hydrochloride, a nereistoxin analog, is a commonly used low toxicity insecticide. We describe a patient who presented to the emergency department with alleged history of ingestion of Cartap hydrochloride as an act of deliberate self-harm. The patient was managed conservatively. To our knowledge this is the first case report of Cartap hydrochloride suicidal poisoning. Cartap toxicity has been considered to be minimal, but a number of animal models have shown significant neuromuscular toxicity resulting in respiratory failure. It is hypothesized that the primary effect of Cartap hydrochloride is through inhibition of the [ 3 H]-ryanodine binding to the Ca 2+ release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum in a dose-dependent manner and promotion of extracellular Ca 2+ influx and induction of internal Ca 2+ release. This results in tonic diaphragmatic contraction rather than paralysis. This is the basis of the clinical presentation of acute Cartap poisoning as well as the treatment with chelators namely British Anti Lewisite and sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate.

  8. Cartap hydrochloride poisoning: A clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorugu, Hari K; Chrispal, Anugrah

    2012-01-01

    Cartap hydrochloride, a nereistoxin analog, is a commonly used low toxicity insecticide. We describe a patient who presented to the emergency department with alleged history of ingestion of Cartap hydrochloride as an act of deliberate self-harm. The patient was managed conservatively. To our knowledge this is the first case report of Cartap hydrochloride suicidal poisoning. Cartap toxicity has been considered to be minimal, but a number of animal models have shown significant neuromuscular toxicity resulting in respiratory failure. It is hypothesized that the primary effect of Cartap hydrochloride is through inhibition of the [(3)H]-ryanodine binding to the Ca(2+) release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum in a dose-dependent manner and promotion of extracellular Ca(2+) influx and induction of internal Ca(2+) release. This results in tonic diaphragmatic contraction rather than paralysis. This is the basis of the clinical presentation of acute Cartap poisoning as well as the treatment with chelators namely British Anti Lewisite and sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate.

  9. Trifluridine and Tipiracil Hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about trifluridine and tipiracil hydrochloride and a collection of links to more information about the use of this combination drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  10. Changes in antibiotic usage and susceptibility in nosocomial Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas isolates following the introduction of ertapenem to hospital formulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, C J; Hutchings, C; Dong, F; Lee, W; Chung, J K; Tran, T

    2012-01-01

    There is concern that widespread usage of ertapenem may promote cross-resistance to other carbapenems. To analyse the impact that adding ertapenem to our hospital formulary had on usage of other broad-spectrum agents and on susceptibilities of nosocomial Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas isolates, we performed interrupted time-series analyses to determine the change in linear trend in antibiotic usage and change in mean proportion and linear trend of susceptibility pre- (March 2004-June 2005) and post- (July 2005-December 2008) ertapenem introduction. Usage of piperacillin-tazobactam (P=0·0013) and ampicillin-sulbactam (P=0·035) declined post-ertapenem introduction. For Enterobacteriaceae, the mean proportion susceptible to ciprofloxacin (P=0·016) and piperacillin-tazobactam (P=0·038) increased, while the linear trend in susceptibility significantly increased for cefepime (P=0·012) but declined for ceftriaxone (P=0·0032). For Pseudomonas, the mean proportion susceptible to cefepime (P=0·011) and piperacillin-tazobactam (P=0·028) increased, as did the linear trend in susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (P=0·028). Notably, no significant changes in carbapenem susceptibility were observed.

  11. Ertapenem disk performance to predict Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase produced by Gram-negative bacilli isolated in a São Paulo city public hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Lais Pinto de; Carvalho, Fabiana Puerro de; Marques, Alexandre Gimenes; Pereira, Andrea dos Santos; Bortoleto, Renata Puzzo; Martino, Marinês Dalla Valle

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate ertapenem disk performance to predict Klebsiella pneumonie carbapenemase production by Gram-negative bacilli. All Gram-negative bacilli isolated between January 2010 and June 2011 were tested by disk diffusion (Oxoid™) for sensitivity to ertapenem, meropenem and imipenem. Resistant or intermediate sensitivity strains (diameter Gram-negative bacilli were isolated in 708 (23.52%) of them. Zone of inhibition diameter for ertapenem disk was Gram-negative isolates. The PCR assay for blaKPC detected 40 Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing strains. No strains intermediate or resistant to meropenem and imipenem were sensitive to ertapenem. The ertapenem disk presented a positive predictive value of 36% to predict blaKPC and 89% specificity. The resistance of Gram-negative bacilli detected by disk diffusion against ertapenem does not predict Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase production. Other mechanisms, such as production of other betalactamases and porin loss, may be implicated. The need to confirm the presence of the blaKPC is suggested. Therefore, ertapenem was a weak predictor for discriminating strains that produce Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase.

  12. Surface tension of compositions of polyhexametyleneguanidine hydrochloride - surfactants

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    S. Kumargaliyeva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We made up songs bactericidal polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride (metacyde with the surface-active substances - anionic sodium dodecylsulfate, cationic cetylpyridinium bromide, and nonionic Tween-80 and measured the surface tension of water solutions. The study showed that the composition metacyde with surface-active agents have a greater surface activity than the individual components.

  13. ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS IN BARIATRIC SURGERY: a continuous infusion of cefazolin versus ampicillin/sulbactam and ertapenem

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    Álvaro Antônio Bandeira FERRAZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The incidence of surgical site infection in bariatric patients is significant and the current recommendations for antibiotic prophylaxis are sometimes inadequate. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of three prophylactic antibiotic regimens on the incidence of surgical site infection. Methods A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2009 and January 2013 in which 896 Roux-en-Y gastric bypasses were performed to treat obesity. The study compared three groups of patients according to the perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis administered intravenously and beginning at anesthesia induction: Group I consisting of 194 patients treated with two 3-g doses of ampicillin/sulbactam; Group II with 303 patients treated with a single 1-g dose of ertapenem; and Group III with 399 patients treated with a 2-g dose of cefazolin at anesthesia induction followed by a continuous infusion of cefazolin 1g throughout the surgical procedure. The rate of surgical site infection was analyzed, as well as its association with age, sex, preoperative weight, body mass index and comorbidities. Results The rates of surgical site infection were 4.16% in the group treated prophylactically with ampicillin/sulbactam, 1.98% in the ertapenem group and 1.55% in the continuous cefazolin group. Conclusion The prophylactic use of continuous cefazolin in surgeries for morbid obesity shows very promising results. These findings suggest that some prophylactic regimens need to be reconsidered and even substituted by more effective therapies for the prevention of surgical site infections in bariatric patients.

  14. Exposure to ertapenem is possibly associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M J; Block, C S; Moses, A E; Nir-Paz, R

    2014-03-01

    The role of antibiotic exposure in the evolution and emergence of resistance is challenging to assess. We used carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) phenotypes to assess possible factors that are associated with the occurrence and prognosis of such a phenotype and to examine the possible contribution of antibiotic exposure to the evolution of antimicrobial resistance. We conducted a nested case-control study. Cases were defined as patients from whom carbapenem-resistant ureidopenicillin-sensitive PA (CRUS-PA) was isolated; matched controls were PA patients who did not have isolation of CRUS-PA. We analysed potential predictors of CRUS-PA isolation and assessed their clinical significance (mortality and eventual isolation of pan-resistant PA), taking into account antibiotic exposures. We matched 800 case-control pairs. Case patients were more likely to have been exposed to anti-PA carbapenems (OR = 6.9; 95% CI, 2.5-18.6). This finding did not apply to the administration of other antibiotics. The mortality among CRUS-PA patients was similar to that of the controls (HR, 0.8 95%; CI, 0.6-1.1). Subsequent isolation of pan-resistant PA was more frequent among case patients compared with non-pan-resistant controls (p-value resistant PA isolation was increased in ertapenem recipients, only after and not prior to the index specimen date (HR, 1.9, 95%; CI, 1.01-3.4). Therefore we suggest that the CRUS-PA phenotype may represent pan beta-lactam resistance and that antibiotic exposure is associated with evolution of PA resistance phenotypes. We demonstrate a novel association of ertapenem with sequentially appearing PA resistance patterns.

  15. Stability of ranitidine hydrochloride and amino acids in parenteral nutrient solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, L; Parks, R B; Lampasona, V; Mullins, R E

    1985-12-01

    The stability of ranitidine hydrochloride in parenteral nutrient (PN) solutions and the effect of ranitidine hydrochloride on the amino acids in the PN solutions were studied. Six PN solutions (three each with amino acid contents of 2.125 and 4.25%) were prepared. Each PN solution also contained dextrose 25%, electrolytes, trace elements, vitamins, and heparin sodium. Ranitidine hydrochloride injection was added to four of the PN samples. Of the final samples, two contained no ranitidine, two contained ranitidine hydrochloride 50 micrograms/mL, and two contained ranitidine hydrochloride 100 micrograms/mL. Admixtures of ranitidine hydrochloride at the two concentrations in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were also prepared. Samples were observed for color change and tested for pH during storage at room temperature. Concentrations of amino acids were measured after 24 hours in samples without ranitidine and in samples containing ranitidine hydrochloride 100 micrograms/mL. Ranitidine hydrochloride content was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography at 12, 24, and 48 hours. No visual changes or pH changes occurred by 24 hours. All PN solutions became darker by 48 hours. The presence of ranitidine hydrochloride did not substantially affect amino acid concentrations. At 24 hours, at least 90% of the initial ranitidine concentrations remained in all samples. In three of the four PN samples at 48 hours, less than 90% of initial ranitidine concentrations remained. Ranitidine hydrochloride in concentrations of 50 and 100 micrograms/mL in parenteral nutrient solutions containing 4.25 and 2.125% crystalline amino acids is stable for 24 hours at room temperature. Under these conditions, concentrations of the amino acids contained in the PN solutions were not affected by the addition of ranitidine hydrochloride.

  16. Predictors of ertapenem therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in hospitalized adults: the importance of renal insufficiency and urinary pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, B A; Giuga, J; Gerson, S

    2016-04-01

    In hospitalized adults acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) and catheter associated bacteriuria (CAB) may be treated with oral antibiotics. With AUC or CAB due to extended spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) + Gram negative bacilli (GNB) physicians often use intravenous therapy, e.g., ertapenem. We reviewed our recent experience in hospitalized adults with AUC and CAB treated with ertapenem. Therapeutic efficacy of ertapenem was assessed by decreased pyuria/bacteriuria, and elimination of the uropathogen. The effectiveness of ertapenem in the presence of renal insufficiency (CrCl 3 days) in patients with decreased renal function and alkaline urinary pH. We reviewed 45 hospitalized adults with AUC or CAB to determine if renal insufficiency and or alkaline urinary pH affected ertapenem efficacy. In the 33 adult hospitalized patients with AUC and 12 with CAB, we found that ertapenem was consistently effective in eliminating the GNB bacteriuria. In hospitalized adults, the presence of renal insufficiency and acid urine, bacteriuria was eliminated in  3 days which has not been previously reported.

  17. The determination of resistance to ertapenem and other antibiotics with ESBL product of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from urine samples

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    Aytekin Çıkman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Enterobacteriaceae is the most frequently isolated bacteria in urinary system infections. This study investigated the antibiotic susceptibility including ertapenem and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production of bacteria belons to Enterobacteriaceae isolated from the urinary culture. Methods: Enterobacteriaceae strains, identified by using conventional methods in our laboratory between January 2012 and March 2012, were included the study. The antibiotic susceptibilities were investigated with the KirbyBauer disc diffusion method and the ESBL productions were examined with the double-disc synergy method in accordance with the suggestions of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results:In the study, a total of 148 strains were isolated (117 E.coli, 23 Klebsiella spp. and 4 Proteus spp. and 4 Enterobacter spp.. While 26 of E.coli strains (22%, and 8 of Klebsiella spp. strains (35% were considered ESBL positive, no ESBL roduction was determined for Proteus spp. and Enterobacter spp. strains. All the isolated strains were found to be susceptible to ertapenem and meropenem. Amikacin, piperacillin-tazobactam and cefoxitin were determined to be other antibiotics with the greatest effect on Enterobacteriaceae species. Conclusion: Ertapenem was observed to be alternative in the treatment of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from the urinary culture. Carbapenems in particular, amikacin, piperacillin-tazobactam and cefoxitin were found to be the most effective antibiotics in the treatment of this infection.

  18. Development of an UPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of antibiotic ertapenem on dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Marca, Giancarlo; Giocaliere, Elisa; Villanelli, Fabio; Malvagia, Sabrina; Funghini, Silvia; Ombrone, Daniela; Filippi, Luca; De Gaudio, Marina; De Martino, Maurizio; Galli, Luisa

    2012-03-05

    Ertapenem (Invanz) is a newly developed carbapenem β-lactam antimicrobial agent. The drug usage in pediatric age needs an accurate drug monitoring for effective patient management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of dried blood spot (DBS) specimens to measure ertapenem concentration during treatment. The analysis was performed by UPLC-MS/MS operating in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The calibration curve in matrix was linear in the concentration range of 0.5-100 mg/L with correlation coefficient value higher than 0.997. Performance parameters of this method like lower limit of detection (LLOD, 0.2 mg/L), lower limit of quantification (LLOQ, 0.5 mg/L), matrix effect (20%), intra- and inter-day imprecision (CV within than 15%) and accuracy (between 94 and 155%) of drug concentrations have been evaluated. The drug stability at different temperatures was tested for one month, to evaluate the risks of sample delivery at different climatic conditions. The reported method allows now ertapenem analysis and offers many advantages for patients including the possibility of collecting samples at home. This new assay is both precise and accurate and is especially suitable for therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies in neonates in whom obtaining larger blood samples is not convenient or possible.

  19. A comparative study of the clinical efficacy of ambroxol hydrochloride combined with hydrocortisone sodium succinate in the treatment of infantile bronchitis%盐酸氨溴索与氢化可的松琥珀酸钠治疗毛细支气管炎的临床疗效对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许焕胜

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the ambroxol hydrochloride combined with hydrocortisone sodium succinate in treatment of children with bronchiolitis.Methods 120 children with bronchitis in our hospital from January 2014 to September 2015 were selected, divided into a control group and an observation group according to the random number table method. The two groups were treated with conventional bronchitis treatment and nursing, the control group was treated with hydrocortisone sodium succinate treatment, the observation group with ambroxol hydrochloride in the treatment of choice. After treatment, the clinical effect and the clinical symptoms and time of bronchitis symptoms disappeared between two groups were compared.Results Patients in the observation group after the atomization inhalation of ambroxol hydrochloride, the clinical effective rate was 75%, which was significantly higher than that in the control group, the bronchitis curative effect rate was 40%, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Observation group in children with bronchiolitis related clinical symptoms or symptoms such as shortness of breath, hold wheezing, wet rales, cough disappeared time were significantly shorter than that in the control group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion Inhalation of ambroxol hydrochloride in the treatment of infantile bronchitis has better clinical efficacy, can effectively shorten the bronchitis associated symptoms and signs, safe and effective, worthy of clinical application.%目的:探讨盐酸氨溴索与氢化可的松琥珀酸钠在治疗毛细支气管炎的临床疗效。方法选取我院2014年1月~2015年9月收治的毛细支气管炎患者共120例,按照随机数字表法分为对照组与观察组,两组患者均接受常规支气管炎治疗与护理,对照组患儿接受氢化可的松琥珀酸钠治疗,观察组患儿选择盐酸氨溴索治疗。治疗结束后比较两组患者治疗毛细支

  20. 氨基葡萄糖片联合玻璃酸钠注射液治疗膝关节骨性关节炎的临床疗效分析%Clinical effect of glucosamine hydrochloride combined with sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎爱芬; 何伟平; 何志雄

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨氨基葡萄糖片联合玻璃酸钠注射液治疗膝关节骨性关节炎的临床疗效.方法 选择我院于2012年3月至2013年9月收治的膝关节骨性关节炎的患者142例,随机分为A、B、C三组,其中A组患者采用玻璃酸钠注射液治疗,B组采用氨基葡萄糖片治疗,C组患者采用玻璃酸钠注射液联合氨基葡萄糖片治疗,综合比较三组患者临床治疗效果.结果 治疗后A组疼痛改善(1.2±0.4)分、B组改善(1.1±0.3)分、C组改善(1.9±0.7)分,C组联合用药疼痛改善效果明显优于A、B组单独用药(P<0.05),三组患者在疗效持续时间、疗效起效时间、关节消肿时间以及治疗前后运动功能评分差值比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).而联合用药的C组患者各项临床指标优于单独用药的患者(P<0.05).通过综合考察患者肢体活动度、压痛、活动痛、休息痛、肿痛等五个方面,提示三组患者临床治疗效果差异较大(u>ua,P< 0.05),C组治疗效果远优于单独用药的A组及B组(P<0.05).结论 玻璃酸钠注射液在改善关节肿胀、功能活动以及维持药效等方面效果显著,而氨基葡萄糖对于改善关节疼痛和关节受限等方面有一定效果,联合使用两者能够迅速减缓膝关节骨性关节炎临床症状,效果持久,值得临床推广应用.%Objective To investigate the clinical effect of glucosamine hydrochloride combined with sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis.Methods 142 cases of knee osteoarthritis in our hospital from March 2012 to September 2013 were randomly divided into group A,group B and group C.Group A was treated with sodium hyaluronate,group B was treated with glucosamine hydrochloride,group C was treated with sodium hyaluronate and glucosamine hydrochloride.The clinical efficacy was compared after treatment.Results Pain relief improvement in group A was (1.2 ± 0.4),(1.1 ± 0.3) in group B,(1.9 ± 0.7) in group C

  1. Interaction between lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and various irrigants: A nuclear magnetic resonance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidhya, Nirmal; Karthikeyan, Balasubramanian Saravana; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Abarajithan, Mohan; Nithyanandan, Sivasankaran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Interaction between local anesthetic solution, lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline), and root canal irrigants such as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), and chlorhexidine (CHX) has not been studied earlier. Hence, the purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the chemical interaction between 2% lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and commonly used root canal irrigants, NaOCl, EDTA, and CHX. Materials and Methods: Samples were divided into eight experimental groups: Group I-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/3% NaOCl, Group II-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/17% EDTA, Group III- Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/2% CHX, Group IV-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/3% NaOCl, Group V-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/17% EDTA, Group VI-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/2% CHX, and two control groups: Group VII-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/deionized water and Group VIII-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/deionized water. The respective solutions of various groups were mixed in equal proportions (1 ml each) and observed for precipitate formation. Chemical composition of the formed precipitate was then analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and confirmed with diazotation test. Results: In groups I and IV, a white precipitate was observed in all the samples on mixing the respective solutions, which showed a color change to reddish brown after 15 minutes. This precipitate was then analysed by NMR spectroscopy and was observed to be 2,6-xylidine, a reported toxic compound. The experimental groups II, III, V, and VI and control groups VII and VIII showed no precipitate formation in any of the respective samples, until 2 hours. Conclusion: Interaction between lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and NaOCl showed precipitate formation containing 2,6-xylidine, a toxic compound

  2. Comparison of ertapenem and ceftriaxone therapy for acute pyelonephritis and other complicated urinary tract infections in Korean adults: a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae Won; Peck, Kyong Ran; Chung, Moon Hyun; Lee, Jin Seo; Park, Yoon Soo; Kim, Hyo Youl; Lee, Mi Suk; Kim, Jung Yeon; Yeom, Joon Sup; Kim, Min Ja

    2012-05-01

    The efficacy and safety of ertapenem, 1 g once daily, were compared with that of ceftriaxone, 2 g once daily, for the treatment of adults with acute pyelonephritis (APN) and complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs) in a prospective, multicenter, double-blinded, randomized study. After ≥ 3 days of parenteral study therapy, patients could be switched to an oral agent. Of 271 patients who were initially stratified by APN (n = 210) or other cUTIs (n = 61), 66 (48.9%) in the ertapenem group and 71 (52.2%) in the ceftriaxone group were microbiologically evaluable. The mean duration of parenteral and total therapy, respectively, was 5.6 and 13.8 days for ertapenem and 5.8 and 13.8 days for ceftriaxone. The most common pathogen was Escherichia coli. At the primary efficacy endpoint 5-9 days after treatment, 58 (87.9%) patients in the ertapenem group and 63 (88.7%) in the ceftriaxone had a favorable microbiological response. When compared by stratum and severity, the outcomes in the two groups were equivalent. The frequency and severity of drug-related adverse events were generally similar in both treatment groups. The results indicate that ertapenem is highly effective and safe for the treatment of APN and cUTIs.

  3. Ecotoxicological assessment of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine hydrochloride and the surfactant dodecyl sodium sulfate after their submission to ionizing radiation treatment; Avaliacao ecotoxicologica do farmaco cloridrato de fluoxetina e do surfactante dodecil sulfato de sodio quando submetidos a tratamento por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Dymes Rafael Alves dos

    2011-07-01

    The use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products and the consequent and continuous input of this substances in the environment generates an increasing need to investigate the presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat effluents containing such substances. Fluoxetine hydrochloride is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive disorders and anxiety. As the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate is present in many cleaning and personal care products. The present study aimed on assessing the acute toxicity of fluoxetine hydrochloride, sodium dodecyl sulfate and the mixture of both to the aquatic organisms Hyalella azteca, Daphnia similis and Vibrio ficheri. Reducing the toxicity of fluoxetine and the mixture after treatment with ionizing radiation from industrial electron beam accelerator has also been the focus of this study. For Daphnia similis the average values of CE50-4{sub 8h} found for the non-irradiated drug, surfactant and mixture were 14.4 %, 9.62 % and 13.8 %, respectively. After irradiation of the substances, the dose 5 kGy proved itself to be the most effective dose for the treatment of the drug and the mixture as it was obtained the mean values for CE50{sub 48h} 84.60 % and > 90 %, respectively. For Hyalella azteca the acute toxicity tests were performed for water column with duration of 96 hours, the mean values for CE50{sub 96h} found for the drug, the surfactant and the mixture non-irradiated were 5.63 %, 19.29 %, 6.27 %, respectively. For the drug fluoxetine and the mixture irradiated with 5 kGy, it was obtained 69.57 % and 77.7 %, respectively. For Vibrio ficheri the acute toxicity tests for the untreated drug and the drug irradiated with 5 kGy it was obtained CE50{sub 15min} of 6.9 % and 32.88 % respectively. These results presented a reduction of the acute toxicity of the test-substances after irradiation. (author)

  4. Ertapenem use and antimicrobial resistance to group 2 carbapenems in Gram-negative infections: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falagas, Matthew E; Tansarli, Giannoula S; Kapaskelis, Anastasios; Vardakas, Konstantinos Z

    2013-01-01

    The authors sought to evaluate the impact of ertapenem use on the resistance of Gram-negative bacteria (in general and in specific species) to group 2 carbapenems. PubMed and Scopus databases were systematically searched. Eight studies were included; all reported on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and four reported on Enterobacteriaceae. Five studies did not show any difference in group 2 carbapenem resistance for P. aeruginosa, while three reported a significant decline after ertapenem introduction. Three studies did not show any difference in group 2 carbapenem resistance between the compared periods for Enterobacteriaceae and one study did not present a statistical analysis. In conclusion, the currently available data suggest that ertapenem use does not affect the resistance of Gram-negative bacteria to group 2 carbapenems.

  5. Ertapenem-Containing Double-Carbapenem Therapy for Treatment of Infections Caused by Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cprek, Jessica B; Gallagher, Jason C

    2015-11-09

    We describe outcomes of patients with infections with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) who received ertapenem-containing double-carbapenem therapy (ECDCT). Clinical success was observed in 7/18 (39%) patients overall: bloodstream infections, 3/7 (43%); pneumonia, 1/5 (20%); intraabdominal infections, 0/2 (0%); urinary tract infections, 2/3 (67%); and a skin and skin structure infection, 1/1 (100%). Microbiologic success was observed in 11/14 (79%) evaluable patients; 5/18 (28%) patients died. ECDCT may be effective for CRKP infections with limited treatment options.

  6. Comparison of Ertapenem and Ceftriaxone Therapy for Acute Pyelonephritis and Other Complicated Urinary Tract Infections in Korean Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter Trial

    OpenAIRE

    PARK, DAE WON; Peck, Kyong Ran; Chung, Moon Hyun; Lee, Jin Seo; Park, Yoon Soo; Kim, Hyo Youl; Lee, Mi Suk; Kim, Jung Yeon; Yeom, Joon Sup; Kim, Min Ja

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of ertapenem, 1 g once daily, were compared with that of ceftriaxone, 2 g once daily, for the treatment of adults with acute pyelonephritis (APN) and complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs) in a prospective, multicenter, double-blinded, randomized study. After ≥ 3 days of parenteral study therapy, patients could be switched to an oral agent. Of 271 patients who were initially stratified by APN (n = 210) or other cUTIs (n = 61), 66 (48.9%) in the ertapenem group an...

  7. Fluoroquinolone Resistance Mechanisms and population structure of Enterobacter cloacae non-susceptible to Ertapenem in North-Eastern France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eGuillard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroquinolone (FQ agents are a potential resort to treat infection due to Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum β-lactamase and susceptible to FQ. In a context of increase of non-susceptibility to carbapenems among Enterobacteriaceae, we characterized FQ resistance mechanisms in 75 Enterobacter cloacae isolates non-susceptible to ertapenem in North-Eastern France in 2012 and describe the population structure by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST.Among them, 14.7% (12/75 carried a carbapenemase-encoding gene. Except one isolate producing VIM-1, the carbapenemase-producing isolates carried the well-known IncL/M pOXA48a plasmid. Most of the isolates (59/75 harbored at least a FQ-R determinant. qnr genes were predominant (40%, 30/75. The MLST study revealed that E. cloacae isolates’ clonality was wide (24 different STs. The more widespread STs were ST74, ST101, ST110, ST114 and ST133. Carbapenem MICs were higher for E. cloacae ST74 than for other E. cloacae isolates. PMQR determinants were more often observed in E. cloacae ST74 isolates. These findings showed that (i pOXA-48a is spreading in North-Eastern France, (ii qnr is preponderant in E. cloacae, (iii E. cloacae comprised a large amount of lineages spreading in North-Eastern France and (iv FQ as an alternative to β-lactams to treat ertapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae are compromised.

  8. Susceptibility Testing of Antibiotics That Degrade Faster than the Doubling Time of Slow-Growing Mycobacteria : Ertapenem Sterilizing Effect versus Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srivastava, Shashikant; van Rijn, Sander P.; Wessels, A. Mireille A.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.; Gumbo, Tawanda

    2016-01-01

    Drug susceptibility tests (DSTs) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis require at least 7 days of incubation. Drugs that are unstable at 37 degrees C, such as ertapenem, are likely to be degraded before killing or inhibiting slow-growing bacteria. This would alter the MICs of these drugs, including ertapen

  9. 21 CFR 582.5676 - Pyridoxine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pyridoxine hydrochloride. 582.5676 Section 582.5676 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5676 Pyridoxine hydrochloride. (a) Product. Pyridoxine hydrochloride....

  10. RP-HPLC estimation of imipramine hydrochloride and diazepam in tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Srikantha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous determination of imipramine hydrochloride and diazepam in pharmaceutical formulations. The elution was done in isocratic mode utilizing a mobile phase consisting of methanol:water:0.1M sodium acetate (30:50:20 v/v/v on Chromosil C18 column with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and with detection at 243 nm. The measured retention time was 3.33±0.02 min for imipramine hydrochloride and 4.64±0.02 min for diazepam. Linearity was measured in the range 25-150 μg/ml for imipramine hydrochloride (r 2 =0.999 and in the range 5-30 μg/ml for diazepam (r 2 =0.9994, respectively. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.03 and 0.1 μg/ml for imipramine hydrochloride and 0.02 and 0.07 μg/ml for diazepam. Satisfactory validation was also obtained from recovery (100.95-101.52% for imipramine hydrochloride and 99.47-100.33% for diazepam studies, intraday and interday precision (<2% and robustness results. The reported method was the first study of these drugs in combination and could be employed for routine quantitative determination of imipramine hydrochloride and diazepam in tablets.

  11. Antibiotic expected effectiveness and cost under real life microbiology: evaluation of ertapenem and ceftriaxone in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia for elderly patients in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grau S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Santiago Grau,1 Virginia Lozano,2 Amparo Valladares,3 Rafael Cavanillas,4 Yang Xie,5 Gonzalo Nocea3 1Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain; 2Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Iberia, Madrid, Spain; 3Outcomes Research Merck Sharp and Dohme Ltd, Madrid, Spain; 4Medical Affairs, Merck Sharp and Dohme Ltd, Madrid, Spain; 5Global Health Outcomes, Merck Sharp and Dohme Ltd, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA Background: Clinical efficacy of antibiotics may be affected by changes in the susceptibility of microorganisms to antimicrobial agents. The purpose of this study is to assess how these changes could affect the initial efficacy of ertapenem and ceftriaxone in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP in elderly patients and the potential consequences this may have in health care costs. Methods: Initial efficacy in elderly was obtained from a combined analysis of two multicenter, randomized studies. An alternative scenario was carried out using initial efficacy data according to the pneumonia severity index (PSI. Country-specific pathogens distribution was obtained from a national epidemiological study, and microbiological susceptibilities to first- and second-line therapies were obtained from Spanish or European surveillance studies. A decision analytic model was used to compare ertapenem versus ceftriaxone for CAP inpatient treatment. Inputs of the model were the expected effectiveness previously estimated and resource use considering a Spanish national health system perspective. Outcomes include difference in proportion of successfully treated patients and difference in total costs between ertapenem and ceftriaxone. The model performed one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results: First-line treatment of CAP with ertapenem led to a higher proportion of successfully treated patients compared with ceftriaxone in Spain. One-way sensitivity analysis showed that length of stay was the key parameter of the model. Probabilistic

  12. Compatibility and stability of ranitidine hydrochloride with six cephalosporins during simulated y-site administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, K; Kambara, M; Mizuno, M; Okuda, J; Gill, M A; Nishida, M

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine the visual compatibility and stability of ranitidine hydrochloride in admixtures during simulated Y-site administration with six individual cephalosporins: ceftizoxime sodium, cefuzonam sodium, cefoperazone sodium, cefmenoxime hydrochloride, moxalactam disodium and flomoxef sodium. Dilutions of ranitidine hydrochloride 1 mg (as the free base)/mL were prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Two milliliters of the ranitidine solution (1mg/mL) was mixed with 2mL of each cephalosporin (20 mg/ml) in 10 mL glass test tubes. Concentrations of each drug were determined by stability-indicationg high-performance liquid chromatographic assay methods following zero, one, two, and four hours after mixing. All six cephalosporins retained greater than 95% of their original concentrations for four hours in the admixture with ranitidine. Ranitidine retained greater than 95% of its original concentration for four hours in the admixture with four of the tested cephalosporins and apporximately 90% with moxalactam and flomoxef. Solutions containing ranitidine may be coadministered with solutions either ceftizoxime, cefuzonam, cefoperazone or cefmenoxime via Y-injection site over four hours. While the ranitidine concentration may be reduced to near 90% after four hours with moxalactam and flomoxef, the tested antibiotics were not affected in the presence of ranitidine over four hours.

  13. Pharmaceutical development of an amorphous solid dispersion formulation of elacridar hydrochloride for proof-of-concept clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, E; Schellens, J H M; Beijnen, J H; Nuijen, B

    2017-04-01

    A novel tablet formulation containing an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) of elacridar hydrochloride was developed with the purpose to resolve the drug's low solubility in water and to conduct proof-of-concept clinical studies. Elacridar is highly demanded for proof-of-concept clinical trials that study the drug's suitability to boost brain penetration and bioavailability of numerous anticancer agents. Previously, clinical trials with elacridar were performed with a tablet containing elacridar hydrochloride. However, this tablet formulation resulted in poor and unpredictable absorption which was caused by the low aqueous solubility of elacridar hydrochloride. Twenty four different ASDs were produced and dissolution was compared to crystalline elacridar hydrochloride and a crystalline physical mixture. The formulation with highest dissolution was characterized for amorphicity. Subsequently, a tablet was developed and monitored for chemical/physical stability for 12 months at +15-25 °C, +2-8 °C and -20 °C. The ASD powder was composed of freeze dried elacridar hydrochloride-povidone K30-sodium dodecyl sulfate (1:6:1, w/w/w), appeared fully amorphous and resulted in complete dissolution whereas crystalline elacridar hydrochloride resulted in only 1% dissolution. The ASD tablets contained 25 mg elacridar hydrochloride and were stable for at least 12 months at -20 °C. The ASD tablet was considered feasible for proof-of-concept clinical studies and is now used as such.

  14. Ertapenem versus ceftriaxone followed by appropriate oral therapy for treatment of complicated urinary tract infections in adults: results of a prospective, randomized, double-blind multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomera, Kevin M; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Reyna, Oscar G Pamo; Jiang, Qi; Wimmer, Wendy M; Woods, Gail L; Gesser, Richard M

    2002-09-01

    The efficacy and safety of intravenous (i.v.) ertapenem (1 g once a day) with the option to switch to an oral agent for treatment of adults with complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) were compared with that of i.v. ceftriaxone (1 g daily) with the same oral switch option in a multicenter, double-blind, prospective, randomized study. At entry, 592 patients were assigned to one of two strata: acute pyelonephritis or other complicated UTI without acute pyelonephritis. After a minimum of 3 days, patients could be switched to an oral antimicrobial agent. A total of 159 patients in the ertapenem group and 171 patients in the ceftriaxone group were microbiologically evaluable. Approximately 95% of patients in each treatment group were switched to oral therapy. The most common pathogens were Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. At the primary efficacy endpoint 5 to 9 days after treatment, 91.8% of patients who received ertapenem and 93.0% of those who received ceftriaxone had a favorable microbiological response (95% confidence interval for the difference, adjusting for strata, -7.6 to 5.1%), indicating that outcomes in the two treatment groups were equivalent. Microbiological success rates for the two treatment groups were similar when compared by stratum and also by severity of infection. The frequency and severity of drug-related adverse events were generally similar in both treatment groups. In this study, ertapenem was as effective as ceftriaxone for the initial treatment of complicated UTIs in adults, was generally well tolerated, and had a similar overall safety profile.

  15. Randomized controlled trial of piperacillin-tazobactam, cefepime and ertapenem for the treatment of urinary tract infection caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yu Bin; Lee, Jacob; Kim, Young Keun; Lee, Seung Soon; Lee, Jeong-A; Kim, Hyo Youl; Uh, Young; Kim, Han-Sung; Song, Wonkeun

    2017-06-07

    Due to limited therapeutic options, the spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have become a major public health concern. We conducted a prospective, randomized, open-label comparison of the therapeutic efficacy of piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ), cefepime, and ertapenem in febrile nosocomial urinary tract infection with ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC). This study was conducted at three university hospitals between January 2013 and August 2015. Hospitalized adult patients presenting with fever were screened for healthcare-associated urinary tract infection (HA-UTI). When ESBL-EC was solely detected and susceptible to a randomized antibiotic in vitro, the case was included in the final analysis. Participants were treated for 10-14 days with PTZ, cefepime, or ertapenem. A total of 66 participants were evenly assigned to the PTZ and ertapenem treatment groups. After the recruitment of six participants, assignment to the cefepime treatment group was stopped because of an unexpectedly high treatment failure rate. The baseline characteristics of these participants did not differ from participants in other treatment groups. The clinical and microbiological response to PTZ treatment was estimated to be 94% and was similar to the response to ertapenem treatment. The efficacy of cefepime was 33.3%. In the cefepime group, age, Charlson comorbidity index, genotype, and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) did not significantly affect the success of treatment. Similarly, genotype seemed to be irrelevant with respect to clinical outcome in the PTZ group. Expired cases tended to involve septic shock with a high Charlson comorbidity index and high MIC. Results from this study suggest that PTZ is effective in the treatment of urinary tract infection caused by ESBL-EC when the in vitro test indicates susceptibility. In addition, cefepime should not be used as an alternative treatment for urinary tract infection caused by ESBL-EC. The trial was registered with

  16. Impact of ertapenem on antimicrobial resistance in a sentinel group of Gram-negative bacilli: a 6 year antimicrobial resistance surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Osorio, Carlos A; Sanchez-Martinez, Cesar O; Araujo-Melendez, Javier; Criollo, Elia; Macias-Hernandez, Alejandro E; Ponce-de-Leon, Alfredo; Ponce-de-Leon, Sergio; Sifuentes-Osornio, Jose

    2015-03-01

    To determine the association between ertapenem and resistance of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex to different antimicrobials while adjusting for relevant hospital factors. This was a retrospective time-series study conducted at a tertiary care centre from September 2002 to August 2008. The specific impact of ertapenem on the resistance of these Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) was assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, adjusting for the average length of stay, rate of hospital-acquired infections and use of 10 other antimicrobials, including type 2 carbapenems. Unadjusted analyses revealed significant increases over the duration of the study in the number of GNB resistant to meropenem/imipenem among 1000 isolates each of E. coli (0.46 ± 0.22, P  0.05) with changes in resistance for any pathogen/antimicrobial combination. After controlling for confounders, ertapenem was not associated with changes in resistance in a group of sentinel GNB, although significant variations in resistance to different antimicrobials were observed in the unadjusted analyses. These results emphasize the importance of implementation of local resistance surveillance platforms and stewardship programmes to combat the global emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Stability of cefozopran hydrochloride in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Przemysław; Skibiński, Robert; Paczkowska, Magdalena; Garbacki, Piotr; Talaczyńska, Alicja; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta; Jelińska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The influence of pH on the stability of cefozopran hydrochloride (CZH) was investigated in the pH range of 0.44-13.00. Six degradation products were identified with a hybrid ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometer. The degradation of CZH as a result of hydrolysis was a pseudo-first-order reaction. As general acid-base hydrolysis of CZH was not occurred in the solutions of hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, acetate, borate and phosphate buffers, kobs = kpH because specific acid-base catalysis was observed. Specific acid-base catalysis of CZH consisted of the following reactions: hydrolysis of CZH catalyzed by hydrogen ions (kH+), hydrolysis of dications (k1H2O), monocations (k2H2O) and zwitter ions (k3H2O) and hydrolysis of zwitter ions (k1OH-) and monoanions (k2OH-) of CZH catalyzed by hydroxide ions. The total rate of the reaction was equal to the sum of partial reactions: [Formula: see text]. CZH similarly like other fourth generation cephalosporin was most stable at slightly acidic and neutral pH and less stable in alkaline pH. The cleavage of the β-lactam ring resulting from a nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon in the β-lactam moiety is the preferred degradation pathway of β-lactam antibiotics in aqueous solutions.

  18. Cartap hydrochloride poisoning: A clinical experience

    OpenAIRE

    Hari K Boorugu; Anugrah Chrispal

    2012-01-01

    Cartap hydrochloride, a nereistoxin analog, is a commonly used low toxicity insecticide. We describe a patient who presented to the emergency department with alleged history of ingestion of Cartap hydrochloride as an act of deliberate self-harm. The patient was managed conservatively. To our knowledge this is the first case report of Cartap hydrochloride suicidal poisoning. Cartap toxicity has been considered to be minimal, but a number of animal models have shown significant neuromuscular to...

  19. 21 CFR 522.1222b - Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine... RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1222b Ketamine.... Ketamine hydrochloride, (±),-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino) cyclohexanone hydrochloride, with promazine...

  20. Thermoanalytical Investigation of Terazosin Hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Mohamed Abdel-Moety; Ali Kamal Attia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Thermal analysis (TGA, DTG and DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) have been used to study the thermal behavior of terazosin hydrochloride (TER). Methods: Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to determine the thermal behavior and purity of the used drug. Thermodynamic parameters such as activation energy (E*), enthalpy (∆H*), entropy (∆S*) and Gibbs free energy change of the decomp...

  1. Efficacy of cefepime, ertapenem and norfloxacin against leptospirosis and for the clearance of pathogens in a hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenlong; Zhang, Naisheng; Wang, Wei; Wang, Fei; Gong, Yue; Jiang, Haichao; Zhang, Zecai; Liu, Xiaofei; Song, Xiaojing; Wang, Tiancheng; Ding, Zhuang; Cao, Yongguo

    2014-12-01

    Animals and humans with severe leptospirosis may require empirical treatment. Although many antibiotics are active against multiple leptospira serovars in vitro, their efficacy in vivo is limited. We evaluated the efficacy of cefepime (daily dose: 2, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg), ertapenem (daily dose: 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg) and norfloxacin (daily dose: 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg) for the treatment of leptospirosis and the ability to clear leptospira in target organs (liver, kidney, lung, heart, and spleen) in a lethal hamster model using Leptospira interrogans serovar Autumnalis. The histopathology of infected kidney, lung and liver was also evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain). All untreated animals, serving as a negative control, died with leptospira existing in the target organs between the 5th and 7th day after infection. All of the treated groups displayed improved survival compared to the untreated group and demonstrated a dose-dependent decrease in the presence of leptospira in the target organs. Cefepime showed survival benefit comparable to the standard treatment, doxycycline. We conclude that all of the antibiotics tested in vivo produce a statistically significant survival advantage, alleviate tissue injury and decrease the abundance of leptospira in target organs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical efifcacy of foscarnet sodium combined with valacyclovir hydrochloride in the treatment of rec-urrent genital herpes%膦甲酸钠联合盐酸伐昔洛韦治疗复发性生殖器疱疹的临床效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侍小换; 余展国

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo observe the clinical efficacy of foscarnet sodium combined with valacyclovir hydrochloride in the treatment of recurrent genital herpes.MethodSelected from September 2011 to July 2014 in our hospital clinic 90 cases of patients with recurrent genital herpes as the objects of this study. Through group study, observed the difference of curative effect of combination of the two drugs and simple drug use. Compared the three groups before and after treatment with skin lesion area, blister end time and crusting time, the incidence of adverse reactions and recurrence.ResultThree groups of patients after treatment of skin lesion area, blister end time and crusting time were significantly improved compared with before treatment (P0.05). The total effective rate in the observation group was 93.34% (28/30), compared with control group 1 [73.33% (22/30)], control group 2 [76.67% (23/30)] had no signiifcant differences (P>0.05). Three groups of patients with adverse reaction rates had no signiifcant difference (P>0.05). Observation group patients relapse in 2 cases (6.67%), compared with control group 1 [8 patients (26.67%), control group 2 [7 cases (23.33%)] had no signiifcant differences (P<0.05).ConclusionClinical effect of foscarnet sodium combined with valacyclovir hydrochloride in the treatment of recurrent genital herpes is outstanding, safe medication, and low recurrence rate, with obvious efifcacy in reduce stress and improve the quality of life, worthy of clinical application.%目的:观察膦甲酸钠联合盐酸伐昔洛韦治疗复发性生殖器疱疹的临床效果。方法选取2011年9月至2014年7月于本院门诊就诊的90例复发性生殖器疱疹患者为研究对象,通过分组研究,观察联用两种药物与单纯药物使用的疗效差异。比较三组患者治疗前后皮肤损伤面积、止疱时间、结痂时间,不良反应发生情况和复发情况。结果三组患者治疗后皮肤损伤面积、

  3. Stability studies of lincomycin hydrochloride in aqueous solution and intravenous infusion fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czarniak P

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Petra Czarniak, Michael Boddy, Bruce Sunderland, Jeff D Hughes School of Pharmacy, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chemical stability of Lincocin® (lincomycin hydrochloride in commonly used intravenous fluids at room temperature (25°C, at accelerated-degradation temperatures and in selected buffer solutions.Materials and methods: The stability of Lincocin® injection (containing lincomycin 600 mg/2 mL as the hydrochloride stored at 25°C±0.1°C in sodium lactate (Hartmann’s, 0.9% sodium chloride, 5% glucose, and 10% glucose solutions was investigated over 31 days. Forced degradation of Lincocin® in hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, and hydrogen peroxide was performed at 60°C. The effect of pH on the degradation rate of lincomycin hydrochloride stored at 80°C was determined.Results: Lincomycin hydrochloride was found to maintain its shelf life at 25°C in sodium lactate (Hartmann’s solution, 0.9% sodium chloride solution, 5% glucose solution, and 10% glucose solution, with less than 5% lincomycin degradation occurring in all intravenous solutions over a 31-day period. Lincomycin hydrochloride showed less rapid degradation at 60°C in acid than in basic solution, but degraded rapidly in hydrogen peroxide. At all pH values tested, lincomycin followed first-order kinetics. It had the greatest stability near pH 4 when stored at 80°C (calculated shelf life of 4.59 days, and was least stable at pH 2 (calculated shelf life of 0.38 days.Conclusion: Lincocin® injection was chemically found to have a shelf life of at least 31 days at 25°C when added to sodium lactate (Hartmann’s solution, 0.9% sodium chloride solution, 5% glucose solution, and 10% glucose solution. Solutions prepared at approximately pH 4 are likely to have optimum stability. Keywords: lincomycin, stability, pH, intravenous fluids, IV additives

  4. Preparation and characterisation of mucoadhesive nasal gel of venlafaxine hydrochloride for treatment of anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamoshree Basu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to prepare and evaluate mucoadhesive nasal gels of venlafaxine hydrochloride. Mucoadhesive nasal gels were prepared using polymers like carbopol 934 and sodium alginate and characterized in terms of viscosity, texture profile analysis, ex vivo drug permeation profiles and histopathological studies. The results show that values of viscosity, hardness and adhesiveness increase while those of cohesiveness decrease with corresponding increase in concentration of the polymers. Ex vivo drug permeation profiles showed that formulation containing 5% sodium alginate provided a better controlled release of the drug than the other formulations over a period of 12 h. Histopathological studies assured that gels containing different polymers did not produce any significant change in the nasal mucosae of goat even after 12 h permeation study. Mucoadhesive nasal gel of venlafaxine hydrochloride is a novel dosage form which delivers the drug directly into systemic circulation and provides controlled release of the drug.

  5. Ion activated in situ gel system for ophthalmic delivery of moxifloxacin hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    Mali, Mahesh N.; Ashok A. Hajare

    2010-01-01

    Rapid precorneal elimination of drug is a major limitation of conventional ophthalmic formulations. An ion activated in situ gel forming systems of an antibacterial agent moxifloxacin hydrochloride for instillation as drops into eye undergoing a sol to gel transition in the cul-de-sac was formulated. Sodium alginate was used as the gelling agent in combination with hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose. Formulations were evaluated for gelling capacity, pH, in vitro release, rheological study, Draize ...

  6. Formulation and evaluation of hydroxyzine hydrochloride sustained release microspheres by ionotropic gelation technique using Carbopol 934P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumyadeep Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of sustained release microspheres of hydroxyzine hydrochloride by ionotropic gelation technique and evaluation. Microspheres of hydroxyzine hydrochloride were prepared by ionotropic gelation method using sodium alginate, Carbopol 934P and calcium chloride. The powders were evaluated for their flow properties. Hydroxyzine hydrochloride microspheres were characterized by Fourier transform infrared and in vitro dissolution studies. The drug release study of hydroxyzine hydrochloride microspheres was evaluated using basket type dissolution test apparatus. The release rate of Hydroxyzine hydrochloride microspheres was studied for 12 h in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer media. From the five batches F5 batch showed good release behavior 91.08% of drug is released over 12 h, and r2 = 0.987 in zero-order kinetics. The microspheres were prepared without the use of organic solvents. Microspheres of hydroxyzine hydrochloride decrease the incidence of side effects and also improve patient compliance by reducing the number of dosing and by reducing the fluctuations of drug in the blood. This entire attributed attitude proves that microsphere technology from novel drug delivery can be very much effective in reducing dosage frequency, dose dumping, and better patient compliance and economical to the patient. In the future, natural, biodegradable polymers can be used to improve therapeutic efficacy of the drug and further minimizing side-effects.

  7. Ertapenem versus Ceftriaxone Followed by Appropriate Oral Therapy for Treatment of Complicated Urinary Tract Infections in Adults: Results of a Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Multicenter Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tomera, Kevin M.; Burdmann, Emmanuel A.; PAMO REYNA, OSCAR G.; Jiang, Qi; Wimmer, Wendy M.; Woods, Gail L.; Gesser, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of intravenous (i.v.) ertapenem (1 g once a day) with the option to switch to an oral agent for treatment of adults with complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) were compared with that of i.v. ceftriaxone (1 g daily) with the same oral switch option in a multicenter, double-blind, prospective, randomized study. At entry, 592 patients were assigned to one of two strata: acute pyelonephritis or other complicated UTI without acute pyelonephritis. After a minimum of 3 ...

  8. Multicomposite ultrathin capsules for sustained ocular delivery of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Dipankar; Gupta, Girish; Bhadra, Sulekha; Umamaheshwari, R B; Jain, Narendra

    2004-07-16

    The present work is intended to develop a sustained bioadhesive drug delivery system for delivery of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride in Cul-de-Sac for sustained and effective antimicrobial chemotherapy. For this, ultrathin multicomposite capsular systems were selected. Multicomposite ultrathin capsules are molecular assemblies of tailored architecture having layer-by-layer adsorption of oppositely charged macromolecules onto colloidal particles. In the present study colloidal calcium phosphate core and gluateraldehyde fixed RBCs were used as core on which alginate (-vely charged) and polyallylamine hydrochloride (+vely charged) polyelectrolyte coating was deposited alternatively upto 10th layer. The coating in each subsequent layer was determined by changes in zeta potential. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride was loaded in the capsules by incubation with the capsules suspended in phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4. The cores of the capsules were then removed by treatment with 0.1N HCl for calcium phosphate core and by sodium hypochlorite for RBC cored capsules. The hollow ciprofloxacin HCl loaded capsules were the evaluated in-vitro for pattern of layer-by-layer drug loading, drug release, stability at various temperatures and ionic concentrations and corneal retention. The core removal process was found to have minimal effects on drug loading in capsules. The drug loading was found to be higher for RBC cored hollow capsules and hence release rate was lower as compared to calcium cored hollow capsules. Draize test for corneal irritancy proved that the capsules were not irritating. The capsules were found to deliver the ciprofloxacin in cul-de-sac of rabbit's eyes for prolonged period. Based on corneal retention studies and tear drug concentration, the capsules can be considered for suitable and safe use for sustained ocular delivery of drugs.

  9. Thermoanalytical Investigation of Terazosin Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mohamed Abdel-Moety

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Thermal analysis (TGA, DTG and DTA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC have been used to study the thermal behavior of terazosin hydrochloride (TER. Methods: Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG, differential thermal analysis (DTA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC were used to determine the thermal behavior and purity of the used drug. Thermodynamic parameters such as activation energy (E*, enthalpy (H*, entropy (S* and Gibbs free energy change of the decomposition (G* were calculated using different kinetic models. Results: The purity of the used drug was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (99.97% and specialized official method (99.85% indicating to satisfactory values of the degree of purity. Thermal analysis technique gave satisfactory results to obtain quality control parameters such as melting point (273 ºC, water content (7.49% and ash content (zero in comparison to what were obtained using official method: (272 ºC, (8.0% and (0.02% for melting point, water content and ash content, respectively. Conclusion: Thermal analysis justifies its application in quality control of pharmaceutical compounds due to its simplicity, sensitivity and low operational costs. DSC data indicated that the degree of purity of terazosin hydrochloride is similar to that found by official method.

  10. Structural Alteration of OmpR as a Source of Ertapenem Resistance in a CTX-M-15-Producing Escherichia coli O25b:H4 Sequence Type 131 Clinical Isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Hervé; Choinier, Pascaline; Roche, David; Adiba, Sandine; Sookdeb, Megan; Branger, Catherine; Denamur, Erick; Mammeri, Hedi

    2017-05-01

    In this study, an ertapenem-nonsusceptible Escherichia coli isolate was investigated to determine the genetic basis for its carbapenem resistance phenotype. This clinical strain was recovered from a patient that received, 1 year previously, ertapenem to treat a cholangitis due to a carbapenem-susceptible extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli isolate. Whole-genome sequencing of these strains was performed using Illumina and single-molecule real-time sequencing technologies. It revealed that they belonged to the ST131 clonal group, had the predicted O25b:H4 serotype, and produced the CTX-M-15 and TEM-1 β-lactamases. One nucleotide substitution was identified between these strains. It affected the ompR gene, which codes for a regulatory protein involved in the control of OmpC/OmpF porin expression, creating a Gly-63-Val substitution. The role of OmpR alteration was confirmed by a complementation experiment that fully restored the susceptibility to ertapenem of the clinical isolate. A modeling study showed that the Gly-63-Val change displaced the histidine-kinase phosphorylation site. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the ertapenem-nonsusceptible E. coli strain had a decreased expression of OmpC/OmpF porins. No significant defect in the growth rate or in the resistance to Dictyostelium discoideum amoeba phagocytosis was found in the ertapenem-nonsusceptible E. coli isolate compared to its susceptible parental strain. Our report demonstrates for the first time that ertapenem resistance may emerge clinically from ESBL-producing E. coli due to mutations that modulate the OmpR activity. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Acute Psychotic Symptoms due to Benzydamine Hydrochloride Abuse with Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Ayhan Acar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzydamine hydrochloride is a locally acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Benzydamine hydrochloride overdose can cause stimulation of central nervous system, hallucinations, and psychosis. We presented a young man with psychotic symptoms due to benzydamine hydrochloride abuse. He received a total dose of 1000 mg benzydamine hydrochloride with alcohol for its hallucinative effects. Misuse of benzydamine hydrochloride must be considered in differential diagnosis of first-episode psychosis and physicians should consider possibility of abuse in prescribing.

