WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrochloride drotrecogin alfa

  1. Drotrecogin alfa Eli Lilly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, E

    2002-04-01

    Drotrecogin alfa (Xigris, recombinant activated protein C) is an anticoagulant developed and launched by Eli Lilly & Co for the treatment of sepsis [333781], [339372], [430133], [436271]. The FDA and the EMEA accepted the brand name Xigris for drotrecogin alfa in June 2001. This trade name had been proposed by Lilly in place of the previous brand name, Zovant, which was deemed unacceptable by the EMEA due to concerns that the name could be confused with hospital-based drugs [412512]. Filings for sepsis were made in the US, EU and Australia in February 2001 [398514], [447870] and in March 2001, the US FDA assigned drotrecogin alfa Priority Review status [403435]. The FDA extended the action date from July 27 to October 27, 2001 for completion of its review of the biologics license application (BLA) for drotrecogin alfa to assess further supplementary data submitted by Lilly [412512]. At the October 16, 2001 meeting (postponed from September 12), the FDA Advisory Committee on Anti-Infective Drugs split 10 to 10 over whether to recommend approval [425873], [425940]. In late October 2001, Lilly received an approvable letter from the FDA for the treatment of severe sepsis. Approval was contingent upon successful negotiation of labeling, agreement on post-approval clinical trials, and successful completion of manufacturing inspections [427301]. In November 2001, the FDA approved drotrecogin alfa for the reduction of mortality in adult patients with severe sepsis who have a high risk of death [430133]; the product was launched onto the US market days later [436271]. Following the FDA committee's split decision in October 2001, Credit Suisse First Boston, which expected mid-2002 approval but with restrictive labeling, revised its predictions from $1.265 billion in 2004 sharply downwards to $543 million [425929].

  2. Drotrecogin alfa (activated) in adults with septic shock.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranieri, V.M.; Thompson, B.T.; Barie, P.S.; Dhainaut, J.F.; Douglas, I.S.; Finfer, S.; Gardlund, B.; Marshall, J.C.; Rhodes, A.; Artigas, A.; Payen, D.; Tenhunen, J.; Al-Khalidi, H.R.; Thompson, V.; Janes, J.; Macias, W.L.; Vangerow, B.; Williams, M.D.; Pickkers, P.; Raemaekers, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There have been conflicting reports on the efficacy of recombinant human activated protein C, or drotrecogin alfa (activated) (DrotAA), for the treatment of patients with septic shock. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial, we assigned 1697 pati

  3. Drotrecogin alfa (activated in severe sepsis: a systematic review and new cost-effectiveness analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brophy James M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activated drotrecogin alfa (human activated protein C, rhAPC, is produced by recombinant DNA technology, and purports to improve clinical outcomes by counteracting the inflammatory and thrombotic consequences of severe sepsis. Controversy exists around the clinical benefits of this drug and an updated economic study that considers this variability is needed. Methods A systematic literature review was performed using Medline, Embase and the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA databases to determine efficacy, safety and previous economic studies. Our economic model was populated with systematic estimates of these parameters and with population life tables for longer term survival information. Monte Carlo simulations were used to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs and variance for the decision analytic models. Results Two randomized clinical trials (RCTS of drotrecogin alfa in adults with severe sepsis and 8 previous economic studies were identified. Although associated with statistical heterogeneity, a pooled analysis of the RCTs did not show a statistically significant 28-day mortality benefit for drotrecogin alfa compared to placebo either for all patients (RR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.69, 1.26 or those at highest risk as measured by APACHE II ≥ 25 (RR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.54, 1.49. Our economic analysis based on the totality of the available clinical evidence suggests that the cost-effectiveness of drotrecogin alfa is uncertain ( Conclusion The evidence supporting the clinical and economic attractiveness of drotrecogin alfa is not conclusive and further research appears to be indicated.

  4. Drotrecogin alfa (activated)...a sad final fizzle to a roller-coaster party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Derek C

    2012-02-06

    Following the failure of PROWESS-SHOCK to demonstrate efficacy, Eli Lilly and Company withdrew drotrecogin alfa (activated) from the worldwide market. Drotrecogin was initially approved after the original trial, PROWESS, was stopped early for overwhelming efficacy. These events prompt consideration of both the initial approval decision and the later decision to withdraw. It is regrettable that the initial decision was made largely on a single trial that was stopped early. However, the decision to approve was within the bounds of normal regulatory practice and was made by many approval bodies around the world. Furthermore, the overall withdrawal rate of approved drugs remains very low. The decision to withdraw was a voluntary decision by Eli Lilly and Company and likely reflected key business considerations. Drotrecogin does have important biologic effects, and it is probable that we do not know how best to select patients who would benefit. Overall, there may still be a small advantage to drotrecogin alfa, even used non-selectively, but the costs of determining such an effect with adequate certainty are likely prohibitive, and the point is now moot. In the future, we should consider ways to make clinical trials easier and quicker so that more information can be available in a timely manner when considering regulatory approval. At the same time, more sophisticated selection of patients seems key if we are to most wisely test agents designed to manipulate the septic host response.

  5. Il trattamento di pazienti con sepsi grave mediante drotrecogin alfa: una valutazione economica con riferimento all’Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Lucioni

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis can be defined as a spectrum of clinical conditions caused by the immune response of a host to infection or trauma and characterized by systemic inflammation and coagulation. Particularly in elderly, immunocompromised and critically ill patients, sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units (ICUs worldwide. In the US, sepsis is the leading cause of death in noncoronary ICU patients. Drotrecogin alfa, or recombinant human activated protein C, has antithrombotic, antiinflammatory, and profibrinolytic properties. Recently in a phase III trial (PROWESS, Drotrecogin alfa demonstrated significantly reduced mortality in severe sepsis patients at 28 days. In this trial important value factors for the assessment of costs and outcomes of severe sepsis were also considered. The purpose of the present study is to determine the economic burden of the treatment with Drotrecogin alfa, according to a cost-effectiveness analysis based on the data of the PROWESS trial. The study has been adapted to the italian health environment. As regards to the costs per surviving patient and costs per QALY (Quality Adjusted Life Year, the predicted cost-effectiveness ratio of drotrecogin alfa in severe sepsis patients is much lower than the standard values considered as acceptable in the international litterature.

  6. Comprehensive safety analysis of concomitant drotrecogin alfa (activated) and prophylactic heparin use in patients with severe sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Levy; M. Levi; M.D. Williams; M. Antonelli; D. Wang; M.A. Mignini

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The safety of using heparin concomitantly with drotrecogin alfa (activated) {DrotAA} was explored in the XPRESS study. No heparin effect on mortality was observed. Safety results from that study are explored in more detail. Methods: A randomized, double-blind trial of prophylactic heparin v

  7. [PROWESS, ENHANCE and ADDRESS: clinical implications for the treatment with drotrecogin alfa (activated)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobas Meyer, M; Langenfeld, H; Rossaint, R; Sablotzki, A

    2006-06-01

    Drotrecogin alfa (activated) (DrotAA) represents a therapeutic advance in the treatment of severe sepsis. In the pivotal PROWESS trial DrotAA had demonstrated a significant decrease in 28-day mortality, most evident in the subgroup of patients at higher risk of death. Thus, DrotAA was licensed throughout Europe for treatment of adult patients with severe sepsis with multiple organ failure when added to best standard care. The ADDRESS trial was mandated by the FDA to investigate prospectively the treatment effect of DrotAA in patients at low risk of death, e.g. single organ failure. The trial was prematurely stopped due to futility, because no reduction in mortality was observed in this non-indicated patient population. The ENHANCE open-label trial enrolled similar patients to the PROWESS trial and the observed 28-day mortality was consistent with the results seen in the PROWESS trial. Survival rates for patients receiving DrotAA early within 24 h from the first sepsis-induced organ dysfunction were significantly higher than in patients treated later. In this overview we will discuss the results of the ENHANCE and ADDRESS trials in the context of the PROWESS study and clinical implications for the treatment with DrotAA.

  8. Aktiviertes Protein C:Drotrecogin alfa senkt Sterblichkeit bei Sepsis%活化蛋白C:Drotrecogin alfa降低败血症患者死亡率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ 重组活化蛋白c Drotrecogin alf(Zovant ,Lilly公司),明显降低严重败血症病人的死亡率,这是对1690例PROWESS研究(重组人活化蛋白对严重败血症病人的世界范围评价)的结果. 严重败血症的起因伴随急性器官功能障碍的严重败血症,是机体对感染的泛化性炎症性促凝血反应所致.死亡率高达30%-50%.机体对感染的炎症性促凝血反应极其相似.炎症细胞因子如肿瘤坏死因子(TNF)、白介素l和白介素6可以激活血凝级联,抑制血纤维蛋白溶解作用,而有促凝血作用的凝血酶可同时刺激各种炎症途径.其结果首先是血管弥散性损害,多器官机能障碍,最终导致死亡.活化蛋白C促进血纤维蛋白溶解,抑制血栓形成和炎症,是严重败血症中血凝和炎症的重要效应物.在机体内,活化蛋白C是由其无活性引物蛋白C,通过凝血酶与血栓效应素(Thrombomodulin)复合而形成的.血栓效应素是内皮细胞的整合膜蛋白.在败血症中,由于血栓效应素的下行调节,蛋白C转化为活化蛋白C的作用,通过炎症细胞素而受到抑制.因此,在许多败血症患者中证实蛋白C水平降低,这与死亡危险升高有关.

  9. Tenecteplase for ST-elevation myocardial infarction in a patient treated with drotrecogin alfa (activated for severe sepsis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barra Lillian

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Drotrecogin alfa (activated (DrotAA, an activated protein C, promotes fibrinolysis in patients with severe sepsis. There are no reported cases or studies that address the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction in septic patients treated with DrotAA. Case presentation A 59-year-old Caucasian man with septic shock secondary to community-acquired pneumonia treated with DrotAA, subsequently developed an ST-elevation myocardial infarction 12 hours after starting DrotAA. DrotAA was stopped and the patient was given tenecteplase thrombolysis resulting in complete resolution of ST-elevation and no adverse bleeding events. DrotAA was restarted to complete the 96-hour course. The sepsis resolved and the patient was discharged from hospital. Conclusion In patients with severe sepsis or septic shock complicated by myocardial infarction, it is difficult to determine if the myocardial infarction is an isolated event or caused by the sepsis process. The efficacy and safety of tenecteplase thrombolysis in septic patients treated with DrotAA need further study.

  10. O uso da drotrecogina alfa ativada na prática clínica e as atuais evidências Drotrecogin alfa activated in clinical practice and the current evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Soares

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O debate sobre a segurança e eficácia da drotrecogina alfa (DrotAA encontra-se na ordem do dia, principalmente, em função dos resultados negativos observados em ensaios clínicos subseqüentes ao PROWESS e do impacto econômico no sistema de saúde relacionado ao custo elevado do fármaco. O objetivo deste estudo foi rever os principais estudos sobre a utilização da DrotAA em pacientes com sepse grave, com ênfase nas questões ligadas a sua eficácia e segurança. CONTEÚDO: Foram selecionados artigos sobre a utilização da DrotAA em pacientes com sepse publicados nos últimos dez anos no MedLine. Os seguintes unitermos foram utilizados: activated protein C; drotrecogin alfa; sepsis; septic shock; Xigris®. Estudos referenciados nos artigos selecionados na busca também foram utilizados. CONCLUSÕES: As taxas de letalidades e as complicações hemorrágicas associadas com o uso do fármaco foram maiores em grandes estudos observacionais do que aquelas descritas previamente nos ensaios clínicos. A luz dos resultados atualmente disponíveis, o uso da DrotAA deve ser reconsiderado até que novos ensaios clínicos possam subsidiar com informações adicionais sobre eficácia, segurança e na identificação dos subgrupos de pacientes com sepse grave que porventura possam ter benefício com o uso deste medicamento. A DrotAA deve servir de exemplo para que haja maior cautela com a rápida transposição de evidências ainda em construção para recomendações e diretrizes de tratamento de pacientes com sepse grave.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The debate on efficacy and patient safety related to the use of drotrecogin alfa (DrotAA is timely, principally due to the negative results observed in clinical studies performed after the PROWESS study, and the economic cost-related impact of the drug on the healthcare system. The aim of this study was to review the main studies on the use of DrotAA in patients with severe

  11. Coste-efectividad de drotrecogina alfa (activada en el tratamiento de la sepsis grave en España Cost-effectiveness of drotrecogin alpha [activated] in the treatment of severe sepsis in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Sacristán

    2004-02-01

    grupo de pacientes con 2 o más fallos orgánicos. En el análisis de sensibilidad, los resultados oscilaron desde 7.322 a 16.493 euros por AVG. Los factores que más influyeron en los resultados fueron la modificación de la eficacia de drotrecogina alfa (activada, el ajuste de la supervivencia según la comorbilidad inicial y la aplicación de descuento a los AVG. Conclusiones: El tratamiento con drotrecogina alfa (activada presenta una relación coste-efectividad favorable en comparación con otras intervenciones sanitarias comúnmente utilizadas en España.Introduction: The PROWESS clinical trial has shown that treatment with drotrecogin alpha (activated in patients with severe sepsis is associated with a reduction in the absolute risk of death compared with standard treatment. The aim of the present study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of drotrecogin alpha (activated versus that of standard care in the treatment of severe sepsis in Spain. Patients and methods: A decision analysis model was drawn up to compare costs to hospital discharge and the long-term efficacy of drotrecogin alpha (activated versus those of standard care in the treatment of severe sepsis in Spain from the perspective of the health care payer. Most of the information for creating the model was obtained from the PROWESS clinical trial. A two-fold baseline analysis was performed: a for all patients included in the PROWESS clinical trial and b for the patients with two or more organ failures. The major variables for clinical assessment were the reduction in mortality and years of life gained (YLG. Cost-effectiveness was expressed as cost per YLG. A sensitivity analysis was applied using 3% and 5% discount rates for YLG and by modifying the patterns of health care, intensive care unit costs, and life expectancy by initial co-morbidity and therapeutic efficacy of drotrecogin alpha (activated. Results: Treatment with drotrecogin alfa (activated was associated with a 6.0% drop in the absolute risk

  12. Epoetin Alfa Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Combivir), a medication used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Epoetin alfa injection is also used before ... inject epoetin alfa, as directed by your doctor. Write down the date, time, dose of epoetin alfa ...

  13. The ALFA Trigger Simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Dziedzic B

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents basic information about ALFA detectors used in the ATLAS experiment, and the structure of currently developed device used to test a new ALFA trigger interface. It discusses the block diagram of the device, principle of its operation, implementation details and future plans for developing the Simulator.

  14. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS/LHC. The ALFA system is composed by two stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from each side of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronic for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  15. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus). The ALFA system is composed by four stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  16. Interferon Alfa-2b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon alfa-2b injection is used to treat a number of conditions.Interferon alfa-2b injection is used alone or in ... Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; a slow-growing blood cancer). Interferon alfa-2b is in a class of medications ...

  17. Glucosamine hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... combination of glucosamine hydrochloride, chondroitin sulfate, and manganese ascorbate. Some evidence suggests that this combination can improve ... combination of glucosamine hydrochloride, chondroitin sulfate, and calcium ascorbate twice daily reduces joint swelling and pain, as ...

  18. Elosulfase alfa: first global approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Mark; Lo, Jin Han

    2014-04-01

    Elosulfase alfa (Vimizim™) is a recombinant form of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (GALNS) that was developed by BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc. as an enzyme replacement therapy for patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA), also known as Morquio A syndrome. Patients with MPS IVA have a GALNS deficiency, which results in serious musculoskeletal, cardiorespiratory and other system disturbances. Elosulfase alfa was approved by the US FDA on 14 February 2014 for the treatment of MPS IVA. The European Medicines Agency Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) has recently recommended that elosulfase alfa be approved for use in the EU in the same indication. Within the last year, the manufacturer has also filed applications for approval for the use of elosulfase alfa in MPS IVA in Brazil, Australia, Canada and Mexico. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of elosulfase alfa leading to its first global approval in MPS IVA.

  19. ALFA beam halo

    CERN Document Server

    Komarek, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    This note serves as a final report about CERN Summer Student Programme 2014 project. The beam halo is an undesired phenomenon for physics analyses on particle accelerators. It surrounds the beam core and constitutes an important part of background for signal measurements on some detectors, eg. in the forward region. In this study, the data from the ALFA detector were used, specifically from the run 191373 ($\\beta^*=90\\unit{m}$) and the run 213268 ($\\beta^*=1\\unit{km}$). Using the ROOT framework, a software for beam halo events selection was created and beam halo properties were examined. In the run 213268, excessive beam halo is suspected to be the reason for multiple beam scrapings that occurred. A kinematic reconstruction of beam halo particles is attempted in order to understand beam halo properties in the interaction point. Some further simulations are employed to find constraints for beam halo particles in order to survive in the accelerator for a longer time/many revolutions. This work represents a st...

  20. Erlotinib hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minna, John D; Dowell, Jonathan

    2005-05-01

    Erlotinib hydrochloride (Tarceva; OSI Pharmaceuticals/Genentech/Roche), a member of a class of targeted anticancer drugs that inhibit the activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor, was approved by the US FDA in November 2004 for the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer after failure of at least one prior chemotherapy regimen. It is the first such drug to demonstrate an increase in survival in Phase III trials in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

  1. "Alfa" i "Võmpel" bez maski / Andrei Sharov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sharov, Andrei

    2004-01-01

    Venemaa FSB keskuse, mille koosseisu kuuluvad ka eriüksused Alfa ja Võmpel, töötajad osalevad terroristide neutraliseerimise ja pantvangide vabastamise erioperatsioonides. Intervjuu keskuse staabi uue juhiga

  2. "Alfa" i "Võmpel" bez maski / Andrei Sharov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sharov, Andrei

    2004-01-01

    Venemaa FSB keskuse, mille koosseisu kuuluvad ka eriüksused Alfa ja Võmpel, töötajad osalevad terroristide neutraliseerimise ja pantvangide vabastamise erioperatsioonides. Intervjuu keskuse staabi uue juhiga

  3. ALFA detector upgrade before LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Vorobel, Vit; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The operation experience with ATLAS ALFA detectors in the LHC environment during the Run1 period has shown significant beam-induced heating. Subsequent comprehensive studies revealed that heating effects could be disastrous in the case of the larger beam intensities foreseen for higher luminosities in the LHC Run2. During the first LHC long shutdown (LS1) all ALFA detectors have been removed from the LHC tunnel and their covers - Roman Pots - underwent a geometry upgrade to minimize the impedance losses. It will be shown that this modification together with a system improving the internal heat transfer and an air cooling system, significantly shifted the temperatures of ALFA detectors away from the critical limits throughout the LHC Run2. Also ALFA trigger system was considerably upgraded to keep measured data safely inside the Run2 ATLAS latency budget and to minimize dead time. The needed hardware changes of the trigger system will be presented in the second part of the talk.

  4. ALFA detector before LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Vorobel, Vit; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The operation experience with ATLAS ALFA detectors in the LHC environment during the Run1 period has shown significant beam-induced heating. Subsequent comprehensive studies revealed that heating effects could be disastrous in the case of the larger beam intensities foreseen for higher luminosities in the LHC Run2. During the first LHC long shutdown (LS1) all ALFA detectors have been removed from the LHC tunnel and their covers - Roman Pots - underwent a geometry upgrade to minimize the impedance losses. It will be shown that this modification together with a system improving the internal heat transfer and an air cooling system, significantly shifted the temperatures of ALFA detectors away from the critical limits throughout the LHC Run2. Also ALFA trigger system was considerably upgraded to keep measured data safely inside the Run2 ATLAS latency budget and to minimize dead time. The needed hardware changes of the trigger system are also described

  5. Cartap Hydrochloride Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Abhilash, Kpp; Victor, Peter John

    2016-08-01

    Cartap hydrochloride is a moderately hazardous nereistoxin insecticide that is increasingly used for deliberate self-harm in India. It can cause neuromuscular weakness resulting in respiratory failure. We report a patient with 4% Cartap hydrochloride poisoning who required mechanical ventilation for 36-hours. He recovered without any neurological deficits. We also review literature on Cartap hydrochloride poisoning.

  6. Administration of follitropin alfa and lutropin alfa combined in a single injection: a feasibility assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinetto Rita

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadotrophins are routinely administered in assisted reproductive technology (ART treatment protocols. Recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (r-hFSH; follitropin alfa and recombinant human luteinizing hormone (r-hLH; lutropin alfa can be administered individually or in a fixed combination. The ability to vary the FSH to LH dose ratio in a single injection without compromising the bioactivity of either gonadotrophin or generating losses of active principle is important for physicians and patients alike. Methods This study investigated whether follitropin alfa (GONAL-f (R, as lyophilized powder for reconstitution or solution from the GONAL-f (R (filled-by-mass [FbM] Prefilled Pen, could be used to reconstitute Pergoveris TM (follitropin alfa/lutropin alfa 150 IU/75 IU lyophilized powder. In Ratio Groups 1 and 2, the r-hFSH:r-hLH ratio was 3:1; in Ratio Groups 3 and 4, the ratios of r-hFSH:r-hLH were 5:1 and 8:1, respectively. The protein content and bioactivity of each mixed solution were evaluated. The r-hFSH and r-hLH content was determined using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The biological activity of r-hFSH and r-hLH was assessed using the Steelman-Pohley and Van Hell in vivo bioassays in rats, respectively. Results Follitropin alfa/lutropin alfa 150 IU/75 IU lyophilized powder could be successfully mixed with follitropin alfa 75 IU FbM solution that was either reconstituted from lyophilized powder or injected directly from the prefilled pen to create solutions with ratios of r-hFSH and r-hLH from 3:1 to 8:1. The measured content of r-hFSH and r-hLH corresponded favourably with the target protein content in Ratio Groups 1–4. The in vivo target and measured bioactivity of r-hFSH and r-hLH were also closely matched in all Ratio Groups. Conclusion Follitropin alfa lyophilized powder or solution can be accurately mixed with follitropin alfa/lutropin alfa 150 IU/75 IU lyophilized powder to

  7. Implementation of Trigger Tiles for ALFA Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Rehaag, Thomas Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS (ALFA) experiment was designed to accurately measure the luminosity of the intersecting proton beams at the ATLAS interaction point [1]. However, the ALFA experiment has shifted its primary purpose from luminosity measurement to elastic and inelastic proton collisions. This change was the result of difficulty in fitting parameters in the region governed by Coulomb scattering. The operational principle for luminosity measurement with ALFA relied on detecting elastic proton collisions, so the detector is suited to its role in proton collision measurements. The ALFA detector consists of several sensitive components, including the main detector (MD), overlap detectors (ODs) and trigger tiles. A diagram of the ALFA detector is shown in Figure 1. The main detector is composed of layers of 0.5 × 0.5 mm2 cross section scintillating fibres with an active area of 0.48 × 0.48 mm2, which are directed diagonally across the detector with 64 fibres in each layer. The 20 total layers ar...

  8. Interferon-alfa treatment of facial infantile haemangiomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C.; Illum, N.; Jensen, H.

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, haemangiomas of the face, infancy, Interferon alfa, eye at risk, amblyopia, induced refractive change, ultrasound imaging......ophthalmology, haemangiomas of the face, infancy, Interferon alfa, eye at risk, amblyopia, induced refractive change, ultrasound imaging...

  9. Interferon alfa with or without ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergard, L L; Krogsgaard, K; Gluud, C

    2001-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of interferon alfa with or without ribavirin for treatment of chronic hepatitis C.......To assess the efficacy and safety of interferon alfa with or without ribavirin for treatment of chronic hepatitis C....

  10. ALFA: an automated line fitting algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Wesson, Roger

    2015-01-01

    I present the Automated Line Fitting Algorithm, ALFA, a new code which can fit emission line spectra of arbitrary wavelength coverage and resolution, fully automatically. In contrast to traditional emission line fitting methods which require the identification of spectral features suspected to be emission lines, ALFA instead uses a list of lines which are expected to be present to construct a synthetic spectrum. The parameters used to construct the synthetic spectrum are optimised by means of a genetic algorithm. Uncertainties are estimated using the noise structure of the residuals. An emission line spectrum containing several hundred lines can be fitted in a few seconds using a single processor of a typical contemporary desktop or laptop PC. I show that the results are in excellent agreement with those measured manually for a number of spectra. Where discrepancies exist, the manually measured fluxes are found to be less accurate than those returned by ALFA. Together with the code NEAT (Wesson et al. 2012), ...

  11. Asfotase alfa therapy for children with hypophosphatasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Michael P; Madson, Katherine L; Phillips, Dawn; Reeves, Amy L; McAlister, William H; Yakimoski, Amy; Mack, Karen E; Hamilton, Kim; Kagan, Kori; Fujita, Kenji P; Thompson, David D; Moseley, Scott; Odrljin, Tatjana; Rockman-Greenberg, Cheryl

    2016-06-16

    Background. Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is caused by loss-of-function mutation(s) of the gene that encodes the tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). Consequently, cell-surface deficiency of TNSALP phosphohydrolase activity leads to extracellular accumulation of inorganic pyrophosphate, a natural substrate of TNSALP and inhibitor of mineralization. Children with HPP can manifest rickets, skeletal pain, deformity, fracture, muscle weakness, and premature deciduous tooth loss. Asfotase alfa is a recombinant, bone-targeted, human TNSALP injected s.c. to treat HPP. In 2012, we detailed the 1-year efficacy of asfotase alfa therapy for the life-threatening perinatal and infantile forms of HPP. Methods. Here, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of asfotase alfa treatment administered to children 6-12 years of age at baseline who were substantially impaired by HPP. Two radiographic scales quantitated HPP skeletal disease, including comparisons to serial radiographs from similarly affected historical control patients. Results. Twelve children receiving treatment were studied for 5 years. The 6-month primary endpoint was met, showing significant radiographic improvement. Additional significant improvements included patient growth, strength, motor function, agility, and quality of life, which for most patients meant achieving normal values for age- and sex-matched peers that were sustained at 5 years of treatment. For most, pain and disability resolved. Mild to moderate injection-site reactions were common and were sometimes associated with lipohypertrophy. Low anti-asfotase alfa antibody titers were noted in all patients. No evidence emerged for clinically important ectopic calcification or treatment resistance. Conclusions. Asfotase alfa enzyme replacement therapy has substantial and sustained efficacy with a good safety profile for children suffering from HPP. Trial Registration. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00952484 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show

  12. Asfotase alfa therapy for children with hypophosphatasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madson, Katherine L.; Phillips, Dawn; Reeves, Amy L.; McAlister, William H.; Yakimoski, Amy; Mack, Karen E.; Hamilton, Kim; Kagan, Kori; Fujita, Kenji P.; Thompson, David D.; Moseley, Scott; Odrljin, Tatjana; Rockman-Greenberg, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is caused by loss-of-function mutation(s) of the gene that encodes the tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). Consequently, cell-surface deficiency of TNSALP phosphohydrolase activity leads to extracellular accumulation of inorganic pyrophosphate, a natural substrate of TNSALP and inhibitor of mineralization. Children with HPP can manifest rickets, skeletal pain, deformity, fracture, muscle weakness, and premature deciduous tooth loss. Asfotase alfa is a recombinant, bone-targeted, human TNSALP injected s.c. to treat HPP. In 2012, we detailed the 1-year efficacy of asfotase alfa therapy for the life-threatening perinatal and infantile forms of HPP. Methods. Here, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of asfotase alfa treatment administered to children 6–12 years of age at baseline who were substantially impaired by HPP. Two radiographic scales quantitated HPP skeletal disease, including comparisons to serial radiographs from similarly affected historical control patients. Results. Twelve children receiving treatment were studied for 5 years. The 6-month primary endpoint was met, showing significant radiographic improvement. Additional significant improvements included patient growth, strength, motor function, agility, and quality of life, which for most patients meant achieving normal values for age- and sex-matched peers that were sustained at 5 years of treatment. For most, pain and disability resolved. Mild to moderate injection-site reactions were common and were sometimes associated with lipohypertrophy. Low anti–asfotase alfa antibody titers were noted in all patients. No evidence emerged for clinically important ectopic calcification or treatment resistance. Conclusions. Asfotase alfa enzyme replacement therapy has substantial and sustained efficacy with a good safety profile for children suffering from HPP. Trial Registration. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00952484 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show

  13. Arecibo Pulsar and Transient Surveys Using ALFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, J. M.

    2008-02-01

    A large scale survey for pulsars and transients is being conducted at the Arecibo Observatory using the Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA). Data acquisition so far has been with correlation spectrometers that analyze a 0.1 GHz bandwidth at 1.4 GHz. The 256 frequency channels limit dispersion smearing to 1.2 ms at DMmax = 103 pc cm-3 while the sampling interval of 64 μs equals the dispersion smearing at DM~54 pc cm-3, providing high sensitivity to millisecond pulsars with standard periods out to implied distances of several kpc at low Galactic latitudes. In early 2008, we will use a new set of polyphase filter bank systems that provide the same time and frequency resolutions but over ALFA's full 0.3 GHz bandwidth. Currently the survey covers sky positions within 5° of the Galactic plane that are reachable with Arecibo. Preliminary results are given for some of the discoveries made so far, which include millisecond pulsars, a relativistic binary pulsar, a likely counterpart of a Compton GRO/EGRET gamma-ray source, and transient pulsars (including `RRATs''). We discuss the methodology of the survey, which includes archival of raw survey data at the Cornell Center for Advanced Computing and processing at distributed sites. The survey and follow up observations, which include timing observations, multiwavelength searches for orbital companions in the case of binary pulsars, etc. are organized through the Pulsar-ALFA (PALFA) Consortium. We expect the Galactic plane survey to continue until at least 2010, most likely involving multiple passes on each sky position to optimize detection of variable sources. The ALFA system will also be used to survey intermediate Galactic latitudes for millisecond pulsars, relativistic binaries with large systemic velocities, and runaway pulsars that will escape the Galaxy.

  14. Measurement of elastic scattering with ALFA

    CERN Document Server

    Jakobsen, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The principal of ALFA is presented and then a detailed description of the detector, installation, triggering and beam based alignment. All this was needed in 2011 before the special optics runs with beta* = 90 m which was used for measuring elastic scattering. The first analysis steps of seeing tack patterns, making a global alignment of the detectors and finding correlations are presented. The plans for upcoming runs in 2012 are briefly discussed.

  15. Analysis of the trigger system of the ALFA detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero Llorente, Alonso

    2015-01-01

    During the CERN Summer Student Programme 2015 two different projects were carried out. Both related with the ALFA subdetector in ATLAS and its trigger system. The frst, and main, project aimed to do an study of the trigger effciency of the ALFA detector at $\\sqrt{s}=8 TeV$ and $\\beta^* = 90m$. The results can be found fully explained in the ATLAS note: "Trigger effciency for the ALFA detector at $\\sqrt{s}=8 TeV$ and $\\beta^* = 90m$". A secondary task consisted on systematical tests of new chips for an update of the ALFA trigger system.

  16. Trifluridine and Tipiracil Hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about trifluridine and tipiracil hydrochloride and a collection of links to more information about the use of this combination drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  17. The ALFA ZOA Deep Survey: First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, T. P.; Henning, P. A.; Minchin, R. F.; Momjian, E.; Butcher, Z.

    2015-07-01

    The Arecibo L-band Feed Array Zone of Avoidance (ALFA ZOA) Deep Survey is the deepest and most sensitive blind H i survey undertaken in the ZOA. ALFA ZOA Deep will cover about 300 square degrees of sky behind the Galactic Plane in both the inner (30^\\circ ≤slant l≤slant 75^\\circ ;b≤slant | 2^\\circ | ) and outer (175^\\circ ≤slant l≤slant 207^\\circ ;-2^\\circ ≤slant b≤slant +1^\\circ ) Galaxy, using the Arecibo Radio Telescope. First results from the survey have found 61 galaxies within a 15 square degree area centered on l=192^\\circ and b = -2°. The survey reached its expected sensitivity of rms = 1 mJy at 9 km s-1 channel resolution, and is shown to be complete above integrated flux, FHi = 0.5 Jy km s-1. The positional accuracy of the survey is 28″ and detections are found out to a recessional velocity of nearly 19,000 km s-1. The survey confirms the extent of the Orion and Abell 539 clusters behind the plane of the Milky Way and discovers expansive voids, at 10,000 and 18,000 km s-1. Twenty-six detections (43%) have a counterpart in the literature, but only two of these have known redshifts. Counterparts are 20% less common beyond vhel = 10,000 km s-1 and 33% less common at extinctions higher than AB = 3.5 mag. The ALFA ZOA Deep survey is able to probe large scale structure beyond redshifts that even the most modern wide-angle surveys have been able to detect in the ZOA at any wavelength.

  18. Stock footage ATLAS-ALFA experiment September 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Stock footage of the ATLAS- ALFA subdetector in the LHC tunnel at IP1 taken during the LHC technical shut-down in September 2016. The ATLAS/ALFA experiment and studies the elastic scattering of protons, which are not observable in normal operation runs. In the elastic scattering process, the two protons survive their encounter intact and only change directions by exchanging momentum.

  19. Sequential combination of glucocorticosteroids and alfa interferon versus alfa interferon alone for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, M T; Krogsgaard, K; Mathurin, P

    2002-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B has serious effects on morbidity and mortality. Alfa interferon has been shown to increase the rates of HBeAg-clearance as well as seroconversion to anti-HBe, but response rates are unsatisfactory. Glucocorticosteroid pretreatment may increase the response to alfa interferon....

  20. Sequential combination of glucocorticosteroids and alfa interferon versus alfa interferon alone chronic hepatitis B. Protocol for a Cochrane Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, M T; Krogsgaard, K; Mathurin, P

    2000-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B has serious effects on morbidity and mortality. Alfa interferon has been shown to increase the rates of HBeAg-clearance as well as seroconversion to anti-HBe, but response rates are unsatisfactory. Glucocorticosteroid pretreatment may increase the response to alfa interferon....

  1. Sequential combination of glucocorticosteroids and alfa interferon versus alfa interferon alone for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, M T; Krogsgaard, K; Mathurin, P;

    2002-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B has serious effects on morbidity and mortality. Alfa interferon has been shown to increase the rates of HBeAg-clearance as well as seroconversion to anti-HBe, but response rates are unsatisfactory. Glucocorticosteroid pretreatment may increase the response to alfa interferon....

  2. The ALFA ZOA Deep Survey: First Results

    CERN Document Server

    McIntyre, Travis P; Minchin, Robert F; Momjian, Emmanuel; Butcher, Zhon

    2015-01-01

    The Arecibo L-Band Feed Array Zone of Avoidance (ALFA ZOA) Deep Survey is the deepest and most sensitive blind Hi survey undertaken in the ZOA. ALFA ZOA Deep will cover about 300 square degrees of sky behind the Galactic plane in both the inner (30 deg < l < 75 deg; b < |2 deg|) and outer (175 deg < l < 207 deg; -2 deg < b < +1 deg) Galaxy, using the Arecibo Radio Telescope. First results from the survey have found 61 galaxies within a 15 square degree area centered on l = 192 deg and b = -2 deg. The survey reached its expected sensitivity of rms = 1 mJy at 9 km/s channel resolution, and is shown to be complete above integrated flux, F_HI = 0.5 Jy km/s. The positional accuracy of the survey is 28 arcsec and detections are found out to a recessional velocity of nearly 19,000 km/s. The survey confirms the extent of the Orion and Abell 539 clusters behind the plane of the Milky Way and discovers expansive voids, at 10,000 km/s and 18,000 km/s. 26 detections (43%) have a counterpart in the li...

  3. Role of elosulfase alfa in mucopolysaccharidosis IVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regier DS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Debra S Regier, Pranoot Tanpaiboon Division of Genetics and Metabolism, Children’s National Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA or Morquio A is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease which results in a striking skeletal phenotype, but does not negatively impact the intellect of the patient. MPS IVA has a phenotypic continuum that ranges from a severe and rapidly progressing form to a slowly progressive form. The clinical diagnosis is often made in the preschool years based on abnormal bone findings on physical examination and dysplasia on radiographic imaging. Supportive care has been the mainstay in caring for patients. Orthopedic physicians often form the core of the care team due to the early and severe skeletal abnormalities; however, systemic disease is common and requires aggressive monitoring and management. Interdisciplinary care teams often consist of medical geneticists, cardiologists, pulmonary specialists, gastroenterologists, otolaryngologists, audiologists, and ophthalmologists. With the US Food and Drug Administration’s approval of elosulfase alfa, patients >5 years of age now have access to this medication from the time of diagnosis. The clinical trial with once weekly intravenous dosing (2.0 mg/kg per week showed improvement in the 6-minute walk test. The composite end point analysis to evaluate the combining changes from baseline in 6-minute walk test, 3-minute stair climb test, and respiratory function showed that at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg per week, subjects performed better when compared to placebo. This indication was clinically meaningful in the treatment group. The treatment was generally well tolerated, and the uncommon infusion reactions responded well to traditional enzyme replacement therapy infusion reaction management algorithms. Currently, clinical trials are underway to determine the efficacy and safety in MPS IVA patients <5 years of age. Keywords

  4. JSC “ALFA-BANK” marketing policy. problems and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kirillov, A.; Kuznetcova, E.; Martirosian, M.

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the results of JSC “Alfa-Bank” consumers’ segmentation and the following complex marketing research. The article suggests the ways of the bank’s marketing policy improvement.

  5. Treatment of anemia with darbepoetin alfa in systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swedberg, Karl; Young, James B; Anand, Inder S

    2013-01-01

    Patients with systolic heart failure and anemia have worse symptoms, functional capacity, and outcomes than those without anemia. We evaluated the effects of darbepoetin alfa on clinical outcomes in patients with systolic heart failure and anemia.......Patients with systolic heart failure and anemia have worse symptoms, functional capacity, and outcomes than those without anemia. We evaluated the effects of darbepoetin alfa on clinical outcomes in patients with systolic heart failure and anemia....

  6. Role of elosulfase alfa in mucopolysaccharidosis IVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Debra S; Tanpaiboon, Pranoot

    2016-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA or Morquio A) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease which results in a striking skeletal phenotype, but does not negatively impact the intellect of the patient. MPS IVA has a phenotypic continuum that ranges from a severe and rapidly progressing form to a slowly progressive form. The clinical diagnosis is often made in the preschool years based on abnormal bone findings on physical examination and dysplasia on radiographic imaging. Supportive care has been the mainstay in caring for patients. Orthopedic physicians often form the core of the care team due to the early and severe skeletal abnormalities; however, systemic disease is common and requires aggressive monitoring and management. Interdisciplinary care teams often consist of medical geneticists, cardiologists, pulmonary specialists, gastroenterologists, otolaryngologists, audiologists, and ophthalmologists. With the US Food and Drug Administration’s approval of elosulfase alfa, patients >5 years of age now have access to this medication from the time of diagnosis. The clinical trial with once weekly intravenous dosing (2.0 mg/kg per week) showed improvement in the 6-minute walk test. The composite end point analysis to evaluate the combining changes from baseline in 6-minute walk test, 3-minute stair climb test, and respiratory function showed that at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg per week, subjects performed better when compared to placebo. This indication was clinically meaningful in the treatment group. The treatment was generally well tolerated, and the uncommon infusion reactions responded well to traditional enzyme replacement therapy infusion reaction management algorithms. Currently, clinical trials are underway to determine the efficacy and safety in MPS IVA patients <5 years of age. PMID:27366102

  7. Role of elosulfase alfa in mucopolysaccharidosis IVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Debra S; Tanpaiboon, Pranoot

    2016-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA or Morquio A) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease which results in a striking skeletal phenotype, but does not negatively impact the intellect of the patient. MPS IVA has a phenotypic continuum that ranges from a severe and rapidly progressing form to a slowly progressive form. The clinical diagnosis is often made in the preschool years based on abnormal bone findings on physical examination and dysplasia on radiographic imaging. Supportive care has been the mainstay in caring for patients. Orthopedic physicians often form the core of the care team due to the early and severe skeletal abnormalities; however, systemic disease is common and requires aggressive monitoring and management. Interdisciplinary care teams often consist of medical geneticists, cardiologists, pulmonary specialists, gastroenterologists, otolaryngologists, audiologists, and ophthalmologists. With the US Food and Drug Administration's approval of elosulfase alfa, patients >5 years of age now have access to this medication from the time of diagnosis. The clinical trial with once weekly intravenous dosing (2.0 mg/kg per week) showed improvement in the 6-minute walk test. The composite end point analysis to evaluate the combining changes from baseline in 6-minute walk test, 3-minute stair climb test, and respiratory function showed that at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg per week, subjects performed better when compared to placebo. This indication was clinically meaningful in the treatment group. The treatment was generally well tolerated, and the uncommon infusion reactions responded well to traditional enzyme replacement therapy infusion reaction management algorithms. Currently, clinical trials are underway to determine the efficacy and safety in MPS IVA patients <5 years of age.

  8. Conestat alfa for the treatment of angioedema attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis B

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin Davis, Jonathan A BernsteinUniversity of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Immunology/Allergy Section, Cincinnati, OH, USAAbstract: Recently, multiple C1 inhibitor (C1-INH replacement products have been approved for the treatment of hereditary angioedema (HAE. This review summarizes HAE and its current treatment modalities and focuses on findings from bench to bedside trials of a new C1-INH replacement, conestat alfa. Conestat alfa is unique among the other C1-INH replacement products because it is produced from transgenic rabbits rather than derived from human plasma donors, which can potentially allow an unlimited source of drug without any concern of infectious transmission. The clinical trial data generated to date indicate that conestat alfa is safe and effective for the treatment of acute HAE attacks.Keywords: androgens, adverse events, patients, HAE attacks 

  9. Epoetin alfa ja namaluva nefrotoksicnosta inducirana so cisplatin kaj staorci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimce Zafirov

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Klinickata efikasnost na cisplatin kako antitumorski lek e nesomnena, no dozno-limitiracki faktor za negova upotreba pretstavuva izrazitata nefrotoksicnost. Najnovite istrazuvawa pokazuvaat deka epoetin alfa moze da ima znacajna uloga ne samo vo terapiski celi za korekcija na razni vidovi na anemii, tuku istiot moze da bide efikasen i kako nevroprotektiv, hepatoprotektiv, kardioprotektiv i osobeno znacajno kako nefroprotektiv kaj nefrotoksicnost inducirana od preparati na baza na platina. Glavna cel na ovaa studija bese da se utvrdi efektot na epoetin alfa vo prevencijata na nefrotoksicnost eksperimentalno inducirana so dolgotrajna administracija na cisplatin vo doza od 2 mg/kg/t.t./nedela vo tek na 8 nedeli, kaj Wistar staorci. Dobienite rezultati od ovaa studija pokazuvaat deka epoetin alfa signifikantno gi ublazuva funkcionalnite bubrezni poremetuvawa inducirani so dolgotrajna administracija na cisplatin, ja podobruva opstata sostojba i go namaluva mortalitetot kaj ispituvanite zivotni.

  10. Resolution and t-spectrum for the ALFA detector

    CERN Document Server

    Guergouri, Hichem

    2016-01-01

    My report as Summer Student is in two parts. In the first part I report about my attendance to the run of the ALFA detector to test different collimation schemas and find a new way to get rid of the background. The second part is about the measurement of the resolution of the ALFA detector and comparing the real data with the Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations. First of all I tried to be more familiar with ROOT, worked on understanding the code used to access to the data in the trees inside the Ntuples, plotting histograms,… This was done using old Ntuples which contain MC data.

  11. Darbepoetin alfa once every 2 weeks for treatment of anemia in dialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, J; Kessler, M; Villa, Giulio Palludan

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Darbepoetin alfa has a longer half-life than epoetin-(EPO) alfa or beta, allowing administration at less frequent intervals for the treatment of renal anemia. The aim of the present analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of an every-2-week (Q2W) schedule of darbepoetin alfa...

  12. Physics prospects with the ALFA and AFP detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hamal, Petr; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS ALFA and AFP detectors - the experimental challenge of measuring forward protons at the LHC. We will describe the experimental challenge presented by the measurement of the forward protons at the LHC. The ATLAS ALFA and AFP projects involve the deployment of detectors capable of detecting protons that emerge intact from the interaction with very small scattering angles. In the case of the ALFA detector, located at ±240m from the ATLAS interaction point, this measurement has to be performed using special high \\beta* beam optics. The detector chosen for the task is a nearly edgeless scintillating fibre tracker capable of making measurements at very low t – below 10-3 GeV2 – in the Nuclear Coulomb interference region. In order to reach these very small t-values we need to deploy the detector very near to the beam line utilizing Roman Pots. The main purpose of the ALFA detector is to measure the total p-p cross-section, a fundamental quantity in hadronic physics of importance to particle and to cos...

  13. Astronaut Scott Carpenter practices in the ALFA trainer at Langley

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Project Mercury Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter practices in the Air Lubricated Free Attitude (ALFA) trainer located at NASA's Manned Spacecraft Center at Langley AFB, Virginia. This trainer allows the astronaut to see the image of the earth's surface at his feet while manually controlling the spacecraft.

  14. A New Approach to the ALFA Trigger Simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Dziedzic, Bartosz

    2016-01-01

    The idea and principle of operation of a device which is used to test the trigger system of the ALFA detectors of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC are discussed. A new approach to the application control is presented. The application runs under control of the ArchLinuxARM operating system. Also, the drawbacks of the new solution are discussed.

  15. 21 CFR 582.5676 - Pyridoxine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pyridoxine hydrochloride. 582.5676 Section 582.5676 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5676 Pyridoxine hydrochloride. (a) Product. Pyridoxine hydrochloride....

  16. Structural Analysis Of Alfa Fibers After Chemical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Mouallif

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, natural fibers are used as reinforcement in composite materials. The Alfa fibers have undergone an alkaline treatment with sodium hydroxide NaOH at a concentration of 10%, during an immersion period of two days. After drying, the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy by attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR and X-ray diffraction (XRD were used for the analysis of the chemical properties of these fibers which were extracted from the plant Alfa of the region Al Haouz (Morocco in order to study the modifications resulting from the alkaline treatment. The results proved the presence of the cellulose, with an increase in its proportion in those fibers which have undergone an alkaline treatment with NaOH, the presence of lignin and pectin, as well as their disappearance after the alkaline extraction.

  17. Pathophysiology of hypophosphatasia and the potential role of asfotase alfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orimo H

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hideo Orimo Division of Metabolism and Nutrition, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Hypophosphatasia (HPP is an inherited systemic bone disease that is characterized by bone hypomineralization. HPP is classified into six forms according to the age of onset and severity as perinatal (lethal, perinatal benign, infantile, childhood, adult, and odontohypophosphatasia. The causative gene of the disease is the ALPL gene that encodes tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP. TNAP is expressed ubiquitously, and its physiological role is apparent in bone mineralization. A defect in bone mineralization can manifest in several ways, including rickets or osteomalacia in HPP patients. Patients with severe forms suffer from respiratory failure because of hypoplastic chest, which is the main cause of death. They sometimes present with seizures due to a defect in vitamin B6 metabolism resulting from the lack of alkaline phosphatase activity in neuronal cells, which is also lethal. Patients with a mild form of the disease exhibit rickets or osteomalacia and a functional defect of exercise. Odontohypophosphatasia shows only dental manifestations. To date, 302 mutations in the ALPL gene have been reported, mainly single-nucleotide substitutions, and the relationships between phenotype and genotype have been partially elucidated. An established treatment for HPP was not available until the recent development of enzyme replacement therapy. The first successful enzyme replacement therapy in model mice using a modified human TNAP protein (asfotase alfa was reported in 2008, and subsequently success in patients with severe form of the disease was reported in 2012. In 2015, asfotase alfa was approved in Japan in July, followed by in the EU and Canada in August, and then by the US Food and Drug Administration in the USA in October. It is expected that therapy with asfotase alfa will drastically change

  18. Physics prospects with the ALFA and AFP detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hamal, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    We will describe the experimental challenge presented by the measurement of the forward protons at the LHC. The ATLAS ALFA and AFP projects involve the deployment of detectors capable of detecting protons that emerge intact from the interaction with very small scattering angles. In the case of the ALFA detector, located at $\\pm${240}~m from the ATLAS interaction point, this measurement has to be performed using special high $\\beta^*$ beam optics. The detector chosen for the task is a nearly edgeless scintillating fibre tracker capable of making measurements at very low $t$ - below $10^{-3} \\text{GeV}^2$ - in the Nuclear Coulomb interference region. In order to reach these very small $t$ values we need to deploy the detector very near to the beam line utilizing Roman Pots. The main purpose of the ALFA detector is to measure the total p-p cross-section, a fundamental quantity in hadronic physics of importance to particle and to cosmic ray physicists and to provide absolute measurement of luminosity which includ...

  19. Upgrade of ATLAS-ALFA for Run2

    CERN Document Server

    Jakobsen, Sune; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Early experience with the operation of the ALFA detectors in the LHC environment has shown significant beam-induced heating. Comprehensive studies on the effects of heating with a spare detector module have furthermore revealed that heating effects could be disastrous in the case of the larger beam intensities foreseen for higher luminosity. A temporary solution was implemented and kept the detectors below the critical temperature in 2012. In LS1 all ALFA stations have been removed from LHC and are undergoing an upgrade of the geometry of Roman Pots to minimize the impedance losses. When the stations were re-installed ~4 m distance was added between them to gain level arm in the angular measurement between the stations. The updated geometry of the Roman Pot, together with a system to improve the internal heat transfer and an air cooling system, is expected to keep the temperatures of ALFA detectors below critical limits throughout the LHC Run2 and first results from the performance in 2016 will be presented. ...

  20. Pathophysiology of hypophosphatasia and the potential role of asfotase alfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orimo, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is an inherited systemic bone disease that is characterized by bone hypomineralization. HPP is classified into six forms according to the age of onset and severity as perinatal (lethal), perinatal benign, infantile, childhood, adult, and odontohypophosphatasia. The causative gene of the disease is the ALPL gene that encodes tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). TNAP is expressed ubiquitously, and its physiological role is apparent in bone mineralization. A defect in bone mineralization can manifest in several ways, including rickets or osteomalacia in HPP patients. Patients with severe forms suffer from respiratory failure because of hypoplastic chest, which is the main cause of death. They sometimes present with seizures due to a defect in vitamin B6 metabolism resulting from the lack of alkaline phosphatase activity in neuronal cells, which is also lethal. Patients with a mild form of the disease exhibit rickets or osteomalacia and a functional defect of exercise. Odontohypophosphatasia shows only dental manifestations. To date, 302 mutations in the ALPL gene have been reported, mainly single-nucleotide substitutions, and the relationships between phenotype and genotype have been partially elucidated. An established treatment for HPP was not available until the recent development of enzyme replacement therapy. The first successful enzyme replacement therapy in model mice using a modified human TNAP protein (asfotase alfa) was reported in 2008, and subsequently success in patients with severe form of the disease was reported in 2012. In 2015, asfotase alfa was approved in Japan in July, followed by in the EU and Canada in August, and then by the US Food and Drug Administration in the USA in October. It is expected that therapy with asfotase alfa will drastically change treatments and prognosis of HPP. PMID:27274262

  1. Reconocimiento de expresiones faciales empleando memorias asociativas Alfa-Beta

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez Olivera, Moisés Vicente

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo de tesis orienta su atención en la compleja tarea del reconocimiento automático de las expresiones faciales, el propósito principal es probar la asertividad y competitividad de las memorias asociativas de tipo Alfa-Beta en el reconocimiento automático de expresiones faciales. La primera parte de la tesis brinda una breve introducción, la cual enfatiza la importancia de las expresiones faciales en la comunicación humana, incluyendo los estudios más relevantes dedicados a...

  2. Desarrollo de un sitio web para el proyecto Alfa Gaviota

    OpenAIRE

    Trelles Labairu, Hilton

    2013-01-01

    Este proyecto muestra todos los pasos a seguir para recolectar, organizar, tratar y construir un portal web para el grupo de universidades partícipes en el proyecto Alfa Gaviota III utilizando un sistema gestor de contenidos. Se parte de una base de información recopilada en unas cuántas páginas html realizadas con la tecnología de google docs. Es un requisito indispensable conseguir una forma de almacenar toda la información del proyecto consumiendo el mínimo espacio y recurso...

  3. ALFA detector, Background removal and analysis for elastic events

    CERN Document Server

    Belaloui, Nazim

    2017-01-01

    I worked on the ALFA project, which has the aim to measure the total cross section in PP collisions as a function of t, the momentum transfer by measuring the scattering angle of the protons. This measurement is done for all available energies; so far 7, 8 and 13 TeV. There are many analysis steps and we have focused on enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio. First of all I tried to be more familiar with ROOT, worked on understanding the code used to access to the data, plotting histograms, then cutting-off background.

  4. Peginterferon alfa-2a for AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma: experience with 10 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokx, Casper; van der Ende, Marchina E; Verbon, Annelies; Rijnders, Bart J A

    2013-11-01

    In this observational cohort study, 10 patients with extensive or treatment-refractory AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma were treated with peginterferon alfa-2a. Tumor responses were observed in 9 patients with a median progression-free survival of 645 days. Peginterferon alfa-2a could be an effective therapy for extensive or treatment-resistant Kaposi sarcoma.

  5. 意大利精灵——Alfa Romeo MITO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳柽

    2008-01-01

    Alfa Romeo 是一个对激情执着的品牌,即便是对于MITO这样一部掀背小车也不例外,这部意大利制造的Alfa Romeo MITO上,会让你感受到一种热辣奔放的别样风情。

  6. Cartap hydrochloride poisoning: A clinical experience

    OpenAIRE

    Hari K Boorugu; Anugrah Chrispal

    2012-01-01

    Cartap hydrochloride, a nereistoxin analog, is a commonly used low toxicity insecticide. We describe a patient who presented to the emergency department with alleged history of ingestion of Cartap hydrochloride as an act of deliberate self-harm. The patient was managed conservatively. To our knowledge this is the first case report of Cartap hydrochloride suicidal poisoning. Cartap toxicity has been considered to be minimal, but a number of animal models have shown significant neuromuscular to...

  7. 21 CFR 522.1222b - Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine... RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1222b Ketamine.... Ketamine hydrochloride, (±),-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino) cyclohexanone hydrochloride, with promazine...

  8. Thermoanalytical Investigation of Terazosin Hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Mohamed Abdel-Moety; Ali Kamal Attia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Thermal analysis (TGA, DTG and DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) have been used to study the thermal behavior of terazosin hydrochloride (TER). Methods: Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to determine the thermal behavior and purity of the used drug. Thermodynamic parameters such as activation energy (E*), enthalpy (∆H*), entropy (∆S*) and Gibbs free energy change of the decomp...

  9. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) Extragalactic HI Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Haynes, Martha P

    2008-01-01

    The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey is a program aimed at obtaining a census of HI-bearing objects over a cosmologically significant volume of the local universe. When complete in ~3-4 years, it will cover 7000 square degrees of high latitude sky using the 305m telescope and the seven-beam Arecibo L-band feed array (ALFA). As of May 1, 2008, almost 60% of the required observations are complete and a catalog exists in preliminary form for 25% of the final sky area. ALFALFA is detecting about twice as many HI sources as predicted based on previously published HI mass functions and should deliver a final catalog of >25000 extragalactic HI sources. ALFALFA will detect hundreds of galaxies with HI masses less than 10**7.5 solar masses and similarly large numbers greater than 10**10.3 Msun. Its centroiding accuracy allows for the immediate identification of highly probably optical counterparts to each HI detection. Fewer than 3% of all extragalactic HI sources, and 10**9.5 Msun cannot be identified with ...

  10. Stock footage ATLAS-ALFA experiment November 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    This footage shows an ALFA station of the ATLAS experiment in the LHC tunnel. This detector aims to measure the elastic proton scattering and to determine from these data the elastic and total cross sections, as well as the luminosity. Altogether there are two times two stations at both sides of ATLAS at Point 1 in a distance of about 240m. Each station consist of two Roman Pots which are equipped with scintillating fiber detectors. They are used under special beam conditions (high beta*) when the detectors are moved close to the circulating LHC beams (as close as 1mm). In standard high intensity LHC runs the Pots remain in parking position. The movie records the composition of an ALFA station at the C-side of ATLAS in the tunnel section *** 7L1. All stations are placed on the outgoing beams where scattered protons are expected. That's why the station mechanics is partly covered by the tubes of incoming beam lines. The stations are placed in between the large boxes with DQR resistors to absorb the magnet curr...

  11. Therapeutic efficacy of a biosimilar epoetin alfa in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Harzallah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is a frequent complication in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, human recombinant erythropoietin (rHu-EPO has revolutionized the management of anemia in chronically dialyzed patients. Epomax ® is a new rHu-EPO alfa manufactured in Tunisia (Medis Laboratories. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of Epomax ® in chronic hemodialysis (HD patients in a phase-III, multicenter, clinical trial. Fiftythree HD patients (mean age 47.7 ± 13 years who received a stable dose of rHu-EPO (Hemax ® , a rHu-EPO alfa manufactured by Biosidus Laboratories subcutaneously were switched to Epomax ® via the same route of administration. At baseline, the mean systolic pressure was 132 ± 18 mm Hg and the mean diastolic pressure was 79 ± 8 mm Hg. The mean blood hemoglobin was 10.2 g/dL and the median ferritin level was 667 ng/mL. After a follow-up of 43 days, the mean blood hemoglobin was 10.5 g/dL under the effect of Epomax ® . There was no significant difference in the mean hemoglobin levels between the treatments with both drugs. Few adverse events were reported during the study. We conclude that Epomax ® was effective at maintaining the hemoglobin levels at target concentrations and was well tolerated in HD patients.

  12. Alternative method for quantification of alfa-amylase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DF. Farias

    Full Text Available A modification of the sensitive agar diffusion method was developed for macro-scale determination of alfa-amylase. The proposed modifications lower costs with the utilisation of starch as substrate and agar as supporting medium. Thus, a standard curve was built using alfa-amylase solution from Aspergillus oryzae, with concentrations ranging from 2.4 to 7,500 U.mL-1. Clear radial diffusion zones were measured after 4 hours of incubation at 20 °C. A linear relationship between the logarithm of enzyme activities and the area of clear zones was obtained. The method was validated by testing α-amylase from barley at the concentrations of 2.4; 60; 300 and 1,500 U.mL-1. The proposed method turned out to be simpler, faster, less expensive and able to determine on a macro-scale α-amylase over a wide range (2.4 to 7,500 U.mL-1 in scientific investigation as well as in teaching laboratory activities.

  13. AFP and ALFA detectors as a momentum spectrometer system - feasibility study

    CERN Document Server

    ABDUL KHALEK, Rabah

    2015-01-01

    We consider a possibility to measure a leading proton momentum using simultaneously the AFP and ALFA detectors. The idea is based on the simple fact that the proton trajectory through the magnetic field between the AFP and ALFA$_{1}$ detectors, depends on the proton's momentum loss $\\xi$. The feasibility of the proton momentum measurement is directly related to the availability of the magnetic fields and their configuration, the overlap between ALFA and AFP detectors and their resolutions as well as energy losses and the multiple scattering effect that could wash away little actions from the magnets on the proton.

  14. Nebulised dornase alfa versus placebo or hypertonic saline in adult critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, Casper; Perner, Anders; Møller, Morten Hylander

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nebulised dornase alfa is used off-label in critically ill patients. We aimed to assess the benefits and harms of nebulised dornase alfa versus placebo, no prophylaxis, or hypertonic saline on patient-important outcome measures in adult critically ill patients. METHODS: We performed...... a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA) using the Cochrane Collaboration methodology. Eligible trials were randomised clinical trials comparing nebulised dornase alfa with placebo, no prophylaxis, or hypertonic saline. The predefined outcome measures were all-cause mortality...

  15. Experimental investigation of the mechanical properties of Alfas stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstas N. Kaklis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the experimental investigation of the mechanical properties of the Alfas natural building stone. Two series of uniaxial compression tests and indirect tensile tests (Brazilian tests were performed in order to determine the uniaxial compressive strength and the indirect tensile strength respectively. Different sets of cylindrical specimens and circular discs were prepared by varying their geometry in order to examine the size effect on the respective strength values. Also, the size effect was investigated with respect to the calculated intact rock modulus and Poisson’s ratio. All specimens were prepared by following the ISRM suggested methods and the load was applied using a stiff 1600 kN MTS hydraulic testing machine and a 500 kN load cell. Strain was measured using biaxial 0/90 stacked rosettes appropriately attached on each specimen.

  16. Fast radio burst discovered in the Arecibo pulsar ALFA survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitler, L. G.; Freire, P. C. C.; Lazarus, P.; Lee, K. J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Cordes, J. M.; Chatterjee, S.; Wharton, R. S.; Brazier, A. [Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Hessels, J. W. T. [ASTRON, Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Lorimer, D. R.; McLaughlin, M. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Crawford, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA 17604-3003 (United States); Deneva, J. S. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kaspi, V. M.; Karako-Argaman, C. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Allen, B. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Bogdanov, S.; Camilo, F. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Jenet, F. A. [Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States); Knispel, B., E-mail: lspitler@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Leibniz Universität, Hannover, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); and others

    2014-08-01

    Recent work has exploited pulsar survey data to identify temporally isolated, millisecond-duration radio bursts with large dispersion measures (DMs). These bursts have been interpreted as arising from a population of extragalactic sources, in which case they would provide unprecedented opportunities for probing the intergalactic medium; they may also be linked to new source classes. Until now, however, all so-called fast radio bursts (FRBs) have been detected with the Parkes radio telescope and its 13-beam receiver, casting some concern about the astrophysical nature of these signals. Here we present FRB 121102, the first FRB discovery from a geographic location other than Parkes. FRB 121102 was found in the Galactic anti-center region in the 1.4 GHz Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA) survey with the Arecibo Observatory with a DM = 557.4 ± 2.0 pc cm{sup –3}, pulse width of 3.0 ± 0.5 ms, and no evidence of interstellar scattering. The observed delay of the signal arrival time with frequency agrees precisely with the expectation of dispersion through an ionized medium. Despite its low Galactic latitude (b = –0.°2), the burst has three times the maximum Galactic DM expected along this particular line of sight, suggesting an extragalactic origin. A peculiar aspect of the signal is an inverted spectrum; we interpret this as a consequence of being detected in a sidelobe of the ALFA receiver. FRB 121102's brightness, duration, and the inferred event rate are all consistent with the properties of the previously detected Parkes bursts.

  17. Psychiatric side effects of pegylated interferon alfa-2b as compared to conventional interferon alfa-2b in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael R Kraus; Arne Sch(a)fer; Herbert Csef; Michael Scheurlen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess systematically the spectrum and extent of depressive symptoms comparing patient groups receiving peginterferon or conventional interferon.METHODS: Ninety-eight patients with chronic hepatitis C and interferon-based therapy (+ribavirin) were consecutively enrolled in a longitudinal study. Patients were treated with conventional interferon alfa-2b (48/98patients; 5 MIU interferon alfa-2b thrice weekly) or peginterferon alfa-2b (50/98 patients; 80-150 μgpeginterferon alfa-2b) in combination with weight-adapted ribavirin (800-1 200 mg/d). Repeated psychometric testing was performed before, three times during and once after antiviral therapy: Depression was evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), anger/hostility by the Symptom Checklist-90 Items Revised (SCL-90-R).RESULTS: Therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2bproduces comparable scores for depression (ANOVA:P = 0.875) as compared to conventional interferon.Maximums of depression scores were even higher and cases of clinically relevant depression were frequent during therapy with peginterferon. Scores for anger/hostility were comparable for both therapy subgroups.CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the extent and frequency of depressive symptoms in total are not reduced by peginterferon. Monitoring and management of neuropsychiatric toxicity especially depression have to be considered as much as in antiviral therapy with unmodified interferon.

  18. Thermoanalytical Investigation of Terazosin Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mohamed Abdel-Moety

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Thermal analysis (TGA, DTG and DTA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC have been used to study the thermal behavior of terazosin hydrochloride (TER. Methods: Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG, differential thermal analysis (DTA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC were used to determine the thermal behavior and purity of the used drug. Thermodynamic parameters such as activation energy (E*, enthalpy (H*, entropy (S* and Gibbs free energy change of the decomposition (G* were calculated using different kinetic models. Results: The purity of the used drug was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (99.97% and specialized official method (99.85% indicating to satisfactory values of the degree of purity. Thermal analysis technique gave satisfactory results to obtain quality control parameters such as melting point (273 ºC, water content (7.49% and ash content (zero in comparison to what were obtained using official method: (272 ºC, (8.0% and (0.02% for melting point, water content and ash content, respectively. Conclusion: Thermal analysis justifies its application in quality control of pharmaceutical compounds due to its simplicity, sensitivity and low operational costs. DSC data indicated that the degree of purity of terazosin hydrochloride is similar to that found by official method.

