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Sample records for hydrochloric acid decreased

  1. Hydrochloric acid for treating metabolic alkalosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, A; Yildirim, E; Aras, N; Ercan, F

    1989-09-01

    Six patients with severe metabolic alkalosis were treated with intravenous hydrochloric acid (HCl) infusion. HCl was given through a central venous catheter, at a concentration of 0.1 mEq per ml. At least two of the following criteria were considered for initiation of the therapy: An arterial pH of greater than 7.45, a base excess (BE) of greater than +7 mmol/L, a PaCO2 of greater than 50 mmHg. The HCl amount was calculated using the BE formula, however, two thirds was infused for avoiding excessive acid loading. Patients were monitored by the blood gases, serum electrolytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, bilirubin determinations and blood smear findings. While a significant decrease was noticed in pH and BE values, moderate changes were detected in PaCO2 due to different ventilatory status of the cases. All laboratory test results remained within normal limits and no complication was encountered. The advantage of the therapy is that less volume is needed for the correction of alkalosis, particularly in the cases requiring fluid restriction. HCl therapy, moreover, is a safe and time-saving method because of having rapid response to the treatment in the critically ill surgical patients.

  2. Hydrochloric acid recycling from chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowieja, D. [Sulzer Escher Wyss GmbH, Ravensburg (Germany); Schaub, M. [Sulzer Chemtech Ltd., Winterthur (Switzerland)

    1993-12-31

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons present a major ecological hazard since most of them are only poorly biodegradable. Incineration is an economical process for their destruction, however the usually recovered sodium or calcium chlorides do not present a value and their disposal may even be very costly. Recovery of hydrochloric acid may therefore present an economical solution, mainly were large quantities of highly chlorinated compounds can be processed (author) 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. HYDROXYLAMMONIUM [ON 111 AQUEOUS HYDROCHLORIC ACID

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    octacyanomolybdateiv) anion by hydroxylammonium ion has been studied in aqueous hydrochloric ... of substrates have been investigated in aqueous solution (1-7). The results of ... (4) and nitrogen was identified as described previously (8).

  4. Superficial performance and pore structure of palygorskite treated by hydrochloric acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi-xin; DAI Wei-wei; Wang Ting; TAO Yong

    2006-01-01

    In order to amend the superficial performance of palygorskite and improve its application, the natural palygorskite(NP) was treated in the dipping and ionic exchanging experiments using 6 mol/L hydrochloric acid treatment. The performance and pore structure of the treated palygorskite(TP) were investigated by means of microscope analyses, FT-IR, XRF, BET-SSA and full hole distribution analytical techniques. The results show that the hydrochloric acid treatment can make the gracile and aggregating compact crystal bundles inside palygorskite clay broken and dispersed, the roughness of microcrystalline surface increases, which not only can dissolve or remove dolomite but vary the superficial performance of palygorskite to some degree. The specific surface area and pore volume increase a lot, while the mean pore size decreases. The pore structure of TP changes remarkably compared with that of NP after 6 mol/L hydrochloric acid treatment, and the relevant physicochemical performance can be improved.

  5. An unusual presentation of hydrochloric acid ingestion: a mystery unraveled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Vinod Prabhu; Das, Rashmi Ranjan; Chinnakkannan, Selvakumar; Panda, Shasanka Shekhar

    2015-03-01

    Unintentional acid ingestion is less commonly encountered than alkali ingestion. The injury develops for hours to days after ingestion and often results in progressively increasing difficulty in airway management. However, gastric perforation is rare. A 3-year-old boy presented to us with an orotonsillopharyngeal membrane and severe upper airway obstruction. Subsequently, he was diagnosed with a case of gastric perforation due to unintentional hydrochloric acid ingestion. He was treated with partial gastrectomy and feeding jejunostomy, and the recovery was good. Unintentional hydrochloric acid ingestion is rare in children. The manifestations masquerade many other clinical conditions, and the diagnosis is difficult in cases in which history of ingestion is not available. Treatment is symptomatic, and emergency surgery is indicated in case of gastrointestinal perforation.

  6. Kinetic study of free fatty acid esterification reaction catalyzed by recoverable and reusable hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chia-Hung

    2013-02-01

    The catalytic performance and recoverability of several homogeneous acid catalysts (hydrochloric, sulfuric, and nitric acids) for the esterification of enzyme-hydrolyzed free fatty acid (FFA) and methanol were studied. Although all tested catalysts drove the reaction to a high yield, hydrochloric acid was the only catalyst that could be considerably recovered and reused. The kinetics of the esterification reaction catalyzed by hydrochloric acid was investigated under varying catalyst loading (0.1-1M), reaction temperature (303-343K), and methanol/FFA molar ratio (1:1-20:1). In addition, a pseudo-homogeneous kinetic model incorporating the above factors was developed. A good agreement (r(2)=0.98) between the experimental and calculated data was obtained, thus proving the reliability of the model. Furthermore, the reusability of hydrochloric acid in FFA esterification can be predicted by the developed model. The recoverable hydrochloric acid achieved high yields of FFA esterification within five times of reuse.

  7. Accidental intoxication with hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Smędra-Kaźmirska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a fatal case of accidental ingestion of a mixture of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. The man was admitted to hospital, where appropriate treatment, adequate to his condition, was instituted. Numerous ventricular fibrillation episodes, for which the patient was defibrillated repeatedly, were observed during the period of hospitalization. The patient was in a critical condition, with progressive symptoms of hypovolemic shock and multiorgan failure. On the next day after admission, signs of electromechanical dissociation progressing to asystole were noted. The instituted resuscitation procedure proved ineffective and the patient died. Autopsy revealed brownish discoloration of the esophageal, gastric, and small intestinal mucous membranes. Numerous ulcerations without signs of perforation were found both in the esophagus and in the stomach. The mucous membrane of the small intestine demonstrated focal rubefactions, whereas no focal lesions of the large intestinal mucosa were seen. Microscopic investigation of the biopsy specimens collected from the stomach, duodenum and small intestine revealed mucous membrane necrosis foci, reaching the deeper layers of the wall of these organs. The mucous membrane of the large intestine was congested. Bioptates obtained from the lungs indicated the presence of hemorrhagic infarcts and focal extravasations. Poisoning with the aforementioned acids with consequent necrosis of the esophageal, gastric, duodenal and small intestinal walls with hemorrhages to the gastrointestinal tract, as well as extravasations and hemorrhagic infarcts in the lungs was considered to be the cause of death.

  8. Accidental intoxication with hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smędra-Kaźmirska, A; Kędzierski, M; Barzdo, M; Jurczyk, Ap; Szram, S; Berent, J

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a fatal case of accidental ingestion of a mixture of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. The man was admitted to hospital, where appropriate treatment, adequate to his condition, was instituted. Numerous ventricular fibrillation episodes, for which the patient was defibrillated repeatedly, were observed during the period of hospitalization. The patient was in a critical condition, with progressive symptoms of hypovolemic shock and multiorgan failure. On the next day after admission, signs of electromechanical dissociation progressing to asystole were noted. The instituted resuscitation procedure proved ineffective and the patient died. Autopsy revealed brownish discoloration of the esophageal, gastric, and small intestinal mucous membranes. Numerous ulcerations without signs of perforation were found both in the esophagus and in the stomach. The mucous membrane of the small intestine demonstrated focal rubefactions, whereas no focal lesions of the large intestinal mucosa were seen. Microscopic investigation of the biopsy specimens collected from the stomach, duodenum and small intestine revealed mucous membrane necrosis foci, reaching the deeper layers of the wall of these organs. The mucous membrane of the large intestine was congested. Bioptates obtained from the lungs indicated the presence of hemorrhagic infarcts and focal extravasations. Poisoning with the aforementioned acids with consequent necrosis of the esophageal, gastric, duodenal and small intestinal walls with hemorrhages to the gastrointestinal tract, as well as extravasations and hemorrhagic infarcts in the lungs was considered to be the cause of death.

  9. Pretreatment of corn stover for sugar production using dilute hydrochloric acid followed by lime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Shuai; Li, Wen-zhi; Zhang, Mingjian; Li, Zihong; Wang, Ziyu; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-min

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a two stage process was evaluated to increase the sugar recovery. Firstly, corn stover was treated with diluted hydrochloric acid to maximize the xylose yield, and then the residue was treated with lime to alter the lignin structure and swell the cellulose surface. The optimal condition was 120 °C and 40 min for diluted hydrochloric acid pretreatment followed by lime pretreatment at 60 °C for 12h with lime loading at 0.1 g/g of substrate. The glucose and xylose yield was 78.0% and 97.0%, respectively, with cellulase dosage at 5 FPU/g of substrate. The total glucose yield increased to 85.9% when the cellulase loading was increased to 10 FPU/g of substrate. This two stage process was effective due to the swelling of the internal surface, an increase in the porosity and a decrease in the degree of polymerization.

  10. Rare earth elements recycling from waste phosphor by dual hydrochloric acid dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hu; Zhang, Shengen; Pan, Dean; Tian, Jianjun; Yang, Min; Wu, Maolin; Volinsky, Alex A

    2014-05-15

    This paper is a comparative study of recycling rare earth elements from waste phosphor, which focuses on the leaching rate and the technical principle. The traditional and dual dissolution by hydrochloric acid (DHA) methods were compared. The method of dual dissolution by hydrochloric acid has been developed. The Red rare earth phosphor (Y0.95Eu0.05)2O3 in waste phosphor is dissolved during the first step of acid leaching, while the Green phosphor (Ce0.67Tb0.33MgAl11O19) and the Blue phosphor (Ba0.9Eu0.1MgAl10O17) mixed with caustic soda are obtained by alkali sintering. The excess caustic soda and NaAlO2 are removed by washing. The insoluble matter is leached by the hydrochloric acid, followed by solvent extraction and precipitation (the DHA method). In comparison, the total leaching rate of the rare earth elements was 94.6% by DHA, which is much higher than 42.08% achieved by the traditional method. The leaching rate of Y, Eu, Ce and Tb reached 94.6%, 99.05%, 71.45%, and 76.22%, respectively. DHA can decrease the consumption of chemicals and energy. The suggested DHA method is feasible for industrial applications.

  11. Direct Spectroscopic Determination of Europium(Ⅱ) Concentration During Europium(Ⅲ) Electro-Reduction in Hydrochloric Acid Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    UV-Vis spectroscopy was used to directly determine the concentration of Eu(Ⅱ) during electroreduction of Eu(Ⅲ) in hydrochloric acid medium. Electroreduction was carried out in a flow type electrolyzer with glassy carbon cathode at the constant potential of -800 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. The effects of oxygen and concentration of hydrochloric acid on the system were investigated. For 0.01 mol·L-1 hydrochloric acid, calibration curves for Eu(Ⅱ) absorption bands at 248 and 320 nm were constructed. Molar absorption coefficients were estimated to be 2016 and 648 L·mol-1·cm-1, respectively. The absorbance strongly decreased with decrease in pH of the solution, whereas concentration of chloride had only a negligible effect.

  12. Formation of linear polyenes in poly(vinyl alcohol) films catalyzed by phosphotungstic acid, aluminum chloride, and hydrochloric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretinnikov, O. N.; Sushko, N. I.; Malyi, A. B.

    2016-07-01

    Formation of linear polyenes-(CH=CH)n-via acid-catalyzed thermal dehydration of polyvinyl alcohol in 9- to 40-µm-thick films of this polymer containing hydrochloric acid, aluminum chloride, and phosphotungstic acid as dehydration catalysts was studied by electronic absorption spectroscopy. The concentration of long-chain ( n ≥ 8) polyenes in films containing phosphotungstic acid is found to monotonically increase with the duration of thermal treatment of films, although the kinetics of this process is independent of film thickness. In films containing hydrochloric acid and aluminum chloride, the formation rate of polyenes with n ≥ 8 rapidly drops as film thickness decreases and the annealing time increases. As a result, at a film thickness of less than 10-12 µm, long-chain polyenes are not formed at all in these films no matter how long thermal duration is. The reason for this behavior is that hydrochloric acid catalyzing polymer dehydration in these films evaporates from the films during thermal treatment, the evaporation rate inversely depending on film thickness.

  13. Laboratory investigation of three distinct emissions monitors for hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dene, Charles E; Pisano, John T; Durbin, Thomas D; Bumiller, Kurt; Crabbe, Keith; Muzio, Lawrence J

    2016-12-01

    The measurement of hydrochloric acid (HCl) on a continuous basis in coal-fired plants is expected to become more important if HCl standards become implemented as part of the Federal Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) standards that are under consideration. For this study, the operational performance of three methods/instruments, including tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, were evaluated over a range of real-world operating environments. Evaluations were done over an HCl concentration range of 0-25 ppmv and temperatures of 25, 100, and 185 °C. The average differences with respect to temperature were 3.0% for the TDL for values over 2.0 ppmv and 6.9% of all concentrations, 3.3% for the CRDS, and 4.5% for the FTIR. Interference tests for H2O, SO2, and CO, CO2, and NO for a range of concentrations typical of flue gases from coal-fired power plants did not show any strong interferences. The possible exception was an interference from H2O with the FTIR. The instrument average precision over the entire range was 4.4% for the TDL with better precision seen for concentrations levels of 2.0 ppmv and above, 2.5% for the CRDS, and 3.5% for the FTIR. The minimum detection limits were all on the order of 0.25 ppmv, or less, utilizing the TDL values with a 5-m path. Zero drift was found to be 1.48% for the TDL, 0.88% for the CRDS, and 1.28% for the FTIR. This study provides an evaluation of the operational performance of three methods/instruments, including TDL absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS), and FTIR spectroscopy, for the measurement of hydrochloric acid (HCl) over a range of real-world operating environments. The results showed good instrument accuracy as a function of temperature and no strong interferences for flue gases typical to coal-fired power plants. The results show that these instruments would be viable for the

  14. Effect of beverages on bovine dental enamel subjected to erosive challenge with hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoras, Dinah Ribeiro; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Rodrigues, Antonio Luiz; Serra, Mônica Campos

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated by an in vitro model the effect of beverages on dental enamel previously subjected to erosive challenge with hydrochloric acid. The factor under study was the type of beverage, in five levels: Sprite® Zero Low-calorie Soda Lime (positive control), Parmalat® ultra high temperature (UHT) milk, Ades® Original soymilk, Leão® Ice Tea Zero ready-to-drink low-calorie peach-flavored black teaand Prata® natural mineral water (negative control). Seventy-five bovine enamel specimens were distributed among the five types of beverages (n=15), according to a randomized complete block design. For the formation of erosive wear lesions, the specimens were immersed in 10 mL aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid 0.01 M for 2 min. Subsequently, the specimens were immersed in 20 mL of the beverages for 1 min, twice daily for 2 days at room temperature. In between, the specimens were kept in 20 mL of artificial saliva at 37ºC. The response variable was the quantitative enamel microhardness. ANOVA and Tukey's test showed highly significant differences (penamel exposed to hydrochloric acid and beverages. The soft drink caused a significantly higher decrease in microhardness compared with the other beverages. The black tea caused a significantly higher reduction in microhardness than the mineral water, UHT milk and soymilk, but lower than the soft drink. Among the analyzed beverages, the soft drink and the black tea caused the most deleterious effects on dental enamel microhardness.

  15. Comparison between phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid in microabrasion technique for the treatment of dental fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mahshid Mohammadi Bassir; Golnaz Bagheri

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 )-pumice compound with conventional hydrochloric acid (HCl)-pumice compound in treating different severities of dental fluorosis with the microabrasion technique. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven anterior teeth from seven patients with different severities of dental fluorosis were treated. In each patient, half of the teeth were treated with HCl-pumice compound and the other half with H 3 PO 4 -pumice compound (split-mou...

  16. Camphor Sulfonic Acid-hydrochloric Acid Codoped Polyaniline/polyvinyl Alcohol Composite: Synthesis and Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Enrique Osorio-Fuente; Carlos Gómez-Yáñez; María de los Ángeles Hernández-Pérez; Fidel Pérez-Moreno

    2014-01-01

    A complementary dopant system formed by hydrochloric and camphor sulfonic (CSA) acids was used in the in-situ synthesis of a polyaniline (PANi)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite. The conductivity measurements showed that the use of CSA either as single dopant or codopant caused a decrement up to 2 orders of magnitude on the overall conductivity as well as an improvement on thermal stability. The PANi/PVA composites were characterized by spectroscopic and thermal analysis. Conducting emeraldin...

  17. Impact of α-amylase combined with hydrochloric acid hydrolysis on structure and digestion of waxy rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyan; Zhu, Yanqiao; Jiao, Aiquan; Zhao, Jianwei; Chen, Xiaoming; Wei, Benxi; Hu, Xiuting; Wu, Chunsen; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2013-04-01

    The structure and in vitro digestibility of native waxy rice starch by the combined hydrolysis of α-amylase and hydrochloric acid were investigated in this study. The combined hydrolysis technique generated higher hydrolysis rate and extent than the enzymatic hydrolysis. The granular appearance and chromatograph profile demonstrated that α-amylase and hydrochloric acid exhibited different patterns of hydrolysis. The rise in the ratio of absorbance 1047/1022cm(-1), the melting temperature range (Tc-To), and the melting enthalpy (ΔH) were observed during the combined hydrolysis. These results suggest that α-amylase simultaneously cleaves the amorphous and crystalline regions, whereas the amorphous regions of starch granules are preferentially hydrolyzed during the acid hydrolysis. Furthermore, the combined hydrolysis increased rapidly digestible starch (RDS) while decreased slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS), indicating that the hydrolysis mode affected the digestion property of native waxy rice starch.

  18. Selenium dioxide catalysed oxidation of acetic acid hydrazide by bromate in aqueous hydrochloric acid medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Yalgudre; G S Gokavi

    2012-07-01

    Selenium dioxide catalysed acetic acid hydrazide oxidation by bromate was studied in hydrochloric acid medium. The order in oxidant concentration, substrate and catalyst were found to be unity. Increasing hydrogen ion concentration increases the rate of the reaction due to protonation equilibria of the oxidant. The mechanism of the reaction involves prior complex formation between the catalyst and substrate, hydrazide, followed by its oxidation by diprotonated bromate in a slow step. Acetic acid was found to be the oxidation product. Other kinetic data like effect of solvent polarity and ionic strength on the reaction support the proposed mechanism.

  19. EDTA and hydrochloric acid effects on mercury accumulation by Lupinus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Luis; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto; Villaseñor, José; Rodríguez-Castellanos, Laura

    2016-12-01

    The efficiency of white lupine (Lupinus albus) to uptake and accumulate mercury from a soil polluted by mining activities was assessed in a pot experiment with chemically assisted phytoextraction. The mobilizing agents tested were ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). Two doses of each amendment were used (0.5 and 1.0 g of amendment per kg of soil), and unamended pots were used as a control. Addition of HCl to the soil did not negatively affect plant biomass, while the use of EDTA led to a significant decrease in plant growth when compared to that found for non-treated pots, with plants visually showing symptoms of toxicity. The addition of hydrochloric acid increased root, shoot and total plant Hg uptake of white lupine by 3.7 times, 3.1 times and 3.5 times, respectively, in relation to non-amended plants. The greatest efficiency was obtained for the highest HCl dose. EDTA led to higher concentrations of total plant Hg than that found with the control, but, due to the aforementioned decrease in plant biomass, the Hg phytoextraction yield was not significantly increased. These results were attributed to the capability of both amendments to form stable Hg complexes. The concentration of Hg in the water of the soil pores after the phytoextraction experiment was very low for all treatments, showing that risks derived from metal leaching could be partially avoided by using doses and chemicals suitable to the concentration of metal in the soil and plant performance.

  20. Extraction of Alumina from high-silica bauxite by hydrochloric acid leaching using preliminary roasting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeev, D. V.; Mansurova, E. R.; Bychinskii, V. A.; Chudnenko, K. V.

    2016-02-01

    A process of dissolution Severoonezhsk deposit boehmite-kaolinite bauxite by hydrochloric acid, as well as the processes that occur during open-air calcination, were investigated. A dehydration process has been studied, and the basic phase transformation temperatures were identified. Temperature and time of calcination influence on bauxite dehydration speed were determined. It is shown that the preliminary calcination increases the extraction ratio of alumina into solution up to 89%. Thermodynamic modelling of physical and chemical processes of bauxite decomposition by hydrochloric acid and the basic forms of aluminium speciation in solution were obtained.

  1. Enhanced Blood Compatibility of Metallocene Polyethylene Subjected to Hydrochloric Acid Treatment for Cardiovascular Implants

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    Saravana Kumar Jaganathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene (mPE was investigated after modifying the surface using hydrochloric acid. Contact angle of the mPE exposed to HCl poses a decrease in its value which indicates increasing wettability and better blood compatibility. Surface of mPE analyzed by using FTIR revealed no significant changes in its functional groups after treatment. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope images supported the increasing wettability through the modifications like pit formations and etching on the acid rendered surface. To evaluate the effect of acid treatment on the coagulation cascade, prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT were measured. Both PT and APTT were delayed significantly (P<0.05 after 60 min exposure implying improved blood compatibility of the surfaces. Hemolysis assay of the treated surface showed a remarkable decrease in the percentage of lysis of red blood cells when compared with untreated surface. Moreover, platelet adhesion assay demonstrated that HCl exposed surfaces deter the attachment of platelets and thereby reduce the chances of activation of blood coagulation cascade. These results confirmed the enhanced blood compatibility of mPE after HCl exposure which can be utilized for cardiovascular implants like artificial vascular prostheses, implants, and various blood contacting devices.

  2. Extraction Mechanism of La3+ from Hydrochloric Acid Solution Using Cyanex 302

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌东北; 牛春吉; 李德谦

    2004-01-01

    The solvent extraction of La3+ from hydrochloric acid solutions was investigated using bis(2, 4, 4-trimethylpentyl) monothiophosphinic acid(Cyanex 302, HL) as an extractant. The effect of equilibrium of aqueous acidity on extraction of La3+ using Cyanex 302 in different diluents was discussed. The effects of extractant concentration and chloride ion on the extraction reaction were also studied. Stoichiometry of the extraction reactions and the nature of metal complexes formed were determined using slope analysis technique and IR measurement.

  3. Acidification of formula with citric acid is equally effective and better tolerated than acidification with hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehall, John R; Saltzman, Daniel A; Jackson, Richard J; Smith, Samuel D

    2002-08-01

    To determine whether acidification of formula with citric acid is equally protective against bacterial translocation and gut colonization but better tolerated than acidification with hydrochloric acid in neonatal rabbits. Paired animal model with control. Animal laboratory. Premature neonatal New Zealand rabbit pups. A standard neonatal rabbit model in two versions, a bacterial challenge and a no bacterial challenge model, was used to assess bacterial translocation and gut colonization. Two hundred forty-six rabbit pups were delivered by cesarean section 1 day premature and randomly placed into two groups sorted by type of formula acidification (hydrochloric acid or citric acid). Pups were gavage fed pH 3 kitten formula every 12 hrs. Ranitidine hydrochloride at 20 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) was added to all formula. Bacterial challenge animals were given 1 x 10(6) colony-forming units/mL of Enterobacter cloacae with the third feeding. Animals in the no bacterial challenge group received no bacterial challenge. Animals were killed on day of life 3, and the liver, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and cecum were sequentially harvested and cultured. Organs were qualitatively judged for growth, whereas cecal cultures were quantified as colony-forming units/gram. Stomach biopsies were performed to look for mucosal damage. Long-term tolerance was assessed in 48 pups fed formula acidified to pH 3 with either hydrochloric acid or citric acid and 20 animals fed pH 7 formula without ranitidine. Weight gain and mortality rate were followed for 14 days. Gut colonization and bacterial translocation to liver, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes were equivalent between citric acid and hydrochloric acid in both bacterial challenge and no bacterial challenge models. Long term, citric acid animals exceeded hydrochloric acid animals in daily weight gain and survival (p formula with citric acid is equally protective against bacteria but better tolerated than acidification with hydrochloric

  4. Quantitative Leaching of a Spent Cell Phone Printed Circuit Board by Hydrochloric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alafara A. Baba

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a kinetic data on the hydrometallurgical recovery of some metal ions from a printed circuit board (PCB of a spent cell phone by hydrochloric acid leaching. The effects of acid concentration, temperature and particle diameter on the dissolution efficiency at various leaching time intervals were examined. The results of the leaching investigations showed that the powdered cell phone dissolution increases with increasing acid concentration, system temperature with decreasing particle diameter at 360 rpm. With 2M HCl solution, about 88.49% of the sample was dissolved within 120 minutes using 0.075-0.112 mm particle diameter at 800 C. The results of the study indicated that the dissolution reaction could be represented by a shrinking core model with surface chemical reaction. A value of 0.61, 60.67 kJ/mol and 12.9s-1 were calculated as reaction order, activation energy and frequency factor, respectively for the dissolution process.

  5. A Study of N,N-Diethylammonium O,O′-Di(p-methoxyphenyldithiophosphate as New Corrosion Inhibitor for Carbon Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Lai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available N,N-Diethylammonium O,O′-di(p-methoxyphenyldithiophosphate (EAPP as a new corrosion inhibitor was synthesized in the present work. The corrosion inhibition of EAPP in hydrochloric acid for carbon steel was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, weight loss measurements, and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that the EAPP is mixed type inhibitor, and the adsorption of EAPP on carbon steel surface obeys Langmuir isotherm. In addition, the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing the concentration of inhibitor and decreases with increasing the hydrochloric acid concentration, temperature, and storage time.

  6. Influence of Formazan Derivatives on Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesan, P.; Anand, B.; P. Matheswaran

    2009-01-01

    Formazan of benzaldehyde (FB) and formazan of p-dimethyl amino benzaldehyde (FD) were synthesized. These compounds were studied as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1.11 N hydrochloric acid by weight loss method. The result showed that the corrosion inhibition efficiency of these compounds was found to vary with the temperature and acid concentration. Also, it was found that the corrosion inhibition behaviour of FD is greater than that of FB. The kinetic treatment of the results gave firs...

  7. Inhibitory effect of some carbazides on corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouda, A.S. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Madkour, L.H. [Tanta Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Elshafei, A.A. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Elasklany, A.H. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-06-01

    The dissolution of aluminium in hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions in the presence of semicarbazide, thiosemicarbazide and sym.diphenylcarbazide as corrosion inhibitors has been studied using thermometric, weight-loss and polarization methods. The three methods gave consistent results. The higher inhibition efficiency of these compounds in acidic than in alkaline madia may be due to the less negative potential of aluminium in hydrochloric acid solution, favouring adsorption of the additive. The adsorption of these compounds were found to obey Frumkin adsorption isotherm. Cathodic polarization measurements showed that these compounds are cathodic inhibitors and their adsorption in the double layer does not change the mechanism of the hydrogen evolution reaction. The results are analysed in terms of both molecular and cationic adsorption. (orig.)

  8. Surface chemical compositions and dispersity of starch nanocrystals formed by sulfuric and hydrochloric acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Benxi; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2014-01-01

    Surface chemical compositions of starch nanocrystals (SNC) prepared using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) hydrolysis were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and FT-IR. The results showed that carboxyl groups and sulfate esters were presented in SNC after hydrolysis with H2SO4, while no sulfate esters were detected in SNC during HCl-hydrolysis. TEM results showed that, compared to H2SO4-hydrolyzed sample, a wider size distribution of SNC prepared by HCl-hydrolysis were observed. Zeta-potentials were -23.1 and -5.02 mV for H2SO4- and HCl-hydrolyzed SNC suspensions at pH 6.5, respectively. Nevertheless, the zeta-potential values decreased to -32.3 and -10.2 mV as the dispersion pH was adjusted to 10.6. After placed 48 h at pH 10.6, zeta-potential increased to -24.1 mV for H2SO4-hydrolyzed SNC, while no change was detected for HCl-hydrolyzed one. The higher zeta-potential and relative small particle distribution of SNC caused more stable suspensions compared to HCl-hydrolyzed sample.

  9. Surface chemical compositions and dispersity of starch nanocrystals formed by sulfuric and hydrochloric acid hydrolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benxi Wei

    Full Text Available Surface chemical compositions of starch nanocrystals (SNC prepared using sulfuric acid (H2SO4 and hydrochloric acid (HCl hydrolysis were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and FT-IR. The results showed that carboxyl groups and sulfate esters were presented in SNC after hydrolysis with H2SO4, while no sulfate esters were detected in SNC during HCl-hydrolysis. TEM results showed that, compared to H2SO4-hydrolyzed sample, a wider size distribution of SNC prepared by HCl-hydrolysis were observed. Zeta-potentials were -23.1 and -5.02 mV for H2SO4- and HCl-hydrolyzed SNC suspensions at pH 6.5, respectively. Nevertheless, the zeta-potential values decreased to -32.3 and -10.2 mV as the dispersion pH was adjusted to 10.6. After placed 48 h at pH 10.6, zeta-potential increased to -24.1 mV for H2SO4-hydrolyzed SNC, while no change was detected for HCl-hydrolyzed one. The higher zeta-potential and relative small particle distribution of SNC caused more stable suspensions compared to HCl-hydrolyzed sample.

  10. The Effect of Temperature and Acid Concentration on Corrosion of Low Carbon Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anees A. Khadom

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The effect of different temperatures and acid concentrations on the corrosion of low carbon steel in hydrochloric acid were addressed in this study. Approach: The effect of temperature was explained by application of Arrhenius equation and transition state theory, while the acid concentration effect was explained using reaction kinetic equations. The combined effect of temperature and acid concentration then modeled using a nonlinear regression method. Results: A detail of thermodynamic parameters of activation (E, ΔH* and ΔS* and kinetic studies for the corrosion reaction were obtained. Nonlinear corrosion rates as a function of temperature and acid concentration equation were estimated with a good prediction corrosion rates values. Conclusion: The values of activation energy E and enthalpy of activation ΔH* decrease with increase in acid concentration indicating the increasing in reaction rate. Entropy of activation ΔS* tend to lower values with increasing in acid concentration which indicated that the activated complex was more orderly relative to the initial state. The corrosion reaction was approximately firs order reaction. The observed corrosion rate values from the experimental data were in a good agreement with that predicated by the mathematical equation.

  11. Growth and membrane fluidity of food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in the presence of weak acid preservatives and hydrochloric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis eDiakogiannis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses a major issue in microbial food safety, the elucidation of correlations between acid stress and changes in membrane fluidity of the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. In order to assess the possible role that membrane fluidity changes play in L. monocytogenes tolerance to antimicrobial acids (acetic, lactic, hydrochloric acid at low pH or benzoic acid at neutral pH, the growth of the bacterium and the gel-to-liquid crystalline transition temperature point (Tm of cellular lipids of each adapted culture was measured and compared with unexposed cells. The Tm of extracted lipids was measured by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. A trend of increasing Tm values but not of equal extent was observed upon acid tolerance for all samples and this increase is not directly proportional to each acid antibacterial action. The smallest increase in Tm value was observed in the presence of lactic acid, which presented the highest antibacterial action. In the presence of acids with high antibacterial action such as acetic, hydrochloric acid or low antibacterial action such as benzoic acid, increased Tm values were measured. The Tm changes of lipids were also correlated with our previous data about fatty acid changes to acid adaptation. The results imply that the fatty acid changes are not the sole adaptation mechanism for decreased membrane fluidity (increased Tm. Therefore, this study indicates the importance of conducting an in-depth structural study on how acids commonly used in food systems affect the composition of individual cellular membrane lipid molecules.

  12. Experimental and quantum chemical studies on corrosion inhibition performance of fluconazole in hydrochloric acid solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Malekmohammadi Nouri; M M Attar

    2015-04-01

    The corrosion inhibition effect of fluconazole (FLU) was investigated on steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution. Weight loss measurements and atomic force microscope analysis were utilized to investigate the corrosion inhibition properties and film formation behaviour of FLU. Quantum chemical approach was also used to calculate some electronic properties of the molecule in neutral and protonated form in order to find any correlation between the inhibition effect and molecular structure of FLU molecule. The results showed that FLU can act as a good corrosion inhibitor for steel in hydrochloric acid solution at different temperatures and it can inhibit steel corrosion up to 95%. The adsorption followed the Langmuir isotherm and the thermodynamic parameters were also determined and discussed. Quantum chemical studies showed that in adsorption process of FLU molecules, nitrogen and oxygen atoms and benzene ring act as active centres.

  13. A Concentrated Hydrochloric Acid-based Method for Complete Recovery of DNA from Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynen, Leon; Lambert, David M

    2015-11-01

    The successful extraction of DNA from historical or ancient animal bone is important for the analysis of discriminating genetic markers. Methods used currently rely on the digestion of bone with EDTA and proteinase K, followed by purification with phenol/chloroform and silica bed binding. We have developed a simple concentrated hydrochloric acid-based method that precludes the use of phenol/chloroform purification and can lead to a several-fold increase in DNA yield when compared to other commonly used methods. Concentrated hydrochloric acid was shown to dissolve most of the undigested bone and allowed the efficient recovery of DNA fragments <100 bases in length. This method should prove useful for the recovery of DNAs from highly degraded animal bone, such as that found in historical or ancient samples.

  14. ANTICORROSION POTENTIAL OF HYDRALAZINE FOR CORROSION OF MILD STEEL IN 1M HYDROCHLORIC ACID SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Prasanna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Anticorrosion potential of mild steel by Hydralazine as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1M hydrochloric acid was investigated by chemical and electrochemical measurements at 303-333 K temperature. The maximum inhibition efficiency of inhibitor by Weight loss method is around 90%, Tafel polarization method is around 85%; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement around 90% at 1250 ppm of Hydralazine in. The result shows that the inhibition efficiency increases with I 1M hydrochloric acid. Hydralazine acts as a mixed type inhibitor which inhibits the corrosion of mild steel due to the adsorption on metal surface. This adsorption system obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm.Activation parameters explains the effect of temperature with inhibition efficiency of inhibitor molecule.SEM images of inhibited mild steel strips shows a formation of passive protective film over the surface.

  15. Acid hydrolysis of corn stover using hydrochloric acid: Kinetic modeling and statistical optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrolysis of corn stover using hydrochloric acid was studied. The kinetic parameters of the mathematical models for predicting the yields of xylose, glucose, furfural and acetic acid were obtained, and the corresponding xylose generation activation energy of 100 kJ/mol was determined. The characterization of corn stover using with different techniques during hydrolysis indicated an effective removal of xylan and the slightly alteration on the structures of cellulose and lignin. A 23five levels Central Composite Design (CCD was used to develop a statistical model for the optimization of process variables including acid concentration, pretreatment temperature and time. The optimum conditions determined by this model were found to be 108ºC for 80 minutes with acid concentration of 5.8%. Under these conditions, the maximised results are the following: xylose 19.93 g/L, glucose 1.2 g/L, furfural 1.5 g/L, acetic acid 1.3 g/L. The validation of the model indicates a good agreement between the experimental results and the predicted values.

  16. Inhibition of Mild Steel Corrosion in Hydrochloric Acid Solution by Ciprofloxacin Drug

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The inhibition of mild steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid solution by ciprofloxacin drug as an eco-friendly and commercially available inhibitor was studied at room temperature by weight loss technique. It was found that the test drug has a promising inhibitory action against corrosion of mild steel in the medium investigated. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with a corresponding increase in the concentration of the inhibitor. It was also found that the adsorption as well as ...

  17. Corrosion Inhibition Synergism between Lanthanum(Ⅲ) Ion and 8-Hydroxyquinoline for Zinc in Hydrochloric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    木冠南; 唐丽斌; 李学铭

    2002-01-01

    The effects of La3+ ion and chelate reagent 8-hydroxyquinoline on the corrosion rate of zinc in hydrochloric acid were investigated by using weight loss method and electrochemical method. It is found that in a specific concentration range of La3+ ion and 8-hydroxyquinoline, the obvious corrosion inhibition synergism is obtained. The mechanism of corrosion inhibition synergism was discussed on basis of adsorption theory.

  18. Kinetics of Sawdust Hydrolysis with Dilute Hydrochloric Acid and Ferrous Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁传敏; 颜涌捷; 任铮伟; 李庭琛; 曹建勤

    2004-01-01

    With dilute hydrochloric acid as catalyst and promoted by ferrous chloride, hydrolysis of waste sawdust to produce monosaccharides was conducted by using an one-step method in a batch-wise operation reactor. Based on the model of first order consecutive irreversible reactions, the kinetics equation incorporating the term of catalyst concentration was obtained that is suitable for describing the hydrolysis of sawdust. Activation energies were calculated for hydrolysis of sawdust and decomposition of monosaccharides.

  19. Hydrochloric acid infusion for treatment of metabolic alkalosis associated with respiratory acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimioulle, S; Berre, J; Dufaye, P; Vincent, J L; Degaute, J P; Kahn, R J

    1989-03-01

    Hypercapnia due to respiratory failure can be more severe when accompanied by coexistent metabolic alkalosis. We therefore tested the hypothesis that hydrochloric acid (HCl) infusion could improve PaCO2 in 15 critically ill patients admitted with mixed respiratory acidosis and metabolic alkalosis, and a pH of between 7.35 and 7.45. HCl was infused at a constant rate of 25 mmol/h until the bicarbonate concentration decreased less than 26 mmol/L, or until the pH decreased less than 7.35 (initial pH greater than 7.40) or 7.30 (initial pH less than 7.40). Administration of 170 +/- 53 mmol of HCl decreased the bicarbonate concentration from 34 +/- 3 to 25 +/- 2 mmol/L (p less than .001), the pH from 7.41 +/- 0.03 to 7.33 +/- 0.02 (p less than .001), and the PaCO2 from 54 +/- 8 to 48 +/- 8 torr (p less than .001). Postinfusion PaCO2 could be predicted accurately from the initial status of the patients (r = .95, p less than .001) except in one patient with fixed hypercapnia. PaCO2 increased from 77 +/- 19 to 94 +/- 24 torr (p less than .001) and PaO2/PAO2 increased from 59 +/- 17 to 66 +/- 17% (p less than .001). The effects of HCl were still present 12 h after the end of the infusion. No complications related to the acid infusion were noted. These results indicate that, even in the absence of alkalemia, active correction of metabolic alkalosis by HCl infusion can improve CO2 and oxygen exchange in critically ill patients with mixed respiratory acidosis and metabolic alkalosis.

  20. Effect of dentifrices against hydrochloric acid-induced erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messias, Danielle Cristine; Maeda, Fernando Akio; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso; Serra, Mônica Campos

    2011-01-01

    This in vitro investigation assessed whether different dentifrices would be capable of controlling the enamel erosion progression caused by HCl. Sixty bovine enamel slabs were covered with acid-resistant varnish, except for a 2.5-mm2 circular area on the labial surface. According to a complete block design, the experimental units were immersed in HCl solution (pH 1.2; 0.1M). After storage in artificial saliva for 1 h, specimens (n = 15) were exposed to different dentifrices: Sensodyne Cool Gel (1100 ppm F), Sensodyne ProNamel (1450 ppm F), and PrevDent 5000 (5000 ppm F). The control group was immersed in deionised water. Following five cycles of erosive challenge, the slabs were prepared for porosity evaluation using solutions of copper sulfate and rubeanic acid. ANOVA demonstrated no difference in the enamel porosity as a function of the dentifrice employed (P = 0.5494). The damage caused by a simulated intrinsic erosive challenge seems unable to be controlled by fluoridated dentifrices, even when this ion is found in elevated concentrations.

  1. Heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash by thermochemical treatment with gaseous hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Christian; Adam, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Sewage sludge ash (SSA) is a suitable raw material for fertilizers due to its high phosphorus (P) content. However, heavy metals must be removed before agricultural application and P should be transferred into a bioavailable form. The utilization of gaseous hydrochloric acid for thermochemical heavy metal removal from SSA at approximately 1000 °C was investigated and compared to the utilization of alkaline earth metal chlorides. The heavy metal removal efficiency increased as expected with higher gas concentration, longer retention time and higher temperature. Equivalent heavy metal removal efficiency were achieved with these different Cl-donors under comparable conditions (150 g Cl/kg SSA, 1000 °C). In contrast, the bioavailability of the P-bearing compounds present in the SSA after thermal treatment with gaseous HCl was not as good as the bioavailability of the P-bearing compounds formed by the utilization of magnesium chloride. This disadvantage was overcome by mixing MgCO(3) as an Mg-donor to the SSA before thermochemical treatment with the gaseous Cl-donor. A test series under systematic variation of the operational parameters showed that copper removal is more depending on the retention time than the removal of zinc. Zn-removal was declined by a decreasing ratio of the partial pressures of ZnCl(2) and water.

  2. Adsorption of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution onto Hydrochloric Acid-modified Rectorite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Gaoke; LIU Guanfeng; GUO Yadan

    2011-01-01

    H+-rectorite clay,which was prepared by modifying the raw rectorite with 10% hydrochloric acid at 60 ℃C for 24 h,was used as an absorbent for removal of methyl blue (MB) from aqueous solutions.The morphology and the structure and crystallinity of the pristine rectorite and the H+-rectorite were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique and X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique,respectively.The results showed that the H+-rectorite exhibited high adsorption ability than the raw rectorite,and it was found that the removal percentage of MB increased with increasing in adsorbents dose,whereas the adsorption amount q,(mg/g) decreased.The equilibrium was attained within 30 min in adsorption process,and the maximum adsorption capacity of H+-rectorite for methylene blue reached as high as 37 mg/g.Besides,the effect of temperature on the adsorption of MB with H+-rectorite was investigated and the equilibrium data were well fitted to Freundlich equations.The H+-rectorite absorbent saturated with MB can be regenerated by calcinating at 400 ℃ for 2 h and the regenerated absorbent still showed higher percentage removal of MB.

  3. Corrosion inhibition of iron in hydrochloric acid by polyacrylamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGICA CHAMOVSKA

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion protection and/or adsorption of polyacrylamide (PAA of number average molecular weight, , between 15,000 – 1,350,000 g mol-1 on mild steel and iron (99.99 % Fe in 3 M HCl at room temperature was studied using spectrophotometry (the phenanthroline method, the weight loss method and EIS (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. It was found that the corrosion protect­tion efficiency of the PAA – adsorbed layers strongly depends on both the molar concentration of PAA in the solution and its molecular weight, reaching limiting values between 85 and 96 %. Simultaneously, it was also concluded that a relatively high surface coverage could be obtained with very low PAA concentrations (0.5 – 2 ppm, indicating the good adsorption characteristics of PAA on mild steel and iron in hydrochloride acid. The experimentally obtained results follow a Lan­gmuir adsorption isotherm. According to the best fitting parameters, the adsorption coef­f­i­cient B ranged between 2×107 and 4×108 mol-1 and depended strongly on the mole­cular weight of the PAA: B = k (for a ≈ 0.67 and k = 2.95×104 or the size of the polymer coil. As was found by EIS, the thickness of the adsorbed PAA layer was approx. 1.1 nm (for er = 15 and corresponded only to the polymer segments attached to the metal surface. On the other hand, as was found by ellipsometry, the limiting layer of the adsorbed PAA molecules was highly voluminous and relatively thick (100 – 200 nm, containing entangled polymer coils.

  4. Investigating the Acid Failure of Aluminium Alloy in 2 M Hydrochloric Acid Using Vernonia amygdalina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga A. Omotosho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The acid failure of aluminium alloy in 2 M hydrochloric acid solution in the presence of Vernonia amygdalina extract was investigated using gasometric technique. Aluminium alloy coupons of dimension 4 cm by 1 cm were immersed in test solutions of free acid and also those containing extract volumes of 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm3 at ambient temperature for 30 minutes. The volumes of hydrogen gas evolved as a result of the rate of reaction were recorded and analyzed. Analysis revealed that maximum inhibitor efficiency which corresponds to the lowest corrosion rate was obtained at optimum inhibitor volumes of 5 cm3, with reduction in the corrosion rate observed to follow in order of increasing extract volumes. Adsorption study revealed that Temkin isotherm best described the metal surface interaction with the extract phytochemicals, with 12 minutes becoming the best exposure time for the phytochemicals to adsorb to the metal surface at all volumes. Statistical modelling of the corrosion rate yielded an important relationship suitable for estimating corrosion rate values once volumes of the extract is known. Microstructural studies, showed an indirect relationship between crack growth rates and extract volumes, while consistency of the irregular intermetallic phases increases with increasing extract volumes.

  5. Thermodynamics and kinetics of lutetium extraction with HEH(EHP) in hydrochloric acid medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Jinshi; XU Yang; WANG Liangshi; HUANG Xiaowei; LONG Zhiqi; WU Shengxi

    2016-01-01

    Solvent extraction has been the most widely used technique for rare earths separation. In this study, thermodynamics and kinetics of lutetium extraction with HEH (EHP) in hydrochloric acid medium were investigated. The extraction mechanism and the relevant parameters were determined by experiment research which can guide the practical extraction process. The data indicated that chloride ion had no effect on lutetium extraction, the rate constant increased when stirring speed was enhanced. Effects of temperature, HEH (EHP) concentration, acidity, and chloride concentration were also studied. Thickness of the diffusion film was also calculated to be 4.66×10–3 cm at 150 r/min.

  6. Influence of Formazan Derivatives on Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Venkatesan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Formazan of benzaldehyde (FB and formazan of p-dimethyl amino benzaldehyde (FD were synthesized. These compounds were studied as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1.11 N hydrochloric acid by weight loss method. The result showed that the corrosion inhibition efficiency of these compounds was found to vary with the temperature and acid concentration. Also, it was found that the corrosion inhibition behaviour of FD is greater than that of FB. The kinetic treatment of the results gave first order kinetics. The relative corrosion inhibition efficiency of these compounds has been explained on the basis of structure dependent - electron donor properties of the inhibitors.

  7. Determination of uranium isotopes in environmental samples by anion exchange in sulfuric and hydrochloric acid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, L

    2016-09-01

    Method for determination of uranium isotopes in various environmental samples is presented. The major advantages of the method are the low cost of the analysis, high radiochemical yields and good decontamination factors from the matrix elements, natural and man-made radionuclides. The separation and purification of uranium is attained by adsorption with strong base anion exchange resin in sulfuric and hydrochloric acid media. Uranium is electrodeposited on a stainless steel disk and measured by alpha spectrometry. The analytical method has been applied for the determination of concentrations of uranium isotopes in mineral, spring and tap waters from Bulgaria. The analytical quality was checked by analyzing reference materials.

  8. Inhibition of Mild Steel Corrosion in Hydrochloric Acid Solution by Ciprofloxacin Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inemesit A. Akpan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of mild steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid solution by ciprofloxacin drug as an eco-friendly and commercially available inhibitor was studied at room temperature by weight loss technique. It was found that the test drug has a promising inhibitory action against corrosion of mild steel in the medium investigated. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with a corresponding increase in the concentration of the inhibitor. It was also found that the adsorption as well as the inhibition process followed a first-order kinetics and obeyed Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm.

  9. Effect of molecular structure of aniline-formaldehyde copolymers on corrosion inhibition of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Nie, Mengyan; Wang, Xiutong; Zhu, Yukun; Shi, Fuhua; Yu, Jianqiang; Hou, Baorong

    2015-05-30

    Aniline-formaldehyde copolymers with different molecular structures have been prepared and investigated for the purpose of corrosion control of mild steel in hydrochloric acid. The copolymers were synthesized by a condensation polymerization process with different ratios of aniline to formaldehyde in acidic precursor solutions. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of as-synthesized copolymers for Q235 mild steel was investigated in 1.0 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid solution by weight loss measurement, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, respectively. All the results demonstrate that as-prepared aniline-formaldehyde copolymers are efficient mixed-type corrosion inhibitors for mild steels in hydrochloric acid. The corrosion inhibition mechanism is discussed in terms of the role of molecular structure on adsorption of the copolymers onto the steel surface in acid solution.

  10. Recovery of Co(Ⅱ) and Ni(Ⅱ) from hydrochloric acid solution of alloy scrap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yong-feng; XUE Wen-ying; NIU Wen-yong

    2008-01-01

    A hydrometallurgical process was developed for recovery of nickel and cobalt from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution of alloy scraps. The process consists of five major unit operations: 1) leaching with 6 mol/L hydrochloric acid under the L/S ratio of 10:1 at 95 ℃ for 3 h; 2) copper replacement by iron scraps under pH value of 2.0 at 80 ℃, and stirring for 1 h; 3) removal of iron and chromium by chemical precipitation: iron removal under pH value of 2.0 at 90 ℃ by dropwise addition of sodium chlorate and 18% sodium carbonate solution, then chromium removal under pH value of 4.0 at 70 ℃ by addition of nickel carbonate solution, stirred by air flow for 2 h; 4) selective separation of cobalt from nickel by extraction using 30% trialkyl amine+50% kerosene (volume fraction) and tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) as a phase modifier with the O/A ratio of 2:1, and stripping of cobalt with 0.01 mol/L HC1; 5) crystallization of nickel chloride and electrodeposition of cobalt. It is found that the nickel recovery of 95% and the cobalt recovery of approximately 60% with purity over 99.9% are obtained by this process.

  11. Kinetic Aspects of Leaching Zinc from Waste Galvanizing Zinc by Using Hydrochloric Acid Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sminčáková, Emília; Trpčevská, Jarmila; Pirošková, Jana

    2017-10-01

    In this work, the results of acid leaching of flux skimmings coming from two plants are presented. Sample A contained two phases, Zn(OH)Cl and NH4Cl. In sample B, the presence of three phases, Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O, (NH4)2(ZnCl4) and ZnCl2(NH3)2, was proved. The aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid and distilled water was used as the leaching medium. The effects of the leaching time, temperature and concentration of the leaching medium on the zinc extraction were investigated. The apparent activation energy, E a = 4.61 kJ mol-1, and apparent reaction order n = 0.18 for sample A, and the values E a = 6.28 kJ mol-1 and n = 0.33 for sample B were experimentally determined. Zinc leaching in acid medium is a diffusion-controlled process.

  12. Kinetic Aspects of Leaching Zinc from Waste Galvanizing Zinc by Using Hydrochloric Acid Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sminčáková, Emília; Trpčevská, Jarmila; Pirošková, Jana

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the results of acid leaching of flux skimmings coming from two plants are presented. Sample A contained two phases, Zn(OH)Cl and NH4Cl. In sample B, the presence of three phases, Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O, (NH4)2(ZnCl4) and ZnCl2(NH3)2, was proved. The aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid and distilled water was used as the leaching medium. The effects of the leaching time, temperature and concentration of the leaching medium on the zinc extraction were investigated. The apparent activation energy, E a = 4.61 kJ mol-1, and apparent reaction order n = 0.18 for sample A, and the values E a = 6.28 kJ mol-1 and n = 0.33 for sample B were experimentally determined. Zinc leaching in acid medium is a diffusion-controlled process.

  13. Growth and membrane fluidity of food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in the presence of weak acid preservatives and hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakogiannis, Ioannis; Berberi, Anita; Siapi, Eleni; Arkoudi-Vafea, Angeliki; Giannopoulou, Lydia; Mastronicolis, Sofia K

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a major issue in microbial food safety, the elucidation of correlations between acid stress and changes in membrane fluidity of the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. In order to assess the possible role that membrane fluidity changes play in L. monocytogenes tolerance to antimicrobial acids (acetic, lactic, hydrochloric acid at low pH or benzoic acid at neutral pH), the growth of the bacterium and the gel-to-liquid crystalline transition temperature point (T m) of cellular lipids of each adapted culture was measured and compared with unexposed cells. The T m of extracted lipids was measured by differential scanning calorimetry. A trend of increasing T m values but not of equal extent was observed upon acid tolerance for all samples and this increase is not directly proportional to each acid antibacterial action. The smallest increase in T m value was observed in the presence of lactic acid, which presented the highest antibacterial action. In the presence of acids with high antibacterial action such as acetic, hydrochloric acid or low antibacterial action such as benzoic acid, increased T m values were measured. The T m changes of lipids were also correlated with our previous data about fatty acid changes to acid adaptation. The results imply that the fatty acid changes are not the sole adaptation mechanism for decreased membrane fluidity (increased T m). Therefore, this study indicates the importance of conducting an in-depth structural study on how acids commonly used in food systems affect the composition of individual cellular membrane lipid molecules.

  14. The Comparison of Hydrochloric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Treatments in the Preparation of Montmorillonite Catalysts for RNA Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldersley, Michael Frank; Joshi, Prakash C.; Huang, Yixing

    2017-02-01

    The treatment of clay minerals with a preliminary acid wash and titration to pH 7 has proven to generate catalysts for the most interesting of oligomerization reactions in which activated RNA-nucleotides generate oligomers up to 40-mers. Significantly, not all clay minerals become catalytic following this treatment and none are catalytic in the absence of such treatment. The washing procedure has been modified and explored further using phosphoric acid and the outcomes are compared to those obtained when clay samples are prepared following a hydrochloric acid wash.

  15. Electrochemical study on inhibitory effect of Aspirin on mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Prasanna

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin was investigated as a good corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid at a temperature region from 303 to 333 K. The computed inhibition efficiency increases by increasing the inhibitor concentration and decreases by increasing the temperature. The investigation was done by weight loss, electrochemical measurements such as Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Inhibition effect is attributed to the adsorption of inhibitor on the surface of the mild steel. The Tafel method reveals that the Aspirin acts as a mixed type inhibitor. Activation parameters suggest that the adsorption process is exothermic in nature. SEM photographs of mild steel in the absence and presence of inhibitor visualize the adsorption layer on the surface of the mild steel.

  16. Integrated Computational and Experimental Protocol for Understanding Rh(III) Speciation in Hydrochloric and Nitric Acid Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuels, Alex C.; Boele, Cherilynn A.; Bennett, Kevin T.; Clark, Sue B.; Wall, Nathalie; Clark, Aurora E.

    2014-12-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical approach has investigated the complex speciation of Rh(III) in hydrochloric and nitric acid media, as a function of acid concentration. This has relevance to the separation and isolation of Rh(III) from dissolved spent nuclear fuel, which is an emergent and attractive alternative source of platinum group metals, relative to traditional mining efforts.

  17. N-methyl-2-(2-nitrobenzylidene) hydrazine carbothioamide-A new corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 mol·L-1 hydrochloric acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K Krishnaveni; K Sampath; J Ravichandran; C Jayabalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1 mol·L−1 hydrochloric acid by N-methyl-2-(2-nitrobenzylidene) hydrazine carbothioamide (MNBHC) was studied using weight loss and electrochemical studies. Results obtained indicate that the inhibitor is effective in hydrochloric acid medium and the efficiency decreases with increase in temperature. Added halide additives improve the efficiency of the inhibitor. The AC impedance studies reveal that the process of inhibition is through charge transfer. Polarization studies indicate the mixed nature of the in-hibitor. From the thermodynamic, spectral and surface analyses the nature of adsorption has been found out. The adsorption of the inhibitor on mild steel follows the Langmuir isotherm.

  18. Anomalous spin polarization in the photoreduction of chromone-2-carboxylic acid with alcohol induced by hydrochloric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Keishi; Mukai, Kazuo

    2000-02-01

    The addition effect of hydrochloric acid (HCl) on the photoreduction of chromone-2-carboxylic acid (CRCA) is studied by time-resolved EPR. The EPR lines of CRCA ketyl radical show an enhanced absorption in the presence of HCl, while without HCl these show an emissive character. On the other hand, the lines of the CRCA alkyl type radical show an emissive character whether HCl is included or not. The simultaneous reactions of the closely-lying two excited triplet states (T 1 and T 2) of CRCA may induce the above anomalous CIDEP behavior.

  19. Comparison of sulfuric and hydrochloric acids as catalysts in hydrolysis of Kappaphycus alvarezii (cottonii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinita, Maria Dyah Nur; Hong, Yong-Ki; Jeong, Gwi-Taek

    2012-01-01

    In this study, hydrolysis of marine algal biomass Kappaphhycus alvarezii using two different acid catalysts was examined with the goal of identifying optimal reaction conditions for the formation of sugars and by-products. K. alvarezii were hydrolyzed by autoclave using sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as catalyst with different acid concentrations (0.1-1.0 M), substrate concentrations (1.0-13.5%), hydrolysis time (10-90 min) and hydrolysis temperatures (100-130 (°)C). A difference in galactose, glucose, reducing sugar and total sugar content was observed under the different hydrolysis conditions. Different by-product compounds such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid were also observed under the different reaction conditions. The optimal conditions for hydrolysis were achieved at a sulfuric acid concentration, temperature and reaction time of 0.2 M, 130 °C and 15 min, respectively. These results may provide useful information for the development of more efficient systems for biofuel production from marine biomass.

  20. Detection of anhydrous hydrochloric acid, HCl, in IRC+10216 with the Herschel SPIRE and PACS spectrometers

    CERN Document Server

    Cernicharo, J; Barlow, M J; Agundez, M; Royer, P; Vandenbussche, B; Wesson, R; Polehampton, E T; De Beck, E; Blommaert, J A D L; Daniel, F; De Meester, W; Exter, K M; Feuchtgruber, H; Gear, W K; Goicoechea, J R; Gomez, H L; Groenewegen, M A T; Hargrave, P C; Huygen, R; Imhof, P; Ivison, R J; Jean, C; Kerschbaum, F; Leeks, S J; Lim, T L; Matsuura, M; Olofsson, G; Posch, T; Regibo, S; Savini, G; Sibthorpe, B; Swinyard, B M; Vandenbussche, B; Waelkens, C

    2010-01-01

    We report on the detection of anhydrous hydrochloric acid (hydrogen chlorine, HCl) in the carbon-rich star IRC+10216 using the spectroscopic facilities onboard the Herschel satellite. Lines from J=1-0 up to J=7-6 have been detected. From the observed intensities, we conclude that HCl is produced in the innermost layers of the circumstellar envelope with an abundance relative to H2 of 5x10^-8 and extends until the molecules reach its photodissociation zone. Upper limits to the column densities of AlH, MgH, CaH, CuH, KH, NaH, FeH, and other diatomic hydrides have also been obtained.

  1. Hydrochloric acid recovery from rare earth chloride solutions by vacuum membrane distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jianjun; ZHOU Kanggen

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of the recovery of hydrochloric acid from rare earth (RE) chloride solutions was first experimentally studied by batch vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). The recovery by continuous VMD was also studied to devise methods that enabled the operation of VMD setup in a stable condition as well as to increase the membrane-operating life The results indicated that HCl separation with RE by VMD was possible, and the recovery ratio of 80% could be achieved by batch VMD. In continuous VMD, when the temperature of circular solutions, circular rate, and downstream pressure was62-63℃, 5.4 cm/s, and 9.33 kPa, respectively, the HCl concentration in circular solutions and the processing capacity per membrane area were obtained. The mathematical results were in accordance with the experimental ones.

  2. Molecular Structure of Phenylthiourea as a Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anees A, Khadom

    2011-01-01

    The application of statistical analysis and quantum chemical models on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in hydrochloric acid in presence of phenylthiourea (PTU) as corrosion inhibitor have been investigated. Two mathematical models were used, second order polynomial model and Arrhenius type equation model. STATISTICA software based on Levenberg-Marquardt estimation method was used to evaluate the coefficients of two Models. It follows that the two models were suitable to represent the corrosion rate data at different conditions. The correlation coefficient of second order polynomial model was 0.973, while for the Arrhenius type model was 0.919. The structure of inhibitor was optimized by ArgusLab 4.0.1 package. The quantum chemical parameters (EHoMO, ELUMO, AE, and dipole moment μ) were estimated by PM3-SCF method.

  3. Use of hydrochloric acid for determinining solid-phase arsenic partitioning in sulfidic sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, Richard T; Ford, Robert G

    2002-11-15

    We examined the use of room-temperature hydrochloric acid (1-6 M) and salt solutions of magnesium chloride, sodium carbonate, and sodium sulfide for the removal of arsenic from synthetic iron monosulfides and contaminated sediments containing acid-volatile sulfides (AVS). Results indicate that acid-soluble arsenic reacts with H2S released from AVS phases and precipitates at low pH as disordered orpiment or alacranite. Arsenic sulfide precipitation is consistent with geochemical modeling in that conditions during acid extraction are predicted to be oversaturated with respect to orpiment, realgar, or both. Binding of arsenic with sulfide at low pH is sufficiently strong that 6 M HCl will not keep spiked arsenic in the dissolved fraction. Over a wide range of AVS concentrations and molar [As]/[AVS] ratios, acid extraction of arsenic from sulfide-bearing sediments will give biased results that overestimate the stability or underestimate the bioavailability of sediment-bound arsenic. Alkaline solutions of sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate are efficient in removing arsenic from arsenic sulfides and mixed iron-arsenic sulfides because of the high solubility of arsenic at alkaline pH, the formation of stable arsenic complexes with sulfide or carbonate, or both.

  4. Cellulose acetate layer effect toward aluminium corrosion rate in hydrochloric acid media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andarany, K. S.; Sagir, A.; Ahmad, A.; Deni, S. K.; Gunawan, W.

    2017-09-01

    Corrosion occurs due to the oxidation and reduction reactions between the material and its environment. The oxidation reaction defined as reactions that produce electrons and reduction is between two elements that bind the electrons. Corrosion cannot be inevitable in life both within the industry and household. Corrosion cannot eliminate but can be control. According to the voltaic table, Aluminum is a metal that easily corroded. This study attempts to characterize the type of corrosion by using a strong acid media (HCl). Experiment using a strong acid (HCl), at a low concentration that occurs is pitting corrosion, whereas at high concentrations that occurs is corrosion erosion. One of prevention method is by using a coating method. An efforts are made to slow the rate of corrosion is by coating the metal with “cellulose acetate” (CA). cellulose acetate consisted of cellulose powder dissolved in 99% acetic acid, and then applied to the aluminum metal. Soaking experiments using hydrochloric acid, cellulose acetate is able to slow down the corrosion rate of 47 479%.

  5. Extraction of gold from hydrochloric acid solutions by Alamine 336 and Alkylaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Dolgova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of gold with 336 Alamin and Alkylaniline from hydrochloric acid solutions was studied. Shown that Alamin extracts gold quantitatively in the field of acidity of the aqueuous phase pH=3,0 – СHCl=3,5 M when used as diluents of kerosene and higher carboxylic acids in admixture with paraffin. The time of quantitative extraction of gold: with Alamin – 3 minutes, with Alkylaniline – 5 minutes, regardless of the choice of diluent. The composition of the extracted complex and scheme of  gold extraction process with Alamin was proposed. Extraction of gold with 5%- Alamin-HCA-paraffin can be used for development of a combined extraction -  X-ray fluorescence technique for determination of gold because the resulting solids extracts meet the requirements imposed on emitters samples in X-ray fluorescence analysis. Calibration characteritstic is linear in the range of gold content in the samples emitters 0,006-0,17 wt%.

  6. The influence of long term use of inhibitors in hydrochloric acid pickling baths on hydrogen induced stress corrosion cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feser, R.; Friedrich, A.; Scheide, F. [Fachhochschule Suedwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Frauenstuhlweg 31, D-58644 Iserlohn (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    The influence of commercially available inhibitors on the absorption of hydrogen by steel (St 52, StE 460, StE 690, 42CrMo4) in 15% hydrochloric acid was studied. The pickling bath aged continuously due to the chemical reaction with oxidized steel sheets. The H{sup +}- and inhibitor concentration decreased with time. The influence of this ageing process on hydrogen-induced stress corrosion cracking was tested by in-situ tensile tests in the bath solution. With increasing ageing of the bath, the reduction in fracture area was reduced and approached the values measured for non-inhibited acid baths. Furthermore hydrogen permeation was investigated. Permeation current densities rose with increasing ageing of the pickling solution. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Der Einfluss von kommerziell erhaeltlichen Inhibitoren auf die Wasserstoffabsorption von Stahl (St 52, StE 460, StE 690, 42CrMo4) wurde in Salzsaeure untersucht. Die Beizbaeder wurden kontinuierlich durch die chemische Reaktion mit oxidierten Stahlblechen gealtert. Die H{sup +}- und Inhibitorkonzentration nahm mit der Zeit ab. Der Einfluss dieses Alterungsprozesses auf die wasserstoffinduzierte Spannungsrisskorrosion wurde durch in-situ Zugversuche mit Badloesung untersucht. Mit zunehmender Alterung des Bades nahm die Brucheinschnuerung ab und erreichte Werte wie sie auch in der nicht inhibierten Saeure erreicht werden. Weiterhin wurde die Wasserstoff-Permeation untersucht. Die Permeationsstromdichte steigt mit zunehmender Alterung der Beizloesung. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Effect of foods and drinks on primary tooth enamel after erosive challenge with hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita-Guimarães, Késsia Suênia Fidelis de; Scatena, Camila; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; Rodrigues-Júnior, Antonio Luiz; Serra, Mônica Campos

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of industrialised foods and drinks on primary tooth enamel previously eroded with hydrochloric acid (HCl). The crowns of one hundred two specimens were subjected to an erosive challenge with HCl and randomly divided into six groups (n = 17): Chocolate Milk (Toddynho® - Pepsico) - negative control; Petit Suisse Yogurt (Danoninho® - Danone); Strawberry Yogurt (Vigor); Apple puree (Nestlé); Fermented Milk (Yakult® - Yakult); and Home Squeezed Style Orange Juice (del Valle) - positive control. The 28-day immersion cycles for the test products were performed twice daily and were interspersed with exposure of the test substrate to artificial saliva. Measurements of enamel surface microhardness (SMH) were performed initially, after immersion in HCl and at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of experimentation. A two-way ANOVA, according to a split-plot design, followed by the sum of squares decomposition and Tukey's test, revealed a significant effect for the interaction between Foods and Drinks and Length of Exposure (p < 0.00001). Orange juice resulted in greater mineral loss of enamel after 28 days. None of the test products was associated with recovery of tooth enamel microhardness.

  8. Two pyrazine derivatives as inhibitors of the cold rolled steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Shuduan, E-mail: dengshuduan@163.co [Faculty of Wood Science and Decoration Technology, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224 (China); Li Xianghong; Fu Hui [Department of Fundamental Courses, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: Two pyrazine derivatives of 2-aminopyrazine (AP) and 2-amino-5-bromopyrazine (ABP) are good inhibitors for the corrosion of steel in 1.0 M HCl solution. The inhibition efficiency follows the order: ABP > AP. The substitution Br of ABP is the additional centre of adsorption and increases the electron density of pyrazine ring, which can facilitate its adsorption on the metal surface. For either ABP or AP, the adsorption obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Both ABP and AP act as mixed-type inhibitors. - Abstract: The inhibition effect of two pyrazine derivatives of 2-aminopyrazine (AP) and 2-amino-5-bromopyrazine (ABP) on the corrosion of cold rolled steel (CRS) in 1.0 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) was studied by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. The results show that both AP and ABP are good inhibitors, and inhibition efficiency follows the order: ABP > AP. The adsorption of each inhibitor on CRS surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Potentiodynamic polarization curves show that two pyrazine derivatives act as mixed-type inhibitors. EIS spectra exhibit one capacitive loop and confirm the inhibitive ability.

  9. Effect of foods and drinks on primary tooth enamel after erosive challenge with hydrochloric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Késsia Suênia Fidelis de MESQUITA-GUIMARÃES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of industrialised foods and drinks on primary tooth enamel previously eroded with hydrochloric acid (HCl. The crowns of one hundred two specimens were subjected to an erosive challenge with HCl and randomly divided into six groups (n = 17: Chocolate Milk (Toddynho® - Pepsico - negative control; Petit Suisse Yogurt (Danoninho® - Danone; Strawberry Yogurt (Vigor; Apple puree (Nestlé; Fermented Milk (Yakult® - Yakult; and Home Squeezed Style Orange Juice (del Valle - positive control. The 28-day immersion cycles for the test products were performed twice daily and were interspersed with exposure of the test substrate to artificial saliva. Measurements of enamel surface microhardness (SMH were performed initially, after immersion in HCl and at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of experimentation. A two-way ANOVA, according to a split-plot design, followed by the sum of squares decomposition and Tukey’s test, revealed a significant effect for the interaction between Foods and Drinks and Length of Exposure (p < 0.00001. Orange juice resulted in greater mineral loss of enamel after 28 days. None of the test products was associated with recovery of tooth enamel microhardness.

  10. Direct anodic hydrochloric acid and cathodic caustic production during water electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Wen; Cejudo-Marín, Rocío; Jeremiasse, Adriaan W.; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo; Pikaar, Ilje

    2016-02-01

    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) and caustic (NaOH) are among the most widely used chemicals by the water industry. Direct anodic electrochemical HCl production by water electrolysis has not been successful as current commercially available electrodes are prone to chlorine formation. This study presents an innovative technology simultaneously generating HCl and NaOH from NaCl using a Mn0.84Mo0.16O2.23 oxygen evolution electrode during water electrolysis. The results showed that protons could be anodically generated at a high Coulombic efficiency (i.e. ≥ 95%) with chlorine formation accounting for 3 ~ 5% of the charge supplied. HCl was anodically produced at moderate strengths at a CE of 65 ± 4% together with a CE of 89 ± 1% for cathodic caustic production. The reduction in CE for HCl generation was caused by proton cross-over from the anode to the middle compartment. Overall, this study showed the potential of simultaneous HCl and NaOH generation from NaCl and represents a major step forward for the water industry towards on-site production of HCl and NaOH. In this study, artificial brine was used as a source of sodium and chloride ions. In theory, artificial brine could be replaced by saline waste streams such as Reverse Osmosis Concentrate (ROC), turning ROC into a valuable resource.

  11. Removing hydrochloric acid exhaust products from high performance solid rocket propellant using aluminum-lithium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Brandon C; Sippel, Travis R; Pfeil, Mark A; Gunduz, I Emre; Son, Steven F

    2016-11-05

    Hydrochloric acid (HCl) pollution from perchlorate based propellants is well known for both launch site contamination, as well as the possible ozone layer depletion effects. Past efforts in developing environmentally cleaner solid propellants by scavenging the chlorine ion have focused on replacing a portion of the chorine-containing oxidant (i.e., ammonium perchlorate) with an alkali metal nitrate. The alkali metal (e.g., Li or Na) in the nitrate reacts with the chlorine ion to form an alkali metal chloride (i.e., a salt instead of HCl). While this technique can potentially reduce HCl formation, it also results in reduced ideal specific impulse (ISP). Here, we show using thermochemical calculations that using aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy can reduce HCl formation by more than 95% (with lithium contents ≥15 mass%) and increase the ideal ISP by ∼7s compared to neat aluminum (using 80/20 mass% Al-Li alloy). Two solid propellants were formulated using 80/20 Al-Li alloy or neat aluminum as fuel additives. The halide scavenging effect of Al-Li propellants was verified using wet bomb combustion experiments (75.5±4.8% reduction in pH, ∝ [HCl], when compared to neat aluminum). Additionally, no measurable HCl evolution was detected using differential scanning calorimetry coupled with thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared absorption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibition of the corrosion of mild steel in hydrochloric acid by isatin and isatin glycine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.I. Ita

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of corrosion of mild steel in hydrochloric acid by isatin glycine (ING and isatin (IN at 30-60 oC and concentrations of 0.0001 M to 0.0005 M was studied via weight loss method. At the highest inhibitor concentration studied ING exhibited inhibition efficiency of 87% while IN exhibited 84% at 60 oC. A chemical adsorption mechanism was proposed on the basis of the temperature effect and obtained average activation energy values of 143.9 kJ/mol for ING and 118.5 kJ/mol for IN. The two inhibitors were confirmed to obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm equation at the concentrations studied. Also a first-order type of mechanism was proposed from the kinetic treatment of the result. The difference in the inhibitory properties of the inhibitors was explained in terms of the difference in their molecular structures and solubility rather than difference in molecular weights alone.