  12. Spectrophotometric simultaneous estimation of ranitidine hydrochloride and ondansetron hydrochloride from tablet formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillai S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Three simple, accurate, economical and reproducible UV spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous estimation of two component drug mixture of ranitidine hydrochloride and ondansetron hydrochloride from combined tablet dosage form have been developed. First developed method involves formation and solving of simultaneous equations at 267.2 nm and 314.4 nm. Second method was developed making use of first order derivative spectroscopy using 340.8 nm and 276.0 nm as zero crossing points for estimation of ranitidine hydrochloride and ondansetron hydrochloride respectively. Third method is based on two wavelength calculation, wavelengths selected for estimation of ranitidine hydrochloride were 266.1 nm and 301.8 nm and for ondansetron hydrochloride 305.7 nm and 319.2 nm. The results of analysis have been validated statistically and by recovery studies.

  13. Spectrophotometric determination of diphenhydramine hydrochloride using dipicrylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsa, F A; Maghssoudi, R H

    1976-05-01

    A spectrophotometric procedure for the determination of diphenhydramine hydrochloride based on the reaction with dipicrylamine was developed. A yellow complex forms and is easily extractable by chloroform at pH 5. The mole ratio of diphenydramine hydrochloride to dipicrylamine in the complex is 1:3. The absorbance of the complex obeys Beer's law over the concentration range of 3-10 mug of diphenhydramine hydrochloride per ml of chloroform. This procedure can be carried out in the presence of other compounds without interference.

  14. Sodium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... low levels of cortisol, aldosterone and sex hormones ( Addison disease ) Drinking too much water as might occur during ... urinary sodium levels may indicate diuretic use or Addison disease. Sodium levels are often evaluated in relation to ...

  15. Sodium Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium phosphate is used in adults 18 years of age or older to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) ... view of the walls of the colon. Sodium phosphate is in a class of medications called saline ...

  16. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium oxybate is used to prevent attacks of cataplexy (episodes of muscle weakness that begin suddenly and ... urge to sleep during daily activities, and cataplexy). Sodium oxybate is in a class of medications called ...

  17. DESIGN OF GASTRO RETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF DILTIAZEM HYDROCHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Omray

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastro retentive drug delivery system of diltiazem hydrochloride was designed and evaluated for its effectiveness for the management of mild to moderate hypertension. Gastro retentive drug delivery system were prepared using polyvinyl alcohol and sodium carboxy methyl cellulose as the polymers and sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent for the reduction of floating lag time. Gastro retentive drug delivery system tablets were prepared by wet granulation method by compression in tablet compression machine. Formulations DL1, DL2, DL3, DL4 and DL5 were developed which differed in the ratio of polyvinyl alcohol and sodium carboxy methyl cellulose polymers. All the formulations were evaluated for hardness, weight variation, friability, drug content, swelling index, buoyancy studies and in vitro drug release study. In vitro drug release study was performed using United State Pharmacopoeia 23 type 2 dissolution test apparatus employing paddle stirrer at 50 r/pm. Dissolution medium was 900 ml of 0.1N hydrochloric acid at 37ºC ± 3ºC. Formulations DL3 was found to be better as compared to other formulation.

  18. Stability Indicating HPLC Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Trihexyphenidyl Hydrochloride, Trifluoperazine Hydrochloride and Chlorpromazine Hydrochloride from Tablet Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, simple, precise, rapid, selective and stability indicating reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride, trifluoperazine hydrochloride and chlorpromazine hydrochloride from combined tablet formulation. The method is based on reverse-phase using C-18 (250×4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size column. The separation is achieved using isocratic elution by methanol and ammonium acetate buffer (1% w/v, pH 6.5 in the ratio of 85:15 v/v, pumped at flow rate 1.0 mL/min and UV detection at 215 nm. The column is maintained at 30 °C through out the analysis. This method gives baseline resolution. The total run time is 15 min. Stability indicating capability is established buy forced degradation experiment. The method is validated for specificity, accuracy, precision and linearity as per International conference of harmonisation (ICH. The method is accurate and linear for quantification of trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride, trifluoperazine hydrochloride and Chlorpromazine hydrochloride between 5 - 15 μg/mL, 12.5- 37.5 μg/mL and 62.5 - 187.5 μg/mL respectively.

  19. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ESTIMATION OF BUSPIRONE HYDROCHLORIDE IN BULK AND ITS PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.DHANDAPANI,

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Three simple, accurate, rapid and sensitive methods developed for the determination of buspirone hydrochloride in bulk drug and in its tablets by UV Spectroscopy (Method – A – Water as a Solvent, UV Spectroscopy (Method – B – Methanol as a Solvent, and Colorimetry (Method - C. In Method A buspirone hydrochloride estimated at 236 nm using distilled water as a solvent. The linearity was observed in the concentration range of 5 – 25 μg/ml with correlation co efficient of 0.9866. In Method B methanol used as a solvent. The linearity wasobserved in the concentration range of 10 – 50 μg/ml with correlation co efficient of 0.9905. In Method C buspirone hydrochloride is a colorless compound undergoes oxidation with 0.005M Potassium ermanganate Solution in the presence of 0.5M Sodium Hydroxide gives Pink color. The intensity of color directly proportional to theconcentration of buspirone hydrochloride and its found that intensity of color stable for 20mins and the absorbance was measured at 610 nm with different time intervals with the linearity range and correlation co -efficient of 10 – 50 μg/ml and 0.9924. The result of analysis for all the methods was validated statistically and by ecovery studies.

  20. Application of new membrane selective electrodes for the determination of drotaverine hydrochloride in tablets and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Saharty, Y S; Metwaly, F H; Refaat, M; El-Khateeb, S Z

    2006-06-07

    The construction and electrochemical response characteristics of poly vinyl chloride (PVC) membrane sensors for the determination of drotaverine hydrochloride were described. The sensors are based on the use of the ion association complexes of drotaverine cation with sodium phosphotungestate (Dro-PTA) or ammonium reineckate (Dro-R) counter anions as ion exchange sites in the PVC matrix. The performance characteristics of these sensors, which were evaluated according to IUPAC recommendations, reveal a fast, stable and linear response for drotaverine over the concentration range 10(-5) to 10(-2) M with cationic slopes of 49.55 and 51.36 mV per concentration decade. The direct potentiometric determination of drotaverine hydrochloride using the proposed sensors gave average recoveries of 99.95+/-0.71 and 100.04+/-0.60 for Dro-PTA and Dro-R, respectively. The sensors are used for determination of drotaverine hydrochloride in tablets, in its mixture with caffeine and paracetamol and in plasma. Validation of the method shows suitability of the proposed sensors for use in the quality control assessment of drotaverine hydrochloride. The developed method was found to be simple, accurate and precise when compared with a reported HPLC method.

  1. A Novel Synthesis of Difloxacin Hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Difloxacin hydrochloride, one of aryl-fluoro quinolone antibiotic, has been synthesized in seven steps from 2, 4-dichloro-5-fluoroacetophenone via oxalylation, ethoxymethylenation,amination, cyclization, hydrolysis, decarbonylation and N-methylpiperazination. Additional four new intermediates are produced.

  2. A novel asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    Arava, Veera R; Laxminarasimhulu Gorentla; Pramod K. Dubey

    2012-01-01

    A novel route to asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride by the application of (R)-tert-butanesulfinamide and regioselective N-alkylation of the naphthyl ethyl sulfinamide intermediate is described.

  3. A novel asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veera R. Arava

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel route to asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride by the application of (R-tert-butanesulfinamide and regioselective N-alkylation of the naphthyl ethyl sulfinamide intermediate is described.

  4. A novel asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorentla, Laxminarasimhulu; Dubey, Pramod K

    2012-01-01

    Summary A novel route to asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride by the application of (R)-tert-butanesulfinamide and regioselective N-alkylation of the naphthyl ethyl sulfinamide intermediate is described. PMID:23019473

  5. 78 FR 34108 - Determination That SUBOXONE (Buprenorphine Hydrochloride and Naloxone Hydrochloride) Sublingual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That SUBOXONE (Buprenorphine Hydrochloride and... (buprenorphine hydrochloride (HCl) and naloxone HCl) sublingual tablets, 2 milligrams (mg)/0.5 mg and 8 mg/2 mg... to approve abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for buprenorphine HCl and naloxone...

  6. HPLC Determination of Propranolol Hydrochloride,Verapamil Hydrochloride and Propafenone Hydrochloride Ilegally Mixed into Wenxin Granules%高效液相色谱法测定稳心颗粒中非法添加药物的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张士勇; 程军; 叶云

    2012-01-01

    Objective To set up a method for the determination of propranolole hydrochloride, verapamil hydrochloride and propafenone hydrochloride illegally mixed into Wenxin Granules by HPLC. Methods The HPLC method was used. The Inertsil ODS - SP C18 column (250 mm × 4. 6 mm, 5 μm) was used with the mobile phase of phosphate buffer (adding water to dissolve potassium dihydrogen phosphate 6. 8 g and sodium 1 - octanesulfonate 1. 3 g, and diluting to 1 000 mL, adjusting pH value to 3.0 with phosphoric acid ) -methanol(40: 60). The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min, the detection wavelength was set at 223 nm and the column temperature was 25 ℃. Results The calibration curve showed the good linearity for propranolole hydrochloride, verapamil hydrochloride and propafenone hydrochloride in the range of 00. 019 76-2.47 μg( r = 1) ,0. 01-2. 5 μg(r = l) and 0.009 948-2.487 μg( r = 1) respectively;the average recovery rates (n = 6) were 97. 11% , 97. 63% and 98. 88% , respectively; RSD were 1. 85% , 1. 92% and 1. 46% , respectively. Conclusion This method is accurate and reproducible, which can be used for the determination of propranolole hydrochloride, verapamil hydrochloride and propafenone hydrochloride illegally mixed into Wenxin Granules.%目的 建立检测稳心颗粒中非法添加的盐酸普萘洛尔、盐酸维拉帕米和盐酸普罗帕酮含量的高效液相色谱法.方法 采用lnertsil ODS-SP C18色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm),流动相为磷酸盐缓冲液(取磷酸二氢钾6.8 g,辛烷磺酸钠1.3 g,加水溶解并稀释至1 000 mL,用磷酸调节pH至3.0)-甲醇(40:60),流速为0.8 mL/min,检测波长为223 nm,柱温为25℃.结果 盐酸普萘洛尔、盐酸维拉帕米和盐酸普罗帕酮进样量的线性范围分别为0.019 76~2.47 μg(r=1),0.01~2.5μg(r=1)和0.009 948~2.487μg(r=1);平均回收率分别为97.11%,97.63%和98.88%,RSD分别为1.85%,1.92%和1.46%(n=6).结论 该方法准确、重现性好,可作为稳心颗粒中非法添加盐酸普萘洛尔、

  7. Octenidine hydrochloride in hydatid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindis, Mustafa; Arikan, Yuksel; Cetinkaya, Zafer; Polat, Coskun; Yilmaz, Sezgin; Akbulut, Gökhan; Dilek, Osman Nuri; Gokce, Ozcan

    2004-01-01

    Hydatid disease is still endemic in many devoloping countries and continues to be an important cause of morbidity. The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro scolicidal effects of octenidine hydrochloride in different concentrations using different exposure times. After hydatid cyst liquid was left to precipitate for 1 h to obtain cystic sand, various concentrations of octenidine (undiluted, 1% and 0.1% diluted) were added to concentrated hydatid cyst sediments for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, and 60 min, and scolicidal effects of octenidine were compared with 20% saline and control group for the same times. It was found that undiluted octenidine had a strong scolicidal effect at 15 min compared to saline at 20%. One percent octenidine had a scolicidal effect at 30 min. However, 0.1% octenidine did not have enough scolicidal effect in 1 h. It was concluded that undiluted and 1% diluted octenidine might be used for scolicidal purpose in the treatment of hydatid disease.

  8. Sodium and Food Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sources Top 10 Sources of Sodium How to Reduce Sodium Sodium Reduction Resources for Everyone Sodium Reduction Fact ... in processed food [PDF-867K] and how to reduce sodium. Sodium Reduction Is Challenging Types of food matter: ...

  9. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... The body uses sodium to control blood pressure and blood volume. Your body also needs sodium for your muscles and nerves to work ...

  10. Compound list: fluoxetine hydrochloride [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fluoxetine hydrochloride FLX 00158 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/...LATEST/Human/in_vitro/fluoxetine_hydrochloride.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/o...pen-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/fluoxetine_hydrochloride.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp....biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/fluoxetine_hydrochloride.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  11. Development and evaluation of microporous osmotic tablets of diltiazem hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathool, Afifa; Gowda, D V; Khan, Mohammed S; Ahmed, Ayaz; Vasudha, S L; Rohitash, K

    2012-04-01

    Microporous osmotic tablet of diltiazem hydrochloride was developed for colon targeting. These prepared microporous osmotic pump tablet did not require laser drilling to deliver the drug to the specific site of action. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. The prepared tablets were coated with microporous semipermeable membrane and enteric polymer using conventional pan coating process. The incorporation of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), a leachable pore-forming agent, could form in situ delivery pores while coming in contact with gastrointestinal medium. The effect of formulation variables was studied by changing the amounts of sodium alginate and NaCMC in the tablet core, osmogen, and that of pore-forming agent (SLS) used in the semipermeable coating. As the amount of hydrophilic polymers increased, drug release rate prolonged. It was found that drug release was increased as the concentration of osmogen and pore-former was increased. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Differential scanning calorimetry results showed that there was no interaction between drug and polymers. Scanning electron microscopic studies showed the formation of pores after predetermined time of coming in contact with dissolution medium. The formation of pores was dependent on the amount of pore former used in the semipermeable membrane. in vitro results showed acid-resistant, timed release at an almost zero order up to 24 hours. The developed osmotic tablets could be effectively used for prolonged delivery of Diltiazem HCl.

  12. Development and evaluation of microporous osmotic tablets of diltiazem hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afifa Bathool

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microporous osmotic tablet of diltiazem hydrochloride was developed for colon targeting. These prepared microporous osmotic pump tablet did not require laser drilling to deliver the drug to the specific site of action. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. The prepared tablets were coated with microporous semipermeable membrane and enteric polymer using conventional pan coating process. The incorporation of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS, a leachable pore-forming agent, could form in situ delivery pores while coming in contact with gastrointestinal medium. The effect of formulation variables was studied by changing the amounts of sodium alginate and NaCMC in the tablet core, osmogen, and that of pore-forming agent (SLS used in the semipermeable coating. As the amount of hydrophilic polymers increased, drug release rate prolonged. It was found that drug release was increased as the concentration of osmogen and pore-former was increased. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Differential scanning calorimetry results showed that there was no interaction between drug and polymers. Scanning electron microscopic studies showed the formation of pores after predetermined time of coming in contact with dissolution medium. The formation of pores was dependent on the amount of pore former used in the semipermeable membrane. in vitro results showed acid-resistant, timed release at an almost zero order up to 24 hours. The developed osmotic tablets could be effectively used for prolonged delivery of Diltiazem HCl.

  13. 21 CFR 182.1047 - Glutamic acid hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glutamic acid hydrochloride. 182.1047 Section 182.1047 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1047 Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (a) Product. Glutamic acid hydrochloride....

  14. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  15. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...... Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium.......-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease...

  16. A Study on the Control of Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride Release from Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose Matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, H.; Chung, Y.S. [Department of Chemistry, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea); Bang, M.S. [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Chonan National Technical College, Chonnam (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    Hydroxypropylmethylcelluloses (HPMC) are cellulose ethers which may be used as the basis for hydrophilic matrices for controlled release oral delivery and offer the advantages of being non-toxic and relatively inexpensive. In this work, we designed new drug release system using HPMC as matrix, manufactured by direct compression technology and have investigated the effects of the controlling factors on drug release from a swellable hydrophillic delivery system. It was found that the release rate of the drug decreased with increasing the polymer molecular weight and the polymer content in tablets, and was independent of compaction pressure and pH of dissolution fluids. Especially, the ability of the anionic surfactant, sodium laurylsulfate, to retard the release of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride from HPMC was characterised. With increasing the concentration of the sodium laurylsulfate within the matrix, drug release rate decreased. It is believed that, provided the pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and the sodium laurylsulfate are oppositely charged, they will bind together in situ within the HPMC matrix, leading to reduced drug release rates. 23 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Comparative antifungal efficacy of light-activated disinfection and octenidine hydrochloride with contemporary endodontic irrigants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldeniz, Ayce Unverdi; Guneser, Mehmet Burak; Akbulut, Makbule Bilge

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal effects of light-activated disinfection (LAD) in comparison with contemporary root canal irrigation solutions: sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate and a new wound antiseptic, octenidine hydrochloride. Seventy extracted teeth having single root canals were contaminated with Candida albicans for 14 days. The samples were divided into five experimental (n = 10) and two control (positive and negative) groups (n = 10): (1) LAD with toluidine blue O, (2) octenidine hydrochloride (OCT), (3) 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (2.5% NaOCl), (4) 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (5.25% NaOCl) and (5) 2% chlorhexidine. Five millilitres of each test solution was applied for 3 min, and irradiation time used for LAD was 30 s. After treatment, the dentin chips were collected from inner canal walls into vials containing phosphate buffered saline, vortexed, serially diluted, seeded on Tryptic Soy Agar plates and incubated (37 °C, 48 h). The number of colony-forming units was then counted. Differences between LAD group and positive control group were statistically significant (P irrigated with OCT, 2.5% NaOCl, 5.25% NaOCl and 2% chlorhexidine groups (CFU = 0). Within the limitations of this ex vivo study, LAD had minimal antimicrobial effect on C. albicans when used 30 s, and further modifications in LAD protocol are required to improve its antifungal capability. A new wound antiseptic, octenidine hydrochloride, demonstrated better potential than LAD in elimination of Candida albicans cells and may be a promising alternative to NaOCl and chlorhexidine solutions in future.

  18. Sodium - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gland problems such as Cushing syndrome or hyperaldosteronism Diabetes insipidus (type of diabetes in which kidneys are not able to conserve water) Too much salt or sodium bicarbonate in the diet Use of certain medicines, including corticosteroids, laxatives, lithium, ...

  19. 21 CFR 556.350 - Levamisole hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride. 556.350 Section 556.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1676 - Pyridoxine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hydrochloride that is prepared by chemical synthesis. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food... chapter; meat products as defined in § 170.3(n)(29) of this chapter; milk products as defined in § 170.3(n)(31) of this chapter; plant protein products as defined in § 170.3(n)(33) of this chapter; and...

  1. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MUCOADHESIVE MICROSPHERES OF PIOGLITAZONE HYDROCHLORIDE USING A NATURAL POLYMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobeen Mohd.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to design a controlled release dosage form for a thiazolidinedione oral hypoglycemic drug i.e., pioglitazone hydrochloride employing a natural polymer. The present study was also aimed to increase the biological half-life by developing it in the form of sustained release microspheres. The present study aimed at employing a natural polymer in formulating the mucoadhesive microspheres and estimate its effect over the controlled release of the drug from the formulation. The microspheres of pioglitazone hydrochloride were prepared by employing sodium alginate as a cell forming polymer and by using a natural bio-adhesive polymer viz. goru gum in the ratios of 1:1, 1:1.5 and 1:2, by orifice ion gelation method with varying concentrations of calcium chloride. Six batches of microspheres (MS1 – MS6 were prepared. The microspheres were evaluated for various micromeritic properties and it was observed that all the batches exhibited free-flowing properties. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that the microspheres were almost spherical in shape and discrete. The FTIR results showed that there were no interactions between the drug and the excipients. The in vitro release profile indicated that all the batches of microspheres showed controlled and prolonged drug release over an extended period, with acceptable release kinetics. The work demonstrated that among all the formulations of microspheres, the microspheres of the formulation MS4 are promising candidates for the sustained release of pioglitazone hydrochloride.

  2. Simultaneous Determination of Sitagliptin Phosphate Monohydrate and Metformin Hydrochloride in Tablets by a Validated UPLC Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malleswararao, Chellu S N; Suryanarayana, Mulukutla V; Mukkanti, Khagga

    2012-01-01

    A novel approach was used to develop and validate a rapid, specific, accurate and precise reverse phase ultra performance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of Sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate and Metformin hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Aquity UPLC BEH C8 100 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm, column using a buffer consisting of 10 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 2 mM hexane-1-sulfonic acid sodium salt (pH adjusted to 5.50 with diluted phosphoric acid) and acetonitrile as organic solvent in a gradient program. The flow rate was 0.2 mL min(-1) and the detection wavelength was 210 nm. The limit of detection (LOD) for Sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate and Metformin hydrochloride was 0.2 and 0.06 μg mL(-1), respectively. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for Sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate and Metformin hydrochloride was 0.7 and 0.2 μg mL(-1), respectively. This method was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity and robustness. The method was also found to be stability-indicating.

  3. 盐酸西那卡塞合成新方法%New method for the synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 刘兆鹏

    2016-01-01

    Objective A new method was developed for the synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride. Methods Cinacal-cet hydrochloride was prepared from 3 -(3 - trifluoromethylphenyl)- 1 - propanol via three steps,including DMSO/ P2 O5 mediated oxidation,iron triflate catalyzed reductive amination of aldehydes using sodium borohydride,and finally hydrochlo-ride formation. Results and Conclusion This method used environmentally benign reagents to prepare cinacalcet hydro-chloride in only three steps with an overall good yield of 57. 8% .%目的:探讨合成盐酸西那卡塞的新方法。方法以3-(3-三氟甲基苯基)丙醇为原料,经二甲基亚砜/五氧化二磷氧化成醛、三氟甲磺酸铁催化的还原氨化、成盐三步反应,合成了盐酸西那卡塞。结果及结论该方法采用对环境友好的反应试剂,反应步骤少,操作简单,总收率高(57.8%)。

  4. 21 CFR 520.2345f - Tetracycline phosphate complex and sodium novobiocin capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... novobiocin capsules. 520.2345f Section 520.2345f Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2345f Tetracycline phosphate complex and sodium novobiocin capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains the equivalent of 60 milligrams of tetracycline hydrochloride and 60...

  5. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF EXTENDED RELEASE TABLETS OF TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilvalvar Sapnil

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research work was to develop extended release tablets (Twice in a day of Tramadol Hydrochloride using different Hydrophilic polymers like HPMC K15M, HPMC K4M, Metalose 60SH50, Carbopol 971P, Sodium alginate, Xanthan gum by direct compression method. Various amounts of polymers was used in the twenty four proposed formulations (F1 to F24 for the study of release rate retardant effect at 10 %, 15 %, 20 %, 25 % of total weight of tablet matrix respectively. Then the tablets were evaluated in terms of their physical parameters (weight variation, hardness, friability and thickness, drug content and in-vitro release studies. All the formulations showed compliance with pharmacopoeial standards. The in-vitro dissolution study were conducted using USP dissolution apparatus type-II (paddle method in 900 ml 0.1 N HCl for first 2 h and remaining 10 h performed in 6.8 pH phosphate buffer at 100 rpm for a total period of 12 h. Based on the dissolution data comparison with innovator product, formulation F14 was found as the best formulation. The drug release of formulation F14 followed First Order kinetic model and the mechanism was found to be non-Fickian/anomalous according to Korsmeyer-Peppas equation.

  6. A prospective, multi centre, randomized clinical study to compare the efficacy and safety of Ertapenem 3 days versus Ampicillin - Sulbactam 3 days in the treatment of localized community acquired intra-abdominal infection. (T.E.A. Study: Three days Ertapenem vs three days Ampicillin-sulbactam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazzotti Filippo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recommendations outlined in the latest guidelines published by the Surgical Infection Society (SIS and the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA regarding the proper duration of antibiotic therapy in patients with intra-abdominal infections are limited and non-specific. This ambiguity is due mainly to the lack of clinical trials on the topic of optimal duration of therapy. It is well known that the overuse of antibiotics has several important consequences such as increased treatment costs, reduced clinical efficacy, and above all, the increased emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Ampicillin-Sulbactam is a commonly used "first line" antibiotic for intra-abdominal infections. Ertapenem and Ampicillin-sulbactam are recommended as primary treatment agents for localized peritonitis by both the SIS and IDSA guidelines. Methods/Design This study is a prospective multi-center randomized investigation. The study will be performed in the Departments of General, Emergency, and Transplant Surgery of Sant'Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital in Bologna, Italy, in the General Surgery Department of the Ospedali Riuniti of Bergamo, Italy, and in the Trauma and Emergency Surgery Department of Maggiore Hospital in Bologna, Italy, and will be conducted by all surgeons willing to participate in the study. The inclusion period of the study will take approximately two years before the planned number of 142 enrolled patients is reached. Discussion Ertapenem and Ampicillin-sulbactam are recommended both as primary treatment agents for localized peritonitis by both the SIS and IDSA guidelines. As one of the discussed topic is the optimal duration of the antibiotic therapy and this ambiguity is due mainly to the lack of clinical trials on the topic, the present study aims for obtain precise data. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00630513

  7. [Antiseptics on the base of Octenidine Hydrochloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovskií, N N; Reshetnikov, E A; Rubashnaia, I E; Mal'nikova, G N; Mitiukov, A P

    1997-01-01

    Comparative evaluation of laboratory and clinical investigation of antiseptic preparations on the base of octenidin-hydrochloride and bigluconate chlorhexidine in 537 patients was carried out. Statistically valid decrease in dissemination through the operation field and surgical wound after application of octenidin containing solutions was determined. It was established as well that these preparations were more effective fools of protection of the operation wound from its microbial contamination in comparison with antiseptic solutions widely spread to date in surgical practice.

  8. 抗抑郁药Duloxetine Hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾建国; 晋展

    2003-01-01

    @@ 日本Shionogi公司获得了Eli Lilly公司的授权,对其研制的一种对5-羟色胺(5-HT)和去甲肾上腺素(NE)的摄取有双重抑制作用的化合物Duloxetine Hydrochloride (Cymbalta(R),LY-264453,LY-248686)进行了进一步的开发.

  9. Effect of iptakalim hydrochloride on hemodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-leiZHU; HaiWANG; Wen-binXIAO

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of iptakalim hydrochloride (Ipt) on hemodynamics. METHODS: Effect of Ipt on hemodynamics were studied in anesthetized nomotensive dogs, conscious nomotensive rats (NTR), and stroke prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRsp), respectively. RESULTS: In pentobarbital anesthetized nomotensive dogs, Ipt at doses of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5,1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg iv could dose-dependently decrease blood pressure (BP), with the decrease of systolic BP equivalent

  10. Cartap hydrochloride poisoning: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sumesh Raj; Sheetal S.

    2014-01-01

    Cartap hydrochloride is a thiocarbamate insecticide used for control of chewing and sucking insects of all stages of development, on many crops. It is an analogue of nereistoxin. Poisoning with cartap is very rarely reported from India. We report a 46 year old man who consumed cartap with alcohol, presented with nausea & vomiting and improved with supportive measures. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000): 360-361

  11. Stability of paclitaxel with ondansetron hydrochloride or ranitidine hydrochloride during simulated Y-site administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burm, J P; Jhee, S S; Chin, A; Moon, Y S; Jeong, E; Nii, L; Fox, J L; Gill, M A

    1994-05-01

    The stability of paclitaxel with either ondansetron hydrochloride or ranitidine hydrochloride during simulated Y-site injection at room temperature was studied. Triplicate test solutions of paclitaxel 0.3 and 1.2 mg/mL were admixed 1:1 with ondansetron 0.03 and 0.3 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride salt) or ranitidine 0.5 and 2.0 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride salt). Also, paclitaxel 1.2 mg/mL was admixed 1:1:1 with ondansetron 0.3 mg/mL and ranitidine 2.0 mg/mL. The solutions were stored in glass containers at room temperature, and samples were removed at zero, one, two, and four hours for immediate assay. At the time of the assay and before any dilution, each sample was visually inspected for clarity, color, and precipitation, and the pH was determined. Drug concentrations were measured by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic procedures. Throughout the study, more than 90% of the initial concentrations of paclitaxel, ondansetron, and ranitidine remained in the solutions. No precipitates, color changes, or haziness was seen. The changes in pH were minor. Paclitaxel in concentrations of 0.3 and 1.2 mg/mL was stable when mixed with either ondansetron (0.03 or 0.3 mg/mL, as the hydrochloride salt) or ranitidine (0.5 or 2.0 mg/mL, as the hydrochloride salt) and stored in glass containers for four hours. Paclitaxel 1.2 mg/mL was also stable when mixed with both ondansetron 0.3 mg/mL and ranitidine 2.0 mg/mL and stored in glass containers for four hours.

  12. Literature analysis on incompatibility of vancomycin hydrochloride%注射用盐酸万古霉素配伍禁忌的文献分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄娟; 冯仕银

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the compatibility of vancomycin hydrochloride with the other drugs. Methods Domestic medical literatures about the incompatibility of vancomycin hydrochloride were searched and analyzed. Re-sults Vancomycin hydrochloride was incompatible with cefoperazone-sulbactam,cefpiramide sodium etc. Conclusion Vancomycin hydrochloride should not be compatible with cefoperazone-sulbactam,cefpiramide sodium etc.%目的:研究注射用盐酸万古霉素的配伍问题。方法检索、分析近年来有关注射用盐酸万古霉素配伍禁忌的国内医药文献。结果注射用盐酸万古霉素与头孢哌酮钠舒巴坦钠、头孢匹胺钠等多种药物存在配伍禁忌。结论应避免将注射用盐酸万古霉素与头孢哌酮钠舒巴坦钠、头孢匹胺钠等药物配伍。

  13. Simultaneous determination of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and cetrizine hydrochloride by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed using Shimadzu HPLC-VP series, LC-10 ATV pump, SPD10 AVP and C8 column, for simultaneous determination of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and cetrizine hydrochloride in three marketed tablet formulations (extended release. The mobile phase consists of phosphate buffer of pH 7.0 and acetonitrile HPLC grade in the ratio of 1:1. The flow rate was maintained at 1 ml/min and the ultraviolet detection was done at 242 nm, which is the isosbestic point. Linearity coefficients, assay values, recovery studies and repeatability studies showed that the method is accurate and precise.

  14. Development and validation of a new high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the loperamid hydrochloride determination in drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, G. S.; Savić, I.; Marinković, V.

    2009-09-01

    A selective, precise and new high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of loperamid hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations was developed and validated. The mobile phase consisting buffer (sodium-octansulphonate, triethylamine and ammonium hydroxide) in water: acetonitriie (45: 55, v/v) (pH 3.2). The absorbance was monitored with a DAD detector at 226 nm. The flow rate was 1.5 cm3 min-1. The linearity ( r = 0.9947) and the recovery (98.58-100.42%) were found to be satisfactory. The detection and quantitation limits were found to be 0.95 and 3.12 μg cm-3. The results demonstrated that the procedure was accurate, precise and reproducible. It can be suitably applied for the estimation of lopera-mid hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations.

  15. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF UV SPECTROSCOPIC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reatul Karim et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple, economic, sensitive, precise and accurate UV spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for quantification of Metformin hydrochloride in bulk and in tablet dosage form. Adequate drug solubility and maximum assay sensitivity was found in 0.01N sodium hydroxide at 233nm. Calibration graph constructed at 233nm was linear in concentration range of 1-25μg/ml with correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines in terms of linearity (within 1-25µg/ml, accuracy (% recovery, precision (inter-day and intraday, specificity and robustness. The limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ were found to be 0.2226µg/ml and 0.6745µg/ml respectively. Therefore, the proposed method is suitable and can be adopted for the determination of Metformin hydrochloride from pharmaceutical dosage form in routine quality control analysis.

  16. Effect of matrine hydrochloride on liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li-bo; XU Feng; MA Wen-hui

    2008-01-01

    Objective Searching the function that the Injection of the matrine hydrochloride prevents and cures acute chemical liver injury of mice、 immunity liver injury of mice and chronic liver injury of rats. Methods Acute hepatic injury models of mice induced by Chemical poison carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), thioacetamide(TAA), D-galactosamine(D-GalN), immunity hepatic injury model of mice induced by BCG and fat polysaccharide (LPS), chronic liver injury model of rats induced by CCI, were introduced in the experiment. The serum ALT and AST were measured in acute hepatic injury experiments. Serum ALT, AST, AKP, ALB, TP, BiL-T, ereatinine, triglyceride, sialie acid, larninin, hyaluronic acid, type Ⅲ proeollagen and type Ⅳ collagen, hepatic hydroxyproline (HyP) of rats in chronic liver injury animals were determined after Injection of the matrine hydrochloride. Results The Injection of the matrine hydrochloride reduced serum ALT and AST level of acute chemical liver injury of mice induced by CCl4, TAA and D-GaIN. The index of the liver and the spleen of immunity liver injury of mice induced by BCG and LPS were decreased after the injection of matrine hydrochloride treatment. Compared with the model group, the injection may obviously inhibited serum ALT, AST, TP, AKP, TRI, BiL-T, creatinine, triglyceride, sialic acid, laminin , hyaluronic acid , type Ⅲ procollagen and type Ⅳ collagen activity of chronic liver injury of rats induced by CCl4, elevated ALB、A/G, reduced the liver HyP, decreased the index of the liver and the spleen. The liver visual observation, the pathology inspection and the HAI grading result showed the injection may reduce the inflammatory activity in liver tissue, restrain the liver cell damage, reduce the pseudolobuli formation. Conclusions The Injection of matrine hydrochloride had the protective function to acute chemical hepatic injury of mice induced by CCl4、TAA、D-GalN、immunity hepatic injury of mice induced by the BCG and LPS and

  17. Application of diclofenac sodium suppository anal preemptive analgesia combined with lidocaine hydrochloride in circumcision%双氯芬酸钠栓塞肛超前镇痛联合盐酸利多卡因在包皮环切术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春虎; 熊小青; 吴丰学

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate analgesia effect and curative effect of diclofenac sodium suppository anal ahead in circumcision resection.Methods 200 patients with redundant prepuce were randomly divided into control group and the experimental group,patients in control group was given with 1% lidocaine 10mL for penile block anesthesia,patients in experimental group were given diclofenac sodium suppository anal before the surgery,and then given 1% hydrochloric acid lidocaine 10mL for penile block anesthesia.Efficacy of diclofenac sodium suppository anal super analgesia was evaluated.Results Compared with the control group,the pain of the patients in the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the 1 ~3h after anesthesia,and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05).Conclusions Diclofenac sodium suppository anal can effectively reduce pain of circumcision anesthesia and postoperation.It is recommended that the diclofenac sodium suppository is used in clinical operation for reducing the patient's pain.%目的 采用双氯芬酸钠栓塞肛超前镇痛用于包皮环切术,研究其在包皮环切术中的镇痛效果及疗效.方法 将包皮过长患者200例,随机分为对照组及试验组,对照组给予1%的盐酸利多卡因10mL进行阴茎阻滞麻醉,试验组术前即给予双氯芬酸钠栓塞肛,再给予1%的盐酸利多卡因10mL进行阴茎阻滞麻醉.以阻滞麻醉时、手术时及术后疼痛评分为考核指标,综合评价双氯芬酸钠栓塞肛超前镇痛效果.结果 与对照组比较,试验组患者在麻醉时、手术后1 ~3h的疼痛度均明显降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 术前给予双氯芬酸钠栓塞肛可有效减轻包皮环切术麻醉时及术后的疼痛,建议将双氯芬酸钠栓应用于该类手术,以减轻疼痛.

  18. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  19. Simultaneous determination of nortriptyline hydrochloride and fluphenazine hydrochloride in microgram quantifies from low dosage forms by liquid chromatography-UV detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Safwan Ashour; Nuha Kattan

    2012-01-01

    A novel method for the simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatographic determi- nation of nortriptyline hydrochloride and fluphenazine hydrochloride was developed and validated. Fhivastatin sodium was used as internal standard. The determination was performed on a Hypersil Gold Cs column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm particle size) at 25 ℃; the mobile phase, consisting of a mixture of formic acid (0.1 M, pH 2.16)-methanol (33:67, v/v), was delivered at a fow rate of 1.1 mL/min and detector wavelength at 251 rim. The retention time of nortriptyline, fluphenazine and fluvastatin was found to be 5.11, 8.05 and 11.38 min, respectively. Linearity ranges were 5.0-1350.0 and 10.0-1350.0 μg/ mL with limit of detection values of 0.72 and 0.31μg/mL, for nortriptyline and fluphenazine, respectively. Results of assay and recovery studies were statistically evaluated for its accuracy and precision. Correlation coefficients (r2) of the regression equations were greater than 0.999 in all cases. According to the validation results, the proposed method was found to be specific, accurate, precise and could be applied to the simultaneous quantitative analysis of nortriptyline and fluphenazine.

  20. Low sodium diet (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ...

  1. Experimental design and optimization of raloxifene hydrochloride loaded nanotransfersomes for transdermal application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Syed Mahmood, Muhammad Taher, Uttam Kumar Mandal Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM, Pahang Darul Makmur, Malaysia Abstract: Raloxifene hydrochloride, a highly effective drug for the treatment of invasive breast cancer and osteoporosis in post-menopausal women, shows poor oral bioavailability of 2%. The aim of this study was to develop, statistically optimize, and characterize raloxifene hydrochloride-loaded transfersomes for transdermal delivery, in order to overcome the poor bioavailability issue with the drug. A response surface methodology experimental design was applied for the optimization of transfersomes, using Box-Behnken experimental design. Phospholipon® 90G, sodium deoxycholate, and sonication time, each at three levels, were selected as independent variables, while entrapment efficiency, vesicle size, and transdermal flux were identified as dependent variables. The formulation was characterized by surface morphology and shape, particle size, and zeta potential. Ex vivo transdermal flux was determined using a Hanson diffusion cell assembly, with rat skin as a barrier medium. Transfersomes from the optimized formulation were found to have spherical, unilamellar structures, with a ­homogeneous distribution and low polydispersity index (0.08. They had a particle size of 134±9 nM, with an entrapment efficiency of 91.00%±4.90%, and transdermal flux of 6.5±1.1 µg/cm2/hour. Raloxifene hydrochloride-loaded transfersomes proved significantly superior in terms of amount of drug permeated and deposited in the skin, with enhancement ratios of 6.25±1.50 and 9.25±2.40, respectively, when compared with drug-loaded conventional liposomes, and an ethanolic phosphate buffer saline. Differential scanning calorimetry study revealed a greater change in skin structure, compared with a control sample, during the ex vivo drug diffusion study. Further, confocal laser

  2. 21 CFR 520.1660b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules. 520.1660b Section 520.1660b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules. (a) Specifications. The drug is in capsule form with each capsule...

  3. 21 CFR 520.2345a - Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules. 520.2345a... Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 50, 100, 125, 250, or 500... as in paragraph (c) of this section: (1) No. 000009: 250 mg per capsule. (2) No. 000069: 125, 250, or...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1242f - Levamisole hydrochloride gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride gel. 520.1242f Section 520.1242f Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Levamisole hydrochloride gel. (a) Specifications. The drug is a gel containing 11.5 percent...

  5. 21 CFR 520.1242 - Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage forms. 520.1242 Section 520.1242 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1242 Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1242e - Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets. 520.1242e Section 520.1242e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1242e Levamisole hydrochloride...

  7. 21 CFR 522.1222 - Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms. 522.1222 Section 522.1222 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1222 Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms. ...

  8. Comparison of the effectiveness and antibiotic cost among ceftriaxone, ertapenem, and levofloxacin in treatment of community-acquired complicated urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-An; Yang, Ya-Sung; Wang, Jing-Xun; Lin, Hsin-Chung; Lin, De-Yu; Chiu, Chun-Hsiang; Yeh, Kuo-Ming; Lin, Jung-Chung; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2016-04-01

    To study characteristics of patients with community-acquired complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs) and to compare effectiveness and antibiotic cost of treatment with ceftriaxone (CRO), levofloxacin (LVX), and ertapenem (ETP). This retrospective study enrolled patients who had community-acquired cUTIs admitted to Division of Infectious Diseases in a single medical center from January 2011 to March 2013. Effectiveness, antibiotic cost, and clinical characteristics were compared among patients treated with CRO, LVX, and ETP. There were 358 eligible cases, including 139 who received CRO, 128 treated with ETP, and 91 with LVX. The most common pathogen was Escherichia coli. The susceptibilities of these three agents were higher and more superior than first-line antibiotics. Treatment with ETP was associated with a significantly shorter time to defervescence since admission (CRO: 39 hours, ETP: 30 hours, and LVX: 38 h; p = 0.031) and shorter hospitalization stay (CRO: 4 days, ETP: 3 days, and LVX: 4 days; p < 0.001). However, the average antibiotic costs in the CRO group were significantly lower than that in the other two groups [CRO: 62.4 United States dollars (USD), ETP: 185.33 USD, and LVX: 204.85 USD; p < 0.001]. The resistance of cUTIs isolates to first-line antibiotic is high. Using ETP, CRO, and LVX in the treatment of cUTIs for good clinical response should be suggested. Among the three agents, ETP had better susceptibility than CRO and LVX, reached defervescence sooner, and was associated with shorter hospital stays. However, using CRO in cUTIs was less expensive than the other two agents. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Vibrational spectra of pilocarpine hydrochloride crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bento, R.R.F. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Freire, P.T.C. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: tarso@fisica.ufc.br; Teixeira, A.M.R.; Silva, J.H. [Universidade Regional do Cariri, Crato, CE (Brazil). Dept. Ciencias Fisicas e Biologicas; Lima Junior, J.A. [Universidade Estadual do Ceara (UECE), Limoeiro do Norte, CE (Brazil); Oliveira, M.C.F. de; Andrade-Neto, M. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Romero, N.R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Pontes, F.M. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Bauru, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias

    2009-03-15

    Pilocarpine is a natural substance with potential application in the treatment of several diseases. In this work Fourier Transform (FT)-Raman spectrum and the Fourier Transform infra red (FT-IR) spectrum of pilocarpine hydrochloride C{sub 11} H{sub 17} N{sub 2} O{sup +}{sub 2} .Cl{sup -1} were investigated at 300 K. Vibrational wavenumber and wave vector have been predicted using density functional theory (B3LYP) calculations with the 6-31 G(d,p) basis set. A comparison with experiment allowed to assign most of the normal modes of the crystal. (author)

  10. Reduction in fluoroquinolone use following introduction of ertapenem into a hospital formulary is associated with improvement in susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to group 2 carbapenems: a 10-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Paul P; Gooch, Michael; Rizzo, Shemra

    2011-12-01

    We examined the effect of the addition of ertapenem to our hospital formulary on the resistance of nosocomial Pseudomonas aeruginosa to group 2 carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, and doripenem). This was a retrospective, observational study conducted between 1 January 2000 and 31 January 2009 at a large, tertiary-care hospital. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) regression models were used to evaluate the effect of ertapenem use on the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to group 2 carbapenems as well as on the use of the group 2 carbapenems, ciprofloxacin, and other antipseudomonal drugs (i.e., tobramycin, cefepime, and piperacillin-tazobactam). Resistance was expressed as a percentage of total isolates as well as the number of carbapenem-resistant bacterial isolates per 10,000 patient days. Pearson correlation was used to assess the relationship between antibiotic use and carbapenem resistance. Following the addition of ertapenem to the formulary, there was a statistically significant decrease in the percentage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates resistant to the group 2 carbapenems (P = 0.003). Group 2 carbapenem use and the number of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates per 10,000 patient days did not change significantly over the time period. There was a large decrease in the use of ciprofloxacin (P = 0.0033), and there was a correlation of ciprofloxacin use with the percentage of isolates resistant to the group 2 carbapenems (ρ = 0.47, P = 0.002). We suspect that the improvement in susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to group 2 carbapenems was related to a decrease in ciprofloxacin use.

  11. Gastroretentive drug delivery system of ranitidine hydrochloride: formulation and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Brijesh S; Amin, Avani F; Patel, Madhabhai M

    2004-04-08

    The purpose of this research was to prepare a gastroretentive drug delivery system of ranitidine hydrochloride. Guar gum, xanthan gum, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose were evaluated for gel-forming properties. Sodium bicarbonate was incorporated as a gas-generating agent. The effects of citric acid and stearic acid on drug release profile and floating properties were investigated. The addition of stearic acid reduces the drug dissolution due to its hydrophobic nature. A 3(2) full factorial design was applied to systemically optimize the drug release profile. The amounts of citric acid anhydrous (X1) and stearic acid (X2) were selected as independent variables. The times required for 50% (t50) and 80% drug dissolution (t80), and the similarity factor f2 were selected as dependent variables. The results of the full factorial design indicated that a low amount of citric acid and a high amount of stearic acid favors sustained release of ranitidine hydrochloride from a gastroretentive formulation. A theoretical dissolution profile was generated using pharmacokinetic parameters of ranitidine hydrochloride. The similarity factor f2 was applied between the factorial design batches and the theoretical dissolution profile. No significant difference was observed between the desired release profile and batches F2, F3, F6, and F9. Batch F9 showed the highest f2 (f2 = 75) among all the batches, and this similarity is also reflected in t50 (approximately 214 minutes) and t80 (approximately 537 minutes) values. These studies indicate that the proper balance between a release rate enhancer and a release rate retardant can produce a drug dissolution profile similar to a theoretical dissolution profile.

  12. [Neuropharmacological studies on tolperisone hydrochloride (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Y; Ishii, Y; Suzuki, T; Murayama, S

    1979-10-01

    Neuropharmacological properties of tolperisone hydrochloride (2,4'-dimethyl-3-piperidinopropiophenone hydrochloride) were investigated in mice, rats and cats. Tolperisone inhibited the spontaneous movement and methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity in mice and the ED50 was approx. 50 mg/kg, s.c. At this dose, tolperisone did not prolong the pentobarbital-induced sleeping time. Tolperisone inhibited convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol, nicotine and maximum electric shock, but did not affect convulsions induced by strychnine and picrotoxin. Tolperisone induced muscle relaxation in mice and rats in several pharmacological tests, but did not affect neuro-muscular transmission. Tolperisone did not affect conditioned avoidance response in rats and methamphetamine-induced rotational behaviour in nigro-lesioned rats. Tolperisone reduced decerebrated rigidity in cats with i.v. administration of 5 approximately 10 mg/kg and intraduodenal administration of 50 approximately 100 mg/kg. Tolperisone elicited a slight drowsy pattern in the spontaneous EEG of cats at 5 approximately 10 mg/kg, i.v., and inhibited the EEG arousal response and pressor response to stimulation of mesencephalic reticular formation or posterior hypothalamic area. These results suggest that inhibition of the activity in the gamma pathway descending from the mesencephalic reticular formation may be involved in the mechanism of muscle relaxant action of tolperisone.

  13. Formulation and evaluation of micro hydrogel of Moxifloxacin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjwade, Basavaraj K; Deshmukh, Rucha V; Gaikwad, Kishori R; Parikh, Kemy A; Manvi, F V

    2012-06-01

    The field of ocular drug delivery is one of the interesting and challenging endeavors facing the pharmaceutical scientist. Novel approaches for ophthalmic drug delivery need to be established to increase the ocular bioavailability by overcoming the inherent drawbacks of conventional dosage forms. In situ hydrogels are instilled as drops into the eye and undergoes a sol-to-gel transition in the cul-de-sac, improved ocular bioavailability by increasing the duration of contact with corneal tissue, thereby reducing the frequency of administration. The purpose of the present work was to develop an ophthalmic drug delivery system using three different gelling agents with different mechanisms for in situ gelation of Moxifloxacin hydrochloride, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic. polyox (a pH-sensitive gelling agent), sodium alginate (an ion-sensitive gelling agent), and poloxamer (a temperature-sensitive gelling agent) were employed for the formation of in situ hydrogel along with HPMC K4M as viscofying agent, which increases the residence time of the drug in the ocular cavity. The promising formulations MF(4), MF(5), and MF(9) were evaluated for pH, drug content, in vitro gelation, in vitro drug release, in vivo drug release, ocular irritation, and stability. Percent drug content of 98.2, 98.76, and 99.43%; viscosity of 15.724 × 100, 16.108 × 100, and 15.213 × 100 cP at 20 rpm, cumulative percent release of 75.364, 74.081, and 71.752%, and C (max) of 1,164.16, 1,187.09, and 1,220.58 ng/ml was observed for formulation MF(4), MF(5), and MF(9), respectively. The developed formulations were therapeutically efficacious, stable, and non-irritant and provided sustained release of the drug over 8 h.

  14. Neuroprotective effect of penehyclidine hydrochloride on focal cerebral ischemiareperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuicui Yu; Junke Wang

    2013-01-01

    Penehyclidine hydrochloride can promote microcirculation and reduce vascular permeability. However, the role of penehyclidine hydrochloride in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury remains unclear. In this study, in vivo middle cerebral artery occlusion models were established in experimental rats, and penehyclidine hydrochloride pretreatment was given via intravenous injection prior to model establishment. Tetrazolium chloride, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling and immunohistochemical staining showed that, penehyclidine hydrochloride pretreatment markedly attenuated neuronal histopathological changes in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum, reduced infarction size, increased the expression level of Bcl-2, decreased the expression level of caspase-3, and inhibited neuronal apoptosis in rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Xanthine oxidase and thiobarbituric acid chromogenic results showed that penehyclidine hydrochloride upregulated the activity of superoxide dismutase and downregulated the concentration of malondialdehyde in the ischemic cerebral cortex and hippocampus, as well as reduced the concentration of extracellular excitatory amino acids in rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. In addition, penehyclidine hydrochloride inhibited the expression level of the NR1 subunit in hippocampal nerve cells in vitro following oxygen-glucose deprivation, as detected by PCR. Experimental findings indicate that penehyclidine hydrochloride attenuates neuronal apoptosis and oxidative stress injury after focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, thus exerting a neuroprotective effect.

  15. Identification of polymorphism in ethylone hydrochloride: synthesis and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheux, Chad R; Alarcon, Idralyn Q; Copeland, Catherine R; Cameron, T Stanley; Linden, Anthony; Grossert, J Stuart

    2016-08-01

    Ethylone, a synthetic cathinone with psychoactive properties, is a designer drug which has appeared on the recreational drug market in recent years. Since 2012, illicit shipments of ethylone hydrochloride have been intercepted with increasing frequency at the Canadian border. Analysis has revealed that ethylone hydrochloride exists as two distinct polymorphs. In addition, several minor impurities were detected in some seized exhibits. In this study, the two conformational polymorphs of ethylone hydrochloride have been synthesized and fully characterized by FTIR, FT-Raman, powder XRD, GC-MS, ESI-MS/MS and NMR ((13) C CPMAS, (1) H, (13) C). The two polymorphs can be distinguished by vibrational spectroscopy, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The FTIR data are applied to the identification of both polymorphs of ethylone hydrochloride (mixed with methylone hydrochloride) in a laboratory submission labelled as 'Ocean Snow Ultra'. The data presented in this study will assist forensic scientists in the differentiation of the two ethylone hydrochloride polymorphs. This report, alongside our recent article on the single crystal X-ray structure of a second polymorph of this synthetic cathinone, is the first to confirm polymorphism in ethylone hydrochloride. © 2015 Canada Border Services Agency. Drug Testing and Analysis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2015 Canada Border Services Agency. Drug Testing and Analysis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of floating tablets of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and polyethylene oxide using ranitidine hydrochloride as a model drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharti, Kp; Thapa, P; Budhathoki, U; Bhargava, A

    2012-10-01

    The present study was carried out with an objective of preparation and in vitro evaluation of floating tablets of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) using ranitidine hydrochloride as a model drug. The floating tablets were based on effervescent approach using sodium bicarbonate a gas generating agent. The tablets were prepared by dry granulation method. The effect of polymers concentration and viscosity grades of HPMC on drug release profile was evaluated. The effect of sodium bicarbonate and stearic acid on drug release profile and floating properties were also investigated. The result of in vitro dissolution study showed that the drug release profile could be sustained by increasing the concentration of HPMC K15MCR and Polyox WSR303. The formulation containing HPMC K15MCR and Polyox WSR303 at the concentration of 13.88% showed 91.2% drug release at the end of 24 hours. Changing the viscosity grade of HPMC from K15MCR to K100MCR had no significant effect on drug release profile. Sodium bicarbonate and stearic acid in combination showed no significant effect on drug release profile. The formulations containing sodium bicarbonate 20 mg per tablet showed desired buoyancy (floating lag time of about 2 minutes and total floating time of >24 hours). The present study shows that polymers like HPMC K15MCR and Polyox WSR303 in combination with sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent can be used to develop sustained release floating tablets of ranitidine hydrochloride.