  19. Alfa tahab TeliaSonerat Türgis üle pakkuda / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    TeliaSoneraga, kellele kuulub 37 protsenti Türgi operaatorfirma Turkcell aktsiatest, konkureerib täiendava 27 protsendise aktsiapaki ostmises Venemaa operaatorfirmaga Alfa Telecom. Lisa: Kaasosanike huvid põrkuvad. Diagramm: Konkurendid Vene MegaFonis

  20. Alfa tahab TeliaSonerat Türgis üle pakkuda / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    TeliaSoneraga, kellele kuulub 37 protsenti Türgi operaatorfirma Turkcell aktsiatest, konkureerib täiendava 27 protsendise aktsiapaki ostmises Venemaa operaatorfirmaga Alfa Telecom. Lisa: Kaasosanike huvid põrkuvad. Diagramm: Konkurendid Vene MegaFonis

  1. Measurement of the total cross section with ALFA Detector at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Trzebinski, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The main goals of the Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS (ALFA) detector is to provide an absolute luminosity and total cross section measurement. The measurement method used, the detector alignment and the quality of the collected data are discussed.

  2. Investigation of Mechanical Behavior of Alfa and Gamma Nano- Alumina/ Epoxy Composite Made By Vartm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ghabezi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the mechanical properties (flexural and tensional modulus and strength are investigated by manufacturing Epoxy/Glass Nano-composite samples with different Nano-particle wt% (Nano-Alumina to find optimum conditions. The alpha and Gamma grade of Nano alumina were added to the epoxy system with the weight percentage of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. The experimental results show that the maximum flexural stiffness in Alfa and Gamma Nano-alumina composite is related to 6 wt% and 4 wt% samples, respectively. And the highest tensional stiffness in Alfa and Gamma Nano-alumina composite is related to 4 wt% and 5 wt% samples, respectively. Also the highest toughness for Alfa and Gamma Nano-composites is observed for 4 wt% and 3 wt% samples and in the same way Nano-alumina in grade Alfa with 1 wt% and Gamma with 3 wt% have highest failure strain.

  3. Simulation of the ATLAS ALFA detector in comparison with testbeam data

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, Felix-Fabian; Stenzel, H

    2010-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity for ATLAS) is a scintillating fiber detector for the determination of the absolute luminosity. ALFA con- sists of eight Roman Pots, four on each side of ATLAS at a distance of 240 m. Each detector is made of scintillating fibers with quadratic cross section, glued in UV geometry on ten double sided layers. The detectors are mounted in moveable Roman Pots and can approach the LHC beam up to 1.5 mm, to determine the luminosity from the differential t spectrum of elastically scattered protons using the optical theorem. This is done in special LHC calibration runs with large β ∗ , special focusing and low instant luminosity. The results of ALFA are needed for the calibration of ATLAS luminosity monitors like LUCID. This diploma thesis deals with the simulation of ALFA and the most recent testbeam campaign. A special focus is put on the comparison of results from simulation and testbeam.

  4. Factor de necrosis tumoral alfa en una población infanto-juvenil con sobrepeso

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teresita del R. Carrizo; Elba I. Díaz; María S. Velarde; María M. Prado; María C. Bazán; Adela V. Abregú

    2013-01-01

    El sobrepeso infantil está asociado a sobrepeso/obesidad en la edad adulta. El tejido adiposo en obesos produce una cantidad incrementada de citoquinas proinflamatorias como el factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF...

  5. Acute Psychotic Symptoms due to Benzydamine Hydrochloride Abuse with Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Ayhan Acar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzydamine hydrochloride is a locally acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Benzydamine hydrochloride overdose can cause stimulation of central nervous system, hallucinations, and psychosis. We presented a young man with psychotic symptoms due to benzydamine hydrochloride abuse. He received a total dose of 1000 mg benzydamine hydrochloride with alcohol for its hallucinative effects. Misuse of benzydamine hydrochloride must be considered in differential diagnosis of first-episode psychosis and physicians should consider possibility of abuse in prescribing.

  6. Spectrophotometric simultaneous estimation of ranitidine hydrochloride and ondansetron hydrochloride from tablet formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillai S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Three simple, accurate, economical and reproducible UV spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous estimation of two component drug mixture of ranitidine hydrochloride and ondansetron hydrochloride from combined tablet dosage form have been developed. First developed method involves formation and solving of simultaneous equations at 267.2 nm and 314.4 nm. Second method was developed making use of first order derivative spectroscopy using 340.8 nm and 276.0 nm as zero crossing points for estimation of ranitidine hydrochloride and ondansetron hydrochloride respectively. Third method is based on two wavelength calculation, wavelengths selected for estimation of ranitidine hydrochloride were 266.1 nm and 301.8 nm and for ondansetron hydrochloride 305.7 nm and 319.2 nm. The results of analysis have been validated statistically and by recovery studies.

  7. Spectrophotometric determination of diphenhydramine hydrochloride using dipicrylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsa, F A; Maghssoudi, R H

    1976-05-01

    A spectrophotometric procedure for the determination of diphenhydramine hydrochloride based on the reaction with dipicrylamine was developed. A yellow complex forms and is easily extractable by chloroform at pH 5. The mole ratio of diphenydramine hydrochloride to dipicrylamine in the complex is 1:3. The absorbance of the complex obeys Beer's law over the concentration range of 3-10 mug of diphenhydramine hydrochloride per ml of chloroform. This procedure can be carried out in the presence of other compounds without interference.

  8. Elosulfase Alfa: a review of its use in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (Morquio A syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyseng-Williamson, Katherine A

    2014-10-01

    Elosulfase alfa (Vimizim(®)) is a recombinant form of the human lysosomal enzyme N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (GALNS) that is lacking in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A syndrome). It is the first, and currently only, disease-specific treatment option for this very rare, progressively degenerative, autosomal-recessive lysosomal storage disorder. Enzyme replacement therapy with elosulfase alfa aims to restore GALNS activity, thereby preventing the accumulation of keratan sulfate (KS) and chondroitin-6-sulfate in lysosomal compartments of cells that results in the clinical manifestations of MPS IVA. In clinical trials in children and adults with MPS IVA, intravenous elosulfase alfa 2 mg/kg/week provided significant and sustained improvements in urinary levels of KS (a pharmacodynamic biomarker for the disease). In the key placebo-controlled, 24-week, phase 3 trial in patients with MPS IVA aged ≥5 years, elosulfase alfa 2 mg/kg/week significantly improved endurance [least squares mean placebo-adjusted change from baseline in 6-min walk test distance 22.5 m (95 % CI 4.0-40.9)]. Infusion-associated reactions, the primary tolerability issue associated with elosulfase alfa, are generally mild to moderate in severity, self-limiting, and manageable. In the absence of a cure, GALNS enzyme replacement therapy with elosulfase alfa is an important achievement in the treatment of MPS IVA.

  9. Combination of "low-dose" ribavirin and interferon alfa-2a therapy followed by interferon alfa-2a monotherapy in chronic HCV-infected non-responders and relapsers after interferon alfa-2a monotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Perdita Wietzke-Braun; Volker Meier; Felix Braun; Giuliano Ramadori

    2001-01-01

    AIM To report on the efficacy, safety and tolerability of interferon alfa-2a combined with a "low dose" of ribavirin for relapsers and non responders to alpha interferon monotherapy.METHODS Thirty-four chronic hepatitis C virus-infected non-responders to interferon alfa2a monotherapy (a course of at least 3 months treatment) and 13 relapsers to interferon alfa 2a monotherapy (a dose of 3 to 6 million units three times per week for at least 20 weeks but not more than 18 months) were treated with the same dose of interferon alfa-2a used before (3 to 6 million units three times per week) and ribavirin (10 mg/ kg daily) for 6 months. In complete responders, interferon alfa-2a was administered for further 6 months at the same dose used before as monotherapy.RESULTS Seven (20.6%) of 34 non-responders stopped the combined therapy due to adverse events, including two patients with histological and clinical Child A cirrhosis. In 17/27 (63%)non-responders, the combined therapy was stopped after three months because of non-response. Ten of the 27 non-responders completed the 1;2-month treatment course. At a mean follow up of 28 months (16- 37 months)after the treatment, 4/10 (15%) previous non-responders still remained complete responders,All 13 previous relapsers completed the 12-month treatment course. At a mean follow up of 22months (9 - 36 months) after treatment, 6/13(46%) the previous relapsers were stillsustained complete responders.CONCLUSION Our treatment schedule of the combined therapy for 6 months of interferon alfa2a with a low dose of ribavirin (10 mg/kg/day)followed by 6 months of interferon alfa-2amonotherapy is able to induce a sustainedcomplete response rate in 15% of non-responders and 46% of relapsers with chronic hepatitis C virus-related liver diseases comparable to those obtained with the standarddoses of ribavirin 1000 - 1200 mg/day.Randomized prospective controlled trials using lower total amounts of ribavirin in combination with interferon should be

  10. Stability Indicating HPLC Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Trihexyphenidyl Hydrochloride, Trifluoperazine Hydrochloride and Chlorpromazine Hydrochloride from Tablet Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, simple, precise, rapid, selective and stability indicating reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride, trifluoperazine hydrochloride and chlorpromazine hydrochloride from combined tablet formulation. The method is based on reverse-phase using C-18 (250×4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size column. The separation is achieved using isocratic elution by methanol and ammonium acetate buffer (1% w/v, pH 6.5 in the ratio of 85:15 v/v, pumped at flow rate 1.0 mL/min and UV detection at 215 nm. The column is maintained at 30 °C through out the analysis. This method gives baseline resolution. The total run time is 15 min. Stability indicating capability is established buy forced degradation experiment. The method is validated for specificity, accuracy, precision and linearity as per International conference of harmonisation (ICH. The method is accurate and linear for quantification of trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride, trifluoperazine hydrochloride and Chlorpromazine hydrochloride between 5 - 15 μg/mL, 12.5- 37.5 μg/mL and 62.5 - 187.5 μg/mL respectively.

  11. A Novel Synthesis of Difloxacin Hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Difloxacin hydrochloride, one of aryl-fluoro quinolone antibiotic, has been synthesized in seven steps from 2, 4-dichloro-5-fluoroacetophenone via oxalylation, ethoxymethylenation,amination, cyclization, hydrolysis, decarbonylation and N-methylpiperazination. Additional four new intermediates are produced.

  12. A novel asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    Arava, Veera R; Laxminarasimhulu Gorentla; Pramod K. Dubey

    2012-01-01

    A novel route to asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride by the application of (R)-tert-butanesulfinamide and regioselective N-alkylation of the naphthyl ethyl sulfinamide intermediate is described.

  13. A novel asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veera R. Arava

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel route to asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride by the application of (R-tert-butanesulfinamide and regioselective N-alkylation of the naphthyl ethyl sulfinamide intermediate is described.

  14. A novel asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorentla, Laxminarasimhulu; Dubey, Pramod K

    2012-01-01

    Summary A novel route to asymmetric synthesis of cinacalcet hydrochloride by the application of (R)-tert-butanesulfinamide and regioselective N-alkylation of the naphthyl ethyl sulfinamide intermediate is described. PMID:23019473

  15. Performance evaluation and optimization of the luminosity detector ALFA

    CERN Document Server

    Jakobsen, Sune; Grafström, P; Joram, C

    2010-01-01

    The startup of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) has initialized a new era in particle physics. The standard model of particle physics has for the last 40 years with tremendous success described all measurements with phenomenal precision. The experiments at the LHC will test the standard model in a new energy regime. To normalize the measurements and understand the potential discoveries of the LHC experiments it is often crucial to know the interaction rate - the absolute luminosity. The ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) detector will measure luminosity by numerous methods. But for most of the methods only the relative luminosity is measured with good precision. The absolute scale has to be provided from elsewhere. Therefore ATLAS plans to measure the flux of protons scattered under very small angles as this flux relates directly and with good precision to the absolute luminosity. This will be done by the ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) detector. The detectors will be positioned about 240 m from the interac...

  16. Fast Radio Burst Discovered in the Arecibo Pulsar ALFA Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Spitler, L G; Hessels, J W T; Lorimer, D R; McLaughlin, M A; Chatterjee, S; Crawford, F; Deneva, J S; Kaspi, V M; Wharton, R S; Allen, B; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Freire, P C C; Jenet, F A; Karako-Argaman, C; Knispel, B; Lazarus, P; Lee, K J; van Leeuwen, J; Lynch, R; Lyne, A G; Ransom, S M; Scholz, P; Siemens, X; Stairs, I H; Stovall, K; Swiggum, J K; Venkataraman, A; Zhu, W W; Aulbert, C; Fehrmann, H

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has exploited pulsar survey data to identify temporally isolated, millisecond-duration radio bursts with large dispersion measures (DMs). These bursts have been interpreted as arising from a population of extragalactic sources, in which case they would provide unprecedented opportunities for probing the intergalactic medium; they may also be linked to new source classes. Until now, however, all so-called fast radio bursts (FRBs) have been detected with the Parkes radio telescope and its 13-beam receiver, casting some concern about the astrophysical nature of these signals. Here we present FRB 121102, the first FRB discovery from a geographic location other than Parkes. FRB 121102 was found in the Galactic anti-center region in the 1.4-GHz Pulsar ALFA survey with the Arecibo Observatory with a DM = 557.4 $\\pm$ 3 pc cm$^{-3}$, pulse width of $3\\; \\pm 0.5$ ms, and no evidence of interstellar scattering. The observed delay of the signal arrival time with frequency agrees precisely with the expectation...

  17. Taliglucerase alfa: an enzyme replacement therapy using plant cell expression technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Gregory A; Golembo, Myriam; Shaaltiel, Yoseph

    2014-05-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is a rare, genetic lysosomal storage disorder caused by functional defects of acid β-glucosidase that results in multiple organ dysfunction. Glycosylation of recombinant acid human β-glucosidase and exposure of terminal mannose residues are critical to the success of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for the treatment of visceral and hematologic manifestations in GD. Three commercially available ERT products for treatment of GD type 1 (GD1) include imiglucerase, velaglucerase alfa, and taliglucerase alfa. Imiglucerase and velaglucerase alfa are produced in different mammalian cell systems and require production glycosylation modifications to expose terminal α-mannose residues, which are needed for mannose receptor-mediated uptake by target macrophages. Such modifications add to production costs. Taliglucerase alfa is a plant cell-expressed acid β-glucosidase approved in the United States and other countries for ERT in adults with GD1. A plant-based expression system, using carrot root cell cultures, was developed for production of taliglucerase alfa and does not require additional processing for postproduction glycosidic modifications. Clinical trials have demonstrated that taliglucerase alfa is efficacious, with a well-established safety profile in adult, ERT-naïve patients with symptomatic GD1, and for such patients previously treated with imiglucerase. These included significant improvements in organomegaly and hematologic parameters as early as 6months, and maintenance of achieved therapeutic values in previously treated patients. Ongoing clinical trials will further characterize the long-term efficacy and safety of taliglucerase alfa in more diverse patient populations, and may help to guide clinical decisions for achieving optimal outcomes for patients with GD1.

  18. 78 FR 34108 - Determination That SUBOXONE (Buprenorphine Hydrochloride and Naloxone Hydrochloride) Sublingual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That SUBOXONE (Buprenorphine Hydrochloride and... (buprenorphine hydrochloride (HCl) and naloxone HCl) sublingual tablets, 2 milligrams (mg)/0.5 mg and 8 mg/2 mg... to approve abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for buprenorphine HCl and naloxone...

  19. Thermophysical and mechanical characterization of clay bricks reinforced by alfa or straw fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhamdouni, Y.; Khabbazi, A.; Benayad, C.; Mounir, S.; Dadi, A.

    2017-03-01

    This work is part of the valuation of local materials such as clay (earth), alfa fiber and straw fiber. The goal is to use these materials as bricks in rural construction. These materials are abundant, natural, and renewable. The objective of this work is to study the thermal and mechanical behavior of a new material by mixing clay (chosen as the binder) with different mass percentages of alfa fiber (0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%), and to compare these results with those of materials often used in the construction of individual houses in rural Morocco (clay + straw). The results obtained prove to us that using straw fibers can reduce the thermal conductivity compared to alfa fiber, which allows to have energy savings of 2% to 7%. By against, alfa fibers can improve the mechanical behavior of clay-based materials when compared to the clay + straw material (an increase of 8% to 17% in the tractive resistance by bending and 6% to 18% for compression resistance). These results also specify the optimal usage conditions of these fibers (alfa and straw) in the clay bricks.

  20. Effects of MAPP Compatibilization and Acetylation Treatment Followed by Hydrothermal Aging on Polypropylene Alfa Fiber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noura Hamour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the effect of hydrothermal aging on the properties of polypropylene/alfa fiber composites. Hydrothermal aging was induced in an environmental testing chamber at 65°C and 75% relative humidity (RH over a 1000 h period. At the beginning (t=0 h, the results showed that Young’s moduli of the untreated alfa fibers and the acetylation-treated fibers increased by 21% and 36%, respectively, compared with the virgin polypropylene (PP. Additionally, Young’s moduli decreased by 7% for the compatibilized composites composed of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP. After 1000 h of aging, Young’s moduli decreased by 36% for untreated alfa fibers and 29% for the acetylation-treated alfa fibers and the compatibilized composites. Significant degradation was observed in the untreated alfa fiber samples. The Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR allows us to distinguish the characteristic absorption bands of the main chemical functions present in the composite material before and after aging. The thermal properties showed that the thermal stability and the degree of crystallinity of the composites decreased after hydrothermal aging; this result was corroborated by the dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA results.

  1. Home infusion program for Fabry disease: experience with agalsidase alfa in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Kisinovsky

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by inherited deficiency of the enzyme α-galactosidase A. Enzyme replacement treatment using agalsidase alfa significantly reduces pain, improves cardiac function and quality of life, and slows renal deterioration. Nevertheless, it is a life-long treatment which requires regular intravenous infusions and entails a great burden for patients. Our objective was to evaluate retrospectively the safety and tolerability of the home infusion of agalsidase alfa in patients with Fabry disease in Argentina. We evaluated all the patients with Fabry disease who received home infusion with agalsidase alfa 0.2 mg/kg between January 2005 and June 2011. The program included 87 patients; 51 males (mean age: 30 years and 36 females (mean age: 34 years. A total of 5229 infusions (mean: 59 per patient; range: 1-150 were administered. A total of 5 adverse reactions were seen in 5 patients (5.7% of patients and 0.9% of the total number of infusions. All were mild in severity and resolved by reducing the rate of infusion and by using antihistaminics. All these 5 patients were positive for IgG antibodies, but none of them presented IgE antibodies and none suffered an anaphylactic shock. In our group 18 patients were switched from agalsidase beta to agalsidase alfa without complications. Home infusion with agalsidase alfa is safe, well tolerated and is associated to high compliance.

  2. Anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrinolytic effects of thrombomodulin alfa through carboxypeptidase B2 in the presence of thrombin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawara, Shunsuke; Sakai, Takumi; Matsuzaki, Osamu

    2016-11-01

    Thrombomodulin (TM) alfa, a recombinant human soluble TM, enhances activation of pro-carboxypeptidase B2 (pro-CPB2) by thrombin. Activated pro-CPB2 (CPB2) exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrinolytic activities. Therefore, TM alfa may also have anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrinolytic effects through CPB2. However, these effects of TM alfa have not been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of TM alfa on inactivation of complement component C5a as an anti-inflammatory effect and prolongation of clot lysis time as an anti-fibrinolytic effect via CPB2 in vitro. CPB2 activity and tissue factor-induced thrombin generation was examined by a chromogenic assay. C5a inactivation was evaluated by C-terminal cleavage of C5a and inhibition of C5a-induced human neutrophil migration. Clot lysis time prolongation was examined by a tissue-type plasminogen activator-induced clot lysis assay. CPB2 activity in human plasma was increased by TM alfa and thrombin in a concentration-dependent manner. TM alfa inhibited tissue factor-induced thrombin generation and enhanced pro-CPB2 activation in human plasma simultaneously. The mass spectrum of C5a treated with TM alfa, thrombin, and pro-CPB2 was decreased at 156m/z, indicating that TM alfa enhanced the processing of C5a to C-terminal-cleaved C5a, an inactive form of C5a. C5a-induced human neutrophil migration was decreased after C5a treatment with TM alfa, thrombin, and pro-CPB2. TM alfa prolonged the clot lysis time in human plasma, and this effect was completely abolished by addition of a CPB2 inhibitor. TM alfa exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrinolytic effects through CPB2 in the presence of thrombin in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Octenidine hydrochloride in hydatid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindis, Mustafa; Arikan, Yuksel; Cetinkaya, Zafer; Polat, Coskun; Yilmaz, Sezgin; Akbulut, Gökhan; Dilek, Osman Nuri; Gokce, Ozcan

    2004-01-01

    Hydatid disease is still endemic in many devoloping countries and continues to be an important cause of morbidity. The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro scolicidal effects of octenidine hydrochloride in different concentrations using different exposure times. After hydatid cyst liquid was left to precipitate for 1 h to obtain cystic sand, various concentrations of octenidine (undiluted, 1% and 0.1% diluted) were added to concentrated hydatid cyst sediments for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, and 60 min, and scolicidal effects of octenidine were compared with 20% saline and control group for the same times. It was found that undiluted octenidine had a strong scolicidal effect at 15 min compared to saline at 20%. One percent octenidine had a scolicidal effect at 30 min. However, 0.1% octenidine did not have enough scolicidal effect in 1 h. It was concluded that undiluted and 1% diluted octenidine might be used for scolicidal purpose in the treatment of hydatid disease.

  4. Compound list: fluoxetine hydrochloride [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fluoxetine hydrochloride FLX 00158 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/...LATEST/Human/in_vitro/fluoxetine_hydrochloride.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/o...pen-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/fluoxetine_hydrochloride.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp....biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/fluoxetine_hydrochloride.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  5. Design and Manufacture of the Irradiation Complex "Alfa" for Track Membranes Production

    CERN Document Server

    Alenitsky, Yu G; Vylov, T D; Glazov, A A; Danilov, V I; Denisov, Yu N; Dmitrievsky, V P; Dolya, S N; Zaplatin, N L; Ivashkevich, S A; Kadyshevskij, V G; Kalinichenko, V V; Karamysheva, G A; Klimkin, I P; Kochkin, V A; Morozov, N A; Novikov, D L; Smolkov, A V; Tolstoy, N S; Tychkov, Yu I; Utkin, V A; Fedorenko, S B; Chesnov, A F

    2004-01-01

    The film irradiation complex "Alfa" intended for exposing the polymer films used in the track membranes production was designed and manufactured at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research for "Trackpore Technology" holding company. The complex consists of the isochronous cyclotron with external injection of ions, the extraction system, the beam transport of accelerated ions and the film irradiation chamber. The complex "Alfa" produces polyethylene terephthalate track membranes with less than 25 {\\mu}m thickness and less than 40 cm width. The film irradiation complex "Alfa" started working in August 2002. Argon ions were accelerated to the project energy - 2.4 MeV/nucleon, extracted beam intensity was about 200 nA, extraction efficiency totaled \\sim 50 %.

  6. Dificuldades na identificação laboratorial da talassemia alfa

    OpenAIRE

    Dias-Penna,Karlla Greick Batista; Melo-Reis,Paulo Roberto de; Mesquita, Mauro Meira de; Silva, Jairo Batista da; Bataus,Luiz Artur Mendes

    2010-01-01

    Introdução: Talassemia alfa é uma síndrome associada à redução da síntese de cadeias de globina do tipo alfa. A gravidade das manifestações clínicas está relacionada com a quantidade de globinas produzida e a estabilidade das cadeias beta presentes em excesso. A talassemia alfa mínima resulta da deleção de apenas um dos quatro genes a (-α/αα). Clinicamente apresenta anemia leve com microcitose ou ausência de anemia, sendo o diagnóstico realizado por meio de visualização da hemo...

  7. Baseline characteristics of patients in the Reduction of Events with Darbepoetin alfa in Heart Failure trial (RED-HF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McMurray, John J. V.; Anand, Inder S.; Diaz, Rafael; Maggioni, Aldo P.; O'Connor, Christopher; Pfeffer, Marc A.; Solomon, Scott D.; Tendera, Michal; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Albizem, Moetaz; Cheng, Sunfa; Scarlata, Debra; Swedberg, Karl; Young, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Aims This report describes the baseline characteristics of patients in the Reduction of Events with Darbepoetin alfa in Heart Failure trial (RED-HF) which is testing the hypothesis that anaemia correction with darbepoetin alfa will reduce the composite endpoint of death from any cause or hospital ad

  8. 21 CFR 182.1047 - Glutamic acid hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glutamic acid hydrochloride. 182.1047 Section 182.1047 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1047 Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (a) Product. Glutamic acid hydrochloride....

  9. The ATLAS ALFA and AFP detectors - the experimental challenge of measuring forward protons at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Trzebinski, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS (ALFA) and ATLAS Forward Protons (AFP) detectors are introduced. The forward proton trajectories are shown. The similarities and differences between these two detector systems are described. Finally, the physics possible to be done in these forward detectors is discussed. In particular, in case of ALFA the elastic scattering and exclusive di-pion production are described. In case of AFP, the hard diffractive processes like: Single Diffractive Jet, Double Pomeron Exchange Jet, Exclusive Jet and anomalous coupling production are described.

  10. Agregación de alfa-sinucleína y degeneración Parkinsoniana

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Espejo, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    La alfa-sinucleína es la proteína principal de los cuerpos de Lewy, marcador anatomopatológico de la enfermedad de Parkinson. Dicha proteína puede ver alterada su conformación y adquirir capacidad autoagregante, lo que se relaciona con el depósito de agregados proteináceos en las neuronas y podría constituir un factor fisiopatológico importante en dicha enfermedad. Los agregados poseen fibrillas de alfa-sinucleína alterada, y las moléculas se encuentran unidas entre sí por enlaces no...

  11. ESTABILIZACIÓN DE HOLO-alfa-LACTOALBÚMINA EN PRESENCIA DE POLIOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Albis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un estudio sistemático sobre el efecto de las soluciones acuosas de eritritol, xilitol, sorbitol e inositol con diferentes concentraciones, sobre la estabilidad térmica de la holo- alfa-lactoalbúmina bovina con pH 6,5 usando espectroscopia UV-VIS. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que los polioles usados estabilizan la holo-alfa-lactoalbúmina en un grado significativamente menor al reportado para otras proteínas. Se sugiere que este menor efecto de estabilización ocurre debido a que esta proteína presenta un estado desnaturalizado parcialmente desdoblado.

  12. Agregación de alfa-sinucleína y degeneración Parkinsoniana

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Espejo, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    La alfa-sinucleína es la proteína principal de los cuerpos de Lewy, marcador anatomopatológico de la enfermedad de Parkinson. Dicha proteína puede ver alterada su conformación y adquirir capacidad autoagregante, lo que se relaciona con el depósito de agregados proteináceos en las neuronas y podría constituir un factor fisiopatológico importante en dicha enfermedad. Los agregados poseen fibrillas de alfa-sinucleína alterada, y las moléculas se encuentran unidas entre sí por enlaces no...

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Arecibo Pulsar-ALFA (PALFA) survey. IV. (Lazarus+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, P.; Brazier, A.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Lynch, R.; Madsen, E.; Patel, C.; Ransom, S. M.; Scholz, P.; Swiggum, J.; Zhu, W. W.; Allen, B.; Bogdanov, S.; Camilo, F.; Cardoso, F.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J. S.; Ferdman, R.; Freire, P. C. C.; Jenet, F. A.; Knispel, B.; Lee, K. J.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lorimer, D. R.; Lyne, A. G.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Siemens, X.; Spitler, L. G.; Stairs, I. H.; Stovall, K.; Venkataraman, A.

    2016-02-01

    The Arecibo Pulsar-ALFA (PALFA) survey observations have been restricted to the two regions of the Galactic plane (|b|<5°) visible from the Arecibo observatory, the inner Galaxy (32°<~l<~77°), and the outer Galaxy (168°<~l<~214°). Integration times are 268s and 180s for inner and outer Galaxy observations, respectively. Observations conducted with the 7-beam Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA) receiver of the Arecibo Observatory William E. Gordon 305m Telescope have a bandwidth of 322MHz centered at 1375MHz. PALFA survey data have been recorded with the Mock spectrometers since 2009. (2 data files).

  14. Diagnóstico molecular da talassemia ALFA+ (DELEÇÃO -3.7) em indivíduos com microcitose e/ou hipocromia

    OpenAIRE

    Bezerra, Christiane Medeiros

    2009-01-01

    A talassemia alfa, uma das doenças monogênicas mais comuns no mundo, resulta de um desequilíbrio na síntese das cadeias alfa da hemoglobina devido, principalmente, à deleção de um ou ambos os genes da globina alfa, sendo a deleção - a mais freqüente. A talassemia alfa, juntamente com a deficiência de ferro e a talassemia beta, representa uma importante causa de microcitose e hipocromia. Com o objetivo de diagnosticar e verificar a prevalência da talassemia alfa (-3.7) em indivíduos co...

  15. Diagnóstico molecular da talassemia ALFA+ (DELEÇÃO -3.7) em indivíduos com microcitose e/ou hipocromia

    OpenAIRE

    Bezerra, Christiane Medeiros

    2009-01-01

    A talassemia alfa, uma das doenças monogênicas mais comuns no mundo, resulta de um desequilíbrio na síntese das cadeias alfa da hemoglobina devido, principalmente, à deleção de um ou ambos os genes da globina alfa, sendo a deleção - a mais freqüente. A talassemia alfa, juntamente com a deficiência de ferro e a talassemia beta, representa uma importante causa de microcitose e hipocromia. Com o objetivo de diagnosticar e verificar a prevalência da talassemia alfa (-3.7) em indivíduos co...

  16. The Synchrony and Diachrony of Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian Adjectival Long-Form Allomorphy (ALFA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, James Joshua

    2010-01-01

    In Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), the gentive (G) and dative/locative (DL) cases exhibit adjectival long-form allomorphy (ALFA). The genitive -"og" -"oga" and the DL -"om" -"ome" -"omu" stand in free variation, inasmuch as when one form is substituted for another the truth value of an utterance…

  17. High antibody titer in an adult with Pompe disease affects treatment with alglucosidase alfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Juna M; van der Beek, Nadine A M E; Kroos, Marian A; Ozkan, Lale; van Doorn, Pieter A; Richards, Susan M; Sung, Crystal C C; Brugma, Jan-Dietert C; Zandbergen, Adrienne A M; van der Ploeg, Ans T; Reuser, Arnold J J

    2010-12-01

    Clinical trials have demonstrated beneficial effects of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with alglucosidase alfa in infants, children and adults with Pompe disease. Recent studies have shown that high antibody titers can occur in patients receiving ERT and counteract the effect of treatment. This particularly occurs in those patients with classic-infantile Pompe disease that do not produce any endogenous acid α-glucosidase (CRIM-negative). It is still unclear to what extent antibody formation affects the outcome of ERT in adults with residual enzyme activity. We present the case of a patient with adult-onset Pompe disease. He was diagnosed at the age of 39years by enzymatic testing (10.7% residual activity in fibroblasts) and DNA analysis (genotype: c.-32-13T>G/p.Trp516X). Infusion-associated reactions occurred during ERT and the patient's disease progressed. Concurrently, the antibody titer rose to a similarly high level as reported for some CRIM-negative patients with classic-infantile Pompe disease. Using newly developed immunologic-assays we could calculate that approximately 40% of the administered alglucosidase alfa was captured by circulating antibodies. Further, we could demonstrate that uptake of alglucosidase alfa by cultured fibroblasts was inhibited by admixture of the patient's serum. This case demonstrates that also patients with an appreciable amount of properly folded and catalytically active endogenous acid α-glucosidase can develop antibodies against alglucosidase alfa that affect the response to ERT.

  18. A Trial of Darbepoetin Alfa in Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeffer, Marc A.; Burdmann, Emmanuel A.; Chen, Chao-Yin; Cooper, Mark E.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Feyzi, Jan M.; Ivanovich, Peter; Kewalramani, Reshma; Levey, Andrew S.; Lewis, Eldrin F.; McGill, Janet B.; McMurray, John J. V.; Parfrey, Patrick; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Singh, Ajay K.; Solomon, Scott D.; Toto, Robert

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Anemia is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and renal events among patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Although darbepoetin alfa can effectively increase hemoglobin levels, its effect on clinical outcomes in these patients has not been adequately te

  19. Artur Gas, editor de Josep Pla: breu història d'Ediciones Alfa

    OpenAIRE

    Pla, Xavier

    1997-01-01

    Repàs de la trajectòria professional com a editor, començant com a editor de caire socialista i acabant col·laborant amb la dictadura de Primo de Rivera. Es fa especial menció al seu paper com a editor de Josep Pla i a la seva editorial, Ediciones Alfa

  20. Cartap hydrochloride poisoning: A clinical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari K Boorugu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cartap hydrochloride, a nereistoxin analog, is a commonly used low toxicity insecticide. We describe a patient who presented to the emergency department with alleged history of ingestion of Cartap hydrochloride as an act of deliberate self-harm. The patient was managed conservatively. To our knowledge this is the first case report of Cartap hydrochloride suicidal poisoning. Cartap toxicity has been considered to be minimal, but a number of animal models have shown significant neuromuscular toxicity resulting in respiratory failure. It is hypothesized that the primary effect of Cartap hydrochloride is through inhibition of the [ 3 H]-ryanodine binding to the Ca 2+ release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum in a dose-dependent manner and promotion of extracellular Ca 2+ influx and induction of internal Ca 2+ release. This results in tonic diaphragmatic contraction rather than paralysis. This is the basis of the clinical presentation of acute Cartap poisoning as well as the treatment with chelators namely British Anti Lewisite and sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate.

  1. 21 CFR 556.350 - Levamisole hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride. 556.350 Section 556.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs...

  2. Cartap hydrochloride poisoning: A clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorugu, Hari K; Chrispal, Anugrah

    2012-01-01

    Cartap hydrochloride, a nereistoxin analog, is a commonly used low toxicity insecticide. We describe a patient who presented to the emergency department with alleged history of ingestion of Cartap hydrochloride as an act of deliberate self-harm. The patient was managed conservatively. To our knowledge this is the first case report of Cartap hydrochloride suicidal poisoning. Cartap toxicity has been considered to be minimal, but a number of animal models have shown significant neuromuscular toxicity resulting in respiratory failure. It is hypothesized that the primary effect of Cartap hydrochloride is through inhibition of the [(3)H]-ryanodine binding to the Ca(2+) release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum in a dose-dependent manner and promotion of extracellular Ca(2+) influx and induction of internal Ca(2+) release. This results in tonic diaphragmatic contraction rather than paralysis. This is the basis of the clinical presentation of acute Cartap poisoning as well as the treatment with chelators namely British Anti Lewisite and sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate.

  3. 21 CFR 184.1676 - Pyridoxine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hydrochloride that is prepared by chemical synthesis. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food... chapter; meat products as defined in § 170.3(n)(29) of this chapter; milk products as defined in § 170.3(n)(31) of this chapter; plant protein products as defined in § 170.3(n)(33) of this chapter; and...

  4. Spotlight on taliglucerase alfa in the treatment of pediatric patients with type 1 Gaucher disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta P

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Punita Gupta,1 Gregory M Pastores2 1Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, St. Joseph’s Children’s Hospital, Paterson, New Jersey, USA; 2National Center for Inherited Metabolic Disorders, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland Abstract: Gaucher disease (GD is a heritable storage disorder caused by functional defects of the lysosomal acid β-glucosidase and the accumulation of glucosylceramide within macrophages, resulting in multiple organ dysfunction. There are three commercially available enzyme replacement therapy (ERT products for the treatment of GD type 1 (GD1: imiglucerase, velaglucerase alfa, and taliglucerase alfa. Imiglucerase and velaglucerase alfa are produced in different mammalian cell systems; imiglucerase requires postproduction deglycosylation to expose terminal α-mannose residues, which are required for mannose receptor-mediated uptake by target macrophages. These steps are critical to the success of ERT for the treatment of visceral and hematologic manifestations of GD. Taliglucerase alfa is the first US Food and Drug Administration-approved plant-cell-expressed recombinant human protein, using carrot root cell cultures. Furthermore, it does not require postproduction glycosidic modifications. It is indicated for treatment of adults with GD1 in the US, Israel, Australia, Canada, Chile, Brazil, and other countries, and it is additionally approved for the treatment of pediatric patients in the US, Australia, and Canada and for the treatment of hematologic manifestations in pediatric patients with Type 3 GD in Canada and other countries. Our review focuses on the role of taliglucerase alfa in the pediatric population. A literature search through PubMed (from 1995 up till November 2016 of English language articles was performed with the following terms: Gaucher disease, lysosomal storage disease, taliglucerase. Secondary and tertiary references were obtained by reviewing

  5. Long-term effect of epoetin alfa on clinical and biochemical markers in friedreich ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccà, Francesco; Puorro, Giorgia; Marsili, Angela; Antenora, Antonella; Pane, Chiara; Casali, Carlo; Marcotulli, Christian; Defazio, Giovanni; Liuzzi, Daniele; Tatillo, Chiara; Cambriglia, Donata Maria; Schiano di Cola, Giuseppe; Giuliani, Luigi; Guardasole, Vincenzo; Salzano, Andrea; Ruvolo, Antonio; De Rosa, Anna; Cittadini, Antonio; De Michele, Giuseppe; Filla, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    Friedreich ataxia is an autosomal recessive disease with no available therapy. Clinical trials with erythropoietin in Friedreich ataxia patients have yielded conflicting results, and the long-term effect of the drug remains unknown. We designed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial to test the efficacy of epoetin alfa on 56 patients with Friedreich ataxia. The primary endpoint of the study was the effect of epoetin alfa on peak oxygen uptake (VO2 max) at the cardiopulmonary exercise test. Secondary endpoints were frataxin levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, improvement in echocardiography findings, vascular reactivity, neurological progression, upper limb dexterity, safety, and quality of life. Epoetin alfa or placebo (1:1 ratio) was administered subcutaneously at a dose of 1200 IU/Kg of body weight every 12 weeks for 48 weeks. A total of 56 patients were randomized; 27 completed the study in the active treatment group, and 26 completed the study in the placebo group[KG1]. VO2 max was not modified after treatment (0.01 [-0.04 to 0.05]; P = .749), as well as most of the secondary endpoint measures, including frataxin. The 9-hole peg test showed a significant amelioration in the treatment group (-17.24 sec. [-31.5 to -3.0]; P = .018). The treatment was safe and well tolerated. Although results are not in favor of an effect of epoetin alfa in Friedreich ataxia, this is the largest trial testing its effect. It is still possible that epoetin alfa may show some symptomatic effect on upper-limb performance. This study provides class I evidence that erythropoietin does not ameliorate VO2 max in patients with Friedreich ataxia. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  6. Comportamiento de glicinina, beta-conglicinina y alfa-amilasa en semillas de soja deterioradas y no deterioradas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salinas, Adriana Rita; Yoldjian, Ana Maria; Dietrich, María Lucrecia; Craviotto, Roque Mario; Bisaro, Vilma

    2002-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue estudiar el comportamiento de glicinina y beta-conglicinina y la actividad de alfa-amilasa en semillas deterioradas y no deterioradas de 10 cultivares de soja [Glycine max (L.) Merr...

  7. Stroke in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and anemia treated with Darbepoetin Alfa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skali, Hicham; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Parfrey, Patrick S

    2011-01-01

    More strokes were observed in the Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events With Aranesp Therapy (TREAT) among patients assigned to darbepoetin alfa. We sought to identify baseline characteristics and postrandomization factors that might explain this association....

  8. [Antiseptics on the base of Octenidine Hydrochloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovskií, N N; Reshetnikov, E A; Rubashnaia, I E; Mal'nikova, G N; Mitiukov, A P

    1997-01-01

    Comparative evaluation of laboratory and clinical investigation of antiseptic preparations on the base of octenidin-hydrochloride and bigluconate chlorhexidine in 537 patients was carried out. Statistically valid decrease in dissemination through the operation field and surgical wound after application of octenidin containing solutions was determined. It was established as well that these preparations were more effective fools of protection of the operation wound from its microbial contamination in comparison with antiseptic solutions widely spread to date in surgical practice.

  9. 抗抑郁药Duloxetine Hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾建国; 晋展

    2003-01-01

    @@ 日本Shionogi公司获得了Eli Lilly公司的授权,对其研制的一种对5-羟色胺(5-HT)和去甲肾上腺素(NE)的摄取有双重抑制作用的化合物Duloxetine Hydrochloride (Cymbalta(R),LY-264453,LY-248686)进行了进一步的开发.

  10. Effect of iptakalim hydrochloride on hemodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-leiZHU; HaiWANG; Wen-binXIAO

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of iptakalim hydrochloride (Ipt) on hemodynamics. METHODS: Effect of Ipt on hemodynamics were studied in anesthetized nomotensive dogs, conscious nomotensive rats (NTR), and stroke prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRsp), respectively. RESULTS: In pentobarbital anesthetized nomotensive dogs, Ipt at doses of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5,1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg iv could dose-dependently decrease blood pressure (BP), with the decrease of systolic BP equivalent

  11. Cartap hydrochloride poisoning: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sumesh Raj; Sheetal S.

    2014-01-01

    Cartap hydrochloride is a thiocarbamate insecticide used for control of chewing and sucking insects of all stages of development, on many crops. It is an analogue of nereistoxin. Poisoning with cartap is very rarely reported from India. We report a 46 year old man who consumed cartap with alcohol, presented with nausea & vomiting and improved with supportive measures. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000): 360-361

  12. Darbepoietin-alfa has comparable erythropoietic stimulatory effects to recombinant erythropoietin whilst preserving the bone marrow microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewamitta, Sita R; Russell, Megan R; Nandurkar, Harshal; Walkley, Carl R

    2013-05-01

    Erythropoiesis stimulating agents are widely used for the treatment of anemia. Recently, we reported erythroid expansion with impaired B lymphopoiesis and loss of trabecular bone in C57BL/6 mice following ten days of treatment with low-dose short acting recombinant human erythropoietin. We have assessed erythropoietin against longer-acting darbepoietin-alfa at a comparable erythroid stimulatory dosage regime. Darbepoietin-alfa and erythropoietin induced similar in vivo erythropoietic expansion. Both agents induced an expansion of the colony-forming unit-erythroid populations. However, unlike erythropoietin, darbepoietin-alfa did not impair bone marrow B lymphopoiesis. Strikingly the bone loss observed with erythropoietin was not apparent following darbepoietin-alfa treatment. This analysis demonstrates that whilst darbepoietin-alfa has similar in vivo erythropoietic potency to erythropoietin, it preserves the bone marrow microenvironment. Thus erythropoietin and darbepoietin-alfa manifest different action showing that erythropoiesis stimulating agents have differential non-erythroid effects dependent on their duration of action.

  13. Stability of paclitaxel with ondansetron hydrochloride or ranitidine hydrochloride during simulated Y-site administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burm, J P; Jhee, S S; Chin, A; Moon, Y S; Jeong, E; Nii, L; Fox, J L; Gill, M A

    1994-05-01

    The stability of paclitaxel with either ondansetron hydrochloride or ranitidine hydrochloride during simulated Y-site injection at room temperature was studied. Triplicate test solutions of paclitaxel 0.3 and 1.2 mg/mL were admixed 1:1 with ondansetron 0.03 and 0.3 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride salt) or ranitidine 0.5 and 2.0 mg/mL (as the hydrochloride salt). Also, paclitaxel 1.2 mg/mL was admixed 1:1:1 with ondansetron 0.3 mg/mL and ranitidine 2.0 mg/mL. The solutions were stored in glass containers at room temperature, and samples were removed at zero, one, two, and four hours for immediate assay. At the time of the assay and before any dilution, each sample was visually inspected for clarity, color, and precipitation, and the pH was determined. Drug concentrations were measured by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic procedures. Throughout the study, more than 90% of the initial concentrations of paclitaxel, ondansetron, and ranitidine remained in the solutions. No precipitates, color changes, or haziness was seen. The changes in pH were minor. Paclitaxel in concentrations of 0.3 and 1.2 mg/mL was stable when mixed with either ondansetron (0.03 or 0.3 mg/mL, as the hydrochloride salt) or ranitidine (0.5 or 2.0 mg/mL, as the hydrochloride salt) and stored in glass containers for four hours. Paclitaxel 1.2 mg/mL was also stable when mixed with both ondansetron 0.3 mg/mL and ranitidine 2.0 mg/mL and stored in glass containers for four hours.

  14. A Study of Diffractive Scattering with the ATLAS and ALFA Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lind, Alexander Pedersen

    This thesis presents a study of diffractive scattering of high-energy protons. Hadronic diffraction is not well-understood and many alternative approaches exist. The Monte Carlo event generator Pythia 8 follows a Pomeron-based approach, where the invariant mass of the diffractive system and the squared momentum transfer $t$ of the system is set up according to a phenomenological Pomeron flux parameterization, which is parameterized by the super-critical Pomeron trajectory, $\\alpha(t) = 1 + \\varepsilon + \\alpha' t$, where the intercept parameter $\\varepsilon$ and the slope parameter $\\alpha'$ can be tuned by the user. A fast detector response simulation of the ALFA and ATLAS detectors has been developed in the Rivet toolkit for the purposes of this thesis. The developed simulation framework is able to handle the beam transport of diffractively scattered protons as well as impose the kinematic acceptance of the ALFA detector which was found to be approximately $\\xi \\lesssim 0.22$, with a pseudorapidity coverag...

  15. Deficiência de alfa-1 antitripsina: diagnóstico e tratamento

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    A deficiência de alfa-1 antitripsina é um distúrbio genético de descoberta recente e que ocorre com freqüência comparável à da fibrose cística. Resulta de diferentes mutações no gene SERPINA1 e tem diversas implicações clínicas. A alfa-1 antitripsina é produzida principalmente no fígado e atua como uma antiprotease. Tem como principal função inativar a elastase neutrofílica, impedindo a ocorrência de dano tecidual. A mutação mais freqüentemente relacionada à doença clínica é o alelo Z, que de...

  16. Development of a detector (ALFA) to measure the absolute LHC luminosity at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Mapelli, A; Ask, S; Barrillon, P; Blanchot, G; Blin, S; Braem, André; Cheiklali, C; de La Taille, C; Di Girolamo, B; Efthymiopoulos, I; Faustino, J; Fournier, D; Franz, S; Grafström, P; Gurriana, L; Haguenauer, M; Hedberg, V; Heller, M; Hoffmann, S; Iwanski, W; Joram, C; Kocnar, A; Lavigne, B; Lundberg, B; Maio, A; Maneira, M J P; Marques, C; Mjörnmark, U; Conde-Muíño, P; Puzo, P; Rijssenbeeck, M; Santos, J P; Saraiva, J G; Seguin-Moreau, N; Soares, S; Stenzel, H; Thioye, M; Valladolid-Gallego, E; Vorobel, V; 10th ICATPP Conference on Astroparticle, Particle, Space Physics, Detectors and Medical Physics Applications

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration plans to determine the absolute luminosity of the CERN LHC at Interaction Point 1 by measuring the trajectory of protons elastically scattered at very small angles ($\\mu rad$). A scintillating fibre tracker system called ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is proposed for this measurement. Detector modules will be placed above and below the LHC beam axis in roman pot units at a distance of 240 m on each side of the ATLAS interaction point. They allow the detectors to approach the beam axis to millimeter distance. Overlap detectors also based on the scintillating fibre technology, will measure the precise relative position of the two detector modules. Results obtained during beam tests at DESY and at CERN validate the detectors design and demonstrate the achievable resolution. We also report about radiation hardness studies of the scintillating fibres to estimate the lifetime of the ALFA system at different operating conditions of the LHC.

  17. Simultaneous determination of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and cetrizine hydrochloride by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed using Shimadzu HPLC-VP series, LC-10 ATV pump, SPD10 AVP and C8 column, for simultaneous determination of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and cetrizine hydrochloride in three marketed tablet formulations (extended release. The mobile phase consists of phosphate buffer of pH 7.0 and acetonitrile HPLC grade in the ratio of 1:1. The flow rate was maintained at 1 ml/min and the ultraviolet detection was done at 242 nm, which is the isosbestic point. Linearity coefficients, assay values, recovery studies and repeatability studies showed that the method is accurate and precise.

  18. Effect of matrine hydrochloride on liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li-bo; XU Feng; MA Wen-hui

    2008-01-01

    Objective Searching the function that the Injection of the matrine hydrochloride prevents and cures acute chemical liver injury of mice、 immunity liver injury of mice and chronic liver injury of rats. Methods Acute hepatic injury models of mice induced by Chemical poison carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), thioacetamide(TAA), D-galactosamine(D-GalN), immunity hepatic injury model of mice induced by BCG and fat polysaccharide (LPS), chronic liver injury model of rats induced by CCI, were introduced in the experiment. The serum ALT and AST were measured in acute hepatic injury experiments. Serum ALT, AST, AKP, ALB, TP, BiL-T, ereatinine, triglyceride, sialie acid, larninin, hyaluronic acid, type Ⅲ proeollagen and type Ⅳ collagen, hepatic hydroxyproline (HyP) of rats in chronic liver injury animals were determined after Injection of the matrine hydrochloride. Results The Injection of the matrine hydrochloride reduced serum ALT and AST level of acute chemical liver injury of mice induced by CCl4, TAA and D-GaIN. The index of the liver and the spleen of immunity liver injury of mice induced by BCG and LPS were decreased after the injection of matrine hydrochloride treatment. Compared with the model group, the injection may obviously inhibited serum ALT, AST, TP, AKP, TRI, BiL-T, creatinine, triglyceride, sialic acid, laminin , hyaluronic acid , type Ⅲ procollagen and type Ⅳ collagen activity of chronic liver injury of rats induced by CCl4, elevated ALB、A/G, reduced the liver HyP, decreased the index of the liver and the spleen. The liver visual observation, the pathology inspection and the HAI grading result showed the injection may reduce the inflammatory activity in liver tissue, restrain the liver cell damage, reduce the pseudolobuli formation. Conclusions The Injection of matrine hydrochloride had the protective function to acute chemical hepatic injury of mice induced by CCl4、TAA、D-GalN、immunity hepatic injury of mice induced by the BCG and LPS and

  19. The efficacy and safety of double (cepeginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin and triple (simeprevir, cepeginterferon alfa 2b and ribavirin treatment regimens in chronic hepatitis C patients. The experience of everyday clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Blokhina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective. To evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of double (cepeginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin and triple (simeprevir, cepeginterferon alfa 2b and ribavirin treatment regimens in chronic hepatitis C patients in everyday clinical practice of the Hepatology Center in Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital in Moscow.Materials and methods. From 2013 to 2015 a total of 289 patients with chronic hepatitis C received antiviral therapy with cepeginterferon alfa 2b. 267 patients received combination of cepeginterferon alfa 2b and ribavirin. 22 patients received triple antiviral therapy with simeprevir, cepeginterferon alfa 2b and ribavirin. Treatment efficacy was assessed by the rate of sustained virologic response on 12/24 week after completion of antiviral therapy (SVR 12/24. In safety analysis all 289 patients were included. All cases of deterioration of the patient’s condition and laboratory abnormalities were registered throughout the treatment period and follow up.Results. 267 patients (74,5%, n=199, with 2/3 genotype, 25,5%, n = 68, with 1 genotype received cepeginterferon alfa 2b 1,5 µg/kg/week and ribavirin 800-1400 daily (weight based. 22 patients with genotype 1 (the majority of them had advanced fibrosis (F3-F4 underwent triple therapy with simeprevir 150 mg once daily in combination with cepeginterferon alfa 2b 1,5 µg/kg/week and ribavirin 800-1400 mg daily (weight based for 12 weeks, followed by cepeginterferon alfa 2b/ ribavirin therapy for 12-36 weeks. SVR was observed in 85,6% (n=113 of genotype 2/3 infected patients and in 64,6% (n=31 of genotype 1 infected patients. Among patients with mild or moderate fibrosis SVR rate was 90,7% in genotype 2/3 patients and 75% in genotype 1 patients. 21 patient completed the course of triple therapy. SVR was observed in 71,4% (n=15 of patients. Registered adverse reactions were common for interferon/ribavirin based therapy. In most cases adverse events were moderate and matched

  20. The ALFA Zone of Avoidance Survey: Results from the Precursor Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Springob, C M; Catinella, B; Day, F; Minchin, R; Momjian, E; Koribalski, B; Masters, K L; Müller, E; Pantoja, C; Putman, M; Rosenberg, J L; Schneider, S; Staveley-Smith, L

    2007-01-01

    The Arecibo L-band Feed Array Zone of Avoidance Survey (ALFA ZOA) will map 1350-1800 square degrees at low Galactic latitude, providing HI spectra for galaxies in regions of the sky where our knowledge of local large scale structure remains incomplete, owing to obscuration from dust and high stellar confusion near the Galactic plane. Because of these effects, a substantial fraction of the galaxies detected in the survey will have no optical or infrared counterparts. However, near infrared follow up observations of ALFA ZOA sources found in regions of lowest obscuration could reveal whether some of these sources could be objects in which little or no star formation has taken place ("dark galaxies"). We present here the results of ALFA ZOA precursor observations on two patches of sky totaling 140 square degrees (near l=40 degrees, and l=192 degrees). We have measured HI parameters for detections from these observations, and cross-correlated with the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED). A significant fraction...

  1. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey: II. Results of Precursor Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Giovanelli, R; Kent, B R; Perillat, P; Catinella, B; Hoffman, G L; Momjian, E; Rosenberg, J L; Saintonge, A; Spekkens, K; Stierwalt, S; Brosch, N; Masters, K L; Springob, C M; Karachentsev, I D; Karachentseva, V E; Koopmann, R A; Müller, E; Van Driel, W; Van Zee, L; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Kent, Brian R.; Perillat, Philip; Catinella, Barbara; Momjian, Emmanuel; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Saintonge, Amelie; Spekkens, Kristine; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Brosch, Noah; Masters, Karen L.; Springob, Christopher M.; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Karachentseva, Valentina E.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Muller, Erik; Driel, Wim van; Zee, Liese van

    2005-01-01

    In preparation for the full Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA extragalactic HI survey, precursor observations were carried out in Aug--Sep 2004 with the 7-beam Arecibo L-band feed array (ALFA) receiver system and the WAPP spectral processors. While these observations were geared mainly at testing and debugging survey strategy, hardware and software, approximately 36 hours of telescope time yielded science--quality data. From those observations, an initial list of 730 tentative detections of varying degree of reliability was extracted. Ninety--eight high signal-to-noise candidates were deemed to be bona fide HI line detections. To test our ability to discriminate cosmic signals from RFI and noise, 165 candidates ranging in reliability likelihood were re--observed with the single beam L--band wide system at Arecibo in Jan--Feb 2005. Of those, 41% were confirmed as real. We present the results of both the ALFA and single beam observations for the sample of 166 confirmed HI sources, as well as our assessment of their opti...

  2. Preparation And Properties Of Bionanocomposite Films Reinforced With Nanocellulose Isolated From Moroccan Alfa Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Benyoussif

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanocellulose (NC were extracted from the Moroccan Alfa plant (Stipa tenacissima L. and characterised. These Alfa cellulosic nanoparticles were used as reinforcing phase to prepare bionanocomposite films using carboxymethyl cellulose as matrix. These films were obtained by the casting/evaporation method. The crystallinity of NC was analysed by X-ray diffraction, the dimension of NC by atomic force microscopy, molecular interactions due to incorporation of NC in carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC matrix were supported by Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The properties of the ensuing bionanocomposite films were investigated using tensile tests, water vapour permeability (WVP study and thermogravimetric analysis. With the progress of purification treatment of cellulose, the crystallinity is improved compared to the untreated fibres; this can be explained by the disappearance of the amorphous areas in cellulose chain of the plant. Consequently, the tensile modulus and tensile strength of CMC film increased by 60 and 47%, respectively, in the bionanocomposite films with 10 wt% of NC, and decrease by 8.6% for WVP with the same content of NC. The NC obtained from the Moroccan Alfa fibres can be used as a reinforcing agent for the preparation of bionanocomposites, and they have a high potential for the development of completely biodegradable food packaging materials.

  3. 21 CFR 520.1660b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules. 520.1660b Section 520.1660b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules. (a) Specifications. The drug is in capsule form with each capsule...

  4. 21 CFR 520.2345a - Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules. 520.2345a... Tetracycline hydrochloride capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 50, 100, 125, 250, or 500... as in paragraph (c) of this section: (1) No. 000009: 250 mg per capsule. (2) No. 000069: 125, 250, or...

  5. 21 CFR 520.1242f - Levamisole hydrochloride gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride gel. 520.1242f Section 520.1242f Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Levamisole hydrochloride gel. (a) Specifications. The drug is a gel containing 11.5 percent...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1242 - Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage forms. 520.1242 Section 520.1242 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1242 Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1242e - Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets. 520.1242e Section 520.1242e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1242e Levamisole hydrochloride...

  8. 21 CFR 522.1222 - Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms. 522.1222 Section 522.1222 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1222 Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms. ...

  9. A randomized controlled clinical study of lower-dose peginterferon alfa-2b in combination with ribavirin in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗端德

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of lower-dose peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin versus standard interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for treatment of chronic hepatitis C in China. Methods 192 patients with chronic hepatitis C were assigned peginterferon alfa-2b 0.5μg/kg each week plus ribavirin 750~1050 mg/d or standard interferon alfa-2b 3 MIU TIW plus ribavirin 750~1050 mg/d for 48-week treatment and 24-week fellow

  10. Vibrational spectra of pilocarpine hydrochloride crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bento, R.R.F. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Freire, P.T.C. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: tarso@fisica.ufc.br; Teixeira, A.M.R.; Silva, J.H. [Universidade Regional do Cariri, Crato, CE (Brazil). Dept. Ciencias Fisicas e Biologicas; Lima Junior, J.A. [Universidade Estadual do Ceara (UECE), Limoeiro do Norte, CE (Brazil); Oliveira, M.C.F. de; Andrade-Neto, M. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Romero, N.R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Pontes, F.M. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Bauru, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias

    2009-03-15

    Pilocarpine is a natural substance with potential application in the treatment of several diseases. In this work Fourier Transform (FT)-Raman spectrum and the Fourier Transform infra red (FT-IR) spectrum of pilocarpine hydrochloride C{sub 11} H{sub 17} N{sub 2} O{sup +}{sub 2} .Cl{sup -1} were investigated at 300 K. Vibrational wavenumber and wave vector have been predicted using density functional theory (B3LYP) calculations with the 6-31 G(d,p) basis set. A comparison with experiment allowed to assign most of the normal modes of the crystal. (author)

  11. Diversidade alfa e beta no cerrado sensu strictu da Chapada Pratinha, Brasil Alfa and Beta diversity in the cerrado sensu stricto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Felfili

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O bioma cerrado possui uma das mais ricas floras dentre as savanas mundiais com mais de 6000 espécies, abrange uma vasta extensão territorial, contém as três maiores bacias hidrográficas sul americanas, e se destaca pela elevada biodiversidade. O objetivo deste trabalho, que faz parte do Projeto Biogeografia do Bioma Cerrado, foi analisar as diversidades alfa e beta em comunidades de cerrado sensu stricto. Foram amostrados o Parque Nacional de Brasília, a Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas, a Area de Proteção Ambiental (APA Gama-Cabeça de Veado, Silvânia-GO, Paracatu-MG e Patrocínio-MG. A amostragem foi aleatória com 10 parcelas de 20x50m em cada área de estudo. Foram incluídas plantas lenhosas, exceto lianas, que tivessem no mínimo 5cm de diâmetro. Foi calculada a diversidade alfa pelo teste de Shannon & Wienner e o de Simpson. A diversidade beta foi calculada pelo índice de Whittaker que mede a mudança ou taxa de substituição na composição de espécies de um local para outro. Foi efetuada a curva espécie-área para as 60 parcelas amostradas e efetuada a classificação por TWINSPAN. O cerrado sensu stricto da Chapada Pratinha pode ser diferenciado em duas zonas fitogeográficas: Distrito Federal-Silvânia e Paracatu-Patrocínio. Estas coincidem com um zoneamento por sistemas de terra que classifica a primeira zona como terras altas em contraposição à segunda.The cerrado flora is one of the richest among the world's savannas with more than 6000 species. The cerrado covers a large territory, contains the three most important hydrographycal basins in South America and a high diversity. The objective of this work, that is part of the project Biogeography of the Cerrado Biome, was to analyse alfa and beta diversity in the cerrado sensu stricto. The sampled places were: Brasília National Park -- DF, Águas Emendadas Ecological Station -- DF, Environmentally protected Area of Gama-Cabeça de Veado -- DF, Silv

  12. [Neuropharmacological studies on tolperisone hydrochloride (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Y; Ishii, Y; Suzuki, T; Murayama, S

    1979-10-01

    Neuropharmacological properties of tolperisone hydrochloride (2,4'-dimethyl-3-piperidinopropiophenone hydrochloride) were investigated in mice, rats and cats. Tolperisone inhibited the spontaneous movement and methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity in mice and the ED50 was approx. 50 mg/kg, s.c. At this dose, tolperisone did not prolong the pentobarbital-induced sleeping time. Tolperisone inhibited convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol, nicotine and maximum electric shock, but did not affect convulsions induced by strychnine and picrotoxin. Tolperisone induced muscle relaxation in mice and rats in several pharmacological tests, but did not affect neuro-muscular transmission. Tolperisone did not affect conditioned avoidance response in rats and methamphetamine-induced rotational behaviour in nigro-lesioned rats. Tolperisone reduced decerebrated rigidity in cats with i.v. administration of 5 approximately 10 mg/kg and intraduodenal administration of 50 approximately 100 mg/kg. Tolperisone elicited a slight drowsy pattern in the spontaneous EEG of cats at 5 approximately 10 mg/kg, i.v., and inhibited the EEG arousal response and pressor response to stimulation of mesencephalic reticular formation or posterior hypothalamic area. These results suggest that inhibition of the activity in the gamma pathway descending from the mesencephalic reticular formation may be involved in the mechanism of muscle relaxant action of tolperisone.

  13. Neuroprotective effect of penehyclidine hydrochloride on focal cerebral ischemiareperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuicui Yu; Junke Wang

    2013-01-01

    Penehyclidine hydrochloride can promote microcirculation and reduce vascular permeability. However, the role of penehyclidine hydrochloride in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury remains unclear. In this study, in vivo middle cerebral artery occlusion models were established in experimental rats, and penehyclidine hydrochloride pretreatment was given via intravenous injection prior to model establishment. Tetrazolium chloride, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling and immunohistochemical staining showed that, penehyclidine hydrochloride pretreatment markedly attenuated neuronal histopathological changes in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum, reduced infarction size, increased the expression level of Bcl-2, decreased the expression level of caspase-3, and inhibited neuronal apoptosis in rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Xanthine oxidase and thiobarbituric acid chromogenic results showed that penehyclidine hydrochloride upregulated the activity of superoxide dismutase and downregulated the concentration of malondialdehyde in the ischemic cerebral cortex and hippocampus, as well as reduced the concentration of extracellular excitatory amino acids in rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. In addition, penehyclidine hydrochloride inhibited the expression level of the NR1 subunit in hippocampal nerve cells in vitro following oxygen-glucose deprivation, as detected by PCR. Experimental findings indicate that penehyclidine hydrochloride attenuates neuronal apoptosis and oxidative stress injury after focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, thus exerting a neuroprotective effect.