  13. Eclipta Alba as Corrosion Pickling Inhibitor on Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Shyamala; A. Arulanantham

    2009-01-01

    Due to ease of application, cost effectiveness and environmentally safe, in this study, the corrosion inhibition effect of aqueous extract of Eclipta alba in 1 N hydrochloric acid has been investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and impedance methods and the extracts of Eclipta alba were found to be effective corrosion pickling inhibitor. The effect of immersion time and temperature revealed that the extracts of Eclipta alba with an optimum concentration of 8.0% v/v showed maximum inhibition efficiency of 99.6% at 3 h immersion time and 30℃. Arrhenius plots for mild steel immersed in 1 N HCI solution in the absence and presence of optimum concentration (8.0% in v/v) of Eclipta alba extract showed the effect of temperature. Polarization studies indicate that this plant extract acts as a mixed type inhibitor. The adsorption of Eclipta alba follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The inhibition action may be due to the presence of the Wedelactone and also the alkaloid Ecliptine present in the leaves of Eclipta alba.

  14. Establishment of hydrochloric acid/lipopolysaccharide-induced pelvic inflammatory disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yeonsu; Lee, Jaehun; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Hahn, Tae-Wook; Yoon, Byung-Il; Han, Jeong-Hee; Kwon, Yong-Soo; Park, Joung Jun; Koo, Deog-Bon; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Jung, Bae Dong

    2016-09-30

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which is one of the most problematic complications experienced by women with sexually transmitted diseases, frequently causes secondary infections after reproductive abnormalities in veterinary animals. Although the uterus is self-protective, it becomes fragile during periods or pregnancy. To investigate PID, bacteria or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from gram negative bacteria has been used to induce the disease in several animal models. However, when LPS is applied to the peritoneum, it often causes systemic sepsis leading to death and the PID was not consistently demonstrated. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) has been used to induce inflammation in the lungs and stomach but not tested for reproductive organs. In this study, we developed a PID model in mice by HCl and LPS sequential intracervical (i.c.) administration. The proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, were detected in the mouse uterus by western blot analysis and cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after HCl (25 mg/kg) administration i.c. followed by four LPS (50 mg/kg) treatments. Moreover, mice exhibited increased infiltration of neutrophils in the endometrium and epithelial layer. These results suggest that ic co-administration of HCl and LPS induces PID in mice. This new model may provide a consistent and reproducible PID model for future research.

  15. Studies on the inhibition of mild steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid solution by atenolol drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Karthik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition performance of atenolol on mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution was studied by weight loss and electrochemical methods. The results show the inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing the concentration of the inhibitor from 50 to 300 ppm. The maximum inhibition efficiency 93.8% was observed in the presence of 300 ppm inhibitor (in case of potentiodynamic polarization. The inhibition action of atenolol was explained in terms of adsorption on the mild steel surface. The adsorption process follows Langmuir isotherm via physical adsorption. Electrochemical Impedance spectroscopic technique (EIS exhibits one capacitive loop indicating that, the corrosion reaction is controlled by charge transfer process. Polarization measurements showed that the inhibitor is of a mixed type. The results obtained from the different methods are in good agreement. The surface morphologies of mild steel were examined by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM. Further, the computational calculations are performed to find a relation between their electronic and structural properties.

  16. Dissolution Process of Palladium in Hydrochloric Acid: A Route via Alkali Metal Palladates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Ryo; Miki, Takeshi; Morikawa, Hisashi; Tai, Yutaka

    2015-12-01

    To improve the safety of the Pd recovery processes that use toxic oxidizers, dissolution of Pd in hydrochloric acid with alkali metal palladates was investigated. Alkali metal palladates were prepared by calcining a mixture of Pd black and alkali metal (Li, Na, and K) carbonates in air. Almost the entire amount of Pd was converted into Li2PdO2 after calcination at 1073 K (800 °C) using Li2CO3. In contrast, PdO was obtained by calcination at 1073 K (800 °C) using Na and K carbonates. Our results indicated that Li2CO3 is the most active reagent among the examined alkali metal carbonates for the formation of palladates. In addition, dissolution of the resulting Li2PdO2 in HCl solutions was evaluated under various conditions. In particular, Li2PdO2 rapidly dissolved in diluted (0.1 M) HCl at ambient temperature. Solubility of Pd of Li2PdO2 was found to be 99 pct or larger after dissolution treatment at 353 K (80 °C) for 5 minutes; in contrast, PdO hardly dissolved in 0.1 M HCl. The dissolution mechanism of Li2PdO2 in HCl was also elucidated by analysis of crystal structures and particulate properties. Since our process is completely free from toxic oxidizers, the dissolution process via alkali metal palladates is much safer than currently employed methods.

  17. The inhibitive effect of bipyrazolic derivatives on the corrosion of steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tebbji, K. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Eaux et Corrosion, Faculte des Sciences, B.P. 717, Oujda (Morocco); Hammouti, B. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Eaux et Corrosion, Faculte des Sciences, B.P. 717, Oujda (Morocco); Oudda, H. [Laboratoire des Procedes de Separation, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco); Ramdani, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique-Physique, Faculte des Sciences, B.P. 717, Oujda (Morocco); Benkadour, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Eaux et Corrosion, Faculte des Sciences, B.P. 717, Oujda (Morocco)

    2005-12-15

    The effect of two pyrazole-type organic compounds, namely ethyl 5,5'-dimethyl-1'H-1,3'-bipyrazole-3 carboxylate (P1) and 3,5,5'-trimethyl-1'H-1,3'-bipyrazole (P2) on the corrosion behaviour of steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution is investigated at 308 K by weight loss measurements, potentiodynamic polarisation and impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. The inhibition efficiencies obtained from cathodic Tafel plots, gravimetric and EIS methods are in good agreement. Results obtained show that the compound P2 is the best inhibitor and its efficiency reaches 84% at 10{sup -3} M. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies show that pyrazolic derivatives are cathodic-type inhibitors and these compounds act on the cathodic reaction without changing the mechanism of the hydrogen evolution reaction. The inhibition efficiency of P2 is temperature-dependent in the range from 308 to 353 K and the associated activation energy has been determined. P2 adsorbs on the steel surface according to Langmuir adsorption model. The calculation of the total partial charge of inhibitor atoms is computed.

  18. The thermal, rheological and structural properties of cassava starch granules modified with hydrochloric acid at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beninca, Cleoci; Colman, Tiago Andre Denck [State University of Ponta Grossa - UEPG, Av. Carlos Cavalcanti, 4748, ZIP 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Lacerda, Luiz Gustavo; Filho, Marco Aurelio Silva Carvalho [Positivo University, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Bannach, Gilbert [Paulista State University - UNESP, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Schnitzler, Egon, E-mail: egons@uepg.br [State University of Ponta Grossa - UEPG, Av. Carlos Cavalcanti, 4748, ZIP 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil)

    2013-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Untreated cassava starch was modified with standard hydrochloric acid at 20 and 50 Degree-Sign C by 8 h. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DSC curves allowed to verify increase in the gelatinization enthalpy in agreement with high temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pasting properties of the studied starches were inversely proportional to the acid treatment and increased temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The morphology of granules as well as average size and average roughness were calculated by NC-AFM. - Abstract: Starch is arguably one of the most actively investigated biopolymer in the world. In this study, the native (untreated) cassava starch granules (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) were hydrolyzed by standard hydrochloric acid solution at different temperatures (30 Degree-Sign C and 50 Degree-Sign C) and the hydrolytic transformations were investigated by the following techniques: simultaneous thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), as well as non-contact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) powder patterns, and rapid viscoamylographic analysis (RVA). After the treatment with hydrochloric acid at different temperatures, the thermal stability, a gradual loss of pasting properties (viscosity), alterations in the gelatinization enthalpy ({Delta}H{sub gel}), were observed. The use of NC-AFM and XRD allowed the observation of the surface morphology and topography of the starch granules and changes in crystallinity of the granules, respectively.

  19. Removing hydrochloric acid exhaust products from high performance solid rocket propellant using aluminum-lithium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, Brandon C., E-mail: terry13@purdue.edu [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, Zucrow Laboratories, 500 Allison Rd, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Sippel, Travis R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, 2025 Black Engineering, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Pfeil, Mark A. [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, Zucrow Laboratories, 500 Allison Rd, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Gunduz, I.Emre; Son, Steven F. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, Zucrow Laboratories, 500 Allison Rd, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Al-Li alloy propellant has increased ideal specific impulse over neat aluminum. • Al-Li alloy propellant has a near complete reduction in HCl acid formation. • Reduction in HCl was verified with wet bomb experiments and DSC/TGA-MS/FTIR. - Abstract: Hydrochloric acid (HCl) pollution from perchlorate based propellants is well known for both launch site contamination, as well as the possible ozone layer depletion effects. Past efforts in developing environmentally cleaner solid propellants by scavenging the chlorine ion have focused on replacing a portion of the chorine-containing oxidant (i.e., ammonium perchlorate) with an alkali metal nitrate. The alkali metal (e.g., Li or Na) in the nitrate reacts with the chlorine ion to form an alkali metal chloride (i.e., a salt instead of HCl). While this technique can potentially reduce HCl formation, it also results in reduced ideal specific impulse (I{sub SP}). Here, we show using thermochemical calculations that using aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy can reduce HCl formation by more than 95% (with lithium contents ≥15 mass%) and increase the ideal I{sub SP} by ∼7 s compared to neat aluminum (using 80/20 mass% Al-Li alloy). Two solid propellants were formulated using 80/20 Al-Li alloy or neat aluminum as fuel additives. The halide scavenging effect of Al-Li propellants was verified using wet bomb combustion experiments (75.5 ± 4.8% reduction in pH, ∝ [HCl], when compared to neat aluminum). Additionally, no measurable HCl evolution was detected using differential scanning calorimetry coupled with thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared absorption.

  20. Corrosion and Inhibition Effects of Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Solutions Containing Organophosphonic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study has been made on the mechanism of corrosion of mild steel and the effect of nitrilo trimethylene phosphonic (NTMP acid as a corrosion inhibitor in acidic medium, that is, 10% HC1 using the weight loss method and electrochemical techniques, that is, potentiodynamic and galvanostatic polarization measurements. Although corrosion is a long-time process, but it takes place at a faster rate in the beginning which goes on decreasing with due course of time. The above-mentioned methods of corrosion rate determination furnish an average value for a long-time interval. Looking at the versatility and minimum detection limit of the voltammetric method, the authors have developed a new voltammetric method for the determination of corrosion rate at short-time intervals. The results of corrosion of mild steel in 10% HC1 solution with and without NTMP inhibitor at short-time intervals have been reported. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of NTMP is 93% after 24 h.

  1. Extraction of trace thorium from hydrochloric acid media by 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wei-Fan; YUAN Shuang-Gui; XU Yan-Bing; XIAO Yong-Hou; XIONG Bing

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the solvent extraction of trace thorium from hydrochloric acid media by1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone (PMBP) using a radioactive tracer technique. The percent extraction ofthorium was studied as a function of acidity, PMBP concentration and equilibrium time. The back-extraction behaviorof thorium from the organic phase was also tested. Separation of thorium was performed from fission products pro-duced in 14 MeV neutron bombardment of natural uranium by employing the PMBP extraction procedure. Thegamma-ray spectra of the separated thorium fractions show that thorium can be separated from most of fission prod-ucts and a large amount of uranium.

  2. Content Determination of Hydrochloric Acid Ephedrine and Hydrochloric Acid Pseudoephedrine inTongxuanlifei Granules%通宣理肺颗粒中麻黄碱含量测定方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖斯婷; 付欣彤; 常增荣

    2011-01-01

    目的 采用高效液相色谱法测定建立通宣理肺颗粒中盐酸麻黄碱与盐酸伪麻黄碱含量,建立其质量标准.方法 采用Phenomenex Synerg 4u Polar-RP 80A(250mm× 4.6mm,4 μm)色谱柱,流动相:甲醇:0.092%磷酸溶液(含0.04%三乙胺和0.02%二正丁胺)=1:99;检测波长:210 nm.结果 该法测定通宣理肺颗粒中盐酸麻黄碱3个浓度回收率分另为102.44%、100.93%、97.73%,RSD分别为1.30%、0.38%、1.77%(n=3);盐酸伪麻黄碱回收率分别为99.98%、96.01%、100.91%,RSD分别为1.65%、0.65%、1.91%(n=3).本品按标示量计算,含麻黄以盐酸麻黄碱与盐酸伪麻黄碱的总量计0.6 ~3 mg/袋.结论 本方法操作简便,结果可靠,准确,能有效地控制通宣理肺颗粒的质量.%Objective To establish the quality standard for Tongxuanlifei Granules (Hydrochloric acid ephedrine & Hydrochloric acid pseudoephedrine). Methods The contents of Hydrochloric acid ephedrine and Hydrochloric acid pseudoephedrine were determined on the Phenomenex Synerg 4u Polar-RP 80A (250 mm× 4.6 mm, 4 μm) column, with MeOH :0.092% Phosphoric acid solution (with 0.04% Triethylamine and 0.02% Two butyl amine)=l : 99 elution as mobile phase and detective wavelength at 210 nm. Results The average recovery of Hydrochloric acid ephedrine of there concentration was 102.44%, 100.93%, 97.73%, and RSD was 1.30%, 0.38%, 1.77% (n=3). The average recovery of Hydrochloric acid pseudoephedrine was 99.98%, 96.01%, 100.91%, and RSD was 1.65%, 0.65%, 1.91% (n=3). The detection quantity should be within 0.6 - 3 mg labeled weight. Conclusion The method is simple, reliable, accurate and can be applied to the quality control of Tongxuanlifei Granules.

  3. Characterization of Polyamide 66 membranes prepared by phase inversion using formic acid and hydrochloric acid such as solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Poletto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The membranes properties prepared from water/formic acid (FA/ polyamide 66 (PA66 and water/hydrochloric acid (HCl/polyamide 66 (PA 66 systems has been studied. The different solvents interact distinctly with the polymer, affecting the membrane morphology. The asymmetric structure of the membranes showed a dense top layer and a porous sublayer. The membranes M-HCl prepared from HCl/PA 66 system showed a larger dense layer (around 23 μm in compared to those prepared from FA/PA 66 system (M-FA (around 10 μm. The membrane morphology was a determinant factor in results of water absorption, porosity and pure water flux. The lower thickness of dense layer in M-FA membranes resulted in a higher water absorption and, consequently, porosity, approximately 50%, compared with M-HCl membranes, approximately 15%. The same trend was observed to permeate flux, the lower thickness of dense layer higher pure water flux.

  4. Thermal decomposition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in the presence of 1,2-phenylenediamine and hydrochloric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jingwen [Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng (China); Gao, Jinhao [Nanjing Univ., Nanjing (China). Coordination Chemistry Institute. State Key Lab. of Coordination Chemistry; Wang, Xiaoyong [Nanjing Univ., Nanjing (China). School of Life Science. State Key Lab. of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology]. E-mail: boxwxy@nju.edu.cn

    2006-09-15

    Based on the reaction products of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) with 1,2- phenylenediamine (o-PDA), a novel thermal decomposition pathway of EDTA is proposed. The strong acidic medium and the presence of o-PDA facilitate the decomposition of EDTA as evidenced by the relatively lower reaction temperature. In addition to the steps described in literatures, rearrangement process is involved in the decomposition reaction. The rearranged intermediates condense with o-PDA, forming an unexpected biologically active compound 2,2,4- trimethyl-3H-5-hydro-1,5-benzodiazepine, thus provides the possibility to explore an alternative decomposition mechanism for this widely used chelator. (author)

  5. The effects of pharmaceutically active compound doxycycline on the corrosion of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, Sudhish Kumar [Department of Applied Chemistry, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, Uttar Pradesh (India); Quraishi, M.A. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, Uttar Pradesh (India)], E-mail: maquraishi.apc@itbhu.ac.in

    2010-02-15

    Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution by doxycycline has been studied by weight loss measurements, polarization resistance, Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The inhibitor showed more than 95% inhibition efficiency at optimum concentration 9.02 x 10{sup -4} M. Potentiodynamic polarization suggests that it is a mixed type of inhibitor. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to investigate the mechanism of corrosion inhibition. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated to investigate mechanism of inhibition. The compound follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm. AFM studies of mild steel surface with and without inhibitor were performed and calculated roughness also supported the inhibition data.

  6. Extraction of Sm(IIIand Nd(III with N,N,N’,N’-tetrabutyl-3-oxy-diglycolamidefrom hydrochloric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction behavior of Sm(III and Nd(III with N,N,N’,N’-tetrabutyl-3-oxa-diglycolamide (TBDGA in 70% kerosene-30% n-octanol from hydrochloride acid wasstudied. The effect of hydrochloric acid concentration, extractant concentration,and temperature on the distribution of rare earth elementswas investigated. The extraction mechanism was established and the stoichiometry of the main extracted species was confirm to be SmCl3•2TBDGA and NdCl3•2TBDGA for Sm(III and Nd(III, respectively. The extraction distribution ratio decreases with an increase in temperature, which demonstrates that the extraction reaction is exothermic. The IR spectra of the loaded organic phase and free extractant were recorded and discussed.

  7. Leaching lithium from the anode electrode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries by hydrochloric acid (HCl).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang; Li, Feng; Zhu, Haochen; Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen; He, Wenzhi

    2016-05-01

    Spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are considered as an important secondary resource for its high contents of valuable components, such as lithium and cobalt. Currently, studies mainly focus on the recycling of cathode electrodes. There are few studies concentrating on the recovery of anode electrodes. In this work, based on the analysis result of high amount of lithium contained in the anode electrode, the acid leaching process was applied to recycle lithium from anode electrodes of spent LIBs. Hydrochloric acid was introduced as leaching reagent, and hydrogen peroxide as reducing agent. Within the range of experiment performed, hydrogen peroxide was found to have little effect on lithium leaching process. The highest leaching recovery of 99.4wt% Li was obtained at leaching temperature of 80°C, 3M hydrochloric acid and S/L ratio of 1:50g/ml for 90min. The graphite configuration with a better crystal structure obtained after the leaching process can also be recycled.

  8. Separation of metal ions by anion exchange in mixtures of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faris, J.P.

    1978-12-01

    Distribution coefficients were determined for the adsorption of more than 40 elements on anion-exchange resins from mixtures of HCl (0.1 to 12M) and HF (0.1-8M). Two resins, Dowex 1 x 10, 200 to 400 mesh and Dowex 1 x 4, 100 to 200 mesh, were used. Distribution coefficients were also determined for the adsorption of many elements on both resins from 0.1 to 12M HCl and 0.1 to 12M HF. Anion exchange in the presence of HF was found useful for separating impurities from various materials for their subsequent determination, and specific procedures used in our spectrochemical laboratory for this purpose are outlined. The results of a literature search on the use of anion exchange in hydrofluoric acid and fluoride-containing media are presented in an extensive bibliography. 404 references, 9 tables.

  9. Analysis on a cracking accident of hydrochloric acid storage tank caused by vacuum%稀盐酸储槽抽裂事故的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣荣

    2012-01-01

    分析了盐酸脱吸工序中稀盐酸储槽抽裂事故产生的原因;通过稀盐酸储槽的压力式液位计DCS历史曲线记录来间接分析稀盐酸储槽内压力变化情况,剖析负压的形成过程。结果表明:脱吸塔产生较大的负压是因为系统急停、温度下降后在略低于盐酸溶液恒沸点时发生冷凝相变而引起的。%Reasons for a cracking accident of hydrochloric acid storage tank caused by vacuum in hydrochloric acid desorption process were analyzed. Pressure changes inside dilute hydrochloric acid storage tank were indirectly analyzed according to DCS historical graph record of the pressure type level meter for the hydrochloric acid storage tank, and the negative pressure formation process was also discussed. The results showed that the formation of large negative pressure in desorption col- umn was caused by phase transition of condensation occurred whlie the temperature of system was a little less than the constant boiling point of hydrochloric acid solution, which was caused by emer- gency shutdown of system and temperature falling.

  10. Corrosion inhibition of C38 steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid medium by alkaloids extract from Oxandra asbeckii plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebrini, M. [Laboratoire Materiaux et Molecules en Milieu Amazonien, CNRS 8172-UMR ECOFOG, Campus Trou Biran, Cayenne 97337, French Guiana (France); Robert, F.; Lecante, A. [Laboratoire Materiaux et Molecules en Milieu Amazonien, UAG-UMR ECOFOG, Campus Trou Biran, Cayenne 97337, French Guiana (France); Roos, C., E-mail: christophe.roos@guyane.univ-ag.f [Laboratoire Materiaux et Molecules en Milieu Amazonien, UAG-UMR ECOFOG, Campus Trou Biran, Cayenne 97337, French Guiana (France)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: The inhibition effect of alkaloid extract of Oxandra asbeckii plant on the corrosion of C38 steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution has been investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Oxandra asbeckii extract examined acted as an efficient corrosion inhibitor in 1 M HCl. Polarization studies showed that Oxandra asbeckii extract was a mixed-type inhibitor and its inhibition efficiency increased with the inhibitor concentration. - Abstract: The inhibition effect of alkaloids extract from Oxandra asbeckii plant (OAPE) on the corrosion of C38 steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution has been investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The corrosion inhibition efficiency increases on increasing plant extracts concentration. Cathodic and anodic polarization curves show that OAPE is a mixed-type inhibitor. The effect of temperature on the corrosion behavior of C38 steel in 1 M HCl with and without addition of plant extract was studied in the temperature range 25-55 {sup o}C. The thermodynamic functions of dissolution and adsorption processes were calculated from experimental polarization data and the interpretation of the results are given. The adsorption of this plant extract on the C38 steel surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Surface analysis (Raman) was also carried out to establish the corrosion inhibitive property of this plant extract in HCl solution.

  11. Hydrochloric acid alters the effect of L-glutamic acid on cell viability in human neuroblastoma cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, Nicoletta; Bernardini, Sergio; Di Cecca, Stefano; Caltagirone, Carlo; Angelucci, Francesco

    2013-07-15

    l-Glutamic acid (l-glutamate) is used to induce excitotoxicity and test neuroprotective compounds in cell cultures. However, because l-glutamate powder is nearly insoluble in water, many manufacturers recommend reconstituting l-glutamate in hydrochloric acid (HCl) prior to successive dilutions. Nevertheless, HCl, even at low concentrations, may alter the pH of the cell culture medium and interfere with cell activity. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether the reconstitution of l-glutamate powder in HCl alters its capacity to induce neurotoxicity in different human neuroblastoma cell lines. SH-SY5Y, IMR-32 and SK-N-BE(2) cells were exposed to various concentrations of l-glutamate, which was either reconstituted in HCl (1M) or post re-equilibrated to the pH of the culture medium (7.5). After 24 and 48h of incubation, changes in the cell viability of treated versus untreated cells were evaluated. The effect of an identical amount of HCl present in the l-glutamate dilutions on neuroblastoma cell survival was also investigated. Our data showed that the neurotoxicity of glutamate reconstituted in HCl was comparable to that of HCl alone. Moreover, the pH variations induced by glutamate or HCl in the culture medium were similar. When the pH of the glutamate stock solution was re-equilibrated, l-glutamate induced variation in cell viability to a lower extent and after a longer incubation time. This study demonstrated that HCl used to reconstitute l-glutamate powder might alter the effect of glutamate itself in neuroblastoma cell cultures. Thus, this information might be useful to scientists who use l-glutamate to induce excitotoxicity or to test neuroprotective agents.

  12. Selective liquid-liquid extraction of antimony(III from hydrochloric acid media by N-n-octylaniline in xylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. ANUSE

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available N-n-Octylaniline in xylene was used for the extraction separation of antimony(III from hydrochloric acid media. Antimony(III was extracted quantitatively with 10 mL 4 % N-n-octylaniline in xylene. It was stripped from the organic phase with 0.5 M ammonia and estimated photometrically by the iodide method. The effect of metal ion, acid, reagent concentration and various foreign ions was investigated. The method affords binary and ternary separation of antimony(III from tellurium(IV, selenium(IV, lead(II, bismuth(III, tin(IV, germanium(IV, copper(II, gold(III, iron(III and zinc(II. The method is applicable for the analysis of synthetic mixtures, alloys and semiconductor thin films. It is fast, accurate and precise.

  13. 盐酸浓度对酸解玉米淀粉结晶结构和性能的影响%Effects of hydrochloric acid concentration on crystalline structure and properties of corn starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左迎峰; 张彦华; 杨龙; 谭海彦; 顾继友

    2013-01-01

    以玉米淀粉为原料,用盐酸对其酸解制备酸解玉米淀粉.考虑盐酸浓度对酸解玉米淀粉结构和性能的影响.通过抽滤洗涤法、X射线衍射(XRD)、旋转粘度计、差示扫描量热法(DSC)和热重分析(TGA)对酸解淀粉的回收率、结晶度、糊化粘度、糊化温度和热性能进行分析.结果表明,酸解玉米淀粉的回收率、结晶度和糊化温度随盐酸浓度的增大,先增大后减小,盐酸浓度为0.5 mol/L时,回收率、结晶度和糊化温度都达到最大值;糊化粘度随盐酸浓度的增大而迅速减小;酸解改性对玉米淀粉的热稳定性影响较小.%Acid hydrolysis corn starch was prepared by hydrochloric acid method to study the effects of hydrochloric acid concentrations on the structure and properties of acid hydrolysis com starch.. The crystallinity, gelatinization viscosity, gelatinization temperature and thermal performance of acid hydrolysis starch were analyzed by using filtration washing method, X-ray diffraction, rotational viscometer, differential scanning calorimetry and thermo gravimetric analysis, respectively. The results show that the recovery yield, crystallinity and gelatinization temperature increased first and then decreased with the increase of hydrochloric acid concentration, and reached the maximum values when hydrochloric acid concentration was 0.5 mol/L; the gelatinization viscosity rapidly decreased with increase of hydrochloric acid concentration. So the acid modification had small effect on thermal stability of corn starch.

  14. Corrosion inhibition of 6061 Al-15 vol. pct. SiC(p) composite and its base alloy in a mixture of sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid by 4-(N,N-dimethyl amino) benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Geetha Mable [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Srinivasnagar 575 025, Mangalore, Karnataka (India); Nayak, Jagannath [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Srinivasnagar 575 025, Karnataka (India); Shetty, A. Nityananda, E-mail: nityashreya@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Srinivasnagar 575 025, Mangalore, Karnataka (India)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Corrosion inhibition of Al-SiC composite. {yields} DMABT as corrosion inhibitor. {yields} Inhibition through physisorption of DMABT. - Abstract: The corrosion inhibition characteristics of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino) benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (DMABT) on the corrosion behavior of 6061 Al-15 vol. pct. SiC(p) composite and its base alloy were studied at different temperatures in acid mixture medium containing varying concentrations of hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid using Tafel extrapolation technique and ac impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The effect of inhibitor concentration, temperature and concentration of the acid mixture media on the inhibitor action was investigated. It was found that inhibition efficiencies increase with the increase in inhibitor concentration, but decrease with the increase in temperature and with the increase in concentration of the acid media. Thermodynamic parameters for dissolution process were determined. The adsorption of DMABT on both the composite and base alloy was found to be through physisorption obeying Freundlich adsorption isotherm.

  15. Inhibition Performance of Furfural on Carbon Steel in Hydrochloric Acid%糠醛对碳钢在盐酸中的缓蚀性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨昌炎; 杨光宏; 刘东; 丁一刚; 吴元欣; 戢峻; 李姝

    2011-01-01

    As a corrosion inhibitor, the corrosion inhibition of furfural obtained from straws by microwave pyrolysis was investigated in hydrochloric acid solution. The weight loss and electrochemistry polarization evaluation, and the absorbance of furfural on carbon steel was preliminary discussed. The results showed that furfural, as a complex inhibitor, gives nice inhibition efficiency on carbon steel in hydrochloric acid medium. The inhibition efficiency of furfural was up to 91. 3 % when the mass fraction of furfural reaches 0.7 % at room temperature. It can also reduce the activation energy of corrosion reaction. This results in a decrease of corrosion rate. The inhibition performance of furfural is affected by temperature, and its absorbance behaviors can be expressed by the equation of Langmuir model.%以秸秆催化热解制得的糠醛作为盐酸酸洗缓蚀剂,其缓蚀效率采用失重法和电化学极化法进行了评价,初步探讨其吸附性能.结果表明:糠醛属于混合型缓蚀剂,在盐酸介质中缓蚀作用良好,室温下糠醛添加量为0.7%时,其缓蚀效率可达91.3%,能使碳钢的腐蚀反应活化能降低,腐蚀速率明显下降,同时其缓蚀效率受温度的影响较大,其吸附符合Langmuir吸附规律.

  16. Hydrodechlorination of Silicon Tetrachloride to Trichlorosilane Over Ordered Mesoporous Carbon Catalysts: Effect of Pretreatment of Oxygen and Hydrochloric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Do-Hwan; Akhtar, M Shaheer; Kim, Ji Man; Yang, O Bong

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports on the catalytic reaction for the conversion of silicon tetrachloride (STC) to trichlorosilane (TCS) over pretreated ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) catalysts by oxygen (denoted as OMC-O2) and hydrochloric acid (denoted as OMC-HCl) at 300 degrees C under N2 atmosphere. The OMC-O2 shows significantly improved the surface area (1341.2 m2/g) and pore volume (1.65 cm3/g), which results in the highest conversion rate of 7.3% as compared to bare OMC (4.3%) and OMC-HCI (5.7%). It is found that the conversion rate of STC to TCS is proportional to the number of Si-O bond over OMC catalysts, which suggests that Si-O-C bond formation is crucial to the reaction as active sites. The O2 pretreatment seems to promote the generation of oxygenated species for the formation of Si-O-C.

  17. Chemical Polymerization Kinetics of Poly-O-Phenylenediamine and Characterization of the Obtained Polymer in Aqueous Hydrochloric Acid Solution Using K2Cr2O7 as Oxidizing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sayyah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative chemical polymerization of o-phenylenediamine (OPDA was studied in hydrochloric acid solution using potassium dichromate as oxidant at 5°C. The effects of potassium dichromate, hydrochloric acid, and monomer concentrations on the polymerization reaction were investigated. The order of reaction with respect to potassium dichromate, hydrochloric acid, and monomer concentration was found to be 1.011, 0.954, and 1.045, respectively. Also, the effect of temperature on the polymerization rate was studied and the apparent activation energy of the polymerization reaction was found to be 63.658 kJ/mol. The obtained polymer was characterized using XPS, IR, UV-visible, and elemental analysis. The surface morphology of the obtained polymers was characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The TGA analysis was used to confirm the proposed structure and number of water molecules in each polymeric chain unit. The ac conductivity (σac of (POPDA was investigated as a function of frequency and temperature. The ac conductivity was interpreted as a power law of frequency. The frequency exponent (s was found to be less than unity and decreased with the increase of temperature, which confirms that the correlated barrier hopping model was the dominant charge transport mechanism.

  18. [Butanol extraction combined with dilute hydrochloric acid dissolution-atomic fluorescence spectrometric method for indirect determination of molybdenum in Chinese herbal medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian-Ping; Geng, Guo-Xing; Tang, Yan-Kui; Lu, Zhi-Yong

    2012-12-01

    A method for indirectly determining the molybdenum in Chinese herbal medicine by butanol extraction and dilute hydrochloric acid dissolution was established for atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The molybdoarsenate heteropoly acid, formed in the presence of As(V) and ammonium molybdate in 0.3 mol x L(-1) sulphuric acid medium, was separated and enriched in the organic solvent, then the evaporation of organic reagent was implemented and the left residue was dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid in which the arsenic content was determined on behalf of molybdenum. In the optimum experimental conditions, molybdenum content in 0-15 microg x L(-1) range depicts a good linear relationship, the detection limit and relative standard deviation of 0.44 microg x L(-1) and 1.1% were obtained, respectively. Spiked Chinese herbal medicine samples were determined with the proposed method, and recoveries of 95.6%-101.3% were achieved.

  19. 没食子酸在含盐酸高温液态水中的稳定性%Stability of Gallic Acid in High Temperature Water with Hydrochloric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迎杰; 傅杰; 刘林; 吕秀阳

    2013-01-01

    The stability of gallic acid in high temperature water with hydrochloric acid was studied in a high-pressure batch reactor.The effects of initial concentration of gallic acid,concentration of hydrochloric acid and reaction temperature on the stability of gallic acid were investigated.The results indicated that HC1 concentration was an important factor to the stability of gallic acid,in which the stability of gallic acid decreased as the concentration of HC1 increased.Reaction temperature influenced the stability of gallic acid significantly.As the temperature increased,the conversion of gallic acid increased rapidly,whereas the stability of gallic acid decreased remarkably.Below 413.15 K,gallic acid was relatively stable in HC1 solutions.The kinetic data of the study obtained at different hydrochloric acid concentrations and reaction temperatures were fitted with a pesudo-first-order kinetic equation.The apparent activation energy for the decarboxylation of gallic acid at different hydrochloric acid concentration was obtained by Arrhenius equation.All the obtained apparent activation energy values were close to 112 kJ/mol and not sensitive to the HCl concentration.%采用间歇高压反应釜研究了没食子酸在含盐酸高温液态水中的稳定性.在数据重现性研究基础上,考察了没食子酸初始浓度、盐酸浓度和反应温度等对没食子酸稳定性的影响.结果表明:盐酸浓度对没食子酸的稳定性有较显著的影响,且随着盐酸浓度的增加,稳定性下降:温度对没食子酸稳定性影响十分显著,随着温度的升高,没食子酸转化速率快速增加,稳定性显著降低,但在413.15 K以下没食子酸在盐酸溶液中有较好的稳定性.采用拟一级反应动力学方程,拟合得到了不同盐酸浓度和反应温度下的反应速率常数,进而利用Arrhenius方程得到了不同盐酸浓度没食子酸脱羧反应的表观活化能,表明在盐酸存在下,没食子酸脱羧反

  20. A New Solid Sorbent System for Rapid Monitoring of Dehydrogenated Nicotine by Using Furfural-hydrochloric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. AMBADE; E. K. JANGHEL; M. K. RAI; G. L. MUNDHARA

    2006-01-01

    A new solid sorbent system is developed for the monitoring of dehydrogenated nicotine in the environment. The reagent system for the indicator tube consists of furfural-hydrochloric acid and phosphoric acid impregnated over a cellulose fibre (cotton) and a humectant calcium chloride. The reagent system has also been used for the preparation of reagent paper. After exposing the indicator tubes and test paper to dehydrogenated nicotine, for a constant time, the red-violet colour developed could be compared with those obtained from standards. Alternatively the coloured compound was extracted in water and the absorbance measured at 540 nm. The lower limit of detection is 0.03 μg/m3 of nicotine for the reagent papers and indicator tubes. The lower limit of determination by spectrophotometric procedure is 0.001 μg/m3 of air.The preparation of indicator tubes, test papers and their applications for the detection and determination of nicotine in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), mainstream smoke (MS), side stream smoke (SS) and biological samples is described in this paper.

  1. Interaction between amylose and 1-butanol during 1-butanol-hydrochloric acid hydrolysis of normal rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiuting; Wei, Benxi; Zhang, Bao; Li, Hongyan; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the interaction between amylose and 1-butanol during the 1-butanol-hydrochloric acid (1-butanol-HCl) hydrolysis of normal rice starch. The interaction model between amylose and 1-butanol was proposed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), (13)C cross polarization and magic angle spinning NMR analysis ((13)C CP/MAS NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermalgravimetric analysis (TGA). GC-MS data showed that another form of 1-butanol existed in 1-butanol-HCl-hydrolyzed normal rice starch, except in the form of free molecules absorbed on the starch granules. The signal of 1-butanol-HCl-hydrolyzed starch at 100.1 ppm appeared in the (13)C CP/MAS NMR spectrum, indicating that the amylose-1-butanol complex was formed. DSC and TGA data also demonstrated the formation of the complex, which significantly affected the thermal properties of normal rice starch. These findings revealed that less dextrin with low molecular weight formed might be attributed to resistance of this complex to acid during 1-butanol-HCl hydrolysis.

  2. Preliminary study on concrete corrosion of hydrochloric acid%盐酸对混凝土的腐蚀研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦瑞敏

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,ordinary Portland cement concrete and modified concrete were corroded by hydrochloric acid which pH=1.After 60 days of corrosion,the cube compressive strength of every sample is reduced in different degree,from which we can know that amount of fly ash and fume can increase the resistance ability to acid corrosion to some degree but the styrene-butadiene latices reduced this ability of concrete.%对普通硅酸盐水泥混凝土以及改性混凝土进行pH=1的盐酸腐蚀,在腐蚀60d后,各种混凝土的立方体抗压强度均有不同程度的降低。适量的粉煤灰和硅灰可以一定程度地提高混凝土的抗酸性腐蚀性能,而丁苯胶乳的加入却会降低混凝土的这种抗酸性腐蚀性能。

  3. Electrochemical and quantum chemical studies of new thiadiazole derivatives adsorption on mild steel in normal hydrochloric acid medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebrini, M. [Laboratoire de Cristallochimie et Physicochimie du Solide, CNRS UMR 8012, ENSCL, B.P. 108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Lagrenee, M. [Laboratoire de Cristallochimie et Physicochimie du Solide, CNRS UMR 8012, ENSCL, B.P. 108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Vezin, H. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Macromoleculaire, CNRS UMR 8009, USTL Bat C3, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Gengembre, L. [Laboratoire de Catalyse Heterogene et Homogene, CNRS UMR 8010, Bat C3, USTL, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Bentiss, F. [Laboratoire de Cristallochimie et Physicochimie du Solide, CNRS UMR 8012, ENSCL, B.P. 108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)]. E-mail: f.bentiss@pop.ensc-lille.fr

    2005-02-01

    In this work, a new class of thiadiazole derivatives, namely 3,5-bis(2-thienyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole (2-TTH) and 3,5-bis(3-thienyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole (3-TTH), have been studied as possible corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in molar hydrochloric acid (1 M HCl). Weight loss measurements, polarisation curves and AC impedance methods have been used. These studies have shown that the thiadiazole derivatives were very good inhibitors for mild steel in 1 M HCl. Comparison of results showed that 3-TTH was the best inhibitor. The potential of zero charge (PZC) of mild steel was studied by AC impedance method, and the mechanism of adsorption has been predicted. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy surface analysis with thiadiazole derivatives shows that it chemisorbed at the mild steel/HCl interface. The adsorption of these inhibitors followed Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. The electronic properties of 2-TTH and 3-TTH, obtained using the AM1 semi-empirical quantum chemical approach, were correlated with their experimental efficiencies using the linear resistance model (LR). These inhibitors are considered as non-cytotoxic substances.

  4. Enhanced corrosion resistance of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution by new thiadiazole derivatives: Electrochemical, theoretical and XPS studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentiss, Fouad; Lebrini, Mounim; Lagrenee, Michel [Laboratoire de Cristallochimie et Physicochimie du Solide, CNRS UMR 8012, ENSCL, BP. 108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Herve, Vezin [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Macromoleculaire, CNRS UMR 8009, USTL Bat C3, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2004-07-01

    In this work, a new class of thiadiazole derivatives, namely 3,5-bis(2-thienyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole (2-TTH) and 3,5-bis(3-thienyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole (3-TTH), have been studied as possible corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in molar hydrochloric acid (1M HCl). Polarisation curves and AC impedance methods have been used. These studies have shown that the thiadiazole derivatives were very good inhibitors for mild steel in 1M HCl. Comparison of results showed that 3-TTH was the best inhibitor. The potential of zero charge (PZC) of mild steel was studied by ac impedance method, and the mechanism of adsorption has been predicted. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy surface analysis with thiadiazole derivatives shows that it chemisorbed at the mild steel/HCl interface. The adsorption of these inhibitors followed Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. The electronic properties of 2-TTH and 3-TTH, obtained using the AM1 semi-empirical quantum chemical approach, were correlated with their experimental efficiencies using the linear resistance model (LR). (authors)

  5. Electrochemical and theoretical investigation on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel by thiosalicylaldehyde derivatives in hydrochloric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behpour, M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: m.behpour@kashanu.ac.ir; Ghoreishi, S.M.; Soltani, N.; Salavati-Niasari, M.; Hamadanian, M.; Gandomi, A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    Inhibitory effect of three Schiff bases 2-{l_brace}[(2-sulfanylphenyl)imino]methyl{r_brace}]phenol (A), 2-{l_brace}[(2)-1-(4-methylphenyl)methylidene]amino{r_brace}-1-benznethiol (B), and 2-[(2-sulfanylphen-yl)ethanimidoyl)]phenol (C) on corrosion of mild steel in 15% HCl solution has been studied using weight loss measurements, polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. The results of the investigation show that the compounds A and B with mean efficiency of 99% at 200 mg/L additive concentration have fairly good inhibiting properties for mild steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid, and they are as mixed inhibitor. All measurements show that inhibition efficiencies increase with increase in inhibitor concentration. This reveals that inhibitive actions of inhibitors were mainly due to adsorption on mild steel surface. Adsorption of these inhibitors follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Thermodynamic adsorption parameters (K{sub ads}, {delta}G{sub ads}) of studied Schiff bases were calculated using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Activation parameters of the corrosion process such as activation energies, E{sub a}, activation enthalpies, {delta}H{sup *}, and activation entropies, {delta}S{sup *}, were calculated by the obtained corrosion currents at different temperatures. Obvious correlation was found between the corrosion inhibition efficiency and the calculated parameters. The obtained theoretical results have been adapted with the experimental data.

  6. Inhibition of Aluminium Corrosion in Hydrochloric Acid Using Nizoral and the Effect of Iodide Ion Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Obot

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of nizoral (NZR on the corrosion inhibition of aluminium alloy AA 1060 in 2 M HCl solution was investigated using the mylius thermometric technique. Results of the study revealed that nizoral acts as corrosion inhibitor for aluminium in the acidic medium. In general, at constant acid concentration, the inhibition efficiency increases with increase in the inhibitor concentration. The addition of KI to the inhibitor enhanced the inhibition efficiency to a considerable extent. The adsorption of nizoral onto the aluminium surface was found to obey the Fruendlich adsorption isotherm. The value of the free energy for the adsorption process shows that the process is spontaneous.

  7. Extraction of Gold(III) from Hydrochloric Acid Solutions with a PVC-based Polymer Inclusion Membrane (PIM) Containing Cyphos® IL 104

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) based polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs), with different concentrations of Cyphos® IL 104 as the membrane extractant/carrier, were studied for their ability to extract Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions. Some of the PIMs also contained one of the following plasticizers or modifiers: 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether, dioctylphthalate, 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol, or tri(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate. The best performance, in terms of extraction rate and amount of A...

  8. Effect of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium on the corrosion of cold rolled steel in the presence of benzotriazole in hydrochloric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Qing [Department of Chemistry, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China)]. E-mail: quqing58@yahoo.com.cn; Jiang, Shuan [Department of Chemistry, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Bai, Wei [Department of Chemistry, Yunnan Nationalities University, Kunming 650092 (China); Li, Lei [Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-Resources, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China)

    2007-08-01

    The inhibition behavior of cold rolled steel in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) by ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium (EDTA) in the absence and presence of benzotriazole (BTA) was investigated with Tafel polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The polarization curve results show that the single EDTA acts as an anodic type inhibitor while the combination of EDTA and BTA acts as mixed type inhibitor and mainly inhibits anodic reaction. All impedance spectra in EIS tests exhibit one capacitive loop which indicates that the corrosion reaction is controlled by charge transfer process. Inhibition efficiencies obtained from Tafel polarization, charge transfer resistance (R {sub t}) are consistent. The corrosion of cold rolled steel in 0.1 M HCl is obviously reduced by EDTA in combination with lower concentrations of BTA. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the corrosion surface of cold rolled steel. Probable mechanisms are present to explain the experimental results.

  9. Effect of triamcinolone acetonide ammonia bromine joint hydrochloric acid on patients with secretory otitis media and on body's inflammatory factor and cellular immunologic parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan-Fu Hu; Shao-Ji Ouyang; Rong-Wei Yao; Xue-Jiang Xu; Jin-Hua He; Li-Li Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical effect of triamcinolone acetonide ammonia bromine joint hydrochloric acid on patients with secretory otitis media and the influences on the body's inflammatory factors and cellular immunologic parameters.Methods:A total of 40 cases of single ear secretory otitis media patients of the same period in our hospital were randomly selected as experimental group, using triamcinolone acetonide ammonia bromine joint hydrochloric acid treatment; And 40 cases of single ear secretory otitis media patients of the same period were randomly selected as control group, using dexamethasone treatment. To observe the clinical efficacy of two groups of patients and detect the inflammatory factors and cellular immune index level of the two groups of patients before and after treatment.Results:The total effective rate(90%) of treatment group is significantly higher than that (80%) of control group (P0.05). After treatment, the serum and ear effusion inflammatory cytokines levels of the two groups were significantly lower than that before treatment (P0.05); The CD4+/CD8+ levels of experimental group were significantly higher than the control group (P0.05). Conclusions: The triamcinolone acetonide ammonia bromine joint hydrochloric acid treatment is more conducive to improve the immune function of the secretory otitis media patients and treatment effect, which has important clinical significance on the treatment of secretory otitis media patients.

  10. Kinetic study of the prehydrolysis of bagasse pith with hydrochloric acid in an agitated system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villan Guerra, J.; Iglesias, R.G.; Lopez Planes, R.

    1981-01-01

    The hydrolysis of bagasse pith at 90-100 degrees with 0.25 N HCl gave sugar in 22% yield after 120 min. With 0.5 N HCl, the yield was 28% after 240 min. The specific constants of pentosan decomposition and of sugar formation were calculated, and the kinetic parameters (frequency factor, activation energy, and order of acid concentration) were determined. The pentosan decomposition constants were higher and the activation energies lower than literature values for hydrolysis with H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/.

  11. 硫铁矿烧渣双酸酸解工艺研究%Study on decomposition process of pyrite cinder with hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左大学; 王仁宗

    2012-01-01

    The decomposition process of pyrite cinder with hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid , and its influence factors are studied. Through orthogonal test, the optimum process conditions are confirmed including: the consumption factor of hydrochloric acid with w(HC1) of 37% is 0.12; the consumption factor of sulfuric acid with w(H2SO4) of 65%-70% is 0.95, the reaction temperature is of 125 ℃, the reaction time is of 4h. The decomposition rate of pyrite cinder can reach to above 95%, and the product ferric sulfate solution can be used to produce polymeric ferric sulfate and iron oxide pigments.%研究了硫铁矿烧渣双酸酸解工艺及影响酸解的因素。通过正交实验,找到最适宜的工艺条件:w(HCl)37%,盐酸用量系数为0.12,硫酸用量系数为0.95,硫酸W(H2SO4)为65%~70%,反应温度为125℃,反应时间为4h,酸解率可达95%以上,制得的硫酸铁盐溶液可用作生产聚合硫酸铁及氧化铁系颜料的原料。

  12. Seed Extract of Psidium guajava as Ecofriendly Corrosion Inhibitor for Carbon Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.P.Vinod Kumar; M. Sankara Narayana Pillai; G. Rexin Thusnavis

    2011-01-01

    The anticorrosion characteristics of the seeds of Psidium guajava (P. Guajava) fruits on carbon steel in acid medium were examined with weight loss data and subsequently thermodynamic factors such as heat of adsorption of the inhibitor on the metal surface (Q), change in entropy (△S), change in free energy of the reaction (△G), corrosion rate (CR) and energy of activation for corrosion reaction of carbon steel (E) were also evaluated. Adsorption isotherm was plotted to study the adsorption of the inhibitor on the metal surface with increasing concentration of the inhibitor. The functional groups responsible for inhibition were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. Electrochemical parameters were evaluated through the potentiodynamic Tafel polarization and impedance spectral studies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs were recorded to investigate the change in surface morphology. The complete study reveals the efficiency of seed extract of P. Guajava as a safe, ecofriendly and alternate corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in acid medium.

  13. Role of temperature and hydrochloric acid on the formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during combustion of paraffin powder, polymers, and newspaper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasuga, Takumi; Umetsu, Norihito; Makino, Tetsuya; Tsubota, Katsuya; Sajwan, Kenneth S; Kumar, Kurunthachalam Senthil

    2007-07-01

    Formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined using a laboratory-scale incinerator when combusting materials at different temperatures, different concentrations of hydrochloric acid (HCl), and when combusting various types of polymers/newspaper. Polychlorobenzenes (PCBz), polychlorophenols (PCPhs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and their toxic equivalency (TEQ) and PAHs were highlighted and reported. Our results imply maximum formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons at 400 degrees C in the following order; PCBz>or=PCPhs>PCDFs>PCDDs>TEQ on a parts-per-billion level. Similarly, a maximum concentration of chlorinated hydrocarbons was noticed with an HCl concentration at 1000 ppm with the presence of paraffin powder in the following order; PAHs>PCBz>or=PCPhs>PCDFs>PCDDs>TEQ an a parts-per-billion level. PAHs were not measured at different temperatures. Elevated PAHs were noticed with different HCl concentrations and paraffin powder combustion (range: 27-32 microg/g). While, different polymers and newspaper combusted, nylon and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) produced the maximum hydrogen cyanide (HCN) concentration, concentrations of PCDD/FS, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs), and TEQ were in a decreasing order: polyvinylchloride (PVC)newspapernewspapernewspaper newspapernewspaper

  14. Punica granatum leave extract as green corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in Hydrochloric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abboud Y.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leave of Punica granatum extract (LPGE as green inhibitor for the corrosion of mild steel in 1M HCl solution was studied using weight-loss and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The results obtained revealed that LPGE has fairly good inhibiting properties for mild steel corrosion in 1M HCl solution, with efficiency of around 94 % at a concentration of 1 g/l. The inhibition was of a mixed anodic–cathodic nature. The film which is formed over the metal surface was analysed by FT-IR spectroscopy. Further examination using X-ray diffraction confirms the role of LPGE as an effective corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acid media.

  15. Electrochemical Study on Newly Synthesized Chlorocurcumin as an Inhibitor for Mild Steel Corrosion in Hydrochloric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Al-Amiery

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new curcumin derivative, i.e., (1E,4Z,6E-5-chloro-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylhepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one (chlorocurcumin, was prepared starting with the natural compound curcumin. The newly synthesized compound was characterized by elemental analysis and spectral studies (IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. The corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1 M HCl by chlorocurcumin has been studied using potentiodynamic polarization (PDP measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The inhibition efficiency increases with the concentration of the inhibitor but decreases with increases in temperature. The potentiodynamic polarization reveals that chlorocurcumin is a mixed-type inhibitor. The kinetic parameters for mild steel corrosion were determined and discussed.

  16. Thallium extraction from hydrochloric acid media into a deep eutectic solvent using bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kate; Volia, Merinda; Tereshatov, Evgeny; Folden, Charles, III

    2016-09-01

    The chemical properties of superheavy elements are relatively unknown due to their short half-lives and difficulty of production. In preparation for a future experiment to study the chemical properties of element 113, separation techniques have been used to study the behavior of its homologs, In and Tl. Previous work studied the liquid-liquid extraction of radioactive 201Tl (t1 / 2 = 3 . 04 d) from various concentrations of HCl into a mixture of menthol and lauric acid that formed a so-called deep eutectic solvent (DES). This work focuses on the effects of adding an extraction agent, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (HDEHP), to the DES on the efficiency of thallium extraction. The extraction of Tl(I) was generally poor, both with and without HDEHP added. In contrast, 111In (t1 / 2 = 2 . 80 d) showed significant extraction using HDEHP added to the same DES. This difference in behavior could potentially be exploited in a future experiment on the chemistry of element 113. National Science Foundation.

  17. Formation of Hydrogen-Ion in Isomolar Solution of Hydrochloric and Hydrobromic Acids and Their Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Kovaleva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the presence of a large amount of factual material on thermodynamic parameters of complexation of agents in different solvents, including mixed ones, obtained knowledge is specific in nature. In order to identify more general patterns, studies are relevant that would allow to interpret the obtained data taking into account the interaction between chemical forms in solutions. This paper presents a general approach to studying weak ionic interactions in solutions that allows to simultaneously determine the constants of these interactions and the parameters characterizing the influence of changes in the ionic environment on these constants by the example of chlorides and bromides of alkali metals. The obtained constants for hydrosulfate-ion formation and the imperfection parameters can be a reference material for more accurate calculation of the concentration of hydrogen ions in sulfuric acid solutions. The developed approach and patterns identified in the work can be used to study the balanced states for formation of low and medium stable complexes.

  18. Effect of commercial fluoride dentifrices against hydrochloric acid in an erosion-abrasion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Vanara Florêncio; de Vasconcellos, Andréa Araújo; Pequeno, José Heriberto Pinheiro; Rodrigues, Lidiany Karla Azevedo; Santiago, Sérgio Lima

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of three commercial dentifrices with different fluoride-containing compounds in controlling the progression of dentin loss using an in vitro erosion-abrasion model. Dentin specimens were randomized into four groups (n = 10): control (no F), Elmex (1,400 ppm AmF), Meridol (1,400 ppm AmF/SnF2), and Crest Pro-Health (1,100 ppm SnF2). The dentin specimens were submitted to cycles of demineralization (HCl 0.01 M for 60 s), remineralization (artificial saliva for 60 min), and immersion in 1:3 w/w of dentifrice/artificial saliva, followed by toothbrushing (150 brushing strokes). The cycle was repeated three times daily for 5 days. Surface loss was quantified by stylus profilometry. Data were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (p fluoride can strengthen dental tissue against erosive acid damage. However, the beneficial effect of different fluorides present in commercial dentifrices is questionable. Thus, a determination of an effective fluoride dentifrice may be beneficial in the reduction of the erosive process in patients with gastric disorders.

  19. Interactions of some Schiff base compounds with mild steel surface in hydrochloric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayol, Emel [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Nigde University, Nigde 51200 (Turkey); Guerten, Tijen [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Cukurova University, Adana 01330 (Turkey); Guerten, A. Ali [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Nigde University, Nigde 51200 (Turkey)], E-mail: agurten@nigde.edu.tr; Erbil, Mehmet [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Cukurova University, Adana 01330 (Turkey)

    2008-12-01

    The inhibition effect of the Schiff bases N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-1,2-ethylenediamine (Salen), N,N'-bis(5-methoxysalicylidene)-1,2-ethylenediamine (MeO-Salen) and N,N'-bis(5-nitrosalicylidene)-1,2-ethylenediamine (NO{sub 2}-Salen) on the corrosion of the mild steel in 1.0 M HCl has been studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarisation resistance (LPR) and Tafel polarisation measurements. Maximum inhibition for MeO-Salen was obtained. Results showed that the inhibition efficiency have increased when the concentration of the Schiff bases have increased. Polarisation curves revealed that the Schiff bases acted as anodic inhibitors. The surface adsorption of the Schiff bases has lead to a decrease in the double layer capacitance and to an increase in polarisation resistance. The inhibitor performance depended strongly on the type of functional groups on benzene ring. The adsorption process is spontaneous one and follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been applied to identify the surface morphology of the mild steel both in the absence and presence of the Schiff base molecules.

  20. Alteration of the phospho- or neutral lipid content and fatty acid composition in Listeria monocytogenes due to acid adaptation mechanisms for hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids at pH 5.5 or benzoic acid at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastronicolis, Sofia K; Berberi, Anita; Diakogiannis, Ioannis; Petrova, Evanthia; Kiaki, Irene; Baltzi, Triantafillia; Xenikakis, Polydoros

    2010-10-01

    This study provides a first approach to observe the effects on Listeria monocytogenes of cellular exposure to acid stress at low or neutral pH, notably how phospho- or neutral lipids are involved in this mechanism, besides the fatty acid profile alteration. A thorough investigation of the composition of polar and neutral lipids from L. monocytogenes grown at pH 5.5 in presence of hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids, or at neutral pH 7.3 in presence of benzoic acid, is described relative to cells grown in acid-free medium. The results showed that only low pH values enhance the antimicrobial activity of an acid. We suggest that, irrespective of pH, the acid adaptation response will lead to a similar alteration in fatty acid composition [decreasing the ratio of branched chain/saturated straight fatty acids of total lipids], mainly originating from the neutral lipid class of adapted cultures. Acid adaptation in L. monocytogenes was correlated with a decrease in total lipid phosphorus and, with the exception of cells adapted to benzoic acid, this change in the amount of phosphorus reflected a higher content of the neutral lipid class. Upon acetic or benzoic acid stress the lipid phosphorus proportion was analysed in the main phospholipids present: cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoaminolipid and phosphatidylinositol. Interestingly only benzoic acid had a dramatic effect on the relative quantities of these four phospholipids.

  1. 盐酸浸出赤泥回收铝的研究%Study on Aluminum Recovery from Red Mud with Hydrochloric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王克勤; 王皓; 李生虎

    2012-01-01

    The hydrochloric acid leaching process of aluminum from Bayer red mud was studied. The effects of temperature, time, ratio of liquid to solid (L/S) and concentration of hydrochloric acid on aluminum leaching rate were investigated. The industrial experiment of aluminum recovery from red mud was conducted. The results show that factors affecting the rate of aluminum extraction in sequence are temperature, L/S, hydrochloric acid concentration and leaching time. The leaching rate and recovery rate of aluminum from red mud is 88. 13% and 80. 26% respectively after two-step leached at 80℃, evaporation, de-titanium, de-calcium, neutralization and dissolving with sodium hydroxide solution.%研究了盐酸浸出拜耳法赤泥中铝的过程.考察浸出温度、浸出时间、液固比和酸度对铝浸出率的影响,并进行了赤泥回收铝的工业化试验.结果表明,影响铝浸出率的主次因素依次是浸出温度、液固比、盐酸浓度和浸出时间.赤泥在80℃下进行两段浸出,再经蒸发、除钛、除钙、中和及氢氧化钠溶液溶出,铝浸出率为88.13%,回收率为80.26%.

  2. Estudios Cinéticos de la Disolución de Hidroboracita en Soluciones de Acido Clorhídrico y Acido Sulfúrico Dissolution Kinetics of Hydroboracite in Hydrochloric Acid and Sulphuric Acid Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela V Morales

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizan estudios cinéticos de la disolución de hidroboracita en soluciones de ácido clorhídrico y ácido sulfúrico en un reactor tanque agitado discontinuo de acero inoxidable, a presión atmosférica. Se investiga el efecto de la temperatura, el tamaño de partícula, la relación sólido/líquido y la concentración de ácido sobre la velocidad de disolución. Los resultados experimentales permiten observar que la velocidad de disolución aumenta con el incremento de la concentración del ácido y de la temperatura, y disminuye con el aumento del tamaño de partícula y con la relación sólido/líquido. La energía de activación aparente calculada para la disolución de hidroboracita en soluciones de ácido clorhídrico es 44.9 kJ/mol, lo cual no permite inferir cual es la etapa controlante del proceso; mientras que la energía de activación aparente calculada para la disolución de hidroboracita en soluciones de ácido sulfúrico es 14.6 kJ/mol, lo cual permite inferir que el proceso ocurre con control difusivo.The dissolution kinetics of hydroboracite in hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid solutions was investigated. The experiments were carried out in a steel batch reactor equipped with a mechanical stirrer, at atmospheric pressure. The effect of reaction temperature, particle size, solid/liquid ratio and acid concentration on the dissolution rate was determined. It was found that the dissolution rate increased with increasing the acid concentration and reaction temperature. However, the increase of particle size and solid/liquid ratio decreased the dissolution rate. The activation energy for the hydroboracite dissolution in hydrochloric acid was calculated as 44.9 kJ/mol, which does not permit to know the process controlling step. The activation energy for the hydroboracite dissolution in sulphuric acid was found to be 14.6 kJ/mol, which indicates that the dissolution is a diffusion controlled process.

  3. Inhibition Behaviour of Some Isonicotinic Acid Hydrazides on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Chakravarthy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available New corrosion inhibitors, namely, isonicotinic acid (1H-indol-3-yl-methylenehydrazide (INIMH and isonicotinic acid (1H-pyrrol-2-yl-methylenehydrazide (INPMH, have been synthesized, and their inhibitive characteristics for the corrosion of mild steel in 0.5 M HCl were investigated by mass loss and electrochemical techniques. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed using spectral studies. Potentiodynamic polarization studies revealed that the investigated inhibitors are of mixed type. Various thermodynamic parameters were evaluated. Langmuir adsorption isotherm was found to be the best description for both inhibitors. FTIR spectra, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were performed to characterize the passive film on the metal surface.

  4. A two-stage pretreatment process using dilute hydrochloric acid followed by Fenton oxidation to improve sugar recovery from corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenzhi; Liu, Qiyu; Ma, Qiaozhi; Zhang, Tingwei; Ma, Longlong; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-Min

    2016-11-01

    A two-stage pretreatment process is proposed in this research in order to improve sugar recovery from corn stover. In the proposed process, corn stover is hydrolyzed by dilute hydrochloric acid to recover xylose, which is followed by a Fenton reagent oxidation to remove lignin. 0.7wt% dilute hydrochloric acid is applied in the first stage pretreatment at 120°C for 40min, resulting in 81.0% xylose removal. Fenton reagent oxidation (1g/L FeSO4·7H2O and 30g/L H2O2) is performed at room temperature (about 20°C) for 12 has a second stage which resulted in 32.9% lignin removal. The glucose yield in the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was 71.3% with a very low cellulase dosage (3FPU/g). This two-stage pretreatment is effective due to the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses in the first stage and the removal of lignin in the second stage, resulting in a very high sugar recovery with a low enzyme loading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Studies on quality improvement in wheat gluten's physical and chemical properties by hydrochloric acid treatment%盐酸处理对谷朊粉理化性质改良的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德欣

    2012-01-01

    利用盐酸处理改善谷朊粉的溶解度、乳化性、起泡性等理化性质,研究盐酸与谷朊粉的相对浓度、反应温度、反应时间、盐酸浓度对谷朊粉理化性质的影响.结果表明,盐酸处理改良谷朊粉理化性质的最佳条件:谷朊粉质量百分比为8%,盐酸:谷朊粉为3.5:100(质量比),反应温度65℃.试验证明,盐酸处理对谷朊粉的溶解度、乳化性及其稳定性、起泡性及其稳定性都有显著作用.%Using hydrochloric acid treatment improves the gluten's physical and chemical properties of solubility-, emulsiftcation, foaming ability ami etc. The effects of several physical and chemical properties were researched, of hydrochloric acid and gluten relative concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time, hydrochloric acid coticentratioa on gluten. Test results showed that the rn-odified gluten hydrochloric acid treatiment for the optimum conditions of the physical and chemical properties were;mass contest of gluten %%, Hydrochloric acid to gluten 3. 5 · 100 (mass), reaction temperature 65℃, The.experiments proved! that Hydrochloric acid treatment on the gluten's solubility, emulsification and its stability, foaming ability are significantly.

  6. Ethanol-based organosolv treatment with trace hydrochloric acid improves the enzymatic digestibility of Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) by exposing nanofibers on the surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideno, Akihiro; Kawashima, Ayato; Endo, Takashi; Honda, Katsuhisa; Morita, Masatoshi

    2013-03-01

    The effects of adding trace acids in ethanol based organosolv treatment were investigated to increase the enzymatic digestibility of Japanese cypress. A high glucose yield (60%) in the enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained by treating the sample at 170 °C for 45 min in 50% ethanol liquor containing 0.4% hydrochloric acid. Moreover, the enzymatic digestibility of the treated sample was improved to ∼70% by changing the enzyme from acremonium cellulase to Accellerase1500. Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of lignin droplets and partial cellulose nanofibers on the surface of the treated sample. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the treated samples using thermotolerant yeast (Kluyveromyces marxianus NBRC1777) was tested. A high ethanol concentration (22.1 g/L) was achieved using the EtOH50/W50/HCl0.4-treated sample compared with samples from other treatments.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of a novel eco-friendly corrosion inhibition for mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amiery, Ahmed A; Binti Kassim, Fatin A; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2016-01-22

    The acid corrosion inhibition process of mild steel in 1 M HCl by azelaic acid dihydrazide has been investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM). Azelaic acid dihydrazide was synthesized, and its chemical structure was elucidated and confirmed using spectroscopic techniques (infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy). Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicate that azelaic acid dihydrazide is a mixed-type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency increases with increased inhibitor concentration and reaches its maximum of 93% at 5 × 10(-3) M. The adsorption of the inhibitor on a mild steel surface obeys Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. The effect of te perature on corrosion behavior in the presence of 5 × 10(-3) M inhibitor was studied in the temperature range of 30-60 °C. The results indicated that inhibition efficiencies were enhanced with an increase in concentration of inhibitor and decreased with a rise in temperature. To inspect the surface morphology of inhibitor film on the mild steel surface, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used before and after immersion in 1.0 M HCl.

  8. Pharmacokinetics and tissue residues of hydrochloric acid albendazole sulfoxide and its metabolites in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zaijian; Chen, Cuilan; Ai, Diyun; Wang, Chunmei; Li, Jing; Qi, Yuanhua; Yi, Weixue; Shen, Hongchun; Cao, Jiyue

    2012-03-01

    The pharmacokinetics and residues elimination of hydrochloric acid albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO) and its metabolites were studied in healthy crucian carp (Carassius auratus, 250 ± 30 g) kept at water temperatures of 10 °C and 25 °C. The concentrations of ABZSO and its metabolites concentration in plasma and tissues were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using an ultraviolet detector. The results revealed that the plasma concentration of ABZSO in plasma was significantly higher than that of albendazole sulfone (ABZSO(2)), whereas albendazole-2-aminosulfone (ABZ-SO(2)NH(2)) was not detected. The plasma concentrations of ABZSO and its main metabolite ABZSO(2) concentration-time data were fitted using a single-compartment model at 10 °C and 25 °C. The absorption half-life (t₁/₂ka) of ABZSO was 3.86 h at 10 °C and 1.29 h at 25 °C, whereas the elimination half-life (t₁/₂ke) was 16.34 h at 10 °C and 6.72 h at 25 °C; the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and the time-point of maximum plasma concentration (T(p)) were calculated as 3.20 μg mL(-1) and 10.58 h at 10 °C, 4.39 μg mL(-1) and 3.80 h at 25 °C. The distribution volume (V(d)/F) of ABZSO was estimated to be 1.99 L kg(-1) at 10 °C and 1.53 L kg(-1) at 25 °C; the total body clearance (CL(b)) of ABZSO were computed as 0.08 and 0.19 L/(h kg) at 10 and 25 °C, respectively; the areas under the concentration-time curve (AUC) was 118.22 μg mL(-1)h at 10 °C and 63.12 μg mL(-1)h at 25 °C. The [Formula: see text] of ABZSO(2) was found to be 6.39 °C at 10 °C and 3.73 h at 25 °C, whereas the [Formula: see text] was 12.86 h at 10 °C and 6.56 h at 25 °C; the C(max) and T(p) of ABZSO(2) was calculated as 0.78 μg mL(-1) and 12.82 h at 10 °C, 1.03 μg mL(-1) and 7.04 h at 25 °C, respectively; the V(d)/F of ABZSO(2) were estimated to be 6.43 L kg(-1) at 10 °C and 4.61 Lkg(-1) at 25 °C; the CL(b) of ABZSO(2) were computed as 0.34 and 0.49 L/(h kg) at 10 °C and 25

  9. Electrochemical measurements for the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid by using an aromatic hydrazide derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Preethi Kumari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of an aromatic hydrazide derivative, 2-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylidene hydrazinecarbothioamide (TMBHC as corrosion inhibitor on mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid was studied by Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS technique. The results showed that the inhibition efficiency (% IE of TMBHC increased with increasing inhibitor concentrations and also with increase in temperatures. TMBHC acted as a mixed type of inhibitor and its adsorption on mild steel surface was found to follow Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm. The evaluation of thermodynamic and activation parameters indicated that the adsorption of TMBHC takes place through chemisorption. The formation of protective film was further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  10. Study on the inhibition of mild steel corrosion by 1,3-bis-(morpholin-4-yl-phenyl-methyl-thiourea in hydrochloric acid medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devaraj Karthik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available 1,3-Bis-(morpholin-4-yl-phenyl-methyl-thiourea (MBT was synthesized and their influence on the inhibition of corrosion on mild steel in various hydrochloric acid concentrations has been investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance (EI, Tafel polarization, scanning electron microscope (SEM and FT-IR methods. The result of weight loss study shows that the corrosion inhibition efficiency (IE is directly proportional to the concentration of the inhibitor and inversely proportional to the temperature. Electrochemical study proved that the inhibitor acts as a mixed type inhibitor. SEM shows the formation of a protective film of the inhibitor on the mild steel. The IR data also provide evidence for the anticorrosion effect of the inhibitor.

  11. Experimental and theoretical study for corrosion inhibition of mild steel in normal hydrochloric acid solution by some new macrocyclic polyether compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebrini, M. [Unite de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, CNRS UMR 8181, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Lagrenee, M. [Unite de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, CNRS UMR 8181, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Vezin, H. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Macromoleculaire, CNRS UMR 8009, USTL Bat C4, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Traisnel, M. [Laboratoire des Procedes d' Elaboration des Revetements Fonctionnels, PERF UMR 8008, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Bentiss, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination et d' Analytique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Chouaib Doukkali, BP 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco)]. E-mail: f.bentiss@pop.ensc-lille.fr

    2007-05-15

    New macrocyclic polyether compounds containing a 1,3,4-thiadiazole moiety have been prepared to study the corrosion inhibitive effect of mild steel in normal hydrochloric acid solutions. The salient features obtained from weight loss and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) have been discussed. The results of these investigations have shown enhancement in inhibition efficiencies with the extent of the polyethylene glycol unit that forms a cavity. Data obtained from EIS show a frequency distribution and therefore a modelling element with frequency dispersion behaviour, a constant phase element (CPE) has been used. Display Omitted Adsorption of n-MCTH was found to follow the Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic functions of adsorption process were calculated from experimental ac impedance data and the interpretation of the results are given. Molecular modelling has been conducted in an attempt to correlate the corrosion inhibition properties with the calculated quantum chemical parameters.