  17. A SIMPLE AND-SENSITIVE STABILITY-INDICATING UHPLC-DAD METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF CEFETAMET PIVOXIL HYDROCHLORIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbacki, Piotr; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta; Zalewski, Przemysław; Oszczapowicz, Irena; Jelińska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    A fast and sensitive UHPLC-DAD method was developed and subsequently validated for determination of cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride in the presence of its degradation products. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a Waters Acquity BEH C18, (2.1 x 100 mm, 1.7 µm) column. The mobile phase was composed of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile (40 : 60, v/v) at the flow rate 0.7 mL/min. The detection wavelength was 265 nm and the temperature was 30 °C. Cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride was susceptible to degradation under the influence of sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid and in the conditions of increased temperature and relative humidity. However, it was stable after irradiation, in increased temperature in dry air and in the presence of oxidizing agent. The developed UHPLC-DAD method was linear over the concentration range of 10-240 µg/mL (r2 = 0.9999; n = 12). The obtained RSD values were less than 2%, demonstrating that the described procedure is precise. The accuracy was also confirmed (mean recoveries were 97.79-102.08%). Under applied chromatographic conditions LOD and LOQ values were 2.08 mg/mL and 6.29 mg/mL, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied in determination of cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride in aqueous solutions as well as in the solid state.

  18. Formulation Development and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablet of Cetirizine Hydrochloride: A Novel Drug Delivery for Pediatrics and Geriatrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Singh, Mankaran; Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Gurmeet

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in fast disintegrating tablets have brought convenience in dosing to pediatric and elderly patients who have trouble in swallowing tablets. The objective of the present study was to prepare the fast disintegrating tablet of Cetirizine Hydrochloride for allergic and respiratory disorders. As precision of dosing and patient's compliance become important prerequisite for a long-term treatment, there is a need to develop a formulation for this drug which overcomes problems such as difficulty in swallowing, inconvenience in administration while travelling, and patient's acceptability. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken with a view to develop a fast disintegrating tablet of Cetirizine Hydrochloride which offers a new range of products having desired characteristics and intended benefits. Superdisintegrants such as Sodium Starch Glycolate were optimized. Different binders were optimized along with optimized superdisintegrant concentration. The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, disintegration time and uniformity of content. Optimized formulation was evaluated by in vitro dissolution test, drug excipient compatibility and accelerated stability study. It was concluded that fast disintegrating tablets of Cetirizine Hydrochloride were formulated successfully with desired characteristics which disintegrated rapidly, provide rapid onset of action, and enhance the patient convenience and compliance. PMID:26556203

  19. Formulation Development and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablet of Cetirizine Hydrochloride: A Novel Drug Delivery for Pediatrics and Geriatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in fast disintegrating tablets have brought convenience in dosing to pediatric and elderly patients who have trouble in swallowing tablets. The objective of the present study was to prepare the fast disintegrating tablet of Cetirizine Hydrochloride for allergic and respiratory disorders. As precision of dosing and patient's compliance become important prerequisite for a long-term treatment, there is a need to develop a formulation for this drug which overcomes problems such as difficulty in swallowing, inconvenience in administration while travelling, and patient’s acceptability. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken with a view to develop a fast disintegrating tablet of Cetirizine Hydrochloride which offers a new range of products having desired characteristics and intended benefits. Superdisintegrants such as Sodium Starch Glycolate were optimized. Different binders were optimized along with optimized superdisintegrant concentration. The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, disintegration time and uniformity of content. Optimized formulation was evaluated by in vitro dissolution test, drug excipient compatibility and accelerated stability study. It was concluded that fast disintegrating tablets of Cetirizine Hydrochloride were formulated successfully with desired characteristics which disintegrated rapidly, provide rapid onset of action, and enhance the patient convenience and compliance.

  20. Microwave-Assisted Hydrolysis of Chitosan from Shrimp Shell Waste for Glucosammine Hydrochlorid Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaeni, Ahmad; Safitri, Endang; Fuadah, Badrotul; Nyoman Sudiana, I.

    2017-05-01

    Chitin is the most widespread renewable natural sources following cellulose as the main source of chitosan. Chitin is isolated from crustacean waste and shrimp shells. Chitosan is derived from chitin throuhgt demineralisation, deproteination, decolorisation and deacetylation process using chemicals such as sodium hydroxide, hydrogen chloride and acetone. Glucosamine hydrochloride (GlcN-Cl) can be produced by hydrolysis of chitosan by using hydrogen chloride. During deacetylation and hydrolysis the solution is heated by hotplate or furnace. In this paper we use microwave instead of hotplate for production chitosan and GlcN-Cl. The research investigates effect of microwaves to amount of rendemen and their property. The chitosan was characterized its moisture content, solubility, and degree of deacetylation (DDA). Whereas the glucosammine hydrochloride characterized its functional groups using FTIR and crystallization by using X-Ray Difraction (XRD). The experimental results show that the use of microwave energy on deacetilation of chitosan and hydrolisis processes can decrease time consuming and reactant concentration during production. the DDA value obtained was very high from 70 to 85%. The results also show that microwaves meet chitosan and GlcN-Cl standards.

  1. Oxidation of Tetracaine Hydrochloride by Chloramine-B in Acid Medium: Kinetic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayachamarajapura Pranesh Shubha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetracaine hydrochloride (TCH is one of the potent local anaesthetics. A kinetic study of oxidation of tetracaine hydrochloride by sodium N-chlorobenzenesulfonamide (chloramine-B or CAB has been carried in HClO4 medium at 303 K. The rate shows first-order dependence on [CAB]o, shows fractional–order dependence on [substrate]o, and is self-governing on acid concentration. Decrease of dielectric constant of the medium, by adding methanol, increased the rate. Variation of ionic strength and addition of benzenesulfonamide or NaCl have no significant effect on the rate. The reaction was studied at different temperatures and the activation parameters have been evaluated. The stoichiometry of the reaction was found to be 1 : 5 and the oxidation products were identified by spectral analysis. The conjugate free acid C6H5SO2NHCl of CAB is postulated as the reactive oxidizing species. The observed results have been explained by plausible mechanism and the related rate law has been deduced.

  2. Spectrophotometric Assay of Phenylephrine Hydrochloride Using 4-Aminoantipyrine and Copper (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theia'a N. Al-Sabha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A new spectrophotometric method is proposed for determination of phenylephrine hydrochloride. The method is based on the coupling of 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP with phenylephrine hydrochloride (PEH to give a new ligand that reacts with copper (II in the presence of sodium tetraborate buffer solution of pH 9.00 at 50 °C to give an intense red colored chelate having maximum absorption at 480 nm. The optimization of the experimental conditions is described. The method has been used for the determination of 2.0–50.0 μg/ml of PEH. The molar absorptivity is 5.34×103 L.mol.-1cm.-1 and the accuracy of the method is achieved by the value of average recovery (101.28 % and the precision is supported by relative standard deviation (RSD=1.25 % values. The results of the method was compared with those of the standard method. The interference of excipients was studied. The mechanism of the chemical reaction has been proposed. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of the PEH in pharmaceutical syrup formulations.

  3. Drug: D04049 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04049 Drug Ertapenem sodium (USAN); Invanz (TN) C22H24N3O7S. Na 497.1233 497.4966 D04049.gif Antibacterial...arbapenems J01DH03 Ertapenem D04049 Ertapenem sodium (USAN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antibacterial...s Beta-lactam, Other Ertapenem D04049 Ertapenem sodium (USAN) Antiinfectives [BR:br08307] Antibacterials C

  4. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrochemiluminescence for determination of cloperastine hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) behavior of cloperastine hydrochloride. Methods ECL intensity of tris (2,2′-bipyridyl) rutheniumo(Ⅱ) was enhanced, the method for the determination of cloperastine hydrochloride was established using capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with electrochemilumolinescence (ECL) detection. Results Under the optimum conditions, ECL intensity varied linearly with cloperastine hydrochloride concentration from 7.0×10-6g/mL to 1.0×10-4g/mL. The detection l...

  5. COMPARISON OF DROTAVERINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND VALETHAMATE BROMIDE ON CERVICAL DILATATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallika Selvaraj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM To compare the two drugs drotaverine hydrochloride and valethamate bromide and their effects on cervical dilatation and labour duration. METHODOLOGY It is a prospective study undertaken at Government Rajaji Hospital on 150 randomly selected primigravidae patients. RESULTS The duration of active phase of first stage of labour was significantly reduced (p value 0.003, rate of cervical dilatation was higher (p value 0.0001 with drotaverine hydrochloride. CONCLUSION Drotaverine hydrochloride is a safe, potent and effective drug to be used in the active phase of labour.

  6. Study on donepezil hydrochloride selective electrode%盐酸多奈哌齐药物电极的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任凌燕; 徐刚; 刘火安

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To prepare a polyvinyl chloride membrance donepezil hydrochloride selective electrode for assay of donepezil hydrochloride.Methods:To be made with sodium tetraphenylborate and donepezil hydrochloride ionophore as the electroactive material.Design with the electrode linear response range for the donepezil hydrochloride as the object function for optimization,the membrance composition was ionophore.PVC-membrance solvent di -n-octylphthalate(3.4:28.3:68.3,w/w).Then the donepezil hydrochloride selective electrode was prepared and its performance index was evaluated.Results:The electrode showed a linear Nernst response in the range of 1.78×10~(-6)-1.0×10~(-1)mol·L~(-1) in a buffer solution of pH 5 with a slope of 42 mV/pC at 10℃.The detection limit is 5.3×10~(-7) mol·L~(-1).Conclusion:The electrode has high selectivity,fast response and good reproducibility.Its result is accurate and reliable.It can be used to determine the donepezil hydrochloride.content in drugs.%目的:研制一种用于测定盐酸多奈哌齐含量的药物选择件电极.方法:采用四苯硼酸钠与盐酸多奈哌齐生成的离子缔合物为电活性物质,以电极响应范围为优化目标函数,按电活性物-PVC-邻苯二甲酸二正辛酯3.4:28.3:68.3(w/w)的比例制备PVC膜,研制盐酸多奈哌齐药物选择性电极,并对电极的性能指标进行评价.结果:在pH 5的盐酸-氢氧化钠溶液中,电极的线性范围为1.78×10~(-6)~1,0×10~(-1) mol·L~(-1),斜率为42 mV/pC(10℃),检出限为5.3×10~(-7) mol·L~(-1).结论:该电极选择性好,响应快,重现性好,测定结果准确可靠,可用于盐酸多奈哌齐药物的含量测定.

  7. Development of hydroxyapatite bone cement for controlled drug release via tetracycline hydrochloride

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sayed Mahmood Rabiee

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the preparation and characterization of drug–hydroxyapatite cement. The hydroxyapatite (HA) cement has been synthesized by using tricalcium phosphate, calcium carbonate and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous with sodium hydrogen phosphate as liquid phase. The effect of added tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) as drug on final phases, microstructure, setting behaviour and compressive strength has been studied. The drug release rate was first order within the first day and then was zero order. No obvious difference could be detected in XRD patterns of the TCH–HA cement with various amounts of drug. By increasing the drug concentration, mechanical strength of cement was decreased and its setting time was increased. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of using HA cement as a carrier for drug delivery.

  8. A novel formulation for mebeverine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hamid, Sameh M; Abdel-Hady, Seham E; El-Shamy, Abdel-Hamid A; El-Dessouky, Hadir F

    2007-10-01

    The antispasmodic drug mebeverine hydrochloride was formulated into a film-forming gel to be used as a topical local anesthetic. A mixture of cellulose derivatives was used as a base. Additives were used to enhance the release as well as the residence time. Formulations were characterized in terms of drug release, mucoadhesion and rheology. Clinically, the selected formula has shown faster onset (p = 0.0156), longer duration (p = 0.0313), better film residence (p = 0.0313), and no foreign body sensation (p = 0.0313) in comparison to Solcoseryl dental paste. Histopathological examination showed no change in inflammatory cells count, concluding that this topical anesthetic is efficacious and safe orally.

  9. "Sustained release formulation of Metoclopramide Hydrochloride "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabbagh MA

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research, several formulations containing, an anti emetic agent (Metoclopramide hydrochloride, a hydrophilic polymer (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and a hydrophobic polymer (ethylcellulose 10 cP were prepared by direct compression. Different factors such as: the effect of different ratios of the polymers, particle size, pressure force and differences of release in acidic and distilled water as media were investigated. After developing the ideal formulation, the effect of changing the ratio of drug in core: coating on the formulation was investigated. Coating of tablets with ethylcellulose, changed the release mechanism of drug and shifted it to near zero order release. The results showed that except when matrices were coated with ethylcellulose, drug release was proportioned to the square root of time, which might be due to the change of release pattern from matrix to reservoir system.

  10. In vitro evaluation of the stability of ranitidine hydrochloride in total parenteral nutrient mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M F; Hak, L J; Dukes, G

    1990-07-01

    The stability of ranitidine hydrochloride in various total parenteral nutrient (TPN) solutions was studied, as well as the effect of ranitidine on the stability of lipid emulsion and amino acids in these solutions. Ranitidine hydrochloride 25 mg/mL was added to each of the following mixtures to make final concentrations of approximately 50 and 100 mg/L: (1) TPN solution containing 4.5% amino acids, 22.7% dextrose, and electrolytes; (2) 10% lipid emulsion; (3) TPN solution containing 3.7% amino acids, 18.5% dextrose, 3.7% lipid emulsion, and electrolytes (all-in-one mixture); and (4) 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Mixtures were tested at room temperature and at 4 degrees C and were either protected from or exposed to fluorescent light. Sampling was done at 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours, and the ranitidine concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Samples were also analyzed for lipid particle size distribution and for amino acid content. At 48 hours, the all-in-one mixtures retained 86.0% to 91.4% of the initial ranitidine concentration. With one exception (ranitidine 50 mg/L in 0.9% sodium chloride injection, stored at room temperature and not protected from light), all other solutions retained at least 90% of the initial concentration at 48 hours. No visible changes in color and minimal changes in pH values were noted. There were no important changes in lipid particle-size distribution; 96% of all particles counted from any mixture were smaller than 1.44 microns in diameter at 48 hours. Ranitidine did not have an effect on amino acid concentrations in these mixtures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Effect of sertraline hydrochloride on dialysis hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dheenan, S; Venkatesan, J; Grubb, B P; Henrich, W L

    1998-04-01

    Hemodialysis hypotension (HH) is a very common disorder and has a multifactorial etiology. Autonomic dysfunction occurs in up to 50% of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and plays a key role in HH in some patients. Sertraline hydrochloride, a central nervous system serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has been shown to be an effective treatment of hypotension caused by autonomic dysfunction in disorders such as neurocardiogenic syncope and idiopathic orthostatic hypotension. This study sought to determine whether sertraline was effective in ameliorating HH. A retrospective chart analysis was performed that included nine consecutive patients (aged > or = 54 years, time on hemodialysis > or = 2.2 years) placed on sertraline (50 to 100 mg/d) for depression who also had HH (defined as prehemodialysis systolic blood pressure [SBP] or = 40 mm Hg decrease in SBP during hemodialysis, SBP sertraline. The data from a 6-week pre-sertraline period were compared with the data from a 6-week sertraline period (defined as 6 weeks after drug begun). Blood pressure medications were unchanged during the trial period of sertraline. However, nadir mean arterial pressure recorded during a given dialysis session in the pre-sertraline period (55+/-4 mm Hg) was significantly lower than that recorded in the sertraline period (68+/-5 mm Hg; P sertraline period was significantly lower than that during the pre-sertraline period (mean, 0.6+/-0.2 episodes per session v 1.4+/-0.3 episodes per session; P sertraline period was also significantly less than that during the pre-sertraline period (mean, 1.7+/-0.8 interventions v 11.0+/-3.0 interventions; P sertraline hydrochloride reduces HH in some patients with ESRD. A possible mechanism for this effect is sertraline-induced attenuation of the paradoxical sympathetic withdrawal that may underlie HH in some patients with ESRD.

  12. Dyeing Characteristics of Chitosan Biguanidine Hydrochloride Treated Wool Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xue; HE JIN-xin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chitosan biguanidine hydrochloride(CGH)has been synthesized by the guanidineylation reaction of chitosan with dicyandiamide.The structures of CGH were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and 13CNMR spectra.

  13. Non-pigmented fixed drug eruption induced by eprazinone hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Kenichi; Tsuboi, Hiromi; Maejima, Hideki; Arai, Satoru; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2005-12-01

    A 68-year-old woman developed an upper respiratory tract infection in November 2002 and was treated with eprazinone hydrochloride, serrapeptase, carbocysteine and clarithromycin. Three days after the start of treatment, the patient noted erythema on her axilla, buttock and inguinal regions. The erythema subsided in 7 days although slight pigmentation remained. However, 7 days later the pigmentation completely disappeared. Oral eprazinone hydrochloride was given as a challenge, and 1 day later the erythema re-appeared in the same areas as on initial presentation (axilla, buttock, and inguinal regions). A fixed erythema without lasting pigmentation is attributed to eprazinone hydrochloride. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed as having a nonpigmented fixed drug eruption associated with eprazinone hydrochloride.

  14. Antifungal activity of hydrochloride salts of tylophorinidine and tylophorinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Mini; Parab, Rajashri R; Manju, Sreedharannair L; Desai, Dattatraya C; Mahajan, Girish B

    2012-09-01

    The antimicrobial efficacy of two phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids, tylophorinidine hydrochloride (TdnH) and tylophorinine hydrochloride (TnnH), isolated from the plant Tylophora indica (local name, Antamul) was evaluated. These were screened for in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activities. Both compounds exhibited potent antifungal activity displaying minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) in the range of 2-4 microg/mL for TdnH and 0.6-2.5 microg/mL for TnnH against Candida species.

  15. Treatment of allergic conjunctivitis with olopatadine hydrochloride eye drops

    OpenAIRE

    Eiichi Uchio

    2008-01-01

    Eiichi UchioDepartment of Ophthalmology, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, Fukuoka, JapanAbstract: Olopatadine hydrochloride exerts a wide range of pharmacological actions such as histamine H1 receptor antagonist action, chemical mediator suppressive action, and eosinophil infiltration suppressive action. Olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% ophthalmic solution (Patanol®) was introduced to the market in Japan in October 2006. In a conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC) test, olopatadine...

  16. COMPARISON OF DROTAVERINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND VALETHAMATE BROMIDE ON CERVICAL DILATATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mallika Selvaraj; Sumathi

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the two drugs drotaverine hydrochloride and valethamate bromide and their effects on cervical dilatation and labour duration. METHODOLOGY It is a prospective study undertaken at Government Rajaji Hospital on 150 randomly selected primigravidae patients. RESULTS The duration of active phase of first stage of labour was significantly reduced (p value 0.003), rate of cervical dilatation was higher (p value 0.0001) with drotaverine hydrochloride. CONCLUS...

  17. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Drotaverine Hydrochloride and Paracetamol in Tablet

    OpenAIRE

    Mahaparale Sonali; Telekone R; Raut R; Damle S; Kasture P

    2010-01-01

    Two simple, accurate and reproducible spectrophotometric methods; Q analysis and first order derivative method have been described for the simultaneous estimation of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in combined tablet dosage form. Absorption maxima of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in distilled water were found to be 303.5 nm and 243.5 nm respectively. Beer′s law was obeyed in the concentration range 5-50 µg/ml for drotaverine and 5-60 µg/ml for paracetamo...

  18. Floating matrix dosage form for propranolol hydrochloride based on gas formation technique: development and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Kiran; Umadevi, S; Vaghani, Subhash

    2010-01-01

    Gastroretentive tablets of propranolol hydrochloride were developed by direct compression method using citric acid and sodium bicarbonate as the effervescent base. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose; HPMC K15M was used to prepare the floating tablets to retard the drug release for 12h in stomach. Na-carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) or carbopol 934P was added to alter the drug release profile or the dimensional stability of the formulation. Dicalcium phosphate (DCP) was used as filler. Formulations were evaluated for floating lag time, duration of floating, dimensional stability, drug content and in vitro drug release profile. The formulations were found to have floating lag time less than 1min. It was found that the dimensional stability of the formulations increase with increasing concentration of the swelling agent. The release mechanism of propranolol hydrochloride from floating tablets was evaluated on the basis of Peppas and Higuchi model. The ânâ value of the formulations ranged from 0.5201 to 0.7367 (0.5DCP, 3.75% citric acid and 18.75% sodium bicarbonate seemed most desirable. FTIR, DSC and XRPD studies indicated the absence of any significant chemical interaction within dug and excipients. Stability study of optimized formulation revealed no significant change and found to be stable.

  19. A Post Hoc Analysis of D-Threo-Methylphenidate Hydrochloride (Focalin) Versus D,l-Threo-Methylphenidate Hydrochloride (Ritalin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Margaret; Wasdell, Michael; Patin, John

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clinical measures of the benefit/risk ratio in a post hoc analysis of a clinical trial of d-threo-methylphenidate hydrochloride (d-MPH) and d,l-threo-methylphenidate hydrochloride (d,l-MPH). Method: Data from a phase III clinical trial was used to compare equimolar doses of d-MPH and d,l-MPH treatment for…

  20. Simultaneous Estimation of Gemcitabine Hydrochloride and Capecitabine Hydrochloride in Combined Tablet Dosage Form by RP-HPLC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of gemcitabine hydrochloride and capecitabine hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form. An inertsil ODS-3 C-18 column having dimensions of 250×4.6 mm and particle size of 5 µm, with mobile phase containing a mixture of acetonitrile : water : triethyelamine in the ratio of (70 : 28 : 2v/v was used. The pH of mobile phase was adjusted to 4.0 with ortho-phosphoric acid. The flow rate was 1 mL/min and the column effluents were monitored at 260 nm. The retention time for gemcitabine hydrochloride and capecitabine hydrochloride was found to be 2.76 and 2.3 min respectively. The proposed method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and robustness. The method was found to be linear in the range of 10-50 µg/mL and 4-24 µg/mL for gemcitabine hydrochloride and capecitabine hydrochloride, with regression coefficient r = 0.999 and r = 0.999, respectively.

  1. SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF MOXIFLOXACIN HCl AND BROMFENAC SODIUM IN EYE DROPS BY SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Vyas*, J. B. Dave and C. N. Patel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride is a fluorinated quinolone antibacterial and Bromfenac Sodium is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory. The combination formulation is used for the treatment of the reduction of post operative inflammatory conditions of the eye. Three new, simple, accurate and precise UV spectrophotometric methods have been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride (MOX and Bromfenac Sodium (BROM in their combined dosage forms. Method - I is based on simultaneous equation method using two wavelengths, 294 nm (λmax of MOX and 265 nm (λmax of BROM. Method - II Q‐absorption Ratio method using two wavelengths, 294 nm (λmax of MOX and 276.66 nm (Isoabsorptive point. Method - III involves the use of First order derivative technique. Here 301.71 nm, the zero crossing point of Bromfenac Sodium, was selected for the determination of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride and 293.22 nm, the zero crossing point of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride, was selected for the determination of Bromfenac Sodium. Methanolic HCL (0.1 M was the solvent used in all three methods. Moxifloxacin showed linearity in the range of 1-14 μg/ml and Bromfenac showed linearity in the range of 1-14 μg/ml in all the methods. All methods were validated statistically and recovery studies were carried out. All methods were found to be accurate, precise and reproducible. These methods were applied to the assay of the drugs in marketed formulation, which were found in the range of 98.0% to 102.0% of the labelled value for both Moxifloxacin and Bromfenac. Hence, the methods herein described can be successfully applied in quality control of combined pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  2. Determination of Ephedrine Hydrochloride and Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride in Heat Oral Solution for Children by HPLC%HPLC法测定小儿清热止咳口服液中盐酸麻黄碱和盐酸伪麻黄碱的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃晓媚; 韦薇; 黄妹春; 周征福; 陆红萍; 陈晓军; 黄园

    2012-01-01

    The HPLC determination method was used to detect the ephedrine hydrochloride and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride in heat oral solution for children by C18 ( 4. 6 mmX 250mm, 5jum ) and methanol-0. 02mol/L sodium dihydrogen phosphate ( with 0. 2% triethylamine,adjusted with phosphoric acid pH = 2. 5,9 : 91 ) were used as the mobile phase. The flow was set at 1.0ml · min-1,and the detection wavelength was 210nm. The precision and stability were fine in those conditions. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0. 102 ~1. 02jig for ephedrine hydrochloride ( r =0. 9999 ) and 0.1016~1. 6256jj.g for pseudoephedrine hydrochloride ( r =0. 9999 ). The average recovery rates ( n =6 ) was 97. 62% for ephedrine hydrochloride and 97. 55% for pseudoephedrine hydrochloride. The proposed method can be used in simultaneously quantitative analysis of ephedrine hydrochloride and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride in heat oral solution for children.%采用C18色谱柱(4.6 mmX250mm,5μm),以甲醇-0.02mol/L磷酸二氢钠溶液(含0.2%三乙胺,磷酸调pH值2.5,9:91)为流动相,流速1.0ml.rnin-1,检测波长210nm,建立反相高效液相色谱法测定小儿清热止咳口服液中盐酸麻黄碱和盐酸伪麻黄碱含量.结果表明,盐酸麻黄碱在0.102~1.02μg范围内与峰面积呈良好线性关系,r=0.9999,平均加样回收率为97.62%,RSD为1.56%(n=6);盐酸伪麻黄碱在0.1016~1.6256μg范围内与峰面积呈良好线性关系,r=0.9999,平均加样回收率为97.55%,RSD为1.84%(n=6).本方法分离度好,具有良好的重复性,可以同时测定小儿清热止咳口服液中盐酸麻黄碱和盐酸伪麻黄碱的含量.

  3. Interaction of articaine hydrochloride with prokaryotic membrane lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygre, Henning; Moe, Grete; Nerdal, Willy; Holmsen, Holm

    2009-01-01

    Local anesthetics are the most commonly used drugs in dentistry, with a wide range of effects, including antimicrobial activity. High antimicrobial effects have recently been reported on oral microbes from articaine hydrochloride, revealed by the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration. Additionally, articaine has recently been used as an alkaline component in endodontic materials with a proposed antibacterial activity. However, the detailed mechanisms of action have not been discussed. We determined the Langmuir surface pressure/molecular area isotherms of prokaryotic lipid monolayers, as well as the phospholipid phase transitions, by employing differential scanning calorimetry on unilamellar prokaryotic liposomes (bilayers). Articaine hydrochloride was found to interact with the prokaryotic membrane lipids in both monolayers and bilayers. An increase of the phospholipid molecular area of acidic glycerophospholipids as well as a decrease in phase transition temperature and enthalpy were found with increasing articaine hydrochloride concentration. The thermodynamic changes by adding articaine hydrochloride to prokaryotic membrane lipids are potentially related to the effects observed from antimicrobial peptides resulting from membrane insertion, aggregate composition, pore formation, and lysis. Interaction of articaine hydrochloride with prokaryotic membrane lipids is indicated. Hence, further research is necessary to gain insight into where these compounds exert their effects at the molecular level.

  4. Iontophoretic transdermal delivery of buspirone hydrochloride in hairless mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khalili, Mohammad; Meidan, Victor M; Michniak, Bozena B

    2003-01-01

    The transdermal delivery of buspirone hydrochloride across hairless mouse skin and the combined effect of iontophoresis and terpene enhancers were evaluated in vitro using Franz diffusion cells. Iontophoretic delivery was optimized by evaluating the effect of drug concentration, current density, and pH of the vehicle solution. Increasing the current density from 0.05 to 0.1 mA/cm2 resulted in doubling of the iontophoretic flux of buspirone hydrochloride, while increasing drug concentration from 1% to 2% had no effect on flux. Using phosphate buffer to adjust the pH of the drug solution decreased the buspirone hydrochloride iontophoretic flux relative to water solutions. Incorporating buspirone hydrochloride into ethanol:water (50:50 vol/vol) based gel formulations using carboxymethylcellulose and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose had no effect on iontophoretic delivery. Incorporation of three terpene enhancers (menthol, cineole, and terpineol) into the gel resulted in a synergistic effect when combined with iontophoresis. Menthol was the most active enhancer, and when combined with iontophoresis it was possible to deliver 10 mg/cm2/day of buspirone hydrochloride.

  5. Evaluation of Chitosan Based Polymeric Matrices for Sustained Stomach Specific Delivery of Propranolol Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhi Dubey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to explore the potential of Chitosan based polymeric matrices as carrier for sustained stomach specific delivery of model drug Propranolol Hydrochloride. Briefly, single unit hydrodynamically balanced (HBS capsule formulations were prepared by encapsulating in hard gelatin capsules, intimately mixed physical mixtures of drug, and cationic low molecular weight Chitosan (LMCH in combination with either anionic medium viscosity sodium alginate (MSA or sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMCNa. The effect of incorporation of nonionic polymers, namely, tamarind seed gum (TSG and microcrystalline cellulose (MCCP, was also investigated. It was observed that HBS formulations remained buoyant for up to 6 h in 0.1 M HCl, when LMCH : anionic/nonionic polymer ratio was at least 4 : 1. It was also observed that LMCH has formed polyelectrolyte complex (PEC with MSA (4 : 1.5 ratio and CMCNa (4 : 1 ratio in situ during the gelation of HBS formulations in 0.1 M HCl. The retardation in drug release was attributed to the PEC formation between LMCH and MSA/CMCNa. Incorporation of MCCP (rapid gel formation and TSG (Plug formation was found to be innovative. From the data, it is suggested that Chitosan based polymeric matrices may constitute an excellent carrier for stomach specific drug delivery.

  6. Compatibility of cholecalciferol, haloperidol, imipramine hydrochloride, levodopa/carbidopa, lorazepam, minocycline hydrochloride, tacrolimus monohydrate, terbinafine, tramadol hydrochloride and valsartan in SyrSpend SF PH4 oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonini, H C; Silva, S L; Cunha, C N; Brandão, M A F; Ferreira, A O

    2016-04-01

    A challenge with compounding oral liquid formulations is the limited availability of data to support the physical, chemical and microbiological stability of the formulation. This poses a patient safety concern and a risk for medication errors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of the following active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in 10 oral suspensions, using SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid) as the suspending vehicle: cholecalciferol 50,000 IU/mL, haloperidol 0.5 mg/mL, imipramine hydrochloride 5.0 mg/mL, levodopa/carbidopa 5.0/1.25 mg/mL, lorazepam 1.0 mg/mL, minocycline hydrochloride 10.0 mg/mL, tacrolimus monohydrate 1.0 mg/mL, terbinafine 25.0 mg/mL, tramadol hydrochloride 10.0 mg/mL and valsartan 4.0 mg/mL. The suspensions were stored both refrigerated (2 - 8 degrees C) and at controlled room temperature (20 - 25 degrees C). This is the first stability study for these APIs in SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid). Further, the stability of haloperidol,ilmipramine hydrochloride, minocycline, and valsartan in oral suspension has not been previously reported in the literature. Compatibility was assessed by measuring percent recovery at varying time points throughout a 90 days period. Quantification of the APIs was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV). Given the percentage of recovery of the APIs within the suspensions, the beyond-use date of the final preparations was found to be at least 90 days for most suspensions both refrigerated and at room temperature. Exceptions were: Minocycline hydrochloride at both storage temperatures (60 days), levodopa/carbidopa at room temperature (30 days), and lorazepam at room temperature (60 days). This suggests that compounded suspensions of APIs from different pharmacological classes in SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid) are stable.

  7. 78 FR 2416 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Rybix® (Tramadol Hydrochloride) Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... (Tramadol Hydrochloride) Tablets AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... (tramadol hydrochloride) tablets. Based upon the facts presented, CBP has concluded in the final determination that India is the country of origin of the Rybix (tramadol hydrochloride) tablets for purposes of...

  8. Fibrillar films obtained from sodium soap fibers and polyelectrolyte multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawko, Scott A; Schmidt, Christine E

    2011-08-01

    An objective of tissue engineering is to create synthetic polymer scaffolds with a fibrillar microstructure similar to the extracellular matrix. Here, we present a novel method for creating polymer fibers using the layer-by-layer method and sacrificial templates composed of sodium soap fibers. Soap fibers were prepared from neutralized fatty acids using a sodium chloride crystal dissolution method. Polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) of polystyrene sulfonate and polyallylamine hydrochloride were deposited onto the soap fibers, crosslinked with glutaraldehyde, and then the soap fibers were leached with warm water and ethanol. The morphology of the resulting PEM structures was a dense network of fibers surrounded by a nonfibrillar matrix. Microscopy revealed that the PEM fibers were solid structures, presumably composed of polyelectrolytes complexed with residual fatty acids. These fibrillar PEM films were found to support the attachment of human dermal fibroblasts.

  9. Spectrophotometric determination of meclizine hydrochloride and pyridoxine hydrochloride in laboratory prepared mixtures and in their pharmaceutical preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Maha M.; Elzanfaly, Eman S.; El-Zeiny, Mohamed B.; Ramadan, Nesreen K.; Kelani, Khadiga M.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, three rapid, simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of meclizine hydrochloride in the presence of pyridoxine hydrochloride without previous separation. The methods under study are dual wavelength (DWL), ratio difference (RD) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT). On the other hand, pyridoxine hydrochloride (PYH) was determined directly at 291 nm. The methods obey Beer's law in the range of (5-50 μg/mL) for both compounds. All the methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines where the accuracy was found to be 98.29, 99.59, 100.42 and 100.62% for DWL, RD, CWT and PYH; respectively. Moreover the precision of the methods were calculated in terms of %RSD and it was found to be 0.545, 0.372, 1.287 and 0.759 for DWL, RD,CWT and PYH; respectively. The selectivity of the proposed methods was tested using laboratory prepared mixtures and assessed by applying the standard addition technique. So, they can be used for the routine analysis of pyridoxine hydrochloride and meclizine hydrochloride in quality-control laboratories.

  10. Stability of ranitidine hydrochloride in total parenteral nutrient solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S E; Bayliff, C D

    1985-03-01

    The stability of ranitidine hydrochloride was studied in a standard total parenteral nutrition (TPN) solution. The Canadian formulation of ranitidine hydrochloride (25 mg/mL) was added in 100-, 200-, and 300-mg doses to approximately 1200 mL of a TPN solution and allowed to stand at room temperature (23 degrees C) for seven days. During this time, samples were drawn at least once a day, and the ranitidine concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The ranitidine concentration declined at roughly the same rate regardless of the initial concentration. During the study period, each of the three different concentrations declined to less than 70% of the initial concentration. Approximately 10% of the initial concentration was lost in 48 hours. Ranitidine hydrochloride admixtures were stable for up to 48 hours at room temperature in this standard TPN solution.

  11. Temperature-dependent THz vibrational spectra of clenbuterol hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, YuPing; Lei, XiangYun; Yue, Ai; Zhang, Zhenwei

    2013-04-01

    Using the high-resolution Terahertz Time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and the standard sample pellet technique, the far-infrared vibrational spectra of clenbuterol hydrochloride (CH), a β 2-adrenergic agonist for decreasing fat deposition and enhancing protein accretion, were measured in temperature range of 77-295 K. Between 0.2 and 3.6 THz (6.6-120.0 cm-1), seven highly resolved spectral features, strong line-narrowing and a frequency blue-shift were observed with cooling. However, ractopamine hydrochloride, with some structural and pharmacological similarities to clenbuterol hydrochloride, showed no spectral features, indicating high sensitivity and strong specificity of THz-TDS. These results could be used for the rapid and nondestructive CH residual detection in food safety control.

  12. Spectrophotometric estimation of pioglitazone hydrochloride in tablet dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basniwal Pawan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, rapid, and precise methods - linear regression equation (LRE and standard absorptivity - were developed and validated for the estimation of pioglitazone hydrochloride in tablet dosage form. The maximum absorbance (lmax of pioglitazone hydrochloride was found to be 269.8 nm in methanol:water:hydrochloric acid (250:250:1. Beer-Lambert law was obeyed in the concentration range of 10-50 µg/ml, and the standard absorptivity was found to be 253.97 dl/g/cm. Both the methods were validated for linearity, accuracy, precision (days, analysts, and instrument variation, and robustness (solvent composition. The numerical values for all parameters lie within the acceptable limits. Pioglitazone hydrochloride was estimated in the range of 99.58-99.97% by LRE method and 100.25-100.75% by standard absorptivity method. At 99% confidence limit, the F-test value for the methods was found to be 1.8767.

  13. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaparale, Sonali; Telekone, R S; Raut, R P; Damle, S S; Kasture, P V

    2010-01-01

    Two simple, accurate and reproducible spectrophotometric methods; Q analysis and first order derivative method have been described for the simultaneous estimation of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in combined tablet dosage form. Absorption maxima of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in distilled water were found to be 303.5 nm and 243.5 nm respectively. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range 5-50 mug/ml for drotaverine and 5-60 mug/ml for paracetamol. In Q analysis method, two wavelengths were selected at isobestic point (277 nm) and lambda(max) of paracetamol (243.5 nm). In first order derivative method, zero crossing point for drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol were selected at 303.5 nm and 243.5 nm, respectively. The results of two methods were validated statistically and recovery studies were found to be satisfactory.

  14. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahaparale Sonali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, accurate and reproducible spectrophotometric methods; Q analysis and first order derivative method have been described for the simultaneous estimation of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in combined tablet dosage form. Absorption maxima of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in distilled water were found to be 303.5 nm and 243.5 nm respectively. Beer′s law was obeyed in the concentration range 5-50 µg/ml for drotaverine and 5-60 µg/ml for paracetamol. In Q analysis method, two wavelengths were selected at isobestic point (277 nm and λmax of paracetamol (243.5 nm. In first order derivative method, zero crossing point for drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol were selected at 303.5 nm and 243.5 nm, respectively. The results of two methods were validated statistically and recovery studies were found to be satisfactory.

  15. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002630.htm Diclofenac sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain ...

  16. Naproxen sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002507.htm Naproxen sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Naproxen sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used ...

  17. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Docusate Sodium Friday, 01 April 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to docusate sodium may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  18. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  19. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  20. Sodium sieving in children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusthoven, E.; Krediet, R.T.; Willems, H.L.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Schroder, C.H.

    2005-01-01

    Sodium sieving is a consequence of dissociation between the amount of water and sodium transported over the peritoneal membrane. This dissociation occurs in the presence of aquaporin-mediated water transport. Sieving of sodium can be used as a rough measure for aquaporin-mediated water transport. Ic

  1. Spectrophotometric determination of ritodrine and isoxsuprine hydrochlorides using 4-aminoantipyrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revanasiddappa, H D; Manju, B G

    2000-01-01

    A simple, accurate, and rapid method for the quantitative determination of ritodrine hydrochloride (RTH) and isoxsuprine hydrochloride (ISH) in both pure and dosage forms, is described. The method is based on the development of pink colored product as a result of the condensation of 4-aminoantipyrine with phenols in the presence of an alkaline oxidizing agent. The resulting products are measured at 510 nm for both drugs, with molar absorptivities of 0.98 x 10(4) and 1.20 x 10(4) L/mol x cm for RTH and ISH, respectively. A study of the effect of commonly associated excipients revealed that they did not cause interference.

  2. Enantiomeric Separation of Meptazinol Hydrochloride by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUYun-qiu; CHENYan; LINi; QIUZhui-bai

    2004-01-01

    Aim To establish a capillary electrophoresis method for enantiomerie separation of meptazinol hydrochloride. Methods The separation conditions such as cyclodextrin(CD)type, buffer pH, concentration of 2,3,6-O-triInethyl-β-cyclodextrin and organic additives were optimized. An optimum concentration was 30 mmol·L-1 phosphate (pH 7.02)with 10% (W/V) TM-β-CD and 2% acetonitrile. Results Basehne resolution of the enantiomer was readily achieved using 2,3,6-O-trimethyl-β-cyclodextrin. Conclusion This is a convenient method for fast enantiomeric resolution of meptazinol hydrochloride.

  3. [Effect of topical exhedrine hydrochloride on muco-ciliary transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatica, L; Fiorella, R

    1983-07-30

    The time of nasal M.C.T. (Mucus Ciliar Transport) was studied by the indirect objective method of bleu-sky in 30 healthy subjects before and after the application of efedrina hydrochloride in water solution associated with timolo, eucaliptolo, mentolo essence of canfora monobramata and clorbutamolo. The time of nasal M.C.T., regular in the 87% of the subjects during the first determination was found extended in almost all of the cases after the application of vasoconstrictor (85%). This experimental data may be caused both by a direct effect of efedrina hydrochloride and by the substances associated in the solution and their physical characteristics.

  4. HPLC法测定盐酸曲马多葡萄糖注射液中盐酸曲马多的含量%Determination of Tramadol Hydrochloride in tRAMADOL Hydrochloride Glucose Injections by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵峰辉; 李新图; 陈建中; 陈跃; 汪变; 文桂芳

    2013-01-01

    目的:建立HPLC法测定盐酸曲马葡萄糖注射液中盐酸曲马多的含量.方法:色谱柱:Bondysil-C18(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm),流动相:醋酸-冰醋酸钠缓冲液(pH4.5)-甲醇(65:35),流速:1.0 ml·min-1,柱温:35℃,检测波长:271 nm,进样量:20 μl.结果:盐酸曲马多质量浓度线性范围为10~140μg·ml-1(r=0.999 0),平均回收率为99.9%(RSD=0.80%,n=9).结论:本方法简便、灵敏、准确.%Objective: To establish an HPLC method for the determination of tramadol hydrochloride in tramadol hydrochloride glucose injections. Method: The analysis was performed on a Bondysil-C18( 250 mm ×4.6 mm,5 μm )column. The mobile phase was acetic acid-sodium glacial acetic acid buffer ( pH 4.5) and methanol ( 65: 35 ). The flow rate was 1.0 ml · min-1, the column temperature was 30℃ , the detection wavelength was 271 nm, and the injection volume was 20 μl. Result: The linear range of tramadol hydrochloride was 10-140 μg · ml-1( r = 0.999 0 ), and the average recovery was 99.9% with RSD of 0.80%( n = 9 ). Conclusion: The method is simple, sensitive and accurate.

  5. Formulation and Evaluation of Multilayered Tablets of Pioglitazone Hydrochloride and Metformin Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ankamma Chowdary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus a continuous therapy is required which is a more complex one. As in these patients there may be a defect in both insulin secretion and insulin action exists. Hence, the treatment depends on the pathophysiology and the disease state. In the present study, multilayered tablets of pioglitazone hydrochloride 15 mg and metformin hydrochloride 500 mg were prepared in an attempt for combination therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pioglitazone HCl was formulated as immediate release layer to show immediate action by direct compression method using combination of superdisintegrants, namely, crospovidone and avicel PH 102. Crospovidone at 20% concentration showed good drug release profile at 2 hrs. Metformin HCl was formulated as controlled release layer to prolong the drug action by incorporating hydrophilic polymers such as HPMC K4M by direct compression method and guar gum by wet granulation method in order to sustain the drug release from the tablets and maintain its integrity so as to provide a suitable formulation. The multilayered tablets were prepared after carrying out the optimization of immediate release layer and were evaluated for various precompression and postcompression parameters. Formulation F13 showed 99.97% of pioglitazone release at 2 hrs in 0.1 N HCl and metformin showed 98.81% drug release at 10 hrs of dissolution in 6.8 pH phosphate buffer. The developed formulation is equivalent to innovator product in view of in vitro drug release profile. The results of all these evaluation tests are within the standards. The procedure followed for the formulation of these tablets was found to be reproducible and all the formulations were stable after accelerated stability studies. Hence, multilayered tablets of pioglitazone HCl and metformin HCl can be a better alternative way to conventional dosage forms.

  6. Diffusion Coefficients ofl-Lysine Hydrochloride and l-Arginine Hydrochloride in Their Aqueous Solutions at 25℃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The diffusion coefficients** ofl-lysine hydrochloride andl-arginine hydrochloride in their aqueous solu- tions at 25℃ were determined by the metallic diaphragm cell method which is characterized by accuracy, promptness and convenience. Meanwhile, the densities and viscosities of the solutions were also determined. Based on all these data a semi-empirical model for correlating the diffusion coefficients of solid organic salts in their aqueous solutions at 25℃ was proposed. The fitting result of this model is comparatively satisfactory. Compared to a former model, Gordon Model, this model can avoid a number of difficulties and arduous work.

  7. 21 CFR 520.2345h - Tetracycline hydrochloride, sodium novobiocin, and prednisolone tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or one triple-strength tablet for each 18 pounds) every 12 hours for 48 hours. Treatment is to be... longer as needed. (2) Indications for use. Treatment of acute and chronic canine respiratory infections such as tonsillitis, bronchitis, and tracheobronchitis when caused by pathogens susceptible to...

  8. 21 CFR 520.2345g - Tetracycline hydrochloride and sodium novobiocin tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tablet for each 18 pounds). (2) Indications for use. Treatment of acute or chronic canine respiratory infections such as tonsillitis, bronchitis, and tracheobronchitis when caused by pathogens susceptible to... treatment for at least 48 hours after the temperature has returned to normal and all evidence of infection...

  9. Sodium in feline nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, P; Reynolds, B; Zentek, J; Paßlack, N; Leray, V

    2016-08-23

    High sodium levels in cat food have been controversial for a long time. Nonetheless, high sodium levels are used to enhance water intake and urine volume, with the main objective of reducing the risk of urolithiasis. This article is a review of current evidence of the putative risks and benefits of high dietary sodium levels. Its secondary aim is to report a possible safe upper limit (SUL) for sodium intake. The first part of the manuscript is dedicated to sodium physiology, with a focus on the mechanisms of sodium homeostasis. In this respect, there is only few information regarding possible interactions with other minerals. Next, the authors address how sodium intake affects sodium balance; knowledge of these effects is critical to establish recommendations for sodium feed content. The authors then review the consequences of changes in sodium intake on feline health, including urolithiasis, blood pressure changes, cardiovascular alterations and kidney disease. According to recent, long-term studies, there is no evidence of any deleterious effect of dietary sodium levels as high as 740 mg/MJ metabolizable energy, which can therefore be considered the SUL based on current knowledge.

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF FIRST ORDER DERIVATIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF PARACETAMOL AND TAPENTADOL HYDROCHLORIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMIL D. DESAI*, BHAVNA A. PATEL, SHRADDHA J. PARMAR, NAITIK N. CHAMPANERI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple, precise, accurate and reproducible spectrophotometric method has been developed forSimultaneous estimation of Paracetamol and Tapentadol Hydrochloride by employing first order derivativezero crossing method in 0.1 N Sodium Hydroxide. The first order derivative absorption at 257.1 nm (zerocross point of Paracetamol was used for quantification of Tapentadol HCl and 289.0 nm (zero cross point ofTapentadol HCl for quantification of Paracetamol. The linearity was established over the concentrationrange of 15-35

  11. Release Characteristics of Diltiazem Hydrochloride Wax-Matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    diltiazem hydrochloride-wax matrix granules with sintering. ... The drug release was by Higuchi controlled diffusion mechanism and it followed ... of plastic matrix tablets. Polymer films with different permeability have been .... More so, with increase in temperature and ..... characterization of ibuprofen-cetyl alcohol beads by.

  12. Study on the syhthesis process of tetracaine hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenli; Zhao, Jie; Cui, Yujie

    2017-05-01

    Tetrachloride hydrochloride is a local anesthetic with long-acting ester, and it is usually present in the form of a hydrochloride salt. Firsleb first synthesized the tetracaine by experiment in 1928, which is one of the recognized clinical potent anesthetics. This medicine has the advantages of stable physical and chemical properties, the rapid role and long maintenance. Tetracaine is also used for ophthalmic surface anesthesia as one of the main local anesthetic just like conduction block anesthesia, mucosal surface anesthesia and epidural anesthesia. So far, the research mainly engaged in its clinical application research, and the research strength is relatively small in the field of synthetic technology. The general cost of the existing production process is high, and the yield is low. In addition, the reaction time is long and the reaction conditions are harsh. In this paper, a new synthetic method was proposed for the synthesis of tetracaine hydrochloride. The reaction route has the advantages of few steps, high yield, short reaction time and mild reaction conditions. The cheap p-nitrobenzoic acid was selected as raw material. By esterification with ethanol and reaction with n-butyraldehyde (the reaction process includes nitro reduction, aldol condensation and hydrogenation reduction), the intermediate was transesterified with dimethylaminoethanol under basic conditions. Finally, the PH value was adjusted in the ethanol solvent. After experiencing 4 steps reaction, the crude tetracaine hydrochloride was obtained.

  13. 21 CFR 524.1982 - Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution. 524.1982 Section 524.1982 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... longterm toxicity of proparacaine is unknown. Prolonged use may possibly delay wound healing. (d...

  14. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis caused by terazosin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Laura M; Wilkerson, Michael G; Perri, Anthony J; Kelly, Brent C

    2008-04-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a rare cutaneous eruption mainly provoked by drugs. A case of AGEP in a 74-year-old male that was attributed to the ingestion of terazosin hydrochloride is presented. This is the first reported case of this association in medical literature. The history, clinical presentation, and pathogenesis of AGEP are discussed.

  15. Cradle-to-gate life cycle inventory of vancomycin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Celia; Overcash, Michael

    2010-02-15

    A life cycle analysis on the cradle-to-gate production of vancomycin hydrochloride, which begins at natural resource extraction and spans through factory (gate) production, not only shows all inputs, outputs, and energy usage to manufacture the product and all related supply chain chemicals, but can highlight where process changes would have the greatest impact on raw material and energy consumption and emissions. Vancomycin hydrochloride is produced by a low-yield fermentation process that accounts for 47% of the total cradle-to-gate energy. The fermentation step consumes the most raw materials and energy cradle-to-gate. Over 75% of the total cradle-to-gate energy consumption is due to steam use; sterilization within fermentation is the largest user of steam. Aeration and agitation in the fermentation vessels use 65% of the cradle-to-gate electrical energy. To reduce raw materials, energy consumption, and the associated environmental footprint of producing vancomycin hydrochloride, other sterilization methods, fermentation media, nutrient sources, or synthetic manufacture should be investigated. The reported vancomycin hydrochloride life cycle inventory is a part of a larger life cycle study of the environmental consequences of the introduction of biocide-coated medical textiles for the prevention of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) nosocomial infections.

  16. Asymmetric Synthesis of (+)-(11 R,12S)-Mefloquine Hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The asymmetric synthesis of (+)-(11R,12S)-mefloquine hydrochloride, an antimalarial drug, was accomplished from commercially available 2-trifluoromethylaniline, ethyl 4,4,4-trifluoroacetoacetate and cyclopentanone in 7 steps with a 14% overall yield. The key steps were proline-catalyzed asymmetric direct aldol reaction and Beck-mann rearrangement. The absolute configuration was assigned by a Mosher's method.

  17. Amitriptyline-related peripheral neuropathy relieved during pyridoxine hydrochloride administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, G G; Huff, M R; Fredericks, S

    1982-11-01

    Tricyclic antidepressants rarely cause peripheral neuropathy. In fact, this class of drugs has been used to control the symptoms of pain and paresthesia that accompany peripheral neuropathy. We report peripheral paresthesias that occurred in a 39-year-old female during five years of amitriptyline administration. The patient's symptoms were relieved by oral pyridoxine hydrochloride, associated with elevated plasma pyridoxal phosphate.