  14. Identification of polymorphism in ethylone hydrochloride: synthesis and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheux, Chad R; Alarcon, Idralyn Q; Copeland, Catherine R; Cameron, T Stanley; Linden, Anthony; Grossert, J Stuart

    2016-08-01

    Ethylone, a synthetic cathinone with psychoactive properties, is a designer drug which has appeared on the recreational drug market in recent years. Since 2012, illicit shipments of ethylone hydrochloride have been intercepted with increasing frequency at the Canadian border. Analysis has revealed that ethylone hydrochloride exists as two distinct polymorphs. In addition, several minor impurities were detected in some seized exhibits. In this study, the two conformational polymorphs of ethylone hydrochloride have been synthesized and fully characterized by FTIR, FT-Raman, powder XRD, GC-MS, ESI-MS/MS and NMR ((13) C CPMAS, (1) H, (13) C). The two polymorphs can be distinguished by vibrational spectroscopy, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The FTIR data are applied to the identification of both polymorphs of ethylone hydrochloride (mixed with methylone hydrochloride) in a laboratory submission labelled as 'Ocean Snow Ultra'. The data presented in this study will assist forensic scientists in the differentiation of the two ethylone hydrochloride polymorphs. This report, alongside our recent article on the single crystal X-ray structure of a second polymorph of this synthetic cathinone, is the first to confirm polymorphism in ethylone hydrochloride. © 2015 Canada Border Services Agency. Drug Testing and Analysis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2015 Canada Border Services Agency. Drug Testing and Analysis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Interferón alfa-2b tópico como primera opción en las neoplasias intraepiteliales corneoconjuntivales Topical interferon alfa-2b for primary treatment of conjunctiva-cornea intraepithelial neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pérez de Arcelus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describen dos casos de neoplasia intraepitlelial corneo-conjuntival (CIN tratados con interferón alfa-2b (IFN alfa-2b tópico como primera elección. El tratamiento clásico de los CIN ha sido tradicionalmente la resección completa con márgenes de seguridad seguida de crioterapia en el lecho quirúrgico. No obstante, y puesto que la tasa de recidivas puede alcanzar el 50% han sido propuestos coadyuvantes como la mitomicina C y el 5 fluoracilo, con el consiguiente riesgo de toxicidad corneal y límbica. El IFN alfa-2b presenta una eficacia similar a la cirugía en la erradicación completa de la masa tumoral como primera opción, con escasos efectos secundarios y nulo potencial carcinogénico, incluso en casos de recurrencia a terapia con mitomicina C, lesiones quirúrgicas residuales y formas difusas.We describe two cases of conjunctival-cornea intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, treated with topical IFN alfa 2b. The traditional treatment for CIN is surgical excision usually with adjunctive cryotherapy. However, residual tumour may remain, which can lead to recurrence rates of more than 50%. 5-Fluorouracil, mitomicyn C and interferon alfa 2b are new pharmacological agents that have proved their efficacy in the treatment of CIN. As side effects are common, we present IFN alfa 2b as a single therapeutic agent as an effective and optimal treatment for presumed recurrent corneal and conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia. It offers the benefits of topical therapy and avoids the risks of surgical or other interventions - specifically, ocular surface toxicity, cicatricial conjunctival changes, and limbal stem cell deficiency.

  16. Prospective surveillance study of haemophilia A patients switching from moroctocog alfa or other factor VIII products to moroctocog alfa albumin-free cell culture (AF-CC) in usual care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra Lopez, Rafael; Nemes, Laszlo; Jimenez-Yuste, Victor; Rusen, Luminita; Cid, Ana R; Charnigo, Robert J; Baumann, James A; Smith, Lynne; Korth-Bradley, Joan M; Rendo, Pablo

    2015-10-01

    This prospective, open-label, postauthorisation safety surveillance study assessed clinically significant inhibitor development in patients with severe haemophilia A transitioning from moroctocog alfa or other factor VIII (FVIII) replacement products to reformulated moroctocog alfa (AF-CC). Males aged ≥ 12 years with severe haemophilia A (FVIII:C) 150 exposure days (EDs) to recombinant or plasma-derived FVIII products, and no detectable inhibitor at screening were enrolled. Primary end point was the incidence of clinically significant FVIII inhibitor development. Secondary end points included annualised bleeding rate (ABR), less-than-expected therapeutic effect (LETE), and FVIII recovery. Patients were assigned to one of two cohorts based on whether they were transitioning to moroctocog alfa (AF-CC) from moroctocog alfa (cohort 1; n=146) or from another recombinant or plasma-derived FVIII product (cohort 2; n=62). Mean number of EDs on study was 94 (range, 1-139). Six positive FVIII inhibitor results, as determined by local laboratories, were reported in four patients; none were confirmed by a central laboratory, no inhibitor-related clinical manifestations were reported, and all anti-FVIII antibody assays were negative. Median ABRs were 23.4 and 3.4 in patients categorised at baseline as following on-demand and prophylactic regimens, respectively; 86.5% of bleeding episodes resolved after one infusion. LETE incidence was 0.06% and 0.19% in the on-demand and prophylaxis settings, respectively. FVIII recovery remained constant throughout the study. No new safety concerns were identified. This study found no increased risk of clinically significant FVIII inhibitor development in patients transitioning from moroctocog alfa or other FVIII replacement products to moroctocog alfa (AF-CC).

  17. Homeopathic dilutions of TNF-alfa in psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Cridon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Clinical and biological studies in the past years underlined the proinflammatory action of the citokine Tumoral Necrosis Factor in the pathophysiolology of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis. Knowing that the high dilution of substances can have an inverted effect, our hypotesis was that dillution made of TNF-alfa can decrease the clinical manifestation of such diseases. Materials and method: We included as a pilot group 10 patients presented in Lotus Life Integrative Medicine Center or Profamilia Medical Center Iasi with psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis previously diagnosed by specialists, under speciality treatment with insufficient results and patients who deliberately expressed their preference for alternative treatment. We decided to exclude the patients which during the study could present aggravation of symptoms. The treatment protocol consisted in the administration under the tongue of the dilution of TNF-alfa 9CH in liquid form, 12 drops twice a day for at least 3 months. This was prepared diluting from Guna TNF-alfa 4CH in distiled water, completing with 30% of alcohol in the last solution. Patients under other medications continued to take their previous treatment unchanged. We called the patients for follow-up after 3 months. We took the written consent from the patients and the approval of the Ethical Committee of the University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Gr. T. Popa" of Iasi. Results: To analize the results we followed the subjective evolution of the patients, the total surface and thickness of eruptions in psoriasis patients and the pain intensity and stiffness in arthritis patients. Under this conditions, all the patients showed amelioration, with 2 out of 6 psoriasis patients showing complete clearance of eruptions. No patient reported adverse reactions during the treatment Conclusions: Even though the group of patients was small and not appropriate for statistical data the presence of a clinical

  18. Expressão local do fator de necrose tumoral alfa na ruptura prematura de membranas

    OpenAIRE

    Roveran,Valquíria; SILVA, Maria Antonieta Longo Galvão; Yamano,Lucia; Rodrigues,Lilian de Paiva; Vasquez,Mônica Lopez; Piato, Sebastião

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: comparar a expressão do fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF-α) em membranas ovulares com ruptura prematura (RPM) e com ruptura oportuna das mesmas; verificar a associação entre a expressão do TNF-α em membranas ovulares e o grau de corioamnionite das mesmas e correlacionar a expressão do TNF-α e o tempo de ruptura das membranas. MÉTODOS: foram analisadas as membranas ovulares de 31 parturientes com RPM, com idade gestacional acima de 34 semanas, e de 14 parturientes co...

  19. Factor de necrosis tumoral alfa en una población infanto-juvenil con sobrepeso

    OpenAIRE

    Teresita del R. Carrizo; Elba I. Díaz; María S. Velarde; María M. Prado; María C. Bazán; Abregú, Adela V.

    2013-01-01

    El sobrepeso infantil está asociado a sobrepeso/obesidad en la edad adulta. El tejido adiposo en obesos produce una cantidad incrementada de citoquinas proinflamatorias como el factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-a), ejerciendo un efecto deletéreo sobre la función vascular. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar niveles de TNF-a en una población infantojuvenil con sobrepeso y su relación con otras variables. Se estudiaron 30 niños con sobrepeso (12 varones) de edades entre 8-13 años, se mid...

  20. Interferón alfa-2b tópico como primera opción en las neoplasias intraepiteliales corneoconjuntivales Topical interferon alfa-2b for primary treatment of conjunctiva-cornea intraepithelial neoplasia

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pérez de Arcelus; Aranguren, M.; J. Andonegui

    2012-01-01

    Se describen dos casos de neoplasia intraepitlelial corneo-conjuntival (CIN) tratados con interferón alfa-2b (IFN alfa-2b) tópico como primera elección. El tratamiento clásico de los CIN ha sido tradicionalmente la resección completa con márgenes de seguridad seguida de crioterapia en el lecho quirúrgico. No obstante, y puesto que la tasa de recidivas puede alcanzar el 50% han sido propuestos coadyuvantes como la mitomicina C y el 5 fluoracilo, con el consiguiente riesgo de toxicidad corneal ...

  1. Corifollitropin alfa followed by rFSH in a GnRH antagonist protocol for poor ovarian responder patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Devos, Michel; Humaidan, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify whether women with poor ovarian response may benefit from treatment with corifollitropin alfa in a GnRH antagonist protocol. DESIGN: Retrospective pilot study. SETTING: University-based tertiary care center. PATIENT(S): Poor ovarian responders fulfilling the Bologna criteria...... developed by European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology Consensus Group. INTERVENTION(S): Corifollitropin alfa (150 μg) followed by 300 IU rFSH in a GnRH antagonist protocol. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Endocrinologic profile and ongoing pregnancy rates. RESULT(S): Among 43 women treated...... compared with a cohort of patients treated during 2011 with the standard protocol for poor responders in our center (short agonist-hMG) (7% vs. 6.3%). CONCLUSION(S): Treatment of poor ovarian responders, as described by the Bologna criteria, with corifollitropin alfa in a GnRH antagonist protocol results...

  2. Mapping Hydrogen in the Galaxy, Galactic Halo, and Local Group with ALFA: The GALFA-HI Survey Starting with TOGS

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, S J; Heiles, C; Korpela, E J; Peek, J E G; Putman, M E; Stanimirović, S

    2008-01-01

    Radio observations of gas in the Milky Way and Local Group are vital for understanding how galaxies function as systems. The unique sensitivity of Arecibo's 305m dish, coupled with the 7-beam Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFA), provides an unparalleled tool for investigating the full range of interstellar phenomena traced by the HI 21cm line. The GALFA (Galactic ALFA) HI Survey is mapping the entire Arecibo sky over a velocity range of -700 to +700 km/s with 0.2 km/s velocity channels and an angular resolution of 3.4 arcminutes. We present highlights from the TOGS (Turn on GALFA Survey) portion of GALFA-HI, which is covering thousands of square degrees in commensal drift scan observations with the ALFALFA and AGES extragalactic ALFA surveys. This work is supported in part by the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, operated by Cornell University under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  3. GSI Helmholz Centre for Heavy Ion Research - ALFA: Next generation concurrent framework for ALICE and FAIR experiments

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    FAIR is a new, unique international accelerator facility for the research with antiprotons and ions. It is being built at the GSI Darmstadt in Hesse, Germany. The commonalities between the ALICE and FAIR experiments and their computing requirements led to the development of a common software framework in an experiment independent way; ALFA (ALICE-FAIR framework). ALFA is designed for high quality parallel data processing and reconstruction on heterogeneous computing systems. It provides a data transport layer and the capability to coordinate multiple data processing components. ALFA is a flexible, elastic system which balances reliability and ease of development with performance by using a message based multi-processing in addition to multi-threading. The framework allows for usage of heterogeneous computing architectures by offloading (portions of code are accelerated on the device) or natively (where the full program is executed on the device ).

  4. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrochemiluminescence for determination of cloperastine hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) behavior of cloperastine hydrochloride. Methods ECL intensity of tris (2,2′-bipyridyl) rutheniumo(Ⅱ) was enhanced, the method for the determination of cloperastine hydrochloride was established using capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with electrochemilumolinescence (ECL) detection. Results Under the optimum conditions, ECL intensity varied linearly with cloperastine hydrochloride concentration from 7.0×10-6g/mL to 1.0×10-4g/mL. The detection l...

  5. COMPARISON OF DROTAVERINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND VALETHAMATE BROMIDE ON CERVICAL DILATATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallika Selvaraj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM To compare the two drugs drotaverine hydrochloride and valethamate bromide and their effects on cervical dilatation and labour duration. METHODOLOGY It is a prospective study undertaken at Government Rajaji Hospital on 150 randomly selected primigravidae patients. RESULTS The duration of active phase of first stage of labour was significantly reduced (p value 0.003, rate of cervical dilatation was higher (p value 0.0001 with drotaverine hydrochloride. CONCLUSION Drotaverine hydrochloride is a safe, potent and effective drug to be used in the active phase of labour.

  6. Adjuvant therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2b versus observation alone in resected stage III melanoma: final results of EORTC 18991, a randomised phase III trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggermont, A.M.; Suciu, S.; Santinami, M.; Testori, A.; Kruit, W.H.; Marsden, J.; Punt, C.J.A.; Sales, F.; Gore, M.; Mackie, R.; Kusic, Z.; Dummer, R.; Hauschild, A.; Musat, E.; Spatz, A.; Keilholz, U.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Any benefit of adjuvant interferon alfa-2b for melanoma could depend on dose and duration of treatment. Our aim was to determine whether pegylated interferon alfa-2b can facilitate prolonged exposure while maintaining tolerability. METHODS: 1256 patients with resected stage III melanoma

  7. Home infusion program for Fabry disease: experience with agalsidase alfa in Argentina Programa de infusión domiciliaria para la enfermedad de Fabry: experiencia con agalsidasa alfa en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Kisinovsky

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by inherited deficiency of the enzyme α-galactosidase A. Enzyme replacement treatment using agalsidase alfa significantly reduces pain, improves cardiac function and quality of life, and slows renal deterioration. Nevertheless, it is a life-long treatment which requires regular intravenous infusions and entails a great burden for patients. Our objective was to evaluate retrospectively the safety and tolerability of the home infusion of agalsidase alfa in patients with Fabry disease in Argentina. We evaluated all the patients with Fabry disease who received home infusion with agalsidase alfa 0.2 mg/kg between January 2005 and June 2011. The program included 87 patients; 51 males (mean age: 30 years and 36 females (mean age: 34 years. A total of 5229 infusions (mean: 59 per patient; range: 1-150 were administered. A total of 5 adverse reactions were seen in 5 patients (5.7% of patients and 0.9% of the total number of infusions. All were mild in severity and resolved by reducing the rate of infusion and by using antihistaminics. All these 5 patients were positive for IgG antibodies, but none of them presented IgE antibodies and none suffered an anaphylactic shock. In our group 18 patients were switched from agalsidase beta to agalsidase alfa without complications. Home infusion with agalsidase alfa is safe, well tolerated and is associated to high compliance.La enfermedad de Fabry es un trastorno de almacenamiento lisosomal hereditario ligado al cromosoma X ocasionado por el déficit de la enzima alfa galactosidasa A. La terapia de reemplazo enzimático utilizando agalsidasa alfa reduce significativamente el dolor, mejora la función cardíaca y la calidad de vida y enlentece el deterioro renal. Sin embargo, es un tratamiento de por vida que requiere infusiones intravenosas regulares y supone una gran carga para los pacientes. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar retrospectivamente la

  8. A novel formulation for mebeverine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hamid, Sameh M; Abdel-Hady, Seham E; El-Shamy, Abdel-Hamid A; El-Dessouky, Hadir F

    2007-10-01

    The antispasmodic drug mebeverine hydrochloride was formulated into a film-forming gel to be used as a topical local anesthetic. A mixture of cellulose derivatives was used as a base. Additives were used to enhance the release as well as the residence time. Formulations were characterized in terms of drug release, mucoadhesion and rheology. Clinically, the selected formula has shown faster onset (p = 0.0156), longer duration (p = 0.0313), better film residence (p = 0.0313), and no foreign body sensation (p = 0.0313) in comparison to Solcoseryl dental paste. Histopathological examination showed no change in inflammatory cells count, concluding that this topical anesthetic is efficacious and safe orally.

  9. "Sustained release formulation of Metoclopramide Hydrochloride "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabbagh MA

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research, several formulations containing, an anti emetic agent (Metoclopramide hydrochloride, a hydrophilic polymer (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and a hydrophobic polymer (ethylcellulose 10 cP were prepared by direct compression. Different factors such as: the effect of different ratios of the polymers, particle size, pressure force and differences of release in acidic and distilled water as media were investigated. After developing the ideal formulation, the effect of changing the ratio of drug in core: coating on the formulation was investigated. Coating of tablets with ethylcellulose, changed the release mechanism of drug and shifted it to near zero order release. The results showed that except when matrices were coated with ethylcellulose, drug release was proportioned to the square root of time, which might be due to the change of release pattern from matrix to reservoir system.

  10. Side effects in melanoma patients receiving adjuvant interferon alfa-2b therapy: a nurse's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Krista M; Vona, Karen; Madden, Kathleen; McGettigan, Suzanne; Braun, Ilana M

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this review was to examine the toxicity profile of adjuvant interferon (IFN) alfa-2b in melanoma patients from a nursing perspective and to summarize practical information to guide the effective management of common IFN toxicities to improve patient comfort. This is a narrative summary of both research and review articles identified by searching PubMed, National Cancer Institute, and American Cancer Society websites. It also assesses recognized guidelines on the management of adjuvant IFN toxicity relevant to nurses who are caring for patients receiving adjuvant IFN therapy. Adjuvant high-dose IFN alfa-2b (HDI) as compared with observation significantly prolongs relapse-free survival in patients with melanoma at high risk for recurrence after surgical resection; however, treatment compliance and patient quality of life can be compromised by its toxicity profile. HDI toxicities affect a number of organ systems and the majority of patients will experience some side effects. Common toxicities such as flu-like symptoms, fatigue, anorexia, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and laboratory abnormalities are discussed, along with both pharmacological and nonpharmacological management strategies. The considerable side effects of HDI can be managed using established strategies. Oncology nurses play a significant role in the management of patients with melanoma receiving adjuvant HDI, and their prompt recognition of side effects, together with an understanding of effective pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions, will improve patient comfort; this has the potential to positively influence treatment adherence and completion of the recommended treatment course.

  11. FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction characterization of microcrystalline cellulose obtained from alfa fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trache D.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Many cereal straws have been used as raw materials for the preparation of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC. These raw materials were gradually replaced with wood products; nevertheless about 10% of the world overall pulp production is obtained from non-wood raw material. The main interest in pulp made from straw is that it provides excellent fibres for different industries with special properties, and that it is the major available source of fibrous raw material in some geographical areas. The aim of the present work was to characterize microcrystalline cellulose prepared from alfa fibers using the hydrolysis process. The products obtained are characterized with FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. As a result, FTIR spectroscopy is an appropriate technique for studying changes occurred by any chemical treatment. The spectrum of alfa grass stems shows the presence of lignin and hemicelluloses. However, the cellulose spectrum indicates that the extraction of lignin and hemicellulose was effective. The X-ray analysis indicates that the microcrystalline cellulose is more crystalline than the source material.

  12. De-squeeze the beams: the TOTEM and ATLAS/ALFA experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    A special week-long proton–proton run with larger beam sizes at the interaction point is intended to probe the p-p elastic scattering regime at small angles.   Nicola Turini, deputy spokesperson for TOTEM, in front of one of the experiment’s ‘Roman Pot’ detectors in the LHC tunnel. (Photo: Maximilien Brice/CERN) Usually, the motto of the LHC is “maximum luminosity”. But for a few days per year, the LHC ignores its motto to run at very low luminosity for the forward experiments. This week, the LHC will provide the TOTEM and ATLAS/ALFA experiments with data for a broad physics programme. The TOTEM experiment at Point 5 and the ATLAS/ALFA experiment at Point 1 study the elastic scattering of protons, which are not observable in normal operation runs. In the elastic scattering process, the two protons survive their encounter intact and only change directions by exchanging momentum. To allow this special run, the operators play with the so-c...

  13. Papel de la IL-6 y TNF-alfa en la enfermedad periodontal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carrillo de Albornoz Sainz

    Full Text Available La periodontitis se inicia por una serie de patógenos que inducen una cascada inflamatoria que estimula la destrucción de los tejidos mediada por el huésped. Están implicados un gran número de mediadores inflamatorios, entre los que destacan IL-6 y TNF-alfa. La IL-6 es una citoquina pleiotrópica de compleja actividad biológica, cuya función principal vinculada a la periodontitis es la inducción de la reabsorción ósea. TNF-alfa es una citoquina proinflamatoria cuya función más destacada es el reclutamiento y estimulación de neutrófilos y monocitos. Su papel en la periodontitis es diverso, ya que promueve tanto la inflamación, como la pérdida ósea y la destrucción del tejido conectivo, a la vez que limita la capacidad de reparación del periodonto.

  14. Mango resistance to fruit flies. II - resistance of the alfa cultivar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossetto, C.J.; Bortoletto, N., E-mail: rossetto@iac.sp.gov.b [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Votuporanga, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional do Noroeste Paulista; Walder, J.M.M.; Mastrangelo, T. de A., E-mail: jmwalder@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, C.R.L.; Castro, J.V. de, E-mail: climonta@iac.sp.gov.b, E-mail: josalba@iac.sp.gov.b [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Pinto, A.C. de Q. [EMBRAPA, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Cortelazzo, A.L., E-mail: angelo@unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    2006-07-01

    The percentage of infested mango fruits of five selected mango varieties was evaluated during three years under field conditions. Three varieties with field resistance to fruit flies had less then 10% of fruits infested. Tommy Atkins, the susceptible commercial check, had 42,9% and the susceptible check had 98.9 % of infested fruits. The three field resistant varieties plus the susceptible commercial check, Tommy Atkins, were further tested in laboratory, under caged conditions, with artificial infestation of Anastrepha obliqua. The attempts of oviposition and the number of pupae developed from each fruit were evaluated. Under caged conditions, the cultivar Alfa maintained its field resistance and Espada Stahl and IAC 111 lost the field resistance and were as susceptible as Tommy Atkins. The attempts of oviposition were positively and highly correlated with the number of pupae developed in the fruits. Non preference for oviposition was confirmed as the main mechanism of resistance of mango fruits to fruit flies. In the absence of a more susceptible variety (no choice test) the cultivar Alfa has kept the resistance (author)

  15. Effect of sertraline hydrochloride on dialysis hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dheenan, S; Venkatesan, J; Grubb, B P; Henrich, W L

    1998-04-01

    Hemodialysis hypotension (HH) is a very common disorder and has a multifactorial etiology. Autonomic dysfunction occurs in up to 50% of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and plays a key role in HH in some patients. Sertraline hydrochloride, a central nervous system serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has been shown to be an effective treatment of hypotension caused by autonomic dysfunction in disorders such as neurocardiogenic syncope and idiopathic orthostatic hypotension. This study sought to determine whether sertraline was effective in ameliorating HH. A retrospective chart analysis was performed that included nine consecutive patients (aged > or = 54 years, time on hemodialysis > or = 2.2 years) placed on sertraline (50 to 100 mg/d) for depression who also had HH (defined as prehemodialysis systolic blood pressure [SBP] or = 40 mm Hg decrease in SBP during hemodialysis, SBP sertraline. The data from a 6-week pre-sertraline period were compared with the data from a 6-week sertraline period (defined as 6 weeks after drug begun). Blood pressure medications were unchanged during the trial period of sertraline. However, nadir mean arterial pressure recorded during a given dialysis session in the pre-sertraline period (55+/-4 mm Hg) was significantly lower than that recorded in the sertraline period (68+/-5 mm Hg; P sertraline period was significantly lower than that during the pre-sertraline period (mean, 0.6+/-0.2 episodes per session v 1.4+/-0.3 episodes per session; P sertraline period was also significantly less than that during the pre-sertraline period (mean, 1.7+/-0.8 interventions v 11.0+/-3.0 interventions; P sertraline hydrochloride reduces HH in some patients with ESRD. A possible mechanism for this effect is sertraline-induced attenuation of the paradoxical sympathetic withdrawal that may underlie HH in some patients with ESRD.

  16. Dyeing Characteristics of Chitosan Biguanidine Hydrochloride Treated Wool Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xue; HE JIN-xin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chitosan biguanidine hydrochloride(CGH)has been synthesized by the guanidineylation reaction of chitosan with dicyandiamide.The structures of CGH were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and 13CNMR spectra.

  17. Non-pigmented fixed drug eruption induced by eprazinone hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Kenichi; Tsuboi, Hiromi; Maejima, Hideki; Arai, Satoru; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2005-12-01

    A 68-year-old woman developed an upper respiratory tract infection in November 2002 and was treated with eprazinone hydrochloride, serrapeptase, carbocysteine and clarithromycin. Three days after the start of treatment, the patient noted erythema on her axilla, buttock and inguinal regions. The erythema subsided in 7 days although slight pigmentation remained. However, 7 days later the pigmentation completely disappeared. Oral eprazinone hydrochloride was given as a challenge, and 1 day later the erythema re-appeared in the same areas as on initial presentation (axilla, buttock, and inguinal regions). A fixed erythema without lasting pigmentation is attributed to eprazinone hydrochloride. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed as having a nonpigmented fixed drug eruption associated with eprazinone hydrochloride.

  18. Antifungal activity of hydrochloride salts of tylophorinidine and tylophorinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Mini; Parab, Rajashri R; Manju, Sreedharannair L; Desai, Dattatraya C; Mahajan, Girish B

    2012-09-01

    The antimicrobial efficacy of two phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids, tylophorinidine hydrochloride (TdnH) and tylophorinine hydrochloride (TnnH), isolated from the plant Tylophora indica (local name, Antamul) was evaluated. These were screened for in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activities. Both compounds exhibited potent antifungal activity displaying minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) in the range of 2-4 microg/mL for TdnH and 0.6-2.5 microg/mL for TnnH against Candida species.

  19. Treatment of allergic conjunctivitis with olopatadine hydrochloride eye drops

    OpenAIRE

    Eiichi Uchio

    2008-01-01

    Eiichi UchioDepartment of Ophthalmology, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, Fukuoka, JapanAbstract: Olopatadine hydrochloride exerts a wide range of pharmacological actions such as histamine H1 receptor antagonist action, chemical mediator suppressive action, and eosinophil infiltration suppressive action. Olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% ophthalmic solution (Patanol®) was introduced to the market in Japan in October 2006. In a conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC) test, olopatadine...

  20. COMPARISON OF DROTAVERINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND VALETHAMATE BROMIDE ON CERVICAL DILATATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mallika Selvaraj; Sumathi

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the two drugs drotaverine hydrochloride and valethamate bromide and their effects on cervical dilatation and labour duration. METHODOLOGY It is a prospective study undertaken at Government Rajaji Hospital on 150 randomly selected primigravidae patients. RESULTS The duration of active phase of first stage of labour was significantly reduced (p value 0.003), rate of cervical dilatation was higher (p value 0.0001) with drotaverine hydrochloride. CONCLUS...

  1. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Drotaverine Hydrochloride and Paracetamol in Tablet

    OpenAIRE

    Mahaparale Sonali; Telekone R; Raut R; Damle S; Kasture P

    2010-01-01

    Two simple, accurate and reproducible spectrophotometric methods; Q analysis and first order derivative method have been described for the simultaneous estimation of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in combined tablet dosage form. Absorption maxima of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in distilled water were found to be 303.5 nm and 243.5 nm respectively. Beer′s law was obeyed in the concentration range 5-50 µg/ml for drotaverine and 5-60 µg/ml for paracetamo...

  2. Interferon alfa-2a versus combination therapy with interferon alfa-2a, interleukin-2, and fluorouracil in patients with untreated metastatic renal cell carcinoma (MRC RE04/EORTC GU 30012): an open-label randomised trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gore, M.E.; Griffin, C.L.; Hancock, B.; Patel, P.M.; Pyle, L.; Aitchison, M.; James, N.; Oliver, R.T.D.; Mardiak, J.; Hussain, T.; Sylvester, R.; Parmar, M.K.; Royston, P.; Mulders, P.F.A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In metastatic renal cell carcinoma combinations of interferon alfa-2a, interleukin-2, and fluorouracil produce higher response rates and longer progression-free survival than do single agents. We aimed to compare overall survival in patients receiving combination treatment or interferon

  3. Interferon alfa-2a versus combination therapy with interferon alfa-2a, interleukin-2, and fluorouracil in patients with untreated metastatic renal cell carcinoma (MRC RE04/EORTC GU 30012): an open-label randomised trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gore, M.E.; Griffin, C.L.; Hancock, B.; Patel, P.M.; Pyle, L.; Aitchison, M.; James, N.; Oliver, R.T.D.; Mardiak, J.; Hussain, T.; Sylvester, R.; Parmar, M.K.; Royston, P.; Mulders, P.F.A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In metastatic renal cell carcinoma combinations of interferon alfa-2a, interleukin-2, and fluorouracil produce higher response rates and longer progression-free survival than do single agents. We aimed to compare overall survival in patients receiving combination treatment or interferon

  4. A Post Hoc Analysis of D-Threo-Methylphenidate Hydrochloride (Focalin) Versus D,l-Threo-Methylphenidate Hydrochloride (Ritalin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Margaret; Wasdell, Michael; Patin, John

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clinical measures of the benefit/risk ratio in a post hoc analysis of a clinical trial of d-threo-methylphenidate hydrochloride (d-MPH) and d,l-threo-methylphenidate hydrochloride (d,l-MPH). Method: Data from a phase III clinical trial was used to compare equimolar doses of d-MPH and d,l-MPH treatment for…

  5. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey : X. The HI Mass Function and Omega_HI From the 40% ALFALFA Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Ann M.; Papastergis, Emmanouil; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Springob, Christopher M.; Stierwalt, Sabrina

    2010-01-01

    The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey has completed source extraction for 40% of its total sky area, resulting in the largest sample of HI-selected galaxies to date. We measure the HI mass function from a sample of 10,119 galaxies with 6.2

  6. Accurate Learning with Few Atlases (ALFA): an algorithm for MRI neonatal brain extraction and comparison with 11 publicly available methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serag, Ahmed; Blesa, Manuel; Moore, Emma J.; Pataky, Rozalia; Sparrow, Sarah A.; Wilkinson, A. G.; MacNaught, Gillian; Semple, Scott I.; Boardman, James P.

    2016-03-01

    Accurate whole-brain segmentation, or brain extraction, of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a critical first step in most neuroimage analysis pipelines. The majority of brain extraction algorithms have been developed and evaluated for adult data and their validity for neonatal brain extraction, which presents age-specific challenges for this task, has not been established. We developed a novel method for brain extraction of multi-modal neonatal brain MR images, named ALFA (Accurate Learning with Few Atlases). The method uses a new sparsity-based atlas selection strategy that requires a very limited number of atlases ‘uniformly’ distributed in the low-dimensional data space, combined with a machine learning based label fusion technique. The performance of the method for brain extraction from multi-modal data of 50 newborns is evaluated and compared with results obtained using eleven publicly available brain extraction methods. ALFA outperformed the eleven compared methods providing robust and accurate brain extraction results across different modalities. As ALFA can learn from partially labelled datasets, it can be used to segment large-scale datasets efficiently. ALFA could also be applied to other imaging modalities and other stages across the life course.

  7. Daclatasvir plus peginterferon alfa and ribavirin for treatment-naive chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 or 4 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hézode, Christophe; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Ghesquiere, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of daclatasvir, an HCV NS5A inhibitor with pangenotypic activity, administered with peginterferon-alfa-2a/ribavirin. DESIGN: In this Phase 2b double-blind, placebo-controlled study, treatment-naive adults with HCV genotype 1 (N=365) or 4 (N=30) infec...

  8. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey : X. The HI Mass Function and Omega_HI From the 40% ALFALFA Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Ann M.; Papastergis, Emmanouil; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Springob, Christopher M.; Stierwalt, Sabrina

    2010-01-01

    The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey has completed source extraction for 40% of its total sky area, resulting in the largest sample of HI-selected galaxies to date. We measure the HI mass function from a sample of 10,119 galaxies with 6.2

  9. Benefit of adjuvant interferon alfa-2b (IFN-α) therapy in melanoma patients with high serum MMP-8 levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vihinen, Pia; Tervahartiala, Taina; Sorsa, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important enzymes in tissue turnover and various inflammatory processes. In this study, it was evaluated whether serum MMP-8 can predict the response to adjuvant interferon alfa-2b (IFN-α) therapy in patients with operated high-risk cutaneous melanoma. Pre...

  10. Molecular design and downstream processing of turoctocog alfa (NovoEight), a B-domain truncated factor VIII molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Haleh; Hansen, Ernst B; Faber, Johan H; Sejergaard, Lars; Karlsson, Johan; Bolt, Gert; Hansen, Jens J; Thim, Lars

    2016-07-01

    Turoctocog alfa (NovoEight) is a third-generation recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) with a truncated B-domain that is manufactured in Chinese hamster ovary cells. No human or animal-derived materials are used in the process. The aim of this study is to describe the molecular design and purification process for turoctocog alfa. A five-step purification process is applied to turoctocog alfa: protein capture on mixed-mode resin; immunoaffinity chromatography using a unique, recombinantly produced anti-FVIII mAb; anion exchange chromatography; nanofiltration and size exclusion chromatography. This process enabled reduction of impurities such as host cell proteins (HCPs) and high molecular weight proteins (HMWPs) to a very low level. The immunoaffinity step is very important for the removal of FVIII-related degradation products. Manufacturing scale data shown in this article confirmed the robustness of the purification process and a reliable and consistent reduction of the impurities. The contribution of each step to the final product purity is described and shown for three manufacturing batches. Turoctocog alfa, a third-generation B-domain truncated rFVIII product is manufactured in Chinese hamster ovary cells without the use of animal or human-derived proteins. The five-step purification process results in a homogenous, highly purified rFVIII product.

  11. alfa-Deuterium kinetic isotope effects in reactions of methyllithium. Is better aggregation the cause of lower reactivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Torkil

    1996-01-01

    The value of kH/kD for alfa deuterium kinetic isotope effects for the reaction of methyllithium and methylmagnesium iodid with a series of substrates are consistently ca. 10-15 % higher for the lithium reagent. This may indicate a pre-equilibrium...

  12. Randomized, controlled, open-label, non-inferiority study of the CONSORT algorithm for individualized dosing of follitropin alfa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivennes, F.; Trew, G.; Borini, A.; Broekmans, F.; Arriagada, P.; Warne, D. W.; Howles, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    In this randomized, controlled, open-label, phase IV study, ovarian response after a follitropin alfa starting dose determined by the CONSORT calculator was compared with a standard dose (150 IU). Normo-ovulatory women (aged 18-34 years) eligible for assisted reproductive techniques were recruited (

  13. Simultaneous Estimation of Gemcitabine Hydrochloride and Capecitabine Hydrochloride in Combined Tablet Dosage Form by RP-HPLC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of gemcitabine hydrochloride and capecitabine hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form. An inertsil ODS-3 C-18 column having dimensions of 250×4.6 mm and particle size of 5 µm, with mobile phase containing a mixture of acetonitrile : water : triethyelamine in the ratio of (70 : 28 : 2v/v was used. The pH of mobile phase was adjusted to 4.0 with ortho-phosphoric acid. The flow rate was 1 mL/min and the column effluents were monitored at 260 nm. The retention time for gemcitabine hydrochloride and capecitabine hydrochloride was found to be 2.76 and 2.3 min respectively. The proposed method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and robustness. The method was found to be linear in the range of 10-50 µg/mL and 4-24 µg/mL for gemcitabine hydrochloride and capecitabine hydrochloride, with regression coefficient r = 0.999 and r = 0.999, respectively.

  14. Dificuldades na identificação laboratorial da talassemia alfa Difficulty on laboratory identification of alpha thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlla Greick Batista Dias-Penna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Talassemia alfa é uma síndrome associada à redução da síntese de cadeias de globina do tipo alfa. A gravidade das manifestações clínicas está relacionada com a quantidade de globinas produzida e a estabilidade das cadeias beta presentes em excesso. A talassemia alfa mínima resulta da deleção de apenas um dos quatro genes a (-α/αα. Clinicamente apresenta anemia leve com microcitose ou ausência de anemia, sendo o diagnóstico realizado por meio de visualização da hemoglobina (Hb H por eletroforese alcalina em acetato de celulose ou por identificação de inclusões celulares de Hb H coradas pelo azul de crezil brilhante. Objetivo: Avaliar portadores de talassemia alfa e seus respectivos progenitores, correlacionando perfil hematológico e presença de Hb H, utilizando procedimentos laboratoriais clássicos em três diferentes amostragens. Discussão e conclusão: Os dados obtidos mostram que a presença de Hb H, indicativo de talassemia alfa, pode não ser confirmada em uma análise posterior. Entre os fatores que podem influenciar no não aparecimento de Hb H em pessoa comprovadamente com talassemia alfa está a deficiência de ferro. A talassemia alfa está associada a defeitos envolvendo os genes codificadores da cadeia alfa, mas também pode estar relacionada com desbalanciamento temporário na expressão dos genes globina, diminuição de alfa ou aumento de beta, o que poderia explicar o aparecimento de tetrâmeros de cadeia beta (Hb H, sugerindo diagnóstico de talassemia alfa mínima.Introduction: Alpha thalassemia is a syndrome with associated with the reduction of alpha globin chain synthesis. The severity of clinical manifestations is related to the amount of globins produced and the stability of beta chains that are present in excess. Alpha thalassemia minor is caused by the deletion of one of the four genes a (-α/αα. Clinically, it presents mild anemia with microcytosis or absence of anemia. The

  15. Pegylated interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for treatment of chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PN; Rao; Abraham; Koshy; Jacob; Philip; Narayanan; Premaletha; Joy; Varghese; Krishnasamy; Narayanasamy; Samir; Mohindra; Nitin; Vikas; Pai; Manoj; Kumar; Agarwal; Ashokna; Konar; Hasmukh; B; Vora

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To study the safety and efficacy of pegylated interferon alfa-2b, indigenously developed in India, plus ribavirin in treatment of hepatitis C virus(HCV). METHODS: One-hundred HCV patients were enrolled in an open-label, multicenter trial. Patients were treated with pegylated interferon alfa-2b 1.5 μg/kg per week subcutaneously plus oral ribavirin 800 mg/d for patients with genotypes 2 and 3 for 24 wk. The same dose of peginterferon plus weight-based ribavirin(800 mg/d for ≤ 65 kg; 1000 mg/d for > 65-85 kg; 1200 mg/d for > 85-105 kg; 1400 mg/d for > 105 kg body weight) was administered for 48 wk for patients with genotypes 1 and 4. Serological and biochemical responses of patients were assessed.RESULTS: Eighty-two patients(35 in genotypes 1 and 4 and 47 in 2 and 3), completed the study. In genotype 1, 25.9% of patients achieved rapid virologic response(RVR): while the figures were 74.1% for early virologic response(EVR) and 44.4% for sustained virologic response(SVR). For genotypes 2 and 3, all patients bar one belonged to genotype 3, and of those, 71.4%, 87.5%, and 64.3% achieved RVR, EVR, and SVR, respectively. In genotype 4, 58.8%, 88.2%, and 52.9% of patients achieved RVR, EVR, and SVR, respectively. The majority of patients attained normal levels of alanine aminotransferase by 4-12 wk of therapy. Most patients showed a good tolerance for the treatment, although mild-to-moderate adverse events were exhibited; only two patients discontinued the study medication due to serious adverse events(SAEs). Eleven SAEs were observed in nine patients; however, only four SAEs were related to study medication.CONCLUSION: Peginterferon alfa-2b, which was developed in India, in combination with ribavirin, is a safe and effective drug in the treatment of HCV.

  16. The ATLAS Forward Detectors - LUCID, ALFA and AFP: Past, Present and Future

    CERN Document Server

    Caforio, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    LUCID is a gas Cerenkov detector deployed near to the beam‐pipe at 17 m either side of the ATLAS Intersection point. The LUCID detector ‐ when calibrated via a Van der Meer scan – is now measuring absolute luminosity on a bunch‐by‐bunch basis. It is now measuring integrated luminosity up to high luminosity with a precision of around 3%. The technical challenges that had to faced to make this measurement as well as upgrade plans for LUCID will be presented. In addition to LUCID, we will discuss that ALFA detector (Absolute Luminosity for ATLAS) and its status as well as the progress on the ATLAS Forward Protons project (AFP) that plans to deploy detectors to tag and measure, with 3‐D silicon detectors, both protons in exclusive central diffractive processes.

  17. HI Clouds detected towards Virgo with the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, Brian R

    2007-01-01

    The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey is in the process of yielding a complete HI dataset of the Virgo Cluster and its environs (Giovanelli et al. 2007, Kent et al., in preparation). Assuming a distance to Virgo of 16.7 Mpc, the minimum detectable HI mass by ALFALFA is of order 2 x 10^7 Msun. A number of the HI detections appear to have interesting properties. Some appear associated with, but offset from, low surface brightness optical counterparts; others, at larger spatial offsets, may be tidally related to optical counterparts. Yet another class includes detections which are not identifiable with any optical counterparts. We present the ALFALFA results on these objects in the Virgo region, as well as followup aperture synthesis observations obtained with the VLA.

  18. A trial of darbepoetin alfa in type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeffer, Marc A; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Chen, Chao-Yin

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anemia is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and renal events among patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Although darbepoetin alfa can effectively increase hemoglobin levels, its effect on clinical outcomes in these patients has not been adequately...... level was less than 9.0 g per deciliter. The primary end points were the composite outcomes of death or a cardiovascular event (nonfatal myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, or hospitalization for myocardial ischemia) and of death or end-stage renal disease. RESULTS: Death......, and moderate anemia who were not undergoing dialysis did not reduce the risk of either of the two primary composite outcomes (either death or a cardiovascular event or death or a renal event) and was associated with an increased risk of stroke. For many persons involved in clinical decision making, this risk...

  19. ALGLUCOSIDASE ALFA — A NEW STAGE IN THE THERAPY OF INFANTILE POMPE DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Basargina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pompe disease is a rare severe hereditary disease caused by excessive glycogen storage in organs and target tissues due to the acid α-glucosidase gene mutation. Infantile and adult Pompe disease is characterized by involvement of cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular systems in the pathological process. The only specific method of treating Pompe disease is enzyme replacement therapy (intravenous administration of recombinant human acid glucosidase, the effectiveness whereof depends on the time the therapy started. Since such a therapy was introduced into practice, Pompe disease mortality decreased by 79%. 6 children with infantile Pompe disease were observed and treated at the cardiovascular care unit of the Scientific Center of Children’s Health in 2011‑2014. The article presents a clinical case demonstrating capabilities of diagnosing infantile Pompe disease in Russia and effective application of alglucosidase alfa in 4-month-old child. 

  20. Analise dos alelos S e Z da alfa 1 antitripsina em uma amostra de pacientes fibrocisticos

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    A fibrose cística é uma alteração genética que cursa principalmente com manifestações pulmonares e pancreáticas. A correlação genótipo-fenótipo da fibrose cística é motivo de árduos estudos. Somente a correlação com a insuficiência pancreática foi encontrada. Percebeu-se, também, que o curso e a severidade da manifestação pulmonar não estão correlacionados com o genótipo CFTR. A alfaI antitripsina inibe as proteases que desencadeiam as reações inflamatórias do plasma. Seu papel inibitório mai...

  1. Arecibo Pulsar Survey Using ALFA. III. Probing Radio Pulsar Intermittency and Transients

    CERN Document Server

    Deneva, J S; McLaughlin, M A; Nice, D J; Lorimer, D R; Crawford, F; Bhat, N D R; Camilo, F; Champion, D J; Freire, P C C; Edel, S; Kondratiev, V I; Hessels, J W T; Jenet, F A; Kasian, L; Kaspi, V M; Krämer, M; Lazarus, P; Van Leeuwen, J; Ransom, S M; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; Brazier, A; Venkataraman, A; Zollweg, J A

    2008-01-01

    We present radio transient search algorithms, results, and statistics from the ongoing Arecibo Pulsar ALFA (PALFA) Survey of the Galactic plane. We have discovered seven objects by detecting isolated dispersed pulses and one of the new discoveries has a duty cycle of 0.01%, the smallest known. The impact of selection effects on the detectability and classification of intermittent sources is discussed, and the relative efficiencies of periodicity vs. single pulse searches are compared for various pulsar classes. We find that scintillation, off-axis detection and few rotation periods within an observation may misrepresent normal periodic pulsars as intermittent sources. Finally, we derive constraints on transient pulse rate and flux density from the PALFA survey parameters and results.

  2. Properties of Cold HI Emission Clouds in the Inner-Galaxy ALFA Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, James Marcus; Gibson, Steven J.; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Newton, Jonathan; Koo, Bon-Chul; Douglas, Kevin A.; Peek, Joshua Eli Goldston; Park, Geumsook; Kang, Ji-hyun; Korpela, Eric J.; Heiles, Carl E.; Dame, Thomas M.

    2017-01-01

    Star formation, a critical process within galaxies, occurs in the coldest, densest interstellar clouds, whose gas and dust content are observed primarily at radio and infrared wavelengths. The formation of molecular hydrogen (H2) from neutral atomic hydrogen (HI) is an essential early step in the condensation of these clouds from the ambient interstellar medium, but it is not yet completely understood, e.g., what is the predominant trigger? Even more troubling, the abundance of H2 may be severely underestimated by standard tracers like CO, implying significant "dark" H2, and the quantity of HI may also be in error if opacity effects are neglected. We have developed an automated method to account for both HI and H2 in cold, diffuse clouds traced by narrow-line HI 21-cm emission in the Arecibo Inner-Galaxy ALFA (I-GALFA) survey. Our algorithm fits narrow (2-5 km/s), isolated HI line profiles to determine their spin temperature, optical depth, and true column density. We then estimate the "visible" H2 column in the same clouds with CfA and Planck CO data and the total gas column from dust emission measured by Planck, IRAS, and other surveys. Together, these provide constraints on the dark H2 abundance, which we examine in relation to other cloud properties and stages of development. Our aim is to build a database of H2-forming regions with significant dark gas to aid future analyses of coalescing interstellar clouds. We acknowledge support from NSF, NASA, Western Kentucky University, and Williams College. I-GALFA is a GALFA-HI survey observed with the 7-beam ALFA receiver on the 305-meter William E. Gordon Telescope. The Arecibo Observatory is a U.S. National Science Foundation facility operated under sequential cooperative agreements with Cornell University and SRI International, the latter in alliance with the Ana G. Mendez-Universidad Metropolitana and the Universities Space Research Association.

  3. Stability of cefozopran hydrochloride in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Przemysław; Skibiński, Robert; Paczkowska, Magdalena; Garbacki, Piotr; Talaczyńska, Alicja; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta; Jelińska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The influence of pH on the stability of cefozopran hydrochloride (CZH) was investigated in the pH range of 0.44-13.00. Six degradation products were identified with a hybrid ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometer. The degradation of CZH as a result of hydrolysis was a pseudo-first-order reaction. As general acid-base hydrolysis of CZH was not occurred in the solutions of hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, acetate, borate and phosphate buffers, kobs = kpH because specific acid-base catalysis was observed. Specific acid-base catalysis of CZH consisted of the following reactions: hydrolysis of CZH catalyzed by hydrogen ions (kH+), hydrolysis of dications (k1H2O), monocations (k2H2O) and zwitter ions (k3H2O) and hydrolysis of zwitter ions (k1OH-) and monoanions (k2OH-) of CZH catalyzed by hydroxide ions. The total rate of the reaction was equal to the sum of partial reactions: [Formula: see text]. CZH similarly like other fourth generation cephalosporin was most stable at slightly acidic and neutral pH and less stable in alkaline pH. The cleavage of the β-lactam ring resulting from a nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon in the β-lactam moiety is the preferred degradation pathway of β-lactam antibiotics in aqueous solutions.

  4. Interaction of articaine hydrochloride with prokaryotic membrane lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygre, Henning; Moe, Grete; Nerdal, Willy; Holmsen, Holm

    2009-01-01

    Local anesthetics are the most commonly used drugs in dentistry, with a wide range of effects, including antimicrobial activity. High antimicrobial effects have recently been reported on oral microbes from articaine hydrochloride, revealed by the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration. Additionally, articaine has recently been used as an alkaline component in endodontic materials with a proposed antibacterial activity. However, the detailed mechanisms of action have not been discussed. We determined the Langmuir surface pressure/molecular area isotherms of prokaryotic lipid monolayers, as well as the phospholipid phase transitions, by employing differential scanning calorimetry on unilamellar prokaryotic liposomes (bilayers). Articaine hydrochloride was found to interact with the prokaryotic membrane lipids in both monolayers and bilayers. An increase of the phospholipid molecular area of acidic glycerophospholipids as well as a decrease in phase transition temperature and enthalpy were found with increasing articaine hydrochloride concentration. The thermodynamic changes by adding articaine hydrochloride to prokaryotic membrane lipids are potentially related to the effects observed from antimicrobial peptides resulting from membrane insertion, aggregate composition, pore formation, and lysis. Interaction of articaine hydrochloride with prokaryotic membrane lipids is indicated. Hence, further research is necessary to gain insight into where these compounds exert their effects at the molecular level.

  5. Iontophoretic transdermal delivery of buspirone hydrochloride in hairless mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khalili, Mohammad; Meidan, Victor M; Michniak, Bozena B

    2003-01-01

    The transdermal delivery of buspirone hydrochloride across hairless mouse skin and the combined effect of iontophoresis and terpene enhancers were evaluated in vitro using Franz diffusion cells. Iontophoretic delivery was optimized by evaluating the effect of drug concentration, current density, and pH of the vehicle solution. Increasing the current density from 0.05 to 0.1 mA/cm2 resulted in doubling of the iontophoretic flux of buspirone hydrochloride, while increasing drug concentration from 1% to 2% had no effect on flux. Using phosphate buffer to adjust the pH of the drug solution decreased the buspirone hydrochloride iontophoretic flux relative to water solutions. Incorporating buspirone hydrochloride into ethanol:water (50:50 vol/vol) based gel formulations using carboxymethylcellulose and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose had no effect on iontophoretic delivery. Incorporation of three terpene enhancers (menthol, cineole, and terpineol) into the gel resulted in a synergistic effect when combined with iontophoresis. Menthol was the most active enhancer, and when combined with iontophoresis it was possible to deliver 10 mg/cm2/day of buspirone hydrochloride.

  6. Compatibility of cholecalciferol, haloperidol, imipramine hydrochloride, levodopa/carbidopa, lorazepam, minocycline hydrochloride, tacrolimus monohydrate, terbinafine, tramadol hydrochloride and valsartan in SyrSpend SF PH4 oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonini, H C; Silva, S L; Cunha, C N; Brandão, M A F; Ferreira, A O

    2016-04-01

    A challenge with compounding oral liquid formulations is the limited availability of data to support the physical, chemical and microbiological stability of the formulation. This poses a patient safety concern and a risk for medication errors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of the following active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in 10 oral suspensions, using SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid) as the suspending vehicle: cholecalciferol 50,000 IU/mL, haloperidol 0.5 mg/mL, imipramine hydrochloride 5.0 mg/mL, levodopa/carbidopa 5.0/1.25 mg/mL, lorazepam 1.0 mg/mL, minocycline hydrochloride 10.0 mg/mL, tacrolimus monohydrate 1.0 mg/mL, terbinafine 25.0 mg/mL, tramadol hydrochloride 10.0 mg/mL and valsartan 4.0 mg/mL. The suspensions were stored both refrigerated (2 - 8 degrees C) and at controlled room temperature (20 - 25 degrees C). This is the first stability study for these APIs in SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid). Further, the stability of haloperidol,ilmipramine hydrochloride, minocycline, and valsartan in oral suspension has not been previously reported in the literature. Compatibility was assessed by measuring percent recovery at varying time points throughout a 90 days period. Quantification of the APIs was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV). Given the percentage of recovery of the APIs within the suspensions, the beyond-use date of the final preparations was found to be at least 90 days for most suspensions both refrigerated and at room temperature. Exceptions were: Minocycline hydrochloride at both storage temperatures (60 days), levodopa/carbidopa at room temperature (30 days), and lorazepam at room temperature (60 days). This suggests that compounded suspensions of APIs from different pharmacological classes in SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid) are stable.

  7. 78 FR 2416 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Rybix® (Tramadol Hydrochloride) Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... (Tramadol Hydrochloride) Tablets AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... (tramadol hydrochloride) tablets. Based upon the facts presented, CBP has concluded in the final determination that India is the country of origin of the Rybix (tramadol hydrochloride) tablets for purposes of...

  8. Efficacy and safety of peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin treatment of chronic hepatitis C in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Milena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Pegylated interferon alfa-2a or 2b (PEG IFN alfa-2a or 2b and ribavirin (RBV represent a standard treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC. Sustained virological response (SVR, defined as continued undetectable HCV RNA 24 weeks after completion of treatment, is universally considered as an indicator of treatment efficacy. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine efficacy and safety of PEG IFN alfa-2a and RBV treatment in patients with CHC in Serbia. Methods. One hundred seventy-six patients with CHC were included in this multicenter trial from 8 reference centers in Serbia. The patients were treated with standard PEG IFN alfa- 2a and RBV protocol. We performed the following virological testing: anti-HCV (ELISA, HCV RNK (quantitative PCR, HCV genotype (type-specific PCR, HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc and anti-HIV (ELISA. Histological activity and the degree of fibrosis were determined according to the Metavir scoring system. Potential predictors for achieving SVR were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results. Of the treated patients with CHC 65.9% were male, and 60.2% of them aged over 40 years. Of the treated patients 68.2% had infection over 5 years, 63% had HCV RNA >400.000 IU/mL, 76.1% had HCV G1/4, and 60.1% had a mild to moderate liver fibrosis. SVR was achieved in 78.9% of patients (G1/4 79.1%; G2/3 78.1%. The factors that indicated a poorer efficacy of the treatment were age >40 (p<0.05, high basal viremia (p=0.013, and the reduction of PEG IFN alfa-2a and RBV doses, with interruption of therapy (p<0.001. Of the treated patients 45.9% had adverse affects (G1/4 50.8%; G2/3 29.7%. Conclusion. Treatment of CHC with PEG IFN alfa-2a and RBV was efficient in 78.9% of patients. The safety profile of therapy was satisfactory. Longer therapy increases the possibility of the development of adverse affects. No

  9. Propiedades electrofisiológicas de las variantes normales de actividad alfa en el continuo vigilia-sueño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Cantero

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de los ritmos cerebrales puede ser abordado mediante el análisis de sus propiedades electrofisiológicas usando técnicas de EEG cuantitativo. En aquellos casos donde una misma actividad aparece espontáneamente en diferentes estados de activación cerebral, el estudio de estas propiedades ayudaría a establecer diferencias funcionales asociadas a cada uno de estos estados. El presente trabajo revisa aquellos estudios que han determinado las propiedades electrofisiológicas de las diferentes variantes normales de alfa que aparecen en el continuo vigilia-sueño, más concretamente en vigilia relajada, somnolencia y durante la fase REM del sueño. Los resultados indican que cada variante normal de alfa, aun mostrando una distribución topográfica similar en cada uno de los estados cerebrales, presenta características diferenciales atendiendo a su composición espectral, relaciones funcionales entre regiones corticales, y micro-estados cerebrales subyacentes. De acuerdo con estos hallazgos, cada variante de alfa desempeñaría diferentes funciones cerebrales. El ritmo alfa de vigilia parece ser el resultado de una máxima sincronización neuronal como consecuencia de la ausencia de procesamiento sensorial, mientras que la presencia de actividad alfa durante la somnolencia estaría más asociada al procesamiento de las imágenes hipnagógicas que ocurren al comienzo del sueño. Los brotes de alfa de REM, sin embargo, constituirían un punto de contacto entre el cerebro dormido y el ambiente externo. Esta caracterización electrofisiológica encuentra su campo de aplicación más directo en el diseño de algoritmos para clasificar el sueño de forma automática, así como en el diagnóstico y evaluación de determinadas patologías donde pudieran verse afectados los mecanismos cerebrales de generación de esta actividad a lo largo del continuo vigilia-sueño.

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of meclizine hydrochloride and pyridoxine hydrochloride in laboratory prepared mixtures and in their pharmaceutical preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Maha M.; Elzanfaly, Eman S.; El-Zeiny, Mohamed B.; Ramadan, Nesreen K.; Kelani, Khadiga M.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, three rapid, simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of meclizine hydrochloride in the presence of pyridoxine hydrochloride without previous separation. The methods under study are dual wavelength (DWL), ratio difference (RD) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT). On the other hand, pyridoxine hydrochloride (PYH) was determined directly at 291 nm. The methods obey Beer's law in the range of (5-50 μg/mL) for both compounds. All the methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines where the accuracy was found to be 98.29, 99.59, 100.42 and 100.62% for DWL, RD, CWT and PYH; respectively. Moreover the precision of the methods were calculated in terms of %RSD and it was found to be 0.545, 0.372, 1.287 and 0.759 for DWL, RD,CWT and PYH; respectively. The selectivity of the proposed methods was tested using laboratory prepared mixtures and assessed by applying the standard addition technique. So, they can be used for the routine analysis of pyridoxine hydrochloride and meclizine hydrochloride in quality-control laboratories.

  11. Stability of ranitidine hydrochloride in total parenteral nutrient solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S E; Bayliff, C D

    1985-03-01

    The stability of ranitidine hydrochloride was studied in a standard total parenteral nutrition (TPN) solution. The Canadian formulation of ranitidine hydrochloride (25 mg/mL) was added in 100-, 200-, and 300-mg doses to approximately 1200 mL of a TPN solution and allowed to stand at room temperature (23 degrees C) for seven days. During this time, samples were drawn at least once a day, and the ranitidine concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The ranitidine concentration declined at roughly the same rate regardless of the initial concentration. During the study period, each of the three different concentrations declined to less than 70% of the initial concentration. Approximately 10% of the initial concentration was lost in 48 hours. Ranitidine hydrochloride admixtures were stable for up to 48 hours at room temperature in this standard TPN solution.

  12. Temperature-dependent THz vibrational spectra of clenbuterol hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, YuPing; Lei, XiangYun; Yue, Ai; Zhang, Zhenwei

    2013-04-01

    Using the high-resolution Terahertz Time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and the standard sample pellet technique, the far-infrared vibrational spectra of clenbuterol hydrochloride (CH), a β 2-adrenergic agonist for decreasing fat deposition and enhancing protein accretion, were measured in temperature range of 77-295 K. Between 0.2 and 3.6 THz (6.6-120.0 cm-1), seven highly resolved spectral features, strong line-narrowing and a frequency blue-shift were observed with cooling. However, ractopamine hydrochloride, with some structural and pharmacological similarities to clenbuterol hydrochloride, showed no spectral features, indicating high sensitivity and strong specificity of THz-TDS. These results could be used for the rapid and nondestructive CH residual detection in food safety control.

  13. Spectrophotometric estimation of pioglitazone hydrochloride in tablet dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basniwal Pawan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, rapid, and precise methods - linear regression equation (LRE and standard absorptivity - were developed and validated for the estimation of pioglitazone hydrochloride in tablet dosage form. The maximum absorbance (lmax of pioglitazone hydrochloride was found to be 269.8 nm in methanol:water:hydrochloric acid (250:250:1. Beer-Lambert law was obeyed in the concentration range of 10-50 µg/ml, and the standard absorptivity was found to be 253.97 dl/g/cm. Both the methods were validated for linearity, accuracy, precision (days, analysts, and instrument variation, and robustness (solvent composition. The numerical values for all parameters lie within the acceptable limits. Pioglitazone hydrochloride was estimated in the range of 99.58-99.97% by LRE method and 100.25-100.75% by standard absorptivity method. At 99% confidence limit, the F-test value for the methods was found to be 1.8767.

  14. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaparale, Sonali; Telekone, R S; Raut, R P; Damle, S S; Kasture, P V

    2010-01-01

    Two simple, accurate and reproducible spectrophotometric methods; Q analysis and first order derivative method have been described for the simultaneous estimation of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in combined tablet dosage form. Absorption maxima of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in distilled water were found to be 303.5 nm and 243.5 nm respectively. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range 5-50 mug/ml for drotaverine and 5-60 mug/ml for paracetamol. In Q analysis method, two wavelengths were selected at isobestic point (277 nm) and lambda(max) of paracetamol (243.5 nm). In first order derivative method, zero crossing point for drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol were selected at 303.5 nm and 243.5 nm, respectively. The results of two methods were validated statistically and recovery studies were found to be satisfactory.

  15. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahaparale Sonali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, accurate and reproducible spectrophotometric methods; Q analysis and first order derivative method have been described for the simultaneous estimation of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in combined tablet dosage form. Absorption maxima of drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol in distilled water were found to be 303.5 nm and 243.5 nm respectively. Beer′s law was obeyed in the concentration range 5-50 µg/ml for drotaverine and 5-60 µg/ml for paracetamol. In Q analysis method, two wavelengths were selected at isobestic point (277 nm and λmax of paracetamol (243.5 nm. In first order derivative method, zero crossing point for drotaverine hydrochloride and paracetamol were selected at 303.5 nm and 243.5 nm, respectively. The results of two methods were validated statistically and recovery studies were found to be satisfactory.

  16. A Randomized Study of Peginterferon Lambda-1a Compared to Peginterferon Alfa-2a in Combination with Ribavirin and Telaprevir in Patients with Genotype-1 Chronic Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisiak, Robert; Shiffman, Mitchell; Arenas, Juan; Cheinquer, Hugo; Nikitin, Igor; Dong, Yuping; Rana, Khurram; Srinivasan, Subasree

    2016-01-01

    Background A randomized, double-blind, multinational, phase 3 study was conducted comparing the efficacy and safety of peginterferon lambda-1a (Lambda)/ribavirin (RBV)/telaprevir (TVR) vs. peginterferon alfa-2a (Alfa)/RBV/TVR in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype-1 (GT-1) infection. Methods Patients (treatment-naïve or relapsers on prior Alfa/RBV treatment) were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive Lambda/RBV/TVR or Alfa/RBV/TVR. Total duration of treatment was either 24 or 48 weeks (response-guided treatment), with TVR administered for the first 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved a sustained virologic response at post treatment week 12 (SVR12), which was tested for noninferiority of Lambda/RBV/TVR. Results A total of 838 patients were enrolled, and 617 were treated; 411 and 206 patients received Lambda/RBV/TVR and Alfa/RBV/TVR, respectively. The majority of patients were treatment-naïve, with HCV GT-1b and a high baseline viral load (≥800,000 IU/mL). Less than 10% of patients had cirrhosis (Lambda, 7.5%; Alfa, 6.8%). Lambda/RBV/TVR did not meet the criterion for noninferiority (lower bound of the treatment difference interval was -12.3%); the SVR12 in all patients (modified intent-to-treat) was 76.2% in the Lambda arm and 82.0% in the Alfa arm. Overall, the frequency of adverse events in each arm was comparable (Lambda, 91.7%; Alfa, 97.1%). As expected based on the safety profile of the 2 interferons, there were more hepatobiliary events observed in the Lambda arm and more hematologic events in the Alfa arm. Conclusions In this comparison of Lambda/RBV/TVR and Alfa/RBV/TVR in patients who were treatment-naïve or had relapsed on prior Alfa/RBV treatment, Lambda failed to demonstrate noninferiority based on SVR12 results. Treatment with Lambda/RBV/TVR was associated with a higher incidence of relapse. More patients discontinued Lambda/RBV/TVR treatment during the first 4 weeks of study treatment

  17. Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2b Monotherapy and Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2b plus Lamivudine Combination Therapy for Patients with Hepatitis B Virus E Antigen-Negative Chronic Hepatitis B▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymakoglu, Sabahattin; Oguz, Dilek; Gur, Gurden; Gurel, Selim; Tankurt, Ethem; Ersöz, Galip; Ozenirler, Seren; Kalayci, Cem; Poturoglu, Sule; Cakaloglu, Yılmaz; Okten, Atilla

    2007-01-01

    Forty-eight hepatitis B virus (HBV) E antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B patients received pegylated interferon alfa-2b either alone or with lamivudine for 48 weeks and were followed for an additional 24 weeks. At the end of follow-up, virological response rates (HBV DNA levels of <400 copies/ml) were similar in the monotherapy (24%) and combination therapy (26%) groups. PMID:17517832

  18. Spectrophotometric determination of ritodrine and isoxsuprine hydrochlorides using 4-aminoantipyrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revanasiddappa, H D; Manju, B G

    2000-01-01

    A simple, accurate, and rapid method for the quantitative determination of ritodrine hydrochloride (RTH) and isoxsuprine hydrochloride (ISH) in both pure and dosage forms, is described. The method is based on the development of pink colored product as a result of the condensation of 4-aminoantipyrine with phenols in the presence of an alkaline oxidizing agent. The resulting products are measured at 510 nm for both drugs, with molar absorptivities of 0.98 x 10(4) and 1.20 x 10(4) L/mol x cm for RTH and ISH, respectively. A study of the effect of commonly associated excipients revealed that they did not cause interference.

  19. Enantiomeric Separation of Meptazinol Hydrochloride by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUYun-qiu; CHENYan; LINi; QIUZhui-bai

    2004-01-01

    Aim To establish a capillary electrophoresis method for enantiomerie separation of meptazinol hydrochloride. Methods The separation conditions such as cyclodextrin(CD)type, buffer pH, concentration of 2,3,6-O-triInethyl-β-cyclodextrin and organic additives were optimized. An optimum concentration was 30 mmol·L-1 phosphate (pH 7.02)with 10% (W/V) TM-β-CD and 2% acetonitrile. Results Basehne resolution of the enantiomer was readily achieved using 2,3,6-O-trimethyl-β-cyclodextrin. Conclusion This is a convenient method for fast enantiomeric resolution of meptazinol hydrochloride.

