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Sample records for hydrochemical conditions controlling

  1. Hydrochemical Atlas of the Arctic Ocean (NODC Accession 0044630)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The present Hydrochemical Atlas of the Arctic Ocean is a description of hydrochemical conditions in the Arctic Ocean on the basis of a greater body of hydrochemical...

  2. Hydrochemical controls on aragonite versus calcite precipitation in cave dripwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Carlos; Lozano, Rafael P.

    2016-11-01

    Despite the paleoclimatic relevance of primary calcite to aragonite transitions in stalagmites, the relative role of fluid Mg/Ca ratio, supersaturation and CO32- concentration in controlling such transitions is still incompletely understood. Accordingly, we have monitored the hydrochemistry of 50 drips and 8 pools that are currently precipitating calcite and/or aragonite in El Soplao and Torca Ancha Caves (N. Spain), investigating the mineralogy and geochemistry of the CaCO3 precipitates on the corresponding natural speleothem surfaces. The data reveal that, apart from possible substrate effects, dripwater Mg/Ca is the only obvious control on CaCO3 polymorphism in the studied stalagmites and pools, where calcite- and aragonite-precipitating dripwaters are separated by an initial (i.e. at stalactite tips) Mg/Ca threshold at ≈1.1 mol/mol. Within the analyzed ranges of pH (8.2-8.6), CO32- concentration (1-6 mg/L), supersaturation (SIaragonite: 0.08-1.08; SIcalcite: 0.23-1.24), drip rate (0.2-81 drops/min) and dissolved Zn (6-90 μg/L), we observe no unequivocal influence of these parameters on CaCO3 mineralogy. Despite the almost complete overlapping supersaturations of calcite- and aragonite-precipitating waters, the latter are on average less supersaturated because the waters having Mg/Ca above ∼1.1 have mostly achieved such high ratios by previously precipitating calcite. Both calcite and aragonite precipitated at or near oxygen isotopic equilibrium, and Mg incorporation into calcite was consistent with literature-based predictions, indicating that in the studied cases CaCO3 precipitation was not significantly influenced by strong kinetic effects. In the studied cases, the calcites that precipitate at ∼11 °C from dripwaters with initial Mg/Ca approaching ∼1.1 incorporate ∼5 mol% MgCO3, close to the published value above which calcite solubility exceeds aragonite solubility, suggesting that aragonite precipitation in high-relative-humidity caves is

  3. The investigation of the kinetics of hydrochemical oxidation of metal sulphides with the aim of determination of the optimal conditions for the selective extraction of molybdenum from ores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsik V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of the oxidation of molybdenyte, pyrite and sphalerite in solutions of nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorite was studied by the rotating disk method. The influence of the molar concentration of reagent, pH of solution, temperature, disk rotation frequency, and duration of measurements on the specific rate of hydrochemical oxidation of sulpfides was determined. The kinetic models allowing to calculate the dissolution rate of sulphides when these parameters change simultaneously were obtained. The conditions of kinetically and diffusion-controlled processes were detected. The details of mechanism of the studied processes were revealed. The nature of intermediate solid products, the reasons and the conditions of their formation as well as the character of their influence on the kinetics of dissolution processes were determined. The probable schemes of interactions corresponding to the observable kinetic dependences were offered. The conditions of the effective and selective molybdenum leaching directly from ore without its concentration were found.

  4. Modelling radionuclide transport in highly heterogeneous media and under variable hydrochemical conditions using a "dynamic Kd" approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchero, Paolo; Painter, Scott; Ebrahimi, Hedieh; Koskinen, Lasse; Molinero, jorge; Selroos, Jan-Olof

    2015-04-01

    Due to the high heterogeneity of fractured media and the ubiquitous lack of a complete site characterization, deterministic simulations of radionuclide transport in fractured rocks are notoriously highly uncertain. This uncertainty is usually addressed using stochastic methods; e.g. the connectivity structure of the medium is described using multiple realizations of Discrete Fracture Networks (DFN), which are then combined to particle tracking simulations. In these formulations, many complex geochemical retention processes are typically lumped into a single parameter: the distribution coefficient (Kd). This approach relies on an important assumption: the Kd values are constant in time. This hypothesis is critical under long-term geochemical changes as it is known that the distribution coefficient depends on the pH, redox conditions and major chemistry of the system. In this work, we present a novel methodology that combines the robustness of stochastic methods with an explicit description of water-solute-rock interaction processes. The reconciliation of all these is achieved by using a dynamic Kd approach. The hydrogeochemical evolution of the site of study is first computed using long-term and large-scale mechanistic reactive transport simulations. The simulated hydrochemical conditions are then used to generate a complete database of Kd values, which represent the hydrochemical conditions in every position and time of the model domain. Then, MARFA (Painter and Mancillas, 2009) is used to carry out Time Domain Random Walk (TDRW) simulations of radionuclide transport. In these simulations, Kd values are dynamically updated using the afore-mentioned database. The results (i.e. radionuclide breakthrough curves) bring the signature of the underlying changes in the background geochemistry.

  5. Assessment of hydrochemical processes and groundwater hydrodynamics in a multilayer aquifer system under long-term irrigation condition: A case study of Nefzaoua basin, southern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarki, M; Ben Hammadi, M; El Mejri, H; Dassi, L

    2016-04-01

    The hydrochemical and isotopic investigation of the Nefzaoua aquifer system demonstrates that groundwater mineralization in is controlled by natural and anthropogenic processes including water-rock interaction and irrigation return flow. It identifies all of the water bodies that flow within the aquifer system and their circulation patterns. The isotopically depleted paleowaters, identified within the deep and intermediate aquifers, undergo significant enrichment by evaporation during irrigation and recharged the shallow aquifer by return flow. Subsequently, they infiltrate to the intermediate aquifer which receives also rainfall modern recharge.

  6. Colloidal stability of CeO2 nanoparticles coated with either natural organic matter or organic polymers under various hydrochemical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippon, Urs; Pabst, Silke; Klitzke, Sondra

    2016-04-01

    The worldwide marked for engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is growing and concerns on the environmental fate- and toxicity of ENPs are rising. Understanding the transport of ENPs within and between environmental compartments such as surface water and groundwater is crucial for exposition modeling, risk assessment and ultimately the protection of drinking water resources. The transport of ENPs is strongly influenced by the surface properties and aggregation behavior of the particles, which is strongly controlled by synthetic and natural organic coatings. Both, surface properties and aggregation characteristics are also key properties for the industrial application of ENPs, which leads to the development and commercialization of an increasing number of surface-functionalized ENPs. These include metals and oxides such as Cerium dioxide (CeO2) with various organic coatings. Therefore, we investigate CeO2 ENPs with different surface coatings such as weakly anionic polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or strongly anionic poly acrylic acid (PAA) with respect to their colloidal stability in aqueous matrix under various hydrochemical conditions (pH, ionic strength) and their transport behavior in sand filter columns. Furthermore, we investigate the interaction of naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) with CeO2 ENPs and its effect on surface charge (zeta potential), colloidal stability and transport. While uncoated CeO2 ENPs aggregate at pH > 4 in aqueous matrix, our results show that PAA and PVA surface coatings as well as NOM sorbed to CeO2-NP surfaces can stabilize CeO2 ENPs under neutral and alkaline pH conditions in 1 mM KCl solution. Under slightly acidic conditions, differences between the three particle types were observed. PVA can stabilize particle suspensions in presence of 1 mM KCl at pH > 4.3, PAA at pH >4.0 and NOM at >3.2. While the presence of KCl did not influence particle size of NOM-CeO2 ENPs, CaCl2 at >2 mM lead to aggregation. Further results on the influence of KCl

  7. 自然与人为控制下河流水化学组成演变过程%Natural and anthropogenic factors controlling river water hydrochemical evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东; 黄兴宇; 李成杰

    2012-01-01

    控制河流水化学组成的因素包括岩石类型、气候变化以及土地利用方式,河流溶解性物质主要来源于岩石溶解、大气干湿沉降以及人为输入。选取黄河小浪底水库以下干流及支流河水为主要研究对象,讨论自然过程和人为活动影响下的河流水化学演变过程。结果表明:(1)水-岩作用是控制河水化学组成重要因素,沁河流经碳酸盐岩地层,水化学类型为HCO3-Ca-Mg型。黄河河水水化学类型为HCO3-Cl-Na-K型,主要受上游碎屑岩、变质岩以及黄土溶解影响。伊洛河河水水化学类型为HCO3-Ca-Mg,与下游碳酸盐岩地层出露有关;(2)化学肥料、生活污水以及人畜粪肥等对沁河以及伊洛河河水均有影响,黄河河水受人为活动影响不大;(3)硫酸分别参与沁河和伊洛河流域碳酸盐岩溶解反应,硫酸可能分别来自于含煤地层硫化物氧化以及金属矿床硫化物氧化。研究区黄河河水受上游溶解盐蒸发浓缩影响较大,硫酸参与碳酸盐岩溶解反应不明显。%Controlling factors on river hydrochemical composition include lithology,climate and land use.Dissolved constituents in river are mainly derived from lithologic dissolution,atmospheric dry/wet deposition and anthropogenic inputs.Mainstream and tributaries of Yellow River from Xiaolangdi Reservoir,including Qin River and Yiluo River,were selected to elucidate the hydrochemical evolution controlled by natural and anthropogenic activities.The results showed that:(1) Water-rock interaction is the important factor controlling river water hydrochemical composition.HCO3-Ca-Mg is the hydrochemical type of Qin River because of flowing through stratum dominated by carbonate rock.HCO3-Cl-Na-K is the hydrochemical type of Yellow River because of the dissolution of clastic rocks,metamorphic rocks and loess.HCO3-Ca-Mg is the hydrochemical type of Yiluo River because of flowing through stratum dominated by carbonate

  8. A new groundwater radiocarbon correction approach accounting for palaeoclimate conditions during recharge and hydrochemical evolution: The Ledo-Paniselian Aquifer, Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaser, P.C., E-mail: petra.blaser@petraconsult.com [Petraconsult buero fuer angewandte geologie dipl. geol. petra c. blaser, Bergstrasse 269, CH 8707 Uetikon am See (Switzerland); Coetsiers, M. [Laboratory for Applied Geology and Hydrogeology, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Aeschbach-Hertig, W. [Institut fuer Umweltphysik, Universitaet Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kipfer, R. [Department of Water Resources and Drinking Water, Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)] [Institute of Isotope Geochemistry and Mineral Resources, ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Van Camp, M. [Laboratory for Applied Geology and Hydrogeology, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Loosli, H.H. [Department of Climate and Environmental Physics, University of Bern, CH 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Walraevens, K. [Laboratory for Applied Geology and Hydrogeology, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2010-03-15

    The particular objective of the present work is the development of a new radiocarbon correction approach accounting for palaeoclimate conditions at recharge and hydrochemical evolution. Relevant climate conditions at recharge are atmospheric pCO{sub 2} and infiltration temperatures, influencing C isotope concentrations in recharge waters. The new method is applied to the Ledo-Paniselian Aquifer in Belgium. This is a typical freshening aquifer where recharge takes place through the semi-confining cover of the Bartonian Clay. Besides cation exchange which is the major influencing process for the evolution of groundwater chemistry (particularly in the Bartonian Clay), also mixing with the original porewater solution (fossil seawater) occurs in the aquifer. Recharge temperatures were based on noble gas measurements. Potential infiltration water compositions, for a range of possible pCO{sub 2}, temperature and calcite dissolution system conditions, were calculated by means of PHREEQC. Then the sampled groundwaters were modelled starting from these infiltration waters, using the computer code NETPATH and considering a wide range of geochemical processes. Fitting models were selected on the basis of correspondence of calculated {delta}{sup 13}C with measured {delta}{sup 13}C. The {sup 14}C modelling resulted in residence times ranging from Holocene to Pleistocene (few hundred years to over 40 ka) and yielded consistent results within the uncertainty estimation. Comparison was made with the {delta}{sup 13}C and Fontes and Garnier correction models, that do not take climate conditions at recharge into account. To date these are considered as the most representative process-oriented existing models, yet differences in calculated residence times of mostly several thousands of years (up to 19 ka) are revealed with the newly calculated ages being mostly (though not always) younger. Not accounting for climate conditions at recharge (pCO{sub 2} and temperature) is thus producing

  9. Hydrochemical evidence for mixing of river water and groundwater during high-flow conditions, lower Suwannee River basin, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Christy A.; Katz, Brian G.; Hirten, Joshua J.

    Karstic aquifers are highly susceptible to rapid infiltration of river water, particularly during periods of high flow. Following a period of sustained rainfall in the Suwannee River basin, Florida, USA, the stage of the Suwannee River rose from 3.0 to 5.88m above mean sea level in April 1996 and discharge peaked at 360m3/s. During these high-flow conditions, water from the Suwannee River migrated directly into the karstic Upper Floridan aquifer, the main source of water supply for the area. Changes in the chemical composition of groundwater were quantified using naturally occurring geochemical tracers and mass-balance modeling techniques. Mixing of river water with groundwater was indicated by a decrease in the concentrations of calcium, silica, and 222Rn; and by an increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), tannic acid, and chloride, compared to low-flow conditions in water from a nearby monitoring well, Wingate Sink, and Little River Springs. The proportion (fraction) of river water in groundwater ranged from 0.13 to 0.65 at Wingate Sink and from 0.5 to 0.99 at well W-17258, based on binary mixing models using various tracers. The effectiveness of a natural tracer in quantifying mixing of river water and groundwater was related to differences in tracer concentration of the two end members and how conservatively the tracer reacted in the mixed water. Solutes with similar concentrations in the two end-member waters (Na, Mg, K, Cl, SO4, SiO2) were not as effective tracers for quantifying mixing of river water and groundwater as those with larger differences in end-member concentrations (Ca, tannic acid, DOC, 222Rn, HCO3). Résumé Les aquifères karstiques sont particulièrement sensibles à l'infiltration rapide d'eau de rivières, spécialement pendant les périodes de hautes eaux. A la suite d'une période de pluies soutenues sur le bassin de la rivière Suwannee (Floride, États-Unis), le niveau de cette rivière est monté de 3,0 à 5,88m au-dessus du niveau

  10. Hydrochemical differences between Carpathian streams with similar physico-geographical conditions of catchments (the Polish Flysch Carpathians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucała, Anna; Wiejaczka, Łukasz

    2014-05-01

    The study was conducted during one hydrological year (2012/2013) in two Jaszcze and Jamne catchments (11.39 km2 and 8.95 km2, respectively) located in the Gorce Mountains with environmental features representative for the Western Flysch Carpathians (in 2012/2013 hydrological year). The Jaszcze and Jamne streams (9.3 km and 6.4 km long, respectively), are left tributaries of the Ochotnica river. Both catchments are in the range of the Magura nappe of the Carpathian Flysch. The Jaszcze and Jamne valleys are located in two climatic vertical zones: 1) a temperate cold zone (of a mean annual temperature of 4-6 ºC) and 2) a cold zone (2-4ºC), above 1,100 m a.s.l. Mean annual precipitation for this region in the years 1958-2008 was 841 mm. The aim of the research was to determine differences in the physicochemical properties between streams, the valleys of which are characterised by similar physico-geographical conditions. The discussed valleys are alike because of their proximity, and the similarity manifests itself through the occurrence of the same geology, relief and exposure of both valleys, as well as inclination and soil cover. The climatic conditions and circulation of groundwater are also similar. In both valleys, forest is the dominant land use form (the Jaszcze catchment - 77% and the Jamne - 55%). The research showed that the Jaszcze stream is characterised by a higher discharge throughout the year than the Jamne stream. In spring, the mean water flow rate calculated for the entire longitudinal profile of the Jaszcze stream was 1.6 times higher than the rate obtained for the Jamne stream. In summer and autumn, this rate was respectively 1.8 and 2.2 times higher in the Jaszcze stream than in the Jamne stream. The mean annual temperature of water in the Jamne stream is higher by 0.8 °C than the temperature of water in the Jaszcze stream. This is caused by the higher temperature of groundwater (even by up to 2-3 °C) and the lower discharge (the temperature

  11. Thermodynamic and hydrochemical controls on CH4 in a coal seam gas and overlying alluvial aquifer: new insights into CH4 origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, D. Des. R.; Shouakar-Stash, O.; Morgenstern, U.; Aravena, R.

    2016-08-01

    Using a comprehensive data set (dissolved CH4, δ13C-CH4, δ2H-CH4, δ13C-DIC, δ37Cl, δ2H-H2O, δ18O-H2O, Na, K, Ca, Mg, HCO3, Cl, Br, SO4, NO3 and DO), in combination with a novel application of isometric log ratios, this study describes hydrochemical and thermodynamic controls on dissolved CH4 from a coal seam gas reservoir and an alluvial aquifer in the Condamine catchment, eastern Surat/north-western Clarence-Moreton basins, Australia. δ13C-CH4 data in the gas reservoir (-58‰ to -49‰) and shallow coal measures underlying the alluvium (-80‰ to -65‰) are distinct. CO2 reduction is the dominant methanogenic pathway in all aquifers, and it is controlled by SO4 concentrations and competition for reactants such as H2. At isolated, brackish sites in the shallow coal measures and alluvium, highly depleted δ2H-CH4 (gas reservoir (200-500 m) to the shallow coal measures (<200 m) or the alluvium was not observed. The study demonstrates the importance of understanding CH4 at different depth profiles within and between aquifers. Further research, including culturing studies of microbial consortia, will improve our understanding of the occurrence of CH4 within and between aquifers in these basins.

  12. Influence of antecedent hydrologic conditions on patterns of hydrochemical export from a first-order agricultural watershed in Southern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrae, M. L.; English, M. C.; Schiff, S. L.; Stone, M.

    2010-07-01

    SummaryThe ability to quantify and predict discharge and nutrient export patterns from agricultural catchments is confounded by the effects of antecedent hydrologic conditions (AHC) in upland areas. This paper examines the impacts of AHC on storm hydrologic response and nutrient export for 59 events measured over a 2-year period (year-round). Event-related discharge and nutrient (nitrate, phosphate) export were highly temporally variable. Runoff ratios ranged from 0 to 0.99 over the study period, with the lowest median runoff ratios being observed during the summer and early autumn period and the highest median runoff ratios being observed in March following snowmelt. Runoff ratios were positively correlated with AHC indices such as pre-event stream discharge (1-day) and antecedent (14-day) stream discharge although strong predictive relationships could not be generated ( p > 0.01). In general, runoff ratios increased throughout successive events as AHC became wetter; however trends observed among suites of events with having similar AHC did not produce similar patterns of hydrologic or nutrient export response, which clearly demonstrates the non-linear responses to variable AHC in the watershed. Basin nitrate ( NO3-), total phosphorus (TP) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) export varied with AHC in the basin, and flow-weighted mean nutrient concentrations (FWMC) ranged considerably (mean, range: 8, 1-18 mg L -1 NO 3-N; 18, 3-161 μg L -1 SRP; 75, 15-274 μg L -1 TP). Nutrient export increased with successive events when the basin was on a wetting trend, but decreased with successive events when the basin was on an overall drying trend. These patterns were linked to peak water table position during events and timing of fertilizer application. Overall, this work demonstrates that watershed hydrologic and nutrient export responses to precipitation and AHC are complex and cannot be predicted using simple linear relationships. This study also demonstrates the need

  13. Condition Monitoring of Control Loops

    OpenAIRE

    Horch, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    The main concern of this work is the development of methodsfor automatic condition monitoring of control loops withapplication to the process industry. By condition monitoringboth detection and diagnosis of malfunctioning control loops isunderstood, using normal operating data and a minimum amount ofprocess knowledge. The use of indices for quantifying loop performance is dealtwith in the first part of the thesis. The starting point is anindex proposed by Harris (1989). This index has been mo...

  14. Optimality Conditions for Inventory Control

    OpenAIRE

    Feinberg, Eugene A.

    2016-01-01

    This tutorial describes recently developed general optimality conditions for Markov Decision Processes that have significant applications to inventory control. In particular, these conditions imply the validity of optimality equations and inequalities. They also imply the convergence of value iteration algorithms. For total discounted-cost problems only two mild conditions on the continuity of transition probabilities and lower semi-continuity of one-step costs are needed. For average-cost pr...

  15. FerryMon: Using ferries as hydrochemical observatories in estuarine and coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paerl, H.; Guajardo, R.; Peierls, B.; Rossignol, K.; Braddy, J.

    2007-12-01

    Estuaries are among the most productive and resourceful aquatic ecosystems on Earth. They are strongly influenced by hydrochemical stressors, including nutrient enrichment and climatic factors such as droughts, storms and floods. Clarifying how estuaries respond to these stresses will provide an understanding of how hydrologic and chemical processes control ecological condition and change of these ecosystems. This understanding will greatly benefit from a spatially and temporally-intensive observational program, which, when coupled to modeling will help predict future responses to external anthropogenic (nutrient) and climatic (hydrologic) perturbations. North Carolina's Pamlico Sound System (PSS) is the Nation's second largest estuary. It exemplifies the impacts of human development (eutrophication) and large climatic perturbations (hurricanes). We are using 3 NC DOT ferries to conduct unattended hydrochemical monitoring of water quality, habitat and ecological condition of the PSS. This program, FerryMon (www.ferrymon.org), uses temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and chlorophyll a sensors coupled to discrete sampling of nutrients, organics, photopigment and molecular indicators to assess water quality in a near real-time manner over a range of relevant physical, chemical and biological time scales. An autonomous vertical profiler (AVP), equipped with sensors similar to those on the ferries, provides complementary vertical profile data. This capability is timely given unprecedented human development and a period of elevated tropical storm and hurricane activity affecting coastal water quality and habitat conditions and fisheries resources. FerryMon is used to calibrate remotely sensed indicators of water quality (photopigments, turbidity), facilitating scaling up to the ecosystem level. It is integrated with complementary observational programs (LTERs, NEON, ORION, WATERS, SEACOOS), and it supports interdisciplinary research aimed at

  16. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FERTILIZERS ON THE FORMATION OF HYDROCHEMICAL REGIME IN REARING PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hryhorenko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effect of different types of fertilizers on the formation of hydrochemical regime in rearing ponds. Methodology. For the study, we used generally accepted hydrochemistry methods. For the overall (total chemical analysis, water samples were taken two times during the season (at the beginning and at the end of the growing season, a short chemical analysis of water was carried out twice a month. Findings. The article presents the research results of hydrochemical regime in rearing ponds of the State Enterprise "Nivkа" when applying different types of fertilizers. It was found that hydrochemical regime in experimental rearing ponds was formed under the effect of water supply source and measures aimed at improving the development of the natural food supply (application of cattle manure and microfertilizer "Rostok" Macro. No significant difference was observed between hydrochemical parameters when applying different types of fertilizers. The dynamics of seasonal changes in the basic chemical indicators in both experimental ponds was similar, however, the pond fertilized with manure was characterized by higher values of permanganate oxidation, ammonium and nitrite nitrogen during the entire culture season. In general, the hydrochemical regime in rearing ponds was satisfactory and suitable for the cultivation of carp seeds when applying either cattle manure or microfertilizer "Rostok" Macro. Originality. The peculiarities of the formation of the hydrochemical regime of rearing ponds when applying cattle manure and "Rostock" Macro fertilizer have been investigated. Practical value. The obtained data can be used to develop practical recommendations for the optimization of growing conditions of fish seeds when applying of various types of fertilizers, increasing the efficiency of aquatic ecosystems management and their bioproductivity.

  17. Identification of hydrochemical facies in the Roswell Artesian Basin, New Mexico (USA), using graphical and statistical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Brent D.; Havenor, Kay C.; Longmire, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of groundwater chemistry can yield important insights about subsurface conditions, and provide an alternative and complementary method for characterizing basin hydrogeology, especially in areas where hydraulic data are limited. More specifically, hydrochemical facies have been used for decades to help understand basin flow and transport, and a set of facies were developed for the Roswell Artesian Basin (RAB) in a semi-arid part of New Mexico, USA. The RAB is an important agricultural water source, and is an excellent example of a rechargeable artesian system. However, substantial uncertainties about the RAB hydrogeology and groundwater chemistry exist. The RAB was a great opportunity to explore hydrochemcial facies definition. A set of facies, derived from fingerprint diagrams (graphical approach), existed as a basis for testing and for comparison to principal components, factor analysis, and cluster analyses (statistical approaches). Geochemical data from over 300 RAB wells in the central basin were examined. The statistical testing of fingerprint-diagram-based facies was useful in terms of quantitatively evaluating differences between facies, and for understanding potential controls on basin groundwater chemistry. This study suggests the presence of three hydrochemical facies in the shallower part of the RAB (mostly unconfined conditions) and three in the deeper artesian system of the RAB. These facies reflect significant spatial differences in chemistry in the basin that are associated with specific stratigraphic intervals as well as structural features. Substantial chemical variability across faults and within fault blocks was also observed.

  18. Variability and Uncertainties of Key Hydrochemical Parameters for SKB Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bath, Adrian [Intellisci Ltd, Willoughby on the Wolds, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Hermansson, Hans-Peter [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    The work described in this report is a development of SKI's capability for the review and evaluation of data that will constitute part of SKB's case for selection of a suitable site and application to construct a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The aim has been to integrate a number of different approaches to interpreting and evaluating hydrochemical data, especially with respect to the parameters that matter most in assessing the suitability of a site and in understanding the geochemistry and groundwater conditions at a site. It has been focused on taking an independent view of overall uncertainties in reported data, taking account of analytical, sampling and other random and systematic sources of error. This evaluation was carried out initially with a compilation and general inspection of data from the Simpevarp, Forsmark and Laxemar sites plus data from older 'historical' boreholes in the Aespoe area. That was followed by a more specific interpretation by means of geochemical calculations which test the robustness of certain parameters, namely pH and redox/Eh. Geochemical model calculations have been carried out with widely available computer software. Data sources and their handling were also considered, especially access to SKB's SICADA database. In preparation for the use of geochemical modelling programs and to establish comparability of model results with those reported by SKB, the underlying thermodynamic databases were compared with each other and with other generally accepted databases. Comparisons of log K data for selected solid phases and solution complexes from the different thermodynamic databases were made. In general, there is a large degree of comparability between the databases, but there are some significant, and in a few cases large, differences. The present situation is however adequate for present purposes. The interpretation of redox equilibria is dependent on identifying the relevant solid phases and

  19. Assessment of groundwater–surface water interaction using long-term hydrochemical data and isotope hydrology: Headwaters of the Condamine River, Southeast Queensland, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jorge L., E-mail: jlmarti@ig.com.br [Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia); Raiber, Matthias [CSIRO Land and Water Flagship, Brisbane (Australia); Cox, Malcolm E. [Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia)

    2015-12-01

    A spatial analysis of hydrochemical data of groundwater and surface water was undertaken to identify groundwater-surface water connectivity in the headwaters of the Condamine River catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia. An assessment of long-term hydrochemical and water level data supplemented by stable- and radioisotope measurements following a prolonged dry period dominated by baseflow, helped in determining patterns of interaction in different tributaries of the upper Condamine catchment. A conceptual hydrological model representing the major hydrochemical processes and their implications for stream-aquifer connectivity was developed and tested using multiple lines of evidence. The results of a multivariate statistical analysis highlight that there are two main regions with distinct hydrochemical facies (salinity, alkalinity, and predominant ions) in surface water. Geomorphology, geology, anthropogenic and climate influence were identified as the most relevant controlling factors of the spatial variability in water quality. Stable isotope data confirmed a clear evaporation trend in almost all surface water samples during baseflow conditions. Two water types can be identified and separated by the degree of evaporation and the proximity of one group to the local meteoric water line. The results confirm the discharge of groundwater from aquifers recharged by rainfall and located upstream of the surface water sampling sites. Overall, {sup 222}Rn data show a trend of increased activity in surface water towards the upstream portions of these tributaries, validating the use of this tracer to estimate groundwater input to the local creeks. The proportion of groundwater contribution to stream flow calculated by {sup 222}Rn and chloride mass balance is in agreement, and ranges between 20–70% in tributaries in the northern areas, and between 8–50% in the upper reaches of the main river channel. This study shows the efficacy of an integrated approach combining long

  20. Lithological and hydrochemical controls on distribution and speciation of uranium in groundwaters of hard-rock granitic aquifers of Madurai District, Tamil Nadu (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivya, C; Chidambaram, S; Keesari, Tirumalesh; Prasanna, M V; Thilagavathi, R; Adithya, V S; Singaraja, C

    2016-04-01

    Uranium is a radioactive element normally present in hexavalent form as U(VI) in solution and elevated levels in drinking water cause health hazards. Representative groundwater samples were collected from different litho-units in this region and were analyzed for total U and major and minor ions. Results indicate that the highest U concentration (113 µg l(-1)) was found in granitic terrains of this region and about 10 % of the samples exceed the permissible limit for drinking water. Among different species of U in aqueous media, carbonate complexes [UO2(CO3)(2)(2-)] are found to be dominant. Groundwater with higher U has higher pCO2 values, indicating weathering by bicarbonate ions resulting in preferential mobilization of U in groundwater. The major minerals uraninite and coffinite were found to be supersaturated and are likely to control the distribution of U in the study area. Nature of U in groundwater, the effects of lithology on hydrochemistry and factors controlling its distribution in hard rock aquifers of Madurai district are highlighted in this paper.

  1. Hydrochemical zonation of the western part of Göksu Delta aquifer system, Southern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokuz, U. E.; Çelik, M.; Arslan, Ş.; Engin, H.

    2012-04-01

    In general, coastal areas are preferred places for human settlement, especially at places where infrastructure routes benefit from rivers, streets, or harbours. As a result, these areas usually suffer from rising population and endure increasingly high demand on natural resources like water. Göksu Delta, located in southern Turkey, is one of the important wetland areas of Turkey at the Mediterranean coast. It is divided into two parts by Göksu River. The western part of the delta, which is the subject matter of this study, hosts fertile agricultural fields, touristic places and a Special Environmental Protection Area. These properties of the region lead to a water-dependent ecosystem where groundwater has widely been used for agricultural and domestic purposes. When the exploitation of groundwater peaked in the middle of 1990s, the groundwater levels dropped and seawater intruded. General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works tried to stop seawater intrusion by building irrigation channels connected to Göksu River and banned drilling of new wells for groundwater exploitation, although it is hard to control the drilling of wells without official permit. Geological studies show that the delta is composed of terrestrial sediments including clay to coarse sand deposited during Quaternary. The heterogeneous sediments of Göksu Delta cause hydrogeological features of the aquifer systems to be heterogeneous and anisotropic. Hydrogeological investigations, therefore, indicate mainly two different aquifers, shallow and deep, separated by an aquitard. The shallow aquifer is under unconfined to confined conditions from north to south while the deep aquifer is under confined conditions. This study focuses on hydrogeochemical zonation in terms of hydrochemical processes that affect the Göksu Delta aquifer systems. For this purpose, hydrogeochemical and isotopic studies are conducted to understand the salinisation and softening processes of groundwater. The physicochemical

  2. Hydrochemical features of groundwater in a coastal gypsum karst (Marina di Lesina, Gargano, Southern Italy) in relation to tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidelibus, Maria Dolores; Campana, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    As part of a complex monitoring aimed at collecting suitable data for conceptual and numerical modelling of the coastal gypsum karst of Marina di Lesina (Gargano, Southern Italy), 64 groundwater samples were collected during three surveys at different depths from 9 monitoring wells aligned along two transects. The transects, perpendicular to the Acquarotta canal, are less of 1 Km long. The canal is directly connected to the sea and to the Lesina Lagoon and behaves as an oscillating border following sea tides. The sampling campaigns were carried out concurrently to phases of increasing, decreasing, and low tide and provide different frameworks of the chemical composition of ground waters. TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) of ground water samples ranges from 0.2 g/l to 35 g/l and increases generally along the flow lines towards the canal, and downward. The concentrations of the major ions deviate from theoretical ones defined by non-reactive mixing lines, which have as saline end-member either standard seawater or local seawater sampled offshore.Owing to the multi-component character of the hydrochemical system, the cation concentrations are controlled by competition among concurrent water-rock interaction processes that overlap to non-reactive freshwater-saltwater (FW-SW) mixing, being even triggered and/or enhanced by the same mixing, with feedback loops: gypsum and calcite dissolution, ion exchange (with direction depending on hydrodynamic conditions mainly driven by tides, and justified due to the presence of clay in the gypsum bedrock), and dedolomitization. The geochemical study also highlights the involvement of saline ground waters belonging to regional circuits that develop in the huge Mesozoic carbonate basement. The study highlights that in the saturated thickness of the gypsum coastal aquifer closer to the coast, the hydrochemical system is extremely reactive and strongly influenced by the different groundwater hydraulic conditions induced by the tide phases.

  3. Scale dependence of the episodic hydrochemical response of nested catchments at Plynlimon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Foster

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous monitoring of the surface water chemistry of the forested catchments at Plynlimon has concentrated on weekly measurements. Hence, peak values and details of the rapid changes in chemistry occurring during events tend to be missed, particularly for smaller catchments. Knowledge of the detailed hydrochemical response is necessary to predict effects on stream ecology and to quantify processes occurring within the catchment. This information is vital if the likely impacts of changes in landuse and pollutant input on episodic hydrochemical variations are to be modelled. A summary of daily and three-hourly chemistry for the River Severn headwaters at Plynlimon, central Wales is presented. Data are from the summer and autumn of 1995 and the winter and summer of 1996. The effects of antecedent conditions, soiltype, landuse and groundwater and tributary inflow on stream episodic hydrochemical response are discussed for a range of spatial scales, including first, second and third order streams. Detailed information on the chemical changes due to a discrete groundwater inflow into the bed of one stream shows that, during episodes, its influence on stream chemistry is overridden by that of event water. A comparison of drainage ditch chemistry with main stream chemistry during storm events is used to consider the importance of tributary inflow at these times. The contrast in results between sites is assessed, to evaluate the effects of clearfelling and soil type on stream event chemistry.

  4. Hydrochemical Characteristics and Controls of Runoff at the Headwaters of the Urumqi River, Eastern Tianshan Mountain%天山乌鲁木齐河源区径流水化学特征及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯芳; 李忠勤; 张明军; 金爽; 王飞腾

    2011-01-01

    在乌鲁木齐河源区采集两年的大气降水和1号冰川、空冰斗、总控3个水文点逐日定时径流样品,对主要离子、pH、电导率EC和总溶解固体TDS进行了分析。结果表明,大气降水离子类型为Ca^2+-Na^+-HCO3--SO4^2-,接近中性;径流离子类型为Ca^2+-Na^+-HCO3--SO4^2-,呈弱碱性。径流中EC和TDS均值总控〉1号冰川〉空冰斗,其中1号冰川径流的峰值远高于其它两个水文点。受不同下垫面的影响,1号冰川水文点TDS变化受日径流量影响显著,而空冰斗水文点基本不受影响。径流中离子组成主要受岩石风化作用影响,离子比值和Piper图分析说明控制径流离子的主要过程是碳酸盐、黄铁矿和长石类矿物风化。海盐校正分析得出,大气降水对1号冰川、空冰斗、总控径流离子贡献率分别为4.91%,9.10%和5.42%。通过阳离子通量计算,2006年、2007年1号冰川径流的化学风化侵蚀率分别为18.1t/(km^2·a)和12.3t/(km^2·a)。%Glacierised alpine basins present an ideal environment for studying interactions between water and rock, since chemical weathering rates are generally high and anthropogenic impacts are often minimal. Studies on glacier hydrochemistry are still at an initial stage in China, with less data being published on glacierized catchments. An analytical study of hydrochemical characteristics and controls of the proglacial streams at the headwaters of the Urumqi River were carried out in this study. Over the period from May 2006 through April 2008, a 2-year continuous precipitation and runoff samples were analyzed for major cations (Mg^2+, Ca^2+, Na^+, and K^+) and anions (SO42-, NO; and Cl-), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and total dissolved solids (TDS). Results reveal that Ca^2+ and Na + were the dominant cations, and HCOf and SO,2 were the dominant anions in precipitation. The anions and cations

  5. Flow pathways and nutrient transport mechanisms drive hydrochemical sensitivity to climate change across catchments with different geology and topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Crossman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological processes determine the transport of nutrients and passage of diffuse pollution. Consequently, catchments are likely to exhibit individual hydrochemical responses (sensitivities to climate change, which is expected to alter the timing and amount of runoff, and to impact in-stream water quality. In developing robust catchment management strategies and quantifying plausible future hydrochemical conditions it is therefore equally important to consider the potential for spatial variability in, and causal factors of, catchment sensitivity, as to explore future changes in climatic pressures. This study seeks to identify those factors which influence hydrochemical sensitivity to climate change. A perturbed physics ensemble (PPE, derived from a series of Global Climate Model (GCM variants with specific climate sensitivities was used to project future climate change and uncertainty. Using the Integrated Catchment Model of Phosphorus Dynamics (INCA-P, we quantified potential hydrochemical responses in four neighbouring catchments (with similar land use but varying topographic and geological characteristics in southern Ontario, Canada. Responses were assessed by comparing a 30 year baseline (1968–1997 to two future periods: 2020–2049 and 2060–2089. Although projected climate change and uncertainties were similar across these catchments, hydrochemical responses (sensitivity were highly varied. Sensitivity was governed by soil type (influencing flow pathways and nutrient transport mechanisms. Clay-rich catchments were most sensitive, with total phosphorus (TP being rapidly transported to rivers via overland flow. In these catchments large annual reductions in TP loads were projected. Sensitivity in the other two catchments, dominated by sandy-loams, was lower due to a larger proportion of soil matrix flow, longer soil water residence times and seasonal variability in soil-P saturation. Here smaller changes in TP loads, predominantly

  6. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, Germán A; Olm, Josep M

    2013-01-01

    The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area. Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic. However, in some applications the frequency of the reference/disturbance signal is time-varying or uncertain. This causes an important performance degradation in the standard Repetitive Control scheme. This book presents some solutions to apply Repetitive Control in varying frequency conditions without loosing steady-state performance. It also includes a complete theoretical development and experimental results in two representative systems. The presented solutions are organized in two complementary branches: varying sampling period Repetitive Control and High Order Repetitive Control. The first approach allows dealing with large range frequency variations while the second allows dealing with small range frequency variations. The book also presents applications of the described techniques to a Roto-magnet plant and...

  7. Groundwater salinity and hydrochemical processes in the volcano-sedimentary aquifer of La Aldea, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Fuentes, Tatiana; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Heredia, Javier; Custodio, Emilio

    2014-06-15

    The origin of the groundwater salinity and hydrochemical conditions of a 44km(2) volcano-sedimentary aquifer in the semi-arid to arid La Aldea Valley (western Gran Canaria, Spain) has been studied, using major physical and chemical components. Current aquifer recharge is mainly the result of irrigation return flows and secondarily that of rainfall infiltration. Graphical, multivariate statistical and modeling tools have been applied in order to improve the hydrogeological conceptual model and identify the natural and anthropogenic factors controlling groundwater salinity. Groundwater ranges from Na-Cl-HCO3 type for moderate salinity water to Na-Mg-Cl-SO4 type for high salinity water. This is mainly the result of atmospheric airborne salt deposition; silicate weathering, and recharge incorporating irrigation return flows. High evapotranspiration produces significant evapo-concentration leading to relative high groundwater salinity in the area. Under average conditions, about 70% of the water used for intensive agricultural exploitation in the valley comes from three low salinity water runoff storage reservoirs upstream, out of the area, while the remaining 30% derives from groundwater. The main alluvial aquifer behaves as a short turnover time reservoir that adds to the surface waters to complement irrigation water supply in dry periods, when it reaches 70% of irrigation water requirements. The high seasonality and intra-annual variability of water demand for irrigation press on decision making on aquifer use by a large number of aquifer users acting on their own.

  8. Hydrochemical characterization and pollution sources identification of groundwater in Salawusu aquifer system of Ordos Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingchun; Wang, Luchen; Ma, Hongyun; Yu, Kun; Martín, Jordi Delgado

    2016-09-01

    Ordos Basin is located in an arid and semi-arid region of northwestern China, which is the most important energy source bases in China. Salawusu Formation (Q3 s) is one of the most important aquifer systems of Ordos Basin, which is adjacent to Jurassic coalfield areas. A large-scale exploitation of Jurassic coal resources over ten years results in series of influences to the coal minerals, such as exposed to the oxidation process and dissolution into the groundwater due to the precipitation infiltration. Therefore, how these processes impact groundwater quality is of great concerns. In this paper, the descriptive statistical method, Piper trilinear diagram, ratios of major ions and canonical correspondence analysis are employed to investigate the hydrochemical evolution, determine the possible sources of pollution processes, and assess the controls on groundwater compositions using the monitored data in 2004 and 2014 (before and after large-scale coal mining). Results showed that long-term exploration of coal resources do not result in serious groundwater pollution. The hydrochemical types changed from HCO3(-)-CO3(2-) facies to SO4(2-)-Cl facies during 10 years. Groundwater hardness, nitrate and sulfate pollution were identified in 2014, which was most likely caused by agricultural activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Smart sensors enable smart air conditioning control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-06-24

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.

  10. Hydrochemical changes due to intensive use of groundwater in the carbonate aquifers of Sierra de Estepa (Seville, Southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos-Rosillo, S.; Moral, F.

    2015-09-01

    The carbonate aquifers of Sierra de Estepa, situated in southern Spain, are undergoing intensive groundwater exploitation. Consequently, the volume of pumping surpasses the average recharge for periods of several consecutive years. Under such conditions, nearby springs have either dried up or only function during short time periods, after very rainy episodes followed by long droughts. During the brief periods when the springs are active, their water and the water extracted by pumping are calcium bicarbonates, with a spatial-temporal variability of their physico-chemical characteristics that is mainly conditioned by the degree of functional karstification of each system. When the springs are inactive, the pumping water gradually increases in salinity and becomes HCO3ClCaNa, ClHCO3NaCa and ClNa. Under the new conditions caused by so much pumping, the main factors determining the hydrochemical changes are the mixing of waters and the subsequent reactions of dissolution-precipitation between (1) the recharge coming from rainwater, (2) the hypersaline inputs from the clay-evaporite aquitards situated on the edges and at the base of the aquifer, and (3) the water stored in each aquifer. The hydrochemical information acquired allowed us to characterize and model the groundwater of these aquifers, to study the causes of its great spatial and temporal variability, and explain the influence of exploitation. This research shows that making sustainable use of water resources associated with carbonate aquifers calls for sound knowledge of the relationship between the aquifer and other bodies of groundwater or surface water, the hydrochemical quality of these possible inputs, and the vulnerability of the aquifer to exploitation, which in turn is conditioned by the ratio between water reserves and recharge.

  11. Hydrochemical characteristics of salt marsh wetlands in western Songnen Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In western Songnen Plain of China, the saline-alkaline degree of water bodies is high in salt marsh wetlands. Generally, pH is above 8.0, and the hydrochemical types belong to HCO32--Na+. Through analysis on the basic saline variables such as CO32-, HCO32-, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42-, Na+, and the derivative variables such as SAR, SDR, RSC, SSP, the relationships between different variables are found, and the discriminant equations are established to identify different saline-alkaline water bodies by using principal component analysis.

  12. ENSO-cave drip water hydrochemical relationship: a 7-year dataset from south-eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Carol V.; Treble, Pauline C.; Baker, Andy; Fairchild, Ian; Hankin, Stuart; Roach, Regina; Markowska, Monika; McDonald, Janece

    2016-11-01

    Speleothems (cave deposits), used for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions, are deposited from cave drip water. Differentiating climate and karst processes within a drip-water signal is fundamental for the correct identification of palaeoenvironmental proxies and ultimately their interpretation within speleothem records. We investigate the potential use of trace element and stable oxygen-isotope (δ18O) variations in cave drip water as palaeorainfall proxies in an Australian alpine karst site. This paper presents the first extensive hydrochemical and δ18O dataset from Harrie Wood Cave, in the Snowy Mountains, south-eastern (SE) Australia. Using a 7-year long rainfall δ18O and drip-water Ca, Cl, Mg / Ca, Sr / Ca and δ18O datasets from three drip sites, we determined that the processes of mixing, dilution, flow path change, carbonate mineral dissolution and prior calcite precipitation (PCP) accounted for the observed variations in the drip-water geochemical composition. We identify that the three monitored drip sites are fed by fracture flow from a well-mixed epikarst storage reservoir, supplied by variable concentrations of dissolved ions from soil and bedrock dissolution. We constrained the influence of multiple processes and controls on drip-water composition in a region dominated by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). During the El Niño and dry periods, enhanced PCP, a flow path change and dissolution due to increased soil CO2 production occurred in response to warmer than average temperatures in contrast to the La Niña phase, where dilution dominated and reduced PCP were observed. We present a conceptual model, illustrating the key processes impacting the drip-water chemistry. We identified a robust relationship between ENSO and drip-water trace element concentrations and propose that variations in speleothem Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca ratios may be interpreted to reflect palaeorainfall conditions. These findings inform palaeorainfall reconstruction from

  13. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Fuentes, Germán Andrés

    2012-01-01

    The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area and Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic; however, in some applications the period of the signal to be tracked/rejected changes in time or is uncertain, which causes and important performance degradation in the standard repetitive controller. This thesis presents some contributions to the open topic of repetitive control workin...

  14. Control of Propeller Cavitation in Operational Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijdag, A.

    2009-01-01

    Off design conditions can have a severe impact on ship propulsion system behaviour. Resistance increase for instance leads to a higher engine loading, and can also easily lead to a decrease of cavitation inception speed with respect to calm water conditions. Wakefield variations due to ship motions,

  15. Controllability of impulsive functional differential systems with nonlocal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yansheng Liu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the controllability of impulsive functional differential equations with nonlocal conditions. We establish sufficient conditions for controllability, via the measure of noncompactness and Monch fixed point theorem.

  16. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Fuentes, Germán Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Premi extraordinari doctorat curs 2011-2012, àmbit d’Enginyeria Industrial The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area and Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic; however, in some applications the period of the signal to be tracked/rejected changes in time or is uncertain, which causes and important performance degradation in the standard repetitive controller. This the...

  17. Hydrochemical modelling of water quality in terms of emerging micropollutants in Mpumalanga, Gauteng and North West Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.

    2017-08-01

    Emerging micropollutants (EMPs) are ubiquitous in aquatic systems and are associated with a wide range of eco-toxicological effects worldwide. There remains a lack of scientific understanding of the major underlying hydrochemical factors behind variations in concentration heterogeneities of EMPs in time and space. This study was therefore conducted to determine major hydrochemical processes controlling water quality and the occurrence of EMPs mainly, carbamazepine (CBZ), tonalide (AHTN), galaxolide (HHCB), caffeine (CAF), technical 4-nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in water from Mpumalanga, Gauteng and North West Provinces in South Africa. Grab water samples were collected bi-monthly between June 2014 and April 2016 from 44 water sources using standard sampling procedures. BPA, NP, CAF, HHCB, AHTN, CBZ were extracted, cleaned and enriched using autotrace-SPE at neutral pH and analyzed using GC × GC-TOFMS. Kruskal Wallis-test was used to test for temporal variations in occurrence of the analytes. The Geochemist's Workbench® Release 11 software, Surfer Golden Graphics for surface mapping, PHREEQC software and bivariate ion plots were used determine the major hydrogeochemical processes. The mean concentrations of EMPs varied from 3.48 μg/L for CAF to 421.53 μg/L for HHCB. Although the Kruskal Wallis test revealed no any statistically significant temporal variations in concentrations of the analytes in water samples at 95% confidence level, their occurrence and distribution vary spatially with BPA being the most widely distributed EMP and was present in 62% of the sampled sites. Municipal waste water inputs, agricultural pollution, ion-exchange reactions, carbonate and silicate weathering were the major processes controlling water quality in the study area. This study may assist water resource managers to ably address and manage water pollution resulting from a number of natural and anthropogenic hydrochemical processes in the study area.

  18. Traffic Control Under Complex Weather Conditions in Suining Airport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕维峰

    2014-01-01

    Complex weather conditions is meaning thunderstorm freezing turbulence wind-shear low visibility weather affect the flight safety. When confronted with complex weather conditions,the controllers should know the weather condition and trend weather,and notify the aircraft under your control zone.The controllers provide the required services to the pilots,help the pilots to avoid the complex weather.In this paper, through different complex weathers under different control command,get the different methods of control.

  19. Conditions for time-controllability of behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasane, A; Cotroneo, T

    2002-01-01

    This paper develops a behavioural framework to study controllability of systems whose dynamics are described by systems of linear, constant coefficient partial differential equations. Questions about the notion of controllability are addressed with special importance given to the time-evolution. Alg

  20. Spatio-temporal variability in hydro-chemical characteristics of coastal waters of Salimpur, Chittagong along the Bay of Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Talukder

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Diverse seasonal characteristics of hydro-chemical parameters in the coastal zone are significantly related to aquaculture development. In this paper, general water quality condition derived from laboratory analysis from the coastal waters of Salimpur, Chittagong is presented. Samples were collected from onshore and offshore site of two adjacent coastal locations named as North Salimpur (experimental location and South Kattoli (control during a monsoon and a dry season spanning 2013-14. The spatio-temporal variability of studied parameters were found as air temperature 26.5-32.5 ˚C, water temperature 23-33 °C, pH 7.1-7.9, DO 4.29-7.11 mg/L, BOD 1.10-3.25 mg/L, salinity 1.6-21 ppt, EC 3.40-35.68 mS/cm, TDS 2.02-21.99 g/L, TSS 0.62-2.76 g/L, transparency 4.5-14 cm, precipitation 64-1992 mm, NO2-N 1.94-2.58 µg/L, PO4-P 0.45-1.84 µg/L, SiO3-Si 130.46-956.31 µg/L during investigation period. Average values of physicochemical parameters were found to be in compliance with standard guidelines. The ship breaking activities near experimental location possess negative impacts on local geomorphology, freshwater inputs, precipitation and aquatic environment as well. Moreover, wind driven forces, tidal action, wave characteristics and changes in monsoon pattern regulate the coastal processes. This research suggests the importance of regular monitoring to assess present status of water quality and future prospect of aquaculture in the Chittagong coastal zone.

  1. Principal component analysis and hydrochemical facies characterization to evaluate groundwater quality in Varahi river basin, Karnataka state, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, P.; Somashekar, R. K.

    2017-05-01

    The present study envisages the importance of graphical representations like Piper trilinear diagram and Chadha's plot, respectively to determine variation in hydrochemical facies and understand the evolution of hydrochemical processes in the Varahi river basin. The analytical values obtained from the groundwater samples when plotted on Piper's and Chadha's plots revealed that the alkaline earth metals (Ca2+, Mg2+) are significantly dominant over the alkalis (Na+, K+), and the strong acidic anions (Cl-, SO4 2-) dominant over the weak acidic anions (CO3 2-, HCO3 -). Further, Piper trilinear diagram classified 93.48 % of the samples from the study area under Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl--SO4 2- type and only 6.52 % samples under Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3 - type. Interestingly, Chadha's plot also demonstrated the dominance of reverse ion exchange water having permanent hardness (viz., Ca-Mg-Cl type) in majority of the samples over recharging water with temporary hardness (i.e., Ca-Mg-HCO3 type). Thus, evaluation of hydrochemical facies from both the plots highlighted the contribution from the reverse ion exchange processes in controlling geochemistry of groundwater in the study area. Further, PCA analysis yielded four principal components (PC1, PC2, PC3 and PC4) with higher eigen values of 1.0 or more, accounting for 65.55, 10.17, 6.88 and 6.52 % of the total variance, respectively. Consequently, majority of the physico-chemical parameters (87.5 %) loaded under PC1 and PC2 were having strong positive loading (>0.75) and these are mainly responsible for regulating the hydrochemistry of groundwater in the study area.

  2. On necessary optimality conditions in discrete control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardanov, M. J.; Melikov, T. K.; Mahmudov, N. I.

    2015-10-01

    The paper deals with a nonlinear discrete-time optimal control problem with a cost functional of terminal type. Using a new variation of the control and new properties of optimal controls, we prove the linearised optimality conditions extending such classical optimality conditions. Along with this, various optimality conditions of quasi-singular controls are obtained. Finally, the examples illustrating the rich content of the obtained results are illustrated.

  3. Innovative Air Conditioning and Climate Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA needed to develop a desiccant wheel based humidity removal system to enable the long term testing of the Orion CO2 scrubber on the International Space Station. In the course of developing that system, we learned three things that are relevant to energy efficient air conditioning of office towers. NASA developed a conceptual design for a humidity removal system for an office tower environment. We are looking for interested partners to prototype and field test this concept.

  4. Hydrochemical Regions of the Glacial Aquifer System, Northern United States, and Their Environmental and Water-Quality Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Terri L.; Warner, Kelly L.; Groschen, George E.; Caldwell, James P.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    characteristics of the clusters. The result of the Maximum Likelihood Classification is a map showing five hydrochemical regions of the glacial aquifer system. Statistical analysis of ion concentrations (calcium, chloride, fluoride, magnesium, sodium, potassium, sulfate, and bicarbonate) in samples collected from wells completed in the glacial aquifer system illustrates that variations in water quality can be explained, in part, by related environmental characteristics that control the movement of ground water through the aquifer system. A comparison of median concentrations of chemical constituents in ground water among the five hydrochemical regions indicates that ground water in the Midwestern Agricultural Region, the Urban-Influenced Region, and the Western Agriculture and Grassland Region has the highest concentrations of major and minor ions, whereas ground water in the Northern and Great Lakes Forested Region and the Mountain and Coastal Forested Region has the lowest concentrations of these ions. Median concentrations of barium, arsenic, lithium, boron, strontium, and nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen also are significantly different among the hydrochemical regions.

  5. Source speciation resolving hydrochemical complexity of coastal aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkamble, Sahebrao; Chandra, Subash; Ahmed, Shakeel; Rangarajan, R

    2014-01-15

    There is a growing concern of seawater intrusion to freshwater aquifers due to groundwater overexploitation in the eastern coastal belt of Southern India. The problem becomes complex in the regions where industrial effluents are also contaminating the freshwater aquifers. In order to understand the hydrochemical complexity of the system, topographic elevation, static water level measurements, major ion chemistry, ionic cross plots, water type contours and factor analysis were applied for 144 groundwater samples of shallow and deep sources from Quaternary and Tertiary coastal aquifers, located within the industrial zone of 25 km(2) area near Cuddalore, Southern India. The ionic cross plots indicates dissolution of halite minerals from marine sources and seawater mixing into inland aquifers up to the level of 9.3%. The factor analysis explains three significant factors totaling 86.3% of cumulative sample variance which includes varying contribution from marine, industrial effluent and freshwater sources.