  18. Renal sodium handling and sodium sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa A. Frame

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of hypertension, which affects over 1 billion individuals worldwide, involves the integration of the actions of multiple organ systems, including the kidney. The kidney, which governs sodium excretion via several mechanisms including pressure natriuresis and the actions of renal sodium transporters, is central to long term blood pressure regulation and the salt sensitivity of blood pressure. The impact of renal sodium handling and the salt sensitivity of blood pressure in health and hypertension is a critical public health issue owing to the excess of dietary salt consumed globally and the significant percentage of the global population exhibiting salt sensitivity. This review highlights recent advances that have provided new insight into the renal handling of sodium and the salt sensitivity of blood pressure, with a focus on genetic, inflammatory, dietary, sympathetic nervous system and oxidative stress mechanisms that influence renal sodium excretion. Increased understanding of the multiple integrated mechanisms that regulate the renal handling of sodium and the salt sensitivity of blood pressure has the potential to identify novel therapeutic targets and refine dietary guidelines designed to treat and prevent hypertension.

  19. A Validated Stability-indicating Reverse Phase HPLC Assay Method for the Determination of Memantine Hydrochloride Drug Substance with UV-Detection Using Precolumn Derivatization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavil Narola

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This present paper deals with the development and validation of a stability indicating high performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of Memantine hydrochloride. Memantine hydrochloride was derivatized with 0.015 M 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC and 0.5 M borate buffer solution by keeping it at room temperature for about 20 minutes and the chromatographic separation achieved by injecting 10 µL of the derivatized mixture into a Waters HPLC system with photodiode array detector using a kromasil C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µ. The mobile phase consisting of 80% acetonitrile and 20% phosphate buffer solution and a flow rate of 2 milliliter/minute. The Memantine was eluted at approximately 7.5 minutes. The volume of FMOC used in derivatization, concentration of FMOC and derivatization time was optimized and used. Forced degradation studies were performed on bulk sample of Memantine hydrochloride using acid (5.0 Normal (N hydrochloric acid, base (1.0 N sodium hydroxide, oxidation (30% hydrogen peroxide, thermal (105°C, photolytic and humidity conditions. The developed LC method was validated with respect to specificity, precision (% RSD about 0.70%, linearity (linearity of range about 70–130 µg/mL, ruggedness (Overall % RSD about 0.35%, stability in analytical solution (Cumulative % RSD about 0.11% after 1450 min. and robustness.

  20. The Influence of Chitosan Cross-linking on the Properties of Alginate Microparticles with Metformin Hydrochloride-In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekalska, Marta; Sosnowska, Katarzyna; Zakrzeska, Agnieszka; Kasacka, Irena; Lewandowska, Alicja; Winnicka, Katarzyna

    2017-01-22

    Sodium alginate is a polymer with unique ability to gel with different cross-linking agents in result of ionic and electrostatic interactions. Chitosan cross-linked alginate provides improvement of swelling and mucoadhesive properties and might be used to design sustained release dosage forms. Therefore, the aim of this research was to develop and evaluate possibility of preparing chitosan cross-linked alginate microparticles containing metformin hydrochloride by the spray-drying method. In addition, influence of cross-linking agent on the properties of microparticles was evaluated. Formulation of microparticles prepared by the spray drying of 2% alginate solution cross-linked by 0.1% chitosan was characterized by good mucoadhesive properties, high drug loading and prolonged metformin hydrochloride release. It was shown that designed microparticles reduced rat glucose blood level, delayed absorption of metformin hydrochloride and provided stable plasma drug concentration. Additionally, histopathological studies of pancreas, liver and kidneys indicated that all prepared microparticles improved degenerative changes in organs of diabetic rats. Moreover, no toxicity effect and no changes in rats behavior after oral administration of chitosan cross-linked alginate microparticles were noted.

  1. Comparative study on pharmacological effects of DM-phencynonate hydrochloride and its optical isomers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-yun WANG; Jian-quan ZHENG; Yun WANG; Bo-hua ZHONG; Jin-xiu RUAN; Ke-liang LIU

    2005-01-01

    Aim: The 3 -azabicyclo(3,3, 1)nonanyl-9-α-yl-α-cyclopentyl-α-phenyl-α-glycolate (DM-phencynonate hydrochloride, DMCPG) is a demethylated metabolite of 3-methyl-3-azabicyclo(3,3,1)nonanyl-9-α-yl-α-cyclopentyl-α-phenyl-α-glycolate (phencynonate hydrochloride, CPG). (±)DMCPG had one chiral center and two enantiomers [R(-) and S(+)DMCPG]. Here we carried out a comparative study of the pharmacological profiles of these optical isomers. Methods: Affinity and relative efficacy were tested using a radioligand-binding assay with muscarinic acetylcholine receptors from the rat cerebral cortex. Pharmacological activity was assessed in three individual experiments: (1) potentiating the effect of a subthreshold hypnotic dose of sodium pentobarbital; (2) inhibiting oxotremorineinduced salivation; and (3) inhibiting the contractile response to carbachol.Results: In the competitive binding assay, R(-)DMCPG (Ki=763.75 nmol/L) was 4-and 2-fold more potent than (±)DMCPG (Ki=3186 nmol/L) and S(+)DMCPG (Ki= 1699 nmol/L) in inhibiting the binding of [3H]QNB. The R(-) and S (+) configurations showed positive cooperation (nH>1) with the muscarinic receptor, whereas (±)DMCPG had a negative cooperation (nH<1) relationship with the muscarinic receptor in a radio-binding assay. Both the R(-) and S(+) configurations could potentiate the effect of sub-threshold hypnotic dose of sodium pentobarbital in a dose-dependent manner (the ED50 values were 2.53 and 18.65 mg/kg, respectively),but (±)DMCPG did not display significant central depressant effects at doses from 10 to 29.15 mg/kg (P>0.05). (±)DMCPG and its optical isomers suppressed the guinea pig ileum contractile response to carbachol. The IC50 values were 7.78×10-9,1.88×10-7, and 1.03× 10-7 nmol/L, respectively. In the anti-salivation study,(±)DMCPG and its enantiomers depressed oxotremorine- induced salivation in a dose-dependent manner, and the order of potency was R(-)DMCPG (ED50=0.44 mg/kg)>(±)DMCPG (ED50

  2. Pharmacological profiles of an anticholinergic agent, phencynonate hydrochloride, and its optical isomers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-yun WANG; Yun WANG; Jian-quan ZHENG; Bo-hua ZHONG; He LIU; Si-jian DONG; Jin-xiu RUAN; Ke-liang LIU

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To comparatively study the pharmacological profiles of 3-methyl-3-azabicyclo (3,3,1)nonanyl-9-α-yl-α-cyclopentyl-α-phenyl-α-glycolate (phencynonate hydrochloride, CPG), an anticholinergic agent, and its enantiomers [R(-)- and S(+)-CPG]. Methods: The affinity and relative efficacy were tested using radioligand-binding assay with muscarinic acetylcholine receptors from rat cerebral cortex. The pharmacological activities were assessed in three individual experiments: (1) potentiating the effect of subthreshold hypnotic dose of sodium pentobarbital; (2) inhibiting oxotremorine-induced salivation; and (3) inhibiting the contractile response to carbachol. Results: The order of potency of phencynonate hydrochloride and its optical isomers to inhibit the binding of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H] QNB) was R(-)-CPG (Ki=46.49± 1.27 nmol/L)>CPG (Ki=271.37±72.30 nmol/L)>S(+)-CPG (Ki=1263.12±131.64 nmol/L). The results showed that R(-)-CPG had the highest affinity to central muscarinic receptors among the three compounds, but did not show any central depressant effects at dose from 10.00 to 29.15 mg/kg. CPG increased the effects of subthreshold hypnotic dose of sodium pentobarbital induced-sleeping [the ED50±95 % LC value was 21.06±3.04 mg/kg]. CPG and R(-)-CPG displayed nearly equipotent effect in depressing oxotremorineinduced salivation [the ED50±95% LC for R(-) and CPG were 1.10±0.28 and 1.07±0.15 mg/kg, respectively], and the contractile response to carbachol (pA2 values for R(-) and CPG were 6.84 and 6.80, respectively). S(+)-CPG presented the lowest anticholinergic profiles, but could potentate effects of its enantiomers in some manner. Conclusions: These data suggested that R(-)-CPG acted as an eutomer in racemate and a competitive antagonist to acetylcholine muscarinic receptors,but S(+)-CPG was less active in comparison to R(-)-CPG and its racemate. The central depressant effects of R(-)-CPG and S(+)-CPG were lower in comparison to its racemate.

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid sodium rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sodium levels have been reported to rise during episodic migraine. Since migraine frequently starts in early morning or late afternoon, we hypothesized that natural sodium chronobiology may predispose susceptible persons when extracellular CSF sodium increases. Since no mammalian brain sodium rhythms are known, we designed a study of healthy humans to test if cation rhythms exist in CSF. Methods Lumbar CSF was collected every ten minutes at 0.1 mL/min for 24 h from six healthy participants. CSF sodium and potassium concentrations were measured by ion chromatography, total protein by fluorescent spectrometry, and osmolarity by freezing point depression. We analyzed cation and protein distributions over the 24 h period and spectral and permutation tests to identify significant rhythms. We applied the False Discovery Rate method to adjust significance levels for multiple tests and Spearman correlations to compare sodium fluctuations with potassium, protein, and osmolarity. Results The distribution of sodium varied much more than potassium, and there were statistically significant rhythms at 12 and 1.65 h periods. Curve fitting to the average time course of the mean sodium of all six subjects revealed the lowest sodium levels at 03.20 h and highest at 08.00 h, a second nadir at 09.50 h and a second peak at 18.10 h. Sodium levels were not correlated with potassium or protein concentration, or with osmolarity. Conclusion These CSF rhythms are the first reports of sodium chronobiology in the human nervous system. The results are consistent with our hypothesis that rising levels of extracellular sodium may contribute to the timing of migraine onset. The physiological importance of sodium in the nervous system suggests that these rhythms may have additional repercussions on ultradian functions.

  4. Micellization behavior of mixtures of amphiphilic promazine hydrochloride and cationic aniline hydrochloride in aqueous and electrolyte solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rub, Malik Abdul; Azum, Naved; Asiri, Abdullah M. [King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Khan, Farah [Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India); Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G. [Research Center for Advanced Materials Science, King Khalid University, Abha (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-10-15

    We studied the influence of cationic hydrotrope aniline hydrochloride on the micellization behavior of cationic amphiphilic phenothiazine drug promazine hydrochloride in the presence and absence of 50mmol kg{sup -1} NaCl. The experimental critical micelle concentration (CMC) values came out to be lower than ideal CMC (CMCid) values, signifying attractive interactions between the two components in mixed micelles. NaCl further decreases the CMC of pure PMZ and aniline hydrochloride as well as their mixture due to screening of the electrostatic repulsion among the polar head groups. The bulk properties of solution were examined by using different theoretical models for justification and comparison of results. The micellar mole fraction of aniline hydrochloride (X{sup Rub}{sub ,} X{sup M}{sub 1}, X{sup Rod}{sub 1} and X{sup id}{sub 1}) was evaluated by different proposed models, showing greater contribution of hydrotrope in mixed micelle. The negative values of interaction parameter (β) indicate synergistic interactions and negative values of β further decrease by the addition of salt in mixed systems. From the CMC values as a function of temperature, various thermodynamic properties have been evaluated and discussed in detail.

  5. Chemical Immobilization of Sloth Bears (Melursus ursinus) with Ketamine Hydrochloride and Xylazine Hydrochloride: Hematology and Serum Biochemical Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeraselvam, M; Sridhar, R; Perumal, P; Jayathangaraj, M G

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to define the physiological responses of captive sloth bears immobilized with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride and to determine and compare the values of hematology and serum biochemical parameters between sexes. A total of 15 sloth bears were immobilized using combination of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride drugs at the dose rate of 5.0 milligram (mg) per kg body weight and 2.0 mg per kg body weight, respectively. The use of combination of these drugs was found satisfactory for the chemical immobilization of captive sloth bears. There were no significant differences observed in induction time and recovery time and physiological parameters such as heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature between sexes. Health related parameters comprising hematological values like packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), erythrocyte indices, and so forth and biochemical values like total protein, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, alkaline amino-transferase (ALT), aspartate amino-transferase (AST), and so forth were estimated in 11 (5 males and 6 females) apparently healthy bears. Comparison between sexes revealed significant difference in PCV (P sloth bears for appropriate line treatment.

  6. Chemical Immobilization of Sloth Bears (Melursus ursinus with Ketamine Hydrochloride and Xylazine Hydrochloride: Hematology and Serum Biochemical Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Veeraselvam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to define the physiological responses of captive sloth bears immobilized with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride and to determine and compare the values of hematology and serum biochemical parameters between sexes. A total of 15 sloth bears were immobilized using combination of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride drugs at the dose rate of 5.0 milligram (mg per kg body weight and 2.0 mg per kg body weight, respectively. The use of combination of these drugs was found satisfactory for the chemical immobilization of captive sloth bears. There were no significant differences observed in induction time and recovery time and physiological parameters such as heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature between sexes. Health related parameters comprising hematological values like packed cell volume (PCV, hemoglobin (Hb, red blood cell count (RBC, erythrocyte indices, and so forth and biochemical values like total protein, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine, alkaline amino-transferase (ALT, aspartate amino-transferase (AST, and so forth were estimated in 11 (5 males and 6 females apparently healthy bears. Comparison between sexes revealed significant difference in PCV (P<0.05 and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC (P<0.05. The study might help to evaluate health profiles of sloth bears for appropriate line treatment.

  7. RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE, ROSIGLITAZONE AND SITAGLIPTIN – APPLICATION TO COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DRUG PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh P Inamdar et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple, precise and stability-indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of anti-diabetic drugs Metformin hydrochloride (MT, Rosiglitazone (RT and Sitagliptin (ST. The separation was achieved on ACE 3 150 mm X 4.6mm, 3.5µm column using gradient method. The mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.5 mL min−1 consisted of 10 mM sodium hexane sulphonate monohydrate and 10 mM Potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer with acetonitrile and methanol in Gradient ratio. The UV detection was carried out at 210 nm. The forced degradation for these drug substances were performed under Acid, Base, Oxidative, Photolytic and Thermal stress conditions. The method was successfully validated in accordance to ICH guidelines. Further, the validated method was applied for commercially available pharmaceutical dosage form.

  8. Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables.

  9. Studies on rheology and microbiological evaluation of hydrotropically gelled starch as topical vehicle for terbinafine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Kovur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed for the development and evaluation of hydrotropic starch gels of terbinafine hydrochloride which is an allylamine derivative of antifungal agent was formulated by using corn starch and sodium salicylate as hydrotropic salt. The gels were prepared in presence and absence of propylene glycol. The prepared gels were evaluated for in vitro drug release, rheological behavior and microbial studies. The degree of increase in the drug diffusion was found to be in order corn starch gel with propylene glycol was greater than corn starch gel without propylene glycol. The microbial studies were carried out in soya bean casein digest medium with Candida albicans as test organisms and were found to be 22.86 ± 0.58 and 20.22 ± 0.65 mm for TCSG (IV and TCS (III, respectively. All the gels exhibited shear thinning. The rheogram indicated that the gel systems are pseudoplastic and exhibited thixotropy. The added propylene glycol has not appreciably altered the apparent viscosity values.

  10. Strong cation exchange resin for improving physicochemical properties and sustaining release of ranitidine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study strong cation exchange resin (Amberlite IRP69 was used to improve the physicochemical properties of ranitidine hydrochloride such as taste and bulk properties and to sustain dissolution rate. Drug-resin complexes were prepared using batch method. Drug loading was done under different processing conditions such as temperature, pH, drug-resin ratio, and drug concentration to get the optimum condition for resinate preparation. Resinate prepared under optimized condition was tested for taste, bulk properties and release rate. Degree of bitterness of ranitidine was found to reduce to zero after complexation with resin. Improvement in flow properties was also observed. Angle of repose for resinate was found to be 33.21 o as compared to 42.27 o for ranitidine HCl. Effect of dissolution medium and particle size on in vitro release of drug from resinate was also investigated. Resinate with drug to resin ratio of 2:3 and particle size> 90 µm showed about 90% of drug release within 12 h. The orodispersible tablet formulated from the resinate containing 10% croscarmellose sodium disintegrated within 35 sec in oral cavity and showed similar dissolution profile as the resinate. Tablets were found stable after stability studies with no change in dissolution profile.

  11. Simultaneous determination of phenylephrine hydrochloride, guaifenesin, and chlorpheniramine maleate in cough syrup by gradient liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Sawsan M; Abbas, Samah S; Shehata, Mostafa A; Ali, Nahed M

    2008-01-01

    A simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of mixture of phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHENYL), guaifenesin (GUAIF), and chlorpheniramine maleate (CHLO) either in pure form or in the presence of methylparaben and propylparaben in a commercial cough syrup dosage form. Separation was achieved on a C8 column using 0.005 M heptane sulfonic acid sodium salt (pH 3.4 +/- 0.1) and acetonitrile as a mobile phase by gradient elution at different flow rates, and detection was done spectrophotometrically at 210 nm. A linear relationship in the range of 30-180, 120-1800, and 10-60 microg/mL was obtained for PHENYL, GUAIF, and CHLO, respectively. The results were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained by applying the British Pharmacopoeia (2002) method and showed that the proposed method is precise, accurate, and can be easily applied for the determination of the drugs under investigation in pure form and in cough syrup formulations.

  12. Development and Characterization of Novel Floating-Mucoadhesive Tablets Bearing Venlafaxine Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghvendra Misra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation is concerned about the development of floating bioadhesive drug delivery system of venlafaxine hydrochloride which after oral administration exhibits a unique combination of floating and bioadhesion to prolong gastric residence time and increase drug bioavailability within the stomach. The floating bioadhesive tablets were prepared by the wet granulation method using different ratios of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K4MCR and Carbopol 934PNF as polymers. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 and citric acid were used as gas (CO2 generating agents. Tablets were characterized for floating properties, in vitro drug release, detachment force, and swelling index. The concentration of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose and Carbopol 934PNF significantly affects the in vitro drug release, floating properties, detachment force, and swelling properties of the tablets. The optimized formulation showed the floating lag time 72±2.49 seconds and duration of floating 24.50±0.74 hr. The in vitro release studies and floating behavior were studied in simulated gastric fluid (SGF at pH 1.2. Different drug release kinetics models were also applied. The in vitro drug release from tablets was sufficiently sustained (more than 18 hr and the Fickian transports of the drug from the tablets were confirmed. The radiological evidence suggests that the tablets remained buoyant and altered position in the stomach of albino rabbit and mean gastric residence time was prolonged (more than > 6 hr.

  13. Adsorption of pharmaceutical excipients onto microcrystals of siramesine hydrochloride: effects on physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Anne; Millqvist-Fureby, Anna; Elema, Michiel Ringkjøbing; Hansen, Tue; Müllertz, Anette; Hovgaard, Lars

    2009-01-01

    A common challenge in the development of new drug substances is poor dissolution characteristics caused by low aqueous solubility. In this study, microcrystals with optimized physicochemical properties were prepared by precipitation in the presence of excipients, which adsorbed to the particle surface and altered particle size, morphology, and dissolution rate. The poorly water-soluble drug siramesine hydrochloride was precipitated by the antisolvent method in the presence of each of various polymeric and surface active excipients. Powder dissolution studies of six of the resulting particle systems showed a significant increase in percent dissolved after 15 min compared to the starting material. A quantitative determination of the amount of excipient adsorbed to the surface of the drug particles proved that only a very small amount of excipient was needed to exert a marked effect on particle properties. The adsorbed amount of excipient constituted less than 1.4% (w/w) of the total particle weight, and thus powders of very high drug loads were obtained. Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), which exhibited the greatest degree of adsorption, also had the greatest effect on the physicochemical properties of the particles. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of the surface composition and scanning electron microscopy studies on particle morphology suggested that the excipients adsorbed to specific faces of the crystals.

  14. Design and development of controlled porosity osmotic tablet of diltiazem hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhana R Shahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims towards the design and development of extended release formulation of freely water-soluble drug diltiazem hydrochloride (DLTZ based on osmotic technology by using controlled porosity approach. DLTZ is an ideal candidate for a zero-order drug delivery system because it is freely water-soluble and has a short half-life (2-3 h. Sodium chloride (Osmogen was added to the core tablet to alter the solubility of DLTZ in an aqueous medium. Cellulose acetate (CA and sorbitol were used as semipermeable membrane and pore former, respectively. The effect of different formulation variables namely concentration of osmogen in the core tablet, % pore former, % weight gain, pH of the dissolution medium and agitation intensity on the in vitro release was studied. DLTZ release was directly proportional to % pore former and inversely proportional to % weight gain. The optimized formulation (F8 delivered DLTZ independent of pH and agitation intensity for 12 h at the upper level concentration of % pore former (25% w/w and middle level concentration of % weight gain (6% w/w. The comparative study of elementary osmotic pump (EOP and controlled porosity osmotic pump revealed that it superior than conventional EOP and also easier and cost effective to formulate.

  15. FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE FLOATING TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Palla

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tramadol hydrochloride is a synthetic opioid used as a centrally acting analgesic and effective in both experimental and clinical pain. The half-life of the drug is about 5.5 hours and oral dose is 50 to 100 mg every 4 to 6 hours. To reduce the frequency of administration and to improve patient compliance, a sustained-release formulation of tramadol is desirable. The directly compressible floating tablets of Tramadol HCl were formulated using varying amounts of carbopol-934, HPMC K100M, and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis polymers along with other requisite excipients. Sodium bicarbonate was incorporated as a gas-generating agent. The concentration of the polymers increased gradually to attain the optimised formulation. In-vitro drug release profile and floatational characteristics of the formulations were determined. The studies indicated successful formulation of gastroretentive compressed matrices with excellent sustained release and hydrodynamic balance. From FTIR studies no interaction was found between the Tramadol HCl and polymers. Comparison of the dissolution profiles of the optimized formulation, with optimal composition of HPMC: Hibiscus rosa sinensis; 100:100, with that of marketed formulation indicated analogy of drug release performance with each other. The optimized formulation F10 was found to exhibit first–order kinetics which shows the diffusion along with polymer relaxation and polymer erosion of drug from the tablet.

  16. Development and characterization of in-situ gel for ophthalmic formulation containing ciprofloxacin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makwana, S B; Patel, V A; Parmar, S J

    2016-01-01

    In situ gels are systems which are applied as solutions or suspensions and are capable of undergoing rapid sol-to-gel transformation triggered by external stimulus such as temperature, pH etc. on instillation. The aim of the present study was to formulate and evaluate pH responsive in-situ gel for ophthalmic delivery. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride is popularly used as a broad spectrum antibiotic in the treatment of corneal ulcers of ocular infections. However, rapid dilution on instillation, wash out, poor retention of drug concentration delimit the therapeutic benefits of the drug when used in form of conventional eye drops. Sodium alginate, an ophthalmic gel forming mucoadhesive polymer was chosen as polymer which undergoes instantaneous gel formation due to formation of calcium alginate by virtue of its interaction with divalent cation (Ca(+2)) present in lachrymal fluid. Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC K4M and E5 0LV) was further incorporated as a viscosity enhancer in order to achieve the desired consistency so as to facilitate sustained drug release. The developed formulations were evaluated for clarity, pH measurement, gelling capacity, drug content, rheological study, and in vitro drug release. Thus, in situ gel based systems containing gums can be a valuable approach for ophthalmic drug delivery when compared to conventional systems.

  17. Fundamentals of ionic conductivity relaxation gained from study of procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride at ambient and elevated pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnarowska, Z; Swiety-Pospiech, A; Grzybowska, K; Hawelek, L; Paluch, M; Ngai, K L

    2012-04-28

    The pharmaceuticals, procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride, are glass-forming as well as ionically conducting materials. We have made dielectric measurements at ambient and elevated pressures to characterize the dynamics of the ion conductivity relaxation in these pharmaceuticals, and calorimetric measurements for the structural relaxation. Perhaps due to their special chemical and physical structures, novel features are found in the ionic conductivity relaxation of these pharmaceuticals. Data of conductivity relaxation in most ionic conductors when represented by the electric loss modulus usually show a single resolved peak in the electric modulus loss M(")(f) spectra. However, in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride we find in addition another resolved loss peak at higher frequencies over a temperature range spanning across T(g). The situation is analogous to many non-ionic glass-formers showing the presence of the structural α-relaxation together with the Johari-Goldstein (JG) β-relaxation. Naturally the analogy leads us to name the slower and faster processes resolved in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride as the primary α-conductivity relaxation and the secondary β-conductivity relaxation, respectively. The analogy of the β-conductivity relaxation in procaine HCl and procainamide HCl with JG β-relaxation in non-ionic glass-formers goes further by the finding that the β-conductivity is strongly related to the α-conductivity relaxation at temperatures above and below T(g). At elevated pressure but compensated by raising temperature to maintain α-conductivity relaxation time constant, the data show invariance of the ratio between the β- and the α-conductivity relaxation times to changes of thermodynamic condition. This property indicates that the β-conductivity relaxation has fundamental importance and is indispensable as the precursor of the α-conductivity relaxation, analogous to the relation found

  18. Disposable screen-printed sensors for determination of duloxetine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alarfaj Nawal A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A screen-printed disposable electrode system for the determination of duloxetine hydrochloride (DL was developed using screen-printing technology. Homemade printing has been characterized and optimized on the basis of effects of the modifier and plasticizers. The fabricated bi-electrode potentiometric strip containing both working and reference electrodes was used as duloxetine hydrochloride sensor. The proposed sensors worked satisfactorily in the concentration range from 1.0 × 10-6-1.0 × 10-2 mol L-1 with detection limit reaching 5.0 × 10-7 mol L-1 and adequate shelf life of 6 months. The method is accurate, precise and economical. The proposed method has been applied successfully for the analysis of the drug in pure and in its dosage forms. In this method, there is no interference from any common pharmaceutical additives and diluents. Results of the analysis were validated statistically by recovery studies.

  19. [Clinical evaluation of roxatidine acetate hydrochloride injection as preanesthetic medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanishi, M; Enomoto, A; Shimada, Y; Kurokawa, Y

    1991-09-01

    The effects of single intravenous administration of roxatidine acetate hydrochloride 75 mg on the volume and pH of gastric juice were investigated in 43 patients undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia. The drug was given 1 hour before anesthesia. The percentages of patients with gastric pH above 2.5 and gastric juice volume under 25 ml were 95.3% and 97.7% at the time of induction of anesthesia and at the time of extubation, respectively. As for overall assessment on gastric secretion, 93.0% was judged as very effective. In 2 cases, pricking sensations were observed at the time of injection, but these symptoms disappeared without any treatment within a few minutes. No other adverse reactions nor abnormal laboratory test findings were observed. In conclusion, roxatidine acetate hydrochloride administered intravenously 1 hour prior to anesthesia is thought to be useful to prevent acid aspiration pneumonitis.

  20. Thermal Analysis Applied to Verapamil Hydrochloride Characterization in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Irene Yoshida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermogravimetry (TG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC are useful techniques that have been successfully applied in the pharmaceutical industry to reveal important information regarding the physicochemical properties of drug and excipient molecules such as polymorphism, stability, purity, formulation compatibility among others. Verapamil hydrochloride shows thermal stability up to 180 °C and melts at 146 °C, followed by total degradation. The drug is compatible with all the excipients evaluated. The drug showed degradation when subjected to oxidizing conditions, suggesting that the degradation product is 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid derived from alkyl side chain oxidation. Verapamil hydrochloride does not present the phenomenon of polymorphism under the conditions evaluated. Assessing the drug degradation kinetics, the drug had a shelf life (t90 of 56.7 years and a pharmaceutical formulation showed t90 of 6.8 years showing their high stability.

  1. Linear scleroderma after contusion and injection of mepivacaine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Takashi; Niiyama, Shiro; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2010-05-15

    A 36-year-old woman initially was treated for a contusion by local injection of mepivacaine hydrochloride into the left dorsum of the foot. Approximately 3 months after the injury and injection, linear sclerotic plaques originating from the site of contusion and injection were recognized. These progressed in extent and severity over a period of 3 years, when she presented to our clinic. By biopsy, swelling of collagen fibers in the lower dermis was revealed and the condition was diagnosed as linear scleroderma. Our present case had multiple linear sclerotic plaques of the left lower extremity, the distribution of which was consistent with Blaschko lines. It was also revealed that the initial sclerotic plaque was at the site of the contusion and local mepivacaine hydrochloride injection. Our present case is interesting in that the findings suggest a correlation between linear scleroderma plaque occurrence and the contusion or injection of mepivacaine.

  2. Synthesis of /sup 14/C-Bucromarone succinate and hydrochloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, C.; Verny, M.; Maurizis, J.-C.; Payard, M.; Faurie, M.

    1986-08-01

    /sup 14/C-Bucromarone, 2-(4-(3-N,N dibutylamino propoxy) 3,5-dimethyl benzoyl) chromone, was synthesized from (U-/sup 14/C) oxalic acid. The labelling takes place at the first step of the synthesis, giving /sup 14/C-Bucromarone succinate (specific activity 7.45 mCi/mmol) and /sup 14/C-Bucromarone hydrochloride (specific activity 7.5 mCi/mmol).

  3. Enantiospecific synthesis of (1- sup 3 H)-(+)-pseudoephedrine hydrochloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, J.A.; Scharver, J.D. (Burroughs Wellcome Co., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (USA). Chemical Development Labs.)

    1990-06-01

    The naturally occurring dextrorotary enantiomer (+)-pseudoephedrine was synthesized in the ({sup 3}H)-labelled form with specific activity 17.5 Ci/mmol suitable for development of a radioimmunoassay procedure. The chirally specific route from L-alanine to (1-{sup 3}H)-d-pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was based on the use of {alpha}-amino acids as chiral educts for asymmetric products. (author).

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF CONCENTRATION OF POLYHEXANIDE HYDROCHLORIDE IN MULTIPURPOSE SOLUTION.

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, A.; Ali, A.; M.T.Zzaman; Chauhan, S.; V.Handa

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of foreign pathogenic microorganisms like viruses, bacteria, yeast, fungi and protozoa which can inadvertently be introduced into eye via contact lens and hence disinfection is a vital part. Multifunctional solutions are generally intended to combine the action of cleaning disinfecting, rinsing lubricating deproteinising and soaking in one single product.In order to optimization of concentration of Polyhexanide hydrochloride in multipurpose solution some microbiological stu...

  5. Decode the Sodium Label Lingo

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Decode the Sodium Label Lingo Published January 24, 2013 Print Email Reading food labels can help you slash sodium. Here's how to decipher them. "Sodium free" or " ...

  6. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FLOATING TABLETS OF TIZANIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adimoolam Senthil

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to develop floating matrix tablets of tizanidine hydrochloride for prolongation of gastric residence time in order to overcome its low bioavailability (34–40% and short biological half life (4.2 h. Tizanidine hydrochloride floating tablets were prepared by the direct compression method, using different viscosity grades of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC K4M and K15M. Tizanidine hydrochloride is an orally administered prokinetic agent that facilitates or restores motility throughout the length of the gastrointestinal tract. Tablets were evaluated for various physical parameters and floating properties. Further, tablets were studied for in-vitro drug release characteristics in 12 hours. Drug release from floating matrix tablets was sustained over 12 h with buoyant properties. DSC study revealed that there was no drug and excipient interaction. Based on the release kinetics, all formulations best fitted the Higuchi, first-order model and non-Fickian as the mechanism of drug release. The optimized formulation (F9 released 75% of drug at the end of 10 hours by in-vitro release study.

  7. Clinical effect of venlafaxine combined with methylphenidate hydrochloride on narcolepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Bin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the clinical effect of venlafaxine sustained-release capsules combined with methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets on narcolepsy. Thirty-eight cases of narcoleptic patients were randomly divided into venlafaxine combined with methylphenidate hydrochloride treatment group (observation group, N = 19 and methylphenidate hydrochloride and clomipramine treatment group (control group, N = 19. After a total of 12-week treatment, clinical curative effect and adverse drug reactions were observed in 2 groups of patients. The results showed that effective rate of the treatment for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS in observation group was higher than that of the control group (15/19 vs 8/19, P = 0.044, and effective rate of the treatment for cataplexy in observation group was higher than that of the control group (13/19 vs 6/19, P = 0.048. The rate of adverse drug reactions in observation group was lower than that in the control group (χ2 = 8.889, P = 0.003. It was indicated that venlafaxine combined with methylphenidate had good curative effect on narcolepsy with EDS and cataplexy symptoms.

  8. Mucoadhesive microspheres of propranolol hydrochloride for nasal delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandagi P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin A microspheres of propranolol hydrochloride for intranasal systemic delivery were developed with the aim to avoid first pass metabolism, to improve the patient compliance, to use an alternative therapy to conventional dosage form, to achieve controlled blood level profiles, and to improve the therapeutic efficacy of propranolol hydrochloride in the treatment of various cardiovascular disorders and as a prophylactic for migraine. Gelatin A microspheres were prepared by emulsion crosslinking method using glutaradehyde as a crosslinking agent. Gelatin and chitosan were used as polymer and co polymer respectively. All the prepared microspheres were evaluated for physical characteristics, such as particle size, incorporation efficiency, swelling index, in vitro bioadhesion using rat jejunum and in vitro drug release in pH 6.6 phosphate buffer. Average particle size of microspheres was found to be in the size range 1-50 mm. Increase in drug and polymer concentration in the formulation increased incorporation efficiency. All the microsphers showed good bioadhesive properties and swelling indices and good sustained release of drug. The data indicates that propranolol hydrochloride release followed Higuchi′s matrix and Peppa′s model. Stability studies showed stability of formulation at all the conditions to which they were subjected.

  9. A novel kind of TSV slurry with guanidine hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Hong; Yuling, Liu; Baoguo, Zhang; Xinhuan, Niu; Liying, Han

    2015-10-01

    The effect of a novel alkaline TSV (through-silicon-via) slurry with guanidine hydrochloride (GH) on CMP (chemical mechanical polishing) was investigated. The novel alkaline TSV slurry was free of any inhibitors. During the polishing process, the guanidine hydrochloride serves as an effective surface-complexing agent for TSV CMP applications, the removal rate of barrier (Ti) can be chemically controlled through tuned selectivity with respect to the removal rate of copper and dielectric, which is helpful to modifying the dishing and gaining an excellent topography performance in TSV manufacturing. In this paper, we mainly studied the working mechanism of the components of slurry and the skillful application guanidine hydrochloride in the TSV slurry. Project supported by the Major National Science and Technology Special Projects (No. 2009ZX02308), the Fund Project of Hebei Provincial Department of Education, China (No. QN2014208), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (No. E2013202247), and Colleges and Universities Scientific research project of Hebei Province, China (No. Z2014088).

  10. Spectrophotometric estimation of betahistine hydrochloride in tablet formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aims to develop simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method for estimation of Betahistine hydrochloride in tablet dosage forms. Materials and Methods: For method I and II, in a series of 10 ml volumetric flask, aliquots of standard drug solution (100 μg/ml in double distilled water were transferred and diluted with same so as to give several dilutions in concentration range of 15-90 μg/ml and 10-80 μg/ml respectively of betahistine hydrochloride. To 5 ml of each dilution taken in a separating funnel, (5 ml of methyl orange for method I and 5 ml of bromo phenol blue for method II reagent and 5 ml of chloroform was added. Reaction mixture was shaken gently for 5 min and allowed to stand so as to separate aqueous and chloroform layer. Absorbance maxima measured at 421.6 nm and 412 nm for method I and II respectively. Results: The recovery studies were found close to 100 % that indicates accuracy and precision of the proposed methods. The statistical analysis was carried out and results of which were found satisfactory. Standard deviation values were found low that indicated reproducibility of the proposed methods. Conclusion: Based on results the developed methods could be used for routine estimation of betahistine hydrochloride from tablet formulations.

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan Hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG; HuiXia

    2001-01-01

    Chitin 1 is a biodegradable and nontoxic polysaccharide widely spread among marine and terrestrial invertebrates and fungi. It is usually obtained from waste materials of the sea food-processing industry, mainly shells of crab, shrimp, prawn and krill. Native chitin occurs in such natural composite materials usually combined with inorganics, proteins, lipids and pigments. Its isolation calls for chemical treatments to eliminate these contaminants, some of which maybe coimmercially explored. By treating crude chitin with aqueous 40~50% sodium hydroxide at 110~115℃ chitosan is obtained. However, the fully deacetylated product is rarely obtained due to the risks of side reactions and chain deplolymerization. Chitosan and chitin are closely related since both are linear polysaccharides containing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose and 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose units joined by β (1→4) glycosidic bonds. They can be distinguished by their contents of the above-mentioned units and by their solubilities in aqueous media. The acetylated units predominate in chitin while chitosan chains contain mostly deacetylated units. Chitin is soluble in a very limited number of solvents while chitosan is soluble in aqueous dilute solutions of a number of mineral and organic acids, being the most common ones, the hydrochloric and acetic acids. In aqueous dilute acid media chitosan forms salts, producing polyelectrolyte chains bearing positive charges on the nitrogen atoms of their amine groups. In fact the salt of chitosan may be formed in a separate step or as a consequence of the presence of acid in the water suspension of the neutralized form of chitosan.  ……

  12. Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan Hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Chitin 1 is a biodegradable and nontoxic polysaccharide widely spread among marine and terrestrial invertebrates and fungi. It is usually obtained from waste materials of the sea food-processing industry, mainly shells of crab, shrimp, prawn and krill. Native chitin occurs in such natural composite materials usually combined with inorganics, proteins, lipids and pigments. Its isolation calls for chemical treatments to eliminate these contaminants, some of which maybe coimmercially explored. By treating crude chitin with aqueous 40~50% sodium hydroxide at 110~115℃ chitosan is obtained. However, the fully deacetylated product is rarely obtained due to the risks of side reactions and chain deplolymerization. Chitosan and chitin are closely related since both are linear polysaccharides containing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose and 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose units joined by β (1→4) glycosidic bonds. They can be distinguished by their contents of the above-mentioned units and by their solubilities in aqueous media. The acetylated units predominate in chitin while chitosan chains contain mostly deacetylated units. Chitin is soluble in a very limited number of solvents while chitosan is soluble in aqueous dilute solutions of a number of mineral and organic acids, being the most common ones, the hydrochloric and acetic acids. In aqueous dilute acid media chitosan forms salts, producing polyelectrolyte chains bearing positive charges on the nitrogen atoms of their amine groups. In fact the salt of chitosan may be formed in a separate step or as a consequence of the presence of acid in the water suspension of the neutralized form of chitosan.

  13. 氨基葡萄糖硫酸钠盐的制备及其性质%Preparation of glucosamine sulphate sodium and its properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿作献; 尤瑜敏; 戚晓玉; 倪晔; 周培根

    2000-01-01

    A method for preparing glucosamine sulfate sodium from glucosamine hydrochloride was described. The glucosamine hydrochloride reacted with sodium methylate to produce glucosamine base. Then, the base reacted with trioxide sulfate to form white powder product of glucosamine sulfate sodium. The results of physical and chemical analysis showed that the specific rotation of this product was +54.13° at 20℃, and the content of glucosamine, sulfite ion, sodium ion and hydrochloride ion were 55.9%, 32.7%, 8.5%, 2.4%, respectively.%以氨基葡萄糖盐酸盐为原料,通过甲醇钠方法制备氨基葡萄糖硫酸钠盐。氨基葡萄糖盐酸盐先与甲醇钠反应生成氨基葡萄糖碱,再与三氧化硫反应,得白色粉末状产品。经物理和化学分析,其[α]20D为+54.13°,氨基葡萄糖含量为55.90%,亚硫酸根含量为32.67%,钠离子含量为8.50%,氯离子含量为2.36%。

  14. Use of xylazine hydrochloride-ketamine hydrochloride for immobilization of wild leopards (Panthera pardus fusca) in emergency situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsare, Aniruddha V; Athreya, Vidya R

    2010-06-01

    In India, leopards (Panthera pardus fusca) inhabit human-dominated landscapes, resulting in encounters that require interventions to prevent harm to people, as well as the leopards. Immobilization is a prerequisite for any such intervention. Such emergency field immobilizations have to be carried out with limited tools, often amidst large uncontrollable crowds. An effective and practicable approach is discussed, based on 55 wild leopard immobilizations undertaken between January 2003 and April 2008. A xylazine hydrochloride (1.4 +/- 0.3 mg/kg)--ketamine hydrochloride (5 +/- 2 mg/kg) mixture was used for immobilization of leopards, based on estimated body weight. When weight could not be estimated, a standard initial dose of 50 mg of xylazine--150 mg of ketamine was used. Supplemental doses (50-75 mg) of only ketamine were used as required. No life-threatening adverse effects of immobilization were documented for at least 1 mo postimmobilization.

  15. [Sodium and hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wardener, H E

    1996-09-01

    Over several million years the human race was programmed to eat a diet which contained about 15 mmol of sodium (1 g of sodium chloride) per day. It is only five to ten thousand years ago that we became addicted to salt. Today we eat about 150 mmol of sodium (9-12 g of salt) per day. It is now apparent that this sudden rise in sodium intake (in evolutionary terms) is the most likely cause for the rise in blood pressure with age that occurs in the majority of the world's population. Those which consume less than 60 mmol/day do not develop hypertension. The reason for the rise in sodium intake is not known but it is probable that an important stimulus was the discovery that meat could be preserved by immersion into a concentrated salt solution. This seemingly miraculous power endowed salt with such magical and medicinal qualities that it became a symbol of goodness and health. It was not until 1904 Ambard and Beaujard suggested that on the contrary dietary salt could be harmful and raise the blood pressure. At first the idea did not prosper and it continues to be opposed by a diminishing band. The accumulated evidence that sodium intake is related to the blood pressure in normal man and animals and in inherited forms of hypertension has been obtained from experimental manipulations and studies of human populations. The following observation links sodium and hypertension. An increase in sodium intakes raises the blood pressure of the normal rat, dog, rabbit, baboon, chimpanzee and man. Population studies have demonstrated a significant correlation between sodium intake and the customary rise in blood pressure with age. The development of hypertensive strains of rats has revealed that the primary genetic lesion which gives rise to hypertension resides in the kidney where it impairs the urinary excretion of sodium. There is similar but less convincing evidence in essential hypertension. The kidney in both essential hypertension and hypertensive strains of rats share a

  16. Development and evaluation of controlled-release buccoadhesive verapamil hydrochloride tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emami J.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study: Verapamil hydrochloride is a calcium channel blocker which is used in the control of supraventricular arrhythmia, hypertension and myocardial infraction. There are considerable inter-individual variations in serum concencentration of verpamil due to variation in the extent of hepatic metabolism. In this study controlled-release buccoadhesive tablets of verapamil hydrochloride (VPH were prepared in order to achieve constant plasma concentrations, to improve the bioavailability by the avoidance of hepatic first-pass metabolism, and to prevent frequent administration. Materials and methods: Tablets containing fixed amount of VPH were prepared by direct compression method using polymers like carbomer (CP, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC in various combination and ratios and evaluated for thickness, weight variation, hardness, drug content uniformity, swelling, mucoadhesive strength, drug release and possible interaction between ingredients. Results: All tablets were acceptable with regard to thickness, weight variation, hardness, and drug content. The maximum bioadhesive strength was observed in tablets formulated with a combination of CP-NaCMC followed by CP-HPMC and NaCMC-HPMC.  Decreasing the content of CP in CP-HPMC tablets or NaCMC in CP-NaCMC or NaCMC-HPMC systems resulted in decrease in detachment forces. Lower release rates were observed by lowering the content of CP in CP-HPMC containing formulations or NaCMC in tablets which contained CP-NaCMC or NaCMC-HPMC. The release behavior was non-Fickian controlled by a combination of diffusion and chain relaxation mechanisms and best fitted zero-order kinetics. Conclusion: The buccoadhesive VPH tablets containing 53% CP and 13.3% HPMC showed suitable release kinetics (n = 0.78, K0 zero order release = 4.11 mg/h, MDT = 5.66 h and adhesive properties and did not show any interaction between polymers and drug based on

  17. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of memantine hydrochloride in rat plasma using sensitive fluorometric derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mei-Fen; Zhou, Wei; Tong, Xin-Yi; Chen, Yi-Le; Cai, Yi; Li, Yan; Duan, Geng-Li

    2011-02-01

    In this study, we investigated a simple, sensitive and reliable liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method for the determination of memantine hydrochloride in rat plasma which was based on derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl). For the first time, FMOC-Cl was introduced into derivatization of memantine hydrochloride in rat plasma. The amino groups of memantine hydrochloride and amantadine hydrochloride (internal standard) were trapped with FMOC-Cl to form memantine hydrochloride-FMOC-Cl and amantadine hydrochloride-FMOC-Cl compositions, which can be very compatible for LC-FLD. Precipitation of plasma proteins by acetonitrile was followed by vortex mixing and centrifugation. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C(18) column (DIAMONSIL 150 × 4.6 mm, id 5 μm) with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The retention times of memantine hydrochloride-FMOC-Cl and amantadine hydrochloride-FMOC-Cl compositions were 23.69 and 40.27 min, respectively. Optimal conditions for the derivatization of memantine hydrochloride were also described. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 25 ng/mL for memantine hydrochloride in plasma, the linear range was 0.025-5.0 μg/mL in plasma with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9999. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra-day and inter-day assays were 4.46-12.19 and 5.23-11.50%, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to the determination of memantine hydrochloride in rat plasma samples.

  18. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  19. Sodium urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urine sodium level may be a sign of: Adrenal glands releasing too much hormone ( hyperaldosteronism ) Not enough fluid in the body (dehydration) Diarrhea and fluid loss Heart failure Kidney problems, such as chronic kidney disease or ...

  20. Adsorptive and Degradative Effects of Polypropylene Containers on Doxorubicin Hydrochloride%聚丙烯容器对盐酸阿霉素的吸附与降解作用考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱武; 郭梅

    2015-01-01

    目的:考察输液用聚丙烯( PP)制品对盐酸阿霉素的吸附与降解作用。方法:将盐酸阿霉素加入包装材质为聚丙烯( polypropylene,PP)的5%葡萄糖注射液、0.9%氯化钠注射液和一次性输液器中进行吸附性考察,加入pH分别为4.8、6.5、7.4的磷酸盐缓冲液进行降解性考察。结果:24 h内PP塑料瓶及玻璃瓶对盐酸阿霉素的吸附性比较差异无统计学意义( P>0.05),2 h流经PP输液管后浓度变化小于3%,随pH值升高降解增加。结论:PP输液瓶和一次性输液器对盐酸阿霉素无明显吸附作用,在酸性条件下稳定,不易降解。%OBJECTIVE:To investigate the adsorptive and degradative effects of polypropylene ( PP) containers on doxorubicin hydrochloride.METHODS:Doxorubicin hydrochloride was added to 5%glucose injection, 0.9%sodium chloride or disposable infusion apparatus that contained in PP containers so as to investigate the absorptive effect and added to phosphate buffer at different pH values ( pH =4.8, 6.5 or 7.4 ) that contained in PP containers for observation of the degradative effect of PP containers on doxorubicin hydrochloride. RESULTS: There was no significant difference within 24 hrs between in PP plastic bottles and in glass bottles with regard to the adsorptive effects on doxorubicin hydrochloride ( P >0.05 ) , within 2 hrs in PP infusion tube, doxorubicin hydrochloride showed concentration change of less than 3%, but the degradative effects increased associated with the increase of pH value. CONCLUSIONS: Both PP containers and disposable infusion tubes had little adsorptive effects on doxorubicin hydrochloride and doxorubicin hydrochloride is stable and unlikely to be degraded under acidic conditions.

  1. Skeletal muscle sodium channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Sophie; Fontaine, Bertrand

    2015-10-01

    This is an update on skeletal muscle sodium channelopathies since knowledge in the field have dramatically increased in the past years. The relationship between two phenotypes and SCN4A has been confirmed with additional cases that remain extremely rare: severe neonatal episodic laryngospasm mimicking encephalopathy, which should be actively searched for since patients respond well to sodium channel blockers; congenital myasthenic syndromes, which have the particularity to be the first recessive Nav1.4 channelopathy. Deep DNA sequencing suggests the contribution of other ion channels in the clinical expressivity of sodium channelopathies, which may be one of the factors modulating the latter. The increased knowledge of channel molecular structure, the quantity of sodium channel blockers, and the availability of preclinical models would permit a most personalized choice of medication for patients suffering from these debilitating neuromuscular diseases. Advances in the understanding of the molecular structure of voltage-gated sodium channels, as well as availability of preclinical models, would lead to improved medical care of patients suffering from skeletal muscle, as well as other sodium channelopathies.

  2. Formulation development of ambroxol hydrochloride soft gel with application of statistical experimental design and response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabhi, Mahesh; Gohel, Mukesh; Parikh, Rajesh; Sheth, Navin; Nagori, Stavan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of present work was to develop ambroxol hydrochloride soft gel formulation with the application of statistical experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM). A two-factor, three-level (3(2)) full factorial design of experiment with RSM was run to evaluate the main and interaction effect of two independent formulation variables that included the amount of low-acetylated gellan gum and sodium citrate. The dependent variables included viscosity (Y(1)), amount of drug release at 10 min (Y(2)) and 30 min (Y(3)), and gelation time (Y(4)). In order to obtain a formulation having the maximum amount of drug release at 10 min and minimum gelation time, RSM optimization was used. The prepared formulations were evaluated for pH, viscosity, rheological properties, gelation time, drug content, in vitro drug release, appearance, and taste. All the formulations showed a gelation time in the range of 6 to 48 min. The drug content in all the formulations was within limit (99.6 ± 1.56%). The viscosity of all the formulations was found in the range of 1872-12,182 cP. Dissolution studies of the formulations showed drug release in the range of 40.56-72.46% within 10 min and 80.2-100.5% within 30 min. Human evaluation tests revealed that all the gels possessed acceptable characteristics. This study showed that the soft gel formulation GA5, containing 0.3% of gellan gum and 0.4% of sodium citrate, has potential use as an immediate release soft gel for oral drug delivery. The objective of this investigation was to develop a new, immediate-release, soft gel dosage form for ambroxol hydrochloride, an oral expectorant and mucolytic agent. This novel soft gel dosage form needs to be suitable for pediatric and geriatric patients as well as patients with dysphagia. A statistical technique was used for optimization of the gel formulation. The methodology, called a design of experiment with response surface methodology, evaluated several independent formulation variables

  3. 78 FR 27971 - Determination That REV-EYES (Dapiprazole Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution), 0.5%, Was Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That REV-EYES (Dapiprazole Hydrochloride... determined that REV-EYES (dapiprazole hydrochloride ophthalmic solution), 0.5%, was not withdrawn from sale... refer to a listed drug. REV-EYES (dapiprazole hydrochloride ophthalmic solution), 0.5%, is the...

  4. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  5. 21 CFR 520.1242b - Levamisole hydrochloride tablet or oblet (bolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride tablet or oblet (bolus). 520.1242b Section 520.1242b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1242b Levamisole hydrochloride tablet...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1242c - Levamisole hydrochloride and piperazine dihydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride and piperazine dihydrochloride. 520.1242c Section 520.1242c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1242c Levamisole hydrochloride...

  7. Effects of metomindate hydrochloride and tricaine methanesulfonate on the short term cortisol response in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of metomidate hydrochloride and tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) on cortisol stress response of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were examined during 10 minutes of sedation. Channel catfish were assigned to three treatments: 1. Metomidate hydrochloride (12.5 mg/L), 2. MS-222 (100...

  8. A practical synthesis of sarpogrelate hydrochloride and in vitro platelet aggregation inhibitory activities of its analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A convenient approach for the preparation of sarpogrelate hydrochloride was developed.Two series of sarpogrelate hydrochloride analogues were designed and synthesized in order to improve their platelet aggregation inhibitory activities, biological tests suggested that these compounds have platelet aggregation inhibitory activities to some extent.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart Nnn... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride B Appendix B to Subpart NNN of Part 63 Protection of...—Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride 1. Scope This method was specifically developed for water-soluble phenolic resins that have a relatively high free-formaldehyde...