  20. [Effect of topical exhedrine hydrochloride on muco-ciliary transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatica, L; Fiorella, R

    1983-07-30

    The time of nasal M.C.T. (Mucus Ciliar Transport) was studied by the indirect objective method of bleu-sky in 30 healthy subjects before and after the application of efedrina hydrochloride in water solution associated with timolo, eucaliptolo, mentolo essence of canfora monobramata and clorbutamolo. The time of nasal M.C.T., regular in the 87% of the subjects during the first determination was found extended in almost all of the cases after the application of vasoconstrictor (85%). This experimental data may be caused both by a direct effect of efedrina hydrochloride and by the substances associated in the solution and their physical characteristics.

  1. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of three dosing regimens of agalsidase alfa enzyme replacement therapy was underpowered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alberto Ortiz,1,2 Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño1,2 1Department of Nephrology, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 2Department of Nephrology, Instituto Reina Sofia de Investigación Nefrológica, Madrid, Spain We read with interest the report by Goláň et al on the “Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of three dosing regimens of agalsidase alfa enzyme replacement therapy in adults with Fabry disease”.1 Based on the reported results, the authors conclude that no efficacy or safety differences were found when the approved every-other-week (EOW dosage of agalsidase alfa was increased to weekly administration. However, the key question is whether the study, as designed and performed, could have had a different outcome. View original article by Goláň et al.

  2. Deficiência de alfa-1-antitripsina na doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Introdução – A deficiência de alfa-1-antitripsina é uma das alterações genéticas graves encontradas por todo o mundo. Porém, permanece subdiagnosticada, apesar da forte predisposição à doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica que condiciona. Objectivos – Os objectivos deste artigo de revisão incluem o estudo e avaliação das implicações da deficiência de alfa-1-antitripsina em indivíduos com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica, a apresentação dos esquemas de diagnóstico e terapêuticos mais utiliza...

  3. Efek Pemberian Seduhan Teh Hijau terhadap Gelombang Alfa Otak pada Mahasiswa Tingkat Akhir Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Islam Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Marwa Afifah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Teh merupakan bahan alam yang sudah dikenal memiliki banyak manfaat salah satunya sebagai zat relaksan. Sifat relaksan diperoleh dari kandungan senyawa pada teh terutama teh hijau yaitu L-teanin yang memicu peningkatan aktivitas gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, produksi serotonin dan dopamin, serta menghambat kerja glutamat. Efek keseluruhan L-teanin pada otak memicu seseorang menjadi rileks, kondisi rileks dapat dinilai dari aktivitas gelombang alfa otak. Tujuan penelitian ini menilai efek pemberian seduhan teh hijau terhadap gelombang alfa otak pada mahasiswa tingkat akhir Fakultas Kedokteran Unisba. Penelitian menggunakan metode eksperimental, melalui dua kali perekaman gelombang alfa otak sebelum dan setelah pemberian seduhan teh hijau yang mengandung 50 mg L-teanin dengan menggunakan brain wave sensors. Hasil penelitian dianalisis melalui Uji Wilcoxon. Penelitian dilakukan di Fakultas Kedokteran Unisba pada bulan April–Mei 2014. Sampel yang digunakan adalah mahasiswa tingkat akhir Fakultas Kedokteran Unisba yaitu sebanyak 30 orang, terdiri atas 13 laki-laki dan 17 perempuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada 28 dari 30 orang memperlihatkan peningkatan gelombang alfa otak setelah pemberian seduhan teh hijau dan hanya 2 orang yang memperlihatkan gelombang alfa otak yang lebih rendah. Hasil Uji Wilcoxon menunjukkan nilai signifikansi <0,001. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa pemberian seduhan teh hijau memiliki efek meningkatkan gelombang alfa otak pada mahasiswa tingkat akhir Fakultas Kedokteran Unisba. Hal ini dapat disebabkan karena aktivitas L-teanin dalam teh hijau yang dapat memicu aktivitas GABA, serotonin, dan dopamin serta menghambat kerja glutamat sehingga memicu kondisi relaksasi yang dinilai dalam gelombang alfa otak. Kata kunci: Gelombang alfa otak, L-teanin, teh, teh hijau   The Effect of Green Tea to Alpha Brain Waves of Final Students of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Islam Bandung Abstract

  4. Formulation and Evaluation of Multilayered Tablets of Pioglitazone Hydrochloride and Metformin Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ankamma Chowdary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus a continuous therapy is required which is a more complex one. As in these patients there may be a defect in both insulin secretion and insulin action exists. Hence, the treatment depends on the pathophysiology and the disease state. In the present study, multilayered tablets of pioglitazone hydrochloride 15 mg and metformin hydrochloride 500 mg were prepared in an attempt for combination therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pioglitazone HCl was formulated as immediate release layer to show immediate action by direct compression method using combination of superdisintegrants, namely, crospovidone and avicel PH 102. Crospovidone at 20% concentration showed good drug release profile at 2 hrs. Metformin HCl was formulated as controlled release layer to prolong the drug action by incorporating hydrophilic polymers such as HPMC K4M by direct compression method and guar gum by wet granulation method in order to sustain the drug release from the tablets and maintain its integrity so as to provide a suitable formulation. The multilayered tablets were prepared after carrying out the optimization of immediate release layer and were evaluated for various precompression and postcompression parameters. Formulation F13 showed 99.97% of pioglitazone release at 2 hrs in 0.1 N HCl and metformin showed 98.81% drug release at 10 hrs of dissolution in 6.8 pH phosphate buffer. The developed formulation is equivalent to innovator product in view of in vitro drug release profile. The results of all these evaluation tests are within the standards. The procedure followed for the formulation of these tablets was found to be reproducible and all the formulations were stable after accelerated stability studies. Hence, multilayered tablets of pioglitazone HCl and metformin HCl can be a better alternative way to conventional dosage forms.

  5. Fe3O4/Au magnetic nanoparticle amplification strategies for ultrasensitive electrochemical immunoassay of alfa-fetoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan N

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ning Gan1*, Haijuan Jin1*, Tianhua Li1, Lei Zheng21The State Key Laboratory Base of Novel Functional Materials and Preparation Science, Faculty of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China *Both authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The purpose of this study was to devise a novel electrochemical immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of alfa-fetoprotein based on Fe3O4/Au nanoparticles as a carrier using a multienzyme amplification strategy.Methods and results: Greatly enhanced sensitivity was achieved using bioconjugates containing horseradish peroxidase (HRP and a secondary antibody (Ab2 linked to Fe3O4/Au nanoparticles (Fe3O4/Au-HRP-Ab2 at a high HRP/Ab2 ratio. After a sandwich immunoreaction, the Fe3O4/Au-HRP-Ab2 captured on the electrode surface produced an amplified electrocatalytic response by reduction of enzymatically oxidized hydroquinone in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The high content of HRP in the Fe3O4/Au-HRP-Ab2 could greatly amplify the electrochemical signal. Under optimal conditions, the reduction current increased with increasing alfa-fetoprotein concentration in the sample, and exhibited a dynamic range of 0.005–10 ng/mL with a detection limit of 3 pg/mL.Conclusion: The amplified immunoassay developed in this work shows good precision, acceptable stability, and reproducibility, and can be used for detection of alfa-fetoprotein in real samples, so provides a potential alternative tool for detection of protein in the laboratory. Furthermore, this immunosensor could be regenerated by simply using an external magnetic field.Keywords: Fe3O4/Au nanoparticles, alfa-fetoprotein, sandwich immunoassay, electrochemical immunosensor

  6. Diffusion Coefficients ofl-Lysine Hydrochloride and l-Arginine Hydrochloride in Their Aqueous Solutions at 25℃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The diffusion coefficients** ofl-lysine hydrochloride andl-arginine hydrochloride in their aqueous solu- tions at 25℃ were determined by the metallic diaphragm cell method which is characterized by accuracy, promptness and convenience. Meanwhile, the densities and viscosities of the solutions were also determined. Based on all these data a semi-empirical model for correlating the diffusion coefficients of solid organic salts in their aqueous solutions at 25℃ was proposed. The fitting result of this model is comparatively satisfactory. Compared to a former model, Gordon Model, this model can avoid a number of difficulties and arduous work.

  7. Surface displaced alfa-enolase of Lactobacillus plantarum is a fibronectin binding protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldo, Cristiana; Vastano, Valeria; Siciliano, Rosa Anna; Candela, Marco; Vici, Manuela; Muscariello, Lidia; Marasco, Rosangela; Sacco, Margherita

    2009-01-01

    Background Lactic acid bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are one of the most important health promoting groups of the human intestinal microbiota. Their protective role within the gut consists in out competing invading pathogens for ecological niches and metabolic substrates. Among the features necessary to provide health benefits, commensal microorganisms must have the ability to adhere to human intestinal cells and consequently to colonize the gut. Studies on mechanisms mediating adhesion of lactobacilli to human intestinal cells showed that factors involved in the interaction vary mostly among different species and strains, mainly regarding interaction between bacterial adhesins and extracellular matrix or mucus proteins. We have investigated the adhesive properties of Lactobacillus plantarum, a member of the human microbiota of healthy individuals. Results We show the identification of a Lactobacillus plantarum LM3 cell surface protein (48 kDa), which specifically binds to human fibronectin (Fn), an extracellular matrix protein. By means of mass spectrometric analysis this protein was identified as the product of the L. plantarum enoA1 gene, coding the EnoA1 alfa-enolase. Surface localization of EnoA1 was proved by immune electron microscopy. In the mutant strain LM3-CC1, carrying the enoA1 null mutation, the 48 kDa adhesin was not anymore detectable neither by anti-enolase Western blot nor by Fn-overlay immunoblotting assay. Moreover, by an adhesion assay we show that LM3-CC1 cells bind to fibronectin-coated surfaces less efficiently than wild type cells, thus demonstrating the significance of the surface displaced EnoA1 protein for the L. plantarum LM3 adhesion to fibronectin. Conclusion Adhesion to host tissues represents a crucial early step in the colonization process of either pathogens or commensal bacteria. We demonstrated the involvement of the L. plantarum Eno A1 alfa-enolase in Fn-binding, by studying LM3 and LM3-CC1 surface

  8. Detection of DNA-recombinant human epoetin-alfa as a pharmacological ergogenic aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, Randall L

    2002-01-01

    The use of DNA-recombinant human epoetin-alfa (rhEPO) as a pharmacological ergogenic aid for the enhancement of aerobic performance is estimated to be practised by at least 3 to 7% of elite endurance sport athletes. rhEPO is synthesised from Chinese hamster ovary cells, and is nearly identical biochemically and immunologically to endogenous epoetin-alfa (EPO). In a clinical setting, rhEPO is used to stimulate erythrocyte production in patients with end-stage renal disease and anaemia. A limited number of human studies have suggested that rhEPO provides a significant erythropoietic and ergogenic benefit in trained individuals as evidenced by increments in haemoglobin, haematocrit, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and exercise endurance time. The purpose of this review is to summarise the various technologies and methodologies currently available for the detection of illicit use of rhEPO in athletes. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) banned the use of rhEPO as an ergogenic aid in 1990. Since then a number of methods have been proposed as potential techniques for detecting the illegal use of rhEPO. Most of these techniques use indirect markers to detect rhEPO in blood samples. These indirect markers include macrocytic hypochromatic erythrocytes and serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfr) concentration. Another indirect technique uses a combination of 5 markers of enhanced erythropoiesis (haematocrit, reticulocyte haematocrit, percentage of macrocytic red blood cells, serum EPO, sTfr) to detect rhEPO. The electrophoretic mobility technique provides a direct measurement of urine and serum levels of rhEPO, and is based on the principle that the rhEPO molecule is less negatively charged versus the endogenous EPO molecule. Isoelectric patterning/focusing has emerged recently as a potential method for the direct analysis of rhEPO in urine. Among these various methodologies, the indirect technique that utilises multiple markers of enhanced erythropoiesis appears to

  9. The oxidation of methionine-54 of epoetinum alfa does not affect molecular structure or stability, but does decrease biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrenz, Steven R; Calmann, Melissa A; Heavner, George A; Tolman, Glen

    2008-01-01

    Erythropoietin therapy is used to treat severe anemia in renal failure and chemotherapy patients. One of these therapies based on recombinant human erythropoietin is marketed under the trade name of EPREX and utilizes epoetinum alfa as the active pharmaceutical ingredient. The effect of oxidation of methionine-54 on the structure and stability of the erythropoietin molecule has not been directly tested. We have observed partial and full chemical oxidation of methionine-54 to methionine-54 sulfoxide, accomplished using tert-Butylhydroperoxide and hydrogen peroxide, respectively. A blue shift in the fluorescence center of spectral mass wavelength was observed as a linear response to the level of methionine sulfoxide in the epoetinum alfa molecule, presumably arising from a local change in the environment near tryptophan-51, as supported by potassium iodide quenching studies. Circular dichroism studies demonstrated no change in the folded structure of the molecule with methionine oxidation. The thermal unfolding profiles of partial and completely oxidized epoetinum alfa overlap, with a T(m) of 49.5 degrees C across all levels of methionine sulfoxide content. When the protein was tested for activity, a decrease in biological activity was observed, correlating with methionine sulfoxide levels. An allosteric effect between Met54, Trp51, and residues involved in receptor binding is proposed. These results indicate that methionine oxidation has no effect on the folded structure and global thermodynamic stability of the recombinant human erythropoietin molecule. Oxidation can affect potency, but only at levels significantly in excess of those seen in EPREX.

  10. [TNF-alfa (-857C/T) polymorphism in open angle glaucoma in Romania -- results of a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simionescu, Ruxandra; Voinea, Liliana; Cornăţeanu, Roxana Sfrenţ

    2013-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy with multiple causative factors including genetic immune disregulation. TNF-alfa has pro-apoptotic effects on the retinal ganglion cells, thus being directly involved in the neurodegeneration of the optic nerve head. Our purpose was to investigate the influence on susceptibility and/or clinical and characteristics of TNF-alfa promoter polymorphism -857 C/T in Romanian patients diagnosed with POAG. We assessed 159 Romanian subjects, 61 diagnosed with glaucoma (F/M 39/22) and 98 healthy unrelated matched controls-HC for the polymorphism -857 C/T, genotyped by Real Time PCR (Taqman SNP Genotyping Assay C_2215707_10, Applied Biosystems, USA). The diagnosis and the staging of the disease in the POAG group were assessed using the current guidelines. Association tests for the SNP were performed using SPSS 11.2 (Fisher test) and p values < or = 0.05 were considered significant. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium assessed using Chi-square test was respected in both studied groups- POAG and HC (p = 0.000009 and respectively p = 0.04771). There was no association found between the frequencies of alleles between studied groups (CC/CT/TT= 0.81/0.09/0.08 respectively 0.70/0.23/0.06). TNF-alfa promoter polymorphism -857 C/T doesn't seem to influence the susceptibility to POAG and the results should be confirmed on larger cohorts.

  11. Assessment of Lifespan Functioning Attainment (ALFA) scale: A quantitative interview for self-reported current and functional decline in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jamie; Kremen, William S; Glatt, Stephen J; Franz, Carol E; Chandler, Sharon D; Liu, Xiaohua; Johnson, Barbara K; Tsuang, Ming T; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2015-06-01

    Schizophrenia has been characterized as a disorder with poor outcomes across various functional domains, especially social and occupational functioning. Although these outcomes have been investigated based on patients' current functioning, few studies have considered the assessment of functional outcomes across the lifespan in schizophrenia. We developed a novel and brief scale of adulthood lifespan functioning, the Assessment of Lifespan Functioning Attainment (ALFA). We assessed current functioning and percentage of pre- and post-psychosis onset engagement for five functional domains including paid employment, living independently, romantic partnerships, close friendships, and recreational engagement with others. Pre-to post-psychosis functional decline was observed for all domains, with paid employment having the greatest decline (d = 2.68) and living independently having the least decline (d = .59). Our exploratory factor analysis suggests that a single factor accounted for the most variance in Pre-Psychosis Functioning in ALFA domains. Two factors explain the majority of variance in Post-Psychosis Functioning and Pre-to-Post Psychosis Decline: a sociability factor (close friendships and recreational engagement with others) and an independence factor (paid employment, living independently, romantic relationships). To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on a self-reported quantitative assessment of adult lifespan functioning in schizophrenia. The ALFA scale may be a useful tool for future research on functional outcomes in schizophrenia.

  12. Tungsten-induced denaturation and aggregation of epoetin alfa during primary packaging as a cause of immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Andreas; Hainzl, Otmar; Richter, Marleen; Fischer, Robert; Böhm, Stephan; Deutel, Britta; Hartinger, Martin; Windisch, Jörg; Casadevall, Nicole; London, Gerard Michel; Macdougall, Iain

    2012-06-01

    Following two cases of neutralizing antibodies to epoetin alfa in an investigational clinical study, a small number of individual syringes of two drug product batches were found to contain unusually high levels of aggregation at the end of the clinical trial. We undertook an extensive analytical approach to determine the root-cause of the increased aggregation in the affected batches. Soluble tungsten was found in the syringes, most likely derived from the pins used to manufacture the syringes. Spiking of epoetin alfa with sodium polytungstate or an extract of tungsten pins used to manufacture the syringes induced the formation of aggregates, both dimers that appeared to be covalently linked by disulphide bonds as well as higher-order aggregates. Sodium polytungstate had also a strong denaturing effect on the protein. We propose tungsten-mediated unfolding and aggregation of epoetin alfa in pre-filled syringes as a potential root cause for increased immunogenicity. This finding may be more broadly applicable to this and other classes of therapeutic proteins.

  13. Release Characteristics of Diltiazem Hydrochloride Wax-Matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    diltiazem hydrochloride-wax matrix granules with sintering. ... The drug release was by Higuchi controlled diffusion mechanism and it followed ... of plastic matrix tablets. Polymer films with different permeability have been .... More so, with increase in temperature and ..... characterization of ibuprofen-cetyl alcohol beads by.

  14. Study on the syhthesis process of tetracaine hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenli; Zhao, Jie; Cui, Yujie

    2017-05-01

    Tetrachloride hydrochloride is a local anesthetic with long-acting ester, and it is usually present in the form of a hydrochloride salt. Firsleb first synthesized the tetracaine by experiment in 1928, which is one of the recognized clinical potent anesthetics. This medicine has the advantages of stable physical and chemical properties, the rapid role and long maintenance. Tetracaine is also used for ophthalmic surface anesthesia as one of the main local anesthetic just like conduction block anesthesia, mucosal surface anesthesia and epidural anesthesia. So far, the research mainly engaged in its clinical application research, and the research strength is relatively small in the field of synthetic technology. The general cost of the existing production process is high, and the yield is low. In addition, the reaction time is long and the reaction conditions are harsh. In this paper, a new synthetic method was proposed for the synthesis of tetracaine hydrochloride. The reaction route has the advantages of few steps, high yield, short reaction time and mild reaction conditions. The cheap p-nitrobenzoic acid was selected as raw material. By esterification with ethanol and reaction with n-butyraldehyde (the reaction process includes nitro reduction, aldol condensation and hydrogenation reduction), the intermediate was transesterified with dimethylaminoethanol under basic conditions. Finally, the PH value was adjusted in the ethanol solvent. After experiencing 4 steps reaction, the crude tetracaine hydrochloride was obtained.

  15. Surface tension of compositions of polyhexametyleneguanidine hydrochloride - surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumargaliyeva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We made up songs bactericidal polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride (metacyde with the surface-active substances - anionic sodium dodecylsulfate, cationic cetylpyridinium bromide, and nonionic Tween-80 and measured the surface tension of water solutions. The study showed that the composition metacyde with surface-active agents have a greater surface activity than the individual components.

  16. 21 CFR 524.1982 - Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution. 524.1982 Section 524.1982 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... longterm toxicity of proparacaine is unknown. Prolonged use may possibly delay wound healing. (d...

  17. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis caused by terazosin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Laura M; Wilkerson, Michael G; Perri, Anthony J; Kelly, Brent C

    2008-04-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a rare cutaneous eruption mainly provoked by drugs. A case of AGEP in a 74-year-old male that was attributed to the ingestion of terazosin hydrochloride is presented. This is the first reported case of this association in medical literature. The history, clinical presentation, and pathogenesis of AGEP are discussed.

  18. Cradle-to-gate life cycle inventory of vancomycin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Celia; Overcash, Michael

    2010-02-15

    A life cycle analysis on the cradle-to-gate production of vancomycin hydrochloride, which begins at natural resource extraction and spans through factory (gate) production, not only shows all inputs, outputs, and energy usage to manufacture the product and all related supply chain chemicals, but can highlight where process changes would have the greatest impact on raw material and energy consumption and emissions. Vancomycin hydrochloride is produced by a low-yield fermentation process that accounts for 47% of the total cradle-to-gate energy. The fermentation step consumes the most raw materials and energy cradle-to-gate. Over 75% of the total cradle-to-gate energy consumption is due to steam use; sterilization within fermentation is the largest user of steam. Aeration and agitation in the fermentation vessels use 65% of the cradle-to-gate electrical energy. To reduce raw materials, energy consumption, and the associated environmental footprint of producing vancomycin hydrochloride, other sterilization methods, fermentation media, nutrient sources, or synthetic manufacture should be investigated. The reported vancomycin hydrochloride life cycle inventory is a part of a larger life cycle study of the environmental consequences of the introduction of biocide-coated medical textiles for the prevention of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) nosocomial infections.

  19. Asymmetric Synthesis of (+)-(11 R,12S)-Mefloquine Hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The asymmetric synthesis of (+)-(11R,12S)-mefloquine hydrochloride, an antimalarial drug, was accomplished from commercially available 2-trifluoromethylaniline, ethyl 4,4,4-trifluoroacetoacetate and cyclopentanone in 7 steps with a 14% overall yield. The key steps were proline-catalyzed asymmetric direct aldol reaction and Beck-mann rearrangement. The absolute configuration was assigned by a Mosher's method.

  20. Amitriptyline-related peripheral neuropathy relieved during pyridoxine hydrochloride administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, G G; Huff, M R; Fredericks, S

    1982-11-01

    Tricyclic antidepressants rarely cause peripheral neuropathy. In fact, this class of drugs has been used to control the symptoms of pain and paresthesia that accompany peripheral neuropathy. We report peripheral paresthesias that occurred in a 39-year-old female during five years of amitriptyline administration. The patient's symptoms were relieved by oral pyridoxine hydrochloride, associated with elevated plasma pyridoxal phosphate.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of Novel Plant Cell-Expressed Taliglucerase Alfa in Adult and Pediatric Patients with Gaucher Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richat Abbas

    Full Text Available Taliglucerase alfa is a beta-glucocerebrosidase enzyme replacement therapy approved in the United States, Israel, and other countries for treatment of Type 1 Gaucher disease in adults, and is the first approved plant cell--expressed recombinant protein. In this report, taliglucerase alfa pharmacokinetics were assessed in adult and pediatric patients with Gaucher disease from separate multicenter trials of 30 Units/kg and 60 Units/kg doses infused every 2 weeks. Serial blood samples were obtained from adult patients following single-dose administration on day 1 (n = 26 and multiple doses at week 38 (n = 29, and from pediatric patients following administration of multiple doses of taliglucerase alfa for 10-27 months (n = 10. In both adult and pediatric patients, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax, area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to last measureable concentration (AUC0-t, and from time zero to infinity (AUC0-∞ were higher after 60 Units/kg dose than 30 Units/kg dose. No tendency for accumulation or change in taliglucerase alfa pharmacokinetic parameters over time from day 1 to week 38 was observed with repeated doses of 30 or 60 Units/kg in adults. After multiple doses, mean (range dose-normalized pharmacokinetic parameters were similar for adult versus pediatric patients receiving 60 Units/kg: Cmax expressed in ng/mL/mg was 42.4 (14.5-95.4 in adults and 46.6 (34.4-68.4 in pediatric patients, AUC0 t expressed in ng • h/mL/mg was 63.4 (26.3-156 in adults and 63.9 (39.8-85.1 in pediatric patients, t1/2 expressed in minutes was 34.8 (11.3-104 in adults and 31.5 (18.0-42.9 in pediatric patients and total body clearance expressed in L/h was 19.9 (6.25-37.9 in adults and 17.0 (11.7-24.9 in pediatric patients. These pharmacokinetic data extend the findings of taliglucerase alfa in adult and pediatric patients.ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT00376168 (in adults; NCT01411228 (in children.

  2. NGC 4254: An Act of Harassment Uncovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Haynes, Martha P; Kent, Brian R

    2007-01-01

    We present an HI map constructed from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey of the surroundings of the strongly asymmetric Virgo cluster Sc galaxy NGC 4254. Noted previously for its lopsided appearance, rich interstellar medium, and extradisk HI emission, NGC 4254 is believed to be entering the Virgo environment for the first time and at high speed. The ALFALFA map clearly shows a long HI tail extending ~250 kpc northward from the galaxy. Embedded as one condensation within this HI structure is the object previously identified as a "dark galaxy": Virgo HI21 (Davies et al. 2004). A body of evidence including its location within and velocity with respect to the cluster and the appearance and kinematics of its strong spiral pattern, extra-disk HI and lengthy HI tail is consistent with a picture of "galaxy harassment" as proposed by Moore et al. (1996a,b; 1998). The smoothly varying radial velocity field along the tail as it emerges from NGC 4254 can be used as a timing tool, if interpreted as resulting f...

  3. Optically Unseen HI Detections towards the Virgo Cluster detected in the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, Brian R; Haynes, Martha P; Saintonge, Amelie; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Balonek, Thomas; Brosch, Noah; Catinella, Barbara; Koopmann, Rebecca A; Momjian, Emmanuel; Spekkens, Kristine

    2007-01-01

    We report the discovery by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey of eight HI features not coincident with stellar counterparts in the Virgo Cluster region. All of the HI clouds have cz < 3000 km/s and, if at the Virgo distance, HI masses between 1.9 x 10**7 and 1.1 x 10**9 solar masses. Four of the eight objects were reported or hinted at by previous studies and "rediscovered" by ALFALFA. While some clouds appear to be associated with optical galaxies in their vicinity, others show no clear association with a stellar counterpart. Two of them are embedded in relatively dense regions of the cluster and are associated with M49 and M86; they were previously known. The others are mostly located in peripheral regions of the cluster. Especially notable are a concentration of objects towards the so-called M cloud, 3 to 5 degrees to the NW of M87, and a complex of several clouds projected roughly halfway between M87 and M49. The object referred to as VIRGOHI21 and proposed to be a "dark galaxy" is also dete...

  4. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey: VI. Second HI Source Catalog of the Virgo Cluster Region

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, Brian R; Haynes, Martha P; Martin, Ann M; Saintonge, Amélie; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Balonek, Thomas J; Brosch, Noah; Koopmann, Rebecca A

    2008-01-01

    We present the third installment of HI sources extracted from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA extragalactic survey. This dataset continues the work of the Virgo ALFALFA catalog. The catalogs and spectra published here consist of data obtained during the 2005 and 2006 observing sessions of the survey. The catalog consists of 578 HI detections within the range 11h 36m 6.5; (b) high velocity clouds in the Milky Way or its periphery; and (c) signals of lower S/N which coincide spatially with an optical object and known redshift. 75% of the sources are newly published HI detections. Of particular note is a complex of HI clouds projected between M87 and M49 that do not coincide with any optical counterparts. Candidate objects without optical counterparts are few. The median redshift for this sample is 6500 km/s and the cz distribution exhibits the local large scale structure consisting of Virgo and the background void and the A1367-Coma supercluster regime at cz_sun ~7000 km/s. Position corrections for telescope poin...

  5. Alglucosidase alfa: Long term use in the treatment of patients with Pompe disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Beck

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Michael BeckChildren’s Hospital, University of Mainz, Mainz, GermanyAbstract: Pompe disease is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by muscle weakness and cardiomyopathy. It shows a broad variability regarding the clinical severity as well as the age of onset. In the past, two different recombinant enzyme preparations have been developed for the treatment of Pompe patients: α-glucosidase, produced in rabbit milk, and α-glucosidase, produced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell lines. The CHO enzyme received marketing approval in 2006 after it was proven to be effective in ameliorating muscle strength and improving heart function. The other has not been approved. The clinical efficacy of this enzyme preparation could be confirmed by several clinical trials in patients with different age of onset and disease severity. Enzyme replacement therapy, however, has its limitations due to unsatisfactory access of recombinant α-glucosidase to the muscle cells and due to the formation of antibodies. To overcome these therapeutic restraints, the development of a more effective enzyme preparation may become necessary.Keywords: alglucosidase alfa, alpha glucosidase, Pompe disease, enzyme replacement therapy, glycogen storage disorder type II, acid maltase deficiency

  6. Profile of alglucosidase alfa in the treatment of Pompe disease: safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider I

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ilka Schneider, Stephan Zierz Department of Neurology, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale, Germany Abstract: Pompe disease, also referred to as glycogenosis type II, is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder that results from the deficiency of the glycogen-degrading enzyme acid α-glucosidase. The classical form presents shortly after birth with muscle hypotonia, cardiac, and respiratory failure resulting in a fatal outcome. The late onset of Pompe disease has a very variable onset and disease presentation that often causes a delayed diagnosis. Until now enzyme replacement therapy with alglucosidase alfa is the only causative therapy option for Pompe patients that can slow down disease progression. However, uncertainty remains about the efficacy regarding survival and quality of life in Pompe patients under this very cost-intensive treatment. This paper provides a systematic review of the literature stressing different aspects of enzyme replacement therapy in infantile and late onset Pompe patients. Keywords: lysosomal storage disease, glycogenosis type II, acid maltase deficiency, IOPD, LOPD, enzyme replacement therapy

  7. Reversing anticoagulant effects of novel oral anticoagulants: role of ciraparantag, andexanet alfa, and idarucizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu TY

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tiffany Y Hu,1 Vaibhav R Vaidya,2 Samuel J Asirvatham2,31Mayo Medical School, 2Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, 3Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs are increasingly used in clinical practice, but lack of commercially available reversal agents is a major barrier for mainstream use of these therapies. Specific antidotes to NOACs are under development. Idarucizumab (aDabi-Fab, BI 655075 is a novel humanized mouse monoclonal antibody that binds dabigatran and reverses its anticoagulant effect. In a recent Phase III study (Reversal Effects of Idarucizumab on Active Dabigatran, a 5 g intravenous infusion of idarucizumab resulted in the normalization of dilute thrombin time in 98% and 93% of the two groups studied, with normalization of ecarin-clotting time in 89% and 88% patients. Two other antidotes, andexanet alfa (PRT064445 and ciraparantag (PER977 are also under development for reversal of NOACs. In this review, we discuss commonly encountered management issues with NOACs such as periprocedural management, laboratory monitoring of anticoagulation, and management of bleeding. We review currently available data regarding specific antidotes to NOACs with respect to pharmacology and clinical trials.Keywords: novel oral anticoagulant, dabigatran, idarucizumab, reversal

  8. Effect of wool and thermo-binder fibers on adhesion of alfa fibers in polyester composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omri, Med. Amin; Triki, A.; Guicha, M.; Hassen, Med. Ben; Arous, M.; Ahmed El Hamzaoui, H.; Bulou, A.

    2013-12-01

    Dielectric study was investigated in order to probe the interfacial region fibers/matrix of the polyester composite reinforced with alfa/wool/thermo-binder fibers. Dielectric spectra were measured in the frequency range from 10-1 Hz to 106 Hz, and temperature interval from 40 °C to 150 °C. This study revealed the presence of two dielectric relaxations in the composite. While the first one was attributed to the α mode relaxation associated with the glass transition of the matrix, the second was associated with the conductivity resulting from the carriers' charges diffusion noted for high temperature above glass transition and low frequencies. As this study did not show the presence of the interfacial polarization effect in the composite, it was accomplished with the vibrational study using the FT-IR and Raman techniques. A great compatibility between fibers and matrix was proven by a less hydrophilic character of the reinforcement giving rise to additional valence vibrations from wool fibers and hydrogen bonds.

  9. Arecibo Pulsar Survey Using ALFA. III. Precursor Survey and Population Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Swiggum, J K; McLaughlin, M A; Bates, S D; Champion, D J; Ransom, S M; Lazarus, P; Brazier, A; Hessels, J W T; Nice, D J; Ellis, J; Senty, T R; Allen, B; Bhat, N D R; Bogdanov, S; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J S; Freire, P C C; Jenet, F A; Karako-Argaman, C; Kaspi, V M; Knispel, B; Lee, K J; Van Leeuwen, J; Lynch, R; Lyne, A G; Scholz, P; Siemens, X; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; Stovall, K; Venkataraman, A; Zhu, W W

    2014-01-01

    The Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (PALFA) Survey uses the ALFA 7-beam receiver to search both inner and outer Galactic sectors visible from Arecibo ($32^{\\circ}\\lesssim \\ell \\lesssim 77^{\\circ}$ and $168^{\\circ}\\lesssim \\ell \\lesssim 214^{\\circ}$) close to the Galactic plane ($|b|\\lesssim5^{\\circ}$) for pulsars. In this paper we detail a precursor survey of this region with PALFA, which observed a subset of the full region (slightly more restrictive in $\\ell$ and $|b|\\lesssim1^{\\circ}$) and detected 45 pulsars. For both Galactic millisecond and normal pulsar populations, we compare the survey's detections with simulations to model these populations and, in particular, to estimate the number of observable pulsars in the Galaxy. We place 95\\% confidence intervals of 82,000 to 143,000 on the number of detectable normal pulsars and 9,000 to 100,000 on the number of detectable millisecond pulsars in the Galactic disk. These are consistent with previous estimates. Given the most likely population size in each ca...

  10. LHC Report: special run with de-squeezed beams for ATLAS/ALFA and TOTEM

    CERN Multimedia

    Helmut Burkhardt for the LHC team

    2015-01-01

    The main high-luminosity proton-proton run of the LHC is complemented by one week per year of special proton-proton runs. The special runs are performed with larger beam sizes at the interaction points to allow the forward physics experiments, TOTEM and ATLAS/ALFA, the chance to make precise measurements of protons as they emerge from collisions at small angles.   In standard high-luminosity operation, the beams are squeezed to give small beam sizes at the interaction points to maximise the collision rates. The “squeeze” takes place at top energy and the beam size at the centre of ATLAS (IP1) and CMS (IP5) is reduced from 66 micrometres at the top of the ramp to 18 micrometres before colliding beams are established. Protons that avoid the fate of an inelastic collision but yet still interact – in elastic or diffractive events – are scattered and emerge in the forward direction. The reduction in beam size has a side effect of increasing the an...

  11. Peg-Interferon Alfa 2-b Related Cellulitis in a 40 Years Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaaz Sali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pegylated interferon and ribavirin are currently one of the accepted treatment for chronic Hepatitis C. Dermatologic complications of interferon have been reported, but to date a few cases of bacterial cellulitis; a rare and severe complication, have been published. Cellulitis is a common infectious process affecting the skin and subcutaneous tissues which results in significant morbidity and holds considerable healthcare costs.Cases Report: Herein, we report a case of chronic hepatitis C genotype 1a who was on medication since 8 weeks prior to developing leg cellulitis, an uncommon pegylated interferon injection site. Considering no other possible risk factors were found to be in favor of bacterial cellulitis, our case is unique in its kind. Some reports reveal necrotizing vasculitis as basis for cutaneous lesions, which could be due to the high concentrations of drug at the injection site, a toxic effect of the diluents, or an immunological reaction.Conclusion: According to the latter mechanism patients could develop bacterial cellulitis in their different organs. Conclusively, we propose the hypothesis of a possible association between cellulitis to occur at any site as the complication of pegylated interferon Alfa 2b and would highlight the role of a careful skin examination that could be an asset in preventing local skin infections.

  12. Micellization behavior of mixtures of amphiphilic promazine hydrochloride and cationic aniline hydrochloride in aqueous and electrolyte solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rub, Malik Abdul; Azum, Naved; Asiri, Abdullah M. [King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Khan, Farah [Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India); Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G. [Research Center for Advanced Materials Science, King Khalid University, Abha (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-10-15

    We studied the influence of cationic hydrotrope aniline hydrochloride on the micellization behavior of cationic amphiphilic phenothiazine drug promazine hydrochloride in the presence and absence of 50mmol kg{sup -1} NaCl. The experimental critical micelle concentration (CMC) values came out to be lower than ideal CMC (CMCid) values, signifying attractive interactions between the two components in mixed micelles. NaCl further decreases the CMC of pure PMZ and aniline hydrochloride as well as their mixture due to screening of the electrostatic repulsion among the polar head groups. The bulk properties of solution were examined by using different theoretical models for justification and comparison of results. The micellar mole fraction of aniline hydrochloride (X{sup Rub}{sub ,} X{sup M}{sub 1}, X{sup Rod}{sub 1} and X{sup id}{sub 1}) was evaluated by different proposed models, showing greater contribution of hydrotrope in mixed micelle. The negative values of interaction parameter (β) indicate synergistic interactions and negative values of β further decrease by the addition of salt in mixed systems. From the CMC values as a function of temperature, various thermodynamic properties have been evaluated and discussed in detail.

  13. Chemical Immobilization of Sloth Bears (Melursus ursinus) with Ketamine Hydrochloride and Xylazine Hydrochloride: Hematology and Serum Biochemical Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeraselvam, M; Sridhar, R; Perumal, P; Jayathangaraj, M G

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to define the physiological responses of captive sloth bears immobilized with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride and to determine and compare the values of hematology and serum biochemical parameters between sexes. A total of 15 sloth bears were immobilized using combination of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride drugs at the dose rate of 5.0 milligram (mg) per kg body weight and 2.0 mg per kg body weight, respectively. The use of combination of these drugs was found satisfactory for the chemical immobilization of captive sloth bears. There were no significant differences observed in induction time and recovery time and physiological parameters such as heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature between sexes. Health related parameters comprising hematological values like packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), erythrocyte indices, and so forth and biochemical values like total protein, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, alkaline amino-transferase (ALT), aspartate amino-transferase (AST), and so forth were estimated in 11 (5 males and 6 females) apparently healthy bears. Comparison between sexes revealed significant difference in PCV (P sloth bears for appropriate line treatment.

  14. Chemical Immobilization of Sloth Bears (Melursus ursinus with Ketamine Hydrochloride and Xylazine Hydrochloride: Hematology and Serum Biochemical Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Veeraselvam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to define the physiological responses of captive sloth bears immobilized with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride and to determine and compare the values of hematology and serum biochemical parameters between sexes. A total of 15 sloth bears were immobilized using combination of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride drugs at the dose rate of 5.0 milligram (mg per kg body weight and 2.0 mg per kg body weight, respectively. The use of combination of these drugs was found satisfactory for the chemical immobilization of captive sloth bears. There were no significant differences observed in induction time and recovery time and physiological parameters such as heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature between sexes. Health related parameters comprising hematological values like packed cell volume (PCV, hemoglobin (Hb, red blood cell count (RBC, erythrocyte indices, and so forth and biochemical values like total protein, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine, alkaline amino-transferase (ALT, aspartate amino-transferase (AST, and so forth were estimated in 11 (5 males and 6 females apparently healthy bears. Comparison between sexes revealed significant difference in PCV (P<0.05 and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC (P<0.05. The study might help to evaluate health profiles of sloth bears for appropriate line treatment.

  15. Autoantibodies to alfa-fodrin in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis and Sjögren's syndrome: possible markers for a common secretory disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanto, Antonia; Csipo, Istvan; Horvath, Ildiko; Biro, Edit; Szodoray, Peter; Zeher, Margit

    2008-09-01

    Presence of autoantibodies to alfa-fodrin was investigated in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (n = 61), Hashimoto thyroiditis (n = 27), Sjögren's syndrome associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis (n = 31) and in healthy persons (n = 77). In each group, level of alfa-fodrin antibodies was higher than in the controls. There was no significant difference in their presence either between patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis with or without Sjögren's syndrome, or-in IgA isotype-between Sjögren's and Hashimoto thyroiditis patients. Correlation was found between the level of IgG alfa-fodrin and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies. Based on these findings, fodrin can be associated with both endocrine and exocrine glandular secretion. Antibodies to alfa-fodrin might have a role in the pathogenesis of Hashimoto thyroiditis concerning the "final common effectory pathway", secretion. Alfa-fodrin antibodies can be good markers of secretory disorders. Assessment of these autoantibodies might help the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with impaired secretory capability of not only autoimmune origin.

  16. Análise comparativa do controle interno no contas a receber e a pagar nas empresas Beta Ltda e Alfa Ltda = A comparative internal control analysis of receivable and payable accounts in Beta and Alfa Ltd Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleyton de Oliveira Ritta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade constante de um excelente desempenho empresarial leva à busca da qualidade e confiabilidade da informação para o auxílio na tomada de decisão. Neste contexto, a auditoria contábil tem um papel importante na análise das práticas administrativas adotadas pelas entidades. Desse modo, o objetivo deste artigo é comparar a estruturação dos controles internos no contas a receber e a pagar nas empresas Beta Ltda, a qual não contrata serviços de auditoria externa, e Alfa Ltda, que os contrata. Este estudo caracteriza-se como de caso comparativo de caráter descritivo por meio de questionário e entrevista. Os resultados apontam que a empresa Alfa Ltda tem melhores níveis de controle interno e, consequentemente, está menos exposta a erros e fraudes. Desse modo, entende-se que os seviços de auditoria atuam como um instrumento de auxílio para minimização dos riscos operacionais e servem de alerta aos gestores quanto à eficiência das transações. Contudo, percebe-se que a qualidade dos controles internos nas organizações depende diretamente da utilização de procedimentos de monitoramento.The constant need for excellent business performance triggers the quest for information quality and reliability to help in decision making. Considering this context, accounting auditing plays an important role in the analysis of administrative practices adopted by entities. Thus, the objective of this article is to compare the structure of the internal controls for receivable and payable accounts in Beta Ltd companies, which do not contract external auditing services, and Alfa Ltd, which does. This study is a descriptive comparative case study, carried out through questionnaire and interview. The results have showed that Alfa Ltd has better internal control levels and consequently is less exposed to errors and fraud. This way, auditing services are seen as auxiliary instruments to minimize operational risks and serve to alert

  17. CHANGES IN TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALFA DURING TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS BY TRANSIMMUNIZATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kil'dyushevskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the availability of a  large number of treatments for multiple sclerosis with various targets, these treatments are not always effective. According to the literature, experimental studies have shown a  significant decrease in tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNF-α with the use of extracorporeal photochemotherapy. Aim: To assess changes in TNF-α in patients with multiple sclerosis during treatment with transimmunization. Materials and methods: The study recruited 13 adult patients with multiple sclerosis. Serum TNF-α was measured by immunochemiluminescence analysis (IMMULITE 1000, Siemens. The patients were treated by transimmunization, i.e. a  modified photopheresis. Two hours before the procedure, Ammifurin (8-methoxypsoralene was administered to all the patients, then their mononuclear cells were isolated under PBSC protocol with Haemonetics MCS+ cell separator. Thereafter, mononuclear cells were irradiated with ultraviolet for 90  minutes and incubated for 20 hours at 37 °С. The next day the cells were re-infused to the patients. The procedure was performed 2  times per week for 6  months, then once per 4  months. Results: Before transimmunization, mean TNF-α level in adult patients with multiple sclerosis was 9.958±0.812  pg/mL (normal, below 8.1 pg/mL. After transimmunization, its level was 6.992±0.367  pg/mL (р<0.05. Conclusion: Ultraviolet irradiation of peripheral blood monocytes with their subsequent incubation (transimmunization led to a 30% decrease of serum TNF-α in patients with multiple sclerosis. This indicates a suppressive effect of transimmunization on TNF-α. Hence, in patients with multiple sclerosis transimmunization exerts an anti-inflammatory effect.

  18. Direct site-specific glycoform identification and quantitative comparison of glycoprotein therapeutics: imiglucerase and velaglucerase alfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hongping; Hill, John; Gucinski, Ashley C; Boyne, Michael T; Buhse, Lucinda F

    2015-03-01

    Gaucher disease, the most common lysosomal metabolic disorder, can be treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). Recombinant human glucocerebrosidase imiglucerase (Cerezyme(®)), produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells, has been used for ERT of Gaucher disease for 20 years. Another recombinant glucocerebrosidase velaglucerase alfa (VPRIV), expressed in a human fibroblast cell line, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2010. The amino acid sequence difference at residue 495 of these two products is well documented. The overall N-linked qualitative glycan composition of these two products has also been reported previously. Herein, employing our recently developed approach utilizing isobaric tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling and an LTQ Orbitrap XL electron transfer dissociation (ETD) hybrid mass spectrometer, the site-specific glycoforms of these products were identified with ETD and collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectra. The quantitative comparison of site-specific glycans was achieved utilizing higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) spectra with a NanoMate used as both a fraction collector and a sample introduction device. From the trypsin-digested mixture of these two products, over 90 glycopeptides were identified by accurate mass matching. In addition to those previously reported, additional glycopeptides were detected with moderate abundance. The relative amount of each glycoform at a specific glycosylation site was determined based on reporter signal intensities of the TMT labeling reagents. This is the first report of site-specific simultaneous qualitative and quantitative comparison of glycoforms for Cerezyme(®) and VPRIV. The results demonstrate that this method could be utilized for biosimilarity determination and counterfeit identification of glycoproteins.

  19. Effects of alfa-hydroxy-isocaproic acid on body composition, DOMS and performance in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karila Tuomo AM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alfa-Hydroxy-isocaproic acid (HICA is an end product of leucine metabolism in human tissues such as muscle and connective tissue. According to the clinical and experimental studies, HICA can be considered as an anti-catabolic substance. The present study investigated the effects of HICA supplementation on body composition, delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS and physical performance of athletes during a training period. Methods Fifteen healthy male soccer players (age 22.1+/-3.9 yr volunteered for the 4-week double-blind study during an intensive training period. The subjects in the group HICA (n = 8 received 583 mg of sodium salt of HICA (corresponding 500 mg of HICA mixed with liquid three times a day for 4 weeks, and those in the group PLACEBO (n = 7 received 650 mg of maltodextrin mixed with liquid three times a day for the same period. According to a weekly training schedule, they practiced soccer 3 - 4 times a week, had strength training 1 - 2 times a week, and had one soccer game during the study. The subjects were required to keep diaries on training, nutrition, and symptoms of DOMS. Body composition was evaluated with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA before and after the 4-week period. Muscle strength and running velocity were measured with field tests. Results As compared to placebo, the HICA supplementation increased significantly body weight (p th week of the treatment (p Conclusion Already a 4-week HICA supplementation of 1.5 g a day leads to small increases in muscle mass during an intensive training period in soccer athletes.

  20. Fundamentals of ionic conductivity relaxation gained from study of procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride at ambient and elevated pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnarowska, Z; Swiety-Pospiech, A; Grzybowska, K; Hawelek, L; Paluch, M; Ngai, K L

    2012-04-28

    The pharmaceuticals, procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride, are glass-forming as well as ionically conducting materials. We have made dielectric measurements at ambient and elevated pressures to characterize the dynamics of the ion conductivity relaxation in these pharmaceuticals, and calorimetric measurements for the structural relaxation. Perhaps due to their special chemical and physical structures, novel features are found in the ionic conductivity relaxation of these pharmaceuticals. Data of conductivity relaxation in most ionic conductors when represented by the electric loss modulus usually show a single resolved peak in the electric modulus loss M(")(f) spectra. However, in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride we find in addition another resolved loss peak at higher frequencies over a temperature range spanning across T(g). The situation is analogous to many non-ionic glass-formers showing the presence of the structural α-relaxation together with the Johari-Goldstein (JG) β-relaxation. Naturally the analogy leads us to name the slower and faster processes resolved in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride as the primary α-conductivity relaxation and the secondary β-conductivity relaxation, respectively. The analogy of the β-conductivity relaxation in procaine HCl and procainamide HCl with JG β-relaxation in non-ionic glass-formers goes further by the finding that the β-conductivity is strongly related to the α-conductivity relaxation at temperatures above and below T(g). At elevated pressure but compensated by raising temperature to maintain α-conductivity relaxation time constant, the data show invariance of the ratio between the β- and the α-conductivity relaxation times to changes of thermodynamic condition. This property indicates that the β-conductivity relaxation has fundamental importance and is indispensable as the precursor of the α-conductivity relaxation, analogous to the relation found

  1. Disposable screen-printed sensors for determination of duloxetine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alarfaj Nawal A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A screen-printed disposable electrode system for the determination of duloxetine hydrochloride (DL was developed using screen-printing technology. Homemade printing has been characterized and optimized on the basis of effects of the modifier and plasticizers. The fabricated bi-electrode potentiometric strip containing both working and reference electrodes was used as duloxetine hydrochloride sensor. The proposed sensors worked satisfactorily in the concentration range from 1.0 × 10-6-1.0 × 10-2 mol L-1 with detection limit reaching 5.0 × 10-7 mol L-1 and adequate shelf life of 6 months. The method is accurate, precise and economical. The proposed method has been applied successfully for the analysis of the drug in pure and in its dosage forms. In this method, there is no interference from any common pharmaceutical additives and diluents. Results of the analysis were validated statistically by recovery studies.

  2. [Clinical evaluation of roxatidine acetate hydrochloride injection as preanesthetic medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanishi, M; Enomoto, A; Shimada, Y; Kurokawa, Y

    1991-09-01

    The effects of single intravenous administration of roxatidine acetate hydrochloride 75 mg on the volume and pH of gastric juice were investigated in 43 patients undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia. The drug was given 1 hour before anesthesia. The percentages of patients with gastric pH above 2.5 and gastric juice volume under 25 ml were 95.3% and 97.7% at the time of induction of anesthesia and at the time of extubation, respectively. As for overall assessment on gastric secretion, 93.0% was judged as very effective. In 2 cases, pricking sensations were observed at the time of injection, but these symptoms disappeared without any treatment within a few minutes. No other adverse reactions nor abnormal laboratory test findings were observed. In conclusion, roxatidine acetate hydrochloride administered intravenously 1 hour prior to anesthesia is thought to be useful to prevent acid aspiration pneumonitis.

  3. Thermal Analysis Applied to Verapamil Hydrochloride Characterization in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Irene Yoshida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermogravimetry (TG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC are useful techniques that have been successfully applied in the pharmaceutical industry to reveal important information regarding the physicochemical properties of drug and excipient molecules such as polymorphism, stability, purity, formulation compatibility among others. Verapamil hydrochloride shows thermal stability up to 180 °C and melts at 146 °C, followed by total degradation. The drug is compatible with all the excipients evaluated. The drug showed degradation when subjected to oxidizing conditions, suggesting that the degradation product is 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid derived from alkyl side chain oxidation. Verapamil hydrochloride does not present the phenomenon of polymorphism under the conditions evaluated. Assessing the drug degradation kinetics, the drug had a shelf life (t90 of 56.7 years and a pharmaceutical formulation showed t90 of 6.8 years showing their high stability.

  4. Linear scleroderma after contusion and injection of mepivacaine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Takashi; Niiyama, Shiro; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2010-05-15

    A 36-year-old woman initially was treated for a contusion by local injection of mepivacaine hydrochloride into the left dorsum of the foot. Approximately 3 months after the injury and injection, linear sclerotic plaques originating from the site of contusion and injection were recognized. These progressed in extent and severity over a period of 3 years, when she presented to our clinic. By biopsy, swelling of collagen fibers in the lower dermis was revealed and the condition was diagnosed as linear scleroderma. Our present case had multiple linear sclerotic plaques of the left lower extremity, the distribution of which was consistent with Blaschko lines. It was also revealed that the initial sclerotic plaque was at the site of the contusion and local mepivacaine hydrochloride injection. Our present case is interesting in that the findings suggest a correlation between linear scleroderma plaque occurrence and the contusion or injection of mepivacaine.

  5. Synthesis of /sup 14/C-Bucromarone succinate and hydrochloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, C.; Verny, M.; Maurizis, J.-C.; Payard, M.; Faurie, M.

    1986-08-01

    /sup 14/C-Bucromarone, 2-(4-(3-N,N dibutylamino propoxy) 3,5-dimethyl benzoyl) chromone, was synthesized from (U-/sup 14/C) oxalic acid. The labelling takes place at the first step of the synthesis, giving /sup 14/C-Bucromarone succinate (specific activity 7.45 mCi/mmol) and /sup 14/C-Bucromarone hydrochloride (specific activity 7.5 mCi/mmol).

  6. Enantiospecific synthesis of (1- sup 3 H)-(+)-pseudoephedrine hydrochloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, J.A.; Scharver, J.D. (Burroughs Wellcome Co., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (USA). Chemical Development Labs.)

    1990-06-01

    The naturally occurring dextrorotary enantiomer (+)-pseudoephedrine was synthesized in the ({sup 3}H)-labelled form with specific activity 17.5 Ci/mmol suitable for development of a radioimmunoassay procedure. The chirally specific route from L-alanine to (1-{sup 3}H)-d-pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was based on the use of {alpha}-amino acids as chiral educts for asymmetric products. (author).

  7. OPTIMIZATION OF CONCENTRATION OF POLYHEXANIDE HYDROCHLORIDE IN MULTIPURPOSE SOLUTION.

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, A.; Ali, A.; M.T.Zzaman; Chauhan, S.; V.Handa

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of foreign pathogenic microorganisms like viruses, bacteria, yeast, fungi and protozoa which can inadvertently be introduced into eye via contact lens and hence disinfection is a vital part. Multifunctional solutions are generally intended to combine the action of cleaning disinfecting, rinsing lubricating deproteinising and soaking in one single product.In order to optimization of concentration of Polyhexanide hydrochloride in multipurpose solution some microbiological stu...

  8. Mucoproteína versus alfa-1-glicoproteína ácida: o que quantificar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picheth Geraldo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantificação sérica da alfa-1-glicoproteína (GPA ácida é útil no diagnóstico e no acompanhamento dos processos agudos resultantes de múltiplas causas. Esta proteína também pode ser estimada pela quantificação da mucoproteína (Muco, ensaio que reflete as glicoproteínas com elevado teor de açúcar, entre as quais a GPA é majoritária. O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar a correlação e a performance analítica das determinações de mucoproteína (Muco e alfa-1-glicoproteína ácida (GPA, propondo uma equação de regressão linear. Amostras de soros de 540 pacientes, com idades entre 10 e 79 anos (média de 34,6, predominando mulheres (71,3%, foram analisadas simultaneamente para Muco (Winzler, manual com reagentes próprios e GPA (imunoturbidimetria automatizada, Roche; Cobas mira. A análise de regressão, fixando a Muco como variável dependente, apresentou Muco (mg/dl em tirosina = 0,031 x GPA (mg/dl + 0,8 (r = 0,91; e, fixando o intercepto em zero, Muco = 0,039 x GPA (r = 0,98. A imprecisão interensaio foi de 23,4% e 5,2% (coeficiente de variação, respectivamente, para Muco e GPA. Conclusão: a elevada variabilidade analítica da quantificação da mucoproteína pelo método de Winzler recomenda que este ensaio seja substituído pela dosagem da alfa-1-glicoproteína ácida. Quando necessário, recomendamos estimar a mucoproteína, quantificando a alfa-1-glicoproteína ácida com ensaios de mesmo desempenho que o do utilizado neste trabalho, e usar a equação de regressão AGP (mg/dl x 0,039 = Muco (mg/dl em tirosina.

  9. Factor de necrosis tumoral alfa en pacientes con preeclampsia a término y pretérmino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Reyna Villasmil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue identificar y comparar las concentraciones de factor de necrosis tumoral alfa en pacientes con preeclampsia a término y pre-término. Se seleccionó un total de 50 pacientes. Se incluyeron a 20 pacientes preeclámpticas pre-término (grupo A y 30 preeclámpticas a término (grupo B. Las muestras de sangre para la determinación de factor de necrosis tumoral alfa se recolectaron en todas las pacientes antes del parto e inmediatamente después del diagnóstico de preeclampsia. No se encontraron diferencias significativas con relación a la edad materna e Índice de masa corporal al momento de la toma de la muestra. Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos con respecto a la edad gestacional (p < 0,0001. El valor promedio de la presión arterial sistólica en el grupo A fue de 149,4 ± 11,3 mmHg mientras que en las pacientes del grupo B fue de 148,1 ± 12,3 mmHg (p = 0,7071 y el valor promedio de presión arterial diastólica en el grupo A fue de 103,8 ± 8,6 mmHg y en el grupo B fue de 102,7 ± 7,9 mmHg (p = 0,6436. Las concentraciones de factor de necrosis tumoral alfa fueron similares en el grupo de preeclámpticas pre-término (98,2 ± 45,1 pg/mL comparado con el grupo de preeclámpticas a término (96,6 ± 48,7 pg/mL; p = 0,9072. Al realizar la correlación entre los valores de factor de necrosis tumoral alfa con los valores de presión arterial se observó que no existía correlación con la presión arterial sistólica (r = 0,129; p = 0,374 ni con la de presión arterial diastólica (r = 0,158, p = 0,273. Se concluye que las concentraciones sanguíneas del factor de necrosis tumoral alfa resultaron similares en las pacientes preeclámpticas con embarazo pretérmino y a término. La correlación de las concentraciones de factor de necrosis tumoral alfa con los valores de presión arterial sistólica y diastólica resultó no significativa. Palabras clave:Factor de

  10. Onset of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus During Pegylated-interferon Alfa and Ribavirin Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Raghini; Janarthanan, Krishnaveni; Rajasekaran, Senthilkumar

    2012-01-01

    A 16-year-old female was treated with pegylated-interferon (PEG-IFN) alfa (a)-2b and ribavirin combination therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. She attained rapid virological response. She presented with diabetic ketoacidosis after 41 weeks of therapy. Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies and islet cell antibodies were negative. Her fasting serum C-peptide level was <0.1 ng/mL, and the treatment course was completed. This case underlines the importance of periodic plasma glucose monitoring in patients during and after PEG-IFN and ribavirin therapy. PMID:25755410

  11. AlphaCI: un programa de cálculo de intervalos de confianza para el coeficiente alfa de Cronbach

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén Ledesma

    2004-01-01

    El coeficiente alfa de Cronbach es el modo más habitual de estimar la fiabilidad de pruebas basadas en Teoría Clásica de los Test. En dicha estimación, los investigadores usualmente omiten informar intervalos de confianza para el coeficiente, un aspecto no solo recomendado por los especialistas, sino también requerido explícitamente en las normas editoriales de algunas revistas especializadas. Esta situación puede atribuirse a que los métodos de estimación de intervalos de confianza son poco ...

  12. Tratamento de reposição na deficiência de alfa-1-antitripsina em doentes com enfisema pulmonar

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica é uma das principais causas de incapacidade respiratória e a quarta causa de morte em todo o Mundo, sendo mais frequente no sexo masculino. A exposição ao fumo do tabaco é considerada o principal fator de risco ambiental, no entanto, existem outros fatores igualmente importantes como, por exemplo, a deficiência de alfa-1-antitripsina, a única desordem genética conhecida associada a esta patologia até aos dias de hoje. Esta enzima é maioritariamente produzi...

  13. Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with peginterferon alfa-2a for chronic hepatitis C: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Mumtaz A; Azhar, Ashaur; Tufail, Kashif; Feyssa, Eyob L; Penny, Stephen F; McGregory, Marlene; Araya, Victor; Ortiz, Jorge A

    2010-01-01

    The recommended therapy for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection is the combination of a Pegylated interferon and Ribavirin. Almost all such patients on combination therapy experience one or more adverse events during the course of treatment. Significant neurological side effects are rare. A few cases of Bell’s Palsy, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and even one case of acute demyelinating polyneuropathy with atypical features for Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) associated with Interferon therapy have been reported but no report of GBS with typical features has been published. We present a case report of typical GBS associated with Peginterferon alfa-2a and Ribavirin used for treatment of CHC infection. PMID:21160989

  14. Secondary bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia during treatment of chronic hepatitis C: role of pegylated interferon alfa-2a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Soares Martins

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of chronic hepatitis C has frequent side effects such as cytopenias and neuropsychiatric symptoms. However, pulmonary toxicity associated with interferon is rarely described. This paper describes the clinical case of a 67-year-old female patient with chronic hepatitis C who presented an acute onset of dry cough, dyspnoea, and fever 36 weeks after the use of pegylated interferon alfa-2a and ribavirin. The lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of a bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP. Corticotherapy was initiated, with clinical and radiological improvement. This paper aims to advise physicians to this occasional, though severe, adverse event related to hepatitis C virus (HCV treatment.

  15. Comportamiento de glicinina, beta-conglicinina y alfa-amilasa en semillas de soja deterioradas y no deterioradas

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue estudiar el comportamiento de glicinina y beta-conglicinina y la actividad de alfa-amilasa en semillas deterioradas y no deterioradas de 10 cultivares de soja [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Las semillas se sometieron a dos tratamientos: deterioradas por envejecimiento acelerado y no deterioradas. Se determinó la presencia de las proteínas de reserva a partir de semillas con 0, 3 y 8 días de germinadas por electroforesis en geles de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE). La activida...

  16. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FLOATING TABLETS OF TIZANIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adimoolam Senthil

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to develop floating matrix tablets of tizanidine hydrochloride for prolongation of gastric residence time in order to overcome its low bioavailability (34–40% and short biological half life (4.2 h. Tizanidine hydrochloride floating tablets were prepared by the direct compression method, using different viscosity grades of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC K4M and K15M. Tizanidine hydrochloride is an orally administered prokinetic agent that facilitates or restores motility throughout the length of the gastrointestinal tract. Tablets were evaluated for various physical parameters and floating properties. Further, tablets were studied for in-vitro drug release characteristics in 12 hours. Drug release from floating matrix tablets was sustained over 12 h with buoyant properties. DSC study revealed that there was no drug and excipient interaction. Based on the release kinetics, all formulations best fitted the Higuchi, first-order model and non-Fickian as the mechanism of drug release. The optimized formulation (F9 released 75% of drug at the end of 10 hours by in-vitro release study.

  17. Clinical effect of venlafaxine combined with methylphenidate hydrochloride on narcolepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Bin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the clinical effect of venlafaxine sustained-release capsules combined with methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets on narcolepsy. Thirty-eight cases of narcoleptic patients were randomly divided into venlafaxine combined with methylphenidate hydrochloride treatment group (observation group, N = 19 and methylphenidate hydrochloride and clomipramine treatment group (control group, N = 19. After a total of 12-week treatment, clinical curative effect and adverse drug reactions were observed in 2 groups of patients. The results showed that effective rate of the treatment for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS in observation group was higher than that of the control group (15/19 vs 8/19, P = 0.044, and effective rate of the treatment for cataplexy in observation group was higher than that of the control group (13/19 vs 6/19, P = 0.048. The rate of adverse drug reactions in observation group was lower than that in the control group (χ2 = 8.889, P = 0.003. It was indicated that venlafaxine combined with methylphenidate had good curative effect on narcolepsy with EDS and cataplexy symptoms.

  18. Mucoadhesive microspheres of propranolol hydrochloride for nasal delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandagi P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin A microspheres of propranolol hydrochloride for intranasal systemic delivery were developed with the aim to avoid first pass metabolism, to improve the patient compliance, to use an alternative therapy to conventional dosage form, to achieve controlled blood level profiles, and to improve the therapeutic efficacy of propranolol hydrochloride in the treatment of various cardiovascular disorders and as a prophylactic for migraine. Gelatin A microspheres were prepared by emulsion crosslinking method using glutaradehyde as a crosslinking agent. Gelatin and chitosan were used as polymer and co polymer respectively. All the prepared microspheres were evaluated for physical characteristics, such as particle size, incorporation efficiency, swelling index, in vitro bioadhesion using rat jejunum and in vitro drug release in pH 6.6 phosphate buffer. Average particle size of microspheres was found to be in the size range 1-50 mm. Increase in drug and polymer concentration in the formulation increased incorporation efficiency. All the microsphers showed good bioadhesive properties and swelling indices and good sustained release of drug. The data indicates that propranolol hydrochloride release followed Higuchi′s matrix and Peppa′s model. Stability studies showed stability of formulation at all the conditions to which they were subjected.