  12. Thermodynamic characterization of metal dissolution and inhibitor adsorption processes in mild steel/2,5-bis(n-thienyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazoles/hydrochloric acid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentiss, F. [Laboratoire de Cristallochimie et Physicochimie du Solide, CNRS UMR 8012 ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination et d' Analytique, Universite Chouaib Doukkali, Faculte des Sciences, B.P. 20, El Jadida (Morocco); Lebrini, M. [Laboratoire de Cristallochimie et Physicochimie du Solide, CNRS UMR 8012 ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Lagrenee, M. [Laboratoire de Cristallochimie et Physicochimie du Solide, CNRS UMR 8012 ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)]. E-mail: michel.lagrenee@ensc-lille.fr

    2005-12-15

    The corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution by some 2,5-bis(n-thienyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazoles (n-TTH) has been studied in relation to the concentration of the inhibitors as well as the temperature using chemical (weight loss) and electrochemical (ac impedance and dc polarisation) techniques. All the methods employed are in reasonable agreement. The protection efficiency increases with increasing inhibitors concentration and with increasing temperature. The thermodynamic functions of dissolution and adsorption processes were calculated from experimental polarisation data and the interpretation of the results are given. Adsorption of n-TTH was found to follow the Langmuir's adsorption isotherm and the ability of the molecule to chemisorb on the steel surface was dependent on the position of the sulphur atom on the thienyl substituent.

  13. Effect of optimized structure and electronic properties of some benzimidazole derivatives on corrosion inhibition of mild steel in hydrochloric acid medium: Electrochemical and theoretical studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alokdut Dutta; Sujit Sankar Panja; M M Nandi; Dipankar Sukul

    2015-05-01

    The corrosion inhibitive action of a few benzimidazole derivatives namely 2-(benzamido) ethylbenzimidazole (BAEBI), 2-(-benzenesulphonamido) ethylbenzimidazole (BSAEBI), 2-(benzamido) methylbenzimidazole (BAMBI) and 2-(-benzenesulphonamido) methylbenzimidazole (BSAMBI), towards mild steel in hydrochloric acid has been studied using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) methods. The results show that these compounds get adsorbed on the mild steel surface following Temkin adsorption isotherm, and act as mixed-type inhibitors. The inhibition efficiencies are found to follow the order, BAEBI > BSAEBI > BAMBI > BSAMBI. This observation is explained in terms of chain length, relative effects of amido and sulphonamido groups, possible structural factors, spatial orientations, energy gap between the frontier molecular orbitals, different intrinsic molecular parameters, like, global hardness and softness, and number of electrons transferred.

  14. Extraction of Gold(III) from Hydrochloric Acid Solutions with a PVC-based Polymer Inclusion Membrane (PIM) Containing Cyphos(®) IL 104.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonggotgetsakul, Ya Ya Nutchapurida; Cattrall, Robert W; Kolev, Spas D

    2015-12-08

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) based polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs), with different concentrations of Cyphos® IL 104 as the membrane extractant/carrier, were studied for their ability to extract Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions. Some of the PIMs also contained one of the following plasticizers or modifiers: 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether, dioctylphthalate, 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol, or tri(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate. The best performance, in terms of extraction rate and amount of Au(III) extracted, was exhibited by a PIM consisting of 25 wt% Cyphos(®) IL 104, 5 wt% 1-dodecanol, and 70 wt% PVC. An almost complete back-extraction of the Au(III) extracted from this membrane was achieved by using a 0.10 mol L(-1) Na₂SO₃ receiver solution at pH 8. The stoichiometry of the extracted Au(III)/Cyphos® IL 104 adduct was determined as [P]⁺ [AuCl₄](-) H⁺ [PO₂](-) where [P]⁺ and [PO₂](-) represent trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinate ions, respectively. Back-extraction of Au(III) is suggested to occur by reduction of Au(III) to Au(I), with the formation of the species [Au(SO₃)₂](3-) in the aqueous receiver solution. Loss of 1-dodecanol from the newly developed PIM to the aqueous solutions in contact with it was observed, which indicated that this membrane was suitable for single use in the efficient recovery of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions of electronic scrap or recycled jewelry.

  15. 植物细胞有丝分裂实验中盐酸浓度对实验效果影响的研究%Effective research on different concentrations of hydrochloric acid in plant cell mitosis experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    归改霞

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨有丝分裂实验中盐酸浓度对实验效果的影响。方法:通过使用不同浓度的盐酸做为解离液进行实验,从中选取最适合的盐酸浓度,从而达到最理想的实验效果。结果:通过实验比较,解离液中盐酸的浓度为25%比较合适。结论:植物细胞有丝分裂实验,在选材、培养、取材均为最优条件下,解离液中盐酸的浓度是实验成功的关键。当盐酸的浓度为25%时,实验成功率最高,能达到最佳效果。%Objective: To investigate effects of different concentrations of hydrochloric acid in plant cell mitosis experiment. Methods: In order to achieve the best experimental results, the most suitable concentration of hydrochloric acid was selected in experiments. Results: Based on experimental comparison, concentration of hydrochloric acid of 25% in dissociation solution is suitable. Conclusion: When other conditions are the best, concentration of hydrochloric acid is the key in plant cell mitosis experiment. When concentration of hydrochloric acid was 25%, there was highest efficiency and the best result.

  16. Corrosion inhibition efficiency and surface activity of benzothiazol-3-ium cationic Schiff base derivatives in hydrochloric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negm, N.A., E-mail: nabelnegm@hotmail.co [Petrochemicals Department, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Elkholy, Y.M.; Zahran, M.K. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Helwan (Egypt); Tawfik, S.M. [Petrochemicals Department, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Benzothiazolium inhibitors show high corrosion inhibition for carbon steel. {yields} Weight loss and corrosion rates decrease by increasing inhibitor dose. {yields} Inhibition mechanism suggested as physisorption mechanism supported by adsorption free energy values. {yields} The adsorption of the inhibitors obeys Langmuir isotherm. {yields} Side chains have ascending order on the corrosion inhibition of the different inhibitors. - Abstract: Two series of cationic Schiff base surfactants namely: 2-(benzylideneamino)-3-(2-oxo-2-alkoxyethyl)-1,3-benzothiazol-3-ium bromide and 2-[(4-methoxybenzylidene)amino]-3-(2-oxo-2-alkoxyethyl)-1, 3-benzothiazol-3-ium bromide were prepared and confirmed using elemental analysis, FTIR, and {sup 1}H NMR spectra. The surface activity of the synthesized Schiff bases showed their tendency towards adsorption at the interfaces. The prepared compounds were evaluated as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in 0.5 M HCl solution using gravimetric and polarization measurements. By fitting the gravimetric data, some thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were estimated. The adsorption of the inhibitors on the carbon steel surface obeyed Langmuir adsorption isotherm and had a physical mechanism. Polarization measurements showed that the synthesized inhibitors act as mixed inhibitors for carbon steel in the acidic media. The results of the corrosion inhibition using two different methods showed narrow differences in the obtained values between the two methods within 5%.

  17. Electrochemical Study on Corrosion Inhibition of Copper in Hydrochloric Acid Medium and the Rotating Ring-Disc Voltammetry for Studying the Dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Satpati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissolution characteristics of copper in hydrochloric acid medium and the effect of 4-amino 1,2,4-triazole (ATA on the corrosion process have been studied using conventional electrochemical techniques and rotating ring-disc electrodes (RRDEs. Corrosion potential (corr and corrosion current density (corr were obtained by Tafel extrapolation methods. Charge transfer resistance (ct and double-layer capacitance (dl were obtained from the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. ATA was shown to be an effective inhibitor for the copper-corrosion inhibition in acid medium. The corrosion rate was retarded in presence of inhibitors mainly because of the adsorption of the inhibitor on the electrode surface. Adsorption of the inhibitor on the metal surface was found to follow the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Standard free energy change of the adsorption process (Δ0ad was calculated to be −54.3 kJ mol−1; such a large negative value of Δ0ad suggests the prescence of a chemisorption process.

  18. Inhibition performance of thiourea on carbon steel in hydrochloric acid%氢氟酸中硫脲对碳钢缓蚀性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩成利

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption and corrosion inhibition of thiourea on carbon steel in hydrochloric acid has been investigated by weight-loss method.The experimental data have been treated with adsorption theory and sekine method.The result showed that thiourea has efficiently inhibited the corrosion of iron in hydrofluoric acid solution, the adsorption rule of thiourea on the surface of iron obeyed Langmuir isotherm.%采用失质量法研究了硫脲在氢氟酸中对碳钢的吸附及缓蚀作用,并应用吸附理论Sekine方法对实验数据进行处理。结果表明,硫脲对氢氟酸体系中碳钢的腐蚀有良好的抑制作用,硫脲在碳钢片表面产生了吸附,且低浓度下吸附基本符合Langmuir等温式。

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis of highly crystalline RuS{sub 2} nanoparticles as cathodic catalysts in the methanol fuel cell and hydrochloric acid electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanjuan [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Minisry of Education Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266100 (China); College of Material Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials of Ministry of Education, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Li, Nan, E-mail: lin@jlu.edu.cn [College of Material Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials of Ministry of Education, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Yanagisawa, Kazumichi [Research Laboratory of Hydrothermal Chemistry, Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan); Li, Xiaotian [College of Material Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials of Ministry of Education, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Yan, Xiao [Key Laboratory of Physics and Technology for Advanced Batteries (Ministry of Education), College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Highly crystalline RuS{sub 2} nanoparticles have been first synthesized by a “one-step” hydrothermal method. • The product presents a pure cubic phase of stoichiometric ratio RuS{sub 2} with average particle size of 14.8 nm. • RuS{sub 2} nanoparticles were used as cathodic catalysts in methanol fuel cell and hydrochloric acid electrolysis. • The catalyst outperforms commercial Pt/C in methanol tolerance and stability towards Cl{sup −}. - Abstract: Highly crystalline ruthenium sulfide (RuS{sub 2}) nanoparticles have been first synthesized by a “one-step” hydrothermal method at 400 °C, using ruthenium chloride and thiourea as reactants. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy/energy disperse spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), thermo gravimetric-differential thermal analyze (TG-DTA), transmission electron microscopy equipped with selected area electron diffraction (TEM/SAED). Fourier transform infrared spectra (IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD result illustrates that the highly crystalline product presents a pure cubic phase of stoichiometric ratio RuS{sub 2} and the average particle size is 14.8 nm. SEM and TEM images display the products have irregular shape of 6–25 nm. XPS analyst indicates that the sulfur exists in the form of S{sub 2}{sup 2−}. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), rotating disk electrode (RDE), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements are conducted to evaluate the electrocatalytic activity and stability of the highly crystalline RuS{sub 2} nanoparticles in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for methanol fuel cell and hydrochloric acid electrolysis. The results illustrate that RuS{sub 2} is active towards oxygen reduction reaction. Although the activity of RuS{sub 2} is lower than that of Pt/C, the RuS{sub 2} catalyst outperforms commercial Pt/C in methanol tolerance and stability towards Cl{sup −}.

  20. 盐酸改性粉煤灰净化低温低浊水的试验研究%The Experimental Research on Purifying Low Temperature and Low Turbidity Water by Hydrochloric Acid Modified Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘书贤; 魏晓刚; 王伟; 杜平; 肖利萍

    2012-01-01

    由于粉煤灰具有良好的吸附性能且富含硅、铝和铁等元素,将其作为助凝剂,用盐酸对粉煤灰改性后与聚合硫酸铁PFS联合使用处理低温低浊水.在用盐酸对粉煤灰进行改性时,研究了振荡时间、振荡速度、盐酸浓度等试验因素对改性粉煤灰吸附助凝效果的影响,得出盐酸改性粉煤灰的最佳试验条件为:振荡器振荡速度80 r/min,100 mL 3.6 mol/L盐酸与5g预处理粉煤灰混合振荡3h,试验温度25℃.改性后粉煤灰的比表面积明显增加,并且粉煤灰中部分硅、铝和铁等元素溶出,转变成具有很好絮凝作用的Al3+、Fe3+和H2SiO3,粘附于粉煤灰表面,在处理低温低浊水的过程中能较好地发挥吸附助凝效果.%Becaouse of the excellent adsorption performance and high containing of silicon, aluminum and iron and other elements, fly ash by hydrochloric acid modified was used as a coagulant to purify low temperature and low turbidity water with reagent PFS. When the fly ash were modified by hydrochloric acid, the experimental factors just as duration of oscillation, speed of oscillation and hydrochloric acid concentration were researched. The best experimental conditions of hydrochloric acid modification were follows: the speed of oscillation 80r/min, 100 mL 3.6 mol/L of hydrochloric acid and 5 g the coal fly ash mixed in the oscillator for about 3 h, the experiment temperature 25 ℃. The specific surface of modified fly ash increased significantly, the elements such as silicon, aluminum and iron dissolved from fly ash and they turned into Al3+, Fe3+ and H2SiO3 (adhesion on the surface of fly ash) whose flocculation were strong. In the process of purifying low temperature and low turbidity water by hydrochloric acid modified fly ash, the adsorptive property can be exerted effectively.

  1. Improve the Properties of p-i-n α-Si:H Thin-Film Solar Cells Using the Diluted Hydrochloric Acid-Etched GZO Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Hsing Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO thin films were deposited on glass, and the process parameters are RF power of 50 W and working pressure of 5 mTorr, and the substrate temperature was changed from room temperature to 300°C. At first, the thickness was around 300 nm by controlling the deposition time. The effects of substrate temperature on the crystallinity, lattice constant (c, carrier mobility, carrier concentration, resistivity, and optical transmission rate of the GZO thin films were studied. The 200°C-deposited GZO thin films had the best crystallinity, the larger carrier concentration and carrier mobility, and the lowest resistivity. For that, the thickness of the GZO thin films was extended to around 1000 nm. Hydrochloric (HCl acid solutions with different concentrations (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.5% were used to etch the surfaces of the GZO thin films, which were then used as the substrate electrodes to fabricate the p-i-n α-Si:H thin-film solar cells. The haze ratio of the GZO thin films increased with increasing HCl concentration, and that would effectively enhance light trapping inside the absorber material of solar cells and then improve the efficiency of the fabricated thin-film solar cells.

  2. Investigation of adsorption and inhibitive effect of acid red GRE (183 dye on the corrosion of carbon steel in hydrochloric acid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abd El-raouf

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption and corrosion inhibitive effect of acid red GRE (183 dye on carbon steel alloy in 1 M HCl solutions was studied using various techniques. Results of weight loss, Tafel polarization measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS techniques show that this compound has fairly good inhibiting properties for steel corrosion in acidic bath; with efficiency around 96% at a concentration of 50 ppm. The inhibition is of a mixed anodic–cathodic nature. Factors affecting the corrosion process have been calculated and discussed. Acid red GRE (183 dye was shown to be an inhibitor in the acidic corrosion. Inhibition efficiency increased with acid red GRE (183 dye concentration but decreased with rise in temperature, corrosion inhibition is attributed to the adsorption of acid red GRE (183 dye on the carbon steel surface via a physical adsorption mechanism. Langmuir isotherm is found to provide an accurate description of the adsorption behavior of the investigated azo compound. The nature of the protective film was investigated using SEM and EDX techniques.

  3. Operational aspect of hot water style 2-in-1 graphite hydrochloric acid furnace%热水型二合一石墨盐酸炉的运行情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕旭琦; 冯海平

    2012-01-01

    通过改造传统工艺盐酸炉为热水型二合一石墨盐酸炉,回收盐酸生产中产生的热量制热水。采用热水型溴化锂制冷机组制7℃水供生产用。工艺改造后,达到了节能减排预期目标。%The tradition graphite hydrochloric acid furnace was transformed into hot water style 2-in-1 graphite hydrochloric acid furnace.The hot water was used to produce 7℃ water.After process transformation,the ammonia refrigerating machine was stoped and the power consumption reduced,the energy conservation goals were achieved.

  4. Kinetic Approach to the Mechanism of Redox Reaction of Pyrocatechol Violet and Nitrite Ion in Aqueous Hydrochloric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Adetoro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of the oxidation of Pyrocatechol violet (PCVH by nitrite ion (NO2- in aqueous acidic medium has been studied at 24±1ºC, I = 0.50 mol/dm3(NaCl, [H+] = 1.0×10-3 mol/dm3. The reaction is first order to [PCVH] and half order to [NO2-]. The redox reaction displayed a 1:1 stoichiometry and obeys the rate law: d[PCVH]/dt = (a + b[H+] [PCVH][NO2-]½. The second-order rate constant increases with increase in acid concentration and ionic strength. This system displayed positive salt effect while spectroscopic investigation and Michaelis-Menten plot showed evidence of intermediate complex formation in the course of the reaction. A plausible mechanism has been proposed for the reaction.

  5. 盐酸法提取污泥中蛋白质过程的研究%Study on the Processes of Protein Extraction from Sludge by Hydrochloric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦晓; 刘勇

    2012-01-01

    为了探索剩余污泥中蛋白质的提取方法,采用盐酸和氢氧化钠对污泥中蛋白质进行了提取,并对提取液进行了紫外光谱分析.结果证明盐酸提取法更有利于污泥中蛋白质的提取操作,并可以保证蛋白质质量.随后,实验考察了温度、污泥浓度、盐酸浓度以及操作时间对提取液中蛋白质浓度的影响情况.结果表明:蛋白质浓缩随温度呈先慢后快的增加趋势,随污泥浓度呈线性增加趋势,随盐酸浓度呈先快后慢增加趋势,适当延长时间有利于提升提取液中的蛋白质浓度.%In order to explore the methods of protein extraction from sludge, firstly, hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide were used to extract protein in this paper, and then the extracts were analyzed by UV spectrum. The results showed that hydrochloric acid extraction method was more conducive to the protein extraction and could ensure the protein quality. Subsequently, the effects of temperature, sludge concentration, hydrochloric acid concentration and operating time on protein concentration in the extract were experimentally investigated in detail. The results show that: the change trend of the protein concentration in the extract with temperature is slow after fast, with sludge concentration is linear, with hydrochloric acid is fast before slow, and appropriate extension of time will help to enhance the protein concentration in the extract.

  6. 盐酸戊乙奎醚治疗有机磷农药中毒临床分析%Clinical Analysis of Hydrochloric Acid Penehyclidine in Treatmentof Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹振强; 汪显琪

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficacy and clinical significance of hydrochloric acid penehyclidine in the treatment of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Method: Chosing 126 cases of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning patients. Then explored the comprehensive methods of hydrochloric acid penehyclidine treatment. Result: After 3 to 5 days of comprehensive hydrochloric acid penehyclidine treatment, 122 patients escaped from danger successfully and 4 patients died. Another 15 patients responded with dry mouth , flushing face and so on, and then was cured slowly after stopping the treatment. Conclusion: Hydrochloric acid penehyclidine is characteristic of long-lasting time, simple operation and so on. It is of better clinical utility and safety, and can obviously speed up the level of consciousness, reduce treatment time and improve the treatment success rate for organophosphorus pesticide poisoning patients.%目的:探讨盐酸戊乙奎醚治疗有机磷农药中毒病症的疗效及临床意义.方法:选取我院急诊科126例有机磷农药中毒患者,探讨盐酸戊乙奎醚治疗的综合方法,并结合实际分析其效果.结果:经盐酸戊乙奎醚综合治疗3-5d后,122例患者成功脱险,死亡4例.有15例出现口干、面红等不良反应,停药后自行缓解.结论:盐酸戊乙奎醚具有持续时间长、操作简便等特点,具有更好的临床实用性和安全性,对于有机磷农药中毒患者能明显加快清醒程度,缩短时间,提高救治成功率.

  7. Formation of super-concentrated hydrochloric acid in the third phase in tertiary amine N235-PtCl62--HCl system and its influences on the Pt microemulsion extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,we have investigated the formation of the third-phase in tertiary amine(N235)-PtCl62--HCl system and the microscopic phase structural evolution of platinum-loaded organic phases before and after the occurrence of the third-phase.The third-phase is characterized by various spectroscopic techniques,and the small angle X-ray scattering(SAXS) experiments demonstrate the appearance of nano-aggregates,i.e.,water-in-oil reversed micelles,in the third phase.The experimental results indicate that(1) formation of the third phase is related to the aggregation behaviors of nano-reversed micelles in which a super-concentrated hydrochloric acid formed with the H+ to H2O molar ratio being much higher than that of the conventional 37 wt% saturated hydrochloric acid.(2) The occurrence of the super-concentrated HCl results in a great amount of H+ and Cl-ions enriched and confined within the nano-water pools of W/O reversed micelles in third phase.Therefore,the coordination behaviors of platinum complex ions in that super-concentrated hydrochloric acid are very different from their corresponding behaviors in bulk aqueous solutions.It is possible that H+ ions participate in the formation of such complexes as HmPtCl6z+ in the super-concentrated hydrochloric acid.(3) The relative contents of various HmPtCl6z+ complexes are different corresponding to the H+ ion concentrations in confined nanowater pools.The association ability of the acidified tertiary amine N235 molecules(R3NH+) with various HmPtCl6z+ complexes plays an important role in affecting the platinum extraction behaviors.

  8. Treasure of the Past VI: Standard Potential of the Silver-Silver-Chloride Electrode from 0° to 95° C and the Thermodynamic Properties of Dilute Hydrochloric Acid Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, R G; Bower, V E

    2001-01-01

    From electromotive-force measurements of the cell without liquid junction: [Formula: see text]through the range 0° to 95° C, calculations have been made of (1) the standard potential of the silver-silver-chloride electrode, (2) the activity coefficient of hydrochloric acid in aqueous solutions from m (molality) =0 to m=0.1 and from 0° to 90° C, (3) the relative partial molal heat content of hydrochloric acid, and (4) the relative partial molal heat capacity of hydrochloric acid. The extrapolations were made by the method of least squares with the aid of punch-card techniques. Data from at least 24 cells were analyzed at each temperature, and 81 cells were studied at 25° C. The value of the standard potential was found to be 0.22234 absolute volt at 25° C, and the standard deviation was 0.02 millivolt at 0° C, 0.01 millivolt at 25° C, and 0.09 millivolt at 95° C. The results from 0° to 60° C are compared with earlier determinations of the standard potential and other quantities derived from the electromotive force.

  9. A novel triazole-based cationic gemini surfactant: synthesis and effect on corrosion inhibition of carbon steel in hydrochloric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Lingguang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China)]. E-mail: lgahu@163.com; Xie Anjian [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Shen Yuhua [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China)

    2005-06-15

    A triazole-based cationic gemini surfactant, 3,5-bis(methylene octadecyl dimethylammonium chloride)-1,2,4-triazole (18-triazole-18) has been synthesized, and its effect on corrosion inhibition of A{sub 3} steel in 1 M HCl has been studied using the weight-loss method. The result showed that 18-triazole-18 acted as an excellent inhibitor in 1 M HCl. It was found that the adsorption mechanism of 18-triazole-18 on the steel surface in acid medium was quite different from that of cationic gemini surfactants containing dimethylene as a spacer, as well as that of conventional cationic single-chained surfactants, which is due to unique molecular structure of 18-triazole-18. 18-Triazole-18 may be adsorbed on the steel surface in acid medium through a maximum of four atoms or groups, i.e., the two nitrogen atoms of triazole ring and two quaternary ammonium head groups. Four regions of surfactant concentration could be divided to illustrate the adsorption of 18-triazole-18 on the steel surface, and four different adsorption mechanisms may take place in different regions of surfactant concentration.

  10. Analytical correlation between varying corrosion parameters and corrosion rate of Al-4.5Cu/10%ZrSiO{sub 4} composite in hydrochloric acid by rare earth chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oloche, O.B.; Yaro, S.A. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria); Okafor, E.G. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria)], E-mail: ekeneokafor@yahoo.com

    2009-03-20

    The effect of varying temperature, time and inhibitor concentration on the corrosion rate of Al-4.5Cu/ZrSiO{sub 4} composite in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid without and with lanthanide chloride salt have been investigated. 10%ZrSiO{sub 4} was used for the production of the Al-4.5Cu/zircon sand composite. The time, temperature and concentration of inhibitor were varied in the range of 6-10 h at 2 h interval, 30-75 deg. C at 15 deg. C interval and 250-1000 ppm at 250 ppm interval respectively. Factorial design, standard deviation, effect of variables at 95% confidence interval and Arrhenius kinetics approach were used to correlate the corrosion parameter and corrosion rate. Results show that increase in temperature, inhibitor concentration above 250 ppm and decrease in time enhance corrosion rate. Also, temperature and anti-corrosion agent concentration are the most important control parameters. The kinetic and statistical approaches were in good agreement.

  11. Trapping of hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acid at vacancies on and underneath the ice I(h) basal-plane surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro Moreira, Pedro Augusto Franco; de Koning, Maurice

    2013-10-31

    We investigate the uptake of HCl and HF at lattice vacancies in ice Ih as a function of their distance to the basal-plane surface layer using density-functional theory calculations. The results for HCl display large dispersions in the binding-energy results due to the appearance of distinct dissociation states. The layer-averaged results suggest that the uptake of HCl is most favorable in the two layers just below the surface, which is consistent with available experimental indications. The behavior of HF is found to be manifestly different due to the fact that it is a weaker acid. The dispersion in the binding-energy values is significantly less compared to the case of HCl, and the average values are essentially equal to the bulk value, regardless of layer position. This suggests that, in contrast to the case of HCl, there should not be any tendency for accumulation of HF near the surface.

  12. Study of Temperature Effect on the Corrosion Inhibition of C38 Carbon Steel Using Amino-tris(Methylenephosphonic Acid in Hydrochloric Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najoua Labjar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tafel polarization method was used to assess the corrosion inhibitive and adsorption behaviours of amino-tris(methylenephosphonic acid (ATMP for C38 carbon steel in 1 M HCl solution in the temperature range from 30 to 60∘C. It was shown that the corrosion inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increase in ATMP concentration but decreased with temperature, which is suggestive of physical adsorption mechanism. The adsorption of the ATMP onto the C38 steel surface was found to follow Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The corrosion inhibition mechanism was further corroborated by the values of kinetic and thermodynamic parameters obtained from the experimental data.

  13. Preparation of Butyl Chloride from Butanol and Hydrochloric Acid Using Ionic Liquids as Catalyst%离子液体催化丁醇与盐酸反应制备丁基氯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙爱军; 聂毅; 李春喜; 王子镐

    2008-01-01

    The catalytic performance of some quaternary ammonium salts for the liquid phase reaction of butanol and hydrochloric acid at different conditions was studied experimentally and compared with the traditional catalyst (ZnC12). The organic ammonium catalysts investigated include ionic liquids N-butyl-N-methyl imidazolium fluobo-rate ([BMIM][BF4]) and N-butyl-N-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) as well as hydrochloric salts of N-methylimidazol ([HMIM]Cl), pyridine ([Hpy]Cl) and triethylamine ([HEt3N]Cl). It is shown that the intrinsic catalytic performance of all organic ammonium salts except [Het3N]Cl is slightly superior to ZnCl2, while the se-lectivity of butyl chloride is nearly at the same level around 96%. The conversion of butanol increases slightly with temperature and the catalyst amount added while the variation of selectivity is not obvious. Based on the recycle experiments, the ionic liquids as catalyst for the reaction of butanol and hydrochloric acid can be used more than 5 times, which suggests great potential of using ionic liquids as novel catalyst for such reactions.

  14. [Suicidal poisoning due to hydrogen sulfide produced by mixing a liquid bath essence containing sulfur and a toilet bowl cleaner containing hydrochloric acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kanya; Fukushima, Hirofumi

    2008-04-01

    A 21-year-old man was found dead in a car. There were 9 empty bottles of 610HAP (a 440 g bottle of a liquid bath essence containing 160-195 g/kg sulfur) and 10 of Sunpole (a 500 mL bottle of a toilet bowl cleaner containing 9.5% HCl) in the car. The car doors were sealed with tape, and there was a strong smell of sulfur in and around the car. GC/MS analysis showed 0.66 microg/mL sulfide and 0.14 micromol/mL thiosulfate in the blood sample. The concentration of thiosulfate in the urine sample was normal. Police investigation concluded that the man killed himself by aspirating hydrogen sulfide that had been produced by mixing 610 HAP and Sunpole. To examine the amount of hydrogen sulfide produced, small portions of these liquids were mixed in a 560-mL volume flask. The results showed that 0.1 mL of each liquid produced 4,950 ppm of hydrogen sulfide, and 0.2 mL of each produced 10,800 ppm. According to these results, if the cabin volume is assumed to be 3,300 L, mixing 120 mL of each liquid produces a lethal level of hydrogen sulfide, i.e., 1,000 ppm. This was a rare suicide case, and it revealed the hazards of mixing of liquid bath essences containing sulfur and toilet bowl cleaners containing hydrochloric acid.

  15. Impact of quality parameters on the recovery of putrescine and cadaverine in fish using methanol-hydrochloric acid solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Nicole L; Pivarnik, Lori F; Ellis, P Christopher; Lee, Chong M

    2011-01-01

    Methanol (MeOH) extraction by AOAC Official Method 996.07 has resulted in low amine recoveries in fresh fish tissue. Addition of 25% 0.4 M HCl to the 75% methanol-water extraction solvent resulted in higher recoveries of putrescine and cadaverine. Average putrescine recovery increased from 55 to 92% in flounder, scup, bluefish, and salmon; from 92 to 98% in mackerel; and from 83 to 107% in processed mackerel. Average cadaverine recovery increased from 57 to 95% in flounder, scup, bluefish, and salmon; from 91 to 97% in mackerel; and from 92 to 108% in processed mackerel. Fish stored on ice for 12 days also showed differences between background concentrations determined with the two solvents. However, the values decreased with storage time, indicating that degradation of the protein matrix may cause more comparable measurements between the two solvents. However, consistently higher putrescine and cadaverine measurements were determined using MeOH-HCl. Although significant differences in the extraction of amines from the high-fat fish tissue were not seen between MeOH and MeOH-HCl, it would be ideal to have one solvent for biogenic amine extraction. This study confirms that MeOH-HCl is a better solvent for complete extraction and recovery of putrescine and cadaverine in fresh and processed fish tissues.

  16. Kinetics study of leaching arsenic from Ni-Mo ore roasting in dust mixture of hydrochloric and sulfuric acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯晓川; 杨润德; 李贺; 曾理; 肖连生

    2014-01-01

    The kinetics of leaching arsenic from Ni-Mo ore roasting dust was investigated. The effects including leaching temperature, particle size of the smelter dust, stirring speed, the coefficientβ(the molar ratio of sodium chlorate to arsenic in the smelter dust) and the initial H+ concentration on leaching arsenic were studied. The results indicate that the leaching of arsenic increases sharply with the decrease of particle size. The orders of reaction with respect to H+ concentration and particle size are determinted to be 1.136 and-1.806, respectively.The leaching of arsenic reaches 99% under experimental conditions, the apparent activation energy is determined to be 11.157 kJ/mol, which is consistent with the values of activation energy for diffusion model. The kinetics equation of leaching arsenic from the roasting dust could be expressed by a semi-empirical equation as 1-2/3η-(1-η)2/3=k0(c[H+])1.136r0-1.806exp[(-11157/RT)t].

  17. Electrochemical impedance study on the corrosion of Al-Pure in hydrochloric acid solution using Schiff bases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A S Patel; V A Panchal; N K Shah

    2012-04-01

    The inhibition effect of newly synthesized Schiff bases -benzylidene benzylamine (A) and benzenemethanamine--methyl--(phenylmethylene) (B) on the corrosion behaviour of Al-Pure in 1.0 M HCl was studied using galvanostatic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and adsorption studies. The effects of inhibitor concentration, temperature and surface coverage are investigated. The effect of inhibitor concentration and other parameters are evaluated for different inhibitor concentrations and the probable mechanism was also proposed. The results show that (A) and (B) possess excellent inhibiting effect for the corrosion of Al-Pure and the inhibitors act as mixed type inhibitors. The inhibitors do not affect the mechanism of the electrode processes and inhibit corrosion by blocking the reaction sites. The high inhibition efficiency of (A) and (B) were due to the adsorption of inhibitor molecules on the metal surface. The decrease of surface area available for electrode reactions to take place is due to the formation of a protective film. Activation energy and free energy of adsorption have been calculated.

  18. 萃取净化盐酸法制备磷酸工艺研究%Study of Preparation Phosphoric Acid Process by Extraction and Purification of Hydrochloric Acid Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨站平; 闫小玲; 张树帜; 王长锐

    2014-01-01

    Based on preparation crude phosphoric acid by acid hydrolysis of ground phosphate rocks with hydrochloric acid , using process of combination of tributyl phosphate and kerosene mixed solvent extraction with chemical precipitation process to carry out purification treatment for crude phosphoric acid , after refine , concentration , removal of impurities and decolorization , food grade phosphoric product is obtained . Research results show that mass fraction of prepared product phosphoric acid is 85.2%, all indicators achieved not only meet standard requirements of industrial grade phosphoric acid , but also reach qualifications of food grade phosphoric acid .%以盐酸酸解磷矿粉制得粗磷酸为基础,采用磷酸三丁酯和煤油混合溶剂萃取与化学沉淀法相结合的工艺对粗磷酸进行净化处理,通过精制、浓缩、除杂、脱色后可制得食品级磷酸产品。研究结果表明:试验制得的产品磷酸质量分数为85.2%,各项指标不仅达到了工业级磷酸标准要求,而且达到了食品级磷酸标准要求。

  19. Microstructures of Al7.5Cr22.5Fe35Mn20Ni15 High-Entropy Alloy and Its Polarization Behaviors in Sulfuric Acid, Nitric Acid and Hydrochloric Acid Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Huei Tsau

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the microstructures and the polarization behaviors of Al7.5Cr22.5Fe35Mn20Ni15 high-entropy alloy in 1M (1 mol/L deaerated sulfuric acid (H2SO4, nitric acid (HNO3, and hydrochloric acid (HCl solutions at temperatures of 30–60 °C. The three phases of the Al7.5Cr22.5Fe35Mn20Ni15 high-entropy alloy are body-centered cubic (BCC dendrites, face-centered cubic (FCC interdendrites, and ordered BCC precipitates uniformly dispersed in the BCC dendrites. The different phases were corroded in different acidic solutions. The passivation regions of the Al7.5Cr22.5Fe35Mn20Ni15 alloy are divided into three and two sub-regions in the solutions of H2SO4 and HNO3 at 30–60 °C, respectively. The passivation region of the Al7.5Cr22.5Fe35Mn20Ni15 alloy is also divided into two sub-domains in 1M deaerated HCl solution at 30 °C. The Al7.5Cr22.5Fe35Mn20Ni15 alloy has almost equal corrosion resistance in comparison with 304 stainless steel (304SS in both the 1M H2SO4 and 1M HCl solutions. The polarization behaviors indicated that the Al7.5Cr22.5Fe35Mn20Ni15 alloy possessed much better corrosion resistance than 304SS in 1M HNO3 solution. However, in 1M NaCl solution, the corrosion resistance of the Al7.5Cr22.5Fe35Mn20Ni15 alloy was less than 304SS.

  20. Sequential soil washing techniques using hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide for remediating arsenic-contaminated soils in abandoned iron-ore mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Min; Hwang, Jung Sung; Choi, Sang Il

    2007-01-01

    Sequential washing techniques using single or dual agents [sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) solutions] were applied to arsenic-contaminated soils in an abandoned iron-ore mine area. We investigated the best remediation strategies to maximize arsenic removal efficiency for both soils and arsenic-containing washing solution through conducting a series of batch experiments. Based on the results of a sequential extraction procedure, most arsenic prevails in Fe-As precipitates or coprecipitates, and iron exists mostly in the crystalline forms of iron oxide. Soil washing by use of a single agent was not effective in remediating arsenic-contaminated soils because arsenic extractions determined by the Korean standard test (KST) methods for washed soils were not lower than 6mg kg(-1) in all experimental conditions. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that iron-ore fines produced mobile colloids through coagulation and flocculation in water contacting the soils, containing dissolved arsenic and fine particles of ferric arsenate-coprecipitated silicate. The first washing step using 0.2M HCl was mostly effective in increasing the cationic hydrolysis of amorphous ferrihydrite, inducing high removal of arsenic. Thus, the removal step of arsenic-containing flocs can lower arsenic extractions (KST methods) of washed soils. Among several washing trials, alternative sequential washing using 0.2M HCl followed by 1M HCl (second step) and 1M NaOH solution (third step) showed reliable and lower values of arsenic extractions (KST methods) of washed soils. This washing method can satisfy the arsenic regulation of washed soil for reuse or safe disposal application. The kinetic data of washing tests revealed that dissolved arsenic was easily readsorbed into remaining soils at a low pH. This result might have occurred due to dominant species of positively charged crystalline iron oxides characterized through the sequential extraction procedure. However

  1. Effects of chopping, and soaking in water, hydrochloric acidic and calcium hydroxide solutions on the nutritional value of Acacia villosa for goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wina, E. [Research Institute for Animal Production, Bogor (Indonesia)]. E-mail: winabudi@yahoo.com; Tangendjaja, B.; Susana, I.W.R. [Research Institute for Animal Production, Bogor (Indonesia)

    2005-08-19

    Acacia villosa, a thornless shrub legume, has potential as a feed supplement for ruminants if anti-nutritional factors, especially tannins, can be overcome. The effects of chopping and soaking the leaves on the amounts of tannin in the extracting solution and that left in the recovered leaves were studied. The tannin and non-tannin phenolics were solubilized in the extracting solution and the amount was increased with the soaking time. Soaking in calcium hydroxide solution, hydrochloric acid or water removed 41-76% of tannin and total phenolics removed from the recovered leaves. Soaking of the leaves also removed fermentable materials and reduced the gas production. In the first of two digestibility experiments, three groups of goats received one of these diets, those were: (1) sugar cane tops: unsoaked Acacia leaves (7:3), (2) sugar cane tops: water soaked Acacia leaves (7:3) and (3) sugar cane tops: water soaked Acacia leaves (7:3) + 100 g/day of cassava flour. Live weight of goats was measured every 2 weeks and a large increase in average daily gain was obtained for goats fed diet containing water soaked leaves and cassava flour (71 g/day) compared to those fed diet containing unsoaked leaves and water soaked leaves (38.9 and 44.7 g/day, respectively) (P < 0.05). In the second digestibility experiment, the three diets were: (1) sugar cane tops: unsoaked Acacia (7:3), (2) sugar cane tops water soaked Acacia (7:3), (3) sugar cane tops: calcium hydroxide soaked Acacia (7:3). A supplement of 100 g/day of cassava flour was added to each of these three diets. In both digestibility experiments, soaking improved intake and digestibility of Acacia leaves, and cassava flour increased the intake, but when all the diets contained cassava flour, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) found in intake or digestibility between unsoaked and soaked leaves. In conclusion, soaking reduced tannin in Acacia leaves, improved digestibility and intake of Acacia leaves. In the

  2. Effect of a low-viscosity adhesive resin on the adhesion of metal brackets to enamel etched with hydrochloric or phosphoric acid combined with conventional adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetkiner, Enver; Ozcan, Mutlu; Wegehaupt, Florian Just; Wiegand, Annette; Eden, Ece; Attin, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of a low-viscosity adhesive resin (Icon) applied after either hydrochloric (HCl) or phosphoric acid (H3PO4) on the adhesion of metal brackets to enamel. Failure types were analyzed. The crowns of bovine incisors (N = 20) were sectioned mesio-distally and inciso-gingivally, then randomly assigned to 4 groups according to the following protocols to receive mandibular incisor brackets: 1) H3PO4 (37%)+TransbondXT (3M UNITEK); 2) H3PO4 (37%)+Icon+TransbondXT; 3) HCl (15%)+Icon (DMG)+TransbondXT 4) HCl (15%)+Icon+Heliobond (Ivoclar Vivadent)+TransbondXT. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h and thermocycled (5000x, 5°C to 55°C). The shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed using a universal testing machine (1 mm/min). Failure types were classified according to the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). Contact angles of adhesive resins were measured (n = 5 per adhesive) on ceramic surfaces. No significant difference in SBS was observed, implying no difference between combinations of adhesive resins and etching agents (p = 0.712; ANOVA). The Weibull distribution presented significantly lower Weibull modulus (m) of group 3 (m = 2.97) compared to other groups (m = 5.2 to 6.6) (p group 1 (45.4 ± 7.9) > group 2 (44.2 ± 10.6) > group 3 (42.6 ± 15.5). While in groups 1, 3, and 4 exclusively an ARI score of 0 (no adhesive left on tooth) was observed, in group 2, only one specimen demonstrated score 1 (less than half of adhesive left on tooth). Contact angle measurements were as follows: Icon (25.86 ± 3.81 degrees), Heliobond (31.98 ± 3.17 degrees), TransbondXT (35 ± 2.21 degrees). Icon can be safely used with the conventional adhesives tested on surfaces etched with either HCl or H3PO4.

  3. Newly synthesized salicylidene-4,4′-dimorpholine (SDM) assembled on nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiONPs) and its inhibitive effect on mild steel in 2 N hydrochloric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadhwani, Poonam M. [Department of Chemistry, School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad 380009, Gujarat (India); Panchal, Vikram K., E-mail: vikram60panchal@gmail.com [R.G. Shah Science College, Vasna, Ahmedabad 382170, Gujarat (India); Shah, Nisha K. [Department of Chemistry, School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad 380009, Gujarat (India)

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanoparticles with inhibitor were found to be better corrosion inhibitor than only organic compound. • A strong binding mechanism was confirmed by FTIR, PXRD. • Inhibition efficiency increases drastically for SDM assembled on NiONPs as compared to SDM. • The adsorption model obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. • The protective layer over the surface of mild steel has been confirmed by AFM analysis. - Abstract: Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution by salicylidene-4,4′-dimorpholine (SDM) and SDM assembled on nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiONPs) has been studied with gravimetric, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization techniques. Inhibition was found to increase with increasing concentration of the inhibitors. While studying the temperature effect on corrosion behaviour of SDM and SDM assembled on NiONPs, the inhibition efficiency decreases for SDM only but increases for SDM assembled on NiONPs. The adsorption of both the inhibitors on the mild steel surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The activation energy as well as other thermodynamic parameters (ΔH* and ΔS*) for the inhibition process was calculated. EIS analysis results showed that the capacitive loops for SDM assembled on NiONPs were far away from blank when compared with SDM only. Polarization curve shows that the inhibitors are of mixed type. Further, the protective layer formation was confirmed from atomic force microscopy (AFM) results. Various methods such as EIS-MS, {sup 1}H NMR, XRD, FTIR, and DLS were performed for the confirmation of the structure, interaction of SDM with NiONPs and size of NiONPs.

  4. ac impedance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory studies of 3,5-bis(n-pyridyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazoles as efficient corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel surface in hydrochloric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Outirite, Moha; Lagrenee, Michel; Lebrini, Mounim [Unite de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UMR-CNRS 8181, ENSCL, B.P. 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Traisnel, Michel; Jama, Charafeddine [Laboratoire des Procedes d' Elaboration des Revetements Fonctionnels, PERF UMR-CNRS 8008, ENSCL, B.P. 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Vezin, Herve [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Macromoleculaire, UMR-CNRS 8009, USTL Bat C4, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Bentiss, Fouad, E-mail: fbentiss@enscl.f [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination et d' Analytique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco)

    2010-02-01

    The corrosion inhibition properties of a new class of oxadiazole derivatives, namely 3,5-bis(n-pyridyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazoles (n-DPOX) for C38 carbon steel corrosion in 1 M HCl medium were analysed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). An adequate structural model of the interface was used and the values of the corresponding parameters were calculated and discussed. The experimental results showed that these compounds are excellent inhibitors for the C38 steel corrosion in acid solution and that the protection efficiency increased with increasing the inhibitors concentration. Electrochemical impedance data demonstrate that the addition of the n-DPOX derivatives in the corrosive solution decreases the charge capacitance and simultaneously increases the function of the charge/discharge of the interface, facilitating the formation of an adsorbed layer over the steel surface. Adsorption of these inhibitors on the steel surface obeys to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the thermodynamic data of adsorption showed that inhibition of steel corrosion in normal hydrochloric solution by n-DPOX is due to the formation of a chemisorbed film on the steel surface. Quantum chemical calculations using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) and the Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) approach were performed on n-DPOX derivatives to determine the relationship between molecular structure and their inhibition efficiencies. The results of the quantum chemical calculations and experimental inhibition efficiency were subjected to correlation analysis and indicate that their inhibition effect is closely related to E{sub HOMO}, E{sub LUMO}, and dipole moment (mu).

  5. Limonene as Green Inhibitor for Steel Corrosion in Hydrochloric Acid Solutions%盐酸溶液中钢铁腐蚀的绿色缓蚀剂柠檬油精

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAIEB E.; BOUYANZER A.; HAMMOUTI B.; BERRABAH M.

    2009-01-01

    The inhibition of steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid solutions by limonene, which was extracted from citrus and orange fruit, was studied using measurements of mass loss, electrochemical polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. Naturally, the substance reduced the rate of corrosion. The linearity of the cathodic curves for all concentrations indicated that the law of Tafel was followed. The effectiveness of inhibition increased with the increase in concentration of limonene and this exceeded 72% at 0.220 g. L-1. The inhibition efficiency is temperature independent in the temperature range of 298-328 K. Adsorption of the substance on the surface of steel obeys the Frumkin isotherm model.

  6. 盐酸介质中N,N′-二(二苯基膦基)-1-苯乙胺对碳钢的缓蚀性能研究%Investigation on Corrosion Inhibition of N,N′-Bis(diphenylphosphino)-1-phenylethylamine for Carbon Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏健; 谢斌; 赖川; 李玉龙; 邹立科; 樊义康

    2016-01-01

    . The results for influencing factors of the inhibitive efficiency of NPM showed that the inhibitive efficiency of NPM increased with increasing NPM concentration, and the inhibition efficiency reached up to 94. 71% at 140 mg/L NPM in 1. 0 mol/L hydrochloric acid solution at 25 ℃. It decreased gradually with the increase of the corrosion system temperature and the hydrochloric acid concentration, while increased with increasing standing time of the corrosion system. The ad-sorption process of NPM on carbon steel surface obeyed Langmuir isotherm and belonged to spontaneous physical and chemical ad-sorption. Conclusion The synthesized organic compound NPM was a highly efficient mixed-type corrosion inhibitor.

  7. Influence of several nonferrous metals in the treatment of residual liquors from hydrochloric acid pickling processes. Influencia de diversos metales no ferreos en el tratamiento de lejias residuales de decapado con acido clorhidrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negro, C.; Cobos, M.A.; Latorre, R.; Dufour, J.; Formoso, A.; Lopez, F.

    1994-01-01

    In the oxiprecipitation of waste liquors from siderurgical processes of pickling with hydrochloric acid, several kinds of iron oxides and oxihydroxides are obtained: alpha-FeOOH, gamma-FeOOH, Fe[sub 3]O[sub 4], gamma-Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3]. Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3].1,2H[sub 2]O, etc. These products can be used like pigments in the painting industry and like raw materials for the obtaining of ferrites. Varying the operation conditions, the presence of these products can be changed greatly, obtaining different mixtures of them. The presence of non-ferrous metals catalyzes and modifies the mechanism of the reaction, yielding pure products. This simplifies their later industrial applications. The aim of this work is to determine the influence of Cu(II), Zn(II), Mo(VI) and Al(III) on the oxiprecipitation of residual liquors from hydrochloric acid pickling processes, selecting the most favourable operation conditions at which it is possible to obtain products for industrial applications.

  8. Cell cycle profiling by image and flow cytometry: The optimised protocol for the detection of replicational activity using 5-Bromo-2′-deoxyuridine, low concentration of hydrochloric acid and exonuclease III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konečný, Petr; Frydrych, Ivo; Koberna, Karel

    2017-01-01

    The approach for the detection of replicational activity in cells using 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine, a low concentration of hydrochloric acid and exonuclease III is presented in the study. The described method was optimised with the aim to provide a fast and robust tool for the detection of DNA synthesis with minimal impact on the cellular structures using image and flow cytometry. The approach is based on the introduction of breaks into the DNA by the low concentration of hydrochloric acid followed by the subsequent enzymatic extension of these breaks using exonuclease III. Our data showed that the method has only a minimal effect on the tested protein localisations and is applicable both for formaldehyde- and ethanol-fixed cells. The approach partially also preserves the fluorescence of the fluorescent proteins in the HeLa cells expressing Fluorescent Ubiquitin Cell Cycle Indicator. In the case of the short labelling pulses that disabled the use of 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine because of the low specific signal, the described method provided a bright signal enabling reliable recognition of replicating cells. The optimized protocol was also successfully tested for the detection of trifluridine, the nucleoside used as an antiviral drug and in combination with tipiracil also for the treatment of some types of cancer. PMID:28426799

  9. Cell cycle profiling by image and flow cytometry: The optimised protocol for the detection of replicational activity using 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, low concentration of hydrochloric acid and exonuclease III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligasová, Anna; Konečný, Petr; Frydrych, Ivo; Koberna, Karel

    2017-01-01

    The approach for the detection of replicational activity in cells using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, a low concentration of hydrochloric acid and exonuclease III is presented in the study. The described method was optimised with the aim to provide a fast and robust tool for the detection of DNA synthesis with minimal impact on the cellular structures using image and flow cytometry. The approach is based on the introduction of breaks into the DNA by the low concentration of hydrochloric acid followed by the subsequent enzymatic extension of these breaks using exonuclease III. Our data showed that the method has only a minimal effect on the tested protein localisations and is applicable both for formaldehyde- and ethanol-fixed cells. The approach partially also preserves the fluorescence of the fluorescent proteins in the HeLa cells expressing Fluorescent Ubiquitin Cell Cycle Indicator. In the case of the short labelling pulses that disabled the use of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine because of the low specific signal, the described method provided a bright signal enabling reliable recognition of replicating cells. The optimized protocol was also successfully tested for the detection of trifluridine, the nucleoside used as an antiviral drug and in combination with tipiracil also for the treatment of some types of cancer.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of a novel eco-friendly corrosion inhibition for mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.; Binti Kassim, Fatin A.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    The acid corrosion inhibition process of mild steel in 1 M HCl by azelaic acid dihydrazide has been investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM). Azelaic acid dihydrazide was synthesized, and its chemical structure was elucidated and confirmed using spectroscopic techniques (infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy). Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicate that azelaic acid dihydrazide is a mixed-type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency increases with increased inhibitor concentration and reaches its maximum of 93% at 5 × 10−3 M. The adsorption of the inhibitor on a mild steel surface obeys Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm. The effect of temperature on corrosion behavior in the presence of 5 × 10−3 M inhibitor was studied in the temperature range of 30–60 °C. The results indicated that inhibition efficiencies were enhanced with an increase in concentration of inhibitor and decreased with a rise in temperature. To inspect the surface morphology of inhibitor film on the mild steel surface, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used before and after immersion in 1.0 M HCl. PMID:26795066

  11. Synthesis and characterization of a novel eco-friendly corrosion inhibition for mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.; Binti Kassim, Fatin A.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    The acid corrosion inhibition process of mild steel in 1 M HCl by azelaic acid dihydrazide has been investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM). Azelaic acid dihydrazide was synthesized, and its chemical structure was elucidated and confirmed using spectroscopic techniques (infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy). Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicate that azelaic acid dihydrazide is a mixed-type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency increases with increased inhibitor concentration and reaches its maximum of 93% at 5 × 10-3 M. The adsorption of the inhibitor on a mild steel surface obeys Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm. The effect of temperature on corrosion behavior in the presence of 5 × 10-3 M inhibitor was studied in the temperature range of 30-60 °C. The results indicated that inhibition efficiencies were enhanced with an increase in concentration of inhibitor and decreased with a rise in temperature. To inspect the surface morphology of inhibitor film on the mild steel surface, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used before and after immersion in 1.0 M HCl.

  12. Comparative study on solubilities of bismuth, bismuth oxide,and bismuth sulfide in hydrochloric acid-thiourea%铋、氧化铋、硫化铋在盐酸-硫脲中溶解性的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马哈亚·艾斯江; 巴哈尔古丽·别克吐尔逊

    2012-01-01

    在盐酸介质中及55℃加热条件下,铋与硫脲形成黄色络合物,从而建立了用分光光度法比较铋、氧化铋、硫化铋在盐酸-硫脲中溶解性的新方法.研究了反应介质、试剂浓度、加热时间、加热温度、震荡速率等因素的影响.在最佳实验条件下,溶液的质量浓度为0.04~0.24 mg/mL时符合比尔定律.相关系数R=0.999 9,检出限为1.05×10-2 μg/mL,标准偏差SD=0.003 5,相对标准偏差RSD=2.42%,摩尔吸收系数为1.515×105 L/(mol·cm),加标回收率为96.7%~98.8%.实验结果表明,铋、氧化铋、硫化铋的溶解性顺序大小为:铋>氧化铋>硫化铋.%A yellow complex is formed from bismuth and thiourea in hydrochloric acid under the heated condition of 55 °C. Thus a new method is set up to compare the solubilities of bismuth, bismuth oxide, and bismuth sulfide in hydrochloric acid-thiourea by using spectrophotometry.Effects of factors, such as reaction medium, reagent concentration, heating time, heating temperature, and oscillation speed,were studied respectively .Under the optimum experimental conditions, mass concentration of the solution is in line with Beer's law, when it is within the range of 0.04-0.24 mg/mL.The correlation coefficient (R) is 0.999 9.The detection limit is 1.05xl0-2μg/mL.The standard deviation is 0.003 5.The relative standard deviation (RSD) is 2.42%.The molar absorption coefficient is 1.515xl05 L/(mol-cm).The recovery rate of standard addition is at 96.7%~98.8%. Experimental result showed that the solubilities of bismuth,bismuth oxide,and bismuth sulfide in hydrochloric acid-thiourea is in order by size as following: Bi>Bi2O3>Bi2S3.

  13. Propanoyl(1Z-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl-2-oxopropanehydrazonoate as inhibitor for corrosion of 6061 Al alloy15 % (v SiC(p composite in hydrochloric acid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achutha Kini U

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The corrosion inhibition effect of Propanoyl(1Z-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl-2-oxopropanehydrazonoate (PDOH in the corrosion of 6061 Aluminium alloy-15%(v SiC(p composite in 0.5 and 1M hydrochloric acid medium at four different temperatures (30, 40, 50 and 60 ⁰C was investigated using potentio-static polarization (Tafel extrapolation and Linear polarization and weight loss methods. The results obtained reveal that PDOH is an efficient corrosion inhibitor with around 96% inhibition efficiency within the range of temperature studied. Leftward and downward shifts in Tafel plots were observed with the addition of the inhibitor, indicating that PDOH inhibits the corrosion process effectively, and that it is a cathodic inhibitor. Corrosion rate increases and inhibition efficiency decreases with increase in temperature. Results obtained by Tafel extrapolation, linear polarization, and weight loss methods are in agreement. The adsorption of the inhibitor onto the surface of the 6061 Al alloy 15 % (v SiC(p composite is found to obey Temkins' adsorption isotherm that verifies the assumption of mono-layer adsorption on a uniform homogeneous composite surface with an interaction in the adsorption layer. The inhibition is therefore governed by the physisorption mechanism.ABSTRAK: Kesan perencatan kakisan Propanoyl(1Z-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl-2-oxopropanehydrazonoate (PDOH ke atas kakisan komposit aloi Al 6061-15%(v SiC(p dalam media asid hidroklorik 0.5 dan 1M pada suhu-suhu yang berbeza (30, 40, 50 dan 60⁰C telah dikaji menggunakan polarisasi statik-upaya (extrapolarisasi Tafel dan polarisasi Linear dan kaedah kehilangan berat. Keputusan diperolehi menunjukkan PDOH adalah perencat yang efisien dengan 96 % keupayaan perencatan bagi julat suhu yag dikaji. Anjakan ke kiri dan ke bawah plot Tafel dapat dilihat dengan penambahan perencat, menunjukkan PDOH merencatkan proses kakisan dengan berkesan, dan ia adalah perencat katodik. Dengan peningkatan suhu

  14. Characteristics of the Carbon Nanotube Coated with Polyaniline Doped with Hydrochloric Acid and Dodecylbenzene Sulfonic Acid%盐酸与DBSA共掺杂聚苯胺修饰碳纳米管性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱波; 刘刚; 薛艳丽; 郑亚萍; 赵纯颖

    2011-01-01

    The MWNTs/polyaniline composites were prepared via in-situ emulsion polymerization using hydrochloric acid and dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid as dopants. The FTIR spectra, TEM and TGA were used to characterize the morphology and performance of the composites. The TEM results show that the surface of MWNTs are coated by polyaniline composites and the thickness of the coating layer is 10~20nm. The solubility is increased in DMF, THF and chloroform. The thermal stability of the composite is highly improved at 520~750℃ and the encapsulation rate is 15.16%. The conductivity of the sample is increased from 10-7S/cm to 10-3S/cm.%采用原位乳液聚合法制备了盐酸与十二烷基苯磺酸(DBSA)共掺杂聚苯胺/MWNTs复合材料.利用FTIR、TEM和TG等对复合材料的形貌和性能进行了表征.TEM结果表明苯胺共聚物包覆于碳纳米管表面,包覆厚度为10~20nm.复合材料在DMF、THF和氯仿中的溶解性大幅度提高,在520~750℃的热稳定性明显提高,包覆率为15.16%,电导率从聚苯胺的10-7A/cm增大到10-3S/cm.

  15. ASCORBIC ACID IS DECREASED IN INDUCED SPUTUM OF MILD ASTHMATICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma is primarily an airways inflammatory disease, and the bronchial airways have been shown to be particularly susceptible to oxidant-induced tissue damage. The antioxidant ascorbic acid (AA) plays an essential role in defending against oxidant attack in the airways. Decreased...

  16. 氯化法回收废钯-氧化铝催化剂中的钯%Recovery of Palladium from Spent Pd-Al2O3 Catalyst by Hydrochloric Acid Leaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李骞; 胡龙; 饶雪飞; 悟永斌; 徐斌; 姜涛

    2015-01-01

    惣悦化铝为载体的某含钯废催化剂为原料,采用恿酸介质中添加悦化助浸剂的方案对钯恒择性浸出,并考察了焙烧,还原,浸出过程的适惚工惤条件。结果表明,钯的回收率可惣达到98%惣上。%Palladium was recovered from spent alumina-supported catalyst by the process of selective leaching using hydrochloric acid with an oxidant. The optimized conditions of roasting, reduction, leaching processes were also investigated. The results showed that the palladium recovery ratio was over 98% in the optimum condition.

  17. Experimental Investigation and Characterization of Fe and Al from Red Mud by Hydrochloric Acid%赤泥酸浸出铁、铝的工艺条件研究及其表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴烈善; 苏翠翠; 吕宏虹; 曾冬梅; 莫小荣

    2014-01-01

    The systematic study of leaching red mud with hydrochloric acid is carried out .The microstructure and phase transformation of red mud is analyzed by means of SEM and XRD .The experiment results show that the leaching ratios of Fe and Al are 82% and 30 .5% respectively under the condition that reaction temperature 80℃ ,liquid to solid ratio 6 ,hy-drochloric acid concentration 7mol/L and reaction time 3h .Microstructure of red mud is transformed from granular into layer frame shape after been leached by HCl .The hematite in red mud has been totally leached by HCl .%对广西某铝厂的赤泥进行了盐酸浸出铁、铝的工艺条件研究,并利用扫描电镜和X-衍射对赤泥酸溶前后的形貌特征及矿物物像、化学成分进行分析表征,研究结果表明,赤泥在温度为80℃、液固比为6、浓度为7 mol/L的盐酸中反应3 h ,Fe和Al的浸出率分别为82%和30.5%;酸溶前后赤泥形貌由团粒状转变为层架状,赤泥中赤铁矿矿物相被盐酸充分溶出。

  18. DILUTE SOLUTION BEHAVIOR OF CHITOSAN IN DIFFERENT ACID SOLVENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; WANG Lihua; QIN Wen

    1994-01-01

    Dilute solution behavior of chitosan was studied in formic acid, acetic acid,lactic acid and hydrochloric acid aqueous solution under different pH values. The reduced viscosities, ηsp/C,of chitosan solutions were dependent on the properties of acid and pH value of solvents. For a given chitosan concentration, ηsp/C decreased with the increase of acid concentration, or decreasing pH of solvent, indicating shielding effect of excessive acid similar to adding salt into solution. The stabilities of dilute chitosan solution in formic acid and lactic acid were better than that in acetic acid and hydrochloric acid.

  19. Synthesis of imidazoline-based dissymmetric bis-quaternary ammonium gemini surfactant and its inhibition mechanism on Q235 steel in hydrochloric acid medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Gong, X.L.; Song, W.W.; Jiang, B.; Du, M. [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, Shandong Province (China)

    2012-07-15

    An imidazoline-based dissymmetric bis-quaternary ammonium gemini surfactant has been synthesized. Its surface active properties at equilibrium in water at 25 C were determined. The inhibitive effect of the compound on Q235 steel in 1 M hydrochloric solution was investigated by the weight-loss method, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, and quantum chemical calculations. The results indicate that the compound has high surface properties and the inhibition efficiency (IE) increases with the increase in inhibitor concentration, which attain the maximum value around the CMC value. The imidazoline-based dissymmetric bis-quaternary ammonium acts as a mixed type inhibitor mainly inhibiting the cathodic processes and does not change the mechanism of either hydrogen evolution reaction or mild steel dissolution. The best IE is obtained at the immersion time of 144 h. The adsorption of the studied inhibitor on Q235 steel can be fitted to a Langmuir isotherm and the adsorption process is a spontaneous chemical adsorption. Quantum chemistry calculation results show that the imidazoline ring and heteroatoms of N, O, are the active sites of the inhibitors. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Electrochemical, quantum chemical and SEM investigation of the inhibiting effect and mechanism of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin on the corrosion for mild steel in hydrochloric acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG XueHui; GUO Wenduan; LI WeiHua; XIE dianDong; HOU BaoRong

    2008-01-01

    The inhibiting effect and mechanism of 1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3-quinoline carboxylicacid(ciprofloxacin), 1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3-quinoline carboxylic acid (norfloxacin) and (-)-(S)-9-fluoro-2,3-dihydro-3-methyl-10-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-7oxo-7 H-pyrido(1,2,3-de)-1,4-benzoxazine-6 carboxylic acid (ofloxacin) on the corrosion of mild steel in 1 mol/L HCl have been studied using electrochemical method, quantum chemical method and SEM at 303 K. The potentiodynamic results showed that these compounds suppressed both cathodic and anodic processes of mild steel corrosion in 1 mol/L HCl. The impedance spectroscopy showed that Rp values increased, and Cdl values decreased with the rising of the working concentration. Quantum chemical calculation showed that there was a positive correlation between some inhibitors structure properties and the inhibitory efficiency. The inhibitors function through adsorption followed Langmuir isotherm, and chemisorption made more contribution to the adsorption of the inhibitors on the steel surface compared with physical adsorption. SEM analysis suggested that the metal had been protected from aggressive corrosion because of the addition of the inhibitors.

  1. Electrochemical, quantum chemical and SEM investigation of the inhibiting effect and mechanism of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin on the corrosion for mild steel in hydrochloric acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The inhibiting effect and mechanism of 1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro -4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl) -3- quinoline carboxylicacid(ciprofloxacin), 1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3-quinoline carboxylic acid (norfloxacin) and (?)-(S)-9-fluoro-2,3-dihydro-3-methyl-10-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-7- oxo-7 H-pyrido(1,2,3-de)-1,4- benzoxazine-6 carboxylic acid (ofloxacin) on the corrosion of mild steel in 1 mol/L HCl have been studied using electrochemical method, quantum chemical method and SEM at 303 K. The potentiodynamic results showed that these compounds suppressed both cathodic and an-odic processes of mild steel corrosion in 1 mol/L HCl. The impedance spectroscopy showed that Rp values increased, and Cdl values decreased with the rising of the working concentration. Quantum chemical calculation showed that there was a positive correlation between some inhibitors structure properties and the inhibitory efficiency. The inhibitors function through adsorption followed Langmuir isotherm, and chemisorption made more contribution to the adsorption of the inhibitors on the steel surface compared with physical adsorption. SEM analysis suggested that the metal had been protected from aggressive corrosion because of the addition of the inhibitors.

  2. Inhibition Effects of a Synthesized Novel 4-Aminoantipyrine Derivative on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Solution together with Quantum Chemical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Mohamad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 1,5-Dimethyl-4-((2-methylbenzylideneamino-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3(2H-one (DMPO was synthesized to be evaluated as a corrosion inhibitor. The corrosion inhibitory effects of DMPO on mild steel in 1.0 M HCl were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential (OCP and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM. The results showed that DMPO inhibited mild steel corrosion in acid solution and indicated that the inhibition efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration. Changes in the impedance parameters suggested an adsorption of DMPO onto the mild steel surface, leading to the formation of protective films. The novel synthesized corrosion inhibitor was characterized using UV-Vis, FT-IR and NMR spectral analyses. Electronic properties such as highest occupied molecular orbital energy, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (EHOMO and ELUMO, respectively and dipole moment (μ were calculated and discussed. The results showed that the corrosion inhibition efficiency increased with an increase in the EHOMO values but with a decrease in the ELUMO value.

  3. Inhibition effects of a synthesized novel 4-aminoantipyrine derivative on the corrosion of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution together with quantum chemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaedi, Sutiana; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A; Kadihum, Abdulhadi; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2013-06-04

    1,5-Dimethyl-4-((2-methylbenzylidene)amino)-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3(2H)-one (DMPO) was synthesized to be evaluated as a corrosion inhibitor. The corrosion inhibitory effects of DMPO on mild steel in 1.0 M HCl were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM). The results showed that DMPO inhibited mild steel corrosion in acid solution and indicated that the inhibition efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration. Changes in the impedance parameters suggested an adsorption of DMPO onto the mild steel surface, leading to the formation of protective films. The novel synthesized corrosion inhibitor was characterized using UV-Vis, FT-IR and NMR spectral analyses. Electronic properties such as highest occupied molecular orbital energy, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (EHOMO and ELUMO, respectively) and dipole moment (μ) were calculated and discussed. The results showed that the corrosion inhibition efficiency increased with an increase in the EHOMO values but with a decrease in the ELUMO value.

  4. Synthesis of N - Alkyl Benzimidazoles as Corrosion Inhibitors for Acidification in Hydrochloric Acid and Evaluation of Their Inhibition Performance%N-烷基苯并咪唑酸化缓蚀剂的合成及性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鹏辉; 冀生辉

    2013-01-01

    Four kinds of N - alkyl benzimidazole corrosion inhibitors were synthesized by alkylation of 2 - methyl benzimidazole or 2 - ethyl benzimidazole. The corrosion inhibition performance of as - synthesized inhibitors was evaluated by static state weight loss test and dynamic potential scanning polarization curve measurement. It was found that properly extending carbon chain of benzimidazole helped to improve the anticorrosion ability of benzimidazoles, and corrosion inhibitor N - hexadecyl - 2 - ethyl benzimidazole showed the best corrosion inhibition performance. Besides, at 60 ℃ in 15% hydrochloric acid, the corrosion rate of N80 steel decreased with increasing concentration of the corrosion inhibitor; and the corrosion rate of the steel at a corrosion inhibitor concentration of 1.0% was 1.73g/(m2 · h) , which indicated that corrosion inhibitor N-hexadecyl-2-ethyl benzimidazole was advantageous over the first-class corrosion inhibitor for acidification. Moreover, as-synthesized corrosion inhibitors were a class of mixed-type inhibitors dominated by cathode inhibition, but their inhibition performance in HCl with a concentration of above 20 % or at a temperature of above 70 ℃ was undesirable.%苯并咪唑是一类环境友好的缓蚀剂,将其衍生物用作油气田酸化缓蚀剂的报道较少.通过烷基化反应在2-甲基苯并咪唑和2-乙基苯并咪唑的1-氮原子上分别引入十二烷基和十六烷基,合成了4种N-烷基苯并咪唑,并以其为主剂制成缓蚀剂,用静态失重法和动电位扫描极化曲线对4种复配缓蚀剂在盐酸溶液中的缓蚀性能进行了评价.结果表明:适当延长1位烷基碳链,有助于提高苯并咪唑衍生物的缓蚀能力;合成的4种N-烷基苯并咪唑中,以N-十六烷基-2-乙基苯并咪唑为主剂制成缓蚀剂d的缓蚀性能最好;在60℃,15%HCl中,N80钢的腐蚀速率随缓蚀剂d用量的增大而减小,其用量为1.0%时,N80钢腐蚀速率为1.73 g/(m2·h),优于

  5. Analysis of twenty phenolic compounds in human urine: hydrochloric acid hydrolysis, solid-phase extraction based on K2CO 3-treated silica, and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dasheng; Feng, Chao; Wang, Dongli; Lin, Yuanjie; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; She, Jianwen; Xu, Qian; Wu, Chunhua; Wang, Guoquan; Zhou, Zhijun

    2015-05-01

    This study developed a new method for the analysis of 20 phenolic compounds in human urine. The urine samples were prepared by hydrochloric acid (HCl) hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), and solid-phase extraction (SPE) cleanup. We found that HCl hydrolysis is of similar effectiveness to, and much cheaper than, the traditional enzymatic method. Vanillic acid was co-eluted with butyl paraben and interfered with the determination of butyl paraben in urine. K2CO3-treated-silica-gel SPE was designed to efficiently eliminate interference from the endogenous organic acids (especially vanillic acid) in urine. After derivatization, the samples were analyzed by large-volume-injection gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS-MS). Good linearity (R (2) ≥ 0.996) was established in the range 0.1-100 ng mL(-1) for all analytes. Method detection limits (MDLs) were 0.7-9.8 pg mL(-1). Intraday (n = 5) and interday (n = 5 days) validation was performed, with satisfactory accuracy (recovery: 70-126 % and 73-107 %, respectively) and precision (RSD ≤ 19 %) at two levels (low: 0.1 and 0.5 ng mL(-1); high: 5 and 10 ng mL(-1)). The method was used in a population study and achieved more than 85 % detection for most analytes; mean analyte concentrations were in the range 0.01-185 ng mL(-1). The method is suitable for the analysis of multiple phenolic metabolites in human urine.

  6. The Formation of Mathematical Model for CaCl2 Derived from The Reaction of Ulexite and Hydrochloric Acid by Using Full Factorial Desing Method

    OpenAIRE

    DURAK, Halil; GENEL, Yasar; BASHIROV, Novruz; KERIMOV, Genber

    2011-01-01

    One of the significant boron compounds which are common substance in nature is ulexite. Ulexite is a sodium calcium boron hydrate, its chemical formula is Na2O2CaO5B2O316H2O , and it is thick with in Turkey. Lots of products are derived from boron minerals. One of them is boric acid. CaCl2 is used in many fields and this compound can be obtained by different processes. The aim of this study is producing CaCl2 by forming mathematical model for CaCl2 composing in the wake of the interaction of ...