  10. Determination of donepezil hydrochloride in Donepezil Hydrochloride Tablets by HPLC%高效液相色谱法测定盐酸多奈哌齐片中的盐酸多奈哌齐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泊颖; 王博; 孟策; 陈欣怡; 任晓文

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop an HPLC method for the content determination of donepezil hydrochloride in Donepezil Hydrochloride Tablets.Methods The HPLC analysis was performed on a Thermo ODS C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm,5 μμm);0.02 mol/L sodium 1-heptanesulfonate-acetonitrile-chlorine acid (50∶50∶1) was used as mobile phase;The detection wavelength was set at 271 nm and column temperature was maintained at 30 ℃;the flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and injection volume was 20 μL.Results The method showed a good linear relationship within the concentration range of 50-350 μg/mL (r =0.999 9),and the average recovery was 99.34% with RSD of 0.72% (n =9).Conclusion This method is convenient,rapid,accurate,and with good specificity and reproducibility,which could be used for quantitative determination of donepezil raw material drug and Donepezil Hydrochloride Tablets.%目的 建立高效液相色谱法测定盐酸多奈哌齐片中盐酸多奈哌齐的方法.方法 采用高效液相色谱法,用Thermo ODS C18色谱柱(250 mm×4.6mm,5 μm);以0.02 mol/L庚烷磺酸钠-乙腈-高氯酸(50∶50∶1)为流动相;波长271 nm;柱温30℃;体积流量为1.0 mL/min;进样体积20μL.结果 盐酸多奈哌齐在50~350 μg/mL与峰面积呈良好的线性关系,r=0.999 9(n=7);平均加样回收率为99.34%,RSD值为0.72%(n=9).结论 本法操作简便、准确,专属性强,重复性好,可用于盐酸多奈哌齐原料及盐酸多奈哌齐片的定量测定.

  11. Neuroprotection against vascular dementia after acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride: P300 event related potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture can be used to treat various nervous system diseases. Here, 168 vascular dementia patients were orally administered donepezil hydrochloride alone (5 mg/day, once a day for 56 days, or combined with acupuncture at Shenting (DU24, Tianzhu (BL10, Sishencong (Extra, Yintang (Extra, Renzhong (DU26, Neiguan (PC6, Shenmen (HT7, Fengchi (GB20, Wangu (GB12 and Baihui (DU20 (once a day for 56 days. Compared with donepezil hydrochloride alone, P300 event related potential latency was shorter with an increased amplitude in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. Mini-Mental State Examination score was also higher. Moreover, these differences in P300 latency were identified within different infarcted regions in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. These findings indicate that acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride noticeably improves cognitive function in patients with vascular dementia, and exerts neuroprotective effects against vascular dementia.

  12. Neuroprotection against vascular dementia after acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride:P300 event related potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Liu; Xiu-juan Wang; Zhe-cheng Zhang; Rong Xue; Ping Li; Bo Li

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture can be used to treat various nervous system diseases. Here, 168 vascular dementia patients were orally administered donepezil hydrochloride alone (5 mg/day, once a day for 56 days), or combined with acupuncture atShenting (DU24),Tianzhu (BL10),Sishencong (Extra), Yintang (Extra),Renzhong (DU26),Neiguan (PC6),Shenmen (HT7),Fengchi (GB20),Wangu (GB12) andBaihui (DU20) (once a day for 56 days). Compared with donepezil hydrochloride alone, P300 event related potential latency was shorter with an increased ampli-tude in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. Mini-Mental State Examination score was also higher. Moreover, these differences in P300 latency were identiifed within different infarcted regions in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. These ifndings indicate that acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride noticeably improves cognitive function in patients with vascular dementia, and exerts neuroprotective effects against vascular dementia.

  13. Cardiac sodium channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ahmad S; Asghari-Roodsari, Alaleh; Tan, Hanno L

    2010-07-01

    Cardiac sodium channel are protein complexes that are expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes to carry a large inward depolarizing current (INa) during phase 0 of the cardiac action potential. The importance of INa for normal cardiac electrical activity is reflected by the high incidence of arrhythmias in cardiac sodium channelopathies, i.e., arrhythmogenic diseases in patients with mutations in SCN5A, the gene responsible for the pore-forming ion-conducting alpha-subunit, or in genes that encode the ancillary beta-subunits or regulatory proteins of the cardiac sodium channel. While clinical and genetic studies have laid the foundation for our understanding of cardiac sodium channelopathies by establishing links between arrhythmogenic diseases and mutations in genes that encode various subunits of the cardiac sodium channel, biophysical studies (particularly in heterologous expression systems and transgenic mouse models) have provided insights into the mechanisms by which INa dysfunction causes disease in such channelopathies. It is now recognized that mutations that increase INa delay cardiac repolarization, prolong action potential duration, and cause long QT syndrome, while mutations that reduce INa decrease cardiac excitability, reduce electrical conduction velocity, and induce Brugada syndrome, progressive cardiac conduction disease, sick sinus syndrome, or combinations thereof. Recently, mutation-induced INa dysfunction was also linked to dilated cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, and sudden infant death syndrome. This review describes the structure and function of the cardiac sodium channel and its various subunits, summarizes major cardiac sodium channelopathies and the current knowledge concerning their genetic background and underlying molecular mechanisms, and discusses recent advances in the discovery of mutation-specific therapies in the management of these channelopathies.

  14. Liquid Chromatographic Methods for the Determination of Vildagliptin in the Presence of its Synthetic Intermediate and the Simultaneous Determination of Pioglitazone Hydrochloride and Metformin Hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    El-Bagary, Ramzia I.; Elkady, Ehab F.; Ayoub, Bassam M.

    2011-01-01

    Two reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RP-LC) methods are described for the determination of two binary mixtures of hypoglycemic agents. In the first method, vildagliptin (VDG) was determined in the presence of 3-amino-1-adamantanol (AAD), a synthetic intermediate and impurity of VDG. In the second method, pioglitazone hydrochloride (PGZ) and metformin hydrochloride (MET) were simultaneously determined in their binary mixture. Chromatographic separation in the two methods was achieved on ...

  15. Chitosan coated vancomycin hydrochloride liposomes: Characterizations and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenlei; Liu, Junli; Gao, Jinhua; Chen, Shilei; Huang, Guihua

    2015-11-10

    The present work evaluated the feasibility of chitosan coated liposomes (c-Lips) for the intravenous delivery of vancomycin hydrochloride (VANH), a water-soluble antibiotic for the treatment of gram-positive bacterial infections like osteomyelitis, arthritis, endocarditis, pneumonia, etc. The objective of this research was to develop a suitable drug delivery system in vivo which could improve therapeutic efficacy and decrease side effects especially nephrotoxicity. Firstly, the vancomycin hydrochloride liposomes (VANH-Lips) were prepared by modified reverse phase evaporation method, then the chitosan wrapped vancomycin hydrochloride liposomes (c-VANH-Lips) nanosuspension was formulated by the method of electrostatic deposition. Based on the optimized results of single-factor screening experiment, the c-VANH-Lips were found to be relatively uniform in size (220.40 ± 3.56 nm) with a narrow polydispersity index (PI) (0.21 ± 0.03) and a positive zeta potential (25.7 ± 1.12 mV). The average drug entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug loading (DL) were 32.65 ± 0.59% and 2.18 ± 0.04%, respectively. The in vitro release profile of c-VANH-Lips possessed a sustained release Characterization and the release behavior was in accordance with the Weibull equation. Hemolysis experiments showed that its intravenous injection had preliminary safety. In vivo, after intravenous injection to mice, c-VANH-Lips showed a longer retention time and higher AUC values compared with the VANH injection (VANH-Inj) and VANH-Lips. In addition, biodistribution results clearly demonstrated that c-VANH-Lips preferentially decreased the drug distribution in kidney of mice after intravenous injection. These results revealed that injectable c-VANH-Lips may serve as a promising carrier for VANH to increase therapeutic efficacy on gram-positive bacterial infections and reduce nephrotoxicity, which provides significantly clinical value for long-term use of VANH.

  16. Indirect Electrochemical Oxidation of 4-Amino-dimethyl-aniline Hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The indirect electrochemical oxidation of 4-amino-dimethyl-aniline hydrochloride containing wastewater generated from vanillin production is presented. Experiments were conducted at a constant current density of 30 mA/cm2 via a Ti/Ru-Ti-Sn ternary oxide coated anode and an undivided reactor. During the various stages of the electrolysis, parameters such as the values of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) were determined in order to evaluate the feasibility of the electrochemical treatment. The energy consumption and the current efficiency during the electrolysis were calculated. The present study proves the effectiveness of the electrochemical treatment for wastewater resulted from vanillin production.

  17. Verapamil hydrochloride release characteristics from new copolymer zwitterionic matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Bistra; Kamenska, Elena; Ivanov, Ivo; Momekov, George; Rachev, Dimitar; Georgiev, George

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize stable copolymer (vinyl acetate-co-3-dimethyl[methacryloyloxyethyl] ammonium propane sulfinate) zwitterionic latex with different compositions for the first time by emulsifier-free emulsion copolymerization. Throughout the course of the study, a proposal was made for the explanation of the relationship between the "overshooting" phenomenon (a swelling kinetics with a maximum) and the specific self-association of the zwitterionic copolymers. The zwitterionic monomer unit mole fraction, pH, and ionic strength effects on this relationship, on the swelling kinetics of the zwitterionic copolymers, and on the sustained verapamil hydrochloride release from the model tablets were established by the study's authors.

  18. Development of sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H. Y.; Choi, Y. D. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, {tau}{sub c} = {delta}{center_dot}g{sup -0.83}{center_dot}10{sup (3570/T{sub Na}-3.34)}, in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics

  19. Gateways to clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2005-04-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity. prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: ABX-IL-8, Acclaim, adalimumab, AGI-1067, alagebrium chloride, alemtuzumab, Alequel, Androgel, anti-IL-12 MAb, AOD-9604, aripiprazole, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Biphasic insulin aspart, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, bovine lactoferrin, brivudine; Cantuzumab mertansine, CB-1954, CDB-4124, CEA-TRICOM, choriogonadotropin alfa, cilansetron, CpG-10101, CpG-7909, CTL-102, CTL-102/CB-1954; DAC:GRF, darbepoetin alfa, davanat-1, decitabine, del-1 Genemedicine, dexanabinol, dextofisopam, dnaJP1, dronedarone hydrochloride, dutasteride; Ecogramostim, eletriptan, emtricitabine, EPI-hNE-4, eplerenone, eplivanserin fumarate, erlotinib hydrochloride, ertapenem sodium, escitalopram oxalate, esomeprazole magnesium, etoricoxib, ezetimibe; Falecalcitriol, fingolimod hydrochloride; Gepirone hydrochloride; HBV-ISS, HSV-2 theracine, human insulin; Imatinib mesylate, Indiplon, insulin glargine, ISAtx-247; L612 HuMAb, levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone, lidocaine/prilocaine, LL-2113AD, lucinactant, LY-156735; Meclinertant, metelimumab, morphine hydrochloride, morphine-6-glucuronide; Natalizumab, nimotuzumab, NX-1207, NYVAC-HIV C; Omalizumab, onercept, osanetant; PABA, palosuran sulfate, parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), parecoxib sodium, PBI-1402, PCK-3145, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, pemetrexed disodium, pimecrolimus, PINC, pregabalin; Ramelteon, rasagiline mesilate, rasburicase, rimonabant hydrochloride, RO-0098557, rofecoxib, rosiglitazone maleate/metformin hydrochloride; Safinamide mesilate, SHL-749, sitaxsentan sodium, sparfosic acid, SprayGel, squalamine, St. John's Wort

  20. Melting of sodium clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes-Nava, J A; Beltran, M R; Michaelian, K

    2002-01-01

    Thermal stability properties and the melting-like transition of Na_n, n=13-147, clusters are studied through microcanonical molecular dynamics simulations. The metallic bonding in the sodium clusters is mimicked by a many-body Gupta potential based on the second moment approximation of a tight-binding Hamiltonian. The characteristics of the solid-to-liquid transition in the sodium clusters are analyzed by calculating physical quantities like caloric curves, heat capacities, and root-mean-square bond length fluctuations using simulation times of several nanoseconds. Distinct melting mechanisms are obtained for the sodium clusters in the size range investigated. The calculated melting temperatures show an irregular variation with the cluster size, in qualitative agreement with recent experimental results. However, the calculated melting point for the Na_55 cluster is about 40 % lower than the experimental value.

  1. Too Much Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-07

    This podcast is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.

  2. Determination of related substance in Ritodrine hydrochloride tablets by HPLC%HPLC测定盐酸利托君片的有关物质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘加元; 何胜利

    2013-01-01

    目的 应用HPLC测定盐酸利托君片的有关物质.方法 采用Apollo C8色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm),甲醇-磷酸氢二铵和庚烷磺酸钠混合溶液(30∶70)为流动相,流速1.0 mL· min-1,检测波长214 nm.结果 盐酸利托君与有关物质分离完全,最低检测限为3×10-5 μg,RSD=0.52%.结论 方法简便、准确、灵敏,可用于盐酸利托君片有关物质的测定.%OBJECTIVE To determine the related substances of Ritodrine hydrochloride tablets by HPLC.METHOD The separation was performed on Apollo C8 column(250 mm× 4.6 mm,5 μm).The mobile phase consisted of methanol-mixture of diammonium hydrogen phosphate and heptane mahogany acid sodium(30:70),and the flow rate was set at 1.0 mL·min-1 with detection wave at 214 nm.RESULTS Under the established chromatographic condition,the related substances and Ritodrine hydrochloride were separated completely,the limit of detection was 3 × 10-5 μg.The precision was good (RSD =0.52%).CONCLUSION The method is simple,accurate,specific and sensitive for the determination of Ritodrine hydrochloride tablets and its related substance.

  3. [Examination of effectiveness of olopatadine hydrochloride in atopic dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Tadamichi; Mashiko, Maki; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2005-02-01

    Subjective/objective symptoms (itching, papula, erythema, lichenification, desquamation, scratching, erosion) and the levels of IgE, LDH, interleukin (IL) -6, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) were compared before and after administering olopatadine hydrochloride (ALLELOCK tablets) to 17 atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. Subject/objective symptoms improved significantly after administering the agent, and the total dosage of the combined topical steroids was also significantly decreased after administration (p<0.05), although IgE, IL-6 and LDH levels did not change, TARC was significantly decreased (p<0.05). The correlation between the levels of IgE, IL-6, LDH and TARC before and after the administration was examined. There was a positive correlation between IgE and TARC (r=0.62, p<0.01) and between IL-6 and TARC (r=0.78, p<0.01). Olopatadine hydrochloride is therefore useful in improving the symptoms in AD, and TARC may be used as an indicator of the symptom improvement.

  4. Growth of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride and its characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, G.; Pari, S.

    2016-11-01

    Single crystal of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride by slow evaporation method is reported. The grown crystal characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, UV-Vis-NIR and fluorescence spectroscopy. It is established that the crystal falls under the monoclinic system and space group P21/c with the cell parameters as: a=8.565 Å, b=12.943 Å, c=6.272 Å, α=γ=90°, β=103.630º. UV-Vis-NIR spectrum shows indirect allowed transition with a band gap of 5.21 eV and other optical properties are measured. The crystal is also shown to have a high transmittance in the visible region. The third order nonlinear property and optical limiting have been investigated using Z-Scan technique. Complex impedance spectrum measured at the dc conductivity. Dependence of dielectric constant, dielectric loss and ac conductivity on frequency at different temperature of applied ac field is analyzed. The mechanical behavior has been assessed by Vickers microhardness indenter. The thermal behavior of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride was analyzed using TG/DTA thermal curves. From the thermal study, the material was found to possess thermal stability up to 174 °C. The predicted NLO properties, UV-Vis transmittance and Z-scan studies indicate that is an attractive material for photonics optical limiting applications.

  5. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC, ATOMIC ABSORPTION AND CONDUCTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Anis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Six simple and sensitive spectroscopic and conductometric procedures (A-F were developed for the determination of tramadol hydrochloride. Methods A, B and C are based on the reaction of cobalt (II thiocyanate with tramadol to form a stable ternary complex, which could be measured by spectrophotometric (method A, atomic absorption (method B or conductometric (method C procedures. Methods D and E depend on the reaction of molybdenum thiocyanate with tramadol to form a stable ternary complex, measured by spectrophotometric means (method D or by atomic absorption procedures (method E, while method F depends on the formation of an ion pair complex between the studied drug and bromothymol blue which is extractable into methylene chloride. Tramadol hydrochloride could be assayed in the range of 80-560 and 40-–220 μg ml-1, 1-15 mg ml-1 and 2.5-22.5, 1.25-11.25 and 5-22 μg ml-1 using methods A,B,C,D,E and F, respectively. Various experimental conditions were studied. The results obtained showed good recoveries. The proposed procedures were applied successfully to the analysis of tramadol in its pharmaceutical preparations and the results were favorably comparable with the official method.

  6. FORMULATION AND DISSOLUTION STUDY OF DILTIAZEM HYDROCHLORIDE IMMEDIATE RELEASE TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAHMAIAH BONTHAGARALA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main aim and objective of the work is to formulate immediate release tablets using different direct compression vehicles (DCV’S in different ratios. Methods: In the present study, design of oral immediate release tablets of Diltiazem hydrochloride by direct compression technique was carried out. Results: The main motive is to compare the dissolution profile of these formulations and conclude the best formulation which release drug at a faster rate . To determine the best fit dissolution profile for the dosage forms. Diltiazem hydrochloride tablets were formulated by using microcrystalline cellulose (diluent, potato starch, acacia (binder and magnesium stearate (lubricant. The granules were compressed into tablets and were subjected to dissolution studies. The dissolution profile of the formulation F2 was found to have better dissolution rate compared to others. Conclusion: The Invitro dissolution studies of all the formulations were conducted and the results were obtained, it was concluded that formulation F2 was the best with fast release of drug compared to others.

  7. Modulation of venlafaxine hydrochloride release from press coated matrix tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gohel M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to prepare novel modified release press coated tablets of venlafaxine hydrochloride. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K100M were used as release modifier in core and coat, respectively. A 3 2 full factorial design was adopted in the optimization study. The drug to polymer ratio in core and coat were chosen as independent variables. The drug release in the first hour and drug release rate between 1 and 12 h were chosen as dependent variables. The tablets were characterized for dimension analysis, crushing strength, friability and in vitro drug release. A check point batch, containing 1:2.6 and 1:5.4 drug to polymer in core and coat respectively, was prepared. The tablets of check point batch were subjected to in vitro drug release in dissolution media with pH 5, 7.2 and distilled water. The kinetics of drug release was best explained by Korsmeyer and Peppas model (anomalous non-Fickian diffusion. The systematic formulation approach enabled us to develop modified release venlafaxine hydrochloride tablets.

  8. TRIMETAZIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE TRANSDERMAL PATCH: FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarfaraz Md

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to formulate and evaluate matrix-type transdermal formulations containing trimetazidine hydrochloride with polymers such as carboxymethyl chitosan and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC 5cps by solvent evaporation technique with glycerin, as plasticizer. The prepared patches were tested for their physicochemical characteristics such as thickness, weight variation, drug content uniformity, folding endurance and tensile strength. The partition coefficient study was performed using n-octanol as the organic phase and phosphate buffer pH 7.4 as an aqueous phase and it was found to be 1.01. In-vitro release studies of trimetazidine hydrochloride-loaded patches in phosphate buffer (pH, 7.4 exhibited drug release in the range of 89.40 to 92.10 % in 24 hrs. The parameter flux (J was calculated and it was in the range of 1.325 to 2.898 mg/cm2/hr. Based on optimization studies, patches containing carboxymethyl chitosan patches were chosen as optimized formulation. Skin irritation studies were performed on optimized transdermal patch and were found to be free of irritation. The patches were subjected to short term stability studies and were found stable. FTIR studies revealed no interactions between drug and excipients. Data of in vitro release from optimized patches were fit in to different equations and kinetic models such as zero order, first-order, Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas models to explain release kinetics.

  9. 维拉佐酮盐酸盐%vilazodone hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李赛

    2011-01-01

    由Trovis Pharma LLC制药公司研制的维拉佐酮盐酸盐(vilazodone hydrochloride)于2011年1月21日由FDA批准上市,商品名为Viibryd,用于治疗成年人重度抑郁症(major depressive disorder,MDD)[1].Viibryd将以10 mg、20 mg和40 mg片剂上市.Viibryd中文化学名称:5-[4-[4-(5-氰基-1H-吲哚-3-基)丁基]-1-哌嗪基]-2-苯并呋喃草酰胺盐酸盐;英文化学名称:5-[4-[4-(5-cyano-1 H-indol-3-yl)butyl]-1 -piperaz-inyl]-2-benzofurancarboxamide hydrochloride;分子式:C26-H27N5O2 ·HCl;分子量:477.99;CAS登记号:163521-08-2.

  10. Structural characterisation and dehydration behaviour of siramesine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Anne; Tian, Fang; de Diego, Heidi Lopez; Frydenvang, Karla; Rantanen, Jukka; Elema, Michiel Ringkjøbing; Hovgaard, Lars

    2009-10-01

    In this study the crystal structures of siramesine hydrochloride anhydrate alpha-form and siramesine hydrochloride monohydrate were determined, and this structural information was used to explain the physicochemical properties of the two solid forms. In the crystal structure of the monohydrate, each water molecule is hydrogen bonded to two chloride ions, and thus the water is relatively strongly bound in the crystal. No apparent channels for dehydration were observed in the monohydrate structure, which could allow transmission of structural information during dehydration. Instead destructive dehydration occurred, where the elimination of water from the monohydrate resulted in the formation of an oily phase, which subsequently recrystallised into one or more crystalline forms. Solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate of the anhydrate alpha-form and the monohydrate in aqueous media were investigated and both were found to be lower for the monohydrate compared to the anhydrate alpha-form. Finally, the interactions between water molecules and chloride ions in the monohydrate as well as changes in packing induced by water incorporation could be detected by spectroscopic techniques.

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF CONCENTRATION OF POLYHEXANIDE HYDROCHLORIDE IN MULTIPURPOSE SOLUTION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arora

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of foreign pathogenic microorganisms like viruses, bacteria, yeast, fungi and protozoa which can inadvertently be introduced into eye via contact lens and hence disinfection is a vital part. Multifunctional solutions are generally intended to combine the action of cleaning disinfecting, rinsing lubricating deproteinising and soaking in one single product.In order to optimization of concentration of Polyhexanide hydrochloride in multipurpose solution some microbiological studies were performed by taking five microorganisms which are more prevalent in the infected eye condition. The nutrient agar and sabourad's agar media were used for bacteria and yeast mould respectively. The media were prepared as per I.P and sterilised by autoclaving and poured into Petri plates. The media when cooled to 42°C, 0.5 ml of the culture was added.The optimum concentration of Polyhexanide hydrochloride is 0.0002% which is an effective concentration against five microorganisms that are most prevalent in the infected eye condition.It was concluded that the multipurpose solution containing 2.0 g/ml of polyhexanide were found to be better in terms of antimicrobial activity

  12. Modulation of venlafaxine hydrochloride release from press coated matrix tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohel, M C; Soni, C D; Nagori, S A; Sarvaiya, K G

    2008-01-01

    The aim of present study was to prepare novel modified release press coated tablets of venlafaxine hydrochloride. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K100M were used as release modifier in core and coat, respectively. A 3(2) full factorial design was adopted in the optimization study. The drug to polymer ratio in core and coat were chosen as independent variables. The drug release in the first hour and drug release rate between 1 and 12 h were chosen as dependent variables. The tablets were characterized for dimension analysis, crushing strength, friability and in vitro drug release. A check point batch, containing 1:2.6 and 1:5.4 drug to polymer in core and coat respectively, was prepared. The tablets of check point batch were subjected to in vitro drug release in dissolution media with pH 5, 7.2 and distilled water. The kinetics of drug release was best explained by Korsmeyer and Peppas model (anomalous non-Fickian diffusion). The systematic formulation approach enabled us to develop modified release venlafaxine hydrochloride tablets.

  13. Formulation and evaluation of transdermal patches of papaverine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Samip

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal patches of papaverine hydrochloride were prepared by the solvent casting method using ethyl cellulose: PVP, PVA: PVP and Eudragit RL-100: Eudragit RS-100 using different ratios. The physicochemical parameters such as flexibility, thickness, smoothness, weight variation, moisture content, hardness and tensile strength were evaluated for the prepared patches. The formulation exhibited flexibility, uniform thickness and weight, smoothness, good drug content (92 to 96%, and little moisture content. The in vitro diffusion studies were carried out using modified Keshery-Chein cell using cellophane as the diffusion membrane and the formulation followed the Higuchi diffusion mechanism. The formulation containing PVA: PVP as polymers showed faster release rate (hydrophilic polymers compared to Eudragit RL-100: Eudragit RS-100 (hydrophobic polymers or combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers (ethyl cellulose and PVP. The stability studies indicated that all the patches maintained good physicochemical properties and drug content after storing the patches in different storage conditions. Compatibility studies indicated that there was no interaction between the drug and polymers. In vivo studies showed that papaverine hydrochloride helps in decreasing the effect of isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis. Hence, the aim of the present study was to prepare the sustained release formulation (Transdermal patches of the drug using different blend of polymers. The formulated patches containing the hydroplilic polymers showed best release rate of drug.

  14. [Clinical evaluation of roxatidine acetate hydrochlorides as a preanesthetic medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, M; Chihara, E; Ibuki, T; Ashida, H; Fukushima, H; Tanaka, Y

    2001-02-01

    Roxatidine acetate hydrochloride capsule is slowly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, and its acid suppressive effect on the stomach is long-lasting compared with other H2-blockers. The reduction of gastric juice in perioperative period is considered advantageous for patients not only because it decreases the risk for aspiration pneumonia but also because it reduces the risk of bronchial spasm induced by gastroesophageal reflux of acidic gastric content. The effects of single oral administration of roxatidine acetate hydrochloride 150 mg at night before the operation on the volume and pH of gastric juice were investigated during anesthesia using two types of anesthetic agents (isoflurane and propofol) in 93 patients of three age groups (group Y: age 20-40, group M: age 41-64, group O: age 65 roxatidine on reduction of gastric juice was found at the time of anesthetic induction and 2 hours after the induction in any age group with either anesthetic agent. The serum concentration of roxatidine at the time of induction was much higher in group O. The value of residual concentration of roxatidine 20 hours after oral intake was estimated from the intraoperative measurements of serum concentration. The results suggest that single administration at night before the operation is sufficient for the oldest group, but an additive dose is recommended for the younger groups.

  15. Formulation and evaluation of tramadol hydrochloride rectal suppositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rectal suppositories of tramadol hydrochloride were prepared using different bases and polymers like PEG, cocoa butter, agar and the effect of different additives on in vitro release of tramadol hydrochloride was studied. The agar-based suppositories were non-disintegrating/non-dissolving, whereas PEGs were disintegrating/dissolving and cocoa butter were melting suppositories. All the prepared suppositories were evaluated for various physical parameters like weight variation, drug content and hardness. The PEG and cocoa butter suppositories were evaluated for macromelting range, disintegration and liquefaction time. In vitro release study was performed by USP type I apparatus. The prepared suppositories were within the permissible range of all physical parameters. In vitro drug release was in the order of PEG>Agar>cocoa butter. Addition of PVP, HPMC in agar suppositories retards the release. The mechanism of drug release was diffusion controlled and follows first order kinetics. The results suggested that blends of PEG of low molecular weight (1000 with high molecular weight (4000 and 6000 in different percentage and agar in 10% w/w as base used to formulate rapid release suppositories. The sustained release suppositories can be prepared by addition of PVP, HPMC in agar-based suppositories and by use of cocoa butter as base.

  16. A novel and rapid microbiological assay for ciprofloxacin hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edith Cristina Laignier Cazedey; Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado

    2013-01-01

    The present work reports a simple, fast and sensitive microbiological assay applying the turbidimetric method for the determination of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIPRO HCl) in ophthalmic solutions. The validation method yielded good results and included excellent linearity, precision, accuracy and specificity. The bioassay is based on the inhibitory effect of CIPRO HCl upon the strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 used as the test microorganism. The results were treated statistically by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and were found to be linear (r¼0.9994, in the range of 14.0-56.0 mg/mL), precise (intraday RSD%¼2.06;interday RSD%¼2.30) and accurate (recovery ¼ 99.7%). The turbidimetric assay was compared to the UV spectrophotometric and HPLC methods for the same drug. The turbidimetric bioassay described on this paper for determination of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride in ophthalmic solution is an alternative to the physicochemical methods disclosed in the literature and can be used in quality control routine.

  17. Growth of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride and its characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, G.; Pari, S., E-mail: sparimyur@gmail.com

    2016-11-15

    Single crystal of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride by slow evaporation method is reported. The grown crystal characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, UV–Vis–NIR and fluorescence spectroscopy. It is established that the crystal falls under the monoclinic system and space group P21/c with the cell parameters as: a=8.565 Å, b=12.943 Å, c=6.272 Å, α=γ=90°, β=103.630º. UV–Vis–NIR spectrum shows indirect allowed transition with a band gap of 5.21 eV and other optical properties are measured. The crystal is also shown to have a high transmittance in the visible region. The third order nonlinear property and optical limiting have been investigated using Z-Scan technique. Complex impedance spectrum measured at the dc conductivity. Dependence of dielectric constant, dielectric loss and ac conductivity on frequency at different temperature of applied ac field is analyzed. The mechanical behavior has been assessed by Vickers microhardness indenter. The thermal behavior of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride was analyzed using TG/DTA thermal curves. From the thermal study, the material was found to possess thermal stability up to 174 °C. The predicted NLO properties, UV–Vis transmittance and Z-scan studies indicate that is an attractive material for photonics optical limiting applications.

  18. Intestinal Anisakiasis Treated Successfully with Prednisolone and Olopatadine Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Toyoda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristic of gastrointestinal anisakiasis is severe abdominal pain after eating raw fish. Intestinal anisakiasis is more uncommon than gastric anisakiasis. Most patients with intestinal anisakiasis need hospitalization because anisakiasis can cause intestinal obstruction, ileus, peritonitis or intestinal perforation. We report a case of intestinal anisakiasis. A 43-year-old woman presented with symptoms of intermittent abdominal pain 2 days after eating raw fish. Her brother had eaten the same food and had been suffering from gastric anisakiasis. Abdominal ultrasonography in this patient showed localized jejunal wall thickening with dilated lumen of proximal jejunum and ascites. According to the clinical course and examinations, she was diagnosed with intestinal anisakiasis. Administration of prednisolone 5 mg/day and olopatadine hydrochloride 10 mg/day improved her symptoms quickly without hospitalization. Prednisolone was administered for 10 days, and olopatadine hydrochloride was administered for a total of 6 weeks according to ultrasonographic findings. Six months after the treatment, the abdominal ultrasonography demonstrated normal findings. This case demonstrates that ultrasonography was quite useful for the diagnosis and surveillance of intestinal anisakiasis. Furthermore, treatment with corticosteroid and an antiallergic agent could be an option for patients with intestinal anisakiasis.

  19. Structural characterization of anhydrous naloxone- and naltrexone hydrochloride by high resolution laboratory X-ray powder diffraction and thermal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Dinnebier, Robert E; Zakrzewski, Marek

    2007-12-01

    The crystal structures of the analgesic compounds anhydrous naloxone and naltrexone hydrochloride were determined ab initio from high resolution laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data. Both compounds crystallize in the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with lattice parameters of a = 14.6588(10) A, b = 17.4363(9) A, c = 7.96200(22) A, and V = 2035.06(23) A(3) for naloxone hydrochloride and a = 15.4560(5) A, b = 14.9809(4) A, c = 7.84121(18) A, and V = 1815.58(11) A(3) for naltrexone hydrochloride. The crystal structure of anhydrous naloxone hydrochloride forms one-dimensional chains through hydrogen bonds. In the crystal structure of anhydrous naltrexone hydrochloride, two-dimensional sheets are formed by hydrogen bonds. The dehydration processes of naloxone hydrochloride dehydrate and naltrexone hydrochloride tetrahydrate was analyzed by DTA, DSC, TG, and MG.

  20. Development of alternative methods for the determination of raloxifene hydrochloride in tablet dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rodrigues Salazar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Three methods are proposed for the quantitative determination of raloxifene hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage form: ultraviolet method (UV high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and micellar capillary electrophoresis (MEKC. These methods were developed and validated and showed good linearity, precision and accuracy. Also they demonstrated to be specific and robust. The HPLC and MEKC methods were tested in regards to be stability indicating methods and they showed to have this attribute. The UV method used methanol as solvent and optimal wavelength at 284 nm, obeying Lambert-Beer law in these conditions. The chromatographic conditions for the HPLC method included: NST column C18 (250 x 4.6 mm x 5 µm, mobile phase water:acetonitrile:triethylamine (67:33:0,3 v/v, pH 3.5, flow rate 1.0 mL min-1, injection volume 20.0 µl, UV detection 287 nm and analysis temperature 30 °C. The MEKC method was performed on a fused-silica capillary (40 cm effective length x 50 µm i.d. using as background electrolyte 35.0 mmol L-1 borate buffer and 50.0 mmol L-1 anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS at pH 8.8. The capillary temperature was 32°C, applied voltage 25 kV, UV detection at 280 nm and injection was perfomed at 45 mBar for 4 s, hydrodimanic mode. In this MEKC method, potassium diclofenac (200.0 µg mL-1 was used as internal standard. All these methods were statistically analyzed and demonstrated to be equivalent for quantitative analysis of RLX in tablets and were successfully applied for the determination of the drug.

  1. Development of cost effective biodegradable implants of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride in treatment of osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Y Pawar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an attempt has been made to formulate and evaluate a sustained release implant of ciprofloxacin HCl with biodegradable, cost-effective polymer chitosan. osteomyelitis is one of the oldest disease, which is still in existence and difficult to treat, the prevalence of which is increasing day-by-day. The treatment of osteomyelitis requires large doses of antibiotics administered by systemic routes for a period of 4-5 weeks, however, the parenteral route suffered from many disadvantages and also some limitations. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride has been the most widely used fluoroquinolone for multi-bacterial bone infection because the minimal inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin HCl is low, and it has good penetration properties in most of the tissues and bone. Biodegradable polymers like poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA and Polycaprolactone (PCL were widely studied as a carrier for implant but their use is limited because of high-cost and are not easily available. The cross-linking of chitosan was carried out with sodium citrate and cross-linked chitosan (CC was used as a carrier. The effect of different proportion of chitosan and effect of drug loading on the drug release kinetics has been studied. An in vitro result shows that prolonged release was observed with higher drug loading. The CC5 implant containing 50% w/w polymer retards the drug release for more than 5 weeks. Furthermore, from in vivo study it is found that the optimized formulation CC5 is biocompatible and implant is not causing any foreign body reaction or hypersensitivity in the body of animal. The CC was found to have excellent release retarding properties and can be used as cost-effective, biodegradable sustained release matrices for designing of implant.

  2. Efficacy of benzydamine hydrochloride dripping at endotracheal tube cuff for prevention of postoperative sore throat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmaanrat, Sasikaan; Chokkijchai, Kedsirin; Chanchayanon, Thavat

    2013-10-01

    Postoperative sore throat (POST) is a frequent consequence following ETT intubation, which may negatively affect the postoperative course and patient satisfaction. Benzydamine hydrochloride is a topically-applied non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The authors evaluated the analgesic effect of benzydamine hydrochloride dripping on the ETT cuff on POST. Eighty-six patients participated in this randomized controlled trial. They were assigned into either the benzydamine hydrochloride or the control group. The whole ETT cuff was dripped either with 3 ml (4.5 mg) of benzydamine hydrochloride or nothing five minutes prior to anesthesia induction. The incidence and severity of POST at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hours postoperatively were assessed. The potential adverse effects of benzydamine hydrochloride (throat numbness throat burning sensation, dry mouth, and thirst) were also evaluated. Twenty-five patients (58.14%) in each group had POST (p-value = 1). The severity of POST (calculated from affected patients) in both groups at different time points was not significantly different. Patients in the benzydamine hydrochloride group did not have a higher incidence of adverse effects. We found that dripping benzydamine hydrochloride on the ETT cuff neither reduced the incidence of POST nor increased the incidence of adverse effects in comparison with no intervention.

  3. Developmental rates of immatures of three Chrysomya species (Diptera: Calliphoridae) under the effect of methylphenidate hydrochloride, phenobarbital, and methylphenidate hydrochloride associated with phenobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Fábio; Alonso, Marcela A; Souza, Carina M; Thyssen, Patrícia J; Linhares, Arício X

    2014-05-01

    Entomotoxicology is focused on obtaining data on necrophagous entomofauna, for criminal investigations purposes. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of methylphenidate hydrochloride, phenobarbital, and their association on the developmental rate, larval and pupal survivorship, and the interval of emergence of adults of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Considering the therapeutic dose (TD) of methylphenidate hydrochloride (0.29 mg/Kg), the concentrations tested were 10× TD, 50× TD, and 100× TD. For phenobarbital, the concentrations used were 1× TD (=150 mg/Kg), 3.3× TD, and 6.7× TD. For the association of the drugs, the combinations used were 10× TD-methylphenidate hydrochloride plus 1× TD-phenobarbital, 50× TD-methylphenidate hydrochloride plus 3.3× TD-phenobarbital, and 100× TD-methylphenidate hydrochloride plus 6.7× TD-phenobarbital. The control group, without addition of drug, was maintained under the same conditions of temperature (25 ± 1 °C), humidity (70 ± 10%), and photoperiod (12 h). Specimens of each group were weighed every 12 h until pupariation. The developmental rate of the three Chrysomya species immatures was monitored. For C. albiceps the developmental time was delayed in 24 h for methylphenidate hydrochloride group and in 12 h for the phenobarbital and the drugs association groups. The effect was observed only at specific ages for C. megacephala, without altering the developmental time. For C. putoria, the developmental time was delayed in 12 h for methylphenidate hydrochloride group and in 24 h for the phenobarbital and the drugs association groups. The emergence interval was similar among all experimental groups, but larval and pupal viabilities were affected in different ways.

  4. Cardiac sodium channelopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, A.S.; Asghari-Roodsari, A.; Tan, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac sodium channel are protein complexes that are expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes to carry a large inward depolarizing current (I-Na) during phase 0 of the cardiac action potential. The importance of I-Na for normal cardiac electrical activity is reflected by the high incidence of

  5. Cardiac sodium channelopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, A.S.; Asghari-Roodsari, A.; Tan, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac sodium channel are protein complexes that are expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes to carry a large inward depolarizing current (I-Na) during phase 0 of the cardiac action potential. The importance of I-Na for normal cardiac electrical activity is reflected by the high incidence of

  6. Sodium fluxes in sweet pepper exposed to varying sodium concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.; Vogelzang, S.A.; Veen, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium transport and distribution of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under saline conditions were studied after transferring the plants to a sodium-free nutrient solution. Sodium stress up to 60 mM did not affect the growth of sweet pepper, as it appears able to counteract the unfavourable phy

  7. Sodium fluxes in sweet pepper exposed to varying sodium concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.; Vogelzang, S.A.; Veen, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium transport and distribution of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under saline conditions were studied after transferring the plants to a sodium-free nutrient solution. Sodium stress up to 60 mM did not affect the growth of sweet pepper, as it appears able to counteract the unfavourable

  8. Extractive determination of ephedrine hydrochloride and bromhexine hydrochloride in pure solutions, pharmaceutical dosage form and urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghani, N T; Rizk, M S; Mostafa, M

    2013-07-01

    Simple, rapid, sensitive, precise and accurate spectrophotometeric methods for the determination of ephedrine hydrochloride (E-HCl) and bromhexine hydrochloride (Br-HCl) in bulk samples, dosage form and in spiked urine samples were investigated. The methods are based on the formation of a yellow colored ion-associates due to the interaction between the examined drugs with picric acid (PA), chlorophyllin coppered trisodium salt (CLPH), alizarin red (AR) and ammonium reineckate (Rk) reagents. A buffer solution had been used and the extraction was carried out using organic solvent, the ion associates exhibit absorption maxima at 410, 410, 430 and 530 nm of (Br-HCl)with PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively; 410, 410, 435 and 530 of (E-HCl) with PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively. (E-HCl) and (Br-HCl) could be determined up to 13, 121, 120 and 160; 25, 200, 92 and 206 μg mL(-1), using PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively. The optimum reaction conditions for quantitative analysis were investigated. In addition, the molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity were determined for the investigated drug. The correlation coefficient was ≥0.995 (n=6) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤1.15 for five selected concentrations of the reagents. Therefore the concentration of Br-HCl and E-HCl drugs in their pharmaceutical formulations and spiked urine samples had been determined successfully.

  9. Extractive determination of ephedrine hydrochloride and bromhexine hydrochloride in pure solutions, pharmaceutical dosage form and urine samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghani, N. T.; Rizk, M. S.; Mostafa, M.

    2013-07-01

    Simple, rapid, sensitive, precise and accurate spectrophotometeric methods for the determination of ephedrine hydrochloride (E-HCl) and bromhexine hydrochloride (Br-HCl) in bulk samples, dosage form and in spiked urine samples were investigated. The methods are based on the formation of a yellow colored ion-associates due to the interaction between the examined drugs with picric acid (PA), chlorophyllin coppered trisodium salt (CLPH), alizarin red (AR) and ammonium reineckate (Rk) reagents. A buffer solution had been used and the extraction was carried out using organic solvent, the ion associates exhibit absorption maxima at 410, 410, 430 and 530 nm of (Br-HCl)with PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively; 410, 410, 435 and 530 of (E-HCl) with PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively. (E-HCl) and (Br-HCl) could be determined up to 13, 121, 120 and 160; 25, 200, 92 and 206 μg mL-1, using PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively. The optimum reaction conditions for quantitative analysis were investigated. In addition, the molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity were determined for the investigated drug. The correlation coefficient was ⩾0.995 (n = 6) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) ⩽1.15 for five selected concentrations of the reagents. Therefore the concentration of Br-HCl and E-HCl drugs in their pharmaceutical formulations and spiked urine samples had been determined successfully.

  10. Comparative effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride and ractopamine hydrochloride on live performance and carcass characteristics of calf-fed Holstein steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T R; Sexten, A K; Lawrence, T E; Miller, M F; Thomas, C L; Yates, D A; Hutcheson, J P; Hodgen, J M; Brooks, J C

    2014-09-01

    Holstein steers (n = 2,275) were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) a control diet containing no β-agonists, 2) a diet that contained zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; 8.3 mg/kg [100% DM basis]) for 20 d with a 3-d withdrawal period before harvest, and 3) a diet that contained ractopamine hydrochloride (RH; 30.1 mg/kg [100% DM basis]) for 28 d before harvest. No differences (P ≥ 0.18) were detected between treatments for initial BW, BW at d 28, or DMI. Final BW, BW gain for the last 28 d, total BW gain, ADG for the last 28 d, and overall ADG were greater (P Feeding either β-agonist to calf-fed Holstein steers increased live performance through increased BW, BW gain, and ADG. Furthermore, supplementing calf-fed Holstein steers with ZH provides greater improvements in HCW, LM area, and yield grade components, with a slight decrease in quality grade when compared to calf-fed Holstein steers supplemented with RH.

  11. MULTILAYERS AND POLY(ALLYLAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE)-GRAFT-POLY(ETHYLENE GLYCOL) MODIFIED BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN NANOPARTICLES: IMPROVED STABILITY AND pH-RESPONSIVE DRUG DELIVERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-li Xie; Wei-jun Tong; Jian-quan Xu; Chang-you Gao

    2012-01-01

    To improve the colloidal stability of bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles (NPs) in diverse mediums,poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH)/sodium poly(4-styrene sulfonate) (PSS) multilayers and poly(allylamine hydrochloride)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PAH-g-PEG) coating were coated on the surface of BSA NPs.Stabilities of the BSA NPs in diverse mediums with different surfaces were detected by dynamic light scattering (DLS).Multilayers and PAH-g-PEG coated BSA NPs can be well dispersed in various mediums with a narrow polydispersity index (PDI).The BSA NPs with the highest surface density of PEG show the best stability.The multilayers and PAH-g-PEG coating do not deter the pH-dependent loading and release property of BSA NPs.At pH 9,the encapsulation efficiency of doxorubicin reaches almost 99%,and the release rate at pH 5.5 is significantly higher than that at pH 7.4.

  12. 盐酸头孢替安致Stevens-Johnson综合征%Stevens-Johnson syndrome caused by cefotiam hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱忠华; 朱辉娅; 凌云

    2013-01-01

    1例61岁女性患者因慢性胆囊炎急性发作给予盐酸头孢替安2 g+0.9%氯化钠注射液100 ml,2次/d静脉滴注;泮托拉唑60 mg +0.9%氯化钠注射液100 ml,2次/d静脉滴注.第2天,患者体温升高,面部及四肢出现红斑样皮疹伴瘙痒.停用盐酸头孢替安,静脉注射地塞米松、肌内注射异丙嗪,无明显好转.第3天皮疹波及全身,伴喉头不适、颜面红肿、眼睑水肿、结膜充血.诊断为Stevens-Johnson综合征,停用泮托拉唑,继续行糖皮质激素和抗组胺治疗.第5天,眼睑水肿减轻.第6天,四肢皮疹明显减轻,颜面红肿消退.第9天,患者全身皮疹基本消退.%A 61-year-old woman with acute episodes of chronic cholecystitis received an Ⅳ infusion of cefotiam hydrochloride 2.0 g in 0.9% sodium chloride injection 100 ml twice daily,and an Ⅳ infusion of pantoprazole 60 mg in 0.9% sodium chloride injection 100 nl twice daily.On day 2,the patient's body temperature rose,erythematous skin rashes appeared on her face and extremities,accompanied by itching.Cefotiam hydrochloride was stopped.She was treated with Ⅳ dexamethasone and IM promethazine.The above symptoms did not markedly improve.On day 3,skin rashes spread over her entire body,accompanied by throat discomfort,facial swelling,palpebral edema,and conjunctival congestion.Stevens-Johnson syndrome was diagnosed.Pantoprazole was stopped,glucocorticoid and antihistamine treatment was continued.On day 5,palpebral edema was relieved.On day 6,rashes on her limbs was significantly improved and facial swelling disappeared.On day 9,her generalized rashes basically subsided.

  13. Technology for sodium purity control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, B. H.; Kim, T. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    When sodium is used as heat transfer fluid, the plugging in coolant flow, the corrosion of structure material and the transfer of radioactive material caused by the impurities in sodium are worth considerable. Accordingly, these impurities must be monitored and controlled continuously by sodium purification devices in the heat transfer system which sodium is used as coolant. Sodium purification loop was constructed for the purpose of accumulating the technology for purity control of the coolant, developing and verifying further efficient instruments for sodium purification. The plugging meter and the cold trap is used as the implement for measuring and controlling the oxygen and the hydrogen, the main impurities in sodium coolant. They are capable of excellent performance as the implements which could detect and monitor the impurities to the concentration limit required for nuclear reactor. Sodium purification loop could be used variably according to the experimental purpose. 18 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  14. Inhaled sodium metabisulphite induced bronchoconstriction: inhibition by nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, C M; Ind, P W

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate on bronchoconstriction induced by inhaled sodium metabisulphite have been studied in eight atopic subjects, three of whom had mild asthma. 2. Nedocromil sodium (4 mg, 7.8 X 10(-6) M), sodium cromoglycate (10 mg, 24.1 X 10(-6) M) and matched placebo were administered by identical metered dose inhalers 30 min before a dose-response to sodium metabisulphite (5-100 mg ml-1) was performed. 3. Maximum fall in sGaw after placebo pre-treatment was -43.9 +/- 3.3% baseline (mean +/- s.e. mean). At the same metabisulphite concentration maximum fall in sGaw after sodium cromoglycate was -13.0 +/- 3.6% and after nedocromil sodium was +4.3 +/- 6.8%. Nedocromil sodium prevented any significant fall in sGaw even after higher concentrations of metabisulphite. 4. Both nedocromil sodium, 4 mg, and sodium cromoglycate, 10 mg, inhibited sodium metabisulphite induced bronchoconstriction but nedocromil sodium was significantly more effective. Relative in vivo potency of the two drugs is broadly in line with other in vivo and in vitro studies. PMID:2171616

  15. TASTE MASKING AND FORMULATION OF ONDANSETRON HYDROCHLORIDE MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Raj Subedi, Bhupendra Kumar Poudel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to mask the bitter taste of ondansetron HCl using complexing agent, a polacrilex resin: Tulsion 335 and subsequently forming mouth dissolving tablet using superdisintegrants: Croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycollate. A preliminary screening was done. Batch process, a most preferential method for drug loading with ion exchange resins was selected. The process was optimized for drug: resin ratio to get maximum drug loading. A ratio of drug: resin at 1:3 was selected. Taste evaluation was carried out by selecting volunteers. Drug resin complex (DRC was evaluated for drug release. The resultant DRC was formulated by direct compression into mouth dissolving tablet using microcrystalline cellulose PH 102, as diluent and croscarmalose sodium and sodium starch glycolate as superdisintegrants and aspartame was used as sweetening agent to enhance palatability. Thirteen formulations were developed by using superdisintegrants: croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate. Concentration of superdisintegrants ranged from 0.75-9.24 %. The formulated tablet had satisfactory disintegration time and dissolution profile. Optimization was carried out using central composite design. The disintegration and dissolution times were tallied with marketed ondansetron HCl tablets. From the results, it was deduced that the most effective concentration for desired disintegration was of croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycollate respectively at concentration above 5%. Therefore, it can be concluded that the intensely bitter taste of ondansetron HCl can be masked by using tulsion 335 and mouth dissolving ondansetron HCl can be successfully prepared by adding aforementioned superdisintegrants. This sort of mouth dissolving ondansetron HCl can be used in controlling vomiting in paediatric and geriatric patients and also for pregnancy induced vomiting.

  16. Slicing sodium from bakery products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for sodium reduction in our diet is clear to consumers, dieticians and food manufacturers. As sodium concentration has a strengthening effect on gluten, sodium reduction decreases dough mixing tolerance, dough resistance and induces dough stickiness. In particular, the latter may cause

  17. Slicing sodium from bakery products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for sodium reduction in our diet is clear to consumers, dieticians and food manufacturers. As sodium concentration has a strengthening effect on gluten, sodium reduction decreases dough mixing tolerance, dough resistance and induces dough stickiness. In particular, the latter may cause prob

  18. Hanford site sodium management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttenberg, S.

    1995-09-25

    The Hanford Site Sodium Management Plan, Revision 1, provides changes to the major elements and management strategy to ensure an integrated and coordinated approach for disposition of the more than 350,000 gallons of sodium and related sodium facilities located at the DOE`s Hanford Site

  19. 盐酸吡利霉素治疗奶牛乳房炎临床药效学及对乳品质影响的研究%Studies on the Efficacy of Pirlimycin Hydrochloride for Mastitis Treatment and Milk Quality in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鹏; 徐克范; 王烈滨

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was designed to study the efficacy of pirlimycin hydrochloride on mastitis treatment in lactating dairy cows. The results showed that the efficacy of pirlimycin hydrochloride for treatment of subclinical mastitis was better than ceftiofur sodium and compound amoxycillin. But for the treatment of clinical mastitis, the efficacy of compound amoxycillin was superior to pirlimycin hydrochloride and ceftiofur sodium. And the pirlimycin hydrochloride improved the milk quality better than ceftiofur sodium and compound amoxycillin(especially on decreasing somatic cell counts).%本研究依据对黑龙江省部分牧场奶牛乳房炎致病菌分离鉴定以及药敏试验结果,选取盐酸吡利霉素、头孢噻呋钠和复方阿莫西林为试验药物,对患有隐性乳房炎的奶牛进行治疗并对乳品质进行跟踪监测.结果表明盐酸吡利霉素对隐性乳房炎的治愈率最高,对临床型乳房炎的治疗效果略差于复方阿莫西林,盐酸吡利雷素与复方阿莫西林对两种类型乳房炎治疗的总有效率相当,但盐酸吡利霉素对乳品质(尤其是降低体细胞数方面)的改善作用显著好于复方阿莫西林治疗组.