  6. Synthesis of ZnSe Films by Hydrochemical Sedimentation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Sofronov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Zinc selenide films were obtained by hydrochemical sedimentation by interplay of zinc ions with selenium in the presence of hydrazine. It is found that during the deposition from ammonia solutions zinc oxide phase was present. It formed by coalescence between spherical particles with sizes 1-1.5 microns. During the deposition from sodium hydroxide solution with concentration of 0.5-3 M there was formation of sphalerite phase of zinc selenide and films was formed by spherical particles with dimensions розмірами 0,15-0,20 microns. Increasing of concentration of alkali from 0,5 to 3 М does not change the size of the particles in layers.

  7. Common Control by Compound Samples in Conditional Discriminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gonzalez, Luis Antonio; Alonso-Alvarez, Benigno

    2008-01-01

    We tested whether teaching control by single stimulus samples in conditional discriminations would result in common control of two-stimuli compound samples, and vice versa. In Experiment 1, 5 participants were first taught four single-sample conditional discriminations. The first conditional discrimination was as follows: given sample stimulus P1,…

  8. 42 CFR 418.60 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Infection control. 418....60 Condition of participation: Infection control. The hospice must maintain and document an effective infection control program that protects patients, families, visitors, and hospice personnel by...

  9. Control of DFIG-WT under unbalanced grid voltage conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luna, Alvaro; Lina, Kleber; Corcoles, Felipe

    2009-01-01

    under balanced conditions its behaviour is not good enough when the voltage of the mains is unbalanced, unless an independent control for the positive and the negative sequence is implemented. This paper proposes a new control system able to control the DFIG-WT under unbalanced conditions using a simple...

  10. The Hydrochemical Evolution of Water-Filled Sinkholes at Bitter Lake NWR, Roswell, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, E.; Crossey, L. J.

    2013-12-01

    predictable evolutionary progression from spring-like well-mixed ('young'), to moderately saline well-mixed ('transitional'), to saline and stratified ('old' or 'evolved'), based on the relative volume of water that has entered and subsequently evaporated from the system. Simple geochemical models reveal calcium- and sulfate-bearing minerals (calcite, gypsum) precipitate early in the reaction while halite and magnesium-containing minerals precipitate late, rendering increased Cl- and Mg+ concentrations in fluids subjected to prolonged evaporation. This water is also high in CO2 content and may contain traces of He, suggesting emergent water is a combination of groundwater (dominant) and deeply sourced fluids (minor). Both PO4 and NH4 are present in biologically-significant concentrations in sinkholes with chemically controlled water columns, and photosynthetic bacteria were found to organize at the bottom of the photic zone. High NH4 and CO2 accompanying low O2 dissolved gas values confirm the increased biological control in stratified sinkholes. Resident fish populations are affected by water chemistry which reduces reproductive success or exceed the survivable range of habitable conditions. Results of this study serve as a geochemical baseline survey of Refuge sinkholes and may be used to both aid with biological resource management and predict stratified conditions using measurable proxies.

  11. Identifying the hydrochemical characteristics of rivers and groundwater by multivariate statistical analysis in the Sanjiang Plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yingjie; Tang, Changyuan; Song, Xianfang; Liu, Changming; Zhang, Yinghua

    2016-06-01

    Two multivariate statistical technologies, factor analysis (FA) and discriminant analysis (DA), are applied to study the river and groundwater hydrochemistry and its controlling processes in the Sanjiang Plain of the northeast China. Factor analysis identifies five factors which account for 79.65 % of the total variance in the dataset. Four factors bearing specific meanings as the river and groundwater hydrochemistry controlling processes are divided into two groups, the "natural hydrochemistry evolution" group and the "pollution" group. The "natural hydrochemistry evolution" group includes the salinity factor (factor 1) caused by rock weathering and the residence time factor (factor 2) reflecting the groundwater traveling time. The "pollution" group represents the groundwater quality deterioration due to geogenic pollution caused by elevated Fe and Mn (factor 3) and elevated nitrate (NO3 -) introduced by human activities such as agriculture exploitations (factor 5). The hydrochemical difference and hydraulic connection among rivers (surface water, SW), shallow groundwater (SG) and deep groundwater (DG) group are evaluated by the factor scores obtained from FA and DA (Fisher's method). It is showed that the river water is characterized as low salinity and slight pollution, and the shallow groundwater has the highest salinity and severe pollution. The SW is well separated from SG and DG by Fisher's discriminant function, but the SG and DG can not be well separated showing their hydrochemical similarities, and emphasize hydraulic connections between SG and DG.

  12. Controllability of semilinear integrodifferential equations with nonlocal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahima Atmania

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We establish sufficient conditions for the controllability of some semilinear integrodifferential systems with nonlocal condition in a Banach space. The results are obtained using the Schaefer fixed-point theorem and semigroup theory.

  13. Controlling in the Conditions of Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Chrenková

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of controlling the Agriculture of the Czech Republic, using methods of activitybased costing. The basic premise of knowledge is based on a given topic, especially the nature of the method ABC (Activity Based Costing. The paper described the application of the ABC design method in Microsoft Excel applicable in the agricultural sector of the Czech Republic. The proposed application of the ABC method, using Microsoft Excel, is an alternative to using expensive costing ABC special software. Created ABC method application also demonstrates that if somebody wants to improve approach in the overheads management, so it can be used by using quite common user knowledge of Microsoft Excel.

  14. Insights into hydrologic and hydrochemical processes based on concentration-discharge and end-member mixing analyses in the mid-Merced River Basin, Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengjing; Conklin, Martha H.; Shaw, Glenn D.

    2017-01-01

    Both concentration-discharge relation and end-member mixing analysis were explored to elucidate the connectivity of hydrologic and hydrochemical processes using chemical data collected during 2006-2008 at Happy Isles (468 km2), Pohono Bridge (833 km2), and Briceburg (1873 km2) in the snowmelt-fed mid-Merced River basin, augmented by chemical data collected by the USGS during 1990-2014 at Happy Isles. Concentration-discharge (C-Q) in streamflow was dominated by a well-defined power law relation, with the magnitude of exponent (0.02-0.6) and R2 values (p USGS. It was also demonstrated that the consistency of F-Q and C-Q relations is applicable to other catchments where end-members and the C-Q relationships are well defined, suggesting hydrologic and hydrochemical processes are strongly coupled and mutually predictable. Combining concentration-discharge and end-member mixing analyses could be used as a diagnostic tool to understand streamflow generation and hydrochemical controls in catchment hydrologic studies.

  15. Hydrochemical and isotopic investigation of atmospheric precipitation in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Yuanzheng, E-mail: diszyz@163.com [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Engineering Research Center of Groundwater Pollution Control and Remediation, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing 100875 (China); Wang, Jinsheng, E-mail: wangjs@bnu.edu.cn [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Engineering Research Center of Groundwater Pollution Control and Remediation, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang, Yang [College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Teng, Yanguo; Zuo, Rui; Huan, Huan [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Engineering Research Center of Groundwater Pollution Control and Remediation, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2013-07-01

    Precipitation water samples were collected at an urban site in Beijing in a hydrological cycle (July 2008–July 2009), and analyzed for TDS, total alkalinity, total hardness, free CO{sub 2}, soluble SiO{sub 2}, bromide, sulfide, phosphate, major ions (K{sup +}, Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, HCO{sub 3}{sup −}, Cl{sup −}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, NO{sub 3}{sup −}), trace elements (CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}, Mn, Sr{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Al, F{sup −}, NO{sub 2}{sup −}), stable isotopes ({sup 2}H and {sup 18}O), and radioactive isotope ({sup 3}H). In addition, available published hydrochemical and isotopic data of precipitation of Beijing in the past were also collected and conjointly analyzed. Most of the parameters of samples tested varied considerably in the hydrological cycle. In general, HCO{sub 3}{sup −} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, and Ca{sup 2+} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} are the dominant anions and cations, respectively. Using Na{sup +} as an indicator of marine origin, and Al for the terrestrial inputs, the proportions of major elements from sea salt and terrestrial sources were estimated by using the combination of statistical analysis methods and analogy method. More than 70.1% of Cl{sup −}, 98.1% of Ca{sup 2+}, and 93.6% of K{sup +} were non-sea-salt origin, while more than 98.4% of Na{sup +} was from marine sources. The LMWL (Local Meteoric Water Line) was obtained with an equation of δ{sup 2}H = 7.0181δ{sup 18}O + 3.5231 (‰, R{sup 2} = 0.86, n = 36), which was similar to GMWL (Global Meteoric Water Line). δ{sup 2}H, δ{sup 18}O and Δ-excess changed radically with month and season, but had no apparent seasonal effect, precipitation amount effect, and temperature effect. The annual mean values of Δ-excess for 1979 (16.5‰) and 1980 (16.3‰) were much bigger than that for 2007 (7.2‰), 2008 (2.1‰) and 2009 (4.5‰). The composition of {sup 2}H and {sup 18}O was probably intrinsically determined by the sources of water

  16. Determination of background concentrations of hydrochemical parameters and water quality assessment in the Akhuryan River Basin (Armenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpine, Hovhannisyan; Gayane, Shahnazaryan

    2016-08-01

    The determination of background values of hydrochemical parameters, to distinguish between natural concentration and anthropogenically-influenced concentrations, is highly relevant. In presented study, to estimate the background values of hydrochemical parameters in Akhuryan River Basin, log-normal probability functions on the hydrochemical parameters concentrations was applied. The study is carried out on the basis of hydrochemical data of surface water quality monitoring for the period of 2010-2013. This study highlights the usefulness of application of site-specific background concentrations for the evaluation, interpretation of surface water quality and for determination of pollution sources.

  17. Seasonal hydrochemical variation in a tropical coastal lagoon (Açu Lagoon, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, G G; Suzuki, M S

    2005-11-01

    Hydrochemical conditions in the Açu Lagoon are described using spatial and temporal variations of various limnological variables (water temperature, dissolved oxygen, electric conductivity, total alkalinity, carbon dioxide, dissolved and total nutrients (N, P and Si), and chlorophyll a). Collected data was used in order to understand the structure and functioning of an enclosed coastal lagoon strongly influenced by climatic conditions. Water samples were collected monthly (November 1999-December 2000) in five sampling stations established along the lagoon. A decreasing spatial gradient of electrical conductivity was observed beginning from a sand bar region between the lagoon and the sea in the direction of the sweet-water input area. The positive correlation observed between the pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) values, and the negative one observed between pH values and those of carbon dioxide (CO2), evidenced coupled biological processes, e.g., primary production and decomposition. Both spatial and temporal variation of dissolved nutrients showed fast increase and decrease in the beginning of summer, suggesting that nutrient input resulting from rainfall stimulates phytoplankton production, as reflected by chlorophyll a concentration increase.

  18. Seasonal and diurnal hydro-chemical variations in a recreated reed bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Stratford

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available To help stem this decline, wetland areas are now being preserved and where possible created. This study investigated water quality in a recreated reed bed in south-west England designed specifically to provide habitat for birds. Since June 2000, continuous measurements of temperature, pH, electrical conductivity and dissolved oxygen have been logged. These data enable the partial pressure of CO2 to be calculated. This paper looks at the data collected up to November 2001. Despite similar solar radiation and water temperature conditions in both 2000 and 2001, peak summertime values of dissolved oxygen dropped from >100% to 2 increased from 19.7 to 56.1. Analysis of the diurnal dissolved oxygen curves indicates a decrease in photosynthesis which, in the absence of a change in nutrient concentrations in the water, may result from surface plant growth or from a reduction in submerged plant cover. The implications of these changing hydro-chemical conditions are that the site will be less able to support such a wide diversity of aquatic fauna, which will reduce the effectiveness of the site as a habitat for some bird species. Keywords: wetland, reed bed, hydrochemistry, dissolved oxygen, pH, continuous monitoring, Hamwall, Somerset Levels

  19. Seasonal hydrochemical variation in a tropical coastal lagoon (Açu Lagoon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Chagas

    Full Text Available Hydrochemical conditions in the Açu Lagoon are described using spatial and temporal variations of various limnological variables (water temperature, dissolved oxygen, electric conductivity, total alkalinity, carbon dioxide, dissolved and total nutrients (N, P and Si, and chlorophyll a. Collected data was used in order to understand the structure and functioning of an enclosed coastal lagoon strongly influenced by climatic conditions. Water samples were collected monthly (November 1999-December 2000 in five sampling stations established along the lagoon. A decreasing spatial gradient of electrical conductivity was observed beginning from a sand bar region between the lagoon and the sea in the direction of the sweet-water input area. The positive correlation observed between the pH and dissolved oxygen (DO values, and the negative one observed between pH values and those of carbon dioxide (CO2, evidenced coupled biological processes, e.g., primary production and decomposition. Both spatial and temporal variation of dissolved nutrients showed fast increase and decrease in the beginning of summer, suggesting that nutrient input resulting from rainfall stimulates phytoplankton production, as reflected by chlorophyll a concentration increase.

  20. Test-specific control conditions for functional analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmie, Tara A; Iwata, Brian A; Querim, Angie C; Harper, Jill M

    2013-01-01

    Most functional analyses of problem behavior include a common condition (play or noncontingent reinforcement) as a control for both positive and negative reinforcement. However, test-specific conditions that control for each potential source of reinforcement may be beneficial occasionally. We compared responding during alone, ignore, play, and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) control conditions for individuals whose problem behavior was maintained by positive or negative reinforcement. Results showed that all of the conditions were effective controls for problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement; however, the DRO condition was consistently ineffective as a control for problem behavior maintained by negative reinforcement. Implications for the design of functional analyses and future research are discussed.

  1. Conditions on Structural Controllability of Nonlinear Systems: Polynomial Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Ma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the structural controllability of a class of a nonlinear system is investigated. The transfer function (matrix of nonlinear systems is obtained by putting the nonlinear system model on non-commutative ring. Conditions of structural controllability of nonlinear systems are presented according to the criterion of linear systems structural controllability in frequency domain. An example is used to testify the presented conditions finally.

  2. Comparative study of the hydrochemical regime in the Gelendzhik and Golubaya Bays, northeastern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyleva, A.; Chasovnikov, V.; Chjoo, V.; Menshikova, N.; Kuprikova, N.

    2009-04-01

    The goal of this work was to study the hydrochemical regime in the coastal waters of the northeastern Black Sea. The observations were performed in influenced by significant anthropogenic stress Gelendzhik Bay and at the open coast region (Golubaya Bay). A sampling program has been initiated by the Southern Branch of Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, RAS, (SB SIO RAS) on a weekly basis at the shore line area of «Chernomorets» beach (Gelendzhik Bay) and from the head of pier in the Golubaya Bay. Studies were carried out during a period from January 2001 to December 2008. List of measured parameters includes following: temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand (BOD), pH, alkalinity, phosphate, organic phosphorus, silicates, nitrates, nitrites, ammonia, urea, organic nitrogen, oil products. The Gelendzhik bay in its different parts is characterized with strong variability of concentrations of hydrochemical parameters. Above all, it relates to complex structure caused by wind impact. Parts of the bay filled with nearshore and sea waters are legibly differ from each other. The bay itself is rather isolated from the open sea, and its liability to man's impact leads to forming of next features of its seasonal variability of physical-chemical state: • On the base of Si/P and Si/N ratios analysis it was shown that the Gelendzhik Bay waters are significantly enriched with nitrogen and phosphorus compounds. • Unlike the Golubaya bay, phosphates are always present in the water of the Gelendzhik Bay and development of photosynthesis is not limited with nutrients. It may lead to processes of intensive eutrophication. • The oxygen saturation in the Gelendzhik Bay periodically descend lower than 80% during the summer period. That means, that even the Bay's surface layer formally corresponds to the hypoxic conditions that testify to the degradation of the ecosystem there. The conclusions obtained during our studies testify that the pollution from

  3. Hydrogeologic and Hydrochemical Studies in a Semi-arid Watershed in Northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, T.; Vazquez, R.; Hinojosa, A.

    2006-12-01

    Within the Baja California panhandle exist quite a significant number of valleys which hydrogeology conditions are of great importance for the communities of the region. The Guadalupe Valley for example, located 30 km Northeast of Ensenada, hosts an important wine industry which presents a mayor factor for agriculture and tourism in Baja California. The irrigation is carried out basically by groundwater extracted from quaternary sediments filling this post-Miocene depression. Besides the intensive usage of the water by the wine industry in the Guadalupe Valley, the local waterworks installed in 1985 a gallery of 10 wells extracting around 320 l/s or 30 % of the total water extraction in the valley to supply the city of Ensenada with drinking water. A total of more than 500 wells with a combined annual consumption of about 28 Mio m3 are at the moment active in the valley. In the arid portions of northern Mexico Mountain front recharge presents an important recharge source for the alluvial aquifers. Other important sources directly related to precipitation are direct infiltration, recharge by surface water runoff in the arroyos as well as by active fault systems. The principal recharge sources for the Guadalupe Valley aquifer are the Sierra Juárez and the Guadalupe River. To be able to address the state of equilibrium of aquifer, recharge estimates for the watershed were calculated determining the runoff/infiltration relationships obtained by curve number determinations combined with the interpretation of satellite images. These results were integrated into an evaluation and hydrologic modeling of the hydrologic data pointing towards differences of up to over 50 percent in the recharge estimation in comparison to earlier studies carried out in the area. Furthermore hydrochemical and isotopic studies were carried out to show the effects of the excessive ground water extraction on the water quality of the aquifer. The hydrochemical data indicate that intense use of

  4. Disturbance Accommodating Control Design for Wind Turbines Using Solvability Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Na [National Renewable Energy Laboratory,15013 Denver West Parkway,Golden, CO 80401e-mail: na.wang@nrel.gov; Wright, Alan D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory,15013 Denver West Parkway,Golden, CO 80401e-mail: alan.wright@nrel.gov; Balas, Mark J. [ProfessorFellow ASMEAerospace Engineering Department,Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University,Daytona Beach, FL 32114e-mail: balasm@erau.edu

    2017-02-07

    In this paper, solvability conditions for disturbance accommodating control (DAC) have been discussed and applied on wind turbine controller design in above-rated wind speed to regulate rotor speed and to mitigate turbine structural loads. DAC incorporates a predetermined waveform model and uses it as part of the state-space formulation, which is known as the internal model principle to reduce or minimize the wind disturbance effects on the outputs of the wind turbine. An asymptotically stabilizing DAC controller with disturbance impact on the wind turbine being totally canceled out can be found if certain conditions are fulfilled. Designing a rotor speed regulation controller without steady-state error is important for applying linear control methodology such as DAC on wind turbines. Therefore, solvability conditions of DAC without steady-state error are attractive and can be taken as examples when designing a multitask turbine controller. DAC controllers solved via Moore-Penrose Pseudoinverse and the Kronecker product are discussed, and solvability conditions of using them are given. Additionally, a new solvability condition based on inverting the feed-through D term is proposed for the sake of reducing computational burden in the Kronecker product. Applications of designing collective pitch and independent pitch controllers based on DAC are presented. Recommendations of designing a DAC-based wind turbine controller are given. A DAC controller motivated by the proposed solvability condition that utilizes the inverse of feed-through D term is developed to mitigate the blade flapwise once-per-revolution bending moment together with a standard proportional integral controller in the control loop to assist rotor speed regulation. Simulation studies verify the discussed solvability conditions of DAC and show the effectiveness of the proposed DAC control design methodology.

  5. Tomographic, hydrochemical and isotopic investigations of the salinization processes in the oasis shallow aquifers, Nefzaoua region, southwestern Tunisia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zohra Kraiem; Najiba Chkir; Kamel Zouari; Jean Claude Parisot; Aissa Agoun; Daniel Hermitte

    2012-10-01

    An electrical imaging tomography survey was carried out to identify the lateral and vertical salinity distribution in the oasis shallow aquifers of the Nefzaoua region located in southwestern Tunisia. In addition, hydrochemical and isotopic data were examined to determine the main factors and mechanisms controlling the groundwater chemistry and salinity. Locally, with respect to salinization processes, electrical imaging tomography results show that the storage basins of irrigation excess-water contribute to the increase of the salinity for the major part of the oasis nearby these basins. Major elements distribution and saturation indices indicate that dissolution of evaporites (halite, anhydrite and gypsum) is the main process controlling the groundwater mineralization. Isotopic data highlighted the effect of evaporation in the salinization of these waters. The correlation between the oxygen 18 and the chlorides data confirms the importance of evaporation effect and dissolution as main processes controlling the groundwater mineralization.

  6. Truth Control of Dublicate Measurings under Uncertainty Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anischenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem pertaining to truth control of dublicate measurings of technological variables under conditions of data deficit on characteristics of measuring facilities and controlled variables.The proposed control method improves a probability to detect and identify untrue dublicate measurings.

  7. 42 CFR 485.725 - Condition of participation: Infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Infection control. 485... participation: Infection control. The organization that provides outpatient physical therapy services establishes an infection-control committee of representative professional staff with responsibility...

  8. A Neutral Control Condition for Hypnosis Experiments: "Wiki" Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Katalin; Kekecs, Zoltán; Myhre, P S; Józsa, Emese

    2017-01-01

    A new control condition called Wiki is introduced. Key themes of each test suggestion of the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C, were matched by a corresponding extract from Wikipedia.org. The authors compared phenomenological reports of participants across 4 conditions: hypnosis split into high and low hypnotizable subgroups, music, and Wiki condition, using the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory. High hypnotizables undergoing hypnosis reported higher altered experience and altered states of awareness than individuals in the Wiki condition, supporting the authors' hypothesis that the Wiki condition does not evoke an altered state of consciousness (internal dialogue, volitional control, and self-awareness did not differ). Wiki might be a viable control condition in hypnosis research given further examination.

  9. [Hydrochemical characteristics and formation mechanism of shallow groundwater in the Yellow River Delta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Le-Sheng; Zhao, Quan-Sheng; Ye, Si-Yuan; Liu, Guan-Qun; Ding, Xi-Gui

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the chemical characteristics of groundwater in the Yellow River Delta is very important. It can provide a useful reference for the development and construction of the Yellow River Delta High-efficiency Ecological Economic Zone and ecological regulation in the lower Yellow River. Based on partitioning the sediment environment and the recharge-runoff-discharge system, we studied the hydrochemical features and causes of shallow groundwater in the Yellow River Delta by mathematical statistics and geostatistics, Piper diagram, ion ratios and so on. Following results are obtained: 1) Major cations and anions such as Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl(-), SO4(2-), HCO3(-) and TDS concentrations range from 0.1-25.0 g x L(-1), 3.6-3 815.0 mg x L(-1), 5.6-3 377.0 mg x L(-1), 0.1-45.1 g x L(-1), 24.2-4 947.0 mg x L(-1), 62.6-850.0 mg x L(-1) and 0.4-80.7 g x L(-1). Average ion concentrations further indicate that Cl(-), Na+ and TDS concentrations are high while HCO3(-), CO3(2-) and K+ concentrations are very low in the study area. 2) The Cl(-) and TDS concentrations of shallow groundwater possess conspicuous directional spatial variability and gradually increase along the groundwater flow direction, showing that Cl(-) is the most critical ion of shallow groundwater. 3) From the recharge area to the discharge area, shallow groundwater changes from the Na+ -Mg2+ -Ca2+ -Cl(-) -SO4(2-) facies to the Na -Mg2 + -Ca2+ -Cl(-), Mg2+ -Na+ -Ca2+ -Cl(-) and Na+ -Mg2+ -Cl(-) facies, finally evolves into Na+ -Cl(-) facies in the coast. 4) Ion ratios indicate that the following main hydrochemical processes are inferred to control the shallow groundwater chemical composition: mixing, evaporation concentrating, mineral dissolution, cation exchange and adsorption and human activities. These findings strongly suggest that changes of the Yellow River water course and seawater intrusion are key drivers to form the chemical characteristics of shallow groundwater in the region.

  10. Extraction of alumina and sodium oxide from red mud by a mild hydro-chemical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Li; Zhang, Yifei; Zhang, Yi

    2009-12-30

    A mild hydro-chemical process to extract Al(2)O(3) in red mud to produce sodium aluminate hydrate was investigated, and the optimum conditions of Al(2)O(3) extraction were verified by experiments as leaching in 45% NaOH solution with CaO-to-red mud mass ratio of 0.25 and liquid-to-solid ratio of 0.9, under 0.8 MPa at 200 degrees C for 3.5h. Subsequent process of extracting Na(2)O from the residue of Al(2)O(3) extraction was carried out in 7% NaOH solution with liquid-to-solid ratio of 3.8 under 0.9 MPa at 170 degrees C for 2h. Overall, 87.8% of Al(2)O(3) and 96.4% of Na(2)O were extracted from red mud. The final residues with less than 1% Na(2)O could be utilized as feedstock in construction materials. The chemical reactions taking place in both Al(2)O(3) and Na(2)O extractions from red mud are proposed.

  11. Integrated hydrochemical method of water quality assessment for irrigation in arid areas: application to the Jilh aquifer, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bassam, Abdulaziz M.; Al-Rumikhani, Yousef A.

    2003-05-01

    Water samples from 72 wells tapping the Jilh aquifer were collected and analyzed for 10 different water quality parameters. Using these data, a regional irrigation water quality was assessed using three techniques: (i) United States Department of Agriculture method (USDA), (ii) Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) guidelines for water quality assessment, and (iii) Water-Types approach. The USDA method revealed that the aquifer water salinity, as represented by electrical conductivity, ECw, ranges from high salinity (C3: ECw > 0.75-2.25 dS/m) to a very high salinity (C4: ECw > 2.25 dS/m). The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) varied from low (S1) to very high (S4) sodicity. Therefore, the water of the Jilh aquifer is dominantly of the C4-S2 class representing 56% of the total wells followed by C4-S1, C4-S3, C3-S1 and C4-S4 classes at 19%, 14%, 8%, and 3% of the wells respectively. The FAO system indicated moderate to severe restriction on the use for irrigation and slight to moderate ion toxicities for Na+, Cl-, B+, NO3- and HCO3-. It is clear that, both USDA and FAO systems condemn the Jilh groundwater as hazardous for irrigation due to its high salt content, unless certain measures for salinity control are undertaken. The dominant salt constituents in the water are Mg-Cl2, Na-Cl and Ca-Cl2 as per the Water-Types method. However, due to the complexity in classifying the aquifer groundwater for irrigation, a simplified approach acknowledging three class groups (I-suitable water, II-conditionally suitable water and III-unsuitable water) adopted from the three methods, is suggested in this paper. The simplified approach combines C-S classes of the USDA method among these three groups according to the lowest ratings. The salinity of the FAO method has been split arbitrarily into slight and moderate subclasses with values of 0.7-2.25 and >2.25 dS/m, respectively; to match with the C3-class of the USDA system. The Water-Types were classified assuming that Ca-Cl2 is the

  12. Hydrochemical and geoelectrical investigation of the coastal shallow aquifers in El-Omayed area, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwia, M G; Masoud, A A

    2013-08-01

    Monitoring and assessment of the coastal aquifers are becoming a worldwide concern for the need of additional and sustainable water resources to satisfy demographic growth and economic development. A hydrochemical and geoelectrical investigation was conducted in the El-Omayed area in the northwestern coast of Egypt. The aim of the study was to delineate different water-bearing formations, provide a general evaluation of groundwater quality, and identify the recharge sources in aquifers. Thirty-seven water samples were collected and chemically analyzed from the sand dune accumulations and oolitic limestone aquifers. Fifteen profiles of vertical electrical soundings (VESs) were obtained in the oolitic limestone aquifer to examine the variations of subsurface geology and associated groundwater chemistry. The groundwater reserves in the El-Omayed area are mainly contained in sand dune accumulations and oolitic limestone aquifers. The aquifer of sand dune accumulations contains freshwater of low salinity (average total dissolved solids (TDS) = 974 mg/l). Groundwater of oolitic limestone aquifer is slightly brackish (average TDS = 1,486 mg/l). Groundwater of these aquifers can be used for irrigation under special management for salinity control, and regular leaching as indicated by electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio. Results of VES interpretation classified the subsurface sequence of oolitic limestone aquifer into four geoelectric zones, with increasing depth, calcareous loam, gypsum, oolitic limestone, and sandy limestone. Oolitic limestone constitutes the main aquifer and has a thickness of 12-32 m.

  13. Hydrochemical features and mineralization processes in coastal groundwater of Oualidia, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadili, Ahmed; Najib, Saliha; Mehdi, Khalid; Riss, Joëlle; Makan, Abdelhadi; Boutayeb, Khadija; Guessir, Hakima

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the influence of different hydrochemical processes, potential salinity sources, and seawater intrusion on groundwater quality in the coastal region of Oualidia. For this purpose, chemical analyses were performed on 19 wells sampled during three campaigns: June and December, 2010 and May, 2011. Investigations were conducted to identify the significant chemical variations between different campaigns. In addition, chemical variations were controlled by two main factors, which are the distance from the coast and the morphological aspect. Furthermore, statistical analysis allows the identification of two clusters of samples. The first groups, near the ocean, are highly mineralized with dominance of Na+ and Cl- ions, while the second group, much farther from the coast, are slightly mineralized with dominance of Ca2+ and HCO3- ions. Besides, ionic ratio, ionic delta, saturation index, and Gibbs diagram were applied to evaluate geochemical processes responsible for groundwater mineralization. Results showed that salinity was due mainly to seawater intrusion, especially in the first kilometers from the ocean covering the first group of wells. Moreover, cation exchange between Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+, evaporation, and evaporate dissolution are principal processes, which also contribute to groundwater salinization. In overall, this investigation provided a basis of geochemical data to effectively manage groundwater resource and efficiently mitigate impacts on aquifers.

  14. Phase modulated solitary waves controlled by bottom boundary condition

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Abhik

    2014-01-01

    A forced KdV equation is derived to describe weakly nonlinear, shallow water surface wave propagation over non trivial bottom boundary condition. We show that different functional forms of bottom boundary conditions self-consistently produce different forced kdV equations as the evolution equations for the free surface. Solitary wave solutions have been analytically obtained where phase gets modulated controlled by bottom boundary condition whereas amplitude remains constant.

  15. Nonlinear burn condition control in tokamaks using isotopic fuel tailoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Mark D.; Schuster, Eugenio

    2015-08-01

    One of the fundamental problems in tokamak fusion reactors is how to control the plasma density and temperature in order to regulate the amount of fusion power produced by the device. Control of these parameters will be critical to the success of burning plasma experiments like ITER. The most previous burn condition control efforts use either non-model based control designs or techniques based on models linearized around particular operating points. Such strategies limit the potential operational space and must be carefully retuned or redesigned to accommodate changes in operating points or plasma parameters. In this work, a nonlinear dynamic model of the spatial averages of energy and ion species densities is used to synthesize a nonlinear feedback controller for stabilizing the burn condition. The nonlinear model-based control strategy guarantees a much larger operational space than previous linear controllers. Because it is not designed around a particular operating point, the controller can be used to move from one burn condition to another. The proposed scheme first attempts to use regulation of the auxiliary heating power to reject temperature perturbations, then, if necessary, uses isotopic fuel tailoring as a way to reduce fusion heating during positive temperature perturbations. A global model of hydrogen recycling is incorporated into the model used for design and simulation, and the proposed control scheme is tested for a range of recycling model parameters. As we find the possibility of changing the isotopic mix can be limited for certain unfavorable recycling conditions, we also consider impurity injection as a back-up method for controlling the system. A simple supervisory control strategy is proposed to switch between the primary and back-up control schemes based on stability and performance criteria. A zero-dimensional simulation study is used to study the performance of the control scheme for several scenarios and model parameters. Finally, a one

  16. Optimal control problems for impulsive systems with integral boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allaberen Ashyralyev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the optimal control problem is considered when the state of the system is described by the impulsive differential equations with integral boundary conditions. Applying the Banach contraction principle the existence and uniqueness of the solution is proved for the corresponding boundary problem by the fixed admissible control. The first and second variation of the functional is calculated. Various necessary conditions of optimality of the first and second order are obtained by the help of the variation of the controls.

  17. Hydrochemical stability of groundwaters surrounding a spent nuclear fuel repository in a 100,000 year perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puigdomeneck, I. (ed.)

    2001-09-01

    This report is focussed on the effects of climate changes on the chemical composition of deep groundwaters. The aim of the work has been to assess the hydrochemical stability at nuclear repository sites in Finland and Sweden. Sites investigated by SKB and POSIVA have been compared. The corresponding features are important in judging how sensitive a site might be to climatic changes. Evidence for climate effects in the past on groundwater compositions has been reviewed, including isotopic and mineralogical data. There is for example evidence that glacial meltwaters are currently present at repository depths in the Fennoscandian Shield. No evidence has been found however that oxidising conditions have ever prevailed at depth, even if glacial meltwaters presumably had a substantial amount of dissolved O{sub 2}. The depth distribution of different calcite types (and other fracture minerals) indicates stability in large-scale groundwater circulation over time. Information on past (and future) groundwater salinities has been sought after in the results of hydrological numerical models for Aespoe in Sweden and Olkiluoto in Finland. It is expected that groundwater salinities will change due to future climatic variations. The main effects will be from shoreline movements, permafrost and continental ice-sheets. In most sites the present reducing redox conditions will remain undisturbed during glacial cycles. The modelling indicated that most of the SKB suitability criteria will be met during the life-span of the repository and the groundwater composition will vary within what is observed in the samples collected today at various depths. The expected changes are therefore not judged to threaten the integrity and functioning of the repository. The major conclusion is that despite long-term hydrodynamic changes hydrochemical stability is expected to dominate at repository depth.

  18. Hydrochemical stability of groundwaters surrounding a spent nuclear fuel repository in a 100,000 year perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puigdomenech, I. (ed.); Gurban, I.; Laaksoharju, M. [and others

    2001-12-01

    This report is focused on the effects of climate changes on the chemical composition of deep groundwaters. The aim of the work has been to assess the hydrochemical stability at nuclear repository sites in Finland and Sweden. Sites investigated by SKB and POSIVA have been compared. The corresponding features are important in judging how sensitive a site might be to climatic changes. Evidence for climate effects in the past on groundwater compositions has been reviewed, including isotopic and mineralogical data. There is for example evidence that glacial meltwaters are currently present at repository depths in the Fennoscandian Shield. No evidence has been found however that oxidising conditions have ever prevailed at depth, even if glacial meltwaters presumably had a substantial amount of dissolved 0{sub 2}. The depth distribution of different calcite types (and other fracture minerals) indicates stability in large-scale groundwater circulation over time. Information on past (and future) groundwater salinities has been sought after in the results of hydrological numerical models for Aespoe in Sweden and Olkiluoto in Finland. It is expected that groundwater salinities will change due to future climatic variations. The main effects will be from shoreline movements, permafrost and continental ice-sheets. In most sites the present reducing redox conditions will remain undisturbed during glacial cycles. The modelling indicated that most of the SKB suitability criteria will be met during the life-span of the repository and the groundwater composition will vary within what is observed in the samples collected today at various depths. The expected changes are therefore not judged to threaten the integrity and functioning of the repository. The major conclusion is that despite long-term hydrodynamic changes hydrochemical stability is expected to dominate at repository depth. (orig.)

  19. Ground water hydrochemical characteristics:seawater intruded area in eastern and southern coast of Laizhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Eastern and southern coastal zones of Laizhou Bay are the mostrepresentative seawater intruded areas in the world, with two intrusion sources of contemporary seawater and paleobrine. In order to reveal the complicated hydrochemical changing process and the mechanism of fresh groundwater being polluted by saltwater, we conducted long-term observation and hydroehemical analysis at four observing sections of typical salt-fresh water transitional zone. The study indicates that seawater and brine intrusion processes have different hydrochemical features, and that ion exchange and adsorption actions between water and aquifer produce great influence on the intrusion.

  20. The Predictive Control Method of VAV Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiejia LI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the characteristics which variable air volume air conditioning system is multi-variable, nonlinear and uncertain system, normal fuzzy neural network is hard to meet the requirements which dynamic control of multi-variable. In this paper, we put forward a recursive neural network predictive control strategy based on wavelet neural network model. Through recursive wavelet neural network predictor on line established controlled object’s mathematical model, and using Elman neural network controller on line corrected information we get, thus to improve control effect. The simulation results show that recursive wavelet neural network predictive control has stronger robustness and adaptive ability, high control precision, better and reliable control effect and other advantages.

  1. Control Strategy for Microgrid Inverter under Unbalanced Grid Voltage Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Wenzhao; Zhang, X.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical analysis of the inherent reason of current harmonic and power oscillation phenomena in case of operating the microgrid inverter under unbalanced grid voltage conditions. In order to flexibly control the current harmonic and power oscillation, a new stationary...... frame control strategy is proposed. It has a simple control structure due to no need of a phase-locked loop and voltage/current positive/negative sequence extraction calculation. The coordinate control of power and current quality is achieved, which enhances the operation performance of microgrid...

  2. Intelligent Control System of Textile Mill's Air-conditioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Fu-zhuan; ZHAO Fang

    2009-01-01

    This paper briefly analyzes the present situation of textile mill's air-conditioning system. Since it is difficult to establish detailed math model to control a textile mill's air-conditioning system because of the influence of various factors such as the differences in seasons, regions, etc., most air-conditioning equipment can not he controlled automatically. This paper suggests utilizing multi-function data acquisition card to collect the data about the temperature and humidity of a workshop, processing the data on a PC, comparing them with the expert database, and then using the 485 serial port expanding module to output the parameters, which are used to control the inverter, so that the purpose of adjusting the temperature and humidity of the workshop is achieved.

  3. Testing and validation of numerical models of groundwater flow, solute transport and chemical reactions in fractured granites: A quantitative study of the hydrogeological and hydrochemical impact produced

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinero Huguet, J.

    2001-07-01

    This work deals with numerical modeling of groundwater flow, solute transport and chemical reactions through fractured media. These models have been developed within the framework of research activities founded by ENRESA , the Spanish Company for Nuclear Waste Management. This project is the result of a collaborative agreement between ENRESA and his equivalent Swedish Company (SKB) through the research project Task Force 5 of the Aspo Underground Laboratory. One of the objectives of this project is to assess quantitatively th hydrogeological and hydrochemical impact produced by the construction of a Deep Geological Repository in fractured granites. This is important because the new conditions altered construction impact will constitute the initial conditions for the repository closure stage. A second goo l of this work deals with testing the ability of current numerical tools to cope simultaneously with the complex hydrogeological and hydrochemical settlings, which are expected to take place in actual nuclear waste underground repositories constructed in crystalline fractured bed racks. This study has been undertaken through the performance of numerical models, which have subsequently been applied to simulate the hydrogeological and hydrochemical behavior of a granite massif, at a kilo metrical scale, during construction of the Aspo Hard Rock Underground Laboratory (Sweden). The Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory is a prototype, full-scale underground facility launched and operated by SKB. The main aim of the laboratory is to provide an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic rock environment down to the depth planned for the future deep repository. The framework of this underground facility provides a unique opportunity to attempt the objectives of the present dissertation. (Author)

  4. Evaluation of groundwater quality and suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes in southwest Punjab, India using hydrochemical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Diana Anoubam; Rishi, Madhuri S.; Keesari, Tirumalesh

    2016-08-01

    Groundwater samples from alluvial aquifers of Bathinda district, southwest Punjab were measured for physicochemical parameters as well as major ion chemistry to evaluate the groundwater suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes and to present the current hydrochemical status of groundwater of this district. Temporal variations were analyzed by comparing the pre- and post-monsoon groundwater chemistry. Most of the samples showed contamination: F- (72 %), Mg2+ (22 %), SO4 2- (28 %), TH (25 %), NO3 - (22 %), HCO3 - (22 %) and TDS (11 %) during pre-monsoon and F- (50 %), Mg2+ (39 %), SO4 2- (22 %), TH (28 %), NO3 - (22 %) and TDS (28 %) during post-monsoon above permissible limits for drinking, while rest of the parameters fall within the limits. Irrigation suitability was checked using sodium absorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), percent sodium (Na%) and permeability index (PI). Most of the samples fall under good to suitable category during pre-monsoon period, but fall under doubtful to unsuitable category during post-monsoon period. Presence of high salt content in groundwater during post-monsoon season reflects leaching of salts present in the unsaturated zone by infiltrating precipitation. Hydrochemical data was interpreted using Piper's trilinear plot and Chadha's plot to understand the various geochemical processes affecting the groundwater quality. The results indicate that the order of cation dominance is Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+, while anion dominance is in the order Cl- > HCO3 - > SO4 2-. The geochemistry of groundwater of this district is mainly controlled by the carbonate and silicate mineral dissolution and ion exchange during pre-monsoon and leaching from the salts deposited in vadose zone during post-monsoon. The main sources of contamination are soluble fertilizers and livestock wastes. This study is significant as the surface water resources are limited and the quality and quantity of groundwater are deteriorating with time due to

  5. Conditional lethality strains for the biological control of Anastrepha species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pro-apoptotic cell death genes are promising candidates for biologically-based autocidal control of pest insects as demonstrated by tetracycline (tet)-suppressible systems for conditional embryonic lethality in Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and the medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Cc). However, for medfly...

  6. Investigation on carob seed germination under controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamide GÜBBÜK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of some pre-treatments on seed germination of wild carob seeds were investigated under two different conditions (germination cabinet and greenhouse. Twenty two pre-treatments were applied to the seeds. Pre-treated and control seeds were placed under dark conditions at 25°C. All treated seeds were germinated at 27°C temperature in the germination cabinet and greenhouse conditions. Seed germination rate was determined according to the pre-treatments for both conditions. The results showed that if the seeds were soaked in pure (98 % or diluted sulphuric acid (H2SO4, 40 %, 90 % for 30 minutes then kept in water for 2 days or just soaking the seeds in H2SO4 sulfuric acid for 30 minute gave the best results in terms of seed germination as the seed germination rate was over 90 %. The lowest germination rate under both conditions was observed in the control and soaking the seeds in 60 % H2SO4 for 30 minutes. On the other hands, seeds soaked in 60 % H2SO4 and then kept in water for 2 days did not germinate as they lost germination ability. The highest germination rates were recorded after ten days of pre-treatments in both conditions.

  7. Hydrochemical evolution within a large alluvial groundwater resource overlying a shallow coal seam gas reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Daniel D R; Cox, Malcolm E

    2015-08-01

    A combination of multivariate statistical techniques, simple hydrochemical mixing models and inverse geochemical modelling was used to investigate the major hydrochemical evolutionary pathways of a large alluvial aquifer, the upper Condamine River alluvium, south-east Queensland, Australia. Hydrochemical similarities between alluvium and sedimentary bedrock groundwater imply some mixing between alluvial and sedimentary bedrock aquifers, but spatial assessment showed that this was localised around outcrops of sedimentary bedrock in upstream areas. Within the alluvium, a distinct shift towards a low salinity Na-HCO3 water type and a brackish Na-HCO3-Cl water type was obvious in two separate locations. Both of these water types are unique to the alluvium, and inverse modelling shows that they can evolve via a combination of in situ alluvial processes, including diffuse recharge of rainfall or river water or the evolution of basalt-derived groundwater via gypsum dissolution plagioclase weathering, cation exchange and some carbonate precipitation/dissolution. The evolution of these water types is potentially influenced by overlying sodic alkaline soils, and often is associated with a source of sulfate. Evapotranspiration is the dominant salinization process in the alluvium and increases in calcium cations during salinization indicate that brackish Na-HCO3-Cl groundwater in the underlying Walloon Coal Measures are unlikely to have a major influence on salinization in the alluvium. The most saline water types observed were endemic to shallow zones of the alluvium where evapotranspiration is likely. Results demonstrate that a combination of multivariate statistics and inverse geochemical modelling can be successfully used to delineate hydrochemical pathways in complex hydrogeological settings where a range of environmental and anthropogenic factors may be influencing the evolution of water types with similar hydrochemical compositions.

  8. Optimal Control of a Parabolic Equation with Dynamic Boundary Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoemberg, D., E-mail: hoemberg@wias-berlin.de; Krumbiegel, K., E-mail: krumbieg@wias-berlin.de [Weierstrass Institute for Applied Mathematics and Stochastics, Nonlinear Optimization and Inverse Problems (Germany); Rehberg, J., E-mail: rehberg@wias-berlin.de [Weierstrass Institute for Applied Mathematics and Stochastics, Partial Differential Equations (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    We investigate a control problem for the heat equation. The goal is to find an optimal heat transfer coefficient in the dynamic boundary condition such that a desired temperature distribution at the boundary is adhered. To this end we consider a function space setting in which the heat flux across the boundary is forced to be an L{sup p} function with respect to the surface measure, which in turn implies higher regularity for the time derivative of temperature. We show that the corresponding elliptic operator generates a strongly continuous semigroup of contractions and apply the concept of maximal parabolic regularity. This allows to show the existence of an optimal control and the derivation of necessary and sufficient optimality conditions.

  9. Modified atmospheric conditions controlling fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1997-01-01

    2 level, relative humidity and temperature) and the composition of the cheese. All fungal species commonly found on cheese, starter cultures as well as contaminants, were examined.The most important factors influencing fungal growth are temperature, water activity of the medium and the carbon......Effective control of fungal growth on cheese under storage conditions is of great concern for the dairy industry. Therefore we designed a research project together with the Danish dairy industry on modelling fungal growth on cheese as affected by the combined effect of storage conditions (O2 and CO...... a competitive advantage over other fungi in moist conditions with high carbon dioxide levels, such as inside a roquefort cheese or in gas tight grain storage. The key to success in food packaging is to recognise the food ecosystem, as it enables us to identify which micro...

  10. Control Techniques in Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    H. Mirinejad; Sadati, S.H.; M Ghasemian; H. Torab

    2008-01-01

    Problem statement: Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems are among the main installations in residential, commercial and industrial buildings. The purpose of the HVAC systems is normally to provide a comfortable environment in terms of temperature, humidity and other environmental parameters for the occupants as well as to save energy. Achieving these objectives requires a suitable control system design. Approach: In this overview, thermal comfort level and ISO comfort fiel...

  11. More relaxed conditions for model predictive control with guaranteed stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin LIU; Yugeng XI

    2005-01-01

    For the model predictive controller,terminal state satisfying a certain inequality can guarantee the stability but it is somewhat conservative.In this paper,we give a more relaxed stability condition by considering the effect of the initial state.Based on that we propose an algorithm to guarantee that the closed loop system is asymptotically stable.Finally,the conclusions are verified by a simulation.

  12. Control Techniques in Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mirinejad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC systems are among the main installations in residential, commercial and industrial buildings. The purpose of the HVAC systems is normally to provide a comfortable environment in terms of temperature, humidity and other environmental parameters for the occupants as well as to save energy. Achieving these objectives requires a suitable control system design. Approach: In this overview, thermal comfort level and ISO comfort field is introduced, followed by a review and comparison of the main existing control techniques used in HVAC systems to date. Results: The present overview shows that intelligent controllers which are based on the human sensation of thermal comfort have a better performance in providing thermal comfort as well as energy saving than the traditional controllers and those based on a model of the HVAC system. Conclusion: Such an overview provides an insight into current control methods in HVAC systems and can help scholars and HVAC learners to have the comprehensive information about a variety of control techniques in the field of HVAC and therefore to better design a proper controller for their work

  13. Optimal control for systems governed by parabolic equations without initial conditions with controls in the coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Bokalo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider an optimal control problem for systems described by a Fourier problem for parabolic equations. We prove the existence of solutions, and obtain necessary conditions of the optimal control in the case of final observation when the control functions occur in the coefficients.

  14. NODC Standard Product: International ocean atlas Volume 3 - Hydrochemical Atlas of the Sea of Okhotsk 2001 (NODC Accession 0000521)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hydrochemical and other data were collected from bottle casts in the Sea of Okhotsk from the Protractor from 01 June 1990 to 31 August 1997. Data were compiled as an...

  15. Controlled cooling of an electronic system based on projected conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2016-05-17

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided based, in part, on projected conditions. The control includes automatically determining an adjusted control setting(s) for an adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on projected power consumed by the electronic system at a future time and projected temperature at the future time of a heat sink to which heat extracted is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on an experimentally obtained model(s) relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system.

  16. Electrostatic levitation under the single-axis feedback control condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    An electrostatic levitator with a single-axis feedback control system was developed on the basis of electric field analysis and optimum design for levitation electrodes. In order to realize the stable levitation of various types of materials such as metals, inorganic materials and polymers, we made both experimental and theoretical investigations to solve the four key problems of electric field optimization, sample position detecting, sample charging control and levitation voltage minimization. Under the capacitive induction charging condition, a sample with the size of 2.6–4.5 mm usually bears positive charges amounting to 10-9 Coulomb. Because the single-axis feedback control system responds quickly, it takes the levitated sample only 0.1 s from leaving the bottom electrode until attaining a stable levitation in the upright direction. The levitated sample displays satisfactory levitation stability in both the upright and the horizontal directions owing to the constraining force produced by spherical electrodes.

  17. Controlled cooling of an electronic system based on projected conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2015-08-18

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided based, in part, on projected conditions. The control includes automatically determining an adjusted control setting(s) for an adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on projected power consumed by the electronic system at a future time and projected temperature at the future time of a heat sink to which heat extracted is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on an experimentally obtained model(s) relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system.

  18. Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater in the Blue Nile Basin, eastern Sudan, using conventional and multivariate techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mohammed Tahir

    Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater systems can be carried out using conventional and multivariate techniques, namely cluster, factor analyses and others such as correspondence analysis. The main objective of this study is to investigate the groundwater quality in the Blue Nile basin of eastern Sudan, and to workout a hydrochemical evaluation for the aquifer system. Conventional methods and multivariate techniques were applied to achieve these goals. Two water-bearing layers exist in the study area: the Nubian Sandstone Formation and the Al-Atshan Formation. The Nubian aquifer is recharged mainly from the Blue Nile and Dinder Rivers through lateral subsurface flow and through direct rainfall in outcrop areas. The Al-Atshan aquifer receives water through underground flow from River Rahad and from rainfall infiltration. The prevailing hydrochemical processes are simple dissolution, mixing, partial ion exchange and ion exchange. Limited reverse ion exchange has been witnessed in the Nubian aquifer. Three factors control the overall mineralization and water quality of the Blue Nile Basin. The first factor includes high values of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, sulphate and magnesium. The second factor includes calcium and pH. The third factor is due to fluoride concentration in the groundwater. The study highlights the descriptive capabilities of conventional and multivariate techniques as effective tools in groundwater quality evaluation. Une étude hydrochimique de systèmes aquifères a pu être réalisée au moyen des techniques conventionnelles et multidimensionnelles, telles que les analyses de cluster et factorielles, ainsi que d'autres comme l'analyse des correspondances. Le principal objectif de ce travail est d'étudier la qualité des eaux souterraines du bassin du Nil bleu au Soudan oriental, et de réaliser une évaluation hydrochimique du système aquifère. Des méthodes conventionnelles et

  19. Control of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT Equipment Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Geoffrey C.; Storey, Bill; Patterson, Michael K.

    2009-09-30

    The goal of this demonstration was to show how sensors in IT equipment could be accessed and used to directly control computer room air conditioning. The data provided from the sensors is available on the IT network and the challenge for this project was to connect this information to the computer room air handler's control system. A control strategy was developed to enable separate control of the chilled water flow and the fans in the computer room air handlers. By using these existing sensors in the IT equipment, an additional control system is eliminated (or could be redundant) and optimal cooling can be provided saving significant energy. Using onboard server temperature sensors will yield significant energy reductions in data centers. Intel hosted the demonstration in its Santa Clara, CA data center. Intel collaborated with IBM, HP, Emerson, Wunderlich-Malec Engineers, FieldServer Technologies, and LBNL to install the necessary components and develop the new control scheme. LBNL also validated the results of the demonstration.

  20. Combined Use of Multivariate Statistical Analysis and Hydrochemical Analysis for Groundwater Quality Evolution:A Case Study in North Chain Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Ma; Jiansheng Shi; Jichao Liu; Chunlei Gui

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the controlling factor of groundwater quality can enhance promoting sustaina-ble development of groundwater resources. To this end, multivariate statistical analysis (MA) and hydrochemical analysis were introduced in this work. The results indicate that the canonical discriminant function with 7 parameters was established using the discriminant analysis (DA) method, which can afford 100%correct assignation according to the 3 different clusters (good water (GW), poor water (PW), and very poor water (VPW)) obtained from cluster analysis (CA). According to factor analysis (FA), 8 factors were ex-tracted from 25 hydrochemical elements and account for 80.897%of the total data variance, suggesting that groundwater with higher concentrations of sodium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, and sulfate in southeastern study area are mainly affected by the natural process;the higher level of arsenic and chromium in ground-water extracted from northwestern part of study area are derived by industrial activities;domestic and agri-culture sewage have important contribution to copper, iron, iodine, and phosphate in the northern study area. Therefore, this work can help identify the main controlling factor of groundwater quality in North China plain so as to make better and more informed decisions about how to achieve groundwater resources sustain-able development.

  1. An evaluating methodology for hydrotechnical torrent-control structures condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerban Octavian Davidescu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Watershed management using torrent-control structures is an activity having more than 100 years history in Romania, So far, researches regarding works behaviour in service focused mainly on defining and assessing each damage type, without studying the inte-raction between them. Thus, damage classification criteria were substantiated taking into account nature and strength of the damages. This paper presents a methodology for assessing the condition of hydrotechnical structures by quantifying the cumulative effects of damages which occur with a significant frequency during their service. The model was created using a database, nationwide representative, with 3845 torrent-control structures. The identified damage types identified were weighted using multi-criteria analysis. Depending on the weight and strength off all damages occurred was calculated an indicator named 'condition rate' (Ys. This new parameter may be used to track the impact of different features (structure age, components sizes, the position in the system, the construction materials, riverbed slope, geology of the area, etc. on the condition of structures. By establishing the condition rate for all the structures within a collectivity (an entire watershed or catchment area, a single watercourse, a battery of works etc., there may be made an analysis and a grading both at individual level and population-wide level, which lead to order the repairs or additions of new structures to existing hydrotechnical systems. Also, the model designed can be a part of a monitoring system regarding torrent-control structures, answering, thus, the requirements on this issue of the 'National Strategy for Flood Risk Management' approved by the Romanian Government in 2010.