  7. The Formation of Mathematical Model for CaCl2 Derived from The Reaction of Ulexite and Hydrochloric Acid by Using Full Factorial Desing Method

    OpenAIRE

    DURAK, Halil; GENEL, Yasar; BASHIROV, Novruz; KERIMOV, Genber

    2013-01-01

    One of the significant boron compounds which are common substance in nature is ulexite. Ulexite is a sodium calcium boron hydrate, its chemical formula is Na2O2CaO5B2O316H2O , and it is thick with in Turkey. Lots of products are derived from boron minerals. One of them is boric acid. CaCl2 is used in many fields and this compound can be obtained by different processes. The aim of this study is producing CaCl2 by forming mathematical model for CaCl2 composing in the wake of the interaction of ...

  8. Application of Stabilized Silver Nanoparticles as Thin Films as Corrosion Inhibitors for Carbon Steel Alloy in 1 M Hydrochloric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman M. Atta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanometer scaled materials have attracted tremendous interest as corrosion protective films due to their high ability to form self-assembled films on the metal surfaces. It is well known that the silver nanoparticles have higher reactivity towards aqueous acidic solution. The present work aims to prepare coated silver nanoparticles to protect carbon steel alloys from aqueous acidic corrosive media. In this respect, Ag nanoparticles colloid solutions were produced through reducing AgNO3 separately with trisodium citrate in an aqueous solution or in the presence of stabilizer such as poly(ethylene glycol thiol and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone. The morphology of the modified silver nanoparticles was investigated by TEM and DLS. UV-Vis absorption spectrum was used to study the effect of HCl on the stability of the dispersed silver nanoparticles. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of the poly (ethylene glycolthiol, the self-assembled monolayers of Ag nanoparticles, was determined by polarization method and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Polarization curves indicated that the coated silver poly (ethylene glycolthiol acted as a mixed type inhibitor. The data of inhibition efficiencies obtained measured by polarization measurements are in good agreement with those obtained with electrochemical impedance.

  9. The water soluble composite poly(vinylpyrrolidone–methylaniline: A new class of corrosion inhibitors of mild steel in hydrochloric acid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Karthikaiselvi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years poly methyl aniline has been reported as one of the efficient corrosion inhibitors of mild steel in acidic media. In view of the major limitation of the insolubility of polymethyl aniline PMA, we propose to convert PMA into a water soluble composite using supporting polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone to get higher solubility and corrosion inhibition efficiency. The water soluble composite poly(vinylpyrrolidone-methyl aniline was synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization and its inhibitive effect on mild steel in 1 M HCl has been investigated using weight loss and electrochemical techniques (potentiodynamic polarization studies and impedance spectroscopy. SEM and EDX analyses are carried out to establish a protective film formation on the metal surface.

  10. Electrochemical and theoretical investigation of the inhibitory effect of two Schiff bases of benzaldehyde for the corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, U. J.; Jha, P. C.; Lone, M. Y.; Shah, R. R.; Shah, N. K.

    2016-12-01

    The corrosion inhibition effect of o-Aminophenol-N-Benzylidene (o-AmphNB) and o-Anisidene-N-Benzylidene (o-AnsNB) for pure Aluminium in 1 M HCl at different concentrations of two different inhibitors were investigated by means of weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The values of Δ Gadso revealed that the adsorption mechanism of these molecules on aluminium surface is competitive phenomenon between chemical and physical adsorption. Potentiodynamic polarization parameters revealed the mixed mode of inhibition with predominance of cathodic inhibition. The impedance results showed that with increase in concentration of inhibitor, charge transfer resistance increases while double layer capacitance decreases. Quantum chemical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) method were performed on o-AmphNB and o-AnsNB to determine the relationship between molecular structures and their inhibition efficiencies. Correlation analysis concluded that the inhibition effect of inhibitors could be explained in terms of electronic properties.

  11. A Comparative Study of the Inhibitory Effect of Gum Exudates from Khaya senegalensis and Albizia ferruginea on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ocheje Ameh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the inhibitory potentials of gum exudates from Albizia ferruginea (AF and Khaya senegalensis (KS on the corrosion of mild steel in HCl medium was investigated using weight loss and gasometric method. The active chemical constituents of the gum were elucidated using GC-MS while FTIR was used to identify the bonds/functional groups in the gums. The two gum exudates were found to be good corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in acidic medium. On comparison, maximum inhibition efficiency was found in Khaya senegalensis with 82.56% inhibition efficiency at 0.5% g/L concentration of the gum. This may be due to the fact that more compounds with heteroatoms were identified in the GCMS spectrum of KS gum compared to the AF gum. The presence of such compounds may have enhanced their adsorption on the metal surface and thereby blocking the surface and protecting the metal from corrosion. The adsorption of the inhibitors was found to be exothermic and spontaneous and fitted the Langmuir adsorption model.

  12. Effects from pretreatment of stannous fluoride versus sodium fluoride on enamel exposed to 0.1 M or 0.01 M hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willumsen, Tiril; Ogaard, Bjørn; Hansen, Bjørn Frode; Rølla, Gunnar

    2004-10-01

    Preventing enamel erosions caused by acidic soft drinks or from vomiting during eating disorders is a challenge in current dental research. The aim of this study was to examine whether pretreatment of dental enamel with a solution of 0.4% SnF2 could prevent dissolution of human enamel exposed to solutions of 0.1 M HCl, pH 1.2 or 0.01 M HCl at pH 2.2. Human enamel was pretreated for 18 h with a solution of 0.4% SnF2 and with control solutions of 2% NaF or distilled water, and then exposed to HCl solutions. Similar experiments were performed with teeth treated for 2 min SnF2 and then 4 min HCl. The effect was monitored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by chemical analysis. At pH 2.2, NaF and water treatments showed minor inhibition of enamel dissolution, whereas SnF2 inhibited demineralization significantly also after 2 min pretreatment and 4 min HCl exposure. At pH 1.2, SEM showed severe dissolution of the enamel surfaces regardless of pretreatment. As pH of stomach vomit is usually > 1.5, SnF2 may be an interesting agent for use in the treatment and prevention of dental erosions even in patients with frequent vomiting episodes.

  13. Synergistic inhibition effect of L-phenylalanine and rare earth Ce(IV) ion on the corrosion of copper in hydrochloric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Daquan, E-mail: zhangdaquan@shiep.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Wu Huan; Gao Lixin [Department of Environmental Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China)

    2012-04-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synergistic effect of L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) and Ce(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} on the corrosion of copper on the corrosion inhibition of copper in 0.5 M HCl solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure of the complex film formed by the interaction of L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) and Ce(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} on the copper surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanism of the improvement of the inhibition property of amino acids by the addition of rare earth compound. - Abstract: The synergistic inhibition effect of L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) and Ce(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} on the corrosion of copper in 0.5 M HCl solution was investigated by weight-loss, electrochemical methods and surface analysis. The electrochemical results showed that L-Phe has definite inhibition effects for copper, while Ce(IV) promoted the anodic process of copper corrosion. The combination L-Phe with Ce(IV) ion produced strong synergistic effect on corrosion inhibition for copper. The maximum inhibition efficiency was 82.7% for 5 mM L-Phe + 2 mM Ce(IV). The results of EIS and potentiodynamic polarization are in good agreement. SEM showed that L-Phe and Ce(IV) can form a dense protective film on the copper surface.

  14. 304 Cu抗菌不锈钢盐酸基酸洗工艺的研究%Research on hydrochloric acid-based pickling process of 304Cu antibacterial stainless steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬; 邹德宁; 韩英; 薛清连

    2016-01-01

    为了明确盐酸基酸洗液对含Cu抗菌不锈钢表面氧化层的酸洗行为,采用正交试验法研究以盐酸为基础,Fe3+、H2 O2和HNO3为氧化剂的304Cu抗菌不锈钢酸洗工艺.并运用扫描电镜、透射电镜及电化学等手段分析经最佳配方酸洗后试样的表面形貌、成分及酸洗机理.结果表明:最佳酸洗工艺配方为HCl (36%~38%)120 ml/L、H2O2(30%)80 ml/L、FeCl3·6H2 O 20g/L、HNO310 ml/L,酸洗温度30℃,酸洗时间15 min.经该配方酸洗后材料表面平整度和光亮度较好,具有抗菌性能的点状ε-Cu相在基体上弥散分布.材料经酸洗去除氧化层后,仍具有足够含量的抗菌元素Cu存在.酸洗脱除氧化层过程由电荷传递过程控制,该酸洗液对不锈钢具有孔蚀诱导性,酸洗时间不宜过长.%In order to clarify pickling process of hydrochloric acid lotion against Cu⁃contained surface oxide layer of antibacterial stainless steel, the pickling process of 304Cu antibacterial stainless steel by using Fe3+, H2 O2 and HNO3 as the oxidants and taking hydrochloric acid as basis was studied by orthogonal experiment. And the surface morphology, composition and pickling mechanism of samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electrochemical after the best recipe pickling. The results show that the best pickling recipe is HCl (36%~38%) 120 ml/L, H2O2(30%) 80 ml/L, FeCl3· 6H2 O 20 g/L , HNO3 10 ml/L, pickling temperature is 30 ℃ and pickling for 15 min. The flatness and brightness of material surface are better after pickling, and antimicrobial properties of dot ε-Cu phase is dispersed on the substrate. After pickling to remove oxide layer of material, it still has enough content of antibacterial element Cu. Pickling process of removing oxide layer is controlled by the charge transfer process, the pickling solution of stainless steel with pitting corrosion

  15. 桑叶提取物中槲皮素和山萘酚的含量测定%Determination of quercetin and kaempferol in folium mori extract after hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋立娣; 宣贵达; 吴好好; 李丽萍

    2009-01-01

    To establish an method to determine the contents of quercetin and kaempferol in folium mori extract by HPLC,the flavones in folium mori extract were hydrolyted into quercetin and kaempferol with the mixed solution of methanol-hydrochloric acid.The contents of quercetin and kaempferol were determined by HPLC method,performed on Diamonsil C_u column with the mobile phase consisted of methanol -0.20% phosphoric acid solution (63·37).The flow rate was 1.0 mL·min~(-1),the UV wavelength was set at 370 nm.The linear ranges of quercetin and kaempferol were 0.84-26.8 μg·mL~(-1),0.44-14.2 μg · mL~(-1),respectively.The average recoveries of quercetin and kaempferol were 101.3%,99.5%.The method was accurate,reliable and with good reappearance for the determination of quercetin and kaempferol in folium mori extract.%建立HPLC法测定桑叶提取物中水解槲皮素和山萘酚的含量.先用甲醇-盐酸混合液(甲醇终浓度50%,盐酸终浓度2.0 mol·L~(-1))水解桑叶提取物中的黄酮类成分成槲皮素和山萘酚,以HPLC法测定槲皮素和山萘酚含量.色谱柱为Diamonsil钻石C18柱,流动相为甲醇-0.2%磷酸(63∶37,体积分数),流速为1.0 mL·min~(-1),检测波长为370 nm.结果表明槲皮素在0.84~26.8 mg·L~(-1)之间,山萘酚在0.44~14.2 mg·L~(-1)之间呈良好的线性关系,平均回收率分别为101.3%和99.5%.该测定方法准确、重复性好,可用于桑叶提取物中槲皮素和山萘酚的含量测定.

  16. 响应面法优化红薯渣果胶的提取条件%Optimization of hydrochloric acid-mediated extraction of pectin from yam pulpusing response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张允; 王响; 陈劲春

    2012-01-01

    This study examined variables that influence the hydrochloric acid-extraction of pectins from yam pulp. An initial screening study tested the main parameters influencing yield and uronic acid content by one-factor-at-a-time experimental design. The solid-to-liquid ratio was determined to be 1:16. The studies of the relationship between the GalA yield and the three variables including extraction pH, temperature and the length of extraction time used response surface methodology using a Box-Behnken design. A mathematical model representing the relationship was constructed using quadratic regression orthogonal rotation combination design, and the effects of pairwise cross-interactions among the above factors on GalA yield were evaluated by response surface analysis. The optimal extraction conditions for the extraction of pectin from yam pulp were determined to be pH 1.5 at 90 % for 90 min. Under these optimal conditions, the yield of pectin reached up to 6.50%. In industry this study provide the basis of the extraction of pectins from yam pulp.%果胶提取以红薯渣为原料,果胶生产常用酸盐酸作为提取用酸,在单因素试验基础上,确定料液比为1:20,对提取液pH值,提取温度T,提取时间t3个因素采用响应面方法进行了工艺优化研究。经过响应面分析了因素之间的相互影响并建立了3因素与果胶提取率的二次回归模型。结果表明:盐酸提取果胶的最优工艺参数为:温度87℃、pH1.33、时间92min,在此最优提取条件下果胶的提取率为6.24%。这为工业利用红薯渣生产果胶提供了依据。

  17. New discovery of cryptorchidism: Decreased retinoic acid in testicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinpu Peng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on investigation of cryptorchidism induced by flutamide (Flu and its histopathological damage, and detects retinoic acid concentration in testicle tissue, in order to find a new method for clinical treatment to infertility caused by cryptorchidism. Twenty SD (Sprague Dawley pregnant rats were randomly divided into Flu cryptorchidism group (n = 10 and normal control group (n = 10. HE stained for observing morphological difference. Transmission electron microscope (TEM was used for observing the tight junction structure between Sertoli cells. Epididymal caudal sperms were counted and observed in morphology. The expression of stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8 was detected using immunohistochemistry, western blot, and Q-PCR. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis was made on retinoic acid content. Sperm count and morphology observation confirmed cryptorchidism group was lower than normal group in sperm quantity and quality. The observation by TEM showed a loose structure of tight junctions between Sertoli cells. Immunohistochemistry, western blot, and Q-PCR showed that cryptorchidism group was significantly lower than normal group in the expression of Stra8. HPLC showed that retinoic acid content was significantly lower in cryptorchid testis than in normal testis. In the cryptorchidism model, retinoic acid content in testicular tissue has a significant reduction; testicles have significant pathological changes; damage exists in the structure of tight junctions between Sertoli cells; Stra8 expression has a significant reduction, perhaps mainly contributing to spermatogenesis disorder.

  18. Leachability of nitrided ilmenite in hydrochloric acid

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swanepoel, JJ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Titanium nitride in upgraded nitrided ilmenite (bulk of iron removed) can selectively be chlorinated to produce titanium tetrachloride. Except for iron, most other components present during this low temperature (ca. 200 °C) chlorination reaction...

  19. Effects of decreasing acid deposition and climate change on acid extremes in an upland stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Evans

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the major chemical processes leading to acid extremes in a small, moorland stream in mid-Wales, UK, which has been monitored since 1979. Results suggest that base cation (mainly calcium dilution, the "sea-salt effect", and elevated nitrate pulses, are the major causes of seasonal/episodic minima in acid neutralising capacity (ANC, and that the relative importance of these drivers has remained approximately constant during 25 years of decreasing acid deposition and associated long-term chemical recovery. Many of the chemical variations causing short-term reductions in stream acidity, particularly base cation dilution and organic acid increases, are closely related to changes in water-flowpath and therefore to stream discharge. Changes in the observed pH-discharge relationship over time indicate that high-flow pH has increased more rapidly than mean-flow pH, and therefore that episodes have decreased in magnitude since 1980. However a two-box application of the dynamic model MAGIC, whilst reproducing this trend, suggests that it will not persist in the long term, with mean ANC continuing to increase until 2100, but the ANC of the upper soil (the source of relatively acid water during high-flow episodes stabilising close to zero beyond 2030. With climate change predicted to lead to an increase in maximum flows in the latter half of the century, high-flow related acid episodes may actually become more rather than less severe in the long term, although the model suggests that this effect may be small. Two other predicted climatic changes could also detrimentally impact on acid episodes: increased severity of winter "sea-salt" episodes due to higher wind speeds during winter storms; and larger sulphate pulses due to oxidation of reduced sulphur held in organic soils, during more extreme summer droughts. At the Gwy, the near-coastal location and relatively small extent of peat soils suggest that sea-salt episodes may have the

  20. Chronic Arachidonic Acid Administration Decreases Docosahexaenoic Acid- and Eicosapentaenoic Acid-Derived Metabolites in Kidneys of Aged Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Katakura

    Full Text Available Arachidonic acid (ARA metabolites produced by cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase are important mediators maintaining physiological renal function. However, the effects of exogenous ARA on kidney function in vivo remain unknown. This study examined the effects of long-term oral ARA administration on normal renal function as well as inflammation and oxidative stress in aged rats. In addition, we measured levels of renal eicosanoids and docosanoids using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Control or ARA oil (240 mg/kg body weight/day was orally administered to 21-month-old Wistar rats for 13 weeks. Levels of plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation were not significantly different between the two groups. The ARA concentration in the plasma, kidney, and liver increased in the ARA-administered group. In addition, levels of free-form ARA, prostaglandin E2, and 12- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid increased in the ARA-administered group, whereas renal concentration of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid decreased in the ARA-administered group. Levels of docosahexaenoic acid-derived protectin D1, eicosapentaenoic acid-derived 5-, and 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids, and resolvin E2 and E3 decreased in the ARA-administered group. Our results indicate that long-term ARA administration led to no serious adverse reactions under normal conditions and to a decrease in anti-inflammatory docosahexaenoic acid- and eicosapentaenoic acid-derived metabolites in the kidneys of aged rats. These results indicate that there is a possibility of ARA administration having a reducing anti-inflammatory effect on the kidney.

  1. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids decrease leptin in porcine adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giancamillo, Alessia; Rossi, Raffaella; Vitari, Francesca; Pastorelli, Grazia; Corino, Carlo; Domeneghini, Cinzia

    2009-10-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on white adipose tissue (WAT) in heavy pigs. Twelve pigs were assigned to 1 of 2 groups supplemented with either 0 or 0.75% of a CLA preparation (isomeric mixture) and were slaughtered at 159 +/- 2.3 kg live weight. Their subcutaneous WAT was analyzed by both chemical and microanatomical methods. The WAT of CLA-fed pigs tended to have a higher protein content (P = 0.064) and smaller adipocytes (P = 0.053) than that of control (CTR) pigs. The number of proliferating preadipocytes tended to be greater (P = 0.076) in pigs fed CLA, whereas the number of apoptotic adipocytes was greater (P leptin (Ob) expression was lower (P = 0.048) in adipocytes from treated pigs and Western blot quantification of Ob revealed lower levels (P tissue.

  2. Corrosion resistance and its mechanism of Ni-Cu-P coating and 316L stainless steel in hot hydrochloric acid solution%Ni-Cu-P镀层和316L不锈钢在热盐酸溶液中的耐蚀性及机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛亚军

    2013-01-01

    Effect of temperature and concentration on the corrosion behavior of Ni-Cu-P coating and 316L stainless steel was studied by mass loss method.The results show that the corrosion resistance of Ni-Cu-P coating is better than that of 316L stainless steel in hot hydrochloric acid solution.The effect of hydrochloric acid concentration on the corrosive rate of 316L stainless steel is greater than that of Ni-Cu-Pcoating.The corrosive rates of 316L stainless steel and Ni-Cu-P coating increase 2.7 and 0.6 times respectively while increasing hydrochloric acid concentration from 5% to 20%.For the Ni-Cu-P coating,the uniform corrosion occurs in the hydrochloric acid solution.However,the selective corrosion mechanism is found for 316L stainless steel,and the higher temperature and concentration of corrosion medium,the more serious selective corrosion.%采用质量损失法研究了温度和浓度对化学镀Ni-Cu-P镀层和316L不锈钢在盐酸溶液中的腐蚀行为.结果表明,在高温盐酸溶液中,Ni-Cu-P镀层的耐蚀性优于316L不锈钢,盐酸浓度对316L不锈钢腐蚀速率的影响大于Ni-Cu-P镀层,盐酸浓度由5%升高到20%,316L不锈钢和Ni-Cu-P镀层的腐蚀速率分别增大了2.7倍和0.6倍;在盐酸溶液中,Ni-Cu-P镀层发生均匀腐蚀,316L不锈钢发生选择性腐蚀,且温度和浓度越高,选择性腐蚀越严重.

  3. Spectrophotometric Determination of Scandium in Hydrochloric Acid Leaching Solution of Red Mud%赤泥盐酸浸出液中钪的分光光度测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓海霞; 王克勤; 王皓; 李爱秀; 张风林; 陈津

    2011-01-01

    考察了温度、时间、显色剂用量、酸度对待测溶液吸光度的影响,结果表明:温度对吸光度值不产生大的影响,在室温下测试即可;溶液显色在前8min内不稳定,其显色时间一定要达到10 min,溶液颜色保持16h不发生太大的变化;显色剂氯代磺酚C和Sc(Ⅲ)1∶1络合稳定,其溶液加入量确定为3ml;酸度对吸光度有较大的影响,待测溶液的pH值为2.0时吸光度值最大,且稳定.溶液最大吸光度波长为649 nm,工作曲线回归方程为y=0.03839x -0.0002,相关系数的平方为0.9993,Sc(Ⅲ)的质量浓度在0~1.2 mg·L-1范围内符合朗伯-比尔定律,表观摩尔吸光系数为7.78×105 L·mol -1·cm-1.本法测定赤泥盐酸浸出液中的钪,结果比较稳定,RSD(n =6)为1.45%~4.16%,加标回收率为98%~ 102%,灵敏度高、结果较满意.%The effects of temperature, time, reagent dosage, solution pH on absorbance showed that: the temperature had little effect on the absorbance, the solution could be tested at room temperature; the determination result was not stable within the first 8 min, the solution should achieve a coloration time for 10 mins, the solution color maintained 16 h did not change much; reagent chlorosulpho-phenol C and Sc( IB) 1:1 complex stability, the solution was added 3 ml; acidity had great influence on the absorbance with pH value of 2.0, the maximum absorbance, and stability. Hie maximum absorbance of solution was at 649 nm, and the standard curve regression equation: y = 0.03839* - 0.0002, the square of correlation coefficient was 0.9993, Lambert-Beer law was obeyed for Sc (JE ) in the range of 0 -1.2 rag-L"' and the apparent molar absorptivity was 7.78 xlO3 L-mol~1>cm~l. The method was applied to the determination of Sc( HI) in hydrochloric acid leaching solution of red mud, the result was stable with high sensitivity and satisfactory, RSD ( n = 6) was 1.45%-4.16% and the recovery of Sc( I) was 98% to 102%.

  4. 胺碘酮和普罗帕酮治疗阵发性室上性心动过速的疗效对照研究%Controlled study on effect of amiodarone and hydrochloric acid propafenone on paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍秋玉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of intravenous amiodarone and hydrochloric acid propafenone in treating paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. Methods Eighty patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia were divieded into group A and B randomly (40 cases in each group). Group A received amiodarone, while group B received hydrochloric acid propafenone. The effective rate of cardioversion, cardioversion time, adverse reactions and the heart rate change were compared. Results The effective rate in group A was higher than that in group B, but the difference was not statistically significant. The cardioversion time in group A was obviously longer than that in group B (P<0. 01). The heart rates in the two groups after treatment decreased obviously (P<0.01), while the heart rate in group A was obviously lower than that in group B (P<0. 01). The incidence of adverse reactions in group A was lower than that in group B, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion There are advantages of both amiodarone and propafenone in the treatment of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. Propafenone is applicable to acute tachycardia, but adverse reactions should be taken into consideration. The amiodarone is effective in the treatment of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in spite of the slow onset.%目的 比较静脉注射胺碘酮和普罗帕酮治疗阵发性室上心动过速的临床疗效及安全性.方法 将80例室上心动过速患者随机分为A、B 2组,各40例,A组给予胺碘酮注射液治疗,B组给予普岁帕酮注射液治疗,比较2组复律成功率、复律时间、不良反应及用药前后心率的变化.结果 A组复律成功率高于B组,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),而复律时间显著长于B组(P<0.01);2组治疗后心率均较治疗前显著下降(P<0.01),但治疗后A组心率显著低于B组(P<0.01).A组不良反应发生率低于B组,但差异无统计学意义.结论

  5. Effects of hydrochloric acid modification on the channel characteristics, composition, surface potential and cation exchange behavior of natural clinoptilolite%盐酸改性对天然斜发沸石孔道特征、成分、表面电位及阳离子交换性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍汉鑫; 林海; 董颖博; 刘泉利; 曹丽霞; 程皝; 汪涵; 傅川

    2015-01-01

    采用不同浓度盐酸对天然斜发沸石进行改性,并系统地研究了改性沸石的孔道特征、化学成分、表面电位及阳离子交换性能的变化.盐酸改性后,沸石晶体结构破坏较小,表面变得疏松粗糙,K+、Na+、Ca2+和Mg2+元素含量均小幅下降;表面负电荷增加,阳离子交换容量减小;比表面积和总孔体积均有所提高,最高分别从原沸石的35.97 m2·g -1和0.0761 m3·g-1提高至64.46 m2·g-1和0.1156 m3·g-1.盐酸改性对沸石微孔、介孔和大孔的分布影响明显.从迟滞回线形状判断沸石孔道类型均为不均匀狭缝型孔道,盐酸改性不会改变沸石孔道类型.%ABSTRACT Natural clinoptilolite was modified by different concentrations of hydrochloric acid. Systemic investigations were performed on the channel characteristics, chemical composition, surface potential, and cation exchange behavior of the modified clinoptilolite. It is found that the surface of the modified clinoptilolite becomes loose and rough, the contents of K+, Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ slightly decrease, the surface negative charges increases, and the cation exchange capacity decreases to some extent. The specif-ic surface area and total pore volume are improved and the maximum values of them increase from 35.97 m2·g-1 and 0.0761 m3·g-1 to 64.46 m2·g-1 and 0.1156 m3·g-1 , respectively. The distribution of micropores, mesopores, and macropores is obviously impacted, and the type of zeolite cavities is determined to be uneven slits by the hysteresis loop shape, indicating that this acid modification cannot change zeolite cavities.

  6. Experimental carcinogenesis on the oropharyngeal mucosa of rats with hydrochloric acid, sodium nitrate and pepsin Carcinogênese experimental na mucosa orofaríngea de ratos com ácido clorídrico, nitrato de sódio e pepsina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Del Negro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the carcinogenic action of hydrochloric acid, pepsin and sodium nitrate on the oropharyngeal mucosa of rats, simulating the reflux of gastric contents. METHODS: Eighty-two Wistar rats were divided in seven groups and submitted to 2 or 3 weekly applications of hydrochloric acid, pepsin and sodium nitrate on the pharyngeal mucosa during six months. Study groups comprised 12 animals each. Rats in groups I and II were submitted to 2 (GI or 3 (GII weekly applications of 0.1N hydrochloric acid. Groups III and IV were submitted to 2 (GIII or 3 (GIV weekly applications of 0.1N hydrochloric acid solution with pepsin. Groups V and VI were submitted to 2 (GV or 3 (GVI weekly applications of 0.1N hydrochloric acid and treated with daily nitrate diluted in water. Group VII consisted of 10 animals submitted to 2 weekly applications of filtered water. RESULTS: No dysplasia, intra-epithelial neoplasia or invasive carcinomas were detected. Inflammatory changes were observed in varying degrees and mast cells were more common in Groups V and VI (p=0.006. CONCLUSION: The data of the current study could not corroborate the hypothesis that gastroesophageal and pharyngolaryngeal refluxes are carcinogenic factors to the laryngopharyngeal mucosa, and more studies are necessary in the future.OBJETIVO: Investigar a ação carcinogênica do ácido clorídrico, pepsina e nitrato de sódio na mucosa orofaríngea de ratos, simulando o refluxo do conteúdo gástrico à mucosa do faringo-laringea. MÉTODOS: Oitenta e dois ratos Wistar foram divididos em 7 grupos e submetidos a 2 ou 3 aplicações semanais de ácido clorídrico, pepsina e nitrato de sódio na mucosa orofaríngea durante 6 meses. Os grupos de estudo envolveram 12 animais cada. Os ratos nos grupos I e II foram submetidos à 2 (GI ou 3 (GII aplicações semanais de ácido clorídrico 0,1N. Nos grupos III e IV foram 2 (GIII ou 3 (GIV aplicações semanais de ácido clorídrico e pepsina. Nos

  7. Autistic children exhibit decreased levels of essential Fatty acids in red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigandi, Sarah A; Shao, Hong; Qian, Steven Y; Shen, Yiping; Wu, Bai-Lin; Kang, Jing X

    2015-05-04

    Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential nutrients for brain development and function. However, whether or not the levels of these fatty acids are altered in individuals with autism remains debatable. In this study, we compared the fatty acid contents between 121 autistic patients and 110 non-autistic, non-developmentally delayed controls, aged 3-17. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids showed that the percentage of total PUFA was lower in autistic patients than in controls; levels of n-6 arachidonic acid (AA) and n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were particularly decreased (pautism.

  8. Design of pH Measurement and Control System Using in Process of NdFeB Waste With Hydrochloric Acid%盐酸优溶法处理NdFeB废料pH测控系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雄军; 逄启寿

    2014-01-01

    The leaching principle of NdFeB waste using hydrochloric acid is introduced .The pH controlling mathematical model for acid dissolving and neutralizating process are established based on leaching mechanism .The overall designing scheme of pH control system in leaching process is put forwarded .%介绍了盐酸优溶法处理NdFeB废料的原理。结合浸出机制,建立了酸溶、中和过程的pH控制数学模型,提出了浸出过程中pH控制系统的整体设计方案。

  9. Dietary non-esterified oleic Acid decreases the jejunal levels of anorectic N-acylethanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diep, Thi Ai; Madsen, Andreas N; Krogh-Hansen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    mice respond to dietary fat (olive oil) by reducing levels of anorectic NAEs, and 3) whether dietary non-esterified oleic acid also can decrease levels of anorectic NAEs in mice. We are searching for the fat sensor in the intestine, which mediates the decreased levels of anorectic NAEs. METHODS: Male...... of anorectic NAEs in mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the down-regulation of the jejunal level of anorectic NAEs by dietary fat is not restricted to rats, and that the fatty acid component oleic acid, in dietary olive oil may be sufficient to mediate this regulation. Thus, a fatty acid sensor may...

  10. Dietary non-esterified oleic Acid decreases the jejunal levels of anorectic N-acylethanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diep, Thi Ai; Madsen, Andreas N; Krogh-Hansen, Sandra;

    2014-01-01

    mice respond to dietary fat (olive oil) by reducing levels of anorectic NAEs, and 3) whether dietary non-esterified oleic acid also can decrease levels of anorectic NAEs in mice. We are searching for the fat sensor in the intestine, which mediates the decreased levels of anorectic NAEs. METHODS: Male...... of anorectic NAEs in mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the down-regulation of the jejunal level of anorectic NAEs by dietary fat is not restricted to rats, and that the fatty acid component oleic acid, in dietary olive oil may be sufficient to mediate this regulation. Thus, a fatty acid sensor may...

  11. 盐酸解析与水碱洗系统的酸、水生产平衡%Hydrochloric acid analysis and alkali washing system acid, water production balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林涛海; 刘胜军

    2012-01-01

    以40万t/a PVC为例,对氯化氢的消耗量与盐酸的解析量进行了物料衡算。%Take 400 kt/a PVC as an example, calculating material balance between consumption of hydrogen chloride gas and resolving amount of hydrogen acid.

  12. 机械通气与盐酸氨溴索联合治疗老年急性呼吸窘迫综合症的临床效果%Mechanical Ventilation with Hydrochloric Acid Ammonia Bromine Cable Joint is the Clinical Effect of Treatment of Senile Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏

    2016-01-01

    目的:客观评价机械通气与盐酸氨溴索联合治疗老年急性呼吸窘迫综合症的临床效果。方法随机选择该院2012年1月—2015年12月接收的55例老年急性呼吸窘迫综合症患者(A组),同期选择55例老年急性呼吸窘迫综合症患者(B组)作对照,分别予以机械通气与盐酸氨溴索联合治疗、机械通气单纯治疗。结果 A组入选患者有效率81.82%,B组54.55%(P﹤0.05)。结论就老年急性呼吸窘迫综合症患者而言,选择机械通气与盐酸氨溴索联合治疗方案效果突出。%Objective To objectively evaluate mechanical ventilation with hydrochloric acid ammonia bromine cable joint is the clinical effect of treatment of senile acute respiratory distress syndrome. Methods Random selection etween January 2012 and December 2015 received 55 cases of elderly patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (group A), at the same time choose 55 cases of elderly patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (group B) were compared, respective-ly to mechanical ventilation with hydrochloric acid ammonia bromine cable joint treatment, mechanical ventilation therapy alone. Results In group A patients effective rate was 81.82%, 54.55% in group B (P﹤ 0.05). Conclusion In terms of el-derly patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, mechanical ventilation and hydrochloric acid ammonia bromine joint treatment effect is prominent.

  13. Response of DOC in acid-sensitive Maine lakes to decreasing sulfur deposition (1993 - 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, sulfur deposition has decreased across the northeastern United States. As a result, sulfate concentrations in lakes and streams have also decreased and many surface waters have become less acidic. Over the same time period, th...

  14. Study of nano-Ti02 thin films prepared by sol-gel in the ethanol-hydrochloric acid-water system%乙醇-盐酸-水体系中溶胶-凝胶法制备纳米TiO2薄膜的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟丹; 王和义; 刘秀华; 丁兰岚

    2011-01-01

    以Ti (OBu)4为前驱体,设计单因素优选实验,通过溶胶凝胶-浸渍提拉法在玻璃基片上制备TiO2纳米薄膜,研究了无水乙醇、浓盐酸、超纯水对其结构和性能的影响,获得了纳米TiO2薄膜的最佳制备条件.%The nano-Ti02 films on glass was prepared from Ti( OBu)4 precursor via the sol-gel and dip-coating method. The effects of anhydrous ethanol, hydrochloric acid and ultra-pure water on structures and performances of TiO2 films were investigated by single factor optimization,and the optimum preparation conditions of TiO2 thin films were obtained.

  15. Coated fatty acids alter virulence properties of Salmonella Typhimurium and decrease intestinal colonization of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyen, F; Haesebrouck, F; Vanparys, A; Volf, J; Mahu, M; Van Immerseel, F; Rychlik, I; Dewulf, J; Ducatelle, R; Pasmans, F

    2008-12-10

    Salmonella Typhimurium infections in pigs are a major source of human foodborne salmonellosis. To reduce the number of infected pigs, acidification of feed or drinking water is a common practice. The aim of the present study was to determine whether some frequently used short- (SCFA) and medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are able to alter virulence gene expression and to decrease Salmonella Typhimurium colonization and shedding in pigs using well established and controlled in vitro and in vivo assays. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 4 SCFA (formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid) and 2 MCFA (caproic and caprylic acid) were determined using 54 porcine Salmonella Typhimurium field strains. MIC values increased at increasing pH-values and were two to eight times lower for MCFA than for SCFA. Expression of virulence gene fimA was significantly lower when bacteria were grown in LB-broth supplemented with sub-MIC concentrations of caproic or caprylic acid (2 mM). Expression of hilA and invasion in porcine intestinal epithelial cells was significantly lower when bacteria were grown in LB-broth containing sub-MIC concentrations of butyric acid or propionic acid (10 mM) and caproic or caprylic acid (2 mM). When given as feed supplement to pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium, coated butyric acid decreased the levels of faecal shedding and intestinal colonization, but had no influence on the colonization of tonsils, spleen and liver. Uncoated fatty acids, however, did not influence fecal shedding, intestinal or tonsillar colonization in pigs. In conclusion, supplementing feed with certain coated fatty acids, such as butyric acid, may help to reduce the Salmonella load in pigs.

  16. Decreased Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Content Contributes to Increased Survival in Human Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Oraldi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Among diet components, some fatty acids are known to affect several stages of colon carcinogenesis, whereas others are probably helpful in preventing tumors. In light of this, our aim was to determine the composition of fatty acids and the possible correlation with apoptosis in human colon carcinoma specimens at different Duke's stages and to evaluate the effect of enriching human colon cancer cell line with the possible reduced fatty acid(s. Specimens of carcinoma were compared with the corresponding non-neoplastic mucosa: a significant decrease of arachidonic acid, PPARα, Bad, and Bax and a significant increase of COX-2, Bcl-2, and pBad were found. The importance of arachidonic acid in apoptosis was demonstrated by enriching a Caco-2 cell line with this fatty acid. It induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner via induction of PPARα that, in turn, decreased COX-2. In conclusion, the reduced content of arachidonic acid is likely related to carcinogenic process decreasing the susceptibility of cancer cells to apoptosis.

  17. Modification of HZSM- 5 Zeolite by Hydrochloric Acid and Catalytic Performance of Mo - based Catalyst for Methane Dehydroaromatization Reaction%盐酸改性HZSM-5及Mo-基催化剂的MDA反应活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红霞; 赵婷婷

    2012-01-01

    采用盐酸溶液在303K对HZSM-5分子筛进行预处理,并以处理后的分子筛制备相应的Mo-基催化剂.分子筛和催化剂采用XRD和NH3-TPD等手段进行表征,利用甲烷无氧芳构化(MDA)反应评价Mo-基催化剂的催化活性.结果表明,指定实验条件下的盐酸处理在一定程度上降低了分子筛的结晶度,降低了分子筛上的B酸量,改性后的Mo-基催化剂在MDA反应中表现很好的稳定性.%The pretreatment with HC1 solution at 303 K was applied to modify HZSM -5 zeolite, and the Mobased catalysts were prepared by using the modified HZSM -5 zeolite as support and tested for catalytic performance of methane dehydroaromatization reaction. The modified Mo - based catalysts show a higher stability than that of Mo/HZSM - 5 catalyst prepared with unmodified with HZSM - 5 zeolite. The effect of acid treatment on the structure and acidity of HZSM - 5 zeolite and Mo - based catalysts were studied by XRD and NH3 - TPD methods. The results show that the acid treatment to HZSM - 5 at given experimental conditions led to a decrease in the crystallinity of HZSM -5 zeolite and the number of the Brnsted acid sites to a certain degree.

  18. Palmitic acid but not palmitoleic acid induces insulin resistance in a human endothelial cell line by decreasing SERCA pump expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavo Vazquez-Jimenez, J; Chavez-Reyes, Jesus; Romero-Garcia, Tatiana; Zarain-Herzberg, Angel; Valdes-Flores, Jesus; Manuel Galindo-Rosales, J; Rueda, Angelica; Guerrero-Hernandez, Agustin; Olivares-Reyes, J Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Palmitic acid is a negative regulator of insulin activity. At the molecular level, palmitic acid reduces insulin stimulated Akt Ser473 phosphorylation. Interestingly, we have found that incubation with palmitic acid of human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced a biphasic effect, an initial transient elevation followed by a sustained reduction of SERCA pump protein levels. However, palmitic acid produced a sustained inhibition of SERCA pump ATPase activity. Insulin resistance state appeared before there was a significant reduction of SERCA2 expression. The mechanism by which palmitic acid impairs insulin signaling may involve endoplasmic reticulum stress, because this fatty acid induced activation of both PERK, an ER stress marker, and JNK, a kinase associated with insulin resistance. None of these effects were observed by incubating HUVEC-CS cells with palmitoleic acid. Importantly, SERCA2 overexpression decreased the palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance state. All these results suggest that SERCA pump might be the target of palmitic acid to induce the insulin resistance state in a human vascular endothelial cell line. Importantly, these data suggest that HUVEC-CS cells respond to palmitic acid-exposure with a compensatory overexpression of SERCA pump within the first hour, which eventually fades out and insulin resistance prevails.

  19. Low brain ascorbic acid increases susceptibility to seizures in mouse models of decreased brain ascorbic acid transport and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Timothy A; Kang, Jing-Qiong; Kennard, John A; Harrison, Fiona E

    2015-02-01

    Seizures are a known co-occurring symptom of Alzheimer's disease, and they can accelerate cognitive and neuropathological dysfunction. Sub-optimal vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency, that is low levels that do not lead the sufferer to present with clinical signs of scurvy (e.g. lethargy, hemorrhage, hyperkeratosis), are easily obtainable with insufficient dietary intake, and may contribute to the oxidative stress environment of both Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to test whether mice that have diminished brain ascorbic acid in addition to carrying human Alzheimer's disease mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PSEN1) genes, had altered electrical activity in the brain (electroencephalography; EEG), and were more susceptible to pharmacologically induced seizures. Brain ascorbic acid was decreased in APP/PSEN1 mice by crossing them with sodium vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2) heterozygous knockout mice. These mice have an approximately 30% decrease in brain ascorbic acid due to lower levels of SVCT2 that supplies the brain with ASC. SVCT2+/-APP/PSEN1 mice had decreased ascorbic acid and increased oxidative stress in brain, increased mortality, faster seizure onset latency following treatment with kainic acid (10 mg/kg i.p.), and more ictal events following pentylenetetrazol (50 mg/kg i.p.) treatment. Furthermore, we report the entirely novel phenomenon that ascorbic acid deficiency alone increased the severity of kainic acid- and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. These data suggest that avoiding ascorbic acid deficiency may be particularly important in populations at increased risk for epilepsy and seizures, such as Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Omega-9 Oleic Acid Induces Fatty Acid Oxidation and Decreases Organ Dysfunction and Mortality in Experimental Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Flora Magno de Jesus; Burth, Patrícia; Bozza, Patrícia Torres; Castro Faria, Mauro Velho; Silva, Adriana Ribeiro; de Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is characterized by inflammatory and metabolic alterations, which lead to massive cytokine production, oxidative stress and organ dysfunction. In severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome, plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are increased. Several NEFA are deleterious to cells, activate Toll-like receptors and inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase, causing lung injury. A Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil is beneficial. The main component of olive oil is omega-9 oleic acid (OA), a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA). We analyzed the effect of OA supplementation on sepsis. OA ameliorated clinical symptoms, increased the survival rate, prevented liver and kidney injury and decreased NEFA plasma levels in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). OA did not alter food intake and weight gain but diminished reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and NEFA plasma levels. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA (CPT1A) mRNA levels were increased, while uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) liver expression was enhanced in mice treated with OA. OA also inhibited the decrease in 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression and increased the enzyme expression in the liver of OA-treated mice compared to septic animals. We showed that OA pretreatment decreased NEFA concentration and increased CPT1A and UCP2 and AMPK levels, decreasing ROS production. We suggest that OA has a beneficial role in sepsis by decreasing metabolic dysfunction, supporting the benefits of diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). PMID:27078880

  1. Decreased hepatotoxic bile acid composition and altered synthesis in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, April D. [University of Arizona, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Novak, Petr [Biology Centre ASCR, Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, Ceske Budejovice 37001 (Czech Republic); Shipkova, Petia; Aranibar, Nelly; Robertson, Donald; Reily, Michael D. [Pharmaceutical Candidate Optimization, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Lu, Zhenqiang [The Arizona Statistical Consulting Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D. [Pharmaceutical Candidate Optimization, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Cherrington, Nathan J., E-mail: cherrington@pharmacy.arizona.edu [University of Arizona, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Bile acids (BAs) have many physiological roles and exhibit both toxic and protective influences within the liver. Alterations in the BA profile may be the result of disease induced liver injury. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent form of chronic liver disease characterized by the pathophysiological progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The hypothesis of this study is that the ‘classical’ (neutral) and ‘alternative’ (acidic) BA synthesis pathways are altered together with hepatic BA composition during progression of human NAFLD. This study employed the use of transcriptomic and metabolomic assays to study the hepatic toxicologic BA profile in progressive human NAFLD. Individual human liver samples diagnosed as normal, steatosis, and NASH were utilized in the assays. The transcriptomic analysis of 70 BA genes revealed an enrichment of downregulated BA metabolism and transcription factor/receptor genes in livers diagnosed as NASH. Increased mRNA expression of BAAT and CYP7B1 was observed in contrast to decreased CYP8B1 expression in NASH samples. The BA metabolomic profile of NASH livers exhibited an increase in taurine together with elevated levels of conjugated BA species, taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA). Conversely, cholic acid (CA) and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were decreased in NASH liver. These findings reveal a potential shift toward the alternative pathway of BA synthesis during NASH, mediated by increased mRNA and protein expression of CYP7B1. Overall, the transcriptomic changes of BA synthesis pathway enzymes together with altered hepatic BA composition signify an attempt by the liver to reduce hepatotoxicity during disease progression to NASH. - Highlights: ► Altered hepatic bile acid composition is observed in progressive NAFLD. ► Bile acid synthesis enzymes are transcriptionally altered in NASH livers. ► Increased levels of taurine and conjugated bile acids

  2. 基于差分吸收激光雷达的一种新的对流层臭氧浓度反演算法%Butanol Extraction Combined with Dilute Hydrochloric Acid Dissolution-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometric Method for Indirect Determination of Molybdenum in Chinese Herbal Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范广强; 刘建国; 刘文清; 陆亦怀; 张天舒; 董云升; 赵雪松

    2012-01-01

    A method for indirectly determining the molybdenum in Chinese herbal medicine by butanol extraction and dilute hydrochloric acid dissolution was established for atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The molybdoarsenate heteropoly acid, formed in the presence of As( V) and ammonium molybdate in 0. 3 mol · L-1 sulphuric acid medium, was separated and enriched in the organic solvent, then the evaporation of organic reagent was implemented and the left residue was dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid in which the arsenic content was determined on behalf of molybdenum. In the optimum experimental conditions, molybdenum content in 0~15 μg · L-1 range depicts a good linear relationship, the detection limit and relative standard deviation of 0. 44 μg · L-1 and 1.1% were obtained, respectively. Spiked Chinese herbal medicine samples were determined with the proposed method, and recoveries of 95. 6%—101. 3% were achieved.%差分吸收激光雷达探测对流层臭氧浓度时,气溶胶的干扰会造成较大的误差.提出了一种算法,该算法能够同时反演得到对流层臭氧浓度和气溶胶消光系数,减少气溶胶对反演结果的影响.使用实验数据,分析计算了气溶胶雷达比,气溶胶波长指数、标定点气溶胶后向散射比各种变化参数对反演结果的误差.结果表明,1km以下,各种变化参数造成的反演误差小于8%,1km以上臭氧浓度误差主要来源于信号和背景噪声,各种参数反演误差小于3%.最后给出了利用该算法得到对流层臭氧浓度和气溶胶的消光系数垂直廓线,并和传统的双波长差分算法反演结果作了比较分析.实验结果表明该算法是可行的,该算法可以减少气溶胶对差分吸收激光雷达测量结果引起的误差.

  3. Ascorbic acid prevents cimetidine-induced decrease of serum hydrocortisone concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Boidin (Marinus Pieter); A. Stuurman (Arie); W. Erdmann (Wilhelm)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract A blind, parallel, prospective, clinical study was conducted to investigate the effect of ascorbic acid on human serum hydrocortisone concentrations which were decreased by the administration of cimetidine. The study population included 16 male adults scheduled for major a

  4. Complex Leaching Process of Scheelite in Hydrochloric and Phosphoric Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Xue, Jilai; Liu, Kang; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Zengjie

    2016-09-01

    The complex leaching process of synthetic scheelite and scheelite concentrate in hydrochloric and phosphoric solutions has been investigated for improving process efficiency. A higher leaching rate, compared with the classic acid leaching process, can be obtained through the synergy of HCl and H3PO4 with appropriate W/P mole ratio, temperature, and acid concentration. For synthetic scheelite, the optimum leaching conditions were W/P mole ratio 7:1, temperature 50°C, HCl 0.72 mol/L, and stirring speed 600 rpm; for scheelite concentrate, W/P mole ratio 7:1, temperature 80°C, HCl 2.16 mol/L, and stirring speed 1000 rpm. The leaching rates under the optimized conditions can reach up to 98% or even higher. FTIR spectra analysis confirmed that the leachate composition remained as H3[PW12O40] in the range of varying W/P mole ratios, so the PO4 3- in acidic solution and phosphorus content in the leaching product could be better controlled. The function 1 - (1 - X)1/3 against leaching time was applied to fit the experimental data, and the apparent activation energy, E a, was calculated as 60.65 kJ/mol. The results would be valuable for effectively using scheelite as a raw material resource for sustainable tungsten production.

  5. Dissolution kinetics of aluminum and iron from coal mining waste by hydrochloric acid☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Cui; Yanxia Guo; Xuming Wang; Zhiping Du; Fangqin Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The extraction of aluminum from coal mining waste (CMW) is an important industrial process. The two major problems in applications are low aluminum dissolution efficiency and high iron content in the raw material, which affect the quantity and quality of products. To improve the aluminum recovery process, the leaching kinet-ics of CMW with hydrochloric acid was studied. A shrinking core model was used to investigate aluminum and iron dissolution kinetics. Based on the kinetic characteristics, a process for recovering aluminum was proposed and tested experimental y. It is found that the aluminum leaching reaction is controlled by surface reaction at low temperatures (40–80 °C) and by diffusion process at higher temperatures (90–106 °C). The iron dissolution process is dominated by surface reaction at 40–100 °C. The results show that iron could be dissolved or separated by concentrated hydrochloric acid. Fine grinding wil improve aluminum dissolution significantly.

  6. Nanomolar Caffeic Acid Decreases Glucose Uptake and the Effects of High Glucose in Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Natarelli

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest that moderate and prolonged consumption of coffee is associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes but the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not known. In this study, we report the effects of physiological concentrations of caffeic acid, easily achievable by normal dietary habits, in endothelial cells cultured in 25 mM of glucose (high glucose, HG. In HG, the presence of 10 nM caffeic acid was associated with a decrease of glucose uptake but not to changes of GLUT-1 membrane localization or mRNA levels. Moreover, caffeic acid countered HG-induced loss of barrier integrity, reducing actin rearrangement and FITC-dextran passage. The decreased flux of glucose associated to caffeic acid affected HG induced apoptosis by down-regulating the expression of initiator (caspase 8 and 9 and effector caspases (caspase 7 and 3 and by increasing the levels of phosphorylated Bcl-2. We also observed that caffeic acid in HG condition was associated to a reduction of p65 subunit nuclear levels with respect to HG alone. NF-κB activation has been shown to lead to apoptosis in HG treated cells and the analysis of the expression of a panel of about 90 genes related to NF-κB signaling pathway revealed that caffeic acid significantly influenced gene expression changes induced by HG. In conclusion, our results suggest that caffeic acid, decreasing the metabolic stress induced by HG, allows the activation of survival mechanisms mediated by a different modulation of NF-κB-related signaling pathways and to the activation of anti-apoptotic proteins.

  7. Effect of Schiff base as corrosion inhibitor on AZ31 magnesium alloy in hydrochloric acid solution%席夫碱作为缓蚀剂对盐酸溶液中AZ31镁合金的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. THIRUGNANASELVI; S. KUTTIRANI; Amali Roseline EMELDA

    2014-01-01

    Schiff base derived from the condensation reaction of analar grade 1-amino-2-naphthol 4-sulphonic acid with cinnamaldehyde was prepared under microwave condition. The Schiff base was analysed by infrared spectroscopy. This Schiff base as a corrosion inhibitor of AZ31 magnesium alloy in 0.05 mol/L HCl solution was studied. The inhibition effect of the Schiff base compound (4Z)-4-(3-phenyl allylidene amino)-3-hydroxy naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (AC) on AZ31 magnesium alloy corrosion was studied using mass loss, potentiodynamic polarization technique, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods. The potentiodynamic polarization curve shows that Schiff base AC inhibits both anodic and cathodic reactions at all concentration, which indicates it is a mixed type inhibitor. EIS results indicate that as the additive concentration is increased, the polarization resistance increases whereas double-layer capacitance decreases. The adsorption of AC on the AZ31 magnesium alloy surface in 0.05 mol/L HCl obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm.%在微波条件下,通过高纯度1-氨基-2萘酚4-磺酸与肉桂醛的缩合反应制备席夫碱(4Z)-4-(3-苯基烯丙叉氨基)-3-羟基萘-1-磺酸(AC)。采用红外光谱对制备的席夫碱进行分析。研究席夫碱作为缓蚀剂对AZ31镁合金在0.05 mol/L 盐酸中的缓蚀作用。通过质量损失法、动电位极化法和电化学交流阻抗谱(EIS)研究席夫碱化合物在 AZ31镁合金腐蚀过程中的抑制作用。动电位极化曲线表明:席夫碱在所有浓度下能抑制阳极和阴极反应,是一种混合型缓蚀剂。EIS结果表明:随着添加剂浓度的增加,极化电阻增加而双电层电容减少。在0.05 mol/L盐酸中,席夫碱AC对AZ31镁合金表面的吸附符合Langmuir吸附等温式。

  8. Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid decreases de novo lipid synthesis in human adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obsen, Thomas; Faergeman, Nils J; Chung, Soonkyu;

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces adiposity in vivo. However, mechanisms mediating these changes are unclear. Therefore, we treated cultures of human adipocytes with trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) CLA, cis-9, trans-11 (9,11) CLA or other trans fatty acids (FA), and measured indices of lipid......]-oleic or [(14)C]-linoleic acids. When using [(14)C]-acetic acid and [(14)C]-pyruvic acid as substrates, 30 μM 10,12 CLA, but not 9,11 CLA, decreased de novo synthesis of triglyceride, free FA, diacylglycerol, cholesterol esters, cardiolipin, phospholipids and ceramides within 3-24 h. Treatment with 30 μM 10......,12 CLA, but not 9,11 CLA, decreased total cellular lipids within 3 days and the ratio of monounsaturated FA (MUFA) to saturated FA, and increased C18:0 acyl-CoA levels within 24 h. Consistent with these data, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1 mRNA and protein levels were down-regulated by 10,12 CLA within...

  9. 脂肪胺类化合物在盐酸介质中对工业纯铝缓蚀作用的研究%An investigation on the inhibition effect of aliphatic amines for aluminium in hydrochloric acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    帅长庚; 邓淑珍; 宋玉苏; 银继伟

    2001-01-01

    The corrosion of industrial pure aluminium in 1.0 mol.dm-3hydrochloride acid is investigated in the absence and presence of various amines,both by weight loss and electrochemistry.To begin with,the inhibition efficiency is found to follow the order: Hexamethylenetetramine>Diethylamine>n-Butylamine. With the increasing of the dipping time, the inhibition efficiency decreases gradually. The three amines, as the mixed inhibitors, has a great effect on the progress of cathodal and anodic corrosion of Al and can form a film by the adsorption on the surface of Al to protect Al from corrosion.%通过失重法、电化学方法分别研究了正丁胺、二乙胺、乌洛托品在1.0mol.dm-3HCl中对铝的缓蚀作用,并对其机理进行了探讨.研究结果表明:3种化合物对工业纯铝均具有一定的缓蚀作用.缓蚀效果:乌洛托品>二乙胺>正丁胺,随着时间的延长,它们的缓蚀效率逐渐降低.3种化合物均可在工业纯铝表面吸附成膜,抑制铝的腐蚀,为混合型缓蚀剂.

  10. Expression of NGF in the respiratory tract mucosa of the repetitive oesphageal stimulation by hydrochloric acid in guinea pig%神经生长因子在多次盐酸灌注食管气道高反应豚鼠肺组织中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芹子; 孔灵菲; 张宝辉; 张姝娜; 孙淑华

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察多次盐酸灌注豚鼠食管对呼吸道黏膜内神经生长因子(nerve growth factor,NGF)物质表达的影响.方法 将20只豚鼠按随机数字表法分为2组,每组10只.①模型组:用盐酸氯胺酮将豚鼠轻度麻醉,将5F胃管插入豚鼠食管至食管中下端,灌注含0.5%胃蛋白酶的盐酸(0.1 mol/L,8滴/min,20 min/d),连续灌注14 d;②对照组:用PBS代替盐酸灌注食管,方法同上.用免疫组织化学方法测定两组豚鼠肺组织NGF的免疫反应变化;用免疫印迹法(Western blotting)检测肺组织NGF的免疫反应变化;Metamoph图像分析系统对结果进行分析.结果 免疫组织化学结果显示(染色反应强度用灰度值表示):模型组豚鼠气管和细支气管黏膜内NGF物质阳性反应的平均灰度值明显地低于对照组[(108.46±9.89)vs(135.86±4.01)](P<0.01).Western blotting显示NGF在模型组豚鼠的肺内平均相对光密度值明显强于对照组[(1.415±0.155)vs(0.550±0.039)](P<0.01).结论 多次盐酸灌注豚鼠食管后呼吸道黏膜内NGF物质表达明显增多,提示NGF可能参与胃食管反流性呼吸系统疾病的发病过程.%Objective To observe the expression of nerve growth factor(NGF)in respiratory tract mueosa of the repetitive esophageal stimulation by hydrochloric acid(HCl)in guinea pigs.Methods Twenty adult guinea pigs were randomly divided into two groups(n=10):①HCl model group:On the day of experimentation,guinea pigs were maintained under ketamine anesthesia.A 5F catheter was inserted through the mouth and into the lumen of the middle and lower oesophagus.The oesophagus of each animal was perfused with HCl-P for 20 min/d for 14 d.②PBS control group:The oesophagus of each animal was perfused with PBS.The alterations of NGF immunoreactivity were investigated by immunohistochemical and Western blotting method and analyzed by the Metamoph analysisi system.Results Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the mean grey values of NGF positive

  11. Autistic Children Exhibit Decreased Levels of Essential Fatty Acids in Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Brigandi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Omega-6 (n-6 and omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are essential nutrients for brain development and function. However, whether or not the levels of these fatty acids are altered in individuals with autism remains debatable. In this study, we compared the fatty acid contents between 121 autistic patients and 110 non-autistic, non-developmentally delayed controls, aged 3–17. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of red blood cell (RBC membrane phospholipids showed that the percentage of total PUFA was lower in autistic patients than in controls; levels of n-6 arachidonic acid (AA and n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were particularly decreased (p < 0.001. In addition, plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory AA metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were higher in a subset of the autistic participants (n = 20 compared to controls. Our study demonstrates an alteration in the PUFA profile and increased production of a PUFA-derived metabolite in autistic patients, supporting the hypothesis that abnormal lipid metabolism is implicated in autism.

  12. Human prefrontal cortex phospholipids containing docosahexaenoic acid increase during normal adult aging, whereas those containing arachidonic acid decrease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Sarah E; Friedrich, Michael G; Mitchell, Todd W; Truscott, Roger J W; Else, Paul L

    2015-04-01

    Membrane phospholipids make up a substantial portion of the human brain, and changes in their amount and composition are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative disease. Nevertheless, little is known about the changes that phospholipids undergo during normal adult aging. This study examined changes in phospholipid composition in the mitochondrial and microsomal membranes of human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex over the adult life span. The largest age-related changes were an increase in the abundance of both mitochondrial and microsomal phosphatidylserine 18:0_22:6 by approximately one-third from age 20 to 100 years and a 25% decrease in mitochondrial phosphatidylethanolamine 18:0_20:4. Generally, increases were seen with age in phospholipids containing docosahexaenoic acid across both membrane fractions, whereas phospholipids containing either arachidonic or adrenic acid decreased with age. These findings suggest a gradual change in membrane lipid composition over the adult life span.

  13. A study of the clinical effect of combining use of budesonide and hydrochloric acid ammonia bromine using of ultrasonic atomization inhalation on treatment of infantile capillary bronchitis%布地奈德和盐酸氨溴索联合使用超声雾化吸入治疗婴幼儿毛细支气管炎的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical effect of combining use of budesonide and hydrochloric acid ammonia bromine using ultrasonic atomization on treatment of infantile capillary bronchitis. Methods 80 cases of patients in our hospital were selected,randomly divided into experimental group and control group,each 40 cases,the experimental group were given basic treatment plus budesonide and ambroxol hydrochloride using ultrasonic atomizing inhalation,Compared the disappeared time of clinical symptoms and signs and the cure rate of the two groups. Results The time of clinical symptoms and signs in the experimental group were shorter than that of the observation group,the cure rate in the experimental group was significantly higher than the control group. Conclusion Using budesonide and hydrochloric acid ammonia bromine with ultrasonic atomization inhalation on treatment of infantile capillary bronchitis,can effectively shorten the time of dyspnea,suppress wheezing (such as clinical symptoms and signs of time,and improve the cure rate.The clinical application of the treatment is safe and convenient,is worth to clinical promotion.%目的:探讨布地奈德和盐酸氨溴索合用使用超声雾化治疗婴幼儿毛细支气管炎的临床效果。方法选80例来我院就诊的患儿随机分为实验组和对照组,各40例,实验组在采取基础治疗外加用布地奈德+盐酸氨溴索使用超声雾化吸入治疗,对比两组患儿临床症状、体征消失时间以及治愈率。结果实验组临床症状、体征时间均比观察组时间短,并且治愈率也明显高于对照组。结论布地奈德和盐酸氨溴索联合使用超声雾化吸入治疗婴幼儿毛细支气管炎,可以有效缩短患儿呼吸困难、憋喘等临床症状和体征缓解时间,并且提高治愈率,对于临床应用安全方便,值得临床推广。

  14. Response Surface Methodology for Optimization of Extraction Process for Soluble Dietary Fiber from Grape Pomace with Hydrochloric Acid%响应面法优化葡萄皮渣中可溶性膳食纤维的酸法提取工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜彬; 李凤英; 范长军; 朱凤妹

    2011-01-01

    目的:利用响应面法对葡萄皮渣中可溶性膳食纤维的酸法提取工艺进行优化。方法:在单因素试验基础上选取试验因素与水平,根据Box-Behnken试验设计原理采用四因素三水平的响应面分析法,依据回归分析确定各工艺条件的影响因素,以可溶性膳食纤维得率为响应值作响应面和等高线图。结果:在分析各个因素的显著性和交互作用后,得出葡萄皮渣可溶性膳食纤维提取的最佳工艺为盐酸的浓度0.40mol/L、提取温度75℃、提取时间90min、料液比1:12(g/mL),在此工艺条件下可溶性膳食纤维得率为47.56mg/g。结论:响应面回归方程与实验结果拟合性好,此模型合理可靠,可用于实际预测。%Objective: To optimize the extraction of soluble dietary fiber(SDF) from grape pomace with hydrochloric acid.Methods: One-factor-at-a-time experiments,mathematical modeling based on Box-Behnken experimental design and multiple regression analysis and response surface analysis were carried out to investigate the individual and interactive effects of various process conditions on extraction yield of SDF and their significance.Response surface and contour plots were drawn with extraction yield of SDF as a function.Results: The optimal conditions for SDF extraction were 0.40 mol/L hydrochloric acid as extraction solvent at a material-to-liquid ratio of 1:12(g/mL) and 75 ℃ for an extraction duration of 90 min.Under the optimal extraction conditions,the yield of SDF was up to 47.56 mg/g,which was close to the model-predicted value.Conclusion: The developed regression equation can be well fitted with experimental results and is reasonable,reliable and applicable for actual prediction.

  15. Experimental warming decreases the average size and nucleic acid content of marine bacterial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Megan Huete-Stauffer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Organism size reduction with increasing temperature has been suggested as a universal response to global warming. Since genome size is usually correlated to cell size, reduction of genome size in unicells could be a parallel outcome of warming at ecological and evolutionary time scales. In this study, the short-term response of cell size and nucleic acid content of coastal marine prokaryotic communities to temperature was studied over a full annual cycle at a NE Atlantic temperate site. We used flow cytometry and experimental warming incubations, spanning a 6ºC range, to analyze the hypothesized reduction with temperature in the size of the widespread flow cytometric bacterial groups of high and low nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA bacteria, respectively. Our results showed decreases in size in response to experimental warming, which were more marked in 0.8 µm pre-filtered treatment rather than in the whole community treatment, thus excluding the role of protistan grazers in our findings. Interestingly, a significant effect of temperature on reducing the average nucleic acid content of prokaryotic cells in the communities was also observed. Cell size and nucleic acid decrease with temperature were correlated, showing a common mean decrease of 0.4% per ºC. The usually larger HNA bacteria consistently showed a greater reduction in cell and nucleic acid content compared with their LNA counterparts, especially during the spring phytoplankton bloom period associated to maximum bacterial growth rates in response to nutrient availability. Our results show that the already smallest planktonic microbes, yet with key roles in global biogeochemical cycling, are likely undergoing important structural shrinkage in response to rising temperatures.

  16. Depletion of hepatic uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid decreases the biliary excretion of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregus, Z; Watkins, J B; Thompson, T N; Klaassen, C D

    1983-05-01

    Hepatic levels of uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid (UDPGA) in rats decreased substantially (greater than 80%) 40 min after galactosamine (GAL) (600 mg/kg i.p.) or after 1 hr of diethyl ether (DE) narcosis. Biliary excretion of several cholephils requiring glucuronidation before excretion was reduced by GAL 76, 62, 92, 90 and 97% for bilirubin, diethylstilbestrol, iopanoic acid, phenolphthalein and valproic acid, respectively. GAL treatment caused delayed plasma clearances of the parent compounds and reductions in plasma concentrations and biliary excretions of glucuronide conjugates. The degree of this reduction was related to the maximal excretion rate of the individual compounds. For phenolphthalein glucuronide and phenol-3,6-dibromphthalein disulfonate, which do not undergo conjugation, GAL had no effect on their biliary excretion. DE-induced UDPGA depletion had no effect on phenolphthalein glucuronide excretion but reduced that of phenol-3,6-dibromphthalein disulfonate 25%. DE did not affect the plasma elimination or biliary secretion of phenolphthalein. Of the other cholephils requiring conjugation, DE reduced the excretion of bilirubin, diethylstilbestrol, iopanoic acid and valproic acid by 41, 29, 76 and 28%, respectively. DE decreased the plasma elimination of the parent compounds and the appearance of the conjugates in both plasma and bile. Reduction of glucuronide excretion into bile was less pronounced at higher doses of the cholephilic anions. Neither treatment reduced in vitro hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity toward these substrates or substantially altered extrahepatic UDPGA concentrations. Thus, both GAL and DE decreased UDPGA to similar concentrations, but the biliary excretion of compounds requiring glucuronidation before secretion was depressed to a greater extent by GAL.

  17. Lithium Decreases Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein in a Mouse Model of Alexander Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPash Daniels, Christine M; Paffenroth, Elizabeth; Austin, Elizabeth V; Glebov, Konstantin; Lewis, Diana; Walter, Jochen; Messing, Albee

    2015-01-01

    Alexander disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the astrocyte intermediate filament glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The disease is characterized by elevated levels of GFAP and the formation of protein aggregates, known as Rosenthal fibers, within astrocytes. Lithium has previously been shown to decrease protein aggregates by increasing the autophagy pathway for protein degradation. In addition, lithium has also been reported to decrease activation of the transcription factor STAT3, which is a regulator of GFAP transcription and astrogliogenesis. Here we tested whether lithium treatment would decrease levels of GFAP in a mouse model of Alexander disease. Mice with the Gfap-R236H point mutation were fed lithium food pellets for 4 to 8 weeks. Four weeks of treatment with LiCl at 0.5% in food pellets decreased GFAP protein and transcripts in several brain regions, although with mild side effects and some mortality. Extending the duration of treatment to 8 weeks resulted in higher mortality, and again with a decrease in GFAP in the surviving animals. Indicators of autophagy, such as LC3, were not increased, suggesting that lithium may decrease levels of GFAP through other pathways. Lithium reduced the levels of phosphorylated STAT3, suggesting this as one pathway mediating the effects on GFAP. In conclusion, lithium has the potential to decrease GFAP levels in Alexander disease, but with a narrow therapeutic window separating efficacy and toxicity.

  18. Taurine decreased uric acid levels in hyperuricemic rats and alleviated kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying; Sun, Fang; Gao, Yongchao; Yang, Jiancheng; Wu, Gaofeng; Lin, Shumei; Hu, Jianmin

    2017-07-29

    Hyperuricemia can lead to direct kidney damage. Taurine participates in several renal physiological processes and has been shown as a renoprotective agent. It has been reported that taurine could reduce uric acid levels in diabetic rats, but to date there was no research on the effects of taurine on hyperuricemic rats with kidney injury. In present study, hyperuricemic rat models were induced by intragastric administration of adenine and ethambutol hydrochloride for 10 days, and taurine (1% or 2%) were added in the drinking water 7 days in advance for consecutively 17 days. The results showed that taurine alleviated renal morphological and pathological changes as well as kidney dysfunction in hyperuricemic rats. Taurine could efficiently decrease the elevated xanthine oxidase activities in hyperuricemic rats, indicating its effect on the regulation of uric acid formation. The reabsorption and secretion of uric acid are dependent on a number of urate transporters. Expressions of three urate transporters were significantly down-regulated in hyperuricemic rats, while taurine prevented the decrease of mRNA and protein expression levels of these urate transporters. The results indicate that taurine might play a role in the regulation of renal uric acid excretion. Therefore, taurine could be a promising agent for the treatment of hyperuricemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Decreased eicosapentaenoic acid levels in acne vulgaris reveals the presence of a proinflammatory state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, İbrahim; Özcan, Filiz; Karaarslan, Taner; Kıraç, Ebru; Aslan, Mutay

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine circulating levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and measure circulating protein levels of angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3), ANGPTL4, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in patients with acne vulgaris. Serum from 21 control subjects and 31 acne vulgaris patients were evaluated for levels of arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n- 6), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, C20:3n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3). PUFA levels were determined by an optimized multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method using ultra fast-liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Lipid profile, routine biochemical and hormone parameters were assayed by standard kit methods Serum EPA levels were significantly decreased while AA/EPA and DGLA/EPA ratio were significantly increased in acne vulgaris patients compared to controls. Serum levels of AA, DGLA and DHA showed no significant difference while activity of sPLA2 and LPL were significantly increased in acne vulgaris compared to controls. Results of this study reveal the presence of a proinflammatory state in acne vulgaris as shown by significantly decreased serum EPA levels and increased activity of sPLA2, AA/EPA and DGLA/EPA ratio. Increased LPL activity in the serum of acne vulgaris patients can be protective through its anti-dyslipidemic actions. This is the first study reporting altered EPA levels and increased sPLA2 activity in acne vulgaris and supports the use of omega-3 fatty acids as adjuvant treatment for acne patients.

  20. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Kazutaka; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus). Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

  1. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Sawada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus. Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

  2. CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACIDS (CLA) DECREASE THE BREAST CANCER RISK IN DMBA-TREATED RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Agnieszka; Tokarz, Andrzej; Zagrodzki, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how supplementation of diet of female Sprague-Dawley rats with different doses of conjugated linoleic acids and for a varied period of time influences breast cancer risk, fatty acids profile and lipids peroxidation in chemically induced mammary tumors. Animals were divided into nine groups with different modifications of diet (vegetable oil, 1.0 or 2.0% of CLA) and period of supplementation, which lasted after (A), before (B) and before and after (BA) carcinogenic agent--7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene administration at 50th day of life. Mammary adenocarcinomas occurred in all groups, but CLA supplementation decreased the cancer morbidity. Two percent CLA seems to be excessive because of the coexisting cachexia. Two CLA isomers (9-cis, 11-trans and 10-trans, 12-cis) were detected in tumors but content of rumenic acid was higher. Dietary supplementation significantly influenced some unsaturated fatty acids content (C18:2 n-6 trans, C20:1, C20:5 n-3, C22:2), but the anti- or prooxidant properties of CLA were not confirmed. CLA can inhibit chemically induced mammary tumors development in female rats, but their cytotoxic action seems not to be connected with lipids peroxidation. CLA isomers differ with their incorporation into cancerous tissues and they influence the content of some other fatty acids.