  20. 盐酸氨基葡萄糖分散片的制备及质量控制%Preparation and quality control of glucosamine hydrochloride dispersible tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮; 刘祖雄

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the preparation technology of glucosamine hydrochloride dispersible tablets and its quality control method. Methods Microcrystalline cellulose was selected as the diluent; sodium carboxymethyl starch, low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose and crospovidone were selected as disintegrants; asipatan was selected as flavoring, peppermint oil was se lected as aromatic, magnesium stearate was selected as lubricant, aerosil was selected as glidant. The contents of glucosamine hydrochloride dispersible tablets were determined by UV spectrophotomery. Results The glucosamine hydrochloride dispersible tablets can be obtained with good taste, smooth-surface and convenient in use. The linear range of glucosamine hydrochloride was 12 ~ 32mg/L (r = O. 9998), the average rate of recovery was 99.65%, RSD was 0.35% ( n = 9). Conclusion The preparation technology is reliable, the methods are simple and accurate which can be used in hospital production and using.%目的 探讨盐酸氨基葡萄糖分散片的制备及质量控制方法.方法 选用微晶纤维素为填充剂,羧甲基淀粉钠、低取代羟丙纤维素、交联聚维酮为崩解剂,阿斯帕坦为矫味剂,薄荷油为芳香剂,硬脂酸镁为润滑剂,微粉硅胶为助流剂.采用紫外分光光度法测定其含量.结果 制得的盐酸氨基葡萄糖分散片口感好、表面光滑、服用方便.盐酸氨基葡萄糖分散片的含量测定的线性范围为12~32 mg/L(r=0.999 8),平均回收率为99.65%,RSD为0.35%(n=9).结论 本制剂处方工艺可靠,检测方法简便、准确、适用于医院配制和应用.

  1. 盐酸乙哌立松片在健康人体内的药代动力学及生物等效性%Pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of eperisone hydrochloride tablet in healthy subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏欣; 丁黎; 高家敏; 李君; 张胜强; 沈建平; 张银娣

    2004-01-01

    Aim To develop a HPLC-ESI-MS assay for determination of eperisone hydrochloride in human plasma and investigate the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of two eperisone hydrochloride tablets in human. Methods Buflomedil hydrochloride was used as the internal standard. After alkalized with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution, plasma was extracted with diethylether-cyclohexane (1:1) and separated using HPLC on a reversed-phase C18 column with a mobile phase of 10mmol·L-1 ammonium acetate buffer solution (adjusted to pH 3.88 with acetic acid)-methanol (20:80). HPLC-ESI-MS was performed in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode using target ions at m/z 260 for eperisone and m/z 308 for the internal standard. A randomized crossover design was performed in 20 healthy volunteers. In the two study periods, a single 100mg dose of each tablet was administered to each volunteer. Results Calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.02-20μg·L-1. The limit of quantification for eperisone hydrochloride in plasma was 0.02μg·L-1. The main pharmacokinetics parameters T1/2, Tmax and Cmax were (2.7±0.4)h, (1.1±0.5)h and (2.8±2.8)μg·L-1 for the reference tablet; (2.8±0.5)h, (1.1±0.4)h and (3±4)μg·L-1 for the test tablet, respectively. The relative bioavalability of the test tablet was (101±13)%. Conclusion The assay was proved to be sensitive, accurate and convenient. The two formulations were bioequivalent.

  2. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Poly(hexamethylene biguanide Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique C. Mattoso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the characterization of commercially available Poly(hexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB, a polymer with biocidal activity and several interesting properties that make this material suitable as a building block for supramolecular chemistry and “smart” materials. We studied polymer structure in water solution by dynamic light scattering, surface tension and capacitance spectroscopy. It shows typical surfactant behavior due to amphiphilic structure and low molecular weight. Spectroscopic (UV/Vis, FT-NIR and thermal characterization (differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, and thermogravimetric analysis, TGA were performed to give additional insight into the material structure in solution and solid state. These results can be the foundation for more detailed investigations on usefulness of PHMB in new complex materials and devices.

  3. β-Cyclodextrin-promazine hydrochloride interaction: Conductometric and viscometric studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Sajid Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we have studied the interaction of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD with the amphiphilic drug promazine hydrochloride (PMZ by using conductimetry and viscometry. From the observed results it was concluded that critical micelle concentration (cmc of the pure drug was lower than the apparent critical micelle concentration (cmc∗ of the drug in the presence of β-CD. The cmc∗ increased on increasing the concentration of β-CD due to the encapsulation of the amphiphilic drug to the hydrophobic cavities of the β-CD which delayed the micelle formation. Viscosity of the solution decreased drastically on the addition of β-CD which further increased on increasing the drug solution. Free energies of micellization (ΔGmic were calculated with the help of degrees of micelle ionization and cmc obtained from the specific conductivity−[PMZ] plots. Micellization was found to be less spontaneous in the presence of cyclodextrin.

  4. Permanent-wave dermatitis: contact allergy to cysteamine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Maeran C; Law, Sandra; Storrs, Frances J

    2003-09-01

    Cysteamine hydrochloride (CHC) is a newly recognized sensitizer found in permanent-wave solutions. We report the case of a hairdresser who was found to be allergic to CHC. Our allergic patient was patch-tested to various chemicals found in permanent-wave solutions, including CHC (1.0% in petrolatum). Patch-test reactions were positive to CHC, glyceryl thioglycolate, diglyceryl thioglycolate, p-phenylenediamine (PPD), and PPD through a piece of latex glove. Sixty-four controls to CHC (1.0% in petrolatum) had negative results. Household-weight latex gloves were protective against CHC allergy. Persons with CHC-waved hair were not allergic. CHC contained in "neutral" permanent-wave preparations has been used in American beauty salons since 1993. We briefly discuss the introduction and significance of CHC in permanent waves.

  5. Betahistine hydrochloride in Méniére's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, I J; Menon, G N

    1976-08-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over clinical trial was performed to assess the effect of betahistine hydrochloride (Serc) in Ménière's disease. The diagnosis was based on paroxysmal attacks of rotational vertigo, with tinnitus, and a fluctuating sensori-neural deafness, together with the results of auditory and vestigular tests. Twenty-eight patients were admitted to the trial over 3 years. Twenty-two patients completed the trial. In total, they received betahistine 32 mg daily, for a period of 16 weeks, and placebo also for the same length of time, preceded in every case by a 4-week pre-treatment period. Daily symptom score cards were kept. There was a statistically significant improvement in favour of the drug with regard to vertigo, tinnitus and deafness. Vertigo was the most responsive symptom. No adverse reactions were observed.

  6. [Characteristics and selectivity of photocatalytic-degradation of tetracycline hydrochloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chen-Yi; Yin, Da-Qiang

    2014-02-01

    The photocatalytic-degradation behavior of tetracycline hydrochloride (TTC) was studied. The catalyst used was photosensitive semiconductor titanium dioxide (TiO2). The results showed that the photocatalytic degradation of TTC was well fitted to first order reaction kinetics model, and the adsorption was the control step of the whole photocatalytic-degradation process, indicating that the main degradation path was the photocatalytic reaction of TTC adsorbed on the surface of TiO2. Besides, through photocatalytic-degradation of the mixed solution of TTC and sulfamethoxazole or amoxicillin, the degradation of the two antibiotics showed obvious selectivity when the pH, TiO2 dosage and other conditions were changed.

  7. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE PELLETS OF TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskara Haripriya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to develop and evaluate a better sustained release multiple unit pellets (MUP formulation of Tramadol hydrochloride. Dissolution and diffusion controlled systems have classically been of primary importance in oral delivery of medication because of their relative ease of production and cost compared with other methods of sustained or controlled delivery. Most of these systems are solids, although a few liquids and suspension have been recently introduced. The present work aimed at developing SR pellets of Tramadol HCl by Wurster process. FTIR studies showed no unacceptable extra peaks which confirm the absence of chemical interaction between the drug and polymer. Angle of repose, tapped density, bulk density values for the formulations were within the range which indicates that pellets prepared by Wurster process were satisfactory for further studies. The percentage drug content of Tramadol was determined by extraction with methanol and analyzed by using UV-visible spectrophotometer at 271nm.

  8. Design and Evaluation of Chronomodulated Drug Delivery of Tramadol Hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekya, Thota; Narendar, Dudhipala; Mahipal, Donthi; Arjun, Narala; Nagaraj, Banala

    2017-09-26

    Rheumatoid arthritis is an auto immune disease which requires chronotherapy as it occurs during early morning. Tramadol hydrochloride (TH) is an analgesic drug, used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of the present investigation was to develop chronomodulated drug delivery system of tramadol hydrochloride such that it releases the drug early in the morning, during which the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis worsen. To develop chronomodulated drug delivery system of TH, initially core tablets of TH were prepared using three different supradisintegrants followed by coating with pH dependent polymer of Eudragit S100. The prepared core tablets are evaluated for physical parameters and an optimal system was identified. Further, coating composition of Eudragit S100 was optimized and coating tablets of TH was prepared. The prepared coated tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, drug content and in vitro release studies in 0.1N HCl, pH 6.8 phosphate buffer and pH 7.4 phosphate buffer. Formulation with 7.5% of coating solution (ES2) had shown a significant drug release after a lag time of 3 h (in pH 6.8 medium), 6 h (in pH 6.8 medium) and 8 h (in pH 7.4 medium), respectively. DSC studies revealed that no interaction between core and coated materials with drug was observed. Thus, chronomodulated drug delivery system of TH was formulated and assuming that if a tablet is administered around 9 pm to 10 pm, the drug release starts after a lag time of 6 h i. e., around 3am to 4 am. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Sinomenine Hydrochloride Protects against Polymicrobial Sepsis via Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response to infection, is the major cause of death in intensive care units (ICUs. The mortality rate of sepsis remains high even though the treatment and understanding of sepsis both continue to improve. Sinomenine (SIN is a natural alkaloid extracted from Chinese medicinal plant Sinomenium acutum, and its hydrochloride salt (Sinomenine hydrochloride, SIN-HCl is widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA. However, its role in sepsis remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of SIN-HCl in sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP in BALB/c mice and the corresponding mechanism. SIN-HCl treatment improved the survival of BALB/c mice that were subjected to CLP and reduced multiple organ dysfunction and the release of systemic inflammatory mediators. Autophagy activities were examined using Western blotting. The results showed that CLP-induced autophagy was elevated, and SIN-HCl treatment further strengthened the autophagy activity. Autophagy blocker 3-methyladenine (3-MA was used to investigate the mechanism of SIN-HCl in vitro. Autophagy activities were determined by examining the autophagosome formation, which was shown as microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3 puncta with green immunofluorescence. SIN-HCl reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine release and increased autophagy in peritoneal macrophages (PM. 3-MA significantly decreased autophagosome formation induced by LPS and SIN-HCl. The decrease of inflammatory cytokines caused by SIN-HCl was partially aggravated by 3-MA treatment. Taken together, our results indicated that SIN-HCl could improve survival, reduce organ damage, and attenuate the release of inflammatory cytokines induced by CLP, at least in part through regulating autophagy activities.

  10. Sinomenine hydrochloride protects against polymicrobial sepsis via autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Gao, Min; Wang, Wenmei; Lang, Yuejiao; Tong, Zhongyi; Wang, Kangkai; Zhang, Huali; Chen, Guangwen; Liu, Meidong; Yao, Yongming; Xiao, Xianzhong

    2015-01-23

    Sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response to infection, is the major cause of death in intensive care units (ICUs). The mortality rate of sepsis remains high even though the treatment and understanding of sepsis both continue to improve. Sinomenine (SIN) is a natural alkaloid extracted from Chinese medicinal plant Sinomenium acutum, and its hydrochloride salt (Sinomenine hydrochloride, SIN-HCl) is widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, its role in sepsis remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of SIN-HCl in sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in BALB/c mice and the corresponding mechanism. SIN-HCl treatment improved the survival of BALB/c mice that were subjected to CLP and reduced multiple organ dysfunction and the release of systemic inflammatory mediators. Autophagy activities were examined using Western blotting. The results showed that CLP-induced autophagy was elevated, and SIN-HCl treatment further strengthened the autophagy activity. Autophagy blocker 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was used to investigate the mechanism of SIN-HCl in vitro. Autophagy activities were determined by examining the autophagosome formation, which was shown as microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) puncta with green immunofluorescence. SIN-HCl reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokine release and increased autophagy in peritoneal macrophages (PM). 3-MA significantly decreased autophagosome formation induced by LPS and SIN-HCl. The decrease of inflammatory cytokines caused by SIN-HCl was partially aggravated by 3-MA treatment. Taken together, our results indicated that SIN-HCl could improve survival, reduce organ damage, and attenuate the release of inflammatory cytokines induced by CLP, at least in part through regulating autophagy activities.

  11. Formulation optimization of propranolol hydrochloride microcapsules employing central composite design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumar H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A central composite design was employed to produce microcapsules of propranolol hydrochloride by o/o emulsion solvent evaporation technique using a mixture of cellulose acetate butyrate as coat material and span-80 as an emulsifier. The effect of formulation variables namely levels of cellulose acetate butyrate (X 1 and percentage of Span-80 (X 2 on encapsulation efficiency (Y 1 , drug release at the end of 1.5 h (Y 2 , 4 h (Y 3 , 8 h (Y 4 , 14 h (Y 5 , and 24 h (Y 6 were evaluated using the F test. Mathematical models containing only the significant terms were generated for each response parameter using multiple linear regression analysis and analysis of variance. Both the formulation variables exerted a significant influence (P < 0.05 on Y 1 whereas the cellulose acetate butyrate level emerged as the lone factor which significantly influenced the other response parameters. Numerical optimization using desirability approach was employed to develop an optimized formulation by setting constraints on the dependent and independent variables. The experimental values of Y 1 , Y 2 , Y 3 , Y 4 , Y 5 , and Y 6 for the optimized formulation was found to be 92.86±1.56% w/w, 29.58±1.22%, 48.56±2.56%, 60.85±2.35%, 76.23±3.16% and 95.12±2.41%, respectively which were in close agreement with those predicted by the mathematical models. The drug release from microcapsules followed first order kinetics and was characterized by Higuchi diffusion model. The optimized microcapsule formulation developed was found to comply with the USP drug release test-1 for extended release propranolol hydrochloride capsules.

  12. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: ciprofloxacin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera, M E; Manzo, R H; Junginger, H E; Midha, K K; Shah, V P; Stavchansky, S; Dressman, J B; Barends, D M

    2011-01-01

    Literature data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of new multisource and reformulated immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing ciprofloxacin hydrochloride as the only active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) are reviewed. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride's solubility and permeability, its therapeutic use and index, pharmacokinetics, excipient interactions and reported BE/bioavailability (BA) problems were taken into consideration. Solubility and BA data indicate that ciprofloxacin hydrochloride is a BCS Class IV drug. Therefore, a biowaiver based approval of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride containing IR solid oral dosage forms cannot be recommended for either new multisource drug products or for major scale-up and postapproval changes (variations) to existing drug products.

  13. Co-Amorphous Combination of Nateglinide-Metformin Hydrochloride for Dissolution Enhancement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wairkar, Sarika; Gaud, Ram

    The aim of the present work was to prepare a co-amorphous mixture (COAM) of Nateglinide and Metformin hydrochloride to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly soluble Nateglinide. Nateglinide (120 mg...

  14. Myocardial perfusion imaging with higenamine hydrochloride stress studies in diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周维

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the stress test efficacy and safety of higenamine hydrochloride,MPI studies were performed in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods Sixty-eight patients with suspected coronary artery

  15. Synthesis of 2-Heterocyclomethyl-5-diphenylmethylenecyclopentanone Hydrochlorides and their Inhibitory Effect on Tumor Cell Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Hai ZHANG; Lin Xiang ZHAO; Zhen Jun BIAN; Rui WANG; Fu Yuan SUN

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen new 2-heterocyclomethyl-5-diphenylmethylenecyclopentanone hydrochlorides were designed and synthesized. The growth inhibitory effect of these compounds in vitro was conducted using a MTT assay in human breast cancer T47D cells.

  16. The effect of tramadol hydrochloride on early life stages of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehonova, Pavla; Plhalova, Lucie; Blahova, Jana; Berankova, Petra; Doubkova, Veronika; Prokes, Miroslav; Tichy, Frantisek; Vecerek, Vladimir; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to perform the fish embryo acute toxicity test (FET) on zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the early-life stage toxicity test on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with tramadol hydrochloride. The FET was performed using the method inspired by the OECD guideline 236. Newly fertilized zebrafish eggs were exposed to tramadol hydrochloride at concentrations of 10; 50; 100 and 200μg/l for a period of 144h. An embryo-larval toxicity test on C. carpio was performed according to OECD guideline 210 also with tramadol hydrochloride at concentrations 10; 50; 100 and 200μg/l for a period of 32 days. Hatching was significantly influenced in both acute and subchronic toxicity assays. Subchronic exposure also influenced early ontogeny, both morphometric and condition characteristics and caused changes in antioxidant enzyme activity. The LOEC value was found to be 10μg/l tramadol hydrochloride.

  17. Effects of drotaverine hydrochloride on viability of rat cultured cerebellar granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demushkin, V P; Zhavoronkova, E V; Khaspekov, L G

    2012-02-01

    The neurocytotoxic effect of drotaverine hydrochloride was studied in culture of rat cerebellar granulocytes. Incubation of cells with 100 and 250 μM drotaverine reduced neuronal survival to 60 and 4%, respectively.

  18. Thiamine hydrochloride: An efficient catalyst for one-pot synthesis of quinoxaline derivatives at ambient temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Omprakash B Pawar; Fulchand R Chavan; Venkat S Suryawanshi; Vishnu S Shinde; Narayan D Shinde

    2013-01-01

    Quinoxaline derivatives have been synthesized in high to excellent yields in the presence of thiamine hydrochloride (VB1) as an inexpensive, non-toxic and metal ion free catalyst at ambient temperature.

  19. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1980-06-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass-transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile can be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments. Mass-transfer coefficients ranging upward from 6 x 10/sup -5/ m/s were measured in both packless and packed traps. As much as a fourfold increase in precipitation surface area was observed with increasing amount of NaH deposited. 11 figures, 2 tables.

  20. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section). (e) The term very low sodium may be used in the labeling of OTC drug... milligrams or less. (f) The term low sodium may be used in the labeling of OTC drug products intended for... substituted for the term sodium. (h) The terms sodium free, very low sodium, and low sodium shall be in print...

  1. Synthesis of imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid hydrochloride: A key intermediate for zoledronic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Santosh Kumar; Manne, Narendra; Ray, Purna Chandra; Pal, Manojit

    2008-01-01

    A convenient and practical synthesis of imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid hydrochloride was achieved via N-alkylation of imidazole using tert-butyl chloroacetate followed by a non-aqueous ester cleavage of the resulting imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid tert-butyl ester in the presence of titanium tetrachloride. The synthesized imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid hydrochloride was then utilized to prepare zoledronic acid.

  2. Synthesis of imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid hydrochloride: A key intermediate for zoledronic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Narendra; Ray, Purna Chandra

    2008-01-01

    Summary A convenient and practical synthesis of imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid hydrochloride was achieved via N-alkylation of imidazole using tert-butyl chloroacetate followed by a non-aqueous ester cleavage of the resulting imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid tert-butyl ester in the presence of titanium tetrachloride. The synthesized imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid hydrochloride was then utilized to prepare zoledronic acid. PMID:19104672

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Impurities of Barnidipine Hydrochloride, an Antihypertensive Drug Substance

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Gang Cheng; Xu-Yong Dai; Li-Wei Li; Qiong Wan; Xiang Ma; Guang-Ya Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Barnidipine hydrochloride is a long term dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker used for the treatment of hypertension. During the process development of barnidipine hydrochloride, four barnidipine impurities were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an ordinary column (Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18, 150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm). All these impurities were identified, synthesized, and subsequently characterized by their respective spectral data (MS, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR)...

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Impurities of Barnidipine Hydrochloride, an Antihypertensive Drug Substance

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Zhi-Gang; Dai, Xu-Yong; Li, Li-Wei; Wan, Qiong; Ma, Xiang; Xiang, Guang-Ya

    2014-01-01

    Barnidipine hydrochloride is a long term dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker used for the treatment of hypertension. During the process development of barnidipine hydrochloride, four barnidipine impurities were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an ordinary column (Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18, 150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm). All these impurities were identified, synthesized, and subsequently characterized by their respective spectral data (MS, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR). ...

  5. Co-Amorphous Combination of Nateglinide-Metformin Hydrochloride for Dissolution Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wairkar, Sarika; Gaud, Ram

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to prepare a co-amorphous mixture (COAM) of Nateglinide and Metformin hydrochloride to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly soluble Nateglinide. Nateglinide (120 mg) and Metformin hydrochloride (500 mg) COAM, as a dose ratio, were prepared by ball-milling technique. COAMs were characterized for saturation solubility, amorphism and physicochemical interactions (X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)), SEM, in vitro dissolution, and stability studies. Solubility studies revealed a sevenfold rise in solubility of Nateglinide from 0.061 to 0.423 mg/ml in dose ratio of COAM. Solid-state characterization of COAM suggested amorphization of Nateglinide after 6 h of ball milling. XRPD and DSC studies confirmed amorphism in Nateglinide, whereas FTIR elucidated hydrogen interactions (proton exchange between Nateglinide and Metformin hydrochloride). Interestingly, due to low energy of fusion, Nateglinide was completely amorphized and stabilized by Metformin hydrochloride. Consequently, in vitro drug release showed significant increase in dissolution of Nateglinide in COAM, irrespective of dissolution medium. However, little change was observed in the solubility and dissolution profile of Metformin hydrochloride, revealing small change in its crystallinity. Stability data indicated no traces of devitrification in XRPD of stability sample of COAM, and % drug release remained unaffected at accelerated storage conditions. Amorphism of Nateglinide, proton exchange with Metformin hydrochloride, and stabilization of its amorphous form have been noted in ball-milled COAM of Nateglinide-Metformin hydrochloride, revealing enhanced dissolution of Nateglinide. Thus, COAM of Nateglinide-Metformin hydrochloride system is a promising approach for combination therapy in diabetic patients.

  6. The effect of L-ornithine hydrochloride ingestion on human growth hormone secretion after strength training

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of L-ornithine hydrochloride ingestion on serum growth hormone secretion response after strength training in young men who did not regularly engage in high intensity exercise. Ten healthy young males without workout habits (age: 22.2 +/- 1.0 yr). Subjects performed biceps curl strength training after L-ornithine hydrochloride and placebo ingestions. They participated in both of the above conditions randomly with a week interval in between. Serum growth h...

  7. Direct, preparative enantioselective chromatography of propranolol hydrochloride and thioridazine hydrochloride using carbon dioxide-based mobile phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, F; Schultz, M; Betz, L; Shaimi, M; Lee, J; Champion, W

    1999-12-31

    In this paper, we describe the direct, preparative enantioselective chromatography of racemic (rac)-propranolol hydrochloride (HCI) and rac-thioridazine.HCl using Chiralpak AD chiral stationary phase and mobile phase systems containing carbon dioxide and methanol without the use of basic or acidic additives. Isolated fractions of propranolol.HCl were positively identified by mass spectrometry, Beilstein flame test, melting point, and chemical analysis to be HCI enantiomers of propranolol-HCl salts exhibited characteristic mass spectra peaks at 36 and 38 mass-to-charge ratio in the expected 3:1 isotopic ratio for the solute that were absent in the mass spectra for the free-base forms. To our knowledge, the direct, preparative enantioselective isolation of HCI enantiomeric salts of rac-propranolol and of rac-thioridazine have not been previously demonstrated and published.

  8. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Berberine Hydrochloride in Patients with Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunqiu; Tao, Chunhua; Liu, Zhongchen; Lu, Meiling; Pan, Qiuhui; Zheng, Lijun; Li, Qing; Song, Zhenshun; Fichna, Jakub

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to evaluate clinical symptoms in diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) receiving berberine hydrochloride in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Overall, 196 patients with IBS-D were recruited for this study; consequently, 132 patients randomized to receive daily 400 mg of berberine hydrochloride, delivered twice daily or placebo for 8 weeks followed by a 4-week washout period. After a 2-week run-in period, diarrhea, abdominal pain, urgent need for defecation frequency and any adverse events were recorded daily. Prior to administration of the medication and after completing the treatment, assessment of IBS symptom scores, depression and anxiety scale scores and the IBS scale for quality of life (QOL) was carried out. The effects of berberine hydrochloride on IBS-D, defined by a reduction of diarrhea frequency (P = 0.032), abdominal pain frequency (P berberine group than the placebo group in the 8 weeks of treatment. A trend of improvement (P berberine hydrochloride for IBS symptom score, depression score and anxiety score and the IBSQOL, compared with placebo. At last, berberine hydrochloride was well tolerated. So we concluded that berberine hydrochloride is well tolerated and reduces IBS-D symptoms, which effectively improved patients QOL.

  9. Using crystal structure prediction to rationalize the hydration propensities of substituted adamantane hydrochloride salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Sharmarke; Karothu, Durga Prasad; Naumov, Panče

    2016-08-01

    The crystal energy landscapes of the salts of two rigid pharmaceutically active molecules reveal that the experimental structure of amantadine hydrochloride is the most stable structure with the majority of low-energy structures adopting a chain hydrogen-bond motif and packings that do not have solvent accessible voids. By contrast, memantine hydrochloride which differs in the substitution of two methyl groups on the adamantane ring has a crystal energy landscape where all structures within 10 kJ mol(-1) of the global minimum have solvent-accessible voids ranging from 3 to 14% of the unit-cell volume including the lattice energy minimum that was calculated after removing water from the hydrated memantine hydrochloride salt structure. The success in using crystal structure prediction (CSP) to rationalize the different hydration propensities of these substituted adamantane hydrochloride salts allowed us to extend the model to predict under blind test conditions the experimental crystal structures of the previously uncharacterized 1-(methylamino)adamantane base and its corresponding hydrochloride salt. Although the crystal structure of 1-(methylamino)adamantane was correctly predicted as the second ranked structure on the static lattice energy landscape, the crystallization of a Z' = 3 structure of 1-(methylamino)adamantane hydrochloride reveals the limits of applying CSP when the contents of the crystallographic asymmetric unit are unknown.

  10. HPLC method validation for modernization of the tetracycline hydrochloride capsule USP monograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad M. Hussien

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a continuation to our previous work aiming at development and validation of a reversed-phase HPLC for modernization of tetracycline-related USP monographs and the USP general chapter . Previous results showed that the method is accurate and precise for the assay of tetracycline hydrochloride and the limit of 4-epianhydrotetracycline impurity in the drug substance and oral suspension monographs. The aim of the current paper is to examine the feasibility of the method for modernization of USP tetracycline hydrochloride capsule monograph. Specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision were examined for tetracycline hydrochloride assay and 4-epianhydrotetracycline limit. The method was linear in the concentration range from 80% to 160% (r>0.9998 of the assay concentration (0.1 mg/mL for tetracycline hydrochloride and from 50% to 150% (r>0.997 of the acceptance criteria specified in tetracycline hydrochloride capsule monograph for 4-epianhydrotetracycline (NMT 3.0%. The recovery at three concentration levels for tetracycline hydrochloride assay was between 99% and 101% and the RSD from six preparations at the concentration 0.1 mg/mL is less than 0.6%. The recovery for 4-epianhydrotetracycline limit procedure over the concentration range from 50% to 150% is between 96% and 102% with RSD less than 5%. The results met the specified acceptance criteria.

  11. Stability-indicating HPLC method for simultaneous determination of montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Pankhaniya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, specific, accurate, and stability-indicating reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride, using a Lichrospher ® 100, RP-18e column and a mobile phase composed of methanol:0.1% o-phosphoric acid (90:10 v/v, pH 6.8. The retention times of montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride were found to be 10.16 and 12.03 min, respectively. Linearity was established for montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride in the range of 2-10 μg/ml and 24-120 μg/ml, respectively. The percentage recoveries of montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride were found to be in the range of 99.09 and 99.81%, respectively. Both the drugs were subjected to acid and base hydrolysis, oxidation, photolytic, and thermal degradation conditions. The degradation products of montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride were well resolved from the pure drug with significant differences in their retention time values. This method can be successfully employed for simultaneous quantitative analysis of montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride in bulk drugs and formulations.

  12. Determination of fexofenadine hydrochloride by HPLC%高效液相色谱法测定盐酸非索非那定的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧嘉娜

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop a HPLC method for determining fexofenadine hydrochloride. Methods: The HPLC method was performed on a Dikma Insertsil Phenyl(4.6mm×250mm, 3.5μm)column with mobile phase consisted of phosphate buffer [6.64g Sodium Dihydrogen Phosphate and 0.84g Sodium perchlorate diluted with water in 1000ml ,adjusted to pH 2.0±0.05 with phosphoric acid,shake up]-acetonitrile -Triethylamine (65:35:0.3) and the detection wavelength was 220nm. Results The Calibration curves of fexofenadine hydrochloride was linear in the range of 10~100μg/ml and the linear equation was y=28371x-2870.9,r=0.9998(n=6).The average recoveries was 100.9% with RSD 0.19%. Conclusion: The method is simple, accurate and specific for quality control in fexofenadine hydrochloride.%目的建立了高效液相色谱法测定盐酸非索非那定的含量。方法色谱柱: Dikma Insertsil 苯基柱(4.6mm×250mm,3.5μm);流动相:磷酸盐缓冲液(取磷酸二氢钠6.64g,高氯酸钠0.84g,置1000ml量瓶中,加水溶解并稀释至刻度,混匀,用磷酸调pH值至2.0±0.05)-乙腈-三乙胺(65:35:0.3);检测波长:220nm。结果盐酸非索非那定的线性范围为10~100μg/ml,线性回归方程为y=28371x-2870.9,r=0.9998(n=6)。平均回收率分别为100.9%,RSD为0.19%。结论本方法简便、准确、专属性强,可用于盐酸非索非那定的质量控制。

  13. A novel micellar per aqueous liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of diltiazem hydrochloride, metoprolol tartrate and isosorbide mononitrate in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Li, Chun-lan; Lu, Ning-wei; Dong, Yu-ming

    2014-09-15

    A novel micellar per aqueous liquid chromatographic method was investigated to simultaneously determine diltiazem hydrochloride, metoprolol tartrate and isosorbide mononitrate in human serum. Separation and determination of the analytes were performed on a Pinnacle II Cyano column as the stationary phase using the mobile phase consisted of aqueous solution (4.15×10(-2) mol/L sodium dodecyl sulfate and 0.02 mol/L sodium dihydrogen phosphate) with 10% (v/v) of 1-propanol at pH 7.0. This method was validated by linearity, lower limit of quantification, extraction recovery, stability, precision, and accuracy. The main analytical parameters were linearity (r>0.9950), intra- and inter-day precisions (intra-day RSD 2.2-3.5%, and inter-day RSD 3.7-9.5%), lower limit of quantification (20 ng mL(-1) for isosorbide mononitrate, metoprolol tartrate and diltiazem hydrochloride). The extraction recovery was 63.3% (0.1 μg/mL), 65.6% (1.0 μg/mL), and 69.5% (25 μg/mL) for isosorbide mononitrate; 65.1% (0.1 μg/mL), 69.5% (1.0 μg mL) and 73.5% (2.5 μg/mL) for metoprolol tartrate; 67.1% (0.1 μg/mL), 68.8% (1.0 μg/mL) and 73.8 % (2.5 μg/mL) for diltiazem hydrochloride. The relative error of stability was <6.4% at the room temperature for 24h, <3.8% at 4 °C for 1 week, <4.6% at -20 °C for 1 month, and <6.7% for freeze/thaw cycles (n=3). The results indicated that the proposed method was rapid, sensitive, and accurate for determination of the three antianginal drugs in human serum. The possible separation mechanism of the method was also discussed, and a model of separation mechanism for the analytes was established.

  14. Comparison between lignocaine hydrochloride and ropivacaine hydrochloride as lumbosacral epidural anaesthetic agents in goats undergoing laparoscopy assisted embryo transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Khajuria

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Goats (n=12 undergoing laparoscopy assisted embryo transfer were randomly allotted to two groups (I and II and injected lignocaine hydrochloride (4mg/kg or ropivacaine hydrochloride (1mg/kg at the lumbosacral epidural space. The animals were held with raised hind quarters for first three minutes following injection. Immediately after induction of regional anaesthesia, they were restrained in dorsal recumbency in Trendelenburg position in a cradle. Laparoscopy was performed after creating pneumoperitoneum using filtered room air. The mean (± S.E induction time in animals of group I was significantly shorter (5.33 ± 0.61 min than those belonging to group II (12.66 ±1.99 min. Complete analgesia developed throughout the hind quarters and abdomen for 30 min and 60 min in group I and II animal’s respectively. Unlike animals of group I, group II goats continued to show moderate analgesia for 180 minutes. The motor activity returned after a lapse of 130.00 ± 12.64 min and 405.00 ± 46.31 min respectively. Occasional vocalization and struggling was noticed in two goats one from each group irrespective of the surgical manipulations during laparoscopy. The rectal temperature and respiration rates showed only non-significant increase, but the heart rate values were significantly higher (P < 0.5 up to 150 min in animals of both the groups when compared to their baseline values. From this study, it was concluded that both anaesthetic agents produced satisfactory regional anaesthesia in goats undergoing laparoscopy. However, considering the very long delay in regaining the hind limb motor activity, the use of ropivacaine may not be recommended for this purpose. Supplementation of sedative/tranquilizer with lumbosacral epidural anaesthesia needs evaluation.

  15. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms based on biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) literature data: verapamil hydrochloride, propranolol hydrochloride, and atenolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelpoel, H; Welink, J; Amidon, G L; Junginger, H E; Midha, K K; Möller, H; Olling, M; Shah, V P; Barends, D M

    2004-08-01

    Literature data related to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) are presented on verapamil hydrochloride, propranolol hydrochloride, and atenolol in the form of BCS-monographs. Data on the qualitative composition of immediate release (IR) tablets containing these active substances with a Marketing Authorization (MA) in the Netherlands (NL) are also provided; in view of these MA's the assumption was made that these tablets were bioequivalent to the innovator product. The development of a database with BCS-related data is announced by the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP).

  16. An enantioselective synthesis of S-[gamma]-[(4-trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]benzenepropanamine-[3-[sup 14]C] hydrochloride, an important metabolite of fluoxetine hydrochloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, W.J. (Lilly (Eli) and Co., Indianapolis, IN (United States). Lilly Research Labs.)

    1992-06-01

    The S-enantiomer of [gamma]-[(4-trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]benzenepropanamine-[3-[sup 14]C] hydrochloride has been prepared in eight steps from acetophenone-[carbonyl-[sup 14]C]. The key step in the synthesis involved the enantioselective reduction of R-2-chloroacetophenone-[1-[sup 14]C]with (-)-diisopinocampheyl-chloroborane in an 86.5% yield. The chlorohydrin was converted to R-phenyloxirane-[1-[sup 14]C], which was subsequently converted to the corresponding R-cyanohydrin by reaction with TMS-CN/CaO. Borane reduction and arylation, followed by salt formation yielded S-[gamma]-[(4-trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]benzenepropanamine-[3-[sup 14]C] hydrochloride. (author).

  17. Sustained Release of Diltiazem Hydrochloride from Cross-linked Biodegradable IPN Hydrogel Beads of Pectin and Modified Xanthan Gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, T K; Choudhary, C; Alexander, A; Ajazuddin; Badwaik, H; Tripathy, M; Tripathi, D K

    2013-11-01

    Interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel beads of pectin and sodium carboxymethyl xanthan were prepared by ionotropic gelation with Al(+3) ions and covalent cross-linking with glutaraldehyde for sustained delivery of diltiazem hydrochloride. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning colorimetry and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterise the hydrogel beads. The swelling of the hydrogel and the release of drug were relatively low in pH 1.2 buffer solutions. However, higher swelling and drug release were observed in pH 6.8 buffer solutions. The carboxyl functional groups of hydrogels undergo ionisation and the osmotic pressure inside the beads increases resulting in higher swelling and drug release in higher pH. The release of drug depends on concentration of polymer, amount and exposure time of cross-linker and drug content in the hydrogel matrices. The present study indicated that the hydrogel beads minimised the drug release in pH 1.2 buffer solutions and to prolong the drug release in pH 6.8 buffer solutions.

  18. Sustained release of diltiazem hydrochloride from cross-linked biodegradable IPN hydrogel beads of pectin and modified xanthan gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T K Giri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel beads of pectin and sodium carboxymethyl xanthan were prepared by ionotropic gelation with Al +3 ions and covalent cross-linking with glutaraldehyde for sustained delivery of diltiazem hydrochloride. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning colorimetry and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterise the hydrogel beads. The swelling of the hydrogel and the release of drug were relatively low in pH 1.2 buffer solutions. However, higher swelling and drug release were observed in pH 6.8 buffer solutions. The carboxyl functional groups of hydrogels undergo ionisation and the osmotic pressure inside the beads increases resulting in higher swelling and drug release in higher pH. The release of drug depends on concentration of polymer, amount and exposure time of cross-linker and drug content in the hydrogel matrices. The present study indicated that the hydrogel beads minimised the drug release in pH 1.2 buffer solutions and to prolong the drug release in pH 6.8 buffer solutions.

  19. A novel coated silver ketamine(I electrode for potentiometric determination of ketamine hydrochloride in ampoules and urine samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem M. Abu Shawish

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A new ketamine coated silver electrode (KCSE based on ketamine hydrochloride with sodium tetraphenylborate (KT-TPB as electroactive material has been described. The influence of membrane composition, type of solvent mediators, kind of electroactive materials and interfering ions on the sensor was investigated. The sensor displays Nernstian response of 55.8 ± 0.3 mV/decade over the concentration range of 2.5 × 10−6 to 1.0 × 10−2 M with limit of detection of 8.5 × 10−7 M. The coated wire electrode has short response time ∼8 s and it can be used in pH range of 2.6–6.4. The selective coefficients were determined in relation to several inorganic, organic ions, sugars and some common drug excipients. The KCSE electrode was successfully used for the determination of the ketamine content in ampoule and urine samples with satisfactory results. Statistical student’s t-test and F test showed insignificant systematic error between proposed and official methods.

  20. A study on sodium-concrete reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jae Heum; Min, Byong Hun [Suwon University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    A small sodium-concrete reaction facility was designed, manufactured and installed. this facility has been operated under inert gas(N{sub 2}) with different experimental variables such as sodium injection temperature, injection amount of sodium, aging period of concrete, sodium reservoir temperature. As a result, it was found that sodium injection temperature and injected amount of sodium has little effect on sodium-concrete reaction. However, sodium reservoir temperature and aging period of concrete has relatively high impact on sodium-concrete reaction. Sodium-concrete reaction model has also been developed and compared with experimental results. (Author) 51 refs., 16 tabs., 64 figs.

  1. Magnetometry with mesospheric sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbie, James M.; Rochester, Simon M.; Patton, Brian; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Budker, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of magnetic fields on the few 100-km length scale is significant for many geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a method for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide star applications. The proposed method offers a dramatic reduction in cost and opens the way to large-scale, parallel magnetic mapping and monitoring for atmospheric science, navigation, and geophysics. PMID:21321235

  2. Magnetometry with Mesospheric Sodium

    CERN Document Server

    Higbie, J M; Patton, B; Holzlöhner, R; Calia, D Bonaccini; Budker, D

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of magnetic fields on the few-hundred-kilometer length scale is significant for a variety of geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean-circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a scheme for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic-sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide-star applications. The proposed scheme offers dramatic reduction in cost, opening the way to large-scale magnetic mapping missions.

  3. Sodium diffusion in boroaluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Zheng, Qiuju; Mauro, John C.

    2011-01-01

    of isothermal sodium diffusion in BAS glasses by ion exchange, inward diffusion, and tracer diffusion experiments. By varying the [SiO2]/[Al2O3] ratio of the glasses, different structural regimes of sodium behavior are accessed. We show that the mobility of the sodium ions decreases with increasing [SiO2]/[Al2O......3] ratio, revealing that sodium is more mobile when it acts as a charge compensator to stabilize network formers than when it acts as a creator of non-bridging oxygens on tetrahedrally-coordinated silicon and trigonal boron. The impacts of both the addition of iron and its redox state on the sodium...... be attributed to the fact that for sodium inward diffusion, the charge compensation for electron holes is a rather slow process that limits the rate of diffusion. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  4. Stability-indicating HPTLC determination of ambroxol hydrochloride in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P S

    2010-01-01

    A simple, selective, precise, and stability-indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the analysis of ambroxol hydrochloride both as a bulk drug and in formulations was developed and validated. The method employed HPTLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase. The solvent system consisted of methanol-triethylamine (4:6 v/v). The system was found to give a compact spot for ambroxol hydrochloride (R(f) value of 0.53 +/- 0.02). Densitometric analysis of ambroxol hydrochloride was carried out in the absorbance mode at 254 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r(2) = 0.9966 +/- 0.0013 with respect to peak area in the concentration range 100-1000 ng/spot. The mean value +/- standard deviation of slope and intercept were 164.85 +/- 0.72 and 1168.3 +/- 8.26 with respect to peak area. The method was validated for precision, recovery, and robustness. The limits of detection and quantitation were 10 and 30 ng/spot, respectively. Ambroxol hydrochloride was subjected to oxidation and thermal degradation. The drug undergoes degradation under oxidation and heat conditions. This indicates that the drug is susceptible to oxidation and heat. Statistical analysis proves that the method is repeatable, selective, and accurate for the estimation of said drug. Stability indicating of new chemical entities is an important part for the drug development of ambroxol hydrochloride and for its estimation in plasma and other biological fluids; the novel Statistical analysis proves that the method is repeatable and selective for the analysis of ambroxol hydrochloride as bulk drug and in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed developed HPTLC method can be applied for identification and quantitative determination of ambroxol hydrochloride in bulk drug and dosage forms. This work is to determine the purity of the drug available from the various sources by detecting

  5. SYNTHESIS OF 2, 6-DIAMINO-3-PHENYLAZOPYRIDINE-1-OXIDE AND ITS HYDRO-CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Babu Talagadadeevi, Ramakrishna Muvva, Bangar Reddy Vancha and Madhusudana Rao Jampani*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The compound 2, 6-diamino-3-phenylazopyridine hydrochloride salt is a genito-urinary antiseptic drug under the trade name Pyridinium. This study is directed towards the occurrence of an oxidation reaction to convert the tertiary amine present in 2, 6-diamino-3-phenylazopyridine hydrochloride to form an N-oxide derivative as an impurity in the process for its preparation. This was done by the independent synthesis of 2, 6-diamino-3-phenylazopyridine-1-oxide hydrochloride salt by two independent routes. The presence of three amine functions in the molecule required first to protect the primary amine groups by derivatisation so that oxidation occurs exclusively at the tertiary amino group of the pyridine ring. 2, 6-diamino-3-phenylazopyridine was acetylated to get 2, 6-diacetamido-3-phenylazopyridine whose structure was confirmed from 1H NMR and mass spectral data. The oxidation of diacetyl derivative with peracetic acid resulted not only in the N-oxide formation but also in the cleavage of one of the acetamido group to give 2(6-acetamido-6(2amino-3-phenylazopyridine-1-oxide. The alkaline hydrolysis of the N-oxide form gave 2, 6-diamino-3-phenylazopyridine-1-oxide which on treatment with hydrochloric acid gave 2, 6-diamino-3-phenylazopyridine-1-oxide hydrochloride. In yet another route the N-oxide was prepared by the coupling reaction between benzene diazonium chloride and 2, 6-diaminopyridine-1-oxide in aqueous hydrochloric acid medium. This reaction resulted in the formation of 2, 6-diamino-3- phenylazopyridine-1-oxide hydrochloride as an insoluble salt. The structure of the N-oxide was confirmed from 1H NMR and mass spectral data. A co-injection HPLC analysis showed the complete absence of 2, 6-diamino-3-phenylazopyridine-1-oxide hydrochloride in 2, 6-diamino-3-phenylazopyridine hydrochloride in its manufacturing process.

  6. High Performace Liquid Chromtographic Determination of Nicardipine Hydrochloride in Human Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. R. Krishnaiah

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the estimation of nicardipine hydrochloride in human plasma. Varying amount of nicardipine hydrochloride (2.5 to 150 ng/0.5 mL and fixed quantity (100 ng/0.5 mL of nifedipine (internal standard was added to blank human plasma, and a single step extraction was carried out with ethyl acetate. The mixture was centrifuged, ethyl acetate layer separated, dried and reconstituted with 100 μL of acetonitrile. Twenty microliters of this solution was injected into a reverse phase C-18 column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile: 0.02 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate (pH 4.0 in the ratio of 60:40 v/v and the eluents were monitored at 239 nm. The method was validated for its linearity, precision and accuracy. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 5-150 ng/0.5 mL of plasma and the lower detection limit was 2.5 ng/0.5 mL of plasma. The intra- and inter-day variation was found to be less than 2.5% indicating that the method is highly precise. The mean recovery of nicardipine hydrochloride from plasma samples was 89.6±2.60%. The proposed HPLC method was applied for the estimation of nicardipine hydrochloride in human plasma after oral administration of an immediate release nicardipine hydrochloride capsule (dose 30 mg to 6 adult male volunteers. There was no interference of either the drug metabolites or other plasma components with the proposed HPLC method for the estimation of nicardipine hydrochloride in human plasma. Due to its simplicity, sensitivity, high precision and accuracy, the proposed HPLC method may be used for biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic evaluation of nicardipine hydrochloride and its formulations in humans

  7. Controlled delivery of Gemcitabine Hydrochloride using mannosylated poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soni, Namrata; Jain, Keerti, E-mail: keertijain02@gmail.com; Gupta, Umesh, E-mail: umeshgupta175@gmail.com; Jain, N. K., E-mail: jnarendr@yahoo.co.in [Dr. H. S. Gour Central University, Pharmaceutics Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (India)

    2015-11-15

    The aim of the present investigation was to deliver Gemcitabine Hydrochloride (GmcH), an anticancer bioactive, specifically to lung tumor cells using mannosylated 4.0G poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers (M-PPI). 4.0G poly(propyleneimine) (PPI) dendrimers was synthesized using ethylenediamine as core and conjugated with mannose by ring opening reactions, followed by Schiff’s reaction in the presence of sodium acetate buffer (pH 4.0). Synthesized PPI dendrimers and mannose-conjugated dendrimers were characterized using IR, NMR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. GmcH was loaded into PPI and M-PPI dendrimers using equilibrium dialysis method to develop the formulations, GmcH-PPI and GmcH-M-PPI, respectively. The developed formulations were evaluated for drug loading, in vitro release kinetics, in vitro stability, hemolytic toxicity, cytotoxicity, pharmacokinetic, and biodistribution studies. The dendrimeric formulation of GmcH showed pH-sensitive release with faster release at acidic pH, i.e., pH 4.0 in comparison with physiological pH 7.4. M-PPI conjugate showed significant reduction in hemolytic toxicity as compared to plain 4.0G PPI dendrimers towards human erythrocytes. In the cytotoxicity studies with A-549 lung adenocarcinoma cell line, the GmcH-M-PPI formulation showed the lowest IC{sub 50} value. Further, the pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution studies of free drug GmcH, GmcH-PPI, and GmcH-M-PPI in albino rats of Sprague–Dawley strain suggested the mean residence time of GmcH-M-PPI conjugate to be significantly higher (24.85 h) than free GmcH and GmcH-PPI. Deposition of drug (396.1 ± 4.7 after 2 h) in lung was found to be significantly higher with GmcH-M-PPI formulation in comparison with Gmch and GmcH-PPI.

  8. Feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride to calf-fed Holsteins has minimal effects on semimembranosus steak color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, J A; Hunt, M C; Houser, T A; Boyle, E A E; Dikeman, M E; Johnson, D E; VanOverbeke, D L; Hilton, G G; Brooks, C; Killefer, J; Allen, D M; Streeter, M N; Nichols, W T; Hutcheson, J P; Yates, D A

    2009-11-01

    To determine the effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) for 0, 20, 30, or 40 d (ZH0, ZH20, ZH30, ZH40) on semimembranosus (SM) steak color and color stability in 3 packaging systems, SM subprimals were removed from 60 calf-fed Holstein steers 24 h postmortem. A 7.62-cm-thick portion was removed from each subprimal and stored (2 degrees C) for 21 d; then two 2.54-cm-thick steaks were cut, overwrapped with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film, and assigned to 0 or 3 d of display. Remaining portions of the subprimals were vacuum packaged for 10 d and then enhanced (10% with a solution containing 0.3% sodium chloride, 0.35% phosphate, and 0.05% rosemary extract), cut into steaks, packaged in high-oxygen (HO-MAP) or carbon monoxide (CO-MAP) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), and assigned to 0, 3, or 5 d (HO-MAP) or 0 or 9 d (CO-MAP) of display. Panelists evaluated the deep and superficial portions of SM steaks for initial color, display color, discoloration, pH, L*, a*, b*, hue angle, and saturation indices. Feeding duration did not affect (P > 0.05) initial color scores of steaks in PVC. Steaks displayed in PVC from ZH20 or ZH30 diets were slightly brighter and less discolored than the ZH40 treatment. For enhanced steaks in HO-MAP, ZH20 steaks were darker on d 5 (P 0.05) to have improved display color compared with other dietary regimens; however, steaks in CO-MAP from all feeding durations had less than 20% metmyoglobin through d 9 of display. Overall, feeding ZH20 might result in steaks with slightly less color stability when packaged in HO-MAP; however, feeding ZH20 or ZH30 to calf-fed Holstein steers will yield steaks that have equal to or more desirable color traits when packaged in PVC or CO-MAP. Regardless of ZH feeding regimen, HO-MAP and CO-MAP extended the color life of the SM. The CO-MAP system minimized color differences between the superficial and deep portions of the SM muscle and extended total case life compared with traditional and HO

  9. Cinchocaine hydrochloride determination by atomic absorption spectrometry and spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghani, Nour T; Youssef, Ahmed F A; Awady, Mohamed A

    2005-05-01

    Two sensitive spectrophotometric and atomic absorption spectrometric procedures have been developed for determination of cinchocaine hydrochloride (Cin.Cl) in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulation. The spectrophotometric method was based on formation of an insoluble colored ion-associate between the cited drug and tetrathiocyanatocobaltate (CoTC) or hexathiocyanatochromate (CrTC) which dissolved and extracted in an organic solvent. The optimal experimental conditions for quantitative extraction such as pH, concentration of the reagents and solvent were studied. Toluene and iso-butyl alcohol proved to be the most suitable solvents for quantitative extraction of Cin-CoTC and Cin-CrTC ion-associates with maximum absorbance at 620 and 555 nm, respectively. The optimum concentration ranges, molar absorptivities, Ringbom ranges and Sandell sensitivities were also evaluated. The atomic absorption spectrometric method is based on measuring of the excess cobalt or chromium in the aqueous solution, after precipitation of the drug, at 240.7 and 357.9 nm, respectively. Linear application ranges, characteristic masses and detection limits were 57.99-361.9, 50.40 and 4.22 microg ml(-1) of Cin.Cl, in case of CoTC, while 37.99-379.9, 18.94 and 0.81 microg ml(-1) in case of CrTC.

  10. Dyeing Characteristics of Chitosan Biguanidine Hydrochloride Treated Wool Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chitosan biguanidine hydrochloride(CGH) has been synthesized by the guanidineylation reaction of chitosan with dicyandiamide.The structures of CGH were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and 13CNMR spectra.In this paper,we used citric acid(CA) as a crosslinking agent,mixed with CGH to perform a pad-drycure treatment on wool fabric to study reaction mechanism during crosslinking with the help of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM).Dyeing characteristics of CGH treated wool fabric was assessed.The effects of CGH concentration,curing temperature,dipping time,pH value on color yield of reactive dyes on wool fibres were investigated.Fastness properties of the modified wool fabric to laundering and crocking have also been discussed.Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR) showed that CA produce esterification with the-OH group of the wool and transamidation with the-NH2 group of the CGH to form a crosslink.Scanning electron microscopy(SEM) analysis showed the CGH firmly attached to the surface of wool fibre.It was found that the CGH pretreated wool fabrics had significantly improved dyeability characteristics.It is worthwhile to mention that the CGH treated samples have antibacterial potential due to the antibacterial property of chitosan molecules and guanidinium salts.