  2. Controllability of air conditioning systems. Components and control parameters; Klimaanlaegs reguleringsegenskaber. Komponenter og reguleringsparametre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilgaard Schmidt, T.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose was to investigate the factors affecting the controllability of air condition systems by evaluating the influence of the components and by developing an improved method of adjustment for controllers. A system consisting of a heat coil with constant water flow and temperature control was used for the purposes of the investigation. The following conditions give the best controllability: A short pipe length, e g 1m, and a shunt length of 0.5 m, a sensor time constant of 1 second, exponential valve characteristics and a motor running time of 3 seconds. Shares of valve pressure drop between 60% and 98% gives small changes in controllability, 2% hysteresis in the connection between the valve and the motor gives poorer such. in the case of 4-row heat coil and a series connection of two 4-row coils, a 100% increase in water flow proportional to the water flow at the design load, and a k{sub v}s value chosen from the design load conditions, improves controllability. The controllability of a series connection of two 4-row coils is poorer compared with one 4-row heat coil. PID control improves controllability compared to PI control. Controllability with optimal controller settings is considerably better than with controller settings indicated by the Zeigler-Nichols step response method. (AB) 51 refs.

  3. Modeling validation and control analysis for controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jing-Nang; Lin, Tsung-Min; Chen, Chien-Chih

    2014-01-01

    This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14 °C, 0006 kg(w)/kg(da) in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system.

  4. Modeling Validation and Control Analysis for Controlled Temperature and Humidity of Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Nang Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14°C, 0006 kgw/kgda in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system.

  5. Rotor experiments in controlled conditions continued: New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorsma, K.; Schepers, J. G.

    2016-09-01

    To validate and reduce the large uncertainty associated with rotor aerodynamic and acoustic models, there is a need for detailed force, noise and surrounding flow velocity measurements on wind turbines under controlled conditions. However, high quality wind tunnel campaigns on horizontal axis wind turbine models are scarce due to the large wind tunnel size needed and consequently high associated costs. To serve this purpose an experiment using the Mexico turbine was set-up in the large low speed facility of the DNW wind tunnel. An overview of the experiments is given including a selection of results. A comparison of calculations to measurements for design conditions shows a satisfactory agreement. In summary, after years of preparation, ECN and partners have performed very successful aerodynamic experiments in the largest wind tunnel in Europe. The comprehensive high quality database that has been obtained will be used in the international Mexnext consortium to further develop wind energy aerodynamic and acoustic modeling.

  6. Overview of impurity control and wall conditioning in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KUGEL,H.W.; MAINGI,R.; BELL,M.; BLANCHARD,W.; GATES,D.; JOHNSON,D.; KAITA,R.; KAYE,S.; MARQUEDA,R.; MENARD,J.; MUELLER,D.; ONO,M.; PENG,Y-K.M.; RAMAN,R.; RAMSEY,A.; ROQUEMORE,A.; SKINNER,C.; SABBAGH,S.; STUTMAN,D.; WAMPLER,WILLIAM R.; WILSON,J.R.; ZWEBEN,S.

    2000-05-25

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) started plasma operations in February 1999, and promptly achieved high current, inner wall limited, double null, and single null plasma discharges, initial Coaxial Helicity Injection, and High Harmonic Fast Wave results. NSTX is designed to study the physics of Spherical Tori (ST) in a device that can produce non-inductively sustained high-{beta} discharges in the 1 MA regime and to explore approaches toward a small, economical high power density ST reactor core. As expected, discharge reproducibility and performance were strongly affected by wall conditions. In this paper, the authors describe the internal geometry, and initial plasma discharge, impurity control, wall conditioning, erosion, and deposition results.

  7. Application of stable isotopes and hydrochemical analysis in groundwater aquifers of Argolis Peninsula (Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiatos, Ioannis; Alexopoulos, Apostolos

    2011-12-01

    The present study examines the isotopic and hydrochemical composition of 18 inland spring waters and 3 coastal karstic spring waters, covering the period between October 2005 and March 2008. The stable isotopes ((18)O, (2)H) processing has revealed the absence of significant evaporation phenomena and that the origin of fresh water samples is meteoric. Using (18)O values in rainfall waters, an average line of isotopic depletion with altitude has been constructed, extracting a rate of-0.45‰/100 m as typical for the study area. Furthermore, the mean altitude of recharge of the springs has been estimated by plotting the groundwater sampling points on a δ(18)O versus altitude diagram. Hydrochemistry results have shown that the dissolution of carbonate, flysch and ophiolitic formations defines the hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater. Moreover, seawater intrusion in the coastal area is significantly high, causing the water in the three karstic springs to be brackish.

  8. Hydrochemical changes in a small tropical island's aquifer: Manukan Island, Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aris, A. Z.; Abdullah, M. H.; Kim, K. W.; Praveena, S. M.

    2009-02-01

    Small islands groundwater are often exposed to heavy pumpings as a result of high demand for freshwater consumption. Intensive exploitation of groundwater from Manukan Island’s aquifer has disturbed the natural equilibrium between fresh and saline water, and has resulted increase the groundwater salinity and leap to the hydrochemical complexities of freshwater-seawater contact. An attempt was made to identify the hydrochemical processes that accompany current intrusion of seawater using ionic changes and saturation indices. It was observed that the mixing between freshwater-seawater created diversity in geochemical processes of the Manukan Island’s aquifer and altered the freshwater and seawater mixture away from the theoretical composition line. This explained the most visible processes taking place during the displacement.

  9. Wall conditioning and particle control in Extrap T2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsåker, H.; Larsson, D.; Brunsell, P.; Möller, A.; Tramontin, L.

    1997-02-01

    The Extrap T2 reversed field pinch experiment is operated with the former OHTE vacuum vessel, of dimensions R = 1.24 m and a = 0.18 m and with a complete graphite liner. It is shown that a rudimentary density control can be achieved by means of frequent helium glow discharge conditioning of the wall. The standard He-GDC is well characterized and reproducible. The trapping and release of hydrogen and impurities at the wall surfaces have been studied by mass spectrometry and surface analysis. The shot to shot particle exchange between wall and plasma can be approximately accounted for.

  10. Condition monitoring, diagnostic and controlling tool for boiler feed pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Sohail [Siemens AG, Muelheim (Germany). Energy Sector; Leithner, Reinhard; Kosyna, Guenter [TU Braunschweig (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The boiler feed pump is an important component of a thermal power generation cycle and demands high safety and unquestionable availability for flexible power plant operation. In this research paper, the methodology of a general purpose condition monitoring, diagnostic and controlling tool is presented, which can address the challenges of operational safety and availability as well as optimal operation of a boiler feed pump. This tool not only effectively records the life time consumption of both casings and rotors and monitors the small gaps between casings and rotors but also suggests appropriate actions in order to ensure that the pump operates within the allowable design limits. (orig.)

  11. Hydrochemical characterization of a mine water geothermal energy resource in NW Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Loredo, C; Ordóñez, A; Garcia-Ordiales, E.; Álvarez, R.; Roqueñi, N.; Cienfuegos, P.; Peña, A.; Burnside, N.M.

    2017-01-01

    Abandoned and flooded mine networks provide underground reservoirs of mine water that can be used as a renewable geothermal energy source. A complete hydrochemical characterization of mine water is required to optimally design the geothermal installation, understand the hydraulic behavior of the water in the reservoir and prevent undesired effects such as pipe clogging via mineral precipitation. Water pumped from the Barredo-Figaredo mining reservoir (Asturias, NW Spain), which is currently e...

  12. An assessment of selected hydrochemical parameter trend of the Nakdong River water in South Korea, using time series analyses and PCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, S Y; Venkatramanan, S; Park, N; Rajesh, R; Ramkumar, T; Kim, B W

    2015-01-01

    Time series analyses (autocorrelation, spectral density, and cross-correlation) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to understand the characteristics of the selected hydrochemical parameters pH, turbidity, alkalinity, Cl, hardness, total dissolved solids (TDS), and metals Fe and Mn in the Nakdong River, South Korea. Autocorrelation and spectral density for pH, alkalinity, hardness, and Cl were very similar to TDS, whereas Fe, Mn, and turbidity showed different trends from TDS. Cross-correlograms of pH, alkalinity, hardness, and Cl versus TDS were very similar to each other. Those of Fe and turbidity represented the opposite relations with other components. Cross-correlation coefficients had the highest values at zero lag, indicating that pH, alkalinity, hardness, and Cl are controlling factors for TDS. On the other hand, Fe and turbidity showed the highest values at 6-month lag and Mn at a month lag. PCA indicated that TDS had very close relation with hardness, pH, and Cl and very small relation with Mn. Turbidity and Fe had relatively opposite relations with TDS. It was concluded that the geostatistical methods were very useful for evaluating the hydrochemical characteristics of the Nakdong River water in South Korea.

  13. Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater in the Akyem area, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banoeng-Yakubo, B.; Yidana, S.M.; Anku, Y.; Akabzaa, T.; Asiedu, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Akyem area is a small farming community located in southeastern Ghana. Groundwater samples from wells in the area were analyzed for concentrations of the major ions, silica, electrical conductivity and pH. The objective was to determine the main controls on the hydrochemistry of ground-water. Mass balance modeling was used together with multivariate R-mode hierarchical cluster analysis to determine the significant sources of variation in the hydrochemistry. Two water types exist in this area. The first is influenced most by the weathering of silicate minerals from the underlying geology, and is thus rich in silica, sodium, calcium, bicarbonate, and magnesium ions. The second is water that has been influenced by the effects of fertilizers and other anthropogenic activities in the area. Mineral speciation and silicate mineral stability diagrams suggest that montmorillonite, probably derived from the incongruent dissolution of feldspars and micas, is the most stable silicate phase in the groundwaters. The apparent incongruent weathering of silicate minerals in the groundwater system has led to the enrichment of sodium, calcium, magnesium and bicarbonate ions as well as silica, leading to the supersaturation of calcite, aragonite, dolomite and quartz. Stability in the montmorillonite field suggests restricted flow conditions and a long groundwater residence time, leading to greater exposure of the rock to weathering. Cation exchange processes appear to play minor roles in the hydrochemistry of groundwater.

  14. Control system and method for a universal power conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Park, Sung Yeul; Chen, Chien-Liang

    2014-09-02

    A new current loop control system method is proposed for a single-phase grid-tie power conditioning system that can be used under a standalone or a grid-tie mode. This type of inverter utilizes an inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL) filter as the interface in between inverter and the utility grid. The first set of inductor-capacitor (LC) can be used in the standalone mode, and the complete LCL can be used for the grid-tie mode. A new admittance compensation technique is proposed for the controller design to avoid low stability margin while maintaining sufficient gain at the fundamental frequency. The proposed current loop controller system and admittance compensation technique have been simulated and tested. Simulation results indicate that without the admittance path compensation, the current loop controller output duty cycle is largely offset by an undesired admittance path. At the initial simulation cycle, the power flow may be erratically fed back to the inverter causing catastrophic failure. With admittance path compensation, the output power shows a steady-state offset that matches the design value. Experimental results show that the inverter is capable of both a standalone and a grid-tie connection mode using the LCL filter configuration.

  15. Radium and radon isotope investigations as tool for aquifer diagnostics considering the geochemical and hydrochemical conditions in the ground water aquifer; Radium- und Radon-Isotopen-Untersuchungen als Hilfsmittel fuer die Aquiferdiagnose unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der geochemischen und hydrochemischen Verhaeltnisse im Grundwasserleiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Stephanie

    2014-12-12

    The thesis was aimed to the development of methods for enhanced interpretation of the hydraulic conditions in a groundwater aquifer based on the determination of the Rn-222/Ra-226 ration. Further investigations concerned rocks and rock surfaces (secondary minerals) with respect to the solubility and the mobility of radium in the ground water. The samples were withdrawn in the region of the continental deep borehole (KTB Oberpfalz) and the Czech Republic (Egergraben).

  16. Using diatoms, hydrochemical and stable isotope tracers to infer runoff generation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carreras, N.; Wetzel, C. E.; Frentress, J.; Hlúbiková, D.; Ector, L.; McDonnell, J. J.; Hoffmann, L.; Pfister, L.

    2012-04-01

    Imaginative techniques are needed to improve our understanding of runoff generation processes. In this context, the hydrological community calls to cut across disciplines looking for new and exciting advances in knowledge. In this study, hydrologists and ecologists have worked together to use not only hydrochemical and stable isotope tracers, but also diatoms to infer runoff generation processes. Diatoms, one of the most common and divers algal group, can be easily transported by flowing water due to their small size (~10-200 μm). They are present in most terrestrial habitats and their diversified species distributions are largely controlled by physico-geographical factors (e.g. light, temperature, pH and moisture). Thus, hydrological systems largely control diatom species community composition and distribution. This study was conducted in the schistose Weierbach catchment (0.45 km2, NW Luxembourg). Its runoff regime is characterised by seasonal variation and a delayed shallow groundwater component originating from a saprolite zone. The catchment was instrumented with piezometers, suction cups, an automatic streamwater sampler, a sequential rainfall sampler, and soil moisture and temperature sensors. Samples collected bi-weekly and during storm runoff events allowed the characterisation of the different end-members. Chemical and isotopic hydrograph separations of stream discharge were used to determine not only the geographic sources of water, but also the fractions of old and new water contributing to streamflow. Diatoms intra-storm variability was also analysed and samples of diatoms from various terrestrial and subaerial substrates (bryophytes, litter and leaves), as well as from aquatic habitats (epilithon, epipelon and drift samples) were regularly collected. Diatoms were then used to constrain assumptions and to confirm or reject the hypothesis of existing surface runoff during rainfall-runoff events and to document the intermittent character of hydrological

  17. Verification of the karst flow model under laboratory controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotovac, Hrvoje; Andric, Ivo; Malenica, Luka; Srzic, Veljko

    2016-04-01

    Karst aquifers are very important groundwater resources around the world as well as in coastal part of Croatia. They consist of extremely complex structure defining by slow and laminar porous medium and small fissures and usually fast turbulent conduits/karst channels. Except simple lumped hydrological models that ignore high karst heterogeneity, full hydraulic (distributive) models have been developed exclusively by conventional finite element and finite volume elements considering complete karst heterogeneity structure that improves our understanding of complex processes in karst. Groundwater flow modeling in complex karst aquifers are faced by many difficulties such as a lack of heterogeneity knowledge (especially conduits), resolution of different spatial/temporal scales, connectivity between matrix and conduits, setting of appropriate boundary conditions and many others. Particular problem of karst flow modeling is verification of distributive models under real aquifer conditions due to lack of above-mentioned information. Therefore, we will show here possibility to verify karst flow models under the laboratory controlled conditions. Special 3-D karst flow model (5.6*2.6*2 m) consists of concrete construction, rainfall platform, 74 piezometers, 2 reservoirs and other supply equipment. Model is filled by fine sand (3-D porous matrix) and drainage plastic pipes (1-D conduits). This model enables knowledge of full heterogeneity structure including position of different sand layers as well as conduits location and geometry. Moreover, we know geometry of conduits perforation that enable analysis of interaction between matrix and conduits. In addition, pressure and precipitation distribution and discharge flow rates from both phases can be measured very accurately. These possibilities are not present in real sites what this model makes much more useful for karst flow modeling. Many experiments were performed under different controlled conditions such as different

  18. Complex conditional control by pigeons in a continuous virtual environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Muhammad A J; Reid, Sean; Cook, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    We tested two pigeons in a continuously streaming digital environment. Using animation software that constantly presented a dynamic, three-dimensional (3D) environment, the animals were tested with a conditional object identification task. The correct object at a given time depended on the virtual context currently streaming in front of the pigeon. Pigeons were required to accurately peck correct target objects in the environment for food reward, while suppressing any pecks to intermixed distractor objects which delayed the next object's presentation. Experiment 1 established that the pigeons' discrimination of two objects could be controlled by the surface material of the digital terrain. Experiment 2 established that the pigeons' discrimination of four objects could be conjunctively controlled by both the surface material and topography of the streaming environment. These experiments indicate that pigeons can simultaneously process and use at least two context cues from a streaming environment to control their identification behavior of passing objects. These results add to the promise of testing interactive digital environments with animals to advance our understanding of cognition and behavior.

  19. Hydrochemical variability at the Upper Paraguay Basin and Pantanal wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende Filho, A. T.; Furian, S.; Victoria, R. L.; Mascré, C.; Valles, V.; Barbiero, L.

    2012-08-01

    Compartmentalization is a prerequisite to understand large wetlands that receive water from several sources. However, it faces the heterogeneity in space and time, resulting from physical, chemical and biological processes that are specific to wetlands. The Pantanal is a vast seasonally flooded continental wetland located in the centre of South America. The chemical composition of the waters that supply the Pantanal (70 rivers) has been studied in order to establish a compartmentalization of the wetland based on soil-water interactions. A PCA-based EMMA (End-Members Mixing Analysis) procedure shows that the chemistry of the rivers can be viewed as a mixture of 3 end-members, influenced by lithology and land use, and delimiting large regions. Although the chemical composition of the end-members changed between dry and wet seasons, their spatial distribution was maintained. The results were extended to the floodplain by simple tributary mixing calculation according to the hydrographical network and to the areas of influence for each river when in overflow conditions. The resulting map highlights areas of high geochemical contrast on either side of the river Cuiaba in the north, and of the rivers Aquidauana and Abobral in the south. The PCA-based treatment on a sampling conducted in the Nhecolândia, a large sub region of the Pantanal, allowed the identification and ordering of the processes that control the geochemical variability of the surface waters. Despite an enormous variability in electrical conductivity and pH, all data collected were in agreement with an evaporation process of the Taquari River water, which supplies the region. Evaporation and associated saline precipitations (Mg-calcite, Mg-silicates K-silicates) explained more than 77% of the total variability in the chemistry of the regional surface water sampling.

  20. Cholinergic interneurons control local circuit activity and cocaine conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, Ilana B; Lin, Shih-Chun; Brodsky, Matthew; Prakash, Rohit; Diester, Ilka; Anikeeva, Polina; Gradinaru, Viviana; Ramakrishnan, Charu; Deisseroth, Karl

    2010-12-17

    Cholinergic neurons are widespread, and pharmacological modulation of acetylcholine receptors affects numerous brain processes, but such modulation entails side effects due to limitations in specificity for receptor type and target cell. As a result, causal roles of cholinergic neurons in circuits have been unclear. We integrated optogenetics, freely moving mammalian behavior, in vivo electrophysiology, and slice physiology to probe the cholinergic interneurons of the nucleus accumbens by direct excitation or inhibition. Despite representing less than 1% of local neurons, these cholinergic cells have dominant control roles, exerting powerful modulation of circuit activity. Furthermore, these neurons could be activated by cocaine, and silencing this drug-induced activity during cocaine exposure (despite the fact that the manipulation of the cholinergic interneurons was not aversive by itself) blocked cocaine conditioning in freely moving mammals.

  1. Offset-Control Attenuates Context Conditioning Induced by US-unpredictability in a Human Conditioned Suppression Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Meulders

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether offset-control of the unconditioned stimulus (US reduces context conditioning induced by US-unpredictability within a human conditioned suppression preparation. We also examined lack of control 'vs'. loss of control. Three groups (No Controllability, NC; Controllability, C; Loss of Controllability, LC received unsignaled USs during two learning phases (ACQ1-2. The NC group, never had offset-control, whereas the C group, always had offset-control. The LC group, had offset-control during ACQ1, but not during ACQ2. Results indicated that US-unpredictability led to contextual conditioned suppression during ACQ1, only when participants did not have offset-control; when they did, no context conditioning was established. From ACQ1 to ACQ2, contextual conditioned suppression increased in the LC group, but it was not more pronounced than in the NC group. These data suggest that offset-control attenuates context conditioning induced by US-unpredictability and – at least in this paradigm – loss of control is not worse than lack of control.

  2. The speed control of DC motor under the load condition using PI and PID controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corapsiz, Muhammed Reşit; Kahveci, Hakan

    2017-04-01

    In this study, it was aimed to compare PI (Proportional-Integral) and PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) controllers for speed control of Permanent Magnet Direct Current (PMDC) motor under both load and without load. For this purpose, firstly, the mathematical model was obtained from the dynamic equations of the PMDC motor and the obtained mathematical model was transferred to the simulation environment and modeled using Matlab/SIMULINK. Following the modeling process, PI and PID controller structures were formed, respectively. Secondly, after these structures were formed, the PMDC motor was run without any controller. Then, the control of the PMDC motor with no load was provided by using PI and PID controllers. Finally, the PMDC motor were loaded under the constant load (TL = 3 N.m.) for each condition and selected time period (t = 3 s). The obtained result for each control operations was comparatively given by observing effects of loading process on systems. When the obtained results were evaluated for each condition, it was observed that PID controller have the best performance with respect to PI controller.

  3. Robust FOPI controller design for power control of PHWR under step-back condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhase, S.S., E-mail: swapnil.sbhase@gmail.com; Patre, B.M., E-mail: bmpatre@ieee.org

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Robust stabilization of a highly nonlinear PHWR process. • A robust FOPI controller for a typical fractional-order NIOPTD-II plant. • Flat phase constraint is proposed to obtain a controller giving wide flat phase at gain crossover frequency. • FOPI controller designed for an operating condition of the PHWR produces a constant Phase margin for wide range of frequencies. • The proposed FOPI controller gives better performance compared to existing in the literature. - Abstract: This paper presents a stabilizing fractional-order proportional integral (FOPI) controller design for the power control of a highly nonlinear Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) under step-back condition. A single robust FOPI controller is designed utilizing stability boundary locus method for eight nuclear reactor models of the PHWR linearized at different operating points. A set of stabilizing controller parameters is obtained for a typical fractional-order two non-integer order plus time delay (NIOPTD-II) model of the reactor satisfying design specifications of phase margin and gain crossover frequency. Then a flat phase constraint is developed to find a controller giving wide flat phase at the desired gain crossover frequency. The controller obtained is found to give iso-damped closed-loop response for all linearized models of PHWR. Simulation results show that the proposed FOPI controller applied for active step-back in the reactor give a deadbeat tracking performance without any undershoot for all operating points, defined for variation in initial power level or control rod drop. The efficacy of the proposed FOPI controller is verified by comparing its performance with existing methods in the literature.

  4. Production of Aphanius mento (Heckel, 1843 under controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Sezen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to determine the adaptation capability to controlled conditions, reproductive behaviors, and production ofAphanius mentocaught from Kirkgoz Springs, Antalya. Fish material for broodstock were caught using fine mesh tulle net and bag net with 2.5mm mesh size. Twenty five female and 10 male breeding fish acclimated to experimental conditions in Aquarium Department Unit of Ministryof Food, Agriculture and Livestock Mediterranean Fisheries Research Production and Training Institute were spawned by providing egg collectorsto the tank. Aphanius mentoeggs were spherical, transparent and sticky. Examination with the microscope revealed that the eggs were fullof pale yellow egg yolk with 7-8 lipid droplets and had fibrous sticking filaments on the surface. The average egg diameter was 1.59±0.50 mm(n=8. Hatching were observed at 11th day at 22.5±1.0ºC water temperature whereas at 8th day at 27.0±0.45ºC. Total length of newly hatchedlarvae was 5.1±0.07 mm, and swimming were competed at 4th day. Average size of one-week larvae was 5.6±0.2 mm. At this stage fins werefully developed, the larvae were able to swim freely and take exogenous food. Mean length of the fish was 2.7±0.2 cm on 7th month and a juvenilefish had an appearance of morphologically mature fish.

  5. Hydrologic conditions controlling runoff generation immediately after wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, Brian A.; Moody, John A.; Martin, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the control of postwildfire runoff by physical and hydraulic properties of soil, hydrologic states, and an ash layer immediately following wildfire. The field site is within the area burned by the 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire in Colorado, USA. Physical and hydraulic property characterization included ash thickness, particle size distribution, hydraulic conductivity, and soil water retention curves. Soil water content and matric potential were measured indirectly at several depths below the soil surface to document hydrologic states underneath the ash layer in the unsaturated zone, whereas precipitation and surface runoff were measured directly. Measurements of soil water content showed that almost no water infiltrated below the ash layer into the near-surface soil in the burned site at the storm time scale (i.e., minutes to hours). Runoff generation processes were controlled by and highly sensitive to ash thickness and ash hydraulic properties. The ash layer stored from 97% to 99% of rainfall, which was critical for reducing runoff amounts. The hydrologic response to two rain storms with different rainfall amounts, rainfall intensity, and durations, only ten days apart, indicated that runoff generation was predominantly by the saturation-excess mechanism perched at the ash-soil interface during the first storm and predominantly by the infiltration-excess mechanism at the ash surface during the second storm. Contributing area was not static for the two storms and was 4% (saturation excess) to 68% (infiltration excess) of the catchment area. Our results showed the importance of including hydrologic conditions and hydraulic properties of the ash layer in postwildfire runoff generation models.

  6. Comparison between controlled landfill reactor and conditioned landfill bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Feng; CHEN Wan-zhi; SONG Fu-zhong; LI Xiao-peng; ZHANG Guo-qing

    2004-01-01

    Bioreactor landfills allow a more active landfill management that recognizes the biological, chemical and physical processes involved in a landfill environment. The results of laboratory-scale simulators of landfill reactors treating municipal solid wastes were studied, the effect of solid waste size, leachate recirculation, nutrient balance, pH value, moisture content and temperature on the rate of municipal solid waste(MSW) biodegradation were determined, and it indicated the optimum pH value, moisture content and temperature can used to decompose MSW. The results of waste biodegradation were compared with that of the simulators of the leachate-recirculated landfill and conservative sanitary landfill. In the control experiment the antitheses of a decreasing trend of the organic load, measured as biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand, was shown, and heavy metals concentration was observed. An obvious enhancement of effective disposal from simulator of conservative sanitary landfill(CSL), to that of leachate-recirculated landfill(LRL) and to that of conditioned bioreactor landfill(CBL) would be noted, through displaying the compared results of solid waste settlement, heavy metal concentration in leachate, methane production rate, biogas composition, BOD and COD as well as their ratio.

  7. Measurements of optical underwater turbulence under controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaev, A. V.; Gladysz, S.; Almeida de Sá Barros, R.; Matt, S.; Nootz, G. A.; Josset, D. B.; Hou, W.

    2016-05-01

    Laser beam propagation underwater is becoming an important research topic because of high demand for its potential applications. Namely, ability to image underwater at long distances is highly desired for scientific and military purposes, including submarine awareness, diver visibility, and mine detection. Optical communication in the ocean can provide covert data transmission with much higher rates than that available with acoustic techniques, and it is now desired for certain military and scientific applications that involve sending large quantities of data. Unfortunately underwater environment presents serious challenges for propagation of laser beams. Even in clean ocean water, the extinction due to absorption and scattering theoretically limit the useful range to few attenuation lengths. However, extending the laser light propagation range to the theoretical limit leads to significant beam distortions due to optical underwater turbulence. Experiments show that the magnitude of the distortions that are caused by water temperature and salinity fluctuations can significantly exceed the magnitude of the beam distortions due to atmospheric turbulence even for relatively short propagation distances. We are presenting direct measurements of optical underwater turbulence in controlled conditions of laboratory water tank using two separate techniques involving wavefront sensor and LED array. These independent approaches will enable development of underwater turbulence power spectrum model based directly on the spatial domain measurements and will lead to accurate predictions of underwater beam propagation.

  8. Contextual Control of Extinguished Conditioned Performance in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havermans, Remco C.; Keuker, Jantien; Lataster, Timeke; Jansen, Anita

    2005-01-01

    Animal research has shown that extinguished conditioned performance is modulated by the environmental context in which extinction treatment has occurred. When the conditioned stimulus is presented outside the extinction context, conditioned responding is renewed. In two experiments, whether a renewal effect can also be found in humans was…

  9. Effects of Differences in Suggestibility within Self- and External-Control Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souheaver, Gary T.; Schuldt, W. John

    1978-01-01

    Studied effects of suggestibility on performance within self- and external-control conditions. Subjects were assigned to experimental conditions--self-control, external-control, and no reward. Response rates of self and external groups were highest. Response rates of high-suggestibles in self-control conditions were not significantly different…

  10. HYDROCHEMICAL CONDITIONS OF THE ŁOSOSINA RIVER WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE AREA OF TYMBARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Policht-Latawiec

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable use of waters requires not only determining the amount, but primarily the quality of the available water resources and developing a long-term programme of their protection. The analysis of the Łososina river water in the area of Tymbark city was presented in the paper. The water was tested in a view of the requirements as the natural fish habitat and its potential use for people supply in potable water. The river water samples were taken in 2014 at randomly selected dates, once a month in 5 measurement points. 21 physicochemical indices were assessed in the samples. The assessment of the Łososina river water quality was made on the basis of the results of both: on site and laboratory testing, which were compared with the Regulation of the Minister of Environment of 23 October 2014. The utility values were assessed on the basis of the Regulations of the Minister of Environment of 27 November and 04 October 2014. The analysis of the results demonstrated that the Łososina river water met the requirements of quality class I water in points 1, 2 and 3. Below Tymbark the Łososina river water was polluted, so due to high BOD5 in points 4 and 5, and phosphate concentrations in point 4, it was classified as class II, i.e. good state. Pollution coefficients computed according to Burchard and Dubaniewicz classify the Łososina river water as clean along the whole investigated stretch. Below Tymbark city (points 4 and 5 the Łososina river water cannot be used for drinking water supply because of high BOD5 and iron concentrations. In the other points it could be used for water supply following appropriate physical and chemical treatment. The water does not meet the requirements for salmonid or cyprinid fish along the whole stretch because of high nitrite concentrations, except point 3, where the Łososina river water provided a proper natural habitat for carp.

  11. Effect of hydrochemical conditions in transport properties of viruses in groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadeghi, G.R.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of virus removal in subsurface environments is pivotal for assessing the risk of viral contamination of drinking water wells and to adequately protect groundwater resources. Laboratory and field experiments are necessary to obtain values for kinetic parameters needed to describe virus

  12. Hydrochemical diversity of semi-natural water system on the background of environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudowski, Adam; Górniak, Andrzej Stefan; Więcko, Adam

    2015-06-01

    Research carried out from 2007 to 2011 showed that a tested semi-natural water system with a diverse catchment (peat, peat-mineral and mineral) has a very varied quality of water, as evidenced by a the large range of conductivity (174-828 μS/cm) and pH (6.34-9.92). Natural lake parts of the semi-natural water system were similar to the artificial parts in terms of physico-chemical parameters, as evidenced by the lack of statistically significant differences between the water quality in both of these ecosystems. Taking into account the quality of various types of water in this semi-natural system, it can be seen that the river waters differed significantly (p system contributed to higher values of many tested parameters (EC, pH, TC, TN, SO4 (2-) or Cl(-)) in waters of the canal. In contrast, rivers with high values of concentrations of organic matter (TOC > 10.0 mg/L) contributed to a decline in values of those parameters. Moreover, lake waters within the tested semi-natural water system showed a "cleansing" function, because they caused a decrease in conductivity, pH or the concentration of carbon, total nitrogen, sulphate(VI) and chloride in waters of the canal.

  13. Assessment of water quality of a river-dominated estuary with hydrochemical parameters: A statistical approach.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Padma, P.; Sheela, V.S.; Suryakumari, S.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Nair, S.M.; Kumar, N.C.

    stream_size 64084 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Water_Qual_Expos_Health_5_197.pdf.txt stream_source_info Water_Qual_Expos_Health_5_197.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8... Water Qual Expo Health DOI 10.1007/s12403-014-0115-9 ORIGINAL PAPER Assessment of Water Quality of a River-Dominated Estuary with Hydrochemical Parameters: A Statistical Approach P. Padma · V. S. Sheela · S. Suryakumari · K. V. Jayalakshmy · S. M. Nair...

  14. Migration and Retardation of Chemical Toxic Components from Radioactive Waste - Hydrochemical Aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedinakova-Krizova, V.; Hanslik, E.

    2003-02-24

    A systematic analysis of nuclear power plant (NPP) operation and radioactive wastes disposal (near-surface disposal and geologic disposal) in underground repositories has provided the basis for a comparison between the radiotoxicity and chemotoxicity as part of an EIA (environmental impact assessment) procedure. This contribution summarizes the hydrochemical mechanisms of transport and retardation processes, chemistry and migration behavior of radionuclides and chemical toxics in natural sorbents, especially bentonites. The effect of solubility and dissolution reactions, diffusion and sorption/desorption, complexation and variations in the aqueous phase composition, pH-value and oxidation-reduction properties and other phenomena affecting distribution coefficients (Kd values) is discussed.

  15. Hydrochemical assessment of Semarang area using multivariate statistics: A sample based dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Irawan, Dasapta Erwin; Putranto, Thomas Triadi

    2016-01-01

    The following paper describes in brief the data set related to our project "Hydrochemical assessment of Semarang Groundwater Quality". All of 58 samples were taken in 1992, 1993, 2003, 2006, and 2007 using well point data from several reports from Ministry of Energy and Min- eral Resources and independent consultants. We provided 20 parameters in each samples (sample id, coord X, coord Y, well depth, water level, water elevation, TDS, pH, EC, K, Ca, Na, Mg, Cl, SO4, HCO3, ye...

  16. The Spatio-Temporal Variation of Hydrochemical Characteristics in Yamzhog Yumco Basin, South Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhe, M.; Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    From 2009 to 2014, more than 300 water samples of 52 sites from the five lakes and seven inflow rivers of Yumzhog Yumco Basin, South Tibet have been collected, and the hydrochemical types, sources of ions, and the spatial-temporal variation in waters analyzed annually. The basin waters are slightly saline or fresh because of the different sources of water replenishment, and are hardest water with weak alkalinity. The hydrochemical types of Yamzhog Yum Co, Puma Yum Co, Bajiu Co, Kongmu Co, and Chen Co are SO42--HCO3--Mg2+-Na+, HCO3--SO42--Mg2+, SO42--Mg2+-Na+, SO42--HCO3--Ca2+, and SO42--Na+-Mg2+-Ca2+, respectively. As for rivers, HCO3- together with SO42- is the major anion, and Ca2+ is the dominant cation. The weathering of evaporites and carbonatites, along with the evaporation-crystallization plays a significant role in the difference of hydrochemical compositions. In addition, anthropogenic impacts, such as the rapid tourism development and the utilization of Yamzhog Yumco hydropower should not be ignored. Compared with the salinity in 1984, Puma Yum Co has been desalinated obviously during 2009-2014 as a result of the accelerated glacier melt caused by the global warming. Furthermore, the Cl- concentration has decreased consequently with the increased evaporation from 2009 to 2014. Yamzhog Yum Co, the largest lake in this basin with a complex zigzag bank and a different inflow river system, exhibits remarkable spatial variation for its surface waters. The mineralization degree, and the concentration of Mg2+ and (Na++K+) are low with high concentration of Ca2+ in the river mouth entering into Yamzhog Yum Co. Moreover, the irregular changes in vertical direction can be attributed to the strong wind and comparatively abundant rainfall during the sampling period. To sum up, the combined impacts of environmental changes and human activities can account for the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of hydrochemical characteristics in Yamzhog Yumco Basin.

  17. LINEAR QUADRATIC OPTIMAL CONTROL UNDER STOCHASTIC UNIFORM OBSERVABILITY AND DETECTABILITY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Ungureanu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we apply the results in [1] - [3] to solve some linear quadratic control problems undereither stochastic uniform observability conditions or detectability conditions.

  18. Biodegradable kinetics of plastics under controlled composting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leejarkpai, Thanawadee; Suwanmanee, Unchalee; Rudeekit, Yosita; Mungcharoen, Thumrongrut

    2011-06-01

    This study models and evaluates the kinetics of C-CO(2) evolution during biodegradation of plastic materials including Polyethylene (PE), PE/starch blend (PE/starch), microcrystalline cellulose (MCE), and Polylactic acid (PLA). The aerobic biodegradation under controlled composting conditions was monitorated according to ISO 14855-1, 2004. The kinetics model was based on first order reaction in series with a flat lag phase. A non-linear regression technique was used to analyze the experimental data. SEM studies of the morphology of the samples before and after biodegradation testing were used to confirm the biodegradability of plastics and the accuracy of the model. The work showed that MCE and PLA produced the high amounts of C-CO(2) evolution, which gave readily hydrolysable carbon values of 55.49% and 40.17%, respectively with readily hydrolysis rates of 0.338 day(-1) and 0.025 day(-1), respectively. Whereas, a lower amount of C-CO(2) evolution was found in PE/starch, which had a high concentration of moderately hydrolysable carbon of 97.74% and a moderate hydrolysis rate of 0.00098 day(-1). The mineralization rate of PLA was 0.500 day(-1) as a lag phase was observed at the beginning of the biodegradability test. No lag phase was observed in the biodegradability testing of the PE/starch and MCE. The mineralization rates of the PE/starch and MCE were found to be 1.000 day(-1), and 1.234 day(-1), respectively. No C-CO(2) evolution was observed during biodegradability testing of PE, which was used for reference as a non-biodegradable plastics sample.

  19. Spring frost vulnerability of sweet cherries under controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzneller, Philipp; Götz, Klaus-P.; Chmielewski, Frank-M.

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is a significant production hazard in nearly all temperate fruit-growing regions. Sweet cherries are among the first fruit varieties starting their development in spring and therefore highly susceptible to late frost. Temperatures at which injuries are likely to occur are widely published, but their origin and determination methods are not well documented. In this study, a standardized method was used to investigate critical frost temperatures for the sweet cherry cultivar `Summit' under controlled conditions. Twigs were sampled at four development stages ("side green," "green tip," "open cluster," "full bloom") and subjected to three frost temperatures (-2.5, -5.0, -10.0 °C). The main advantage of this method, compared to other approaches, was that the exposition period and the time interval required to reach the target temperature were always constant (2 h). Furthermore, then, the twigs were placed in a climate chamber until full bloom, before the examination of the flowers and not further developed buds started. For the first two sampling stages (side green, green tip), the number of buds found in open cluster, "first white," and full bloom at the evaluation date decreased with the strength of the frost treatment. The flower organs showed different levels of cold hardiness and became more vulnerable in more advanced development stages. In this paper, we developed four empirical functions which allow calculating possible frost damages on sweet cherry buds or flowers at the investigated development stages. These equations can help farmers to estimate possible frost damages on cherry buds due to frost events. However, it is necessary to validate the critical temperatures obtained in laboratory with some field observations.

  20. Artesian water supply control system in transient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Костянтин Олегович Буравченко

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an artesian water supply control system in the transition mode. The control system searches for the optimal performance trajectory of the water supply on the basis of a maximum return with a view to the fastest mode of stabilization. The analysis of artesian water supply control systems in transition mode and methods of improvement was conducted

  1. Hydrochemical evaluation of river water quality—a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qishlaqi, Afishin; Kordian, Sediqeh; Parsaie, Abbas

    2017-09-01

    Rivers are one of the most environmentally vulnerable sources for contamination. Since the rivers pass through the cities, industrial and agricultural centers, these have been considered as place to dispose the sewages. This issue is more important when the river is one of the main sources of water supplying for drinking, agricultural and industrial utilizations. The goal of the present study was assessing the physicochemical characteristics of the Tireh River water. The Tireh River is the main river in the Karkheh catchment in the Iran. To this end, 14 sampling stations for measuring the physicochemical properties of Tireh River along the two main cities (Borujerd and Dorud) were measured. The results showed that (except SO4) Mg, Ca and other anions and cations have concentrations under WHO standard limitation. Almost all samples have suitable conditions for drinking with regard to the WHO standard and in comparison with agricultural standard (FAO Standard), and the potential of water is suitable for irrigation purposes. According to Wilcox diagram, 78 % of samples were at the C3-S1 and 21.5 % were at C2-S1 classes. The piper diagram shows that most of samples are bicarbonate and calcic facies.

  2. Hydrochemical evaluation of river water quality—a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qishlaqi, Afishin; Kordian, Sediqeh; Parsaie, Abbas

    2016-04-01

    Rivers are one of the most environmentally vulnerable sources for contamination. Since the rivers pass through the cities, industrial and agricultural centers, these have been considered as place to dispose the sewages. This issue is more important when the river is one of the main sources of water supplying for drinking, agricultural and industrial utilizations. The goal of the present study was assessing the physicochemical characteristics of the Tireh River water. The Tireh River is the main river in the Karkheh catchment in the Iran. To this end, 14 sampling stations for measuring the physicochemical properties of Tireh River along the two main cities (Borujerd and Dorud) were measured. The results showed that (except SO4) Mg, Ca and other anions and cations have concentrations under WHO standard limitation. Almost all samples have suitable conditions for drinking with regard to the WHO standard and in comparison with agricultural standard (FAO Standard), and the potential of water is suitable for irrigation purposes. According to Wilcox diagram, 78 % of samples were at the C3-S1 and 21.5 % were at C2-S1 classes. The piper diagram shows that most of samples are bicarbonate and calcic facies.

  3. Air Traffic Controllers' Control Strategies in the Terminal Area Under Off-Nominal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynne; Mercer, Joey; Callantine, Todd; Kupfer, Michael; Cabrall, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop simulation investigated the robustness of a schedule-based terminal-area air traffic management concept, and its supporting controller tools, to off-nominal events - events that led to situations in which runway arrival schedules required adjustments and controllers could no longer use speed control alone to impose the necessary delays. The main research question was exploratory: to assess whether controllers could safely resolve and control the traffic during off-nominal events. A focus was the role of the supervisor - how he managed the schedules, how he assisted the controllers, what strategies he used, and which combinations of tools he used. Observations and questionnaire responses revealed supervisor strategies for resolving events followed a similar pattern: a standard approach specific to each type of event often resolved to a smooth conclusion. However, due to the range of factors influencing the event (e.g., environmental conditions, aircraft density on the schedule, etc.), sometimes the plan required revision and actions had a wide-ranging effect.

  4. Groundwater development effects on different scale hydrogeological systems using head, hydrochemical and isotopic data and implications for water resources management: The Selva basin (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, A.; Menció, A.; Puig, R.; Soler, A.; Mas-Pla, J.

    2011-06-01

    SummaryHydrogeological resources in regional, large-scale groundwater systems are conditioned by their specific geological setting, which defines their capacity to supply human demand and their potential to recover from human-induced stress factors such as water withdrawal. In this paper, the hydrogeology of a range-and-basin hydrogeological system is described, based on potentiometric, hydrochemical and isotopic data, in order to fulfill a twofold objective: to characterize the alteration brought about in the hydrogeological system by intensive groundwater withdrawal, where tectonic elements such as fault zones play a significant role in the flow behaviour, and to define groundwater hydrodynamics under current human pressures as a necessary step to achieve appropriate groundwater management. Hydraulic head data indicate the relationships between geological formations in the range areas and the sedimentary infill of the basin. In this set-up, fault zones and a fracture network have a direct effect on the recharge, and allow upward vertical flow from the basement to the sedimentary aquifers. Hydrochemical and isotopic data support this observation. The use of fluoride and nitrate as tracers for the contribution of deep and shallow flow systems provides a detailed portrait of the effects of pumping on the flow path distribution. Isotopic data depict seasonal trends in the water captured by wells. In this connection, we can differentiate between two distinct flow systems: a regional, large-scale, longer residence time system, originating in the surrounding ranges, and a local flow system constituted by infiltration in the lower areas of the basin. The two systems, with specific water qualities, contribute differently to the resources that are withdrawn, and their specific contributions, in the frame of the basin water budget, determine the potential for present sustainable water exploitation.

  5. Exchange between a river and groundwater, assessed with hydrochemical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hoehn

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the chemical composition of groundwater from an alluvial granular aquifer in a valley fill flood plain (River Thur Valley. The river flows along this valley and is mostly downwelling on its way, indirectly through an unsaturated zone in the upstream part, and directly through the water-saturated bed in the downstream part. River Thur has been channelized with barriers for more than a century. In 1992, the authorities started to restore a section of River Thur with riverbed enlargements. The land use in the flood plain and the seasonal and climatic conditions (e.g., hot dry summer 2003 result in alterations of the natural geochemical composition of the river water. This groundwater is partly to mainly recharged by bank filtration. Several wells exist near the river that draw groundwater for drinking. In some of these wells, the groundwater has a very short residence time in the subsurface of days to weeks. Bed enlargements and other operations for an enhancement of the exchange of water between the river and groundwater increase the contamination risk of the nearby wells. During bank filtration, the groundwater changes gradually its composition, with increasing distance from the river and with depth in the aquifer. From today's changes of the water quality during riverbank filtration, we tried to extrapolate to the groundwater quality that may arise from future river restorations. Today the groundwater body consists of a mixture of groundwater from the seepage of precipitation and from riverbank filtration. The main difference between river water and groundwater results from the microbial activity in riverbed and bank materials. This activity leads to a consumption of O2 and to a higher partial pressure of CO2 in the groundwater. Criteria for the distinction of different groundwater compositions are the distance of a well from the river and the subsurface residence time of the groundwater to reach this well.

  6. Robust Control of an Ill-Conditioned Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslin, S.G.; Tøffner-Clausen, S.; Grimble, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    A robust controller is designed for a linear model of an Advanced Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (ASTOVL) aircraft at one operating point.......A robust controller is designed for a linear model of an Advanced Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (ASTOVL) aircraft at one operating point....

  7. Robust Control of an Ill-Conditioned Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslin, S.G.; Tøffner-Clausen, S.; Grimble, M.J.;

    1996-01-01

    A robust controller is designed for a linear model of an Advanced Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (ASTOVL) aircraft at one operating point.......A robust controller is designed for a linear model of an Advanced Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (ASTOVL) aircraft at one operating point....

  8. Modeling and Control of Aggregated Air Conditioning Loads Under Realistic Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chin-Yao; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2013-02-24

    Demand-side control is playing an increasingly important role in smart grid control strategies. Modeling the dynamical behavior of a large population of appliances is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of various load control strategies. In this paper, a high accuracy aggregated model is first developed for a population of HVAC units. The model efficiently includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with heterogeneity, and accounts for a second-order effect necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. Furthermore, the model takes into account the lockout effect of the compressor in order to represent the dynamics of the system under control more accurately. Then, a novel closed loop load control strategy is designed to track a desired demand curve and to ensure a stable and smooth response.

  9. Condition-based Human Reliability Assessment for digitalized control room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, H. G.; Jang, S. C.; Eom, H. S.; Ha, J. J

    2005-04-01

    In safety-critical systems, the generation failure of an actuation signal is caused by the concurrent failures of the automated systems and an operator action. These two sources of safety signals are complicatedly correlated. The failures of sensors or automated systems will cause a lack of necessary information for a human operator and result in error-forcing contexts such as the loss of corresponding alarms and indications. In the conventional analysis, the Human Error Probabilities (HEP) are estimated based on the assumption of 'normal condition of indications and alarms'. In order to construct a more realistic signal-generation failure model, we have to consider more complicated conditions in a more realistic manner. In this study, we performed two kinds of investigation for addressing this issue. We performed the analytic calculations for estimating the effect of sensors failures on the system unavailability and plant risk. For the single-parameter safety signals, the analysis result reveals that the quantification of the HEP should be performed by focusing on the 'no alarm from the automatic system and corresponding indications unavailable' situation. This study also proposes a Condition-Based Human Reliability Assessment (CBHRA) method in order to address these complicated conditions in a practical way. We apply the CBHRA method to the manual actuation of the safety features such as a reactor trip and auxiliary feedwater actuation in Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants. In the case of conventional single HEP method, it is very hard to consider the multiple HE conditions. The merit of CBHRA is clearly shown in the application to the AFAS generation where no dominating HE condition exits. In this case, even if the HE conditions are carefully investigated, the single HEP method cannot accommodate the multiple conditions in a fault tree. On the other hand, the application result of the reactor trip in SLOCA shows that if there is a

  10. Assessment of Long-Term Evolution of Groundwater Hydrochemical Characteristics Using Multiple Approaches: A Case Study in Cangzhou, Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage is severe in the North China Plain (NCP. In addition to a deficiency of water resources, deterioration of groundwater quality should be of great concern. In this study, hydrogeological analysis was conducted in combination with principal component analysis, correlation analysis and the co-kriging method to identify factors controlling the content of major ions and total dissolved solids (TDS in areal shallow and deep groundwater and to assess groundwater evolution in Cangzhou, China. The results suggested that groundwater quality degradation occurred and developed in the study area, as indicated by increasing concentrations of major ions, TDS and hardness in both shallow and deep groundwater. In shallow groundwater, whose hydrochemical water types changed from HCO3–Ca.Na.Mg and HCO3.Cl–Na in the west (Zone II to Cl.SO4–Na and Cl–Na in the east (Zone III. Areas with TDS concentrations between 1500 and 2000 mg/L occupied 79.76% of the total in the 1980s, while areas with a TDS concentration ranging from 2500 to 3000 mg/L comprised 59.11% of the total in the 2010s. In deep groundwater, the area with TDS over 1000 mg/L expanded from 5366.39 km2 in the 1960s to 7183.52 km2 in the 2010s. Natural processes (water-rock interactions and anthropogenic activities (groundwater exploitation were the dominant factors controlling the major ions’ content in local groundwater. Dissolution of dolomite, calcite, feldspar and gypsum were the primary sources of major ions in groundwater, and the ion exchange reaction had a strong effect on the cation content, especially for deep groundwater.

  11. Controlling near shore nonlinear surging waves through bottom boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Abhik; Kundu, Anjan

    2016-01-01

    Instead of taking the usual passive view for warning of near shore surging waves including extreme waves like tsunamis, we aim to study the possibility of intervening and controlling nonlinear surface waves through the feedback boundary effect at the bottom. It has been shown through analytic result that the controlled leakage at the bottom may regulate the surface solitary wave amplitude opposing the hazardous variable depth effect. The theoretical results are applied to a real coastal bathymetry in India.

  12. Motivational control of latent inhibition in flavor preference conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Burgos, David; González, Felisa; Hall, Geoffrey

    2013-09-01

    In three experiments, rats given pairings of a neutral flavor with sucrose showed a preference for that flavor when subsequently allowed to choose between it and water. Preexposure to the flavor produced a latent inhibition effect (reduced the size of the preference) when the rats were hungry during the test (Experiments 1 and 2). Rats that were not hungry during the test failed to show latent inhibition (Experiments 1-3). Experiment 3 confirmed that sucrose-flavor pairings were capable of producing a preference even in nonhungry rats. It is argued that the preference shown by rats that are hungry on test depends on a flavor-nutrient association, a form of learning that is susceptible to latent inhibition in the same way as standard conditioning procedures are. The failure to obtain latent inhibition in nonhungry rats suggests that the preference obtained in these conditions depends on a different form of learning that is less susceptible to the effects of stimulus exposure.

  13. Boundary conditions control for a Shallow-Water model

    CERN Document Server

    Kazantsev, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    A variational data assimilation technique was used to estimate optimal discretization of interpolation operators and derivatives in the nodes adjacent to the rigid boundary. Assimilation of artificially generated observational data in the shallow-water model in a square box and assimilation of real observations in the model of the Black sea are discussed. It is shown in both experiments that controlling the discretization of operators near a rigid boundary can bring the model solution closer to observations as in the assimilation window and beyond the window. This type of control allows also to improve climatic variability of the model.

  14. 42 CFR 494.30 - Condition: Infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... adjacent hospital or other public areas. (a) Standard: Procedures for infection control. The facility must....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR Part 51. This publication is available for inspection at the CMS Information Resource Center, 7500 Security Boulevard, Central Building, Baltimore, MD or at the National Archives...

  15. A Conditional Exposure Control Method for Multidimensional Adaptive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, Matthew; Nering, Michael L.; Roussos, Louis A.

    2009-01-01

    In computerized adaptive testing (CAT), ensuring the security of test items is a crucial practical consideration. A common approach to reducing item theft is to define maximum item exposure rates, i.e., to limit the proportion of examinees to whom a given item can be administered. Numerous methods for controlling exposure rates have been proposed…

  16. CUSUM Charts with Controlled Conditional Performance Under Estimated Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saleh, N.A.; Zwetsloot, I.M.; Mahmoud, M.A.; Woodall, W.H.

    2016-01-01

    We study the effect of the Phase I estimation error on the cumulative sum (CUSUM) chart. Impractically large amounts of Phase I data are needed to sufficiently reduce the variation in the in-control average run lengths (ARL) between practitioners. To reduce the effect of estimation error on the char

  17. CUSUM Chart with Controlled Conditional Performance Under Estimated Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saleh, N.A.; Zwetsloot, I.M.; Mahmoud, M.A.; Woodall, W.H.

    2016-01-01

    We study the effect of the Phase I estimation error on the cumulative sum (CUSUM) chart. Impractically large amounts of Phase I data are needed to sufficiently reduce the variation in the in-control average run lengths (ARL) between practitioners. To reduce the effect of estimation error on the char

  18. Automatic air flow control in air conditioning ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obler, H. D.

    1972-01-01

    Device is designed which automatically selects air flow coming from either of two directions and which can be adjusted to desired air volume on either side. Device uses one movable and two fixed scoops which control air flow and air volume.

  19. Hydrochemical study of water collected at a section of the Lower Volta River (Akuse to Sogakope area), Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gampson, E. K.; Nartey, V. K.; Golow, A. A.; Akiti, T. T.

    2014-06-01

    The present hydrochemical study at the Lower Volta River (Akuse to Sogakope area), Ghana was conducted by determining the physico-chemical parameters (pH, temperature, total dissolved solute, electrical conductivity, total hardness, phosphate (PO4 3-), nitrate (NO3 -), sulfate (SO4 2-), dissolve oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand, calcium (Ca2+), sodium (Na+), magnesium (Mg2+), total iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) nickel (Ni), and total chromium (Cr) at 38 sampling sites during the wet and the dry seasons. The physical and ionic parameters were mostly found within the WHO (Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edn, Geneva 2004) standard for drinking water. The trace metals except Cu at some sites recorded values above the WHO (Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edn, Geneva 2004) standard for drinking water. This shows that the river water is not entirely fit for drinking. Mean values of physico-chemical parameters were mostly found to be high in the dry season as compared to the wet season. Cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were employed to evaluate the water quality and the interrelationship between variables. CA grouped the physico-chemical parameters into three groups (physical/minor ions, major ions and trace elements). Correlation analysis showed that physico-chemical parameters do not vary much in terms of the sampling sites. Thus, based on obtained information, it is possible to design a future, desirable sampling strategy, which could reduce the number of sampling stations and associated costs for effective river water quality management. Results showed that four principal components (industrial effect, domestic factor, natural source and agricultural effect) accounted for 65.59 % of the total variance among the water quality parameters. PCA also identified sampling sites 69R, 63R, 51M, 87L, 35L, 74L and 84L as polluted with metals. Therefore, water quality monitoring and control of release of industrial

  20. Hydrochemical aspects of major Pacific and caribbean rivers of colombia hydrochemical aspects of major Pacific and caribbean rivers of colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, J. D.