  3. Docosahexaenoic acid and other fatty acids induce a decrease in pHi in Jurkat T-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Virginie; Hichami, Aziz; Moutairou, Kabirou; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2003-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) induced rapid (t1/2=33 s) and dose-dependent decreases in pHi in BCECF-loaded human (Jurkat) T-cells. Addition of 5-(N,N-dimethyl)-amiloride, an inhibitor of Na+/H+ exchanger, prolonged DHA-induced acidification as a function of time, indicating that the exchanger is implicated in pHi recovery. Other fatty acids like oleic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, but not palmitic acid, also induced a fall in pHi in these cells. To assess the role of calcium in the DHA-induced acidification, we conducted experiments in Ca2+-free (0% Ca2+) and Ca2+-containing (100% Ca2+) buffer. We observed that there was no difference in the degree of DHA-induced transient acidification in both the experimental conditions, though pHi recovery was faster in 0% Ca2+ medium than that in 100% Ca2+ medium. In the presence of BAPTA, a calcium chelator, a rapid recovery of DHA-induced acidosis was observed. Furthermore, addition of CaCl2 into 0% Ca2+ medium curtailed DHA-evoked rapid pHi recovery. In 0% Ca2+ medium, containing BAPTA, DHA did not evoke increases in [Ca2+]i, though this fatty acid still induced a rapid acidification in these cells. These observations suggest that calcium is implicated in the long-lasting DHA-induced acidosis. DHA-induced rapid acidification may be due to its deprotonation in the plasma membrane (flip-flop model), as suggested by the following observations: (1) DHA with a –COOH group induced intracellular acidification, but this fatty acid with a –COOCH3 group failed to do so, and (2) DHA, but not propionic acid, -induced acidification was completely reversed by addition of fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin in these cells. These results suggest that DHA induces acidosis via deprotonation and Ca2+ mobilization in human T-cells. PMID:14645139

  4. Research on Application of HPLC in Measuring Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid Palmatine in Rat Serum%高效液相色谱-荧光检测法在大鼠血清中盐酸黄藤素浓度测定中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小虎

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立大鼠血清中盐酸黄藤素浓度的反相高效液相色谱-荧光检测方法,并应用于大鼠口服盐酸黄藤素制剂后药物体内药动学过程测定。方法色谱条件:Diamonsil C18柱流动相:0.01mol/L 磷酸二氢钾缓冲液-乙腈(40:60);流速:1.0mL/min;荧光检测波长:λEx =310 nm,λEm =360 nm。动物实验:给予6只 wistar 大鼠口服盐酸黄藤素片,尾静脉取血测定血药浓度,数据经3P97药动学软件包处理,计算药物体内药动学参数。结果黄藤素线性回归方程为:C =6.1050A ×10-4+7.3×10-3(r =0.9997),盐酸黄藤素血清浓度在0.04mg/L -0.4mg/L 范围内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系。低、中、高3个浓度日内及日间精密度试验 RSD 均小于10%。稳定性良好(RSD =1.77%)。盐酸黄藤素在大鼠体内表现为两室模型药动学过程。按30mg/kg 剂量灌胃给药,测得血药浓度达峰时间为(0.30±0.04)h,血药峰浓度为15.27μg/L,消除速率常数为0.2031(1/h)。结论本研究建立的高效液相色谱-荧光检测大鼠血清中盐酸黄藤素浓度方法灵敏度高,专属性强,稳定性好,能快速、准确地测定大鼠血清中盐酸黄藤素浓度,适用于盐酸黄藤素新制剂大鼠体内过程实验的血清药物浓度测定。%s:Objective Establish reversed -phase high -performance liquid chromatography – fluorescence detection method of the hy -drochloric acid palmatine concentration in rat serum , and apply it in measuring the pharmacokinetics process in the medicine after the rat takes the hydrochloric acid palmatine preparations orally .Methods Chromatographic condition: Diamonsil C18 , mobile phase: 0.01mol /L monopotassium phosphate buffer solution :acetonitrile (40:60); flow velocity: 1.0mL/min; fluorescence detection wave length :λEx =310nm,λEm =360nm.Animal experiment: let 6 wistar rats

  5. Experimental Warming Decreases the Average Size and Nucleic Acid Content of Marine Bacterial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara M; Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G

    2016-01-01

    Organism size reduction with increasing temperature has been suggested as a universal response to global warming. Since genome size is usually correlated to cell size, reduction of genome size in unicells could be a parallel outcome of warming at ecological and evolutionary time scales. In this study, the short-term response of cell size and nucleic acid content of coastal marine prokaryotic communities to temperature was studied over a full annual cycle at a NE Atlantic temperate site. We used flow cytometry and experimental warming incubations, spanning a 6°C range, to analyze the hypothesized reduction with temperature in the size of the widespread flow cytometric bacterial groups of high and low nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA bacteria, respectively). Our results showed decreases in size in response to experimental warming, which were more marked in 0.8 μm pre-filtered treatment rather than in the whole community treatment, thus excluding the role of protistan grazers in our findings. Interestingly, a significant effect of temperature on reducing the average nucleic acid content (NAC) of prokaryotic cells in the communities was also observed. Cell size and nucleic acid decrease with temperature were correlated, showing a common mean decrease of 0.4% per °C. The usually larger HNA bacteria consistently showed a greater reduction in cell and NAC compared with their LNA counterparts, especially during the spring phytoplankton bloom period associated to maximum bacterial growth rates in response to nutrient availability. Our results show that the already smallest planktonic microbes, yet with key roles in global biogeochemical cycling, are likely undergoing important structural shrinkage in response to rising temperatures.

  6. Experimental Warming Decreases the Average Size and Nucleic Acid Content of Marine Bacterial Communities

    KAUST Repository

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara M.

    2016-05-23

    Organism size reduction with increasing temperature has been suggested as a universal response to global warming. Since genome size is usually correlated to cell size, reduction of genome size in unicells could be a parallel outcome of warming at ecological and evolutionary time scales. In this study, the short-term response of cell size and nucleic acid content of coastal marine prokaryotic communities to temperature was studied over a full annual cycle at a NE Atlantic temperate site. We used flow cytometry and experimental warming incubations, spanning a 6°C range, to analyze the hypothesized reduction with temperature in the size of the widespread flow cytometric bacterial groups of high and low nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA bacteria, respectively). Our results showed decreases in size in response to experimental warming, which were more marked in 0.8 μm pre-filtered treatment rather than in the whole community treatment, thus excluding the role of protistan grazers in our findings. Interestingly, a significant effect of temperature on reducing the average nucleic acid content (NAC) of prokaryotic cells in the communities was also observed. Cell size and nucleic acid decrease with temperature were correlated, showing a common mean decrease of 0.4% per °C. The usually larger HNA bacteria consistently showed a greater reduction in cell and NAC compared with their LNA counterparts, especially during the spring phytoplankton bloom period associated to maximum bacterial growth rates in response to nutrient availability. Our results show that the already smallest planktonic microbes, yet with key roles in global biogeochemical cycling, are likely undergoing important structural shrinkage in response to rising temperatures.

  7. Getting on with persistent pollutants: Decreasing trends of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Hanna; Freier, Korbinian P; Gierig, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Sewage sludge can be a relevant source of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) for the environment. In order to reduce emissions from this source, Bavarian authorities enforced in 2008 an analysis of PFAAs from sewage sludge derived from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). 4981 sludge samples from 1165 different WWTPs were analyzed between 2008 and 2013 for 11 PFAAs compounds. During this period, 71 WWTPs exceeded the precautionary limit of 125 μg kg(-1) dm of total PFAAs in sludge samples at least once with a decreasing tendency. The yearly exceedances of the investigated WWTPs decreased from 6% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2013. At the same time, the percentage of uncontaminated WWTPs increased from 33% to 65%. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was the predominant compound found in 41% of all sludge samples. Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) was detected in 19% and Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in 7%. Very high PFAAs concentrations (>500 μg kg(-1) dm) in sewage sludge were generally caused by firefighting foams containing PFAAs or emissions from PFAAs-using industries including metal plating, textile, leather or paper industries. Trend analyses of the six year period show that PFAAs contamination in sewage sludge clearly decreased for 47% of the WWTPs. However, for 16% of the WWTPs an increasing trend was detected, even though the concentration levels were below the precautionary limit. During the six years of investigation the load of total PFAAs in sewage sludge was reduced by more than 90%, from 17 t a(-1) in 2008 to 1.5 t a(-1) in 2013.

  8. Poultry fat decreased fatty acid transporter protein mRNA expression and affected fatty acid composition in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jianmin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A study was undertaken to examine the effects of poultry fat (PF compared with those of soybean oil (SBO on intestinal development, fatty acid transporter protein (FATP mRNA expression, and fatty acid composition in broiler chickens. A total of 144 day-old male commercial broilers were randomly allocated to 2 treatment groups (6 replicates of 12 chicks for each treatment and fed isocaloric diets containing 3.0% PF or 2.7% SBO at 0 to 3 wk and 3.8% PF or 3.5% SBO at 4 to 6 wk, respectively. Results PF had no influence on intestinal morphology, weight, or DNA, RNA, or protein concentrations at 2, 4, and 6 wk of age. However, compared with SBO, PF significantly decreased FATP mRNA abundance at 4 wk (P = 0.009 and 6 wk of age (P P = 0.039; and decreased C18:2 (P = 0.015, C18:3 (P P = 0.018, Σ-polyunsaturated fatty acids (Σ-PUFA (P = 0.020, and the proportion of PUFA (P P = 0.010, C18:3 (P P P = 0.005, and the proportion of PUFA (P  Conclusions PF decreases FATP and L-FABP mRNA expression and decreased the proportion of PUFA in the intestinal mucosa and breast muscle.

  9. Mangiferin Decreases Plasma Free Fatty Acids through Promoting Its Catabolism in Liver by Activation of AMPK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yucun; Li, Songtao; Na, Lixin; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2012-01-01

    Mangiferin has been shown to have the effect of improving dyslipidemia. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA) are closely associated with blood lipid metabolism as well as many diseases including metabolic syndrome. This study is to investigate whether mangiferin has effects on FFA metabolism in hyperlipidemic rats. Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet and administered mangiferin simultaneously for 6 weeks. Mangiferin (50, 100, 150 mg/kg BW) decreased dose-dependently FFA and triglycerides (TG) levels in plasma, and their accumulations in liver, but increased the β-hydroxybutyrate levels in both plasma and liver of hyperlipidemic rats. HepG2 cells were treated with oleic acid (OA, 0.2 mmol/L) to simulate the condition of high level of plasma FFA in vitro, and were treated with different concentrations of mangiferin simultaneously for 24 h. We found that mangiferin significantly increased FFA uptake, significantly decreased intracellular FFA and TG accumulations in HepG2 cells. Mangiferin significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and its downstream proteins involved in fatty acid translocase (CD36) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), but significantly decreased acyl-CoA: diacylgycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) expression and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity by increasing its phosphorylation level in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Furthermore, these effects were reversed by Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor in HepG2 cells. For upstream of AMPK, mangiferin increased AMP/ATP ratio, but had no effect on LKB1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, mangiferin decreased plasma FFA levels through promoting FFA uptake and oxidation, inhibiting FFA and TG accumulations by regulating the key enzymes expression in liver through AMPK pathway. Therefore, mangiferin is a possible beneficial natural compound for metabolic syndrome by improving FFA metabolism. PMID:22292039

  10. Mangiferin decreases plasma free fatty acids through promoting its catabolism in liver by activation of AMPK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucun Niu

    Full Text Available Mangiferin has been shown to have the effect of improving dyslipidemia. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA are closely associated with blood lipid metabolism as well as many diseases including metabolic syndrome. This study is to investigate whether mangiferin has effects on FFA metabolism in hyperlipidemic rats. Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet and administered mangiferin simultaneously for 6 weeks. Mangiferin (50, 100, 150 mg/kg BW decreased dose-dependently FFA and triglycerides (TG levels in plasma, and their accumulations in liver, but increased the β-hydroxybutyrate levels in both plasma and liver of hyperlipidemic rats. HepG2 cells were treated with oleic acid (OA, 0.2 mmol/L to simulate the condition of high level of plasma FFA in vitro, and were treated with different concentrations of mangiferin simultaneously for 24 h. We found that mangiferin significantly increased FFA uptake, significantly decreased intracellular FFA and TG accumulations in HepG2 cells. Mangiferin significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation and its downstream proteins involved in fatty acid translocase (CD36 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1, but significantly decreased acyl-CoA: diacylgycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2 expression and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC activity by increasing its phosphorylation level in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Furthermore, these effects were reversed by Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor in HepG2 cells. For upstream of AMPK, mangiferin increased AMP/ATP ratio, but had no effect on LKB1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, mangiferin decreased plasma FFA levels through promoting FFA uptake and oxidation, inhibiting FFA and TG accumulations by regulating the key enzymes expression in liver through AMPK pathway. Therefore, mangiferin is a possible beneficial natural compound for metabolic syndrome by improving FFA metabolism.

  11. Determination of silver in miscellaneous copper materials in hydrochloric acid medium by ammonia leaching-flame atomic absorption spectrometry%氨水浸取-盐酸介质火焰原子吸收光谱法测定杂铜物料中的银

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖红新

    2014-01-01

    The sample is dissolved in aqua regia and silver is leached by ammonia ,most other metallic elements are precipitated at the same time ,eliminating the interference .In 10%hydrochloric acid medium ,under the set equip-ment working conditions ,silver content was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry .The relatively stand-ard deviation of the determination results is less than 1 %.%采用王水溶解样品,氨水浸取银,同时沉淀分离大部分其他金属元素,消除其他元素干扰;在10%的盐酸介质中,在设定的仪器工作条件下,采用火焰原子吸收光谱法测定杂铜物料中的银。该方法简单快速、准确可靠,测定结果相对标准偏差小于1%。

  12. Decreased solubilization of Pu(IV) polymers by humic acids under anoxic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jinchuan; Lin, Jianfeng; Liang, Wei; Li, Mei; Zhou, Xiaohua

    2016-11-01

    Pu(IV) polymer has a very low solubility (log[Pu(IV)aq]total = -10.4 at pH 7.2 and I = 0). However, some aspects of their environmental fate remain unclear. Humic acids are able to complex with Pu4+ ions and their dissolved species (EDTA ligands. In contrast, the dissolved humic acids did not solubilize the polymers but in fact decreased their solubility by one order of magnitude. The humic coatings were responsible for the decreased solubilization. Such coatings limited the contact between the polymers and EDTA ligands, especially at the relatively high concentrations of humic acids (>0.57 mg/L). Solubilization of the humic-coated polymers was thus inhibited to a significant extent although EDTA, having the great complexation ability, was present in the humic solutions. Reduction of Pu(IV) polymers by the humic acids was also not observed in the absence of EDTA. In the presence of EDTA, the polymers were partially reduced to Pu(III)aq by the humic acids of 0.57 mg/L and the percentage of Pu(III)aq accounted for 51.7% of the total aqueous Pu. This demonstrates that the humic acids were able to reduce the aqueous Pu(IV), instead of the polymeric Pu(IV). Such a demonstration is supported by the very positive redox potential of aqueous Pu(IV)-EDTA complex: Eho ‧ (PuL24-/PuL25-) = 154.3 mV >>Eh (PuO2 (am) /Pu3+) = -182.7 mV calculated at 10-10 mol/L Pu3+ and pH 7.2. At the higher humic concentrations (>0.57 mg/L), the polymers were reduced to a lesser extent because the much denser humic coatings resulted in lower concentrations of the aqueous Pu(IV). Consequently, humic acids make Pu(IV) polymers pretty stable unless the artificial ligands such as EDTA are present in the groundwater.

  13. Phytic acid decreases deoxynivalenol and fumonisin B1-induced changes on swine jejunal explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Olegário da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of phytic acid (IP6 on morphological and immunohistochemical parameters on intestinal explants exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON and fumonisin B1 (FB1. The jejunal explants were exposed for 4 h to different treatments: control, DON (10 μM, DON plus 2.5 mM or 5 mM IP6, FB1 (70 μM, and FB1 plus 2.5 mM or 5 mM IP6. Both mycotoxins induced significant intestinal lesions and decreased villi height. The presence of 2.5 mM and 5 mM IP6 significantly inhibited the morphological changes caused by the mycotoxins. DON induced a significant increase in caspase-3 (83% and cyclooxygenase-2 (71.3% expression compared with the control. The presence of 5 mM IP6 induced a significant decrease in caspase-3 (43.7% and Cox-2 (48% expression compared with the DON group. FB1 induced a significant increase in caspase-3 expression (47% compared to the control, whereas IP6 induced no significant change in this expression. A significant decrease in cell proliferation was observed when explants were exposed to 5 mM of IP6 in comparison with the DON and FB1 groups. The present data provide evidence that phytic acid modulates the toxic effects induced by DON and FB1 on intestinal tissue.

  14. Phytic acid decreases deoxynivalenol and fumonisin B1-induced changes on swine jejunal explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Elisângela Olegário; Gerez, Juliana Rubira; do Carmo Drape, Thalisie; Bracarense, Ana Paula F R L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of phytic acid (IP6) on morphological and immunohistochemical parameters on intestinal explants exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1). The jejunal explants were exposed for 4 h to different treatments: control, DON (10 μM), DON plus 2.5 mM or 5 mM IP6, FB1 (70 μM), and FB1 plus 2.5 mM or 5 mM IP6. Both mycotoxins induced significant intestinal lesions and decreased villi height. The presence of 2.5 mM and 5 mM IP6 significantly inhibited the morphological changes caused by the mycotoxins. DON induced a significant increase in caspase-3 (83%) and cyclooxygenase-2 (71.3%) expression compared with the control. The presence of 5 mM IP6 induced a significant decrease in caspase-3 (43.7%) and Cox-2 (48%) expression compared with the DON group. FB1 induced a significant increase in caspase-3 expression (47%) compared to the control, whereas IP6 induced no significant change in this expression. A significant decrease in cell proliferation was observed when explants were exposed to 5 mM of IP6 in comparison with the DON and FB1 groups. The present data provide evidence that phytic acid modulates the toxic effects induced by DON and FB1 on intestinal tissue.

  15. Lipase inhibitor orlistat decreases incorporation of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in rat tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Oliveira, Manuel; Pescia, Grégory; Moulin, Julie; Masserey-Elmelegy, Isabelle; Dionisi, Fabiola; Destaillats, Frédéric

    2010-02-01

    Orlistat is a gastric and pancreatic lipases inhibitor that is often prescribed to obese subjects. Orlistat has been shown to decrease the absorption of biologically important lipophilic micronutrients such as liposoluble vitamins. We hypothesized that long-term administration of orlistat may lower the incorporation of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in blood lipids and tissues. This hypothesis was tested in rats fed a diet supplemented with fish oil as a source of n-3 LC-PUFA. Male Wistar rats (n = 18) were divided into 3 groups and fed experimental high-fat diets containing fish oil (control diet) or fish oil plus orlistat (200 and 400 mg/kg of diet) over the course of 3 weeks. Fat absorption and the level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid, among other fatty acids, in red blood cells, plasma, liver, and spleen, were measured at the end of the experimental period. The results show that at 200 mg and 400 mg/kg of diet orlistat lowers fat absorption by 9% (P = .008) and 54% (P = .008). Orlistat given at the higher level induced a reduction of the incorporation of EPA in red blood cell (-45%; P = .006) and in plasma (-34%; P = .026) compared to the control group. Our results confirmed that administration of orlistat reduces incorporation of n-3 LC-PUFA in blood lipids and tissues in a rat model.

  16. Formulating gels for decreased mucociliary transport using rheologic properties: polyacrylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ankur J; Donovan, Maureen D

    2007-04-20

    The purpose of these studies was to identify the rheologic properties of polyacrylic acid gels necessary for optimal reductions in mucociliary clearance. The mucociliary transport of 2 bioadhesive polyacrylic acid polymers, polycarbophil and carbopol, was assessed in vitro by measuring their clearance rates across explants of ciliated bovine tracheal tissue. The viscoelastic properties of polymer gels were measured in the presence of mucus using controlled stress rheometry. Combinations of apparent viscosity (eta) and complex modulus (G*) were found to be the most useful parameters in the identification of polyacrylic acid formulations capable of decreasing mucociliary transport rate (MTR). A narrow range of eta and G* values suitable for reducing mucociliary clearance, while remaining sufficiently fluid for intranasal administration, were identified. The correlations between the rheologic parameters of the polycarbophil gels and their mucociliary transport rates were used to identify other polyacrylic acid gels that also had suitable mucociliary clearance properties, demonstrating that these parameters can be used to direct the optimization of formulations using simple in vitro rheologic testing.

  17. Metabolite Profiling for Leaf Senescence in Barley Reveals Decreases in Amino Acids and Glycolysis Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Avila-Ospina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence is a long developmental phase important for plant performance and nutrient management. Cell constituents are recycled in old leaves to provide nutrients that are redistributed to the sink organs. Up to now, metabolomic changes during leaf senescence have been mainly studied in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.. The metabolite profiling conducted in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. during primary leaf senescence under two nitrate regimes and in flag leaf shows that amino acids, hexose, sucrose and glycolysis intermediates decrease during senescence, while minor carbohydrates accumulate. Tricarboxylic acid (TCA compounds changed with senescence only in primary leaves. The senescence-related metabolite changes in the flag leaf were globally similar to those observed in primary leaves. The effect of senescence on the metabolite changes of barley leaves was similar to that previously described in Arabidopsis except for sugars and glycolysis compounds. This suggests a different role of sugars in the control of leaf senescence in Arabidopsis and in barley.

  18. Tranexamic Acid Decreases Incidence of Blood Transfusion in Simultaneous Bilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagsby, Deren T; Samujh, Christopher A; Vissing, Jacqueline L; Empson, Janene A; Pomeroy, Donald L; Malkani, Arthur L

    2015-12-01

    Blood management for simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients is more challenging than in unilateral arthroplasty. We examined if administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) to patients undergoing simultaneous bilateral TKA would reduce blood loss and decrease allogeneic blood transfusion requirements. A retrospective review of 103 patients, 57 in the control and 46 in the TXA group, was performed. There was higher postoperative day 1 hemoglobin in patients receiving TXA (2.95±1.33 versus 4.33±1.19, Ptransfusion incidence with administration of TXA (17.4% versus 57.9%, Ptransfusion rates by almost 70% in simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty.

  19. Ozone oxidation of oleic acid surface films decreases aerosol cloud condensation nuclei activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwier, A. N.; Sareen, N.; Lathem, T. L.; Nenes, A.; McNeill, V. F.

    2011-08-01

    Heterogeneous oxidation of aerosols composed of pure oleic acid (C18H34O2, an unsaturated fatty acid commonly found in continental and marine aerosol) by gas-phase O3 is known to increase aerosol hygroscopicity and activity as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Whether this trend is preserved when the oleic acid is internally mixed with other electrolytes is unknown and addressed in this study. We quantify the CCN activity of sodium salt aerosols (NaCl and Na2SO4) internally mixed with sodium oleate (SO) and oleic acid (OA). We find that particles containing roughly one monolayer of SO/OA show similar CCN activity to pure salt particles, whereas a tenfold increase in organic concentration slightly depresses CCN activity. O3 oxidation of these multicomponent aerosols has little effect on the critical diameter for CCN activation for unacidified particles at all conditions studied, and the activation kinetics of the CCN are similar in each case to those of pure salts. SO-containing particles which are acidified to atmospherically relevant pH before analysis in order to form oleic acid, however, show depressed CCN activity upon oxidation. This effect is more pronounced at higher organic concentrations. The behavior after oxidation is consistent with the disappearance of the organic surface film, supported by Köhler Theory Analysis (KTA). The κ-Köhler calculations show a small decrease in hygroscopicity after oxidation. The important implication of this finding is that oxidative aging may not always enhance the hygroscopicity of internally mixed inorganic-organic aerosols.

  20. Soman- or kainic acid-induced convulsions decrease muscarinic receptors but not benzodiazepine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchill, L.; Pazdernik, T.L.; Cross, R.S.; Nelson, S.R.; Samson, F.E. (Univ. of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City (USA))

    (3H)Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) binding to muscarinic receptors decreased in the rat forebrain after convulsions induced by a single dose of either soman, a potent inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, or kainic acid, an excitotoxin. A Rosenthal plot revealed that the receptors decreased in number rather than affinity. When the soman-induced convulsions were blocked, the decrease in muscarinic receptors at 3 days was less extensive than when convulsions occurred and at 10 days they approached control levels in most of the brain areas. The most prominent decrements in QNB binding were in the piriform cortex where the decline in QNB binding is probably related to the extensive convulsion-associated neuropathology. The decrements in QNB binding after convulsions suggest that the convulsive state leads to a down-regulation of muscarinic receptors in some brain areas. In contrast to the decrease in QNB binding after convulsions, (3H)flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptors did not change even in the piriform cortex where the loss in muscarinic receptors was most prominent. Thus, it appears that those neuronal processes that bear muscarinic receptors are more vulnerable to convulsion-induced change than those with benzodiazepine receptors.

  1. The toxicity and decreased concentration of aflatoxin B in natural lactic acid fermented maize meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokoena, M P; Chelule, P K; Gqaleni, N

    2006-04-01

    Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is a mycotoxin which is known to frequently contaminate poorly stored food products destined for human consumption. This study was carried out to investigate the potential activity of lactic acid fermentation in reducing AFB(1) level in fermented maize meal products. Maize meal was spiked with 60 mug g(-1) AFB(1) and fermented, with or without starter culture, for 4 days at 25 degrees C. Unbound AFB(1) in solution and the pH of the media were monitored daily. A significant decrease (P level of unbound AFB(1) was observed (75% in the fourth day). Simultaneously, a progressive decrease in the pH of the media from 6.5 to 3.1 was also observed. AFB(1) was below the detection limit in commercial fermented porridge (amahewu) samples. Cytotoxicity tests on AFB(1)-spiked fermented extracts showed that those with a starter culture were comparatively less toxic (30-36%) than those with no added starter culture (24-30%). However, this difference was not significant (P > 0.05). These results indicate that lactic acid fermentation can significantly reduce the concentration of AFB(1) in maize to trace levels. However, the safety of fermented products has not been well studied, as the mechanism of AFB(1) removal is not well understood. Natural fermentation may potentially reduce exposure to natural toxins occurring in food.

  2. 盐酸介质磷钒钼黄直接光度法快速测定钒浸出液中的磷%Rapid phosphorus analysis in vanadium- leached solution using direct absorbance measurement in hydrochloric acid media phosphorus - vanadium - molybdenum yellow system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘继宁; 马庆; 刘忠文; 党岚

    2001-01-01

    Compared with analytical characteristics and interfering factors for different media, hydrochloric acid was chosen as media in direct absorbance measurement to analyse phosphorus of Vanadium - leached solution.In this method, ammonium sodium was chosen as chromogenic agent, under the conditions that: the coloration acidity is 1.2 N, λ = 430 nm, ε = 1 300. We concluded that when phosphorus content is between 0 ~ 400 μg,Beer' s law is obeyed; when phosphorus content is lower limit 1.67 μg(3s), the coexistence components don' t interfere with phosphorus; when phosphorus content is 50 ~ 350 μg, the adding standard sample rate of recovery is 97.76% ~ 102. 1%; when phosphorus content is 100 μg, eleven times analyses are made and given. RSD =1.52% and X = 100. 48 μ-g.%研究了不同介质中钒钼黄法的分析特性和干扰因素,选定盐酸介质建立了快速分析钒浸出液中磷的直接光度法.该方法用钼酸钠作显色剂,显色酸度1.2 N,λ=430 nm,ε=1300,0~400μg线性良好;检测下限1.67μg(3s),共存组分无干扰,50~350μg加标回收率97.6%~102.1%,100μg中重复11次分析,RSD=1.52%,X=100.48μg.

  3. 盐酸液中钇(Ⅲ)和铕(Ⅲ)的P507溶剂萃取平衡分析%Equilibrium analysis of solvent extraction of yttrium(Ⅲ)and europium(Ⅲ)from hydrochloric acid with P507

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付念新; 隋智通; Mikiya TANAKA

    2011-01-01

    为了精确预测非理想条件下稀土金属溶剂萃取的平衡分配比,研究了溶于Shellsol D70中的P507溶剂对盐酸液中钇(Ⅲ)和铕(Ⅲ)的萃取平衡,建立化学基模型,并通过非线性最小二乘法确定萃取平衡常数.所建模型涉及了在低酸度区的离子交换反应和高酸度区的溶剂化萃取反应;模型还考虑了稀土金属与Cl-的配位反应,并用萃取剂的有效浓度代替[(HR)2],进而分别对水相和有机相(HR2)的非理想性加以修正.对稀土单元体系,在较宽的初始浓度范围内(稀土浓度最高至0.1 mol/L,盐酸浓度0.07-3.00 mol/L,萃取剂浓度0.25-1.00 mol/L),由模型计算的稀土分配比与实验测得的数据吻合良好,验证了模型的有效性.对于稀土二元体系,该模型能以良好的精度对平衡分配比进行工程预测.%For the accurate prediction of equilibrium distribution ratios of rare earth metals during solvent extraction under non-ideal conditions,the extraction equilibria of yttrium(Ⅲ)and europium(Ⅲ)from the hydrochloric acid solutions with P507 in Shellsoi D70 were studied.A chemically-based model was established and the extraction equilibrium constants were determined by the nonlinear least squares method.The proposed model involves the cation exchange reaction and the solvation extraction in the low and high acidity regions,respectively.In the model,the nonideality of the aqueous phase and(HR)2 was corrected by considering the complexation of the metals with(Cl-)and by replacing[(HR)2]with its effective concentration,respectively.This model was verified by fair agreement between the calculated metal distribution ratios and those experimentally obtained in the single metal systems.The feed concentrations for the systems are in wide ranges of the metal(up to 0.1 mol/L),hydrochloric acid(0.07-3.00 mol/L)and the extractant(0.25-1.00 mol/L).The model enables the engineering prediction of the equilibrium distribution ratios with good

  4. Retinoic acid decreases ATF-2 phosphorylation and sensitizes melanoma cells to taxol-mediated growth inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Minigh, Jennifer; Miles, Sarah; Niles, Richard M

    2008-02-12

    Cutaneous melanoma is often resistant to chemo- and radiotherapy. This resistance has recently been demonstrated to be due, at least in part, to high activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) activity in these tumors. In concordance with these reports, we found that B16 mouse melanoma cells had higher levels of ATF-2 than immortalized, but non-malignant mouse melanocytes. In addition, the melanoma cells had a much higher amount of phosphorylated (active) ATF-2 than the immortalized melanocytes. In the course of determining how retinoic acid (RA) stimulates activating protein-1 (AP-1) activity in B16 melanoma, we discovered that this retinoid decreased the phosphorylation of ATF-2. It appears that this effect is mediated through p38 MAPK, because RA decreased p38 phosphorylation, and a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK (SB203580) also inhibited the phosphorylation of ATF-2. Since ATF-2 activity appears to be involved in resistance of melanoma to chemotherapy, we tested the hypothesis that treatment of the melanoma cells with RA would sensitize them to the growth-inhibitory effect of taxol. We found that pretreatment of B16 cells with RA decreased the IC50 from 50 nM to 1 nM taxol. On the basis of these findings and our previous work on AP-1, we propose a model in which treatment of B16 cells with RA decreases the phosphorylation of ATF-2, which results in less dimer formation with Jun. The "freed-up" Jun can then form a heterodimer with Fos, resulting in the increased AP-1 activity observed in RA-treated B16 cells. Shifting the balance from predominantly ATF-2:Jun dimers to a higher amount of Jun:Fos dimers could lead a change in target gene expression that reduces resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs and contributes to the pathway by which RA arrests proliferation and induces differentiation.

  5. Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid Attenuates the Oxidative Stress-Induced Decrease of CD33 Expression in Human Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Guzmán-Beltrán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA is a natural lignan with recognized antioxidant and beneficial properties that is isolated from Larrea tridentata. In this study, we evaluated the effect of NDGA on the downregulation of oxidant stress-induced CD33 in human monocytes (MNs. Oxidative stress was induced by iodoacetate (IAA or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and was evaluated using reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and cell viability. NDGA attenuates toxicity, ROS production and the oxidative stress-induced decrease of CD33 expression secondary to IAA or H2O2 in human MNs. It was also shown that NDGA (20 μM attenuates cell death in the THP-1 cell line that is caused by treatment with either IAA or H2O2. These results suggest that NDGA has a protective effect on CD33 expression, which is associated with its antioxidant activity in human MNs.

  6. Hyaluronic acid dermal fillers: can adjunctive lidocaine improve patient satisfaction without decreasing efficacy or duration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lynnelle; Cockerham, Kimberly

    2011-03-14

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) dermal fillers are the most widely used injectables to augment facial volume without surgery. HA dermal fillers are popular because of their ease of administration, predictable effectiveness, good safety profile, and quick patient recovery. The most common patient complaint is pain. Our goal is to review the current literature on HA fillers and compare outcomes with and without lidocaine. We found adjunctive lidocaine significantly decreases pain during injection and postinjection with corresponding increased patient satisfaction. The efficacy and safety profile appears unchanged. Rare complications with HA fillers and those associated with constituents of the product, contaminants, and lidocaine are reviewed. The corrective effects of HA fillers are temporary; repeat treatment is required to maintain results. Minimizing pain is crucial to optimize patient satisfaction.

  7. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid attenuates the oxidative stress-induced decrease of CD33 expression in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Beltrán, Silvia; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Gonzalez-Reyes, Susana; Hernández-Sánchez, Fernando; Juarez-Figueroa, Ulises E; Gonzalez, Yolanda; Bobadilla, Karen; Torres, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a natural lignan with recognized antioxidant and beneficial properties that is isolated from Larrea tridentata. In this study, we evaluated the effect of NDGA on the downregulation of oxidant stress-induced CD33 in human monocytes (MNs). Oxidative stress was induced by iodoacetate (IAA) or hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and was evaluated using reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and cell viability. NDGA attenuates toxicity, ROS production and the oxidative stress-induced decrease of CD33 expression secondary to IAA or H(2)O(2) in human MNs. It was also shown that NDGA (20  μ M) attenuates cell death in the THP-1 cell line that is caused by treatment with either IAA or H(2)O(2). These results suggest that NDGA has a protective effect on CD33 expression, which is associated with its antioxidant activity in human MNs.

  8. Sodium phenylbutyrate decreases plasma branched-chain amino acids in patients with urea cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrage, Lindsay C; Jain, Mahim; Gandolfo, Laura; Lee, Brendan H; Nagamani, Sandesh C S

    2014-01-01

    Sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPBA) is a commonly used medication for the treatment of patients with urea cycle disorders (UCDs). Previous reports involving small numbers of patients with UCDs have shown that NaPBA treatment can result in lower plasma levels of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) but this has not been studied systematically. From a large cohort of patients (n=553) with UCDs enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of Urea Cycle Disorders, a collaborative multicenter study of the Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium, we evaluated whether treatment with NaPBA leads to a decrease in plasma BCAA levels. Our analysis shows that NaPBA use independently affects the plasma BCAA levels even after accounting for multiple confounding covariates. Moreover, NaPBA use increases the risk for BCAA deficiency. This effect of NaPBA seems specific to plasma BCAA levels, as levels of other essential amino acids are not altered by its use. Our study, in an unselected population of UCD subjects, is the largest to analyze the effects of NaPBA on BCAA metabolism and potentially has significant clinical implications. Our results indicate that plasma BCAA levels should to be monitored in patients treated with NaPBA since patients taking the medication are at increased risk for BCAA deficiency. On a broader scale, these findings could open avenues to explore NaPBA as a therapy in maple syrup urine disease and other common complex disorders with dysregulation of BCAA metabolism.

  9. A decrease in phytic acid content substantially affects the distribution of mineral elements within rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Iwai, Toru; Matsubara, Chie; Usui, Yuto; Okamura, Masaki; Yatou, Osamu; Terada, Yasuko; Aoki, Naohiro; Nishida, Sho; Yoshida, Kaoru T

    2015-09-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate; InsP6) is the storage compound of phosphorus and many mineral elements in seeds. To determine the role of InsP6 in the accumulation and distribution of mineral elements in seeds, we performed fine mappings of mineral elements through synchrotron-based X-ray microfluorescence analysis using developing seeds from two independent low phytic acid (lpa) mutants of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The reduced InsP6 in lpa seeds did not affect the translocation of mineral elements from vegetative organs into seeds, because the total amounts of phosphorus and the other mineral elements in lpa seeds were identical to those in the wild type (WT). However, the reduced InsP6 caused large changes in mineral localization within lpa seeds. Phosphorus and potassium in the aleurone layer of lpa greatly decreased and diffused into the endosperm. Zinc and copper, which were broadly distributed from the aleurone layer to the inner endosperm in the WT, were localized in the narrower space around the aleurone layer in lpa mutants. We also confirmed that similar distribution changes occurred in transgenic rice with the lpa phenotype. Using these results, we discussed the role of InsP6 in the dynamic accumulation and distribution patterns of mineral elements during seed development.

  10. Hyaluronic acid dermal fillers: can adjunctive lidocaine improve patient satisfaction without decreasing efficacy or duration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnelle Smith

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Lynnelle Smith1, Kimberly Cockerham21Ophthalmology Department, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA; 2Ophthalmology Department, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: Hyaluronic acid (HA dermal fillers are the most widely used injectables to augment facial volume without surgery. HA dermal fillers are popular because of their ease of administration, predictable effectiveness, good safety profile, and quick patient recovery. The most common patient complaint is pain. Our goal is to review the current literature on HA fillers and compare outcomes with and without lidocaine. We found adjunctive lidocaine significantly decreases pain during injection and postinjection with corresponding increased patient satisfaction. The efficacy and safety profile appears unchanged. Rare complications with HA fillers and those associated with constituents of the product, contaminants, and lidocaine are reviewed. The corrective effects of HA fillers are temporary; repeat treatment is required to maintain results. Minimizing pain is crucial to optimize patient satisfaction.Keywords: hyaluronic acid, lidocaine, drug toxicity, hypersensitivity, collagen, herpes simplex

  11. Arachidonic acid incorporation and turnover is decreased in sympathetically denervated rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Casey B; McHowat, Jane; Rosenberger, Thad A; Rapoport, Stanley I; Murphy, Eric J

    2005-06-01

    Heart sympathetic denervation can accompany Parkinson's disease, but the effect of this denervation on cardiac lipid-mediated signaling is unknown. To address this issue, rats were sympathetically denervated with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 50 mg/kg ip) and infused with 170 muCi/kg of either [1-(14)C]palmitic acid ([1-(14)C]16:0) or [1-(14)C]arachidonic acid ([1-(14)C]20:4 n-6), and kinetic parameters were assessed using a steady-state radiotracer model. Heart norepinephrine and epinephrine levels were decreased 82 and 85%, respectively, in denervated rats, and this correlated with a 34% reduction in weight gain in treated rats. Fatty acid tracer uptake was not significantly different between groups for either tracer, although the dilution coefficient lambda was increased in [1-(14)C]20:4 n-6-infused rats, which indicates that less 20:4 n-6 was recycled in denervated rats. In [1-(14)C]16:0-infused rats, incorporation rate and turnover values of 16:0 in stable lipid compartments were unchanged, which is indicative of preservation of beta-oxidation. In [1-(14)C]20:4 n-6-infused rats, there were dramatic reductions in incorporation rate (60-84%) and turnover value (56-85%) in denervated rats that were dependent upon the lipid compartment. In addition, phospholipase A(2) activity was reduced 40% in treated rats, which is consistent with the reduction observed in 20:4 n-6 turnover. These results demonstrate marked reductions in 20:4 n-6 incorporation rate and turnover in sympathetic denervated rats and thereby suggest an effect on lipid-mediated signal transduction mediated by a reduction in phospholipase A(2) activity.

  12. Ascorbic acid decreases morphine self-administration and withdrawal symptoms in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaei, H; Esmaeili, M; Nasimi, A; Pourshanazari, A

    2005-09-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the glutamatergic system is involved in the motivational aspects during the initiation of drug self-administration. Ascorbic acid (AA), an antioxidant vitamin, is released from glutamatergic neurons, and it modulates the synaptic action of dopamine and glutamate. In this study the AA effects on the self-administration of morphine and on the morphine withdrawal syndrome have been investigated. Wistar rats were allowed to self-administer morphine (1 mg/infusion) during 10 consecutive days for 2 h/session. The number of lever pressings was recorded. An intrapritoneal AA injection (500 mg/kg, i.p.), 30 min before morphine self-administration produced a significant decrease in the initiation of morphine self administration during all sessions. After the last test session morphine withdrawal symptom signs (MWS) were recorded after naloxone precipitation. Most of MWS (but not all) were decreased by AA application. In conclusion, AA may change the motivational processes underlying the morphine self-administration.

  13. Treatments of free fatty acids to prevent or decrease colour fixation in cottonseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy, H. E.

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Some treatments have been investigated to prevent or remove colour fixation of cottonseed oil containing high level of free fatty acids without using excess of sodium hydroxide in the refining step. The treatments included use of sodium carbonate and ethanolamine before and after subjecting a crude cottonseed oil containing excess of free fatty acid to a colour fixation treatment.
    The results revealed that the carbonate/ethanolamine treatment improved the oil colour by decreasing the free fatty acids and gossypol in the oil, without using any excess of sodium hydroxide.
    Carrying out the carbonate/ethanolamine treatment on cottonseed oil with high levels of free fatty acid before colour fixation takes place is more recommended than carrying out the same treatment on the same oil after it has been fixed.

    Se han investigado algunos tratamientos para prevenir o eliminar la fijación del color de aceite de semilla de algodón que contienen alto nivel de ácidos grasos libres, sin utilizar un exceso de hidróxido sódico en la etapa de refinación.
    Los tratamientos incluyeron el uso de carbonato sódico y etanolamina antes y después, sometiendo un aceite crudo de semilla de algodón que contiene exceso de ácidos grasos libres a tratamiento de fijación del color.
    Los resultados mostraron que el tratamiento carbonato/etanolamina mejoró el color del aceite por disminución de los ácidos grasos libres y gosipol en el aceite, sin utilizar un exceso de hidróxido sódico.
    Llevar a cabo el tratamiento con carbonato/etanolamina sobre aceite de semilla de algodón con niveles altos de ácidos grasos libres antes que tenga lugar la fijación del color es más recomendable que llevar a cabo el mismo tratamiento sobre el mismo aceite después de que se haya fijado.

  14. Evaluation of Chromogenic Reaction Ability of Hydrochloric Acid (Sulfuric Acid)-vanillin by the Colorimetry for Determining Tea Catechins Aggregates%茶叶儿茶素总量比色测定的盐酸(硫酸)香草醛显色反应能力评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单虹丽; 卿钰; 杜晓; 刘东娜

    2012-01-01

    Chromogenic reaction level of catechins from the green tea and the black tea with hydrochloric acid (sulfuric acid-vanillin)-vanillin was determined in this paper. By determining and comparing the reaction coefficient, accuracy and precision, the color reaction ability of catechins reacted with acid vanillin was evaluated. The results showed that the reaction system was sensitive to catechins with a high linear correlation(R2HA =0.9976 ±0.001 4, R2SA =0.9978 ±0.001 8). It was also seen that the chromogenic reaction coefficients from both systems were less than the Roberts coefficient (145.68) obtained from the empirical formula for calculating catechins aggregates. The recoveries from both system were more than 94.22 % and all the variation coefficient of precision were less than 0.08 %. This showed that both systems could determinate tea catechins aggregates. The chromogenic capability of tea catechins from different sources with acid-Vanillin was very different from each other (F = 37. 434 > F0.01(1,5) =6.61). This results showed that two kinds of reaction systems could objectively reflect tea catechins aggregates. However, both recoveries and variation coefficient from the empirical formula were instable and the total catechins aggregates was higher than the reality.%测定了茶叶儿茶素及绿茶、红茶中的儿茶素与盐酸(硫酸)-香草醛的显色反应水平,通过对反应系数、准确度、精密度测定和比较,评价了儿茶素与酸性香草醛的显色反应能力.结果表明:两种酸性体系对儿茶素反应灵敏,且呈高度线性相关(R2盐酸=0.9976±0.0014,R2硫酸=0.9978±0.0018);显色反应系数上,盐酸法为34.77±10.00(绿茶)、83.83±20.13(红茶);硫酸法为39.65±8.97(绿茶)、86.68±19.87(红茶),均低于茶叶儿茶素总量经验计算公式中Roberts系数(145.68).盐酸-香草醛显色反应体系的回收率为94.22%±3.33%(绿茶)、99.71%±1.39%(红茶),精密度的变异系数为0.08

  15. Keap1-knockdown decreases fasting-induced fatty liver via altered lipid metabolism and decreased fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialin Xu

    Full Text Available AIMS: The purpose of this study was to determine whether Nrf2 activation, via Keap1-knockdown (Keap1-KD, regulates lipid metabolism and mobilization induced by food deprivation (e.g. fasting. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 (WT and Keap1-KD mice were either fed ad libitum or food deprived for 24 hours. After fasting, WT mice exhibited a marked increase in hepatic lipid accumulation, but Keap1-KD mice had an attenuated increase of lipid accumulation, along with reduced expression of lipogenic genes (acetyl-coA carboxylase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and fatty acid synthase and reduced expression of genes related to fatty acid transport, such as fatty acid translocase/CD36 (CD36 and Fatty acid transport protein (FATP 2, which may attribute to the reduced induction of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar α signaling in the liver. Additionally, enhanced Nrf2 activity by Keap1-KD increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in liver. In white adipose tissue, enhanced Nrf2 activity did not change the lipolysis rate by fasting, but reduced expression of fatty acid transporters--CD36 and FATP1, via a PPARα-dependent mechanism, which impaired fatty acid transport from white adipose tissue to periphery circulation system, and resulted in increased white adipose tissue fatty acid content. Moreover, enhanced Nrf2 activity increased glucose tolerance and Akt phosphorylation levels upon insulin administration, suggesting Nrf2 signaling pathway plays a key role in regulating insulin signaling and enhanced insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. CONCLUSION: Enhanced Nrf2 activity via Keap1-KD decreased fasting-induced steatosis, pointing to an important function of Nrf2 on lipid metabolism under the condition of nutrient deprivation.

  16. EFFECT OF DECREASING DIETARY PROTEIN LEVELS WITH OPTIMAL AMINO ACIDS PROFILE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kamran, M. Aslam Mirza, Ahsan-ul-Haq1 and S. Mahmood1

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A six-week trial was conducted to study the effect of decreasing dietary crude protein (CP level on the performance of broilers in hot climatic conditions. Four experimental rations having CP 23 (control group, 22, 21 and 20%, with optimal amino acid balance were prepared. All the four rations were isocaloric having ME 3200 kcal/kg with Energy: Protein (E:P 139.0, 146.5, 152.4 and 160 in diets A, B, C and D respectively. One hundred and twenty day-old chicks were randomly distributed into 12 experimental units, each having 10 chicks. Rations were randomly allotted to experimental units such that each unit received three replicates. The experimental diets were fed to birds from day 1st to 42nd. Performance of birds was monitored in terms of weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio (FCR. At the end of experiment, two birds per each replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered to record the data on carcass yield, breast meat yield, abdominal fat and composition of breast meat. Results of the trial suggested that weight gain was significantly (P<0.01 increased in birds on diets with CP 20 and 21%. Feed consumption and FCR remained un-changed for all the treatment groups. Eviscerated carcass yield was significantly (P<0.05 higher for the group fed on diet with 20% CP. Breast meat yield, abdominal fat and composition of breast meat also remained un-changed. Economic evaluation of the trial revealed that decreasing CP levels from 23 to 20% resulted in reduced feed cost per kg of live weight gain, which clearly indicated that this approach was useful especially in severe summer conditions. The overall picture of the study suggests that dietary protein level of broilers could be reduced from 23 to 20%, with beneficial effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics and increased economic returns in hot environmental conditions, provided that levels of essential amino acids are closely looked after.

  17. Rice straw incorporated just before soil flooding increases acetic acid formation and decreases available nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldir Knoblauch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of rice straw into the soil just before flooding for water-seeded rice can immobilize mineral nitrogen (N and lead to the production of acetic acid harmful to the rice seedlings, which negatively affects grain yield. This study aimed to evaluate the formation of organic acids and variation in pH and to quantify the mineral N concentration in the soil as a function of different times of incorporation of rice straw or of ashes from burning the straw before flooding. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse using an Inceptisol (Typic Haplaquept soil. The treatments were as follows: control (no straw or ash; incorporation of ashes from previous straw burning; rice straw incorporated to drained soil 60 days before flooding; straw incorporated 30 days before flooding; straw incorporated 15 days before flooding and straw incorporated on the day of flooding. Experimental units were plastic buckets with 6.0 kg of soil. The buckets remained flooded throughout the trial period without rice plants. Soil samples were collected every seven days, beginning one day before flooding until the 13th week of flooding for determination of mineral N- ammonium (NH4+ and nitrate (NO3-. Soil solution pH and concentration of organic acids (acetic, propionic and butyric were determined. All NO3- there was before flooding was lost in approximately two weeks of flooding, in all treatments. There was sigmoidal behavior for NH4+ formation in all treatments, i.e., ammonium ion concentration began to rise shortly after soil flooding, slightly decreased and then went up again. On the 91st day of flooding, the NH4+ concentrations in soil was 56 mg kg-1 in the control treatment, 72 mg kg-1 for the 60-day treatment, 73 mg kg-1 for the 30-day treatment and 53 mg kg-1 for the ash incorporation treatment. These ammonium concentrations correspond to 84, 108, 110 and 80 kg ha-1 of N-NH4+, respectively. When the straw was incorporated on the day of flooding or 15 days

  18. Mucosal acid causes gastric mucosal microcirculatory disturbance in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funatsu, Toshiyuki; Chono, Koji; Hirata, Takuya; Keto, Yoshihiro; Kimoto, Aishi; Sasamata, Masao

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism by which nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) suppress gastric mucosal blood flow is not fully understood, although the depletion of mucosal prostaglandin E2 has been proposed as one possible explanation. We investigated the role of gastric acid on gastric mucosal blood flow in NSAID-treated rats. A rat stomach was mounted in an ex vivo chamber, and gastric mucosal blood flow was measured sequentially in a 5-mm2 area of the gastric corpus using a scanning laser Doppler perfusion image system. Results showed that diclofenac (5 mg/kg s.c.) and indomethacin (10 mg/kg s.c.) did not affect gastric mucosal blood flow, although both strongly decreased mucosal prostaglandin E2 when saline was instilled into the gastric chamber. On replacement of the saline in the chamber with 100 mM hydrochloric acid, these drugs caused a decrease in gastric mucosal blood flow levels within 30 min. The specific cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors celecoxib (50 mg/kg s.c.) and rofecoxib (25 mg/kg s.c.) did not affect mucosal prostaglandin E2 level, nor did they decrease gastric mucosal blood flow, even when hydrochloric acid was added to the chamber. Furthermore, measurement of vasoconstrictive factors present in the mucosa showed that endothelin-1 levels increased after administration of diclofenac s.c. in the presence of intragastric hydrochloric acid. This indicates that the presence of mucosal hydrochloric acid plays an important role in the NSAID-induced decrease in gastric mucosal blood flow, while the COX-1-derived basal prostaglandin E2, which is unlikely to control gastric mucosal blood flow itself, protects microcirculatory systems from mucosal hydrochloric acid.

  19. Retinoic acid reverses the PTU related decrease in neurogranin level in mice brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderlin, V; Vallortigara, J; Alfos, S; Féart, C; Pallet, V; Higueret, P

    2004-09-01

    Recent data have shown that fine regulation of retinoid mediated gene expression is fundamentally important for optimal brain functioning in aged mice. Nevertheless, alteration of the thyroid hormone signalling pathway may be a limiting factor, which impedes retinoic acid (RA) from exerting its modulating effect. Mild hypothyroidism is often described in the elderly. Thus, in the present study, it was of interest to determine if RA exerts its neurological modulating effect in mild hypothyroidism. To obtain further insight into this question, mice were submitted to a low propylthiouracyl (PTU) drink (0.05%) in order to slightly reduce the serum level of triiodothyronine (T3). A quantitative evaluation of RA nuclear receptors (RAR, RXR), T3 nuclear receptor (TR) and of neurogranin (RC3, a RA target gene which codes for a protein considered as a good marker of synaptic plasticity) in PTU treated mice injected with vehicle or RA or T3 was carried out. The PTU-related decrease in expression of RAR, RXR and RC3 was restored following RA or T3 administration, as observed in aged mice. The amount of TR mRNA, which was not affected in PTU treated mice, was increased only after T3 treatment as observed in overt hypothyroidism. These results suggest that neurobiological alterations observed in aged mice are probably related to RA and T3 signalling pathway modifications associated, in part, with mild changes in thyroid function.

  20. THE EFFECT OF MEDIUM ON ADSORPTION OF FREE ACID BY CROSSLINKED CHITOSAN RESIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANYufang; CHENBingren; 等

    2000-01-01

    The adsorption of free acid of low concentration by crosslinked chitosan resin was followed by electrochemical experimental technique.The effect of acid concentration and the media on adsorption was discussed.The experimental results show that both the apparent rate constant and the interaction energy between the adsorbent and adsorbate are decreased while the concentration of hydrochloric acid is increased.In the adsorption system.the adsorption was effected by addiiton of organic solvent.

  1. On-line Determination of Hydrochloric Acid in Process Effluent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Van Staden

    The results obtained with the proposed system were compared with the results obtained from ..... The null hypothesis which assumes that the quantities from two different ... 14 R.H. Taylor, J. Ruzicka and G.D. Christian, Talanta, 1992, 39, 285.

  2. Does folic acid use decrease the risk for spina bifida after in utero exposure to valproic acid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, J.; Bakker, M.K.; Nijenhuis, C.M.; Wilffert, B.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Women with child wish are advised to take folic acid supplements to reduce the risk for spina bifida. However, there is less evidence for this protective effect in women using valproic acid (VPA). We investigated the effect of folic acid in women exposed to VPA in the first trimester of preg

  3. Decrease of intracellular pH as possible mechanism of embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisse, Jochem; Bai, Yanqing; Verwei, Miriam; van de Sandt, Johannes J M; Blaauboer, Bas J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2010-06-01

    Embryotoxicity of glycol ethers is caused by their alkoxyacetic acid metabolites, but the mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of these acid metabolites is so far not known. The present study investigates a possible mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites using the methoxyacetic acid (MAA) metabolite of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether as the model compound. The results obtained demonstrate an MAA-induced decrease of the intracellular pH (pH(i)) of embryonic BALB/c-3T3 cells as well as of embryonic stem (ES)-D3 cells, at concentrations that affect ES-D3 cell differentiation. These results suggest a mechanism for MAA-mediated embryotoxicity similar to the mechanism of embryotoxicity of the drugs valproic acid and acetazolamide (ACZ), known to decrease the pH(i)in vivo, and therefore used as positive controls. The embryotoxic alkoxyacetic acid metabolites ethoxyacetic acid, butoxyacetic acid and phenoxyacetic acid also caused an intracellular acidification of BALB/c-3T3 cells at concentrations that are known to inhibit ES-D3 cell differentiation. Two other embryotoxic compounds, all-trans-retinoic acid and 5-fluorouracil, did not decrease the pH(i) of embryonic cells at concentrations that affect ES-D3 cell differentiation, pointing at a different mechanism of embryotoxicity of these compounds. MAA and ACZ induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of ES-D3 cell differentiation, which was enhanced by amiloride, an inhibitor of the Na(+)/H(+)-antiporter, corroborating an important role of the pH(i) in the embryotoxic mechanism of both compounds. Together, the results presented indicate that a decrease of the pH(i) may be the mechanism of embryotoxicity of the alkoxyacetic acid metabolites of the glycol ethers.

  4. Determination of aluminum in aluminum electrolyte by EDTA back titration with ethanol-cuprous chloride-ammonium chloride-hydrochloric acid complex solvent separation%乙醇-氯化亚铜-氯化铵-盐酸复合溶剂分离-EDTA返滴定法测定铝电解质中单质铝

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲秋梅; 任凤莲; 曹福悦

    2011-01-01

    新型低温铝电解质体系物相组成复杂,单质铝的分离测定尤为困难.本文采用高选择性复合溶剂乙醇-氯化亚铜-氯化铵-盐酸(ECAH)直接分离后测定铝电解质中单质铝,成功解决了单质铝与其它铝的化合物分离困难的问题,有效降低了铝电解质溶样时铝的氟化物的微溶效应带来的误差,为铝电解质中单质铝的物相分析提供了可靠的研究方案.采用经典ED-TA络合返滴定法测得铝电解质样品中单质铝含量,加标回收率在97%~103%之间,RSD(n=6)为1.1%和1.5%.测定结果和Al-CAS-OP-CPC四元络合光度法测定结果进行比对,结果一致.%It was particularly difficult to separate and determine aluminum in new low-temperature aluminum electrolyte system because of its complicated components. In this paper, aluminum in aluminum electrolyte was directly separated and determined using high-selectivity ethanol -cuprous chlorideammomum chloride-hydrochloric acid (ECAH) as complex solvent. This method successfully settled the problem of difficult separation of aluminum from aluminum compounds, effectively reduced the determination error introduced by slight soluble effect of fluoride of aluminum during the dissolution of aluminum electrolyte, and provided a reliable research method for the phase analysis of aluminum in aluminum electrolyte. Aluminum in aluminum electrolyte samples was determined by classic EDTA complexing back titration method. The standard addition recoveries were 97%-103 %, and the relative standard deviations (RSD, n=6) were 1. 1 % and 1. 5 %, respectively. The determination results were in good agreement with those obtained by Al-CAS-OP-CPC quaternary complex photometry.

  5. Quantification of Multi Elements in Geological Samples by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry with Pressurized Decomposition-Hydrochloric Acid Extraction%封闭压力酸溶-盐酸提取-电感耦合等离子体质谱法测定地质样品中的多元素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张保科; 温宏利; 王蕾; 马生凤; 巩爱华

    2011-01-01

    Rock, soil, sediments and other geological samples can be effectively decomposed by acid under high temperature and pressure, and be measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry ( ICP-MS ). The recoveries of most elements were satisfactory, except for the results of Zr, Hf, REEs, Rb, Th, and U. In this paper, the traditional pressurized acid digestion method has been improved as the sample was extracted by hydrochloric acid instead of nitric acid. 46 elements in the National Standard Materials of rock, soil and sediments can be accurately determined by this improved method. Sample weight was increased from 25 mg to 100m and digestion time was extended from 12 h to 48 h,which effectively resolved the problems including the representation of the samples and inadequate results for Rb, Sr, REEs and other elements dissolved by HN03. The results of many experiments showed that the 44 elements measured were consistent with standard values except for As and V elements, according to Cl interference in ICP-MS. Detection limits of the improved method were 0. 01 -0. 85 μg/g, with a precision RSD( n = 10 ) of 0. 73% -13. 1% and an accuracy RE( n = 10 )of less than 10%. The improved method is accurate, reliable and suitable for avariety of different types of geological samples.%高温、高压封闭压力酸溶可有效分解岩石、土壤、沉积物等地质样品,采用电感耦合等离子体质谱法(ICP-MS)进行测定,大部分元素可得到满意的回收率;但Zr、Hf、REEs、Rb、Th、U等元素用硝酸复溶困难,测定结果不准确.本文对传统的封闭压力酸溶方法进行改进,用盐酸复溶提取代替硝酸复溶提取,ICP-MS法测定岩石、土壤、沉积物等国家一级标准物质中Li、Be、Cr、Mn、Co、Ni、Cu、Zn、Ga、Rb、Sr、Mo、Cd、In、Cs、Ba、Ti、Zr、Nb、Sn、Sb、W、Hf、Ta、Tl、Pb、Bi、Th、U以及稀土元素(REEs)等46个元素.将原方法中的称样量25 mg加大至100 mg,溶样时间由12 h

  6. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Increase Survival and Decrease Bacterial Load in Mice Subjected to Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svahn, Sara L; Ulleryd, Marcus A; Grahnemo, Louise; Ståhlman, Marcus; Borén, Jan; Nilsson, Staffan; Jansson, John-Olov; Johansson, Maria E

    2016-04-01

    Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is increasing in incidence. With the alarming use of antibiotics,S. aureus is prone to become methicillin resistant. Antibiotics are the only widely used pharmacological treatment for sepsis. Interestingly, mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have better survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis than mice fed HFD rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD-S). To investigate what component of polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e., omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids, exerts beneficial effects on the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis, mice were fed HFD rich in omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids for 8 weeks prior to inoculation with S. aureus Further, mice fed HFD-S were treated with omega-3 fatty acid metabolites known as resolvins. Mice fed HFD rich in omega-3 fatty acids had increased survival and decreased bacterial loads compared to those for mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis. Furthermore, the bacterial load was decreased in resolvin-treated mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis compared with that in mice treated with vehicle. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids increase the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis by reversing the deleterious effect of HFD-S on mouse survival.

  7. INHIBITION OF BILE ACID ACCUMULATION DECREASED THE EXCESSIVE HEPATOCYTE APOPTOSIS AND IMPROVED THE LIVER SECRETION FUNCTIONS ON OBSTRUCTIVE JAUNDICE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Taher

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive hepatocyte apoptosis induced by bile acid accumulation occurred in severe obstructive jaundice, and impair the liver secretion function. The objective of this study is to determine whether the inhibition of bile acid accumulation through bile duct decompression affect the excessive hepatocyte apoptosis and caused improvement the liver secretion functions on human model. In this study we use a before and after study on severe obstructive jaundice patients due to extra hepatic bile duct tumor was decompressed. Bile duct decompression was performed as a model of the role of inhibition of bile acid accumulation inhibition bile acid accumulation and excessive hepatocyte apoptosis. Bile acid and marker of liver secretion functions were serially measured. Liver biopsy pre and post decompression was performed for Hepatocyte apoptosis pathologic examination by TUNEL fluorescing, which measured by 2 people in double blinded system. Total bile acid, and liver secretion functions were measured by automated chemistry analyzer. The result of this study shows that twenty one severe obstructive jaundice patients were included. After decompression the hepatocyte apoptosis index decreased from an average of 53.1 (SD 105 to 11.7 (SD 13.6 (p < 0.05. Average of bile acid serum decreased from 96.4 (SD 53.8 to 19.9 (SD 39.5 until 13.0 (SD 12.6 μmol/L (p < 0.05 Total ilirubin decreased from 20.0 (SD 8.9 to 13.3 (SD 5.0 until 6.2 (SD 4.0 mg/dL (p < 0.05, while the phosphates alkaline (ALP and γ-glutamil transpeptidase (γ-GT activities also decreased ignificantly. In conclusion, bile acids accumulation and excessive hepatocyte poptosis through bile duct decompression improve the liver secretion functions by inhibition mechanism.

  8. Oral branched-chain amino acids decrease whole-body proteolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Williams, B. D.; Stuart, C. A.; Lane, H. W.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study reports the effects of ingesting branched-chain amino acids (leucine, valine, and isoleucine) on protein metabolism in four men. METHODS: To calculate leg protein synthesis and breakdown, we used a new model that utilized the infusion of L-[ring-13C6]phenylalanine and the sampling of the leg arterial-venous difference and muscle biopsies. In addition, protein-bound enrichments provided for the direct calculation of muscle fractional synthetic rate. Four control subjects ingested an equivalent amount of essential amino acids (threonine, methionine, and histidine) to discern the effects of branched-chain amino acid nitrogen vs the effects of essential amino acid nitrogen. Each drink also included 50 g of carbohydrate. RESULTS: Consumption of the branched-chain and the essential amino acid solutions produced significant threefold and fourfold elevations in their respective arterial concentrations. Protein synthesis and breakdown were unaffected by branched-chain amino acids, but they increased by 43% (p < .05) and 36% (p < .03), respectively, in the group consuming the essential amino acids. However, net leg balance of phenylalanine was unchanged by either drink. Direct measurement of protein synthesis by tracer incorporation into muscle protein (fractional synthetic rate) revealed no changes within or between drinks. Whole-body phenylalanine flux was significantly suppressed by each solution but to a greater extent by the branched-chain amino acids (15% and 20%, respectively) (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that branched-chain amino acid ingestion suppresses whole-body proteolysis in tissues other than skeletal muscle in normal men.

  9. A decrease of the rabbit's physiologic IOP after the application of specific amino acids and double combination of antiglaucomatics mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, Z; Veselovsky, J

    2013-01-01

    To compare the effect of amino acids mixtures to a double combination of antiglaucomatics on the physiologic intraocular pressure (IOP) in rabbits. Experimental evaluations were performed on 5 female rabbits of the New Zealand White species. 1) After instillation of 10 % L-arginine. HCl in the double combination of antiglaucomatics: a) 0.5 % Timolol with 0.005 % Xalatan mixture, the biphasic IOP decrease was measured. The mean decrease in 24 hours was - 2.9 torr; b) 2 % Trusopt with 0.005 % Xalatane mixture in 24 hours, the biphasic decrease of the IOP was measured. The mean decrease in 24 hours was - 4.2 torr; c) Fixed combination COSOPT the mean IOP value decrease was - 1.8 torr. 2) The IOP decrease achieved during 24 hours by instillation of the amino acid 10 % L-taurine.HCl and the double combination of antiglaucomatics: 0.5% Timolol with 0.005% Xalatane mixture was in average - 2.8 torr. The pupilar diameter was not changed. We assume that after the interaction of the selected amino acids 10 % L-arginin or 10 % L-taurin with the double combination of antiglaucomatics (Trusopt and Xalatan, COSOPT or Timoptol and Xalatan) a new substance was formed. The effect of this substance is not separate or additive but acts as a newly formed substance. In vivo, it is only a weak interaction with the free amino acids of the conjunctival sac and the antiglaucomatics. The amino acids interacted in vitro with the double combination of antiglaucomatics resulting in a new "bio-antiglaucomatic" better penetrating into the target area. This new substance was responsible for a more significant decrease and regulation IOP after the mixture application compared to the antiglaucomatics alone (Fig. 1, Ref. 23).

  10. Biochemical and molecular characterization of a mutation that confers a decreased raffinosaccharide and phytic acid phenotype on soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitz, William D; Carlson, Thomas J; Kerr, Phil S; Sebastian, Scott A

    2002-02-01

    A single, recessive mutation in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.), which confers a seed phenotype of increased inorganic phosphate, decreased phytic acid, and a decrease in total raffinosaccharides, has been previously disclosed (S.A. Sebastian, P.S. Kerr, R.W. Pearlstein, W.D. Hitz [2000] Soy in Animal Nutrition, pp 56-74). The genetic lesion causing the multiple changes in seed phenotype is a single base change in the third base of the codon for what is amino acid residue 396 of the mature peptide encoding a seed-expressed myo-inositol 1-phospate synthase gene. The base change causes residue 396 to change from lysine to asparagine. That amino acid change decreases the specific activity of the seed-expressed myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase by about 90%. Radio tracer experiments indicate that the supply of myo-inositol to the reaction, which converts UDP-galactose and myo-inositol to galactinol is a controlling factor in the conversion of total carbohydrate into the raffinosaccharides in both wild-type and mutant lines. That same decrease in myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthetic capacity leads to a decreased capacity for the synthesis of myo-inositol hexaphosphate (phytic acid) and a concomitant increase in inorganic phosphate.

  11. Ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle and brown fat and decreases diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D Kunkel

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, ursolic acid increased Akt activity, as well as downstream mRNAs that promote glucose utilization (hexokinase-II, blood vessel recruitment (Vegfa and autocrine/paracrine IGF-I signaling (Igf1. As a result, ursolic acid increased skeletal muscle mass, fast and slow muscle fiber size, grip strength and exercise capacity. Interestingly, ursolic acid also increased brown fat, a tissue that shares developmental origins with skeletal muscle. Consistent with increased skeletal muscle and brown fat, ursolic acid increased energy expenditure, leading to reduced obesity, improved glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic steatosis. These data support a model in which ursolic acid reduces obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease by increasing skeletal muscle and brown fat, and suggest ursolic acid as a potential therapeutic approach for obesity and obesity-related illness.

  12. Ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle and brown fat and decreases diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Steven D; Elmore, Christopher J; Bongers, Kale S; Ebert, Scott M; Fox, Daniel K; Dyle, Michael C; Bullard, Steven A; Adams, Christopher M

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, ursolic acid increased Akt activity, as well as downstream mRNAs that promote glucose utilization (hexokinase-II), blood vessel recruitment (Vegfa) and autocrine/paracrine IGF-I signaling (Igf1). As a result, ursolic acid increased skeletal muscle mass, fast and slow muscle fiber size, grip strength and exercise capacity. Interestingly, ursolic acid also increased brown fat, a tissue that shares developmental origins with skeletal muscle. Consistent with increased skeletal muscle and brown fat, ursolic acid increased energy expenditure, leading to reduced obesity, improved glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic steatosis. These data support a model in which ursolic acid reduces obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease by increasing skeletal muscle and brown fat, and suggest ursolic acid as a potential therapeutic approach for obesity and obesity-related illness.

  13. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Kazutaka Sawada; Hiroshi Kitagaki

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked ...

  14. Decreased serum essential and aromatic amino acids in patients with chronic pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krystian; Adrych; Marian; Smoczynski; Magdalena; Stojek; Tomasz; Sledzinski; Ewa; Slominska; Elzbieta; Goyke; Ryszard; Tomasz; Smolenski; Julian; Swierczynski

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the influence of chronic pancreatitis(CP) on serum concentrations of amino acids.METHODS:Thirty-five male patients with alcoholic CP and 21 healthy male subjects were examined.Serum concentrations of amino acids were assayed by ionpair high-performance liquid chromatography with mass detection.RESULTS:Serum glutamate concentration was increased in CP patients as compared to controls.In contrast,serum concentrations of glutamine,histidine,tyrosine,proline,tryptophan and threonine were sign...

  15. Formulating gels for decreased mucociliary transport using rheologic properties: Polyacrylic acids

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Ankur J.; Donovan, Maureen D.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to identify the rheologic properties of polyacrylic acid gels necessary for optimal reductions in mucociliary clearance. The mucociliary transport of 2 bioadhesive polyacrylic acid polymers, polycarbophil and carbopol, was assessed in vitro by measuring their clerance rates across explants of ciliated bovine tracheal tissue. The viscoelastic properties of polymer gels were measured in the presence of mucus using controlled stress rheometry. Combinations of app...