  19. A novel kind of TSV slurry with guanidine hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Hong; Yuling, Liu; Baoguo, Zhang; Xinhuan, Niu; Liying, Han

    2015-10-01

    The effect of a novel alkaline TSV (through-silicon-via) slurry with guanidine hydrochloride (GH) on CMP (chemical mechanical polishing) was investigated. The novel alkaline TSV slurry was free of any inhibitors. During the polishing process, the guanidine hydrochloride serves as an effective surface-complexing agent for TSV CMP applications, the removal rate of barrier (Ti) can be chemically controlled through tuned selectivity with respect to the removal rate of copper and dielectric, which is helpful to modifying the dishing and gaining an excellent topography performance in TSV manufacturing. In this paper, we mainly studied the working mechanism of the components of slurry and the skillful application guanidine hydrochloride in the TSV slurry. Project supported by the Major National Science and Technology Special Projects (No. 2009ZX02308), the Fund Project of Hebei Provincial Department of Education, China (No. QN2014208), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (No. E2013202247), and Colleges and Universities Scientific research project of Hebei Province, China (No. Z2014088).

  20. Spectrophotometric estimation of betahistine hydrochloride in tablet formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aims to develop simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method for estimation of Betahistine hydrochloride in tablet dosage forms. Materials and Methods: For method I and II, in a series of 10 ml volumetric flask, aliquots of standard drug solution (100 μg/ml in double distilled water were transferred and diluted with same so as to give several dilutions in concentration range of 15-90 μg/ml and 10-80 μg/ml respectively of betahistine hydrochloride. To 5 ml of each dilution taken in a separating funnel, (5 ml of methyl orange for method I and 5 ml of bromo phenol blue for method II reagent and 5 ml of chloroform was added. Reaction mixture was shaken gently for 5 min and allowed to stand so as to separate aqueous and chloroform layer. Absorbance maxima measured at 421.6 nm and 412 nm for method I and II respectively. Results: The recovery studies were found close to 100 % that indicates accuracy and precision of the proposed methods. The statistical analysis was carried out and results of which were found satisfactory. Standard deviation values were found low that indicated reproducibility of the proposed methods. Conclusion: Based on results the developed methods could be used for routine estimation of betahistine hydrochloride from tablet formulations.

  1. A double-blind, non-inferiority RCT comparing corifollitropin alfa and recombinant FSH during the first seven days of ovarian stimulation using a GnRH antagonist protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devroey, P.; Boostanfar, R.; Koper, N. P.; Mannaerts, B. M. J. L.; IJzerman-Boon, P. C.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Corifollitropin alfa, a fusion protein lacking LH activity, has a longer elimination half-life and extended time to peak levels than recombinant FSH (rFSH). A single injection of corifollitropin alfa may replace seven daily gonadotrophin injections during the first week of ovarian stimulation. In th

  2. Use of xylazine hydrochloride-ketamine hydrochloride for immobilization of wild leopards (Panthera pardus fusca) in emergency situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsare, Aniruddha V; Athreya, Vidya R

    2010-06-01

    In India, leopards (Panthera pardus fusca) inhabit human-dominated landscapes, resulting in encounters that require interventions to prevent harm to people, as well as the leopards. Immobilization is a prerequisite for any such intervention. Such emergency field immobilizations have to be carried out with limited tools, often amidst large uncontrollable crowds. An effective and practicable approach is discussed, based on 55 wild leopard immobilizations undertaken between January 2003 and April 2008. A xylazine hydrochloride (1.4 +/- 0.3 mg/kg)--ketamine hydrochloride (5 +/- 2 mg/kg) mixture was used for immobilization of leopards, based on estimated body weight. When weight could not be estimated, a standard initial dose of 50 mg of xylazine--150 mg of ketamine was used. Supplemental doses (50-75 mg) of only ketamine were used as required. No life-threatening adverse effects of immobilization were documented for at least 1 mo postimmobilization.

  3. Results from a large multinational clinical trial (guardian™3) using prophylactic treatment with turoctocog alfa in paediatric patients with severe haemophilia A: safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, R; Karim, F A; Glamocanin, S; Janic, D; Vdovin, V; Ozelo, M; Rageliene, L; Carboni, E; Laguna, P; Dobaczewski, G; Seremetis, S; Lindblom, A; Santagostino, E

    2013-09-01

    Recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) products provide a safe and efficacious replacement therapy for prophylaxis and treatment of bleeding episodes in patients with severe haemophilia A. This multinational, open-label, non-controlled trial investigated the safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics (PK) of turoctocog alfa, a new rFVIII product, in a paediatric population. The primary objective was to evaluate safety. A total of 31 younger children (0-5 years) and 32 older children (6-11 years), with ≥ 50 exposure days to any factor VIII (FVIII) product and no history of inhibitors, received prophylaxis with turoctocog alfa (25-50 IU kg(-1) every second day or 25-60 IU kg(-1) three times weekly). PK assessments of turoctocog alfa and the patients' previous FVIII product were performed in 28 patients. Mean exposure to turoctocog alfa was 60 exposure days per patient. This corresponds to approximately 4.5 months in the trial. None of the patients developed inhibitors (≥ 0.6 BU) and no safety concerns were raised. A total of 120 bleeding episodes (95%) were controlled with 1-2 infusions of turoctocog alfa. Based on patient reports, the success rate (defined as 'excellent' or 'good' haemostatic response) for treatment of bleeding episodes was 92%. Overall, the median annualized bleeding rate was 3.0 (interquartile range: 8.5) bleeds patient(-1) year(-1) . PK parameters were comparable between the two age groups. In conclusion, the present large global clinical trial showed that turoctocog alfa was safe, effective in treatment of bleeding episodes and had a prophylactic effect in paediatric patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Efficacy of corifollitropin alfa followed by recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone in a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol for Korean women undergoing assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo Young; Lee, Min Young; Jeong, Hyo Young; Rho, Yong Sook; Song, Sang Jin; Choi, Bum-Chae

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol using corifollitropin alfa in women undergoing assisted reproduction. Six hundred and eighty-six in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles were analyzed. In 113 cycles, folliculogenesis was induced with corifollitropin alfa and recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH), and premature luteinizing hormone (LH) surges were prevented with a GnRH antagonist. In the control group (573 cycles), premature LH surges were prevented with GnRH agonist injection from the midluteal phase of the preceding cycle, and ovarian stimulation was started with rFSH. The treatment duration, quality of oocytes and embryos, number of embryo transfer (ET) cancelled cycles, risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), and the chemical pregnancy rate were evaluated in the two ovarian stimulation protocols. There were no significant differences in age and infertility factors between treatment groups. The treatment duration was shorter in the corifollitropin alfa group than in the control group. Although not statistically significant, the mean numbers of matured (86.8% vs. 85.1%) and fertilized oocytes (84.2% vs. 83.1%), good embryos (62.4% vs. 60.3%), and chemical pregnancy rates (47.2% vs. 46.8%) were slightly higher in the corifollitropin alfa group than in the control group. In contrast, rates of ET cancelled cycles and the OHSS risk were slightly lower in the corifollitropin alfa group (6.2% and 2.7%) than in the control group (8.2% and 3.5%), although these differences were also not statistically significant. Although no significant differences were observed, the use of corifollitropin alfa seems to offer some advantages to patients because of its short treatment duration, safety, lower ET cancellation rate and reduced risk of OHSS.

  5. Informe sobre el Proyecto Alfa Biblioteca de Babel: ¿Un atajo para la administración de bibliotecas universitarias? Biblioteca de Babel Alfa Project Report: A shortcut for the academic libraries management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Laura Rega

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El Proyecto Alfa Biblioteca de Babel que reúne bibliotecas universitarias de América Latina y Europa comenzó en marzo de 2005 y prevé su conclusión en marzo de 2007. El presente trabajo intenta describir los objetivos y los resultados esperados, e informa las actividades realizadas por la Red Biblioteca de Babel. Finalmente se analizan las propuestas del proyecto en cuanto al rol de las bibliotecas universitarias, y su relación con la innovación en las prácticas pedagógicas.Biblioteca de Babel Alfa Project that assembles academic libraries from Latin America and Europe was approved on March, 2005 and its conclusion is foreseen on March, 2007. This article attempts to describe the aims and the expected results, and reports the activities of the Biblioteca de Babel Network. Finally it analizes the proposals of the project about the role of academic libraries and their relationship with innovations in pedagogical practices.

  6. Diagnóstico molecular da talassemia alfa+ (deleção–a3.7) em indivíduos com microcitose e/ou hipocromia atendidos no Hemocentro Dalton Barbosa Cunha em Natal, Rio Grande do Norte

    OpenAIRE

    Bezerra, Christiane Medeiros

    2009-01-01

    A talassemia alfa, uma das doenças monogênicas mais comuns no mundo, resulta de um desequilíbrio na síntese das cadeias alfa da hemoglobina devido, principalmente, à deleção de um ou ambos os genes da globina alfa, sendo a deleção -α3.7 a mais freqüente. A talassemia alfa, juntamente com a deficiência de ferro e a talassemia beta, representa uma importante causa de microcitose e hipocromia. Com o objetivo de diagnosticar e verificar a prevalência da talassemia alfa (-α3.7) em indivíduos com m...

  7. Diagnóstico molecular da talassemia alfa+ (deleção–a3.7) em indivíduos com microcitose e/ou hipocromia atendidos no Hemocentro Dalton Barbosa Cunha em Natal, Rio Grande do Norte

    OpenAIRE

    Bezerra, Christiane Medeiros

    2009-01-01

    A talassemia alfa, uma das doenças monogênicas mais comuns no mundo, resulta de um desequilíbrio na síntese das cadeias alfa da hemoglobina devido, principalmente, à deleção de um ou ambos os genes da globina alfa, sendo a deleção -α3.7 a mais freqüente. A talassemia alfa, juntamente com a deficiência de ferro e a talassemia beta, representa uma importante causa de microcitose e hipocromia. Com o objetivo de diagnosticar e verificar a prevalência da talassemia alfa (-α3.7) em indivíduos com m...

  8. The influence of a polymorphism in the gene encoding angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE on treatment outcomes in late-onset Pompe patients receiving alglucosidase alfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rena C. Baek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Correlations between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE genotype (I/I, I/D, D/D, disease severity at baseline and response to enzyme replacement therapy (ERT were assessed in the Pompe disease Late-Onset Treatment Study (LOTS. No correlations were observed between ACE genotype and disease severity at baseline. However, D/D patients appeared to have a reduced response to alglucosidase alfa treatment than I/I or I/D patients, suggesting that ACE polymorphisms may influence the response to alglucosidase alfa treatment and warrants further investigation.

  9. Evidencia de la eficacia de los fármacos anti-TNF Alfa en el tratamiento de la espondilitis anquilosante

    OpenAIRE

    Montilla Salas, Juan Manuel

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO Establecer la evidencia de los estudios clínicos sobre la eficacia de las terapias anti-TNF alfa para el tratamiento de la espondilitis anquilosante (EA). MÉTODOS Se realizó una búsqueda con los diferentes fármacos anti-NTF alfa actualmente utilizados en terapia de la espondilitis anquilosante (Infiximab, Etanercept y Adalimumab). La revisión bibliográfica se realizó en Medline, Embase y la librería Cochrane para los estudios controlados y randomizados publicados hasta 1-enero-2005. ...

  10. Associação entre deficiência de alfa-1-antitripsina e a gravidade da fibrose cística

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Verificar a distribuição dos genótipos da alfa-1-antitripsina e correlacionar com a gravidade da doença pulmonar em pacientes fibrocísticos. MÉTODO: Estudo clínico-laboratorial de corte transversal, com 70 pacientes fibrocísticos do Hospital Universitário da UNICAMP. Os fibrocísticos tiveram diagnóstico confirmado clínica e laboratorialmente. A gravidade da fibrose cística foi avaliada pelo escore de Shwachman. Todos os pacientes foram analisados para os alelos S e Z de alfa-1-antit...

  11. Uso de la tierra y diversidades alfa, beta y gamma de diplópodos en la cuenca del río Otún, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre los cambios promovidos por la intervención humana en ecosistemas y grosistemas y la diversidad alfa, beta y gamma de Diplopoda de la cuenca media del río Otún. Materiales y métodos: Se utilizó un diseño sistemático estratificado con la selección de siete ventanas y 16 puntos de muestreo. Se separaron los diplópodos en familias y morfotipos para calcular la diversidad alfa, beta y gamma relacionada con la heterogeneidad de usos del terreno. Resultados: Se...

  12. Factor de necrosis tumoral alfa en una población infanto-juvenil con sobrepeso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita del R. Carrizo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El sobrepeso infantil está asociado a sobrepeso/obesidad en la edad adulta. El tejido adiposo en obesos produce una cantidad incrementada de citoquinas proinflamatorias como el factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-a, ejerciendo un efecto deletéreo sobre la función vascular. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar niveles de TNF-a en una población infantojuvenil con sobrepeso y su relación con otras variables. Se estudiaron 30 niños con sobrepeso (12 varones de edades entre 8-13 años, se midió circunferencia de cintura (CC e índice de masa corporal (IMC y fueron comparados con 20 controles de edad y sexo semejantes. Se consideró criterio de inclusión un IMC = 85 < 95 percentilo para edad y sexo. En ambos grupos se determinó: glucemia en ayunas (método glucosa oxidasa, insulina plasmática (ECLIA, fibrinógeno (Fg, método de Clauss, proteína C reactiva ultrasensible (uPCR, método inmunoturbidimétrico, TNF-a (ELISA, perfil lipídico (métodos enzimáticos, eritrosedimentación y se calculó el índice HOMA. Los datos se expresaron como mediana y rango intercuartil y con el coeficiente de Spearman se investigaron las correlaciones entre variables, considerándose significativo un p < 0.05. Los niveles de TNF-a fueron mayores en los sujetos con sobrepeso [15.4 (13.2-24.0 vs. 12.7 (11.2-14.8 pg/ml; p = 0.028]. También resultaron más elevados los valores de Fg, insulina plasmática, índice HOMA, uPCR y triglicéridos. El TNF-a se correlacionó con la CC (r = 0.654; p = 0.021. Los niveles elevados de TNF-a, uPCR y Fg encontrados confirman un estado proinflamatorio asociado a obesidad abdominal en la población estudiada.

  13. Estimadores de consistencia interna en las investigaciones en salud: el uso del coeficiente alfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Cascaes da Silva

    Full Text Available La producción académica ha aumentado en el área de la salud, exigiendo cada vez más calidad en las publicaciones de gran impacto. Una de las formas de considerar la calidad es por medio de procedimientos que aumentan la consistencia del análisis de los datos, como la confiabilidad, que dependiendo del tipo de datos, puede ser evaluada por diferentes coeficientes, en especial el coeficiente alfa. Basados en lo anterior, la presente revisión reúne sistemáticamente artículos científicos producidos en los últimos cinco años, que de manera metodológica hicieron uso psicométrico del coeficiente α como un estimador de consistencia interna y de confiabilidad en procesos de construcción, adaptación y validación de instrumentos. La identificación de los estudios fue realizada sistemáticamente en las bases de datos Biomed Central Journals, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, Medline via Pubmed, Scielo, Scopus, Journals@Ovid, BMJ y Springer por medio del Portal de Periódicos CAPES, utilizando criterios de inclusión y exclusión. El análisis de los datos fue realizado por medio de triangulación, análisis de contenido y análisis descriptivo. Se obtuvo que la mayoría de los estudios fueron realizados principalmente en Irán (f=3, España (f=2 y Brasil (f=2, estos estudios tuvieron como objetivo testar las propiedades psicométricas de instrumentos, siendo que ocho estudios utilizaron el coeficiente α para evaluar la confiabilidad y nueve para evaluar la consistencia interna. Todos los estudios fueron clasificados como investigaciones metodológicas al analizar sus objetivos. Adicionalmente, cuatro estudios también fueron clasificados como correlacionales y uno como descriptivo-correlacional. Se puede concluir que a pesar de que el coeficiente α es ampliamente utilizado como uno de los principales parámetros para la evaluación de consistencia interna de instrumentos de medición del tipo cuestionario en el

  14. Estimadores de consistencia interna en las investigaciones en salud: el uso del coeficiente alfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Cascaes da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La producción académica ha aumentado en el área de la salud, exigiendo cada vez más calidad en las publicaciones de gran impacto. Una de las formas de considerar la calidad es por medio de procedimientos que aumentan la consistencia del análisis de los datos, como la confiabilidad, que dependiendo del tipo de datos, puede ser evaluada por diferentes coeficientes, en especial el coeficiente alfa. Basados en lo anterior, la presente revisión reúne sistemáticamente artículos científicos producidos en los últimos cinco años, que de manera metodológica hicieron uso psicométrico del coeficiente α como un estimador de consistencia interna y de confiabilidad en procesos de construcción, adaptación y validación de instrumentos. La identificación de los estudios fue realizada sistemáticamente en las bases de datos Biomed Central Journals, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, Medline via Pubmed, Scielo, Scopus, Journals@Ovid, BMJ y Springer por medio del Portal de Periódicos CAPES, utilizando criterios de inclusión y exclusión. El análisis de los datos fue realizado por medio de triangulación, análisis de contenido y análisis descriptivo. Se obtuvo que la mayoría de los estudios fueron realizados principalmente en Irán (f=3, España (f=2 y Brasil (f=2, estos estudios tuvieron como objetivo testar las propiedades psicométricas de instrumentos, siendo que ocho estudios utilizaron el coeficiente α para evaluar la confiabilidad y nueve para evaluar la consistencia interna. Todos los estudios fueron clasificados como investigaciones metodológicas al analizar sus objetivos. Adicionalmente, cuatro estudios también fueron clasificados como correlacionales y uno como descriptivo-correlacional. Se puede concluir que a pesar de que el coeficiente α es ampliamente utilizado como uno de los principales parámetros para la evaluación de consistencia interna de instrumentos de medición del tipo cuestionario en el

  15. Arecibo pulsar survey using ALFA. III. Precursor survey and population synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiggum, J. K.; Lorimer, D. R.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Bates, S. D.; Senty, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Champion, D. J.; Lazarus, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ransom, S. M. [NRAO, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Brazier, A.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Hessels, J. W. T. [ASTRON, Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Nice, D. J. [Department of Physics, Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042 (United States); Ellis, J.; Allen, B. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee WI 53211 (United States); Bhat, N. D. R. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Bogdanov, S.; Camilo, F. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Crawford, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA 17604-3003 (United States); Deneva, J. S. [Arecibo Observatory, HC3 Box 53995, Arecibo, PR 00612 (United States); and others

    2014-06-01

    The Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (PALFA) Survey uses the ALFA 7-beam receiver to search both inner and outer Galactic sectors visible from Arecibo (32° ≲ ℓ ≲ 77° and 168° ≲ ℓ ≲ 214°) close to the Galactic plane (|b| ≲ 5°) for pulsars. The PALFA survey is sensitive to sources fainter and more distant than have previously been seen because of Arecibo's unrivaled sensitivity. In this paper we detail a precursor survey of this region with PALFA, which observed a subset of the full region (slightly more restrictive in ℓ and |b| ≲ 1°) and detected 45 pulsars. Detections included 1 known millisecond pulsar and 11 previously unknown, long-period pulsars. In the surveyed part of the sky that overlaps with the Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey (36° ≲ ℓ ≲ 50°), PALFA is probing deeper than the Parkes survey, with four discoveries in this region. For both Galactic millisecond and normal pulsar populations, we compare the survey's detections with simulations to model these populations and, in particular, to estimate the number of observable pulsars in the Galaxy. We place 95% confidence intervals of 82,000 to 143,000 on the number of detectable normal pulsars and 9000 to 100,000 on the number of detectable millisecond pulsars in the Galactic disk. These are consistent with previous estimates. Given the most likely population size in each case (107,000 and 15,000 for normal and millisecond pulsars, respectively), we extend survey detection simulations to predict that, when complete, the full PALFA survey should have detected 1000{sub −230}{sup +330} normal pulsars and 30{sub −20}{sup +200} millisecond pulsars. Identical estimation techniques predict that 490{sub −115}{sup +160} normal pulsars and 12{sub −5}{sup +70} millisecond pulsars would be detected by the beginning of 2014; at the time, the PALFA survey had detected 283 normal pulsars and 31 millisecond pulsars, respectively. We attribute the deficiency in normal pulsar

  16. Interaction between lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and various irrigants: A nuclear magnetic resonance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidhya, Nirmal; Karthikeyan, Balasubramanian Saravana; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Abarajithan, Mohan; Nithyanandan, Sivasankaran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Interaction between local anesthetic solution, lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline), and root canal irrigants such as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), and chlorhexidine (CHX) has not been studied earlier. Hence, the purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the chemical interaction between 2% lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and commonly used root canal irrigants, NaOCl, EDTA, and CHX. Materials and Methods: Samples were divided into eight experimental groups: Group I-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/3% NaOCl, Group II-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/17% EDTA, Group III- Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/2% CHX, Group IV-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/3% NaOCl, Group V-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/17% EDTA, Group VI-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/2% CHX, and two control groups: Group VII-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/deionized water and Group VIII-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/deionized water. The respective solutions of various groups were mixed in equal proportions (1 ml each) and observed for precipitate formation. Chemical composition of the formed precipitate was then analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and confirmed with diazotation test. Results: In groups I and IV, a white precipitate was observed in all the samples on mixing the respective solutions, which showed a color change to reddish brown after 15 minutes. This precipitate was then analysed by NMR spectroscopy and was observed to be 2,6-xylidine, a reported toxic compound. The experimental groups II, III, V, and VI and control groups VII and VIII showed no precipitate formation in any of the respective samples, until 2 hours. Conclusion: Interaction between lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and NaOCl showed precipitate formation containing 2,6-xylidine, a toxic compound

  17. Stability of ranitidine hydrochloride and amino acids in parenteral nutrient solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, L; Parks, R B; Lampasona, V; Mullins, R E

    1985-12-01

    The stability of ranitidine hydrochloride in parenteral nutrient (PN) solutions and the effect of ranitidine hydrochloride on the amino acids in the PN solutions were studied. Six PN solutions (three each with amino acid contents of 2.125 and 4.25%) were prepared. Each PN solution also contained dextrose 25%, electrolytes, trace elements, vitamins, and heparin sodium. Ranitidine hydrochloride injection was added to four of the PN samples. Of the final samples, two contained no ranitidine, two contained ranitidine hydrochloride 50 micrograms/mL, and two contained ranitidine hydrochloride 100 micrograms/mL. Admixtures of ranitidine hydrochloride at the two concentrations in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were also prepared. Samples were observed for color change and tested for pH during storage at room temperature. Concentrations of amino acids were measured after 24 hours in samples without ranitidine and in samples containing ranitidine hydrochloride 100 micrograms/mL. Ranitidine hydrochloride content was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography at 12, 24, and 48 hours. No visual changes or pH changes occurred by 24 hours. All PN solutions became darker by 48 hours. The presence of ranitidine hydrochloride did not substantially affect amino acid concentrations. At 24 hours, at least 90% of the initial ranitidine concentrations remained in all samples. In three of the four PN samples at 48 hours, less than 90% of initial ranitidine concentrations remained. Ranitidine hydrochloride in concentrations of 50 and 100 micrograms/mL in parenteral nutrient solutions containing 4.25 and 2.125% crystalline amino acids is stable for 24 hours at room temperature. Under these conditions, concentrations of the amino acids contained in the PN solutions were not affected by the addition of ranitidine hydrochloride.

  18. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of memantine hydrochloride in rat plasma using sensitive fluorometric derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mei-Fen; Zhou, Wei; Tong, Xin-Yi; Chen, Yi-Le; Cai, Yi; Li, Yan; Duan, Geng-Li

    2011-02-01

    In this study, we investigated a simple, sensitive and reliable liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method for the determination of memantine hydrochloride in rat plasma which was based on derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl). For the first time, FMOC-Cl was introduced into derivatization of memantine hydrochloride in rat plasma. The amino groups of memantine hydrochloride and amantadine hydrochloride (internal standard) were trapped with FMOC-Cl to form memantine hydrochloride-FMOC-Cl and amantadine hydrochloride-FMOC-Cl compositions, which can be very compatible for LC-FLD. Precipitation of plasma proteins by acetonitrile was followed by vortex mixing and centrifugation. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C(18) column (DIAMONSIL 150 × 4.6 mm, id 5 μm) with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The retention times of memantine hydrochloride-FMOC-Cl and amantadine hydrochloride-FMOC-Cl compositions were 23.69 and 40.27 min, respectively. Optimal conditions for the derivatization of memantine hydrochloride were also described. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 25 ng/mL for memantine hydrochloride in plasma, the linear range was 0.025-5.0 μg/mL in plasma with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9999. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra-day and inter-day assays were 4.46-12.19 and 5.23-11.50%, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to the determination of memantine hydrochloride in rat plasma samples.

  19. Alfa247®: Un modelo de aprendizaje diferenciado para la enseñanza del Nordic Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Iván Martínez Lemos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La técnica alfa y el método de los 7 pasos constituyen un modelo de aprendizaje diferenciado para la enseñanza del Nordic Walking (NW. NW consiste en caminar con bastones especialmente diseñados y utilizando una técnica precisa que moviliza una gran parte de la masa muscular total y tiene efectos beneficiosos probados sobre la salud. Alfa247® hace posible que cualquier persona, con independencia de su nivel de habilidad o condición física, pueda familiarizarse y aprender la técnica de caminar con bastones. Este nuevo concepto de movimiento saludable está todavía dando sus primeros pasos en España y es probable que en un futuro próximo pueda jugar un papel importante dentro del currículo de la Educación Física Escolar, como ya ha hecho en otros países del entorno.

  20. Baseline characteristics of patients in the Reduction of Events with Darbepoetin alfa in Heart Failure trial (RED-HF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, John J.V.; Anand, Inder S.; Diaz, Rafael; Maggioni, Aldo P.; O'Connor, Christopher; Pfeffer, Marc A.; Solomon, Scott D.; Tendera, Michal; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Albizem, Moetaz; Cheng, Sunfa; Scarlata, Debra; Swedberg, Karl; Young, James B.; Amuchastegui, M.; Belziti, C.; Bluguermann, J.; Caccavo, M.; Cartasegna, L.; Colque, R.; Cuneo, C.; Fernandez, A.; Gabito, A.; Goicochea, R.; Gonzalez, M.; Gorosito, V.; Grinfeld, L.; Hominal, M.; Kevorkian, R.; Litvak Bruno, M.; Llanos, J.; Mackinnon, I.; Manuale, O.; Marzetti, E.; Nul, D.; Perna, E.; Riccitelli, M.; Sanchez, A.; Santos, D.; Schygiel, P.; Toblli, J.; Vogel, D.; Aggarwal, A.; Amerena, J.; De Looze, F.; Fletcher, P.; Hare, D.; Ireland, M.; Krum, H.; Lattimore, J.; Marwick, T.; Sindone, A.; Thompson, P.; Waites, J.; Altenberger, J.; Ebner, C.; Lenz, K.; Pacher, R.; Poelzl, G.; Charlier, F.; de Ceuninck, M.; De Keulenaer, G.; Dendale, P.; Maréchal, P.; Mullens, W.; Thoeng, J.; Vanderheyden, M.; Vanhaecke, J.; Weytjens, C.; Wollaert, B.; Albuquerque, D.; Almeida, D.; Aspe y Rosas, J.; Bocchi, E.; Bordignon, S.; Clausell, N.; Kaiser, S.; Leaes, P.; Martins Alves, S.; Montera, M.; Moura, L.; Pereira de Castro, R.; Rassi, S.; Reis, A.; Saraiva, J.; Simões, M.; Souza Neto, J.; Teixeira, M.; Benov, H.; Chompalova, B.; Donova, T.; Georgiev, P.; Gotchev, D.; Goudev, A.; Grigorov, M.; Guenova, D.; Hergeldjieva, V.; Ivanov, D.; Kostova, E.; Manolova, A.; Marchev, S.; Nikolov, F.; Popov, A.; Raev, D.; Tzekova, M.; Czarnecki, W.; Giannetti, N.; Haddad, H.; Heath, J.; Huynh, T.; Lepage, S.; Liu, P.; Lonn, E.; Ma, P.; Manyari, D.; Moe, G.; Parker, J.; Pesant, Y.; Rajda, M.; Ricci, J.; Roth, S.; Sestier, F.; Sluzar, V.; Sussex, B.; Vizel, S.; Antezana, G.; Bugueno, C.; Castro, P.; Conejeros, C.; Manriquez, L.; Martinez, D.; Potthoff, S.; Stockins, B.; Vukasovic, J.; Gregor, P.; Herold, M.; Jerabek, O.; Jirmar, R.; Kuchar, R.; Linhart, A.; Podzemska, B.; Soucek, M.; Spac, J.; Spacek, R.; Vodnansky, P.; Bronnum-Schou, J.; Clemmensen, K.; Egstrup, K.; Jensen, G.; Kjoller-Hansen, L.; Kober, L.; Markenvard, J.; Rokkedal, J.; Skagen, K.; Torp-Pedersen, C.; Tuxen, C.; Videbak, L.; Laks, T.; Vahula, V.; Harjola, V.; Kettunen, R.; Kotila, M.; Bauer, F.; Cohen Solal, A.; Coisne, D.; Davy, J.; De Groote, P.; Dos Santos, P.; Funck, F.; Galinier, M.; Gibelin, P.; Isnard, R.; Neuder, Y.; Roul, G.; Sabatier, R.; Trochu, J.; Anker, S.; Denny, S.; Dreykluft, T.; Flesch, M.; Genth-Zotz, S.; Hambrecht, R.; Hein, J.; Jeserich, M.; John, M.; Kreider-Stempfle, H.; Laufs, U.; Muellerleile, K.; Natour, M.; Sandri, M.; Schäufele, T.; von Hodenberg, E.; Weyland, K.; Winkelmann, B.; Tse, H.; Yan, B.; Barsi, B.; Csikasz, J.; Dezsi, C.; Edes, I.; Forster, T.; Karpati, P.; Kerekes, C.; Kis, E.; Kosa, I.; Lupkovics, G.; Nagy, A.; Preda, I.; Ronaszeki, A.; Tomcsanyi, J.; Zamolyi, K.; Agarwal, D.; Bahl, V.; Bordoloi, A.; Chockalingam, K.; Chopda, M.; Chopra, V.; Dugal, J.; Ghaisas, N.; Ghosh, S.; Grant, P.; Hiremath, S.; Iyengar, S.; Jagadeesa Subramania, B.; Jain, P.; Joshi, A.; Khan, A.; Mullasari, A.; Naik, S.; Oomman, A.; Pai, V.; Pareppally Gopal, R.; Parikh, K.; Patel, T.; Prakash, V.; Sastry, B.; Sathe, S.; Sinha, N.; Srikanthan, V.; Subburamakrishnan, P.; Thacker, H.; Wander, G.; Admon, D.; Katz, A.; Klainman, E.; Lewis, B.; Marmor, A.; Moriel, M.; Mosseri, M.; Shotan, A.; Weinstein, J.; Zimlichman, R.; Agostoni, P.; Albanese, M.; Alunni, G.; Bini, R.; Boccanelli, A.; Bolognese, L.; Campana, C.; Carbonieri, E.; Carpino, C.; Checco, L.; Cosmi, F.; D'Angelo, G.; De Cristofaro, M.; Floresta, A.; Fucili, A.; Galvani, M.; Ivleva, A.; Marra, S.; Musca, G.; Peccerillo, N.; Perrone Filardi, P.; Picchio, E.; Russo, T.; Scelsi, L.; Senni, M.; Tavazzi, L.; Erglis, A.; Jasinkevica, I.; Kakurina, N.; Veze, I.; Volans, E.; Bagdonas, A.; Berukstis, E.; Celutkiene, J.; Dambrauskaite, A.; Jarasuniene, D.; Luksiene, D.; Rudys, A.; Sakalyte, G.; Sliaziene, S.; Aguilar-Romero, R.; Cardona-Muñoz, E.; Castro-Jimenez, J.; Chavez-Herrera, J.; Chuquiure Valenzuela, E.; De la Pena, G.; Herrera, E.; Leiva-Pons, J.; Lopez Alvarado, A.; Mendez Machado, G.; Ramos-Lopez, G.; Basart, D.; Buijs, E.; Cornel, J.; de Leeuw, M.; Dijkgraaf, R.; Dunselman, P.; Freericks, M.; Hamraoui, K.; Lenderlink, T.; Linssen, G.; Lodewick, P.; Lodewijks, C.; Lok, D.; Nierop, P.; Ronner, E.; Somsen, A.; van Dantzig, J.; van der Burgh, P.; van Kempen, L.; van Vlies, B.; Voors, A.; Wardeh, A.; Willems, F.; Dickstein, K.; Gundersen, T.; Hole, T.; Thalamus, J.; Westheim, A.; Dabrowski, M.; Gorski, J.; Korewicki, J.; Kuc, K.; Miekus, P.; Musial, W.; Niegowska, J.; Piotrowski, W.; Podolec, P.; Polonski, L.; Ponikowski, P.; Rynkiewicz, A.; Szelemej, R.; Trusz-Gluza, M.; Ujda, M.; Wojciechowski, D; Wysokinski, A.; Camacho, A.; Fonseca, C.; Monteiro, P.; Apetrei, E.; Bruckner, I.; Carasca, E.; Coman, I.; Datcu, M.; Dragulescu, S.; Ionescu, P.; Iordachescu-Petica, D.; Manitiu, I.; Popa, V.; Pop-Moldovan, A.; Radoi, M.; Stamate, S.; Tomescu, M.; Vita, I.; Aroutiounov, G.; Ballyuzek, M.; Bart, B.; Churina, S.; Glezer, M.; Goloshchekin, B.; Ivleva, A.; Kobalava, Z.; Kostenko, V.; Lopatin, Y.; Martynov, A.; Orlov, V.; Semernin, E.; Shogenov, Z.; Sidorenko, B.; Skvortsov, A.; Storzhakov, G.; Sulimov, V.; Talibov, O.; Tereshenko, S.; Tsyrline, V.; Zadionchenko, V.; Zateyshchikov, D.; Dzupina, A.; Hranai, M.; Kmec, J.; Micko, K.; Murin, J.; Pella, D.; Sojka, G.; Spisak, V.; Vahala, P.; Vinanska, D.; Badat, A.; Bayat, J.; Dawood, S.; Delport, E.; Ellis, G.; Garda, R.; Klug, E.; Mabin, T.; Naidoo, D.; Pretorius, M.; Ranjith, N.; Van Zyl, L.; Weich, H.; Anguita, M.; Berrazueta, J.; Bruguera i Cortada, J.; de Teresa, E.; Gómez Sánchez, M.; González Juanatey, J.; Gonzalez-Maqueda, I.; Jordana, R.; Lupon, J.; Manzano, L.; Pascual Figal, D.; Pulpón, L.; Recio, J.; Ridocci Soriano, F.; Rodríguez Lambert, J.; Roig Minguell, E.; Roig Minguell, E.; Romero, J.; Valdovinos, P.; Klintberg, L.; Kronvall, T.; Lycksell, M.; Morner, S.; Rydberg, E.; Swedberg, K.; Timberg, I.; Wikstrom, G.; Moccetti, T.4; Ashok, J.; Banerjee, P.; Carr-White, G.; Cleland, J.; Connolly, E.; Francis, M.; Greenbaum, R.; Kadr, H.; Lindsay, S.; McMurray, J.; Megarry, S.; Memon, A.; Murdoch, D.; Senior, R.; Squire, I.; Tan, L.; Witte, K.; Adams, K.; Adamson, P.; Adler, A.; Altschul, L.; Altschuller, A.; Amirani, H.; Anand, I.; Andreou, C.; Ansari, M.; Antonishen, M.; Banchs, H.; Banerjee, S.; Banish, D.; Bank, A.; Barbagelata, A.; Barnard, D.; Bellinger, R.; Benn, A.; Berk, M.; Berry, B.; Bethala, V.; Bilazarian, S.; Bisognano, J.; Bleyer, F.; Blum, M.; Boehmer, J.; Bouchard, A.; Boyle, A.; Bozkurt, B.; Brown, C.; Burlew, B.; Burnham, K.; Butler, J.; Call, J.; Cambier, P.; Cappola, T.; Carlson, R.; Chandler, B.; Chandra, R.; Chandraratna, P.; Chernick, R.; Colan, D.; Colfer, H.; Colucci, W.; Connelly, T.; Costantini, O.; Dadkhah, S.; Dauber, I.; Davis, J.; Davis, S.; Denning, S.; Drazner, M.; Dunlap, S.; Egbujiobi, L.; Elkayam, U.; Elliott, J.; El-Shahawy, M.; Essandoh, L.; Ewald, G.; Fang, J.; Farhoud, H.; Felker, G.; Fernandez, J.; Festin, R.; Fishbein, G.; Florea, V.; Flores, E.; Floro, J.; Gabris, M.; Garg, M.; Gatewood, R.; Geller, M.; Ghali, J.; Ghumman, W.; Gibbs, G.; Gillespie, E.; Gilmore, R.; Gogia, H.; Goldberg, L.; Gradus-Pizlo, I.; Grainger, T.; Gudmundsson, G.; Gunawardena, D.; Gupta, D.; Hack, T.; Hall, S.; Hamroff, G.; Hankins, S.; Hanna, M.; Hargrove, J.; Haught, W.; Hauptman, P.; Hazelrigg, M.; Herzog, C.; Heywood, J.; Hill, T.; Hilton, T.; Hirsch, H.; Hunter, J.; Ibrahim, H.; Imburgia, M.; Iteld, B.; Jackson, B.; Jaffrani, N.; Jain, D.; Jain, A.; James, M.; Jimenez, J.; Johnson, E.; Kale, P.; Kaneshige, A.; Kapadia, S.; Karia, D.; Karlsberg, R.; Katholi, R.; Kerut, E.; Khoury, W.; Kipperman, R.; Klapholz, M.; Kosinski, E.; Kozinn, M.; Kraus, D.; Krueger, S.; Krum, H.; Kumar, S.; Lader, E.; Lee, C.; Levy, W.; Lewis, E.; Light-McGroary, K.; Loh, I.; Lombardi, W.; Machado, C.; Maislos, F.; Mancini, D.; Markus, T.; Mather, P.; McCants, K.; McGrew, F.; McLaurin, B.; McMillan, E.; McNamara, D.; Meyer, T.; Meymandi, S.; Miller, A.; Minami, E.; Modi, M.; Mody, F.; Mohanty, P.; Moscoso, R.; Moskowitz, R.; Moustafa, M.; Mullen, M.; Naz, T.; Noonan, T.; O'Brien, T.; Oellerich, W.; Oren, R.; Pamboukian, S.; Pereira, N.; Pitt, W.; Porter, C.; Prabhu, S.; Promisloff, S.; Ratkovec, R.; Richardson, R.; Ross, A.; Saleh, N.; Saltzberg, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schmedtje, J.; Schneider, R.; Schuyler, G.; Shanes, J.; Sharma, A.; Siegel, C.; Siegel, R.; Silber, D.; Singh, V.; Singh, N.; Singh, J.; Sklar, J.; Small, R.; Smith, A.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smull, D.; Sotolongo, R.; Staniloae, C.; Stapleton, D.; Steele, P.; Stehlik, J.; Stein, M.; Tang, W.; Thadani, U.; Torre-Amoine, G.; Trichon, B.; Tsai, C.; Tummala, R.; Van Bakel, A.; Vicari, R.; Vijay, N.; Vijayaraghavan, K.; Vittorio, T.; Vossler, M.; Wagoner, L.; Wallis, D.; Ward, N.; Widmer, M.; Wight, J.; Wilkins, C.; Williams, C.; Williams, G.; Winchester, M.; Winkel, E.; Wittmer, B.; Wood, D.; Wormer, D.; Wright, R.; Xu, Z.; Yasin, M.; Zolty, R.

    2013-01-01

    Aims This report describes the baseline characteristics of patients in the Reduction of Events with Darbepoetin alfa in Heart Failure trial (RED-HF) which is testing the hypothesis that anaemia correction with darbepoetin alfa will reduce the composite endpoint of death from any cause or hospital admission for worsening heart failure, and improve other outcomes. Methods and results Key demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings, along with baseline treatment, are reported and compared with those of patients in other recent clinical trials in heart failure. Compared with other recent trials, RED-HF enrolled more elderly [mean age 70 (SD 11.4) years], female (41%), and black (9%) patients. RED-HF patients more often had diabetes (46%) and renal impairment (72% had an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Patients in RED-HF had heart failure of longer duration [5.3 (5.4) years], worse NYHA class (35% II, 63% III, and 2% IV), and more signs of congestion. Mean EF was 30% (6.8%). RED-HF patients were well treated at randomization, and pharmacological therapy at baseline was broadly similar to that of other recent trials, taking account of study-specific inclusion/exclusion criteria. Median (interquartile range) haemoglobin at baseline was 112 (106–117) g/L. Conclusion The anaemic patients enrolled in RED-HF were older, moderately to markedly symptomatic, and had extensive co-morbidity. PMID:23329651

  1. 78 FR 27971 - Determination That REV-EYES (Dapiprazole Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution), 0.5%, Was Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That REV-EYES (Dapiprazole Hydrochloride... determined that REV-EYES (dapiprazole hydrochloride ophthalmic solution), 0.5%, was not withdrawn from sale... refer to a listed drug. REV-EYES (dapiprazole hydrochloride ophthalmic solution), 0.5%, is the...

  2. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1242b - Levamisole hydrochloride tablet or oblet (bolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride tablet or oblet (bolus). 520.1242b Section 520.1242b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1242b Levamisole hydrochloride tablet...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1242c - Levamisole hydrochloride and piperazine dihydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride and piperazine dihydrochloride. 520.1242c Section 520.1242c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1242c Levamisole hydrochloride...

  5. Effects of metomindate hydrochloride and tricaine methanesulfonate on the short term cortisol response in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of metomidate hydrochloride and tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) on cortisol stress response of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were examined during 10 minutes of sedation. Channel catfish were assigned to three treatments: 1. Metomidate hydrochloride (12.5 mg/L), 2. MS-222 (100...

  6. A practical synthesis of sarpogrelate hydrochloride and in vitro platelet aggregation inhibitory activities of its analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A convenient approach for the preparation of sarpogrelate hydrochloride was developed.Two series of sarpogrelate hydrochloride analogues were designed and synthesized in order to improve their platelet aggregation inhibitory activities, biological tests suggested that these compounds have platelet aggregation inhibitory activities to some extent.

  7. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart Nnn... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride B Appendix B to Subpart NNN of Part 63 Protection of...—Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride 1. Scope This method was specifically developed for water-soluble phenolic resins that have a relatively high free-formaldehyde...

  8. Neuroprotection against vascular dementia after acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride: P300 event related potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture can be used to treat various nervous system diseases. Here, 168 vascular dementia patients were orally administered donepezil hydrochloride alone (5 mg/day, once a day for 56 days, or combined with acupuncture at Shenting (DU24, Tianzhu (BL10, Sishencong (Extra, Yintang (Extra, Renzhong (DU26, Neiguan (PC6, Shenmen (HT7, Fengchi (GB20, Wangu (GB12 and Baihui (DU20 (once a day for 56 days. Compared with donepezil hydrochloride alone, P300 event related potential latency was shorter with an increased amplitude in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. Mini-Mental State Examination score was also higher. Moreover, these differences in P300 latency were identified within different infarcted regions in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. These findings indicate that acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride noticeably improves cognitive function in patients with vascular dementia, and exerts neuroprotective effects against vascular dementia.

  9. Neuroprotection against vascular dementia after acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride:P300 event related potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Liu; Xiu-juan Wang; Zhe-cheng Zhang; Rong Xue; Ping Li; Bo Li

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture can be used to treat various nervous system diseases. Here, 168 vascular dementia patients were orally administered donepezil hydrochloride alone (5 mg/day, once a day for 56 days), or combined with acupuncture atShenting (DU24),Tianzhu (BL10),Sishencong (Extra), Yintang (Extra),Renzhong (DU26),Neiguan (PC6),Shenmen (HT7),Fengchi (GB20),Wangu (GB12) andBaihui (DU20) (once a day for 56 days). Compared with donepezil hydrochloride alone, P300 event related potential latency was shorter with an increased ampli-tude in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. Mini-Mental State Examination score was also higher. Moreover, these differences in P300 latency were identiifed within different infarcted regions in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. These ifndings indicate that acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride noticeably improves cognitive function in patients with vascular dementia, and exerts neuroprotective effects against vascular dementia.

  10. Pegylated interferon alfa-2b alone or in combination with lamivudine for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B : a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Harry L A; van Zonneveld, Monika; Senturk, Hakan; Zeuzem, Stefan; Akarca, Ulus S; Cakaloglu, Yilmaz; Simon, Christopher; So, Thomas M K; Gerken, Guido; de Man, Robert A; Niesters, Hubert G M; Zondervan, Pieter; Hansen, Bettina; Schalm, Solko W

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of HBeAg-positive patients with chronic hepatitis B is not effective in most. A combination of immunomodulatory pegylated interferon alfa-2b and antiviral lamivudine might improve the rate of sustained response. METHODS: 307 HBeAg-positive patients with chronic hepatitis B were

  11. Alfa Laval to meet the ballast water challenge%阿法拉伐应对压载水的挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Alfa Laval, the market leader in separation, heat transfer and freshwater generation, is widening its offering of solutions for environmental protection. The company hereby announces that a potent technology for dealing with unwanted organisms in ballast water will be commercially available as early as 2006.

  12. Effectiveness of interferon alfa on incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma and decompensation in cirrhosis type C. European Concerted Action on Viral Hepatitis (EUROHEP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattovich, G; Giustina, G; Degos, F

    1997-01-01

    The role of interferon alfa treatment in improving morbidity endpoints in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection is currently under debate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of interferon in preventing hepatocellular carcinoma and decompensation in cirrhosis type C....

  13. Long-term results of the randomized phase III trial EORTC 18991 of adjuvant therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2b versus observation in resected stage III melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M.M. Eggermont (Alexander); S. Suciu (Stefan); A. Testori (Alessandro); M. Santinami (Mario); W.H.J. Kruit (Wim); J. Marsden; C.J.A. Punt (Cornelis); F. Salès (François); R. Dummer (Reinhard); C. Robert (Caroline); D. Schadendorf (Dirk); P. Patel (Poulam); G. de Schaetzen (Gaetan); A. Spatz (Alan); U. Keilholz (Ulrich)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Adjuvant pegylated interferon alfa-2b (PEG-IFN-α-2b) was approved for treatment of resected stage III melanoma in 2011. Here, we present long-term follow-up results of this pivotal trial. Patients and Methods: In all, 1,256 patients with resected stage III melanoma were randomly

  14. Prospective exploratory muscle biopsy, imaging, and functional assessment in patients with late-onset Pompe disease treated with alglucosidase alfa: The EMBASSY Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.T. van der Ploeg (Ans); Carlier, P.G. (Pierre G.); Carlier, R.-Y. (Robert-Yves); Kissel, J.T. (John T.); B. Schoser; Wenninger, S. (Stephan); Pestronk, A. (Alan); Barohn, R.J. (Richard J.); Dimachkie, M.M. (Mazen M.); Goker-Alpan, O. (Ozlem); Mozaffar, T. (Tahseen); Pena, L.D.M. (Loren D.M.); Simmons, Z. (Zachary); V. Straub; Guglieri, M. (Michela); Young, P. (Peter); Boentert, M. (Matthias); Baudin, P.-Y. (Pierre-Yves); S.C.A. Wens (Stephan); Shafi, R. (Raheel); Bjartmar, C. (Carl); B. Thurberg

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Late-onset Pompe disease is characterized by progressive skeletal myopathy followed by respiratory muscle weakness, typically leading to loss of ambulation and respiratory failure. In this population, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with alglucosidase alfa has been shown to

  15. Stability is maintained in adults with Gaucher disease type 1 switched from velaglucerase alfa to eliglustat or imiglucerase: A sub-analysis of the eliglustat ENCORE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleat, Rebecca; Cox, Timothy M; Burrow, T Andrew; Giraldo, Pilar; Goker-Alpan, Ozlem; Rosenbloom, Barry E; Croal, Laura R; Underhill, Lisa H; Gaemers, Sebastiaan J M; Peterschmitt, M Judith

    2016-12-01

    Gaucher disease type 1 is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme acid β-glucosidase resulting in accumulation of glucosylceramide and clinical manifestations of anemia, thrombocytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, and skeletal disease. The historic standard of care is intravenous recombinant enzyme therapy with imiglucerase. Eliglustat, an oral substrate reduction therapy, is a first-line treatment for adults with Gaucher disease type 1 who have a compatible CYP2D6-metabolizer phenotype (≈ 95% of patients). The 12-month ENCORE trial (NCT00943111) found eliglustat non-inferior to imiglucerase in maintaining stability in adult Gaucher patients previously stabilized after ≥ 3 years of enzyme therapy (imiglucerase or velaglucerase alfa). This post-hoc analysis examined safety and efficacy in the 30 ENCORE patients who were receiving velaglucerase alfa at study entry and were randomized to eliglustat (n = 22) or imiglucerase (n = 8). Efficacy and safety in velaglucerase alfa-transitioned patients were consistent with the full ENCORE trial population; 90% of patients switched to eliglustat and 88% of patients switched to imiglucerase met the composite endpoint (stable hemoglobin concentration, platelet count, spleen volume, and liver volume). Clinical stability was maintained for 12 months in Gaucher disease type 1 patients in the ENCORE trial who switched from velaglucerase alfa to either eliglustat or imiglucerase.

  16. Liquid Chromatographic Methods for the Determination of Vildagliptin in the Presence of its Synthetic Intermediate and the Simultaneous Determination of Pioglitazone Hydrochloride and Metformin Hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    El-Bagary, Ramzia I.; Elkady, Ehab F.; Ayoub, Bassam M.

    2011-01-01

    Two reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RP-LC) methods are described for the determination of two binary mixtures of hypoglycemic agents. In the first method, vildagliptin (VDG) was determined in the presence of 3-amino-1-adamantanol (AAD), a synthetic intermediate and impurity of VDG. In the second method, pioglitazone hydrochloride (PGZ) and metformin hydrochloride (MET) were simultaneously determined in their binary mixture. Chromatographic separation in the two methods was achieved on ...

  17. Chitosan coated vancomycin hydrochloride liposomes: Characterizations and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenlei; Liu, Junli; Gao, Jinhua; Chen, Shilei; Huang, Guihua

    2015-11-10

    The present work evaluated the feasibility of chitosan coated liposomes (c-Lips) for the intravenous delivery of vancomycin hydrochloride (VANH), a water-soluble antibiotic for the treatment of gram-positive bacterial infections like osteomyelitis, arthritis, endocarditis, pneumonia, etc. The objective of this research was to develop a suitable drug delivery system in vivo which could improve therapeutic efficacy and decrease side effects especially nephrotoxicity. Firstly, the vancomycin hydrochloride liposomes (VANH-Lips) were prepared by modified reverse phase evaporation method, then the chitosan wrapped vancomycin hydrochloride liposomes (c-VANH-Lips) nanosuspension was formulated by the method of electrostatic deposition. Based on the optimized results of single-factor screening experiment, the c-VANH-Lips were found to be relatively uniform in size (220.40 ± 3.56 nm) with a narrow polydispersity index (PI) (0.21 ± 0.03) and a positive zeta potential (25.7 ± 1.12 mV). The average drug entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug loading (DL) were 32.65 ± 0.59% and 2.18 ± 0.04%, respectively. The in vitro release profile of c-VANH-Lips possessed a sustained release Characterization and the release behavior was in accordance with the Weibull equation. Hemolysis experiments showed that its intravenous injection had preliminary safety. In vivo, after intravenous injection to mice, c-VANH-Lips showed a longer retention time and higher AUC values compared with the VANH injection (VANH-Inj) and VANH-Lips. In addition, biodistribution results clearly demonstrated that c-VANH-Lips preferentially decreased the drug distribution in kidney of mice after intravenous injection. These results revealed that injectable c-VANH-Lips may serve as a promising carrier for VANH to increase therapeutic efficacy on gram-positive bacterial infections and reduce nephrotoxicity, which provides significantly clinical value for long-term use of VANH.

  18. Multicomposite ultrathin capsules for sustained ocular delivery of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Dipankar; Gupta, Girish; Bhadra, Sulekha; Umamaheshwari, R B; Jain, Narendra

    2004-07-16

    The present work is intended to develop a sustained bioadhesive drug delivery system for delivery of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride in Cul-de-Sac for sustained and effective antimicrobial chemotherapy. For this, ultrathin multicomposite capsular systems were selected. Multicomposite ultrathin capsules are molecular assemblies of tailored architecture having layer-by-layer adsorption of oppositely charged macromolecules onto colloidal particles. In the present study colloidal calcium phosphate core and gluateraldehyde fixed RBCs were used as core on which alginate (-vely charged) and polyallylamine hydrochloride (+vely charged) polyelectrolyte coating was deposited alternatively upto 10th layer. The coating in each subsequent layer was determined by changes in zeta potential. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride was loaded in the capsules by incubation with the capsules suspended in phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4. The cores of the capsules were then removed by treatment with 0.1N HCl for calcium phosphate core and by sodium hypochlorite for RBC cored capsules. The hollow ciprofloxacin HCl loaded capsules were the evaluated in-vitro for pattern of layer-by-layer drug loading, drug release, stability at various temperatures and ionic concentrations and corneal retention. The core removal process was found to have minimal effects on drug loading in capsules. The drug loading was found to be higher for RBC cored hollow capsules and hence release rate was lower as compared to calcium cored hollow capsules. Draize test for corneal irritancy proved that the capsules were not irritating. The capsules were found to deliver the ciprofloxacin in cul-de-sac of rabbit's eyes for prolonged period. Based on corneal retention studies and tear drug concentration, the capsules can be considered for suitable and safe use for sustained ocular delivery of drugs.

  19. Hemoglobinas AS/alfa talassemia: importância diagnóstica Hemoglobins AS/alpha thalassemia: diagnostic importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Tomé-Alves

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Portadores de traço falciforme (hemoglobina AS associados a talassemia alfa apresentam alterações na morfologia dos eritrócitos, normalmente ausentes nos heterozigotos para esta variante de hemoglobina. A interação entre hemoglobina S e talassemia alfa tem sido descrita como um dos fatores responsáveis pela melhora no quadro clínico de portadores homozigotos de hemoglobina S (anemia falciforme, diminuindo os episódios de crises de falcização. Os mecanismos genéticos desta influência são avaliados em análises moleculares dos genes da globina humana. Com o objetivo de verificar a presença de talassemia alfa em portadores de hemoglobina S em heterozigose, com presença de anemia, encaminhados ao Laboratório de Hemoglobinas do Departamento de Biologia da UNESP, de São José do Rio Preto, analisamos 1.002 amostras de sangue com traço falciforme, no período de 1990 a 1998. As amostras foram colhidas com EDTA como anticoagulante, após prévia autorização dos portadores. Para o diagnóstico laboratorial as amostras de sangue foram submetidas a procedimentos eletroforéticos em pH alcalino e ácido e pesquisa citológica de hemoglobina H. Os procedimentos eletroforéticos confirmaram a presença de hemoglobina AS. A pesquisa citológica evidenciou a presença de talassemia alfa. Deste total analisado, 16 (1,59 % amostras de sangue apresentaram a associação entre hemoglobina AS e alfa talassemia, sendo que duas eram de indivíduos de uma mesma família. Os resultados obtidos nos direcionaram a sugerir aos laboratórios de rotina que realizem a pesquisa de alfa talassemia entre os portadores de hemoglobina AS, com presença de anemia, para verificar a interação com talassemia alfa, fornecendo assim aos portadores informação importante sobre seu perfil hematológico.Sickle Cell disease is a generic term for a group of genetic disorders characterized by the predominance of hemoglobin S. These disorders include Sickle Cell anemia

  20. Indirect Electrochemical Oxidation of 4-Amino-dimethyl-aniline Hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The indirect electrochemical oxidation of 4-amino-dimethyl-aniline hydrochloride containing wastewater generated from vanillin production is presented. Experiments were conducted at a constant current density of 30 mA/cm2 via a Ti/Ru-Ti-Sn ternary oxide coated anode and an undivided reactor. During the various stages of the electrolysis, parameters such as the values of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) were determined in order to evaluate the feasibility of the electrochemical treatment. The energy consumption and the current efficiency during the electrolysis were calculated. The present study proves the effectiveness of the electrochemical treatment for wastewater resulted from vanillin production.

  1. Verapamil hydrochloride release characteristics from new copolymer zwitterionic matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Bistra; Kamenska, Elena; Ivanov, Ivo; Momekov, George; Rachev, Dimitar; Georgiev, George

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize stable copolymer (vinyl acetate-co-3-dimethyl[methacryloyloxyethyl] ammonium propane sulfinate) zwitterionic latex with different compositions for the first time by emulsifier-free emulsion copolymerization. Throughout the course of the study, a proposal was made for the explanation of the relationship between the "overshooting" phenomenon (a swelling kinetics with a maximum) and the specific self-association of the zwitterionic copolymers. The zwitterionic monomer unit mole fraction, pH, and ionic strength effects on this relationship, on the swelling kinetics of the zwitterionic copolymers, and on the sustained verapamil hydrochloride release from the model tablets were established by the study's authors.

  2. An open-label clinical trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of corifollitropin alfa combined with hCG in adult men with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Bouloux, Pierre-Marc G; Stegmann, Barbara J; Shankar, R Ravi; Guan, Yanfen; Tzontcheva, Anjela; McCrary Sisk, Christine; Behre, Hermann M

    2017-03-07

    Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) in men results in insufficient testicular function and deficiencies in testosterone and spermatogenesis. Combinations of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (recFSH) have been successful in the treatment of HH. Corifollitropin alfa is a long-acting FSH-analog with demonstrated action in women seeking infertility care. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of corifollitropin alfa combined with hCG to increase testicular volume and induce spermatogenesis in men with HH. This was a Phase III, multi-center, open-label, single-arm trial of corifollitropin alfa in azoospermic men aged 18 to 50 years with HH. After 16 weeks of pretreatment of 23 subjects with hCG alone, 18 subjects with normalized testosterone (T) levels who remained azoospermic entered the 52-week combined treatment phase with hCG twice-weekly and 150 μg corifollitropin alfa every other week. The increase in testicular volume (primary efficacy endpoint) and induction of spermatogenesis resulting in a sperm count ≥1 × 10(6)/mL (key secondary efficacy endpoint) during 52 weeks of combined treatment were assessed. Safety was evaluated by the presence of anti-corifollitropin alfa antibodies and the occurrence of adverse events (AEs). Mean (±SD) testicular volume increased from 8.6 (±6.09) mL to 17.8 (±8.93) mL (geometric mean fold increase, 2.30 [95% CI: 2.03, 2.62]); 14 (77.8%) subjects reached a sperm count ≥1 × 10(6)/mL. No subject developed confirmed anti-corifollitropin alfa antibodies during the trial. Treatment was generally well tolerated. Corifollitropin alfa 150 μg administrated every other week combined with twice-weekly hCG for 52 weeks increased testicular volume significantly, and induced spermatogenesis in >75% of men with HH who had remained azoospermic after hCG treatment alone. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01709331 .

  3. Diversidad alfa y beta de la comunidad de reptiles en el complejo cenagoso de Zapatosa, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Fabián Medina-Rangel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La diversidad es una propiedad de las comunidades, permite describir, caracterizar y entender el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas. Para estudiar la riqueza, abundancia y el recambio de especies de reptiles entre hábitats circundantes al complejo cenagoso de Zapatosa, se realizaron cuatro salidas de campo (noviembre de 2006 y octubre de 2007. Se invirtieron 640h/hombre de muestreo repartido en cinco tipos de hábitat: bosque casmófito, bosque seco, bosque de ribera, palmar y sabana arbolada. Se encontraron 847 individuos de 48 especies, la familia más rica fue Colubridae, se registraron cinco especies endémicas y ocho con algún grado de amenaza en conservación a nivel nacional. El hábitat más diverso fue el bosque de ribera. La representatividad del muestreo en total y para cada hábitat fue superior al 80%, con excepción del palmar (Alfa and beta diversity of reptilian assemblages in Zapatosa wetland complex, Colombia. Diversity is a property of community that can described, characterized, and understood according to the functioning of ecosystems. To study the richness and local abundance and species replacement between habitats around the Zapatosa’s wetland complex (El Cesar Department, I carried out four field trips between November of 2006 and October of 2007. A total of 640 sampling hours/man analyzed five habitat types chasmophyte forest, dry forest, riparian forest, palm-grove and tree-lined savanna; with the exception of the palm-grove sampled at its 75%, the others were sampled up to their 80%. I found 847 reptiles that were distributed in 48 species. The group with the highest number of species was Colubridae with 14, followed by Gekkonidae with five. Five endemic species and eight with some conservation threat grade at a national level a re reported. The riparian forest was the richest and most abundant habitat with 34 species and 196 individuals. For each habitat, Colubridae had the highest number of species, followed by

  4. Estudios sobre alfa-amilasa en saliva como marcador de estrés en la especie humana y otras especies animales= Studies on salivary alpha-amylase as a maker of stress in human and different animal species

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes Rubio, María

    2014-01-01

    OBJETIVOS 1. Evaluar el uso de la alfa amilasa salivar como marcador de estrés usando técnicas tradicionales (ensayos enzimáticos) en humana, usando como modelo experimental a estudiantes de veterinaria que tenían que realizar una presentación oral de un trabajo en lengua extranjera. 2. Evaluar el uso de la alfa amilasa salivar como marcador de estrés usando técnicas tradicionales (ensayos enzimáticos) en cerdos. 3. Implementar nuevos enfoques para la medición de la alfa-amilasa e...

  5. Long-term endurance and safety of elosulfase alfa enzyme replacement therapy in patients with Morquio A syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksz, Christian J; Parini, Rossella; AlSayed, Moeenaldeen D; Raiman, Julian; Giugliani, Roberto; Solano Villarreal, Martha L; Mitchell, John J; Burton, Barbara K; Guelbert, Norberto; Stewart, Fiona; Hughes, Derralynn A; Berger, Kenneth I; Slasor, Peter; Matousek, Robert; Jurecki, Elaina; Shaywitz, Adam J; Harmatz, Paul R

    2016-09-01

    Long-term efficacy and safety of elosulfase alfa enzyme replacement therapy were evaluated in Morquio A patients over 96weeks (reaching 120weeks in total from pre-treatment baseline) in an open-label, multi-center, phase III extension study. During this extension of a 24-week placebo-controlled phase III study, all patients initially received 2.0mg/kg elosulfase alfa either weekly or every other week, prior to establishment of 2.0mg/kg/week as the recommended dose, at which point all patients received weekly treatment. Efficacy measures were compared to baseline of the initial 24-week study, enabling analyses of changes over 120weeks. In addition to performing analyses for the entire intent-to-treat (ITT) population (N=173), analyses were also performed for a modified per-protocol (MPP) population (N=124), which excluded patients who had orthopedic surgery during the extension study or were non-compliant with the study protocol (as determined by ≥20% missed infusions). Six-minute walk test (6MWT) was the primary efficacy measure; three-minute stair climb test (3MSCT) and normalized urine keratan sulfate (uKS) were secondary efficacy measures. Mean (SE) change from baseline to Week 120 in 6MWT distance was 32.0 (11.3)m and 39.9 (10.1)m for patients receiving elosulfase alfa at 2.0mg/kg/week throughout the study (N=56) and 15.1 (7.1)m and 31.7 (6.8)m in all patients combined, regardless of dosing regimen, for the ITT and MPP populations, respectively. Further analyses revealed that durability of 6MWT improvements was not impacted by baseline 6MWT distance, use of a walking aid, or age. Mean (SE) change at Week 120 in the 3MSCT was 5.5 (1.9) and 6.7 (2.0)stairs/min for patients receiving elosulfase alfa at 2.0mg/kg/week throughout the study and 4.3 (1.2) and 6.8 (1.3)stairs/min in all patients combined, regardless of dosing regimen, for the ITT and MPP populations, respectively Across all patients, mean (SE) change at Week 120 in normalized uKS was -59.4 (1.8)% and

  6. Enzyme Replacement Therapy With Elosulfase Alfa Decreases Storage of Glycosaminoglycan in White Blood Cells of Patients With Morquio A Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Baldo PhD

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A syndrome is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficient N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase activity, leading to cellular storage of undegraded keratan sulfate. Recently enzyme replacement therapy (ERT was approved for MPS IVA, but some of ERT effects are still unknown. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of elosulfase alfa upon glycosaminoglycan (GAG storage in peripheral blood white blood cells of patients with MPS IVA treated for 6 months, comparing samples from patients who received weekly infusions of enzyme (ERT-W versus infusions every other week (ERT-EOW versus placebo. A significant reduction in GAG storage was observed in both ERT-treated groups, with weekly ERT showing slightly better performance than ERT-EOW.