    2003-04-01

    dissolved solids (TDS) in the Colombian rivers. Values of solute concentrations show that the Sinú and Magdalena have the highest dissolved solute content followed by the El Dique canal and Patía River. The estimates of dissolved materials exported to the Caribbean and Pacific basins are mainly controlled by water discharge. Thus, the Magdalena transports 30 x 106 t yr-1 of dissolved materials into the Caribbean. It is of the same magnitude as the Orinoco (30.5 x 106 t yr-1), ten times lower than that of the Amazon (259 x 106 t yr-1), and similar to the Parana River (38.3 x 106 t yr-1). The specific transport rate is highest in the Sinú basin, 167 t km-2 yr-1, followed by that of the Magdalena with 117 t km-2 yr-1. The more diluted rivers on the Pacific basins, Mira and Patía, have values ranging between 31 and 90 t km-2 yr-1. In Colombia, pristine fluvial systems like those draining the Pacific basins have much less PO4-3 and NO3- loads when compared to the Caribbean rivers. The Magdalena and Atrato rivers are by far the Colombian systems which contribute the highest P and N fluxes to the sea, with total phosphate and nitrate fluxes up to 186 x 103 t yr-1 and 47 x 103 t yr-1, respectively. Many causes are responsible for these high nutrient loads, including massive sewage collection in cities and towns for NH4+ and PO4-3, mainly in the Magdalena basin, and also due to fertilization of banana plantations in the lower course of the Atrato River. Many Colombian rivers, including the larger Magdalena, are affected by deforestation and rapid changes in land use, thus accelerating the transfer of particulate and dissolved organic and inorganic matter, from the river basins to the sea. Due to the magnitude of fluvial fluxes to the oceans from the Colombian rivers, the fluctuations of dissolved and suspended loads need to be monitored for a period of at least 10 years, in order to be able to quantify the influences of man’s activities and assess global climate

  1. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  2. Hydrochemical and isotope groundwater investigations in Sorško polje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigita Jamnik

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available From the hydrogeological point of view Sorško polje area is a sink, filled with conglomerate,sandand gravel,where large quantities of groundwater are accumulated. Sorško polje aquifer is one of the richest regions of groundwater and represents an important reserve water source for the central part of Slovenia.The performed hydrochemical and isotope investigations present an independent completion of the previous hydrogeological investigation of Sorško polje. The results of research give more reliable information about the water origin, as well as about the influence of the local precipitation and Sava river water on the dynamics of the groundwater restoration in the aquifer. The research defines the characteristics of oxygen isotop ecomposition of groundwater in the Sorško polje aquifer and determines the volume share of aquifer recharge from the Sava river and from local precipitation.

  3. Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater in around Tirupati Area, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, E.; Nagaraju, A.; Sreedhar, Y.; Thejaswi, A.; Sharifi, Zahed

    2016-08-01

    In the management of water resources, quality of water is just as important as its quantity. The main aim of this study has been to assess the variability of groundwater parameters to develop water quality of Tirupati area and its suitability for domestic and irrigation purpose. Further, the samples were analyzed for pH, EC, TDS, carbonates, bicarbonates, alkalinity, chlorides, sulfates, hardness, fluoride, calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium. Based on the analytical results, chemical indices like percent sodium, sodium absorption ratio (SAR), adjusted SAR, percent sodium (Na %), residual sodium carbonate (RSC) and permeability index (PI) have been calculated. Chadha rectangular diagram for geochemical classification and hydrochemical processes of groundwater indicated that most of waters are Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-Cl types. Assessment of water samples from various methods indicated that majority of the water samples are suitable for domestic and irrigation purpose.

  4. Hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes in Madhuranthakam, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Brindha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrochemical study was carried out in Madhuranthakam located near Chennai in Tamil Nadu, India with an objective of understanding the suitability of local groundwater quality for domestic and irrigation purposes. Twenty groundwater samples were collected in February 2002 and analysed for physical and chemical parameters. Groundwater in this area was found to be within the desirable Bureau of Indian Standards and World Health Organisation limits for drinking water. Ca-HCO3 was the dominant groundwater type. Groundwater in this area was assessed for irrigation purposes on the basis of sodium percentage (Na%, magnesium hazard (MH, residual sodium carbonate (RSC, sodium absorption ratio (SAR, permeability index (PI and United States Department of Agriculture (USDA classification. Most of the groundwater samples were suitable for irrigation, except in a few locations (15% based on MH. Overall the groundwater quality was suitable for drinking and domestic purposes and permissible for irrigation activities.

  5. Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater in around Tirupati Area, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, E.; Nagaraju, A.; Sreedhar, Y.; Thejaswi, A.; Sharifi, Zahed

    2017-06-01

    In the management of water resources, quality of water is just as important as its quantity. The main aim of this study has been to assess the variability of groundwater parameters to develop water quality of Tirupati area and its suitability for domestic and irrigation purpose. Further, the samples were analyzed for pH, EC, TDS, carbonates, bicarbonates, alkalinity, chlorides, sulfates, hardness, fluoride, calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium. Based on the analytical results, chemical indices like percent sodium, sodium absorption ratio (SAR), adjusted SAR, percent sodium (Na %), residual sodium carbonate (RSC) and permeability index (PI) have been calculated. Chadha rectangular diagram for geochemical classification and hydrochemical processes of groundwater indicated that most of waters are Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-Cl types. Assessment of water samples from various methods indicated that majority of the water samples are suitable for domestic and irrigation purpose.

  6. 42 CFR 416.51 - Conditions for coverage-Infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conditions for coverage-Infection control. 416.51....51 Conditions for coverage—Infection control. The ASC must maintain an infection control program that seeks to minimize infections and communicable diseases. (a) Standard: Sanitary environment. The ASC...

  7. Thermodynamics of quantum-jump-conditioned feedback control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasberg, Philipp; Schaller, Gernot; Brandes, Tobias; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2013-12-01

    We consider open quantum systems weakly coupled to thermal reservoirs and subjected to quantum feedback operations triggered with or without delay by monitored quantum jumps. We establish a thermodynamic description of such systems and analyze how the first and second law of thermodynamics are modified by the feedback. We apply our formalism to study the efficiency of a qubit subjected to a quantum feedback control and operating as a heat pump between two reservoirs. We also demonstrate that quantum feedbacks can be used to stabilize coherences in nonequilibrium stationary states which in some cases may even become pure quantum states.

  8. 76 FR 31456 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ...; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Position Awareness AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... design features include an electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do... an electronic flight control system and no direct coupling from the cockpit controller to the...

  9. Analysis and Optimal Condition of the Rear-Sound-Aided Control Source in Active Noise Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Kreuter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An active noise control scenario of simple ducts is considered. The previously suggested technique of using an single loudspeaker and its rear sound to cancel the upstream sound is further examined and compared to the bidirectional solution in order to give theoretical proof of its advantage. Firstly, a model with a new approach for taking damping effects into account is derived based on the electrical transmission line theory. By comparison with the old model, the new approach is validated, and occurring differences are discussed. Moreover, a numerical application with the consideration of damping is implemented for confirmation. The influence of the rear sound strength on the feedback-path system is investigated, and the optimal condition is determined. Finally, it is proven that the proposed source has an advantage of an extended phase lag and a time delay in the feedback-path system by both frequency-response analysis and numerical calculation of the time response.

  10. A Boundary Control Problem for the Viscous Cahn–Hilliard Equation with Dynamic Boundary Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colli, Pierluigi, E-mail: pierluigi.colli@unipv.it; Gilardi, Gianni, E-mail: gianni.gilardi@unipv.it [Universitá di Pavia and Research Associate at the IMATI – C.N.R. PAVIA, Dipartimento di Matematica “F. Casorati” (Italy); Sprekels, Jürgen, E-mail: juergen.sprekels@wias-berlin.de [Weierstrass Institute (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    A boundary control problem for the viscous Cahn–Hilliard equations with possibly singular potentials and dynamic boundary conditions is studied and first order necessary conditions for optimality are proved.

  11. Research on the sudden changes and the controlling factors of deep coal mining conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Wei-yue; DONG Shu-ning

    2008-01-01

    It was illustrated that the mining conditions inducing disasters changed with depthboth in regularity of gradual and sudden change. The sudden change depth for differentdisaster conditions are different and controlled by different factors. The high temperatureand its change with depth are mainly controlled by strata structures and rock heat conductiv-ity property, the high rock stress and dynamical engineering disasters and their change withdepth are mainly controlled by tectonic conditions, roof strata rock property and deep rockmechanical property, coal mine water disasters and their change with depth are mainly con-trolled by rock mechanical property of coal seam floor and regional groundwater circulationconditions, gas disaster conditions and their change with depth are mainly controlled byburied conditions of coal seam and opening conditions of geological structures. It is men-tioned that the key point for the control of deep coal mining disaster is to clearly understandthe sudden change depth of different factors causing disasters.

  12. Plant neighbour identity matters to belowground interactions under controlled conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Armas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Root competition is an almost ubiquitous feature of plant communities with profound effects on their structure and composition. Far beyond the traditional view that plants interact mainly through resource depletion (exploitation competition, roots are known to be able to interact with their environment using a large variety of mechanisms that may inhibit or enhance access of other roots to the resource or affect plant growth (contest interactions. However, an extensive analysis on how these contest root interactions may affect species interaction abilities is almost lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a common garden experiment with ten perennial plant species we forced pairs of plants of the same or different species to overlap their roots and analyzed how belowground contest interactions affected plant performance, biomass allocation patterns, and competitive abilities under abundant resource supply. Our results showed that net interaction outcome ranged from negative to positive, affecting total plant mass and allocation patterns. A species could be a strong competitor against one species, weaker against another one, and even facilitator to a third species. This leads to sets of species where competitive hierarchies may be clear but also to groups where such rankings are not, suggesting that intransitive root interactions may be crucial for species coexistence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The outcome of belowground contest interactions is strongly dependent on neighbours' identity. In natural plant communities this conditional outcome may hypothetically help species to interact in non-hierarchical and intransitive networks, which in turn might promote coexistence.

  13. Bedload transport controls bedrock erosion under sediment-starved conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, A. R.; Turowski, J. M.

    2015-07-01

    Fluvial bedrock incision constrains the pace of mountainous landscape evolution. Bedrock erosion processes have been described with incision models that are widely applied in river-reach and catchment-scale studies. However, so far no linked field data set at the process scale had been published that permits the assessment of model plausibility and accuracy. Here, we evaluate the predictive power of various incision models using independent data on hydraulics, bedload transport and erosion recorded on an artificial bedrock slab installed in a steep bedrock stream section for a single bedload transport event. The influence of transported bedload on the erosion rate (the "tools effect") is shown to be dominant, while other sediment effects are of minor importance. Hence, a simple temporally distributed incision model, in which erosion rate is proportional to bedload transport rate, is proposed for transient local studies under detachment-limited conditions. This model can be site-calibrated with temporally lumped bedload and erosion data and its applicability can be assessed by visual inspection of the study site. For the event at hand, basic discharge-based models, such as derivatives of the stream power model family, are adequate to reproduce the overall trend of the observed erosion rate. This may be relevant for long-term studies of landscape evolution without specific interest in transient local behavior. However, it remains to be seen whether the same model calibration can reliably predict erosion in future events.

  14. Power system security enhancement with unified power flow controller under multi-event contingency conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S. Ravindra; Chintalapudi V. Suresh; S. Sivanagaraju; V.C. Veera Reddy

    2017-01-01

    .... An improved teaching learning based optimization (ITLBO) algorithm has been presented. To enhance the system security under contingency conditions in the presence of unified power flow controller (UPFC...

  15. Inventory Control by Multiple Service Levels under Unreliable Supplying Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byungsoo Na

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider an inventory system where there is random demand from customers as well as unreliable supplying capacity from supplier. In many real-world cases, supplier might fail to satisfy the amount of order from retailers or producers so that only partial proportion of order is satisfied or even fail to deliver all of the order. Moreover, recently a concern regarding unreliable supplying capacity has been increasing since the globalization makes the retailer or producer face the extended supply network with complicated and risky supplying capacity. Also, we consider two classified customers, of which one is willing to pay extra charge for expedited delivery service but the other is not reluctant to delay the delivery without any extra charge. We show that there exists an optimal threshold for inventory and price for each service level in the following sense: if the inventory level is less than the predetermined threshold, then the retailer or producer needs to order up to the threshold level and offer threshold price corresponding to service level. Otherwise, the retailer does not need to order. The risk of stockout due to unreliable supplying capacity can be mitigated by the dynamic pricing and inventory control with multiple service levels.

  16. Experimental analysis of fuzzy controlled energy efficient demand controlled ventilation economizer cycle variable air volume air conditioning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopalan Parameshwaran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for energy conservative building design, there is now a great opportunity for a flexible and sophisticated air conditioning system capable of addressing better thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and energy efficiency, that are strongly desired. The variable refrigerant volume air conditioning system provides considerable energy savings, cost effectiveness and reduced space requirements. Applications of intelligent control like fuzzy logic controller, especially adapted to variable air volume air conditioning systems, have drawn more interest in recent years than classical control systems. An experimental analysis was performed to investigate the inherent operational characteristics of the combined variable refrigerant volume and variable air volume air conditioning systems under fixed ventilation, demand controlled ventilation, and combined demand controlled ventilation and economizer cycle techniques for two seasonal conditions. The test results of the variable refrigerant volume and variable air volume air conditioning system for each techniques are presented. The test results infer that the system controlled by fuzzy logic methodology and operated under the CO2 based mechanical ventilation scheme, effectively yields 37% and 56% per day of average energy-saving in summer and winter conditions, respectively. Based on the experimental results, the fuzzy based combined system can be considered to be an alternative energy efficient air conditioning scheme, having significant energy-saving potential compared to the conventional constant air volume air conditioning system.

  17. Towards energy efficient operation of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems via advanced supervisory control design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswiecinska, A.; Hibbs, J.; Zajic, I.; Burnham, K. J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents conceptual control solution for reliable and energy efficient operation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems used in large volume building applications, e.g. warehouse facilities or exhibition centres. Advanced two-level scalable control solution, designed to extend capabilities of the existing low-level control strategies via remote internet connection, is presented. The high-level, supervisory controller is based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) architecture, which is the state-of-the-art for indoor climate control systems. The innovative approach benefits from using passive heating and cooling control strategies for reducing the HVAC system operational costs, while ensuring that required environmental conditions are met.

  18. Scram simulation of a control rod drive mechanism of a pressurized water reactor under seismic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Katsuhisa; Shinohara, Yoshikazu; Ichinoo, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Eiji; Nambu, Kiyoshi; Nomura, Tomonori.

    1987-03-01

    Control rod drop verification experiments of Mitsubishi pressurized water reactor under seismic conditions are performed to confirm the insertion function of control rods into the core. To evaluate these tests, computer simulations are performed. The scram time of control rods under seismic conditions was confirmed to meet the scram function. The behavior of the dropping control rods and the scram time obtained by the computer simulation show a very good correspondence with the results of verification experiments.

  19. Using hydrochemical data and modelling to enhance the knowledge of groundwater flow and quality in an alluvial aquifer of Zagreb, Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marković, Tamara, E-mail: tmarkovic@hgi-cgs.hr; Brkić, Željka; Larva, Ozren

    2013-08-01

    The Zagreb alluvial aquifer system is located in the southwest of the Pannonian Basin in the Sava Valley in Croatia. It is composed of Quaternary unconsolidated deposits and is highly utilised, primarily as a water supply for the more than one million inhabitants of the capital city of Croatia. To determine the origin and dynamics of the groundwater and to enhance the knowledge of groundwater flow and the interactions between the groundwater and surface water, extensive hydrogeological and hydrochemical investigations have been completed. The groundwater levels monitored in nested observation wells and the lithological profile indicate that the aquifer is a single hydrogeologic unit, but the geochemical characteristics of the aquifer indicate stratification. The weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals has an important role in groundwater chemistry, especially in the area where old meanders of the Sava River existed. Groundwater quality was observed to be better in the deeper parts of the aquifer than in the shallower parts. Furthermore, deterioration of the groundwater quality was observed in the area under the influence of the landfill. The stable isotopic composition of all sampled waters indicates meteoric origin. NETPATH-WIN was used to calculate the mixing proportions between initial waters (water from the Sava River and groundwater from “regional” flow) in the final water (groundwater sampled from observation wells). According to the results, the mixing proportions of “regional” flow and the river water depend on hydrological conditions, the duration of certain hydrological conditions and the vicinity of the Sava River. Moreover, although the aquifer system behaves as a single hydrogeologic unit from a hydraulic point of view, it still clearly demonstrates geochemical stratification, which could be a decisive factor in future utilisation strategies for the aquifer system. - Highlights: • The Zagreb aquifer is the largest utilised source of

  20. Controllability of air conditioning systems. Components and control parameters. Supplementary report; Klimaanlaegs reguleringsegenskaber. Komponenter og reguleringsparametre. Bilagsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilgaard Schmidt, T.

    1993-12-31

    The supplementary report to the document of the same title gives detailed data on the results of the investigation on the controllability of air conditioning systems by evaluating the components` influence on the controllability of the entire system and by developing of an improved adjustment method for controllers. (AB) 51 refs.

  1. A HYDROCHEMICAL HYBRID CODE FOR ASTROPHYSICAL PROBLEMS. I. CODE VERIFICATION AND BENCHMARKS FOR A PHOTON-DOMINATED REGION (PDR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motoyama, Kazutaka [National Institute of Informatics, 2-1-2 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8430 (Japan); Morata, Oscar; Hasegawa, Tatsuhiko [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Shang, Hsien; Krasnopolsky, Ruben, E-mail: shang@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Theoretical Institute for Advanced Research in Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-20

    A two-dimensional hydrochemical hybrid code, KM2, is constructed to deal with astrophysical problems that would require coupled hydrodynamical and chemical evolution. The code assumes axisymmetry in a cylindrical coordinate system and consists of two modules: a hydrodynamics module and a chemistry module. The hydrodynamics module solves hydrodynamics using a Godunov-type finite volume scheme and treats included chemical species as passively advected scalars. The chemistry module implicitly solves nonequilibrium chemistry and change of energy due to thermal processes with transfer of external ultraviolet radiation. Self-shielding effects on photodissociation of CO and H{sub 2} are included. In this introductory paper, the adopted numerical method is presented, along with code verifications using the hydrodynamics module and a benchmark on the chemistry module with reactions specific to a photon-dominated region (PDR). Finally, as an example of the expected capability, the hydrochemical evolution of a PDR is presented based on the PDR benchmark.

  2. A Hydrochemical Hybrid Code for Astrophysical Problems. I. Code Verification and Benchmarks for Photon-Dominated Region (PDR)

    CERN Document Server

    Motoyama, Kazutaka; Shang, Hsien; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Hasegawa, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    A two dimensional hydrochemical hybrid code, KM2, is constructed to deal with astrophysical problems that would require coupled hydrodynamical and chemical evolution. The code assumes axisymmetry in cylindrical coordinate system, and consists of two modules: a hydrodynamics module and a chemistry module. The hydrodynamics module solves hydrodynamics using a Godunov-type finite volume scheme and treats included chemical species as passively advected scalars. The chemistry module implicitly solves non-equilibrium chemistry and change of the energy due to thermal processes with transfer of external ultraviolet radiation. Self-shielding effects on photodissociation of CO and H$_2$ are included. In this introductory paper, the adopted numerical method is presented, along with code verifications using the hydrodynamics modules, and a benchmark on the chemistry module with reactions specific to a photon-dominated region (PDR). Finally, as an example of the expected capability, the hydrochemical evolution of a PDR is...

  3. 76 FR 9265 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System: Control Surface Position Awareness AGENCY: Federal... transport category airplanes. These design features include an electronic flight control system. The... The GVI has an electronic flight control system and no direct coupling from the cockpit controller to...

  4. Social proof in the supermarket : Promoting healthy choices under low self-control conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; De Vet, Emely; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; Fennis, Bob M.; Veltkamp, Martijn; De Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2015-01-01

    Under low self-control conditions, people often favor tempting but unhealthy food products. Instead of fighting against low self-control to reduce unhealthy food choices, we aim to demonstrate in a field study that heuristic decision tendencies can be exploited under these conditions. To do so a hea

  5. Social proof in the supermarket : Promoting healthy choices under low self-control conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; De Vet, Emely; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; Fennis, Bob M.; Veltkamp, Martijn; De Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2015-01-01

    Under low self-control conditions, people often favor tempting but unhealthy food products. Instead of fighting against low self-control to reduce unhealthy food choices, we aim to demonstrate in a field study that heuristic decision tendencies can be exploited under these conditions. To do so a

  6. Social proof in the supermarket: Promoting healthy choices under low self-control conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, S.J.; Vet, de E.; Adriaanse, M.A.; Fennis, B.M.; Veltkamp, M.; Ridder, de D.T.D.

    2015-01-01

    Under low self-control conditions, people often favor tempting but unhealthy food products. Instead of fighting against low self-control to reduce unhealthy food choices, we aim to demonstrate in a field study that heuristic decision tendencies can be exploited under these conditions. To do so a

  7. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  8. The Dammam aquifer in Bahrain - Hydrochemical characterization and alternatives for management of groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubari, Waleed K.

    Over-ion of the Dammam aquifer, the principal aquifer in Bahrain, by the agricultural and domestic sectors, has led to its salinization by adjacent brackish and saline water bodies. A hydrochemical study identified the locations of the sources of aquifer salinization and delineated their areas of influence. The investigation indicates that the aquifer water quality is significantly modified as groundwater flows from the northwestern parts of Bahrain, where the aquifer receives its water by lateral underflow from eastern Saudi Arabia, to the southern and southeastern parts. Four types of salinization of the aquifer are identified: brackish-water up-flow from the underlying brackish-water zones in north-central, western, and eastern regions; seawater intrusion in the eastern region; intrusion of sabkha water in the southwestern region; and irrigation return flow in a local area in the western region. Four alternatives for the management of groundwater quality that are available to the water authorities in Bahrain are discussed and their priority areas are proposed, based on the type and extent of each salinization source, in addition to groundwater use in that area. The effectiveness of the proposed management options in controlling the degradation of water quality in the Dammam aquifer should be evaluated using simulation modeling. Résumé La surexploitation de l'aquifère de Damman, principal aquifère de Bahreïn, du fait des besoins agricoles et domestiques, a conduit à sa salinisation à partir d'eaux voisines saumâtres et salées. Une étude hydrochimique a identifié les origines de la salinisation de l'aquifère et a délimité leurs zones d'influence. Les recherches montrent que la qualité de l'eau souterraine est modifiée de façon significative pour les écoulements souterrains dirigés vers les secteurs sud et sud-est et provenant de la région nord-ouest de Bahreïn, là où l'aquifère est alimenté latéralement à partir de l'Arabie Saoudite

  9. Experimental Study on Intelligent Control Scheme for Fan Coil Air-Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An intelligent control scheme for fan coil air-conditioning systems has been put forward in order to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional proportion-integral-derivative (PID control scheme. These shortcomings include the inability of anti-interference and large inertia. An intelligent control test rig of fan coil air-conditioning system has been built, and MATLAB/Simulink dynamics simulation software has been adopted to implement the intelligent control scheme. A software for data exchange has been developed to combine the intelligence control system and the building automation (BA system. Experimental tests have been conducted to investigate the effectiveness of different control schemes including the traditional PID control, fuzzy control, and fuzzy-PID control for fan coil air-conditioning system. The effects of control schemes have been compared and analyzed in robustness, static and dynamic character, and economy. The results have shown that the developed data exchange interface software can induce the intelligent control scheme of the BA system more effectively. Among the proposed control strategies, fuzzy-PID control scheme which has the advantages of both traditional PID and fuzzy schemes is the optimal control scheme for the fan coil air-conditioning system.

  10. Appraisal and evolution of hydrochemical processes from proximity basalt and granite areas of Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkamble, Sahebrao; Sahya, Ashalata; Mondal, N. C.; Harikumar, P.

    2012-05-01

    SummaryThis paper deals with a systematic hydrochemical study carried out at proximity basalt and granite areas of Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) in India to assess groundwater quality and evaluate the hydrochemical processes. A total of 40 groundwater samples were collected equally from these areas and analyzed. Results showed that the groundwaters rich in alkaline earth in the basalt and alkali rich element in the granite. The dominancy of cations was observed as Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Na+ > K+ in the basalt and Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ > Ca2+ in the granite, whereas anions as HCO3->Cl>SO42- and Cl>HCO3->SO42-, respectively. Hydrochemical processes were identified with the helps of ion exchange, carbonate weathering and dissolution, multiple ionic ratios, and silicate weathering, which shown the predominance of carbonate, dolomite, calcite and silicate (anorthite) weathering in basalt, but in granite, silicate (alkali feldspar) weathering was dominated. Factor analysis also showed that there were multiple processes acting on groundwaters, were separated from the main cluster. Salinity, Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR), Soluble Sodium Percentage (SSP), Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC), Kelley's Ratio (KR) and Permeability Index (PI) in well samples showed that groundwater in basalt was more suitable for irrigation purposes. Further, a digital elevation model (DEM) was generated using Global mapper (8.0 version) software, which aided to decipher the thickness of basalt trap, and vertical transition zone of basaltic (trap) and granitic (basement) aquifer at this DVP comprising with the well depths and groundwater chemistry.

  11. Hydrochemical evaluation of the influences of mining activities on river water chemistry in central northern Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsaikhan, Bayartungalag; Kwon, Jang-Soon; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Lee, Young-Joon; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Badarch, Mendbayar; Yun, Seong-Taek

    2017-01-01

    Although metallic mineral resources are most important in the economy of Mongolia, mining activities with improper management may result in the pollution of stream waters, posing a threat to aquatic ecosystems and humans. In this study, aiming to evaluate potential impacts of metallic mining activities on the quality of a transboundary river (Selenge) in central northern Mongolia, we performed hydrochemical investigations of rivers (Tuul, Khangal, Orkhon, Haraa, and Selenge). Hydrochemical analysis of river waters indicates that, while major dissolved ions originate from natural weathering (especially, dissolution of carbonate minerals) within watersheds, they are also influenced by mining activities. The water quality problem arising from very high turbidity is one of the major environmental concerns and is caused by suspended particles (mainly, sediment and soil particles) from diverse erosion processes, including erosion of river banks along the meandering river system, erosion of soils owing to overgrazing by livestock, and erosion by human activities, such as mining and agriculture. In particular, after passing through the Zaamar gold mining area, due to the disturbance of sediments and soils by placer gold mining, the Tuul River water becomes very turbid (up to 742 Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (NTU)). The Zaamar area is also the contamination source of the Tuul and Orkhon rivers by Al, Fe, and Mn, especially during the mining season. The hydrochemistry of the Khangal River is influenced by heavy metal (especially, Mn, Al, Cd, and As)-loaded mine drainage that originates from a huge tailing dam of the Erdenet porphyry Cu-Mo mine, as evidenced by δ(34)S values of dissolved sulfate (0.2 to 3.8 ‰). These two contaminated rivers (Tuul and Khangal) merge into the Orkhon River that flows to the Selenge River near the boundary between Mongolia and Russia and then eventually flows into Lake Baikal. Because water quality problems due to mining can be critical

  12. Forsmark Site: M3 modelling and 2D visualisation of the hydrochemical parameters in Forsmark groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurban, Ioana (3D Terra (Canada))

    2008-08-15

    This work represents the stage 2.3 of the hydrochemical evaluation and modelling of the Forsmark data. This comprises M3 modelling and 2D visualisation of the data along the boreholes. The following conclusions can be drawn: - M3 modelling helped to summarise and understand the data, by using as variables the major elements and the isotopes delta18O and deltaD. - Previous alternative models and the experience from Forsmark 1.2, 2.1 and 2.2, helped to clarify different previously unsolved issues such as: the use of variables, tests with different endmembers, the use of only groundwater data in order to build a bedrock hydrochemical model. - The visualisation of the mixing proportions along the boreholes helps to understand the distribution of the data in the domain and to check and compare the results of different models; and therefore to chose the model which best describes the measured data. - The different M3 modelling tests resulted in the following conclusions: a) When calculating mixing proportions only samples from the boreholes will be used, b) the altered meteoric end-member which best describes the more shallow groundwater compositions is defined by a representative upper bedrock sample; the Littorina end-member employed the existing modelled compositions; the Deep saline and glacial end-members compositions were tested by means of a feasibility study and employed in the modelling. - Three models were presented. All the models are good and can be used, but the best is to use the one that fits the conceptual model best and the hydrogeochemical understanding. - The use of Littorina, Glacial, Deep Saline and Altered Meteoric end-members makes possible the comparison of different sites such as Laxemar and Forsmark. - All the data used in the M3 modelling and the results of the modelling and visualisation along the boreholes are presented in SKB database SIMON. - The extended data do not affect the results of the modelling of the Forsmark 2.3 dataset (the

  13. EXACT NULL CONTROLLABILITY OF NON-AUTONOMOUS FUNCTIONAL EVOLUTION SYSTEMS WITH NONLOCAL CONDITIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianlong FU; Yu ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    In this article,by using theory of linear evolution system and Schauder fixed point theorem,we establish a sufficient result of exact null controllability for a non-autonomous functional evolution system with nonlocal conditions.In particular,the compactness condition or Lipschitz condition for the function g in the nonlocal conditions appearing in various literatures is not required here.An example is also provided to show an application of the obtained result.

  14. Linear parameter varying control of wind turbines covering both partial load and full load conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Kasper Zinck; Stoustrup, Jakob; Brath, Per

    2009-01-01

    as a function of estimated wind speed. The dynamic control law is based on LPV controller synthesis with general parameter dependency by gridding the parameter space.The controller construction can, for medium- to large-scale systems, be difficult from a numerical point of view, because the involved matrix......This paper considers the design of linear parameter varying (LPV) controllers for wind turbines in order to obtain a multivariable control law that covers the entire nominal operating trajectory.The paper first presents a controller structure for selecting a proper operating trajectory...... operations tend to be ill-conditioned. The paper proposes a controller construction algorithm together with various remedies for improving the numerical conditioning the algorithm.The proposed algorithm is applied to the design of a LPV controller for wind turbines, and a comparison is made with a controller...

  15. Integrating geophysical and hydrochemical borehole-log measurements to characterize the Chalk aquifer, Berkshire, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürch, Marc; Buckley, David

    2002-09-01

    Geophysical and hydrochemical borehole-logging techniques were integrated to characterize hydraulic and hydrogeochemical properties of the Chalk aquifer at boreholes in Berkshire, UK. The down-hole measurements were made to locate fissures in the chalk, their spatial extent between boreholes, and to determine the groundwater chemical quality of the water-bearing layers. The geophysical borehole logging methods used were caliper, focused resistivity, induction resistivity, gamma ray, fluid temperature, fluid electrical conductivity, impeller and heat-pulse flowmeter, together with borehole wall optical-imaging. A multiparameter data transmitter was used to measure groundwater temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and redox potential of the borehole fluid down-hole. High permeability developed at the Chalk Rock by groundwater circulation provides the major flow horizon at the Banterwick Barn study site and represents a conduit system that serves as an effective local hydraulic connection between the boreholes. The Chalk Rock includes several lithified solution-ridden layers, hardgrounds, which imply a gap in sedimentation possibly representing an unconformity. Lower groundwater temperature, high dissolved-oxygen content, and flowmeter evidence of preferential groundwater flow in the Chalk Rock indicated rapid groundwater circulation along this horizon. By repeating the logging at different times of the year under changing hydraulic conditions, other water-inflow horizons within the Chalk aquifer were recognized. Résumé. Des techniques géophysiques et hydrochimiques de diagraphies en forage ont été mises en oeuvre pour caractériser les propriétés hydrauliques et hydrogéochimiques de l'aquifère de la craie dans des forages du Berkshire (Grande-Bretagne). Les mesures en descente ont été faites pour localiser les fissures dans la craie et leur développement spatial entre forages, et pour déterminer la qualité de l'eau souterraine des

  16. High-resolution monitoring across the soil-groundwater interface - Revealing small-scale hydrochemical patterns with a novel multi-level well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassen, Niklas; Griebler, Christian; Stumpp, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Biogeochemical turnover processes in the subsurface are highly variable both in time and space. In order to capture this variability, high resolution monitoring systems are required. Particular in riparian zones the understanding of small-scale biogeochemical processes is of interest, as they are regarded as important buffer zones for nutrients and contaminants with high turnover rates. To date, riparian research has focused on influences of groundwater-surface water interactions on element cycling, but little is known about processes occurring at the interface between the saturated and the unsaturated zone during dynamic flow conditions. Therefore, we developed a new type of high resolution multi-level well (HR-MLW) that has been installed in the riparian zone of the Selke river. This HR-MLW for the first time enables to derive water samples both from the unsaturated and the saturated zone across one vertical profile with a spatial vertical resolution of 0.05 to 0.5 m to a depth of 4 m b.l.s. Water samples from the unsaturated zone are extracted via suction cup sampling. Samples from the saturated zone are withdrawn through glass filters and steel capillaries. Both, ceramic cups and glass filters, are installed along a 1" HDPE piezometer tube. First high resolution hydrochemical profiles revealed a distinct depth-zonation in the riparian alluvial aquifer. A shallow zone beneath the water table carried a signature isotopically and hydrochemically similar to the nearby river, while layers below 1.5 m were influenced by regional groundwater. This zonation showed temporal dynamics related to groundwater table fluctuations and microbial turnover processes. The HR-MLW delivered new insight into mixing and turnover processes between riverwater and groundwater in riparian zones, both in a temporal and spatial dimension. With these new insights, we are able to improve our understanding of dynamic turnover processes at the soil - groundwater interface and of surface

  17. Necessary and sufficient conditions for optimal control of stochastic systems associated with Lévy processe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG QingXin; TANG MaoNing

    2009-01-01

    The paper is concerned with a stochastic optimal control problem where the controlled systems are driven by Teugel's martingales and an independent multi-dimensional Brownian motion.Necessary and sufficient conditions for an optimal control of the control problem with the control domain being convex are proved by the classical method of convex variation,and the coefficients appearing in the systems are allowed to depend on the control variables.As an application,the linear quadratic stochastic optimal control problem is studied.

  18. Sufficient Controllability Condition for Affine Systems with Two-Dimensional Control and Two-Dimensional Zero Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Fetisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The controllability conditions are well known if we speak about linear stationary systems: a linear stationary system is controllable if and only if the dimension of the state vector is equal to the rank of the controllability matrix. The concept of the controllability matrix is extended to affine systems, but relations between affine systems controllability and properties of this matrix are more complicated. Various controllability conditions are set for affine systems, but they deal as usual either with systems of some special form or with controllability in some small neighborhood of the concerned point. An affine system is known to be controllable if the system is equivalent to a system of a canonical form, which is defined and regular in the whole space of states. In this case, the system is said to be feedback linearizable in the space of states. However there are examples, which illustrate that a system can be controllable even if it is not feedback linearizable in any open subset in the space of states. In this article we deal with such systems.Affine systems with two-dimensional control are considered. The system in question is assumed to be equivalent to a system of a quasicanonical form with two-dimensional zero dynamics which is defined and regular in the whole space of states. Therefore the controllability of the original system is equivalent to the controllability of the received system of a quasicanonical form. In this article the sufficient condition for an available solution of the terminal problem is proven for systems of a quasicanonical form with two-dimensional control and two-dimensional zero dynamics. The condition is valid in the case of an arbitrary time interval and arbitrary initial and finite states of the system. Therefore the controllability condition is set for systems of a quasicanonical form with two-dimensional control and two-dimensional zero dynamics. An example is given which illustrates how the proved

  19. Decentralized Control for a Class of Similar Composite Systems with Interconnections with Unsatisfying Interconnection Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng; LI Zhong-hai; ZHANG Si-ying; HOU Xue-zhang

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a class of similar composite systems is discussed, whose interconnections areasymmetrical and mismatched. The interconnection condition is proposed. Based on it, the interconnectionsare divided into two parts. One satisfies the interconnection condition, by means of the two--step method,the decentralized controllers are designed. The other does not satisfy the interconnection condition, but thisis offsetted by good quality of the system itself. Based on these, a sufficient condition is given by some linearmatrix inequalities, which makes the studied systems quadratic stabile via linear decentralized controllers bymaking use of the information of interconnections better.

  20. Controllability conditions for flood control reservoirs systems; Uso das condicoes de controlabilidade na operacao de sistemas hidroeletricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damazio, J.M.; Costa, F.S. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marien, J.L. [Free Univ. of Brussels (Belgium). Center for Statistics and Operations Research

    1989-12-31

    The derivation of the controllability conditions for floodcontrol reservoir systems is presented. The derived C.C are very general as can consider systems with more than one control point and/or mandatory release 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Hydrochemical and microbiological quality of groundwater in West Thrace Region of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özler, H. Murat; Aydın, Ali

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to do a preliminary assessment of the hydrochemical and microbial groundwater quality of the West Thrace region. Forty samples of groundwater collected from Edirne (Site 1) to Gelibolu (Site 2) were assessed for their suitability for human consumption. As3- was non-detectable in all the groundwater and Zn2+, Pb2+, F-, Cu2+, NH{4/+}, Cn- PO{4/3-} and Cl- were all below their respective European Union drinking water directive (EU-DWD) and Turkish food codex-drinking water directive (TFC-DWD). Maximum Acceptable Concentrations (MAC) Ni2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, and Ca2+ levels were detected in upper maximum acceptable concentrations 77.5, 42.5, 35.0, 50.0, 50.0, and 32.5% of the groundwater samples, respectively. However, in terms of Cr3+, Ni2+ and Pb2+, the differences between groundwaters of Sites 1 and 2 were significant ( p Enterococcus spp., Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus spp. and P. aeruginosa were detected in 25, 17.5, 15, 47.5, 15, 27.5, and 15% of the groundwater samples, respectively. Furthermore, heavy metals and trace elements were found after chemical analyzes in most samples. The pollution of groundwater come from a variety of sources, Meric and Ergene rivers, including land application of agricultural chemicals and organics wastes, infiltration of irrigation water, septic tanks, and infiltration of effluent from sewage treatment plants, pits, lagoons and ponds used storage.

  2. Predicting dissolved oxygen concentration using kernel regression modeling approaches with nonlinear hydro-chemical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Rai, Premanjali

    2014-05-01

    Kernel function-based regression models were constructed and applied to a nonlinear hydro-chemical dataset pertaining to surface water for predicting the dissolved oxygen levels. Initial features were selected using nonlinear approach. Nonlinearity in the data was tested using BDS statistics, which revealed the data with nonlinear structure. Kernel ridge regression, kernel principal component regression, kernel partial least squares regression, and support vector regression models were developed using the Gaussian kernel function and their generalization and predictive abilities were compared in terms of several statistical parameters. Model parameters were optimized using the cross-validation procedure. The proposed kernel regression methods successfully captured the nonlinear features of the original data by transforming it to a high dimensional feature space using the kernel function. Performance of all the kernel-based modeling methods used here were comparable both in terms of predictive and generalization abilities. Values of the performance criteria parameters suggested for the adequacy of the constructed models to fit the nonlinear data and their good predictive capabilities.

  3. Hydrochemical characterization of a mine water geothermal energy resource in NW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredo, C; Ordóñez, A; Garcia-Ordiales, E; Álvarez, R; Roqueñi, N; Cienfuegos, P; Peña, A; Burnside, N M

    2017-01-15

    Abandoned and flooded mine networks provide underground reservoirs of mine water that can be used as a renewable geothermal energy source. A complete hydrochemical characterization of mine water is required to optimally design the geothermal installation, understand the hydraulic behavior of the water in the reservoir and prevent undesired effects such as pipe clogging via mineral precipitation. Water pumped from the Barredo-Figaredo mining reservoir (Asturias, NW Spain), which is currently exploited for geothermal use, has been studied and compared to water from a separate, nearby mountain mine and a river that receives mine water discharge and partially infiltrates into the mine workings. Although the hydrochemistry was altered during the flooding process, the deep mine waters are currently near neutral, net alkaline, high metal waters of Na-HCO3 type. Isotopic values suggest that mine waters are closely related to modern meteoric water, and likely correspond to rapid infiltration. Suspended and dissolved solids, and particularly iron content, of mine water results in some scaling and partial clogging of heat exchangers, but water temperature is stable (22°C) and increases with depth, so, considering the available flow (>100Ls(-1)), the Barredo-Figaredo mining reservoir represents a sustainable, long-term resource for geothermal use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydrochemical Characteristics and the Suitability of Groundwater in the Coastal Region of Tangshan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengshan Ma; Aihua Wei; Qinghai Deng; Haijun Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Through collecting groundwater samples from the coastal region of Tangshan, China, the hydrochemical processes that affect the chemical composition of groundwater and the quality of resources were analyzed. Chemical constituents, factor analysis, and a graphic method were em-ployed in this research. The results show that human activities obviously affect fresh groundwater. The deep groundwater distributed in the southern part of the region is severely affected by saliniza-tion, and the shallow groundwater in the north is also beginning to show the same deterioration. The chemical concentrations of the deep groundwater depend largely upon the water-rock interaction, the mixing of saline water and the ion exchange processes. With the exception of sample C-33, all the groundwater samples in the study area are suitable for drinking. Tests show that roughly half of the deep groundwater samples have at least one water quality index indicating that it is chemically doubtful or unsuitable for irrigation. Therefore, it is concluded that deep groundwater is becoming an unacceptable resource to irrigate areas located near the coastline because the groundwater quality in the study area is exhibiting signs of degradation. This study’s findings contribute to a better under-standing of groundwater resources in order to support regional management and protection.

  5. Hydrological processes at Inle Lake (Southern Shan State, Myanmar) inferred from hydrochemical, mineralogical and isotopic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin, Myat Mon; Sacchi, Elisa; Setti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    A one-year hydrochemical and isotopic monitoring was conducted at the Inle Lake, the second largest lake in Myanmar, also considering sediment samples. Lake waters are characterised by low electrical conductivities (236-489 μS/cm), neutral to alkaline pH (7.36-9.26), oxidising Eh (329-457 mV) and Ca-Mg-HCO3 facies. Stable isotopes indicate that lake waters are only slightly affected by evaporation, are fully flushed yearly and are not stratified. Carbonate equilibria dominate the lake water hydrochemistry. In summer, photosynthetic activity and temperature increase induce calcite precipitation, as testified by its high content in the sediments, up to 97 %, and by its isotopic composition. The short residence time and endogenic calcite precipitation likely prevent the accumulation of contaminants and nutrients in lake waters. This study suggests a high resilience of the system to anthropogenic disturbances and demonstrates the sediment potential for the reconstruction of the environmental evolution in time and for the anthropogenic impact assessment.

  6. Hydrochemical Denudation and Transient Carbon Dioxide Drawdown in the Highly Glacierized, Shrinking Koxkar Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2016-01-01

    covered by present-day ice. From 27 June to 30 September 2011, the total runoff depth was 671.70 mm, which yielded crustal solute fluxes of 213.65 ± 10.05 kg·(km2·d−1 that accounted for 53.59% of the total solute flux of the river water. The solute fluxes derived directly from ice meltwater and precipitation were 70.02 ± 4.68 and 16.57 ± 1.13 kg·(km2·d−1, respectively, which accounted for 17.57% and 4.16% of the total solute flux. The carbonation and hydrolysis of carbonate and feldspar minerals occurred because of the presence of H+, supplied by sulfide oxidation or CO2 drawdown. While the H+ yielded by sulfide oxidation was insufficient for hydrochemical reactions, atmospheric CO2 dissolved in the water generated H+ that drove follow-up reactions. The total transient drawdown of CO2 was 804.83 t C, which generated 39.61% of the total HCO3- and 24.68% of the river water solute. Transient drawdown of CO2 in the glacier region indicated that change of glacial area and volume could influence atmospheric CO2 concentration and be important in the long-term global CO2 cycle.

  7. Hydrochemical modeling and assessment of groundwater contamination in northwest Sinai, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alfy, Mohamed

    2013-03-01

    This study aims to investigate groundwater geochemical characteristics, and to assess the effects of groundwater contamination in northwest Sinai, Egypt. A geographic information system, geochemical modeling, and statistical analyses tools were used. Twenty-five groundwater samples from a Quaternary aquifer were sampled. These water samples were analyzed for major, minor, and trace elements. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of the hydrochemical characteristic as well as the anthropogenic processes of groundwater pollution. On the basis of these analyses, the geochemical parameters and the anomalous concentration of different elements enable the characterization of salinity sources of the brackish waters and the suspected sources of polluted water. Pollution sources are represented by waste disposal and agricultural activities as well as the probable upward leakage of highly saline water from the deeper aquifers and the saltwater intrusion. Pollution risk is high when the depth of the water table is shallow (0.3 to 15.0 m) and the aquifer has high hydraulic conductivity and poor matrix buffering capacity.

  8. Evaluation of hydrochemical changes due to intensive aquifer exploitation: case studies from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteller, M V; Rodríguez, R; Cardona, A; Padilla-Sánchez, L

    2012-09-01

    The impact of intensive aquifer exploitation has been observed in numerous places around the world. Mexico is a representative example of this problem. In 2010, 101 out of the 653 aquifers recognized in the country, showed negative social, economic, and environmental effects related to intensive exploitation. The environmental effects include, among others, groundwater level decline, subsidence, attenuation, and drying up of springs, decreased river flow, and deterioration of water quality. This study aimed at determining the hydrochemical changes produced by intensive aquifer exploitation and highlighting water quality modifications, taking as example the Valle de Toluca, Salamanca, and San Luis Potosi aquifers in Mexico's highlands. There, elements such as fluoride, arsenic, iron, and manganese have been detected, resulting from the introduction of older groundwater with longer residence times and distinctive chemical composition (regional flows). High concentrations of other elements such as chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and vanadium, as well as pathogens, all related to anthropogenic pollution sources (wastewater infiltration, irrigation return flow, and atmospheric pollutants, among others) were also observed. Some of these elements (nitrate, fluoride, arsenic, iron, and manganese) have shown concentrations above Mexican and World Health Organization drinking water standards.

  9. Hydrochemical assessment of water quality for irrigation: a case study of the Medjerda River in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etteieb, Selma; Cherif, Semia; Tarhouni, Jamila

    2017-03-01

    In order to characterize, classify and evaluate the suitability of Medjerda River water for irrigation, a hydrochemical assessment was conducted. It accounts for 80 % of the total Tunisian surface water. In this paper, hydrographical methods and PHREEQC geochemical program were used to characterize water quality of Medjerda River, whereas its suitability for irrigation was determined in accordance with its electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and sodium concentrations. It was established that the water samples were undersaturated with calcite, dolomite, aragonite, anhydrite, gypsum and halite except in one water sample which is supersaturated with carbonate minerals. The quality assessment of Medjerda River for irrigation purposes showed that some points belonged to the excellent-to-good and good-to-permissible irrigation water categories, while the remaining ones were classified as doubtful to unsuitable for irrigation making the river water use limited to plants with high salt tolerance. Moreover, based on FAO guidelines, almost all water samples may cause immediate salinity to gradual increasing problem but no soil infiltration problems except for two sampling points. However, immediate development or possible increasing of severe toxicity problems may be caused by the continuous use of this water for irrigation due to troublesome concentrations of chloride and sodium.

  10. STABILIZED CONTROLLER DESIGN FOR ATTITUDE AND ALTITUDE CONTROLLING OF QUAD-ROTOR UNDER DISTURBANCE AND NOISY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hassan Tanveer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a control approach to obtain the better stabilization in attitude and altitude of quad-rotor under different disturbance conditions. In the standard Quad-rotor rotor type UAV, controlling of attitude and altitude is one of the most critical tasks and appropriate controller for stabilization of UAV is essential and necessary. These two controls under various conditions of disturbances was a field of research stimulating for the researchers. The controller proposed is contingent on the PID feedback structure with Extended Kalman Filter (EKF. From Lyapunov Stability Theorem, it is proved that quad-rotor proposed altitude control system is asymptotic as well exponentially stability. Extended Kalman Filter (EKF is used to filter out the sensors and system noises. Finally, the simulations carried out on MATLAB and the result proved the effectiveness of proposed recommended method for stabilization of attitude and altitude of quad-rotor.

  11. Hydrochemical processes controlling arsenic and heavy metal contamination in the Elqui river system (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Thorsten

    2004-06-05

    Severe arsenic poisoning from drinking water has been documented in Northern Chile. However, the Elqui River, which provides water for approximately 200,000 people in this region, is poorly studied and no data on contaminants have been published to date. In this study, trace elements and the main aqueous constituents were monitored for approximately 2 years in the entire river system. Aqueous species of trace elements were determined via thermodynamic equilibrium calculations, and two operationally-defined suspended fractions were analyzed. Chalco- and arsenopyrite deposits in the upper Andes, in conjunction with mining and geothermal activity, were identified as exclusive point sources of heavy metals and arsenic. The annual input to the river system was approximately (t year(-1)): Fe 600, Mn 110, Cu 130, Zn 35 and As 2.0. The confluence with pH-buffered waters in the upper river system caused collapse of iron hydroxide colloids and coprecipitation of all heavy metals, e.g. dissolved copper concentrations decreased from approximately 100 to approximately 0.2 micromol l(-1), which is still of ecotoxic concern. The heavy metal enriched suspended solids settled only in the lower Elqui River. Arsenate did not adsorb to suspended solids and behaved strictly conservatively, exceeding the WHO guideline value for drinking water (0.13 micromol l(-1)) in the entire river system. Decontamination may be accomplished with reasonable efforts upstream in direct vicinity to the sources via coprecipitation, settling and appropriate pH adjustment for arsenate adsorption. Copryright 2003 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Factors controlling hydrochemical and trophic state variables in 86 shallow lakes in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nõges, P.; Nõges, T.; Tuvikene, L.; Smal, H.; Ligeza, S.; Kornijów, R.; Peczula, W.; Bécares, E.; Garcia-Criado, F.; Alvarez-Carrera, C.; Fernandez-Alaez, C.; Ferriol, C.; Miracle, R.M.; Vicente, E.; Romo, S.; Van Donk, E.; Van de Bund, W.J.; Jensen, J.P.; Gross, E.M.; Hansson, L-A.; Gyllström, M.; Nykänen, M.; De Eyto, E.; Irvine, K.; Stephen, D.; Collings, S.E.; Moss, B.

    2003-01-01

    In order to disentangle the causes of variations in water chemistry among European shallow lakes, we performed standardised sampling programs in 86 lakes along a latitudinal gradient from southern Spain to northern Sweden. Lakes with an area of 0.1 to 27 000 ha and mean depth of 0.4–5.6 m located in

  13. NECESSARY AND SUFFICIENT CONDITION FOR GLOBAL CONTROLLABILITY OF A CLASS OF AFFINE NONLINEAR SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yimin SUN; Shengwei MEI; Qiang LU

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the global controllability of a class of n-dimensional affine nonlinear systems with n - 1 controls and constant control matrix. A necessary and sufficient condition for its global controllability has been obtained by using the methods recently developed. Furthermore,we generalize the above result to a class of affine nonlinear systems with a block-triangular-like structure.Finally, we will give three examples to show the applications of our results.

  14. Interior and exterior ballistics coupled optimization with constraints of attitude control and mechanical-thermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xin-xin; Zhang, Nai-min; Zhang, Yan

    2016-07-01

    For solid launch vehicle performance promotion, a modeling method of interior and exterior ballistics associated optimization with constraints of attitude control and mechanical-thermal condition is proposed. Firstly, the interior and external ballistic models of the solid launch vehicle are established, and the attitude control model of the high wind area and the stage of the separation is presented, and the load calculation model of the drag reduction device is presented, and thermal condition calculation model of flight is presented. Secondly, the optimization model is established to optimize the range, which has internal and external ballistic design parameters as variables selected by sensitivity analysis, and has attitude control and mechanical-thermal conditions as constraints. Finally, the method is applied to the optimal design of a three stage solid launch vehicle simulation with differential evolution algorithm. Simulation results are shown that range capability is improved by 10.8%, and both attitude control and mechanical-thermal conditions are satisfied.

  15. Temperature and humidity independent control (THIC) of air-conditioning system

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xiaohua; Zhang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the main components of the Temperature and Humidity Independent Control (THIC) of air-conditioning systems, including dehumidification devices, high-temperature cooling devices and indoor terminal devices.

  16. Characterization of recharge and flow behaviour of different water sources in Gunung Kidul and its impact on water quality based on hydrochemical and physico-chemical monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiche, Elisabeth; Hochschild, Maren; Haryono, Eko; Neumann, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Karst aquifers are important water resources but highly vulnerable due to their heterogeneous and complex characteristics. Various hydrological aspects (recharge, flow behaviour) have to be known in detail to develop a sustainable concept for water collection, distribution and treatment. In the karst area of Gunung Sewu (Java, Indonesia) such a concept was to be implemented within a German-Indonesian joint IWRM project. The basic hydrogeological conditions and water quality aspects were characterized on a regional scale through hydrochemical monitoring of springs, wells, subsurface and surface rivers. More detailed information about the recharge, flow and storage behaviour was obtained from high resolution monitoring of T, EC and discharge in one large underground river system. The water quality is well below any guideline values with regard to inorganic pollutants during dry season. During rainy season, dissolved Al concentrations are frequently above the Indonesian guideline value. Slow matrix flow is the most important recharge component during dry season, thus assuring the year-round water availability in the subsurface karst. During rainy season, quick infiltration of the surface water is a dominant recharge component. Rapid response of discharge, T and EC to heavy rain suggests the presence of point recharge that feeds a highly karstfied conduit system with fast conduit flow and short transit time of water. The strong variations in discharge and hydrochemistry are particularly challenging for technical water usage and treatment facilities. Piston flow is indicated to be the third important flow component and is induced by heavy rainfall.