  16. A specific protein-enriched enteral formula decreases cortisolemia and improves plasma albumin and amino acid concentrations in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez de la Cruz Antonio

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Old age is associated with an involuntary and progressive but physiological loss of muscle mass. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exclusive consumption for 6 months of a protein-enriched enteral diet with a relatively high content of branched-chain amino acids on albuminemia, cortisolemia, plasma amino acids, insulin resistance, and inflammation biomarkers in elderly patients. Methods Thirty-two patients from the Clinical Nutrition Outpatient Unit at our hospital exclusively consumed a protein-enriched enteral diet for 6 months. Data were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 months on anthropometric and biochemical parameters and on plasma concentrations of amino acids, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, urea, creatinine, insulin resistance, and inflammation biomarkers. Results The percentage of patients with albumin concentration below normal cut-off values decreased from 18% to 0% by the end of the study. At 6 months, concentrations of total plasma (p = 0.008 and essential amino acids (p = 0.011, especially branched-chain amino acids (p = 0.031, were higher versus baseline values, whereas 3-methylhistidine (p = 0.001, cortisol (p = 0.001 and adrenocorticotropic hormone (p = 0.004 levels were lower. Conclusions Regular intake of specific protein-enriched enteral formula increases plasma essential amino acids, especially branched-chain amino acids, and decreases cortisol and 3-methylhistidine, while plasma urea and creatinine remain unchanged.

  17. Decreased vitamin B12 and folic Acid concentrations in acne patients after isotretinoin therapy: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökalp, Hilal; Bulur, I; Gürer, Ma

    2014-11-01

    Oral isotretinoin treatment might influence the levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid. The aim of this study is to compare vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in patients with moderate and severe acne vulgaris with those of the healthy control group and to investigate the effect of isotretinoin treatment on these vitamins. Patients who completed 6 months of isotretinoin therapy for moderate and severe forms of acne vulgaris and a control group consisting of healthy individuals between February 2011 and March 2012 were included in the study. Before isotretinoin therapy and at 6.- months of the therapy, serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were measured. In the healthy control group, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were assessed only once. In total, 120 patients with moderate and severe acne vulgaris who completed 6 months isotretinoin therapy and 100 healthy individuals who constituted the control group were included in the study. Pre-treatment vitamin B12 values of the patient group were found to be statistically significantly higher (P = 0.002), but any statistically significant difference was not detected in folic acid measurements (P = 0.566). A statistically significant decrease was detected in post-treatment vitamin B12 and folic acid levels (P Vitamin B12/folic acid treatment should be given under medical surveillance before and during isotretinoin therapy. Supplementation of these vitamins should be recommended in cases of their deficiency, so as to decrease the risks of neuropsychiatric and occlusive vascular diseases.

  18. An increase in dietary n-3 fatty acids decreases a marker of bone resorption in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilpert Kirsten F

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human, animal, and in vitro research indicates a beneficial effect of appropriate amounts of omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA on bone health. This is the first controlled feeding study in humans to evaluate the effect of dietary plant-derived n-3 PUFA on bone turnover, assessed by serum concentrations of N-telopeptides (NTx and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP. Subjects (n = 23 consumed each diet for 6 weeks in a randomized, 3-period crossover design: 1 Average American Diet (AAD; [34% total fat, 13% saturated fatty acids (SFA, 13% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, 9% PUFA (7.7% LA, 0.8% ALA], 2 Linoleic Acid Diet (LA; [37% total fat, 9% SFA, 12% MUFA, 16% PUFA (12.6% LA, 3.6% ALA], and 3 α-Linolenic Acid Diet (ALA; [38% total fat, 8% SFA, 12% MUFA, 17% PUFA (10.5% LA, 6.5% ALA]. Walnuts and flaxseed oil were the predominant sources of ALA. NTx levels were significantly lower following the ALA diet (13.20 ± 1.21 nM BCE, relative to the AAD (15.59 ± 1.21 nM BCE (p

  19. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizas in decreasing aluminium phytotoxicity in acidic soils: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguel, Alex; Cumming, Jonathan R; Klugh-Stewart, Katrina; Cornejo, Pablo; Borie, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    Soil acidity is an impediment to agricultural production on a significant portion of arable land worldwide. Low productivity of these soils is mainly due to nutrient limitation and the presence of high levels of aluminium (Al), which causes deleterious effects on plant physiology and growth. In response to acidic soil stress, plants have evolved various mechanisms to tolerate high concentrations of Al in the soil solution. These strategies for Al detoxification include mechanisms that reduce the activity of Al3+ and its toxicity, either externally through exudation of Al-chelating compounds such as organic acids into the rhizosphere or internally through the accumulation of Al-organic acid complexes sequestered within plant cells. Additionally, root colonization by symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi increases plant resistance to acidity and phytotoxic levels of Al in the soil environment. In this review, the role of the AM symbiosis in increasing the Al resistance of plants in natural and agricultural ecosystems under phytotoxic conditions of Al is discussed. Mechanisms of Al resistance induced by AM fungi in host plants and variation in resistance among AM fungi that contribute to detoxifying Al in the rhizosphere environment are considered with respect to altering Al bioavailability.

  20. Lowered fasting chenodeoxycholic acid correlated with the decrease of fibroblast growth factor 19 in Chinese subjects with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Huating; Zhou, Hu; Fang, Li; Xu, Jingjing; Yan, Han; Chen, Shuqin; Song, Qianqian; Zhang, Yinan; Xu, Aimin; Fang, Qichen; Ye, Yang; Jia, Weiping

    2017-07-20

    The gut-derived hormone Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) could regulate glucose metabolism and is induced by bile acids (BAs) through activating Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR). FGF19 was found to decrease in subjects with isolated-impaired fasting glucose (I-IFG) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the reason for the change of FGF19 in subjects with different glucometabolic status remained unclear. Here we measured six BAs including chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, their glycine conjugates and FGF19 levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in normal glucose tolerance (NGT), isolated-impaired glucose tolerance, I-IFG, combined glucose intolerance (CGI) and T2DM subjects. After OGTT, serum FGF19 peaked at 120 min in all subjects. Glycine conjugated BAs peaked at 30 min, while free BAs did not elevated significantly. Consistent with the decrease trend in FGF19 levels, fasting serum CDCA levels in subjects with I-IFG, CGI and T2DM were significantly lower than NGT subjects (P decrease of FGF19 in subjects with I-IFG was at least partially due to their decrease of CDCA acting via FXR.

  1. The uptake transporter OATP8 expression decreases during multistep hepatocarcinogenesis: correlation with gadoxetic acid enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitao, Azusa; Matsui, Osamu; Yoneda, Norihide; Kozaka, Kazuto; Shinmura, Rieko; Koda, Wataru; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Gabata, Toshifumi [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Department of Radiology, Kanazawa (Japan); Zen, Yoh [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Human Pathology, Kanazawa (Japan); King' s College Hospital, Institute of Liver Studies, London (United Kingdom); Yamashita, Tatsuya; Kaneko, Shuichi [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Gastroenterology, Kanazawa (Japan); Nakanuma, Yasuni [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Human Pathology, Kanazawa (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    To clarify the changes in organic anion-transporting polypeptide 8 (OATP8) expression and enhancement ratio on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging in hepatocellular nodules during multistep hepatocarcinogenesis. In imaging analysis, we focused on 71 surgically resected hepatocellular carcinomas (well, moderately and poorly differentiated HCCs) and 1 dysplastic nodule (DN). We examined the enhancement ratio in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid enhanced MR imaging [(1/postcontrast T1 value-1/precontrast T1 value)/(1/precontrast T1 value)], then analysed the correlation among the enhancement ratio, tumour differentiation grade and intensity of immunohistochemical OATP8 expression. In pathological analysis, we focused on surgically resected 190 hepatocellular nodules: low-grade DNs, high-grade DNs, early HCCs, well-differentiated, moderately differentiated and poorly differentiated HCCs, including cases without gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging. We evaluated the correlation between the immunohistochemical OATP8 expression and the tumour differentiation grade. The enhancement ratio of HCCs decreased in accordance with the decline in tumour differentiation (P < 0.0001, R = 0.28) and with the decline of OATP8 expression (P < 0.0001, R = 0.81). The immunohistochemical OATP8 expression decreased from low-grade DNs to poorly differentiated HCCs (P < 0.0001, R = 0.15). The immunohistochemical expression of OATP8 significantly decreases during multistep hepatocarcinogenesis, which may explain the decrease in enhancement ratio on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging. (orig.)

  2. Decreased incidence of myelomeningocele at birth: effect of folic acid recommendations or prenatal diagnostics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Dorte; Thygesen, Mathias; Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In Denmark prevention to reduce Spina bifida birth rate has focused in two areas: Folic acid supplementation (1997) and changes in national ultrasonography screening programme (2004). Myelomeningocele (MMC) is the most severe malformation among Spina Bifida. Taken into consideration...... the potential negative effect of high dose folic acid consumption, we found a need to look into the effectiveness of these two strategies in our complete MMC population. Methods: All Spina Bifida patients born in the western part of Denmark are differentiated into proper subgroups based on MR-Imaging, giving us...

  3. Three Conazoles Increase Hepatic Microsomal Retinoic Acid Metabolism and Decrease Mouse Hepatic Retinoic Acid Levels In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conazoles are fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceuticals. In a previous toxicogenomic study of triazole-containing conazoles we found gene expression changes consistent with the alteration of the metabolism of all trans-retinoic acid (atRA), a vitamin A metabolite with...

  4. A folate-rich diet is as effective as folic acid from supplements in decreasing plasma homocysteine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintó, Xavier; Vilaseca, M Antonia; Balcells, Susana; Artuch, Rafael; Corbella, Emili; Meco, José F; Vila, Ramon; Pujol, Ramon; Grinberg, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Background & Aims: At least 500 mug of folic acid are required daily to treat hyperhomocysteinemia. To reach this amount by dietary changes alone may be difficult because food has a low folic acid content and bioavailability. No studies have compared the effects of similar amounts of additional folate derived from a combination of folate-rich and fortified foods or folic acid from supplements on plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations, which was the aim of this study. Methods: Twenty male patients with hyperhomocysteinemia and coronary artery disease were included in a randomized, crossover intervention trial. Patients were treated daily with a combination of foods containing approximately 500 mug of folate or with one 500 mug capsule of synthetic folic acid over two five-week periods separated by a five-week wash-out period. Results: Plasma folate increased markedly (pfoods decreased tHcy by 8.6% (95% CI: -15.9 to -1.2) and synthetic folic acid capsules by 8% (95% CI: -13.3 to -2.7). Conclusions: This study shows, for the first time in the literature, that a folate-rich diet is as effective as folic acid capsules in decreasing plasma tHcy concentrations and adds further support to the recommendation of those diets to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  5. Aspirin and salicylic acid decrease c-Myc expression in cancer cells: a potential role in chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Guoqiang; Dachineni, Rakesh; Muley, Pratik; Tummala, Hemachand; Bhat, G Jayarama

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a significant correlation between regular aspirin use and reduced colon cancer incidence and mortality; however, the pathways by which it exerts its anti-cancer effects are still not fully explored. We hypothesized that aspirin's anti-cancer effect may occur through downregulation of c-Myc gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that aspirin and its primary metabolite, salicylic acid, decrease the c-Myc protein levels in human HCT-116 colon and in few other cancer cell lines. In total cell lysates, both drugs decreased the levels of c-Myc in a concentration-dependent fashion. Greater inhibition was observed in the nucleus than the cytoplasm, and immunofluorescence studies confirmed these observations. Pretreatment of cells with lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor, partially prevented the downregulatory effect of both aspirin and salicylic acid, suggesting that 26S proteasomal pathway is involved. Both drugs failed to decrease exogenously expressed DDK-tagged c-Myc protein levels; however, under the same conditions, the endogenous c-Myc protein levels were downregulated. Northern blot analysis showed that both drugs caused a decrease in c-Myc mRNA levels in a concentration-dependent fashion. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that aspirin taken up by cells was rapidly metabolized to salicylic acid, suggesting that aspirin's inhibitory effect on c-Myc may occur through formation of salicylic acid. Our result suggests that salicylic acid regulates c-Myc level at both transcriptional and post-transcription levels. Inhibition of c-Myc may represent an important pathway by which aspirin exerts its anti-cancer effect and decrease the occurrence of cancer in epithelial tissues.

  6. Decreased Consumption of Branched-Chain Amino Acids Improves Metabolic Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Fontana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Protein-restricted (PR, high-carbohydrate diets improve metabolic health in rodents, yet the precise dietary components that are responsible for these effects have not been identified. Furthermore, the applicability of these studies to humans is unclear. Here, we demonstrate in a randomized controlled trial that a moderate PR diet also improves markers of metabolic health in humans. Intriguingly, we find that feeding mice a diet specifically reduced in branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs is sufficient to improve glucose tolerance and body composition equivalently to a PR diet via metabolically distinct pathways. Our results highlight a critical role for dietary quality at the level of amino acids in the maintenance of metabolic health and suggest that diets specifically reduced in BCAAs, or pharmacological interventions in this pathway, may offer a translatable way to achieve many of the metabolic benefits of a PR diet.

  7. Sodium Phenylbutyrate Decreases Plasma Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Patients with Urea Cycle Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Burrage, Lindsay C.; Jain, Mahim; Gandolfo, Laura; Lee, Brendan H.; Nagamani, Sandesh CS

    2014-01-01

    Sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPBA) is a commonly used medication for the treatment of patients with urea cycle disorders (UCDs). Previous reports involving small numbers of patients with UCDs have shown that NaPBA treatment can result in lower plasma levels of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) but this has not been studied systematically. From a large cohort of patients (n=553) with UCDs enrolled in Longitudinal Study of Urea Cycle Disorders, a collaborative multicenter study of the Urea Cycle...

  8. Can 5-aminosalicylic acid suppository decrease the pain after rectal band ligation?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Burcak Kayhan; Digdem Ozer; Meral Akdogan; Ersan Ozaslan; Osman Yuksel

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) suppositories on rectal band ligation-induced pain.METHODS: Sixty patients were randomized into two treatment groups.RESULTS: Our results showed that there was no difference between 5-ASA suppository group and the control group for pain control.CONCLUSION: 5-ASA may be an alternative treatment for hemorrhoids; however, it does not affect the rectal band ligation-induced pain.

  9. Purification of wet process phosphoric acid by decreasing iron and uranium using white silica sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bayaa, A.A., E-mail: amina.elbayaa@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls), Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Badawy, N.A.; Gamal, A.M.; Zidan, I.H.; Mowafy, A.R. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls), Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-06-15

    Natural white silica sand as an adsorbent has been developed to reduce the concentration of iron and uranium ions as inorganic impurities in crude Egyptian phosphoric acid. Several parameters such as adsorbate concentration, adsorbent dose, volume to weight ratio and temperature, were investigated. Equilibrium isotherm studies were used to evaluate the maximum sorption capacity of adsorbent. Thermodynamic parameters showed the exothermic nature of the process and the negative entropy reflects the affinity of the adsorbent material towards each metal ion.

  10. Hyaluronic acid dermal fillers: can adjunctive lidocaine improve patient satisfaction without decreasing efficacy or duration?

    OpenAIRE

    Lynnelle Smith; Kimberly Cockerham

    2011-01-01

    Lynnelle Smith1, Kimberly Cockerham21Ophthalmology Department, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA; 2Ophthalmology Department, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: Hyaluronic acid (HA) dermal fillers are the most widely used injectables to augment facial volume without surgery. HA dermal fillers are popular because of their ease of administration, predictable effectiveness, good safety profile, and quick patient recovery. The most common patient complaint is pain. Our goal ...

  11. Can 5-aminosalicylic acid suppository decrease the pain after rectal band ligation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayhan, Burcak; Ozer, Digdem; Akdogan, Meral; Ozaslan, Ersan; Yuksel, Osman

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) suppositories on rectal band ligation-induced pain. METHODS: Sixty patients were randomized into two treatment groups. RESULTS: Our results showed that there was no difference between 5-ASA suppository group and the control group for pain control. CONCLUSION: 5-ASA may be an alternative treatment for hemorrhoids; however, it does not affect the rectal band ligation-induced pain. PMID:18567081

  12. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Moriya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects.

  13. Silencer-of-Death Domain Mediates Acid-Induced Decrease in Cell Apoptosis in Barrett's Associated Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Hong, Jie; Cao, Weibiao

    2017-01-01

    We have shown that NADPH oxidase (NOX)5-S may mediate the acid-induced decrease in cell apoptosis. However, mechanisms of NOX5-S-dependent decrease in cell apoptosis are not fully understood. In this study, we found that silencer-of-death domain (SODD) was significantly increased in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) tissues, EA cell lines FLO and OE33, and a dysplastic cell line CP-B. Strong SODD immunostaining was significantly higher in low-grade dysplasia (66.7%), high-grade dysplasia (81.2%), and EA (71.2%) than in Barrett's mucosa (10.5%). Acid treatment significantly increased SODD protein and mRNA expression and promoter activity in FLO cells, an increase that was significantly decreased by the knockdown of NOX5-S and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)1 p50 with their small interfering RNAs. Similarly, acid-induced increase of SODD mRNA was blocked by knockdown of NOX5-S and p50 in a BE cell line CP-A. Overexpression of NOX5-S significantly increased SODD protein expression in FLO cells. Moreover, overexpression of NOX5-S or p50 significantly increased the SODD promoter activity and decreased the caspase 9 activity or apoptosis. NOX5-S overexpression-induced increase in SODD promoter activity was significantly decreased by knockdown of p50. In addition, acid treatment significantly decreased the caspase 9 activity, a decrease that was significantly inhibited by knockdown of SODD. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that NF-κB1 p50 bound to SODD genomic DNA containing a NF-κB-binding element GGGGACACCCT. This binding element was further confirmed by a gel mobility shift assay. We conclude that acid-induced increase in SODD expression and decrease in cell apoptosis may depend on the activation of NOX5-S and NF-κB1 p50 in FLO cells. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  14. Long-term recovery of lakes in the Adirondack region of New York to decreases in acidic deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Kristin; Driscoll, Charles; Lynch, Jason; Newcomb, Dani; Roy, Karen

    2012-01-01

    After years of adverse impacts to the acid-sensitive ecosystems of the eastern United States, the Acid Rain Program and Nitrogen Budget Program were developed to control sulfur dioxide (SO 2) and nitrogen oxide (NO x) emissions through market-based cap and trade systems. We used data from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program's National Trends Network (NTN) and the U.S. EPA Temporally Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME) program to evaluate the response of lake-watersheds in the Adirondack region of New York to changes in emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides resulting from the Acid Rain Program and the Nitrogen Budget Program. TIME is a long-term monitoring program designed to sample statistically selected subpopulations of lakes and streams across the eastern U.S. to quantify regional trends in surface water chemistry due to changes in atmospheric deposition. Decreases in wet sulfate deposition for the TIME lake-watersheds from 1991 to 2007 (-1.04 meq m -2-yr) generally corresponded with decreases in estimated lake sulfate flux (-1.46 ± 0.72 meq m -2-yr), suggesting declines in lake sulfate were largely driven by decreases in atmospheric deposition. Decreases in lake sulfate and to a lesser extent nitrate have generally coincided with increases in acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) resulting in shifts in lakes among ANC sensitivity classes. The percentage of acidic Adirondack lakes (ANC Budget Program. Two measures of ANC were considered in our analysis: ANC determined directly by Gran plot analysis (ANC G) and ANC calculated by major ion chemistry (ANC calc = CB - CA). While these two metrics should theoretically show similar responses, ANC calc (+2.03 μeq L -1-yr) increased at more than twice the rate as ANC G (+0.76 μeq L -1-yr). This discrepancy has important implications for assessments of lake recovery and appears to be due to compensatory increases in concentrations of naturally occurring organic acids coincident with decreases in

  15. Decreased vitamin B 12 and folic acid concentrations in acne patients after isotretinoin therapy: A controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Gökalp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral isotretinoin treatment might influence the levels of vitamin B 12 and folic acid. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare vitamin B 12 and folic acid levels in patients with moderate and severe acne vulgaris with those of the healthy control group and to investigate the effect of isotretinoin treatment on these vitamins. Materials and Methods: Patients who completed 6 months of isotretinoin therapy for moderate and severe forms of acne vulgaris and a control group consisting of healthy individuals between February 2011 and March 2012 were included in the study. Before isotretinoin therapy and at 6.- months of the therapy, serum vitamin B 12 and folic acid levels were measured. In the healthy control group, vitamin B 12 and folic acid levels were assessed only once. Results: In total, 120 patients with moderate and severe acne vulgaris who completed 6 months isotretinoin therapy and 100 healthy individuals who constituted the control group were included in the study. Pre-treatment vitamin B 12 values of the patient group were found to be statistically significantly higher (P = 0.002, but any statistically significant difference was not detected in folic acid measurements (P = 0.566. A statistically significant decrease was detected in post-treatment vitamin B 12 and folic acid levels (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Vitamin B 12 /folic acid treatment should be given under medical surveillance before and during isotretinoin therapy. Supplementation of these vitamins should be recommended in cases of their deficiency, so as to decrease the risks of neuropsychiatric and occlusive vascular diseases.

  16. [Survival of Vibrio parahaemolyticus serovar O3:K6 strains under acidic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Junko; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Nishina, Tokuhiro; Konuma, Hirotaka; Kumagai, Susumu

    2002-04-01

    The survival of Vibrio parahaemolyticus serovar O3:K6 strains and other serovars in the presence of acetic, citric and hydrochloric acids were studied. There were no differences in resistance to these acids between serovar O3:K6 and the other serovars. At pH 5.6, citric acid was more effective in reducing the number of viable cells of V. parahaemolyticus than acetic acid. However, at pH 4.5, acetic acid was more effective than citric acid. The number of viable cells decreased quickly in the presence of rice vinegar or wine vinegar at pH 4.0.

  17. Comparison of Intravenous Ranitidine with Pantoprazole in Decreasing Gastric Fluid Acidity in Emergency Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alipour M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Peri-operative aspiration of gastric contents is a problem that causes certain respiratory problems including ARDS. Prophylaxis against aspiration of gastric contents is performed routinely in elective surgeries, but there is rare evidence on the efficacy of this method in emergency cesarean section. Materials and Methods: This is a randomized, controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. 60 parturients undergoing emergency cesarean section were randomly assigned into three groups of 20 each. They were allocated into two study and one placebo groups. The study group one and two received intravenous ranitidine (IV 50 mg or IV pantoprazole 40 mg, half an hour before induction of GA, respectively. The placebo group was administered just 5 ml of isotonic saline half an hour before GA induction. After intubation and confirmation of endotracheal tube insertion, the gastric contents were aspirated through a nasogastric tube for evaluation of acidity and volume. Results: A statistical difference between group one and two with the control group was observed in the acidity of gastric contents, but there was no difference in volume. Also, the PH level of gastric contents in patients receiving pantoprazole was significantly higher than the isotonic saline (p

  18. Flufenamic acid decreases neuronal excitability through modulation of voltage-gated sodium channel gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Hau-Jie; Baranauskas, Gytis; Martina, Marco

    2010-10-15

    The electrophysiological phenotype of individual neurons critically depends on the biophysical properties of the voltage-gated channels they express. Differences in sodium channel gating are instrumental in determining the different firing phenotypes of pyramidal cells and interneurons; moreover, sodium channel modulation represents an important mechanism of action for many widely used CNS drugs. Flufenamic acid (FFA) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has been long used as a blocker of calcium-dependent cationic conductances. Here we show that FFA inhibits voltage-gated sodium currents in hippocampal pyramidal neurons; this effect is dose-dependent with IC(50) = 189 μm. We used whole-cell and nucleated patch recordings to investigate the mechanisms of FFA modulation of TTX-sensitive voltage-gated sodium current. Our data show that flufenamic acid slows down the inactivation process of the sodium current, while shifting the inactivation curve ~10 mV toward more hyperpolarized potentials. The recovery from inactivation is also affected in a voltage-dependent way, resulting in slower recovery at hyperpolarized potentials. Recordings from acute slices demonstrate that FFA reduces repetitive- and abolishes burst-firing in CA1 pyramidal neurons. A computational model based on our data was employed to better understand the mechanisms of FFA action. Simulation data support the idea that FFA acts via a novel mechanism by reducing the voltage dependence of the sodium channel fast inactivation rates. These effects of FFA suggest that it may be an effective anti-epileptic drug.

  19. [Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency: decrease in 4-OH-butyric acid levels with low doses of vigabatrin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera, G Iglesias; Ferrer, I; Marina, Ll Carrasco; Sala, P Ruiz; Salomons, G S; Jakobs, C; Pérez-Cerdá, C

    2010-02-01

    Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria) is a rare neurometabolic disease caused by a deficiency in gamma-aminobutyric degradation, resulting in an increase in gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in biological fluids. The clinical spectrum is heterogeneous, including a variety of neurological manifestations and psychiatric symptoms. The treatment usually used is vigabatrin, but its clinical efficacy is under discussion. We present two affected siblings. The older brother was examined when he was 2.5 years old due to psychomotor and developmental delay, disturbances in motor coordination, axial hypotonia and language disability. His younger brother had mild axial hypotonia when 5 months old. Metabolic studies demonstrated a high plasma and urine concentration of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. Mutation analysis of the gene ALDH5A1 confirmed the disease. After 1 year of treatment with low-doses of vigabatrin of the older patient, a decrease in gamma-hydroxybutyric acid plasma levels and a slow clinical improvement were observed.

  20. Decreases in Phospholipids Containing Adrenic and Arachidonic Acids Occur in the Human Hippocampus over the Adult Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Sarah E; Friedrich, Michael G; Mitchell, Todd W; Truscott, Roger J W; Else, Paul L

    2015-09-01

    One of the biggest risk factors for developing Alzheimer's disease is advanced age. Despite several studies examining changes to phospholipids in the hippocampus during the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, little is known regarding changes to phospholipids in this region during normal adult aging. This study examined the phospholipid composition of the mitochondrial and microsomal membranes of the human hippocampus from post-mortem tissue of neurologically normal subjects aged between 18 and 104 years. Many of the age-related changes found were in low-to-moderately abundant phospholipids in both membrane fractions, with decreases with age being seen in many phospholipids containing either adrenic or arachidonic acid. The most abundant phospholipid of this type was phosphatidylethanolamine 18:0_22:4, which decreased in both the mitochondrial and microsomal membranes by approximately 20% from ages 20 to 100. Subsequent decreases with age were seen in total adrenic and arachidonic acid in the phospholipids of both membrane fractions, but not in either fatty acid specifically within the phosphatidylethanolamine class. Increases with age were seen in the hippocampus for mitochondrial phosphatidylserine 18:0_22:6. This is the first report of changes to molecular phospholipids of the human hippocampus over the adult lifespan, with this study also providing a comprehensive profile of the phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine phospholipids of the human hippocampus.

  1. Maternal high fat diet is associated with decreased plasma n-3 fatty acids and fetal hepatic apoptosis in nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmon F Grant

    Full Text Available To begin to understand the contributions of maternal obesity and over-nutrition to human development and the early origins of obesity, we utilized a non-human primate model to investigate the effects of maternal high-fat feeding and obesity on breast milk, maternal and fetal plasma fatty acid composition and fetal hepatic development. While the high-fat diet (HFD contained equivalent levels of n-3 fatty acids (FA's and higher levels of n-6 FA's than the control diet (CTR, we found significant decreases in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and total n-3 FA's in HFD maternal and fetal plasma. Furthermore, the HFD fetal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio was elevated and was significantly correlated to the maternal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio and maternal hyperinsulinemia. Hepatic apoptosis was also increased in the HFD fetal liver. Switching HFD females to a CTR diet during a subsequent pregnancy normalized fetal DHA, n-3 FA's and fetal hepatic apoptosis to CTR levels. Breast milk from HFD dams contained lower levels of eicosopentanoic acid (EPA and DHA and lower levels of total protein than CTR breast milk. This study links chronic maternal consumption of a HFD with fetal hepatic apoptosis and suggests that a potentially pathological maternal fatty acid milieu is replicated in the developing fetal circulation in the nonhuman primate.

  2. Deletion of fabN in Enterococcus faecalis results in unsaturated fatty acid auxotrophy and decreased release of inflammatory cytokines.

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    Diederich, Ann-Kristin; Duda, Katarzyna A; Romero-Saavedra, Felipe; Engel, Regina; Holst, Otto; Huebner, Johannes

    2016-05-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalis can cause life-threatening infections and is resistant to several commonly used antibiotics. The type II fatty acid pathway in bacteria is discussed as a potential target for antimicrobial therapy. However, it was shown that inhibition or deletion of its enzymes can be rescued in Gram-positive bacteria by supplementation with fatty acids. Here we show that by deletion of the fabN gene, which is essential for unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) synthesis in E. faecalis, growth is impaired but can be rescued by supplementation with oleic acid or human serum. Nonetheless, we demonstrate alterations of the UFA profile after supplementation with oleic acid in the ΔfabN mutant using a specific glycolipid. In addition, we demonstrate that cytokine release in vitro is almost abolished after stimulation of mouse macrophages by the mutant in comparison to the wild type. The results indicate that fabN is not a suitable target for antimicrobials as UFA auxotrophy can be overcome. However, deletion of fabN resulted in a decreased inflammatory response indicating that fabN and resulting UFA synthesis are relevant for virulence.

  3. Determining and surveying the role of carnitine and folic acid to decrease fatigue in β-thalassemia minor subjects.

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    Tabei, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Mazloom, Maryam; Shahriari, Mahdi; Zareifar, Soheila; Azimi, Ali; Hadaegh, Amirhossein; Karimi, Mehran

    2013-11-01

    Beta-thalassemia minor (BTM) patients usually experience fatigue, bone pain complaint, and muscle weakness. Carnitine is an essential protein for transportation of long-chain fatty acids to the matrix for beta-oxidation. BTM patients have abnormally low plasma carnitine concentrations, which results in deficient ATP production. Carnitine and folic acid together may have a role in preventing bone pain complaint and fatigue in these patients. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of carnitine and folic acid supplementation in subjects with BTM. Seventy three BTM (mean age 11.06 ± 5.46 years) and 23 healthy controls (mean age 8.48 ± 3.78 years) were enrolled in the study. Fasting blood was drawn to determine baseline free and total carnitine levels, red blood cell folate concentration, and hemoglobin level. BTM were divided into three groups and received different types of supplementation for 3 months: Group 1, 50 mg/kg/day carnitine; Group 2, 50 mg/kg/day carnitine plus 1 mg/day folic acid; and Group 3, 1 mg/day folic acid. Controls did not receive supplementation. Laboratory parameters were again evaluated after 3 months' supplementation. A detailed quality of life questionnaire was designed to investigate muscle symptoms before and after supplementation. Free and total plasma carnitine concentration and hemoglobin levels in BTM subjects increased significantly after carnitine supplementation (P carnitine. Red blood cell folate level increased after folic acid supplementation. Carnitine and folic acid supplementation resulted in a decrease in bone pain complaint and muscle weakness in cases with β-thalassemia minor.

  4. Not all boronic acids with a five-membered cycle induce tremor, neuronal damage and decreased dopamine.

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    Pérez-Rodríguez, Maribel; García-Mendoza, Esperanza; Farfán-García, Eunice D; Das, Bhaskar C; Ciprés-Flores, Fabiola J; Trujillo-Ferrara, José G; Tamay-Cach, Feliciano; Soriano-Ursúa, Marvin A

    2017-06-06

    Several striatal toxins can be used to induce motor disruption. One example is MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine), whose toxicity is accepted as a murine model of parkinsonism. Recently, 3-Thienylboronic acid (3TB) was found to produce motor disruption and biased neuronal damage to basal ganglia in mice. The aim of this study was to examine the toxic effects of four boronic acids with a close structural relationship to 3TB (all having a five-membered cycle), as well as boric acid and 3TB. These boron-containing compounds were compared to MPTP regarding brain access, morphological disruption of the CNS, and behavioral manifestations of such disruption. Data was collected through acute toxicity evaluations, motor behavior tests, necropsies, determination of neuronal survival by immunohistochemistry, Raman spectroscopic analysis of brain tissue, and HPLC measurement of dopamine in substantia nigra and striatum tissue. Each compound showed a distinct profile for motor disruption. For example, motor activity was not disrupted by boric acid, but was decreased by two boronic acids (caused by a sedative effect). 3TB, 2-Thienyl and 2-furanyl boronic acid gave rise to shaking behavior. The various manifestations generated by these compounds can be linked, in part, to different levels of dopamine (measured by HPLC) and degrees of neuronal damage in the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Clearly, motor disruption is not induced by all boronic acids with a five-membered cycle as substituent. Possible explanations are given for the diverse chemico-morphological changes and degrees of disruption of the motor system, considering the role of boron and the structure-toxicity relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Oral folic acid supplementation decreases palate and/or lip cleft occurrence in Pug and Chihuahua puppies and elevates folic acid blood levels in pregnant bitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domosławska, A; Jurczak, A; Janowski, T

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of the occurrence of lip and/or palate cleft (CL/CP) in new-borns of two breeds, Pugs and Chihuahuas, and to measure the folic acid blood levels in bitches during gestations both with and without folic acid oral supplementation. Bitches of 13 Pugs and 17 Chihuahuas with CL/CP cases were used in the study. In trial 1, the animals of the experimental group (n=25) were given additional folic acid from the onset of heat till the 40th day of gestation. The females of the control group (n=12) were fed a traditional diet. From all the animals blood was collected at the onset of heat, 14 days later and on the 30th day of the gestation to estimate folic acid concentration. In trial 2, the prevalence of CP/CL cases in litters from pregnancies before and after supplementation was compared. The percentage of puppies with CL/CP after supplementation decreased in both Pugs and Chihuahua puppies (10.86% and 15.78% vs. 4.76% and 4.8% respectively). On Day 0, the concentrations of folic acid were at a low physiological level (around 8 ng/ml) in all the animals. In bitches of the experimental group the blood level of folic acid on day 14th and 30th of the treatment showed an increase in both breeds (13.65 +/- 4.27 ng/ml in Pugs, 10.79 +/- 2.84 ng/ml in Chihuahuas, and 14.94 +/- 3.22 ng/ml in Pugs, 12.95 +/- 3.58 in Chihuahuas, respectively) while in the control group, this level decreased with time of gestation both in Pugs and in Chihuahuas (around 6 ng/ml). Folic acid supplementation seems to be a simple, effective preventive method to reduce the risk of CL/CP, especially in the predisposed breeds.

  6. Chlorogenic acid decreases intestinal permeability and increases expression of intestinal tight junction proteins in weaned rats challenged with LPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Ruan

    Full Text Available Chlorogenic acid, a natural phenolic acid present in fruits and plants, provides beneficial effects for human health. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether chlorogenic acid (CHA could improve the intestinal barrier integrity for weaned rats with lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenge. Thirty-two weaned male Sprague Dawley rats (21 ± 1 d of age; 62.26 ± 2.73 g were selected and randomly allotted to four treatments, including weaned rat control, LPS-challenged and chlorogenic acid (CHA supplemented group (orally 20 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg body. Dietary supplementation with CHA decreased (P<0.05 the concentrations of urea and albumin in the serum, compared to the LPS-challenged group. The levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α were lower (P<0.05 in the jejunal and colon of weaned rats receiving CHA supplementation, in comparison with the control group. CHA supplementation increased (P<0.05 villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the jejunal and ileal mucosae under condictions of LPS challenge. CHA supplementation decreased (P<0.05 intestinal permeability, which was indicated by the ratio of lactulose to mannitol and serum DAO activity, when compared to weaned rats with LPS challenge. Immunohistochemical analysis of tight junction proteins revealed that ZO-1 and occludin protein abundances in the jejunum and colon were increased (P<0.05 by CHA supplementation. Additionally, results of immunoblot analysis revealed that the amount of occludin in the colon was also increased (P<0.05 in CHA-supplemented rats. In conclusion, CHA decreases intestinal permeability and increases intestinal expression of tight junction proteins in weaned rats challenged with LPS.

  7. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in diabetic rats by decreasing the excitability of DRG neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Li-Jun; Qi, Rui; Yang, Rui-Hua; Xu, Guo-Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disease in human beings with characteristic symptoms of hyperglycemia, chronic inflammation and insulin resistance. One of the most common complications of early-onset diabetes mellitus is peripheral diabetic neuropathy, which is manifested either by loss of nociception or by allodynia and hyperalgesia. Dietary fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been shown the potential of anti-inflammation and modulating neuron excitability. The present study investigated the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the excitability of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes rats. The effects of DHA on the allodynia and hyperalgesia of diabetic rats were also evaluated. Dietary DHA supplementation effectively attenuated both allodynia and hyperalgesia induced by STZ injection. DHA supplementation decreased the excitability of DRG neurons by decreasing the sodium currents and increasing potassium currents, which may contribute to the effect of alleviating allodynia and hyperalgesia in diabetic rats. The results suggested that DHA might be useful as an adjuvant therapy for the prevention and treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy.

  8. Effectiveness of anchovy substrate application on decreasing acid solubility of Sprague Dawley rats’ tooth enamel (in vivo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triputra, F.; Puspitawati, R.; Gunawan, H. A.

    2017-08-01

    Anchovies (Stolephorus insularis), a natural resource of Indonesia, contain fluoride in the form of CaF2 and can function as a fluoridation material to prevent dental caries. The aim of this study is to study the effectiveness of anchovy substrate, through food or topical application, in decreasing the acid solubility of tooth enamel. This research used 14 Sprague Dawley rats as subjects divided into the following 5 groups: baseline, experimental feeding, experimental smearing, and their negative controls. After 15 days of anchovy substrate application, lower incisors were extracted and the acid solubility of enamel was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using a stereo microscope and a Micro-Vickers Hardness Tester. Analysis of enamel surface destruction and enamel surface microscopic hardness shifting after a 60 sec application of H2PO4 (50% concentration) resulted in a decrease in acid solubility of enamel treated with anchovy substrate. This result can be seen with both the chewing and smearing method. S. insularis can be used as an alternative material for fluoridation.

  9. Consumption of pomegranate juice decreases blood lipid peroxidation and levels of arachidonic acid in women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojadinovic, Milica I; Arsic, Aleksandra C; Debeljak-Martacic, Jasmina D; Konic-Ristic, Aleksandra I; Kardum, Nevena Dj; Popovic, Tamara B; Glibetic, Marija D

    2017-04-01

    Pomegranate juice is a rich source of polyphenols and is thus a promising dietary antioxidant with numerous health-promoting effects. These include a beneficial impact on cardiovascular health that could be partly attributed to the effects of polyphenols on lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate whether consumption of pomegranate juice for 6 weeks could modify lipid peroxidation and phospholipid fatty acid composition of plasma and erythrocytes in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Twenty-three women, aged 40-60 years, were enrolled and randomly assigned into two groups: the intervention group, in which each participant consumed 300 mL of juice per day for 6 weeks; and a control group. A statistically significant decrease in the relative amount of arachidonic acid (P juice significantly increased the relative amount of total mono-unsaturated fatty acids (P juice on lipid peroxidation and fatty acid status in subjects with metabolic syndrome and suggest potential anti-inflammatory and cardio-protective effects. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Decreased body weight and hepatic steatosis with altered fatty acid ethanolamide metabolism in aged L-Fabp -/- mice.

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    Newberry, Elizabeth P; Kennedy, Susan M; Xie, Yan; Luo, Jianyang; Crooke, Rosanne M; Graham, Mark J; Fu, Jin; Piomelli, Daniele; Davidson, Nicholas O

    2012-04-01

    The tissue-specific sources and regulated production of physiological signals that modulate food intake are incompletely understood. Previous work showed that L-Fabp(-/-) mice are protected against obesity and hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet, findings at odds with an apparent obesity phenotype in a distinct line of aged L-Fabp(-/-) mice. Here we show that the lean phenotype in L-Fabp(-/-) mice is recapitulated in aged, chow-fed mice and correlates with alterations in hepatic, but not intestinal, fatty acid amide metabolism. L-Fabp(-/-) mice exhibited short-term changes in feeding behavior with decreased food intake, which was associated with reduced abundance of key signaling fatty acid ethanolamides, including oleoylethanolamide (OEA, an agonist of PPARα) and anandamide (AEA, an agonist of cannabinoid receptors), in the liver. These reductions were associated with increased expression and activity of hepatic fatty acid amide hydrolase-1, the enzyme that degrades both OEA and AEA. Moreover, L-Fabp(-/-) mice demonstrated attenuated responses to OEA administration, which was completely reversed with an enhanced response after administration of a nonhydrolyzable OEA analog. These findings demonstrate a role for L-Fabp in attenuating obesity and hepatic steatosis, and they suggest that hepatic fatty acid amide metabolism is altered in L-Fabp(-/-) mice.

  11. Rosiglitazone increases fatty acid Δ9-desaturation and decreases elongase activity index in human skeletal muscle in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Knut; Andres, Janin; Bobbert, Thomas; Assmann, Anke; Biedasek, Katrin; Diederich, Sven; Graham, Ian; Larson, Tony R; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Spranger, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    The ratio of unsaturated to saturated long-chain fatty acids (LC-FAs) in skeletal muscle has been associated with insulin resistance. Some animal data suggest a modulatory effect of peroxisome proliferator receptor γ (PPARγ) stimulation on stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) and LC-FA composition in skeletal muscle, but human data are rare. We here investigate whether treatment with a PPARγ agonist affects myocellular SCD1 expression and modulates the intramyocellular fatty acid profile in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. Muscle biopsies and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were performed in 7 men before and after 8 weeks of rosiglitazone treatment. Intramyocellular saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated intramuscular fatty acid profiles were measured by gas chromatography. Effects on SCD1 messenger RNA expression were analyzed in C2C12 cells and in human biopsies before and after rosiglitazone treatment. As expected, treatment with the PPARγ activator rosiglitazone improved insulin sensitivity in humans. Myocellular SCD1 messenger RNA expression was increased in human biopsies and C2C12 cells. Although the total content of myocellular LC-FA was unchanged, a relative shift from saturated LC-FAs to unsaturated LC-FAs was observed in human biopsies. Particularly, the amount of stearate was reduced, whereas the amounts of palmitoleate as well as oleate and vaccenate were increased, after rosiglitazone therapy. These changes resulted in an increased fatty acid Δ9-desaturation index (16:1/16:0 and 18:1/18:0) in skeletal muscle and a decreased elongase activity index (18:0/16:0). The PPARγ associated phenotypes may be partially explained by an increased Δ9-desaturation and a decreased elongase activity of skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Activation of Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) in Mice Results in Maintained Biliary Excretion of Bile Acids Despite a Marked Decrease of Bile Acids in Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickteig, Andrew J; Csanaky, Iván L; Pratt-Hyatt, Matthew; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2016-06-01

    Activation of Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) protects against bile acid (BA)-induced liver injury. This study was performed to determine the effect of CAR activation on bile flow, BA profile, as well as expression of BA synthesis and transport genes. Synthetic CAR ligand 1,4-bis-[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) was administered to mice for 4 days. BAs were quantified by UPLC-MS/MS (ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry). CAR activation decreases total BAs in livers of male (49%) and female mice (26%), largely attributable to decreases of the 12α-hydroxylated BA taurocholic acid (T-CA) (males (M) 65%, females (F) 45%). Bile flow in both sexes was increased by CAR activation, and the increases were BA-independent. CAR activation did not alter biliary excretion of total BAs, but overall BA composition changed. Excretion of muricholic (6-hydroxylated) BAs was increased in males (101%), and the 12α-OH proportion of biliary BAs was decreased in both males (37%) and females (28%). The decrease of T-CA in livers of males and females correlates with the decreased mRNA of the sterol 12α-hydroxylase Cyp8b1 in males (71%) and females (54%). As a response to restore BAs to physiologic concentrations in liver, mRNA of Cyp7a1 is upregulated following TCPOBOP (males 185%, females 132%). In ilea, mRNA of the negative feedback regulator Fgf15 was unaltered by CAR activation, indicating biliary BA excretion was sufficient to maintain concentrations of total BAs in the small intestine. In summary, the effects of CAR activation on BAs in male and female mice are quite similar, with a marked decrease in the major BA T-CA in the liver.

  13. The corrosion behaviour of WC-VC-Co hardmetals in acidic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konadu, D.S.; Merwe, J. van der [DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, P.O. Private Bag 3, WITS 2050 (South Africa); Potgieter, J.H. [School of Biology, Chemistry and Health Sciences, Division of Chemistry and Materials, Manchester Metropolitan University, Oxford Road, Manchester M 1 5GD (United Kingdom); Potgieter-Vermaak, S. [School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, P.O. Private Bag 3, WITS 2050 (South Africa); Machio, C.N., E-mail: cmachio@csir.co.z [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Materials Science and Manufacturing, P.O. Box 395, PRETORIA 0001 (South Africa)

    2010-09-15

    The effect of increasing vanadium carbide (VC) content on the corrosion behaviour of tungsten carbide - 10 wt% cobalt hardmetals was investigated in 1 M hydrochloric (HCl), and sulphuric (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) acids solutions. Increasing VC content makes the open circuit potential (OCP) in the test solutions more negative than the base alloy. Specimens exhibited pseudo passivation in all the test solutions. Increasing VC led to decreasing corrosion current density. However, the corrosion current densities during chronoamperometric tests were lower for 0 wt% VC. XRD and Raman spectroscopy showed that hydrated WO{sub 3} formed in the surface films of all specimens in hydrochloric acid (HCl), while hydrated vanadyl sulphate also formed for higher VC content specimens in sulphuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}).

  14. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids increase intramuscular fat deposition and decrease subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haibo; Dong, Xianwen; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhou, Aiming; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Xue, Bai; Wang, Lizhi

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on intramuscular and subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle. The experiment was conducted for 60 days. The results showed that the average backfat thickness, (testicles + kidney + pelvic) fat percentage and subcutaneous fat percentage in dietary CLA were significantly lower than in the control group, while intramuscular the fat percentage was significantly higher. Compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle enzyme activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) in dietary CLA and the subcutaneous fat enzyme activities of LPL, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) were significantly increased. Similarly, compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), FAS, stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), ACC, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), heart fatty-acid binding protein (H-FABP) and LPL gene expression in dietary CLA were significant increased, as were the subcutaneous fat of PPARγ, H-FABP, LPL, CPT-1 and HSL in dietary CLA. These results indicated that dietary CLA increases IMF deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipogenic gene expression, while decreasing subcutaneous fat deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipolytic gene expression.

  15. Effects of organic acids on thermal inactivation of acid and cold stressed Enterococcus faecium.

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    Fernández, Ana; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; López, Mercedes; Bernardo, Ana

    2009-08-01

    In this study the adaptative response to heat (70 degrees C) of Enterococcus faecium using fresh and refrigerated (at 4 degrees C for up to 1 month) stationary phase cells grown in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) buffered at pH 7.4 (non-acid-adapted cells) and acidified BHI at pH values of 6.4 and 5.4 with acetic, ascorbic, citric, lactic, malic and hydrochloric acids (acid-adapted cells) was evaluated. In all cases, the survival curves obtained were concave upward. A mathematical model based on the Weibull distribution accurately described the inactivation kinetic. The results indicate that previous adaptation to a low pH increased the bacterial heat resistance, whereas the subsequent cold storage of cells reduced E. faecium thermal tolerance. Fresh acid-adapted cells showed t(2.5)-values (time needed to obtain an inactivation level of 2.5 log10 cycles) ranging from 2.57 to 9.51 min, while non-acid-adapted cells showed t(2.5)-values of 1.92 min. The extent of increased heat tolerance varied with the acid examined, resulting in the following order: citric > or = acetic > malic > or = lactic > hydrochloric > or = ascorbic. In contrast, cold storage progressively decreased E. faecium thermal resistance. The t(2.5) values found at the end of the period studied were about 2-3-fold lower than those corresponding to non-refrigerated cells, although this decrease was more marked (about 5-fold) when cells were grown in buffered BHI and BHI acidified at pH 5.4 with hydrochloric acid. These findings highlight the need for a better understanding of microbial response to various preservation stresses in order to increase the efficiency of thermal processes and to indicate the convenience of counterbalancing the benefits of the hurdle concept.

  16. Presumed case of "stiff-horse syndrome" caused by decreased gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production in an American Paint mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Tawna Backman; Sellers, Ann Davidson; Goehring, Lutz S

    2012-01-01

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) converts glutamic acid into the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Increased serum GAD (auto) antibody concentrations were found in a mare with increased postural musculature tone resulting in stiffness and recumbence. The mare was treated with dexamethasone which resulted in resolution of clinical signs and decreased GAD antibody concentrations.

  17. Presumed case of “stiff–horse syndrome” caused by decreased gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production in an American Paint mare

    OpenAIRE

    Purcell, Tawna Backman; Sellers, Ann Davidson; Goehring, Lutz S

    2012-01-01

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) converts glutamic acid into the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Increased serum GAD (auto) antibody concentrations were found in a mare with increased postural musculature tone resulting in stiffness and recumbence. The mare was treated with dexamethasone which resulted in resolution of clinical signs and decreased GAD antibody concentrations.

  18. Hippocampal interneurons expressing glutamic acid decarboxylase and calcium-binding proteins decrease with aging in Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, A K; Turner, D A

    1998-05-04

    Aging leads to alterations in the function and plasticity of hippocampal circuitry in addition to behavioral changes. To identify critical alterations in the substrate for inhibitory circuitry as a function of aging, we evaluated the numbers of hippocampal interneurons that were positive for glutamic acid decarboxylase and those that expressed calcium-binding proteins (parvalbumin, calbindin, and calretinin) in young adult (4-5 months old) and aged (23-25 months old) male Fischer 344 rats. Both the overall interneuron population and specific subpopulations of interneurons demonstrated a commensurate decline in numbers throughout the hippocampus with aging. Interneurons positive for glutamic acid decarboxylase were significantly depleted in the stratum radiatum of CA1, the strata oriens, radiatum and pyramidale of CA3, the dentate molecular layer, and the dentate hilus. Parvalbumin interneurons showed significant reductions in the strata oriens and pyramidale of CA1, the stratum pyramidale of CA3, and the dentate hilus. The reductions in calbindin interneurons were more pronounced than other calcium-binding protein-positive interneurons and were highly significant in the strata oriens and radiatum of both CA1 and CA3 subfields and in the dentate hilus. Calretinin interneurons were decreased significantly in the strata oriens and radiatum of CA3, in the dentate granule cell and molecular layers, and in the dentate hilus. However, the relative ratio of parvalbumin-, calbindin-, and calretinin-positive interneurons compared with glutamic acid decarboxylase-positive interneurons remained constant with aging, suggesting actual loss of interneurons expressing calcium-binding proteins with age. This loss contrasts with the reported preservation of pyramidal neurons with aging in the hippocampus. Functional decreases in inhibitory drive throughout the hippocampus may occur due to this loss, particularly alterations in the processing of feed-forward information through the

  19. Docosahexaenoic acid decreases pro-inflammatory mediators in an in vitro murine adipocyte macrophage co-culture model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A De Boer

    Full Text Available Paracrine interactions between adipocytes and macrophages contribute to chronic inflammation in obese adipose tissue. Dietary strategies to mitigate such inflammation include long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic (DHA and eicosapentaenoic (EPA acids, which act through PPARγ-dependent and independent pathways. We utilized an in vitro co-culture model designed to mimic the ratio of macrophages:adipocytes in obese adipose tissue, whereby murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured with RAW 264.7 macrophages in direct contact, or separated by a trans-well membrane (contact-independent mechanism, with 125 µM of albumin-complexed DHA, EPA, palmitic acid (PA, or albumin alone (control. Thus, we studied the effect of physical cell contact versus the presence of soluble factors, with or without a PPARγ antagonist (T0070907 in order to elucidate putative mechanisms. After 12 hr, DHA was the most anti-inflammatory, decreasing MCP1 and IL-6 secretion in the contact system (-57%, -63%, respectively, p ≤ 0.05 with similar effects in the trans-well system. The trans-well system allowed for isolation of cell types for inflammatory mediator analysis. DHA decreased mRNA expression (p<0.05 of Mcp1 (-7.1 fold and increased expression of the negative regulator, Mcp1-IP (+1.5 fold. In macrophages, DHA decreased mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory M1 polarization markers (p ≤ 0.05, Nos2 (iNOS; -7 fold, Tnfα (-4.2 fold and Nfκb (-2.3 fold, while increasing anti-inflammatory Tgfβ1 (+1.7 fold. Interestingly, the PPARγ antagonist co-administered with DHA or EPA in co-culture reduced (p ≤ 0.05 adiponectin cellular protein, without modulating other cytokines (protein or mRNA. Overall, our findings suggest that DHA may lessen the degree of MCP1 and IL-6 secreted from adipocytes, and may reduce the degree of M1 polarization of macrophages recruited to adipose tissue, thereby decreasing the intensity of pro-inflammatory cross-talk between adipocytes

  20. Effects of organic and inorganic acids on phosphorus release from municipal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdil, N B; Filibeli, A

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of inorganic acids (sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid) and organic acids (citric acid, oxalic acids) for phosphorus recovery from sludge and struvite precipitation results. It was observed that both inorganic acid and organic acids were effective at phosphorus release. The studies on precipitation of released phosphorus from sludge as magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) were also done using nitric and oxalic acids. Phosphorus and heavy metals of leachate were analyzed before and after precipitation. It was observed that heavy metal concentrations in the extracted samples decrease after precipitation. Precipitation was accomplished by using extract derived with nitric acid; however, in oxalic acid applications, it was not achieved. When the chemical constituents of the dried material were examined oxygen, sodium and nitrogen were found to be the major elements.

  1. Experimental study on interaction between simulated sandstone and acidic fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yongwang; Zeng Jianhu; Yu Bingsong

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the controlling mechanism of temperature, fluid and other factors on water-rock interaction in the diagenetic process, we performed a series of simulated experiments on the interaction between two kinds of fluids with different salinity and a composite mineral system (simulated sandstone), which contains albite, K-feldspar and other minerals. The experimental results showed that acidity was the most important factor that affected the dissolution of minerals in the composite mineral system. The lower the pH value, the more easily the minerals dissolved. At the same pH value, the dissolution abilities of different acids for various mineral components were also different. Compared to hydrochloric acid (inorganic acid), oxalic acid (organic acid) was more able to dissolve aluminosilicate minerals. However, the dissolution ability of oxalic acid for carbonate minerals was lower than that of hydrochloric acid. In the process of fluid-rock interaction,dissolution of feldspar was relatively complicated. Increase of temperature would accelerate the dissolution of feldspar. Under acidic conditions, albite had a higher dissolution rate than K-feldspar. K-feldspar could dissolve and convert into montmorillonite and kaolinite, while albite could dissolve and convert into kaolinite both at 40℃ and 80℃. Presence of organic acid, and decrease of pH value and water salinity were all favorable for the dissolution of feldspar, but weakened the ability to form clay minerals.

  2. Decreased bile-acid synthesis in livers of hepatocyte-conditional NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase-null mice results in increased bile acids in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xingguo; Zhang, Youcai; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2014-10-01

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (Cpr) is essential for the function of microsomal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450), including those P450s involved in bile acid (BA) synthesis. Mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (H-Cpr-null) have been engineered to understand the in vivo function of hepatic P450s in the metabolism of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. However, the impact of hepatic Cpr on BA homeostasis is not clear. The present study revealed that H-Cpr-null mice had a 60% decrease in total BA concentration in liver, whereas the total BA concentration in serum was almost doubled. The decreased level of cholic acid (CA) in both serum and livers of H-Cpr-null mice is likely due to diminished enzyme activity of Cyp8b1 that is essential for CA biosynthesis. Feedback mechanisms responsible for the reduced liver BA concentrations and/or increased serum BA concentrations in H-Cpr-null mice included the following: 1) enhanced alternative BA synthesis pathway, as evidenced by the fact that classic BA synthesis is diminished but chenodeoxycholic acid still increases in both serum and livers of H-Cpr-null mice; 2) inhibition of farnesoid X receptor activation, which increased the mRNA of Cyp7a1 and 8b1; 3) induction of intestinal BA transporters to facilitate BA absorption from the intestine to the circulation; 4) induction of hepatic multidrug resistance-associated protein transporters to increase BA efflux from the liver to blood; and 5) increased generation of secondary BAs. In summary, the present study reveals an important contribution of the alternative BA synthesis pathway and BA transporters in regulating BA concentrations in H-Cpr-null mice.

  3. Fatty acid desaturase 1 knockout mice are lean with improved glycemic control and decreased development of atheromatous plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powell DR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available David R Powell, Jason P Gay, Melinda Smith, Nathaniel Wilganowski, Angela Harris, Autumn Holland, Maricela Reyes, Laura Kirkham, Laura L Kirkpatrick, Brian Zambrowicz, Gwenn Hansen, Kenneth A Platt, Isaac van Sligtenhorst, Zhi-Ming Ding, Urvi Desai Metabolism Research, Lexicon Pharmaceuticals, Inc., The Woodlands, TX, USA Abstract: Delta-5 desaturase (D5D and delta-6 desaturase (D6D, encoded by fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1 and FADS2 genes, respectively, are enzymes in the synthetic pathways for w3, w6, and w9 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Although PUFAs appear to be involved in mammalian metabolic pathways, the physiologic effect of isolated D5D deficiency on these pathways is unclear. After generating >4,650 knockouts (KOs of independent mouse genes and analyzing them in our high-throughput phenotypic screen, we found that Fads1 KO mice were among the leanest of 3,651 chow-fed KO lines analyzed for body composition and were among the most glucose tolerant of 2,489 high-fat-diet-fed KO lines analyzed by oral glucose tolerance test. In confirmatory studies, chow- or high-fat-diet-fed Fads1 KO mice were leaner than wild-type (WT littermates; when data from multiple cohorts of adult mice were combined, body fat was 38% and 31% lower in Fads1 male and female KO mice, respectively. Fads1 KO mice also had lower glucose and insulin excursions during oral glucose tolerance tests along with lower fasting glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels. In additional studies using a vascular injury model, Fads1 KO mice had significantly decreased femoral artery intima/media ratios consistent with a decreased inflammatory response in their arterial wall. Based on this result, we bred Fads1 KO and WT mice onto an ApoE KO background and fed them a Western diet for 14 weeks; in this atherogenic environment, aortic trees of Fads1 KO mice had 40% less atheromatous plaque compared to WT littermates. Importantly, PUFA levels

  4. The Decrease of n-3 Fatty Acid Energy Percentage in an Equicaloric Diet Fed to B6C3Fe Mice for Three Generations Elicits Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Hanbauer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding mice, over 3 generations, an equicaloric diet in which α-linolenic acid, the dietary precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, was substituted by linoleic acid, the dietary precursor of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, significantly increased body weight throughout life when compared with standard diet-fed mice. Adipogenesis observed in the low n-3 fatty acid mice was accompanied by a 6-fold upregulation of stearyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1, whose activity is correlated to plasma triglyceride levels. In total liver lipid and phospholipid extracts, the sum of n-3 fatty acids and the individual longer carbon chain acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3, docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n3, and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3 were significantly decreased whereas arachidonic acid (20:4n6 was significantly increased. In addition, low n-3 fatty acid-fed mice had liver steatosis, heart, and kidney hypertrophy. Hence, reducing dietary α-linolenic acid, from 1.02 energy% to 0.16 energy% combined with raising linoleic acid intake resulted in obesity and had detrimental consequences on organ function.

  5. Effect of Morinda Tinctoria Leaves Extract on the Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Acid Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Krishnaveni; J.Ravichandran; A.Selvaraj

    2013-01-01

    The Morinda tinctoria (MT) plant leaves extract was prepared in aqueous and hydrochloric acid media and was used as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in hydrochloric acid medium.MT is found to be an efficient inhibitor at room temperature and the efficiency decreases with increase in temperature.Results from colorimetric studies predict the amount of iron present in the test solution and the percentage inhibition efficiency values calculated from this data fit well with the weight loss experiments.The AC impedance studies reveal that the mild steel surface is positively charged and the process of inhibition is through charge transfer.Polarisation studies indicate the mixed nature of the inhibitor.Thermodynamic parameters obtained predict that the process of inhibition is a spontaneous one.

  6. Increased Dietary Intake of Saturated Fatty Acid Heptadecanoic Acid (C17:0) Associated with Decreasing Ferritin and Alleviated Metabolic Syndrome in Dolphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Parry, Celeste; Baird, Mark; Stevenson, Sacha; Carlin, Kevin; Daniels, Risa; Smith, Cynthia R; Jones, Richard; Wells, Randall S; Ridgway, Sam; Jensen, Eric D

    2015-01-01

    Similar to humans, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can develop metabolic syndrome and associated high ferritin. While fish and fish-based fatty acids may protect against metabolic syndrome in humans, findings have been inconsistent. To assess potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome related to fish diets, fatty acids were compared between two dolphin populations with higher (n = 30, Group A) and lower (n = 19, Group B) mean insulin (11 ± 12 and 2 ± 5 μIU/ml, respectively; P dolphins. Capelin, a common dietary fish for Group A, had no detectable C17:0, while pinfish and mullet, common in Group B's diet, had C17:0 (41 and 67 mg/100g, respectively). When a modified diet adding 25% pinfish and/or mullet was fed to six Group A dolphins over 24 weeks (increasing the average daily dietary C17:0 intake from 400 to 1700 mg), C17:0 serum levels increased, high ferritin decreased, and blood-based metabolic syndrome indices normalized toward reference levels. These effects were not found in four reference dolphins. Further, higher total serum C17:0 was an independent and linear predictor of lower ferritin in dolphins in Group B dolphins. Among off the shelf dairy products tested, butter had the highest C17:0 (423mg/100g); nonfat dairy products had no detectable C17:0. We hypothesize that humans' movement away from diets with potentially beneficial saturated fatty acid C17:0, including whole fat dairy products, could be a contributor to widespread low C17:0 levels, higher ferritin, and metabolic syndrome.

  7. Removal of Chloroform from Hydrochloride Acid Solution Using Fine Powder of Polymer as Adsorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU,Yingzhou; QUE,Yong; LI,Chunxi; MENG,Hong; WANG,Zihao

    2009-01-01

    In order to choose a suitable adsorbent for the removal of chloroform from its hydrochloric acid solution,the adsorptive ability of some polymer adsorbents was investigated in terms of their adsorption curves in water and 20% hydrochloric acid solutions at 298.15 K,and compared with that of active carbon (AC) and solid paraffin (SP).The adsorbents studied include the fine powders of chlorinated rubber (CR),polypropylene (PP),chlorinated polypropylene (CPP) and polyvinylchloride (PVC).The results showed that the adsorption behavior followed the Langmuir equation and the adsorption ability of these adsorbents followed the order AC > PVC > CR > PP > CPP> SP.This order is basically in line with the decrease of chloro-content of the adsorbents from PVC to SP.The adsorptivity of PVC and CR was nearly equivalent to that of AC with their saturated adsorption being about 1.4 g-CHCl3 (g-absorbent) -1.For all adsorbents studied,the adsorption capacity always decreases with the increase of hydrochloric acid concentration.It is showed that the commercial polymer powder of PVC or CR can be used as an efficient absorbent for the removal of chloroform from its aqueous solution for its low cost,good adsorption ability and ease of thermal desorption for recycling.

  8. Recovery of Pd(II) from hydrochloric solution using polyallylamine hydrochloride-modified Escherichia coli biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jiyeong; Won, Sung Wook; Mao, Juan; Kwak, In Seob; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2010-09-15

    A new type of biosorbent able to bind anionic metals was developed by cross-linking of waste biomass Escherichia coli with polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH). The PAH-modified biomass was investigated for the removal and recovery of Pd(II), in the chloro-complex form, from aqueous solution. The performance of the PAH-modified biomass was evaluated in terms of the following parameters: the solution pH, contact time and initial metal concentration. In the pH edge experiments, the uptake of Pd(II) increased with increasing pH. Pd(II) biosorption proceeded rapidly in the first 10 min, with almost complete equilibrium being achieved within 60 min. Moreover, the isotherm data showed that the maximum uptakes of Pd(II) were 265.3mg/g at pH 3 and 212.9 mg/g at pH 2, respectively. After incineration of the Pd-loaded PAH-modified biomass, metallic palladium was recovered in the ash. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results confirmed that the palladium was recovered in two valency states: zero-valent and divalent palladium (as PdO). Therefore, we concluded that PAH-modified biomass is a useful and cost-effective biosorbent for the recovery of anionic precious metals as chloro-complex solutions containing hydrochloric acid produced from metal refining processes.

  9. Clavulanic acid enhances glutamate transporter subtype I (GLT-1) expression and decreases reinforcing efficacy of cocaine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae; John, Joel; Langford, Dianne; Walker, Ellen; Ward, Sara; Rawls, Scott M

    2016-03-01

    The β-lactam antibiotic ceftriaxone (CTX) reduces cocaine reinforcement and relapse in preclinical assays through a mechanism involving activation of glutamate transporter subtype 1 (GLT-1). However, its poor brain penetrability and intravenous administration route may limit its therapeutic utility for indications related to CNS diseases. An alternative is clavulanic acid (CA), a structural analog of CTX that retains the β-lactam core required for GLT-1 activity but displays enhanced brain penetrability and oral activity relative to CTX. Here, we tested the hypothesis that CA (1, 10 mg/kg ip) would enhance GLT-1 expression and decrease cocaine self-administration (SA) in mice, but at lower doses than CTX. Experiments revealed that GLT-1 transporter expression in the nucleus accumbens of mice treated with repeated CA (1, 10 mg/kg) was enhanced relative to saline-treated mice. Repeated CA treatment (1 mg/kg) reduced the reinforcing efficacy of cocaine (0.56 mg/kg/inf) in mice maintained on a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement but did not affect acquisition of cocaine SA under fixed-ratio responding or acquisition or retention of learning. These findings suggest that the β-lactamase inhibitor CA can activate the cellular glutamate reuptake system in the brain reward circuit and reduce cocaine's reinforcing efficacy at 100-fold lower doses than CTX.

  10. The Acid Sphingomyelinase Sequence Variant p.A487V Is Not Associated With Decreased Levels of Enzymatic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, Cosima; Naumann, Julia; Mühle, Christiane; Zill, Peter; Adli, Mazda; Hegerl, Ulrich; Hiemke, Christoph; Mergl, Roland; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Reichel, Martin; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Rare loss-of-function mutations in the sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1) gene are known to dramatically decrease the catalytic activity of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), resulting in an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder known as Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type A and B. In contrast to the general low frequency of those deleterious mutations, we found a relatively high frequency for the proposed type B NPD variant c.1460C>T (p.A487V) in our sample of 58 patients suffering from Major Depressive Disorder. We therefore investigated the biochemical consequences of this variant more closely. Our in vivo data derived from blood cell analyses indicated cellular ASM activity levels in the normal range. The secreted ASM activity levels in blood plasma were slightly lower, but still above those levels reported for type B NPD patients. In vitro expression studies of this ASM variant in different cell lines confirmed these results, showing cellular and secreted enzymatic activities equivalent to those of wild-type ASM and similar expression levels. Thus, we conclude that the ASM variant c.1460C>T (p.A487V) is not a rare missense mutation but an SMPD1 sequence variant that yields a protein with functional catalytic characteristics.

  11. Increased Dietary Intake of Saturated Fatty Acid Heptadecanoic Acid (C17:0 Associated with Decreasing Ferritin and Alleviated Metabolic Syndrome in Dolphins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K Venn-Watson

    Full Text Available Similar to humans, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus can develop metabolic syndrome and associated high ferritin. While fish and fish-based fatty acids may protect against metabolic syndrome in humans, findings have been inconsistent. To assess potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome related to fish diets, fatty acids were compared between two dolphin populations with higher (n = 30, Group A and lower (n = 19, Group B mean insulin (11 ± 12 and 2 ± 5 μIU/ml, respectively; P < 0.0001 and their dietary fish. In addition to higher insulin, triglycerides, and ferritin, Group A had lower percent serum heptadecanoic acid (C17:0 compared to Group B (0.3 ± 0.1 and 1.3 ± 0.4%, respectively; P < 0.0001. Using multivariate stepwise regression, higher percent serum C17:0, a saturated fat found in dairy fat, rye, and some fish, was an independent predictor of lower insulin in dolphins. Capelin, a common dietary fish for Group A, had no detectable C17:0, while pinfish and mullet, common in Group B's diet, had C17:0 (41 and 67 mg/100g, respectively. When a modified diet adding 25% pinfish and/or mullet was fed to six Group A dolphins over 24 weeks (increasing the average daily dietary C17:0 intake from 400 to 1700 mg, C17:0 serum levels increased, high ferritin decreased, and blood-based metabolic syndrome indices normalized toward reference levels. These effects were not found in four reference dolphins. Further, higher total serum C17:0 was an independent and linear predictor of lower ferritin in dolphins in Group B dolphins. Among off the shelf dairy products tested, butter had the highest C17:0 (423mg/100g; nonfat dairy products had no detectable C17:0. We hypothesize that humans' movement away from diets with potentially beneficial saturated fatty acid C17:0, including whole fat dairy products, could be a contributor to widespread low C17:0 levels, higher ferritin, and metabolic syndrome.

  12. Decrease of intracellular pH as possible mechanism of embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louisse, J.; Bai, Y.; Verwei, M.; van de Sandt, J.J.M.; Blaauboer, B.J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Embryotoxicity of glycol ethers is caused by their alkoxyacetic acid metabolites, but the mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of these acid metabolites is so far not known. The present study investigates a possible mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabol

  13. Decrease of intracellular pH as possible mechanism of embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louisse, J.; Bai, Y.; Verwei, M.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Blaauboer, B.J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Embryotoxicity of glycol ethers is caused by their alkoxyacetic acid metabolites, but the mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of these acid metabolites is so far not known. The present study investigates a possible mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabol

  14. Decrease of intercellular pH as possible mechanism of action of embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louisse, J.; Yanquin Bai,; Verwei, M.; Sandt, van de J.J.M.; Blaauboer, B.J.; Rietjens, I.

    2010-01-01

    Embryotoxicity of glycol ethers is caused by their alkoxyacetic acid metabolites, but the mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of these acid metabolites is so far not known. The present study investigates a possible mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabol

  15. Decreased arachidonic acid content and metabolism in tissues of NZB/W F1 females fed a diet containing 0. 45% dehydroisoandrosterone (DHA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, A.; Cottam, G.L.

    1987-05-01

    A diet containing 0.45% DHA fed to NZB/W mice, a model of systemic lupus erythematosus, delays the time of onset, improves survival and decreases the formation of antibodies to ds-DNA. Essential fatty acid-deficient diets or inclusion of eicosapentaenoic acid have similar beneficial effects and led them to investigate arachidonic acid metabolism in response to feeding DHA. The arachidonic acid content of plasma cholesteryl ester decreased from 37.4 +/- 2.2 to 28.2 +/- 1.3 mg%. In total liver phospholipid the value decreased from 18.1 +/- 0.52 to 13.7 +/- 1.3 mg%, in total kidney phospholipid the value decreased from 24.10 +/- 0.87 to 20.7 +/- 0.32 mg% and in resident peritoneal macrophages the value decreased from 15.4 +/- 4.6 to 3.6 +/- 1.4 mg%. The metabolism of exogenous (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid by resident peritoneal macrophages in response to Zymosan stimulation for 2 hr was examined by extraction of metabolites and separation by HPLC. Cells isolated from DHA-fed animals produced less PGE2 than controls, yet similar amounts of 6-keto PGF1..cap alpha.. were produced. Arachidonic acid metabolites have significant effects on the immune system and may be a mechanism involved in the benefits obtained by inclusion of DHA in the diet.