  7. Systemic lupus erythematosus following virological response to peginterferon alfa-2b in a transplanted patient with chronic hepatitis C recurrence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesca Lodato; Giuseppe Mazzella; Maria Rosa Tamé; Antonio Colecchia; Chiara Racchini; Francesco Azzaroli; Antonia D'Errico; Silvia Casanova; Antonio Pinna; Enrico Roda

    2006-01-01

    Autoimmune manifestations are common both in patients chronically infected by hepatitis C virus, and in patients transplanted for non-autoimmune diseases. A correlation between interferon based treatment and autoimmune diseases or the development of autoantibodies is well established in non-transplanted patients, but few data are available about transplanted patients. It is unclear whether interferon may increase the incidence of acute cellular rejection and there are few reports on the development of atypical autoimmune manifestations during post-liver transplantation interferon or pegylated interferon treatment. We describe a case of systemic lupus erythematosus following treatment with pegylated interferon alfa-2b in a transplanted patient with recurrence of chronic hepatitis C. Our experience suggest that pegylated interferon may induce autoimmune diseases in the immunosuppressed host, different from acute cellular rejection and call for a great attention to possible autoimmune disorders development during interferon based treatments in liver transplanted patients.

  8. [Examination of effectiveness of olopatadine hydrochloride in atopic dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Tadamichi; Mashiko, Maki; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2005-02-01

    Subjective/objective symptoms (itching, papula, erythema, lichenification, desquamation, scratching, erosion) and the levels of IgE, LDH, interleukin (IL) -6, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) were compared before and after administering olopatadine hydrochloride (ALLELOCK tablets) to 17 atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. Subject/objective symptoms improved significantly after administering the agent, and the total dosage of the combined topical steroids was also significantly decreased after administration (p<0.05), although IgE, IL-6 and LDH levels did not change, TARC was significantly decreased (p<0.05). The correlation between the levels of IgE, IL-6, LDH and TARC before and after the administration was examined. There was a positive correlation between IgE and TARC (r=0.62, p<0.01) and between IL-6 and TARC (r=0.78, p<0.01). Olopatadine hydrochloride is therefore useful in improving the symptoms in AD, and TARC may be used as an indicator of the symptom improvement.

  9. Growth of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride and its characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, G.; Pari, S.

    2016-11-01

    Single crystal of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride by slow evaporation method is reported. The grown crystal characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, UV-Vis-NIR and fluorescence spectroscopy. It is established that the crystal falls under the monoclinic system and space group P21/c with the cell parameters as: a=8.565 Å, b=12.943 Å, c=6.272 Å, α=γ=90°, β=103.630º. UV-Vis-NIR spectrum shows indirect allowed transition with a band gap of 5.21 eV and other optical properties are measured. The crystal is also shown to have a high transmittance in the visible region. The third order nonlinear property and optical limiting have been investigated using Z-Scan technique. Complex impedance spectrum measured at the dc conductivity. Dependence of dielectric constant, dielectric loss and ac conductivity on frequency at different temperature of applied ac field is analyzed. The mechanical behavior has been assessed by Vickers microhardness indenter. The thermal behavior of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride was analyzed using TG/DTA thermal curves. From the thermal study, the material was found to possess thermal stability up to 174 °C. The predicted NLO properties, UV-Vis transmittance and Z-scan studies indicate that is an attractive material for photonics optical limiting applications.

  10. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC, ATOMIC ABSORPTION AND CONDUCTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Anis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Six simple and sensitive spectroscopic and conductometric procedures (A-F were developed for the determination of tramadol hydrochloride. Methods A, B and C are based on the reaction of cobalt (II thiocyanate with tramadol to form a stable ternary complex, which could be measured by spectrophotometric (method A, atomic absorption (method B or conductometric (method C procedures. Methods D and E depend on the reaction of molybdenum thiocyanate with tramadol to form a stable ternary complex, measured by spectrophotometric means (method D or by atomic absorption procedures (method E, while method F depends on the formation of an ion pair complex between the studied drug and bromothymol blue which is extractable into methylene chloride. Tramadol hydrochloride could be assayed in the range of 80-560 and 40-–220 μg ml-1, 1-15 mg ml-1 and 2.5-22.5, 1.25-11.25 and 5-22 μg ml-1 using methods A,B,C,D,E and F, respectively. Various experimental conditions were studied. The results obtained showed good recoveries. The proposed procedures were applied successfully to the analysis of tramadol in its pharmaceutical preparations and the results were favorably comparable with the official method.

  11. FORMULATION AND DISSOLUTION STUDY OF DILTIAZEM HYDROCHLORIDE IMMEDIATE RELEASE TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAHMAIAH BONTHAGARALA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main aim and objective of the work is to formulate immediate release tablets using different direct compression vehicles (DCV’S in different ratios. Methods: In the present study, design of oral immediate release tablets of Diltiazem hydrochloride by direct compression technique was carried out. Results: The main motive is to compare the dissolution profile of these formulations and conclude the best formulation which release drug at a faster rate . To determine the best fit dissolution profile for the dosage forms. Diltiazem hydrochloride tablets were formulated by using microcrystalline cellulose (diluent, potato starch, acacia (binder and magnesium stearate (lubricant. The granules were compressed into tablets and were subjected to dissolution studies. The dissolution profile of the formulation F2 was found to have better dissolution rate compared to others. Conclusion: The Invitro dissolution studies of all the formulations were conducted and the results were obtained, it was concluded that formulation F2 was the best with fast release of drug compared to others.

  12. Modulation of venlafaxine hydrochloride release from press coated matrix tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gohel M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to prepare novel modified release press coated tablets of venlafaxine hydrochloride. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K100M were used as release modifier in core and coat, respectively. A 3 2 full factorial design was adopted in the optimization study. The drug to polymer ratio in core and coat were chosen as independent variables. The drug release in the first hour and drug release rate between 1 and 12 h were chosen as dependent variables. The tablets were characterized for dimension analysis, crushing strength, friability and in vitro drug release. A check point batch, containing 1:2.6 and 1:5.4 drug to polymer in core and coat respectively, was prepared. The tablets of check point batch were subjected to in vitro drug release in dissolution media with pH 5, 7.2 and distilled water. The kinetics of drug release was best explained by Korsmeyer and Peppas model (anomalous non-Fickian diffusion. The systematic formulation approach enabled us to develop modified release venlafaxine hydrochloride tablets.

  13. TRIMETAZIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE TRANSDERMAL PATCH: FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarfaraz Md

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to formulate and evaluate matrix-type transdermal formulations containing trimetazidine hydrochloride with polymers such as carboxymethyl chitosan and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC 5cps by solvent evaporation technique with glycerin, as plasticizer. The prepared patches were tested for their physicochemical characteristics such as thickness, weight variation, drug content uniformity, folding endurance and tensile strength. The partition coefficient study was performed using n-octanol as the organic phase and phosphate buffer pH 7.4 as an aqueous phase and it was found to be 1.01. In-vitro release studies of trimetazidine hydrochloride-loaded patches in phosphate buffer (pH, 7.4 exhibited drug release in the range of 89.40 to 92.10 % in 24 hrs. The parameter flux (J was calculated and it was in the range of 1.325 to 2.898 mg/cm2/hr. Based on optimization studies, patches containing carboxymethyl chitosan patches were chosen as optimized formulation. Skin irritation studies were performed on optimized transdermal patch and were found to be free of irritation. The patches were subjected to short term stability studies and were found stable. FTIR studies revealed no interactions between drug and excipients. Data of in vitro release from optimized patches were fit in to different equations and kinetic models such as zero order, first-order, Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas models to explain release kinetics.

  14. 维拉佐酮盐酸盐%vilazodone hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李赛

    2011-01-01

    由Trovis Pharma LLC制药公司研制的维拉佐酮盐酸盐(vilazodone hydrochloride)于2011年1月21日由FDA批准上市,商品名为Viibryd,用于治疗成年人重度抑郁症(major depressive disorder,MDD)[1].Viibryd将以10 mg、20 mg和40 mg片剂上市.Viibryd中文化学名称:5-[4-[4-(5-氰基-1H-吲哚-3-基)丁基]-1-哌嗪基]-2-苯并呋喃草酰胺盐酸盐;英文化学名称:5-[4-[4-(5-cyano-1 H-indol-3-yl)butyl]-1 -piperaz-inyl]-2-benzofurancarboxamide hydrochloride;分子式:C26-H27N5O2 ·HCl;分子量:477.99;CAS登记号:163521-08-2.

  15. Structural characterisation and dehydration behaviour of siramesine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Anne; Tian, Fang; de Diego, Heidi Lopez; Frydenvang, Karla; Rantanen, Jukka; Elema, Michiel Ringkjøbing; Hovgaard, Lars

    2009-10-01

    In this study the crystal structures of siramesine hydrochloride anhydrate alpha-form and siramesine hydrochloride monohydrate were determined, and this structural information was used to explain the physicochemical properties of the two solid forms. In the crystal structure of the monohydrate, each water molecule is hydrogen bonded to two chloride ions, and thus the water is relatively strongly bound in the crystal. No apparent channels for dehydration were observed in the monohydrate structure, which could allow transmission of structural information during dehydration. Instead destructive dehydration occurred, where the elimination of water from the monohydrate resulted in the formation of an oily phase, which subsequently recrystallised into one or more crystalline forms. Solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate of the anhydrate alpha-form and the monohydrate in aqueous media were investigated and both were found to be lower for the monohydrate compared to the anhydrate alpha-form. Finally, the interactions between water molecules and chloride ions in the monohydrate as well as changes in packing induced by water incorporation could be detected by spectroscopic techniques.

  16. OPTIMIZATION OF CONCENTRATION OF POLYHEXANIDE HYDROCHLORIDE IN MULTIPURPOSE SOLUTION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arora

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of foreign pathogenic microorganisms like viruses, bacteria, yeast, fungi and protozoa which can inadvertently be introduced into eye via contact lens and hence disinfection is a vital part. Multifunctional solutions are generally intended to combine the action of cleaning disinfecting, rinsing lubricating deproteinising and soaking in one single product.In order to optimization of concentration of Polyhexanide hydrochloride in multipurpose solution some microbiological studies were performed by taking five microorganisms which are more prevalent in the infected eye condition. The nutrient agar and sabourad's agar media were used for bacteria and yeast mould respectively. The media were prepared as per I.P and sterilised by autoclaving and poured into Petri plates. The media when cooled to 42°C, 0.5 ml of the culture was added.The optimum concentration of Polyhexanide hydrochloride is 0.0002% which is an effective concentration against five microorganisms that are most prevalent in the infected eye condition.It was concluded that the multipurpose solution containing 2.0 g/ml of polyhexanide were found to be better in terms of antimicrobial activity

  17. Modulation of venlafaxine hydrochloride release from press coated matrix tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohel, M C; Soni, C D; Nagori, S A; Sarvaiya, K G

    2008-01-01

    The aim of present study was to prepare novel modified release press coated tablets of venlafaxine hydrochloride. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K100M were used as release modifier in core and coat, respectively. A 3(2) full factorial design was adopted in the optimization study. The drug to polymer ratio in core and coat were chosen as independent variables. The drug release in the first hour and drug release rate between 1 and 12 h were chosen as dependent variables. The tablets were characterized for dimension analysis, crushing strength, friability and in vitro drug release. A check point batch, containing 1:2.6 and 1:5.4 drug to polymer in core and coat respectively, was prepared. The tablets of check point batch were subjected to in vitro drug release in dissolution media with pH 5, 7.2 and distilled water. The kinetics of drug release was best explained by Korsmeyer and Peppas model (anomalous non-Fickian diffusion). The systematic formulation approach enabled us to develop modified release venlafaxine hydrochloride tablets.

  18. Formulation and evaluation of transdermal patches of papaverine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Samip

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal patches of papaverine hydrochloride were prepared by the solvent casting method using ethyl cellulose: PVP, PVA: PVP and Eudragit RL-100: Eudragit RS-100 using different ratios. The physicochemical parameters such as flexibility, thickness, smoothness, weight variation, moisture content, hardness and tensile strength were evaluated for the prepared patches. The formulation exhibited flexibility, uniform thickness and weight, smoothness, good drug content (92 to 96%, and little moisture content. The in vitro diffusion studies were carried out using modified Keshery-Chein cell using cellophane as the diffusion membrane and the formulation followed the Higuchi diffusion mechanism. The formulation containing PVA: PVP as polymers showed faster release rate (hydrophilic polymers compared to Eudragit RL-100: Eudragit RS-100 (hydrophobic polymers or combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers (ethyl cellulose and PVP. The stability studies indicated that all the patches maintained good physicochemical properties and drug content after storing the patches in different storage conditions. Compatibility studies indicated that there was no interaction between the drug and polymers. In vivo studies showed that papaverine hydrochloride helps in decreasing the effect of isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis. Hence, the aim of the present study was to prepare the sustained release formulation (Transdermal patches of the drug using different blend of polymers. The formulated patches containing the hydroplilic polymers showed best release rate of drug.

  19. [Clinical evaluation of roxatidine acetate hydrochlorides as a preanesthetic medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, M; Chihara, E; Ibuki, T; Ashida, H; Fukushima, H; Tanaka, Y

    2001-02-01

    Roxatidine acetate hydrochloride capsule is slowly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, and its acid suppressive effect on the stomach is long-lasting compared with other H2-blockers. The reduction of gastric juice in perioperative period is considered advantageous for patients not only because it decreases the risk for aspiration pneumonia but also because it reduces the risk of bronchial spasm induced by gastroesophageal reflux of acidic gastric content. The effects of single oral administration of roxatidine acetate hydrochloride 150 mg at night before the operation on the volume and pH of gastric juice were investigated during anesthesia using two types of anesthetic agents (isoflurane and propofol) in 93 patients of three age groups (group Y: age 20-40, group M: age 41-64, group O: age 65 roxatidine on reduction of gastric juice was found at the time of anesthetic induction and 2 hours after the induction in any age group with either anesthetic agent. The serum concentration of roxatidine at the time of induction was much higher in group O. The value of residual concentration of roxatidine 20 hours after oral intake was estimated from the intraoperative measurements of serum concentration. The results suggest that single administration at night before the operation is sufficient for the oldest group, but an additive dose is recommended for the younger groups.

  20. Formulation and evaluation of tramadol hydrochloride rectal suppositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rectal suppositories of tramadol hydrochloride were prepared using different bases and polymers like PEG, cocoa butter, agar and the effect of different additives on in vitro release of tramadol hydrochloride was studied. The agar-based suppositories were non-disintegrating/non-dissolving, whereas PEGs were disintegrating/dissolving and cocoa butter were melting suppositories. All the prepared suppositories were evaluated for various physical parameters like weight variation, drug content and hardness. The PEG and cocoa butter suppositories were evaluated for macromelting range, disintegration and liquefaction time. In vitro release study was performed by USP type I apparatus. The prepared suppositories were within the permissible range of all physical parameters. In vitro drug release was in the order of PEG>Agar>cocoa butter. Addition of PVP, HPMC in agar suppositories retards the release. The mechanism of drug release was diffusion controlled and follows first order kinetics. The results suggested that blends of PEG of low molecular weight (1000 with high molecular weight (4000 and 6000 in different percentage and agar in 10% w/w as base used to formulate rapid release suppositories. The sustained release suppositories can be prepared by addition of PVP, HPMC in agar-based suppositories and by use of cocoa butter as base.

  1. A novel and rapid microbiological assay for ciprofloxacin hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edith Cristina Laignier Cazedey; Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado

    2013-01-01

    The present work reports a simple, fast and sensitive microbiological assay applying the turbidimetric method for the determination of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIPRO HCl) in ophthalmic solutions. The validation method yielded good results and included excellent linearity, precision, accuracy and specificity. The bioassay is based on the inhibitory effect of CIPRO HCl upon the strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 used as the test microorganism. The results were treated statistically by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and were found to be linear (r¼0.9994, in the range of 14.0-56.0 mg/mL), precise (intraday RSD%¼2.06;interday RSD%¼2.30) and accurate (recovery ¼ 99.7%). The turbidimetric assay was compared to the UV spectrophotometric and HPLC methods for the same drug. The turbidimetric bioassay described on this paper for determination of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride in ophthalmic solution is an alternative to the physicochemical methods disclosed in the literature and can be used in quality control routine.

  2. Growth of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride and its characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, G.; Pari, S., E-mail: sparimyur@gmail.com

    2016-11-15

    Single crystal of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride by slow evaporation method is reported. The grown crystal characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, UV–Vis–NIR and fluorescence spectroscopy. It is established that the crystal falls under the monoclinic system and space group P21/c with the cell parameters as: a=8.565 Å, b=12.943 Å, c=6.272 Å, α=γ=90°, β=103.630º. UV–Vis–NIR spectrum shows indirect allowed transition with a band gap of 5.21 eV and other optical properties are measured. The crystal is also shown to have a high transmittance in the visible region. The third order nonlinear property and optical limiting have been investigated using Z-Scan technique. Complex impedance spectrum measured at the dc conductivity. Dependence of dielectric constant, dielectric loss and ac conductivity on frequency at different temperature of applied ac field is analyzed. The mechanical behavior has been assessed by Vickers microhardness indenter. The thermal behavior of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride was analyzed using TG/DTA thermal curves. From the thermal study, the material was found to possess thermal stability up to 174 °C. The predicted NLO properties, UV–Vis transmittance and Z-scan studies indicate that is an attractive material for photonics optical limiting applications.

  3. Intestinal Anisakiasis Treated Successfully with Prednisolone and Olopatadine Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Toyoda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristic of gastrointestinal anisakiasis is severe abdominal pain after eating raw fish. Intestinal anisakiasis is more uncommon than gastric anisakiasis. Most patients with intestinal anisakiasis need hospitalization because anisakiasis can cause intestinal obstruction, ileus, peritonitis or intestinal perforation. We report a case of intestinal anisakiasis. A 43-year-old woman presented with symptoms of intermittent abdominal pain 2 days after eating raw fish. Her brother had eaten the same food and had been suffering from gastric anisakiasis. Abdominal ultrasonography in this patient showed localized jejunal wall thickening with dilated lumen of proximal jejunum and ascites. According to the clinical course and examinations, she was diagnosed with intestinal anisakiasis. Administration of prednisolone 5 mg/day and olopatadine hydrochloride 10 mg/day improved her symptoms quickly without hospitalization. Prednisolone was administered for 10 days, and olopatadine hydrochloride was administered for a total of 6 weeks according to ultrasonographic findings. Six months after the treatment, the abdominal ultrasonography demonstrated normal findings. This case demonstrates that ultrasonography was quite useful for the diagnosis and surveillance of intestinal anisakiasis. Furthermore, treatment with corticosteroid and an antiallergic agent could be an option for patients with intestinal anisakiasis.

  4. Structural characterization of anhydrous naloxone- and naltrexone hydrochloride by high resolution laboratory X-ray powder diffraction and thermal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Dinnebier, Robert E; Zakrzewski, Marek

    2007-12-01

    The crystal structures of the analgesic compounds anhydrous naloxone and naltrexone hydrochloride were determined ab initio from high resolution laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data. Both compounds crystallize in the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with lattice parameters of a = 14.6588(10) A, b = 17.4363(9) A, c = 7.96200(22) A, and V = 2035.06(23) A(3) for naloxone hydrochloride and a = 15.4560(5) A, b = 14.9809(4) A, c = 7.84121(18) A, and V = 1815.58(11) A(3) for naltrexone hydrochloride. The crystal structure of anhydrous naloxone hydrochloride forms one-dimensional chains through hydrogen bonds. In the crystal structure of anhydrous naltrexone hydrochloride, two-dimensional sheets are formed by hydrogen bonds. The dehydration processes of naloxone hydrochloride dehydrate and naltrexone hydrochloride tetrahydrate was analyzed by DTA, DSC, TG, and MG.

  5. Deficiência de alfa-1 antitripsina: diagnóstico e tratamento Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquiles A Camelier

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A deficiência de alfa-1 antitripsina é um distúrbio genético de descoberta recente e que ocorre com freqüência comparável à da fibrose cística. Resulta de diferentes mutações no gene SERPINA1 e tem diversas implicações clínicas. A alfa-1 antitripsina é produzida principalmente no fígado e atua como uma antiprotease. Tem como principal função inativar a elastase neutrofílica, impedindo a ocorrência de dano tecidual. A mutação mais freqüentemente relacionada à doença clínica é o alelo Z, que determina polimerização e acúmulo dentro dos hepatócitos. O acúmulo e a conseqüente redução dos níveis séricos de alfa-1 antitripsina determinam, respectivamente, doença hepática e pulmonar, sendo que esta se manifesta principalmente sob a forma de enfisema de aparecimento precoce, habitualmente com predomínio basal. O diagnóstico envolve a detecção de níveis séricos reduzidos de alfa-1 antitripsina e a confirmação fenotípica. Além do tratamento usual para doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, existe atualmente uma terapia específica com infusão de concentrados de alfa-1 antitripsina. Essa terapia de reposição, aparentemente segura, ainda não teve a eficácia clínica definitivamente comprovada, e o custo-efetividade também é um tema controverso e ainda pouco abordado. Apesar da sua importância, não existem dados epidemiológicos brasileiros a respeito da prevalência da doença ou da freqüência de ocorrência dos alelos deficientes. O subdiagnóstico também tem sido uma importante limitação tanto para o estudo da doença quanto para o tratamento adequado dos pacientes. Espera-se que a criação do Registro Internacional de Alfa-1 venha a resolver essas e outras importantes questões.Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is a recently identified genetic disease that occurs almost as frequently as cystic fibrosis. It is caused by various mutations in the SERPINA1 gene, and has numerous clinical

  6. Efficacy of benzydamine hydrochloride dripping at endotracheal tube cuff for prevention of postoperative sore throat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmaanrat, Sasikaan; Chokkijchai, Kedsirin; Chanchayanon, Thavat

    2013-10-01

    Postoperative sore throat (POST) is a frequent consequence following ETT intubation, which may negatively affect the postoperative course and patient satisfaction. Benzydamine hydrochloride is a topically-applied non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The authors evaluated the analgesic effect of benzydamine hydrochloride dripping on the ETT cuff on POST. Eighty-six patients participated in this randomized controlled trial. They were assigned into either the benzydamine hydrochloride or the control group. The whole ETT cuff was dripped either with 3 ml (4.5 mg) of benzydamine hydrochloride or nothing five minutes prior to anesthesia induction. The incidence and severity of POST at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hours postoperatively were assessed. The potential adverse effects of benzydamine hydrochloride (throat numbness throat burning sensation, dry mouth, and thirst) were also evaluated. Twenty-five patients (58.14%) in each group had POST (p-value = 1). The severity of POST (calculated from affected patients) in both groups at different time points was not significantly different. Patients in the benzydamine hydrochloride group did not have a higher incidence of adverse effects. We found that dripping benzydamine hydrochloride on the ETT cuff neither reduced the incidence of POST nor increased the incidence of adverse effects in comparison with no intervention.

  7. Developmental rates of immatures of three Chrysomya species (Diptera: Calliphoridae) under the effect of methylphenidate hydrochloride, phenobarbital, and methylphenidate hydrochloride associated with phenobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Fábio; Alonso, Marcela A; Souza, Carina M; Thyssen, Patrícia J; Linhares, Arício X

    2014-05-01

    Entomotoxicology is focused on obtaining data on necrophagous entomofauna, for criminal investigations purposes. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of methylphenidate hydrochloride, phenobarbital, and their association on the developmental rate, larval and pupal survivorship, and the interval of emergence of adults of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Considering the therapeutic dose (TD) of methylphenidate hydrochloride (0.29 mg/Kg), the concentrations tested were 10× TD, 50× TD, and 100× TD. For phenobarbital, the concentrations used were 1× TD (=150 mg/Kg), 3.3× TD, and 6.7× TD. For the association of the drugs, the combinations used were 10× TD-methylphenidate hydrochloride plus 1× TD-phenobarbital, 50× TD-methylphenidate hydrochloride plus 3.3× TD-phenobarbital, and 100× TD-methylphenidate hydrochloride plus 6.7× TD-phenobarbital. The control group, without addition of drug, was maintained under the same conditions of temperature (25 ± 1 °C), humidity (70 ± 10%), and photoperiod (12 h). Specimens of each group were weighed every 12 h until pupariation. The developmental rate of the three Chrysomya species immatures was monitored. For C. albiceps the developmental time was delayed in 24 h for methylphenidate hydrochloride group and in 12 h for the phenobarbital and the drugs association groups. The effect was observed only at specific ages for C. megacephala, without altering the developmental time. For C. putoria, the developmental time was delayed in 12 h for methylphenidate hydrochloride group and in 24 h for the phenobarbital and the drugs association groups. The emergence interval was similar among all experimental groups, but larval and pupal viabilities were affected in different ways.

  8. Extractive determination of ephedrine hydrochloride and bromhexine hydrochloride in pure solutions, pharmaceutical dosage form and urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghani, N T; Rizk, M S; Mostafa, M

    2013-07-01

    Simple, rapid, sensitive, precise and accurate spectrophotometeric methods for the determination of ephedrine hydrochloride (E-HCl) and bromhexine hydrochloride (Br-HCl) in bulk samples, dosage form and in spiked urine samples were investigated. The methods are based on the formation of a yellow colored ion-associates due to the interaction between the examined drugs with picric acid (PA), chlorophyllin coppered trisodium salt (CLPH), alizarin red (AR) and ammonium reineckate (Rk) reagents. A buffer solution had been used and the extraction was carried out using organic solvent, the ion associates exhibit absorption maxima at 410, 410, 430 and 530 nm of (Br-HCl)with PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively; 410, 410, 435 and 530 of (E-HCl) with PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively. (E-HCl) and (Br-HCl) could be determined up to 13, 121, 120 and 160; 25, 200, 92 and 206 μg mL(-1), using PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively. The optimum reaction conditions for quantitative analysis were investigated. In addition, the molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity were determined for the investigated drug. The correlation coefficient was ≥0.995 (n=6) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤1.15 for five selected concentrations of the reagents. Therefore the concentration of Br-HCl and E-HCl drugs in their pharmaceutical formulations and spiked urine samples had been determined successfully.

  9. Extractive determination of ephedrine hydrochloride and bromhexine hydrochloride in pure solutions, pharmaceutical dosage form and urine samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghani, N. T.; Rizk, M. S.; Mostafa, M.

    2013-07-01

    Simple, rapid, sensitive, precise and accurate spectrophotometeric methods for the determination of ephedrine hydrochloride (E-HCl) and bromhexine hydrochloride (Br-HCl) in bulk samples, dosage form and in spiked urine samples were investigated. The methods are based on the formation of a yellow colored ion-associates due to the interaction between the examined drugs with picric acid (PA), chlorophyllin coppered trisodium salt (CLPH), alizarin red (AR) and ammonium reineckate (Rk) reagents. A buffer solution had been used and the extraction was carried out using organic solvent, the ion associates exhibit absorption maxima at 410, 410, 430 and 530 nm of (Br-HCl)with PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively; 410, 410, 435 and 530 of (E-HCl) with PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively. (E-HCl) and (Br-HCl) could be determined up to 13, 121, 120 and 160; 25, 200, 92 and 206 μg mL-1, using PA, CLPH, AR and Rk respectively. The optimum reaction conditions for quantitative analysis were investigated. In addition, the molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity were determined for the investigated drug. The correlation coefficient was ⩾0.995 (n = 6) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) ⩽1.15 for five selected concentrations of the reagents. Therefore the concentration of Br-HCl and E-HCl drugs in their pharmaceutical formulations and spiked urine samples had been determined successfully.

  10. Comparative effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride and ractopamine hydrochloride on live performance and carcass characteristics of calf-fed Holstein steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T R; Sexten, A K; Lawrence, T E; Miller, M F; Thomas, C L; Yates, D A; Hutcheson, J P; Hodgen, J M; Brooks, J C

    2014-09-01

    Holstein steers (n = 2,275) were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) a control diet containing no β-agonists, 2) a diet that contained zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; 8.3 mg/kg [100% DM basis]) for 20 d with a 3-d withdrawal period before harvest, and 3) a diet that contained ractopamine hydrochloride (RH; 30.1 mg/kg [100% DM basis]) for 28 d before harvest. No differences (P ≥ 0.18) were detected between treatments for initial BW, BW at d 28, or DMI. Final BW, BW gain for the last 28 d, total BW gain, ADG for the last 28 d, and overall ADG were greater (P Feeding either β-agonist to calf-fed Holstein steers increased live performance through increased BW, BW gain, and ADG. Furthermore, supplementing calf-fed Holstein steers with ZH provides greater improvements in HCW, LM area, and yield grade components, with a slight decrease in quality grade when compared to calf-fed Holstein steers supplemented with RH.

  11. Daclatasvir vs telaprevir plus peginterferon alfa/ribavirin for hepatitis C virus genotype 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Ira; Zeuzem, Stefan; Flisiak, Robert; Knysz, Brygida; Lueth, Stefan; Zarebska-Michaluk, Dorota; Janczewska, Ewa; Ferenci, Peter; Diago, Moises; Zignego, Anna Linda; Safadi, Rifaat; Baruch, Yaacov; Abdurakhmanov, Dzhamal; Shafran, Stephen; Thabut, Dominique; Bruck, Rafael; Gadano, Adrian; Thompson, Alexander James; Kopit, Justin; McPhee, Fiona; Michener, Tracy; Hughes, Eric A; Yin, Philip D; Noviello, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate daclatasvir vs telaprevir, each combined with peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin (pegIFN/RBV), in treatment-naive hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT) 1-infected patients. METHODS: In this phase 3, randomized, open-label, noninferiority study, 602 patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to daclatasvir vs telaprevir, stratified by IL28B rs12979860 host genotype (CC vs non-CC), cirrhosis status (compensated cirrhosis vs no cirrhosis), and HCV GT1 subtype (GT1a vs GT1b). Patients were selected by study inclusion criteria from a total of 793 enrolled patients. Patients received daclatasvir 60 mg once daily or telaprevir 750 mg 3 times daily plus pegIFN/RBV. Daclatasvir recipients received 24 wk of daclatasvir plus pegIFN/RBV; those without an extended rapid virologic response (eRVR; undetectable HCV-RNA at weeks 4 and 12) received an additional 24 wk of pegIFN/RBV. Telaprevir-treated patients received 12 wk of telaprevir plus pegIFN/RBV followed by 12 (with eRVR) or 36 (no eRVR) wk of pegIFN/RBV. The primary objective was to compare for noninferiority of sustained virologic response rates at posttreatment week 12 (SVR12) in GT1b-infected patients. Key secondary objectives were to demonstrate that the rates of anemia (hemoglobin < 10 g/dL) and rash-related events, through week 12, were lower with daclatasvir + pegIFN/RBV than with telaprevir + pegIFN/RBV among GT1b-infected patients. Resistance testing was performed using population-based sequencing of the NS5A region for all patients at baseline, and for patients with virologic failure or relapse and HCV-RNA ≥ 1000 IU/mL, to investigate any link between NS5A polymorphisms associated with daclatasvir resistance and virologic outcome. RESULTS: Patient demographics and disease characteristics were generally balanced across treatment arms; however, there was a higher proportion of black/African Americans in the daclatasvir groups (6.0% and 8.2% in the GT1b and GT1a groups, respectively) than in the

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis of adding low dose ribavirin to peginterferon alfa-2a for treatment of chronic hepatitis C infected thalassemia major patients in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrazmay, Alireza; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Mokhtari Payam, Mahdi; Hashemi-Meshkini, Amir; Behnava, Bita; Miri, Seyyed Mohammad; Karimi Elizee, Pegah; Tabatabaee, Seyed Vahid; Keshvari, Maryam; Bagheri Lankarani, Kamran

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis C in Iran is 1% and 18% in general population and thalassemia patients respectively. The cost effectiveness analysis of adding Ribavirin to Peginterferon alfa-2a (PEG IFN alfa-2a) as a combination treatment strategy of chronic hepatitis C in thalassemia patients in comparison with monotherapy could help clinicians and policy makers to provide the best treatment for the patients. In this study we aimed to assess whether adding Ribavirin to PEG IFN alfa-2a is a cost effective strategy in different genotypes and different subgroups of 280 patients with chronic hepatitis C infection from the perspective of society in Iranian setting. A cost effectiveness analysis including all costs and outcomes of treatments for chronic hepatitis C infected thalassemia major patients was conducted. We constructed a decision tree of treatment course in which a hypothetical cohort of 100 patients received "PEG IFN alfa-2a" or "Peg IFN alfa-2a plus Ribavirin." The cost analysis was based on cost data for 2008 and we used 9300 Iranian Rials (IR Rial) as exchange rate declared by the Iranian Central Bank on that time to calculating costs by US Dollar (USD). To evaluate whether a strategy is cost effective, one time and three times of GDP per capita were used as threshold based on recommendation of the World Health Organization. The Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) for combination therapy in genotype-1 and genotypes non-1 subgroups was 2,673 and 19,211 US dollars (USD) per one Sustain Virological Response (SVR), respectively. In low viral load and high viral load subgroups, the ICER was 5,233 and 14,976 USD per SVR, respectively. The calculated ICER for combination therapy in subgroup of patients with previously resistant to monotherapy was 13,006 USD per SVR. Combination therapy in previously resistant patients to combination therapy was a dominant strategy. Adding low dose of Ribavirin to PEG IFN alfa-2a for treatment of chronic hepatitis C patients

  13. Health-related quality of life in patients with high-risk melanoma randomised in the Nordic phase 3 trial with adjuvant intermediate-dose interferon alfa-2b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandberg, Y; Aamdal, S; Bastholt, Lars;

    2012-01-01

    To compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and side-effects in patients with high-risk melanoma participating in a randomised phase III trial of adjuvant interferon alfa-2b (IFN).......To compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and side-effects in patients with high-risk melanoma participating in a randomised phase III trial of adjuvant interferon alfa-2b (IFN)....

  14. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Poly(hexamethylene biguanide Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique C. Mattoso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the characterization of commercially available Poly(hexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB, a polymer with biocidal activity and several interesting properties that make this material suitable as a building block for supramolecular chemistry and “smart” materials. We studied polymer structure in water solution by dynamic light scattering, surface tension and capacitance spectroscopy. It shows typical surfactant behavior due to amphiphilic structure and low molecular weight. Spectroscopic (UV/Vis, FT-NIR and thermal characterization (differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, and thermogravimetric analysis, TGA were performed to give additional insight into the material structure in solution and solid state. These results can be the foundation for more detailed investigations on usefulness of PHMB in new complex materials and devices.

  15. β-Cyclodextrin-promazine hydrochloride interaction: Conductometric and viscometric studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Sajid Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we have studied the interaction of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD with the amphiphilic drug promazine hydrochloride (PMZ by using conductimetry and viscometry. From the observed results it was concluded that critical micelle concentration (cmc of the pure drug was lower than the apparent critical micelle concentration (cmc∗ of the drug in the presence of β-CD. The cmc∗ increased on increasing the concentration of β-CD due to the encapsulation of the amphiphilic drug to the hydrophobic cavities of the β-CD which delayed the micelle formation. Viscosity of the solution decreased drastically on the addition of β-CD which further increased on increasing the drug solution. Free energies of micellization (ΔGmic were calculated with the help of degrees of micelle ionization and cmc obtained from the specific conductivity−[PMZ] plots. Micellization was found to be less spontaneous in the presence of cyclodextrin.

  16. Permanent-wave dermatitis: contact allergy to cysteamine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Maeran C; Law, Sandra; Storrs, Frances J

    2003-09-01

    Cysteamine hydrochloride (CHC) is a newly recognized sensitizer found in permanent-wave solutions. We report the case of a hairdresser who was found to be allergic to CHC. Our allergic patient was patch-tested to various chemicals found in permanent-wave solutions, including CHC (1.0% in petrolatum). Patch-test reactions were positive to CHC, glyceryl thioglycolate, diglyceryl thioglycolate, p-phenylenediamine (PPD), and PPD through a piece of latex glove. Sixty-four controls to CHC (1.0% in petrolatum) had negative results. Household-weight latex gloves were protective against CHC allergy. Persons with CHC-waved hair were not allergic. CHC contained in "neutral" permanent-wave preparations has been used in American beauty salons since 1993. We briefly discuss the introduction and significance of CHC in permanent waves.

  17. Betahistine hydrochloride in Méniére's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, I J; Menon, G N

    1976-08-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over clinical trial was performed to assess the effect of betahistine hydrochloride (Serc) in Ménière's disease. The diagnosis was based on paroxysmal attacks of rotational vertigo, with tinnitus, and a fluctuating sensori-neural deafness, together with the results of auditory and vestigular tests. Twenty-eight patients were admitted to the trial over 3 years. Twenty-two patients completed the trial. In total, they received betahistine 32 mg daily, for a period of 16 weeks, and placebo also for the same length of time, preceded in every case by a 4-week pre-treatment period. Daily symptom score cards were kept. There was a statistically significant improvement in favour of the drug with regard to vertigo, tinnitus and deafness. Vertigo was the most responsive symptom. No adverse reactions were observed.

  18. [Characteristics and selectivity of photocatalytic-degradation of tetracycline hydrochloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chen-Yi; Yin, Da-Qiang

    2014-02-01

    The photocatalytic-degradation behavior of tetracycline hydrochloride (TTC) was studied. The catalyst used was photosensitive semiconductor titanium dioxide (TiO2). The results showed that the photocatalytic degradation of TTC was well fitted to first order reaction kinetics model, and the adsorption was the control step of the whole photocatalytic-degradation process, indicating that the main degradation path was the photocatalytic reaction of TTC adsorbed on the surface of TiO2. Besides, through photocatalytic-degradation of the mixed solution of TTC and sulfamethoxazole or amoxicillin, the degradation of the two antibiotics showed obvious selectivity when the pH, TiO2 dosage and other conditions were changed.

  19. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE PELLETS OF TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskara Haripriya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to develop and evaluate a better sustained release multiple unit pellets (MUP formulation of Tramadol hydrochloride. Dissolution and diffusion controlled systems have classically been of primary importance in oral delivery of medication because of their relative ease of production and cost compared with other methods of sustained or controlled delivery. Most of these systems are solids, although a few liquids and suspension have been recently introduced. The present work aimed at developing SR pellets of Tramadol HCl by Wurster process. FTIR studies showed no unacceptable extra peaks which confirm the absence of chemical interaction between the drug and polymer. Angle of repose, tapped density, bulk density values for the formulations were within the range which indicates that pellets prepared by Wurster process were satisfactory for further studies. The percentage drug content of Tramadol was determined by extraction with methanol and analyzed by using UV-visible spectrophotometer at 271nm.

  20. Design and Evaluation of Chronomodulated Drug Delivery of Tramadol Hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekya, Thota; Narendar, Dudhipala; Mahipal, Donthi; Arjun, Narala; Nagaraj, Banala

    2017-09-26

    Rheumatoid arthritis is an auto immune disease which requires chronotherapy as it occurs during early morning. Tramadol hydrochloride (TH) is an analgesic drug, used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of the present investigation was to develop chronomodulated drug delivery system of tramadol hydrochloride such that it releases the drug early in the morning, during which the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis worsen. To develop chronomodulated drug delivery system of TH, initially core tablets of TH were prepared using three different supradisintegrants followed by coating with pH dependent polymer of Eudragit S100. The prepared core tablets are evaluated for physical parameters and an optimal system was identified. Further, coating composition of Eudragit S100 was optimized and coating tablets of TH was prepared. The prepared coated tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, drug content and in vitro release studies in 0.1N HCl, pH 6.8 phosphate buffer and pH 7.4 phosphate buffer. Formulation with 7.5% of coating solution (ES2) had shown a significant drug release after a lag time of 3 h (in pH 6.8 medium), 6 h (in pH 6.8 medium) and 8 h (in pH 7.4 medium), respectively. DSC studies revealed that no interaction between core and coated materials with drug was observed. Thus, chronomodulated drug delivery system of TH was formulated and assuming that if a tablet is administered around 9 pm to 10 pm, the drug release starts after a lag time of 6 h i. e., around 3am to 4 am. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Sinomenine Hydrochloride Protects against Polymicrobial Sepsis via Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response to infection, is the major cause of death in intensive care units (ICUs. The mortality rate of sepsis remains high even though the treatment and understanding of sepsis both continue to improve. Sinomenine (SIN is a natural alkaloid extracted from Chinese medicinal plant Sinomenium acutum, and its hydrochloride salt (Sinomenine hydrochloride, SIN-HCl is widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA. However, its role in sepsis remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of SIN-HCl in sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP in BALB/c mice and the corresponding mechanism. SIN-HCl treatment improved the survival of BALB/c mice that were subjected to CLP and reduced multiple organ dysfunction and the release of systemic inflammatory mediators. Autophagy activities were examined using Western blotting. The results showed that CLP-induced autophagy was elevated, and SIN-HCl treatment further strengthened the autophagy activity. Autophagy blocker 3-methyladenine (3-MA was used to investigate the mechanism of SIN-HCl in vitro. Autophagy activities were determined by examining the autophagosome formation, which was shown as microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3 puncta with green immunofluorescence. SIN-HCl reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine release and increased autophagy in peritoneal macrophages (PM. 3-MA significantly decreased autophagosome formation induced by LPS and SIN-HCl. The decrease of inflammatory cytokines caused by SIN-HCl was partially aggravated by 3-MA treatment. Taken together, our results indicated that SIN-HCl could improve survival, reduce organ damage, and attenuate the release of inflammatory cytokines induced by CLP, at least in part through regulating autophagy activities.

  2. Sinomenine hydrochloride protects against polymicrobial sepsis via autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Gao, Min; Wang, Wenmei; Lang, Yuejiao; Tong, Zhongyi; Wang, Kangkai; Zhang, Huali; Chen, Guangwen; Liu, Meidong; Yao, Yongming; Xiao, Xianzhong

    2015-01-23

    Sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response to infection, is the major cause of death in intensive care units (ICUs). The mortality rate of sepsis remains high even though the treatment and understanding of sepsis both continue to improve. Sinomenine (SIN) is a natural alkaloid extracted from Chinese medicinal plant Sinomenium acutum, and its hydrochloride salt (Sinomenine hydrochloride, SIN-HCl) is widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, its role in sepsis remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of SIN-HCl in sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in BALB/c mice and the corresponding mechanism. SIN-HCl treatment improved the survival of BALB/c mice that were subjected to CLP and reduced multiple organ dysfunction and the release of systemic inflammatory mediators. Autophagy activities were examined using Western blotting. The results showed that CLP-induced autophagy was elevated, and SIN-HCl treatment further strengthened the autophagy activity. Autophagy blocker 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was used to investigate the mechanism of SIN-HCl in vitro. Autophagy activities were determined by examining the autophagosome formation, which was shown as microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) puncta with green immunofluorescence. SIN-HCl reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokine release and increased autophagy in peritoneal macrophages (PM). 3-MA significantly decreased autophagosome formation induced by LPS and SIN-HCl. The decrease of inflammatory cytokines caused by SIN-HCl was partially aggravated by 3-MA treatment. Taken together, our results indicated that SIN-HCl could improve survival, reduce organ damage, and attenuate the release of inflammatory cytokines induced by CLP, at least in part through regulating autophagy activities.

  3. Formulation optimization of propranolol hydrochloride microcapsules employing central composite design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumar H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A central composite design was employed to produce microcapsules of propranolol hydrochloride by o/o emulsion solvent evaporation technique using a mixture of cellulose acetate butyrate as coat material and span-80 as an emulsifier. The effect of formulation variables namely levels of cellulose acetate butyrate (X 1 and percentage of Span-80 (X 2 on encapsulation efficiency (Y 1 , drug release at the end of 1.5 h (Y 2 , 4 h (Y 3 , 8 h (Y 4 , 14 h (Y 5 , and 24 h (Y 6 were evaluated using the F test. Mathematical models containing only the significant terms were generated for each response parameter using multiple linear regression analysis and analysis of variance. Both the formulation variables exerted a significant influence (P < 0.05 on Y 1 whereas the cellulose acetate butyrate level emerged as the lone factor which significantly influenced the other response parameters. Numerical optimization using desirability approach was employed to develop an optimized formulation by setting constraints on the dependent and independent variables. The experimental values of Y 1 , Y 2 , Y 3 , Y 4 , Y 5 , and Y 6 for the optimized formulation was found to be 92.86±1.56% w/w, 29.58±1.22%, 48.56±2.56%, 60.85±2.35%, 76.23±3.16% and 95.12±2.41%, respectively which were in close agreement with those predicted by the mathematical models. The drug release from microcapsules followed first order kinetics and was characterized by Higuchi diffusion model. The optimized microcapsule formulation developed was found to comply with the USP drug release test-1 for extended release propranolol hydrochloride capsules.

  4. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: ciprofloxacin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera, M E; Manzo, R H; Junginger, H E; Midha, K K; Shah, V P; Stavchansky, S; Dressman, J B; Barends, D M

    2011-01-01

    Literature data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of new multisource and reformulated immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing ciprofloxacin hydrochloride as the only active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) are reviewed. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride's solubility and permeability, its therapeutic use and index, pharmacokinetics, excipient interactions and reported BE/bioavailability (BA) problems were taken into consideration. Solubility and BA data indicate that ciprofloxacin hydrochloride is a BCS Class IV drug. Therefore, a biowaiver based approval of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride containing IR solid oral dosage forms cannot be recommended for either new multisource drug products or for major scale-up and postapproval changes (variations) to existing drug products.

  5. Co-Amorphous Combination of Nateglinide-Metformin Hydrochloride for Dissolution Enhancement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wairkar, Sarika; Gaud, Ram

    The aim of the present work was to prepare a co-amorphous mixture (COAM) of Nateglinide and Metformin hydrochloride to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly soluble Nateglinide. Nateglinide (120 mg...

  6. Myocardial perfusion imaging with higenamine hydrochloride stress studies in diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周维

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the stress test efficacy and safety of higenamine hydrochloride,MPI studies were performed in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods Sixty-eight patients with suspected coronary artery

  7. Synthesis of 2-Heterocyclomethyl-5-diphenylmethylenecyclopentanone Hydrochlorides and their Inhibitory Effect on Tumor Cell Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Hai ZHANG; Lin Xiang ZHAO; Zhen Jun BIAN; Rui WANG; Fu Yuan SUN

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen new 2-heterocyclomethyl-5-diphenylmethylenecyclopentanone hydrochlorides were designed and synthesized. The growth inhibitory effect of these compounds in vitro was conducted using a MTT assay in human breast cancer T47D cells.

  8. The effect of tramadol hydrochloride on early life stages of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehonova, Pavla; Plhalova, Lucie; Blahova, Jana; Berankova, Petra; Doubkova, Veronika; Prokes, Miroslav; Tichy, Frantisek; Vecerek, Vladimir; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to perform the fish embryo acute toxicity test (FET) on zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the early-life stage toxicity test on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with tramadol hydrochloride. The FET was performed using the method inspired by the OECD guideline 236. Newly fertilized zebrafish eggs were exposed to tramadol hydrochloride at concentrations of 10; 50; 100 and 200μg/l for a period of 144h. An embryo-larval toxicity test on C. carpio was performed according to OECD guideline 210 also with tramadol hydrochloride at concentrations 10; 50; 100 and 200μg/l for a period of 32 days. Hatching was significantly influenced in both acute and subchronic toxicity assays. Subchronic exposure also influenced early ontogeny, both morphometric and condition characteristics and caused changes in antioxidant enzyme activity. The LOEC value was found to be 10μg/l tramadol hydrochloride.

  9. Effects of drotaverine hydrochloride on viability of rat cultured cerebellar granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demushkin, V P; Zhavoronkova, E V; Khaspekov, L G

    2012-02-01

    The neurocytotoxic effect of drotaverine hydrochloride was studied in culture of rat cerebellar granulocytes. Incubation of cells with 100 and 250 μM drotaverine reduced neuronal survival to 60 and 4%, respectively.

  10. Thiamine hydrochloride: An efficient catalyst for one-pot synthesis of quinoxaline derivatives at ambient temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Omprakash B Pawar; Fulchand R Chavan; Venkat S Suryawanshi; Vishnu S Shinde; Narayan D Shinde

    2013-01-01

    Quinoxaline derivatives have been synthesized in high to excellent yields in the presence of thiamine hydrochloride (VB1) as an inexpensive, non-toxic and metal ion free catalyst at ambient temperature.

  11. Assessment of the Results of the Multicenter Randomized Acute Leukemia French Association (ALFA) 9803 Trial%法国急性白血病协会(ALFA)9803多中心随机临床试验结果的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江滨; 凌伟

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1文献来源 Gardin C, Turlure P, Fagot T, et al. Postremission treatment of elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission after intensive induction chemotherapy: Results of the multicenter randomized Acute Leukemia French Association (ALFA) 9803 trial [J]. Blood, 2007, 109(12) : 5129-5135.

  12. Peginterferon alpha-2a is associated with higher sustained virological response than peginterferon alfa-2b in chronic hepatitis C: systematic review of randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Tahany; Thorlund, Kristian; Hauser, Goran;

    2010-01-01

    A combination of weekly pegylated interferon (peginterferon) alpha and daily ribavirin represents the standard of care for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C according to current guidelines. It is not established which of the two licensed products (peginterferon alpha-2a or peginterferon alfa-2b......) is most effective. We performed a systematic review of head-to-head randomized trials to assess the benefits and harms of the two treatments. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS through July 2009. Using standardized forms, two reviewers independently......-2a is associated with higher SVR than peginterferon alfa-2b. However, the paucity of evidence on adverse events curbs the decision to definitively recommend one peginterferon over the other, because any potential benefit must outweigh the risk of harm....

  13. Elementos regulatórios responsáveis pelo controle da estabilidade do mRNA de alfa tubulina de Trypanosoma cruzi

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Rosa de Araujo

    2007-01-01

    Um mecanismo de auto-regulação dos mRNAs de alfa e beta tubulina em Trypanosoma cruzi afeta a meia vida desses transcritos ao longo do ciclo de vida do parasita. Enquanto epimastigotas apresentam altos níveis dos mRNAs de tubulina, um excesso da proteína não polimerizada em amastigotas está relacionada com o decréscimo dos níveis dos seus mRNAs. Esta diminuição não é resultado de mudanças na transcrição e sim devido a redução da meia vida dos mRNAs de alfa e beta tubulina. Através do tratamen...

  14. Synthesis of imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid hydrochloride: A key intermediate for zoledronic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Santosh Kumar; Manne, Narendra; Ray, Purna Chandra; Pal, Manojit

    2008-01-01

    A convenient and practical synthesis of imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid hydrochloride was achieved via N-alkylation of imidazole using tert-butyl chloroacetate followed by a non-aqueous ester cleavage of the resulting imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid tert-butyl ester in the presence of titanium tetrachloride. The synthesized imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid hydrochloride was then utilized to prepare zoledronic acid.

  15. Synthesis of imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid hydrochloride: A key intermediate for zoledronic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Narendra; Ray, Purna Chandra

    2008-01-01

    Summary A convenient and practical synthesis of imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid hydrochloride was achieved via N-alkylation of imidazole using tert-butyl chloroacetate followed by a non-aqueous ester cleavage of the resulting imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid tert-butyl ester in the presence of titanium tetrachloride. The synthesized imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid hydrochloride was then utilized to prepare zoledronic acid. PMID:19104672

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Impurities of Barnidipine Hydrochloride, an Antihypertensive Drug Substance

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Gang Cheng; Xu-Yong Dai; Li-Wei Li; Qiong Wan; Xiang Ma; Guang-Ya Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Barnidipine hydrochloride is a long term dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker used for the treatment of hypertension. During the process development of barnidipine hydrochloride, four barnidipine impurities were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an ordinary column (Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18, 150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm). All these impurities were identified, synthesized, and subsequently characterized by their respective spectral data (MS, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR)...

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Impurities of Barnidipine Hydrochloride, an Antihypertensive Drug Substance

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Zhi-Gang; Dai, Xu-Yong; Li, Li-Wei; Wan, Qiong; Ma, Xiang; Xiang, Guang-Ya

    2014-01-01

    Barnidipine hydrochloride is a long term dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker used for the treatment of hypertension. During the process development of barnidipine hydrochloride, four barnidipine impurities were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an ordinary column (Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18, 150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm). All these impurities were identified, synthesized, and subsequently characterized by their respective spectral data (MS, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR). ...

  18. Co-Amorphous Combination of Nateglinide-Metformin Hydrochloride for Dissolution Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wairkar, Sarika; Gaud, Ram

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to prepare a co-amorphous mixture (COAM) of Nateglinide and Metformin hydrochloride to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly soluble Nateglinide. Nateglinide (120 mg) and Metformin hydrochloride (500 mg) COAM, as a dose ratio, were prepared by ball-milling technique. COAMs were characterized for saturation solubility, amorphism and physicochemical interactions (X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)), SEM, in vitro dissolution, and stability studies. Solubility studies revealed a sevenfold rise in solubility of Nateglinide from 0.061 to 0.423 mg/ml in dose ratio of COAM. Solid-state characterization of COAM suggested amorphization of Nateglinide after 6 h of ball milling. XRPD and DSC studies confirmed amorphism in Nateglinide, whereas FTIR elucidated hydrogen interactions (proton exchange between Nateglinide and Metformin hydrochloride). Interestingly, due to low energy of fusion, Nateglinide was completely amorphized and stabilized by Metformin hydrochloride. Consequently, in vitro drug release showed significant increase in dissolution of Nateglinide in COAM, irrespective of dissolution medium. However, little change was observed in the solubility and dissolution profile of Metformin hydrochloride, revealing small change in its crystallinity. Stability data indicated no traces of devitrification in XRPD of stability sample of COAM, and % drug release remained unaffected at accelerated storage conditions. Amorphism of Nateglinide, proton exchange with Metformin hydrochloride, and stabilization of its amorphous form have been noted in ball-milled COAM of Nateglinide-Metformin hydrochloride, revealing enhanced dissolution of Nateglinide. Thus, COAM of Nateglinide-Metformin hydrochloride system is a promising approach for combination therapy in diabetic patients.

  19. SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF DICLOFENAC SODIUM AND TOLPERISONE HYDROCHLORIDE IN COMBINED PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Bhavesh Gevriya* and R.C. Mashru

    2013-01-01

    Three simple, rapid, precise and accurate spectrophotometric methods have been developed for simultaneous analysis of Tolperisone Hydrochloride (TOL) and Diclofenac Sodium (DIC) in their combined dosage form. Method A, Simultaneous equation method (Vierodt’s method) applies measurement of absorptivities at two wavelengths, 261.00 nm (λmax of Tolperisone Hydrochloride) and 279.00 nm, (λmax of Diclofenac Sodium) in zero order spectra. The concentrations can be calculated from the derived equati...

  20. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF TOLPERISONE HYDROCHLORIDE AND DICLOFENAC SODIUM IN SYNTHETIC MIXTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Patel Satish A; Hariyani Kaushik P

    2012-01-01

    The present manuscript describes simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate, precise and economical spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of Diclofenac sodium and Tolperisone hydrochloride in bulk and synthetic mixture. The method is based on the simultaneous equations for analysis of both the drugs using methanol as solvent. Diclofenac sodium has absorbance maxima at 281 nm and Tolperisone hydrochloride has absorbance maxima at 255 nm in methanol. The linearity was obtained in...

  1. The effect of L-ornithine hydrochloride ingestion on human growth hormone secretion after strength training

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of L-ornithine hydrochloride ingestion on serum growth hormone secretion response after strength training in young men who did not regularly engage in high intensity exercise. Ten healthy young males without workout habits (age: 22.2 +/- 1.0 yr). Subjects performed biceps curl strength training after L-ornithine hydrochloride and placebo ingestions. They participated in both of the above conditions randomly with a week interval in between. Serum growth h...

  2. Impact of elosulfase alfa in patients with morquio A syndrome who have limited ambulation: An open‐label, phase 2 study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Eugen; Geberhiwot, Tarekegn; Muschol, Nicole; Hendriksz, Christian J.; Burton, Barbara K.; Jameson, Elisabeth; Berger, Kenneth I.; Jester, Andrea; Treadwell, Marsha; Sisic, Zlatko; Decker, Celeste

    2016-01-01

    Efficacy and safety of elosulfase alfa enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) were assessed in an open‐label, phase 2, multi‐national study in Morquio A patients aged ≥5 years unable to walk ≥30 meters in the 6‐min walk test. Patients received elosulfase alfa 2.0 mg/kg/week intravenously for 48 weeks. Efficacy measures were functional dexterity, pinch/grip strength, mobility in a modified timed 25‐foot walk, pain, quality of life, respiratory function, and urine keratan sulfate (KS). Safety/tolerability was also assessed. Fifteen patients received elosulfase alfa, three patients discontinued ERT due to adverse events (two were grade 3 drug‐related adverse events, the other was not drug‐related), and two patients missed >20% of planned infusions; 10 completed treatment through 48 weeks and received ≥80% of planned infusions (Modified Per Protocol [MPP] population). The study population had more advanced disease than that enrolled in other trials. From baseline to week 48, MPP data showed biochemical efficacy (urine KS decreased 52.4%). The remaining efficacy results were highly variable due to challenges in test execution because of severe skeletal and joint abnormalities, small sample sizes, and clinical heterogeneity among patients. Eight patients showed improvements in one or more outcome measures; several patients indicated improvements not captured by the study assessments (e.g., increased energy, functional ability). The nature of adverse events was similar to other elosulfase alfa studies. This study illustrates the considerable challenges in objectively measuring impact of ERT in very disabled Morquio A patients and highlights the need to examine results on an individual basis. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27774754

  3. Impact of elosulfase alfa in patients with morquio A syndrome who have limited ambulation: An open-label, phase 2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmatz, Paul R; Mengel, Eugen; Geberhiwot, Tarekegn; Muschol, Nicole; Hendriksz, Christian J; Burton, Barbara K; Jameson, Elisabeth; Berger, Kenneth I; Jester, Andrea; Treadwell, Marsha; Sisic, Zlatko; Decker, Celeste

    2017-02-01

    Efficacy and safety of elosulfase alfa enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) were assessed in an open-label, phase 2, multi-national study in Morquio A patients aged ≥5 years unable to walk ≥30 meters in the 6-min walk test. Patients received elosulfase alfa 2.0 mg/kg/week intravenously for 48 weeks. Efficacy measures were functional dexterity, pinch/grip strength, mobility in a modified timed 25-foot walk, pain, quality of life, respiratory function, and urine keratan sulfate (KS). Safety/tolerability was also assessed. Fifteen patients received elosulfase alfa, three patients discontinued ERT due to adverse events (two were grade 3 drug-related adverse events, the other was not drug-related), and two patients missed >20% of planned infusions; 10 completed treatment through 48 weeks and received ≥80% of planned infusions (Modified Per Protocol [MPP] population). The study population had more advanced disease than that enrolled in other trials. From baseline to week 48, MPP data showed biochemical efficacy (urine KS decreased 52.4%). The remaining efficacy results were highly variable due to challenges in test execution because of severe skeletal and joint abnormalities, small sample sizes, and clinical heterogeneity among patients. Eight patients showed improvements in one or more outcome measures; several patients indicated improvements not captured by the study assessments (e.g., increased energy, functional ability). The nature of adverse events was similar to other elosulfase alfa studies. This study illustrates the considerable challenges in objectively measuring impact of ERT in very disabled Morquio A patients and highlights the need to examine results on an individual basis. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Direct, preparative enantioselective chromatography of propranolol hydrochloride and thioridazine hydrochloride using carbon dioxide-based mobile phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, F; Schultz, M; Betz, L; Shaimi, M; Lee, J; Champion, W

    1999-12-31

    In this paper, we describe the direct, preparative enantioselective chromatography of racemic (rac)-propranolol hydrochloride (HCI) and rac-thioridazine.HCl using Chiralpak AD chiral stationary phase and mobile phase systems containing carbon dioxide and methanol without the use of basic or acidic additives. Isolated fractions of propranolol.HCl were positively identified by mass spectrometry, Beilstein flame test, melting point, and chemical analysis to be HCI enantiomers of propranolol-HCl salts exhibited characteristic mass spectra peaks at 36 and 38 mass-to-charge ratio in the expected 3:1 isotopic ratio for the solute that were absent in the mass spectra for the free-base forms. To our knowledge, the direct, preparative enantioselective isolation of HCI enantiomeric salts of rac-propranolol and of rac-thioridazine have not been previously demonstrated and published.

  5. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Berberine Hydrochloride in Patients with Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunqiu; Tao, Chunhua; Liu, Zhongchen; Lu, Meiling; Pan, Qiuhui; Zheng, Lijun; Li, Qing; Song, Zhenshun; Fichna, Jakub

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to evaluate clinical symptoms in diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) receiving berberine hydrochloride in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Overall, 196 patients with IBS-D were recruited for this study; consequently, 132 patients randomized to receive daily 400 mg of berberine hydrochloride, delivered twice daily or placebo for 8 weeks followed by a 4-week washout period. After a 2-week run-in period, diarrhea, abdominal pain, urgent need for defecation frequency and any adverse events were recorded daily. Prior to administration of the medication and after completing the treatment, assessment of IBS symptom scores, depression and anxiety scale scores and the IBS scale for quality of life (QOL) was carried out. The effects of berberine hydrochloride on IBS-D, defined by a reduction of diarrhea frequency (P = 0.032), abdominal pain frequency (P berberine group than the placebo group in the 8 weeks of treatment. A trend of improvement (P berberine hydrochloride for IBS symptom score, depression score and anxiety score and the IBSQOL, compared with placebo. At last, berberine hydrochloride was well tolerated. So we concluded that berberine hydrochloride is well tolerated and reduces IBS-D symptoms, which effectively improved patients QOL.

  6. Using crystal structure prediction to rationalize the hydration propensities of substituted adamantane hydrochloride salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Sharmarke; Karothu, Durga Prasad; Naumov, Panče

    2016-08-01

    The crystal energy landscapes of the salts of two rigid pharmaceutically active molecules reveal that the experimental structure of amantadine hydrochloride is the most stable structure with the majority of low-energy structures adopting a chain hydrogen-bond motif and packings that do not have solvent accessible voids. By contrast, memantine hydrochloride which differs in the substitution of two methyl groups on the adamantane ring has a crystal energy landscape where all structures within 10 kJ mol(-1) of the global minimum have solvent-accessible voids ranging from 3 to 14% of the unit-cell volume including the lattice energy minimum that was calculated after removing water from the hydrated memantine hydrochloride salt structure. The success in using crystal structure prediction (CSP) to rationalize the different hydration propensities of these substituted adamantane hydrochloride salts allowed us to extend the model to predict under blind test conditions the experimental crystal structures of the previously uncharacterized 1-(methylamino)adamantane base and its corresponding hydrochloride salt. Although the crystal structure of 1-(methylamino)adamantane was correctly predicted as the second ranked structure on the static lattice energy landscape, the crystallization of a Z' = 3 structure of 1-(methylamino)adamantane hydrochloride reveals the limits of applying CSP when the contents of the crystallographic asymmetric unit are unknown.

  7. RP-HPLC estimation of imipramine hydrochloride and diazepam in tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Srikantha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous determination of imipramine hydrochloride and diazepam in pharmaceutical formulations. The elution was done in isocratic mode utilizing a mobile phase consisting of methanol:water:0.1M sodium acetate (30:50:20 v/v/v on Chromosil C18 column with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and with detection at 243 nm. The measured retention time was 3.33±0.02 min for imipramine hydrochloride and 4.64±0.02 min for diazepam. Linearity was measured in the range 25-150 μg/ml for imipramine hydrochloride (r 2 =0.999 and in the range 5-30 μg/ml for diazepam (r 2 =0.9994, respectively. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.03 and 0.1 μg/ml for imipramine hydrochloride and 0.02 and 0.07 μg/ml for diazepam. Satisfactory validation was also obtained from recovery (100.95-101.52% for imipramine hydrochloride and 99.47-100.33% for diazepam studies, intraday and interday precision (<2% and robustness results. The reported method was the first study of these drugs in combination and could be employed for routine quantitative determination of imipramine hydrochloride and diazepam in tablets.

  8. HPLC method validation for modernization of the tetracycline hydrochloride capsule USP monograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad M. Hussien

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a continuation to our previous work aiming at development and validation of a reversed-phase HPLC for modernization of tetracycline-related USP monographs and the USP general chapter . Previous results showed that the method is accurate and precise for the assay of tetracycline hydrochloride and the limit of 4-epianhydrotetracycline impurity in the drug substance and oral suspension monographs. The aim of the current paper is to examine the feasibility of the method for modernization of USP tetracycline hydrochloride capsule monograph. Specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision were examined for tetracycline hydrochloride assay and 4-epianhydrotetracycline limit. The method was linear in the concentration range from 80% to 160% (r>0.9998 of the assay concentration (0.1 mg/mL for tetracycline hydrochloride and from 50% to 150% (r>0.997 of the acceptance criteria specified in tetracycline hydrochloride capsule monograph for 4-epianhydrotetracycline (NMT 3.0%. The recovery at three concentration levels for tetracycline hydrochloride assay was between 99% and 101% and the RSD from six preparations at the concentration 0.1 mg/mL is less than 0.6%. The recovery for 4-epianhydrotetracycline limit procedure over the concentration range from 50% to 150% is between 96% and 102% with RSD less than 5%. The results met the specified acceptance criteria.