  17. Controllability of neutral impulsive stochastic quasilinear integrodifferential systems with nonlocal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Balachandran

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We establish sufficient conditions for controllability of neutral impulsive stochastic quasilinear integrodifferential systems with nonlocal conditions in Hilbert spaces. The results are obtained by using semigroup theory, evolution operator and a fixed point technique. An example is provided to illustrate the obtained results.

  18. Refrigerant Control Strategies for Residential Air-Conditioning and Heat-Pump System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Shun-yu; ZHANG Chun-zhi; CHEN Jian

    2009-01-01

    This paper simulated the optimal refrigerant charge inventory of a refrigeration system in air-con-ditioning operation and heat-pump operation respectively,and studied the refrigerant control strategies in this system.The void fraction in two-phase fluid region was calculated by Harms model.And based on distributed parameter model and Harms model,the refrigerant charge inventory in condenser and evaporator were calculated and analyzed in air-conditioning conditions and heat-pump conditions,respectively.The calculating results of dif-ferent refrigerant mass between refrigeration and heating conditions indicate that the optimal refrigerant charge inventory in heat-pump conditions is lower than that in air-eonditioning conditions.To avoid the decrease of COP due to the surplus refrigerant in heating conditions,we introduced the liquid reservoir control method and associate capillary control method.Both of them could increase the heating capacity of the air-source heat pump-The difference of optimal refrigerant charge inventory in air-conditioning and heat-pump system can be controlled by the liquid reservoir or the associate capillary.

  19. Nitrate Pollution and Preliminary Source Identification of Surface Water in a Semi-Arid River Basin, Using Isotopic and Hydrochemical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xue

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate contamination in rivers has raised widespread concern in the world, particularly in arid/semi-arid river basins lacking qualified water. Understanding the nitrate pollution levels and sources is critical to control the nitrogen input and promote a more sustainable water management in those basins. Water samples were collected from a typical semi-arid river basin, the Weihe River watershed, China, in October 2014. Hydrochemical assessment and nitrogen isotopic measurement were used to determine the level of nitrogen compounds and identify the sources of nitrate contamination. Approximately 32.4% of the water samples exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO drinking water standard for NO3−-N. Nitrate pollution in the main stream of the Weihe River was obviously much more serious than in the tributaries. The δ15N-NO3− of water samples ranged from +8.3‰ to +27.0‰. No significant effect of denitrification on the shift in nitrogen isotopic values in surface water was observed by high dissolved oxygen (DO values and linear relationship diagram between NO3−-N and δ15N-NO3−, except in the Weihe River in Huayin County and Shitou River. Analyses of hydrochemistry and isotopic compositions indicate that domestic sewage and agricultural activities are the main sources of nitrate in the river.

  20. Understanding Behavioural Rigidity in Autism Spectrum Conditions: The Role of Intentional Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljac, Edita; Hoofs, Vincent; Princen, Myrthe M.; Poljac, Ervin

    2017-01-01

    Although behavioural rigidity belongs to the core symptoms of autism spectrum conditions, little is known about its underlying cognitive mechanisms. The current study investigated the role of intentional control mechanisms in behavioural rigidity in autism. Autistic individuals and their matched controls were instructed to repeatedly choose…

  1. Exact controllability of the Euler-Bernoulli plate with variable coefficients and simply supported boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyan Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the exact controllability of an Euler-Bernoulli plate equation with variable coefficients, subject to the simply supported boundary condition. By the Riemannian geometry approach, the duality method, the multiplier technique, and the compactness-uniqueness argument, we establish the corresponding observability inequality and obtain the exact controllability results.

  2. An abstract approximate controllability result and applications to elliptic and parabolic systems with dynamic boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Bejenaru

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we prove an approximate controllability result for an abstract semilinear evolution equation in a Hilbert space and we obtain as consequences the approximate controllability for some classes of elliptic and parabolic problems subjected to nonlinear, possible non monotone, dynamic boundary conditions.

  3. Controllability for the impulsive semilinear fuzzy integrodifferential equations with nonlocal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwun, Y C; Hwang, J S; Park, J S; Park, J H [Department of Mathematics, Dong-A University, Pusan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Math. Education, Chinju National Universuty of Education, Chinju 660-756 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Math. Sci., Pukyong National University, Pusan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jihpark@pknu.ac.kr

    2008-02-15

    In this paper. we study the controllability for the impulsive semilinear fuzzy integrodifferential control system with nonlocal conditions in E{sub N} by using the concept of fuzzy number whose values are normal, convex, upper semicontinuous and compactly supported interval in E{sub N}.

  4. Conditioned food aversion to control outbreaks of intoxication by Ipomoea carnea and Turbina cordata in goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conditioned food aversion is used to train livestock to avoid the ingestion of toxic plants. This technique was used to control Turbina cordata poisoning in goats in one farm, and to control Ipomoea carnea subsp. istulosa poisoning in another farm. The goats were penned at night and the next mornin...

  5. Assessment of the operating conditions of coordinated Q-V controller within secondary voltage control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnautović Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper, discusses the possibility to use coordinated Q-V controller (CQVC to perform secondary voltage control at the power plant level. The CQVC performs the coordination of the synchronous generators' (SG reactive power outputs in order to maintain the same total reactive power delivered by the steam power plant (SPP, while at the same time maintaining a constant voltage with programmed reactive droop characteristic at the SPP HV busbar. This busbar is the natural pilot node for secondary voltage control at HV level as the node with maximum power production and maximum power consumption. In addition to voltage control, the CQVC maintains the uniform allocation of reactive power reserves at all SGs in the power plant. This is accomplished by setting the reactive power of each SG at given operating point in accordance to the available reactive power of the same SG at that point. Different limitations imposed by unit's and plant equipment are superimposed on original SG operating chart (provided by the manufacturer in order to establish realistic limits of SG operation at given operating point. The CQVC facilitates: i practical implementation of secondary voltage control in power system, as it is capable of ensuring delivery of reactive power as requested by regional/voltage control while maintaining voltage at system pilot node, ii the full deployment of available reactive power of SGs which in turn contributes to system stability, iii assessment of the reactive power impact/contribution of each generator in providing voltage control as ancillary service. Furthermore, it is also possible to use CQVC to pricing reactive power production cost at each SG involved and to design reactive power bidding structure for transmission network devices by using recorded data. Practical exploitation experience acquired during CQVC continuous operation for over two years enabled implementation of the optimal setting of reference voltage and droop on daily

  6. Alignment Condition-Based Robust Adaptive Iterative Learning Control of Uncertain Robot System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofeng Tong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an adaptive iterative learning control strategy integrated with saturation-based robust control for uncertain robot system in presence of modelling uncertainties, unknown parameter, and external disturbance under alignment condition. An important merit is that it achieves adaptive switching of gain matrix both in conventional PD-type feedforward control and robust adaptive control in the iteration domain simultaneously. The analysis of convergence of proposed control law is based on Lyapunov's direct method under alignment initial condition. Simulation results demonstrate the faster learning rate and better robust performance with proposed algorithm by comparing with other existing robust controllers. The actual experiment on three-DOF robot manipulator shows its better practical effectiveness.

  7. Sensorless speed control of a five-phase induction machine under open-phase condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Morsy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, multiphase machines have been promoted as competitors to their three-phase counterparts in high-power safety-critical drive applications. Among numerous advantages of multiphase induction machine (IM drives, self-starting and operation under open phase(s stand as the most salient features. With open phase(s, optimal current control provides disturbance- free operation given a set of objective functions. Although hysteresis current control was merely employed in the literature as it offers a simple controller structure to control the remaining healthy phases, it is not suitable for high-power applications. In the literature, multiple synchronous reference frame (dq control can be an alternative; however, it requires back and forth transformations with several calculations and additional sophistication. In this paper, a simple technique employing adaptive proportional resonant (PR current controllers is presented to control a five-phase IM under open-phase conditions. Results for both volt/hertz (V/f and field oriented control (FOC systems are presented. Moreover, sensorless operation under fault condition is also demonstrated by estimating the machine speed using a rotor flux-based model reference adaptive system (MRAS speed estimator. The proposed controllers are experimentally verified and compared. Although FOC provides better dynamic performance, V/f control offers a simpler control structure and a lower number of PR controllers.

  8. Robust Current Control of Doubly Fed Wind Turbine Generator under Unbalanced Grid Voltage Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yun; Gong, Wenming; Wu, Qiuwei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a H ∞ current controller for doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs) in order to maintain stable operation under unbalanced voltage conditions. The H ∞ current controller has a multi-input and multi-output (MIMO) structure and is designed using the loop shaping...... method. Case studies have been carried out in order to verify the efficacy of the proposed H ∞ current controller for DFIGs. The case study results show that the proposed H ∞ current controller can realize different control objectives, i.e. stable stator current, stable stator active power and stable...

  9. Multi-frequency proportional-resonant (MFPR) current controller for PWM VSC under unbalanced supply conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This letter presents a multi-frequency proportional-resonant (MFPR) current controller developed for PWM voltage source converter (VSC) under the unbalanced supply voltage conditions. The delta operator is used in place of the shift operator for the implementation of MFPR by using a low-cost fixed-point DSP. The experimental results with an alternative control strategy validated the feasibility of the proposed MFPR current controller for the PWM VSC during voltage unbalance.

  10. Control of hybrid AC/DC microgrid under islanding operational conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, G.; Gao, F.; Zhang, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents control methods for hybrid AC/DC microgrid under islanding operation condition. The control schemes for AC sub-microgrid and DC sub-microgrid are investigated according to the power sharing requirement and operational reliability. In addition, the key control schemes......, the whole hybrid AC/DC microgrid can manage the power flow transferred between sub-microgrids for improving on the operational quality and efficiency....

  11. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical characterization of unconfined aquifer located in the alteration mantle of the Serra Geral Formation, in the Taquari-Antas river basin, northeast of Rio Grande do Sul State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Cemin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the hydrogeological and hydrochemical characterization of the unconfined aquifer located in the alteration mantle in the volcanic rocks from Serra Geral Formation, in the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul State. This aquifer is conditioned by the soil, topography, lithology and climate, being characterized by a saturated layer thinner than 1,7 m, static levels between 0 and 1 m and low flow (<0,5 m3/h. These waters are of calcium or magnesium bicarbonate type, and low alkalinity and electrical conductivity, low calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations, and high iron and manganese concentrations. Additionally, these waters have high concentration of nitrates (mean above 10 mg/L and the presence of total coliforms. These characteristics evidence a quick circulation between the recharging and discharge zones in the aquifer.

  12. Muscodor albus Volatiles Control Toxigenic Fungi under Controlled Atmosphere (CA Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Braun

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Muscodor albus, a biofumigant fungus, has the potential to control post-harvest pathogens in storage. It has been shown to produce over 20 volatile compounds with fungicidal, bactericidal and insecticidal properties. However, M. albus is a warm climate endophyte, and its biofumigant activity is significantly inhibited at temperatures below 5 °C. Conidia of seven mycotoxin producing fungi, Aspergillus carbonarius, A. flavus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, Penicillium verrucosum, Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum, were killed or prevented from germinating by exposure to volatiles from 2 g M. albus-colonized rye grain per L of headspace in sealed glass jars for 24 h at 20 °C. Two major volatiles of M. albus, isobutyric acid (IBA and 2-methyl-1-butanol (2MB at 50 µL/L and 100 µL/L, respectively, gave differential control of the seven fungi when applied individually at 20 °C. When the fungi were exposed to both IBA and 2MB together, an average of 94% of the conidia were killed or suppressed. In a factorial experiment with controlled atmosphere storage (CA at 3 °C and 72 h exposure to four concentrations of IBA and 2MB combinations, 50 µL/L IBA plus 100 µL/L 2MB killed or suppressed germination of the conidia of all seven fungi. Controlled atmosphere had no significant effect on conidial viability or volatile efficacy. Major volatiles of M. albus may have significant potential to control plant pathogens in either ambient air or CA storage at temperatures below 5 °C. However, combinations of volatiles may be required to provide a broader spectrum of control than individual volatiles.

  13. Environmental isotopic and hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater from the Sandspruit Catchment, Berg River Basin, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naicker, S; Demlie, M

    2014-01-01

    The Sandspruit catchment (a tributary of the Berg River) represents a drainage system, whereby saline groundwater with total dissolved solids (TDS) up to 10,870 mg/l, and electrical conductivity (EC) up to 2,140 mS/m has been documented. The catchment belongs to the winter rainfall region with precipitation seldom exceeding 400 mm/yr, as such, groundwater recharge occurs predominantly from May to August. Recharge estimation using the catchment water-balance method, chloride mass balance method, and qualified guesses produced recharge rates between 8 and 70 mm/yr. To understand the origin, occurrence and dynamics of the saline groundwater, a coupled analysis of major ion hydrochemistry and environmental isotopes (δ(18)O, δ(2)H and (3)H) data supported by conventional hydrogeological information has been undertaken. These spatial and multi-temporal hydrochemical and environmental isotope data provided insight into the origin, mechanisms and spatial evolution of the groundwater salinity. These data also illustrate that the saline groundwater within the catchment can be attributed to the combined effects of evaporation, salt dissolution, and groundwater mixing. The salinity of the groundwater tends to vary seasonally and evolves in the direction of groundwater flow. The stable isotope signatures further indicate two possible mechanisms of recharge; namely, (1) a slow diffuse type modern recharge through a relatively low permeability material as explained by heavy isotope signal and (2) a relatively quick recharge prior to evaporation from a distant high altitude source as explained by the relatively depleted isotopic signal and sub-modern to old tritium values.

  14. Hydrochemical assessment of groundwater used for irrigation in Rumphi and Karonga districts, Northern Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Gulula, Lewis C.; Phiri, Ambrose

    Irrigation water quality is an essential component of sustainable agriculture. Irrigation water quality concerns have often been neglected over concerns of quantity in most irrigation projects in Malawi. In this study, a hydrochemical assessment of groundwater was carried out to characterize, classify groundwater and evaluate its suitability for irrigation use in Karonga and Rumphi districts, Northern Malawi. Groundwater samples were collected during wet (January-April 2011) and dry (July-September 2011) seasons from 107 shallow wells and boreholes drilled for rural water supply using standard sampling procedures. The water samples were analysed for pH, major ions, total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity (EC), using standard methods. Multivariate chemometric (such as Kruskal Wallis test), hydrographical methods (i.e. Piper diagram) and PHREEQC geochemical modelling program were used to characterise the groundwater quality. Electrical conductivity, percentage sodium ion (% Na+), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), total dissolved solids (TDS), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), Kelly’s ratio (KR) and permeability index (PI) were used to evaluate the suitability of water for irrigation. It was established that groundwater is neutral to alkaline and mostly freshwater (TDS RSC (6% from Karonga district), unsuitable PI (5% and 3% from Karonga and Rumphi, respectively) and a high salinity hazard (56.2% and 20.3% from Karonga and Rumphi, respectively) values restrict the suitability of the groundwater for agricultural purposes, and plants with good salt tolerance should be selected for such groundwaters. A detailed hydro-geochemical investigation and integrated water management is suggested for sustainable development of the water resources for better plant growth, long-term as well as maintaining human health in the study area.

  15. Investigation of hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater in the Harzandat aquifer, Northwest of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Nosrat; Mogaddam, A A

    2011-05-01

    The Harzandat plain is part of the East Azerbaijan province, which lies between Marand and Jolfa cities, northwestern of Iran, and its groundwater resources are developed for water supply and irrigation purposes. The main lithologic units consist chiefly of limestone, dolomite, shale, conglomerate, marl, and igneous rocks. In order to evaluate the quality of groundwater in study area, 36 samples were collected and analyzed for various ions. Chemical indexes like sodium adsorption ratio, percentage of sodium, residual sodium carbonate, and permeability index were calculated. Based on the analytical results, groundwater in the area is generally very hard, brackish, high to very high saline and alkaline in nature. The abundance of the major ions is as follows: Cl(-) >HCO3(-)>SO4(2-) and Na(+) >Ca(2+) >Mg(2+) >K(+). The dominant hydrochemical facieses of groundwater is Na(-)Cl type, and alkalis (Na(+), K(+)) and strong acids (Cl(-), SO4(2-) are slightly dominating over alkali earths (Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) and weak acids (HCO3(-), CO3(2-). The chemical quality of groundwater is related to the dissolution of minerals, ion exchange, and the residence time of the groundwater in contact with rock materials. The results of calculation saturation index by computer program PHREEQC shows that nearly all of the water samples were supersaturated with respect to carbonate minerals (calcite, dolomite and aragonite) and undersaturated with respect to sulfate minerals (gypsum and anhydrite). Assessment of water samples from various methods indicated that groundwater in study area is chemically unsuitable for drinking and agricultural uses.

  16. Hydrochemical characterization and pollution assessment of groundwater in Jammu Siwaliks, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romshoo, Shakil A; Dar, Reyaz Ahmad; Murtaza, Khalid Omar; Rashid, Irfan; Dar, Farooq A

    2017-03-01

    Physico-chemical groundwater (GW) parameters were evaluated to understand the hydrogeochemical processes in the Siwalik plains of Jammu and Kashmir, India. During the 2012-2013 post-monsoon (POM) and pre-monsoon (PRM) seasons, GW samples (n = 207) from deep bore wells and shallow open wells were chemically analysed. Cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+) and Fe(2+)) and anions (HCO3(-), Cl(-), SO4(2-) and F(-)) showed a wide spatio-temporal variation. Results suggest that weathering and dissolution of carbonates and silicate rocks is the main source of water mineralization. The major hydrochemical facies is characterized by Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-HCO3 during the PRM and POM seasons respectively. The presence of sulphate-bearing water in a large number of the samples indicates a significant role of gypsum dissolution and anthropogenic contamination of the GW. Factor analysis (FA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) revealed that the variability of hydrochemistry is mainly related to rock-water interaction, dissolution of carbonates and other lithological units as well as the influence of anthropogenic activities in the area. Overall, it was found that the GW quality is within the limits of human consumption. The higher concentration of a few chemicals indicates an increasing trend of industrial contamination of the GW. For sustainable development of the portable GW in Siwaliks, it is necessary to minimize the adverse impacts of the anthropogenic and industrial contamination on the GW resources through best management practices and prevent its further contamination to a level that could make GW unsuitable for human uses.

  17. Hydrochemical investigations in characterizing the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, I.C.; Rattray, G.W.; Ferarese, J.S. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Yu, P. [Taipower Co., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Ryan, J.N. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering

    1998-11-01

    Hydrochemical and isotopic investigations of ground water at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site of a potential permanent national nuclear-waste repository, demonstrate that younger rocks are dominated by calcium-sulfate or calcium-chloride water and that older rocks contain sodium-carbonate or sodium-bicarbonate water. Furthermore, unsaturated-zone pore water has significantly larger concentrations of major ions and dissolved solids than does the saturated-zone water. Recharge of perched or saturated-zone water, therefore, requires rapid flow through fractures or permeable regions in the unsaturated zone to avoid mixing with the chemically concentrated water in the unsaturated zone. This conceptual model is consistent with observations of rapidly moved post-bomb (post-1954) tritium and chlorine-36 in the deep unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. Presence of post-bomb tritium in matrix water away from fracture zones further indicates that parts of the fast-flow water that moves through fractures have been diverted laterally into nonwelded units. Experimental data show that different lithologic units require specific water-extraction methods for stable-isotope analyses of hydrogen and oxygen to ensure accurate characterization. Vacuum-distillation and compression-extraction methods both can yield accurate data but must be used with specific lithologies. Column experiments demonstrate that percolating water can exchange with pore water of the core as well as water held in zeolite minerals in the core. Exchange rates range from days to months. Pore-water samples from core, therefore, reflect the most recently infiltrated water but do not reflect percolating water of the distant past.

  18. Hydrochemical reactions and origin of offshore relatively fresh pore water from core samples in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Hiu Tung; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    2016-06-01

    The existence of relatively fresh pore water offshore has been well recognised over the globe but studies on the chemistry of the pore water from offshore geological formations are extremely limited. This study aims to characterize the hydrochemistry of the submarine groundwater body in Hong Kong. It looks into the major ion concentrations and the stable isotopic compositions of pore water extracted from core samples from an offshore 42.30-m vibrocore in the southwestern Hong Kong waters. A minimum Cl- level of about one-third of that in typical seawater was noted in the terrestrial sediments, suggesting the presence of offshore relatively fresh water. Unexpectedly high NH4+ levels are attributed to organic matter decomposition in the terrestrial sediments. The leaching of shells due to exposure of marine sediments at sea-level low stands raises the Mg2+ and Ca2+ concentrations. Base Exchange Indices show weak cation exchange reactions in which Na+ and K+ are released while Mg2+ and Ca2+ are adsorbed. Isotopic compositions of pore water reveal that the low-salinity water is probably the relic water sequestered in fluvial systems during relative sea-level low stands. Cores properly stored in a freezer for a long time has been used to study the pore water chemistry. For the first time, this study introduces an approach to correct the measured data by considering the possible evaporation effect during the transportation and storage of the samples. Corrections for evaporation were applied to the major ion concentrations and the stable isotopic compositions of pore water measured. It is found that the corrections determined by the Cl- mass balance approach are more reliable. The corrected measurements give more reasonable observations and hence allow sensible conclusions on the hydrochemical reactions and the origin of pore water.

  19. Hydrochemical framework of the aquifer in and around East Kolkata Wetlands, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Paulami; Sikdar, P. K.

    2008-08-01

    The area lies between Hugli river in the northwest and Bidyadhari river in the east and includes the East Kolkata Wetlands. The East Kolkata Wetlands is included in the List of Wetlands of International Importance (“Ramsar List”), as per the Convention on Wetlands signed in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971. This wetland has been declared as a Ramsar site on the 19th August 2002 (Ramsar site no. 1208) and therefore has acquired an international status. The area is a part of the lower deltaic plain of the Bhagirathi Ganga river system and is generally flat in nature. The sub-surface geology of the area is completely blanketed by the Quaternary fluviatile sediments comprising a succession of clay, silty clay, sand and sand mixed with occasional gravel. The Quaternary aquifer is sandwiched between two clay sequences. The confined aquifer is made up of moderately well sorted sand and reflects fluviatile environment of deposition. The regional groundwater flow direction is from east to west. Detailed geochemical investigations of 40 groundwater samples along with statistical analysis (for example, correlation and principal component analysis) on these chemical data reveal: (i) four types of groundwater quality, for example, good, poor, very poor and water unsuitable for drinking purpose, (ii) four hydrochemical facies which may be assigned to three broad types such as “fresh”, “blended”, and “brackish” waters, (iii) the evolution of the “blended” water is possibly due to hydraulic mixing of “fresh” and “brackish” waters within the aquifer matrix and/or in well mixing, and (iv) absence of Na Cl facies indicates continuous flushing of the aquifer.

  20. Hydrochemical investigations in characterizing the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, I.C.; Rattray, G.W.; Ferarese, J.S. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Yu, P. [Taipower Co., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Ryan, J.N. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering

    1998-11-01

    Hydrochemical and isotopic investigations of ground water at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site of a potential permanent national nuclear-waste repository, demonstrate that younger rocks are dominated by calcium-sulfate or calcium-chloride water and that older rocks contain sodium-carbonate or sodium-bicarbonate water. Furthermore, unsaturated-zone pore water has significantly larger concentrations of major ions and dissolved solids than does the saturated-zone water. Recharge of perched or saturated-zone water, therefore, requires rapid flow through fractures or permeable regions in the unsaturated zone to avoid mixing with the chemically concentrated water in the unsaturated zone. This conceptual model is consistent with observations of rapidly moved post-bomb (post-1954) tritium and chlorine-36 in the deep unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. Presence of post-bomb tritium in matrix water away from fracture zones further indicates that parts of the fast-flow water that moves through fractures have been diverted laterally into nonwelded units. Experimental data show that different lithologic units require specific water-extraction methods for stable-isotope analyses of hydrogen and oxygen to ensure accurate characterization. Vacuum-distillation and compression-extraction methods both can yield accurate data but must be used with specific lithologies. Column experiments demonstrate that percolating water can exchange with pore water of the core as well as water held in zeolite minerals in the core. Exchange rates range from days to months. Pore-water samples from core, therefore, reflect the most recently infiltrated water but do not reflect percolating water of the distant past.

  1. M3 version 3.0: Verification and validation; Hydrochemical model of ground water at repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Javier B. (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain)); Laaksoharju, Marcus (Geopoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden)); Skaarman, Erik (Abscondo, Bromma (Sweden)); Gurban, Ioana (3D-Terra (Canada))

    2009-01-15

    Hydrochemical evaluation is a complex type of work that is carried out by specialists. The outcome of this work is generally presented as qualitative models and process descriptions of a site. To support and help to quantify the processes in an objective way, a multivariate mathematical tool entitled M3 (Multivariate Mixing and Mass balance calculations) has been constructed. The computer code can be used to trace the origin of the groundwater, and to calculate the mixing proportions and mass balances from groundwater data. The M3 code is a groundwater response model, which means that changes in the groundwater chemistry in terms of sources and sinks are traced in relation to an ideal mixing model. The complexity of the measured groundwater data determines the configuration of the ideal mixing model. Deviations from the ideal mixing model are interpreted as being due to reactions. Assumptions concerning important mineral phases altering the groundwater or uncertainties associated with thermodynamic constants do not affect the modelling because the calculations are solely based on the measured groundwater composition. M3 uses the opposite approach to that of many standard hydrochemical models. In M3, mixing is evaluated and calculated first. The constituents that cannot be described by mixing are described by reactions. The M3 model consists of three steps: the first is a standard principal component analysis, followed by mixing and finally mass balance calculations. The measured groundwater composition can be described in terms of mixing proportions (%), while the sinks and sources of an element associated with reactions are reported in mg/L. This report contains a set of verification and validation exercises with the intention of building confidence in the use of the M3 methodology. At the same time, clear answers are given to questions related to the accuracy and the precision of the results, including the inherent uncertainties and the errors that can be made

  2. M3 version 3.0: Verification and validation; Hydrochemical model of ground water at repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Javier B. (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain)); Laaksoharju, Marcus (Geopoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden)); Skaarman, Erik (Abscondo, Bromma (Sweden)); Gurban, Ioana (3D-Terra (Canada))

    2009-01-15

    Hydrochemical evaluation is a complex type of work that is carried out by specialists. The outcome of this work is generally presented as qualitative models and process descriptions of a site. To support and help to quantify the processes in an objective way, a multivariate mathematical tool entitled M3 (Multivariate Mixing and Mass balance calculations) has been constructed. The computer code can be used to trace the origin of the groundwater, and to calculate the mixing proportions and mass balances from groundwater data. The M3 code is a groundwater response model, which means that changes in the groundwater chemistry in terms of sources and sinks are traced in relation to an ideal mixing model. The complexity of the measured groundwater data determines the configuration of the ideal mixing model. Deviations from the ideal mixing model are interpreted as being due to reactions. Assumptions concerning important mineral phases altering the groundwater or uncertainties associated with thermodynamic constants do not affect the modelling because the calculations are solely based on the measured groundwater composition. M3 uses the opposite approach to that of many standard hydrochemical models. In M3, mixing is evaluated and calculated first. The constituents that cannot be described by mixing are described by reactions. The M3 model consists of three steps: the first is a standard principal component analysis, followed by mixing and finally mass balance calculations. The measured groundwater composition can be described in terms of mixing proportions (%), while the sinks and sources of an element associated with reactions are reported in mg/L. This report contains a set of verification and validation exercises with the intention of building confidence in the use of the M3 methodology. At the same time, clear answers are given to questions related to the accuracy and the precision of the results, including the inherent uncertainties and the errors that can be made

  3. Hydrochemical characteristic of surface and groundwater Lisichansk and Almazno-Marevske geological and industrial districts Nnorth-Eastern Donbas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udalov Y.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Incorporates a complex of problems accompanying the operation of coal deposits of Donbass. See hydrochemical characteristics of surface and groundwater Lisichansk and Almazno-Maryevskogo geological and industrial areas of the North-Eastern Donbass. Identified the main hydrochemical features of the waste mine waters of the enterprises of the coal industry on the territory of the studies. It is established that the surface waters of the study area exposed to intensive anthropogenic influence. Set content of basic elements-pollutants in surface waters. It is revealed that this pollution is of a complex nature. Identifies key elements contained in the effluent of industrial enterprises. Analyzed that a change of the chemical composition of groundwater has led to increased hardness and mineralization of water in the main water intakes of the research area. Identifies key elements-contaminants in groundwater. It was found that as a result of mine dewatering groundwater level fell over an area of 200km2, far exceeding the area of coal mining. This operational reserves fresh underground waters in the groundwater runoff module 1.2 dm3 / sec. km2 decreased by 200 - 300 m3 / day. Within funnel depression hydraulic connection is created not only a few confined aquifers, but also located near the mine fields. For example, in the area of Stakhanov the Luhansk region in general depression funnel width of about 25 km and a depth of 600-800m were 8 mine ("Central Irmino", "Maximovska" Ilyich, named after I.V. Chesnokov, "Krivoy Rog", 11-RAD "Brjankovsky" and "Dzerzhinsk". The purpose of research is general hydrochemical characteristics and identification of key elements polluting surface and groundwater Lisichanskiy and diamond-Marevskogo geological and industrial areas of the North-East Donbas.

  4. Cortisol reaction in success and failure condition in endogenous depressed patients and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croes, S; Merz, P; Netter, P

    1993-01-01

    The authors studied differences in cortisol response to controllable and uncontrollable stress and its relationship to Seligman's theory of learned helplessness in hospitalized unipolar depressed patients (11 nontreated, acutely depressed; 11 treated patients) and 11 age and sex matched controls hospitalized for traumatic surgery. Control and lack of control were achieved by induction of success and failure in a simple number addition test and applied in balanced order on 2 consecutive days. Saliva cortisol samples were collected before and after the test. No group differences in baseline cortisol levels were observed. Cortisol increased after uncontrollable and decreased after controllable stress in control patients, whereas cortisol decreased after both conditions in the acutely depressed group and less so in the treated group, although they were as emotionally upset after failure as controls. Thus, the normally observed ability of the neuroendocrine system to discriminate between controllable and uncontrollable stress deteriorates with increasing severity of depression.

  5. Microcontroller Based Proportional Derivative Plus Conditional Integral Controller for Electro-Mechanical Dual Acting Pulley Continuously Variable Transmission Ratio Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budianto, A.; Tawi, K. B.; Hussein, M.; Supriyo, B.; Ariyono, S.; Che Kob, M. S.; Ezlamy Zulkifli, Mohd; K, Khairuldean A.; Daraoh, Aishah

    2012-09-01

    Electro-Mechanical Dual Acting Pulley (EMDAP) Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) is a transmission utilized by electro-mechanical actuated system. It has a potential to reduce energy consumption because it only needs power during changing CVT ratio and no power is needed to maintain CVT ratio due to self lock mechanism design. This paper proposed simple proportional derivative plus conditional integral (PDCI) controller to control EMDAP CVT ratio which can be simply implemented on a microcontroller. This proposed controller used Astrom-Hagglund method and Ziegler-Nichols formula to tune PDCI gain. The Proportional Derivative controller is directly activated from the start but Integral controller is only activated when the error value reaches error value setting point. Simulation using Matlab/Simulink software was conducted to evaluate PDCI system performance. The simulation results showed PDCI controller has ability to perform maximum overshoot 0.1%, 0.001 steady state error and 0.5s settling time. For clamping condition, settling time is about 11.46s during changing ratio from 2.0 to 0.7, while for release condition, settling time is about 8.33s during changing ratio from 0.7 to 2.0.

  6. Hydrochemical characterization of various surface water and groundwater resources available in Matahara areas, Fantalle Woreda of Oromiya region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megersa Olumana Dinka

    2015-03-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Overall, the study result elucidates that the chemical composition of different water bodies are due to natural processes and/or anthropogenic activities within the region. The local anthropogenic processes could be discharges from factory, domestic sewage and farming activities. Some of the water types are found to have relatively higher concentration of dissolved constituents. Irrigation waters have almost equal chemical compositions, indicating their hydrochemical sources are almost the same. Most of the concentrations are relatively high in Lake Basaka, groundwater and hot springs. It is easy to imagine the potential damaging effects of such quality waters on crop production, soil properties and environment of the region.

  7. Operating wind turbines in strong wind conditions by using feedforward-feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ju; Sheng, Wen Zhong

    2014-12-01

    Due to the increasing penetration of wind energy into power systems, it becomes critical to reduce the impact of wind energy on the stability and reliability of the overall power system. In precedent works, Shen and his co-workers developed a re-designed operation schema to run wind turbines in strong wind conditions based on optimization method and standard PI feedback control, which can prevent the typical shutdowns of wind turbines when reaching the cut-out wind speed. In this paper, a new control strategy combing the standard PI feedback control with feedforward controls using the optimization results is investigated for the operation of variable-speed pitch-regulated wind turbines in strong wind conditions. It is shown that the developed control strategy is capable of smoothening the power output of wind turbine and avoiding its sudden showdown at high wind speeds without worsening the loads on rotor and blades.

  8. Operating wind turbines in strong wind conditions by using feedforward-feedback control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2014-01-01

    the optimization results is investigated for the operation of variable-speed pitch-regulated wind turbines in strong wind conditions. It is shown that the developed control strategy is capable of smoothening the power output of wind turbine and avoiding its sudden showdown at high wind speeds without worsening......Due to the increasing penetration of wind energy into power systems, it becomes critical to reduce the impact of wind energy on the stability and reliability of the overall power system. In precedent works, Shen and his co-workers developed a re-designed operation schema to run wind turbines...... in strong wind conditions based on optimization method and standard PI feedback control, which can prevent the typical shutdowns of wind turbines when reaching the cut-out wind speed. In this paper, a new control strategy combing the standard PI feedback control with feedforward controls using...

  9. STUDY ON ACTIVE CONTROL FOR A FLEXIBLE BEAM UNDER THE CONDITION OF ZERO GRAVITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The system of coupling structure with controlling is a kind of dynamic feedback system in which the mechanical load and the actuator/controller interact. The mechanical system and the control system can be considered integrally as a close system, and the driving forces actuating the mechanical load can be taken as inner forces in the coupling structure system with controlling. Therefore, one can use the method for dealing with conservative systems to simplify greatly modeling and analyses. The relative equilibrium state of motion of the flexible beam under the condition of zero gravity is studied by using the energy method, in which the characteristics of structure and controlling are considered synthetically. And further, the stability conditions for the relative equilibrium state of the system have been found. If the stability conditions are used as controlling parameters of motion of the system, the kinetic energy of the flexible beam can be converted advantageously into the electromagnetic energy of the motor and controller as well as the vibration of the flexible structure can be reduced rapidly. The results in the research provide a kind of very simple and effective real-time control method reducing the vibration of the flexible beam. The method has been verified in many kinds of experimental systems of flexible beams.

  10. Demand Controlled Economizer Cycles: A Direct Digital Control Scheme for Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Systems,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    includes a heating coil and thermostatic control to maintain the air in this path at an elevated temperature, typically around 80 degrees Farenheit (80 F...1238 Aug 1 1236 1237 52 1074 1126 50 1033 1083 Sep 8 8 5W 862 7T 600 678 75 603 7r Oct 51 400 451 119 204 323 115 207 322 ov 64 123 287 187 71 258

  11. Air-condition Control System of Weaving Workshop Based on LabVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jian

    The project of air-condition measurement and control system based on LabVIEW is put forward for the sake of controlling effectively the environmental targets in the weaving workshop. In this project, which is based on the virtual instrument technology and in which LabVIEW development platform by NI is adopted, the system is constructed on the basis of the virtual instrument technology. It is composed of the upper PC, central control nodes based on CC2530, sensor nodes, sensor modules and executive device. Fuzzy control algorithm is employed to achieve the accuracy control of the temperature and humidity. A user-friendly man-machine interaction interface is designed with virtual instrument technology at the core of the software. It is shown by experiments that the measurement and control system can run stably and reliably and meet the functional requirements for controlling the weaving workshop.

  12. Performance of diagonal control structures at different operating conditions for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Maria; Husar, Attila; Feroldi, Diego; Riera, Jordi [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C. Llorens i Artigas 4, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-08-25

    This work is focused on the selection of operating conditions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. It analyses efficiency and controllability aspects, which change from one operating point to another. Specifically, several operating points that deliver the same amount of net power are compared, and the comparison is done at different net power levels. The study is based on a complex non-linear model, which has been linearised at the selected operating points. Different linear analysis tools are applied to the linear models and results show important controllability differences between operating points. The performance of diagonal control structures with PI controllers at different operating points is also studied. A method for the tuning of the controllers is proposed and applied. The behaviour of the controlled system is simulated with the non-linear model. Conclusions indicate a possible trade-off between controllability and optimisation of hydrogen consumption. (author)

  13. Impacts on Power Factor of AC Voltage Controllers Under Non-Sinusoidal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtiar Ahmed Mahar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available AC-AC conversion is obtained with the help of Cyclo-converters, DC Link converters and AC Voltage Controllers. AC voltage controllers are also referred to as voltage regulators. Main issue concerned to these converters is that they generate harmonics due to periodic variable structure system. The generated harmonics create disturbances and degrade the performance of converter. The power factor of supply side is affected due to these harmonics. This paper focuses on source side power factor of ac voltage controllers under nonsinusoidal conditions. In order to observe the power factor, measurement tool of power factor and simulation model of ac voltage controller is also developed in MATLAB software.

  14. Modeling of optimal control for urban freeway corridor under incident conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhu ZHENG; Decun DONG

    2006-01-01

    Traffic control and management are effective measures to solve the problem of traffic congestion. The optimal control model for freeway corridor is developed under incident conditions, which is in the form of minimization of the sum of the square of the difference between traffic demand and capacity at each intersection and on the freeway bottleneck section. The model optimizes control parameters of phase splits at arterial intersections, off-ramp diversion rates at upstream off-ramps and on-ramp diversion rates at downstream on ramps. Finally, the objective function is discussed and it is showed that the optimal control model is simple and practical.

  15. Sensing controlled pulse key-holing condition in plasma arc welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Chuan-bao; WU Chuan-song; ZHANG Yu-ming

    2009-01-01

    According to the strategy of controlled pulse key-holing, a new sensing and control system was developed for monitoring and controlling the keyhole condition during plasma arc welding (PAW). Through sensing and processing the efflux plasma voltage signals, the quantitative relationship among the welding current, efflux plasma voltage and backside weld width of the weld was established. PAW experiments show that the efflux plasma voltage can reflect the state of keyhole and backside weld width accurately. The closed-loop control tests validate the stability and reliability of the developed keyhole PAW system.

  16. Dynamic modeling and control of DFIG-based wind turbines under balanced network conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehdipour, Cyrous; Hajizadeh, Amin; Mehdipour, Iman

    2016-01-01

    . Then dynamic modeling and simulation of a sample power system are carried out. The operation of a DFIG coupled with WT under balanced condition of a power grid is investigated and stationary reference frame is utilized for analysis of a wind energy conversion system. At the second step, a wind power station...... is connected to the power grid in order to test the performances of the wind power station controller. The control plan utilizes stator flux oriented control and grid voltage vector control for the rotor and the grid side converter, respectively. MATLAB simulations clearly confirm the effectiveness...

  17. Tetracycline and niacinamide control bullous pemphigoid but not pemphigus foliaceus when these conditions coexist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohara, Junko; Yoshida, Kanako; Hasegawa, Junichi; Uhara, Hisashi; Takata, Minoru; Saida, Toshiaki; Ohyama, Bungo; Oyama, Bungo; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2010-07-01

    Pemphigus and pemphigoid are different types of autoimmune bullous disease and can occur in the same patient. We report a female patient with this condition. At first, we diagnosed her with bullous pemphigoid, and we treated her with tetracycline, niacinamide and a topical steroid. Tense bullas disappeared shortly after that, but crusted erythemas mainly on her head and trunk persisted. We examined BP180 and desmoglein 1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and also histological features, which showed coexistence of bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus foliaceus concurrently. Therefore, we tried prednisolone, which could control both conditions. This case showed that tetracycline and niacinamide could control bullous pemphigoid, but could not control pemphigus foliaceus, and that prednisolone was effective for both conditions.

  18. Quantitative trait loci associated with longevity of lettuce seeds under conventional and controlled deterioration storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwember, Andrés R; Bradford, Kent J

    2010-10-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds have poor shelf life and exhibit thermoinhibition (fail to germinate) above ∼25°C. Seed priming (controlled hydration followed by drying) alleviates thermoinhibition by increasing the maximum germination temperature, but reduces lettuce seed longevity. Controlled deterioration (CD) or accelerated ageing storage conditions (i.e. elevated temperature and relative humidity) are used to study seed longevity and to predict potential seed lifetimes under conventional storage conditions. Seeds produced in 2002 and 2006 of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between L. sativa cv. Salinas×L. serriola accession UC96US23 were utilized to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed longevity under CD and conventional storage conditions. Multiple longevity-associated QTLs were identified under both conventional and CD storage conditions for control (non-primed) and primed seeds. However, seed longevity was poorly correlated between the two storage conditions, suggesting that deterioration processes under CD conditions are not predictive of ageing in conventional storage conditions. Additionally, the same QTLs were not identified when RIL populations were grown in different years, indicating that lettuce seed longevity is strongly affected by production environment. Nonetheless, a major QTL on chromosome 4 [Seed longevity 4.1 (Slg4.1)] was responsible for almost 23% of the phenotypic variation in viability of the conventionally stored control seeds of the 2006 RIL population, with improved longevity conferred by the Salinas allele. QTL analyses may enable identification of mechanisms responsible for the sensitivity of primed seeds to CD conditions and breeding for improved seed longevity.

  19. Fuzzy logic control of air-conditioning system in residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hamid Attia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rising concern in reducing the energy consumption in building. Heating ventilation and air condition system is the biggest consumer of energy in building. In this study, fuzzy logic control of the air conditioning system of building for efficient energy operation and comfortable environment is investigated. A theoretical model of the fan coil unit (FCU and the heat transfer between air and coolant fluid is derived. The controlled variables are the room temperature and relative humidity and control consequents are the percentage of chilled and hot water flow rates at summer and the percentage of hot water and steam injected flow rates at winter. A computer simulation has been conducted and fuzzy control results are compared with that of conventional Proportional-Integral-Derivative control. It was found that the proposed control strategy satisfies the space load and at the same time to achieve the comfort zone, as defined by the ASHRAE code. Meanwhile PID control fails to adjust the room temperature at part-load operations. It has been demonstrated that fuzzy controller operation is more efficient and consumes less energy than PID control.

  20. Start-up conditions and the performance of women - and men - controlled businesses in manufacturing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Driga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research into the economic performance of women-controlled firms suggests that their underperformance may not be the result of differences in the managerial ability of women as compared to men, and that it may in fact be a consequence of differing levels of start-up resources. Using accounting data, we examine the effects that selected start-up conditions have had on the observed economic performance of a sample of 4450 Spanish manufacturing firms. The results, which indicate significant differences in the initial conditions and show lower levels of assets and employee numbers in women-controlled firms, have implications for the economic performance of such firms.

  1. Water quality assessment and hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater on the aspect of metals in an old town, Foshan, south China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guanxing Huang; Zongyu Chen; Jichao Sun

    2014-02-01

    The present study is aimed at assessing the water quality and discussing the hydrochemical characteristics and seasonal variation of shallow groundwater on the aspect of metals in the eastern Chancheng district of Foshan city, south China. Multivariate analytical methods such as principal components analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used in this study. The results show that 45% of groundwater in the east-central of study area is not suitable for drinking purpose due to high concentrations of Fe, Pb and Mn. The mean concentrations of Fe, Hg, Cu, Pb, and Mn in dry season are higher than that in wet season. On the contrary, the mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Zn, Ba, Cr, Mo, Ni and Al in wet season are higher than that in dry season. PCA results show that four PCs are responsible for the 78.6% of the total hydrochemical variables in groundwater. Three groups were generated from HCA method. Group 1 reflects the characteristic of wet season and the low ion exchange capacity; group 2 is mainly influenced by the dry season. Reducing environment and high ion exchange capacity are responsible for group 3. The results are useful in addressing future measures in groundwater resource management for local government.

  2. Hydrochemical characteristics of natural water and selenium-rich water resources in the Northern Daba Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Luo, Kunli; Du, Yajun; Tian, Yuan; Long, Jie; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Shixi

    2017-04-01

    The Northern Daba Mountains (NDM) of Shaanxi Province, China, are a well-known selenium (Se)-rich area, and the area is also known for endemic fluorine (F) and arsenic (As) poisoning. In order to study the hydrochemical characteristics and trace element contents of the natural waters of this region, 62 water samples were collected from Lan'gao area in the NDM. The hydrochemical composition was principally characterized by Ca·Mg-HCO3·SO4. F and As concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.67 mg/L and from 0.33 to 6.29 μg/L, respectively, lower than Chinese national standard and international guidelines for drinking water quality. One year of monitoring proved that F and As in natural water were not the sources of the local fluorosis and arseniasis in the NDM. The average Se concentration in fissure water was 5.20 μg/L. The average Se content of river water was 2.82 μg/L, 14 times that of the world's surface level (0.2 μg/L). The Se content in eight samples reached the Chinese national standards for mineral drinking water quality (>10 μg/L). Contrasting the water samples of May, July, and September in 2015 shows that the Se content is relatively stable and the increase of humidity might be beneficial to increase the content of selenium and strontium in water.

  3. Determination of nitrate pollution sources in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) by using a combined approach of hydrochemical and isotopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saccon, Pierpaolo; Leis, Albrecht [JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Institute for Water, Energy and Sustainability, 8010 Graz (Austria); Marca, Alina; Kaiser, Jan; Campisi, Laura [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, NR4 7TJ Norwich (United Kingdom); Boettcher, Michael E.; Escher, Peter [Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research (IOW), Geochemistry and Isotope Geochemistry Group, D-18119 Rostock (Germany); Savarino, Joel; Erbland, Joseph [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement (LGGE) UMR 5183 (France); Eisenhauer, Anton [GEOMAR, Helmholtz Zentrum fuer Ozean Forschung Kiel, Wischhofstr. 1-3, 24148 Kiel (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Due to increased pollution by nitrate from intensive agricultural and other anthropogenic activities the Marano lagoon (northeast Italy) and part of its catchment area have been investigated, applying a combined approach of hydrochemical and isotopic techniques. Thus, to identify and characterize the potential multiple-sources of nitrate pollution the isotopic compositions of nitrate (δ{sup 15}N, δ{sup 18}O, and Δ{sup 17}O), boron (δ{sup 11}B), water (δ{sup 2}H and δ{sup 18}O), and sulphate (δ{sup 34}S and δ{sup 18}O), as well as the chemical composition of different water types have been determined. In the monitoring program water samples from the lagoon, its tributary rivers, the groundwater upwelling line, groundwater, sewage, and open sea on a quarterly interval from 2009 to 2010 have been collected and analyzed. Coupling isotopic and hydrochemical results indicate that the nitrate load in the lagoon was not only derived from agriculture activities but also from other sources such as urban wastewaters, in situ nitrification, and atmospheric deposition. However, none of the samples showed the isotopic characteristics of synthetic fertilizers. (authors)

  4. Alteration of Mesoscopic Properties and Mechanical Behavior of Sandstone Due to Hydro-Physical and Hydro-Chemical Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Liping; Wang, Zhechao; Huang, Anda

    2017-02-01

    The hydro-physical and hydro-chemical interactions between groundwater and a rock mass can lead to changes in the mineral composition and structure of the rock (e.g., generation of voids and dissolution pores and an increase in the porosity), thereby altering the macroscopic mechanical characteristics of the rock mass. Sandstone specimens were saturated with distilled water and five aqueous solutions characterized by various ion concentrations and pH values for several months, and their porosity was measured in real time. Simultaneously, the concentration and pH of each aqueous solution were monitored every 30 days. The results indicate that after immersion in the aqueous solutions for 180 days, the porosity of the sandstone specimens and the ion concentrations and pH of the aqueous solutions tended to stabilize. Then, the immersed sandstone specimens were analyzed in thin section and subjected to computerized tomography scanning. It turns out that the mineral composition and structure of the specimens had all changed to various degrees. Finally, the uniaxial compression tests were conducted on the sandstone specimens to analyze the effects of the hydro-physical and hydro-chemical alteration on the macroscopic mechanical characteristics of the rock (e.g., the stress-strain relationship, elastic modulus, and peak strength). The results of this study can serve as a reference for investigations into theories and applications of water-rock interactions and for research in related fields.

  5. 2-regularity and 2-normality conditions for systems with impulsive controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova Natal'ya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a controlled system with impulsive controls in the neighborhood of an abnormal point is investigated. The set of pairs (u,μ is considered as a class of admissible controls, where u is a measurable essentially bounded function and μ is a finite-dimensional Borel measure, such that for any Borel set B, μ(B is a subset of the given convex closed pointed cone. In this article the concepts of 2-regularity and 2-normality for the abstract mapping Ф, operating from the given Banach space into a finite-dimensional space, are introduced. The concepts of 2-regularity and 2-normality play a great role in the course of derivation of the first and the second order necessary conditions for the optimal control problem, consisting of the minimization of a certain functional on the set of the admissible processes. These concepts are also important for obtaining the sufficient conditions for the local controllability of the nonlinear systems. The convenient criterion for 2-regularity along the prescribed direction and necessary conditions for 2-normality of systems, linear in control, are introduced in this article as well.

  6. An Innovative Adaptive Control System to Regulate Microclimatic Conditions in a Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Nicolosi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past home automation has been expanding its objectives towards new solutions both inside the smart home and in its outdoor spaces, where several new technologies are available. This work has developed an approach to integrate intelligent microclimatic greenhouse control into integrated home automation. Microclimatic control of greenhouses is a critical issue in agricultural practices, due to often common sudden daily variation of climatic conditions, and to its potentially detrimental effect on plant growth. A greenhouse is a complex thermodynamic system where indoor temperature and relative humidity have to be closely monitored to facilitate plant growth and production. This work shows an adaptive control system tailored to regulate microclimatic conditions in a greenhouse, by using an innovative combination of soft computing applications. In particular, a neural network solution has been proposed in order to forecast the climatic behavior of greenhouse, while a parallel fuzzy scheme approach is carried out in order to adjust the air speed of fan-coil and its temperature. The proposed combined approach provides a better control of greenhouse climatic conditions due to the system’s capability to base instantaneous solutions both on real measured variables and on forecasted climatic change. Several simulation campaigns were carried out to perform accurate neural network and fuzzy schemes, aimed at obtaining respectively a minimum forecasted error value and a more appropriate fuzzification and de-fuzzification process. A Matlab/Simulink solution implemented with a combined approach and its relevant obtained performance is also shown in present study, demonstrating that through controlled parameters it will be possible to maintain a better level of indoor climatic conditions. In the present work we prove how with a forecast of outside temperature at the next time-instant and rule-based controller monitoring of cooling or heating air

  7. Hydrochemical determination of source water contributions to Lake Lungo and Lake Ripasottile (central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Archer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lake Lungo and Lake Ripasottile are two shallow (4-5 m lakes located in the Rieti Basin, central Italy, that have been described previously as surface outcroppings of the groundwater table. In this work, the two lakes as well as springs and rivers that represent their potential source waters are characterized physio-chemically and isotopically, using a combination of environmental tracers. Temperature and pH were measured and water samples were analyzed for alkalinity, major ion concentration, and stable isotope (δ2H, δ18O, δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon, and δ34S and δ18O of sulfate composition.  Chemical data were also investigated in terms of local meteorological data (air temperature, precipitation to determine the sensitivity of lake parameters to changes in the surrounding environment. Groundwater represented by samples taken from Santa Susanna Spring was shown to be distinct with SO42- and Mg2+ content of 270 and 29 mg/L, respectively, and heavy sulfate isotopic composition (δ34S=15.2 ‰ and δ18O=10‰. Outflow from the Santa Susanna Spring enters Lake Ripasottile via a canal and both spring and lake water exhibits the same chemical distinctions and comparatively low seasonal variability. Major ion concentrations in Lake Lungo are similar to the Vicenna Riara Spring and are interpreted to represent the groundwater locally recharged within the plain. The δ13CDIC exhibit the same groupings as the other chemical parameters, providing supporting evidence of the source relationships. Lake Lungo exhibited exceptional ranges of δ13CDIC (±5 ‰ and δ2H, δ18O (±5 ‰ and ±7 ‰, respectively, attributed to sensitivity to seasonal changes. The hydrochemistry results, particularly major ion data, highlight how the two lakes, though geographically and morphologically similar, represent distinct hydrochemical facies. These data also show a different response in each lake to temperature and precipitation patterns in the basin that

  8. Conditional likelihood methods for haplotype-based association analysis using matched case-control data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinbo; Rodriguez, Carmen

    2007-12-01

    Genetic epidemiologists routinely assess disease susceptibility in relation to haplotypes, that is, combinations of alleles on a single chromosome. We study statistical methods for inferring haplotype-related disease risk using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype data from matched case-control studies, where controls are individually matched to cases on some selected factors. Assuming a logistic regression model for haplotype-disease association, we propose two conditional likelihood approaches that address the issue that haplotypes cannot be inferred with certainty from SNP genotype data (phase ambiguity). One approach is based on the likelihood of disease status conditioned on the total number of cases, genotypes, and other covariates within each matching stratum, and the other is based on the joint likelihood of disease status and genotypes conditioned only on the total number of cases and other covariates. The joint-likelihood approach is generally more efficient, particularly for assessing haplotype-environment interactions. Simulation studies demonstrated that the first approach was more robust to model assumptions on the diplotype distribution conditioned on environmental risk variables and matching factors in the control population. We applied the two methods to analyze a matched case-control study of prostate cancer.

  9. 50 CFR 22.32 - Conditions and limitations on taking under depredation control order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Golden Eagles § 22.32 Conditions and limitations on taking under depredation control order. (a) Whenever the taking of golden eagles without a permit is authorized for the seasonal protection of livestock, such birds may be taken by firearms, traps, or other suitable means except by poison or from aircraft...