  11. Prednisone and vardenafil hydrochloride for refractory levamisole-induced vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrell, Joshua; Kranc, Christina L

    2016-08-01

    Levamisole is an immunomodulatory drug that was previously used to treat various medical conditions, including parasitic infections, nephrotic syndrome, and colorectal cancer. Over the last few years, increasing amounts of levamisole have been used as an adulterant in cocaine. Levamisole-cut cocaine has become a concern because it is known to cause a necrotizing purpuric rash, autoantibody production, and life-threatening leukopenia. Mixed histologic findings of vasculitis and thrombosis are characteristic of levamisole-induced purpura. The recommended management of levamisole-induced vasculitis currently involves withdrawal of the culprit along with supportive treatment. We describe a patient with levamisole-induced vasculitis who continued to develop skin lesions despite self-reported cocaine cessation. Complete resolution of cutaneous disease occurred with the addition of oral prednisone and vardenafil hydrochloride, suggesting the possibility of a new treatment option in patients with refractory disease. In addition, we review the clinical presentation, disease course, diagnostic approach, laboratory findings, histology, and management of levamisole-induced vasculitis. The harmful effects of levamisole-cut cocaine are serious enough that public alerts have been issued to increase awareness. Clinicians should consider the possibility of levamisole exposure in cocaine users presenting with any combination of fever, neutropenia, and necrotic skin lesions, especially in acral areas including the ears.

  12. Conformation and interactions of dopamine hydrochloride in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callear, Samantha K.; Imberti, Silvia [ISIS Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Johnston, Andrew; McLain, Sylvia E. [Biochemistry Department, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-07

    The aqueous solution of dopamine hydrochloride has been investigated using neutron and X-ray total scattering data together with Monte-Carlo based modelling using Empirical Potential Structure Refinement. The conformation of the protonated dopamine molecule is presented and the results compared to the conformations found in crystal structures, dopamine-complexed protein crystal structures and predicted from theoretical calculations and pharmacophoric models. It is found that protonated dopamine adopts a range of conformations in solution, highlighting the low rotational energy barrier between different conformations, with the preferred conformation being trans-perpendicular. The interactions between each of the species present (protonated dopamine molecules, water molecules, and chloride anions) have been determined and are discussed with reference to interactions observed in similar systems both in the liquid and crystalline state, and predicted from theoretical calculations. The expected strong hydrogen bonds between the strong hydrogen bond donors and acceptors are observed, together with evidence of weaker CH hydrogen bonds and π interactions also playing a significant role in determining the arrangement of adjacent molecules.

  13. FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT OF ISOXSUPRINE HYDROCHLORIDE MODIFIED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of critical formulation parameters affecting release of isoxsuprine hydrochloride from matrix tablets using combination of polyethylene oxide (PEO and dicalcium phosphate (DCP. The powder blend consisting of drug and excipients was analyzed for angle of repose, Carr’s index and Hausner’s ratio. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. To assess the compressional behavior of the drug-excipient blend, the tablets were analyzed for friability and crushing strength. The in vitro drug release study was carried out in distilled water. The powder blend exhibited satisfactorily flow as measured by angle of repose, Carr’s index and Hausner’s ratio. The formulation ingredients showed satisfactory tableting properties (friability <1%, crushing strength ≥ 4 kgf. The drug release was modified on addition of PEO and DCP. Addition of 5 to 25% DCP in the formulation of matrix tablets caused apparent difference in the drug dissolution in distilled water. However, the difference was insignificant as analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA and similarity factor ( f2. The drug release from the tablets was best explained by Weibull model. Unified Weibull model was evolved to predict drug release from the formulated batches. The findings of this investigation can be extended to industry to cut down the cost of formulation and to by-pass the existing patents employing hydrophilic matrixing agents, at least for selective drugs.

  14. Solvent screening and crystal habit of metformin hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmessaoud, Ibtissem; Koutchoukali, Ouahiba; Bouhelassa, Mohamed; Nouar, Abderrahim; Veesler, Stéphane

    2016-10-01

    A multi-well setup with video-microscopy was used to study the influence of solvent on solubility, nucleation, and crystallization of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API): metformin hydrochloride (MET.HCl). Starting with 13 solvents covering a wide variety of polarity and proticity, we found 63 crystallization medium for MET.HCl solid generation: good solvents, good co-solvents and anti-solvent systems. For toxicological reasons, we limited the number of crystallization medium to 18: 3 good solvents (class 3), 3 good co-solvent systems and 12 anti-solvent systems. In order to study the influence of crystallization medium on nucleation temperature, crystal habit and polymorphism of MET.HCl, crystallization was studied by a cooling temperature method. Different crystal habits were observed by optical and scanning electron microscopies, and solid phase were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, indicating that all the crystals correspond to the thermodynamic stable polymorphic form A of MET.HCl. Finally, the enthalpy of fusion and the melting temperature of MET.HCl were determined by DSC and confirmed the X-ray powder diffraction results.

  15. Facile colorimetric methods for the quantitative determination of tetramisole hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, A. S.; Dessouki, H. A.

    2002-10-01

    A facile, rapid and sensitive methods for the determination of tetramisole hydrochloride in pure and in dosage forms are described. The procedures are based on the formation of coloured products with the chromogenic reagents alizarin blue BB (I), alizarin red S (II), alizarin violet 3R (III) and alizarin yellow G (IV). The coloured products showed absorption maxima at 605, 468, 631 and 388 nm for I-IV, respectively. The colours obtained were stable for 24 h. The colour system obeyed Beer's law in the concentration range 1.0-36, 0.8-32, 1.2-42 and 0.8-30 μg ml -1, respectively. The results obtained showed good recoveries with relative standard deviations of 1.27, 0.96, 1.13 and 1.35%, respectively. The detection and determination limits were found to be 1.0 and 3.8, 1.2 and 4.2, 1.0 and 3.9 and finally 1.4 and 4.8 ng ml -1 for I-IV complexes, respectively. Applications of the method to representative pharmaceutical formulations are represented and the validity assessed by applying the standard addition technique, which is comparable with that obtained using the official method.

  16. Trans-ungual delivery of itraconazole hydrochloride by iontophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Avadhesh; Jacob, Melissa; Shiva Kumar, H N; Hiremath, Shobharani; Aradhya, Sacchidanand; Repka, Michael A; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2015-01-01

    Itraconazole (ITR) is a potent antifungal drug. However, poor aqueous solubility limits its permeation ability across the human nail plate. Therefore, in this project, ITR was converted to hydrochloride salt (ITR-HCl) to improve its solubility and to render it amenable to iontophoresis. ITR-HCl was characterized by spectroscopic methods and antifungal efficacy was evaluated in comparison to the base. In vitro and ex vivo transport studies (passive and iontophoresis) were carried out across the porcine hoof membrane and excised human cadaver toe using two different protocols; continuous delivery of drug for 24 h and pulsed delivery of drug for 3 days (8 h/day). The antifungal efficacy of ITR-HCL was comparable to ITR. Iontophoresis was found to be more effective than passive mode of delivery of ITR-HCL. In both iontophoresis as well as passive mode of delivery, the pulsed protocol resulted in more ungual and trans-ungual delivery of drug than continuous protocol. ITR-HCL could be delivered into and across the nail plate by iontophoresis. Human cadaver toe appears to be a good model to investigate the ungual delivery of drugs.

  17. [POLYHEXAMETHYLENE BIGUANID HYDROCHLORIDE (BIGUANELLE) THERAPY OF BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachev, S; Ganovska, A; Sultanov, E; Ivanova, S; Gizdov, N; Nikolova, L; Iliev, V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the efficacy and tolerability of local therapy with polyhexamethylene biguanid hydrochloride (BIGUANELLE) in women with anaerobic vaginal infection. We include in our study 23 women (18-50) with established by AMSEL criteria bacterial vaginosis. In all of the women at the beginning and at the end of the survey was performed gynecological examination and microbiological research (AMSEL). The therapeutic scheme at all women is with a single vaginal application of gynecological solution BIGUANELLE. Effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated according to clinical complaints and microbiological research (Amsel criteria: Ph 4.5 >; KOH (+); "clue cells"; specific vaginal fluorine). Tolerability of patients to treatment was assessed by questionnaire. Clinical complaints of patients after the therapy decreased as follows: vaginal fluorine with 73.9%; odor--75%; pruritus--50%; discomfort--90%. Microbiological research and their evaluation by AMSEL, showed the therapeutic efficacy of the therapy in 16 (69.6%) of all (n-23) patients. At 7 (30.4%) women, the treatment remained without effect. At questionnaire answers, 73.9% patients were satisfied with the application of BIGUANELLE, 95.6% of them have implemented it easily, 95.6% of women believe that BIGUANELLE is more convenient to use in comparison with similar products which have a daily application, and none of the patients (100%) have any complaints in applying this gynecological solution. BIGUANELLE showed good clinical efficacy in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. It is easily applied and well tolerated by the patients.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Sodium alginate...

  19. SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF MEFENAMIC ACID AND DICYCLOMINE HYDROCHLORIDE BY SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Prajapati et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel, simple, accurate, sensitive, reproducible, economical spectroscopic method was developed and validated for the determination of Mefenamic acid and Dicyclomine hydrochloride in combined dosage form. Three different analytical methods, Absorption correction method, Differential derivative method, Simultaneous equation method were developed for estimation of Dicyclomine hydrochloride(10mg and Mefenamic acid (250mg in tablet dosage form. wavelength for estimation was 223nm for Dicyclomine hydrochloride and 308.60nm for Mefenamic acid in absorption correction method. 211.60nm was Zero crossing point of Mefenamic acid and 308.80nm was Zero crossing point of Dicyclomine hydrochloride which can estimate in differential derivative method. Simultaneous equation method was developed in NaOH which was linear in the range of 1-6µg/ml for Dicyclomine hydrochloride and 25-150µg/ml for Mefenamic acid, the correlation coefficient obtained was nearer to one. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy and precision as per ICH guidelines. The developed and validated method was successfully used for the quantitative analysis of commercially available dosage form.

  20. RP-HPLC estimation of venlafaxine hydrochloride in tablet dosage forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldania S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, specific, accurate, and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the estimation of venlafaxine hydrochloride in tablet dosage forms. A Phenomenex Gemini C-18, 5 µm column having 250 x 4.6 mm i.d. in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing methanol: 0.05 M potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (70:30, v/v; pH 6.2 was used. The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and effluents were monitored at 226 nm. Carbamazepine was used as an internal standard. The retention time of venlafaxine hydrochloride and carbamazepine were 3.7 min and 5.3 min, respectively. The method was validated for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of quantification, limit of detection, robustness and solution stability. Limit of detection and limit of quantification for estimation of venlafaxine hydrochloride were found to be 100 ng/ml and 300 ng/ml, respectively. Recoveries of venlafaxine hydrochloride in tablet formulations were found to be in the range of 99.02-101.68%. Proposed method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of venlafaxine hydrochloride in tablet dosage forms.

  1. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF S-(--AMLODIPINE BESYLATE AND NEBIVOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh S.A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to develop a tablet formulation of S-(-- amlodipine besylate chiral separation drug and nebivolol hydrochloride for better management of hypertension, while reducing or avoiding undesirable adverse effects, which are often associated with administration of a racemic mixture of amlodipine. The composition containing the optically pure S-(-- isomer of amlodipine 2.5 mg has calcium channel blocking activity and, nebivolol hydrochloride 5 mg has beta-receptor blocking activity.The study was also carried out to design a suitable dissolution medium for S-(- - amlodipine besylate and nebivolol hydrochloride. Amlodipine besylate and nebivolol hydrochloride had maximum solubility in pH 1.2 and thus pH 1.2 was selected as the most suitable media for S-(- - amlodipine besylate and nebivolol hydrochloride dissolution studies. The RSD below 2% indicated insignificant batch-to-batch variation. The accelerated stability study of the optimized formulation was performed as the ICH guidelines. The results indicated no change in optical rotation of S-(- - amlodipine besylate. Hence, combination of two drugs can be formulated into the tablet by wet granulation technique having satisfactory release profile.

  2. Design and development of polyethylene oxide based matrix tablets for verapamil hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Vidyadhara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation an attempt has been made to increase therapeutic efficacy, reduced frequency of administration and improved patient compliance by developing controlled release matrix tablets of verapamil hydrochloride. Verapamil hydrochloride was formulated as oral controlled release matrix tablets by using the polyethylene oxides (Polyox WSR 303. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of polymer level and type of fillers namely lactose (soluble filler, swellable filler (starch 1500, microcrystalline cellulose and dibasic calcium phosphate (insoluble fillers on the release rate and mechanism of release for verapamil hydrochloride from matrix tablets prepared by direct compression process. Higher polymeric content in the matrix decreased the release rate of drug. On the other hand, replacement of lactose with anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate and microcrystalline cellulose has significantly retarded the release rate of verapamil hydrochloride. Biopharmaceutical evaluation of satisfactory formulations were also carried out on New Zealand rabbits and parameters such as maximum plasma concentration, time to reach peak plasma concentration, area under the plasma concentration time curve (0-t and area under first moment curve (0-t were determined. In vivo pharmacokinetic study proves that the verapamil hydrochloride from matrix tablets showed prolonged release and were be able to sustain the therapeutic effect up to 24 h.

  3. Sodium-glucose cotransport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Søren Brandt; Fenton, Robert A.; Rieg, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Sodium-glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) are important mediators of glucose uptake across apical cell membranes. SGLT1 mediates almost all sodium-dependent glucose uptake in the small intestine, while in the kidney SGLT2, and to a lesser extent SGLT1, account for more than 90% and nearly 3%, respectively, of glucose reabsorption from the glomerular ultrafiltrate. Although the recent availability of SGLT2 inhibitors for the treatment of diabetes mellitus has increased the number of clinical studies, this review has a focus on mechanisms contributing to the cellular regulation of SGLTs. Recent findings Studies have focused on the regulation of SGLT expression under different physiological/pathophysiological conditions, for example diet, age or diabetes mellitus. Several studies provide evidence of SGLT regulation via cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A, protein kinase C, glucagon-like peptide 2, insulin, leptin, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), with-no-K[Lys] kinases/STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (Wnk/SPAK) and regulatory solute carrier protein 1 (RS1) pathways. Summary SGLT inhibitors are important drugs for glycemic control in diabetes mellitus. Although the contribution of SGLT1 for absorption of glucose from the intestine as well as SGLT2/SGLT1 for renal glucose reabsorption has been comprehensively defined, this review provides an up-to-date outline for the mechanistic regulation of SGLT1/SGLT2. PMID:26125647

  4. Novel in situ gelling ocular films for the opioid growth factor-receptor antagonist-naltrexone hydrochloride: fabrication, mechanical properties, mucoadhesion, tolerability and stability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkader, Hamdy; Pierscionek, Barbara; Alany, Raid G

    2014-12-30

    Naltrexone hydrochloride (NTX) is an innovative drug used in ophthalmology for treatment of ocular surface diseases such as impaired corneal wound healing and severe dry eye. Poor chemical stability has been a major limitation for development of NTX in solution form. The aim of this study was to develop and characterise NTX in situ ocular films for enhanced chemical stability and improved ocular tolerability. The films were prepared from different amorphous polymers and characterised for physicochemical compatibility, moisture-sorption, surface pH, mechanical properties, sterilisability, surface morphology, mucoadhesion, in vitro release, conjunctival irritation and accelerated stability at 40°C/75% relative humidity for 3 months. Glycerin (GLY)-plasticised films exhibited significantly better mechanical properties, compared with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 and triethylcitrate (TEC)-plasticised formulations. Superior mucoadhesion was recorded for F7 and F9 plasticised with GLY and PEG 400, respectively. The stability of NTX was significantly enhanced more than 18-times, compared with the solution form. Combination of carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC) and sodium alginate (ALG) in a film formulation demonstrated minimal % moisture sorption, good mechanical properties, in vitro release, excellent chemical stability and minimal conjunctival irritation lending them as promising ocular formulations.

  5. Controlled-release effervescent floating matrix tablets of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride: development, optimization and in vitro-in vivo evaluation in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Mina Ibrahim

    2010-02-01

    Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride has a short elimination half-life, a narrow absorption window and is mainly absorbed in proximal areas of GIT. The purpose of this study was to develop a gastroretentive controlled-release drug delivery system with swelling, floating, and adhesive properties. Ten tablet formulations were designed using hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC K15M) and/or sodium alginate (Na alginate) as release-retarding polymer(s) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) or calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) as a gas former. Swelling ability, floating behaviour, adhesion period and drug release studies were conducted in 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2) at 37+/-0.5 degrees C. The tablets showed acceptable physicochemical properties. Drug release profiles of all formulae followed non-Fickian diffusion. Statistical analyses of data revealed that tablets containing HPMC K15M (21.42%, w/w), Na alginate (7.14%, w/w) and NaHCO(3) (20%, w/w) (formula F7) or CaCO(3) (20%, w/w) (formula F10) were promising systems exhibiting excellent floating properties, extended adhesion periods and sustained drug release characteristics. Both formulae were stored at 40 degrees C/75% RH for 3months according to ICH guidelines. Formula F10 showed better physical stability. Abdominal X-ray imaging of formula F10, loaded with barium sulfate, in six healthy volunteers revealed a mean gastric retention period of 5.50+/-0.77h.

  6. Application of near-infrared reflectance spectrometry to the analytical control of pharmaceuticals: ranitidine hydrochloride tablet production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreassi, E; Ceramelli, G; Corti, P; Perruccio, P L; Lonardi, S

    1996-02-01

    The possibility of applying near-infrared reflectance spectrometry to the control of the production cycle of ranitidine hydrochloride tablets was investigated. The results were good for the identification of ranitidine hydrochloride drug substance, mixtures for tablets, cores and coated tablets. The determination of the compound and of its water content also gave satisfactory results.

  7. 75 FR 31790 - Determination That Cysteine Hydrochloride Injection, USP, 7.25%, Was Not Withdrawn From Sale for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That Cysteine Hydrochloride Injection, USP, 7... determination that Cysteine Hydrochloride Injection, USP, 7.25% (Cysteine HCl), was not withdrawn from sale for... applications (ANDAs) for Cysteine HCl if all other legal and regulatory requirements are met. FOR...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Ddd... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by the Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Insulation Resins by the Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride Method A Appendix A to Subpart DDD of Part 63 Protection... Part 63—Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by the Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride Method 1. Scope The method in this appendix was specifically developed for water-soluble phenolic resins that...

  9. Evolutionary primacy of sodium bioenergetics

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    Wolf Yuri I

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The F- and V-type ATPases are rotary molecular machines that couple translocation of protons or sodium ions across the membrane to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP. Both the F-type (found in most bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts and V-type (found in archaea, some bacteria, and eukaryotic vacuoles ATPases can translocate either protons or sodium ions. The prevalent proton-dependent ATPases are generally viewed as the primary form of the enzyme whereas the sodium-translocating ATPases of some prokaryotes are usually construed as an exotic adaptation to survival in extreme environments. Results We combine structural and phylogenetic analyses to clarify the evolutionary relation between the proton- and sodium-translocating ATPases. A comparison of the structures of the membrane-embedded oligomeric proteolipid rings of sodium-dependent F- and V-ATPases reveals nearly identical sets of amino acids involved in sodium binding. We show that the sodium-dependent ATPases are scattered among proton-dependent ATPases in both the F- and the V-branches of the phylogenetic tree. Conclusion Barring convergent emergence of the same set of ligands in several lineages, these findings indicate that the use of sodium gradient for ATP synthesis is the ancestral modality of membrane bioenergetics. Thus, a primitive, sodium-impermeable but proton-permeable cell membrane that harboured a set of sodium-transporting enzymes appears to have been the evolutionary predecessor of the more structurally demanding proton-tight membranes. The use of proton as the coupling ion appears to be a later innovation that emerged on several independent occasions. Reviewers This article was reviewed by J. Peter Gogarten, Martijn A. Huynen, and Igor B. Zhulin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  10. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLETS OF METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE

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    Shaikh T.H.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Metformin HCl is a biguanide antihyperglycemic agent used for treating non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM. It improves glycemic control by decreasing hepatic glucose production, decreasing glucose absorption and increasing insulin-mediated glucose uptake. In the present study an attempt has been made to prepare fast dissolving tablets of Metformin HCl in the oral cavity with enhanced dissolution rate. The tablets were prepared with three superdisintegrants e.g:, Croscarmellose sodium, Sodium starch glycolate and Crospovidone. The blend was examined for angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index and hausners ratio. The tablets were evaluated for hardenss, friability, disintegration time, dissolution rate,drug content, and were found to be within 1 min. It was concluded that the mouth dissolving tablets with proper hardness, rapidly disintegrating with enhanced dissolution can be made using selected superdisintegrants.

  11. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of taste-masked oro-dispersible dosage form of diltiazem hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Changdeo Jagdale

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Diltiazem hydrochloride is a calcium channel blocker generally indicated for the treatment of angina and hypertension, and it is extensively metabolized due to the hepatic metabolism. Formulation of diltiazem hydrochloride into an oro-dispersible dosage form can provide fast relief with higher bioavailability. The bitter taste of the drug should be masked to formulate it in a palatable form. In the present work, an attempt was made to mask the taste by complexation technique, with a formulation into an oro-dispersible dosage form, using superdisintegrants Doshion P544, crospovidone (CP and sodium starch glycolate (SSG. The complexes of diltiazem hydrochloride with β-CD (1:1 molar ratio were prepared by kneading, co-evaporation, co-grounding, freeze-drying and melting methods. Phase solubility showed stability constant 819.13M-1. Prepared inclusion complexes were evaluated for taste masking and characterized by I.R, XRD, DSC. Using the drug β-CD complex, oro-dispersible tablets were prepared and evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, thickness, disintegrating time (DT, dissolution rate and taste. Formulations with 4 % Doshion, 8 % CP and 4 % SSG showed DT of 0.54, 0.35 and 1.23 minutes, respectively.O cloridrato de diltiazem é bloqueador do canal de cálcio geralmente indicado para o tratamento de angina e de hipertensão e é extensamente biotransformado devido ao metabolismo hepático. A formulação do cloridrato de diltiazem em orodispersão pode prover rápida liberação com maior biodisponibilidade. O sabor amargo do fármaco deve ser mascarado para ser formulado em forma palatável. No presente trabalho tentou-se mascarar o sabor pela técnica de complexação, com uma orodispersão, usando superdesintegrantes, como Doshio P544, crospivodina (CP e glicolato de amido sódico (SSG. Os complexos de cloridrato de diltiazem com β-CD (razão molar 1:1 foram preparados por mistura, coevaporação, comoagem, liofilização e m

  12. CDC Vital Signs: Where's the Sodium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... serve food can Consider joining voluntary initiatives to reduce sodium such as the National Salt Reduction Initiative Give choices to consumers to help them reduce sodium in their diet by: Stocking lower sodium foods. ...

  13. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: amitriptyline hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, R H; Olivera, M E; Amidon, G L; Shah, V P; Dressman, J B; Barends, D M

    2006-05-01

    Literature data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing amitriptyline hydrochloride are reviewed. Its therapeutic uses, its pharmacokinetic properties, the possibility of excipient interactions and reported BE/bioavailability (BA) problems are also taken into consideration. Literature data indicates that amitriptyline hydrochloride is a highly permeable active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Data on the solubility according to the current Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) were not fully available and consequently amitriptyline hydrochloride could not be definitively assigned to either BCS Class I or BCS Class II. But all evidence taken together, a biowaiver can currently be recommended provided that IR tablets are formulated with excipients used in existing approved products and that the dissolution meets the criteria defined in the Guidances.

  14. Identification of impurities and statistical classification of methamphetamine hydrochloride drugs seized in the China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian Xin; Zhang, Da Ming; Han, Xu Guang

    2008-01-01

    A total of 48 methamphetamine hydrochloride samples from eight seizures were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and a flame ionization detector (GC–FID). Major impurities detected include 1,2-dimethyl-3-phenylaziridine, Ephedrine/pseudoephedrine, 1,3-dimethyl-2-phenylnaphthalene, 1-benzyl-3-methylnaphthalene. These data are suggestive of ephedrine/pseudoephedrine as the main precursor of the methamphetamine hydrochloride samples seized during 2006–2007. Additionally the presence of 1,3-dimethyl-2-phenylnaphthalene, 1-benzyl-3-methylnaphthalene is indicative that six seizures were synthesized via the more specific ephedrine/hydriodic acid/red phosphorus method. In addition, five impurities were found for the first time in methamphetamine hydrochloride samples. Seventeen impurity peaks were selected from the GC–FID chromatograms. The peak areas of the selected peaks were then grouped for cluster analysis. PMID:19008060

  15. Synthesis, spectral, and anti-microbial studies of thioiminium iodides and amine hydrochlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Sebastian; Renaud, Philippe; Nallu, Maruthai

    2014-01-01

    To avoid the undesired deprotonation during the addition of organolithium and organomagnesium reagents to ketones, the thioiminium salts, easily prepared from lactams and amides are converted into 2,2-disubstituted and 2-monosubstituted amines by reaction with simple nucleophiles such as organocerium and organocopper reagents. The reaction of thioiminium iodides with organocerium reagents derived by transmetalation of corresponding lithium reagents with anhydrous cerium(III) chloride has been investigated. These thioiminium iodides act as good electrophiles and accept alkylceriums towards bisaddition. The newly synthesized amines have been characterized by 1H and 13C NMR, IR and mass spectra. The amines have been converted into their hydrochlorides and characterized by COSY. These hydrochlorides have been subjected to antimicrobial screening with clinically isolated microorganisms, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans. The hydrochlorides show quite good activity against these bacteria and fungus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of clomipramine hydrochloride in cats with psychogenic alopecia: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Petra A; Torres, Sheila; Jessen, Carl

    2006-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of clomipramine hydrochloride in cats with psychogenic alopecia. Twenty-five cats were randomly assigned to receive clomipramine hydrochloride (0.5 mg/kg orally q 24 hours) or placebo for 56 days. Eleven cats in each group completed the trial. The results of this study showed that clomipramine hydrochloride failed to demonstrate significant changes in the number of grooming bouts, hair regrowth, and the area of alopecia in cats with psychogenic alopecia when compared to a placebo. It was uncertain whether these results reflected a lack of drug efficacy, insufficient treatment duration, or an insufficient number of cases enrolled.

  17. Protective effects of glucosamine hydrochloride against free radical-induced erythrocytes damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamialahmadi, Khadijeh; Arasteh, Omid; Matbou Riahi, Maryam; Mehri, Soghra; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2014-07-01

    Glucosamine (GlcN) is an important precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids in human body. It gains importance because of its contribution to human health and its multiple biological and therapeutic effects. In this study, the in vitro oxidative hemolysis of rat erythrocyte was used as a model to study the potential protective effect of glucosamine hydrochloride against free radical-induced damage of biological membranes. Glucosamine hydrochloride exhibited dose-dependent DPPH antioxidant activity. Oxidative hemolysis and lipid/protein peroxidation of erythrocytes induced by a water-soluble free radical initiator 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) were significantly suppressed by GlcN in a time and dose dependent manner. GlcN also prevented the depletion of cytosolic antioxidant glutathione (GSH) in erythrocytes. These results indicated that glucosamine hydrochloride efficiently protected erythrocytes against free radicals and it could be recommended as a pharmaceutical supplement to alleviate oxidative stress.

  18. Simultaneous determination of salbutamol sulphate and bromhexine hydrochloride in tablets by reverse phase liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai P. N. S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple reverse phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed and subsequently validated for simultaneous determination of salbutamol sulphate and bromhexine hydrochloride. The separation was carried out using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile, methanol and phosphate buffer, pH 4 in the ratio 60:20:20 v/v. The column used was SS Wakosil-II C-18 with a flow rate of 1 ml/min and UV detection at 224 nm. The described method was linear over a concentration range of 10-110 µg/ml and 20-140 µg/ml for the assay of salbutamol sulphate and bromhexine hydrochloride, respectively. The mean recovery was found to be 95-105% for salbutamol sulphate and 96.2-102.1% for bromhexine hydrochloride when determined at five different levels.

  19. Management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: focus on methylphenidate hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasree Nair

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Rajasree Nair, Shannon B MossBaylor Family Medicine Residency at Garland, Garland, Texas, USAAbstract: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in young adults and causes significant psychosocial impairment and economic burden to society. Because of the paucity of long-term evidence and lack of national guidelines for diagnosis and management of adult ADHD, most of the data are based on experience derived from management of childhood ADHD. This article reviews the current evidence for the diagnosis and management of adult ADHD with special emphasis on the role of methylphenidate hydrochloride preparations in its treatment. Methylphenidate hydrochloride, a stimulant that acts through the dopaminergic and adrenergic pathways, has shown more than 75% efficacy in controlling the symptoms of adult ADHD. Although concern for diversion of the drug exists, recent data have shown benefits in preventing substance use disorders in patients with adult ADHD.Keywords: adult ADHD, treatment, stimulants, methylphenidate hydrochloride

  20. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes based catalyst plasmon resonance light scattering analysis of tetracycline hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It was found that multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) could catalyze the redox reaction between chlorauric acid (HAuCl4) and reductive drugs such as tetracycline hydrochloride (TC), producing gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). By measuring the plasmon resonance light scattering (PRLS) signals of the resulting Au NPs, tetracycline hydrochloride can be detected simply and rapidly with a linear range of 4―26 μmol/L, a correlated coefficient (r ) of 0.9955, and a limit of detection (3σ) of 6.0 nmol/L. This method has been successfully applied to the detection of tetracycline hydrochloride tablets in clinic with the recovery of 101.9% and that of fresh urine samples with the recovery of 98.3%―102.0%.

  1. HPLC Method for the Determination of Tamsulosin Hydrochloride in Sustained Release Tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐美玲; 王鹏; 耿颖姝; 顾峻岭

    2003-01-01

    The development and validation of an isocratic high performance liquid chromatographic method is described for the determination of tamsulosin hydrochloride in sustained release tablets. The determination was performed on a Diamonsil BDS C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of acetonitrile, methanol and 0.5% phosphoric acid solution (20∶30∶50,V/V/V) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. UV detection was made at 274 nm. The linear range for tamsulosin hydrochloride was 0.81-8.10 μg/mL. The mean recovery was 99.8% (SR=0.7%, n=9), and the precision was found to be 0.45% (n=9). The proposed method can be used for routine analysis of tamsulosin hydrochloride in sustained release tablets.

  2. Formulation and evaluation of S-(--Amlodipine besylate and nebivolol hydrochloride tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Shaikh

    2010-01-01

    The study was also carried out to design a suitable dissolution medium for S-(- - amlodipine besylate and nebivolol hydrochloride. Amlodipine besylate and nebivolol hydrochloride had maximum solubility in pH 1.2 and thus pH 1.2 was selected as the most suitable media for S-(- - amlodipine besylate and nebivolol hydrochloride dissolution studies. The RSD below 2% indicated insignificant batch-to-batch variation. The accelerated stability study of the optimized formulation was performed as the ICH guidelines. The results indicated no change in optical rotation of S-(- - amlodipine besylate. Hence, combination of two drugs can be formulated into the tablet by wet granulation technique having satisfactory release profile.

  3. Thermal Analysis Investigation of Dapoxetine and Vardenafil Hydrochlorides using Molecular Orbital Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Ali Kamal; Souaya, Eglal R; Soliman, Ethar A

    2015-11-01

    Thermal analysis techniques have been used to study the thermal behavior of dapoxetine and vardenafil hydrochlorides and confirmed using semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations. Thermogravimetric analysis, derivative thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were used to determine the thermal behavior and purity of the drugs under investigation. Thermodynamic parameters such as activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy were calculated. Thermal behavior of DAP and VAR were confirmed using by semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations. The purity values were found to be 99.97% and 99.95% for dapoxetine and vardenafil hydrochlorides, respectively. The purity of dapoxetine and vardenafil hydrochlorides is similar to that found by reported methods according to DSC data. Thermal analysis justifies its application in quality control of pharmaceutical compounds due to its simplicity, sensitivity and low operational costs.

  4. Formulation, Development and Evaluation of delayed release capsules of Duloxetine Hydrochloride made of different Enteric Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Yerramsetty

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Delayed release systems have acquired a centre stage in the arena of pharmaceutical research and development. The present study involves formulation and evaluation of Duloxetine Hydrochloride delayed release capsules. Duloxetine Hydrochloride is an acid labile drug. It degrades in the acidic environment of the stomach thus leading to therapeutic inefficacy. Therefore it is necessary to bypass the acidic pH of the stomach which can be achieved by formulating delayed release dosage form by using different enteric polymers. Protection of drug from acidic environment is done by coating the drug with enteric polymers by using suspension layering technique in Fluidized bed processor (FBP with different enteric polymers like HPMCAS (Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose Acetate Succinate, Acryl EZE and HPMCP (Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose phthalate.The formulation (E12 of delayed release capsules of Duloxetine Hydrochloride containing HPMCP (HP-55: HP- 50 as enteric polymer can be taken as optimized

  5. Compatibility of verapamil hydrochloride injection in commonly used large-volume parenterals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutie, M R; Lordi, N G

    1980-05-01

    The visual and chemical compatibilities of verapamil hydrochloride injection in 10 commonly used large-volume solutions packaged in glass, polyolefin, or polyvinyl chloride containers were studied. The mixtures, each containing 40 mg/liter of verapamil hydrochloride, were stored away from light for up to 48 hours at 25 degrees C. The solutions were examined visually for haze, precipitate formation, color change, and evolution of gas immediately after mixing and at 0.25, 1, 3, 8, 24, and 48 hours. Spectrophotometry and thin-layer chromatography were used to test for drug decomposition or chemical incompatibilities. All test methods used showed that no significant degradation of verapamil hydrochloride had taken place in the solutions or through contact with the containers. Slightly higher spectrophotometric readings for dextrose-containing solutions, though within experimental error, could have indicated the presence of dextrose degradation products. Evidence from this study suggests that verapamil hydrocholoride is compatible with the large-volume parenterals studied.

  6. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF PROPRANOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE AND FLUNARIZINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE IN THEIR COMBINED DOSAGE FORMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Doshi*, B.N. Patel and C.N. Patel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of Propranolol hydrochloride and Flunarizine dihydrochloride in combined dosage form. Simultaneous equation method is employed for simultaneous determination of Propranolol hydrochloride and Flunarizine dihydrochloride from combined dosage forms. In this method, the absorbance was measured at 289 nm for Propranolol hydrochloride and 253 nm for Flunarizine dihydrochloride. Linearity was observed in range of 24-64 μg/ml and 6-16 μg/ml for Propranolol hydrochloride and Flunarizine dihydrochloride respectively. Recovery studies confirmed the accuracy of proposed method and results were validated as per ICH guidelines. The method can be used for routine quality control of pharmaceutical formulation containing Propranolol hydrochloride and Flunarizine dihydrochloride.

  7. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    OpenAIRE

    Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Janelle Peralez Gunn

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has r...

  8. Sodium Alginate with PEG/PEO Blends as a Floating Drug Delivery Carrier – In vitro Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christe Sonia Mary

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Floating drug delivery system reduces the quantity of drug intake and the risk of overloading the organs with excess drug. Methods: In the present study, we prepared the blends of sodium alginate with polyethylene glycol (PEG and polyethylene oxide (PEO as a matrix, sodium hydrogen carbonate as a pore forming agent, methyl cellulose as a binder and barium chloride containing 10% acetic acid as a hardening agent. Different ratios of pore forming agent to the polymer blend was used to prepare the floating beads with different porosity and morphology. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride was used as a model drug for the release kinetics studies. Results: The beads were characterized by optical and FESEM microscopy to study the morphology and pore dimensions. The results obtained shows decrease in beads size with increase in the concentration of the pore forming agent. The swelling properties of the beads were found to be in the range of 80% to 125%. The release kinetics of the ciprofloxacin from the beads was measured by UV-Visible spectroscopy at λmax of 278nm and the results shows for highly porous beads. Conclusion: By varying the amount of alginate and pore forming agent the release kinetics is found to get altered. As a result, ciprofloxacin hydrochloride release is found to be sustained from the blended beads.

  9. [Simultaneous determination of five cold medicine ingredients in paracetamol triprolidine hydrochloride and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride tablets by pH/organic solvent double-gradient high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Xueyi; Huang, Lina; Pan, Xiaoling; Li, Ning

    2013-02-01

    A pH/organic solvent double-gradient mode in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been established as a new approach to the simultaneous determination of acetaminophen, caffeine, salicylamide, pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and triprolidine hydrochloride in paracetamol triprolidine hydrochloride and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride tablets. Through the optimization of the organic solvent gradient mode and pH/organic solvent double-gradient mode, the optimum double-gradient HPLC system of the five cold medicine ingredients has been built. The determination was carried out on a Diamonsiol C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm). The mobile phase consisted of methanol, 0.05 mol/L ammonium acetate solution and 0.08 mol/L acetic acid solution. The column temperature was set at 30 degrees C. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min. The sample was measured at multiple wavelengths: 0-6 min, 280 nm; 6-7 min, 257 nm; 7-14 min, 280 nm; 14 min, 233 nm. The separation of the five cold medicine ingredients in the tablets was achieved in 25.5 min. The linear ranges of acetaminophen, pseudoephedrine hydrochloride, caffeine, salicylamide and triprolidine hydrochloride were 0.055 -0.998 g/L, 0.053-0.946 g/L, 0.007-0.129 g/L, 0.035-0.622 g/L and 0.002-0.039 g/L, respectively, with their correlation coefficients greater than 0.999 0. The detection limits (S/N = 3) were 0.09, 6, 0.02, 0.128 and 0.02 mg/L, respectively. Their mean recoveries were 97.9%-102.8%. The advantage of the method is the simultaneous determination of acidic, neutral and basic compounds. It also can improve the column efficiency of the analyte, compress the half-peak width and reduce the trailing. The optimized and validated method can be used for the simultaneous determination of the five cold medicine ingredients in the tablets.

  10. Safety and efficacy of tramadol hydrochloride on treatment of premature ejaculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bayoumy I Eassa; Mohamed A El-Shazly

    2013-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual disorder.It affects 20%-30% of adult men; the aetiology of this condition has not yet been elucidated.The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy,safety,tolerability,undesirable effects and improved satisfaction with sexual intercourse with tramadol hydrochloride at different dosages for the treatment of PE.A total of 300 patients who presented with lifelong (primary) PE were included in this study.The study was performed for 28 weeks,in which placebo (starch tablet) was given for 4 weeks,and active ingredient (tramadol hydrochloride) was administered at different therapeutic dosages for 24 weeks.Patients were divided into three equal groups,each consisting of 100 patients.The first group (A) was given tramadol hydrochloride capsule 25 mg.The second group (B) was given tramadol hydrochloride capsule 50 mg.The third group (C) was given tramadol hydrochloride capsule 100 mg.All of the 300 participants included completed the study voluntarily.The age of the patients varied from 25 to 50 years.After the treatment period,the recorded data were collected for each group and analysed.The results showed a highly significant increase in the mean intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) in all groups compared to baseline data (P<0.0001).We concluded that using tramadol hydrochloride at different doses on demand for the treatment of PE is effective,safe and tolerable,with minimal undesirable effects,and approval for this indication should be sought.

  11. BRAIN TARGETING OF FLUNARIZINE HYDROCHLORIDE BY SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES FOR PROPHYLAXIS OF MIGRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Surjyanarayan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Flunarizine hydrochloride, a piperazine derivative, is a selective Ca++ channel blocker coupled with its antihistaminic property claimed to be effective in prophylaxis of migraine. Oral bioavailability of Flunarizine hydrochloride is very low (less then 18% due to poor water solubility and extensive first pass metabolism. Hence the aim of the present study was to develop Flunaruzine hydrochloride loaded sold lipid nanoparticles to improve drug diffusion profile and hence the oral bioavailability. Flunarizine hydrochloride nanosuspension stabilised by poloxamer F-68 was first prepared by high speed homogenization and was lyophilized to obtain nanoparticle using mannitol (1:1 w/v as cryoprotectant. Developed nanoparticle was characterized for its particle size and size distribution, drug content and % drug entrapment. In vitro dissolution study using dissolution bag (12000 D and ex vivo study in rat ileum were carried out using simulated intestinal fluid as dissolution medium. Droplet size, Zeta potential, % drug content and % drug entrapment of the nanoparticles of the Flunarizine hydrochloride were found to be 282±50nm with PdI=0.424±0.028, 34.9±7.36mV, 98.3±0.26% and 67±0.55% respectively. In vitro, ex vivo permeation study revealed that cumulative percentage drug permeated was found to be 75.66±0.9% and 69±1.4% in 8 hrs. Data of the ex vivo release study indicated that drug release was controlled by combination of lipid swelling, erosion and diffusion through the hydrated lipid matrix. From the results it could be considered that the developed Flunarizine hydrochloride nanoparticles may be an alternative for the prophylaxis of migraine.

  12. Effect of Clenbuterol Hydrochloride on the in vitro Development of Mouse Embryo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of clenbuterol hydrochloride on the in vitro devel-opment of both 1-cell and 2-cell mouse embryos.Methods The cultural systems of both 1-cell and 2-cell mouse embryo were used todetermine the effect of clenbuterol hydrochloride at doses of 1 ng/mL, 3 ng/mL, and10 ng/mL on developmental rates of mouse embryos.Results When 1-cell embryos cultured with 1 ng/mL of clenbuterol hydrochloride,developmental rates from the 4-cell stage to blastocyst stage were significantly lowerthan those in the control group (P< 0. 05), but on dosages of 3 ng/mL and 10ng/mL,the inhibiting effects on embryo development were significantly increased (P< 0. 01).When 2-cell embryos cultured with 1 ng/mL of clenbuterol hydrochloride, obvious dif-ferences in developmental rates were not found between the 2-cell embryo group and thecontrol (P> 0. 05). However, at levels of 3 ng/mL and 10 ng/mL, significant de-crease of developmental rates in 2-cell embryos was observed from the 4-cell and fromthe 8-cell stage, respectively (P< 0. 05). Embryos cultured with clenbuterol hydrochlo-ride appeared to have more granules, fragments and degeneration than those in thecontrol.Conclusion Clenbuterol hydrochloride has a toxic effect on the mouse embryos, and theeffect is in a dose-dependent. 1-cell mouse embryos cultured with clenbuterolhydrochloride could be easily inhibited at 2-cell stage, but the effect of clenbuterolhydrochloride on development of the late 2-cell embryos would be reduced.

  13. Second generation lipid nanoparticles (NLC) as an oral drug carrier for delivery of lercanidipine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranpise, Nisharani S; Korabu, Swati S; Ghodake, Vinod N

    2014-04-01

    Lercanidipine hydrochloride is a calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of hypertension. It is a poor water soluble drug with absolute bioavailability of 10%. The aim of this study was to design lercanidipine hydrochloride-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers to investigate whether the bioavailability of the same can be improved by oral delivery. Lercanidipine hydrochloride nanostructured lipid carriers were prepared by the method of solvent evaporation at a high temperature and solidification by freeze drying. The nanostructured lipid carriers were evaluated for particle size analysis, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug diffusion, ex vivo permeation studies and pharmacodynamic study. The resultant nanostructured lipid carriers had a mean size of 214.97 nm and a zeta potential of -31.6 ± 1.5 mV. More than 70% lercanidipine hydrochloride was entrapped in the NLCs. The SEM studies indicated the formation of type 2 nanostructured lipid carriers. The in vitro release studies demonstrated 19.36% release in acidic buffer pH 1.2 indicating that the drug entrapped in the nanostructured lipid carriers remains entrapped at acidic pH. The ex vivo studies indicated that the drug release was enhanced from 10% to 60.54% at blood pH in 24h. The in vivo pharmacodynamic study showed that NLCs released lercanidipine hydrochloride in a controlled manner for a prolonged period of time as compared to plain drug. These results clearly indicate that nanostructured lipid carriers are a potential controlled release formulation for lercanidipine hydrochloride and may be a promising drug delivery system for the treatment of hypertension. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to the food preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su-Chen; Foster, Niki F; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important enteric pathogen of humans and food animals. Recently it has been isolated from retail foods with prevalences up to 42%, prompting concern that contaminated foods may be one of the reasons for increased community-acquired C. difficile infection (CA-CDI). A number of studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in raw meats and fresh vegetables; however, fewer studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in ready-to-eat meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of 11 C. difficile isolates of food animal and retail food origins to food preservatives commonly used in ready-to-eat meats. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite against C. difficile. Checkerboard assays were used to investigate the combined effect of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate, commonly used in combination in meats. Modal MIC values for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite were 250 μg/ml, >4000 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml, respectively. No bactericidal activity was observed for all three food preservatives. The checkerboard assays showed indifferent interaction between sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate. This study demonstrated that C. difficile can survive in the presence of food preservatives at concentrations higher than the current maximum permitted levels allowed in ready-to-eat meats. The possibility of retail ready-to-eat meats contaminated with C. difficile acting as a source of CDI needs to be investigated.

  15. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: ranitidine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortejärvi, H; Yliperttula, M; Dressman, J B; Junginger, H E; Midha, K K; Shah, V P; Barends, D M

    2005-08-01

    Literature and experimental data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence testing for the approval of immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing ranitidine hydrochloride are reviewed. According to the current Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), ranitidine hydrochloride should be assigned to Class III. However, based on its therapeutic and therapeutic index, pharmacokinetic properties and data related to the possibility of excipient interactions, a biowaiver can be recommended for IR solid oral dosage forms that are rapidly dissolving and contain only those excipients as reported in this study.

  16. Development and validation of a dissolution test for diltiazem hydrochloride in immediate release capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciane Ferreira Mendonça

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the development and validation of a dissolution test for 60 mg of diltiazem hydrochloride in immediate release capsules. The best dissolution in vitro profile was achieved using potassium phosphate buffer at pH 6.8 as the dissolution medium and paddle as the apparatus at 50 rpm. The drug concentrations in the dissolution media were determined by UV spectrophotometry and HPLC and a statistical analysis revealed that there were significant differences between HPLC and spectrophotometry. This study illustrates the importance of an official method for the dissolution test, since there is no official monograph for diltiazem hydrochloride in capsules.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Impurities of Barnidipine Hydrochloride, an Antihypertensive Drug Substance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Barnidipine hydrochloride is a long term dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker used for the treatment of hypertension. During the process development of barnidipine hydrochloride, four barnidipine impurities were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with an ordinary column (Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18, 150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm. All these impurities were identified, synthesized, and subsequently characterized by their respective spectral data (MS, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR. The identification of these impurities should be useful for quality control in the manufacture of barnidipine.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of impurities of barnidipine hydrochloride, an antihypertensive drug substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhi-Gang; Dai, Xu-Yong; Li, Li-Wei; Wan, Qiong; Ma, Xiang; Xiang, Guang-Ya

    2014-01-21

    Barnidipine hydrochloride is a long term dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker used for the treatment of hypertension. During the process development of barnidipine hydrochloride, four barnidipine impurities were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an ordinary column (Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18, 150 mm×4.6 mm, 5 µm). All these impurities were identified, synthesized, and subsequently characterized by their respective spectral data (MS, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR). The identification of these impurities should be useful for quality control in the manufacture of barnidipine.

  19. High performance thin layer chromatographic method for simultaneous estimation of ibuprofen and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitlange S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available High performance thin layer chromatographic method is developed for simultaneous estimation of ibuprofen and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride in tablets. Silica gel 60F 254 plates were used as stationary phase and t.butanol: ethyl acetate: glacial acetic acid: water (7:4:2:2 v/v as mobile phase. Wavelength selected for analysis was 254 nm. Percent estimation of ibuprofen and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was found to be 99.56% and 98.77%, respectively. Percent recovery for both the drugs was found in the range of 98.27% to 100.91%, respectively.

  20. Effect of Modulated Alternating and Direct Current Iontophoresis on Transdermal Delivery of Lidocaine Hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Bhatia; Banga, Ajay K.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the iontophoretic delivery of lidocaine hydrochloride through porcine skin and to compare the effects of modulated alternating and direct current iontophoresis. Continuous and modulated iontophoresis was applied for one hour and two hours (0-1 h and 4-5th h) using a 1% w/v solution of lidocaine hydrochloride. Tape stripping was done to quantify the amount of drug permeated into stratum corneum and skin extraction studies were performed to determi...

  1. 布洛伪麻分散片的溶出度测定%Determination of Dissolution of Ibuprofen and Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride Dispersible Tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱颖姮; 王铁杰; 周寿林; 张弘; 李清

    2012-01-01

    The dissolubilities of ibuprofen and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride dispersible tablets in different dissolution mediums and different rotation speeds were discussed. The dissolution method was determined as follows: using the second dissolution method in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 edition, at the rotation speed of 50 r/min and with the phosphate buffer solution (pH 5.5) of 900 ml. Ibuprofen and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride were detemined by HPLC. A C18 column was used with the mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (1 : 1) (containing sodium dodecyl sulfate 2.5 g and phosphoric acid 1 ml dissolved in 1 000 ml, adjusted to pH 3.2 with ammonia) at the detection wavelength of 215 nm. The calibration curves of ibuprofen and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride were linear in the concentration ranges of 10 -1 000 μg/ml and 1.5 -150 μg/ml. The recoveries were 98.1 % and 100.4%, with RSDs of 2.6% and 0.4%.%建立了布洛伪麻分散片的溶出度检查方法.考察在不同的溶出介质、转速下布洛伪麻分散片中布洛芬和盐酸伪麻黄碱的溶出情况,确定了溶出参数:照中国药典2010年版溶出度第二法装置,以pH 5.5的磷酸盐缓冲液900ml为溶出介质,转速50 r/min.采用HPLC法测定每片中布洛芬和盐酸伪麻黄碱的溶出量.使用C18色谱柱,流动相为乙腈-水(1∶1)(每1 000ml含十二烷基磺酸钠2.5 g,加磷酸1 ml,混匀后用氨水调至pH 3.2),检测波长215 nm.布洛芬和盐酸伪麻黄碱在10~1 000 μg/ml和1.5~150 μ.g/ml范围内线性关系良好,回收率为98.1%和100.4%,RSD为2.6%和0.4%.