  16. Experimental study of the influence of acid wash on cellulose pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shurong; LIAO Yanfen; LIU Qian; LUO Zhongyang; CEN Kefa

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of microstructure and polymerization degree showed that acid wash altered the cellulose morphology and decreased the polymerization degree significantly.A series of experiments were done to study the effect of acid wash on cellulose rapid pyrolysis.Experimental results showed that under acid pretreatment,the yield of biooil decreased while the production of gas and char increased.With an increase in acid concentration,this trend would be further enhanced.Sulphuric acid limited the formation of bio-oil more effectively than hydrochloric acid and phosphoric acid.According to the GC-MS analysis of bio-oil,high-concentration acid wash restrained the formation of levoglucosan by catalyzing dehydration process and cross linking reaction.

  17. Effect of acid concentration and treatment time on acid-alcohol modified jackfruit seed starch properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Himjyoti; Paul, Sanjib Kumar; Kalita, Dipankar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2011-09-15

    The properties of starch extracted from jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) seeds, collected from west Assam after acid-alcohol modification by short term treatment (ST) for 15-30min with concentrated hydrochloric acid and long term treatment (LT) for 1-15days with 1M hydrochloric acid, were investigated. Granule density, freeze thaw stability, solubility and light transmittance of the treated starches increased. A maximum decrease in the degree of polymerisation occurred in ST of 30min (2607.6). Jackfruit starch had 27.1±0.04% amylose content (db), which in ST initially decreased and then increased with the severity of treatment; in LT the effect was irregular. The pasting profile and granule morphology of the treated samples were severely modified. Native starch had the A-type crystalline pattern and crystalline structure increased on treatment. FTIR spectra revealed slight changes in bond stretching and bending. Colour measurement indicated that whiteness increased on treatment. Acid modified jackfruit seed starch can have applications in the food industry.

  18. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation decreases asymmetric dimethyl arginine and arachidonate accumulation in aging spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Laura; Lodovici, Maura; Visioli, Francesco; Sartiani, Laura; Cioni, Laura; Alfarano, Chiara; Banchelli, Grazia; Pirisino, Renato; Cecchi, Enrica; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Mugelli, Alessandro

    2005-09-01

    Plasma accumulation of asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) is considered as a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and a strong predictor for coronary heart diseases. Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) increasing plasma levels have been positively associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality with a mechanism( s) yet unclear. We hypothesised that ADMA reduction might be a part of EPA and DHA beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. To verify this hypothesis we measured ADMA plasma levels in aged spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) supplemented for 8 weeks with EPA and DHA. 16-month-old SHR were supplemented with EPA and DHA (EPA-DHA) or with olive oil (1 g/kg/day; OLIVE). At the end of the treatments, the plasma of each animal was analysed for 1) the total fatty acid composition, by gas-cromatography, 2) ADMA levels, by high pressure liquid chromatography, 3) nitrite and homocysteine concentration by chemiluminescence and by polarisation immunoassay respectively. Moreover, the activity of dimethyl arginine dimethyl amino hydrolase, the main enzyme involved in ADMA metabolism, was measured spectrophotometrically in the kidney from each rat. Animals supplemented with EPA and DHA showed: 1) lower ADMA and arachidonate plasma levels (587.4 +/- 113.7 nM and 0.49 +/- 0.11 mM respectively) than the values found in OLIVE rats (1365 +/- 399 nM and 1.07 +/- 0.07 mM respectively) 2) higher nitrite content (0.73 +/- 0.05 microM) than OLIVE (0.23 +/- 0.08 microM). EPA and DHA supplementation reduced ADMA accumulation in SHR in parallel with a decrease of arachidonate availability. This finding suggests that the control of the inflammatory ground of endothelium might play an important role in EPA and DHA effect on this novel and highly predictive cardiovascular risk factor.

  19. 49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nitric acid. 173.158 Section 173.158... Nitric acid. (a) Nitric acid exceeding 40 percent concentration may not be packaged with any other material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as...

  20. Ascorbic acid inhibits TPA-induced HL-60 cell differentiation by decreasing cellular H₂O₂ and ERK phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiang, Giou-Teng; Chen, Jen-Ni; Wu, Tsai-Kun; Wang, Hsueh-Fang; Hung, Yu-Ting; Chang, Wei-Jung; Chen, Chinshuh; Wei, Chyou-Wei; Yu, Yung-Luen

    2015-10-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), vitamin D and 12-O‑tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) can induce HL-60 cells to differentiate into granulocytes, monocytes and macrophages, respectively. Similar to RA and vitamin D, ascorbic acid also belongs to the vitamin family. High‑dose ascorbic acid (>100 µM) induces HL‑60 cell apoptosis and induces a small fraction of HL‑60 cells to express the granulocyte marker, CD66b. In addition, ascorbic acid exerts an anti‑oxidative stress function. Oxidative stress is required for HL‑60 cell differentiation following treatment with TPA, however, the effect of ascorbic acid on HL‑60 cell differentiation in combination with TPA treatment remains to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cellular effects of ascorbic acid treatment on TPA-differentiated HL-60 cells. TPA-differentiated HL-60 cells were used for this investigation, this study and the levels of cellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), caspase activity and ERK phosphorylation were determined following combined treatment with TPA and ascorbic acid. The results demonstrated that low‑dose ascorbic acid (5 µM) reduced the cellular levels of H2O2 and inhibited the differentiation of HL‑60 cells into macrophages following treatment with TPA. In addition, the results of the present study further demonstrated that low‑dose ascorbic acid inactivates the ERK phosphorylation pathway, which inhibited HL‑60 cell differentiation following treatment with TPA.

  1. Monounsaturated and Saturated, but Not n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Decrease Cartilage Destruction under Inflammatory Conditions: A Preliminary Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Y.M.; Siawash, M.; Lest, C.H.A. van de; Verhaar, J.A.N.; Kloppenburg, M.; Zuurmond, A.M.; Stojanovic-Susulic, V.; Osch, G.J.V.M. van; Clockaerts, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with obesity in which altered fatty acid levels have been observed. We investigated whether the most common fatty acids in synovial fluid influence cartilage deterioration in OA. Design: Cartilage was obtained from OA patients undergoing total knee arthropl

  2. Monounsaturated and Saturated, but Not n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Decrease Cartilage Destruction under Inflammatory Conditions: A Preliminary Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Y.M.; Siawash, M.; Lest, C.H.A. van de; Verhaar, J.A.N.; Kloppenburg, M.; Zuurmond, A.M.; Stojanovic-Susulic, V.; Osch, G.J.V.M. van; Clockaerts, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with obesity in which altered fatty acid levels have been observed. We investigated whether the most common fatty acids in synovial fluid influence cartilage deterioration in OA. Design: Cartilage was obtained from OA patients undergoing total knee arthropl

  3. Monounsaturated and Saturated, but Not n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Decrease Cartilage Destruction under Inflammatory Conditions: A Preliminary Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.M. Bastiaansen-Jenniskens (Yvonne); M. Siawash; C.H.A. van Lest (Chris); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); M. Kloppenburg (Margreet); A-M. Zuurmond (Anne-Marie); V. Stojanovic-Susulic (Vedrana); G.J.V.M. van Osch (Gerjo); S. Clockaerts (Stefan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with obesity in which altered fatty acid levels have been observed. We investigated whether the most common fatty acids in synovial fluid influence cartilage deterioration in OA. Design: Cartilage was obtained from OA patients undergoing total

  4. Monounsaturated and Saturated, but Not n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Decrease Cartilage Destruction under Inflammatory Conditions: A Preliminary Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Y.M.; Siawash, M.; Lest, C.H.A. van de; Verhaar, J.A.N.; Kloppenburg, M.; Zuurmond, A.M.; Stojanovic-Susulic, V.; Osch, G.J.V.M. van; Clockaerts, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with obesity in which altered fatty acid levels have been observed. We investigated whether the most common fatty acids in synovial fluid influence cartilage deterioration in OA. Design: Cartilage was obtained from OA patients undergoing total knee

  5. Decreased uric acid levels correlate with poor outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients, but not in cerebral hemorrhage patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongliang; Jia, Qian; Liu, Gaifen; Liu, Liping; Pu, Yuehua; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Chunxue; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun

    2014-03-01

    The relationship between uric acid and stroke prognosis is ambiguous. Some studies have explored this relationship in acute stroke but have different results. In this study, we explored the relationship between uric acid levels and 1-year outcomes and vascular events of acute ischemic stroke patients and cerebral hemorrhage patients. In all, 1452 continued first, acute ischemic stroke patients and 380 continued cerebral hemorrhage patients were admitted to our hospitals. Serum uric acid concentrations were measured in 1351 ischemic stroke patients and 380 cerebral hemorrhage patients at admission. We evaluated the relationship between uric acid levels and outcomes (modified Rankin scale [mRS] > 2, all-cause death, vascular events, stroke recurrent) at 14 days, 90 days, and 1 year after stroke onset. The median uric acid concentration was 303.0 μmol/L in ischemic stroke patients and 269 μmol/L in cerebral hemorrhage patients. In univariate analysis, uric acid levels were not correlated with outcomes in cerebral hemorrhage patients. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to show that lower serum uric acid levels independently predicted poor functional outcomes (mRS >2) at 1 year after ischemic stroke onset (odds ratio [OR] = .335, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .164-.684, P = .003). Also, lower serum uric acid levels were independently correlated with vascular events in the first year in ischemic stroke patients. By multiple cox proportional hazards analysis, we obtained data which reveal that serum uric acid levels were not correlated with all-cause death (OR = .992, 95% CI: .683-1.443, P = .969) in ischemic stroke patients. Serum uric acid may be neuroprotective in acute ischemic stroke patients. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Decreased aortic early atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic hamsters fed oleic acid-rich TriSun oil compared to linoleic acid-rich sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolosi, Robert J.; Wilson, Thomas A.; Handelman, Garry; Foxall, Thomas; Keaney, John F.; Vita, Joseph A.

    2002-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that low density lipoprotein (LDL) enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are more susceptible to oxidation (ex vivo) than those containing monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). To test whether this observation was associated with various parameters considered to be related with the development of early aortic atherosclerosis, hamsters were fed commercial hypercholesterolemic diets (HCD) containing either the PUFA, sunflower oil (SF) or the MUFA, TriSun oil (TS) at 10% with 0.4% cholesterol (wt/wt). LDL isolated from hamsters fed TS had significantly longer lag phase (30%, P < 0.05), a decreased propagation phase (-62%, P < 0.005), and fewer conjugated dienes formed (-37%, P < 0.007) compared to hamsters fed SF. Aortic vasomotor function, measured as degree of aortic relaxation, was significantly greater in the TS vs SF-fed hamsters whether acetylcholine or the calcium ionophore A23187 was used as the endothelium-dependent agonist. As a group, the SF-fed hamsters had significantly more early atherosclerosis than hamsters fed TS (46%, P < 0.006). When animals across the two diets were pair-matched by plasma LDL-C levels, there was an 82% greater mean difference (P < 0.002) in early atherosclerosis in the SF versus the TS-fed hamsters. While there were no significant associations with plasma lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol, early atherosclerosis was significantly correlated with lag phase (r = -0.67, p < 0.02), rate of LDL conjugated diene formation (r = 0.74, p < 0.006) and maximum dienes formed (r = 0.67, p < 0.02). Compared to TS-fed animals, aortic sections from hamsters fed the SF-containing diet revealed that the cytoplasm of numerous foam cells in the subendothelial space reacted positively with the monoclonal anti-bodies MDA-2 and NA59 antibody, epitopes found on oxidized forms of LDL. The present study suggests that compared to TS, hamsters fed the SF-diet demonstrated enhanced LDL oxidative susceptibility, reduced

  7. Protein Restriction with Amino Acid-Balanced Diets Shrinks Circulating Pool Size of Amino Acid by Decreasing Expression of Specific Transporters in the Small Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Min; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Wen Juan; Jiao, Ning; Li, De Fa; Yin, Jing Dong

    2016-01-01

    Dietary protein restriction is not only beneficial to health and longevity in humans, but also protects against air pollution and minimizes feeding cost in livestock production. However, its impact on amino acid (AA) absorption and metabolism is not quite understood. Therefore, the study aimed to explore the effect of protein restriction on nitrogen balance, circulating AA pool size, and AA absorption using a pig model. In Exp.1, 72 gilts weighting 29.9 ± 1.5 kg were allocated to 1 of the 3 diets containing 14, 16, or 18% CP for a 28-d trial. Growth (n = 24), nitrogen balance (n = 6), and the expression of small intestinal AA and peptide transporters (n = 6) were evaluated. In Exp.2, 12 barrows weighting 22.7 ± 1.3 kg were surgically fitted with catheters in the portal and jejunal veins as well as the carotid artery and assigned to a diet containing 14 or 18% CP. A series of blood samples were collected before and after feeding for determining the pool size of circulating AA and AA absorption in the portal vein, respectively. Protein restriction did not sacrifice body weight gain and protein retention, since nitrogen digestibility was increased as dietary protein content reduced. However, the pool size of circulating AA except for lysine and threonine, and most AA flux through the portal vein were reduced in pigs fed the low protein diet. Meanwhile, the expression of peptide transporter 1 (PepT-1) was stimulated, but the expression of the neutral and cationic AA transporter systems was depressed. These results evidenced that protein restriction with essential AA-balanced diets, decreased AA absorption and reduced circulating AA pool size. Increased expression of small intestinal peptide transporter PepT-1 could not compensate for the depressed expression of jejunal AA transporters for AA absorption. PMID:27611307

  8. Protein Restriction with Amino Acid-Balanced Diets Shrinks Circulating Pool Size of Amino Acid by Decreasing Expression of Specific Transporters in the Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Kai; Qin, Chun Fu; Luo, Min; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Wen Juan; Jiao, Ning; Li, De Fa; Yin, Jing Dong

    2016-01-01

    Dietary protein restriction is not only beneficial to health and longevity in humans, but also protects against air pollution and minimizes feeding cost in livestock production. However, its impact on amino acid (AA) absorption and metabolism is not quite understood. Therefore, the study aimed to explore the effect of protein restriction on nitrogen balance, circulating AA pool size, and AA absorption using a pig model. In Exp.1, 72 gilts weighting 29.9 ± 1.5 kg were allocated to 1 of the 3 diets containing 14, 16, or 18% CP for a 28-d trial. Growth (n = 24), nitrogen balance (n = 6), and the expression of small intestinal AA and peptide transporters (n = 6) were evaluated. In Exp.2, 12 barrows weighting 22.7 ± 1.3 kg were surgically fitted with catheters in the portal and jejunal veins as well as the carotid artery and assigned to a diet containing 14 or 18% CP. A series of blood samples were collected before and after feeding for determining the pool size of circulating AA and AA absorption in the portal vein, respectively. Protein restriction did not sacrifice body weight gain and protein retention, since nitrogen digestibility was increased as dietary protein content reduced. However, the pool size of circulating AA except for lysine and threonine, and most AA flux through the portal vein were reduced in pigs fed the low protein diet. Meanwhile, the expression of peptide transporter 1 (PepT-1) was stimulated, but the expression of the neutral and cationic AA transporter systems was depressed. These results evidenced that protein restriction with essential AA-balanced diets, decreased AA absorption and reduced circulating AA pool size. Increased expression of small intestinal peptide transporter PepT-1 could not compensate for the depressed expression of jejunal AA transporters for AA absorption.

  9. A folate-rich diet is as effective as folic acid from supplements in decreasing plasma homocysteine concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: At least 500 μg of folic acid are required daily to treat hyperhomocysteinemia. To reach this amount by dietary changes alone may be difficult because food has a low folic acid content and bioavailability. No studies have compared the effects of similar amounts of additional folate derived from a combination of folate-rich and fortified foods or folic acid from supplements on plasma total homocysteine (tHcy concentrations, which was the aim of this study. Methods: Twenty male patients with hyperhomocysteinemia and coronary artery disease were included in a randomized, crossover intervention trial. Patients were treated daily with a combination of foods containing approximately 500 μg of folate or with one 500 μg capsule of synthetic folic acid over two five-week periods separated by a five-week wash-out period. Results: Plasma folate increased markedly (p

  10. Increased Glutamate and Homocysteine and Decreased Glutamine Levels in Autism: A Review and Strategies for Future Studies of Amino Acids in Autism

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    Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reports about the significant roles of some amino acids in neurobiology and treatment of autism. This is a critical review of amino acids levels in autism. No published review article about the level of amino acids in autism was found. The levels of glutamate and homocystein are increased in autism while the levels of glutamine and tryptophan are decreased. Findings regarding the plasma levels of taurine and lysine are controversial. The urinary levels of homocysteine and essential amino acids in both the untreated and treated autistic children are significantly less than those in the controls. The current literature suffers from many methodological shortcomings which needed to be considered in future studies. Some of them are age, gender, developmental level, autism symptoms severity, type of autism spectrum disorders, medical comorbidities, intelligent quotient, diet, concomitant medications, body mass index, and technical method of assessment of amino acids.

  11. Gallic Acid Decreases Inflammatory Cytokine Secretion Through Histone Acetyltransferase/Histone Deacetylase Regulation in High Glucose-Induced Human Monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wooje; Lee, Sang Yeol; Son, Young-Jin; Yun, Jung-Mi

    2015-07-01

    Hyperglycemia contributes to diabetes and several diabetes-related complications. Gallic acid is a polyhydroxy phenolic compound found in various natural products. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanism of gallic acid on proinflammatory cytokine secretion in high glucose-induced human monocytes (THP-1 cells). THP-1 cells were cultured under normoglycemic or hyperglycemic conditions, in the absence or presence of gallic acid. Hyperglycemic conditions significantly induced histone acetylation, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, and proinflammatory cytokine release from THP-1 cells, whereas gallic acid suppressed NF-κB activity and cytokine release. It also significantly reduced CREB-binding protein/p300 (CBP/p300, a NF-κB coactivator) gene expression, acetylation levels, and CBP/p300 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity. In addition, histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) expression was significantly induced. These results suggest that gallic acid inhibits hyperglycemic-induced cytokine production in monocytes through epigenetic changes involving NF-κB. Therefore, gallic acid may have potential for the treatment and prevention of diabetes and its complications.

  12. Bile-acid-mediated decrease in endoplasmic reticulum stress: a potential contributor to the metabolic benefits of ileal interposition surgery in UCD-T2DM rats

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    Bethany P. Cummings

    2013-03-01

    Post-operative increases in circulating bile acids have been suggested to contribute to the metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery; however, their mechanistic contributions remain undefined. We have previously reported that ileal interposition (IT surgery delays the onset of type 2 diabetes in UCD-T2DM rats and increases circulating bile acids, independently of effects on energy intake or body weight. Therefore, we investigated potential mechanisms by which post-operative increases in circulating bile acids improve glucose homeostasis after IT surgery. IT, sham or no surgery was performed on 2-month-old weight-matched male UCD-T2DM rats. Animals underwent an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT and serial oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT. Tissues were collected at 1.5 and 4.5 months after surgery. Cell culture models were used to investigate interactions between bile acids and ER stress. IT-operated animals exhibited marked improvements in glucose and lipid metabolism, with concurrent increases in postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 secretion during the OFTT and OGTTs, independently of food intake and body weight. Measurement of circulating bile acid profiles revealed increases in circulating total bile acids in IT-operated animals, with a preferential increase in circulating cholic acid concentrations. Gut microbial populations were assessed as potential contributors to the increases in circulating bile acid concentrations, which revealed proportional increases in Gammaproteobacteria in IT-operated animals. Furthermore, IT surgery decreased all three sub-arms of ER stress signaling in liver, adipose and pancreas tissues. Amelioration of ER stress coincided with improved insulin signaling and preservation of β-cell mass in IT-operated animals. Incubation of hepatocyte, adipocyte and β-cell lines with cholic acid decreased ER stress. These results suggest that postoperative increases in circulating cholic acid concentration contribute to improvements in

  13. EFFICACY OF TRANEXAMIC ACID IN DECREASING BLOOD LOSS DURING AND AFTER CAESAREAN SECTION: A RANDOMIZED CASE CONTROL PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: To reduce maternal mortality and morbidity caused by bleeding, it is important to reduce the amount of bleeding during and after lower segment caesarean section (LSCS. Tranexamic acid helps to reduce bleeding during and after LSCS. OBJECTIVES: To study the efficacy and safety of Tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during and after Lower segment Caesarean Section (LSCS. METHODS: A randomized case controlled prospective study was conducted on 200 women undergoing lower segment cesarean section. Hundreds of them that were given tranexamic acid immediately before LSCS were compared to hundred others to whom tranexamic acid was not given. Blood loss was collected and measured during the two periods, from plancental delivery to end of LSCS and second from end of LSCS to two hours postpartum. RESULTS: Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the quantity of blood loss from placental delivery to end of LSCS, 202.25ml in the study group vs392.20 ml in the control group (p<0.001; from the end of LSCS, to 2 hours postpartum 3.80ml in the study group versus 112.25ml in the control group (p<0.001; In totality, it significantly reduced the quantity of blood loss from placental delivery to two hours postpartum i.e. 27.05ml in the study group versus 510.45ml in the control group (p < 0.001. No complications or side effects were noted. CONCLUSION: Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the amount of blood loss during and after LSCS. Tranexamic acid can be used prophylactically; moreover it is safer and effective in women undergoing LSCS.

  14. Temperature Shift Experiments Suggest That Metabolic Impairment and Enhanced Rates of Photorespiration Decrease Organic Acid Levels in Soybean Leaflets Exposed to Supra-Optimal Growth Temperatures

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    Richard C. Sicher

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Elevated growth temperatures are known to affect foliar organic acid concentrations in various plant species. In the current study, citrate, malate, malonate, fumarate and succinate decreased 40 to 80% in soybean leaflets when plants were grown continuously in controlled environment chambers at 36/28 compared to 28/20 °C. Temperature effects on the above mentioned organic acids were partially reversed three days after plants were transferred among optimal and supra-optimal growth temperatures. In addition, CO2 enrichment increased foliar malate, malonate and fumarate concentrations in the supra-optimal temperature treatment, thereby mitigating effects of high temperature on respiratory metabolism. Glycerate, which functions in the photorespiratory pathway, decreased in response to CO2 enrichment at both growth temperatures. The above findings suggested that diminished levels of organic acids in soybean leaflets upon exposure to high growth temperatures were attributable to metabolic impairment and to changes of photorespiratory flux. Leaf development rates differed among temperature and CO2 treatments, which affected foliar organic acid levels. Additionally, we report that large decreases of foliar organic acids in response to elevated growth temperatures were observed in legume species.

  15. Temperature Shift Experiments Suggest That Metabolic Impairment and Enhanced Rates of Photorespiration Decrease Organic Acid Levels in Soybean Leaflets Exposed to Supra-Optimal Growth Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicher, Richard C

    2015-08-05

    Elevated growth temperatures are known to affect foliar organic acid concentrations in various plant species. In the current study, citrate, malate, malonate, fumarate and succinate decreased 40 to 80% in soybean leaflets when plants were grown continuously in controlled environment chambers at 36/28 compared to 28/20 °C. Temperature effects on the above mentioned organic acids were partially reversed three days after plants were transferred among optimal and supra-optimal growth temperatures. In addition, CO2 enrichment increased foliar malate, malonate and fumarate concentrations in the supra-optimal temperature treatment, thereby mitigating effects of high temperature on respiratory metabolism. Glycerate, which functions in the photorespiratory pathway, decreased in response to CO2 enrichment at both growth temperatures. The above findings suggested that diminished levels of organic acids in soybean leaflets upon exposure to high growth temperatures were attributable to metabolic impairment and to changes of photorespiratory flux. Leaf development rates differed among temperature and CO2 treatments, which affected foliar organic acid levels. Additionally, we report that large decreases of foliar organic acids in response to elevated growth temperatures were observed in legume species.

  16. Effect of low severity dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw and decreased enzyme loading hydrolysis on the production of fermentable substrates and the release of inhibitory compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Lignos, G.D.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Koukios, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of combining low severity dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw and decreased enzyme loading hydrolysis for the high production of fermentable substrates and the low release of inhibitory compounds. For most of the pretreatments at 160

  17. Inulin-type fructans modulate intestinal Bifidobacterium species populations and decrease fecal short-chain fatty acids in obese women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar, N.; Dewulf, E.M.; Neyrinck, A.M.; Bindels, L.B.; Cani, P.D.; Mahillon, J.; Vos, de W.M.; Thissen, J.P.; Gueimonde, M.; Reyes-Gavilán, de los C.G.; Delzenne, N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background & aims : Inulin-type fructans (ITF) prebiotics promote changes in the composition and activity of the gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to determine variations on fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA) concentration in obese women treated with ITF and to explore associations bet

  18. Amino acid substitutions of Na,K-ATPase conferring decreased sensitivity to cardenolides in insects compared to mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalla, S.; Swarts, H.G.P.; Koenderink, J.B.; Dobler, S.

    2013-01-01

    Mutagenesis analyses and a recent crystal structure of the mammalian Na,K-ATPase have identified amino acids which are responsible for high affinity binding of cardenolides (such as ouabain) which at higher doses block the enzyme in the phosphorylated state. Genetic analysis of the Na,K-ATPase of in

  19. 降低精对苯二甲酸溶剂系统醋酸消耗的研究%Research and Implementation of Decreasing the Acetic Acid Consumption in Purified Terephthalic Acid Solvent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐圆; 朱群雄

    2008-01-01

    Decreasing the acetic acid consumption in purified terephthalic acid(PTA) solvent system has become a hot issue with common concern.In accordance with the technical features.the electrical conductivity is in direct proportion to the acetic acid content.General regression neural network(GRNN)is used to establish the model of electrical conductivity on the basis of mechanism analysis,and then particle swarm optimization (PSO)algorithm with the improvement of mertia weight and population diversity is proposed to regulate the operatmg conditions.Thus.the method of decreasing the acid lossS is derived and applied to PTA solvent system in a chemical plant.Cases studies show that the precision of modeling and optimization are higher.The results also provide the optimal operating conditions,which decrease the cost and improve the profit.

  20. Uric acid attenuates nitric oxide production by decreasing the interaction between endothelial nitric oxide synthase and calmodulin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells: a mechanism for uric acid-induced cardiovascular disease development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Hyun; Jin, Yoon Mi; Hwang, Soojin; Cho, Du-Hyong; Kang, Duk-Hee; Jo, Inho

    2013-08-01

    The elevated level of uric acid in the body is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, which is mediated by endothelial dysfunction. However, its underlying mechanism is not fully understood, although dysregulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production is likely to be involved. Using human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC), we explored the molecular mechanism of uric acid on endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity and NO production. Although high dose of uric acid (12mg/dl for 24h treatment) significantly decreased eNOS activity and NO production, it did not alter eNOS expression and phosphorylations at eNOS-Ser(1177), eNOS-Thr(495) and eNOS-Ser(114). Under this condition, we also found no alterations in the dimerization and acetylation of eNOS, compared with the control. Furthermore, uric acid did not change the activity of arginase II, an enzyme degrading l-arginine, a substrate of eNOS, and intracellular level of calcium, a cofactor for eNOS activation. We also found that uric acid did not alter xanthine oxidase activity, suggesting no involvement of xanthine oxidase-derived O2(-) production in the observed inhibitory effects. In vitro and in cell coimmunoprecipitation studies, however, revealed that uric acid significantly decreased the interaction between eNOS and calmodulin (CaM), an eNOS activator, although it did not change the intracellular CaM level. Like in HUVEC, uric acid also decreased eNOS-CaM interaction in bovine aortic EC. Finally, uric acid attenuated ionomycin-induced increase in the interaction between eNOS and CaM. This study suggests firstly that uric acid decreased eNOS activity and NO production through reducing the binding between eNOS and CaM in EC. Our result may provide molecular mechanism by which uric acid induces endothelial dysfunction.

  1. Capsaicin, nonivamide and trans-pellitorine decrease free fatty acid uptake without TRPV1 activation and increase acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohm, Barbara; Riedel, Annett; Ley, Jakob P; Widder, Sabine; Krammer, Gerhard E; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    Red pepper and its major pungent component, capsaicin, have been associated with hypolipidemic effects in rats, although mechanistic studies on the effects of capsaicin and/or structurally related compounds on lipid metabolism are scarce. In this work, the effects of capsaicin and its structural analog nonivamide, the aliphatic alkamide trans-pellitorine and vanillin as the basic structural element of all vanilloids on the mechanisms of intestinal fatty acid uptake in differentiated intestinal Caco-2 cells were studied. Capsaicin and nonivamide were found to reduce fatty acid uptake, with IC₅₀ values of 0.49 μM and 1.08 μM, respectively. trans-Pellitorine was shown to reduce fatty acid uptake by 14.0±2.14% at 100 μM, whereas vanillin was not effective, indicating a pivotal role of the alkyl chain with the acid amide group in fatty acid uptake by Caco-2 cells. This effect was associated neither with the activation of the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) or the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) nor with effects on paracellular transport or glucose uptake. However, acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity increased (p<0.05) in the presence of 10 μM capsaicin, nonivamide or trans-pellitorine, pointing to an increased fatty acid biosynthesis that might counteract the decreased fatty acid uptake.

  2. Application of hydrochloric cyclopentolate eye drops in the mydriasis test and optometry for children with hyperopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ping Yin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe and study the comprehensive application effect of hydrochloric cyclopentolate eye drops in the mydriasis test and optometry for children with hyperopia.METHODS:Eighty-four children with hyperopia who were intervened with mydriasis test and optometry in our hospital from February 2014 to March 2015 were selected as the research object,and they were intervened with mydriasis test and optometry by tropicamide or hydrochloric cyclopentolate eye drops. The diopter, pupil diameter and residual regulation before administration and at different time after administration of the two methods were compared,and the detected results of the two groups with different severity degree were compared too.RESULTS:The diopter, pupil diameter and residual regulation before administration of the two eye drops had no significant differences(all P>0.05,while the residual regulation after using hydrochloric cyclopentolate eye drops at 20, 40, 60min and 24h were all smaller than those after using tropicamide(all PP>0.05. The pupil diameter of the two groups at 48h after administration both had no significant differences to those before administration(all P>0.05.CONCLUSION:The comprehensive application effect of hydrochloric cyclopentolate eye drops in the mydriasis test and optometry of children with hyperopia is better,and its paralysis effect for ciliaris is obvious.

  3. Oleogels, a promising structured oil for decreasing saturated fatty acid concentrations: Production and food-based applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivanoğlu, Halime; Demirci, Mehmet; Toker, Omer Said; Konar, Nevzat; Karasu, Salih; Sagdic, Osman

    2016-11-10

    Oils and fats are widely used in the food formulations in order to improve nutritional and some quality characteristics of food products. Solid fats produced from oils by hydrogenization, interesterification, and fractionation processes are widely used in different foodstuffs for these aims. In recent years, consumer awareness of relation between diet and health has increased which can cause worry about solid fat including products in terms of their high saturated fatty acid and trans fatty acid contents. Therefore, different attempts have been carried out to find alternative ways to produce solid fat with low saturated fatty acid content. One of the promising ways is using oleogels, structuring oils with oleogelators. In this review, history, raw materials and production methods of the oleogels and their functions in oleogel quality were mentioned. Moreover, studies related with oleogel usage in different products were summarized and positive and negative aspects of oleogel were also mentioned. Considering the results of the related studies, it can be concluded that oleogels can be used in the formulation of bakery products, breakfast spreads, margarines, chocolates and chocolate-derived products and some of the meat products.

  4. Maslinic acid-enriched diet decreases intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+ mice through transcriptomic and metabolomic reprogramming.

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    Susana Sánchez-Tena

    Full Text Available Chemoprevention is a pragmatic approach to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in western countries. In this regard, maslinic acid (MA, a pentacyclic triterpene extracted from wax-like coatings of olives, is known to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines without affecting normal intestinal cells. The present study evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy and associated mechanisms of maslinic acid treatment on spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+ mice. Twenty-two mice were randomized into 2 groups: control group and MA group, fed with a maslinic acid-supplemented diet for six weeks. MA treatment reduced total intestinal polyp formation by 45% (P<0.01. Putative molecular mechanisms associated with suppressing intestinal polyposis in Apc(Min/+ mice were investigated by comparing microarray expression profiles of MA-treated and control mice and by analyzing the serum metabolic profile using NMR techniques. The different expression phenotype induced by MA suggested that it exerts its chemopreventive action mainly by inhibiting cell-survival signaling and inflammation. These changes eventually induce G1-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, the metabolic changes induced by MA treatment were associated with a protective profile against intestinal tumorigenesis. These results show the efficacy and underlying mechanisms of MA against intestinal tumor development in the Apc(Min/+ mice model, suggesting its chemopreventive potential against colorectal cancer.

  5. Bisphenol A alters n-6 fatty acid composition and decreases antioxidant enzyme levels in rat testes: a LC-QTOF-based metabolomics study.

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    Minjian Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Male reproductive toxicity induced by exposure to bisphenol A (BPA has been widely reported. The testes have proven to be a major target organ of BPA toxicity, so studying testicular metabolite variation holds promise for the discovery of mechanisms linked to the toxic effects of BPA on reproduction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered doses of BPA at the levels of 0, 50 mg/kg/d for 8 weeks. We used an unbiased liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (LC-QTOF-based metabolomics approach to discover, identify, and analyze the variation of testicular metabolites. Two n-6 fatty acids, linoleic acid (LA and arachidonic acid (AA were identified as potential testicular biomarkers. Decreased levels of LA and increased levels of AA as well as AA/LA ratio were observed in the testes of the exposed group. According to these suggestions, testicular antioxidant enzyme levels were detected. Testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD declined significantly in the exposed group compared with that in the non-exposed group, and the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px as well as catalase (CAT also showed a decreasing trend in BPA treated group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: BPA caused testicular n-6 fatty acid composition variation and decreased antioxidant enzyme levels. This study emphasizes that metabolomics brings the promise of biomarkers identification for the discovery of mechanisms underlying reproductive toxicity.

  6. Fish Oil N-3 Fatty Acids Increase Adiponectin and Decrease Leptin Levels in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

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    Marcell Alysson Batisti Lozovoy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD has emerged as an important cause of death in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Reduced adiponectin and elevated leptin levels may contribute to CVD in SLE patients. The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of fish oil (FO on adiponectin and leptin in patients with SLE. Biochemical and disease activity analysis were performed. Patients with SLE were divided in two groups: patients who used fish oil for four months and patients who did not use fish oil. Patients with SLE who used FO had a significant decrease in SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI score (p ˂ 0.023 in relation to baseline. SLE patients who used fish oil had increased adiponectin levels (p ˂ 0.026 and decreased leptin levels (p ˂ 0.024 compared to baseline values, whereas there were no differences in adiponectin and leptin levels in patients with SLE who did not use fish oil. In conclusion, the findings of increased serum adiponectin an decreased leptin levels after 120 days in the fish oil group, reinforce the importance of evaluating prospective studies of fish and fish oil fish ingestion on these adipokines in an attempt to decrease cardiovascular risk factors in patients with SLE.

  7. Storage of Fruits and Vegetables in Refrigerator Increases their Phenolic Acids but Decreases the Total Phenolics, Anthocyanins and Vitamin C with Subsequent Loss of their Antioxidant Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nilesh J.; Talati, Jayant G.

    2017-01-01

    It is of paramount importance for consumers, scientists and industrialists to understand how low-temperature storage of food items affects their bioactive compounds and properties. This study evaluated the effects of cold storage on total phenolics (TP), phenolic acids profile (PA), total anthocyanins (TA), total ascorbic acid (Vit. C) and antioxidant activity (AA) of 19 fruits and vegetables, collected from local Indian markets and stored in refrigerator (4 °C) during 15 days. Content of TP was highest in dill and amaranth and decreased (up to 29.67%) with storage. Leafy vegetables (amaranth, dill, onion, fenugreek and spinach) contained higher amounts of the 12 PA revealed by UPLC-UV; ellagic, gallic, sinapic and vanillic acids levels were the highest; chlorogenic acid (ρ = 0.423), syringic acid (ρ = 0.403) and sinapic acid (ρ = 0.452) mostly correlated with TP; and the PA increased during storage. Highest contents of Vit C estimated by AOAC, DCPIP and DNP methods were found in amaranth, dill and pomegranate, and decreased with storage. Pomegranate showed highest TA levels and low-temperature storage did not significantly increase TA, which was the largest contributor of TP in fruits and vegetables (ρ = 0.661). Storage induced a drastic decrease of AA, which mostly correlated with TP (ρ = 0.808, 0.690 and 0.458 for DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays, respectively). Spearman’s correlation confirmed by principal component analysis demonstrated that dill, pomegranate and amaranth had the highest overall antioxidant capacity, whereas orange juice and carrot showed the lowest. The results provide support for a key-role of TP, followed by Vit. C and TA in antioxidant capacity of fruits and vegetables, which could be interesting dietary sources of natural antioxidants for prevention of diseases caused by oxidative stress. PMID:28737734

  8. A novel highly potent autotaxin/ENPP2 inhibitor produces prolonged decreases in plasma lysophosphatidic acid formation in vivo and regulates urethral tension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Saga

    Full Text Available Autotaxin, also known as ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (ENPP2, is a secreted enzyme that has lysophospholipase D activity, which converts lysophosphatidylcholine to bioactive lysophosphatidic acid. Lysophosphatidic acid activates at least six G-protein coupled recpetors, which promote cell proliferation, survival, migration and muscle contraction. These physiological effects become dysfunctional in the pathology of cancer, fibrosis, and pain. To date, several autotaxin/ENPP2 inhibitors have been reported; however, none were able to completely and continuously inhibit autotaxin/ENPP2 in vivo. In this study, we report the discovery of a highly potent autotaxin/ENPP2 inhibitor, ONO-8430506, which decreased plasma lysophosphatidic acid formation. The IC50 values of ONO-8540506 for lysophospholipase D activity were 6.4-19 nM for recombinant autotaxin/ENPP2 proteins and 4.7-11.6 nM for plasma from various animal species. Plasma lysophosphatidic acid formation during 1-h incubation was almost completely inhibited by the addition of >300 nM of the compound to human plasma. In addition, when administered orally to rats at a dose of 30 mg/kg, the compound demonstrated good pharmacokinetics in rats and persistently inhibited plasma lysophosphatidic acid formation even at 24 h after administration. Smooth muscle contraction is a known to be promoted by lysophosphatidic acid. In this study, we showed that dosing rats with ONO-8430506 decreased intraurethral pressure accompanied by urethral relaxation. These findings demonstrate the potential of this autotaxin/ENPP2 inhibitor for the treatment of various diseases caused by lysophosphatidic acid, including urethral obstructive disease such as benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  9. MDMA decreases glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67-immunoreactive neurons in the hippocampus and increases seizure susceptibility: Role for glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Courtney L; Morano, Rachel L; Herman, James P; Yamamoto, Bryan K; Gudelsky, Gary A

    2016-12-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) is a unique psychostimulant that continues to be a popular drug of abuse. It has been well documented that MDMA reduces markers of 5-HT axon terminals in rodents, as well as humans. A loss of parvalbumin-immunoreactive (IR) interneurons in the hippocampus following MDMA treatment has only been documented recently. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that MDMA reduces glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67-IR, another biochemical marker of GABA neurons, in the hippocampus and that this reduction in GAD67-IR neurons and an accompanying increase in seizure susceptibility involve glutamate receptor activation. Repeated exposure to MDMA (3×10mg/kg, ip) resulted in a reduction of 37-58% of GAD67-IR cells in the dentate gyrus (DG), CA1, and CA3 regions, as well as an increased susceptibility to kainic acid-induced seizures, both of which persisted for at least 30days following MDMA treatment. Administration of the NMDA antagonist MK-801 or the glutamate transporter type 1 (GLT-1) inducer ceftriaxone prevented both the MDMA-induced loss of GAD67-IR neurons and the increased vulnerability to kainic acid-induced seizures. The MDMA-induced increase in the extracellular concentration of glutamate in the hippocampus was significantly diminished in rats treated with ceftriaxone, thereby implicating a glutamatergic mechanism in the neuroprotective effects of ceftriaxone. In summary, the present findings support a role for increased extracellular glutamate and NMDA receptor activation in the MDMA-induced loss of hippocampal GAD67-IR neurons and the subsequent increased susceptibility to evoked seizures.

  10. Maslinic Acid-Enriched Diet Decreases Intestinal Tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ Mice through Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Reprogramming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Tena, Susana; Reyes-Zurita, Fernando J.; Díaz-Moralli, Santiago; Vinardell, Maria Pilar; Reed, Michelle; García-García, Francisco; Dopazo, Joaquín; Lupiáñez, José A.; Günther, Ulrich; Cascante, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Chemoprevention is a pragmatic approach to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in western countries. In this regard, maslinic acid (MA), a pentacyclic triterpene extracted from wax-like coatings of olives, is known to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines without affecting normal intestinal cells. The present study evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy and associated mechanisms of maslinic acid treatment on spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice. Twenty-two mice were randomized into 2 groups: control group and MA group, fed with a maslinic acid–supplemented diet for six weeks. MA treatment reduced total intestinal polyp formation by 45% (P<0.01). Putative molecular mechanisms associated with suppressing intestinal polyposis in ApcMin/+ mice were investigated by comparing microarray expression profiles of MA-treated and control mice and by analyzing the serum metabolic profile using NMR techniques. The different expression phenotype induced by MA suggested that it exerts its chemopreventive action mainly by inhibiting cell-survival signaling and inflammation. These changes eventually induce G1-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, the metabolic changes induced by MA treatment were associated with a protective profile against intestinal tumorigenesis. These results show the efficacy and underlying mechanisms of MA against intestinal tumor development in the ApcMin/+ mice model, suggesting its chemopreventive potential against colorectal cancer. PMID:23527181

  11. Omega-3 fatty acids decreased irritability of patients with bipolar disorder in an add-on, open label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldassano Claudia F

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a report on a 37-patient continuation study of the open ended, Omega-3 Fatty Acid (O-3FA add-on study. Subjects consisted of the original 19 patients, along with 18 new patients recruited and followed in the same fashion as the first nineteen. Subjects carried a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder and were visiting a Mood Disorder Clinic regularly through the length of the study. At each visit, patients' clinical status was monitored using the Clinical Monitoring Form. Subjects reported on the frequency and severity of irritability experienced during the preceding ten days; frequency was measured by way of percentage of days in which subjects experienced irritability, while severity of that irritability was rated on a Likert scale of 1 – 4 (if present. The irritability component of Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS was also recorded quarterly on 13 of the 39 patients consistently. Patients had persistent irritability despite their ongoing pharmacologic and psychotherapy. Omega-3 Fatty Acid intake helped with the irritability component of patients suffering from bipolar disorder with a significant presenting sign of irritability. Low dose (1 to 2 grams per day, add-on O-3FA may also help with the irritability component of different clinical conditions, such as schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder and other psychiatric conditions with a common presenting sign of irritability.

  12. Dietary unsaturated fatty acids increase plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin and may decrease premeal ghrelin in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, B J; Harvatine, K J; Allen, M S

    2008-04-01

    Previous reports have indicated that dietary unsaturated fat can decrease energy intake of lactating dairy cattle. However, the mechanism for this response is unclear. To evaluate the potential role of gut peptides, periprandial concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and ghrelin were measured. From a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square experiment, 4 cows from a single square were selected for analysis of responses to 3 treatments: a control diet (5.5% total fatty acids, 65% unsaturated), a diet with added saturated fat (SAT, 8.3% fatty acids, 47% unsaturated), and a diet with added unsaturated fat (UNS, 7.8% fatty acids, 63% unsaturated). The SAT treatment increased duodenal flow of saturated fatty acids compared with UNS and control and, despite the fact that ruminal biohydrogenation altered fatty acid profiles of digesta, UNS increased duodenal flow of unsaturated fatty acids compared with SAT and control. Blood samples were collected at 8-min intervals through the first 2 meals of the day and analyzed by commercial radioimmunoassays. The UNS treatment increased plasma CCK concentration relative to SAT and control, and increased plasma GLP-1 concentration compared with control. Furthermore, fat treatments tended to suppress the prandial ghrelin surge that was evident for control. Suppression of feed intake by unsaturated fats is likely mediated in part by increased secretion of CCK and GLP-1, and dietary fat may also inhibit ghrelin release before conditioned meals.

  13. Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decreases milk production but increases n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of incremental amounts of ground flaxseed (GFLAX) on milk yield and fatty acids (FA) profile, ruminal metabolism, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean ± SD) 112 ± 68 da...

  14. L-FABP T94A decreased fatty acid uptake and altered hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in Chang liver cells stably transfected with L-FABP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Na; Qu, Xia; Yan, Jin; Huang, Qi; Yuan, Hao-Yong; Ouyang, Dong-Sheng

    2010-12-01

    Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP, FABP1) is a highly conserved key factor in lipid metabolism. This study was undertaken to verify whether the T94A mutation in the L-FABP gene affects fatty acid uptake and intracellular esterification into specific lipid pools. Candidate SNPs were recreated using site-directed mutagenesis and tested for physical function in stably transfected Chang liver cell lines. We found that the T94A mutant of L-FABP lowered FFA uptake but had no effect on FFA efflux. L-FABP T94A-expressing cells showed decreased triglyceride content and increased cholesterol accumulation compared to the wild-type control for cells incubated with an FFA mixture (oleate: palmitate, 2:1 ratio). In conclusion, our study provided additional indications of the functional relevance of the L-FABP T94A SNP in hepatic fatty acid and lipid metabolism in humans.

  15. Higher thermostability of l-lactate dehydrogenases is a key factor in decreasing the optical purity of d-lactic acid produced from Lactobacillus coryniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Sol-A; Jun, Chanha; Joo, Jeong Chan; Kim, Seil; Lee, Seung Hwan; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2014-05-10

    Lactobacillus coryniformis is known to produce d-lactic acid as a dominant fermentation product at a cultivation temperature of approximately 30°C. However, the considerable production of l-lactic acid is observed when the fermentation temperature is greater than 40°C. Because optically pure lactates are synthesized from pyruvate by the catalysis of chiral-specific d- or l-lactate dehydrogenase, the higher thermostability of l-LDHs is assumed to be one of the key factors decreasing the optical purity of d-lactic acid produced from L. coryniformis at high temperature. To verify this hypothesis, two types of d-ldh genes and six types of l-ldh genes based on the genomic information of L. coryniformis were synthesized and expressed in Escherichia coli. Among the LDHs tested, five LDHs showed activity and were used to construct polyclonal antibodies. d-LDH1, l-LDH2, and l-LDH3 were found to be expressed in L. coryniformis by Western blotting analysis. The half-life values (t1/2) of the LDHs at 40°C were estimated to be 10.50, 41.76, and 2311min, and the T50(10) values were 39.50, 39.90, and 58.60°C, respectively. In addition, the Tm values were 36.0, 41.0, and 62.4°C, respectively, which indicates that l-LDH has greater thermostability than d-LDH. The higher thermostability of l-LDHs compared with that of d-LDH1 may be a major reason why the enantiopurity of d-lactic acid is decreased at high fermentation temperatures. The key enzymes characterized will suggest a direction for the design of genetically modified lactic acid bacteria to produce optically pure d-lactic acid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Decreased mental time travel to the past correlates with default-mode network disintegration under lysergic acid diethylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Jana; Speth, Clemens; Kaelen, Mendel; Schloerscheidt, Astrid M; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports on the effects of LSD on mental time travel during spontaneous mentation. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in a placebo-controlled crossover study, incorporating intravenous administration of LSD (75 μg) and placebo (saline) prior to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Six independent, blind judges analysed mentation reports acquired during structured interviews performed shortly after the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans (approximately 2.5 h post-administration). Within each report, specific linguistic references to mental spaces for the past, present and future were identified. Results revealed significantly fewer mental spaces for the past under LSD and this effect correlated with the general intensity of the drug's subjective effects. No differences in the number of mental spaces for the present or future were observed. Consistent with the previously proposed role of the default-mode network (DMN) in autobiographical memory recollection and ruminative thought, decreased resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) within the DMN correlated with decreased mental time travel to the past. These results are discussed in relation to potential therapeutic applications of LSD and related psychedelics, e.g. in the treatment of depression, for which excessive reflection on one's past, likely mediated by DMN functioning, is symptomatic.

  17. Manganese accumulation in membrane fractions of primary astrocytes is associated with decreased γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake, and is exacerbated by oleic acid and palmitate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordahl, Steve C; Erikson, Keith M

    2014-05-01

    Manganese (Mn) exposure interferes with GABA uptake; however, the effects of Mn on GABA transport proteins (GATs) have not been identified. We sought to characterize how Mn impairs GAT function in primary rat astrocytes. Astrocytes exposed to Mn (500 μM) had significantly reduced (3)H-GABA uptake despite no change in membrane or cytosolic GAT3 protein levels. Co-treatment with 100 μM oleic or palmitic acids (both known to be elevated in Mn neurotoxicity), exacerbated the Mn-induced decline in (3)H-GABA uptake. Mn accumulation in the membrane fraction of astrocytes was enhanced with fatty acid administration, and was negatively correlated with (3)H-GABA uptake. Furthermore, control cells exposed to Mn only during the experimental uptake had significantly reduced (3)H-GABA uptake, and the addition of GABA (50 μM) blunted cytosolic Mn accumulation. These data indicate that reduced GAT function in astrocytes is influenced by Mn and fatty acids accumulating at or interacting with the plasma membrane.

  18. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Inhibited Tumor Growth via Preventing the Decrease of Genomic DNA Methylation in Colorectal Cancer Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qionglin; Wen, Juan; Chen, Guangzhao; Ge, Miaomiao; Gao, Yihua; Ye, Xiaoxia; Liu, Chunan; Cai, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Omge-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exhibited significant effect in inhibiting various tumors. However, the mechanisms of its anticancer role have not been fully demonstrated. The declination of 5-methylcytosine (5 mC) was closely associated with poor prognosis of tumors. To explore whether omega-3 PUFAs influences on DNA methylation level in tumors, colorectal cancer (CRC) rat model were constructed using N-methyl phosphite nitrourea and omega-3 PUFAs were fed to part of the rats during tumor induction. The PUFAs contents in the rats of 3 experimental groups were measured using gas chromatography and 5 mC level were detected by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that tumor incidence in omega-3 treated rats was much lower than in CRC model rats, which confirmed significant antitumor role of omega-3 PUFAs. Six PUFA members categorized to omega-3 and omega-6 families were quantified and the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 PUFAs was remarkably lower in omega-3 PUFAs treatment group than in CRC model group. 5 mC content in omega-3 PUFAs treated rats was higher than in CRC model rats, suggesting omega-3 PUFAs promoted 5 mC synthesis. Therefore, omega-3 PUFAs probably inhibited tumor growth via regulating DNA methylation process, which provided a novel anticancer mechanism of omega-3 PUFAs from epigenetic view.

  19. Ab initio investigations of the dynamic and thermodynamic properties of atmospherically relevant strong acids

    OpenAIRE

    Partanen, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Sulfuric and hydrochloric acids participate in several important chemical processes occurring in the atmosphere. Due to its tendency to react with water molecules, sulfuric acid is an important factor in cloud formation and related phenomena. Hydrochloric acid is heavily implicated in stratospheric ozone depletion because of its role as a temporary reservoir for chlorine radicals. In this thesis, the thermodynamics and dynamics of these two acids are investigated. The dynamic part focuse...

  20. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Decrease the Protein Expression of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase via Oxidative Stress-Induced P38 Kinase in Rat Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi; Morino, Katsutaro; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Tawa, Masashi; Kondo, Keiko; Sekine, Osamu; Imamura, Takeshi; Okamura, Tomio; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2017-06-24

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) improve endothelial function. The arachidonic acid-derived metabolites (epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs)) are part of the endothelial hyperpolarization factor and are vasodilators independent of nitric oxide. However, little is known regarding the regulation of EET concentration by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in blood vessels. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a control or fish oil diet for 3 weeks. Compared with the control, the fish oil diet improved acetylcholine-induced vasodilation and reduced the protein expression of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), a key EET metabolic enzyme, in aortic strips. Both DHA and EPA suppressed sEH protein expression in rat aorta endothelial cells (RAECs). Furthermore, the concentration of 4-hydroxy hexenal (4-HHE), a lipid peroxidation product of n-3 PUFAs, increased in n-3 PUFA-treated RAECs. In addition, 4-HHE treatment suppressed sEH expression in RAECs, suggesting that 4-HHE (derived from n-3 PUFAs) is involved in this phenomenon. The suppression of sEH was attenuated by the p38 kinase inhibitor (SB203580) and by treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine. In conclusion, sEH expression decreased after n-3 PUFAs treatment, potentially through oxidative stress and p38 kinase. Mild oxidative stress induced by n-3 PUFAs may contribute to their cardio-protective effect.

  1. Folic acid protects against lead acetate-induced hepatotoxicity by decreasing NF-κB, IL-1β production and lipid peroxidation mediataed cell injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Allah, Eman S H; Badary, Dalia M

    2017-03-01

    Folic acid plays an important role in cellular metabolic activities. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of folic acid against lead acetate-induced hepatotoxicity. Twenty four male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups, six animals each. Negative control group received the vehicle, positive control group received 1mg/kg folic acid for five consecutive days/week for 4 weeks orally, lead-exposed group received 10mg/kg lead acetate intraperitoneally (IP) for five consecutive days/week for 4 weeks, and lead-treated group received 10mg/kg lead acetate IP and 1mg/kg folic acid orally for five consecutive days/week for 4 weeks concurrently. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and γ- glutamyltransferase (GGT) were measured. Hepatic total peroxide and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were also investigated. Histopathological studies using hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and periodic acid shiff's (PAS) were carried out. The expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. Serum AST, ALT and GGT and hepatic total peroxide and IL-1β were significantly increased in lead-exposed group and were positively correlated with hepatic lead level. Moreover, lead-exposed rats showed hydropic degeneration, nuclear vesiculation, high lymphocytic infiltration, depletion of glycogen content and NF-κB expression. Concomitant folic acid administration resulted in a significant alleviation of biochemical and structural alteration-induced by lead. This was associated with reduction of hepatic total peroxide and IL-1β and reduction of NF-κB expression. In conclusion, folic acid protects against lead acetate-induced hepatotoxicity by decreasing NF-κB, IL-1β production and lipid peroxidation mediataed cell injury.

  2. High dietary consumption of trans fatty acids decreases brain docosahexaenoic acid but does not alter amyloid-beta and tau pathologies in the 3xTg-AD model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phivilay, A; Julien, C; Tremblay, C; Berthiaume, L; Julien, P; Giguère, Y; Calon, F

    2009-03-03

    Dietary consumption of trans fatty acids (TFA) has increased during the 20th century and is a suspected risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. More recently, high TFA intake has been associated with a higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate the impact of TFA on an animal model genetically programmed to express amyloid-beta (Abeta) and tau pathological markers of AD, we have fed 3xTg-AD mice with either control (0% TFA/total fatty acid), high TFA (16% TFA) or very high TFA (43% TFA) isocaloric diets from 2 to 16 months of age. Effects of TFA on plasma hepatic enzymes, glucose and lipid profile were minimal but very high TFA intake decreased visceral fat of non-transgenic mice. Importantly, dietary TFA increased brain TFA concentrations in a dose-related manner. Very high TFA consumption substantially modified the brain fatty acid profile by increasing mono-unsaturated fatty acids and decreasing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Very high TFA intake induced a shift from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) toward n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-6) without altering the n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio in the cortex of both control and 3xTg-AD mice. Changes in levels of Abeta(40), Abeta(42), tau protein, phosphorylated tau protein and synaptic markers were not statistically significant in the three groups of 3xTg-AD mice, despite a trend toward decreased insoluble tau in very high TFA-fed 3xTg-AD animals. In summary, TFA intake modulated brain fatty acid profiles but had no significant effect on major brain neuropathological hallmarks of AD in an animal model.

  3. Imaging decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid metabolism and signaling in iPLA2β (VIA)-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basselin, Mireille; Rosa, Angelo O.; Ramadan, Epolia; Cheon, Yewon; Chang, Lisa; Chen, Mei; Greenstein, Deanna; Wohltmann, Mary; Turk, John; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2010-01-01

    Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2β (iPLA2β) selectively hydrolyzes docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) in vitro from phospholipid. Mutations in the PLA2G6 gene encoding this enzyme occur in patients with idiopathic neurodegeneration plus brain iron accumulation and dystonia-parkinsonism without iron accumulation, whereas mice lacking PLA2G6 show neurological dysfunction and neuropathology after 13 months. We hypothesized that brain DHA metabolism and signaling would be reduced in 4-month-old iPLA2β-deficient mice without overt neuropathology. Saline or the cholinergic muscarinic M1,3,5 receptor agonist arecoline (30 mg/kg) was administered to unanesthetized iPLA2β−/−, iPLA2β+/−, and iPLA2β+/+ mice, and [1-14C]DHA was infused intravenously. DHA incorporation coefficients k* and rates Jin, representing DHA metabolism, were determined using quantitative autoradiography in 81 brain regions. iPLA2β−/− or iPLA2β+/− compared with iPLA2β+/+ mice showed widespread and significant baseline reductions in k* and Jin for DHA. Arecoline increased both parameters in brain regions of iPLA2β+/+ mice but quantitatively less so in iPLA2β−/− and iPLA2β+/− mice. Consistent with iPLA2β’s reported ability to selectively hydrolyze DHA from phospholipid in vitro, iPLA2β deficiency reduces brain DHA metabolism and signaling in vivo at baseline and following M1,3,5 receptor activation. Positron emission tomography might be used to image disturbed brain DHA metabolism in patients with PLA2G6 mutations. PMID:20686114

  4. Adipocyte Accumulation of Long-Chain Fatty Acids in Obesity is Multifactorial, Resulting from Increased Fatty Acid Uptake and Decreased Activity of Genes Involved in Fat Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walewski, José L.; Ge, Fengxia; Gagner, Michel; Inabnet, William B.; Pomp, Alfons; Branch, Andrea D.

    2010-01-01

    Background The obesity epidemic causes significant morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of cellular function and gene expression in obese adipose tissue will yield insights into obesity pathogenesis and suggest therapeutic targets. The aim of this work is to study the processes determining fat accumulation in adipose tissue from obese patients. Methods Omental fat was collected from two cohorts of obese bariatric surgery patients and sex-matched normal-weight donors. Isolated adipocytes were compared for cell size, volume, and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) uptake. Omental fat RNAs were screened by 10K microarray (cohort 1: three obese, three normal) or Whole Genome microarray (cohort 2: seven obese, four normal). Statistical differences in gene and pathway expression were identified in cohort 1 using the GeneSifter Software (Geospiza) with key results confirmed in cohort 2 samples by microarray, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and pathway analysis. Results Obese omental adipocytes had increased surface area, volume, and Vmax for saturable LCFA uptake. Dodecenoyl-coenzyme A delta isomerase, central to LCFA metabolism, was approximately 1.6-fold underexpressed in obese fat in cohorts 1 and 2. Additionally, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomics pathway analysis identified oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid metabolism pathways as having coordinate, nonrandom down-regulation of gene expression in both cohorts. Conclusions In obese omental fat, saturable adipocyte LCFA uptake was greater than in controls, and expression of key genes involved in lipolysis, β-oxidation, and metabolism of fatty acids was reduced. Thus, both increased uptake and reduced metabolism of LCFAs contribute to the accumulation of LCFAs in obese adipocytes. PMID:19866242

  5. Chronic postnatal administration of methylmalonic acid provokes a decrease of myelin content and ganglioside N-acetylneuraminic acid concentration in cerebrum of young rats

    OpenAIRE

    Brusque,A.M.; Rotta, L; Pettenuzzo,L.F.; Junqueira,D.; Schwarzbold,C.V.; A.T. Wyse; Wannmacher,C.M.D.; C.S. Dutra-Filho; Wajner,M.

    2001-01-01

    Levels of methylmalonic acid (MMA) comparable to those of human methylmalonic acidemia were achieved in blood (2-2.5 mmol/l) and brain (1.35 µmol/g) of rats by administering buffered MMA, pH 7.4, subcutaneously twice a day from the 5th to the 28th day of life. MMA doses ranged from 0.76 to 1.67 µmol/g as a function of animal age. Control rats were treated with saline in the same volumes. The animals were sacrificed by decapitation on the 28th day of age. Blood was taken and the brain was rapi...

  6. Chronic postnatal administration of methylmalonic acid provokes a decrease of myelin content and ganglioside N-acetylneuramic acid concentration in cerebrum of young rats

    OpenAIRE

    Brusque, Ana Maria; Rotta,Liane Nanci; Pettenuzzo, Letícia Ferreira; Junqueira, Debora; Schwarzbold, Carolina Vargas; Wyse,Angela Terezinha de Souza; Wannmacher, Clovis Milton Duval; Dutra Filho, Carlos Severo; Wajner,Moacir

    2001-01-01

    Levels of methylmalonic acid (MMA) comparable to those of human methylmalonic acidemia were achieved in blood (2-2.5 mmol/l) and brain (1.35 µmol/g) of rats by administering buffered MMA, pH 7.4, subcutaneously twice a day from the 5th to the 28th day of life. MMA doses ranged from 0.76 to 1.67 µmol/g as a function of animal age. Control rats were treated with saline in the same volumes. The animals were sacrificed by decapitation on the 28th day of age. Blood was taken and the brain was rapi...

  7. Locked nucleic acid-inhibitor of miR-205 decreases endometrial cancer cells proliferation in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Anna; Kozak, Joanna; Korolczuk, Agnieszka; Rycak, Dominika; Wdowiak, Paulina; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Torres, Kamil

    2016-11-08

    Pathogenesis of endometrial cancer has been connected with alterations of microRNA expression and in particular miR-205 up-regulation was consistently reported in this carcinoma. Presented study aimed to investigate if inhibition of miR-205 expression using LNA-modified-nucleotide would attenuate endometrial cancer cells proliferation in vitro and in vivo.In the course of the study we found that the proliferation of endometrial cancer cells (HEC-1-B, RL-95, KLE, Ishikawa) transfected with LNA-miR-205-inhibitor and evaluated using real time cell monitoring as well as standard cell proliferation assay, was significantly decreased. Next, LNA-miR-205-inhibitor was used to assess the in vivo effects of miR-205 inhibition of endometrial cancer growth. Cby.Cg-Foxn1/cmdb mice bearing endometrial cancer xenografts were intraperitoneally injected with nine dosages of 25mg/kg of miR-205-LNA-inhibitor or scramble control or phosphatase buffered saline and were observed for 32 days. We found that systemic administration of miR-205-LNA-inhibitor was technically possible, and exerted inhibitory effect on endometrial cancer xenograft growth in vivo with only mild toxic effects in treated animals.In conclusion our results suggest that systemic delivery of miR-205-LNA-inhibitor is feasible, devoid of significant toxicity, and could be a promising treatment strategy for endometrial cancer. Therefore it warrants further studies in other animal models.

  8. Dietary Caprylic Acid (C8:0) Does Not Increase Plasma Acylated Ghrelin but Decreases Plasma Unacylated Ghrelin in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemarié, Fanny; Beauchamp, Erwan; Dayot, Stéphanie; Duby, Cécile; Legrand, Philippe; Rioux, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on the caprylic acid (C8:0), this study aimed at investigating the discrepancy between the formerly described beneficial effects of dietary medium chain fatty acids on body weight loss and the C8:0 newly reported effect on food intake via ghrelin octanoylation. During 6 weeks, Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed with three dietary C8:0 levels (0, 8 and 21% of fatty acids) in three experimental conditions (moderate fat, caloric restriction and high fat). A specific dose-response enrichment of the stomach tissue C8:0 was observed as a function of dietary C8:0, supporting the hypothesis of an early preduodenal hydrolysis of medium chain triglycerides and a direct absorption at the gastric level. However, the octanoylated ghrelin concentration in the plasma was unchanged in spite of the increased C8:0 availability. A reproducible decrease in the plasma concentration of unacylated ghrelin was observed, which was consistent with a decrease in the stomach preproghrelin mRNA and stomach ghrelin expression. The concomitant decrease of the plasma unacylated ghrelin and the stability of its acylated form resulted in a significant increase in the acylated/total ghrelin ratio which had no effect on body weight gain or total dietary consumption. This enhanced ratio measured in rats consuming C8:0 was however suspected to increase (i) growth hormone (GH) secretion as an increase in the GH-dependent mRNA expression of the insulin like growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) was measured (ii) adipocyte diameters in subcutaneous adipose tissue without an increase in the fat pad mass. Altogether, these results show that daily feeding with diets containing C8:0 increased the C8:0 level in the stomach more than all the other tissues, affecting the acylated/total ghrelin plasma ratio by decreasing the concentration of circulating unacylated ghrelin. However, these modifications were not associated with increased body weight or food consumption.

  9. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA decrease obesity-associated Th17 cell-mediated inflammation during colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Monk

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that obesity-associated inflammation increases disease activity during colitis, attributed in part to the effects of Th17 cells. Using a model of concurrent obesity and colitis, we monitored changes in critical immune cell subsets and inflammatory biomarker expression in three key tissues: visceral adipose tissue, colon (local inflammatory site and spleen (systemic inflammatory site, and we hypothesized that n-3 PUFA would reduce the percentage of inflammatory immune cell subsets and suppress inflammatory gene expression, thereby improving the disease phenotype. Obesity was induced in C57BL/6 mice by feeding a high fat (HF diet (59.2% kcal alone or an isocaloric HF diet supplemented with fish oil (HF-FO for 12 weeks. Colitis was induced via a 2.5% trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS enema. The HF-FO diet improved the obese phenotype by reducing i serum hormone concentrations (leptin and resistin, ii adipose tissue mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IFNγ, IL-6, IL17F and IL-21 and iii total (F4/80⁺ CD11b⁺ and inflammatory adipose tissue M1 (F4/80⁺ CD11c⁺ macrophage content compared to HF (P<0.05. In addition, the HF-FO diet reduced both colitis-associated disease severity and colonic mRNA expression of the Th17 cell master transcription factor (RORγτ and critical cytokines (IL-6, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-23 and IFNγ versus HF (P<0.05. Compared to HF, the percentage of both splenic Th17 and Th1 cells were reduced by the HF-FO group (P<0.05. Under ex vivo polarizing conditions, the percentage of HF-FO derived CD4⁺ T cells that reached Th17 cell effector status was suppressed (P = 0.05. Collectively, these results indicate that n-3 PUFA suppress Th1/Th17 cells and inflammatory macrophage subsets and reconfigure the inflammatory gene expression profile in diverse tissue sites in obese mice following the induction of colitis.

  10. Long-term temporal trends and spatial patterns in the acid-base chemistry of lakes in the Adirondack region of New York in response to decreases in acidic deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Charles T.; Driscoll, Kimberley M.; Fakhraei, Habibollah; Civerolo, Kevin

    2016-12-01

    We examined the response of lake water chemistry in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State, USA to decreases in acid deposition. Striking declines in the concentrations and fluxes of sulfate and hydrogen ion in wet deposition have been observed since the late 1970s, while significant decreases in nitrate have been evident since the early 2000s. Decreases in estimated dry sulfur and nitrate deposition have also occurred in the Adirondacks, but with no change in dry to wet deposition ratios. These patterns follow long-term decreases in anthropogenic emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the U.S. over the same interval. All of the 48 lakes monitored through the Adirondack Long-Term Monitoring program since 1992 have exhibited significant declines in sulfate concentrations, consistent with reductions in atmospheric deposition of sulfur. Nitrate concentrations have also significantly diminished at variable rates in many (33 of 48) lakes. Decreases in concentrations of sulfate plus nitrate (48 of 48) in lakes have driven widespread increases in acid neutralizing capacity (ANC; 42 of 48) and lab pH (33 of 48), and decreases in the toxic fraction, inorganic monomeric Al (45 of 48). Coincident with decreases in acid deposition, concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have also increased in some (29 of 48) lakes. While recovery from elevated acid deposition is evident across Adirondack lakes, highly sensitive and impacted mounded seepages lakes and thin till drainage lakes are recovering most rapidly. Future research might focus on how much additional recovery could be achieved given the current deposition relative to future deposition anticipated under the Clean Power Plan, ecosystem effects of increased mobilization of dissolved organic matter, and the influence of changing climate on recovery from acidification.

  11. Hafnium extraction from acidic chloride solutions by Cyanex 923

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ammouri, E.; Distin, P.A. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)

    1996-08-01

    Hafnium extraction from hydrochloric acid/lithium chloride solutions into Cyanex 923 in kerosene has been studied. Variables investigated were hydrochloric acid, total chloride and hafnium concentrations in the aqueous phase, and extractant/modifier (isodecanol) levels in the organic phase. Hafnium is considered to load as the tetrachloride complex forming a disolvate with Cyanex 923. Results are compared with equivalent data for zirconium extraction. 14 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Corrosão de cerâmicas à base de Si3N4 em soluções aquosas de HCl 0,1 N Corrosion of Si3N4 ceramics in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid solution

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    F. Vernilli Júnior

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento à corrosão de cerâmicas à base de Si3N4 contendo misturas de Y2O3/SiO2 e RE2O3/SiO2 como aditivos nas proporções de 14 e 21% em volume ambos na estequiometria dos dissilicatos Y2Si2O7 e RE2Si2O7, respectivamente, foi estudado em soluções aquosas de HCl 0,1N a 100 °C. A resistência à corrosão foi avaliada pela perda de massa das amostras e análise química das soluções após os testes. As análises por microscopia eletrônica das amostras atacadas revelou que basicamemte a fase vítrea intergranular foi dissolvida pela solução ácida, deixando um esqueleto de grãos de b-Si3N4 entrelaçados.The corrosion resistance of Si3N4 ceramics with 14 and 21 vol.% of Y2O3/SiO2 and RE2O3/SiO2 mixtures as additive, both in the stoichiometry of disilicates Y2 Si2O7 and RE2Si2O7, respectively, has been investigated in 0.1N HCl solutions. Samples were prepared by a two step gas pressure sintering process, under a final N2 pressure of 10 MPa and a maximum temperature of 1850 °C for 30 min. The corrosion resistance was evaluated by the mass change of polished samples and chemical analysis of the solutions after the tests. Analysis by electron microscopy showed that the glassy intergranular phase is dissolved by the acid solution, leaving a skeleton of interlinked b -Si3N4 grains.