  10. 76 FR 55293 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 23 Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC) System AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Diamond Aircraft Industries (DAI), model DA-40NG airplane. This airplane will have a novel or...

  11. Null exact controllability of the parabolic equations with equivalued surface boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to showing the null exact controllability for a class of parabolic equations with equivalued surface boundary condition. Our method is based on the duality argument and global Carleman-type estimate for a parabolic operator.

  12. 78 FR 76248 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 Series Airplane; Side Stick Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http:// DocketsInfo.dot.gov/ . Docket: Background documents or... Branch, ANM-115, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service, 1601 Lind Avenue SW... by wrist and not by arms. Discussion Special conditions for Airbus side stick controllers have...

  13. Cognitive/Attentional Distraction in the Control of Conditioned Nausea in Pediatric Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, William H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigated use of cognitive/attentional distraction (via commercially available video games) to control conditioned nausea in pediatric cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Video game-playing resulted in significantly less nausea. The introduction and withdrawal of the opportunity to play video games produced significant changes (reduction…

  14. Temperature and Humidity Independent Control Research on Ground Source Heat Pump Air Conditioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.; Wang, L. L.

    Taking green demonstration center building air conditioning system as an example, this paper presents the temperature and humidity independent control system combined with ground source heat pump system, emphasis on the design of dry terminal device system, fresh air system and ground source heat pump system.

  15. ADAPTATION OF DEVELOPED TECHNIQUE OF THE METALWARE CONDITION ESTIMATION FOR THE WELDING-COVERED PARTS CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. I. Panteleenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of metalware condition estimation is worked out by authors. Questions of its adaptation to the quality assurance of restored and strengthened details and tools with the wearresistant coatings deposited are discussed. Magnetic and durometrie methods of nondestructive control used in order to estimate the exploitation reliability of details with welded coatings. Efficiency of this methods is confirmed.

  16. Soil Physical and Environmental Conditions Controlling Patterned-Ground Variability at a Continuous Permafrost Site, Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watanabe, Tatsuya; Matsuoka, Norikazu; Christiansen, Hanne Hvidtfeldt

    2017-01-01

    This study examines soil physical and environmental conditions controlling patterned-ground variability on an alluvial fan in a continuous permafrost landscape, at Adventdalen, Svalbard. On-site monitoring of ground temperature, soil moisture and snow depth, laboratory analyses of soil physical...

  17. Simulation Evaluation of Controller-Managed Spacing Tools under Realistic Operational Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Hunt, Sarah M.; Prevot, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) tools have been developed to aid air traffic controllers in managing high volumes of arriving aircraft according to a schedule while enabling them to fly efficient descent profiles. The CMS tools are undergoing refinement in preparation for field demonstration as part of NASA's Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1). System-level ATD-1 simulations have been conducted to quantify expected efficiency and capacity gains under realistic operational conditions. This paper presents simulation results with a focus on CMS-tool human factors. The results suggest experienced controllers new to the tools find them acceptable and can use them effectively in ATD-1 operations.

  18. Method for use of hydraulically or electrically controlled solenoids under failed on conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolenbaugh, Jonathan M.; Naqi, Syed

    2014-07-08

    A method to operate a clutch device in an electro-mechanical transmission mechanically-operatively coupled to an internal combustion engine and at least one electric machine includes, in response to a failure condition detected within a flow control device configured to facilitate flow of hydraulic fluid for operating the clutch device, selectively preventing the flow of hydraulic fluid from entering the flow control device and feeding the clutch device. Synchronization of the clutch device is initiated when the clutch device is intended for activation, and only if the clutch device is synchronized, the flow of hydraulic fluid is selectively permitted to enter the flow control device to activate the clutch device.

  19. Informed conditioning on clinical covariates increases power in case-control association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitlen, Noah; Lindström, Sara; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Cornelis, Marilyn; Genovese, Giulio; Pollack, Samuela; Barton, Anne; Bickeböller, Heike; Bowden, Donald W; Eyre, Steve; Freedman, Barry I; Friedman, David J; Field, John K; Groop, Leif; Haugen, Aage; Heinrich, Joachim; Henderson, Brian E; Hicks, Pamela J; Hocking, Lynne J; Kolonel, Laurence N; Landi, Maria Teresa; Langefeld, Carl D; Le Marchand, Loic; Meister, Michael; Morgan, Ann W; Raji, Olaide Y; Risch, Angela; Rosenberger, Albert; Scherf, David; Steer, Sophia; Walshaw, Martin; Waters, Kevin M; Wilson, Anthony G; Wordsworth, Paul; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh; Tchetgen, Eric Tchetgen; Haiman, Christopher; Hunter, David J; Plenge, Robert M; Worthington, Jane; Christiani, David C; Schaumberg, Debra A; Chasman, Daniel I; Altshuler, David; Voight, Benjamin; Kraft, Peter; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L

    2012-01-01

    Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI), smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low-BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high-BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals on the basis of phenotype (case-control ascertainment) or phenotype and clinical covariates (case-control-covariate ascertainment). While current approaches improve power in studies with random ascertainment, they often lose power under case-control ascertainment and fail to capture available power increases under case-control-covariate ascertainment. We show that an informed conditioning approach, based on the liability threshold model with parameters informed by external epidemiological information, fully accounts for disease prevalence and non-random ascertainment of phenotype as well as covariates and provides a substantial increase in power while maintaining a properly controlled false-positive rate. Our method outperforms standard case-control association tests with or without covariates, tests of gene x covariate interaction, and previously proposed tests for dealing with covariates in ascertained data, with especially large improvements in the case of case-control-covariate ascertainment. We investigate empirical case-control studies of type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, age-related macular degeneration, and end-stage kidney disease over a total of 89,726 samples. In these datasets, informed conditioning outperforms logistic regression for 115 of the 157 known associated variants investigated (P-value = 1 × 10(-9)). The improvement varied across diseases with a 16% median increase in χ(2) test statistics and a

  20. Early warning of freshwater salinization due to upward brine displacement by species transport simulations combined with a hydrochemical genesis model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Maria; Kühn, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Shallow groundwater resources could be possibly affected by intruding brines, which are displaced along hydraulically conductive faults as result of subsurface activities like CO2 injection. To avoid salinization of potable freshwater aquifers an early detection of intruding saline water is necessary, especially in regions where an initial geogenic salinization already exists. Our study is based on work of Tillner et al. [1] and Langer et al. [2] who investigated the influence of permeable fault systems on brine displacement for the prospective storage site Beeskow-Birkholz in the Northeast German Basin. With a 3D regional scale model considering the deep groundwater system, they demonstrated that the existence of hydraulically conductive faults is not necessarily an exclusion criterion for potential injection sites, because salinization of shallower aquifers strongly depends on the effective damage zone volume, the initial salinity distribution and overlying reservoirs [2], while permeability of fault zones does not influence salinization of shallower aquifers significantly [1]. Here we extracted a 2D cross section regarding the upper 220 m of the study area mainly represented by shallow freshwater aquifers, but also considering an initial geogenic salinization [3]. We took flow rates of the intruding brines from the previous studies [2] and implemented species transport simulations with the program code SHEMAT [4]. Results are investigated and interpreted with the hydrochemical genesis model GEBAH [5] which has been already applied as early warning of saltwater intrusions into freshwater aquifers and surface water [6]. GEBAH allows a categorization of groundwater by the ion ratios of the dissolved components and offers a first indicative determination for an existence and the intensity of saline water intrusion in shallow groundwater aquifer, independent of the concentration of the solution. With our model we investigated the migration of saline water through a

  1. Nutritional conditions regulate transcriptional activity of SF-1 by controlling sumoylation and ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiwon; Yang, Dong Joo; Lee, Syann; Hammer, Gary D; Kim, Ki Woo; Elmquist, Joel K

    2016-01-11

    Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is a transcription factor expressed in the ventral medial nucleus of the hypothalamus that regulates energy homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanisms of SF-1 in the control of energy balance are largely unknown. Here, we show that nutritional conditions, such as the presence or absence of serum, affect SF-1 action. Serum starvation significantly decreased hypothalamic SF-1 levels by promoting ubiquitin-dependent degradation, and sumoylation was required for this process. SF-1 transcriptional activity was also differentially regulated by nutritional status. Under normal conditions, the transcriptional activity of hypothalamic SF-1 was activated by SUMO, but this was attenuated during starvation. Taken together, these results indicate that sumoylation and ubiquitination play crucial roles in the regulation of SF-1 function and that these effects are dependent on nutritional conditions, further supporting the importance of SF-1 in the control of energy homeostasis.

  2. The design of predictive control with characterized set of initial condition for constrained switched nonlinear system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU BaiLi; LI ShaoYuan; ZHU QuanMin

    2009-01-01

    Stabilization of the constrained switched nonlinear systems is an attractive research subject. Predictive control can handle variable constraints well and make the system stable. Its stability is typically based on an assumption of initial feasibility of the optimization problem; however the set of initial conditions, starting from where a given predictive formulation is guaranteed to be feasible, is not explicitly char-acterized. In this paper, a hybrid predictive control method is proposed for a class of switched nonlin-ear systems with input constraints and un-measurable states. The main idea is to design a mixed con-troller using Lyapunov functions and a state observer, which switches appropriately between a bounded feedback controller and a predictive controller, and to give an explicitly characterized set of initial conditions to stabilize each closed-loop subsystem. For the whole switched nonlinear system, a suitable switched law based on the state estimation is designed to orchestrate the transitions between the consistituent modes and their respective controllers, and to ensure the whole closed-loop system's stability. The simulation results for a chemical process show the validity of the controller proposed in this paper.

  3. Forming Conditions and Neural Network Control of Continuously Directional Microstructure in Directional Solidification Continuous Casting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Directional solidification continuous casting (DSCC) process is a new manufacturing technology for metal- lic materials which combines advantages of both directional solidification technology and continuous casting technolo- gy. Unlimited long shaped metal with directionally solidifying microstructure can be produced by this process. It is experimentally shown that controlling condition of stable and continuous growth of single crystal structure means the precise control of the location of the S/L interface, which is affected and determined by seven process parameters. Moreover, these parameters are also interacted each other, so the disturbance of any parameters may cause the fail- ure of controlling of S/L interface. In this paper, on the basis of analyzing the forming conditions of continuously di- rectional microstructures in DSCC process, the control model of DSCC procedure by neural network control (NNC) method was proposed and discussed. Combining with the experiments, we first used the computer to simulate the effects of the solidification parameters on destination control variable (S/L interface) and the interactions among these parameters during DSCC procedure. Secondly many training samples necessary for neural network calculation can be obtained through the simulation. Moreover, these samples are inputted into neural network software (NNs) and trained, then the control model can be built up.

  4. The design of predictive control with characterized set of initial condition for constrained switched nonlinear system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Stabilization of the constrained switched nonlinear systems is an attractive research subject. Predictive control can handle variable constraints well and make the system stable. Its stability is typically based on an assumption of initial feasibility of the optimization problem; however the set of initial conditions, starting from where a given predictive formulation is guaranteed to be feasible, is not explicitly characterized. In this paper, a hybrid predictive control method is proposed for a class of switched nonlinear systems with input constraints and un-measurable states. The main idea is to design a mixed controller using Lyapunov functions and a state observer, which switches appropriately between a bounded feedback controller and a predictive controller, and to give an explicitly characterized set of initial conditions to stabilize each closed-loop subsystem. For the whole switched nonlinear system, a suitable switched law based on the state estimation is designed to orchestrate the transitions between the consistituent modes and their respective controllers, and to ensure the whole closed-loop system’s stability. The simulation results for a chemical process show the validity of the controller proposed in this paper.

  5. Improving riparian wetland conditions based on infiltration and drainage behavior during and after controlled flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Tess A.; Fisher, Andrew T.; Roche, James W.

    2012-04-01

    SummaryWe present results of an observational and modeling study of the hydrologic response of a riparian wetland to controlled flooding. The study site is located in Poopenaut Valley, Yosemite National Park (USA), adjacent to the Tuolumne River. This area is flooded periodically by releases from the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir, and was monitored during one flood sequence to assess the relative importance of inundation versus groundwater rise in establishing and maintaining riparian wetland conditions, defined on the basis of a minimum depth and duration of soil saturation, and to determine how restoration benefits might be achieved while reducing total flood discharge. Soil moisture data show how shallow soils were wetted by both inundation and a rising water table as the river hydrograph rose repeatedly during the controlled flood. The shallow groundwater aquifer under wetland areas responded quickly to conditions in the adjacent river, demonstrating a good connection between surface and subsurface regimes. The observed soil drainage response helped to calibrate a numerical model that was used to test scenarios for controlled flood releases. Modeling of this groundwater-wetland system suggests that inundation of surface soils is the most effective mechanism for developing wetland conditions, although an elevated water table helps to extend the duration of soil saturation. Achievement of wetland conditions can be achieved with a smaller total flood release, provided that repeated cycling of higher and lower river elevations is timed to benefit from the characteristic drainage behavior of wetland soils. These results are robust to modest variations in the initial water table elevation, as might result from wetter or dryer conditions prior to a flood. However, larger changes to initial water table elevation, as could be associated with long term climate change or drought conditions, would have a significant influence on wetland development. An ongoing controlled flooding

  6. Application of multivariate statistical analysis and hydrochemical and isotopic investigations for evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agriculture purposes: case of Oum Ali-Thelepte aquifer, central Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassen, Imen; Hamzaoui-Azaza, Fadoua; Bouhlila, Rachida

    2016-03-01

    Groundwater plays a dominant role in arid regions; it is among the most available water resources in Tunisia. Located in northwestern Tunisia, Oum Ali-Thelepte is a deep Miocene sedimentary aquifer, where groundwater is the most important source of water supply. The aim of the study is to investigate the hydrochemical processes leading to mineralization and to assess water quality with respect to agriculture and drinking for a better management of groundwater resources. To achieve such objectives, water analysis was carried out on 16 groundwater samples collected during January-February 2014. Stable isotopes and 26 hydrochemical parameters were examined. The interpretation of these analytical data showed that the concentrations of major and trace elements were within the permissible level for human use. The distribution of mineral processes in this aquifer was identified using conventional classification techniques, suggesting that the water facies gradually changes from Ca-HCO3 to Mg-SO4 type and are controlled by water-rock interaction. These results were endorsed using multivariate statistical methods such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The sustainability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation was assessed based on the water quality index (WQI) and on Wilcox and Richards's diagrams. This aquifer has been classified as "excellent water" serving good irrigation in the area. As for the stable isotope, the measurements showed that groundwater samples lay between global meteoric water line (GMWL) and LMWL; hence, this arrangement signifies that the recharge of the Oum Ali-Thelepte aquifer is ensured by rainwater infiltration through mountains in the border of the aquifer without evaporation effects.

  7. Heating control strategy in fresh air processor matched with variable refrigerant flow air conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu Qiu, E-mail: tuqiuky@163.co [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China) and Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Mao Shoubo; Feng Yuhai; Guo Defang [Haier Air-Conditioning Electronic Co. Ltd., Qingdao 266510 (China)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} A set of fresh air processor matched with VRF AC has been designed. {yields} The heating control model of variable condensation temperature target has been presented {yields} The control strategy can realize reliable running, high control accuracy and energy-saving. {yields} The control model is universal for fresh air processors with different capacities. -- Abstract: The fresh air processor (FAP), matched with the variable refrigerant flow air conditioning system (VRF AC), has been developed. Two control methods were adopted to control the system running and air outlet temperature, contrastively. The first method is that the running frequency in heating mode is adjusted in terms of the ordinary control method of VRF, i.e., constant condensation temperature. The experiment demonstrates the control method is not feasible. For nominal heating under different static pressure and defrosting under 200 Pa static pressure, the system fluctuates frequently. And for high temperature heating, the air outlet temperature far exceeds the target temperature. Furthermore, the control model of variable condensation temperature target has been presented, and the heat transfer correction factor is introduced into the control model. And the control parameters in the model are determined by experiment. The control model is universal for FAPs with different capacities by identifying and choosing the heat transfer correction factor in the control program. For low temperature heating, the method of switching rotation speed of the motor can be adopted to enhance air outlet temperature to 22 {sup o}C. The control strategy can provide guide for the design and application of FAP.

  8. Analysis of a Microgrid under Transient Conditions Using Voltage and Frequency Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of voltage-and-frequency-(VF- based battery energy storage system (BESS controller used in micro grid for analyzing the optimum capability of plant. Microgrid is formed by using three hydropower plants feeding three-phase four-wire load. The proposed controller is used for load balancing, harmonic elimination, load leveling, and neutral current compensation. The proposed BESS controller permits the selection of an optimum voltage level of battery and allows independent current control of each phase. The main emphasis is given on maintaining constant voltage and frequency within the micro grid during transient conditions. Micro grid with power plant and its controller is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink using Power System Blockset (PSB toolboxes.

  9. Adaptive Neural Control of Nonaffine Nonlinear Systems without Differential Condition for Nonaffine Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaojiao Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive neural control scheme is proposed for nonaffine nonlinear system without using the implicit function theorem or mean value theorem. The differential conditions on nonaffine nonlinear functions are removed. The control-gain function is modeled with the nonaffine function probably being indifferentiable. Furthermore, only a semibounded condition for nonaffine nonlinear function is required in the proposed method, and the basic idea of invariant set theory is then constructively introduced to cope with the difficulty in the control design for nonaffine nonlinear systems. It is rigorously proved that all the closed-loop signals are bounded and the tracking error converges to a small residual set asymptotically. Finally, simulation examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the designed method.

  10. Dynamic modeling and direct power control of wind turbine driven DFIG under unbalanced network voltage conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-bing HU; Yi-kang HE; Lie XU

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an analysis and a direct power control (DPC) design of a wind turbine driven doubly-fed in-duction generator (DFIG) under unbalanced network voltage conditions. A DFIG model described in the positive and negative synchronous reference frames is presented. Variations of the stator output active and reactive powers are fully deduced in the presence of negative sequence supply voltage and rotor flux. An enhanced DPC scheme is proposed to eliminate stator active power oscillation during network unbalance. The proposed control scheme removes rotor current regulators and the decomposition processing of positive and negative sequence rotor currents. Simulation results using PSCAD/EMTDC are presented on a 2-MW DFIG wind power generation system to validate the feasibility of the proposed control scheme under balanced and unbalanced network conditions.

  11. Feedback linearization based control of a variable air volume air conditioning system for cooling applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thosar, Archana; Patra, Amit; Bhattacharyya, Souvik

    2008-07-01

    Design of a nonlinear control system for a Variable Air Volume Air Conditioning (VAVAC) plant through feedback linearization is presented in this article. VAVAC systems attempt to reduce building energy consumption while maintaining the primary role of air conditioning. The temperature of the space is maintained at a constant level by establishing a balance between the cooling load generated in the space and the air supply delivered to meet the load. The dynamic model of a VAVAC plant is derived and formulated as a MIMO bilinear system. Feedback linearization is applied for decoupling and linearization of the nonlinear model. Simulation results for a laboratory scale plant are presented to demonstrate the potential of keeping comfort and maintaining energy optimal performance by this methodology. Results obtained with a conventional PI controller and a feedback linearizing controller are compared and the superiority of the proposed approach is clearly established.

  12. A power conditioning system for thermoelectric generator based on interleaved Boost converter with MPPT control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, L.-X; Sun, K.; Zhang, L.

    2011-01-01

    The thermoelectric generation (TEG) system has its special charactristics of high stablility, low voltage and high current output, which is different from PV modules. The power conditioning system and control schemes used in PV applications cannot be directly applied to TEG applications. A power...... conditioning system for TEG based on interleaved Boost converter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control is investigated in this paper. Since an internal resistance exists inside TEG modules, an improved perturbation and observation (P&O) MPPT control scheme with power limit is proposed to extract...... maximum power from TEG by matching the load with internal resistance. Since the battery is usually employed as the load for TEG systems, the interleaved Boost converter operates in two different modes for battery charging: before the battery is fully charged, the system outputs the maximum power (MPPT...

  13. Power system security enhancement with unified power flow controller under multi-event contingency conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ravindra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Power system security analysis plays key role in enhancing the system security and to avoid the system collapse condition. In this paper, a novel severity function is formulated using transmission line loadings and bus voltage magnitude deviations. The proposed severity function and generation fuel cost objectives are analyzed under transmission line(s and/or generator(s contingency conditions. The system security under contingency conditions is analyzed using optimal power flow problem. An improved teaching learning based optimization (ITLBO algorithm has been presented. To enhance the system security under contingency conditions in the presence of unified power flow controller (UPFC, it is necessary to identify an optimal location to install this device. Voltage source based power injection model of UPFC, incorporation procedure and optimal location identification strategy based on line overload sensitivity indexes are proposed. The entire proposed methodology is tested on standard IEEE-30 bus test system with supporting numerical and graphical results.

  14. Hydrochemical tracers in the middle Rio Grande Basin, USA: 1. Conceptualization of groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, L. Niel; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.; Sanford, Ward E.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    Chemical and isotopic data for groundwater from throughout the Middle Rio Grande Basin, central New Mexico, USA, were used to identify and map groundwater flow from 12 sources of water to the basin, evaluate radiocarbon ages, and refine the conceptual model of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. Hydrochemical zones, representing groundwater flow over thousands to tens of thousands of years, can be traced over large distances through the primarily siliciclastic aquifer system. The locations of the hydrochemical zones mostly reflect the ``modern'' predevelopment hydraulic-head distribution, but are inconsistent with a trough in predevelopment water levels in the west-central part of the basin, indicating that this trough is a transient rather than a long-term feature of the aquifer system. Radiocarbon ages adjusted for geochemical reactions, mixing, and evapotranspiration/dilution processes in the aquifer system were nearly identical to the unadjusted radiocarbon ages, and ranged from modern to more than 30 ka. Age gradients from piezometer nests ranged from 0.1 to 2 year cm-1 and indicate a recharge rate of about 3 cm year-1 for recharge along the eastern mountain front and infiltration from the Rio Grande near Albuquerque. There has been appreciably less recharge along the eastern mountain front north and south of Albuquerque. Des données sur les éléments chimiques et les isotopes présents dans l'eau souterraine prélevée à divers endroits dans le bassin moyen du Rio Grande, au centre du Nouveau-Mexique (É-U), ont permis de déterminer l'existence et l'étendue de douze sources d'eau régionales dans le bassin, d'évaluer les âges radiocarbones et de raffiner le modèle conceptuel du système aquifère du groupe de Santa Fe. Des zones hydro-chimiques qui représentent l'écoulement de l'eau souterraine depuis des dizaines de milliers d'années peuvent être suivies sur de longues distances à travers l'aquifère principalement siliclastique. La position des

  15. Hydrochemical-isotopic and hydrogeological conceptual model of the Las Tres Vı´rgenes geothermal field, Baja California Sur, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugal, E.; Birkle, P.; Barragán R, R. M.; Arellano G, V. M.; Tello, E.; Tello, M.

    2000-09-01

    Based on geological, structural, hydrochemical and isotopic data, a hydrogeological conceptual model for the geothermal reservoir, shallow wells and springs at the Las Tres Vı´rgenes geothermal field and its surroundings is proposed. The model explains the genesis of different types of thermal and cold groundwater in the NW (El Azufre Valley, Las Tres Vı´rgenes and Aguajito complex), NE (Reforma complex) and S (Sierra Mezquital) areas. Shallow groundwater of sulfate type in the NW zone is explained by the rise of CO 2-H 2S vapor from a shallow magma chamber and the subsequent heating up of a shallow aquifer. Vertical communication between the reservoir and the surface is facilitated by a series of extensional, NW-SE-trending normal faults, forming the graben structures of the Santa Rosalı´a Basin. Low-permeability characteristics of the geological formations of the study area support the hypothesis of a fracture and fault-dominated, subterranean-flow circulation system. The Na- (Cl-HCO 3) composition of springs in the NE and SE zones indicates influence of ascending geothermal fluids, facilitated by radial fault systems of the Reforma caldera and probably the existence of a shallow magma chamber. Close to the surface, the rising geothermal fluids are mixed up with meteoric water from a shallow aquifer. The Las Tres Vı´rgenes and the Reforma complex are separated by younger, N-S-trending lateral shearing faults, such as the Cimarrón fault; such disposition explains the genesis of different hydrogeological flow regimes on both sides. HCO 3-type surface water from the southern zone between San Ignacio and Mezquital is of typical meteoric origin, with no influence of geothermal fluids. Due to arid climatic conditions in the study zone, recent recharge in the geothermal area seems improbable; thus, recent interaction between the surface and the geothermal reservoir can be excluded. Furthermore, isotopic and hydrochemical data exclude the presence of marine

  16. Genetic Optimization Algorithm of PID Decoupling Control for VAV Air-Conditioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiangjiang; AN Dawei; ZHANG Chunfa; JING Youyin

    2009-01-01

    Variable-air-volume (VAV) air-conditioning system is a multi-variable system and has multi coupling control loops. While all of the control loops are working together, they interfere and influence each other. A multi-variable decoupling PID controller is designed for VAV air-conditioning system. Diagonal matrix decoupling method is employed to eliminate the coupling between the loop of supply air temperature and that of thermal-space air temperature. The PID controller parameters are optimized by means of an improved genetic algorithm in floating point representations to obtain better performance. The population in the improved genetic algorithm mutates before crossover, which is helpful for the convergence. Additionally the micro mutation algorithm is proposed and applied to improve the convergence during the later evolution. To search the best parameters, the optimized parameters ranges should be amplified l0 times the initial ideal parameters. The simulation and experiment results show that the decoupling control system is effective and feasible. The method can overcome the strong coupling feature of the system and has shorter governing time and less over-shoot than non-optimization PID control.

  17. The Hamilton-Jacobi theory for solving optimal feedback control problems with general boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chandeok

    This dissertation presents a general methodology for solving the optimal feedback control problem in the context of Hamiltonian system theory. It is first formulated as a two point boundary value problem for a standard Hamiltonian system, and the associated phase flow is viewed as a canonical transformation. Then relying on the Hamilton-Jacobi theory, we employ generating functions to develop a unified methodology for solving a variety of optimal feedback control formulations with general types of boundary conditions. The major accomplishment is to establish a theoretical connection between the optimal cost function and a special kind of generating function. Guided by this recognition, we are ultimately led to a new flexible representation of the optimal feedback control law for a given system, which is adjustable to various types of boundary conditions by algebraic conversions and partial differentiations. This adaptive property provides a substantial advantage over the classical dynamic programming method in the sense that we do not need to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation repetitively for varying types of boundary conditions. Furthermore for a special type of boundary condition, it also enables us to work around an inherent singularity of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation by a special algebraic transformation. Taking full advantage of these theoretical insights, we develop a systematic algorithm for solving a class of optimal feedback control problems represented by smooth analytic Hamiltonians, and apply it to problems with different characteristics. Then, broadening the practical utility of generating functions for problems where the relevant Hamiltonian is non-smooth, we construct a pair of Cauchy problems from the associated Hamilton-Jacobi equations. This alternative formulation is justified by solving problems with control constraints which usually feature non-smoothness in the control logic. The main result of this research establishes that

  18. Road Friction Estimation under Complicated Maneuver Conditions for Active Yaw Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Liang; LI Hongzhi; SONG Jian; YANG Cai; WU Hao

    2009-01-01

    Road friction coefficient is a key factor for the stability control of the vehicle dynamics in the critical conditions. Obviously the vehicle dynamics stability control systems, including the anti-lock brake system(ABS), the traction control system(TCS), and the active yaw control(AYC) system, need the accurate tire and road friction information. However, the simplified method based on the linear tire and vehicle model could not obtain the accurate road friction coefficient for the complicated maneuver of the vehicle. Because the active braking control mode of AYC is different from that of ABS, the road friction coefficient cannot be estimated only with the dynamics states of the tire. With the related dynamics states measured by the sensors of AYC, a comprehensive strategy of the road friction estimation for the active yaw control is brought forward with the sensor fusion technique. Firstly, the variations of the dynamics characteristics of vehicle and tire, and the stability control mode in the steering process are considered, and then the proper road friction estimation methods are brought forward according to the vehicle maneuver process. In the steering maneuver without braking, the comprehensive road friction from the four wheels may be estimated based on the multi-sensor signal fusion method. The estimated values of the road friction reflect the road friction characteristic. When the active brake involved, the road friction coefficient of the braked wheel may be estimated based on the brake pressure and tire forces, the estimated values reflect the road friction between the braked wheel and the road. So the optimal control of the wheel slip rate may be obtained according to the road friction coefficient. The methods proposed in the paper are integrated into the real time controller of AYC, which is matched onto the test vehicle. The ground tests validate the accuracy of the proposed method under the complicated maneuver conditions.

  19. Beep tones attenuate pain following Pavlovian conditioning of an endogenous pain control mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymonde Scheuren

    Full Text Available Heterotopic noxious counter-stimulation (HNCS is commonly used to study endogenous pain control systems. The resulting pain inhibition is primarily based on spinal cord-brainstem loops. Recently, functional imaging studies have shown that limbic structures like the anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala are also implicated. Since these structures are involved in learning processes, it is possible that the HNCS-induced pain inhibition may depend on specific cues from the environment that have been associated with pain reduction through associative learning. We investigated the influence of Pavlovian conditioning on HNCS-induced pain inhibition in 32 healthy subjects by using a differential conditioning paradigm in which two different acoustic stimuli were either repeatedly paired or unpaired with HNCS. Series of noxious electrical pulse trains delivered to the non-dominant foot served as test stimuli. Diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC-like effects were induced by concurrent application of tonic HNCS (immersion of the contralateral hand in ice water. Subjective pain intensity and pain unpleasantness ratings and electromyographic recordings of the facial corrugator muscle and the nocifensive RIII flexion reflex were used to measure changes in pain sensitivity. HNCS induced significant pain and reflex inhibitions. In the post-conditioning phase, only the paired auditory cue was able to significantly reduce pain perceptions and corrugator muscle activity. No conditioned effect could be observed in RIII reflex responses. Our results indicate that the functional state of endogenous pain control systems may depend on associative learning processes that, like in the present study, may lead to an attenuation of pain perception. Similar albeit opposite conditioning of pain control mechanisms may significantly be involved in the exacerbation and chronification of pain states.

  20. Beep tones attenuate pain following Pavlovian conditioning of an endogenous pain control mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuren, Raymonde; Anton, Fernand; Erpelding, Nathalie; Michaux, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Heterotopic noxious counter-stimulation (HNCS) is commonly used to study endogenous pain control systems. The resulting pain inhibition is primarily based on spinal cord-brainstem loops. Recently, functional imaging studies have shown that limbic structures like the anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala are also implicated. Since these structures are involved in learning processes, it is possible that the HNCS-induced pain inhibition may depend on specific cues from the environment that have been associated with pain reduction through associative learning. We investigated the influence of Pavlovian conditioning on HNCS-induced pain inhibition in 32 healthy subjects by using a differential conditioning paradigm in which two different acoustic stimuli were either repeatedly paired or unpaired with HNCS. Series of noxious electrical pulse trains delivered to the non-dominant foot served as test stimuli. Diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC)-like effects were induced by concurrent application of tonic HNCS (immersion of the contralateral hand in ice water). Subjective pain intensity and pain unpleasantness ratings and electromyographic recordings of the facial corrugator muscle and the nocifensive RIII flexion reflex were used to measure changes in pain sensitivity. HNCS induced significant pain and reflex inhibitions. In the post-conditioning phase, only the paired auditory cue was able to significantly reduce pain perceptions and corrugator muscle activity. No conditioned effect could be observed in RIII reflex responses. Our results indicate that the functional state of endogenous pain control systems may depend on associative learning processes that, like in the present study, may lead to an attenuation of pain perception. Similar albeit opposite conditioning of pain control mechanisms may significantly be involved in the exacerbation and chronification of pain states.

  1. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Chang, Chin-Yao; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2013-06-21

    Demand response is playing an increasingly important role in the efficient and reliable operation of the electric grid. Modeling the dynamic behavior of a large population of responsive loads is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of various demand response strategies. In this paper, a highly-accurate aggregated model is developed for a population of air conditioning loads. The model effectively includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with load heterogeneity, and accounts for second-order dynamics necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. Based on the model, a novel aggregated control strategy is designed for the load population under realistic conditions. The proposed controller is fully responsive and achieves the control objective without sacrificing end-use performance. The proposed aggregated modeling and control strategies are validated through realistic simulations using GridLAB-D. Extensive simulation results indicate that the proposed approach can effectively manage a large number of air conditioning systems to provide various demand response services, such as frequency regulation and peak load reduction.

  2. Enhanced Hover Control of Quad Tilt Frame UAV under Windy Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Krishnakumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A key research subject in the area of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs is how to make them autonomous. Towards this goal, the most vital step is stabilizing the attitude of the vehicles. This paper presents the design of an autonomous control system for a hybrid UAV to enable it to carry out a stable hovering mission under external wind disturbances. The hovering capability of the hybrid UAV under windy conditions is analysed with computational fluid dynamics (CFD and a control law is designed to stabilize the craft in the hovering position. The proposed hovering controller is verified with simulations and experiments. Finally, the flight control system is installed in a small prototype and a full transition flight test, including vertical take-off, transition from vertical flight to cruise, cruise, transition cruise to vertical mode and hover landing, is successfully accomplished.

  3. Enhanced Hover Control of Quad Tilt Frame UAV under Windy Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Krishnakumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A key research subject in the area of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs is how to make them autonomous. Towards this goal, the most vital step is stabilizing the attitude of the vehicles. This paper presents the design of an autonomous control system for a hybrid UAV to enable it to carry out a stable hovering mission under external wind disturbances. The hovering capability of the hybrid UAV under windy conditions is analysed with computational fluid dynamics (CFD and a control law is designed to stabilize the craft in the hovering position. The proposed hovering controller is verified with simulations and experiments. Finally, the flight control system is installed in a small prototype and a full transition flight test, including vertical take-off, transition from vertical flight to cruise, cruise, transition cruise to vertical mode and hover landing, is successfully accomplished.

  4. Biological control of white mold by Trichoderma harzianum in common bean under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Diego Costa Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate Trichoderma harzianum isolates for biological control of white mold in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. Five isolates were evaluated for biocontrol of white mold in 'Perola' common bean under field conditions, in the 2009 and 2010 crop seasons. A commercial isolate (1306 and a control treatment were included. Foliar applications at 2x109 conidia mL-1 were performed at 42 and 52 days after sowing (DAS, in 2009, and at 52 DAS in 2010. The CEN287, CEN316, and 1306 isolates decreased the number of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum apothecia per square meter in comparison to the control, in both crop seasons. CEN287, CEN316, and 1306 decreased white mold severity during the experimental period, when compared to the control.

  5. Control of hybrid AC/DC microgrid under islanding operational conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, G.; Gao, F.; Zhang, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents control methods for hybrid AC/DC microgrid under islanding operation condition. The control schemes for AC sub-microgrid and DC sub-microgrid are investigated according to the power sharing requirement and operational reliability. In addition, the key control schemes...... of interlinking converter with DC-link capacitor or energy storage, which will devote to the proper power sharing between AC and DC sub-microgrids to maintain AC and DC side voltage stable, is reviewed. Combining the specific control methods developed for AC and DC sub-microgrids with interlinking converter......, the whole hybrid AC/DC microgrid can manage the power flow transferred between sub-microgrids for improving on the operational quality and efficiency....

  6. Controlled cortical impact before or after fear conditioning does not affect fear extinction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Mercado, Demetrio; McAllister, Lauren M; Lee, Christopher C H; Milad, Mohammed R; Eskandar, Emad N; Whalen, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized in part by impaired extinction of conditioned fear. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is thought to be a risk factor for development of PTSD. We tested the hypothesis that controlled cortical impact (CCI) would impair extinction of fear learned by Pavlovian conditioning, in mice. To mimic the scenarios in which TBI occurs prior to or after exposure to an aversive event, severe CCI was delivered to the left parietal cortex at one of two time points: (1) Prior to fear conditioning, or (2) after conditioning. Delay auditory conditioning was achieved by pairing a tone with a foot shock in "context A". Extinction training involved the presentation of tones in a different context (context B) in the absence of foot shock. Test for extinction memory was achieved by presentation of additional tones alone in context B over the following two days. In pre- or post-injury paradigms, CCI did not influence fear learning and extinction. Furthermore, CCI did not affect locomotor activity or elevated plus maze testing. Our results demonstrate that, within the time frame studied, CCI does not impair the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear or extinction memory.

  7. Optimal control of the process of cultivation in the conditions of infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Sukhanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a way of solving of the optimal control problem of antibiotic feeding under condition of infection, consisting in the selection of the optimal control in the field of admissible control, with the aim of achieving a compromise between the losses in production due to the presence of foreign microflora, and the cost of its suppression due to the application of antibiotic. The presence of other microorganisms in the finished product, in particular of the “wild“ ones, considerably impairs the quality indicators of the final product (in particular, it reduces the storage time. In peculiar conditions of production it is possible to improve the quality of target product due to elimination of infection, including, when used antibiotics in the process of cultivation, but due to the lack of efficient algorithms and control systems of their supply the question is still open. We use the system of Lotka-Volterra adapted for microbiological process as a mathematical model adequately describing the situation of competitive interaction of two populations of microorganisms (useful and “wild“ ones due to the consumption of one resource. The aim is to find a control law U(t belonging to the field of admissible control. The control that affords minimum to the optimization criterion in accordance with the principle of maximum is defined by the condition of the maximum of Hamilton function and the resulting canonical system of equations. The modified conjugated system of equations in matrix form is obtained. The solution of system of differential-different equations in the analytical form is found using the method of coordinate transformation. As a result an optimal control law is found (with regard to the selected criterion. This is the control law of application of the antibiotic, allowing to control the concentration of foreign microflora in the process of cultivation of microorganisms and accounting for the specific

  8. Enhanced Decoupled Double Synchronous Reference Frame Current Controller for Unbalanced Grid-Voltage Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reyes, M.; Rodriguez, Pedro; Vazquez, S.;

    2012-01-01

    . In these codes, the injection of positive- and negative-sequence current components becomes necessary for fulfilling, among others, the low-voltage ride-through requirements during balanced and unbalanced grid faults. However, the performance of classical dq current controllers, applied to power converters......, under unbalanced grid-voltage conditions is highly deficient, due to the unavoidable appearance of current oscillations. This paper analyzes the performance of the double synchronous reference frame controller and improves its structure by adding a decoupling network for estimating and compensating...

  9. Algebraic stability criteria and symbolic derivation of stability conditions for feedback control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongming

    2012-10-01

    This article provides algebraic settings of the stability criteria of Nyquist and Popov and the circle criterion for closed-loop linear control systems with linear or nonlinear feedback whose transfer functions are rational ones with integer coefficients. The proposed settings make use of algebraic methods of parametric curve implicitisation, real root isolation, symbolic integration and quantifier elimination and allow one to derive exact stability conditions for feedback control systems with symbolic computation. An example is presented to illustrate the algebraic approach and its effectiveness. Some numerical stability results obtained previously are confirmed.

  10. Optimal control strategies for deficit irrigation systems under different climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetze, Niels; Wagner, Michael

    2017-04-01

    In this contribution, the suitability of different control strategies for the operation of irrigation systems under limited water and different climate conditions is investigated. To treat the climate uncertainty within a simulation optimization framework for irrigation management we formulated a probabilistic framework that is based on Monte Carlo simulations. Thus, results show which control strategy can ensure food security since higher quantiles (90% and above) are of interest. This study also demonstrates the efficiency of a stack-ordering technique for generating high productive irrigation schedules which is based on statistically appropriate sample sizes and a reliable optimal management.

  11. Rapid and tunable method to temporally control gene editing based on conditional Cas9 stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk, Serif; Shirole, Nitin H; Nowak, Dawid G; Corbo, Vincenzo; Pal, Debjani; Vaughan, Alexander; Tuveson, David A; Trotman, Lloyd C; Kinney, Justin B; Sordella, Raffaella

    2017-02-22

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful tool for studying gene function. Here, we describe a method that allows temporal control of CRISPR/Cas9 activity based on conditional Cas9 destabilization. We demonstrate that fusing an FKBP12-derived destabilizing domain to Cas9 (DD-Cas9) enables conditional Cas9 expression and temporal control of gene editing in the presence of an FKBP12 synthetic ligand. This system can be easily adapted to co-express, from the same promoter, DD-Cas9 with any other gene of interest without co-modulation of the latter. In particular, when co-expressed with inducible Cre-ER(T2), our system enables parallel, independent manipulation of alleles targeted by Cas9 and traditional recombinase with single-cell specificity. We anticipate this platform will be used for the systematic characterization and identification of essential genes, as well as the investigation of the interactions between functional genes.

  12. Intelligent control of air conditioning with economizer tx2; Klimaanlage mit Economiser tx2 intelligent geregelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hediger, M.; Schumacher, B. [Siemens Building Technologies AG, Staefa (Switzerland). Landis und Staefa Div.

    1999-03-01

    At Ziegler Druck- und Verlags AG (printing and publishing house), CH Winterhtur, an air conditioning plant operates since middle of 1997 requiring mechanical cooling only a few days annually. The air conditioning concept is based on an adiabatic cooling process and a control strategy where all control variables operate within a setpoint field using cost variables. As simulation and experience from other projects show, energy savings up to 50% can be expected. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei der Ziegler Druck- und Verlags-AG in Winterthur/Schweiz ist seit Mitte 1997 eine Klimaanlage in Betrieb, die nur noch an ganz wenigen Tagen im Jahr mechanisch erzeugte Kaelte benoetigt. Das Klimatisierungskonzept stuetzt sich auf adiabatische Kuehlung sowie eine neuartige Regelphilosophie, die alle Regelprozesse innerhalb eines definierten Sollwertfeldes nach wirtschaftlichen Vorgaben ausfuehrt. Modellrechnungen wie auch konkrete Erfahrungen aus anderen Projekten lassen mit dieser Art von Regelung Energiekosteneinsparungen von bis zu 50 Prozent erwarten. (orig.)

  13. Thermoelectric properties control due to doping level and sintering conditions for FGM thermoelectric element

    CERN Document Server

    Kajikawa, T; Shiraishi, K; Ohmori, M; Hirai, T

    1999-01-01

    Thermoelectric performance is determined with three factors, namely, Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity. For metal and single crystalline semiconductor, those factors have close interrelation each $9 other. However, as the sintered thermoelectric element has various levels of superstructure from macro scale and micro scale in terms of the thermoelectric mechanism, the relationship among them is more complex than that for the $9 melt- grown element, so it is suggested that the control of the temperature dependence of thermoelectric properties is possible to enhance the thermoelectric performance for wide temperature range due to FGM approach. The research $9 objective is to investigate the characteristics of the thermoelectric properties for various doping levels and hot-pressed conditions to make the thermoelectric elements for which the temperature dependence of the performance is $9 controlled due to FGM approach varying the doping levels and sintering conditions. By usage ...

  14. An assessment of consistence of exhaust gas emission test results obtained under controlled NEDC conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balawender, K.; Jaworski, A.; Kuszewski, H.; Lejda, K.; Ustrzycki, A.

    2016-09-01

    Measurements concerning emissions of pollutants contained in automobile combustion engine exhaust gases is of primary importance in view of their harmful impact on the natural environment. This paper presents results of tests aimed at determining exhaust gas pollutant emissions from a passenger car engine obtained under repeatable conditions on a chassis dynamometer. The test set-up was installed in a controlled climate chamber allowing to maintain the temperature conditions within the range from -20°C to +30°C. The analysis covered emissions of such components as CO, CO2, NOx, CH4, THC, and NMHC. The purpose of the study was to assess repeatability of results obtained in a number of tests performed as per NEDC test plan. The study is an introductory stage of a wider research project concerning the effect of climate conditions and fuel type on emission of pollutants contained in exhaust gases generated by automotive vehicles.

  15. Microprocessor supervised stability control system for the united power system of Middle Volga in fault conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdnikov, V.I.; Birgel, E.R.; Kovalev, V.D.; Kuznestov, A.N.

    1994-12-31

    The development of the 500 kV UPS of Middle Volga, the complication of its configuration and operating conditions particularly in connection with concentration of the generating power at Balakovo NPS have aggravated the problem of stability of the Middle Volga UPS when high power is transmitted along the 500 kV transient system. In this case the necessity for improving control actions` dosage accuracy has also appeared. This work discusses solution to the above mentioned issue. (author) 3 figs.

  16. Weather Forecast Based Conditional Pest Management: A Stochastic Optimal Control Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Liang; Elbakidze, Levan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we examine conditional, forecast-based dynamic pest management in agricultural crop production given stochastic pest infestations and stochastic climate dynamics throughout the growing season. Using stochastic optimal control we show that correlation between forecast error for climate prediction and forecast error for pest outbreaks can be used to improve pesticide application efficiency. In the general setting, we apply modified Hamiltonian approach to discuss the steady state...

  17. Geochemical Processes Controlling the Generation and Environmental Impacts of Acid Mine Drainage in Semi Arid Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Magombedze, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the geochemical processes that control the geochemistry of acid mine drainage in semi arid conditions. The central objective is to characterise and understand the evolution of acid mine drainage and its potential environmental impacts on the Mazowe River sub-catchment, in north east Zimbabwe. The work is based on a case study at three neighbouring metal sulphide mines, namely Trojan Nickel Mine, Mazowe Gold Mine and Iron Duke Pyrites.The methodology used in this research ...

  18. Controlled oxygen release from pyridone endoperoxides promotes cell survival under anoxic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Benz, Sebastian; Noetzli, Sarah; Siegel, Jay; Eberli, Daniel; Jessen, Henning Jacob

    2013-01-01

    In tissue engineering, survival of larger constructs remains challenging due to limited supply with oxygen caused by a lack of early vascularization. Controlled release of oxygen from small organic molecules represents a possible strategy to prevent cell death under anoxic conditions. A comprehensive study of methylated pyridone-derived endoperoxides has led to the development of water-soluble molecules that undergo retro Diels-Alder reactions in aqueous environment releasing oxygen in high y...

  19. Stability condition of FAST TCP in high speed network Oil the basis of control theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Fuzhe; Zhou Jianzhong; Luo Zhimeng; Xiao Yang

    2008-01-01

    Considering the instability of data transferred existing in high speed network.a near method is proposed for improving the stability using control theory.Under this method,the mathematical model of such a network is established.Stability condition is derived from the mathematical model.Several sivaulation experiments are performed.The results show that the method can increase the stability of data transferred in terms of the congestion window,queue size,and sending rate of the source.

  20. Characterization of groundwater in the Ejina Basin,northwest China:hydrochemical and environmental isotopes approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    To characterize the groundwater in the Ejina Basin,surface and groundwater samples were collected in May and October of 2002.On-site analyses included temperature,electrical conductance(EC),total alkalinity(as HCO 3) by titration,and pH.Chemical analyses were undertaken at the Geochemistry Laboratory of the Cold and Arid Region Environmental and Engineering Institute,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Lanzhou,China.The pH of the groundwater ranged from 7.18 to 8.90 with an average value of 7.72,indicating an alkaline nature.The total dissolved solids(TDS) of the groundwater ranged from 567.5 to 5,954.4 mg/L with an average of 1,543.1 mg/L and a standard deviation of 1,471.8 mg/L.According to the groundwater salinity classification of Robinove et al.(1958),47.4 percent of the samples were brackish and the remainder were fresh water.The ion concentration of the groundwater along the riverbed and near the southern margin of the basin were lower than those farther away from the riverbed.The groundwater in the study area was of Na +-HCO 3 type near the bank of the Heihe River and in the southern margin of the basin,while Na +-SO 4 2-Cl type samples were observed in the terminal lake region.In the desert area the groundwater reached a TDS of 3,000-6,000 mg/L and was predominantly by a Na +-Cl chemistry.Br/Cl for the water of Ejina Basin indicates an evaporite origin for the groundwater with a strongly depleted Br/Cl ratio(average 0.000484).The surface water was slightly enriched in Br/Cl(average 0.000711) compared with groundwater.The calculated saturation index(SI) for calcite and dolomite of the groundwater samples range from 0.89 to 1.31 and 1.67 to 2.67 with averaged 0.24 and 0.61,respectively.About 97 percent of the groundwater samples were kinetically oversaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite,and all the samples were below the equilibrium state with gypsum.Using isotope and hydrochemical analyses,this study investigated the groundwater evolution and its residence

  1. A polytomous conditional likelihood approach for combining matched and unmatched case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Guimaraes, Paulo; Cozen, Wendy; Conti, David V

    2010-04-30

    In genetic association studies it is becoming increasingly imperative to have large sample sizes to identify and replicate genetic effects. To achieve these sample sizes, many research initiatives are encouraging the collaboration and combination of several existing matched and unmatched case-control studies. Thus, it is becoming more common to compare multiple sets of controls with the same case group or multiple case groups to validate or confirm a positive or negative finding. Usually, a naive approach of fitting separate models for each case-control comparison is used to make inference about disease-exposure association. But, this approach does not make use of all the observed data and hence could lead to inconsistent results. The problem is compounded when a common case group is used in each case-control comparison. An alternative to fitting separate models is to use a polytomous logistic model but, this model does not combine matched and unmatched case-control data. Thus, we propose a polytomous logistic regression approach based on a latent group indicator and a conditional likelihood to do a combined analysis of matched and unmatched case-control data. We use simulation studies to evaluate the performance of the proposed method and a case-control study of multiple myeloma and Inter-Leukin-6 as an example. Our results indicate that the proposed method leads to a more efficient homogeneity test and a pooled estimate with smaller standard error.

  2. Entomological Condition and Control Efforts in Dengue Endemic Area of Baros Sub-District Sukabumi City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Prasetyowati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Baros sub-district contribute high incidence rate of dengue fever in Sukabumi city. To determine the level of transmission risk of dengue fever from entomological condition aspect, it’s required to do the entomological survey and interview about control efforts with the aim of identifying entomological factors at Baros sub-district and dengue control efforts in that area. Population for the survey and interview on entomological control efforts are all community group or Rukun Warga (RW in endemic area in Baros sub-district. Samples for survey are house/building at sub-district Baros RW 11. Interviewed respondent was a person whose stays in the building. Interviews were conducted using a questionnaire by visiting the respondent. Entomology data were collected through pre adult mosquitoes surveys. The results show that vector control made by RW 11 Baros sub-district are grouped into cultural, physical, biological, chemical, role and control in an integrated manner, with the highest type of control measures is an integrated control (37.6%. Indicators of entomology is HI = 33.98%, CI = 11.1%, BI = 45.63% . Based on the CI indicator, RW 11 sub-district Baros has a density figure 4, while the indicator based on HI and BI, has a density figure 6. This suggests that this region has a moderate risk of transmission to the spread of dengue disease.

  3. Causal Factors and Adverse Conditions of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Jones, Sharon Monica

    2010-01-01

    The causal factors of accidents from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database and incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) database associated with loss of control (LOC) were examined for four types of operations (i.e., Federal Aviation Regulation Part 121, Part 135 Scheduled, Part 135 Nonscheduled, and Part 91) for the years 1988 to 2004. In-flight LOC is a serious aviation problem. Well over half of the LOC accidents included at least one fatality (80 percent in Part 121), and roughly half of all aviation fatalities in the studied time period occurred in conjunction with LOC. An adverse events table was updated to provide focus to the technology validation strategy of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project. The table contains three types of adverse conditions: failure, damage, and upset. Thirteen different adverse condition subtypes were gleaned from the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), the FAA Accident and Incident database, and the NTSB database. The severity and frequency of the damage conditions, initial test conditions, and milestones references are also provided.

  4. Informed Conditioning on Clinical Covariates Increases Power in Case-Control Association Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitlen, Noah; Lindström, Sara; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Cornelis, Marilyn; Genovese, Giulio; Pollack, Samuela; Barton, Anne; Bickeböller, Heike; Bowden, Donald W.; Eyre, Steve; Freedman, Barry I.; Friedman, David J.; Field, John K.; Groop, Leif; Haugen, Aage; Heinrich, Joachim; Henderson, Brian E.; Hicks, Pamela J.; Hocking, Lynne J.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Landi, Maria Teresa; Langefeld, Carl D.; Le Marchand, Loic; Meister, Michael; Morgan, Ann W.; Raji, Olaide Y.; Risch, Angela; Rosenberger, Albert; Scherf, David; Steer, Sophia; Walshaw, Martin; Waters, Kevin M.; Wilson, Anthony G.; Wordsworth, Paul; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh; Tchetgen, Eric Tchetgen; Haiman, Christopher; Hunter, David J.; Plenge, Robert M.; Worthington, Jane; Christiani, David C.; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Altshuler, David; Voight, Benjamin; Kraft, Peter; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI), smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low–BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high–BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals on the basis of phenotype (case-control ascertainment) or phenotype and clinical covariates (case-control-covariate ascertainment). While current approaches improve power in studies with random ascertainment, they often lose power under case-control ascertainment and fail to capture available power increases under case-control-covariate ascertainment. We show that an informed conditioning approach, based on the liability threshold model with parameters informed by external epidemiological information, fully accounts for disease prevalence and non-random ascertainment of phenotype as well as covariates and provides a substantial increase in power while maintaining a properly controlled false-positive rate. Our method outperforms standard case-control association tests with or without covariates, tests of gene x covariate interaction, and previously proposed tests for dealing with covariates in ascertained data, with especially large improvements in the case of case-control-covariate ascertainment. We investigate empirical case-control studies of type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, age-related macular degeneration, and end-stage kidney disease over a total of 89,726 samples. In these datasets, informed conditioning outperforms logistic regression for 115 of the 157 known associated variants investigated (P-value = 1×10−9). The improvement varied across diseases with a 16% median increase in χ2 test statistics and a

  5. Informed conditioning on clinical covariates increases power in case-control association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Zaitlen

    Full Text Available Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI, smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low-BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high-BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals on the basis of phenotype (case-control ascertainment or phenotype and clinical covariates (case-control-covariate ascertainment. While current approaches improve power in studies with random ascertainment, they often lose power under case-control ascertainment and fail to capture available power increases under case-control-covariate ascertainment. We show that an informed conditioning approach, based on the liability threshold model with parameters informed by external epidemiological information, fully accounts for disease prevalence and non-random ascertainment of phenotype as well as covariates and provides a substantial increase in power while maintaining a properly controlled false-positive rate. Our method outperforms standard case-control association tests with or without covariates, tests of gene x covariate interaction, and previously proposed tests for dealing with covariates in ascertained data, with especially large improvements in the case of case-control-covariate ascertainment. We investigate empirical case-control studies of type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, age-related macular degeneration, and end-stage kidney disease over a total of 89,726 samples. In these datasets, informed conditioning outperforms logistic regression for 115 of the 157 known associated variants investigated (P-value = 1 × 10(-9. The improvement varied across diseases with a 16% median increase in χ(2 test statistics

  6. Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater quality in the Çavuşçayı basin, Sungurlu-Çorum, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Mehmet; Yıldırım, Turgut

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the quality and usage possibility of groundwater in the Çavuşçayı basin and suggest the best water structure for the groundwater use. Results from hydrochemical analyses reveal that groundwater is mostly affected by salty (Na+ Cl-) waters of the Incik Formation and brackish (Ca2+, Mg2+ SO{4/2-}) waters of the Bayındır Formation. The Alibaba saltpan discharged (2 l/s) from the Incik Formation is used for salt production. In the basin, salinity risk increases with depth and along the groundwater flow direction. Therefore, shallow water and trenches opened in the alluvium aquifer at the east of the basin were determined to yield suitable water with no Na+ and Cl- contamination. Following the heavy rainy period, waters of less salinity and conductivity are possibly used for agriculture.