  9. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF TOLPERISONE HYDROCHLORIDE AND DICLOFENAC SODIUM IN SYNTHETIC MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Satish A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present manuscript describes simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate, precise and economical spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of Diclofenac sodium and Tolperisone hydrochloride in bulk and synthetic mixture. The method is based on the simultaneous equations for analysis of both the drugs using methanol as solvent. Diclofenac sodium has absorbance maxima at 281 nm and Tolperisone hydrochloride has absorbance maxima at 255 nm in methanol. The linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 2-20 μg/ml and 2-20 μg/ml for Diclofenac sodium and Tolperisone hydrochloride, respectively. The concentrations of the drugs were determined by using simultaneous equations at both the wavelengths. The mean recovery was 100.6 ± 0.41 and 99.64 ± 0.50 for Diclofenac sodium and Tolperisone hydrochloride, respectively. The method was successfully applied to laboratory prepared synthetic mixture because no interference from the mixture excipients was found. The suitability of this method for the quantitative determination of Diclofenac sodium and Tolperisone hydrochloride was proved by validation. The proposed method was found to be simple and sensitive for the routine quality control application of Diclofenac sodium and Tolperisone hydrochloride in combination. The results of analysis have been validated statistically and by recovery studies.

  10. Stability-indicating HPLC method for simultaneous determination of montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Pankhaniya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, specific, accurate, and stability-indicating reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride, using a Lichrospher ® 100, RP-18e column and a mobile phase composed of methanol:0.1% o-phosphoric acid (90:10 v/v, pH 6.8. The retention times of montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride were found to be 10.16 and 12.03 min, respectively. Linearity was established for montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride in the range of 2-10 μg/ml and 24-120 μg/ml, respectively. The percentage recoveries of montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride were found to be in the range of 99.09 and 99.81%, respectively. Both the drugs were subjected to acid and base hydrolysis, oxidation, photolytic, and thermal degradation conditions. The degradation products of montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride were well resolved from the pure drug with significant differences in their retention time values. This method can be successfully employed for simultaneous quantitative analysis of montelukast and fexofenadine hydrochloride in bulk drugs and formulations.

  11. Comparison between lignocaine hydrochloride and ropivacaine hydrochloride as lumbosacral epidural anaesthetic agents in goats undergoing laparoscopy assisted embryo transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Khajuria

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Goats (n=12 undergoing laparoscopy assisted embryo transfer were randomly allotted to two groups (I and II and injected lignocaine hydrochloride (4mg/kg or ropivacaine hydrochloride (1mg/kg at the lumbosacral epidural space. The animals were held with raised hind quarters for first three minutes following injection. Immediately after induction of regional anaesthesia, they were restrained in dorsal recumbency in Trendelenburg position in a cradle. Laparoscopy was performed after creating pneumoperitoneum using filtered room air. The mean (± S.E induction time in animals of group I was significantly shorter (5.33 ± 0.61 min than those belonging to group II (12.66 ±1.99 min. Complete analgesia developed throughout the hind quarters and abdomen for 30 min and 60 min in group I and II animal’s respectively. Unlike animals of group I, group II goats continued to show moderate analgesia for 180 minutes. The motor activity returned after a lapse of 130.00 ± 12.64 min and 405.00 ± 46.31 min respectively. Occasional vocalization and struggling was noticed in two goats one from each group irrespective of the surgical manipulations during laparoscopy. The rectal temperature and respiration rates showed only non-significant increase, but the heart rate values were significantly higher (P < 0.5 up to 150 min in animals of both the groups when compared to their baseline values. From this study, it was concluded that both anaesthetic agents produced satisfactory regional anaesthesia in goats undergoing laparoscopy. However, considering the very long delay in regaining the hind limb motor activity, the use of ropivacaine may not be recommended for this purpose. Supplementation of sedative/tranquilizer with lumbosacral epidural anaesthesia needs evaluation.

  12. A cost-effectiveness evaluation comparing originator follitropin alfa to the biosimilar for the treatment of infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizzo S

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Salvatore Gizzo,1 Juan A Garcia-Velasco,2 Franca Heiman,3 Claudio Ripellino,3 Klaus Bühler4 1Department of Woman and Child Health, University of Padua, Padua, Italy; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Rey Juan Carlos University Madrid, Madrid, Spain; 3IMS Health Information Solutions Italy Srl, Milan, Italy; 4Centre for Gynaecology, Endocrinology, and Reproductive Medicine, Ulm and Stuttgart, Germany Objectives: To perform a cost-effectiveness evaluation comparing the originator follitropin alfa (Gonal-f® to the biosimilar (Bemfola® in the Italian and Spanish contexts, with an assessment of the German and UK backgrounds. Methods: Starting from the study by Rettenbacher et al, a cost-effectiveness model was developed in the Italian and Spanish contexts. Clinical data on subjects, doses of gonadotropin, pregnancies, live-born children, and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome were used to feed the model. Costs related to drugs, hospitalizations, specialist visits, and examinations were retrieved from Italian and Spanish tariffs. Gonadotropin acquisition costs for Germany and the UK were also taken into account to expand the economical assessment to the other countries. The evaluation was done based on the National Health Service perspective. Sensitivity analyses, both univariate and probabilistic, as long as scenario analyses, tested the robustness of the model. Results: Originator follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH costs were €3,663 and €6,387 in Italy and Spain, respectively, whereas biosimilar FSH costs were €3,483 and €6,342. The efficacy was found to be 0.52 for the originator and 0.47 for the biosimilar. The average cost per live birth was estimated to be €7,044 and €12,283 for the originator FSH and €7,411 and €13,494 for the biosimilar for Italy and Spain, respectively. Furthermore, the originator FSH generated an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €3,600 for Italy and €900 for Spain compared to the

  13. Influence of wool and thermo-binder fibers relative fractions on the adhesion of non-woven Alfa fibers reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin Omri, Med; Triki, A.; Ben Hassen, Med; Arous, M.; Bulou, A.

    2016-10-01

    Alfa/wool/thermo-binder fibers hybrid composites were investigated in order to analyze adhesion state. Bearing in mind the chemical structure of wool and thermo-binder fibers, this study revealed a good compatibility between the reinforcement and the matrix. Dielectric measurements revealed the presence of two dielectric relaxations in the composite. The first relaxation was attributed to the α mode relaxation and the second one was associated with the conductivity noted for high temperature. This study allowed the analysis of the interfacial polarization effect using the Havrilliak-Negami model in the electric modulus formalism. The lowness of this relaxation intensity revealed a good adhesion of the fibers in the matrix. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) showed a slow decrease of the Tg glass transition temperature compared to the matrix, which could be explained by the existence of interactions between the fibers and the matrix. Vibrational analysis, based on FTIR measurements, showed a less hydrophilic character of Alfa fibers owing to a basic dissociation that occurs between the wool fibers and the water molecules associated with Alfa fibers. Furthermore, adhesion mechanism in the composite material was established by covalent and hydrogen bonds. Tensile testing performed on this composite confirmed that such adhesion was improved by increasing the thermo-binder fibers relative fraction.

  14. Antibodies that neutralize cellular uptake of elosulfase alfa are not associated with reduced efficacy or pharmacodynamic effect in individuals with Morquio A syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Andrew C; Soon, Russell K; Tompkins, Troy; Long, Brian; Schweighardt, Becky; Qi, Yulan; Vitelli, Catherine; Bagri, Anil; Decker, Celeste; O'Neill, Charles A; Zoog, Stephen J; Jesaitis, Lynne

    2017-01-01

    Many enzyme replacement therapies (ERTs) for lysosomal storage disorders use the cell-surface cation-independent mannose-6 phosphate receptor (CI-M6PR) to deliver ERTs to the lysosome. However, neutralizing antibodies (NAb) may interfere with this process. We previously reported that most individuals with Morquio A who received elosulfase alfa in the phase 3 MOR-004 trial tested positive for NAbs capable of interfering with binding to CI-M6PR ectodomain in an ELISA-based assay. However, no correlation was detected between NAb occurrence and clinical efficacy or pharmacodynamics. To quantify and better characterize the impact of NAbs, we developed a functional cell-based flow cytometry assay with a titer step that detects antibodies capable of interfering with elosulfase alfa uptake. Serum samples collected during the MOR-004 trial were tested and titers were determined. Consistent with earlier findings on NAb positivity, no correlations were observed between NAb titers and the clinical outcomes of elosulfase alfa-treated individuals with Morquio A.

  15. The efficacy and safety of adjuvant interferon-alfa therapy in the evolving treatment landscape for resected high-risk melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Van Anh; Zobniw, Chrystia; Hwu, Wen-Jen

    2017-08-01

    Patients with resected stage II or III melanoma are at high risk of recurrence, with 5-year mortality rate of 40-60%. Adjuvant interferon-alfa has demonstrated a small RFS and OS benefit versus observation in this patient population. However, the adjuvant treatment landscape is evolving rapidly. Areas covered: This review aims to summarize the safety and efficacy profiles of adjuvant IFNα/PEG-IFNα, revisit the controversy surrounding its application, and reappraise its position in the rapidly changing treatment landscape of resected melanoma. A literature search using PubMed database was undertaken using search words melanoma, interferon-alfa, pegylated interferon-alfa, adjuvant therapy. Expert opinion: Currently, there is no international consensus regarding the optimal dosing schedule for adjuvant IFNα, but HD IFNα-2b remains the most widely used regimen. The AEs of HD IFNα-2b are substantial; however, toxicity management experience amassed over the past 2 decades has significantly improved safety. Many exciting studies are ongoing to examine the roles of immune checkpoint inhibitors and BRAF-targeted therapies in the adjuvant setting and will further delineate the role of adjuvant IFNα.

  16. Uso tópico do inteferon alfa-2b para neoplasia escamosa da superficie ocular em um caso de paciente com xeroderma pigmentoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Queiroz Cardoso Pinto

    Full Text Available Resumo Relato de um caso clínico de Xeroderma Pigmentoso com carcinoma espinocelular de conjuntiva bilateral que apresentou regressão importante das dimensões tumorais com o uso de Interferon alfa-2b tópico. Relato de caso: Paciente feminina com Xeroderma Pigmentoso em estágio avançado, com ausência de pele sadia, tendo sido submetida a cerca de 60 exéreses de lesões de pele malignas. A paciente compareceu com tumoração conjuntival em ambos os olhos, correspondendo a carcinoma espinocelular de conjuntiva e neoplasia intraepitelial de conjuntiva em olho esquerdo. Devido as dificuldades cirúrgicas, alta taxa de recidiva e elevada probabilidade de formação de simbléfaro foi-se iniciado terapêutica com Interferon alfa-2beta 1.000.000 unidades tópico, obtendo-se bons resultados com importante regressão do tamanho da lesão e resolução dos sintomas. Conclusão: O uso tópico de interferon alfa-2beta em neoplasia escamosa de conjuntiva, mostrou-se uma boa opção terapêutica em situações de elevado risco cirúrgico e de complicações pós operatórias.

  17. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms based on biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) literature data: verapamil hydrochloride, propranolol hydrochloride, and atenolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelpoel, H; Welink, J; Amidon, G L; Junginger, H E; Midha, K K; Möller, H; Olling, M; Shah, V P; Barends, D M

    2004-08-01

    Literature data related to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) are presented on verapamil hydrochloride, propranolol hydrochloride, and atenolol in the form of BCS-monographs. Data on the qualitative composition of immediate release (IR) tablets containing these active substances with a Marketing Authorization (MA) in the Netherlands (NL) are also provided; in view of these MA's the assumption was made that these tablets were bioequivalent to the innovator product. The development of a database with BCS-related data is announced by the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP).

  18. An enantioselective synthesis of S-[gamma]-[(4-trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]benzenepropanamine-[3-[sup 14]C] hydrochloride, an important metabolite of fluoxetine hydrochloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, W.J. (Lilly (Eli) and Co., Indianapolis, IN (United States). Lilly Research Labs.)

    1992-06-01

    The S-enantiomer of [gamma]-[(4-trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]benzenepropanamine-[3-[sup 14]C] hydrochloride has been prepared in eight steps from acetophenone-[carbonyl-[sup 14]C]. The key step in the synthesis involved the enantioselective reduction of R-2-chloroacetophenone-[1-[sup 14]C]with (-)-diisopinocampheyl-chloroborane in an 86.5% yield. The chlorohydrin was converted to R-phenyloxirane-[1-[sup 14]C], which was subsequently converted to the corresponding R-cyanohydrin by reaction with TMS-CN/CaO. Borane reduction and arylation, followed by salt formation yielded S-[gamma]-[(4-trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]benzenepropanamine-[3-[sup 14]C] hydrochloride. (author).

  19. AlphaCI: un programa de cálculo de intervalos de confianza para el coeficiente alfa de Cronbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Ledesma

    Full Text Available El coeficiente alfa de Cronbach es el modo más habitual de estimar la fiabilidad de pruebas basadas en Teoría Clásica de los Test. En dicha estimación, los investigadores usualmente omiten informar intervalos de confianza para el coeficiente, un aspecto no solo recomendado por los especialistas, sino también requerido explícitamente en las normas editoriales de algunas revistas especializadas. Esta situación puede atribuirse a que los métodos de estimación de intervalos de confianza son poco conocidos, además de no estar disponibles al usuario en los programas estadísticos más populares. Así, en este trabajo se presenta un programa desarrollado dentro del sistema estadístico ViSta que permite calcular intervalos de confianza basados en el enfoque clásico y mediante la técnica bootstrap. Se espera promover la inclusión de intervalos de confianza para medidas de fiabilidad, facilitando el acceso a las herramientas necesarias para su aplicación. El programa es gratuito y puede obtenerse enviando un mail de solicitud al autor del trabajo.

  20. Um imunoensaio rápido para a detecção de alfa-trembolona em urina bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila Maria Roncato Duarte

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil está entre os países que mantêm o uso de anabolizantes proibido, o que gera dificuldades muito grandes no monitoramento destas substâncias, uma vez que possui o maior rebanho bovino. Contudo, diversas substâncias são largamente utilizadas, entre as quais o acetato de trembolona. Com o consentimento do Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento, foram produzidos anticorpos policlonais para um teste baseado em ELISA ("enzyme linked immunosorbent assay" capazes de detectar acetato de trembolona na urina de bovinos tratados com trembolona. O teste apresentou baixo custo e de fácil execução para a detecção de alfa-trembolone, o principal metabólito na absorção do acetato de trembolona, liberado na urina dos animais. Os resultados foram similares aos obtidos com o "kit" comercial usado pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento do Brasil.

  1. Comparing effects of Beractant and Poractant alfa in decreasing mortality rate due to respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeidi R

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Exogenous natural and synthetic surfactants is a rescue treatment for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. The goals of the study were to compare the clinical response and side-effects of two frequently used surfactants, poractant alfa (Curosurf and beractant (Survanta, for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants."n "nMethods: This clinical trial study was performed during a two-year period in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Ghaem Hospital in Mashhad, Iran. Sample size calculated by a 95% confidence and power of 80, included 104 premature neonates, 74 in survanta and 30 in curosurf groups. The level of statistical significance was considered to be < 0.05."n "nResults: There were no statistically significant differences between the infants treated by survanta or cursurf groups regarding their mean gestational age (30.58 Vs. 29.00 weeks and birth weight (1388 Vs. 1330 g, (p=0.3 There were also no significant differences between the two groups regarding incidences of broncho- pulmonary dysplasia (BPD (40.5% Vs. 40%, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH grades III/IV (13.5% Vs. 13.3%, pneumothorax (both 20%, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA (28/3% Vs. 20% or death (28% Vs. 26.6% on the 28th day postpartum."n "nConclusion: This study showed that survanta and curosurf had similar therapeutic effects in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF ASOCIATED SUPPLEMENT OF ALFA AMYLASE AND XYLANASE ON THE RHEOLOGY OF DOUGH CONCEARNING ITS CONSTITOGRAPHICAL PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA CHEREJI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we determined the influence of associated supplement of alfa amylase and xylanase on the rheology of dough concearning its constitographical parameters : maximum pressure (Pr max, (mb and the absorbed water (Wa, %. The analysis on the consistograph were conducted for constant hydration at the consistency of 500 UF. Determinations were made on 4 types of flour and optimal dosages were found for each enzyme, after which we prepared the optimal dosage of the enzymes in the compund for flour F1 and F2 : P1-840000 U. SKB/100 kg flour +8100 U. FXU /100 kg flour, P2-840000 U. SKB/100 kg flour+16200 U. FXU, /100 kg flour , P3-840000 U. SKB/100 kg flour+24300 U. FXU/100 kg flour , and for F3 and F4 thus: P1-280000 U. SKB/100 kg flour +8100 U. FXU /100 kg flour, P2- 280000 U. SKB/100 kg flour+16200 U. FXU/100 kg flour, P3-280000 U. SKB/100 kg flour+24300 U. FXU/100 kg flour. Fungous α-amylase and xylanase were used in these concentrations to establish which one is more apropriate to be added in flour to obtain superior quality of bread: finer texture of the crumb, prolongation of the freashness of the bread, improvind the colour and flavour, emproving the slicing ability.

  3. Diferencias entre coeficientes alfa de Cronbach, con muestras y partes pequeñas: un programa VB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Merino-Soto

    Full Text Available Se presenta un programa informático escrito en VB 6.0, para calcular la diferencia entre coeficientes de consistencia interna (alfa de Cronbach, obtenidos en muestras pequeñas independientes y/o con instrumentos que poseen un número también pequeño de partes o ítems. La comparación de coeficientes de fiabilidad permite identificar posibles diferencias en el tamaño del error de medición en los instrumentos comparados; esta metodología usa el enfoque de prueba de hipótesis, probando la hipótesis nula de igualdad de los coeficientes. Esta condición tiende a ser frecuente en la práctica clínica entre psicólogos y profesiones aliadas, e inclusive en las fases de construcción de instrumentos de medición, por ejemplo en muestras piloto. La técnica aplicada proviene del trabajo de Feldt y Kim (2006, y ofrece una viable e interesante propuesta metodológica que expande el análisis de la fiabilidad de instrumentos de medición psicológicos y educativos. Se presenta las características de su uso, y se discuten las condiciones apropiadas de aplicación.

  4. Study of forward elastic $pp$ scattering at $\\sqrt{s}=8\\text{ TeV}$ with the ALFA detector

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, Simon Holm; Hansen, Jørgen Beck

    The elastic $pp$ scattering data analyzed in this thesis was taken at the LHC with the ALFA detector at $\\sqrt{s}=8\\text{ TeV}$ with a $\\beta^*=1\\text{ km}$ collision optics which gave access to the Coulomb-Nuclear-Interference region. An improved procedure was used to fit the observed number of elastic events as a function of the four-momentum transfer with a simulation based on theoretical expectations including experimental effects. The data can not exclude any of the investigated parametrizations for the modulus of the nuclear amplitude. The fit results for the total $pp$ cross section, $\\sigma_\\text{tot}$, and the ratio of the real to imaginary forward elastic scattering amplitude, $\\rho$, are: \\begin{align*} \\sigma_\\text{tot} &= 99.1\\pm 0.3 \\text{ (stat.)}\\pm1.6\\text{ (syst.)} \\text{ mb}\\;,\\\\ \\rho &= 0.166\\pm0.017\\text{ (stat.)}\\pm0.019\\text{ (syst.)}\\;, \\end{align*} which are in agreement with previous measurements. As part of the analysis, the detector distance to the beam was determined with ...

  5. Proton-Proton Central Exclusive Pion Production at $\\sqrt{13}$ TeV with the ALFA and ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bols, Emil Sorensen

    The cross section for proton-proton central exclusive dipion production, $pp\\rightarrow p + \\pi^+ \\pi^- + p$, has been measured at the center of mass energy $\\sqrt{s}=13\\mathrm{TeV}$, where double Pomeron exchange is expected to dominate. The LHC was used to create the central diffractive events, and all the final state particles were measured using the ATLAS and ALFA detector. After correcting for detector inefficiencies and proton acceptance using the Donnachie-Landshoff model with $\\alpha'=0.126\\mathrm{GeV}^{-2}$ and $\\epsilon=0.085$, the cross section was found to be: \\begin{equation} \\sigma_{pp\\rightarrow p+\\pi^+\\pi^-+p}=18.754\\pm0.048(\\mathrm{stat}.)\\pm0.770(\\mathrm{syst}.)\\mu\\mathrm{b} , \\quad |\\eta_{\\pi}| 100\\mathrm{MeV} \\end{equation} The invariant mass spectrum of the pions has been analyzed in order to extract the widths and masses of the $f_0(500)$, $f_0(980)$, $f_2(1275)$ and $f_0(1500)$ mesons. A correlation between the two outgoing protons has been observed, which is not in agreement with Pom...

  6. Lichen Planus Induced by Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2a Therapy in a Patient Monitored for Delta Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Kaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interferons are used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B. They can induce or exacerbate some skin disorders, such as lichen planus. In this study, as we know, we presented the first case developing lichen planus while receiving interferon treatment due to delta hepatitis. A 31-year-old male patient presented to our outpatient clinic with HBsAg positivity. With his analyses, HBV DNA was negative, anti-delta total was positive, ALT was 72 U/L (upper limit 41 U/L, and platelet was 119 000/mm3. He was therefore started on subcutaneous pegylated interferon alfa-2a therapy at 180 mcg/week for delta hepatitis. At month 4 of therapy, the patient developed diffuse eroded lace-like lesions in oral mucosa, white plaques on lips, and itchy papular lesions in the hands and feet. Lichen planus was considered by the dermatology clinic and topical treatment (mometasone furoate was given. The lesions persisted at month 5 of therapy and biopsy samples were obtained from oral mucosal lesions and interferon dose was reduced to 135 mcg/week. Biopsy demonstrated nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium; epithelial acanthosis, spongiosis, and apoptotic bodies were observed in the epidermis and therefore lichen planus was considered. At month 6 of therapy, lesions did not improve and even progressed and interferon treatment was therefore discontinued.

  7. Stability-indicating HPTLC determination of ambroxol hydrochloride in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P S

    2010-01-01

    A simple, selective, precise, and stability-indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the analysis of ambroxol hydrochloride both as a bulk drug and in formulations was developed and validated. The method employed HPTLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase. The solvent system consisted of methanol-triethylamine (4:6 v/v). The system was found to give a compact spot for ambroxol hydrochloride (R(f) value of 0.53 +/- 0.02). Densitometric analysis of ambroxol hydrochloride was carried out in the absorbance mode at 254 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r(2) = 0.9966 +/- 0.0013 with respect to peak area in the concentration range 100-1000 ng/spot. The mean value +/- standard deviation of slope and intercept were 164.85 +/- 0.72 and 1168.3 +/- 8.26 with respect to peak area. The method was validated for precision, recovery, and robustness. The limits of detection and quantitation were 10 and 30 ng/spot, respectively. Ambroxol hydrochloride was subjected to oxidation and thermal degradation. The drug undergoes degradation under oxidation and heat conditions. This indicates that the drug is susceptible to oxidation and heat. Statistical analysis proves that the method is repeatable, selective, and accurate for the estimation of said drug. Stability indicating of new chemical entities is an important part for the drug development of ambroxol hydrochloride and for its estimation in plasma and other biological fluids; the novel Statistical analysis proves that the method is repeatable and selective for the analysis of ambroxol hydrochloride as bulk drug and in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed developed HPTLC method can be applied for identification and quantitative determination of ambroxol hydrochloride in bulk drug and dosage forms. This work is to determine the purity of the drug available from the various sources by detecting

  8. SYNTHESIS OF 2, 6-DIAMINO-3-PHENYLAZOPYRIDINE-1-OXIDE AND ITS HYDRO-CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Babu Talagadadeevi, Ramakrishna Muvva, Bangar Reddy Vancha and Madhusudana Rao Jampani*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The compound 2, 6-diamino-3-phenylazopyridine hydrochloride salt is a genito-urinary antiseptic drug under the trade name Pyridinium. This study is directed towards the occurrence of an oxidation reaction to convert the tertiary amine present in 2, 6-diamino-3-phenylazopyridine hydrochloride to form an N-oxide derivative as an impurity in the process for its preparation. This was done by the independent synthesis of 2, 6-diamino-3-phenylazopyridine-1-oxide hydrochloride salt by two independent routes. The presence of three amine functions in the molecule required first to protect the primary amine groups by derivatisation so that oxidation occurs exclusively at the tertiary amino group of the pyridine ring. 2, 6-diamino-3-phenylazopyridine was acetylated to get 2, 6-diacetamido-3-phenylazopyridine whose structure was confirmed from 1H NMR and mass spectral data. The oxidation of diacetyl derivative with peracetic acid resulted not only in the N-oxide formation but also in the cleavage of one of the acetamido group to give 2(6-acetamido-6(2amino-3-phenylazopyridine-1-oxide. The alkaline hydrolysis of the N-oxide form gave 2, 6-diamino-3-phenylazopyridine-1-oxide which on treatment with hydrochloric acid gave 2, 6-diamino-3-phenylazopyridine-1-oxide hydrochloride. In yet another route the N-oxide was prepared by the coupling reaction between benzene diazonium chloride and 2, 6-diaminopyridine-1-oxide in aqueous hydrochloric acid medium. This reaction resulted in the formation of 2, 6-diamino-3- phenylazopyridine-1-oxide hydrochloride as an insoluble salt. The structure of the N-oxide was confirmed from 1H NMR and mass spectral data. A co-injection HPLC analysis showed the complete absence of 2, 6-diamino-3-phenylazopyridine-1-oxide hydrochloride in 2, 6-diamino-3-phenylazopyridine hydrochloride in its manufacturing process.

  9. High Performace Liquid Chromtographic Determination of Nicardipine Hydrochloride in Human Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. R. Krishnaiah

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the estimation of nicardipine hydrochloride in human plasma. Varying amount of nicardipine hydrochloride (2.5 to 150 ng/0.5 mL and fixed quantity (100 ng/0.5 mL of nifedipine (internal standard was added to blank human plasma, and a single step extraction was carried out with ethyl acetate. The mixture was centrifuged, ethyl acetate layer separated, dried and reconstituted with 100 μL of acetonitrile. Twenty microliters of this solution was injected into a reverse phase C-18 column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile: 0.02 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate (pH 4.0 in the ratio of 60:40 v/v and the eluents were monitored at 239 nm. The method was validated for its linearity, precision and accuracy. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 5-150 ng/0.5 mL of plasma and the lower detection limit was 2.5 ng/0.5 mL of plasma. The intra- and inter-day variation was found to be less than 2.5% indicating that the method is highly precise. The mean recovery of nicardipine hydrochloride from plasma samples was 89.6±2.60%. The proposed HPLC method was applied for the estimation of nicardipine hydrochloride in human plasma after oral administration of an immediate release nicardipine hydrochloride capsule (dose 30 mg to 6 adult male volunteers. There was no interference of either the drug metabolites or other plasma components with the proposed HPLC method for the estimation of nicardipine hydrochloride in human plasma. Due to its simplicity, sensitivity, high precision and accuracy, the proposed HPLC method may be used for biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic evaluation of nicardipine hydrochloride and its formulations in humans

  10. Human serum paraoxonase-1 (hPON1): in vitro inhibition effects of moxifloxacin hydrochloride, levofloxacin hemihidrate, cefepime hydrochloride, cefotaxime sodium and ceftizoxime sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkeş, Cüneyt; Söyüt, Hakan; Beydemir, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of antibacterial drugs (moxifloxacin hydrochloride, levofloxacin hemihidrate, cefepime hydrochloride, cefotaxime sodium and ceftizoxime sodium) on human serum paraoxonase-1 (hPON1) enzyme activity from human serum in vitro conditions. For this purpose, hPON1 enzyme was purified from human serum using simple chromatographic methods. The antibacterial drugs exhibited inhibitory effects on hPON1 at low concentrations. Ki constants were calculated to be 2.641 ± 0.040 mM, 5.525 ± 0.817 mM, 35.092 ± 1.093 mM, 252.762 ± 5.749 mM and 499.244 ± 10.149 mM, respectively. The inhibition mechanism of moxifloxacin hydrochloride was competitive, whereas levofloxacin hemihidrate, cefepime hydrochloride, cefotaxime sodium and ceftizoxime sodium were noncompetitive inhibitors.

  11. HPLC Determination of Propranolol Hydrochloride,Verapamil Hydrochloride and Propafenone Hydrochloride Ilegally Mixed into Wenxin Granules%高效液相色谱法测定稳心颗粒中非法添加药物的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张士勇; 程军; 叶云

    2012-01-01

    Objective To set up a method for the determination of propranolole hydrochloride, verapamil hydrochloride and propafenone hydrochloride illegally mixed into Wenxin Granules by HPLC. Methods The HPLC method was used. The Inertsil ODS - SP C18 column (250 mm × 4. 6 mm, 5 μm) was used with the mobile phase of phosphate buffer (adding water to dissolve potassium dihydrogen phosphate 6. 8 g and sodium 1 - octanesulfonate 1. 3 g, and diluting to 1 000 mL, adjusting pH value to 3.0 with phosphoric acid ) -methanol(40: 60). The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min, the detection wavelength was set at 223 nm and the column temperature was 25 ℃. Results The calibration curve showed the good linearity for propranolole hydrochloride, verapamil hydrochloride and propafenone hydrochloride in the range of 00. 019 76-2.47 μg( r = 1) ,0. 01-2. 5 μg(r = l) and 0.009 948-2.487 μg( r = 1) respectively;the average recovery rates (n = 6) were 97. 11% , 97. 63% and 98. 88% , respectively; RSD were 1. 85% , 1. 92% and 1. 46% , respectively. Conclusion This method is accurate and reproducible, which can be used for the determination of propranolole hydrochloride, verapamil hydrochloride and propafenone hydrochloride illegally mixed into Wenxin Granules.%目的 建立检测稳心颗粒中非法添加的盐酸普萘洛尔、盐酸维拉帕米和盐酸普罗帕酮含量的高效液相色谱法.方法 采用lnertsil ODS-SP C18色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm),流动相为磷酸盐缓冲液(取磷酸二氢钾6.8 g,辛烷磺酸钠1.3 g,加水溶解并稀释至1 000 mL,用磷酸调节pH至3.0)-甲醇(40:60),流速为0.8 mL/min,检测波长为223 nm,柱温为25℃.结果 盐酸普萘洛尔、盐酸维拉帕米和盐酸普罗帕酮进样量的线性范围分别为0.019 76~2.47 μg(r=1),0.01~2.5μg(r=1)和0.009 948~2.487μg(r=1);平均回收率分别为97.11%,97.63%和98.88%,RSD分别为1.85%,1.92%和1.46%(n=6).结论 该方法准确、重现性好,可作为稳心颗粒中非法添加盐酸普萘洛尔、

  12. Unidades fototérmicas e temperatura-base inferior de frutos de Mangueira Alfa, na Baixada Cuiabana Photothermal units and lower base temperature for alfa mango fruit on the Baixada Cuiabana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Paes de Barros

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a temperatura-base inferior (Tb a partir da unidade fototérmica (UF para o cultivo experimental de manga Alfa sob condições de cerrado. Foram utilizados dados diários da temperatura do ar disponibilizados pela Estação Agrometeorológica Padre Ricardo Remetter, localizada em Santo Antônio do Leverger-MT (15,8° S e 56,1° W, 140 m, e avaliação sensorial do estádio de maturação dos frutos de manga. A Tb foi determinada pelo método da menor variabilidade das unidades fototérmicas (UF acumuladas do período da floração à colheita dos frutos, variabilidade avaliada pelo coeficiente de variação (cv simulado para diferentes valores da Tb. De julho a novembro de 2007, em três plantas de um pomar demonstrativo irrigado, foram identificados 82 frutos para o acompanhamento do crescimento e maturação. Entre esses frutos, em meados de dezembro de 2007, foi possível identificar 13 frutos que atingiram a maturidade fisiológica, após um período médio de observação de 112 dias. Para exigência fototérmica de 1.878.166,1 UF, encontrou-se Tb de 10 °C, valor consistente com os apresentados na literatura para a cultivar de manga, o que comprova a eficiência do método que combina a ação da temperatura e do fotoperíodo sobre a maturação dos frutos e que confere um caráter mais racional que o método tradicional da soma térmica.In this study was to determine the lower base temperature (Tb for Alfa mango fruit, using the photothermal units (PTU method in cerrado conditions. The meteorological data for the study were acquired from "Padre Ricardo Remetter" meteorological station located at Santo Antonio do Leverger, MT, Brazil (15,8° S and 56,1° W, 140 m, and the fruit data was acquired by sensorial evaluation of mango fruit maturation state. The Tb was determined by less variability of the coefficient of variation (cv method applied to the PTU sum, from flowering to harvest, simulated for

  13. Cinchocaine hydrochloride determination by atomic absorption spectrometry and spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghani, Nour T; Youssef, Ahmed F A; Awady, Mohamed A

    2005-05-01

    Two sensitive spectrophotometric and atomic absorption spectrometric procedures have been developed for determination of cinchocaine hydrochloride (Cin.Cl) in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulation. The spectrophotometric method was based on formation of an insoluble colored ion-associate between the cited drug and tetrathiocyanatocobaltate (CoTC) or hexathiocyanatochromate (CrTC) which dissolved and extracted in an organic solvent. The optimal experimental conditions for quantitative extraction such as pH, concentration of the reagents and solvent were studied. Toluene and iso-butyl alcohol proved to be the most suitable solvents for quantitative extraction of Cin-CoTC and Cin-CrTC ion-associates with maximum absorbance at 620 and 555 nm, respectively. The optimum concentration ranges, molar absorptivities, Ringbom ranges and Sandell sensitivities were also evaluated. The atomic absorption spectrometric method is based on measuring of the excess cobalt or chromium in the aqueous solution, after precipitation of the drug, at 240.7 and 357.9 nm, respectively. Linear application ranges, characteristic masses and detection limits were 57.99-361.9, 50.40 and 4.22 microg ml(-1) of Cin.Cl, in case of CoTC, while 37.99-379.9, 18.94 and 0.81 microg ml(-1) in case of CrTC.

  14. Dyeing Characteristics of Chitosan Biguanidine Hydrochloride Treated Wool Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chitosan biguanidine hydrochloride(CGH) has been synthesized by the guanidineylation reaction of chitosan with dicyandiamide.The structures of CGH were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and 13CNMR spectra.In this paper,we used citric acid(CA) as a crosslinking agent,mixed with CGH to perform a pad-drycure treatment on wool fabric to study reaction mechanism during crosslinking with the help of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM).Dyeing characteristics of CGH treated wool fabric was assessed.The effects of CGH concentration,curing temperature,dipping time,pH value on color yield of reactive dyes on wool fibres were investigated.Fastness properties of the modified wool fabric to laundering and crocking have also been discussed.Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR) showed that CA produce esterification with the-OH group of the wool and transamidation with the-NH2 group of the CGH to form a crosslink.Scanning electron microscopy(SEM) analysis showed the CGH firmly attached to the surface of wool fibre.It was found that the CGH pretreated wool fabrics had significantly improved dyeability characteristics.It is worthwhile to mention that the CGH treated samples have antibacterial potential due to the antibacterial property of chitosan molecules and guanidinium salts.

  15. DESIGN OF GASTRO RETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF DILTIAZEM HYDROCHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Omray

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastro retentive drug delivery system of diltiazem hydrochloride was designed and evaluated for its effectiveness for the management of mild to moderate hypertension. Gastro retentive drug delivery system were prepared using polyvinyl alcohol and sodium carboxy methyl cellulose as the polymers and sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent for the reduction of floating lag time. Gastro retentive drug delivery system tablets were prepared by wet granulation method by compression in tablet compression machine. Formulations DL1, DL2, DL3, DL4 and DL5 were developed which differed in the ratio of polyvinyl alcohol and sodium carboxy methyl cellulose polymers. All the formulations were evaluated for hardness, weight variation, friability, drug content, swelling index, buoyancy studies and in vitro drug release study. In vitro drug release study was performed using United State Pharmacopoeia 23 type 2 dissolution test apparatus employing paddle stirrer at 50 r/pm. Dissolution medium was 900 ml of 0.1N hydrochloric acid at 37ºC ± 3ºC. Formulations DL3 was found to be better as compared to other formulation.

  16. Prednisone and vardenafil hydrochloride for refractory levamisole-induced vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrell, Joshua; Kranc, Christina L

    2016-08-01

    Levamisole is an immunomodulatory drug that was previously used to treat various medical conditions, including parasitic infections, nephrotic syndrome, and colorectal cancer. Over the last few years, increasing amounts of levamisole have been used as an adulterant in cocaine. Levamisole-cut cocaine has become a concern because it is known to cause a necrotizing purpuric rash, autoantibody production, and life-threatening leukopenia. Mixed histologic findings of vasculitis and thrombosis are characteristic of levamisole-induced purpura. The recommended management of levamisole-induced vasculitis currently involves withdrawal of the culprit along with supportive treatment. We describe a patient with levamisole-induced vasculitis who continued to develop skin lesions despite self-reported cocaine cessation. Complete resolution of cutaneous disease occurred with the addition of oral prednisone and vardenafil hydrochloride, suggesting the possibility of a new treatment option in patients with refractory disease. In addition, we review the clinical presentation, disease course, diagnostic approach, laboratory findings, histology, and management of levamisole-induced vasculitis. The harmful effects of levamisole-cut cocaine are serious enough that public alerts have been issued to increase awareness. Clinicians should consider the possibility of levamisole exposure in cocaine users presenting with any combination of fever, neutropenia, and necrotic skin lesions, especially in acral areas including the ears.

  17. Conformation and interactions of dopamine hydrochloride in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callear, Samantha K.; Imberti, Silvia [ISIS Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Johnston, Andrew; McLain, Sylvia E. [Biochemistry Department, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-07

    The aqueous solution of dopamine hydrochloride has been investigated using neutron and X-ray total scattering data together with Monte-Carlo based modelling using Empirical Potential Structure Refinement. The conformation of the protonated dopamine molecule is presented and the results compared to the conformations found in crystal structures, dopamine-complexed protein crystal structures and predicted from theoretical calculations and pharmacophoric models. It is found that protonated dopamine adopts a range of conformations in solution, highlighting the low rotational energy barrier between different conformations, with the preferred conformation being trans-perpendicular. The interactions between each of the species present (protonated dopamine molecules, water molecules, and chloride anions) have been determined and are discussed with reference to interactions observed in similar systems both in the liquid and crystalline state, and predicted from theoretical calculations. The expected strong hydrogen bonds between the strong hydrogen bond donors and acceptors are observed, together with evidence of weaker CH hydrogen bonds and π interactions also playing a significant role in determining the arrangement of adjacent molecules.

  18. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF EXTENDED RELEASE TABLETS OF TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilvalvar Sapnil

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research work was to develop extended release tablets (Twice in a day of Tramadol Hydrochloride using different Hydrophilic polymers like HPMC K15M, HPMC K4M, Metalose 60SH50, Carbopol 971P, Sodium alginate, Xanthan gum by direct compression method. Various amounts of polymers was used in the twenty four proposed formulations (F1 to F24 for the study of release rate retardant effect at 10 %, 15 %, 20 %, 25 % of total weight of tablet matrix respectively. Then the tablets were evaluated in terms of their physical parameters (weight variation, hardness, friability and thickness, drug content and in-vitro release studies. All the formulations showed compliance with pharmacopoeial standards. The in-vitro dissolution study were conducted using USP dissolution apparatus type-II (paddle method in 900 ml 0.1 N HCl for first 2 h and remaining 10 h performed in 6.8 pH phosphate buffer at 100 rpm for a total period of 12 h. Based on the dissolution data comparison with innovator product, formulation F14 was found as the best formulation. The drug release of formulation F14 followed First Order kinetic model and the mechanism was found to be non-Fickian/anomalous according to Korsmeyer-Peppas equation.

  19. FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT OF ISOXSUPRINE HYDROCHLORIDE MODIFIED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of critical formulation parameters affecting release of isoxsuprine hydrochloride from matrix tablets using combination of polyethylene oxide (PEO and dicalcium phosphate (DCP. The powder blend consisting of drug and excipients was analyzed for angle of repose, Carr’s index and Hausner’s ratio. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. To assess the compressional behavior of the drug-excipient blend, the tablets were analyzed for friability and crushing strength. The in vitro drug release study was carried out in distilled water. The powder blend exhibited satisfactorily flow as measured by angle of repose, Carr’s index and Hausner’s ratio. The formulation ingredients showed satisfactory tableting properties (friability <1%, crushing strength ≥ 4 kgf. The drug release was modified on addition of PEO and DCP. Addition of 5 to 25% DCP in the formulation of matrix tablets caused apparent difference in the drug dissolution in distilled water. However, the difference was insignificant as analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA and similarity factor ( f2. The drug release from the tablets was best explained by Weibull model. Unified Weibull model was evolved to predict drug release from the formulated batches. The findings of this investigation can be extended to industry to cut down the cost of formulation and to by-pass the existing patents employing hydrophilic matrixing agents, at least for selective drugs.

  20. Solvent screening and crystal habit of metformin hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmessaoud, Ibtissem; Koutchoukali, Ouahiba; Bouhelassa, Mohamed; Nouar, Abderrahim; Veesler, Stéphane

    2016-10-01

    A multi-well setup with video-microscopy was used to study the influence of solvent on solubility, nucleation, and crystallization of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API): metformin hydrochloride (MET.HCl). Starting with 13 solvents covering a wide variety of polarity and proticity, we found 63 crystallization medium for MET.HCl solid generation: good solvents, good co-solvents and anti-solvent systems. For toxicological reasons, we limited the number of crystallization medium to 18: 3 good solvents (class 3), 3 good co-solvent systems and 12 anti-solvent systems. In order to study the influence of crystallization medium on nucleation temperature, crystal habit and polymorphism of MET.HCl, crystallization was studied by a cooling temperature method. Different crystal habits were observed by optical and scanning electron microscopies, and solid phase were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, indicating that all the crystals correspond to the thermodynamic stable polymorphic form A of MET.HCl. Finally, the enthalpy of fusion and the melting temperature of MET.HCl were determined by DSC and confirmed the X-ray powder diffraction results.

  1. Facile colorimetric methods for the quantitative determination of tetramisole hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, A. S.; Dessouki, H. A.

    2002-10-01

    A facile, rapid and sensitive methods for the determination of tetramisole hydrochloride in pure and in dosage forms are described. The procedures are based on the formation of coloured products with the chromogenic reagents alizarin blue BB (I), alizarin red S (II), alizarin violet 3R (III) and alizarin yellow G (IV). The coloured products showed absorption maxima at 605, 468, 631 and 388 nm for I-IV, respectively. The colours obtained were stable for 24 h. The colour system obeyed Beer's law in the concentration range 1.0-36, 0.8-32, 1.2-42 and 0.8-30 μg ml -1, respectively. The results obtained showed good recoveries with relative standard deviations of 1.27, 0.96, 1.13 and 1.35%, respectively. The detection and determination limits were found to be 1.0 and 3.8, 1.2 and 4.2, 1.0 and 3.9 and finally 1.4 and 4.8 ng ml -1 for I-IV complexes, respectively. Applications of the method to representative pharmaceutical formulations are represented and the validity assessed by applying the standard addition technique, which is comparable with that obtained using the official method.

  2. Trans-ungual delivery of itraconazole hydrochloride by iontophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Avadhesh; Jacob, Melissa; Shiva Kumar, H N; Hiremath, Shobharani; Aradhya, Sacchidanand; Repka, Michael A; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2015-01-01

    Itraconazole (ITR) is a potent antifungal drug. However, poor aqueous solubility limits its permeation ability across the human nail plate. Therefore, in this project, ITR was converted to hydrochloride salt (ITR-HCl) to improve its solubility and to render it amenable to iontophoresis. ITR-HCl was characterized by spectroscopic methods and antifungal efficacy was evaluated in comparison to the base. In vitro and ex vivo transport studies (passive and iontophoresis) were carried out across the porcine hoof membrane and excised human cadaver toe using two different protocols; continuous delivery of drug for 24 h and pulsed delivery of drug for 3 days (8 h/day). The antifungal efficacy of ITR-HCL was comparable to ITR. Iontophoresis was found to be more effective than passive mode of delivery of ITR-HCL. In both iontophoresis as well as passive mode of delivery, the pulsed protocol resulted in more ungual and trans-ungual delivery of drug than continuous protocol. ITR-HCL could be delivered into and across the nail plate by iontophoresis. Human cadaver toe appears to be a good model to investigate the ungual delivery of drugs.

  3. [POLYHEXAMETHYLENE BIGUANID HYDROCHLORIDE (BIGUANELLE) THERAPY OF BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachev, S; Ganovska, A; Sultanov, E; Ivanova, S; Gizdov, N; Nikolova, L; Iliev, V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the efficacy and tolerability of local therapy with polyhexamethylene biguanid hydrochloride (BIGUANELLE) in women with anaerobic vaginal infection. We include in our study 23 women (18-50) with established by AMSEL criteria bacterial vaginosis. In all of the women at the beginning and at the end of the survey was performed gynecological examination and microbiological research (AMSEL). The therapeutic scheme at all women is with a single vaginal application of gynecological solution BIGUANELLE. Effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated according to clinical complaints and microbiological research (Amsel criteria: Ph 4.5 >; KOH (+); "clue cells"; specific vaginal fluorine). Tolerability of patients to treatment was assessed by questionnaire. Clinical complaints of patients after the therapy decreased as follows: vaginal fluorine with 73.9%; odor--75%; pruritus--50%; discomfort--90%. Microbiological research and their evaluation by AMSEL, showed the therapeutic efficacy of the therapy in 16 (69.6%) of all (n-23) patients. At 7 (30.4%) women, the treatment remained without effect. At questionnaire answers, 73.9% patients were satisfied with the application of BIGUANELLE, 95.6% of them have implemented it easily, 95.6% of women believe that BIGUANELLE is more convenient to use in comparison with similar products which have a daily application, and none of the patients (100%) have any complaints in applying this gynecological solution. BIGUANELLE showed good clinical efficacy in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. It is easily applied and well tolerated by the patients.

  4. Development and evaluation of microporous osmotic tablets of diltiazem hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathool, Afifa; Gowda, D V; Khan, Mohammed S; Ahmed, Ayaz; Vasudha, S L; Rohitash, K

    2012-04-01

    Microporous osmotic tablet of diltiazem hydrochloride was developed for colon targeting. These prepared microporous osmotic pump tablet did not require laser drilling to deliver the drug to the specific site of action. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. The prepared tablets were coated with microporous semipermeable membrane and enteric polymer using conventional pan coating process. The incorporation of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), a leachable pore-forming agent, could form in situ delivery pores while coming in contact with gastrointestinal medium. The effect of formulation variables was studied by changing the amounts of sodium alginate and NaCMC in the tablet core, osmogen, and that of pore-forming agent (SLS) used in the semipermeable coating. As the amount of hydrophilic polymers increased, drug release rate prolonged. It was found that drug release was increased as the concentration of osmogen and pore-former was increased. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Differential scanning calorimetry results showed that there was no interaction between drug and polymers. Scanning electron microscopic studies showed the formation of pores after predetermined time of coming in contact with dissolution medium. The formation of pores was dependent on the amount of pore former used in the semipermeable membrane. in vitro results showed acid-resistant, timed release at an almost zero order up to 24 hours. The developed osmotic tablets could be effectively used for prolonged delivery of Diltiazem HCl.

  5. Development and evaluation of microporous osmotic tablets of diltiazem hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afifa Bathool

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microporous osmotic tablet of diltiazem hydrochloride was developed for colon targeting. These prepared microporous osmotic pump tablet did not require laser drilling to deliver the drug to the specific site of action. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. The prepared tablets were coated with microporous semipermeable membrane and enteric polymer using conventional pan coating process. The incorporation of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS, a leachable pore-forming agent, could form in situ delivery pores while coming in contact with gastrointestinal medium. The effect of formulation variables was studied by changing the amounts of sodium alginate and NaCMC in the tablet core, osmogen, and that of pore-forming agent (SLS used in the semipermeable coating. As the amount of hydrophilic polymers increased, drug release rate prolonged. It was found that drug release was increased as the concentration of osmogen and pore-former was increased. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Differential scanning calorimetry results showed that there was no interaction between drug and polymers. Scanning electron microscopic studies showed the formation of pores after predetermined time of coming in contact with dissolution medium. The formation of pores was dependent on the amount of pore former used in the semipermeable membrane. in vitro results showed acid-resistant, timed release at an almost zero order up to 24 hours. The developed osmotic tablets could be effectively used for prolonged delivery of Diltiazem HCl.

  6. SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF MEFENAMIC ACID AND DICYCLOMINE HYDROCHLORIDE BY SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Prajapati et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel, simple, accurate, sensitive, reproducible, economical spectroscopic method was developed and validated for the determination of Mefenamic acid and Dicyclomine hydrochloride in combined dosage form. Three different analytical methods, Absorption correction method, Differential derivative method, Simultaneous equation method were developed for estimation of Dicyclomine hydrochloride(10mg and Mefenamic acid (250mg in tablet dosage form. wavelength for estimation was 223nm for Dicyclomine hydrochloride and 308.60nm for Mefenamic acid in absorption correction method. 211.60nm was Zero crossing point of Mefenamic acid and 308.80nm was Zero crossing point of Dicyclomine hydrochloride which can estimate in differential derivative method. Simultaneous equation method was developed in NaOH which was linear in the range of 1-6µg/ml for Dicyclomine hydrochloride and 25-150µg/ml for Mefenamic acid, the correlation coefficient obtained was nearer to one. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy and precision as per ICH guidelines. The developed and validated method was successfully used for the quantitative analysis of commercially available dosage form.

  7. RP-HPLC estimation of venlafaxine hydrochloride in tablet dosage forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldania S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, specific, accurate, and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the estimation of venlafaxine hydrochloride in tablet dosage forms. A Phenomenex Gemini C-18, 5 µm column having 250 x 4.6 mm i.d. in isocratic mode, with mobile phase containing methanol: 0.05 M potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (70:30, v/v; pH 6.2 was used. The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and effluents were monitored at 226 nm. Carbamazepine was used as an internal standard. The retention time of venlafaxine hydrochloride and carbamazepine were 3.7 min and 5.3 min, respectively. The method was validated for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of quantification, limit of detection, robustness and solution stability. Limit of detection and limit of quantification for estimation of venlafaxine hydrochloride were found to be 100 ng/ml and 300 ng/ml, respectively. Recoveries of venlafaxine hydrochloride in tablet formulations were found to be in the range of 99.02-101.68%. Proposed method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of venlafaxine hydrochloride in tablet dosage forms.

  8. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF S-(--AMLODIPINE BESYLATE AND NEBIVOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh S.A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to develop a tablet formulation of S-(-- amlodipine besylate chiral separation drug and nebivolol hydrochloride for better management of hypertension, while reducing or avoiding undesirable adverse effects, which are often associated with administration of a racemic mixture of amlodipine. The composition containing the optically pure S-(-- isomer of amlodipine 2.5 mg has calcium channel blocking activity and, nebivolol hydrochloride 5 mg has beta-receptor blocking activity.The study was also carried out to design a suitable dissolution medium for S-(- - amlodipine besylate and nebivolol hydrochloride. Amlodipine besylate and nebivolol hydrochloride had maximum solubility in pH 1.2 and thus pH 1.2 was selected as the most suitable media for S-(- - amlodipine besylate and nebivolol hydrochloride dissolution studies. The RSD below 2% indicated insignificant batch-to-batch variation. The accelerated stability study of the optimized formulation was performed as the ICH guidelines. The results indicated no change in optical rotation of S-(- - amlodipine besylate. Hence, combination of two drugs can be formulated into the tablet by wet granulation technique having satisfactory release profile.

  9. Design and development of polyethylene oxide based matrix tablets for verapamil hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Vidyadhara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation an attempt has been made to increase therapeutic efficacy, reduced frequency of administration and improved patient compliance by developing controlled release matrix tablets of verapamil hydrochloride. Verapamil hydrochloride was formulated as oral controlled release matrix tablets by using the polyethylene oxides (Polyox WSR 303. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of polymer level and type of fillers namely lactose (soluble filler, swellable filler (starch 1500, microcrystalline cellulose and dibasic calcium phosphate (insoluble fillers on the release rate and mechanism of release for verapamil hydrochloride from matrix tablets prepared by direct compression process. Higher polymeric content in the matrix decreased the release rate of drug. On the other hand, replacement of lactose with anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate and microcrystalline cellulose has significantly retarded the release rate of verapamil hydrochloride. Biopharmaceutical evaluation of satisfactory formulations were also carried out on New Zealand rabbits and parameters such as maximum plasma concentration, time to reach peak plasma concentration, area under the plasma concentration time curve (0-t and area under first moment curve (0-t were determined. In vivo pharmacokinetic study proves that the verapamil hydrochloride from matrix tablets showed prolonged release and were be able to sustain the therapeutic effect up to 24 h.

  10. Application of near-infrared reflectance spectrometry to the analytical control of pharmaceuticals: ranitidine hydrochloride tablet production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreassi, E; Ceramelli, G; Corti, P; Perruccio, P L; Lonardi, S

    1996-02-01

    The possibility of applying near-infrared reflectance spectrometry to the control of the production cycle of ranitidine hydrochloride tablets was investigated. The results were good for the identification of ranitidine hydrochloride drug substance, mixtures for tablets, cores and coated tablets. The determination of the compound and of its water content also gave satisfactory results.

  11. 75 FR 31790 - Determination That Cysteine Hydrochloride Injection, USP, 7.25%, Was Not Withdrawn From Sale for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That Cysteine Hydrochloride Injection, USP, 7... determination that Cysteine Hydrochloride Injection, USP, 7.25% (Cysteine HCl), was not withdrawn from sale for... applications (ANDAs) for Cysteine HCl if all other legal and regulatory requirements are met. FOR...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Ddd... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by the Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Insulation Resins by the Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride Method A Appendix A to Subpart DDD of Part 63 Protection... Part 63—Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by the Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride Method 1. Scope The method in this appendix was specifically developed for water-soluble phenolic resins that...

  13. Management of anaemia in oncohaematological patients treated with biosimilar epoetin alfa: results of an Italian observational, retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosti, Giovanni; Petrini, Mario; Bosi, Alberto; Galieni, Piero; Bernardi, Daniele; Giglio, Gianfranco; Dorotea, Laura; Falini, Brunangelo; Scelzi, Elvira; Veltri, Enzo; Castelli, Roberto; Longagnani, Chiara; Raggi, Tommaso; Simonetti, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many patients with solid tumours or nonmyeloid haematopoietic tumours develop symptomatic anaemia, which has a major impact on quality of life (QoL). The efficacy of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in improving QoL and reducing blood transfusions has been widely demonstrated. Binocrit® (biosimilar epoetin alfa) is an ESA indicated in the European Union for treating chemotherapy-induced anaemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Binocrit® on haemoglobin (Hb) levels in anaemic cancer patients in Italian clinical practice. Methods: The ANEMONE study was a national, longitudinal, retrospective, multicentre observational study. Patients had to be 18 years or older, with a solid tumour or non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Hodgkin’s disease or multiple myeloma, receiving chemotherapy, and treated with Binocrit® to manage chemotherapy-induced anaemia. The primary outcomes were the proportion of patients with a Hb increase ⩾1 g/dl during the first 4 weeks and with a Hb increase ⩾2 g/dl during the first 12 weeks. Results: A total of 245 patients were enrolled and 215 patients were evaluable for statistical analysis. In the first 4 weeks, 49.3% of patients showed an increase in Hb of ⩾1 g/dl: 45.5% in patients with solid tumours and 52.1% in patients with haematological malignancies. In the first 12 weeks, 51.6% of patients showed an increase in Hb of ⩾2 g/dl (48.4% solid tumours, 54.2% haematological diseases). Treatment with Binocrit® was well tolerated. Conclusions: These results confirm the effectiveness and safety of Binocrit® for chemotherapy-induced anaemia in routine practice in patients with solid tumours, lymphoma and myeloma. PMID:28203295

  14. Diversidad alfa y beta de los artrópodos en diferentes ambientes del Parque Nacional Los Cardones, Salta (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Cava

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El Parque Nacional Los Cardones ubicado en la provincia de Salta protege las ecorregiones de Puna, Monte y Pastizal Altoandino Nublado de la Yungas. Nuestro objetivo es evaluar la diversidad alfa y beta de artrópodos en las ecorregiones del Parque. Se muestrearon tres sitios en cada ecorregión utilizando Pit-fall y G-Vac. Se calcularon estimadores no paramétricos de riqueza de especies, la diversidad entre ecorregiones se comparó a través de los “perfiles de diversidad” y “números efectivos de especies”, se analizó el recambio de especies y la complementariedad entre las ecorregiones y sitios de una misma ecorregión. Se registraron 469 spp/morfoespecies, la diversidad en el Parque fue alta, siendo mayor en los Pastizal Altoandino Nublado, y la más baja en la Puna. El inventario llegó al 81% de completitud. El recambio de especies entre ecorregiones fue alto, de esa manera los diferentes ambientes del Parque contribuyen a conservar la diversidad regional de artrópodos. Las ensambles de artrópodos en sitios de una misma ecorregión mostraron mayor similitud entre sí que con sitios más distantes. Se pudo reconocer tres grupos de artrópodos (arañas, dípteros e himenópteros que son diversos y abundantes, los que podrían ser utilizados en futuros estudios como grupos focales.

  15. Therapeutic and routine prophylactic properties of rFactor VIII Fc (efraloctocog alfa, Eloctate®) in hemophilia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdary, Pratima; Fosbury, Emma; Riddell, Anne; Mathias, Mary

    2016-01-01

    rFVIIIFc (efraloctocog alfa, Eloctate®) is an extended half-life (EHL) factor VIII licensed for use in patients with hemophilia A for prophylaxis and treatment of bleeding and surgical episodes. Pharmacokinetic studies in adults have shown a mean 1.5-fold increase in half-life compared to full-length factor VIII. When compared to adults, the half-life is decreased by 8% in adolescents between 12 and 17 years, by 18% in children 6 to <12 years, and by 33% in children between the ages of 2 and <6 years. There is a considerable interindividual variation in the prolongation of the half-life particularly in children and across the age groups, the range extending from no increase to a 2.5-fold increase. In addition to age, von willebrand factor (VWF) antigen level has demonstrated a significant impact on rFVIIIFc half-life, with higher VWF levels associated with greater prolongation of half-life. The pivotal and pediatric clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of rFVIIIFc for use in regular prophylaxis and in management of bleeds and surgery. In these studies, just under half the participants showed a zero annualized bleed rate (ABR), and the median ABR (1.6 in the pivotal study for the individualized prophylaxis arm) showed a further decrease in the extension study. On average, the patients required fewer infusions (reduced by at least a third), and the mean weekly consumption seems to be in keeping with standard recombinant factor VIII. EHL rFVIIIFc has made decreased infusion frequency a possibility. However, the interindividual variability in dose and infusion frequency highlights the need for a personalized approach based on individual patient’s half-life and/or response to treatment. PMID:27695377

  16. Co-treatment with pegylated interferon alfa-2a and entecavir for hepatitis D: a randomized trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zaigham; Abbas; Mohammad; Sadik; Memon; Muhammad; Amir; Umer; Minaam; Abbas; Lubna; Shazi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy of pegylated interferon alfa(PEG-IFNα) therapy with and without entecavir in patients with chronic hepatitis D. METHODS: Forty hepatitis D virus(HDV) RNA positive patients were randomized to receive either PEG-IFNα-2a 180 μg weekly in combination with entecavir 0.5 mg daily(n = 21) or PEG-IFNα alone(n =19). Patients who failed to show 2 log reduction in HDV RNA level at 24 wk of treatment, or had detectable HDV RNA at 48 wk of therapy were considered as treatment failure. Treatment was continued for 72 wk in the rest of the patients. All the patients were followed for 24 wk post treatment. Intention to treat analysis was performed.RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 26.7 ± 6.8 years, 31 were male. Two log reduction in HDV RNA levels at 24 wk of therapy was achieved in 9(43%) patients receiving combination therapy and 12(63%) patients receiving PEG-IFNα alone(P = 0.199). Decline in hepatitis B surface antigen(HBs Ag) levels was insignificant. At the end of treatment, HDV RNA was negative in 8 patients(38%) receiving combination therapy and 10 patients(53%) receiving PEG-IFNα-2a alone. Virological response persisted in 7(33%) and 8(42%) patients, respectively at the end of the 24 wk follow-up period. One responder patient in the combination arm lost HBs Ag and became hepatitis B surface antibody positive. Six out of 14 baseline hepatitis B e antigen reactive patients seroconverted and four of these seroconverted patients had persistent HDV RNA clearance.CONCLUSION: Administration of PEG-IFNα-2a with or without entecavir, resulted in persistent HDV RNA clearance in 37% of patients. The addition of entecavir did not improve the overall response.

  17. Clinical Experience of Interferon Alfa-2a Treatment for Refractory Uveitis in Behçet's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Youn; Chung, Yoo-Ri; Lee, Kihwang; Song, Ji Hun; Lee, Eun-So

    2015-07-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) involves multisystem vasculitis of unknown origin. Ocular manifestations of BD mostly include bilateral panuveitis and retinal vasculitis, which are very challenging to treat. Interferon alfa-2a (IFN) has been recently introduced for treating refractory Behçet uveitis, mainly in Germany and Turkey. Nonetheless, there is so far no consensus about the ideal treatment regimen of IFN for Behçet uveitis. We report our experience of IFN treatment in five Korean BD patients with refractory uveitis. All patients complained of oral ulcers; one patient had a positive pathergy test and 2 showed the presence of HLA-B51. Immunosuppressive agents used prior to IFN treatment included cyclosporine and methotrexate. The IFN treatment was commenced with a dose of 6-9 MIU/day for 7 days, adjusted according to individual ocular manifestations, tapered down to 3 MIU three times in a week, and then discontinued. All patients showed positive response to IFN treatment; 50% of them showed complete response without additional major ocular inflammation during the follow-up period. Other BD symptoms also improved after IFN treatment in most cases. After treatment, the relapse rate and the required dose of oral corticosteroid were decreased in most cases, showing a significant steroid-sparing effect. However, the visual acuity was not improved in most cases due to irreversible macular sequelae. Despite the small sample size of this study, we suggest that, in Korean patients, IFN is an effective treatment modality for BD uveitis as was observed in German and Turkish patients.

  18. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: amitriptyline hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, R H; Olivera, M E; Amidon, G L; Shah, V P; Dressman, J B; Barends, D M

    2006-05-01

    Literature data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing amitriptyline hydrochloride are reviewed. Its therapeutic uses, its pharmacokinetic properties, the possibility of excipient interactions and reported BE/bioavailability (BA) problems are also taken into consideration. Literature data indicates that amitriptyline hydrochloride is a highly permeable active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Data on the solubility according to the current Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) were not fully available and consequently amitriptyline hydrochloride could not be definitively assigned to either BCS Class I or BCS Class II. But all evidence taken together, a biowaiver can currently be recommended provided that IR tablets are formulated with excipients used in existing approved products and that the dissolution meets the criteria defined in the Guidances.