  2. Determination of related substances in Glucosamine Hydrochloride Capsules%盐酸氨基葡萄糖胶囊有关物质测定方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德柱; 宋愿智; 沈登林

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish an HPLC method for the determination of related substances in Glucosamine Hydrochloride Cap-sules .Methods The separation was performed on a C18 (250 mm × 4 .6 mm ,5 μm) column at room temperature .The mobile phase was a mixture of sodium 1-heptanesulfonate solution and acetonitrile at a flow-rate of 1 .0 mL · min-1 .The detection wave-length was at 195 nm .Results The Glucosamine Hydrochloride Capsules was stable with acid destruction ,but unstable with alka-li ,high temperature and strong oxidative destruction .The linear range was 6 .32-31 .60 μg · mL -1 .Conclusion This method is simple ,accurate ,and rapid with high specificity .It is applicable for the determination of related substances in Glucosamine Hydro-chloride Capsules .%目的:建立测定盐酸氨基葡萄糖胶囊有关物质的高效液相色谱方法。方法采用C18柱(250mm×4.6mm,5μm);以庚烷磺酸钠溶液(0.5g庚烷磺酸钠溶解在水中,加0.5mL磷酸,再加0.224g氢氧化钾,加水稀释至1000mL,摇匀)-乙腈(1000∶50)为流动相;流速1.0mL·min-1;检测波长:195nm;柱温:室温。结果盐酸氨基葡萄糖胶囊对酸稳定,对碱、高温、强氧化破坏不稳定,其线性范围为6.32~31.60μg·mL-1。结论此方法简便,准确,快速,专属性强,可用于该制剂的有关物质检查。

  3. Determination of Berberine Hydrochloride in Shenshe Ointments by HPLC%HPLC法测定参蛇软膏中盐酸小檗碱的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪珊; 栗艳; 李捷; 毕琳琳; 张雅; 石小鹏

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立参蛇软膏中盐酸小糪碱的含量测定方法。方法:采用高效液相色谱法测定参蛇软膏中盐酸小糪碱的含量,Kromasil C18色谱柱(250 mm ×4.6 mm,5μm);乙腈-0.1%磷酸(41∶59)(每100 ml加入十二烷基磺酸钠0.02 g)为流动相;流速:1.0 ml·min-1;检测波长:320 nm;柱温:室温;进样量:20μl。结果:盐酸小檗碱与其他组分分离良好,在0.0592~0.2960 g·L-1范围内线性关系良好(r=0.9994);平均加样回收率为99.80%,RSD=0.24%(n=6)。结论:该方法简单、专属性强、重复性好,可用于参蛇软膏的含量测定。%Objective:To establish the determination method for berberine hydrochloride in Shenshe ointments. Methods: The quantitative analysis of berberine hydrochloride in Shenshe osintments was carried out by HPLC with a Kromsal C18 chromatographic column (250 mm × 4. 6 mm, 5 μm), the mobile phase was acetonitrile-0. 1% phosphoric acid (49∶51) (adding 0. 2g sodium dode-cylsulphate into 100 ml solution) with the flow rate of 1. 0 ml·min-1 and the detection wavelength of 320nm, the temperature of col-umn was room temperature, and the injection volume was 20 μl. Results: The linear range was 0. 059 2-0. 296 0 g·L-1 with good correlation(r=0. 999 4). The average recovery was 99. 80% and RSD was 0. 24%(n=6). Conclusion: The established method is accurate, specific and reproducible, and suitable for the determination of berberine hydrochloride in Shenshe ointments.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of sodium alkoxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Chandran; R Nithya; K Sankaran; A Gopalan; V Ganesan

    2006-04-01

    Alcohol route is being adopted for cleaning sodium from sodium-wetted small components of coolant circuits of fast reactors. For better understanding of sodium–alcohol reactions and their energetics, the data on thermo-chemical properties such as heats of sodium–alcohol reactions, heats of dissolution, heat capacities, thermal decomposition behaviour, etc of their end products are essential. In order to generate such data, high purity sodium alkoxides, viz. sodium methoxide, sodium ethoxide and sodium -propoxide, were prepared by reacting sodium metal with respective alcohol. These compounds were characterized using X-ray diffraction technique and IR spectroscopy. The elemental analysis was carried out by CHNS analyser and atomic emission spectroscopy. Normal chain sodium alkoxides were found to exhibit tetragonal crystal structure. Crystal structures of sodium ethoxide and sodium -propoxide are reported for the first time. The IR spectrum of sodium -propoxide is also reported for the first time.

  5. Sodium management in dialysis by conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetto, A; Bene, B; Petitclerc, T

    1999-07-01

    The determination of dialysate sodium concentration is one of the challenges of dialysis prescription, because no accurate information on the predialytic sodium overload is available. Too low dialysate sodium is responsible for intradialytic intolerance symptoms, whereas too high sodium may lead to long-term water sodium overload with cardiovascular hazards (hypertension, left heart failure). We propose here a biofeedback system based on noninvasive repeated measures of ionic dialysance and plasma water conductivity used here as a surrogate of plasma water sodium. This system achieves a stable postdialytic sodium pool and subsequently a dialysate sodium concentration adapted to the inter dialytic sodium load. This new tool in dialysate sodium prescription aims at reducing the morbidity related to patient sodium balance impairment.

  6. Dexmethylphenidate--Novartis/Celgene. Focalin, D-MPH, D-methylphenidate hydrochloride, D-methylphenidate, dexmethylphenidate, dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Celgene has developed a chirally pure form of methylphenidate (Ritalin), called dexmethylphenidate [d-methylphenidate, d-methylphenidate hydrochloride, d-MPH; Focalin]. The drug has been launched in the USA and is undergoing registration in Canada for the treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Dexmethylphenidate is the single isomer version of racemic methylphenidate (Ritalin), which contains the active d isomer of Ritalin. Dexmethylphenidate acts via the inhibition of reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine. Research is ongoing to further clarify the mode of therapeutic action in ADHD. Dexmethylphenidate was developed with the aim of reducing drug load, adverse events and drug interactions. Dexmethylphenidate provides effective management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder at half the dose of Ritalin. In April 2000, worldwide rights (excluding Canada) to dexmethylphenidate were granted to Novartis. Celgene has also granted Novartis rights to all related intellectual properties and patents. Novartis will fund all remaining development and marketing expenses required for regulatory approval and commercialisation of dexmethylphenidate. Crystaal Corporation, the marketing division of Biovail Corporation International, has exclusive Canadian marketing rights for all formulations of dexmethylphenidate. Novartis launched dexmethylphenidate (Focalin) in the USA during Q1 2002. It is available as a D-shaped tablet (2.5, 5 and 10 mg doses). Novartis had planned to use the tradename Ritadex, however the FDA recommended an alternative name due to potential prescribing errors with Ritalin. The finalized tradename to be used is Focalin. In July 2001, a new drug submission was filed with Canada's Therapeutic Products Programme for dexmethylphenidate in the treatment of attention-deficit disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Novartis is also developing an extended-release version of chirally pure dexmethylphenidate

  7. Synthesis and surface-active property of bis-quaternary ammonium-sodium sulfate Gemini surfactant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Qiuling; Gao Zhinong

    2006-01-01

    N,N-dimethyldodecylamine,hydrochloride and epichlorohydrin (molar ration is 2:1:1) were used to synthesize bis-quaternary ammonium Gemini surfactant with a hydroxyl in its spacer group by the one-pot method.This hydroxyl was sulfonated by chlorosulfonic acid and then neutralized to bis-quaternary ammonium-sodium sulfate zwitterionic Gemini surfactant.The yield of the final product was 78%,and the melting point was 231-233℃.Its structure was characterized by IR,1H-NMR,MS,and elemental analyses.The critical micelle concentration (cmc)and surface tension of the novel zwitterionic Gemini surfactant in aqueous solution at 15℃ are 7.2×10-5 mol/L and 34.5 mN/m,respectively.

  8. New diterpenoid alkaloids from Aconitum coreanum and their anti-arrhythmic effects on cardiac sodium current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Bei-Ni; Jin, Si-Si; Wang, Hao; Tang, Qing-Fa; Liu, Jing-Han; Li, Rui-Yang; Liang, Jing-Yu; Tang, Yi-Qun; Yang, Chun-Hua

    2014-04-01

    Two new diterpenoid alkaloids, Guan-Fu base J (GFJ, 1) and Guan-Fu base N (GFN, 2) along with nineteen known alkaloids (3-21) were isolated from the roots of Aconitum coreanum (Lèvl.) Rapaics, which is the raw material of a new approval anti-arrhythmia drug "Acehytisine Hydrochloride". The structures of isolated compounds were established by means of 1D, 2D NMR spectroscopic and chemical methods. All isolates obtained in the present study were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on blocking the ventricular specific sodium current using a whole-cell patch voltage-clamp technique. Among these 21 compounds, Guan-Fu base S (GFS, 3) showed the strongest inhibitory effect with an IC50 value of 3.48 μM, and only hetisine-type C20 diterpenoid alkaloids showed promising IC50 values for further development.

  9. Designing microstructures for sodium reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, N. X. N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this project was to develop the tools and knowledge to reduce dietary sodium by mitigating restrictions to flavour delivery and enhancing saltiness perception through sodium contrast effects in the mouth. This is achieved by restructuring semi-solid and liquid model food systems to achieve maximum flavour delivery for enhanced perception. The project considered two model systems: stable foams and double emulsions. Stable foams were developed to evaluate air inclusions as a p...

  10. Stability of Ampicillin Sodium, Nafcillin Sodium, And Oxacillin Sodium in AutoDose Infusion System Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanping; Trissel, Lawrence A

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical stability of ampicillin sodium 1g/100mL, nafcillin sodium 1g/100mL, and oxacillin sodium 1g/100mL, each of which was admixed in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and packaged in an AutoDose Infusion System bag. Triplicate test samples were prepared by reconstituting the penicillin antibiotics and bringing the required amount of each drug to a final volume of 100 mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection. The test solutions were packaged in AutoDose Bags, which are ethylene vinyl acetate plastic containers designed for use in the AutoDose Infusion System. Samples were stored protected from light and were evaluated at appropriate intervals for up to 7 days at 23 deg C and up to 30 days at 4 deg C. Physical stability was assessed by means of a multistep evaluation procedure that included both turbidimetric and particulate measurement as well as visual inspection. Chemical stability was assesed with stability-indicating high-perofrmance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analytical techniques based on the determination of drug concentrations initially and at appropriate intervals over the study periods. All the penicillin admixtures were initially clear when viewed in normal fluorescent room light. When the admixtures were viewed with a Tyndall beam, a trace haze was observed with the ampicillin sodium and nafcillin sodium mixtures but not with the oxacillin sodium mixture. Measured turbidity and particulate content were low and exhibited little change in the ampicillin sodium and oxacillin sodium samples throughout the study. The nafcillin sodium samples stored at room temperature remained clear, but a microprecipitate developed in the refrigerated samples between 14 and 21 days of storage. All samples were essentially colorless throughout the study. HPLC analysis indicated some decomposition in the samples. Ampicillin sodium, which was the least stable, exhibited a 10% loss after 24 hours at 23 deg C. In the

  11. Osmotically regulated floating asymmetric membrane capsule for controlled site-specific delivery of ranitidine hydrochloride: optimization by central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Manvendra S; Kumar, Anil; Pathak, Kamla

    2012-12-01

    A nondisintegrating, floating asymmetric membrane capsule (FAMC) was developed to achieve site-specific osmotic flow of a highly water-soluble drug, ranitidine hydrochloride (RHCl), in a controlled manner. Solubility suppression of RHCl was achieved by the common ion effect, using optimized coated sodium chloride as a formulation component. The capsular wall of FAMC was prepared by the phase inversion process wherein the polymeric membrane was precipitated on glass pins by dipping them in a solution of cellulose acetate followed by quenching. Central composite design was utilized to investigate the influence of independent variables, namely, level(s) of membrane former, pore former, and osmogen, on percent cumulative drug release (response). The release mechanism of RHCl through FAMC was confirmed as osmotic pumping. The asymmetry of the membrane was characterized by scanning electron microscopy that revealed a dense nonporous outer region of membrane supported by an inner porous region. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated no incompatibility between the drug and excipients. In vitro drug release in three biorelevant media, pH 2.5 (low fed), pH 4.5 (intermediate fed), and pH 6.5 (high fed), demonstrated pH-independent release of RHCl (P > 0.05). Floating ability for 12 h of the optimized FAMC9 was visually examined during the in vitro release studies that showed maximal drug release with zero-order kinetics (r (2) = 0.9991). Thus, a novel osmotically regulated floating capsular system was developed for site-specific delivery of RHCl.

  12. Dietary sodium and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Andrew; O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-06-01

    Although an essential nutrient, higher sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure (BP), forming the basis for current population-wide sodium restriction guidelines. While short-term clinical trials have achieved low intake (6 months). Guidelines assume that low sodium intake will reduce BP and reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD), compared to moderate intake. However, current observational evidence suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and CVD; the lowest risks observed with 3-5 g/day but higher risk with 5 g/day) and increased risk of CVD. Although lower intake may reduce BP, this may be offset by marked increases in neurohormones and other adverse effects which may paradoxically be adverse. Large randomised clinical trials with sufficient follow-up are required to provide robust data on the long-term effects of sodium reduction on CVD incidence. Until such trials are completed, current evidence suggests that moderate sodium intake for the general population (3-5 g/day) is likely the optimum range for CVD prevention.

  13. Sodium voiding analysis in Kalimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Won-Pyo; Jeong, Kwan-Seong; Hahn, Dohee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    A sodium boiling model has been developed for calculations of the void reactivity feedback as well as the fuel and cladding temperatures in the KALIMER core after onset of sodium boiling. The sodium boiling in liquid metal reactors using sodium as coolant should be modeled because of phenomenon difference observed from that in light water reactor systems. The developed model is a multiple -bubble slug ejection model. It allows a finite number of bubbles in a channel at any time. Voiding is assumed to result from formation of bubbles that fill the whole cross section of the coolant channel except for liquid film left on the cladding surface. The vapor pressure, currently, is assumed to be uniform within a bubble. The present study is focused on not only demonstration of the sodium voiding behavior predicted by the developed model, but also confirmation on qualitative acceptance for the model. In results, the model catches important phenomena for sodium boiling, while further effort should be made for the complete analysis. (author)

  14. Central regulation of sodium appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerling, Joel C; Loewy, Arthur D

    2008-02-01

    Sodium appetite, the behavioural drive to ingest salt, is stimulated by prolonged physiological sodium deficiency in many animal species. The same neural mechanisms that are responsible for sodium appetite in laboratory animals may influence human behaviour as well, with particular relevance to the dietary salt intake of patients with diseases such as heart failure, renal failure, liver failure and salt-sensitive hypertension. Since the original experimental work of Curt Richter in the 1930s, much has been learned about the regulation of salt-ingestive behaviour. Here, we review data from physiology, pharmacology, neuroanatomy and neurobehavioural investigations into the stimulatory and inhibitory signals that regulate sodium appetite. A rudimentary framework is proposed for the brain circuits that integrate peripheral information representing the need for sodium with neural signals for the gustatory detection of salt in order to drive a motivated ingestive response. Based on this model, areas of remaining uncertainty are highlighted where future information would allow a more detailed understanding of the neural circuitry responsible for sodium appetite.

  15. Sodium: Tips for People with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... l Fresh meat, poultry, seafood l Low-fat, low-sodium cheese l Unsalted nuts l Low- and reduced- ... for foods labeled: sodium free, salt free, very low sodium, low sodium, reduced or less sodium, light in ...

  16. Spotlight on anagrelide hydrochloride for the treatment of essential thrombocythemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anita Sarma,1 Donal P Mclornan,1,2 Claire N Harrison2 1Department of Haematology, King’s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, 2Department of Haematology, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK Abstract: Anagrelide (ANA hydrochloride is an oral imidazoquinazoline registered as an orphan drug in Europe. It is indicated as a second-line agent for the reduction of thrombocytosis in high-risk essential thrombocythemia (ET in Europe and in any myeloproliferative neoplasm-associated thrombocytosis and for the amelioration of thrombo-hemorrhagic events in the context of myeloproliferative neoplasm in the USA and Japan. The compound has been in clinical use for almost two decades with approval in the European Union (EU for over a decade. The licensed indication encompasses the apparently specific action of the drug to reduce the platelet count; however, the precise mode of action of ANA remains unclear. Here, we review the current data from two large phase 3 studies, PT-1 and ANAHDRET, and a phase 4 post-approval observational study EXELS. All of these studies were conducted in the EU and therefore pertain to ET as the only licensed indication. Data from these studies suggest that ANA is on the whole as effective as the most commonly used agent hydroxycarbamide (HC. Although ANA, when compared to HC, appears to be slightly less effective in preventing arterial thrombosis and myelofibrotic transformation, it is associated with lower risk of venous thrombosis. Since the initial data from the PT-1 study, a caution has been recommended for the combined use of ANA and aspirin as this may provoke excess hemorrhage. ET is a clinically and biologically heterogeneous condition, and these biological variations may in part explain some of the clinical differences observed in various studies in response to specific treatments. No new toxicities of ANA have emerged in the past decade, which means that clinicians and patients can be reassured

  17. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Preservatives § 172.175 Sodium nitrite. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or on specified... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrite. 172.175 Section 172.175 Food and... preservative and color fixative, with sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of...

  18. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Levings

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1 significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2 gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3 lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake.

  19. 21 CFR 522.460 - Cloprostenol sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cloprostenol sodium. 522.460 Section 522.460 Food... Cloprostenol sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of the aqueous solution contains 263 micrograms of cloprostenol sodium (equivalent to 250 micrograms of cloprostenol) in a sodium citrate, anhydrous citric...

  20. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not...

  1. 21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium polyacrylate. 173.73 Section 173.73 Food and... Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.73 Sodium polyacrylate. Sodium polyacrylate (CAS... of Weight Average and Number Average Molecular Weight of Sodium Polyacrylate,” which is...

  2. Carbon dioxide-water oxygen isotope fractionation factor using chlorine trifluoride and guanidine hydrochloride techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, J.P. Jr.; Borthwick, J.

    1986-12-01

    A new value for the CO/sub 2/-H/sub 2/O oxygen isotope fractionation factor of 1.04145 +/- 0.000 15 (2sigma) has been determined. The data have been normalized to the V-SMOW/V-SLAP scale and were obtained by measuring isotopic compositions with the guanidine hydrochloride and chlorine trifluoride techniques.

  3. 77 FR 53892 - Determination That ALOXI (Palonosetron Hydrochloride) Capsules, 0.5 Milligram (Base), Were Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ...) Capsules, 0.5 Milligram (Base), Were Not Withdrawn From Sale for Reasons of Safety or Effectiveness AGENCY... determined that ALOXI (palonosetron hydrochloride (HCl)) Capsules, 0.5 milligram (mg) (base), were not... abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for palonosetron HCl capsules, 0.5 mg (base), if all other legal and...

  4. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: mefloquine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, S; Jantratid, E; Dressman, J B; Junginger, H E; Kopp, S; Midha, K K; Shah, V P; Stavchansky, S; Barends, D M

    2011-01-01

    Literature data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of immediate release solid oral dosage forms containing mefloquine hydrochloride as the only active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) are reviewed. The solubility and permeability data of mefloquine hydrochloride as well as its therapeutic use and therapeutic index, its pharmacokinetic properties, data related to the possibility of excipient interactions and reported BE/bioavailability studies were taken into consideration. Mefloquine hydrochloride is not a highly soluble API. Since no data on permeability are available, it cannot be classified according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System with certainty. Additionally, several studies in the literature failed to demonstrate BE of existing products. For these reasons, the biowaiver cannot be justified for the approval of new multisource drug products containing mefloquine hydrochloride. However, scale-up and postapproval changes (HHS-FDA SUPAC) levels 1 and 2 and most EU type I variations may be approvable without in vivo BE, using the dissolution tests described in these regulatory documents.

  5. An investigation on in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial properties of the antidepressant: amitriptyline hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurup Mandal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The antidepressant drug amitriptyline hydrochloride was obtained in a dry powder form and was screened against 253 strains of bacteria which included 72 Gram positive and 181 Gram negative bacteria and against 5 fungal strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by inoculating a loopful of an overnight peptone water culture of the organism on nutrient agar plates containing increasing concentrations of amitriptyline hydrochloride (0, 10 µg/mL, 25 µg/mL, 50 µg/mL, 100 µg/mL, 200 µg/mL. Amitriptyline hydrochloride exhibited significant action against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria at 25-200 µg/mL. In the in vivo studies it was seen that amitriptyline hydrochloride at a concentration of 25 µg/g and 30 µg/g body weight of mouse offered significant protection to Swiss strain of white mice when challenged with 50 median lethal dose (MLD of a virulent strain of Salmonella typhimurium NCTC 74. The in vivo data were highly significant (p<0.001 according to the chi-square test.

  6. Oral Midodrine Hydrochloride for Prevention of Orthostatic Hypotension during Early Mobilization after Hip Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, Øivind; Mehlsen, Jesper; Kjærsgaard-Andersen, Per

    2015-01-01

    or older and scheduled for total hip arthroplasty under spinal anesthesia to either 5 mg midodrine hydrochloride or placebo orally 1 h before mobilization at 6 and 24 h postoperatively. The primary outcome was the prevalence of OH (decrease in systolic or diastolic arterial pressures of > 20 or 10 mm...

  7. DENATURATION OF NATIVE AND DEGLYCOSYLATED α-GALACTOSIDASES FROM Penicillium canescens BY GUANIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borzova N. V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the study of native and galactosidases from Penicillium canescens under denaturing conditions caused by guanidine hydrochloride. Calculation of kinetics and constants of enzymes inactivation was carried out on using experimental kinetic curves of enzyme denaturation. We observed significant differences in the kinetics of inactivation of native and deglycosylated α-galactosidases from P. canescens caused by guanidine hydrochloride. Native enzyme was stable within the selected range of guanidine hydrochloride concentrations (from 0.1 to 3.0 M, retaining no less than 50% of the initial enzyme activity for 3 days. Deglycosylated enzyme preparations were less stable and they lost their activity within 5–30 minutes, when they were treated with guanidine hydrochloride in concentrations above 1 M. Dissociation rate constant of native and deglycosylated forms of the enzyme differed by 10 to 100 folds. It was shown that subunit interactions play a major role in the process of inactivation of the enzyme, and the carbohydrate component is essential for stabilizing of subunit bonds and maintaining conformational stability of the enzyme under denaturing conditions of chemical agents.

  8. Effect of magnesium stearate concentration on dissolution properties of ranitidine hydrochloride coated tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunović, Alija; Vranić, Edina

    2007-08-01

    Most pharmaceutical formulations also include a certain amount of lubricant to improve their flowability and prevent their adhesion to the surfaces of processing equipment. Magnesium stearate is an additive that is most frequently used as a lubricant. Magnesium stearate is capable of forming films on other tablet excipients during prolonged mixing, leading to a prolonged drug liberation time, a decrease in hardness, and an increase in disintegration time. It is hydrophobic, and there are many reports in the literature concerning its adverse effect on dissolution rates. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two different concentrations of magnesium stearate on dissolution properties of ranitidine hydrochloride coated tablet formulations labeled to contain 150 mg. The uniformity content was also checked. During the drug formulation development, several samples were designed for choice of the formulation. For this study, two formulations containing 0,77 and 1,1% of magnesium stearate added in the manufacture of cores were chosen. Fraction of ranitidine hydrochloride released in dissolution medium was calculated from calibration curves. The data were analyzed using pharmacopeial test for similarity of dissolution profiles ( f2 equation), previously proposed by Moore and Flanner. Application of f2 equation showed differences in time-course of ranitidine hydrochloride dissolution properties. The obtained values indicate differences in drug release from analyzed ranitidine hydrochloride formulations and could cause differences in therapeutic response.

  9. Efficacy of epinastine hydrochloride for antigen-provoked nasal symptoms in subjects with orchard grass pollinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Minoru; Hashiguchi, Kazuhiro; Okubo, Kimihiro

    2011-03-01

    Among the gramineae species, orchard grass is a typical causative pollen that provokes seasonal rhinitis. The purpose of this study was to examine the protective efficacy of epinastine hydrochloride for signs and symptoms caused by repeated nasal provocation with discs containing orchard grass pollen. A single-dose, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover clinical study was conducted in subjects with orchard grass pollinosis. The pollen challenge was conducted with the use of provocation discs containing orchard grass pollen. Epinastine hydrochloride suppressed nasal symptoms caused by nasal provocation tests using orchard grass pollen discs. Among the nasal symptoms, the number of sneezing was significantly inhibited 30 minutes and 60 minutes after the administration of epinastine hydrochloride, as compared with placebo. There were no adverse reactions to the study drugs. Our results suggest that nasal provocation tests with discs containing orchard grass pollen is a useful method for evaluating the onset of action of antiallergic drugs. As compared with placebo, epinastine hydrochloride decreased early-phase sneezing and the total nasal symptom score after repeated nasal provocations with orchard grass pollen discs.

  10. 77 FR 14810 - Determination That DURANEST (Etidocaine Hydrochloride) Injection, 0.5%, and Five Other DURANEST...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... contains the same active ingredient in the same strength and dosage form as the ``listed drug,'' which is a.... Drug Applicant date NDA 17-751...... DURANEST AstraZeneca August 30, 1976. (epinephrine Pharmaceutical.... (epinephrine Pharmaceutical. bitartrate; etidocaine hydrochloride) Injection 1.5%. The drug products listed...

  11. 1,2-Bis (pyridin-2-ylmethyl)sulfanyl ethane and its dimorphic hydrochloride salt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lennartson, A.; McKenzie, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    and are held together by C-H center dot center dot center dot N and C-H center dot center dot center dot S interactions, resulting in the formation of a three-dimensional network structure. In addition, two polymorphs of the corresponding hydrochloride salt, 2-[(2-[(pyridin-1-ium-2-ylmethyl...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5775 - Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro-, hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5775 Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro-, hydrochloride. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol,...

  13. A Parent Guide To Understanding the Effects of Ritalin (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Orlando; And Others

    This guide provides information to help parents decide whether their child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) should take methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin). Information is provided in a question-and-answer format on various concerns, including: the meaning of ADHD, whether Ritalin is overprescribed, when this medication is…

  14. Minocycline hydrochloride as a soft sclerotizing agent for symptomatic simple renal and hepatic cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danza, F M; Falcione, M; Bordonaro, V; Infante, A; Paladini, A; Bonomo, L

    2017-01-01

    To present the results of our ten-year case series in simple hepatic and renal cysts sclerosis using minocycline hydrochloride as a sclerotizing agent, evaluating the effectiveness, the safety and the feasibility of this agent for percutaneous sclerotherapy for symptomatic cysts. We retrospectively evaluated our archives of patients treated (54 patients with 60 renal cysts, 21 patients with 24 hepatic cysts) for symptomatic abdominal cysts. These patients were treated with ultrasound guided drainage and subsequent minocycline hydrochloride instillation. In large or recurrent cysts, we repeated the treatment for the second time. The patients were evaluated at 6 and 12 months; some patients underwent later, additional examinations and we also reviewed these exams for any eventual long-term relapse. The percentage of sclerosis success was found to be 100% for hepatic cysts and 86% for renal cysts. We also found that minimal complications were encountered. Minocycline hydrochloride has proven to be an effective sclerotizing agent. In our cases, symptoms disappeared in 100% of patients with hepatic cysts and in 93% of patients with renal cysts. It is also a safe sclerotizing agent, as demonstrated by the few complications encountered. Percutaneous sclerosis with Minocycline hydrochloride is a very effective and promising nonsurgical treatment for patients with symptomatic simple cysts, and it can be performed without major complications.

  15. The Impact of Hydrochloride Heroin on Mental Flexibility, Abstract Reasoning, Impulsivity, and Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alam Mehrjerdi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drug addiction could lead to severe impairments in executive and neurocognitive functions but study on the impact of hydrochloride heroin on executive functions has remained in infancy in Iran. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between addiction to hydrochloride heroin and executive functioning in several cognitive domains including mental flexibility, abstract reasoning, impulsivity, and attention. Methods: A total of 60 cases of young male addicts aged 18 to 21 were recruited from outpatient addiction clinics in Karaj city and were matched with 60 non-drug using controls. A test battery including the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST, Porteus Maze Test (PMQS, Serial Seven Subtraction Test (SSST, and Color Trails Test (CTT were administered respectively. Results: The patient group showed more problems in impulse control compared with the control group, while mental flexibility, abstract reasoning and attention were not affected. Discussion: The findings indicated that addiction to hydrochloride heroin had a negative effect on impulse control. This issue could reflect the role of impaired inhibitory control on drug-seeking behaviors and relapse. Special treatment programs must be tailored to control impulsivity among addicts to hydrochloride heroin during treatment.

  16. Solubility, dissolution rate and phase transition studies of ranitidine hydrochloride tautomeric forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmehrabi, M; Rohani, S; Murthy, K S K; Radatus, B

    2004-09-10

    Understanding the polymorphic behavior of pharmaceutical solids during the crystallization process and further in post-processing units is crucial to meet medical and legal requirements. In this study, an analytical technique was developed for determining the composition of two solid forms of ranitidine hydrochloride using two peaks of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra without the need to grind the samples. Solubility studies of ranitidine hydrochloride showed that Form 2 has a higher solubility than Form 1. Solution-mediated transformation is very slow and occurs from Form 2 to Form 1 and not the reverse. No solid-solid transformation was observed due to grinding or compressing the pure samples of either forms and of a 50/50 wt.% mixture. Grinding was found to be a proper technique for increasing the bulk solid density of the ranitidine hydrochloride without the risk of solid-solid transformation. Dissolution rate found to be equally fast for both forms. The solubility data were modeled using the group contribution parameters and UNIversal QUAsi-Chemical (UNIQUAC) theory. There was a good agreement between the experimental solubility data of ranitidine hydrochloride and the results of UNIQUAC equation.

  17. Complexation of roxatidine acetate hydrochloride with beta-cyclodextrin: NMR spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S M; Maheshwari, A; Asmat, F

    2004-08-01

    A NMR spectroscopic study of mixtures of varying ratios of roxatidine acetate hydrochloride (RAH) and beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) in D2O revealed the formation of a 1:1 inclusion compound. The aromatic ring of RAH selectively penetrates the beta-CD cavity in preference to the piperidine ring.

  18. Usefulness of vernakalant hydrochloride injection for rapid conversion of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratt, Craig M.; Roy, Dennis; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of vernakalant hydrochloride injection (RSD1235), a novel antiarrhythmic drug, for the conversion of atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter to sinus rhythm (SR). Patients with either AF or atrial flutter were random...

  19. 1,2-Bis (pyridin-2-ylmethyl)sulfanyl ethane and its dimorphic hydrochloride salt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lennartson, A.; McKenzie, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    and are held together by C-H center dot center dot center dot N and C-H center dot center dot center dot S interactions, resulting in the formation of a three-dimensional network structure. In addition, two polymorphs of the corresponding hydrochloride salt, 2-[(2-[(pyridin-1-ium-2-ylmethyl...

  20. Interactions of biocidal guanidine hydrochloride polymer analogs with model membranes: a comparative biophysical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongxin Zhou; Anna Zheng; Jianjiang Zhong

    2011-01-01

    Four synthesized biocidal guanidine hydrochloride polymers with different alkyl chain length,including polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride and its three new analogs,were used to investigate their interactions with phospholipids vesicles mimicking bacterial membrane.Characterization was conducted by using fluorescence dye leakage,isothermal titration calorimetry,and differential scanning calorimetry.The results showed that the gradually lengthened alkyl chain of the polymer increased the biocidal activity,accompanied with the increased dye leakage rate and the increased binding constant and energy change value of polymer-membrane interaction.The polymer-membrane interaction induced the change of pretransition and main phase transition (decreased temperature and increased width) of phospholipids vesicles,suggesting the conformational change in the phospholipids headgroups and disordering in the hydrophobic regions of lipid membranes.The above information revealed that the membrane disruption actions of guanidine hydrochloride polymers are the results of the polymer's strong binding to the phospholipids membrane and the subsequent perturbations of the polar headgroups and hydrophobic core region of the phospholipids membrane.The alkyl chain structure significantly affects the binding constant and energy change value of the polymer-membrane interactions and the perturbation extent of the phospholipids membrane,which lead to the different biocidal activity of the polymer analogs.This work provides important information about the membrane disruption action mechanism of biocidal guanidine hydrochloride polymers.

  1. Coupling of Carbon Dioxide with Epoxides Catalyzed by Amino Acid Hydrochloride Salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Using amino acid hydrochloride salt as a catalyst, the coupling reaction of CO2 with epoxides could proceed smoothly to give cyclic carbonates in very good yields and high selectivity. The reaction conditions such as the pressure of carbon dioxide, reaction temperature, time and catalyst loading were carefully investigated.

  2. Zilpaterol hydrochloride affects cellular muscle metabolism and lipid components of ten different muscles in feedlot heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study determined if zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) altered muscle metabolism and lipid components of ten muscles. Crossbred heifers were either supplemented with ZH (n = 9) or not (Control; n = 10). Muscle tissue was collected (adductor femoris, biceps femoris, gluteus medius, infraspinatus, lat...

  3. Spectrophotometric and HPLC methods for simultaneous estimation of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and loratadine from tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhvi I

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, accurate, economical and reproducible UV spectrophotometric and one HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of two-component drug mixture of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and loratadine in combined tablet dosage form have been developed. The first developed method employs multiwavelength spectroscopy using seven mixed standards and 257.0 nm and 283.0 nm as two wavelengths for estimation. The second method involves first derivative spectroscopy using 308.6 nm and 263.0 nm as zero crossing points for pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and loratadine respectively. For both spectrophotometric methods, 0.2 M hydrochloric acid was used as solvent. Linearity was observed in concentration range of 0-40 mg/ml of loratadine and 0-800 mg/ml of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride. Developed HPLC method is reverse-phase chromatographic method using Inertsil C 18 column and methanol:ammonium acetate buffer in ratio of 80:20 pH 7.5 as mobile phase. Nimesulide was used as internal standard for HPLC method. For HPLC method, linearity was observed in concentration range of 0-200 mg/ml of loratadine and 100-2000 mg/ml of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride. Results of analysis were validated statistically and by recovery studies.

  4. Vernakalant hydrochloride for rapid conversion of atrial fibrillation - A phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, D.; Pratt, C.M.; Torp-Pedersen, C.;

    2008-01-01

    Background - The present study assessed the efficacy and safety of vernakalant hydrochloride ( RSD1235), a novel compound, for the conversion of atrial fibrillation ( AF). Methods and Results - Patients were randomized in a 2: 1 ratio to receive vernakalant or placebo and were stratified by AF du...

  5. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate

    OpenAIRE

    Melis Köse; Ebru Canda; Mehtap Kagnici; Sema Kalkan Uçar; Mahmut Çoker

    2017-01-01

    In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreo...

  6. Formulation Development and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablets of Salbutamol Sulphate, Cetirizine Hydrochloride in Combined Pharmaceutical Dosage Form: A New Era in Novel Drug Delivery for Pediatrics and Geriatrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Singh, Gurmeet; Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Mankaran

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to prepare the fast disintegrating tablet of Salbutamol Sulphate, Cetirizine Hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form for respiratory disorders such as bronchitis, asthma, and coughing for pediatrics and geriatrics. The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. Superdisintegrant such as Sodium Starch Glycolate was optimized as 4% on the basis of least disintegration time. Different binders such as MCC and PVP K-30 were optimized along with optimized superdisintegrant concentration. 1% MCC was selected as optimum binder concentration on the basis of least disintegration time. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, disintegration time, and drug content uniformity. Optimized formulation was further evaluated by in vitro dissolution test, drug-excipient compatibility, and accelerated stability study. Percent weight variation and content uniformity were within the acceptable limit. The friability was less than 1%. The wetting time and disintegration time were practically good for all formulations. FTIR studies and accelerated stability study showed that there was no interaction between the drug and excipients. It was concluded that, by employing commonly available pharmaceutical excipients such as superdisintegrants, hydrophilic and swellable excipients and proper filler, a fast disintegrating tablet of Salbutamol Sulphate, Cetirizine Hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form, were formulated successfully with desired characteristics. PMID:25810924

  7. Formulation Development and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablets of Salbutamol Sulphate, Cetirizine Hydrochloride in Combined Pharmaceutical Dosage Form: A New Era in Novel Drug Delivery for Pediatrics and Geriatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to prepare the fast disintegrating tablet of Salbutamol Sulphate, Cetirizine Hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form for respiratory disorders such as bronchitis, asthma, and coughing for pediatrics and geriatrics. The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. Superdisintegrant such as Sodium Starch Glycolate was optimized as 4% on the basis of least disintegration time. Different binders such as MCC and PVP K-30 were optimized along with optimized superdisintegrant concentration. 1% MCC was selected as optimum binder concentration on the basis of least disintegration time. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, disintegration time, and drug content uniformity. Optimized formulation was further evaluated by in vitro dissolution test, drug-excipient compatibility, and accelerated stability study. Percent weight variation and content uniformity were within the acceptable limit. The friability was less than 1%. The wetting time and disintegration time were practically good for all formulations. FTIR studies and accelerated stability study showed that there was no interaction between the drug and excipients. It was concluded that, by employing commonly available pharmaceutical excipients such as superdisintegrants, hydrophilic and swellable excipients and proper filler, a fast disintegrating tablet of Salbutamol Sulphate, Cetirizine Hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form, were formulated successfully with desired characteristics.

  8. 盐酸氯米帕明口腔崩解片的制备工艺%Preparation Technology of Clomipramine Hydrochloride Orally Disintegrating Tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴杏梅; 谢燕萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To optimize the formulation of clomipramine hydrochloride orally disintegrating tablets by orthogonal experiment and to determine the dissolution. Method: The formulation of the tablets was optimized by orthogonal experiment based on four factors, those were the amount of microcrystalline cellulose, lactose, and sodium carboxymethl starch and the concentration of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, and 3 indices, those were disintegrating time (t1,), wetting time (t) and suspending stability (△A). The dissolution of the tablets was determined by HPLC. Result: The optimum preparation technical conditions for the tablets were as follows: the proportions of microcrystalline cellulose,lactose and the sodium carboxymethl starch and the concentration of hydroxypropyl cellulose was 30% ,30% >0. 75% and 1% respectively. The tablets disintegrated completely within 30s with mean td of 13. 2 s,t of 21.6 s,and △A of 0.001 2. Conclusion: The formula of the clomipramine hydrochloride orally disintegrating tablets is reasonable and valuable to be studied further.%目的:采用正交试验筛选盐酸氯米帕明口腔崩解片的处方,并测定其溶出度.方法:以微晶纤维素、乳糖、羧甲基淀粉钠的用量以及羟丙纤维素的浓度为考查因素,以口腔崩解片的崩解时间(td)、润湿时间(t)和混悬稳定性(ΔA)为评价指标进行正交试验,确定最佳处方;对优化处方所制样品测定其溶出度.结果:优选工艺为微晶纤维素30%、乳糖30%、羧甲基淀粉钠0.75%、羟丙纤维素的浓度是1%,所制样品平均td为13.2s,t为21.6s,ΔA为0.001 2;30 min内药物溶出超75%.结论:盐酸氯米帕明口腔崩解片处方设计合理,可进一步开发.

  9. 反相高效液相色谱法测定盐酸格拉司琼葡萄糖注射液的含量及有关物质%Determination of granisetron hydrochloride and related substances in granisetron hydrochloride and glucose injection by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀霞; 钱瑞瑛; 崔猛; 顾孝红

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立盐酸格拉司琼葡萄糖注射液含量及有关物质的反相高效液相色谱(RP-HPLC)测定法.方法 采用C18色谱柱,磷酸盐缓冲液(pH值2.0)(取无水磷酸二氢钠15.6g溶解于900 ml水中,用磷酸调节pH值至2.0,加水稀释至1000 ml)-甲醇-四氢呋喃(75∶24∶ 1.1)为流动相,流速1.2 ml/min,检测波长300 nm.结果 盐酸格拉司琼与杂质A、B、C、D及5-羟甲基糠醛的分离度均符合要求,系统适用性良好,盐酸格拉司琼在0.4426 ~2.213 μg范围内线性关系良好,方法平均回收率为100.1%(相对标准偏差=0.26%).结论 该法简便、准确,可用于盐酸格拉司琼葡萄糖注射液的主药含量及有关物质测定.%Objective To establish a reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for determination of granisetron hydrochloride and related substances in granisetron hydrochloride and glucose injection.Methods A eclipse XDB-C18 column was used with mobile phase of phosphate buffer (pH 2.0) (measure sodium dihydrogen phosphate anhydride 15.6g dissolved in water of 900 ml,then regulated pH to 2.0 with phosphoric acid and diluted to 1000 ml with water)-methanol-tetrahydrofuran(75:24:1.1).The flow rate was 1.2 ml/min and the detection wavelength was 300 nm.Results There was a good resolution between the granisetron hydrochloride and all the impurities(A,B,C,D) as well as the 5-HMF,and the system suitability was fine.It had a good linearity over the concertration range of 0.4426-2.213 μg.The average recovery was 100.1% with RSD of 0.26%.Conclusions The method is accurate and convenient.It can be used for determination of granisetron hydrochloride and related substances in granisetron hydrochloride and glucose injection.

  10. Treprostinil sodium Pharmacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattaraj, Sarat C

    2002-04-01

    United Therapeutics Corp (UTC) is developing treprostinil sodium (Remodulin, UT-15), a stable structural analog of prostacyclin, for the potential treatment of primary pulmonary (arterial) hypertension (PAH), peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and other cardiovascular conditions [327593], including critical limb ischemia (CLI) [412483]. In August 2000, UTC submitted the initial, non-clinical sections of an NDA for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension [378906]. Treprostinil, which had previously been designated as an Orphan Drug, was also awarded Priority Review status by the US FDA in October 2000 [385864], [386271]. In December 2000, UTC agreed with the FDA that the NDA for treprostinil did not need to be presented to the Cardiovascular and Renal Drugs Advisory Committee, which was expected to allow UTC and the FDA to work towards the 6-month Priority Review timeline [393888]. On August 9, 2001, the advisory committee recommended approval of treprostinil and UTC refiled the NDA on the same day [418682]. In February 2002, the FDA issued an approvable letter for treprostinil injection for the treatment of PAH. The FDA proposed drug labeling for PAH consistent with the treatment of both primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II-IV symptoms. The approvable letter also stated that the FDA intended to approve treprostinil with a requirement that UTC subsequently conduct a post-marketing controlled clinical trial to verify and further describe the drug's clinical benefit [439278]. In February 2001, UTC submitted a marketing authorization application (MAA) in France for approval of treprostinil for the treatment of PAH. Upon approval of the MAA, UTC planned to file for Mutual Recognition in other European countries and was also preparing similar submissions to non-European countries [391986], [397958]. By early 2001, phase II trials of treprostinil for the treatment of CLI were underway [412483]. In March

  11. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  12. Effect of carrier excipient and processing on stability of indorenate hydrochloride/excipient mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Hernández, J R; Villafuerte-Robles, L

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the solid-state chemical stability of a model drug, indorenate hydrochloride, as a function of carrier excipient and mixing process. Physical mixtures and granules were prepared by tumble mixing and alcoholic granulation with and without binder. Stability of the mixtures was estimated using differential scanning calorimetry and isothermal degradation studies at 40, 50, and 60 degrees C. Average first-order degradation constants at 25 degrees C, extrapolated from isothermal studies, were much lower for indorenate hydrochloride after tumbling mixing with microcrystalline cellulose (3.45 x 10(-5) day-1) than those obtained after tumbling mixing with lactose (112.0 x 10(-5) day-1). Distribution of the drug on the excipient's surface, through granulation with and without Povidone, increased the average drug degradation rates in granules with microcrystalline cellulose (36.2 x 10(-5) day-1) as well as in granules with lactose (326 x 10(-5) day-1). Partially amorphous lactose (spray-dried lactose) showed higher average degradation rates (310.5 x 10(-5) day-1) than crystalline lactose (199.3 x 10(-5) day-1). It appears that the amorphous portion of the drug as well as that of reacting excipients play a major role in affecting the reaction rate. The calorimetric studies showed a strong solid-solid interaction between indorenate hydrochloride and lactose, suggesting chemical incompatibility. This strong solid-solid interaction was characterized by disappearance of typical transition peaks of lactose at temperatures above 200 degrees C and the development of new peaks at about 130-170 degrees C. No major changes in transition peaks were observed in mixtures of microcrystalline cellulose and indorenate hydrochloride, suggesting chemical compatibility. Calorimetric results allow the prediction of the chemical incompatibility between indorenate hydrochloride and lactose observed in isothermal degradation studies.

  13. Stability-Indicating TLC-densitometric determination of nebivolol hydrochloride in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkhedkar, Atul A; Bugdane, Prasad M; Surana, Sanjay J

    2010-02-01

    A simple, selective, precise, and stability-indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for densitometric determination of nebivolol hydrochloride both as a bulk drug and in formulation was developed and validated as per the international conference on harmonization guidelines (ICH). The method employed TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 as the stationary phase. The solvent system consisted of toluene-methanol-triethylamine (3.8:1.2:0.2 v/v/v). Densitometry analysis of nebivolol hydrochloride was carried out in the absorbance mode at 281 nm. The system was found to give compact spot for nebivolol hydrochloride (R(f) value of 0.33 +/- 0.02). The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good relationship with r(2)= 0.9994 +/- 0.0002 in the concentration range 500-3000 ng/spot. The mean value +/- SD of slope and intercept were 3.761 +/- 0.017 and 127.39 +/- 19.53 with respect to peak area. The limits of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 63.10 ng/spot and 191.23 ng/ spot, respectively. Nebivolol hydrochloride was subjected to acid and alkali hydrolysis, oxidation, thermal degradation, and photodegradation. All the peaks of degradation products were well-resolved from the standard drug with significantly different R(f) values. Statistical analysis proves that the method is repeatable, selective and accurate for the estimation of said drug. The proposed developed HPTLC method can be applied for identification and quantitative determination of nebivolol hydrochloride in the bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form.

  14. The protecting effects and mechanism of betaine hydrochloride on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN Xiao-ming; MA Lian-long; GAO Yong-feng; WANG Hao; WANG Xiao-dan; ZHU Yu-yun; GAO Yun-sheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the protecting effects and mechanism of betaine hydrochloride on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Methods Fourty SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (8 animals in each group) : sham-operated control group (A), hepatic ischemia-reperfusion group (B), 200 mg·kg-1 400 mg·kg-1 800 mg·kg-1 betaine hydrochloride + hepatic ischemia-reperfusion group (C、D、E). betaine hydrochloride was administered to animals byoral route in group C、D、E for 7 days before ischemia. A、B group was administered with NS. Made the animal model of part hepatic ischemia-reperfusion. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in the blood and themalondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), protein content in hepatic tissue were determined after the liver had been reperfused for 24 hours; the hepatic tissue was examined under lightmieroscope and the cell apoptosis was demonstrated with flow cytometry. Results ALT, AST, MDA increased and SOD decreased significantly in B group when compared those in the A group (P<0.05), Hepatic apoptosis was significantly increased; ALT, AST, MDA decreased and SOD increased significantly in betaine hydrochloride 200 mg·kg-1(C) group when compared those in the B group(P<0.05). Hepatic apoptosis was significantly lower, The histologic changes of the liver tissue under lightmicroscope in the C group was more easer than in the I/R group (B). Conclusions Betaine hydrochloride has the ability to scavenge oxygen free radical (OFR), reduce lipid peroxidation and inhibition of apoptosis. So it can protect the rats liver damaged by ischemia-reperfusion.

  15. A soft tissue adhesive based on aldehyde-sodium alginate and amino-carboxymethyl chitosan preparation through the Schiff reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Yuan, Liu; Sheng, Nai-an; Gu, Zi-qi; Feng, Wen-hao; Yin, Hai-yue; Morsi, Yosry; Mo, Xiu-mei

    2017-09-01

    Sodium alginate and carboxymethyl chitosan have been extensively applied in tissue engineering and other relative fields due to their low price and excellent biocompatibility. In this paper, we oxidized sodium alginate with sodium periodate to convert 1,2-hydroxyl groups into aldehyde groups to get aldehyde-sodium alginate (ASA). Carboxymethyl chitosan was modified with ethylenediamine (ED) in the presence of water-soluble N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) to introduce additional amino groups to get amino-carboxymethyl chitosan (A-CS). Upon mixing the A-SA and A-CS aqueous solutions together, a gel rapidly formed based on the Schiff's base reaction between aldehyde groups in A-SA and amino groups in A-CS. FTIR analysis confirmed the characteristic peak of Schiff's base group in the hydrogel. It was confirmed that the gelation time be dependent on the aldehyde group content in A-SA and amino group content in A-CS. The fasted hydrogel formation takes place within 10 min. The data of bonding strength and cytotoxicity measurement also showed that the hydrogel had good adhesion and biocompatibility. All these results support that this gel has the potential as soft tissue adhesive.

  16. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, B. H

    2008-06-15

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described.

  17. Multimorphologies of hydrochloride polyaniline synthesized by conventional and interfacial polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, André A.; Sanches, Edgar A.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the structure and morphology of the hydrochloride Polyaniline Emeraldine-salt form (PANI-ES) synthesized by conventional (PANI-ES/C1 and PANI-ES/C2) and interfacial (PANI-ES/I1 and PANI/ES/I2) polymerization using HCl 1 M and 2 M. The X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) of PANI-ES/I1 and PANI-ES/I2 have presented higher crystallinity. Furthermore, the peak located at 2θ = 18.3° has not been reported in scientific literature. PANI-ES/C1 and PANI-ES/C2 presented closed crystallinity percentage around 50 (±2) %, while PANI-ES/I1 and PANI-ES/I2 presented, respectively, 55 (±2) % and 63 (±2) % of crystallinity. However, PANI-ES/C2, PANI-ES/I1 and PANI-ES/I2 have presented larger ;b; unit cell parameter, from 8.9021 Å (PANI-ES/C1) to ∼16.2931 Å, due to the more efficient doping of the chloride ions. Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy technique (FTIR) was useful to evaluate significant changes in the quinoid (Q) and benzenoid (B) bands: PANI-ES/C1 and PANI-ES/C2 presented the ratio Q/B, respectively, 0.4 and 0.6, indicating that the doping level by exposure to a higher dopant concentration has increased. An even more intense dopant action was verified in PANI-ES/I1 and PANI-ES/I2, presenting Q/B ratios of 0.7 and 0.9, respectively. These results reveal the more efficient doping level provided by the interfacial polymerization. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images showed that PANI-ES/C1 presented short nanofibers, while PANI-ES/C2 showed nanofibers length and diameter, respectively, around 61% and 13% higher than those found in PANI-ES/C1. However, PANI-ES/I1 and PANI-ES/I2 presented four different types of morphologies (nanoplates, nanorods, nanofibers and nanoflowers) due to the peculiarity of this polymerization method. The difference of length and diameter between PANI-ES/C1 and PANI-ES/I2 nanofibers reaches 64% and 52%, respectively. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) showed that the event related to the dopant release

  18. 高效液相色谱法测定盐酸倍他司汀片的有关物质%Determination of Related Substances in Betahistine Hydrochloride Tablets by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬; 董煜; 钱小平; 秦彩明; 张瑜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish a HPLC method for the determination of the related substances in Betahistine Hydrochloride Tablet.Methods The chromatographic column was the C18 column(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm),the mobile phase consisted of mixed solution (taking NaH2PO4 2.76 g and sodium dodecyl sulfate 1.60 g for dissolution with 600 mL of water)-acetonitrile-hexylamine (600 ∶ 400∶1.6,adjusted to pH 3.5 with phosphoric acid) at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and the detection wavelength was set at 254 nm,the column temperature was 50 ℃ and the injection volumes was 100 μL.Results Betahistine hydrochloride and the impurity peaks were separated well.The lowest limit of quantitation for betahistine hydrochloride was 0.2 μg/mL.Conclusion This method is strongly specific and highly sensitive with accurate result,and can be used for the quality control of Betahistine Hydrochloride Tablets.%目的 建立测定盐酸倍他司汀片有关物质含量的高效液相色谱法.方法 采用C18色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm),以混合溶液(取磷酸二氢钠2.76g和十二烷基硫酸钠1.60g,用水600 mL溶解)-乙腈-己胺(600∶400∶1.6,用磷酸调pH至3.5)为流动相,检测波长254 nm,流速为1.0 mL/min,柱温50℃,进样量100μL.结果 盐酸倍他司汀与杂质峰之间分离良好,盐酸倍他司汀的最低定量限为0.2 μg/mL.结论 该方法专属性强、灵敏度高、结果准确,可用于盐酸倍他司汀片的质量控制.

  19. Does yohimbine hydrochloride facilitate fear extinction in virtual reality treatment of fear of flying? A randomized placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyerbroeker, K.; Powers, M.B.; van Stegeren, A.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research suggests that yohimbine hydrochloride (YOH), a noradrenaline agonist, can facilitate fear extinction. It is thought that the mechanism of enhanced emotional memory is stimulated through elevated noradrenaline levels. This randomized placebo-controlled trial examined the

  20. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Maillard reaction products from xylan with chitosan/chitooligomer/glucosamine hydrochloride/taurine model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuping; Hu, Jiao; Wei, Liuting; Du, Yumin; Shi, Xiaowen; Zhang, Lina

    2014-04-01

    The structure, UV absorbance, browning intensity, fluorescence changes, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial assessment of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) derived from xylan with chitosan, chitooligomer, glucosamine hydrochloride and taurine model systems were evaluated. The results revealed that all MRPs had similar infrared spectra and molecular structures. MRPs from different model systems on the UV absorbance at 294 nm after heated 90 min and browning intensity at 420 nm showed the similar law: xylan-taurine > xylan-glucosamine hydrochloride > xylan-chitooligomer > xylan-chitosan, and the order of DPPH scavenging activity of MRPs was as follows: xylan-chitosan > xylan-chitooligomer > xylan-glucosamine hydrochloride > xylan-taurine, which revealed that the properties of MRPs were closely related to molecular weight of model systems. Moreover, the highest radical scavenging activity of MRPs from xylan with chitosan/chitooligomer/glucosamine hydrochloride/taurine model systems was 65.9%, 63.7%, 46.4% and 42.5%, respectively.