  7. Modeling and HIL Simulation of Flight Conditions Simulating Control System for the Altitude Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Shen, Li; Zhang, Tianhong

    2016-12-01

    Simulated altitude test is an essential exploring, debugging, verification and validation means during the development of aero-engine. Free-jet engine test can simulate actual working conditions of aero-engine more realistically than direct-connect engine test but with relatively lower cost compared to propulsion wind tunnel test, thus becoming an important developing area of simulated altitude test technology. The Flight Conditions Simulating Control System (FCSCS) is of great importance to the Altitude Test Facility (ATF) but the development of that is a huge challenge. Aiming at improving the design efficiency and reducing risks during the development of FCSCS for ATFs, a Hardware- in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation system was designed and the mathematical models of key components such as the pressure stabilizing chamber, free-jet nozzle, control valve and aero-engine were built in this paper. Moreover, some HIL simulation experiments were carried out. The results show that the HIL simulation system designed and established in this paper is reasonable and effective, which can be used to adjust control parameters conveniently and assess the software and hardware in the control system immediately.

  8. Control of Root Rot and Wilt Diseases of Roselle under Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Naglaa; Elsharkawy, Mohsen Mohamed; Shimizu, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is one of the most important medicinal crops in many parts of the world. In this study, the effects of microelements, antioxidants, and bioagents on Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, and Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal pathogens of root rot and wilt diseases in roselle, were examined under field conditions. Preliminary studies were carried out in vitro in order to select the most effective members to be used in field control trials. Our results showed that microelements (copper and manganese), antioxidants (salicylic acid, ascorbic acid, and EDTA), a fungicide (Dithane M45) and biological control agents (Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis) were significantly reduced the linear growth of the causal pathogens. Additionally, application of the previous microelements, antioxidants, a fungicide and biological control agents significantly reduced disease incidence of root rot and wilt diseases under field conditions. Copper, salicylic acid, and T. harzianum showed the best results in this respect. In conclusion, microelements, antioxidants, and biocontrol agents could be used as alternative strategies to fungicides for controlling root rot and wilt diseases in roselle. PMID:25606010

  9. Control of Root Rot and Wilt Diseases of Roselle under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Naglaa; Elsharkawy, Mohsen Mohamed; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2014-12-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is one of the most important medicinal crops in many parts of the world. In this study, the effects of microelements, antioxidants, and bioagents on Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, and Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal pathogens of root rot and wilt diseases in roselle, were examined under field conditions. Preliminary studies were carried out in vitro in order to select the most effective members to be used in field control trials. Our results showed that microelements (copper and manganese), antioxidants (salicylic acid, ascorbic acid, and EDTA), a fungicide (Dithane M45) and biological control agents (Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis) were significantly reduced the linear growth of the causal pathogens. Additionally, application of the previous microelements, antioxidants, a fungicide and biological control agents significantly reduced disease incidence of root rot and wilt diseases under field conditions. Copper, salicylic acid, and T. harzianum showed the best results in this respect. In conclusion, microelements, antioxidants, and biocontrol agents could be used as alternative strategies to fungicides for controlling root rot and wilt diseases in roselle.

  10. Stability of conditionally invariant sets and controlled uncertain dynamic systems on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmikantham V.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A basic feedback control problem is that of obtaining some desired stability property from a system which contains uncertainties due to unknown inputs into the system. Despite such imperfect knowledge in the selected mathematical model, we often seek to devise controllers that will steer the system in a certain required fashion. Various classes of controllers whose design is based on the method of Lyapunov are known for both discrete [4], [10], [15], and continuous [3–9], [11] models described by difference and differential equations, respectively. Recently, a theory for what is known as dynamic systems on time scales has been built which incorporates both continuous and discrete times, namely, time as an arbitrary closed sets of reals, and allows us to handle both systems simultaneously [1], [2], [12], [13]. This theory permits one to get some insight into and better understanding of the subtle differences between discrete and continuous systems. We shall, in this paper, utilize the framework of the theory of dynamic systems on time scales to investigate the stability properties of conditionally invariant sets which are then applied to discuss controlled systems with uncertain elements. For the notion of conditionally invariant set and its stability properties, see [14]. Our results offer a new approach to the problem in question.

  11. A pilot randomized control trial: testing a transitional care model for acute psychiatric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Nancy P; Solomon, Phyllis; Hurford, Matthew O

    2014-01-01

    People with multiple and persistent mental and physical health problems have high rates of transition failures when transferring from a hospital level of care to home. The transitional care model (TCM) is evidence-based and demonstrated to improve posthospital outcomes for elderly with physical health conditions, but it has not been studied in the population with serious mental illness. Using a randomized controlled design, 40 inpatients from two general hospital psychiatric units were recruited and randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 20) that received the TCM intervention that was delivered by a psychiatric nurse practitioner for 90 days posthospitalization, or a control group (n = 20) that received usual care. Outcomes were as follows: service utilization, health-related quality of life, and continuity of care. The intervention group showed higher medical and psychiatric rehospitalization than the control group (p = .054). Emergency room use was lower for intervention group but not statistically significant. Continuity of care with primary care appointments were significantly higher for the intervention group (p = .023). The intervention group's general health improved but was not statistically significant compared with controls. A transitional care intervention is recommended; however, the model needs to be modified from a single nurse to a multidisciplinary team with expertise from a psychiatric nurse practitioner, a social worker, and a peer support specialist. A team approach can best manage the complex physical/mental health conditions and complicated social needs of the population with serious mental illness. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Power assist control of electric bicycle taking environment and rider's condition into account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niki, Hiroshi; Miyata, Junichi; Murakami, Toshiyuki

    2005-12-01

    Recently, bicycles are widely used as a convenient transportation tool. But from a viewpoint of wide use for the future aging society, it is problem to pedal on rider's own. As well known, power assistance bicycle has already been used. The power assistance bicycle helps the elderly people or the people who has weak legs to expand their field. However, existing power assistance bicycle doesn't take running environment and rider's condition into account. The new control algorithm for power assistance bicycle is proposed in this paper. Human input and running friction are estimated as a disturbance torque with a disturbance observer. By using high pass filter (HPF), human input is separated from running friction. This method realizes power assistance bicycle without torque sensor. Disturbance observer compensates running friction. Compliance control is applied to make the bicycle have desired compliance. The effectiveness of this control algorithm is verified by numerical and experimental results.

  13. Conditions of the household and peridomicile and severe dengue: a case–control study in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Gerusa; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Honório, Nildimar Alves; Pacheco, Antonio Guilherme; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Kubelka, Claire; Brasil, Patrícia; Cruz, Oswaldo; Carvalho, Marilia Sá

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The potential influence of high-vector-density environments where people are supposedly more exposed to mosquito bites may have a relation to the clinical severity of dengue fever, an association that has been poorly discussed in the literature. Objective This study aimed at analyzing the association between anthropic environmental factors, particularly those related to the conditions of domicile and peridomicile, and the occurrence of severe dengue cases during the 2008 epidemic in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Methods We conducted a retrospective case–control study with a sample of 88 severe patients aged 2–18. They were selected through chart review in four children's tertiary care centers. The 367 controls were neighbors of the cases, paired by age. Data were collected through interviews and systematic assessment of house conditions as well as peridomicile area conditions, and they were later analyzed by conditional logistic regression. Results The presence of three or more high-volume capacity containers, which were without a lid or were inadequately sealed (water tanks, wells, cisterns, cement tanks, and pools), was significantly more frequent in households with severe cases when compared with households of controls (OR=1.6; CI 95%=1.36–20.01; p=0.015). Discussion The presence of such larger reservoirs that could potentially produce more adult forms of the vector is consistent with a situation where people are more exposed to mosquito bites, and consequently are more prone to have multiple infections over a short period of time. Conclusion The emergence of severe dengue cases in a high-transmission context underpins the importance of constant vigilance and interventions in those types of reservoirs, which result from precarious household structures and irregular water supply services. PMID:24765250

  14. Conditions of the household and peridomicile and severe dengue: a case–control study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa Gibson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The potential influence of high-vector-density environments where people are supposedly more exposed to mosquito bites may have a relation to the clinical severity of dengue fever, an association that has been poorly discussed in the literature. Objective: This study aimed at analyzing the association between anthropic environmental factors, particularly those related to the conditions of domicile and peridomicile, and the occurrence of severe dengue cases during the 2008 epidemic in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Methods: We conducted a retrospective case–control study with a sample of 88 severe patients aged 2–18. They were selected through chart review in four children's tertiary care centers. The 367 controls were neighbors of the cases, paired by age. Data were collected through interviews and systematic assessment of house conditions as well as peridomicile area conditions, and they were later analyzed by conditional logistic regression. Results: The presence of three or more high-volume capacity containers, which were without a lid or were inadequately sealed (water tanks, wells, cisterns, cement tanks, and pools, was significantly more frequent in households with severe cases when compared with households of controls (OR=1.6; CI 95%=1.36–20.01; p=0.015. Discussion: The presence of such larger reservoirs that could potentially produce more adult forms of the vector is consistent with a situation where people are more exposed to mosquito bites, and consequently are more prone to have multiple infections over a short period of time. Conclusion: The emergence of severe dengue cases in a high-transmission context underpins the importance of constant vigilance and interventions in those types of reservoirs, which result from precarious household structures and irregular water supply services.

  15. Hyperglycemic conditions inhibit C3-mediated immunologic control of Staphylococcus aureus

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    Hair Pamela S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic patients are at increased risk for bacterial infections; these studies provide new insight into the role of the host defense complement system in controlling bacterial pathogens in hyperglycemic environments. Methods The interactions of complement C3 with bacteria in elevated glucose were assayed for complement activation to opsonic forms, phagocytosis and bacterial killing. C3 was analyzed in euglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions by mass spectrometry to measure glycation and structural differences. Results Elevated glucose inhibited S. aureus activation of C3 and deposition of C3b and iC3b on the bacterial surface. S. aureus-generated C5a and serum-mediated phagocytosis by neutrophils were both decreased in elevated glucose conditions. Interestingly, elevated glucose increased the binding of unactivated C3 to S. aureus, which was reversible on return to normal glucose concentrations. In a model of polymicrobial infection, S. aureus in elevated glucose conditions depleted C3 from serum resulting in decreased complement-mediated killing of E. coli. To investigate the effect of differing glucose concentration on C3 structure and glycation, purified C3 incubated with varying glucose concentrations was analyzed by mass spectrometry. Glycation was limited to the same three lysine residues in both euglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions over one hour, thus glycation could not account for observed changes between glucose conditions. However, surface labeling of C3 with sulfo-NHS-biotin showed significant changes in the surface availability of seven lysine residues in response to increasing glucose concentrations. These results suggest that the tertiary structure of C3 changes in response to hyperglycemic conditions leading to an altered interaction of C3 with bacterial pathogens. Conclusions These results demonstrate that hyperglycemic conditions inhibit C3-mediated complement effectors important in the immunological

  16. Evidence from retractor bulbi EMG for linearized motor control of conditioned nictitating membrane responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepora, N F; Mavritsaki, E; Porrill, J; Yeo, C H; Evinger, C; Dean, P

    2007-10-01

    Classical conditioning of nictitating membrane (NM) responses in rabbits is a robust model learning system, and experimental evidence indicates that conditioned responses (CRs) are controlled by the cerebellum. It is unknown whether cerebellar control signals deal directly with the complex nonlinearities of the plant (blink-related muscles and peripheral tissues) or whether the plant is linearized to ensure a simple relation between cerebellar neuronal firing and CR profile. To study this question, the retractor bulbi muscle EMG was recorded with implanted electrodes during NM conditioning. Pooled activity in accessory abducens motoneurons was estimated from spike trains extracted from the EMG traces, and its temporal profile was found to have an approximately Gaussian shape with peak amplitude linearly related to CR amplitude. The relation between motoneuron activity and CR profiles was accurately fitted by a first-order linear filter, with each spike input producing an exponentially decaying impulse response with time constant of order 0.1 s. Application of this first-order plant model to CR data from other laboratories suggested that, in these cases also, motoneuron activity had a Gaussian profile, with time-of-peak close to unconditioned stimulus (US) onset and SD proportional to the interval between conditioned stimulus and US onsets. These results suggest that for conditioned NM responses the cerebellum is presented with a simplified "virtual" plant that is a linearized version of the underlying nonlinear biological system. Analysis of a detailed plant model suggests that one method for linearising the plant would be appropriate recruitment of motor units.

  17. Can attention control conditions have detrimental effects on behavioral medicine randomized trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoto, Sherry L; McDermott, Mary M; Reed, George; Greenland, Philip; Mazor, Kathy M; Ockene, Judith K; Whited, Matt; Schneider, Kristin; Appelhans, Brad; Leung, Kathy; Merriam, Philip; Ockene, Ira

    2013-02-01

    Attention control (AC) conditions are used to balance nonspecific attention in randomized trials of behavioral interventions. Very little guidance about which behavioral interventions and outcomes merit AC is available in the literature. The primary aim of the present study is to demonstrate a scenario in which use of AC in a behavioral randomized trial was unnecessary and possibly detrimental. Exploratory analyses were performed in a randomized controlled trial that tested whether a patient-centered counseling intervention reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in 355 participants with peripheral arterial disease, compared with AC and usual care (UC) conditions. The patient-centered counseling intervention was designed to activate participants to ask their physician for lipid-lowering medication and/or increase dose intensity, increase medication adherence, and reduce fat intake. The AC condition involved attention-matched telephone-delivered health education, and the UC condition consisted of an educational pamphlet. At 12-month follow-up, the mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol changes were -11.1 and -6.8 mg/dL in the UC and AC conditions, respectively (p=.17). The proportion of participants who increased the use or dose intensity of medication was significantly lower in AC than in UC: 17.5% versus 30.5% (p=.03). No significant difference in other outcomes was observed between AC and UC. AC has significantly worse medication outcomes, and there is no indication of a therapeutic effect on other end points. Implications for the use of AC in behavioral randomized trials are discussed. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00217919.

  18. A Closed-Loop Control Strategy for Air Conditioning Loads to Participate in Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Hu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs, such as air conditioners (ACs, are important demand response resources—they have a certain heat storage capacity. A change in the operating status of an air conditioner in a small range will not noticeably affect the users’ comfort level. Load control of TCLs is considered to be equivalent to a power plant of the same capacity in effect, and it can significantly reduce the system pressure to peak load shift. The thermodynamic model of air conditioning can be used to study the aggregate power of a number of ACs that respond to the step signal of a temperature set point. This paper analyzes the influence of the parameters of each AC in the group to the indoor temperature and the total load, and derives a simplified control model based on the two order linear time invariant transfer function. Then, the stability of the model and designs its Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID controller based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is also studied. The case study presented in this paper simulates both scenarios of constant ambient temperature and changing ambient temperature to verify the proposed transfer function model and control strategy can closely track the reference peak load shifting curves. The study also demonstrates minimal changes in the indoor temperature and the users’ comfort level.

  19. Control Efficacy of Fungicides on Chinese Cabbage Clubroot under Several Conditions

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    Min-Yong Eom

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To develop the efficient screening methods for antifungal compound active to Chinese cabbage clubroot caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, the control efficacy of three fungicides fluazinam, ethaboxam, and cyazofamid on the disease was tested under several conditions such as soil types, cultivars of Chinese cabbage, growth stages of the host, and inoculum concentrations. The in vivo antifungal activities of the fungicides on clubroot of two Chinese cabbage cultivars were hardly different. At 7- and 14-day-old seedlings, the fungicides were more effective to control of clubroot than at 21-day-old seedlings. In a commercial horticulture media soil (CNS, disease severity of untreated controls was higher and control activity of the fungicides was less than in a mixture of CNS and upland soil (1:1, v/v. Disease development of the seedlings inoculated with P. brassicae at 1.8×10(7 spores/pot to 1.1×10(9 spores/pot was almost same, but control efficacy of the fungicides was negatively correlated with inoculum dosages. To effectively select in vivo antifungal compound on Chinese cabbage clubroot, 14-day-old seedlings need to be inoculated with P. brassicae by drenching the spore suspension to give 1×10(8 spores/pot 1 day after chemical treatment. To develop clubroot, the inoculated plants are incubated in a growth chamber at 20℃ for 2 days, and then cultivated in a greenhouse (20±5℃ for four weeks.

  20. Global Postural Reeducation for patients with musculoskeletal conditions: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

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    Giovanni E. Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives To systematically review randomized controlled trials that assessed the effects of Global Postural Reeducation (GPR on patient-reported outcomes in conditions of the musculoskeletal system. Method An electronic search of MEDLINE (via PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, and SciELO was performed from their inception to June 2015. Randomized controlled trials that analyzed pain and patient-reported outcomes were included in this review. The Cochrane Collaboration’s Risk of Bias Tool was used to evaluate risk of bias, and the quality of evidence was rated following the GRADE approach. There were no language restrictions. Results Eleven trials were included totaling 383 patients. Overall, the trials had high risk of bias. GPR was superior to no treatment but not to other forms of treatment for pain and disability. No placebo-controlled trials were found. Conclusion GPR is not superior to other treatments; however, it is superior to no treatment. Due to the lack of studies, it is unknown if GPR is better than placebo. The quality of the available evidence ranges from low to very low, therefore future studies may change the effect estimates of GPR in musculoskeletal conditions.

  1. Assessment of micronuclei induction in peripheral erythrocytes of fish exposed to xenobiotics under controlled conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolognesi, Claudia [Environmental Carcinogenesis Unit, National Institute for Research on Cancer, L.go Rosanna Benzi, 10, 16132 Genoa (Italy)]. E-mail: claudia.bolognesi@istge.it; Perrone, Emanuela [Environmental Carcinogenesis Unit, National Institute for Research on Cancer, L.go Rosanna Benzi, 10, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Roggieri, Paola [Environmental Carcinogenesis Unit, National Institute for Research on Cancer, L.go Rosanna Benzi, 10, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Pampanin, Daniela M. [IRIS - International Research Institute of Stavanger AS, Mekjarvik 12, N-4070 Randaberg (Norway); Sciutto, Andrea [Environmental Carcinogenesis Unit, National Institute for Research on Cancer, L.go Rosanna Benzi, 10, 16132 Genoa (Italy)

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to standardize and to assess the predictive value of the cytogenetic analysis by MN test in fish erythrocytes as a biomarker for marine environmental contamination. MN frequency baseline in erythrocytes was evaluated in a number of fish species from a reference area (S. Teresa, La Spezia Gulf) and genotoxic potential of a number of common chemical contaminants and mixtures was determined in fish experimentally exposed in aquarium under controlled conditions. Fish (Scophthalmus maximus) were exposed for 3 weeks to 50 ppb of single chemicals (dialkyl phthalate, bisphenol A, tetrabromodiphenyl ether), 30 ppb nonylphenol and mixtures (North Sea oil and North Sea oil with alkylated phenols). Chromosomal damage was determined as micronuclei (MN) frequency in fish erythrocytes. Nuclear anomalies such as blebbed, notched and lobed nuclei were also recorded. Significant increase in MN frequency was observed in erythrocytes of fish exposed to bisphenol A and tetrabromodiphenylether. Chemical mixture North Sea oil + alkylated phenols induced the highest MN frequency (2.95 micronucleated cells/1000 cells compared to 1 MNcell/1000 cells in control animals). The study results revealed that micronucleus test, as an index of cumulative exposure, appears to be a sensitive model to evaluate genotoxic compounds in fish under controlled conditions.

  2. Evaluation and interpretation of regional and site-specific hydrochemical data bases for water quality assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Hutchins

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of stream water composition, as determined by the Geochemical Baseline Survey of the Environment (G-BASE conducted by the British Geological Survey (BGS can be successfully related under baseflow conditions to bedrock geochemistry. Further consideration of results in conjunction with site-specific monitoring data enables factors controlling both spatial and temporal variability in major element composition to be highlighted and allows the value of the survey to be enhanced. Hence, chemical data (i from streams located on Lower Silurian (Llandovery bedrock at 1 km2 resolution collected as part of the G-BASE survey of Wales and the West Midlands and (ii from catchment monitoring studies located in upland mid-Wales (conducted by Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, have been considered together as an example. Classification of the spatial survey data set in terms of potentially controlling factors was carried out so as to illustrate the level of explanation they could give in terms of observed spatial chemical variability. It was therefore hypothesised that on a geological lithostratigraphic series of limited geochemical contrast, altitude and land-use factors provide better explanation of this variability than others such as lithology at sampling site and stream order. At an individual site, temporal variability was also found to be of considerable significance and, at a monthly time-step, is explicable in terms of factors such as antecedent conditions and seasonality. Data suggest that the degree of this variability may show some relationship with stream order and land-use. Monitoring data from the region also reveal that relationships between stream chemistry and land-use may prove to be strong not only at base flow but also in storm flow conditions. In a wider context, predictions of the sensitivity of stream water to acidification based on classifications of soil and geology are successful on a regional scale. However

  3. Determination of internal controls for quantitative gene expression of Isochrysis zhangjiangensis at nitrogen stress condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuang; Zhou, Jiannan; Cao, Xupeng; Xue, Song

    2016-02-01

    Isochrysis zhangjiangensis is a potential marine microalga for biodiesel production, which accumulates lipid under nitrogen limitation conditions, but the mechanism on molecular level is veiled. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) provides the possibility to investigate the gene expression levels, and a valid reference for data normalization is an essential prerequisite for firing up the analysis. In this study, five housekeeping genes, actin (ACT), α-tubulin (TUA), ß-tubulin (TUB), ubiquitin (UBI), 18S rRNA (18S) and one target gene, diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), were used for determining the reference. By analyzing the stabilities based on calculation of the stability index and on operating the two types of software, geNorm and bestkeeper, it showed that the reference genes widely used in higher plant and microalgae, such as UBI, TUA and 18S, were not the most stable ones in nitrogen-stressed I. zhangjiangensis, and thus are not suitable for exploring the mRNA expression levels under these experimental conditions. Our results show that ACT together with TUB is the most feasible internal control for investigating gene expression under nitrogen-stressed conditions. Our findings will contribute not only to future qPCR studies of I. zhangjiangensis, but also to verification of comparative transcriptomics studies of the microalgae under similar conditions.

  4. Comparing monoterpenoid emissions and net photosynthesis of beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) in controlled and natural conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimpraga, M.; Verbeeck, H.; Demarcke, M.; Joó, É.; Amelynck, C.; Schoon, N.; Dewulf, J.; Van Langenhove, H.; Heinesch, B.; Aubinet, M.; Müller, J.-F.; Steppe, K.

    2011-06-01

    Although biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) only represent a very limited fraction of the plant's carbon (C) budget, they play an important role in atmospheric chemistry for example as a precursor of tropospheric ozone. We performed a study comparing BVOC emissions of European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) in controlled and natural environmental conditions. A young and adult beech tree was exposed to short-term temperature variations in growth room conditions and in an experimental forest, respectively. This study attempts to clarify how short-term temperature variations between days influenced the ratio between monoterpenoid (MT) emissions and net photosynthesis (Pn). Within a temperature range of 17-27 °C and 13-23 °C, the MT/Pn carbon ratio increased 10-30 fold for the growth room and forest, respectively. An exponential increasing trend between MT/Pn C ratio and air temperature was observed in both conditions. Beech trees re-emitted a low fraction of the assimilated C back into the atmosphere as MT: 0.01-0.12% and 0.01-0.30% with a temperature rise from 17 to 27 °C and 13-23 °C in growth room and forest conditions, respectively. However, the data showed that the MT/Pn C ratio of young and adult beech trees responded significantly to changes in temperature.

  5. Conditional control of donor nuclear spins in silicon using stark shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfowicz, Gary; Urdampilleta, Matias; Thewalt, Mike L W; Riemann, Helge; Abrosimov, Nikolai V; Becker, Peter; Pohl, Hans-Joachim; Morton, John J L

    2014-10-10

    Electric fields can be used to tune donor spins in silicon using the Stark shift, whereby the donor electron wave function is displaced by an electric field, modifying the hyperfine coupling between the electron spin and the donor nuclear spin. We present a technique based on dynamic decoupling of the electron spin to accurately determine the Stark shift, and illustrate this using antimony donors in isotopically purified silicon-28. We then demonstrate two different methods to use a dc electric field combined with an applied resonant radio-frequency (rf) field to conditionally control donor nuclear spins. The first method combines an electric-field induced conditional phase gate with standard rf pulses, and the second one simply detunes the spins off resonance. Finally, we consider different strategies to reduce the effect of electric field inhomogeneities and obtain above 90% process fidelities.

  6. Variability of the microbial abundance of a kefir grain starter cultivated in partially controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oger R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The variability of the abundance in lactobacilli, lactic acid streptococci and yeasts of a kefir grain starter cultivated in partially controlled conditions – milk renewal at room temperature and incubation at defined temperature - was quantified. Expressed by the geometric relative standard deviations of counts repeated over time, it was respectively of 28%, 443% and 35% for each of the three microbial groups. The origin of the microbial variability observed was ascribed to the heterogeneous medium developed around the grains during fermentation and, for the lactic acid streptococci, even more to the initial conditions of fermentation, probably to parameters linked to milk renewal (room temperature, waiting time at room temperature before incubation.

  7. Controls of Soluble Al in Experimental Acid Sulfate Conditions and Acid Sulfate Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINCHUXIA; M.D.MELVILLE

    1997-01-01

    The controls of soluble Al concentration were examined in three situations of acid sulfate conditions:1) experimental acid sulfate conditions by addition of varying amounts of Al(OH)3(gibbsite) into a sequence of H2SO4 solutions;2)experimental acid sulfate conditions by addition of the same sequence of H2SO4 solutions into two non-cid sulfacte soil samples with known amounts of acid oxalate extractable Al; and 3) actual acid sulfate soil conditions.The experiment using gibbsite as an Al-bearing mineral showed that increase in the concentration of H2SO4 solution increased the soluble Al concentration,accompanied by a decrease i the solution pH, Increasing amount of gibbsite added to the H2SO4 solutions also increased soluble Al concentration,but resulted in an increase in solution pH.Within the H2SO4 concentration range of 0.0005-0.5mol L-1 and the Al(OH)3 range of 0.01-0.5g(in 25 mL of H2SO4 solutions),the input of H2SO4 had the major control on soluble Al Concentration and pH .The availability of Al(OH)3,however,was responsible for the spread fo the various sample points,with a tendency that the samples containing more gibbsite had a higher soluble Al concentration than those containing less gibbsite at equivalent pH levels.The experimental results from treatment of soil samples with H2SO4 solutions and the analytical results of acid sulfate soils also showed the similar trend.

  8. Soil application of Beauveria bassiana to control Ceratitis capitata in semi field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ali; Sermann, Helga; Lerche, Sandra; Büttner, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) is a highly polyphagous pest of economic importance cultures in Syria, as in many other parts of the world. The potential of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiona BALS (VUIL.) strain 412 against adults of Mediterranean fruit fly C. capitata was evaluated in semi field conditions during the summer. Soil (5-7 cm high) was filled into plastic container (27 cm x 32 cm). In one container 75 pupae, two days before emergency, were spread uniformly on the soil. Then the pupae were covered with soil (4-5 cm layer). After that, 30 ml suspension of fungal spores (4 x 10(8) spores/ml) was applied to the soil surface using a dash bottle. This corresponded to a spore density of 1.3 x 10(7) spores/cm2 on soil. Water and food (1:4 yeast, sucrose) were placed in the cages for the emerged flies. The semi-field evaluation of B. bassiana revealed a fly mortality of about 46% compared to 16% in the control. In addition 72% of dead flies were moulded in the treatment. These results indicated that the entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana was pathogen against the adults of C. capitata not only in the laboratory condition but also under field condition. That means B. bassiana could decrease the offspring of C. capitata. Therefore B. bassiana could be an effective factor to control C. capitata in combination with other control methods, used in IPM program in the field.

  9. Genetic Variation in Response to Salt Stress of Quinoa Grown under Controlled and Field Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Long

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the change in response of quinoa genotypes to divers salinity stress conditions e.g in controlled (net-house) and in the different saline fields. The pot experiment was conducted in a net-house at Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Hanoi, Vietnam in spring cropping season to characterize the growth and yield of six quinoa genotypes under four NaCl concentrations (0, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1). At the same time, in Nam Dinh and Hai Phong provin...

  10. Effectiveness of qualified riflemen archery in control exercises with difficult conditions performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonov Sergej Vasil'evich

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the study options adversarial exercise of archery with the abnormal conditions of a control to determine the specific training of athletes. It is found no differences between the absolute values of the results of the exercise of options sitting on a chair and standing on the platform and their difference from the values in the exercise with eyes closed. To set available of correlation relationships of varying strength between the results of the exercise of options sitting on a chair, standing on the platform with eyes closed, indicators of tension bow, qualifications and gender athletes.

  11. Autonomous tracked robots in planar off-road conditions modelling, localization, and motion control

    CERN Document Server

    González, Ramón; Guzmán, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    This monograph is framed within the context of off-road mobile robotics. In particular, it discusses issues related to modelling, localization, and motion control of tracked mobile robots working in planar slippery conditions. Tracked locomotion constitutes a well-known solution for mobile platforms operating over diverse challenging terrains, for that reason, tracked robotics constitutes an important research field with many applications (e.g. agriculture, mining, search and rescue operations, military activities). The specific topics of this monograph are: historical perspective of tracked vehicles and tracked robots; trajectory-tracking model taking into account slip effect; visual-odometry-based localization strategies; and advanced slip-compensation motion controllers ensuring efficient real-time execution. Physical experiments with a real tracked robot are presented showing the better performance of the suggested novel approaches to known techniques.   Keywords: longitudinal slip, visual odometry, slip...

  12. Failure mechanism and stability control technology of rock surrounding a roadway in complex stress conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yang; Bai Jianbiao; Chen Ke; Wang Xiangyu; Xiao Tongqiang; Chen Yong

    2011-01-01

    To solve the problem of supporting three downhill coal structures in the Yongan Coal Mine of Shanxi Jincheng,we studied the regular development of stress and plastic zones and characteristics of deformation of rock surrounding roadway groups after a period of roadway driving,mining one side as well as mining both sides,we used FLAC3D for our numerical and theoretical analyses.Field test were carried out,where we revealed the deformation mechanism of roadways and its coal pillars in complex stress conditions.We proposed a roadway stability control technology using backwall grouting with high-water rapid hardening material and combined support with bolt and cable anchoring after mining both sides.Our field practices showed that deformation of rock surrounding roadways can be controlled with this technology.

  13. Finite-size effects on bacterial population expansion under controlled fow conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Tesser, Francesca; Clercx, Herman J H; Brunsveld, Luc; Toschi, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The expansion of biological species in natural environments is usually described as the combined effect of individual spatial dispersal and growth. In the case of aquatic ecosystems flow transport can also be extremely relevant as an extra, advection induced, dispersal factor. There is a lack of reproducible experimental studies on biological fronts of living organisms in controlled streaming habitats. It is thus not clear if, and to which extent, the current theoretical and experimental knowledge on advective-reactive-diffusive fronts for chemical reactions can also apply to the expansion of biological populations. We designed and assembled a dedicated microfluidic device to control and quantify the expansion of populations of $E.coli$ bacteria under both co-flowing and counter-flowing conditions, measuring the front speed at varying intensity of the imposed flow. At variance with respect to the case of autocatalytic reactions, we measure that almost irrespective of the counter-flow velocity, the front speed...

  14. Voltage controller design for air conditioning; Diseno de controlador de voltaje para aire acondicionado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Andrade, R; Lopez Villalobos, J.J; Valderrama Chairez, J; Ramirez, R.L. [Instituto Tecnologico de Nuevo Leon, Guadalupe, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)]. E-mails: roxana_garciaandrade@yahoo.com; xe2n@yahoo.com.mx; jose.valderrama@ieee.org

    2013-03-15

    This paper discusses the design of a voltage controller for an air conditioning system in order to generate additional power in activation or startup of the system, for which as a first stage is presented the modeling power generation of electric current through alternative means, such as solar energy. The results of this study will be the basis for development of the physical prototype of this system controller. [Spanish] El presente trabajo trata sobre el diseno de un controlador de voltaje para un sistema de aire acondicionado con el fin de generar energia adicional en la activacion o arranque de dicho sistema, para lo cual como primer fase se presenta el modelado de la generacion de corriente electrica mediante medios alternos, como lo es la energia solar. Los resultados de este trabajo seran la base para desarrollo del prototipo fisico de este sistema controlador.

  15. Design of Controlled Processing Conditions for Drop Forgings Made of Microalloy Steel Grades for Mining Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skubisz P.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of plastic processing and controlled cooling on microstructure and mechanical properties of experimental steel grades with microalloyed with Ti, V and/or Nb, varying in the content of Mo is presented as an offer for mining industry for replacement traditionally heat-treatable hardenability grades. The goal of the work is producing microstructure condition, which after controlled hot forging and direct heat treatment, involving quenching and self-tempering, are meant to provide good combination of mechanical properties, such as TYS 800 MPa, UTS 1050 MPa, elongation to fracture at least A5 15% and/or impact strength at room temperature KCV 60 J/cm2. Hardenability assessment and dilatometric examination allowed formulation of direct heat treatment guidelines, taking into consideration fields of temperature and strain in a typical hot forging process, estimated numerically, with the use of plastometric tests results, as well as the use of unique cooling cycles after forging.

  16. Existence conditions of optimal trajectories in dynamic control processes; Conditions d'existence de trajectoires optimales des processus dynamiques commandes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnemay-Juricek, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The existence of solutions in the optimal control problems with free endpoints is studied in this report and existence conditions are established without the usual assumption that the control region is convex. Furthermore the results, in order to be of some utility in physical applications, are expressed only by means of conditions on the parameters defining the system. (author) [French] Ce rapport etudie l'existence de solutions optimales dans les problemes de commande ou le point terminal est libre et ou la duree de l'evolution du systeme a optimiser est connue. Des conditions d'existence y sont formulees sans recourir a l'hypothese usuelle de convexite du domaine des valeurs des commandes. De plus on a cherche a rendre utilisables les resultats en ne faisant porter les conditions que sur les parametres directement accessibles du systeme. (auteur)

  17. Numerical modelling and hydrochemical characterisation of a fresh-water lens in the Belgian coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbohede, A.; Lebbe, L.

    2002-05-01

    The distribution of fresh and salt water in coastal aquifers is influenced by many processes. The influence of aquifer heterogeneity and human interference such as land reclamation is illustrated in the Belgian coastal plain where, around A.D. 1200, the reclamation of a tidally influenced environment was completed. The aquifer, which was filled with salt water, was thereafter freshened. The areal distribution of peat, clay, silt and sand influences the general flow and distribution of fresh and salt water along with the drainage pattern and results in the development of fresh-water lenses. The water quality in and around the fresh-water lenses below an inverted tidal channel ridge is surveyed. The hydrochemical evolution of the fresh water lens is reconstructed, pointing to cation exchange, solution of calcite and the oxidation of organic material as the major chemical reactions. The formation and evolution of the fresh water lens is modelled using a two-dimensional density-dependent solute transport model and the sensitivity of drainage and conductivities are studied. Drainage level mainly influences the depth of the fresh-water lens, whereas the time of formation is mainly influenced by conductivity. Résumé. La répartition de l'eau douce et de l'eau salée dans les aquifères littoraux est influencée par de nombreux mécanismes. L'influence de l'hétérogénéité de l'aquifère et des interférences anthropiques telles que la mise en valeur des terres est illustrée par la plaine côtière belge où, depuis l'an 1200, on a mis en valeur un environnement soumis aux marées. L'aquifère, qui contenait de l'eau salée, contient maintenant de l'eau douce. La distribution spatiale de tourbe, d'argile, de silt et de sable joue un rôle dans l'écoulement général et dans la répartition de l'eau douce et de l'eau salée le long du réseau de drainage et produit des lentilles d'eau douce. La qualité de l'eau dans et autour des lentilles d'eau douce sous une lev

  18. Metabolic markers or conditions preceding Parkinson's disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savica, Rodolfo; Grossardt, Brandon R; Ahlskog, J Eric; Rocca, Walter A

    2012-07-01

    Several metabolic markers or conditions have been explored as possible risk or protective factors for Parkinson's disease (PD); however, results remain conflicting. We further investigated these associations using a case-control study design. We used the medical records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify 196 subjects who developed PD in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1976 through 1995. Each incident case was matched by age (±1 year) and sex to a general population control. We reviewed the complete medical records of cases and controls in the medical records-linkage system to abstract information about body mass index (BMI), cholesterol level, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus preceding the onset of PD (or the index year). There were no significant differences between cases and controls for the metabolic markers or conditions investigated. No significant associations were found using 2 cutoffs for BMI level (BMI ≥ 25 or BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) ) and 3 cutoffs for cholesterol levels (>200, >250, or >300 mg/dL). Neither a diagnosis of hypertension or the documented use of antihypertensive medications was significantly associated with the subsequent risk of PD (odds ratio [OR], 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65-1.54; P = .99) nor was a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus or the use of glucose-lowering medications (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.37-1.57; P = .47). Our study, based on historical information from a records-linkage system, does not support an association between BMI, cholesterol level, hypertension, or diabetes mellitus with later development of PD.

  19. Deep Neuromuscular Blockade Improves Laparoscopic Surgical Conditions: A Randomized, Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Jacob; Herring, W Joseph; Blobner, Manfred; Mulier, Jan P; Rahe-Meyer, Niels; Woo, Tiffany; Li, Michael K; Grobara, Peter; Assaid, Christopher A; Fennema, Hein; Szegedi, Armin

    2017-04-01

    Sustained deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB) during laparoscopic surgery may facilitate optimal surgical conditions. This exploratory study assessed whether deep NMB improves surgical conditions and, in doing so, allows use of lower insufflation pressures during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We further assessed whether use of low insufflation pressure improves patient pain scores after surgery. This randomized, controlled, blinded study (NCT01728584) compared use of deep (1-2 post-tetanic-counts) or moderate (train-of-four ratio 10%) NMB, and lower (8 mmHg) or higher (12 mmHg; 'standard') insufflation pressure in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Primary endpoint was surgeon's overall satisfaction with surgical conditions, rated at end of surgery using an 11-point numerical scale. Post-operative pain scores were also evaluated. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance. Of 127 randomized patients, 120 had evaluable data for the primary endpoint. Surgeon's score of overall satisfaction with surgical conditions was significantly higher with deep versus moderate NMB indicated by a least-square mean difference of 1.1 points (95% confidence interval 0.1-2.0; P = 0.026). Furthermore, strong evidence of an effect was observed for standard versus low pressure: least-square mean difference of 3.0 points (95% confidence interval 2.1-4.0; P < 0.001). No significant difference was observed in average pain scores within 24 h post-surgery for low versus standard pressure [0.17 (95% confidence interval -0.67 to +0.33); P = 0.494]. Although associated with significantly improved surgical conditions, deep NMB alone was insufficient to promote use of low insufflation pressure during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Furthermore, low insufflation pressure did not result in reduced pain, compared with standard pressure. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01728584. Merck Sharp and Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA.

  20. Using a Novel Wireless-Networked Decentralized Control Scheme under Unpredictable Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Liang Chang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The direction of sunshine or the installation sites of environmental control facilities in the greenhouse result in different temperature and humidity levels in the various zones of the greenhouse, and thus, the production quality of crop is inconsistent. This study proposed a wireless-networked decentralized fuzzy control scheme to regulate the environmental parameters of various culture zones within a greenhouse. The proposed scheme can create different environmental conditions for cultivating different crops in various zones and achieve diversification or standardization of crop production. A star-type wireless sensor network is utilized to communicate with each sensing node, actuator node, and control node in various zones within the greenhouse. The fuzzy rule-based inference system is used to regulate the environmental parameters for temperature and humidity based on real-time data of plant growth response provided by a growth stage selector. The growth stage selector defines the control ranges of temperature and humidity of the various culture zones according to the leaf area of the plant, the number of leaves, and the cumulative amount of light. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is stable and robust and provides basis for future greenhouse applications.

  1. The effects of initial conditions and control time on optimal actuator placement via a max-min Genetic Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parker, G. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This paper examines the role of the control objective and the control time in determining fuel-optimal actuator placement for structural vibration suppression. A general theory is developed that can be easily extended to include alternative performance metrics such as energy and time-optimal control. The performance metric defines a convex admissible control set which leads to a max-min optimization problem expressing optimal location as a function of initial conditions and control time. A solution procedure based on a nested Genetic Algorithm is presented and applied to an example problem. Results indicate that the optimal locations vary widely as a function of control time and initial conditions.

  2. Innovative Methods for Integrating Knowledge for Long-Term Monitoring of Contaminated Groundwater Sites: Understanding Microorganism Communities and their Associated Hydrochemical Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouser, P. J.; Rizzo, D. M.; Druschel, G.; O'Grady, P.; Stevens, L.

    2005-12-01

    This interdisciplinary study integrates hydrochemical and genome-based data to estimate the redox processes occurring at long-term monitoring sites. Groundwater samples have been collected from a well-characterized landfill-leachate contaminated aquifer in northeastern New York. Primers from the 16S rDNA gene were used to amplify Bacteria and Archaea in groundwater taken from monitoring wells located in clean, fringe, and contaminated locations within the aquifer. PCR-amplified rDNA were digested with restriction enzymes to evaluate terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) community profiles. The rDNA was cloned, sequenced, and partial sequences were matched against known organisms using the NCBI Blast database. Phylogenetic trees and bootstrapping were used to identify classifications of organisms and compare the communities from clean, fringe, and contaminated locations. We used Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models to incorporate microbial data with hydrochemical information for improving our understanding of subsurface processes.

  3. Assessment of groundwater utilization for irrigating park trees under the spatiotemporal uncertainty condition of water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin; Kuo, Yi-Ming

    2013-04-01

    Parks have a variety of functions for residents and are important for urban landscape planning. The healthy growth of urban park trees requires regular irrigation. To reduce the pressure of high groundwater levels and to avoid wasting groundwater resources, proper groundwater extraction for irrigating park trees in the Taipei Basin is regarded as a reciprocal solution of sustainable groundwater management and preserving excellent urban landscapes. Therefore, this study determines pristine groundwater use for irrigating park trees in the metropolitan Taipei Basin under the spatiotemporal uncertainty condition of water quality. First, six hydrochemical parameters in groundwater associated with an irrigation water quality standard were collected from a 12-year survey. Upper, median and lower quartiles of the six hydrochemical parameters were obtained to establish three thresholds. According to the irrigation water quality standard, multivariate indicator kriging (MVIK) was adopted to probabilistically evaluate the integration of the six hydrochemical parameters. Entropy was then applied to quantify the spatiotemporal uncertainty of the hydrochemical parameters. Finally, locations, which have high estimated probabilities for the median-quartile threshold and low local uncertainty, are suitable for pumping groundwater for irrigating park trees. The study results demonstrate that MVIK and entropy are capable of characterizing the spatiotemporal uncertainty of groundwater quality parameters and determining suitable parks of groundwater utilization for irrigation. Moreover, the upper, median and lower quartiles of hydrochemical parameters are served as three estimated thresholds in MVIK, which is robust to assessment predictions. Therefore, this study significantly improves the methodological application and limitation of MVIK for spatiotemporally analyzing environmental quality compared with the previous related works. Furthermore, the analyzed results indicate that 64

  4. Sensitivity to Speaker Control in the Online Comprehension of Conditional Tips and Promises: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Andrew J.; Haigh, Matthew; Ferguson, Heather J.

    2013-01-01

    Statements of the form if… then… can be used to communicate conditional speech acts such as tips and promises. Conditional promises require the speaker to have perceived control over the outcome event, whereas conditional tips do not. In an eye-tracking study, we examined whether readers are sensitive to information about perceived speaker control…

  5. Sensitivity to Speaker Control in the Online Comprehension of Conditional Tips and Promises: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Andrew J.; Haigh, Matthew; Ferguson, Heather J.

    2013-01-01

    Statements of the form if… then… can be used to communicate conditional speech acts such as tips and promises. Conditional promises require the speaker to have perceived control over the outcome event, whereas conditional tips do not. In an eye-tracking study, we examined whether readers are sensitive to information about perceived speaker control…

  6. Photoplethysmography for an independent measure of pulsatile pressure under controlled flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoum, Haneen; Kyriacou, Panayiotis A

    2017-02-01

    Noninvasive continuous blood pressure measurements are desirable for patients and clinicians. This work proposes and validates a method for transmural pressure measurement using photoplethysmography (PPG) in an in vitro setup that allows control of pressure and flow conditions. The optimum pulsatile volume measure is obtained by comparing parameters extracted from the photoplethysmographic signal (AC amplitude, normalized pulse volume (NPV) and adjusted pulse volume (APV)). Pulsatile volume can then provide pressure measurements using the exponential pressure-volume (P-V) relationship and validated using the gold standard catheter pressure measurement. Pressure, red (R) and infrared (IR) PPG signals were recorded continuously in two arterial models with different cross-sectional areas (Model 1 and Model 2) utilising a pulsatile pump. Flow rates were controlled by varying pumping frequencies at low and high stroke volumes. The optimum method for estimation of the pulsatile volume is through APV, which had a highly significant correlation (r (2)  =  0.99, p  blood pressure measurement at different flow conditions.

  7. Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Investigation of Sensitivity of Furnace Operational Conditions to Burner Flow Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Cremer; Kirsi St. Marie; Dave Wang

    2003-04-30

    This is the first Semiannual Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-02NT41580. The goal of this project is to systematically assess the sensitivity of furnace operational conditions to burner air and fuel flows in coal fired utility boilers. Our approach is to utilize existing baseline furnace models that have been constructed using Reaction Engineering International's (REI) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Using CFD analyses provides the ability to carry out a carefully controlled virtual experiment to characterize the sensitivity of NOx emissions, unburned carbon (UBC), furnace exit CO (FECO), furnace exit temperature (FEGT), and waterwall deposition to burner flow controls. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program, and instrument and controls experts from EPRI's Instrument and Controls (I&C) Center are active participants in this project. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. A project kickoff meeting was held in conjunction with NETL's 2002 Sensors and Control Program Portfolio Review and Roadmapping Workshop, in Pittsburgh, PA during October 15-16, 2002. Dr. Marc Cremer, REI, and Dr. Paul Wolff, EPRI I&C, both attended and met with the project COR, Susan Maley. Following the review of REI's database of wall-fired coal units, the project team selected a front wall fired 150 MW unit with a Riley Low NOx firing system including overfire air for evaluation. In addition, a test matrix outlining approximately 25 simulations involving variations in burner secondary air flows, and coal and primary air flows was constructed. During the reporting period, twenty-two simulations have been completed, summarized, and tabulated for sensitivity analysis. Based on these results, the team is developing a suitable approach for quantifying the sensitivity coefficients associated with the parametric tests. Some of the results of the CFD

  8. Real time control of an active power filter under distorted voltage condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Safa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper, presents three phase shunt active filter under distorted voltage condition, the active power filter control is based on the use of self-tuning filter (STF for reference current generation and on space vector PWM for generation of pulses. The dc capacitor voltage is controlled by a classical PI controller.  The diode rectifier feed RL load is taken as a nonlinear load. The self-tuning filter allows extracting directly the voltage and current fundamental components in the axis without phase locked loop (PLL under distorted voltage condition. The experiment analysis is made based on working under distorted voltage condition, and the total harmonic distortion of source current after compensation .Self tuning filter based extraction technique is good under distorted voltage conditions. The total harmonic distortion (THD of source current is fully reduced. The effectiveness of the method is theoretically studied and verified by experimentation.

  9. Factors influencing adult physical health after controlling for current health conditions: evidence from a british cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Cheng

    Full Text Available This study explored a longitudinal data set of 6875 British adults examining the effects of parental social status (measured at birth, cognitive ability (at age 11 yrs, personality traits, education and occupational attainment on physical health and functioning (all measured at age 50 yrs, after taking account of current health conditions (number of illness. Correlation analysis showed that parental social class, childhood cognitive ability, education and occupation, and two personality traits (Emotional Stability/Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness were all significantly associated with adult physical health variables. Structural equation modelling showed that health conditions and personality traits were significantly, and inversely, associated with physical health (indicated by good daily physical functioning, relative absence of pain, perceived health, and low level of limitations at work due to physical health. Parental social status, childhood intelligence, educational and occupational attainment were all modestly, but significantly and directly, associated with adult physical health. The effect of childhood intelligence on adult physical health was, in part, mediated through Emotional Stability and Conscientiousness. After controlling for health conditions Emotional Stability was the strongest predictor of physical health. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  10. Efficacy of experiential dynamic therapy for psychiatric conditions: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilliengren, Peter; Johansson, Robert; Lindqvist, Karin; Mechler, Jakob; Andersson, Gerhard

    2016-03-01

    Experiential dynamic therapy (EDT) is a subgroup of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP) that emphasizes patients' in-session affective processing. To evaluate the efficacy of EDT for psychiatric conditions, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Twenty-eight studies published between 1978 and 2014 were included, encompassing 1,782 adult patients with mood, anxiety, personality, or mixed disorders. Across targeted outcome domains, medium-size between-groups effects (Cohen's ds ranging from 0.39 to 0.65) favored EDT over inactive controls at posttreatment and in symptom measures at follow-up. We found no differences between EDT and active treatments (e.g., medication, cognitive-behavioral therapy, manualized supportive therapy) at posttreatment, but EDT outperformed supportive therapy at follow-up (d = 0.75). In terms of within-group effect sizes, EDT was associated with large improvements in general psychiatric symptoms (d = 1.11), depression (d = 1.33), and anxiety (d = 1.09) and with small to moderate gains in the areas of interpersonal problems (d = 0.55) and global functioning (d = 0.86). Small but significant effects suggested continued improvement between posttreatment and follow-up. Heterogeneity in pre-post effects was explored in subgroup analyses, which indicated that EDT might be most effective in depressive disorders and that individual EDT had larger effects compared with group treatment. In addition, EDT performed better in higher quality studies. We conclude that EDT is a promising treatment for psychiatric conditions in adults. Further high-quality studies evaluating contemporary versions of EDT in specific psychiatric conditions are warranted.

  11. Kinetics and corrosion products of aqueous nitrate reduction by iron powder without reaction conditions control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xiaomeng; GUAN Xiaohong; MA Jun; AI Hengyu

    2009-01-01

    Although considerable research has been conducted on nitrate reduction by zero-valent iron powder (Fe0), these studies were mostly operated under anaerobic and invariable pH conditions that was unsuitable for practical application.Without reaction conditions (dissolved oxygen or reaction pH) control, this study aimed at subjecting the kinetics of denitrification by microscale Fe0 (160-200 mesh) to analysis the factors affecting the denitrification of nitrate and the composition of iron reductive products coating upon the iron surface.Results of the kinetics study have indicated that a higher initial concentration of nitrate would yield a greater reaction rate constant.Additional test results showed that the reduction rate of nitrate increased with increasing Fe0 dosage.The reaction can be described as a pseudo-first order reaction with respect to nitrate concentration or Fe0 dosage.Experimental results also suggested that nitrate reduction by microscale Fe0 without reaction condition control primarily was an acid-driven surface-mediated process, and the reaction order was 0.65 with respect to hydrogen ion concentration.X-ray diffractometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that a black coating, consisted of Fe2O3, Fe3O4 and FeO(OH), was formed on the surface of iron grains as an iron corrosion product when the system initial pH was lower than 5.The proportion of FeO(OH) increased as reaction time went on, whereas the proportion of Fe3O4 decreased.

  12. Pain facilitation and pain inhibition during conditioned pain modulation in fibromyalgia and in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Stéphane; Marchand, Serge

    2016-08-01

    Although fibromyalgia (FM) is associated with a deficit in inhibitory conditioned pain modulation (CPM), the discriminative power of CPM procedures is unknown. Moreover, the high intersubject heterogeneity in CPM responses in FM raises the possibility that a sizeable subgroup of these patients may experience pain facilitation during CPM, but the phenomenon has not been explicitly studied. To address these issues, 96 patients with FM and 71 healthy controls were recruited. Thermal stimuli were used to measure pain thresholds. Pain inhibition was elicited using a tonic thermal test (Peltier thermode) administered before and after activation of CPM mechanisms using a cold pressor test. Thermal pain thresholds were lower in patients with FM than in healthy controls. Pain ratings during the cold pressor test were higher in patients with FM, relative to controls. The CPM inhibitory efficacy was lower in patients with FM than in controls. The CPM procedure had good specificity (78.9%) but low sensitivity (45.7%), whereas a composite pain index had good sensitivity (75.0%) and specificity (78.9%). Finally, the rate of patients with FM who reported pain facilitation during the CPM procedure was found to be significantly increased compared with that of controls (41.7% vs 21.2%). The good discriminative power of the composite pain index highlights the need for further validation studies using mechanistically relevant psychophysical procedures in FM. The low sensitivity of the CPM procedure, combined with the large proportion of patients with FM experiencing pain facilitation during CPM, strongly suggests that endogenous pain inhibition mechanisms are deeply impaired in patients with FM, but only in a subgroup of them.