  19. Identification of impurities and statistical classification of methamphetamine hydrochloride drugs seized in the China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian Xin; Zhang, Da Ming; Han, Xu Guang

    2008-01-01

    A total of 48 methamphetamine hydrochloride samples from eight seizures were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and a flame ionization detector (GC–FID). Major impurities detected include 1,2-dimethyl-3-phenylaziridine, Ephedrine/pseudoephedrine, 1,3-dimethyl-2-phenylnaphthalene, 1-benzyl-3-methylnaphthalene. These data are suggestive of ephedrine/pseudoephedrine as the main precursor of the methamphetamine hydrochloride samples seized during 2006–2007. Additionally the presence of 1,3-dimethyl-2-phenylnaphthalene, 1-benzyl-3-methylnaphthalene is indicative that six seizures were synthesized via the more specific ephedrine/hydriodic acid/red phosphorus method. In addition, five impurities were found for the first time in methamphetamine hydrochloride samples. Seventeen impurity peaks were selected from the GC–FID chromatograms. The peak areas of the selected peaks were then grouped for cluster analysis. PMID:19008060

  20. Synthesis, spectral, and anti-microbial studies of thioiminium iodides and amine hydrochlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Sebastian; Renaud, Philippe; Nallu, Maruthai

    2014-01-01

    To avoid the undesired deprotonation during the addition of organolithium and organomagnesium reagents to ketones, the thioiminium salts, easily prepared from lactams and amides are converted into 2,2-disubstituted and 2-monosubstituted amines by reaction with simple nucleophiles such as organocerium and organocopper reagents. The reaction of thioiminium iodides with organocerium reagents derived by transmetalation of corresponding lithium reagents with anhydrous cerium(III) chloride has been investigated. These thioiminium iodides act as good electrophiles and accept alkylceriums towards bisaddition. The newly synthesized amines have been characterized by 1H and 13C NMR, IR and mass spectra. The amines have been converted into their hydrochlorides and characterized by COSY. These hydrochlorides have been subjected to antimicrobial screening with clinically isolated microorganisms, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans. The hydrochlorides show quite good activity against these bacteria and fungus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The effects of clomipramine hydrochloride in cats with psychogenic alopecia: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Petra A; Torres, Sheila; Jessen, Carl

    2006-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of clomipramine hydrochloride in cats with psychogenic alopecia. Twenty-five cats were randomly assigned to receive clomipramine hydrochloride (0.5 mg/kg orally q 24 hours) or placebo for 56 days. Eleven cats in each group completed the trial. The results of this study showed that clomipramine hydrochloride failed to demonstrate significant changes in the number of grooming bouts, hair regrowth, and the area of alopecia in cats with psychogenic alopecia when compared to a placebo. It was uncertain whether these results reflected a lack of drug efficacy, insufficient treatment duration, or an insufficient number of cases enrolled.

  2. Protective effects of glucosamine hydrochloride against free radical-induced erythrocytes damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamialahmadi, Khadijeh; Arasteh, Omid; Matbou Riahi, Maryam; Mehri, Soghra; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2014-07-01

    Glucosamine (GlcN) is an important precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids in human body. It gains importance because of its contribution to human health and its multiple biological and therapeutic effects. In this study, the in vitro oxidative hemolysis of rat erythrocyte was used as a model to study the potential protective effect of glucosamine hydrochloride against free radical-induced damage of biological membranes. Glucosamine hydrochloride exhibited dose-dependent DPPH antioxidant activity. Oxidative hemolysis and lipid/protein peroxidation of erythrocytes induced by a water-soluble free radical initiator 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) were significantly suppressed by GlcN in a time and dose dependent manner. GlcN also prevented the depletion of cytosolic antioxidant glutathione (GSH) in erythrocytes. These results indicated that glucosamine hydrochloride efficiently protected erythrocytes against free radicals and it could be recommended as a pharmaceutical supplement to alleviate oxidative stress.

  3. Simultaneous determination of salbutamol sulphate and bromhexine hydrochloride in tablets by reverse phase liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai P. N. S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple reverse phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed and subsequently validated for simultaneous determination of salbutamol sulphate and bromhexine hydrochloride. The separation was carried out using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile, methanol and phosphate buffer, pH 4 in the ratio 60:20:20 v/v. The column used was SS Wakosil-II C-18 with a flow rate of 1 ml/min and UV detection at 224 nm. The described method was linear over a concentration range of 10-110 µg/ml and 20-140 µg/ml for the assay of salbutamol sulphate and bromhexine hydrochloride, respectively. The mean recovery was found to be 95-105% for salbutamol sulphate and 96.2-102.1% for bromhexine hydrochloride when determined at five different levels.

  4. Management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: focus on methylphenidate hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasree Nair

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Rajasree Nair, Shannon B MossBaylor Family Medicine Residency at Garland, Garland, Texas, USAAbstract: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in young adults and causes significant psychosocial impairment and economic burden to society. Because of the paucity of long-term evidence and lack of national guidelines for diagnosis and management of adult ADHD, most of the data are based on experience derived from management of childhood ADHD. This article reviews the current evidence for the diagnosis and management of adult ADHD with special emphasis on the role of methylphenidate hydrochloride preparations in its treatment. Methylphenidate hydrochloride, a stimulant that acts through the dopaminergic and adrenergic pathways, has shown more than 75% efficacy in controlling the symptoms of adult ADHD. Although concern for diversion of the drug exists, recent data have shown benefits in preventing substance use disorders in patients with adult ADHD.Keywords: adult ADHD, treatment, stimulants, methylphenidate hydrochloride

  5. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes based catalyst plasmon resonance light scattering analysis of tetracycline hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It was found that multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) could catalyze the redox reaction between chlorauric acid (HAuCl4) and reductive drugs such as tetracycline hydrochloride (TC), producing gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). By measuring the plasmon resonance light scattering (PRLS) signals of the resulting Au NPs, tetracycline hydrochloride can be detected simply and rapidly with a linear range of 4―26 μmol/L, a correlated coefficient (r ) of 0.9955, and a limit of detection (3σ) of 6.0 nmol/L. This method has been successfully applied to the detection of tetracycline hydrochloride tablets in clinic with the recovery of 101.9% and that of fresh urine samples with the recovery of 98.3%―102.0%.

  6. HPLC Method for the Determination of Tamsulosin Hydrochloride in Sustained Release Tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐美玲; 王鹏; 耿颖姝; 顾峻岭

    2003-01-01

    The development and validation of an isocratic high performance liquid chromatographic method is described for the determination of tamsulosin hydrochloride in sustained release tablets. The determination was performed on a Diamonsil BDS C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of acetonitrile, methanol and 0.5% phosphoric acid solution (20∶30∶50,V/V/V) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. UV detection was made at 274 nm. The linear range for tamsulosin hydrochloride was 0.81-8.10 μg/mL. The mean recovery was 99.8% (SR=0.7%, n=9), and the precision was found to be 0.45% (n=9). The proposed method can be used for routine analysis of tamsulosin hydrochloride in sustained release tablets.

  7. Formulation and evaluation of S-(--Amlodipine besylate and nebivolol hydrochloride tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Shaikh

    2010-01-01

    The study was also carried out to design a suitable dissolution medium for S-(- - amlodipine besylate and nebivolol hydrochloride. Amlodipine besylate and nebivolol hydrochloride had maximum solubility in pH 1.2 and thus pH 1.2 was selected as the most suitable media for S-(- - amlodipine besylate and nebivolol hydrochloride dissolution studies. The RSD below 2% indicated insignificant batch-to-batch variation. The accelerated stability study of the optimized formulation was performed as the ICH guidelines. The results indicated no change in optical rotation of S-(- - amlodipine besylate. Hence, combination of two drugs can be formulated into the tablet by wet granulation technique having satisfactory release profile.

  8. Thermal Analysis Investigation of Dapoxetine and Vardenafil Hydrochlorides using Molecular Orbital Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Ali Kamal; Souaya, Eglal R; Soliman, Ethar A

    2015-11-01

    Thermal analysis techniques have been used to study the thermal behavior of dapoxetine and vardenafil hydrochlorides and confirmed using semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations. Thermogravimetric analysis, derivative thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were used to determine the thermal behavior and purity of the drugs under investigation. Thermodynamic parameters such as activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy were calculated. Thermal behavior of DAP and VAR were confirmed using by semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations. The purity values were found to be 99.97% and 99.95% for dapoxetine and vardenafil hydrochlorides, respectively. The purity of dapoxetine and vardenafil hydrochlorides is similar to that found by reported methods according to DSC data. Thermal analysis justifies its application in quality control of pharmaceutical compounds due to its simplicity, sensitivity and low operational costs.

  9. Formulation, Development and Evaluation of delayed release capsules of Duloxetine Hydrochloride made of different Enteric Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Yerramsetty

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Delayed release systems have acquired a centre stage in the arena of pharmaceutical research and development. The present study involves formulation and evaluation of Duloxetine Hydrochloride delayed release capsules. Duloxetine Hydrochloride is an acid labile drug. It degrades in the acidic environment of the stomach thus leading to therapeutic inefficacy. Therefore it is necessary to bypass the acidic pH of the stomach which can be achieved by formulating delayed release dosage form by using different enteric polymers. Protection of drug from acidic environment is done by coating the drug with enteric polymers by using suspension layering technique in Fluidized bed processor (FBP with different enteric polymers like HPMCAS (Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose Acetate Succinate, Acryl EZE and HPMCP (Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose phthalate.The formulation (E12 of delayed release capsules of Duloxetine Hydrochloride containing HPMCP (HP-55: HP- 50 as enteric polymer can be taken as optimized

  10. Compatibility of verapamil hydrochloride injection in commonly used large-volume parenterals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutie, M R; Lordi, N G

    1980-05-01

    The visual and chemical compatibilities of verapamil hydrochloride injection in 10 commonly used large-volume solutions packaged in glass, polyolefin, or polyvinyl chloride containers were studied. The mixtures, each containing 40 mg/liter of verapamil hydrochloride, were stored away from light for up to 48 hours at 25 degrees C. The solutions were examined visually for haze, precipitate formation, color change, and evolution of gas immediately after mixing and at 0.25, 1, 3, 8, 24, and 48 hours. Spectrophotometry and thin-layer chromatography were used to test for drug decomposition or chemical incompatibilities. All test methods used showed that no significant degradation of verapamil hydrochloride had taken place in the solutions or through contact with the containers. Slightly higher spectrophotometric readings for dextrose-containing solutions, though within experimental error, could have indicated the presence of dextrose degradation products. Evidence from this study suggests that verapamil hydrocholoride is compatible with the large-volume parenterals studied.

  11. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF PROPRANOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE AND FLUNARIZINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE IN THEIR COMBINED DOSAGE FORMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Doshi*, B.N. Patel and C.N. Patel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of Propranolol hydrochloride and Flunarizine dihydrochloride in combined dosage form. Simultaneous equation method is employed for simultaneous determination of Propranolol hydrochloride and Flunarizine dihydrochloride from combined dosage forms. In this method, the absorbance was measured at 289 nm for Propranolol hydrochloride and 253 nm for Flunarizine dihydrochloride. Linearity was observed in range of 24-64 μg/ml and 6-16 μg/ml for Propranolol hydrochloride and Flunarizine dihydrochloride respectively. Recovery studies confirmed the accuracy of proposed method and results were validated as per ICH guidelines. The method can be used for routine quality control of pharmaceutical formulation containing Propranolol hydrochloride and Flunarizine dihydrochloride.

  12. Peginterferon alfa-2a is associated with elevations in alanine aminotransferase at the end of treatment in chronic hepatitis C patients with sustained virologic response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Tseng

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and demographic/clinical factors of alanine aminotransferase (ALT abnormalities at the end of treatment (EOT in chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients with sustained virologic response (SVR.Seven hundred naïve CHC patients who underwent combination treatment between January 2003 and December 2010 were included in the study. The patients with SVR and serum ALT>upper limit of normal (ULN at the EOT were further analyzed. The effects of clinical characteristics, treatment regimen, and virologic variables were evaluated by logistic regression. Of the 700 included patients, 488 (69.7% achieved an SVR after treatment, and 235 (33.6% had serum ALT levels>ULN at the EOT. Of those 488 patients, 137 (28.1% had abnormal ALT values at the EOT. A multivariate analysis showed that the occurrence of ALT abnormalities at the EOT was significantly associated with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN alfa-2a (odds ratio [OR], 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45-3.45; P<0.001, baseline fatty liver (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.16-2.76; P = 0.007, and baseline liver cirrhosis (OR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.35-4.09; P = 0.002.Use of PEG-IFN-alfa-2a, fatty liver, and cirrhosis are important factors associated with EOT-ALT abnormality in CHC patients receiving combination therapy that achieve an SVR. PEG-IFN-alfa-2a-related EOT-ALT elevation will become normal at the end of follow-up, but fatty liver and cirrhosis-related ALT elevation will not be resolved.

  13. Safety and physiological effects of two different doses of elosulfase alfa in patients with morquio a syndrome: A randomized, double-blind, pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Barbara K; Berger, Kenneth I; Lewis, Gregory D; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Treadwell, Marsha; Mitchell, John J; Muschol, Nicole; Jones, Simon A; Sutton, V Reid; Pastores, Gregory M; Lau, Heather; Sparkes, Rebecca; Genter, Fred; Shaywitz, Adam J; Harmatz, Paul

    2015-10-01

    The primary treatment outcomes of a phase 2, randomized, double-blind, pilot study evaluating safety, physiological, and pharmacological effects of elosulfase alfa in patients with Morquio A syndrome are herewith presented. Patients aged ≥7 years and able to walk ≥200 m in the 6-min walk test (6MWT) were randomized to elosulfase alfa 2.0 or 4.0 mg/kg/week for 27 weeks. The primary objective was to evaluate the safety of both doses. Secondary objectives were to evaluate effects on endurance (6MWT and 3-min stair climb test [3MSCT]), exercise capacity (cardio-pulmonary exercise test [CPET]), respiratory function, muscle strength, cardiac function, pain, and urine keratan sulfate (uKS) levels, and to determine pharmacokinetic parameters. Twenty-five patients were enrolled (15 randomized to 2.0 mg/kg/week and 10 to 4.0 mg/kg/week). No new or unexpected safety signals were observed. After 24 weeks, there were no improvements versus baseline in the 6MWT, yet numerical improvements were seen in the 3MSCT with 4.0 mg/kg/week. uKS and pharmacokinetic data suggested no linear relationship over the 2.0-4.0 mg/kg dose range. Overall, an abnormal exercise capacity (evaluated in 10 and 5 patients in the 2.0 and 4.0 mg/kg/week groups, respectively), impaired muscle strength, and considerable pain were observed at baseline, and there were trends towards improvements in all domains after treatment. In conclusion, preliminary data of this small study in a Morquio A population with relatively good endurance confirmed the acceptable safety profile of elosulfase alfa and showed a trend of increased exercise capacity and muscle strength and decreased pain.

  14. An Alpha spectrometer for measuring radon daughter individual activity concentration; Spettrometro Alfa per la misura delle concentrazioni individuali in attivita' della progenie del radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berico, M.; Formignani, M. [ENEA, Div. Protezione dell' Uomo e degli Ecosistemi, Centro Ricerche E. Clementel, Bologna (Italy); Mariotti, F. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica

    2001-07-01

    In the frame of the program of the Institute for Radiation Protection of ENEA, related to the evaluation of dose from radon and thoron progeny, an alpha spectrometer for the continuous air monitoring (CAM type) of radon and thoron has been realized. The constructive characteristics of the device are here presented together with energy and efficiency calibration. The device allows, by means of a screen type diffusion battery and a filter, to determinate the single radioactivity of each radionuclide of the progeny selecting them in relation to their diffusive behaviour (dichotomous particle size selection). The three-count filter method has been employed to measure the concentrations of {sup 218}Po, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi in air. Radon and thoron effective doses using a dosimetric, instead of an epidemiologic approach, will be then evaluated. [Italian] Presso l'Istituto per la Radioprotezione, nell'ambito del programma di valutazione di dose da radon e' stato progettato e realizzato uno spettrometro alfa per il monitoraggio continuo in aria (CAM) della progenie del radon e del toron. Le caratteristiche costruttive dello strumento permettono, tramite l'utilizzo di batterie a diffusione a reti, di determinare l'attivita' individuale della progenie per diverse dimensioni granulometriche in particolare per la frazione attaccata e non al particolato amosferico con un taglio granulometrico di qualche nanometro. E' stato inoltre applicato un metodo spettrometrico a tre conteggi per il calcolo delle concentrazioni individuali della progenie del radon, {sup 218}Po, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi, effettuando un conteggio alfa di {sup 218}Po e due conteggi alfa di {sup 214}Po. Tale informazione consentira' una valutazione della dose di radon utilizzando il modello dosimetrico in alternativa a quello epidemiologico.

  15. [Simultaneous determination of five cold medicine ingredients in paracetamol triprolidine hydrochloride and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride tablets by pH/organic solvent double-gradient high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Xueyi; Huang, Lina; Pan, Xiaoling; Li, Ning

    2013-02-01

    A pH/organic solvent double-gradient mode in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been established as a new approach to the simultaneous determination of acetaminophen, caffeine, salicylamide, pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and triprolidine hydrochloride in paracetamol triprolidine hydrochloride and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride tablets. Through the optimization of the organic solvent gradient mode and pH/organic solvent double-gradient mode, the optimum double-gradient HPLC system of the five cold medicine ingredients has been built. The determination was carried out on a Diamonsiol C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm). The mobile phase consisted of methanol, 0.05 mol/L ammonium acetate solution and 0.08 mol/L acetic acid solution. The column temperature was set at 30 degrees C. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min. The sample was measured at multiple wavelengths: 0-6 min, 280 nm; 6-7 min, 257 nm; 7-14 min, 280 nm; 14 min, 233 nm. The separation of the five cold medicine ingredients in the tablets was achieved in 25.5 min. The linear ranges of acetaminophen, pseudoephedrine hydrochloride, caffeine, salicylamide and triprolidine hydrochloride were 0.055 -0.998 g/L, 0.053-0.946 g/L, 0.007-0.129 g/L, 0.035-0.622 g/L and 0.002-0.039 g/L, respectively, with their correlation coefficients greater than 0.999 0. The detection limits (S/N = 3) were 0.09, 6, 0.02, 0.128 and 0.02 mg/L, respectively. Their mean recoveries were 97.9%-102.8%. The advantage of the method is the simultaneous determination of acidic, neutral and basic compounds. It also can improve the column efficiency of the analyte, compress the half-peak width and reduce the trailing. The optimized and validated method can be used for the simultaneous determination of the five cold medicine ingredients in the tablets.

  16. Safety and efficacy of tramadol hydrochloride on treatment of premature ejaculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bayoumy I Eassa; Mohamed A El-Shazly

    2013-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual disorder.It affects 20%-30% of adult men; the aetiology of this condition has not yet been elucidated.The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy,safety,tolerability,undesirable effects and improved satisfaction with sexual intercourse with tramadol hydrochloride at different dosages for the treatment of PE.A total of 300 patients who presented with lifelong (primary) PE were included in this study.The study was performed for 28 weeks,in which placebo (starch tablet) was given for 4 weeks,and active ingredient (tramadol hydrochloride) was administered at different therapeutic dosages for 24 weeks.Patients were divided into three equal groups,each consisting of 100 patients.The first group (A) was given tramadol hydrochloride capsule 25 mg.The second group (B) was given tramadol hydrochloride capsule 50 mg.The third group (C) was given tramadol hydrochloride capsule 100 mg.All of the 300 participants included completed the study voluntarily.The age of the patients varied from 25 to 50 years.After the treatment period,the recorded data were collected for each group and analysed.The results showed a highly significant increase in the mean intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) in all groups compared to baseline data (P<0.0001).We concluded that using tramadol hydrochloride at different doses on demand for the treatment of PE is effective,safe and tolerable,with minimal undesirable effects,and approval for this indication should be sought.

  17. BRAIN TARGETING OF FLUNARIZINE HYDROCHLORIDE BY SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES FOR PROPHYLAXIS OF MIGRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Surjyanarayan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Flunarizine hydrochloride, a piperazine derivative, is a selective Ca++ channel blocker coupled with its antihistaminic property claimed to be effective in prophylaxis of migraine. Oral bioavailability of Flunarizine hydrochloride is very low (less then 18% due to poor water solubility and extensive first pass metabolism. Hence the aim of the present study was to develop Flunaruzine hydrochloride loaded sold lipid nanoparticles to improve drug diffusion profile and hence the oral bioavailability. Flunarizine hydrochloride nanosuspension stabilised by poloxamer F-68 was first prepared by high speed homogenization and was lyophilized to obtain nanoparticle using mannitol (1:1 w/v as cryoprotectant. Developed nanoparticle was characterized for its particle size and size distribution, drug content and % drug entrapment. In vitro dissolution study using dissolution bag (12000 D and ex vivo study in rat ileum were carried out using simulated intestinal fluid as dissolution medium. Droplet size, Zeta potential, % drug content and % drug entrapment of the nanoparticles of the Flunarizine hydrochloride were found to be 282±50nm with PdI=0.424±0.028, 34.9±7.36mV, 98.3±0.26% and 67±0.55% respectively. In vitro, ex vivo permeation study revealed that cumulative percentage drug permeated was found to be 75.66±0.9% and 69±1.4% in 8 hrs. Data of the ex vivo release study indicated that drug release was controlled by combination of lipid swelling, erosion and diffusion through the hydrated lipid matrix. From the results it could be considered that the developed Flunarizine hydrochloride nanoparticles may be an alternative for the prophylaxis of migraine.

  18. Effect of Clenbuterol Hydrochloride on the in vitro Development of Mouse Embryo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of clenbuterol hydrochloride on the in vitro devel-opment of both 1-cell and 2-cell mouse embryos.Methods The cultural systems of both 1-cell and 2-cell mouse embryo were used todetermine the effect of clenbuterol hydrochloride at doses of 1 ng/mL, 3 ng/mL, and10 ng/mL on developmental rates of mouse embryos.Results When 1-cell embryos cultured with 1 ng/mL of clenbuterol hydrochloride,developmental rates from the 4-cell stage to blastocyst stage were significantly lowerthan those in the control group (P< 0. 05), but on dosages of 3 ng/mL and 10ng/mL,the inhibiting effects on embryo development were significantly increased (P< 0. 01).When 2-cell embryos cultured with 1 ng/mL of clenbuterol hydrochloride, obvious dif-ferences in developmental rates were not found between the 2-cell embryo group and thecontrol (P> 0. 05). However, at levels of 3 ng/mL and 10 ng/mL, significant de-crease of developmental rates in 2-cell embryos was observed from the 4-cell and fromthe 8-cell stage, respectively (P< 0. 05). Embryos cultured with clenbuterol hydrochlo-ride appeared to have more granules, fragments and degeneration than those in thecontrol.Conclusion Clenbuterol hydrochloride has a toxic effect on the mouse embryos, and theeffect is in a dose-dependent. 1-cell mouse embryos cultured with clenbuterolhydrochloride could be easily inhibited at 2-cell stage, but the effect of clenbuterolhydrochloride on development of the late 2-cell embryos would be reduced.

  19. SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF DICLOFENAC SODIUM AND TOLPERISONE HYDROCHLORIDE IN COMBINED PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavesh Gevriya* and R.C. Mashru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three simple, rapid, precise and accurate spectrophotometric methods have been developed for simultaneous analysis of Tolperisone Hydrochloride (TOL and Diclofenac Sodium (DIC in their combined dosage form. Method A, Simultaneous equation method (Vierodt’s method applies measurement of absorptivities at two wavelengths, 261.00 nm (λmax of Tolperisone Hydrochloride and 279.00 nm, (λmax of Diclofenac Sodium in zero order spectra. The concentrations can be calculated from the derived equations. Method B, Q-Absorbance equation method. It involves formation of Q-absorbance equation at 233.50 nm (isoabsorptive point and 261.00 nm (λmax of Tolperisone Hydrochloride in zero order spectra. Method C, Zero crossing first derivative spectrophotometry involves measurement of absorbance at 249.20 nm (for Tolperisone Hydrochloride and 227.40 nm (for Diclofenac Sodium in first derivative spectra. Developed methods were validated according to ICH guidelines. The calibration graph follows Beer’s law in the range of 6.0 to 18.0 μg/ml for Tolperisone Hydrochloride and 2.0 to 6.0 μg/ml for Diclofenac Sodium with R square value greater than 0.999. Accuracy of all methods was determined by recovery studies and showed % recovery between 98 to 102%. Intraday and interday precision was checked for all methods and mean %RSD was found to be less than 2 for all the methods. The methods were successfully applied for estimation of Tolperisone Hydrochloride and Diclofenac Sodium in marketed formulation.

  20. Second generation lipid nanoparticles (NLC) as an oral drug carrier for delivery of lercanidipine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranpise, Nisharani S; Korabu, Swati S; Ghodake, Vinod N

    2014-04-01

    Lercanidipine hydrochloride is a calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of hypertension. It is a poor water soluble drug with absolute bioavailability of 10%. The aim of this study was to design lercanidipine hydrochloride-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers to investigate whether the bioavailability of the same can be improved by oral delivery. Lercanidipine hydrochloride nanostructured lipid carriers were prepared by the method of solvent evaporation at a high temperature and solidification by freeze drying. The nanostructured lipid carriers were evaluated for particle size analysis, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug diffusion, ex vivo permeation studies and pharmacodynamic study. The resultant nanostructured lipid carriers had a mean size of 214.97 nm and a zeta potential of -31.6 ± 1.5 mV. More than 70% lercanidipine hydrochloride was entrapped in the NLCs. The SEM studies indicated the formation of type 2 nanostructured lipid carriers. The in vitro release studies demonstrated 19.36% release in acidic buffer pH 1.2 indicating that the drug entrapped in the nanostructured lipid carriers remains entrapped at acidic pH. The ex vivo studies indicated that the drug release was enhanced from 10% to 60.54% at blood pH in 24h. The in vivo pharmacodynamic study showed that NLCs released lercanidipine hydrochloride in a controlled manner for a prolonged period of time as compared to plain drug. These results clearly indicate that nanostructured lipid carriers are a potential controlled release formulation for lercanidipine hydrochloride and may be a promising drug delivery system for the treatment of hypertension. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Formulation and evaluation of micro hydrogel of Moxifloxacin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjwade, Basavaraj K; Deshmukh, Rucha V; Gaikwad, Kishori R; Parikh, Kemy A; Manvi, F V

    2012-06-01

    The field of ocular drug delivery is one of the interesting and challenging endeavors facing the pharmaceutical scientist. Novel approaches for ophthalmic drug delivery need to be established to increase the ocular bioavailability by overcoming the inherent drawbacks of conventional dosage forms. In situ hydrogels are instilled as drops into the eye and undergoes a sol-to-gel transition in the cul-de-sac, improved ocular bioavailability by increasing the duration of contact with corneal tissue, thereby reducing the frequency of administration. The purpose of the present work was to develop an ophthalmic drug delivery system using three different gelling agents with different mechanisms for in situ gelation of Moxifloxacin hydrochloride, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic. polyox (a pH-sensitive gelling agent), sodium alginate (an ion-sensitive gelling agent), and poloxamer (a temperature-sensitive gelling agent) were employed for the formation of in situ hydrogel along with HPMC K4M as viscofying agent, which increases the residence time of the drug in the ocular cavity. The promising formulations MF(4), MF(5), and MF(9) were evaluated for pH, drug content, in vitro gelation, in vitro drug release, in vivo drug release, ocular irritation, and stability. Percent drug content of 98.2, 98.76, and 99.43%; viscosity of 15.724 × 100, 16.108 × 100, and 15.213 × 100 cP at 20 rpm, cumulative percent release of 75.364, 74.081, and 71.752%, and C (max) of 1,164.16, 1,187.09, and 1,220.58 ng/ml was observed for formulation MF(4), MF(5), and MF(9), respectively. The developed formulations were therapeutically efficacious, stable, and non-irritant and provided sustained release of the drug over 8 h.

  2. Conocimiento del déficit Alfa1-antitripsina y de la discinesia ciliar primaria por estudiantes de medicina y profesionales sanitarios

    OpenAIRE

    Requena Fernández, MªÁngeles

    2015-01-01

    El déficit de alfa-1-antitripsina (DAAT) y la discinesia ciliar primaria (DCP), se engloban dentro de las enfermedades raras, siendo sin embargo trastornos genéticos y hereditarios con una prevalencia nada desdeñable. En ellas, el infradiagnóstico y el retraso diagnóstico son una constante y característica común. Dado que una de las posibles causas de este problema puede ser el bajo grado de conocimiento de ambas enfermedades por parte de los profesionales que atienden a este tipo de pac...

  3. Long-term outcome of hepatitis B e antigen-positive patients with compensated cirrhosis treated with interferon alfa. European Concerted Action on Viral Hepatitis (EUROHEP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattovich, G; Giustina, G; Realdi, G;

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether interferon alfa (IFN-alpha) treatment-associated virological and biochemical remission improves survival in a cohort of 90 white patients with compensated cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B (Child A) followed for a mean period of 7 years. Inclusion...... criteria were biopsy-proven cirrhosis, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity, abnormal serum aminotransferase levels, exclusion of hepatitis delta virus, and absence of complications of cirrhosis. Of the 40 IFN-treated patients, 27 (67%) showed sustained HBeAg loss with alanine aminotransferase (ALT...

  4. Conocimiento del déficit Alfa1-antitripsina y de la discinesia ciliar primaria por estudiantes de medicina y profesionales sanitarios

    OpenAIRE

    Requena Fernández, MªÁngeles

    2015-01-01

    El déficit de alfa-1-antitripsina (DAAT) y la discinesia ciliar primaria (DCP), se engloban dentro de las enfermedades raras, siendo sin embargo trastornos genéticos y hereditarios con una prevalencia nada desdeñable. En ellas, el infradiagnóstico y el retraso diagnóstico son una constante y característica común. Dado que una de las posibles causas de este problema puede ser el bajo grado de conocimiento de ambas enfermedades por parte de los profesionales que atienden a este tipo de pac...

  5. Estudio de la utilidad clínica del perfil de estrés oxidativo en pacientes con déficit de alfa-1 antitripsina

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Corullón, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: Investigaciones recientes en modelos animales sugieren la participación del estrés oxidativo y el daño de oxidativo en la patogénesis del déficit de alfa 1 antitripsina (DAAT). Sin embargo, no hay datos disponibles sobre el estado de estrés oxidativo y la actividad de los enzimas antioxidantes en estos pacientes. Se sabe que el estrés oxidativo está implicado en la patogénesis de enfermedades en otros organismos (aterosclesosis, enfermedades neurodegenerativas, diabetes mel...

  6. Terapia combinada de criocirugía e interferón alfa-2b humano recombinante en el condiloma acuminado

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Trujillo , Israel

    2015-01-01

    Las continuas recidivas de lcondiloma acuminado hace necesario la búsqueda constante de alternativas terapéuticas. Para evaluar la eficacia terapéutica y seguridad del interferón alfa-2b asociado a criocirugía en el condiloma acuminado fue realizado un ensayo clínico abierto en 170 pacientes del hospital “Hermanos Ameijeiras” que fueron aleatorizados a recibir durante 6 semanas (grupo A) 3 x 106 UI de interferón subcutáneo, 3 veces por semana y aplicación quincenal de criocirugía o (grupo B) ...

  7. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: ranitidine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortejärvi, H; Yliperttula, M; Dressman, J B; Junginger, H E; Midha, K K; Shah, V P; Barends, D M

    2005-08-01

    Literature and experimental data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence testing for the approval of immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing ranitidine hydrochloride are reviewed. According to the current Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), ranitidine hydrochloride should be assigned to Class III. However, based on its therapeutic and therapeutic index, pharmacokinetic properties and data related to the possibility of excipient interactions, a biowaiver can be recommended for IR solid oral dosage forms that are rapidly dissolving and contain only those excipients as reported in this study.

  8. Development and validation of a dissolution test for diltiazem hydrochloride in immediate release capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciane Ferreira Mendonça

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the development and validation of a dissolution test for 60 mg of diltiazem hydrochloride in immediate release capsules. The best dissolution in vitro profile was achieved using potassium phosphate buffer at pH 6.8 as the dissolution medium and paddle as the apparatus at 50 rpm. The drug concentrations in the dissolution media were determined by UV spectrophotometry and HPLC and a statistical analysis revealed that there were significant differences between HPLC and spectrophotometry. This study illustrates the importance of an official method for the dissolution test, since there is no official monograph for diltiazem hydrochloride in capsules.

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Impurities of Barnidipine Hydrochloride, an Antihypertensive Drug Substance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Barnidipine hydrochloride is a long term dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker used for the treatment of hypertension. During the process development of barnidipine hydrochloride, four barnidipine impurities were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with an ordinary column (Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18, 150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm. All these impurities were identified, synthesized, and subsequently characterized by their respective spectral data (MS, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR. The identification of these impurities should be useful for quality control in the manufacture of barnidipine.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of impurities of barnidipine hydrochloride, an antihypertensive drug substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhi-Gang; Dai, Xu-Yong; Li, Li-Wei; Wan, Qiong; Ma, Xiang; Xiang, Guang-Ya

    2014-01-21

    Barnidipine hydrochloride is a long term dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker used for the treatment of hypertension. During the process development of barnidipine hydrochloride, four barnidipine impurities were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an ordinary column (Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18, 150 mm×4.6 mm, 5 µm). All these impurities were identified, synthesized, and subsequently characterized by their respective spectral data (MS, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR). The identification of these impurities should be useful for quality control in the manufacture of barnidipine.

  11. High performance thin layer chromatographic method for simultaneous estimation of ibuprofen and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitlange S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available High performance thin layer chromatographic method is developed for simultaneous estimation of ibuprofen and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride in tablets. Silica gel 60F 254 plates were used as stationary phase and t.butanol: ethyl acetate: glacial acetic acid: water (7:4:2:2 v/v as mobile phase. Wavelength selected for analysis was 254 nm. Percent estimation of ibuprofen and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was found to be 99.56% and 98.77%, respectively. Percent recovery for both the drugs was found in the range of 98.27% to 100.91%, respectively.

  12. Effect of Modulated Alternating and Direct Current Iontophoresis on Transdermal Delivery of Lidocaine Hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Bhatia; Banga, Ajay K.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the iontophoretic delivery of lidocaine hydrochloride through porcine skin and to compare the effects of modulated alternating and direct current iontophoresis. Continuous and modulated iontophoresis was applied for one hour and two hours (0-1 h and 4-5th h) using a 1% w/v solution of lidocaine hydrochloride. Tape stripping was done to quantify the amount of drug permeated into stratum corneum and skin extraction studies were performed to determi...

  13. Efficacy of Budesonide Suspension for Inhalation combined with Poractant Alfa Injection in prevention of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome%布地奈德混悬液雾化吸入配合猪肺磷脂防治新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兰; 范娟; 胡怡萍; 李茂军; 陈丽娜; 陈昌辉

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨布地奈德混悬液雾化吸入配合猪肺磷脂(商品名:固尔苏)防治新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征(neonatal respiratory distress syndrome,NRDS)的效果.方法 选择2009年9月至2010年9月我院新生儿病房收治的胎龄29~34周、生后2小时内入院的早产儿46例.按入院顺序单双号随机分成治疗组(A组)和对照组(B组)各23例,两组均给予综合治疗及猪肺磷脂120 mg气管内滴入,在此基础上,A组给予布地奈德混悬液0.5mg雾化吸入,盐酸氨澳索针剂10 mg/kg静脉滴注,每8小时1次,连用5天;B组仅给予盐酸氨溴索针剂10 mg/kg静脉滴注,每8小时1次,连用5天.检测两组早产儿入院第1、2、3天动脉血氧分压(PaO2)、动脉血二氧化碳分压(PaCO2)水平及发生NRDS的例数.结果 两组PaO2、PaCO2第1天差异无统计学意义,第2、3天差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);A组无NRDS发生,B组发生NRDS4例,发生率17%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论布地奈德混悬液雾化吸入配合猪肺磷脂能较快改善早产儿通气及换气功能,改善血气指标,提高机体供氧,有效预防NRDS的发生,降低早产儿的病死率.%Objective To explore the efficacy of Budesonide Suspension for Inhalation combined with Poractant Alfa Injection in the prevention and treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS). Methods Forty-six preterm infants two hours after birth,with gestational age from 29 to 34 weeks,were admitted in the newborn nursery of our hospital from Sep 2009 to Sep 2010 and randomly divided into two groups according to orders of admission. Each group was involved 23 preterm infants and was given comprehensive treatment and Poractant Alfa Injection 120 mg by tracheal instillation. Croup A was discharged on Budesonide Suspension for Inhalation 0. 5 mg/kg plus Ambroxol Hydrochloride Injection 10 mg/kg Ⅳ q. 8 h for 5 days. Croup B was only discharged on Ambroxol Hydrochloride Injection 10 mg/kg Ⅳ q

  14. AlphaCI: un programa de cálculo de intervalos de confianza para el coeficiente alfa de Cronbach AlphaCI: a computer program for computing confidence intervals around Cronbach's alfa coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Ledesma

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El coeficiente alfa de Cronbach es el modo más habitual de estimar la fiabilidad de pruebas basadas en Teoría Clásica de los Test. En dicha estimación, los investigadores usualmente omiten informar intervalos de confianza para el coeficiente, un aspecto no solo recomendado por los especialistas, sino también requerido explícitamente en las normas editoriales de algunas revistas especializadas. Esta situación puede atribuirse a que los métodos de estimación de intervalos de confianza son poco conocidos, además de no estar disponibles al usuario en los programas estadísticos más populares. Así, en este trabajo se presenta un programa desarrollado dentro del sistema estadístico ViSta que permite calcular intervalos de confianza basados en el enfoque clásico y mediante la técnica bootstrap. Se espera promover la inclusión de intervalos de confianza para medidas de fiabilidad, facilitando el acceso a las herramientas necesarias para su aplicación. El programa es gratuito y puede obtenerse enviando un mail de solicitud al autor del trabajo.Cronbach's alpha coefficient is the most popular way of estimating reliability in measurement scales based on Classic Test Theory. When estimating it, researchers usually omit to report confidence intervals of this coefficient, as it is not only recommended by experts, but also required by some journal's guidelines. This situation is because the different methods of estimating confidence intervals are not well-known by researchers, as well as they are not being available among the most popular statistical packages. Therefore, this paper describes a computer program integrated into the ViSta statistical system, which allows computing confidence intervals based on the classical approach and using bootstrap technique. It is hoped that this work promotes the inclusion of confidence intervals of reliability measures, by increasing the availability of the required computer tools. The program is free and

  15. Dexmethylphenidate--Novartis/Celgene. Focalin, D-MPH, D-methylphenidate hydrochloride, D-methylphenidate, dexmethylphenidate, dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Celgene has developed a chirally pure form of methylphenidate (Ritalin), called dexmethylphenidate [d-methylphenidate, d-methylphenidate hydrochloride, d-MPH; Focalin]. The drug has been launched in the USA and is undergoing registration in Canada for the treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Dexmethylphenidate is the single isomer version of racemic methylphenidate (Ritalin), which contains the active d isomer of Ritalin. Dexmethylphenidate acts via the inhibition of reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine. Research is ongoing to further clarify the mode of therapeutic action in ADHD. Dexmethylphenidate was developed with the aim of reducing drug load, adverse events and drug interactions. Dexmethylphenidate provides effective management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder at half the dose of Ritalin. In April 2000, worldwide rights (excluding Canada) to dexmethylphenidate were granted to Novartis. Celgene has also granted Novartis rights to all related intellectual properties and patents. Novartis will fund all remaining development and marketing expenses required for regulatory approval and commercialisation of dexmethylphenidate. Crystaal Corporation, the marketing division of Biovail Corporation International, has exclusive Canadian marketing rights for all formulations of dexmethylphenidate. Novartis launched dexmethylphenidate (Focalin) in the USA during Q1 2002. It is available as a D-shaped tablet (2.5, 5 and 10 mg doses). Novartis had planned to use the tradename Ritadex, however the FDA recommended an alternative name due to potential prescribing errors with Ritalin. The finalized tradename to be used is Focalin. In July 2001, a new drug submission was filed with Canada's Therapeutic Products Programme for dexmethylphenidate in the treatment of attention-deficit disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Novartis is also developing an extended-release version of chirally pure dexmethylphenidate

  16. Estudio epidemiológico y anatómico del Síndrome de iris flácido intraoperatorio en pacientes con tratamiento con bloqueantes alfa 1 adrenérgicos

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    El Síndrome de iris flácido intraoperatorio (IFIS), descrito por Chang y Campbell en 2005, acontece durante la microcirugía de cataratas mediante facoemulsificación ultrasónica en pacientes que están en tratamiento con bloqueantes alfa-1 adrenérgicos (bloq-alfa1A). Está compuesto por una triada clínica: iris flácido atónico que se ondula en respuesta a la irrigación intraocular propia de la fluídica perioperatoria, tendencia iridiana a prolapsarse hacia la punta del facoemulsificador y las in...

  17. Associação entre deficiência de alfa-1-antitripsina e a gravidade da fibrose cística Association between alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency and cystic fibrosis severity

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Verificar a distribuição dos genótipos da alfa-1-antitripsina e correlacionar com a gravidade da doença pulmonar em pacientes fibrocísticos. MÉTODO: Estudo clínico-laboratorial de corte transversal, com 70 pacientes fibrocísticos do Hospital Universitário da UNICAMP. Os fibrocísticos tiveram diagnóstico confirmado clínica e laboratorialmente. A gravidade da fibrose cística foi avaliada pelo escore de Shwachman. Todos os pacientes foram analisados para os alelos S e Z de alfa-1-antit...

  18. O papel do Fator de Necrose Tumoral Alfa (TNF-alfa no processo de erosão óssea presente no colesteatoma adquirido da orelha média The role of Tumor Necrosis Factor -Alpha (TNF- alpha in bone resorption present in middle ear cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Faller Vitale

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O colesteatoma adquirido da orelha média causa erosão óssea, com altas taxas de morbidade e mortalidade. O TNF-alfa (TNF-alfa lambda uma das principais citocinas envolvidas neste processo. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o papel do TNF-alfa na reabsorsão óssea e a ação dele no colesteatoma. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um levantamento e uma revisão crítica da literatura. RESULTADOS: Todos os autores estudados concordam com a importância do TNF-alfa no processo de reabsorção óssea presente no colesteatoma e com o grau de destruição observado. Diferentes trabalhos demonstraram que o TNF-alfa é capaz de provocar erosão óssea, através de diferentes vias de ação. Ele pode estimular a diferenciação e a maturação dos osteoclastos ou, ainda, agir na matriz óssea expondo-a à ação dos osteoclastos. Existe a possibilidade de inibir a ação do TNF-alfa, diminuindo seus efeitos e prevenindo a perda óssea em doenças como a artrite reumatóide. Não existe, entretanto, trabalhos específicos em colesteatoma. Não existe consenso sobre a sua localização. Estas diferenças, provavelmente, ocorrem devido à distribuição dos receptores. CONCLUSÃO: O TNF-alfa, presente no colesteatoma promove a reabsorsão óssea, juntamente com outras citocinas (RANKL e IL-1, estando relacionado com a presença de complicações.Cholesteatoma may cause bone erosion, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Tumor Necrosis Factor -Alpha (TNF-a is one of the main cytokines involved in this process. Our goal was to evaluate the role of TNF-a in Bone Resorption and its effect on cholesteatoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: analysis and critical literature review. RESULTS: Different studies have demonstrated that TNF-a is capable of causing bone erosion. It may stimulate the differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts or it may act on the bone matrix, exposing it to the action of the osteoclasts. It is possible to inhibit TNF-a, reducing its effects and prevent

  19. MICORRIZACIÓN In Vitro E In Vivo DE PLÁNTULAS DE PAPA (Solanum tuberosum var. Alfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyanne Fernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las condiciones artificiales en las que se desarrollan las plantas obtenidas por micropropagación hacen que sean más susceptibles a la sequía durante el transplante. Los hongos micorrízicos arbusculares contribuyen a la supervivencia y el crecimiento de las plantas al reducir el estrés asociado con la nutrición, las relaciones con el agua, la estructura del suelo, el pH, las sales, los metales tóxicos y los patógenos, por lo que son considerados de extrema utilidad como inoculantes durante las diferentes fases de micropropagación de los cultivos. Teniendo en cuenta estos aspectos se realizó este trabajo, con el objetivo de evaluar la factibilidad de la inoculación micorrízica durante los estadios in vitro e in vivo del proceso de micropropagación del cultivo de la papa (Solanum tuberosum L var. Alfa. Para dar respuesta al trabajo, se estudió la inoculación micorrízica sobre plantas de papa en condiciones de crecimiento in vitro, empleando diferentes medios de cultivo (MS, M y un nuevo medio N, bajo un diseño completamente aleatorizado (DCA y la inoculación de plantas de papa durante el transplante a fase adaptativa empleando tres especies del género Glomus y dos concentrados de especies de HMA (selva y desierto sobre dos sustratos diferentes, utilizando un DCA bajo arreglo bifactorial. En el estudio in vitro se obtuvieron efectos positivos sobre las plantas inoculadas en el medio M, aun cuando quedó clara la necesidad de encontrar nuevos medios, nutricionalmente balanceados, que garanticen tanto el crecimiento de las plántulas como el establecimiento eficiente de la micorrización. Además, en la fase adaptativa se encontró una respuesta altamente positiva a la inoculación de las cepas, mostrando un comportamiento diferenciado en función de los sustratos, apreciable en todas las variables estudiadas (nutricionales, fúngicas y fisiológicas, lo cual demostró la factibilidad del uso de dichos microorganismos en este

  20. Tratamento da Doença de Pompe - deficiência da alfa-glicosidase ácida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaela Inês KUHN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivos descrever a patogênese e o tratamento da doença de Pompe. Foi realizado um estudo de revisão bibliográfica mediante busca de artigos científicos publicados entre 2004 e 2014. Portadores de deficiência na enzima alfa acido glicosidase, desenvolvem a doença de Pompe, que resulta em um acumulo de glicogênio dentro do lisossomo, originando danos e disfunções orgânicas no tecido muscular, ocasionando dificuldades na respiração, locomoção, fala e audição. A terapia de reposição enzimática é a alternativa de tratamento específica para Pompe, melhorando significativamente a função cardíaca e reduzindo a mortalidade. Contudo, a necessidade de injeção de altas doses da enzima, a perda de 80% da enzima por conta do metabolismo hepático e o alto custo do tratamento dificultam o seu uso. A dose que mostrou melhores resultados foi de 20 mg/kg da enzima a cada duas semanas. Todavia, apesar do alto custo do tratamento, os benefícios de diminuição de sintomas dos pacientes são importantes, como melhora na realização de atividades da vida diária, aumento da força muscular, redução da fadiga e incrementos na função pulmonar. Existem ainda, tratamentos alternativos, mas que ainda estão em fase de estudos. Dentre os tratamentos, aquele que possui um melhor prognóstico é a reposição com a enzima humana recombinante. A terapia de reposição enzimática trouxe sobrevida a diversos pacientes devido à diminuição da hipertrofia cardíaca e melhora nos sintomas motores.

  1. Nanomedicines in the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection in Asian patients: optimizing use of peginterferon alfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu CH

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chen-Hua Liu,1–3 Jia-Horng Kao1–3 1Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Hepatitis Research Center, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract: Asia is endemic for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, which is the leading cause of cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma , and liver transplantation worldwide. HCV has six major genotypes and each HCV genotype has its specific geographic distribution. HCV genotypes 1, 2, 3, and 6 are common in Asia. The aim of HCV treatment is to eradicate the virus by effective therapeutic agents; viral clearance is durable after long-term post-treatment follow-up. In most Asian countries, peginterferon alfa (PEG-IFN α in combination with ribavirin remains the standard of care, and the overall sustained viral response (SVR rate in Asian HCV patients is higher than that in Western patients. The differences are most significant in patients with HCV genotype 1 (HCV-1 infection, which is attributed to the higher frequency of IFN-responsive or favorable interleukin-28B (IL-28B genotype in Asian populations than in other ethnic populations. In addition, the introduction of response-guided therapy, where the optimized treatment duration is based on the early viral kinetics during the first 12 weeks of treatment, increases the SVR rate. Recently, telaprevir or boceprevir-based triple therapy was found to further improve the SVR rate in treated and untreated HCV-1 patients and has become the new standard of care in Western and some Asian countries. Many novel direct-acting antiviral agents, either in combination with PEG-IFN α plus ribavirin or used as IFN-free regimens are under active investigation. At the time of this writing, simeprevir and sofosbuvir have been approved in the US. Because the SVR rates in Asian HCV patients

  2. Impact of epoetin alfa on left ventricular structure, function, and pressure volume relations as assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance: the heart failure preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) anemia trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Philip; Babu, Benson A; Teruya, Sergio; Helmke, Stephen; Prince, Martin; Maurer, Mathew S

    2013-01-01

    Anemia, a common comorbidity in older adults with heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), is associated with worse outcomes. The authors quantified the effect of anemia treatment on left ventricular (LV) structure and function as measured by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. A prospective, randomized single-blind clinical trial (NCT NCT00286182) comparing the safety and efficacy of epoetin alfa vs placebo for 24 weeks in which a subgroup (n=22) had cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and after 3 and 6 months to evaluate changes in cardiac structure and function. Pressure volume (PV) indices were derived from MRI measures of ventricular volume coupled with sphygmomanometer-measured pressure and Doppler estimates of filling pressure. The end-systolic and end-diastolic PV relations and the area between them as a function of end-diastolic pressure, the isovolumic PV area (PVAiso), were calculated. Patients (75±10 years, 64% women) with HFPEF (EF=63%±15%) with an average hemoglobin of 10.3±1.1 gm/dL were treated with epoetin alfa using a dose-adjusted algorithm that increased hemoglobin compared with placebo (PHFPEF resulted in a significant increase in hemoglobin, without evident change in LV structure, function, or pressure volume relationships as measured quantitatively using CMR imaging.

  3. Epoetin alfa 40000 U once weekly and intravenous iron supply in solid tumor patients: early increase of hemoglobin level during chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalle, M.; Antimi, M. [Ospedale S. Eugenio, Rome (Italy). Unita operativa complessa di oncologia medica; Pistillucci, G.; D' Aprile, M. [Ospedale S. Maria Goretti, Latina (Italy). Unita operativa complessa di oncologia medica

    2005-06-15

    The objective of this observational study was the early evaluation of the impact, a week after the first administration of epoetin alfa 40000 U once weekly and i.v. dose of 62.5 mg sodium ferric gluconate for seven days in improving hemoglobin levels in cancer patients affected by mild/moderate or severe anemia during chemotherapy. Twenty patients affected by solid tumors who received epoetin alfa 40000 U once weekly and daily i.v. sodium ferric gluconate for one week were evaluated: 90% of the patients showed hemoglobin increase, with a median level of hemoglobin increase of 0.73 g/L from baseline, and 50% of them showing a hemoglobin increase > 1 gr/L. The treatment was well tolerated and no adverse event was observed. The early increase of hemoglobin level from baseline is interesting and suggestive for the possibility of achieving an adequate hemoglobin level with a short-term treatment. It is still necessary to further explore the real need of iron supplementation to maintain adequate erythropoiesis prior and during epoetin therapy.

  4. Elaboration, analyse et modélisation mécanique numérique d’agro-composites à base de fibres courtes d’alfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Abbassi Fatima-ezzahra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dans la présente étude, récemment réalisée au Laboratoire d’Ingénierie et Sciences des Matériaux, de l’Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, nous proposons de valoriser la plante végétale d’Alfa, sous forme de fibres courtes en vue de renforcer par extrusion dans une première étape, puis par injection, des matrices polymères, en l’occurrence le Polypropylène (PP. Une première étape consiste à élaborer, par traitement chimique et extraction, la fibre courte à utiliser comme renfort. Il s’en suit une extrusion de courte à utiliser comme renfort. Il s’en suit une extrusion de composés composites à base de matrice PP. L’objectif sera de développer par la suite une démarche Essai-Calcul, confrontant une caractérisation mécanique d’agrocomposites PP-Alfa injectés à deux types de modélisation comportementale, l’une micromécanique basée sur le modèle de Mori-Tanaka, et l’autre numérique utilisant une approche originale basée sur une technique dite de fibre projetée.

  5. Spotlight on anagrelide hydrochloride for the treatment of essential thrombocythemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anita Sarma,1 Donal P Mclornan,1,2 Claire N Harrison2 1Department of Haematology, King’s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, 2Department of Haematology, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK Abstract: Anagrelide (ANA hydrochloride is an oral imidazoquinazoline registered as an orphan drug in Europe. It is indicated as a second-line agent for the reduction of thrombocytosis in high-risk essential thrombocythemia (ET in Europe and in any myeloproliferative neoplasm-associated thrombocytosis and for the amelioration of thrombo-hemorrhagic events in the context of myeloproliferative neoplasm in the USA and Japan. The compound has been in clinical use for almost two decades with approval in the European Union (EU for over a decade. The licensed indication encompasses the apparently specific action of the drug to reduce the platelet count; however, the precise mode of action of ANA remains unclear. Here, we review the current data from two large phase 3 studies, PT-1 and ANAHDRET, and a phase 4 post-approval observational study EXELS. All of these studies were conducted in the EU and therefore pertain to ET as the only licensed indication. Data from these studies suggest that ANA is on the whole as effective as the most commonly used agent hydroxycarbamide (HC. Although ANA, when compared to HC, appears to be slightly less effective in preventing arterial thrombosis and myelofibrotic transformation, it is associated with lower risk of venous thrombosis. Since the initial data from the PT-1 study, a caution has been recommended for the combined use of ANA and aspirin as this may provoke excess hemorrhage. ET is a clinically and biologically heterogeneous condition, and these biological variations may in part explain some of the clinical differences observed in various studies in response to specific treatments. No new toxicities of ANA have emerged in the past decade, which means that clinicians and patients can be reassured

  6. Pharmaceutical development of an amorphous solid dispersion formulation of elacridar hydrochloride for proof-of-concept clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, E; Schellens, J H M; Beijnen, J H; Nuijen, B

    2017-04-01

    A novel tablet formulation containing an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) of elacridar hydrochloride was developed with the purpose to resolve the drug's low solubility in water and to conduct proof-of-concept clinical studies. Elacridar is highly demanded for proof-of-concept clinical trials that study the drug's suitability to boost brain penetration and bioavailability of numerous anticancer agents. Previously, clinical trials with elacridar were performed with a tablet containing elacridar hydrochloride. However, this tablet formulation resulted in poor and unpredictable absorption which was caused by the low aqueous solubility of elacridar hydrochloride. Twenty four different ASDs were produced and dissolution was compared to crystalline elacridar hydrochloride and a crystalline physical mixture. The formulation with highest dissolution was characterized for amorphicity. Subsequently, a tablet was developed and monitored for chemical/physical stability for 12 months at +15-25 °C, +2-8 °C and -20 °C. The ASD powder was composed of freeze dried elacridar hydrochloride-povidone K30-sodium dodecyl sulfate (1:6:1, w/w/w), appeared fully amorphous and resulted in complete dissolution whereas crystalline elacridar hydrochloride resulted in only 1% dissolution. The ASD tablets contained 25 mg elacridar hydrochloride and were stable for at least 12 months at -20 °C. The ASD tablet was considered feasible for proof-of-concept clinical studies and is now used as such.

  7. New strategies in multiple organ dysfunction syndrometherapy for sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šurbatović Maja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite more than 20 years of extensive research, sepsis and/or trauma induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS remain the chief cause of death in intensive care units, with mortality rates between 30% and 80%. Early goal-directed therapy (EGDT, use of drotrecogin alfa (activated, tight control of hyperglycaemia, and adrenal replacement therapy (low doses of corticosteroidsall constitute new treatment strategies. In future, a combination of therapies should be individually adjusted for each patient.

  8. Carbon dioxide-water oxygen isotope fractionation factor using chlorine trifluoride and guanidine hydrochloride techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, J.P. Jr.; Borthwick, J.

    1986-12-01

    A new value for the CO/sub 2/-H/sub 2/O oxygen isotope fractionation factor of 1.04145 +/- 0.000 15 (2sigma) has been determined. The data have been normalized to the V-SMOW/V-SLAP scale and were obtained by measuring isotopic compositions with the guanidine hydrochloride and chlorine trifluoride techniques.

  9. 77 FR 53892 - Determination That ALOXI (Palonosetron Hydrochloride) Capsules, 0.5 Milligram (Base), Were Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ...) Capsules, 0.5 Milligram (Base), Were Not Withdrawn From Sale for Reasons of Safety or Effectiveness AGENCY... determined that ALOXI (palonosetron hydrochloride (HCl)) Capsules, 0.5 milligram (mg) (base), were not... abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for palonosetron HCl capsules, 0.5 mg (base), if all other legal and...

  10. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: mefloquine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, S; Jantratid, E; Dressman, J B; Junginger, H E; Kopp, S; Midha, K K; Shah, V P; Stavchansky, S; Barends, D M

    2011-01-01

    Literature data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of immediate release solid oral dosage forms containing mefloquine hydrochloride as the only active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) are reviewed. The solubility and permeability data of mefloquine hydrochloride as well as its therapeutic use and therapeutic index, its pharmacokinetic properties, data related to the possibility of excipient interactions and reported BE/bioavailability studies were taken into consideration. Mefloquine hydrochloride is not a highly soluble API. Since no data on permeability are available, it cannot be classified according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System with certainty. Additionally, several studies in the literature failed to demonstrate BE of existing products. For these reasons, the biowaiver cannot be justified for the approval of new multisource drug products containing mefloquine hydrochloride. However, scale-up and postapproval changes (HHS-FDA SUPAC) levels 1 and 2 and most EU type I variations may be approvable without in vivo BE, using the dissolution tests described in these regulatory documents.

  11. An investigation on in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial properties of the antidepressant: amitriptyline hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurup Mandal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The antidepressant drug amitriptyline hydrochloride was obtained in a dry powder form and was screened against 253 strains of bacteria which included 72 Gram positive and 181 Gram negative bacteria and against 5 fungal strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by inoculating a loopful of an overnight peptone water culture of the organism on nutrient agar plates containing increasing concentrations of amitriptyline hydrochloride (0, 10 µg/mL, 25 µg/mL, 50 µg/mL, 100 µg/mL, 200 µg/mL. Amitriptyline hydrochloride exhibited significant action against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria at 25-200 µg/mL. In the in vivo studies it was seen that amitriptyline hydrochloride at a concentration of 25 µg/g and 30 µg/g body weight of mouse offered significant protection to Swiss strain of white mice when challenged with 50 median lethal dose (MLD of a virulent strain of Salmonella typhimurium NCTC 74. The in vivo data were highly significant (p<0.001 according to the chi-square test.

  12. Oral Midodrine Hydrochloride for Prevention of Orthostatic Hypotension during Early Mobilization after Hip Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, Øivind; Mehlsen, Jesper; Kjærsgaard-Andersen, Per

    2015-01-01

    or older and scheduled for total hip arthroplasty under spinal anesthesia to either 5 mg midodrine hydrochloride or placebo orally 1 h before mobilization at 6 and 24 h postoperatively. The primary outcome was the prevalence of OH (decrease in systolic or diastolic arterial pressures of > 20 or 10 mm...

  13. DENATURATION OF NATIVE AND DEGLYCOSYLATED α-GALACTOSIDASES FROM Penicillium canescens BY GUANIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borzova N. V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the study of native and galactosidases from Penicillium canescens under denaturing conditions caused by guanidine hydrochloride. Calculation of kinetics and constants of enzymes inactivation was carried out on using experimental kinetic curves of enzyme denaturation. We observed significant differences in the kinetics of inactivation of native and deglycosylated α-galactosidases from P. canescens caused by guanidine hydrochloride. Native enzyme was stable within the selected range of guanidine hydrochloride concentrations (from 0.1 to 3.0 M, retaining no less than 50% of the initial enzyme activity for 3 days. Deglycosylated enzyme preparations were less stable and they lost their activity within 5–30 minutes, when they were treated with guanidine hydrochloride in concentrations above 1 M. Dissociation rate constant of native and deglycosylated forms of the enzyme differed by 10 to 100 folds. It was shown that subunit interactions play a major role in the process of inactivation of the enzyme, and the carbohydrate component is essential for stabilizing of subunit bonds and maintaining conformational stability of the enzyme under denaturing conditions of chemical agents.

  14. Effect of magnesium stearate concentration on dissolution properties of ranitidine hydrochloride coated tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunović, Alija; Vranić, Edina

    2007-08-01

    Most pharmaceutical formulations also include a certain amount of lubricant to improve their flowability and prevent their adhesion to the surfaces of processing equipment. Magnesium stearate is an additive that is most frequently used as a lubricant. Magnesium stearate is capable of forming films on other tablet excipients during prolonged mixing, leading to a prolonged drug liberation time, a decrease in hardness, and an increase in disintegration time. It is hydrophobic, and there are many reports in the literature concerning its adverse effect on dissolution rates. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two different concentrations of magnesium stearate on dissolution properties of ranitidine hydrochloride coated tablet formulations labeled to contain 150 mg. The uniformity content was also checked. During the drug formulation development, several samples were designed for choice of the formulation. For this study, two formulations containing 0,77 and 1,1% of magnesium stearate added in the manufacture of cores were chosen. Fraction of ranitidine hydrochloride released in dissolution medium was calculated from calibration curves. The data were analyzed using pharmacopeial test for similarity of dissolution profiles ( f2 equation), previously proposed by Moore and Flanner. Application of f2 equation showed differences in time-course of ranitidine hydrochloride dissolution properties. The obtained values indicate differences in drug release from analyzed ranitidine hydrochloride formulations and could cause differences in therapeutic response.

  15. Efficacy of epinastine hydrochloride for antigen-provoked nasal symptoms in subjects with orchard grass pollinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Minoru; Hashiguchi, Kazuhiro; Okubo, Kimihiro

    2011-03-01

    Among the gramineae species, orchard grass is a typical causative pollen that provokes seasonal rhinitis. The purpose of this study was to examine the protective efficacy of epinastine hydrochloride for signs and symptoms caused by repeated nasal provocation with discs containing orchard grass pollen. A single-dose, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover clinical study was conducted in subjects with orchard grass pollinosis. The pollen challenge was conducted with the use of provocation discs containing orchard grass pollen. Epinastine hydrochloride suppressed nasal symptoms caused by nasal provocation tests using orchard grass pollen discs. Among the nasal symptoms, the number of sneezing was significantly inhibited 30 minutes and 60 minutes after the administration of epinastine hydrochloride, as compared with placebo. There were no adverse reactions to the study drugs. Our results suggest that nasal provocation tests with discs containing orchard grass pollen is a useful method for evaluating the onset of action of antiallergic drugs. As compared with placebo, epinastine hydrochloride decreased early-phase sneezing and the total nasal symptom score after repeated nasal provocations with orchard grass pollen discs.

  16. 77 FR 14810 - Determination That DURANEST (Etidocaine Hydrochloride) Injection, 0.5%, and Five Other DURANEST...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... contains the same active ingredient in the same strength and dosage form as the ``listed drug,'' which is a.... Drug Applicant date NDA 17-751...... DURANEST AstraZeneca August 30, 1976. (epinephrine Pharmaceutical.... (epinephrine Pharmaceutical. bitartrate; etidocaine hydrochloride) Injection 1.5%. The drug products listed...

  17. 1,2-Bis (pyridin-2-ylmethyl)sulfanyl ethane and its dimorphic hydrochloride salt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lennartson, A.; McKenzie, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    and are held together by C-H center dot center dot center dot N and C-H center dot center dot center dot S interactions, resulting in the formation of a three-dimensional network structure. In addition, two polymorphs of the corresponding hydrochloride salt, 2-[(2-[(pyridin-1-ium-2-ylmethyl...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5775 - Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro-, hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5775 Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro-, hydrochloride. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol,...

  19. A Parent Guide To Understanding the Effects of Ritalin (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Orlando; And Others

    This guide provides information to help parents decide whether their child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) should take methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin). Information is provided in a question-and-answer format on various concerns, including: the meaning of ADHD, whether Ritalin is overprescribed, when this medication is…

  20. Minocycline hydrochloride as a soft sclerotizing agent for symptomatic simple renal and hepatic cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danza, F M; Falcione, M; Bordonaro, V; Infante, A; Paladini, A; Bonomo, L

    2017-01-01

    To present the results of our ten-year case series in simple hepatic and renal cysts sclerosis using minocycline hydrochloride as a sclerotizing agent, evaluating the effectiveness, the safety and the feasibility of this agent for percutaneous sclerotherapy for symptomatic cysts. We retrospectively evaluated our archives of patients treated (54 patients with 60 renal cysts, 21 patients with 24 hepatic cysts) for symptomatic abdominal cysts. These patients were treated with ultrasound guided drainage and subsequent minocycline hydrochloride instillation. In large or recurrent cysts, we repeated the treatment for the second time. The patients were evaluated at 6 and 12 months; some patients underwent later, additional examinations and we also reviewed these exams for any eventual long-term relapse. The percentage of sclerosis success was found to be 100% for hepatic cysts and 86% for renal cysts. We also found that minimal complications were encountered. Minocycline hydrochloride has proven to be an effective sclerotizing agent. In our cases, symptoms disappeared in 100% of patients with hepatic cysts and in 93% of patients with renal cysts. It is also a safe sclerotizing agent, as demonstrated by the few complications encountered. Percutaneous sclerosis with Minocycline hydrochloride is a very effective and promising nonsurgical treatment for patients with symptomatic simple cysts, and it can be performed without major complications.