  13. Chronic postnatal administration of methylmalonic acid provokes a decrease of myelin content and ganglioside N-acetylneuraminic acid concentration in cerebrum of young rats

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    Brusque A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of methylmalonic acid (MMA comparable to those of human methylmalonic acidemia were achieved in blood (2-2.5 mmol/l and brain (1.35 µmol/g of rats by administering buffered MMA, pH 7.4, subcutaneously twice a day from the 5th to the 28th day of life. MMA doses ranged from 0.76 to 1.67 µmol/g as a function of animal age. Control rats were treated with saline in the same volumes. The animals were sacrificed by decapitation on the 28th day of age. Blood was taken and the brain was rapidly removed. Medulla, pons, the olfactory lobes and cerebellum were discarded and the rest of the brain ("cerebrum" was isolated. Body and "cerebrum" weight were measured, as well as the cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in blood and the content of myelin, total lipids, and the concentrations of the lipid fractions (cholesterol, glycerolipids, phospholipids and ganglioside N-acetylneuraminic acid (ganglioside-NANA in the "cerebrum". Chronic MMA administration had no effect on body or "cerebrum" weight, suggesting that the metabolites per se neither affect the appetite of the rats nor cause malnutrition. In contrast, MMA caused a significant reduction of plasma triglycerides, but not of plasma cholesterol levels. A significant diminution of myelin content and of ganglioside-NANA concentration was also observed in the "cerebrum". We propose that the reduction of myelin content and ganglioside-NANA caused by MMA may be related to the delayed myelination/cerebral atrophy and neurological dysfunction found in methylmalonic acidemic children.

  14. Insulin does not stimulate muscle protein synthesis during increased plasma branched-chain amino acids alone but still decreases whole body proteolysis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everman, Sarah; Meyer, Christian; Tran, Lee; Hoffman, Nyssa; Carroll, Chad C; Dedmon, William L; Katsanos, Christos S

    2016-10-01

    Insulin stimulates muscle protein synthesis when the levels of total amino acids, or at least the essential amino acids, are at or above their postabsorptive concentrations. Among the essential amino acids, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) have the primary role in stimulating muscle protein synthesis and are commonly sought alone to stimulate muscle protein synthesis in humans. Fourteen healthy young subjects were studied before and after insulin infusion to examine whether insulin stimulates muscle protein synthesis in relation to the availability of BCAA alone. One half of the subjects were studied in the presence of postabsorptive BCAA concentrations (control) and the other half in the presence of increased plasma BCAA (BCAA). Compared with that prior to the initiation of the insulin infusion, fractional synthesis rate of muscle protein (%/h) did not change (P > 0.05) during insulin in either the control (0.04 ± 0.01 vs 0.05 ± 0.01) or the BCAA (0.05 ± 0.02 vs. 0.05 ± 0.01) experiments. Insulin decreased (P BCAA (0.89 ± 0.07 vs 0.61 ± 0.03) experiments, but the change was not different between the two experiments (P > 0.05). In conclusion, insulin does not stimulate muscle protein synthesis in the presence of increased circulating levels of plasma BCAA alone. Insulin's suppressive effect on proteolysis is observed independently of the levels of circulating plasma BCAA.

  15. Mutations in the Arabidopsis Lst8 and Raptor genes encoding partners of the TOR complex, or inhibition of TOR activity decrease abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Alena; Citerne, Sylvie; Jéhanno, Isabelle; Bersimbaev, Rakhmetkazhi I; Veit, Bruce; Meyer, Christian; Leprince, Anne-Sophie

    2015-11-27

    The Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase regulates essential processes in plant growth and development by modulation of metabolism and translation in response to environmental signals. In this study, we show that abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism is also regulated by the TOR kinase. Indeed ABA hormone level strongly decreases in Lst8-1 and Raptor3g mutant lines as well as in wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis plants treated with AZD-8055, a TOR inhibitor. However the growth and germination of these lines are more sensitive to exogenous ABA. The diminished ABA hormone accumulation is correlated with lower transcript levels of ZEP, NCED3 and AAO3 biosynthetic enzymes, and higher transcript amount of the CYP707A2 gene encoding a key-enzyme in abscisic acid catabolism. These results suggest that the TOR signaling pathway is implicated in the regulation of ABA accumulation in Arabidopsis.

  16. Decrease of aquaporin-4 and excitatory amino acid transporter-2 indicate astrocyte dysfunction for pathogenesis of cortical degeneration in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Hui Qin; Zhang, Yu; Izumo, Kimiko; Arishima, Shiho; Kubota, Ryuji; Ye, Xiang; Xu, Qiping; Mori, Kazuyasu; Izumo, Shuji

    2017-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalitis and degeneration of cerebral cortex are established histopathologies of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). We previously reported decreased excitatory amino acid transporter-2 (EAAT-2) and astrocytic apoptosis in cortical degeneration using SIVmac239 and simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected macaques and human AIDS autopsy cases. In the present study, we added highly pathogenic SIVsm543-3-infected macaques. These animals showed similar degenerative changes in the frontal cortex. Using 11 SIV-infected macaques, three SIVsm543-3, five SIVmac239 and three SHIV, we compared brain pathology caused by three different viruses and further analyzed the pathogenic process of HAND. We noticed vacuolar changes in perivascular processes of astrocytes by electron microscopy, and examined expression of astrocyte-specific protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4) by immunohistochemistry. APQ4 was diffusely positive in the neuropil and perivascular area in control brains. There was patchy or diffuse decrease of AQP4 staining in the neuropil of SIV-infected macaques, which was associated with EAAT-2 staining by double immunostaining. A quantitative analysis demonstrated significant positive correlation between areas of AQP4 and EAAT-2. Some astrocytes express EAAT-2 but not AQP4, and decrease of EAAT-2 expression tended to be less than the decrease of AQP4. Active-caspase-3 immunostaining demonstrated apoptosis of neurons and astrocytes in the area of AQP4/EAAT-2 reduction. These results suggest that AQP4 is damaged first and decrease of EAAT-2 may follow in pathogenesis of cortical degeneration. This is the first demonstration of decrease of AQP4 and its association with EAAT-2 decrease in AIDS brain, suggesting a role in the pathogenesis of HAND. © 2016 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  17. XANTHINE OXYDASE INHIBITION OF KOMBUCHA TEA IN HYPERURICEMIA INDUCED WISTAR RAT: decrease of uric acid, malondialdehyde, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine

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    I D. M. Sukrama

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperuricemia is a condition of high level of uric acid in the body due to distortion of purine nucleoside metabolism through hipoxanthin, xanthin, and guanin of basic purine. Objective: to find a cure of hyperuricemia base on the utilization of kombucha tea. Methods: This is a true experimental study by applying posttest only control group design to determine whether kombucha tea inhibit xanthine oxidase in hyperuricemic induced rat reveales by decrease of uric acid, malondialdehyde (MDA, and 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG. In this study, hyperuricemia rat was achieved by intake of high purine diet. Rats were fed with a mixture of 4 g/kg BW of Gnetum gnemon with 50 mL/kg BW of chicken liver ad libitum for 9 days. Treatments in this research are combination of fermentation time of Kombucha tea and volume of this tea, i.e fermentation time 4, 8, and 12 days and the volume are 1 mL and 4 mL. Therefore, there would be seven groups of treatment including control group. ANOVA was then applied to determine the treatment effect with p < 0.05 was concidered significant. Results: This study indicates that kombucha tea has an ability to inhibit xanthine oxidase in hyperuricemic induced rat and decrease uric acid, MDA, and 8-OHdG. This ability was achieved with combination treatment of 12 days fermentation and 4 mL of kombucha intake. Xanthine oxidase, uric acid, MDA, and 8-OHdG levels by this treatment were obtained significantly lower compare to control group. Conclusion: This study proved that kombucha tea was potent to cure hyperuricemia of wistar rat via inhibition of xanthine oxidase produced.

  18. Carrot Juice Administration Decreases Liver Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 and Improves Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels, but Not Steatosis in High Fructose Diet-Fed Weanling Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Malleswarapu; Bharathi, Munugala; Reddy, Mooli Raja Gopal; Kumar, Manchiryala Sravan; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula; Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M.

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent liver diseases associated with an altered lifestyle, besides genetic factors. The control and management of NAFLD mostly depend on lifestyle modifications, due to the lack of a specific therapeutic approach. In this context, we assessed the effect of carrot juice on the development of high fructose-induced hepatic steatosis. For this purpose, male weanling Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, fed either a control (Con) or high fructose (HFr) diet of AIN93G composition, with or without carrot juice (CJ) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, plasma biochemical markers, such as triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, and β-hydroxy butyrate levels were comparable among the 4 groups. Although, the liver injury marker, aspartate aminotransferase, levels in plasma showed a reduction, hepatic triglycerides levels were not significantly reduced by carrot juice ingestion in the HFr diet-fed rats (HFr-CJ). On the other hand, the key triglyceride synthesis pathway enzyme, hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), expression at mRNA level was augmented by carrot juice ingestion, while their protein levels showed a significant reduction, which corroborated with decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), particularly palmitoleic (C16:1) and oleic (C18:1) acids. Notably, it also improved the long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6) content of the liver in HFr-CJ. In conclusion, carrot juice ingestion decreased the SCD1-mediated production of MUFA and improved DHA levels in liver, under high fructose diet-fed conditions. However, these changes did not significantly lower the hepatic triglyceride levels. PMID:27752492

  19. Probiotics decreased the bioavailability of the bile acid analog, monoketocholic acid, when coadministered with gliclazide, in healthy but not diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salami, Hani; Butt, Grant; Tucker, Ian; Golocorbin-Kon, Svetlana; Mikov, Momir

    2012-06-01

    In recent studies we showed that gliclazide has no hypoglycemic effect on type 1 diabetic (T1D) rats while MKC does, and their combination exerted a better hypoglycemic effect than MKC alone. We also showed that the most hypoglycemic effect was noticed when T1D rats were treated with probiotics then gavaged with MKC + gliclazide (blood glucose decreased from 24 ± 3 to 10 ± 2 mmol/l). The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of probiotics on MKC pharmacokinetics when coadministered with gliclazide, in T1D rats. 80 male Wistar rats (weight 350 ± 50 g) were randomly allocated into 8 groups (10 rats/group), 4 of which were injected with alloxan (30 mg/kg) to induce T1D. Group 1 was healthy and group 2 was diabetic. Groups 3 (healthy) and 4 (diabetic) were gavaged with probiotics (75 mg/kg) every 12 h for 3 days and 12 h later all groups received a single oral dose of MKC + gliclazide (4 and 20 mg/kg respectively). The remaining 4 groups were treated in the same way but administered MKC + gliclazide via the i.v. route. Blood samples collected from T1D rats prior to MKC + gliclazide revealed that probiotic treatment alone reduced blood glucose levels twofold. When coadministered with gliclazide, the bioavailability of MKC was reduced in healthy rats treated with probiotics but remained the same in diabetic pretreated rats. The decrease in MKC bioavailability, when administered with gliclazide, caused by probiotic treatment in healthy but not diabetic rats suggests that probiotic treatment induced MKC metabolism or impaired its absorption, only in healthy animals. The different MKC bioavailability in healthy and diabetic rats could be explained by different induction of presystemic elimination of MKC in the gut by probiotic treatment.

  20. Suppression of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus by 2-Phenylethanol Is Associated with Stimulated Growth and Decreased Degradation of Branched-Chain Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perng-Kuang Chang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The saprophytic soil fungus Aspergillus flavus infects crops and produces aflatoxin. Pichia anomala, which is a biocontrol yeast and produces the major volatile 2-phenylethanol (2-PE, is able to reduce growth of A. flavus and aflatoxin production when applied onto pistachio trees. High levels of 2-PE are lethal to A. flavus and other fungi. However, at low levels, the underlying mechanism of 2-PE to inhibit aflatoxin production remains unclear. In this study, we characterized the temporal transcriptome response of A. flavus to 2-PE at a subinhibitory level (1 μL/mL using RNA-Seq technology and bioinformatics tools. The treatment during the entire 72 h experimental period resulted in 131 of the total A. flavus 13,485 genes to be significantly impacted, of which 82 genes exhibited decreased expression. They included those encoding conidiation proteins and involved in cyclopiazonic acid biosynthesis. All genes in the aflatoxin gene cluster were also significantly decreased during the first 48 h treatment. Gene Ontology (GO analyses showed that biological processes with GO terms related to catabolism of propionate and branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine and isoleucine were significantly enriched in the down-regulated gene group, while those associated with ribosome biogenesis, translation, and biosynthesis of α-amino acids were over-represented among the up-regulated genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analysis revealed that metabolic pathways negatively impacted among the down-regulated genes parallel to those active at 30 °C, a condition conducive to aflatoxin biosynthesis. In contrast, metabolic pathways positively related to the up-regulated gene group resembled those at 37 °C, which favors rapid fungal growth and is inhibitory to aflatoxin biosynthesis. The results showed that 2-PE at a low level stimulated active growth of A. flavus but concomitantly rendered decreased activities in branched-chain amino

  1. Suppression of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus by 2-Phenylethanol Is Associated with Stimulated Growth and Decreased Degradation of Branched-Chain Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Perng-Kuang; Hua, Sui Sheng T; Sarreal, Siov Bouy L; Li, Robert W

    2015-09-24

    The saprophytic soil fungus Aspergillus flavus infects crops and produces aflatoxin. Pichia anomala, which is a biocontrol yeast and produces the major volatile 2-phenylethanol (2-PE), is able to reduce growth of A. flavus and aflatoxin production when applied onto pistachio trees. High levels of 2-PE are lethal to A. flavus and other fungi. However, at low levels, the underlying mechanism of 2-PE to inhibit aflatoxin production remains unclear. In this study, we characterized the temporal transcriptome response of A. flavus to 2-PE at a subinhibitory level (1 μL/mL) using RNA-Seq technology and bioinformatics tools. The treatment during the entire 72 h experimental period resulted in 131 of the total A. flavus 13,485 genes to be significantly impacted, of which 82 genes exhibited decreased expression. They included those encoding conidiation proteins and involved in cyclopiazonic acid biosynthesis. All genes in the aflatoxin gene cluster were also significantly decreased during the first 48 h treatment. Gene Ontology (GO) analyses showed that biological processes with GO terms related to catabolism of propionate and branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine and isoleucine) were significantly enriched in the down-regulated gene group, while those associated with ribosome biogenesis, translation, and biosynthesis of α-amino acids OPEN ACCESS Toxins 2015, 7 3888 were over-represented among the up-regulated genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed that metabolic pathways negatively impacted among the down-regulated genes parallel to those active at 30 °C, a condition conducive to aflatoxin biosynthesis. In contrast, metabolic pathways positively related to the up-regulated gene group resembled those at 37 °C, which favors rapid fungal growth and is inhibitory to aflatoxin biosynthesis. The results showed that 2-PE at a low level stimulated active growth of A. flavus but concomitantly rendered decreased activities in

  2. Production of trans C18:1 and conjugated linoleic acid in continuous culture fermenters fed diets containing fish oil and sunflower oil with decreasing levels of forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abughazaleh, A; Jacobson, B N

    2007-06-01

    Previously, feeding fish oil (FO) and sunflower seeds to dairy cows resulted in the greatest increases in the concentrations of vaccenic acid (VA, t11 C18:1) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk fat. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of forage level in diets containing FO and sunflower oil (SFO) on the production of trans C18:1 and CLA by mixed ruminal microbes. A dual-flow continuous culture system consisting of three fermenters was used in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design. Treatments consisted of (1) 75:25 forage:concentrate (HF); (2) 50:50 forage:concentrate (MF); and (3) 25:75 forage:concentrate (LF). FO and SFO were added to each diet at 1 and 2 g/100 g dry matter (DM), respectively. The forage source was alfalfa pellets. During 10-day incubations, fermenters were fed treatment diets three times daily (140 g/day, divided equally between three feedings) as TMR diet. Effluents from the last 3 days of incubation were collected and composited for analysis. The concentration of trans C18:1 (17.20, 26.60, and 36.08 mg/g DM overflow for HF, MF, and LF treatments, respectively) increased while CLA (2.53, 2.35, and 0.81 mg/g DM overflow) decreased in a linear manner ( P effluent increased ( P effluent decreased in a linear manner ( P < 0.05) as dietary forage levels decreased. Decreasing dietary forage levels resulted in t10 C18:1 and t10c12 CLA replacing VA and c9t11 CLA, respectively, in fermenters fed FO and SFO.

  3. Inhibiting Effects of Rabeprazole Sulfide on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Acidic Chloride Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Pavithra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition effect of Rabeprazole sulfide (RS on mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl was investigated using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and chronoamperometric measurements. Protection efficiency of RS increases with the concentration and decreases with the rise in temperature. Adsorption of RS on mild steel surface in 1 M HCl follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters governing the adsorption process were calculated and discussed. The polarization results suggest that RS performed as an excellent mixed-type inhibitor for mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl.

  4. Intracerebroventricular administration of α-ketoisocaproic acid decreases brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor levels in brain of young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Miriam S W; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Gomes, Lara M; Zapelini, Hugo G; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Scaini, Giselli; Streck, Emilio L

    2016-04-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited aminoacidopathy resulting from dysfunction of the branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase complex, leading to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, isoleucine and valine as well as their corresponding transaminated branched-chain α-ketoacids. This disorder is clinically characterized by ketoacidosis, seizures, coma, psychomotor delay and mental retardation whose pathophysiology is not completely understood. Recent studies have shown that oxidative stress may be involved in neuropathology of MSUD. However, the effect of accumulating α-ketoacids in MSUD on neurotrophic factors has not been investigated. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of acute intracerebroventricular administration of α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in the brains of young male rats. Ours results showed that intracerebroventricular administration of KIC decreased BDNF levels in hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex, without induce a detectable change in pro-BDNF levels. Moreover, NGF levels in the hippocampus were reduced after intracerebroventricular administration of KIC. In conclusion, these data suggest that the effects of KIC on demyelination and memory processes may be mediated by reduced trophic support of BDNF and NGF. Moreover, lower levels of BDNF and NGF are consistent with the hypothesis that a deficit in this neurotrophic factor may contribute to the structural and functional alterations of brain underlying the psychopathology of MSUD, supporting the hypothesis of a neurodegenerative process in MSUD.

  5. Herbivore perception decreases photosynthetic carbon-assimilation and reduces stomatal conductance by engaging 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 and cytokinin perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Canales, Ivan D; Meldau, Stefan; Zavala, Jorge A; Baldwin, Ian T

    2016-12-07

    Herbivory-induced changes in photosynthesis have been documented in many plant species, however the complexity of photosynthetic regulation and analysis has thwarted progress in understanding the mechanism involved, particularly those elicited by herbivore-specific elicitors. Here we analyzed the early photosynthetic gas-exchange responses in Nicotiana attenuata plants after wounding and elicitation with Manduca sexta oral-secretions, and the pathways regulating these responses. Elicitation with M. sexta oral-secretions rapidly decreased photosynthetic carbon-assimilation (AC ) in treated and systemic (untreated, vascularly connected) leaves, which were associated with changes in stomatal conductance, rather than with changes in Rubisco activity and RuBP-turnover. Phytohormone profiling and gas-exchange-analysis of oral-secretion-elicited transgenic plants altered in phytohormone regulation, biosynthesis and perception, combined with micrografting techniques, revealed that the local photosynthetic-responses were mediated by 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), while the systemic responses involved interactions among jasmonates, cytokinins and abscisic acid signaling mediated by mitogen activated protein kinase 4 (MPK4). The analysis also revealed a role for cytokinins interacting with MPK4 in CO2 -mediated stomatal regulation. Hence oral-secretions, while eliciting jasmonic acid-mediated defense responses, also elicits OPDA-mediated changes in stomatal conductance and AC , an observation illustrating the complexity and economy of the signaling that regulates defense and carbon assimilation pathways in response to herbivore attack.

  6. Potent PPARα activator derived from tomato juice, 13-oxo-9,11-octadecadienoic acid, decreases plasma and hepatic triglyceride in obese diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-il Kim

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for development of several obesity-related diseases. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates energy metabolism. Previously, we reported that 9-oxo-10,12-octadecadienoic acid (9-oxo-ODA is presented in fresh tomato fruits and acts as a PPARα agonist. In addition to 9-oxo-ODA, we developed that 13-oxo-9,11-octadecadienoic acid (13-oxo-ODA, which is an isomer of 9-oxo-ODA, is present only in tomato juice. In this study, we explored the possibility that 13-oxo-ODA acts as a PPARα agonist in vitro and whether its effect ameliorates dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis in vivo. In vitro luciferase assay experiments revealed that 13-oxo-ODA significantly induced PPARα activation; moreover, the luciferase activity of 13-oxo-ODA was stronger than that of 9-oxo-ODA and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, which is a precursor of 13-oxo-ODA and is well-known as a potent PPARα activator. In addition to in vitro experiment, treatment with 13-oxo-ODA decreased the levels of plasma and hepatic triglycerides in obese KK-Ay mice fed a high-fat diet. In conclusion, our findings indicate that 13-oxo-ODA act as a potent PPARα agonist, suggesting a possibility to improve obesity-induced dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis.

  7. Fatty acids, epicatechin-dimethylgallate, and rutin interact with buckwheat starch inhibiting its digestion by amylase: implications for the decrease in glycemic index by buckwheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahama, Umeo; Hirota, Sachiko

    2010-12-08

    Glycemic indexes of bread made from mixtures of wheat flour and buckwheat flour are lower than those made from wheat flour. To discuss the mechanism of the buckwheat flour-dependent decrease in glycemic indexes, the formation of a starch-iodine complex and amylase-catalyzed digestion of starch were studied using buckwheat flour itself and buckwheat flour from which fatty acids, rutin, and proanthocyanidins including flavan-3-ols had been extracted. Absorbance due to the formation of a starch-iodine complex was larger in extracted than control flour, and starch in extracted flour was more susceptible to pancreatin-induced digestion than starch in control flour. Fatty acids, which were found in the buckwheat flour extract, bound to amylose in the extracted flour, inhibiting its digestion by pancreatin. Rutin and epicatechin-dimethylgallate, which were also found in the extract, bound to both amylose and amylopectin in the extracted flour, inhibiting their digestion induced by pancreatin. We discussed from these results that the lower glycemic indexes of bread made from mixtures of wheat flour and buckwheat flour were due to binding of fatty acids, rutin, and epicatechin-dimethylgallate, which were contained in buckwheat flour, to wheat flour starch.

  8. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) decrease prostate cancer cell proliferation: different molecular mechanisms for cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Julio J; Farquharson, Andrew J; Grant, Ian; Moffat, L E; Heys, Steven D; Wahle, Klaus W J

    2004-07-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the anti-proliferative effects of different concentrations of a commercial preparation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) mixture of isomers [cis-9, trans-11 CLA (c9,t11 CLA): trans-10, cis-12 CLA (50:50)] and their constituent isomers on PC-3, a human prostatic carcinoma cell line, and to study their effects on gene expression (mRNA and protein levels) of different enzymes and oncoproteins involved in oncogenesis and progression of prostate cancer. This includes pathways for arachidonic acid metabolism [cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1), 2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX)], apoptosis (bcl-2) and cell cycle control (p21(WAF/Cip1)). Our results indicate a significant decrease in PC-3 proliferation elicited by CLA, although with high variability between isomers. The trans-10, cis-12 CLA was the most effective isomer (55% inhibition). This isomer was also able to decrease bcl-2 gene expression and to increase p21(WAF1/Cip1) mRNA levels (60% increase at highest concentration). In contrast, cis-9, trans-11 had no effect on these proteins but had a clear effect on 5-LOX expression and to a lesser degree on COX-2 protein level isomers. In conclusion, the anti-proliferative effects on PC-3 of CLA mixture and their constituent isomers are not equivalent, due to the different pathways involved for individual isomers. Trans-10, cis-12 seems to work preferentially through modulation of apoptosis and cell cycle control, while c9,t11 CLA isomer affects arachidonic acid metabolism.

  9. Dietary Caprylic Acid (C8:0 Does Not Increase Plasma Acylated Ghrelin but Decreases Plasma Unacylated Ghrelin in the Rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Lemarié

    Full Text Available Focusing on the caprylic acid (C8:0, this study aimed at investigating the discrepancy between the formerly described beneficial effects of dietary medium chain fatty acids on body weight loss and the C8:0 newly reported effect on food intake via ghrelin octanoylation. During 6 weeks, Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed with three dietary C8:0 levels (0, 8 and 21% of fatty acids in three experimental conditions (moderate fat, caloric restriction and high fat. A specific dose-response enrichment of the stomach tissue C8:0 was observed as a function of dietary C8:0, supporting the hypothesis of an early preduodenal hydrolysis of medium chain triglycerides and a direct absorption at the gastric level. However, the octanoylated ghrelin concentration in the plasma was unchanged in spite of the increased C8:0 availability. A reproducible decrease in the plasma concentration of unacylated ghrelin was observed, which was consistent with a decrease in the stomach preproghrelin mRNA and stomach ghrelin expression. The concomitant decrease of the plasma unacylated ghrelin and the stability of its acylated form resulted in a significant increase in the acylated/total ghrelin ratio which had no effect on body weight gain or total dietary consumption. This enhanced ratio measured in rats consuming C8:0 was however suspected to increase (i growth hormone (GH secretion as an increase in the GH-dependent mRNA expression of the insulin like growth Factor 1 (IGF-1 was measured (ii adipocyte diameters in subcutaneous adipose tissue without an increase in the fat pad mass. Altogether, these results show that daily feeding with diets containing C8:0 increased the C8:0 level in the stomach more than all the other tissues, affecting the acylated/total ghrelin plasma ratio by decreasing the concentration of circulating unacylated ghrelin. However, these modifications were not associated with increased body weight or food consumption.

  10. 46 CFR 151.50-76 - Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... two fitted flame screens as described in § 151.03-25. Neither a shut-off valve nor a frangible disk... gaskets. (c) Where special arrangements are approved by the Commandant (CG-522) to permit a pump...

  11. Anticoccidial activity of hydrochloric acid (HCl against Eimeria tenella in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Z Abbas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was planned to evaluate the anticoccidial activity of the different concentrations of the HCl against Eimeria tenella infection in broiler chickens in comparison with the amprolium anticoccidial. For this purpose, a total of 198 chicks were placed 11 per pen with three pens per treatment. The different concentrations of HCl (1000ppm, 2000ppm and 3000ppm and amproilum (at the dose rate of 125ppm were given to the experimental groups in drinking water from 10 to 19th days of age. One group was kept as infected non medicated control and one as non infected non medicated control. At the 12th day of age, all the groups were inoculated orally with 75,000 sporulated oocysts except non infected non medicated control. Anticoccidial activity was evaluated on the basis of performance (weight gain, feed conversion ratio and pathogenic (oocyst score, lesion score and mortality %age parameters. Among HCl medicated groups, the maximum anticoccidial effect was seen in the group medicated with 1000ppm HCl followed by 2000ppm and 3000ppm HCl medicated groups. Amprolium and 1000ppm HCl were almost equivalent in suppressing the negative performance and pathogenic effects associated with coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella challenge. In summary, the lower doses of HCl have the potential to be used as alternative to chemotherapeutic drugs for Eimeria tenella control. It is therefore suggested that further studies should be carried out to determine the possible minimum safe levels of HCl with least toxic effects to be used as anticoccidial.

  12. Inhibition of Mild Steel Corrosion in Hydrochloric Acid Solution by New Coumarin

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    Abdul Amir H. Kadhum

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new coumarin derivative, N,N′-((2E,2′E-2,2′-(1,4-phenylenebis (methanylylidenebis(hydrazinecarbonothioylbis(2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide PMBH, was synthesized and its chemical structure was elucidated and confirmed using spectroscopic techniques (Infrared spectroscopy IR, Proton nuclear  magnetic resonance, 1H-NMR and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance 13C-NMR. The corrosion inhibition effect of PMBH on mild steel in 1.0 M HCl was investigated using corrosion potential (ECORR, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM measurements. The obtained results indicated that PMBH has promising inhibitive effects on the corrosion of mild steel in 1.0 M HCl across all of the conditions examined. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to investigate the morphology of the mild steel before and after immersion in 1.0 M HCl solution containing 0.5 mM of PMBH. Surface analysis revealed improvement of corrosion resistance in presence of PMBH.

  13. Punica granatum leave extract as green corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in Hydrochloric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Abboud Y.; Chagraoui A.; Tanane O.; El Bouari A.; Hannache H.

    2013-01-01

    Leave of Punica granatum extract (LPGE) as green inhibitor for the corrosion of mild steel in 1M HCl solution was studied using weight-loss and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The results obtained revealed that LPGE has fairly good inhibiting properties for mild steel corrosion in 1M HCl solution, with efficiency of around 94 % at a concentration of 1 g/l. The inhibition was of a mixed anodic–cathodic nature. The film which is formed over the metal surface was analysed by FT-IR spe...

  14. Inhibition of copper corrosion in aerated hydrochloric acid solution by heterocyclic compounds containing a mercapto group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Daquan; Gao Lixin; Zhou Guoding

    2004-12-01

    Inhibition of copper corrosion by benzotriazole (BTA), 2-mercapto benzoxazole (MBO) and 2-mercapto benzimidazole (MBI) in 0.5 mol L{sup -1} HCl was investigated by weight-loss measurements, potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. MBI was shown to be the most effective inhibitor among those tested. Potentiodynamic polarization results revealed that the three compounds acted as anodic inhibitors, particularly MBI strongly suppressed anodic current densities. Molecular structure parameters of BTA, MBO and MBI were obtained by using an MM2 forcefield program and PPP-SCF quantum chemical calculation. It was found that MBI has higher levels of HOMO and LUMO energy and the larger {pi}-electron density.

  15. Simultaneous Recovery of Hydrogen and Chlorine from Industrial Waste Dilute Hydrochloric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Paidimarri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recovery of chlorine from byproduct HCl has inevitable commercial importance in industries lately because of insufficient purity or too low concentration to recycle it. Instead it is being neutralized in industries before disposing to meet stringent environmental conditions. Although recovery through catalytic oxidation processes is studied since the 19th century, their high operating conditions combined with sluggish reaction kinetics and low single pass conversions make electrolysis a better alternative. The present motive of this work is to develop a novel electrolysis process which in contrast to traditional processes effectively recovers both hydrogen and chlorine from dilute HCl. For this, an electrolytic cell with an Anionic Exchange Membrane has been designed which only allows the passage of chlorine anions from catholyte to anolyte separating the gasses in a single step. The catholyte can be as low as 3.59 wt% because of fixed anolyte concentration of 1.99 wt% which minimizes oxygen formation. Preliminary results show that the simultaneous recovery of hydrogen and chlorine is possible with high conversion up to 98%. The maximum current density value for 4.96 cm2 membrane surface area (70% active surface area is 2.54 kAm−2, which is comparable with reported commercial processes. This study is expected to be useful for process intensification of the same in a continuous process environment.

  16. The reduction of l-cystine in hydrochloric acid at mercury drop electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph, T.R.; Hitchman, M.L.; Millington, J.P.; Walsh, F.C.

    2006-01-01

    The reduction of L-cystine in 0.1 mol dm3 HCl at 298 K has been studied at mercury electrodes. Dropping mercury electrode (DME), static mercury drop electrode (SMDE) and hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) modes were used with normal, sampled d.c. and differential pulse polarographic detection. The charge transfer kinetics for the irreversible reduction of L-cystine were complicated by reactant and product adsorption, by the formation of cysteinate complexes between mercury and the product ...

  17. Kinetics of Rare Earth Extraction from Baotou Bastnaesite in Hydrochloric Acid and Aluminum Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Li, Mei; Liu, Zhao-Gang; Hu, Yan-Hong; Wang, Mi-Tang

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the leaching kinetics of rare earth from Baotou bastnaesite in a HCl-AlCl3 solution was investigated. In addition, the effects of the HCl and AlCl3 concentrations, liquid to solid ratio, stirring speed, temperature, and time spent on the rare earth extraction were determined. The results indicated that the extraction was nearly independent of the stirring speed when it did not exceed 300 rpm, and the rate of leaching increased with increases in the HCl and AlCl3 concentrations, liquid to solid ratio, temperature, and time. The optimum dissolution conditions were determined under five experimental conditions. After leaching occurred, the progressive dissolution of the bastnaesite phase could be determined. The leaching kinetics was analyzed with a new variant of the shrinking core model in which both the interfacial transfer and diffusion across the product layer affected the rare earth extraction. The apparent activation energy was 35.57 kJ/mol, and the Arrhenius constant was 341.58 min-1. An empirical equation was derived to describe the extraction process of rare earth minerals.

  18. A new online exhaust gas monitoring system in hydrochloric acid regeneration of cold rolling mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Long; Zheng, Xiang; Chen, Xiong

    2015-07-07

    Measuring the content of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in exhaust gas used to take time and energy. In this paper, we introduce a new online monitoring system which can output real-time data to the monitoring center. The system samples and cools exhaust gas, and after a series of processing, it will be analyzed by a specific instrument. The core part of this system is remote terminal unit (RTU) which is designed on Cortex-A8 embedded architecture. RTU runs a scaled-down version of Linux which is a good choice of OS for embedded applications. It controls the whole processes, does data acquisition and data analysis, and communicates with monitoring center through Ethernet. In addition, through a software developed for windows, the monitoring process can be remotely controlled. The new system is quite beneficial for steel industry to do environment monitoring.

  19. Corrosion Behavior of Ni3(Si,Ti in Hydrochloric Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadang Priyotomo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The corrosion behaviour of the intermetallic compounds Ni3(Si,Ti (L12: single phase, has been investigated using an immersion test, electrochemical method, scanning electron microscope in 0.5 kmol/m3 HCl at 303 K. In addition, the corrosion behaviour of austenitic stainless steel type 304 and C276 was studied under the same experimental conditions as references. It was found that the intergranular attack was observed for Ni3(Si,Ti in the immersion test. From the immersion test and polarization curves, Ni3(Si,Ti had the moderate corrosion resistance, while the corrosion resistances of C 276 and type 304 were the highest and the lowest. Ni3(Si,Ti and type 304 were difficult to form a stable passive film, but not for C276. A further experiment must be conducted to clarify the stability of film for Ni3(Si,Ti in detail.

  20. Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution by some double Schiff bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltani, N. [Payame Noor University (PNU), Shahin Shahr Branch, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: N.Soltani@kashanu.ac.ir; Behpour, M.; Ghoreishi, S.M.; Naeimi, H. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The inhibition effect of four double Schiff bases on the corrosion of mild steel in 2 M HCl has been studied by polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and weight loss measurements. The inhibitors were adsorbed on the steel surface according to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. From the adsorption isotherm, some thermodynamic data for the adsorption process were calculated and discussed. Kinetic parameters activation such as E{sub a}, {delta}H*, {delta}S* were evaluated from the effect of temperature on corrosion and inhibition processes. Quantum chemical calculations have been performed and several quantum chemical indices were calculated and correlated with the corresponding inhibition efficiencies.

  1. The Ras antagonist, farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS, decreases fibrosis and improves muscle strength in dy/dy mouse model of muscular dystrophy.

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    Yoram Nevo

    Full Text Available The Ras superfamily of guanosine-triphosphate (GTP-binding proteins regulates a diverse spectrum of intracellular processes involved in inflammation and fibrosis. Farnesythiosalicylic acid (FTS is a unique and potent Ras inhibitor which decreased inflammation and fibrosis in experimentally induced liver cirrhosis and ameliorated inflammatory processes in systemic lupus erythematosus, neuritis and nephritis animal models. FTS effect on Ras expression and activity, muscle strength and fibrosis was evaluated in the dy(2J/dy(2J mouse model of merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy. The dy(2J/dy(2J mice had significantly increased RAS expression and activity compared with the wild type mice. FTS treatment significantly decreased RAS expression and activity. In addition, phosphorylation of ERK, a Ras downstream protein, was significantly decreased following FTS treatment in the dy(2J/dy(2J mice. Clinically, FTS treated mice showed significant improvement in hind limb muscle strength measured by electronic grip strength meter. Significant reduction of fibrosis was demonstrated in the treated group by quantitative Sirius Red staining and lower muscle collagen content. FTS effect was associated with significantly inhibition of both MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities. We conclude that active RAS inhibition by FTS was associated with attenuated fibrosis and improved muscle strength in the dy(2J/dy(2J mouse model of congenital muscular dystrophy.

  2. Decrease of urinary nerve growth factor but not brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome treated with hyaluronic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hong Jiang

    Full Text Available To investigate urinary nerve growth factor (NGF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS patients after hyaluronic acid (HA therapy.Thirty-three patients with IC/BPS were prospectively studied; a group of 45 age-matched healthy subjects served as controls. All IC/BPS patients received nine intravesical HA instillations during the 6-month treatment regimen. Urine samples were collected for measuring urinary NGF and BDNF levels at baseline and 2 weeks after the last HA treatment. The clinical parameters including visual analog scale (VAS of pain, daily frequency nocturia episodes, functional bladder capacity (FBC and global response assessment (GRA were recorded. Urinary NGF and BDNF levels were compared between IC/BPS patients and controls at baseline and after HA treatment.Urinary NGF, NGF/Cr, BDNF, and BDNF/Cr levels were significantly higher in IC/BPS patients compared to controls. Both NGF and NGF/Cr levels significantly decreased after HA treatment. Urinary NGF and NGF/Cr levels significantly decreased in the responders with a VAS pain reduction by 2 (both p < 0.05 and the GRA improved by 2 (both p < 0.05, but not in non-responders. Urinary BDNF and BDNF/Cr did not decrease in responders or non-responders after HA therapy.Urinary NGF, but not BDNF, levels decreased significantly after HA therapy; both of these factors remained higher than in controls even after HA treatment. HA had a beneficial effect on IC/BPS, but it was limited. The reduction of urinary NGF levels was significant in responders, with a reduction of pain and improved GRA.

  3. The gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB receptor agonist baclofen inhibits morphine sensitization by decreasing the dopamine level in rat nucleus accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Zhenyu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeated morphine exposure can induce behavioral sensitization. There are evidences have shown that central gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA system is involved in morphine dependence. However, the effect of a GABAB receptor agonist baclofen on morphine-induced behavioral sensitization in rats is unclear. Methods We used morphine-induced behavioral sensitization model in rat to investigate the effects of baclofen on behavioral sensitization. Moreover, dopamine release in the shell of the nucleus accumbens was evaluated using microdialysis assay in vivo. Results The present study demonstrated that morphine challenge (3 mg/kg, s.c. obviously enhanced the locomotor activity following 4-day consecutive morphine administration and 3-day withdrawal period, which indicated the expression of morphine sensitization. In addition, chronic treatment with baclofen (2.5, 5 mg/kg significantly inhibited the development of morphine sensitization. It was also found that morphine challenge 3 days after repeated morphine administration produced a significant increase of extracellular dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. Furthermore, chronic treatment with baclofen decreased the dopamine release induced by morphine challenge. Conclusions Our results indicated that gamma-aminobutyric acid system plays an important role in the morphine sensitization in rat and suggested that behavioral sensitization is a promising model to study the mechanism underlying drug abuse.

  4. Fatty acid oxidation products ('green odour') released from perennial ryegrass following biotic and abiotic stress, potentially have antimicrobial properties against the rumen microbiota resulting in decreased biohydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huws, S A; Scott, M B; Tweed, J K S; Lee, M R F

    2013-11-01

    In this experiment, we investigated the effect of 'green odour' products typical of those released from fresh forage postabiotic and biotic stresses on the rumen microbiota and lipid metabolism. Hydroperoxyoctadecatrienoic acid (HP), a combination of salicylic and jasmonic acid (T), and a combination of both (HPT) were incubated in vitro in the presence of freeze-dried ground silage and rumen fluid, under rumen-like conditions. 16S rRNA (16S cDNA) HaeIII-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism-based (T-RFLP) dendrograms, canonical analysis of principal coordinates graphs, peak number and Shanon-Weiner diversity indices show that HP, T and HPT likely had antimicrobial effects on the microbiota compared to control incubations. Following 6 h of in vitro incubation, 15.3% of 18:3n-3 and 4.4% of 18:2n-6 was biohydrogenated in control incubations, compared with 1.3, 9.4 and 8.3% of 18:3n-3 for HP, T and HPT treatments, respectively, with negligible 18:2n-6 biohydrogenation seen. T-RFLP peaks lost due to application of HP, T and HPT likely belonged to as yet uncultured bacteria within numerous genera. Hydroperoxyoctadecatrienoic acid, T and HPT released due to plant stress potentially have an antimicrobial effect on the rumen microbiota, which may explain the decreased biohydrogenation in vitro. These data suggest that these volatile chemicals may be responsible for the higher summer n-3 content of bovine milk. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. β-Aminobutyric acid increases abscisic acid accumulation and desiccation tolerance and decreases water use but fails to improve grain yield in two spring wheat cultivars under soil drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan-Lei; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Fan, Jing-Wei; Turner, Neil C; Wang, Tao; Li, Feng-Min

    2012-08-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of the non-protein amino acid, β-aminobutyric acid (BABA), on the homeostasis between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defence during progressive soil drying, and its relationship with the accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA), water use, grain yield, and desiccation tolerance in two spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars released in different decades and with different yields under drought. Drenching the soil with 100 µM BABA increased drought-induced ABA production, leading to a decrease in the lethal leaf water potential (Ψ) used to measure desiccation tolerance, decreased water use, and increased water use efficiency for grain (WUEG) under moderate water stress. In addition, at severe water stress levels, drenching the soil with BABA reduced ROS production, increased antioxidant enzyme activity, and reduced the oxidative damage to lipid membranes. The data suggest that the addition of BABA triggers ABA accumulation that acts as a non-hydraulic root signal, thereby closing stomata, and reducing water use at moderate stress levels, and also reduces the production of ROS and increases the antioxidant defence enzymes at severe stress levels, thus increasing the desiccation tolerance. However, BABA treatment had no effect on grain yield of wheat when water availability was limited. The results suggest that there are ways of effectively priming the pre-existing defence pathways, in addition to genetic means, to improve the desiccation tolerance and WUEG of wheat.

  6. Performance of Different Acids on Sandstone Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Zaman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stimulation of sandstone formations is a challenging task, which involves several chemicals and physical interactions of the acid with the formation. Some of these reactions may result in formation damage. Mud acid has been successfully used to stimulate sandstone reservoirs for a number of years. It is a mixture of hydrofluoric (HF and hydrochloric (HCl acids designed to dissolve clays and siliceous fines accumulated in the near-wellbore region. Matrix acidizing may also be used to increase formation permeability in undamaged wells. The change may be up to 50% to 100% with the mud acid. For any acidizing process, the selection of acid (Formulation and Concentration and the design (Pre-flush, Main Acid, After-flush is very important. Different researchers are using different combinations of acids with different concentrations to get the best results for acidization. Mainly the common practice is combination of Hydrochloric Acid – Hydrofluoric with Concentration (3% HF – 12% HCl. This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation of Orthophosphoric acid instead of hydrochloric acid in one combination and the second combination is Fluoboric and formic acid and the third one is formic and hydrofluoric acid. The results are compared with the mud acid and the results calculated are porosity, permeability, and FESEM Analysis and Strength tests. All of these new combinations shows that these have the potential to be used as acidizing acids on sandstone formations.

  7. High School Forum: "Invitations to Enquiry": The Calcite/Acid Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, J. Dudley, Ed.; Driscoll, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a high school chemistry experiment which involves the reaction between calcite and hydrochloric and sulfuric acids. This reaction can be carried out as a projected demonstration and on an individual basis. (HM)

  8. Secretion of three enzymes for fatty acid synthesis into mouse milk in association with fat globules, and rapid decrease of the secreted enzymes by treatment with rapamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Hitomi; Uchida, Kana; Okajima, Tetsuya; Matsuda, Tsukasa; Nadano, Daita

    2011-04-01

    The mammary epithelium produces numerous lipid droplets during lactation and secretes them in plasma membrane-enclosed vesicles known as milk fat globules. The biogenesis of such fat globules is considered to provide a model for clarifying the mechanisms of lipogenesis in mammals. In the present study, we identified acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, ATP citrate lyase, and fatty acid synthase in mouse milk. Fractionation of milk showed that these three enzymes were located predominantly in milk fat globules. The three enzymes were resistant to trypsin digestion without Triton X-100, indicating that they were not located on the outer surface of the globules and thus associated with the precursors of the globules before secretion. When a low dose of rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), was injected into lactating mice, the levels of the three enzymes in milk were decreased within 3h after injection. Since the protein levels of the three enzymes in tissues were not obviously altered by this short-term treatment, known transcriptional control by mTOR signaling was unlikely to account for this decrease in their levels in milk. Our findings suggest a new, putatively mTOR-dependent localization of the three enzymes for de novo lipogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fecal lactic acid bacteria increased in adolescents randomized to whole-grain but not refined-grain foods, whereas inflammatory cytokine production decreased equally with both interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langkamp-Henken, Bobbi; Nieves, Carmelo; Culpepper, Tyler; Radford, Allyson; Girard, Stephanie-Anne; Hughes, Christine; Christman, Mary C; Mai, Volker; Dahl, Wendy J; Boileau, Thomas; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Thielecke, Frank

    2012-11-01

    The intake of whole-grain (WG) foods by adolescents is reported to be approximately one-third the recommended intake of 48 g/d. This 6-wk randomized interventional study determined the effect of replacing grains within the diet with refined-grain (RG; n = 42) or WG (n = 41) foods/d on gastrointestinal and immune health in adolescents (aged 12.7 ± 0.1 y). A variety of grain-based foods were delivered weekly to participants and their families. Participants were encouraged to eat 3 different kinds of study foods (e.g., bread, cereals, snacks)/d with goals of 0 g/d (RG) and 80 g/d (WG). Stool samples were obtained during the prebaseline and final weeks to measure bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) using qPCR. Stool frequency was recorded daily. Blood was drawn at baseline and at final visits for immune markers. Across groups, total-grain intake increased by one serving. The intake of WG was similar at baseline (18 ± 3 g) between groups but increased to 60 ± 5 g in the WG group and decreased to 4 ± 1 g in the RG group. Fecal bifidobacteria increased from baseline with both interventions, but LAB increased (P foods increased serum antioxidant concentrations and decreased inflammatory cytokine production; however, WG study foods had more of an effect on aspects of gastrointestinal health.

  10. Tranexamic Acid in a Multimodal Blood Loss Prevention Protocol to Decrease Blood Loss in Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Cohort Study#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Andreu, Miguel; Talavera, Gloria; Padilla-Eguiluz, Norma G.; Perez-Chrzanowska, Hanna; Figueredo-Galve, Reyes; Rodriguez-Merchán, Carlos E.; Gómez-Barrena, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To clarify if blood loss and transfusion requirements can be decreased in revision knee surgery through a multimodal blood loss approach with tranexamic acid (TXA) Patients and Methods: A retrospective study was designed in 87 knees (79 patients) that received a knee revision between 2007 and 2013. To avoid heterogeneity in the surgical technique, only revisions with one single implant system were included. A treatment series of 44 knees that received TXA and other techniques in a multimodal blood loss protocol was compared to a control series of 43 knees that received neither TXA nor the rest of the multimodal blood loss protocol. No differences in the complexity of surgeries or case severity were detected. Results: A significant decrease was observed from 58% transfusion rate in the control group to 5% in the treated group. The postoperative haemoglobin drop was also significantly different. Although the use of a blood loss prevention approach including TXA was the most relevant factor in the transfusion risk (OR=15), longer surgical time also associated an increased risk of transfusion (OR=1.15). Conclusion: This study supports the use of a two-dose intravenous TXA under a multimodal blood loss prevention approach in revision knee replacement with significant reduction in the transfusion rate, postoperative blood loss and haemoglobin drop. PMID:27708740

  11. Valproic acid, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, decreases proliferation of and induces specific neurogenic differentiation of canine adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Takehito; Sakaue, Motoharu; Murayama, Ohoshi; Miyazaki, Yoko; Onuki, Atsushi; Aoki, Takuma; Saito, Miyoko; Fujii, Yoko; Hisasue, Masaharu; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Takizawa, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) isolated from adult tissue have pluripotent differentiation and self-renewal capability. The tissue source of ADSCs can be obtained in large quantities and with low risks, thus highlighting the advantages of ADSCs in clinical applications. Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely used antiepileptic drug, which has recently been reported to affect ADSC differentiation in mice and rats; however, few studies have been performed on dogs. We aimed to examine the in vitro effect of VPA on canine ADSCs. Three days of pretreatment with VPA decreased the proliferation of ADSCs in a dose-dependent manner; VPA concentrations of 4 mM and above inhibited the proliferation of ADSCs. In parallel, VPA increased p16 and p21 mRNA expression, suggesting that VPA attenuated the proliferative activity of ADSCs by activating p16 and p21. Furthermore, the effects of VPA on adipogenic, osteogenic or neurogenic differentiation were investigated morphologically. VPA pretreatment markedly promoted neurogenic differentiation, but suppressed the accumulation of lipid droplets and calcium depositions. These modifications of ADSCs by VPA were associated with a particular gene expression profile, viz., an increase in neuronal markers, that is, NSE, TUBB3 and MAP2, a decrease in the adipogenic marker, LPL, but no changes in osteogenic markers, as estimated by reverse transcription-PCR analysis. These results suggested that VPA is a specific inducer of neurogenic differentiation of canine ADSCs and is a useful tool for studying the interaction between chromatin structure and cell fate determination.

  12. New Acid Combination for a Successful Sandstone Acidizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. U.; Mahmud, H. K. B.; Rezaee, R.

    2017-05-01

    With the development of new enhanced oil recovery techniques, sandstone acidizing has been introduced and played a pivotal role in the petroleum industry. Different acid combinations have been applied, which react with the formation, dissolve the soluble particles; thus increase the production of hydrocarbons. To solve the problems which occurred using current preflush sandstone acidizing technology (hydrochloric acid); a new acid combination has been developed. Core flooding experiments on sandstone core samples with dimensions 1.5 in. × 3 in. were conducted at a flow rate of 2 cm3/min. A series of hydrochloric-acetic acid mixtures with different ratios were tested under 150°F temperature. The core flooding experiments performed are aimed to dissolve carbonate, sodium, potassium and calcium particles from the core samples. These experiments are followed by few important tests which include, porosity-permeability, pH value, Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analysis and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR measurements). All the results are compared with the results of conventional hydrochloric acid technology. NMR and porosity analysis concluded that the new acid combination is more effective in creating fresh pore spaces and thus increasing the reservoir permeability. It can be seen from the pore distribution before and after the acidizing. Prior applying acid; the large size of pores appears most frequently in the pore distribution while with the applied acid, it was found that the small pore size is most the predominant of the pore distribution. These results are validated using ICP analysis which shows the effective removal of calcium and other positive ions from the core sample. This study concludes that the combination of acetic-hydrochloric acid can be a potential candidate for the preflush stage of sandstone acidizing at high temperature reservoirs.

  13. Functional decreases in P2X7 receptors are associated with retinoic acid-induced neuronal differentiation of Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Yu; Lin, Yu-Chia; Chang, Chia-Ling; Lu, Hsing-Tsen; Chin, Chia-Hsuan; Hsu, Tsan-Ting; Chu, Dachen; Sun, Synthia H

    2009-06-01

    Neuro-2a (N2a) cells are derived from spontaneous neuroblastoma of mouse and capable to differentiate into neuronal-like cells. Recently, P2X7 receptor has been shown to sustain growth of human neuroblastoma cells but its role during neuronal differentiation remains unexamined.We characterized the role of P2X7 receptors in the retinoic acid (RA)-differentiated N2a cells. RA induced N2a cells differentiation into neurite bearing and neuronal specific proteins, microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and neuronal specific nuclear protein (NeuN), expressing neuronal-like cells. Interestingly, the RA-induced neuronal differentiation was associated with decreases in the expression and function of P2X7 receptors. Functional inhibition of P2X7 receptors by P2X7 receptor selective antagonists, 5'-triphosphate, periodate-oxidized 2',3'-dialdehyde ATP (oATP), brilliant blue G (BBG) or A438079 induced neurite outgrowth. In addition, RA and oATP treatment stimulated the expression of neuron-specific class III beta-tubulin (TuJ1), and knockdown of P2X7 receptor expression by siRNA induced neurite outgrowth. To elucidate the possible mechanism, we found the levels of basal intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) were decreased in either RA- or oATP-differentiated or P2X7receptor knockdown N2a cells. Simply cultured N2a cells in low Ca2+ medium induced a 2-fold increase in neurite length. Treatment of N2a cells with ATP hydrolase apyrase and the P2X7 receptors selective antagonist oATP or BBG decreased cell viability and cell number. Nevertheless, oATP but not BBG decreased cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. These results suggest for the first time that decreases in expression/function of P2X7 receptors are involved in neuronal differentiation.We provide additional evidence shown that the ATP release-activated P2X7 receptor is important in maintaining cell survival of N2a neuroblastoma cells.

  14. Growth inhibition of fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus by anion channel inhibitors anthracene-9-carboxylic and niflumic acid attained through decrease in cellular respiration and energy metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanić, Marina; Križak, Strahinja; Jovanović, Mirna; Pajić, Tanja; Ćirić, Ana; Žižić, Milan; Zakrzewska, Joanna; Cvetić Antić, Tijana; Todorović, Nataša; Živić, Miroslav

    2017-01-18

    Increasing resistance of fungal strains to known fungicides has prompted identification of new candidates for fungicides among substances previously used for other purposes. We have tested the effects of known anion channel inhibitors anthracene-9-carboxylic (A9C) and niflumic acid (NFA) on growth, energy metabolism and anionic current of mycelium of fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Both inhibitors significantly decreased growth and respiration of mycelium, but complete inhibition was only achieved by 100 or 500 µM NFA, for growth and respiration, respectively. A9C had no effect on respiration of human NCI-H460 cell line, and very little effect on cucumber root sprout clippings, which nominates this inhibitor for further investigation as a potential new fungicide. Effects of A9C and NFA on respiration of isolated mitochondria of P. blakesleeanus were significantly smaller, which indicates that their inhibitory effect on respiration of mycelium is indirect. NMR spectroscopy showed that both A9C and NFA decrease the levels of ATP and polyphosphates in the mycelium of P. blakesleanus, but only A9C caused intracellular acidification. Outwardly rectifying, fast inactivating instantaneous anionic current (ORIC) was also reduced to 33±5% and 21±3% of its pre-treatment size by A9C and NFA, respectively, but only in the absence of ATP. It can be assumed from our results that the regulation of ORIC is tightly linked to cellular energy metabolism in P. blakesleeanus, and the decrease in ATP and polyphosphate levels could be a direct cause of growth inhibition.

  15. Hypochlorous Acid as a Potential Wound Care Agent: Part II. Stabilized Hypochlorous Acid: Its Role in Decreasing Tissue Bacterial Bioburden and Overcoming the Inhibition of Infection on Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Martin C; Payne, Wyatt G; Ko, Francis; Mentis, Marni; Donati, Guillermo; Shafii, Susan M; Culverhouse, Susan; Wang, Lu; Khosrovi, Behzad; Najafi, Ramin; Cooper, Diane M; Bassiri, Mansour

    2007-04-11

    Background: A topical antimicrobial that can decrease the bacterial bioburden of chronic wounds without impairing the wound's ability to heal is a therapeutic imperative. A stabilized form of hypochlorous acid (NVC-101) has been demonstrated in vitro and in standard toxicity testing to possess properties that could fulfill these criteria. Materials and Methods: Using a standard rodent model of a chronically infected granulating wound, various preparations of NVC-101 and multiple treatment regimens were investigated to evaluate the role of NVC-101 in decreasing tissue bacterial bioburden and overcoming the inhibition of infection on wound healing. Quantitative bacteriology of tissue biopsies and wound healing trajectories were used to compare the various NVC-101 preparations and regimens to saline-treated negative controls and silver sulfadiazine-treated positive controls. Results: NVC-101 at 0.01% hypochlorous acid with a pH of 3.5 to 4.0 proved to be an effective topical antimicrobial. It was most effective when used for a brief period (15-30 minutes), and followed with another application. Possibly this was due to its rapid neutralization in the wound bed environment. Although not as effective at decreasing the tissue bacterial bioburden as silver sulfadiazine, NVC-101 was associated with improved wound closure. Conclusions: This stabilized form of hypochlorous acid (NVC-101) could have potential application as an antimicrobial wound irrigation and treatment solution if its effective pH range can be maintained in the clinical situation. NVC-101 solution was equally effective at pH 3.5 or 4.0 and more efficient soon after its application. As opposed to other antimicrobials investigated in this animal model, NVC-101 controls the tissue bacterial bioburden without inhibiting the wound healing process.

  16. Acid-base strengths in pyridine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Dahmen, E.A.M.F.

    1971-01-01

    Although pyridine is a solvent with a low dielectric constant, spectrophotometric determinations show simple dissociation without ion pairs as intermediates for some sulfonphthaleins and polynitrophenols in pyridine. The salts of a number of amines and hydrochloric acid, perchloric acid and picric

  17. Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Lei, E-mail: anleim@yahoo.com.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Pang, Yun-Wei, E-mail: yunweipang@126.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Gao, Hong-Mei, E-mail: Gaohongmei_123@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Research Unit for Animal Life Sciences, Animal Resource Science Center, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Ibaraki-Iwama 319-0206 (Japan); Tao, Li, E-mail: Eunice8023@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin 130118 (China); Miao, Kai, E-mail: miaokai7@163.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Wu, Zhong-Hong, E-mail: wuzhh@cau.edu.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); and others

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of C. elegans fat-1 reduces the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 reduces lipid deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lower n-6/n-3 ratio induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. -- Abstract: In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs.

  18. 3,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) Decreases Hepatic and Systemic Ratios of Epoxide to Diol Metabolites of Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianai; Yang, Jun; Morisseau, Christophe; Robertson, Larry W; Hammock, Bruce; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-08-01

    Disruption of the homeostasis of oxygenated regulatory lipid mediators (oxylipins), potential markers of exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, such as 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), is associated with a range of diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Here we test the hypothesis that PCB 126 exposure alters the levels of oxylipins in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (5-weeks old) were treated over a 3-month period every 2 weeks with intraperitoneal injections of PCB 126 in corn oil (cumulative doses of 0, 19.8, 97.8, and 390 µg/kg b.w.; 6 injections total). PCB 126 treatment caused a reduction in growth rates at the highest dose investigated, a dose-dependent decrease in thymus weights, and a dose-dependent increase in liver weights. Liver PCB 126 levels increased in a dose-dependent manner, while levels in plasma were below or close to the detection limit. The ratios of several epoxides to diol metabolites formed via the cytochrome P450 (P450) monooxygenase/soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) pathway from polyunsaturated fatty acids displayed a dose-dependent decrease in the liver and plasma, whereas levels of oxylipins formed by other metabolic pathways were generally not altered by PCB 126 treatment. The effects of PCB 126 on epoxide-to-diol ratios were associated with an increased CYP1A activity in liver microsomes and an increased sEH activity in liver cytosol and peroxisomes. These results suggest that oxylipins are potential biomarkers of exposure to PCB 126 and that the P450/sEH pathway is a therapeutic target for PCB 126-mediated hepatotoxicity that warrants further attention.

  19. Reduced energy density of close-up diets decrease ruminal pH and increase concentration of volatile fatty acids postpartum in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenming; Tian, Yujia; Li, Shengli; Wu, Zhaohai; Cao, Zhijun

    2017-06-27

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on ruminal fermentation parameters in transition cows. Fourteen Holstein dry cows were blocked and assigned randomly to three groups fed a high energy density diet (HD, 1.62 Mcal of net energy for lactation (NEL )/kg dry matter (DM)), or a middle energy density diet (MD, 1.47 Mcal NEL /kg DM), or a low energy density diet (LD, 1.30 Mcal NEL /kg DM) prepartum, and were fed the same diet postpartum. The reduced energy density diets decreased the average dry matter intake (DMI) prepartum and tended to increase the DMI postpartum. The ruminal pH of the LD group was significantly higher prepartum and lower during the first week of lactation compared with the other two groups. The reduced energy density diet depressed the average ruminal concentration of propionate and butyrate prepartum, and increased the average concentration of total volatile fatty acids (VFA) postpartum. The LD group had higher populations of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Ruminococcus flavefaciens relative to HD and MD groups on 7 days in milk. In conclusion, the cows fed reduced energy density diet prepartum had higher VFA concentration, but were more susceptible to subacute ruminal acidosis postpartum. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Amelioration of glomerulosclerosis with all-trans retinoic acid is linked to decreased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and α-smooth muscle actin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia LIU; Lei L(U); Bei-bei TAO; Ai-ling ZHOU; Yi-chun ZHU

    2011-01-01

    Aim:To examine the effects of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) on renal morphology and function as well as on renal plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression and plasmin activity in rats with 5/6 nephrectomy.Methods:Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were given 5/6 nephrectomy or sham operation. Renal function was measured 2 weeks later. The nephrectomized rats were assigned to groups matched for proteinuria and treated with vehicle or atRA (5 or 10 mg/kg by gastric gavage once daily) for the next 12 weeks. Rats with sham operation were treated with vehicle. At the end of the treatments,kidneys were collected for histological examination, Western blot analysis, and enzymatic activity measurements.Results:The 5/6 nephrectomy promoted hypertension, renal dysfunction, and glomerulosclerosis. These changes were significantly reduced in the atRA-treated group. The expressions of PAI-1 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were significantly increased in the vehicle-treated nephrectomized rats. Treatment with atRA significantly reduced the expressions of PAI-1 and α-SMA. However, piasmin activity remained unchanged following atRA treatment.Conclusion:Treatment with atRA ameliorates glomerulosclerosis and improves renal function in rats with 5/6 nephrectomy. This is associated with a decrease in PAI-1 and α-SMA, but not with a change in plasmin activity.

  1. Sargaquinoic Acid Inhibits TNF-α-Induced NF-κB Signaling, Thereby Contributing to Decreased Monocyte Adhesion to Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, Wi-Gyeong; Lee, Bonggi; Joung, Eun-Ji; Choi, Min-Woo; Yoon, Nayoung; Shin, Taisun; Oh, Chul-Woong; Kim, Hyeung-Rak

    2015-10-21

    Sargaquinoic acid (SQA) has been known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study investigated the effects of SQA isolated from Sargassum serratifolium on the inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced monocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). SQA decreased the expression of cell adhesion molecules such as intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 as well as chemotactic cytokines such as interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in TNF-α-treated HUVECs. As a result, SQA prevented monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-induced adhesion. SQA also inhibited TNF-α-induced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) translocation into the nucleus by preventing proteolytic degradation of inhibitor κB-α. Overall, SQA protects against TNF-α-induced vascular inflammation through inhibition of the NF-κB pathway in HUVECs. These data suggest that SQA may be used as a therapeutic agent for vascular inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis.

  2. 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid Inhibition by HET0016 Offers Neuroprotection, Decreases Edema, and Increases Cortical Cerebral Blood Flow in a Pediatric Asphyxial Cardiac Arrest Model in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Jafar Sadik B; Poloyac, Samuel M; Kochanek, Patrick M; Alexander, Henry; Tudorascu, Dana L; Clark, Robert Sb; Manole, Mioara D

    2015-11-01

    Vasoconstrictive and vasodilatory eicosanoids generated after cardiac arrest (CA) may contribute to cerebral vasomotor disturbances and neurodegeneration. We evaluated the balance of vasodilator/vasoconstrictor eicosanoids produced by cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolism, and determined their role on cortical perfusion, functional outcome, and neurodegeneration after pediatric asphyxial CA. Cardiac arrest of 9 and 12 minutes was induced in 16- to 18-day-old rats. At 5 and 120 minutes after CA, we quantified the concentration of CYP eicosanoids in the cortex and subcortical areas. In separate rats, we inhibited 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) synthesis after CA and assessed cortical cerebral blood flow (CBF), neurologic deficit score, neurodegeneration, and edema. After 9 minutes of CA, vasodilator eicosanoids markedly increased versus sham. Conversely, after 12 minutes of CA, vasoconstrictor eicosanoid 20-HETE increased versus sham, without compensatory increases in vasodilator eicosanoids. Inhibition of 20-HETE synthesis after 12 minutes of CA decreased cortical 20-HETE levels, increased CBF, reduced neurologic deficits at 3 hours, and reduced neurodegeneration and edema at 48 hours versus vehicle-treated rats. In conclusion, cerebral vasoconstrictor eicosanoids increased after a pediatric CA of 12 minutes. Inhibition of 20-HETE synthesis improved cortical perfusion and short-term neurologic outcome. These results suggest that alterations in CYP eicosanoids have a role in cerebral hypoperfusion and neurodegeneration after CA and may represent important therapeutic targets.

  3. The beta-1 adrenergic antagonist, atenolol, decreases acylation stimulating protein, exercise capacity and plasma free fatty acids in men with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J; Ferland, A; Méthot, J; Brassard, P; Lacroix, S; Poirier, P; Cianflone, K

    2012-06-01

    Atenolol is a beta-1 adrenergic antagonist commonly prescribed for the treatment of systemic hypertension or coronary artery disease yet its use in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is controversial due to potentially negative side effects on insulin resistance. Non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) metabolism is altered in T2DM especially under conditions of metabolic stress such as exercise or the postprandial state. We evaluated atenolol effects on circulating NEFA and related hormones in men with T2DM during acute cardiorespiratory exercise in both the fasting and postprandial state, including the adipokine acylation stimulating protein (ASP) which stimulates adipose tissue NEFA uptake. Ten men with T2DM underwent four 1-h exercise sessions at 60% of their maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) under the following conditions: 1) fasting (F), and 2) 2 h postprandial (PP) without medication; and 3) fasting (F-Atenolol), and 4) 2 h postprandial (PP-Atenolol) after a one-week treatment with atenolol. Results were tested for the effects of atenolol via two-way ANOVA for the F vs F-Atenolol and PP vs PP-Atenolol states separately. Atenolol treatment decreased fasting and postprandial glycerol (p cortisol (p = 0.02), postprandial ASP (p = 0.04) and postprandial dopamine (p effects are more apparent during conditions of stress such as the postprandial state, acute exercise and obesity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cyclisation Increases the Stability of the Sea Anemone Peptide APETx2 but Decreases Its Activity at Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan D. Rash

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available APETx2 is a peptide isolated from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. It is the most potent and selective inhibitor of acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3 and it is currently in preclinical studies as a novel analgesic for the treatment of chronic inflammatory pain. As a peptide it faces many challenges in the drug development process, including the potential lack of stability often associated with therapeutic peptides. In this study we determined the susceptibility of wild-type APETx2 to trypsin and pepsin and tested the applicability of backbone cyclisation as a strategy to improve its resistance to enzymatic degradation. Cyclisation with either a six-, seven- or eight-residue linker vastly improved the protease resistance of APETx2 but substantially decreased its potency against ASIC3. This suggests that either the N- or C-terminus of APETx2 is involved in its interaction with the channel, which we confirmed by making N- and C-terminal truncations. Truncation of either terminus, but especially the N-terminus, has detrimental effects on the ability of APETx2 to inhibit ASIC3. The current work indicates that cyclisation is unlikely to be a suitable strategy for stabilising APETx2, unless linkers can be engineered that do not interfere with binding to ASIC3.

  5. ω-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent pressure overload-induced ventricular dilation and decrease in mitochondrial enzymes despite no change in adiponectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Shea Karen M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathological left ventricular (LV hypertrophy frequently progresses to dilated heart failure with suppressed mitochondrial oxidative capacity. Dietary marine ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA up-regulate adiponectin and prevent LV dilation in rats subjected to pressure overload. This study 1 assessed the effects of ω-3 PUFA on LV dilation and down-regulation of mitochondrial enzymes in response to pressure overload; and 2 evaluated the role of adiponectin in mediating the effects of ω-3 PUFA in heart. Methods Wild type (WT and adiponectin-/- mice underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC and were fed standard chow ± ω-3 PUFA for 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, echocardiography was performed to assess LV function, mice were terminated, and mitochondrial enzyme activities were evaluated. Results TAC induced similar pathological LV hypertrophy compared to sham mice in both strains on both diets. In WT mice TAC increased LV systolic and diastolic volumes and reduced mitochondrial enzyme activities, which were attenuated by ω-3 PUFA without increasing adiponectin. In contrast, adiponectin-/- mice displayed no increase in LV end diastolic and systolic volumes or decrease in mitochondrial enzymes with TAC, and did not respond to ω-3 PUFA. Conclusion These findings suggest ω-3 PUFA attenuates cardiac pathology in response to pressure overload independent of an elevation in adiponectin.

  6. Facile synthesis of improved room temperature gas sensing properties of TiO2 nanostructures: Effect of acid treatment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tshabalala, Zamaswazi P

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method in a sodium hydroxide (NaOH) aqueous solution and washed with distilled water and different concentrations of hydrochloric acid which acted as the morphological...

  7. Performance Comparison of New Combinations of Acids with Mud Acid in Sandstone Acidizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Umer Shafiq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to find the best suitable acid to acidize undamaged low permeable sandstone formation Stimulation of sandstone formations is a challenging task, which involves several chemicals and physical interactions of the acid with the formation. Mud acid has been successfully used to stimulate sandstone reservoirs for a number of years. Matrix acidizing may also be used to increase formation permeability in undamaged wells. The change may be up to 50 to 100% with the mud acid. For any acidizing process, the selection of acid (Formulation and Concentration and the design (Pre-flush, Main Acid, After-flush is very important. Different researchers are using different combinations of acids with different concentrations to get the best results for acidization. Mainly the common practice is combination of Hydrochloric Acid- Hydrofluoric with Concentration (3% HF-12% HCl. This study presents the results of a laboratory investigation of Orthophosphoric acid instead of hydrochloric acid in one combination and the second combination is Fluoboric and formic acid and the third one is formic and hydrofluoric acid. The results are compared with the mud acid and the results analyzed are porosity, permeability, strength, color change and FESEM Analysis. All of these new combinations shows that these have the potential to be used as acidizing acids on sandstone formations.

  8. Alpha-linolenic acid increases cholesterol efflux in macrophage-derived foam cells by decreasing stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 expression: evidence for a farnesoid-X-receptor mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Thompson, Jerry T; Hannon, Daniel B; Gillies, Peter J; Heuvel, John P Vanden

    2012-04-01

    Increased cholesterol efflux from macrophage-derived foam cells (MDFCs) is an important protective mechanism to decrease lipid load in the atherosclerotic plaque. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), decreases circulating cholesterol, but its role in cholesterol efflux has not been extensively studied. Stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). Endogenous MUFAs are preferentially incorporated into triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesteryl ester, which are abundant in atherosclerotic plaque. This study investigated the mechanisms by which ALA regulated SCD1 and subsequent effect on cholesterol storage and transport in MDFCs. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) also was applied to modify SCD1 expression in foam cells. Alpha-linolenic acid treatment and SCD1 siRNA significantly decreased SCD1 expression in MDFCs. The reduction of SCD1 was accompanied with increased cholesterol efflux and decreased intracellular cholesterol storage within these cells. Alpha-linolenic acid activated the nuclear receptor farnesoid-X-receptor, which in turn increased its target gene small heterodimer partner (SHP) expression, and decreased liver-X-receptor dependent sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c transcription, ultimately resulting in repressed SCD1 expression. In conclusion, repression of SCD1 by ALA favorably increased cholesterol efflux and decreased cholesterol accumulation in foam cells. This may be one mechanism by which dietary omega-3 PUFAs promote atherosclerosis regression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.