  13. Effects of Controlled Release Urea on Wheat Yield and Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency Under Different Applied Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIA Wei-guang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The field trial was conducted to study the effects of different nitrogen fertilizer applications on winter wheat yield, nitrogen utilization efficiency and economic benefit. 7 treatments were designed as CK(no nitrogen fertilizer applied, 100%PU10/0(conventional urea applied before sowing, N rate was 240 kg·hm-2, 100%PU6/4(conventional urea applied before sowing and at jointing with the ratio of 6∶4, N rate was 240 kg·hm-2, 80%PU6/4(conventional urea applied before sowing and at jointing with the ratio of 6∶4, N rate was 192 kg·hm-2, 100%CRU(resin coated controlled release urea applied before sowing, N rate was 240 kg·hm-2, 80%CRU(resin coated controlled release urea applied before sowing, N rate was 192 kg·hm-2, and 40%CRU+40%PU(resin coated controlled release urea and conventional urea applied before sowing, N rate was 192 kg·hm-2. The results showed that no matter on the efficiency of yield or that of nitrogen, resin coated controlled-release urea(CRU was better when compared with conventional urea(PU. Especially, the combined application treatment(40%CRU+40%PUwas the best with achieving the highest wheat yield of 7 709 kg·hm-2, the highest N fertilizer utilization efficiency of 36.44% and the maximum net income of 15 946 yuan·hm-2. And it could not only increase winter wheat yield with reducing the nitrogen fertilizer application, but also improve N fertilizer utilization efficiency and owe the highest ratio of output to input. Therefore, the combined application of the resin coated controlled-release urea and conventional urea(40%CRU+40%PUwas the optimal nitrogen fertilizer treatment under the conditions of this experiment.

  14. Relapse Prevention in Major Depressive Disorder: Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Versus an Active Control Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallcross, Amanda J.; Gross, James J.; Visvanathan, Pallavi D.; Kumar, Niketa; Palfrey, Amy; Ford, Brett Q.; Dimidjian, Sona; Shirk, Stephen; Holm-Denoma, Jill; Goode, Kari M.; Cox, Erica; Chaplin, William; Mauss, Iris B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the comparative effectiveness of Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) versus an active control condition (ACC) for depression relapse prevention, depressive symptom reduction, and improvement in life satisfaction. Method Ninety-two participants in remission from Major Depressive Disorder with residual depressive symptoms were randomized to either an 8-week MBCT or a validated ACC that is structurally equivalent to MBCT and controls for non-specific effects (e.g., interaction with a facilitator, perceived social support, treatment outcome expectations). Both interventions were delivered according to their published manuals. Results Intention-to-treat analyses indicated no differences between MBCT and ACC in depression relapse rates or time to relapse over a 60-week follow-up. Both groups experienced significant and equal reductions in depressive symptoms and improvements in life satisfaction. A significant quadratic interaction (group x time) indicated that the pattern of depressive symptom reduction differed between groups. The ACC experienced immediate symptom reduction post-intervention and then a gradual increase over the 60-week follow-up. The MBCT group experienced a gradual linear symptom reduction. The pattern for life satisfaction was identical but only marginally significant. Conclusions MBCT did not differ from an ACC on rates of depression relapse, symptom reduction, or life satisfaction, suggesting that MBCT is no more effective for preventing depression relapse and reducing depressive symptoms than the active components of the ACC. Differences in trajectory of depressive symptom improvement suggest that the intervention-specific skills acquired may be associated with differential rates of therapeutic benefit. This study demonstrates the importance of comparing psychotherapeutic interventions to active control conditions. PMID:26371618

  15. Exploring valid internal-control genes in Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiaceae) during stress response conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenlei; Wu, Xiaojie; Wang, Chao; Jia, Zhaojun; He, Linwen; Wei, Yifan; Niu, Jianfeng; Wang, Guangce

    2014-07-01

    To screen the stable expression genes related to the stress (strong light, dehydration and temperature shock) we applied Absolute real-time PCR technology to determine the transcription numbers of the selected test genes in P orphyra yezoensis, which has been regarded as a potential model species responding the stress conditions in the intertidal. Absolute real-time PCR technology was applied to determine the transcription numbers of the selected test genes in P orphyra yezoensis, which has been regarded as a potential model species in stress responding. According to the results of photosynthesis parameters, we observed that Y(II) and F v/ F m were significantly affected when stress was imposed on the thalli of P orphyra yezoensis, but underwent almost completely recovered under normal conditions, which were collected for the following experiments. Then three samples, which were treated with different grade stresses combined with salinity, irradiation and temperature, were collected. The transcription numbers of seven constitutive expression genes in above samples were determined after RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis. Finally, a general insight into the selection of internal control genes during stress response was obtained. We found that there were no obvious effects in terms of salinity stress (at salinity 90) on transcription of most genes used in the study. The 18S ribosomal RNA gene had the highest expression level, varying remarkably among different tested groups. RPS8 expression showed a high irregular variance between samples. GAPDH presented comparatively stable expression and could thus be selected as the internal control. EF-1α showed stable expression during the series of multiple-stress tests. Our research provided available references for the selection of internal control genes for transcripts determination of P. yezoensis.

  16. The effectiveness of jute and coir blankets for erosion control in different field and laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalibová, Jana; Jačka, Lukáš; Petrů, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Vegetation cover is found to be an ideal solution to most problems of erosion on steep slopes. Biodegradable geotextiles (GTXs) have been proved to provide sufficient protection against soil loss in the period before vegetation reaches maturity, so favouring soil formation processes. In this study, 500 g m-2 jute (J500), 400 g m-2 (C400), and 700 g m-2 coir (C700) GTXs were first installed on a 9° slope under "no-infiltration" laboratory conditions, then on a 27° slope under natural field conditions. The impact of GTXs on run-off and soil loss was investigated to compare the performance of GTXs under different conditions. Laboratory run-off ratio (percentage portion of control plot) equalled 78, 83, and 91 %, while peak discharge ratio equalled 83, 91, and 97 % for J500, C700, and C400 respectively. In the field, a run-off ratio of 31, 62, and 79 %, and peak discharge ratio of 37, 74, and 87 % were recorded for C700, J500, and C400 respectively. All tested GTXs significantly decreased soil erosion. The greatest soil loss reduction in the field was observed for J500 (by 99.4 %), followed by C700 (by 97.9 %) and C400 (by 93.8 %). Irrespective of slope gradient or experimental condition, C400 performed with lower run-off and peak discharge reduction than J500 and C700. The performance ranking of J500 and C700 in the laboratory differed from the field, which may be explained by different slope gradients, and also by the role of soil, which was not included in the laboratory experiment.

  17. Genetic Variation in Response to Salt Stress of Quinoa Grown under Controlled and Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Long

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to understand the change in response of quinoa genotypes to divers salinity stress conditions e.g in controlled (net-house and in the different saline fields. The pot experiment was conducted in a net-house at Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Hanoi, Vietnam in spring cropping season to characterize the growth and yield of six quinoa genotypes under four NaCl concentrations (0, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1. At the same time, in Nam Dinh and Hai Phong provinces, two coastal provinces that are most affected by seawater intrusion in the North of Vietnam, same genotypes were studied under two plant densities (20 x 5cm and 50 x 5cm. The results showed that salinity stresses reduced growth and yield characteristics of quinoa plant and varying due to different saline conditions. Plant density of quinoa grown under saline fields was not associated with difference in morphological traits but might relate to the change in yield characteristics. Salinity stresses reduced plant height, the number of leaves on main stem, the number of branches on plant, head panicle length, the number of branches per panicle, dry matter accumulation, 1000-seed weight, individual and grain yield of all quinoa genotypes. However, most of quinoa genotypes produced acceptable yield even under high salt conditions in the field. Among quinoa genotypes, Moradas and Verde adapted well to salt stress conditions with high potential for the number of leaves on main stem, the number of branches on plant, dry matter accumulation and yield than others. These should be recommended varieties for cultivation in saline areas in Vietnam as well as be useful to improve genetic resources in breeding program for salt tolerant quinoa varieties.

  18. Microhabitat Effects on N2O Emissions from Floodplain Soils under Controlled Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Martin; Lehmann, Moritz; Niklaus, Pascal; Frey, Beat; Kuhn, Thomas; Luster, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    Semi-terrestrial soils such as floodplain soils are considered to be potential hotspots of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The quantitative assessment of N2O release from these hot spots under field conditions, and of the microbial pathways that underlie net N2O production (ammonium oxidation, nitrifier-denitrification, and denitrification) is challenging in the environment because of the high spatial and temporal variability. The production and consumption of N2O appears to be linked to the presence or absence of micro-niches, providing specific conditions that may be favorable to either of the microbial pathways that produce or consume N2O. The availability of oxygen, reactive organic carbon, and dissolved nitrogen substrates likely play key roles with regards to the net production of N2O. Previous field studies demonstrated, for example, that flooding can trigger "hot moments" of enhanced N2O emission through a close coupling of niches with high and low oxygen availabilities. Such microhabitat effects likely depend on soil aggregate formation, plant soil interactions in the rhizosphere and the degradation of organic matter accumulations. In order to assess how these factors can modulate N2O production and consumption under simulated flooding/drying conditions, we have set up a mesocosm experiment with model soils comprising various mixtures of N-rich floodplain soil aggregates (4000 - 250 µm representing large aggregates, or preference. Changes in soil microbial communities, potentially controlling the balance between N2O production and consumption under different microhabitat conditions will be assessed using high-throughput DNA sequencing and q-PCR of key functional genes. Our study helps to increase our limited understanding of how microhabitats affect the occurrence of high N2O emissions from floodplain soils.

  19. Coupling river hydrochemical information with catchment properties for multi-scale-analysis of lateral matter fluxes in the Earth system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Jens; Lauerwald, Ronny; Moosdorf, Nils

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decade the number of regional to global scale studies of river chemical fluxes and their steering factors increased rapidly, entailing a growing demand for appropriate databases to calculate mass budgets, to calibrate models, or to test hypotheses [1, 2]. Research applying compilations of hydrochemical data are related to questions targeting different time and spatial scales, as for example the annual to centennial scale. In focus are often the alteration of land-ocean matter fluxes due anthropogenic disturbance, the climate sensitivity of chemical weathering fluxes [3], or nutrient fluxes and their evolution [2, 4]. We present an overview of the GLObal RIver CHemistry database GLORICH, which combines an assemblage of hydrochemical data from varying sources with catchment characteristics of the sampling locations [1]. The information provided include e.g. catchment size, lithology, soil, climate, land cover, net primary production, population density and average slope gradient. The data base comprises 1.27 million samples distributed over 17,000 sampling locations [1]. It will be shown how large assemblages of data are useful to target some major questions about the alteration of land ocean element fluxes due to climate or land use change while coupling hydrochemical data with catchment properties in a homogenized database. An extension by isotopic data will be in the focus of future work [c.f. 5]. Further, applications in climate change studies for understanding feedbacks in the Earth system will be discussed [6]. References: [1] Hartmann, J., Lauerwald, R., & Moosdorf, N. (2014). A brief overview of the GLObal RIver CHemistry Database, GLORICH. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science, 10, 23-27. [2] Hartmann, J., Levy, J., & Kempe, S. (2011). Increasing dissolved silica trends in the Rhine River: an effect of recovery from high P loads?. Limnology, 12(1), 63-73. [3] Hartmann, J., Moosdorf, N., Lauerwald, R., Hinderer, M., & West, A. J. (2014). Global

  1. Open source GIS based tools to improve hydrochemical water resources management in EU H2020 FREEWAT platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criollo, Rotman; Velasco, Violeta; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Nardi, Albert; Marazuela, Miguel A.; Rossetto, Rudy; Borsi, Iacopo; Foglia, Laura; Cannata, Massimiliano; De Filippis, Giovanna

    2017-04-01

    Due to the general increase of water scarcity (Steduto et al., 2012), water quantity and quality must be well known to ensure a proper access to water resources in compliance with local and regional directives. This circumstance can be supported by tools which facilitate process of data management and its analysis. Such analyses have to provide research/professionals, policy makers and users with the ability to improve the management of the water resources with standard regulatory guidelines. Compliance with the established standard regulatory guidelines (with a special focus on requirement deriving from the GWD) should have an effective monitoring, evaluation, and interpretation of a large number of physical and chemical parameters. These amounts of datasets have to be assessed and interpreted: (i) integrating data from different sources and gathered with different data access techniques and formats; (ii) managing data with varying temporal and spatial extent; (iii) integrating groundwater quality information with other relevant information such as further hydrogeological data (Velasco et al., 2014) and pre-processing these data generally for the realization of groundwater models. In this context, the Hydrochemical Analysis Tools, akvaGIS Tools, has been implemented within the H2020 FREEWAT project; which aims to manage water resources by modelling water resource management in an open source GIS platform (QGIS desktop). The main goal of AkvaGIS Tools is to improve water quality analysis through different capabilities to improve the case study conceptual model managing all data related into its geospatial database (implemented in Spatialite) and a set of tools for improving the harmonization, integration, standardization, visualization and interpretation of the hydrochemical data. To achieve that, different commands cover a wide range of methodologies for querying, interpreting, and comparing groundwater quality data and facilitate the pre-processing analysis for

  2. Analysis of the Impact of Urban Microclimate on Air Conditioning Load Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Xiaoqing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the presence of urban heat island effect (UHIE, high humidity and other urban microclimate, temperature of city central area rises. This causes that the actual air-conditioning energy consumption (ACEC in the urban central area is much higher than that in the suburbs. Load control of air-conditioners (ACs is considered to be equivalent to a power plant of the same capacity, and it can greatly reduce the system pressure to peak load shift. In this paper, a simplified second order transfer function control model of ACs is presented, and its parameters will be influenced by the ambient temperature and urban microclimate. The temperature is obtained by using the temperature inversion algorithm of the heat island effect. Then, the heat index is calculated by combining temperature and humidity. The ambient temperature index of urban central area is modified based on the above microclimate, and the second order linear time invariant model of aggregated ACs is upgraded to the linear time varying model. Furthermore, the consequent parameter changes of the second order transfer function model are studied and the influence of urban microclimate on AC load control is analyzed. The proposed method is verified on numerical examples

  3. Efficacy of neem chippings for mosquito larval control under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbahale, Susan S; Mukabana, Wolfgang R

    2015-03-08

    An in depth understanding of mosquito breeding biology and factors regulating population sizes is fundamental for vector population control. This paper presents results from a survey of mosquito breeding habitats and the efficacy of neem chippings as a potential larvicide that can be integrated in mosquito control on Nyabondo Plateau in western Kenya. Six main mosquito habitat types namely artificial ponds, abandoned fish ponds, active fish ponds, open drains, temporary pools and swamps were found in Nyabondo. Early anopheline instars were mainly recovered from temporary pools, artificial ponds and abandoned fish ponds. The mosquitoes collected were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (35%), An. coustani (46%) and Culex spp (19%). Both early and late instar larvae of anopheline and culicine mosquitoes were more abundant in the controls than in the Bti and neem treated habitats. Within treated habitats, early instar anopheline mosquitoes were recovered more from habitats provided with neem and fish compared to Bti treated habitats. All treated habitats recorded higher numbers of early instar larvae than late instars or pupae, indicating that gravid female mosquitoes still oviposited within treated habitats. Neem chippings are a good tool for mosquito larval source management under field conditions. However, more research needs to be done to quantify the contribution of this tool to the overall mosquito borne disease transmission.

  4. Control Strategy of Three-Phase Photovoltaic Inverter under Low-Voltage Ride-Through Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbo Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The new energy promoting community has recently witnessed a surge of developments in photovoltaic power generation technologies. To fulfill the grid code requirement of photovoltaic inverter under low-voltage ride-through (LVRT condition, by utilizing the asymmetry feature of grid voltage, this paper aims to control both restraining negative sequence current and reactive power fluctuation on grid side to maintain balanced output of inverter. Two mathematical inverter models of grid-connected inverter containing LCL grid-side filter under both symmetrical and asymmetric grid are proposed. PR controller method is put forward based on inverter model under asymmetric grid. To ensure the stable operation of the inverter, grid voltage feedforward method is introduced to restrain current shock at the moment of voltage drop. Stable grid-connected operation and LVRT ability at grid drop have been achieved via a combination of rapid positive and negative sequence component extraction of accurate grid voltage synchronizing signals. Simulation and experimental results have verified the superior effectiveness of our proposed control strategy.

  5. Quality controls for wind measurement of a 1290-MHz boundary layer profiler under strong wind conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Zheng, Chaorong; Wu, Yue

    2017-09-01

    Wind profilers have been widely adopted to observe the wind field information in the atmosphere for different purposes. But accuracy of its observation has limitations due to various noises or disturbances and hence need to be further improved. In this paper, the data measured under strong wind conditions, using a 1290-MHz boundary layer profiler (BLP), are quality controlled via a composite quality control (QC) procedure proposed by the authors. Then, through the comparison with the data measured by radiosonde flights (balloon observations), the critical thresholds in the composite QC procedure, including consensus average threshold T1 and vertical shear threshold T3, are systematically discussed. And the performance of the BLP operated under precipitation is also evaluated. It is found that to ensure the high accuracy and high data collectable rate, the optimal range of subsets is determined to be 4 m/s. Although the number of data rejected by the combined algorithm of vertical shear examination and small median test is quite limited, it is proved that the algorithm is quite useful to recognize the outlier with a large discrepancy. And the optimal wind shear threshold T3 can be recommended as 5 ms-1/100 m . During patchy precipitation, the quality of data measured by the four oblique beams (using the DBS measuring technique) can still be ensured. After the BLP data are quality controlled by the composite QC procedure, the output can show good agreement with the balloon observation.

  6. Flexible operation strategy for environment control system in abnormal supply power condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liping, Pang; Guoxiang, Li; Hongquan, Qu; Yufeng, Fang

    2017-04-01

    This paper establishes an optimization method that can be applied to the flexible operation of the environment control system in an abnormal supply power condition. A proposed conception of lifespan is used to evaluate the depletion time of the non-regenerative substance. The optimization objective function is to maximize the lifespans. The optimization variables are the allocated powers of subsystems. The improved Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm is adopted to obtain the pareto optimization frontier with the constraints of the cabin environmental parameters and the adjustable operating parameters of the subsystems. Based on the same importance of objective functions, the preferred power allocation of subsystems can be optimized. Then the corresponding running parameters of subsystems can be determined to ensure the maximum lifespans. A long-duration space station with three astronauts is used to show the implementation of the proposed optimization method. Three different CO2 partial pressure levels are taken into consideration in this study. The optimization results show that the proposed optimization method can obtain the preferred power allocation for the subsystems when the supply power is at a less-than-nominal value. The method can be applied to the autonomous control for the emergency response of the environment control system.

  7. General collaboration offer of Johnson Controls regarding the performance of air conditioning automatic control systems and other buildings` automatic control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gniazdowski, J.

    1995-12-31

    JOHNSON CONTROLS manufactures measuring and control equipment (800 types) and is as well a {open_quotes}turn-key{close_quotes} supplier of complete automatic controls systems for heating, air conditioning, ventilation and refrigerating engineering branches. The Company also supplies Buildings` Computer-Based Supervision and Monitoring Systems that may be applied in both small and large structures. Since 1990 the company has been performing full-range trade and contracting activities on the Polish market. We have our own well-trained technical staff and we collaborate with a series of designing and contracting enterprises that enable us to have our projects carried out all over Poland. The prices of our supplies and services correspond with the level of the Polish market.

  8. Environmental tritium (³H) and hydrochemical investigations to evaluate groundwater in Varahi and Markandeya river basins, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, P; Somashekar, R K

    2011-02-01

    The present study aimed at assessing the activity of natural radionuclides ((3)H) and hydrochemical parameters (viz., pH, EC, F(-), NO(3)(-), Cl(-), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) in the groundwater used for domestic and irrigation purposes in the Varahi and Markandeya river basins to understand the levels of hydrochemical parameters in terms of the relative age(s) of the groundwater contained within the study area. The recorded environmental (3)H content in Varahi and Markandeya river basins varied from 1.95 ± 0.25T.U. to 11.35 ± 0.44T.U. and 1.49 ± 0.75T.U. to 9.17 ± 1.13T.U. respectively. Majority of the samples in Varahi (93.34%) and Markandeya (93.75%) river basins being pre-modern water with modern recharge, significantly influenced by precipitation and river inflowing/sea water intrusion. The EC-Tritium and Tritium-Fluoride plots confirmed the existence of higher total dissolved solids (SEC > 500 μS/cm) and high fluoride (MAC > 1.5 mg/L) in groundwater of Markandeya river basin, attributed to relatively longer residence time of groundwater interacting with rock formations and vice versa in case of Varahi river basin. The tritium-EC and tritium-chloride plots indicated shallow and deep circulating groundwater types in Markandeya river basin and only shallow circulating groundwater type in Varahi river basin. Increasing Mg relative to Ca with decreasing tritium indicated the influence of incongruent dissolution of a dolomite phase. The samples with high nitrate (MAC > 45 mg/L) are waters that are actually mixtures of fresh water (containing very high nitrate, possibly from agricultural fertilizers) and older 'unpolluted' waters (containing low nitrate levels), strongly influenced by surface source. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impulse Control in Operations Research : Necessary Optimality Conditions, Sufficiency and Existence (replaced by CentER DP 2011-133)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chahim, M.; Hartl, R.F.; Kort, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers a class of optimal control problems that allows jumps in the state variable. We present the necessary optimality conditions of the Impulse Control Maximum Principle based on the current value formulation. By reviewing the existing impulse control models in the literature, we poi

  10. Control of Tick Infestations in Oryctolagus cuniculus (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) With Spinosad Under Laboratory and Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ValcÁrcel, Félix; SÁnchez, J L Pérez; Jaime, J M Tercero; Basco-Basco, P I; Guajardo, S C Cota; Cutuli, M T; GonzÁlez, J; Olmeda, A S

    2015-03-01

    Because of great economic loss in the world's livestock industry, and the serious risks to human health, the control of ticks and tick-borne diseases is one of the most important health management issues today. Current methodology involves integrated tick control for preventing the development of resistance. Rabbits are hosts for immature stages of the three-host tick Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch; so, we focus on this host as a strategy to interrupt the tick life cycle. Spinosad is an insecticide-acaricide, produced by the fermentation of metabolites of the actinomycete bacterium Saccharopolyspora spinosa. We administered spinosad orally by force-feeding naturally and artificially infested rabbits, and under field conditions by administering treated food via a hopper during the period of peak infestation and reinfestation risk for rabbits. No living larvae were recovered from treated laboratory rabbits. In naturally infested rabbits, the number of live ticks collected from treated rabbits (mean = 0.62 ticks per ear) was significantly lower than those recovered from untreated rabbits (mean = 7.27; P < 0.001), whereas the number of dead ticks collected from untreated rabbits (mean = 6.53) was significantly lower than those recovered from treated rabbits (mean = 18.62; P < 0.001). In addition, free and continually reinfested rabbits freely ingested low doses of spinosad, reducing the tick burden from 48.00 (Day 0) to 26.09 ticks per ear in treated rabbits (Day 16), whereas controls maintained the infection (46.64). This strategy could be useful as an alternative or supplement to traditional acaricides in tick control programs.

  11. Bio boiler - Control conditions. Part 1: Model development and analysis of operating conditions; Biokedel - Reguleringsmaessige forhold. Del 1: Modeludvikling og analyse af dynamiske driftsforhold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boecher Poulsen, K.; Christensen, Torkild; Mortensen, Jan; Runge Kristoffersen, J.; Kristmundsson, E. [Tech-wise A/S (Denmark); Moekbak, T.; Mortensen, Hans Peter [Elsam A/S (Denmark)

    2002-12-15

    This report focuses on the model-building part of the PSO project, 'Control Conditions Bio-boiler'. In the project, which treats dynamic simulation of biomass fired power plants via the MMS software, a certain number of straw/wood chip modules have been built, together with a combustion module which, when connected to the existing MMS modules, can be used for dynamic simulation. Furthermore, a certain number of continuous and discrete components have been built which, together with the remaining MMS modules will create a complete model of the active part of the control structure under the most common operation conditions. By means of the developed straw, combustion and control modules, a model of Enstedvaerket's bio-boiler is built (without wood chip super-heater), including practically all auxiliary control mechanisms. In the report the primary problems caused by the development of the model are discussed, typically numerical problems. First of all it is discussed how a steady state condition can be reached from a nonphysical condition at the start-up of the simulation. After reaching a steady state condition at full load, the boiler load is reduced by adjusting the desired live steam flow setpoint value and the load gradient (as it would be done from the control room). While reducing to part load, one straw line is closed down, as it would be done in 'real life'. From part load, the boiler load is once again in the same way increased to full. (BA) The simulation results are then compared to measurements made on the same boiler during load reduction and load increase.

  12. Most recent developments for monitoring and controlling the annulus conditions of Marlim-Sul flexible risers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo, Alexandre S.; Motta, Antonio; Romero, Antonio; Nunes, Joao P.; Zaganelli Junior, Jose L.; Brack, Marcelo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present the recent developments for monitoring and controlling the annulus conditions of flexible risers. PETROBRAS has been monitoring the pressure of permeated gas in the annulus region of some risers in order to infer the eventual occurrence of non-conformities as damage on the riser external sheath, for example. Such occurrence would affect the permeated gas flow pattern, the gas pressurization period and the relief valve opening frequencies. Furthermore, the mentioned occurrence would increase the susceptibility of the steel armors to experience the potential failure mechanism of corrosion. In PETROBRAS, the current monitoring method is characterized by visual and periodic manometer readings from a manometer set installed near each riser end-fitting. The data is recorded in a daily report and analyzed by personnel onshore, who are in charge of comparing data and requesting relief valve's actuation, whenever necessary. The paper illustrates Marlim-Sul Asset experience on monitoring and data processing to control the annulus conditions of flexible risers during operation. It presents the in-house developed methodology to data management and processing. This methodology is based on a daily analysis of the permeated gas data worksheet. Some examples are given to illustrate it. The paper also summarizes current developments, in progress, in order to improve riser integrity management. The first development is being done to implement, in the future, automatic data acquisition and control systems. The purpose of automating this process is to improve methods and techniques for data acquisition, transmission and processing. The second development focuses on applications in which riser top end-fittings are submerged. In this particular scenario, a special system - with a quick connection sub sea device - is under development to allow the connection, by divers, after the riser pull-in, of the riser annulus to the platform gas

  13. Conditions for entangled photon emission from (111)B site-controlled pyramidal quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juska, G., E-mail: gediminas.juska@tyndall.ie; Murray, E.; Dimastrodonato, V.; Chung, T. H.; Moroni, S. T.; Gocalinska, A.; Pelucchi, E. [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland)

    2015-04-07

    A study of highly symmetric site-controlled pyramidal In{sub 0.25}Ga{sub 0.75}As quantum dots (QDs) is presented. It is discussed that polarization-entangled photons can be also obtained from pyramidal QDs of different designs from the one already reported in Juska et al. [Nat. Photonics 7, 527 (2013)]. Moreover, some of the limitations for a higher density of entangled photon emitters are addressed. Among these issues are (1) a remaining small fine-structure splitting and (2) an effective QD charging under non-resonant excitation conditions, which strongly reduce the number of useful biexciton-exciton recombination events. A possible solution of the charging problem is investigated exploiting a dual-wavelength excitation technique, which allows a gradual QD charge tuning from strongly negative to positive and, eventually, efficient detection of entangled photons from QDs, which would be otherwise ineffective under a single-wavelength (non-resonant) excitation.

  14. Controlled Aspect Ratios of Gold Nanorods in Reduction-Limited Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Yeob Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspect ratios of gold nanorods have been finely modified in reduction-limited conditions via two electrochemical ways: by changing the amount of a growth solution containing small gold clusters in the presence of already prepared gold nanorods as seeds or by changing electrolysis time in the presence or absence of a silver plate. While the atomic molar ratio of gold in the growth solution to gold in the seed solution is critical in the former method, the relative molar ratio of gold ions to silver ions in the electrolytic solution is important in the latter way for the control of the aspect ratios of gold nanorods. The aspect ratios of gold nanorods decrease with an increase of electrolysis time in the absence of a silver plate, but they increase with an increase of electrolysis time in the presence of a silver plate.

  15. Taphonomic marks on pig tissue due to cadaveric Coleoptera activity under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Noelia I; Visciarelli, Elena C; Centeno, Néstor D

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study taphonomic marks that cadaveric coleopteran can produce under controlled conditions. To evaluate this, pig trotters were initially exposed to adults of Dermestes maculatus De Geer at 21 ± 5°C and a 12:12-h day/night cycle. Observations were made and photographs taken every 4-5 days for 9 months. When feeding and reproducing, D. maculatus produced, in both adult and larvae stages, different types of marks such as holes, striations, scratches, and pits in several kinds of tissue such as integumental, connective, and muscular, in both their fresh and dried stages. Bite marks were also evident. The results in this study provide not only taphonomic but also biological and forensic information. This is the first time that this kind of experiment has been performed. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Hydrochemical analysis of stream water in a tropical, mountainous headwater catchment in northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hugenschmidt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Land use in the vulnerable mountainous parts of the Mae Sa watershed, northern Thailand, has been changed from subsistence agriculture to market-driven production within the past decades. This change is reflected in an increased application of agrochemicals on agricultural areas to secure yields and control pests. Our study site is a steep and fast-responding headwater catchment (77 km2, which transfers agrochemicals that might get lost from soils to waters quickly to the lowlands posing the risk of environmental contamination. This work describes the study, which has been carried out in a subcatchment (7 km2 of the Mae Sa watershed to identify runoff generation processes and contributing flow paths to encircle potential flow paths of pesticides leaching from soil to surface water. We observed three events during the rainy seasons in 2007 and 2008, which were analysed on major ions and EC at high temporal resolution. Based on the samples a two-component hydrograph separation was carried out for three events. For two out of the three events a three-component hydrograph separation was performed to identify the contributions of baseflow, interflow and surface runoff. Baseflow remained the dominant flow fraction, but interflow outshined surface runoff in its amount. Interflow could be observed at the hillslope seeping from the soil in 2007, but not in 2008. We suggest, that interflow highly depends on a constant input of rainfall and requires a certain minimum amount of rainfall per season to be triggered and sustained. Former studies found that pesticides mainly get lost by interflow in this area. Hence, we can point out that pesticide leaching risk is particularly high after a certain amount of rainfall. Critical conditions are therefore mainly present, when the soil layers are close to saturation but not, when these layers are generated or degenerated.

  17. Autonomic control of heart rate and blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats during aversive classical conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, D C; Buchholz, R A; Fitzgerald, R D

    1981-12-01

    An examination was made of the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) responses of 7-9-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and genetical control Wistar/Kyoto (WKY) rats during aversive classical conditioning. Subsequent to the development of conditioned responding (CRs), assessments were made of the effects of selective autonomic blockade by methyl atropine (10 mg/kg), phentolamine (2 mg/kg), and propranolol (2 mg/kg). The CR complex in the two strains consisted of pressor BP CRs in conjunction with vagally mediated decelerative HR CRs in the SHR strain and sympathetically mediated accelerative HR CRs in the WKY strain. The decelerative SHR HR CR did not appear to be secondary to baroreceptor reflex activity, although such activity did appear to be involved in the pressor BP and decelerative HR orienting response (OR) and unconditioned response (UR) complex of the SHRs on the initial application of the CS and the US, respectively. Augmented pressor BP ORs, CRs, and URs in the SHRs relative to the WKYs and differential drug effects on BP and HR baselines of the two strains suggested the presence of enhanced sympathetic activity in the SHRs that was not reflected in the SHR decelerative HR CR. Phentolamine unmasked evidence of reflex beta 2-vasodilation deficiency in the SHRs that could have contributed to the enhancement of their BP OR and CR.

  18. Surface Cleaning or Activation?Control of Surface Condition Prior to Thermo-Chemical Heat Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brigitte Haase; Juan Dong; Jens Heinlein

    2004-01-01

    Actual heat treatment processes must face increasing specifications with reference to process quality, safety and results in terms of reproducibility and repeatability. They can be met only if the parts' surface condition is controlled during manufacturing and, especially, prior to the treatment. An electrochemical method for the detection of a steel part's surface condition is presented, together with results, consequences, and mechanisms concerning surface pre-treatment before the thermochemical process. A steel surface's activity or passivity can be detected electrochemically, independently from the chemical background. The selected method was the recording of potential vs. time curves at small constant currents, using a miniaturized electrochemical cell, a (nearly) non-destructive electrolyte and a potentio-galvanostatic setup. The method enables to distinguish types of surface contamination which do not interfere with the thermochemical process, from passive layers which do and must be removed. Whereas some types of passive layers can be removed using conventional cleaning processes and agents, others are so stable that their effects can only be overcome by applying an additional activation pre-treatment, e.g. oxynitriding.

  19. Operational control of radiation conditions in Space Monitoring Data Center of Moscow State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalegaev, Vladimir; Shugay, Yulia; Bobrovnikov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Nikolay; Barinova, Vera; Myagkova, Irina; Panasyuk, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    Space Monitoring Data Center (SMDC) of Moscow State University provides mission support for Russian satellites and give operational analysis of radiation conditions in space. SMDC Web-sites (http://smdc.sinp.msu.ru/ and http://swx.sinp.msu.ru/) give access to current data on the level of solar activity, geomagnetic and radiation state of Earth's magnetosphere and heliosphere in near-real time. For data analysis the models of space environment factors working online have been implemented. Interactive services allow one to retrieve and analyze data at a given time moment. Forecasting applications including solar wind parameters, geomagnetic and radiation condition forecasts have been developed. Radiation dose and SEE rate control are of particular importance in practical satellite operation. Satellites are always under the influence of high-energy particle fluxes during their orbital flight. The three main sources of particle fluxes: the Earth's radiation belts, the galactic cosmic rays, and the solar energetic particles (SEP), are taken into account by SMDC operational services to estimate the radiation dose caused by high-energy particles to a satellite at LEO orbits. ISO 15039 and AP8/AE8 physical models are used to estimate effects of galactic cosmic rays and radiation belt particle fluxes. Data of geosynchronous satellites (GOES or Electro-L1) allow to reconstruct the SEP fluxes spectra at a given low Earth orbit taking into account the geomagnetic cut-off depending on geomagnetic activity level.

  20. Optimal Inventory Control Problem with Inflation-Dependent Demand Rate Under Stochastic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mirzazadeh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The practical experiences reveal that the Supply Chain Management (SCM is under uncertain and variable conditions. One of the most important parts of SCM is inventory system management which is inherently in non-deterministic situation. The many departments of organization such as warehouse, marketing, sale, purchasing, financial, planning, production, maintenance and etc. are relevance to the inventory problem. Since 1975 a series of related papers appeared that considered the effects of inflation on the inventory system. There are a few works in the inflationary inventory researches under stochastic conditions, especially with multiple stochastic parameters. Therefore, a new mathematical model for the optimal production for an inventory control system is formulated under stochastic environment. The demand rate is a function of inflation and time value of money where the inflation and time horizon i.e., period of business, both are random in nature. In the real situation, some but not all customers will wait for backlogged items during a shortage period, such as for fashionable commodities or high-tech products. Thus, the model incorporates partial backlogging. A numerical method has been used and the numerical example has been provided for evaluation and validation of the theoretical results and some special cases of the model are discussed. The results show the importance of taking into account stochastic inflation, time horizon and demand.

  1. External corrosion control of northern pipelines : influence of construction conditions on the performance of coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papavinasam, S.; Doiron, A.

    2008-09-15

    Risk management is a key consideration in the construction of northern pipelines operating in harsh environments with extreme temperature conditions and ground movement. As such, it is important to acquire information on the properties of construction materials, including the steel itself, the girth welds that are made in the field and the coating and cathodic protection (CP) that will protect the pipes from corrosion and degradation. The use of polymeric coatings and CP are standard procedures for controlling external corrosion on buried or submerged metallic piping systems. When both systems fail, the pipeline is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This paper described methodologies to evaluate both external coatings under conditions anticipated during construction of the pipelines and to simulate the influence of freeze-thaw settlements on coating. The performance of an external pipeline coating depends on the events that occur during the 5 stages of the coating lifetime, notably manufacture, application, transportation, installation and operation. This paper reported on laboratory experiments that were conducted for 0, 4, 8 and 12 months to simulate 4 months of Canadian winter conditions in which samples were exposed to temperatures as low as -45 degrees C. Cathodic disbondment, impact resistance, flexibility, peel resistance, shearing and soil adhesion were tested. Field experiments were also carried out at Devon and Norman Wells for 0, 12, 24 and 36 months to investigate impact resistance and the squeeze test. The studies showed that Canadian Standards Association (CSA) standards CSA Z662, CSA Z245.20 and CSA Z245.21 adequately cover evaluation of coatings for northern pipelines. However, the pipelines specimens should be exposed for at least 4 months in order to evaluate the effects of low temperatures. 21 refs., 10 tabs., 25 figs., 4 appendices.

  2. Hydrodynamical, hydrochemical and isotopic characterization of the Kourimat aquifer system (Essaouira basin, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes, P.

    2008-06-01

    fluctuations in connection with the variations of precipitations. Hydrodynamic characteristics have been calculated by means of the interpretation of data of pumping tests, performed in the region by the General Hydraulic Administration of Morocco.On the hydrochemical point of view, results of chemical analyses have allowed us to determine the chemical facies of waters of the two aquifers, their interaction and their quality for the human consumption and their use in agriculture.To better understand the functioning modalities of the Meskala-Kourimat aquifer system, an isotopic study has been performed that showed the variations relative to the altitude of the recharge zones of the different channels. The altitudinal gradient in O18, estimated to 0,25‰ every 100 m confirms the validity of this result at a regional scale. The oxygène-18/deutérium relationship (δ2H = 7,74*(δ18O + 10,83 indicates an Atlantic system of the precipitation without evaporation. This suggests a quick infiltration, also confirmed by the importance of the fracturation developed in limestones and dolomitic limestones of the Cenomano-turonian aquifer of Meskala-Kourimat.La cuvette synclinale de Kourimat comprenant deux sous bassins celui de Zeltène et d’Igrounzar, est située dans la partie orientale du bassin d’Essaouira, abrite un système aquifère carbonaté, représenté par les calcaires du Cénomanien et les calcaires dolomitiques du Turonien. Les eaux de cet aquifère constituent l’unique ressource pour la région tant pour l’alimentation en eau potable que pour l’irrigation.Le Jurassique plus prépondérant dans le sous bassin du Zeltène est caractérisé par une dominance des formations plutôt étanches (marnes argiles rouges, etc.. Les formations carbonatées du Crétacé, d’extension spatiale fort dominante, représentent à peu près de 50% de la superficie du Zeltène et presque 85% de celle d’Igrounzar. Il s’agit de calcaires

  3. "APEC Blue" association with emission control and meteorological conditions detected by multi-scale statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Dai, Xin-Gang

    2016-09-01

    The term "APEC Blue" has been created to describe the clear sky days since the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit held in Beijing during November 5-11, 2014. The duration of the APEC Blue is detected from November 1 to November 14 (hereafter Blue Window) by moving t test in statistics. Observations show that APEC Blue corresponds to low air pollution with respect to PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2 under strict emission-control measures (ECMs) implemented in Beijing and surrounding areas. Quantitative assessment shows that ECM is more effective on reducing aerosols than the chemical constituents. Statistical investigation has revealed that the window also resulted from intensified wind variability, as well as weakened static stability of atmosphere (SSA). The wind and ECMs played key roles in reducing air pollution during November 1-7 and 11-13, and strict ECMs and weak SSA become dominant during November 7-10 under weak wind environment. Moving correlation manifests that the emission reduction for aerosols can increase the apparent wind cleanup effect, leading to significant negative correlations of them, and the period-wise changes in emission rate can be well identified by multi-scale correlations basing on wavelet decomposition. In short, this case study manifests statistically how human interference modified air quality in the mega city through controlling local and surrounding emissions in association with meteorological condition.

  4. Reproduction experiment on Austropotamobius pallipes complex under controlled conditions: Can hybrids be hatched?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghia D.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Austropotamobius pallipes complex is formed by the two species A. pallipes and A. italicus, recently defined only on genetic basis, without obvious morphological features for their differentiation. Dealing with this problem, we have conducted a breeding experiment between these two presumed species under controlled conditions, in order to investigate the possible existence of reproductive barriers. Using 80 breeders (56 females and 24 males collected from populations where their species identity was genetically well established, we performed four series of trials: Fita × Mpal and Fpal × Mita interspecific mating; Fita × Mita and Fpal × Mpal intraspecific mating as a control. We have monitored only the main phases of the reproduction in order to avoid excessive interference for the crayfish. In November 2009 the 91.7% of females having intraspecific mating, as well as the 100% of females having interspecific mating, produced eggs. In June 2010 the eggs from the 36.4% of females having intraspecific mating, and those from the 42.3% of females having interspecific mating did hatch. We emphasize the hatching of hybrids and their vitality.

  5. Unique genetic loci identified for emotional behavior in control and chronic stress conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly AK Carhuatanta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An individual’s genetic background affects their emotional behavior and response to stress. Although studies have been conducted to identify genetic predictors for emotional behavior or stress response, it remains unknown how prior stress history alters the interaction between an individual’s genome and their emotional behavior. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify chromosomal regions that affect emotional behavior and are sensitive to stress exposure. We utilized the BXD behavioral genetics mouse model to identify chromosomal regions that predict fear learning and emotional behavior following exposure to a control or chronic stress environment. 62 BXD recombinant inbred strains and C57BL/6 and DBA/2 parental strains underwent behavioral testing including a classical fear conditioning paradigm and the elevated plus maze. Distinct quantitative trait loci (QTLs were identified for emotional learning, anxiety and locomotion in control and chronic stress populations. Candidate genes, including those with already known functions in learning and stress were found to reside within the identified QTLs. Our data suggest that chronic stress history reveals novel genetic predictors of emotional behavior.

  6. Energetic conditions promoting top-down control of prey by predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin N Marshall

    Full Text Available Humans remove large amounts of biomass from natural ecosystems, and large bodied high trophic level animals are especially sensitive and vulnerable to exploitation. The effects of removing top-predators on food webs are often difficult to predict because of limited information on species interaction strengths. Here we used a three species predator-prey model to explore relationships between energetic properties of trophodynamic linkages and interaction strengths to provide heuristic rules that indicate observable energetic conditions that are most likely to lead to stable and strong top-down control of prey by predator species. We found that strong top-down interaction strengths resulted from low levels of energy flow from prey to predators. Strong interactions are more stable when they are a consequence of low per capita predation and when predators are subsidized by recruitment. Diet composition also affects stability, but the relationship depends on the form of the functional response. Our results imply that for generalist satiating predators, strong top-down control on prey is most likely for prey items that occupy a small portion of the diet and when density dependent recruitment is moderately high.

  7. Depth of the vadose zone controls aquifer biogeochemical conditions and extent of anthropogenic nitrogen removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczycha, Beata; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Crusius, J.; Bratton, J.F.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated biogeochemical conditions and watershed features controlling the extent of nitrate removal through microbial dinitrogen (N2) production within the surficial glacial aquifer located on the north and south shores of Long Island, NY, USA. The extent of N2 production differs within portions of the aquifer, with greatest N2 production observed at the south shore of Long Island where the vadose zone is thinnest, while limited N2production occurred under the thick vadose zones on the north shore. In areas with a shallow water table and thin vadose zone, low oxygen concentrations and sufficient DOC concentrations are conducive to N2production. Results support the hypothesis that in aquifers without a significant supply of sediment-bound reducing potential, vadose zone thickness exerts an important control of the extent of N2 production. Since quantification of excess N2 relies on knowledge of equilibrium N2concentration at recharge, calculated based on temperature at recharge, we further identify several features, such as land use and cover, seasonality of recharge, and climate change that should be considered to refine estimation of recharge temperature, its deviation from mean annual air temperature, and resulting deviation from expected equilibrium gas concentrations.

  8. An integrated system for synchronous culture of animal cells under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Pérez, Elena; Hernández, Vanessa; Palomares, Laura A; Serrato, José A

    2016-01-01

    The cell cycle has fundamental effects on cell cultures and their products. Tools to synchronize cultured cells allow the study of cellular physiology and metabolism at particular cell cycle phases. However, cells are most often arrested by methods that alter their homeostasis and are then cultivated in poorly controlled environments. Cell behavior could then be affected by the synchronization method and culture conditions used, and not just by the particular cell cycle phase under study. Moreover, only a few viable cells are recovered. Here, we designed an integrated system where a large number of cells from a controlled bioreactor culture is separated by centrifugal elutriation at high viabilities. In contrast to current elutriation methods, cells are injected directly from a bioreactor into an injection loop, allowing the introduction of a large number of cells into the separation chamber without stressful centrifugation. A low pulsation peristaltic pump increases the stability of the elutriation chamber. Using this approach, a large number of healthy cells at each cell cycle phase were obtained, allowing their direct inoculation into fully instrumented bioreactors. Hybridoma cells synchronized and cultured in this system behaved as expected for a synchronous culture.

  9. Biological control of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes using Duddingtonia flagrans in sheep under natural conditions in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-De Gives, Pedro; Zapata Nieto, Claudia; Hernández, Enrique Liébano; Arellano, María Eugenia López; Rodríguez, David Herrera; Garduño, Roberto González

    2006-10-01

    This investigation was aimed to evaluate the use of an oral bio-preparation containing Duddingtonia flagrans chlamydospores for the control of sheep gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes under the Mexican cold high plateau conditions. Two groups of gastrointestinal parasitic nematode naturally infected sheep, were randomly selected and located into two free-gastrointestinal nematode larvae paddocks. Group 1 received once a week a supplement containing D. flagrans chlamydospores mixed with oats and molasses. Group 2 received a similar supplement without any fungal material. After 5 months grazing animals were discarded from the experiment and two groups of free-nematode "tracer" sheep were located into the same paddocks to collect larvae from the contaminated pastures. Animals were slaughtered and necropsied and the nematodes were obtained and counted. A screening of the number of gastrointestinal nematode larvae present on the grass was performed and compared between the two grazing areas. The results showed 56% reduction in the Ostertagia (Teladorsagia) circumcincta and 94% reduction in the Nematodirus sp. population of the "tracer" sheep who grazed on the D. flagrans-treated sheep area, compared to the nematode population in animals grazed on the non-treated area. The results of the number of larvae on the grazing pastures showed a 51.1% reduction for H. contortus, and 100% for Cooperia sp. in the area with fungi. In the case of Trichostrongylus sp. no reduction was observed, when compared to the control group.

  10. Hydrochemical characteristics and quality assessment of deep groundwater from the coal-bearing aquifer of the Linhuan coal-mining district, Northern Anhui Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Man-Li; Peng, Wei-Hua; Gui, He-Rong

    2016-04-01

    There is little information available about the hydrochemical characteristics of deep groundwater in the Linhuan coal-mining district, Northern Anhui Province, China. In this study, we report information about the physicochemical parameters, major ions, and heavy metals of 17 groundwater samples that were collected from the coal-bearing aquifer. The results show that the concentrations of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, and potassium and sodium (K(+) + Na(+)) in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Chinese National Standards for Drinking Water Quality (GB 5749-2006). The groundwater from the coal-bearing aquifer was dominated by the HCO3·Cl-K + Na and HCO3·SO4-K + Na types. Analysis with a Gibbs plot suggested that the major ion chemistry of the groundwater was primarily controlled by weathering of rocks and that the coal-bearing aquifer in the Linhuan coal-mining district was a relatively closed system. K(+) and Na(+) originated from halite and silicate weathering reactions, while Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) originated from the dissolution of calcite, dolomite, and gypsum or anhydrite. Ion exchange reactions also had an influence on the formation of major ions in groundwater. The concentrations of selected heavy metals decreased in the order Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Ni > Pb. In general, the heavy metal concentrations were low; however, the Cr, Mn, and Ni concentrations in some of the groundwater samples exceeded the standards outlined by the WHO, the GB 5749-2006, and the Chinese National Standards for Groundwater (GB/T 14848-93). Analysis by various indices (% Na, SAR, and EC), a USSL diagram, and a Wilcox diagram showed that both the salinity and alkalinity of the groundwater were high, such that the groundwater could not be used for irrigating agricultural land without treatment. These results will be significant for water resource exploiting and utilization in

  11. From the new Austrian tunneling method to the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Shang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The new Austrian tunneling method (NATM is widely applied in design and construction of underground engineering projects. When the type and distribution of unfavorable geological bodies (UGBs associated with their influences on geoengineering are complicated or unfortunately are overlooked, we should pay more attentions to internal features of rocks grades IV and V (even in local but mostly controlling zones. With increasing attentions to the characteristics, mechanism and influences of engineering construction-triggered geohazards, it is crucial to fully understand the disturbance of these geohazards on project construction. A reasonable determination method in construction procedure, i.e. the shape of working face, the type of engineering support and the choice of feasible procedure, should be considered in order to mitigate the construction-triggered geohazards. Due to their high sensitivity to groundwater and in-situ stress, various UGBs exhibit hysteretic nature and failure modes. To give a complete understanding on the internal causes, the emphasis on advanced comprehensive geological forecasting and overall reinforcement treatment is therefore of more practical significance. Comprehensive evaluation of influential factors, identification of UGB, and measures of discontinuity dynamic controlling comprises the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method. In a case of a cut slope, the variations of UGBs and the impacts of key environmental factors are presented, where more severe construction-triggered geohazards emerged in construction stage than those predicted in design and field investigation stages. As a result, the weight ratios of different influential factors with respect to field investigation, design and construction are obtained.

  12. From the new Austrian tunneling method to the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanjun Shang; Kun Li; Wantong He; Chunbo Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The new Austrian tunneling method (NATM) is widely applied in design and construction of under-ground engineering projects. When the type and distribution of unfavorable geological bodies (UGBs) associated with their influences on geoengineering are complicated or unfortunately are overlooked, we should pay more attentions to internal features of rocks grades IV and V (even in local but mostly controlling zones). With increasing attentions to the characteristics, mechanism and influences of en-gineering construction-triggered geohazards, it is crucial to fully understand the disturbance of these geohazards on project construction. A reasonable determination method in construction procedure, i.e. the shape of working face, the type of engineering support and the choice of feasible procedure, should be considered in order to mitigate the construction-triggered geohazards. Due to their high sensitivity to groundwater and in-situ stress, various UGBs exhibit hysteretic nature and failure modes. To give a complete understanding on the internal causes, the emphasis on advanced comprehensive geological forecasting and overall reinforcement treatment is therefore of more practical significance. Compre-hensive evaluation of influential factors, identification of UGB, and measures of discontinuity dynamic controlling comprises the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method. In a case of a cut slope, the variations of UGBs and the impacts of key environmental factors are presented, where more severe construction-triggered geohazards emerged in construction stage than those pre-dicted in design and field investigation stages. As a result, the weight ratios of different influential factors with respect to field investigation, design and construction are obtained.

  13. Improving PAQ and comfort conditions in Spanish office buildings with passive climate control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosa, Jose A.; Baalina, A. [Departamento de Energia y P.M. Escuela Tecnica Superior de N. y M, Universidade da Coruna, Paseo de Ronda 51, P.C.:15011 A Coruna (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    Some researchers have demonstrated that passive moisture transfer between indoor air and hygroscopic structures has the potential to moderate variations of indoor air relative humidity and, thus, to improve comfort and PAQ [Simonson CJ, Salonvaara M, Ojalen T. The effect of structures on indoor humidity-possibility to improve comfort and perceived air quality. Indoor Air 2002; 12: 243-51; Simonson CJ, Salonvaara M, Ojalen T. Improving indoor climate and comfort with wooden structures. Espoo 2001. Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT Publications 431.200p+app 91p]. The main objective of this study is to show the internal wall coating effect on indoor air conditions and, as a consequence of this, in comfort conditions and PAQ. In a previous paper [Orosa JA, Baalina A. Passive climate control in Spanish office buildings for long periods of time. Building and Environment 2008], we analysed the influence of permeable and impermeable materials on indoor air conditions, during the unoccupied period, in 25 office buildings in different seasons. Results obtained lead us to conclude that real coverings such as permeable, semi-permeable and impermeable types, present different behavioural patterns in indoor air conditions. Furthermore, we concluded that an absorbent structure will moderate relative humidity indoors. In this paper, we study this indoor relative humidity effect on local thermal discomfort, due to decreased respiratory cooling, and indoor ambience acceptability for the early hours of morning applying PD and Acc models [Toftum J, Jorgensen AS, Fanger PO. Upper limits for indoor air humidity to avoid uncomfortably humid skin. Energy and buildings 1998; 28: 1-13; Toftum J, Jorgensen AS, Fanger PO. Upper limits of air humidity for preventing warm respiratory discomfort. Energy and Buildings 1998; 28: 15-23] such as that proposed by Simonson et al. [The effect of structures on indoor humidity-possibility to improve comfort and perceived air quality. Indoor Air

  14. Overall hydrochemical characterization of the Iberian Pyrite Belt. Main acid mine drainage-generating sources (Huelva, SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, J. A.; de la Torre, M. L.; Cerón, J. C.; Beltrán, R.; Gómez, T.

    2010-09-01

    SummaryAMD is an anthropogenic process caused by sulfide mineralization and the increase in the contact surface due to mining activity and grain-size reduction. In Spain, the contamination comes from the metal sulfide mines in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB). Spreading over an area 230 km long and approximately 50 km wide, it is one of the largest metallogenic regions in the world, with massive sulfide reserves of about 1700 Mt. In the present study we will characterize AMD contamination processes in the IPB, especially by As, by identifying the sources responsible for these processes (active mines and effluents from mines and slag heaps) in the basins of the Tinto and Odiel rivers. It is also the aim of this study to discover the mineral associations of the deposits. The study of the AMD process generating source is complemented with hydrochemical characterization of the effluents produced, which will be carried out by means of sample-taking and subsequent chemical analysis and statistical treatment (cluster analysis). Characteristics in common with samples taken in other AMD-affected watercourses are observed in the seven zones defined in the study area. With respect to the samples studied, obvious differences can also be found. These differences are inherent to the mineral associations, watershed and distance to the generating source and, ultimately, to the affected area, and the type, intensity and duration of the mine treatment process developed in the acid-producing area.

  15. Hydrochemical tracers in the middle Rio Grande Basin, USA: 2. Calibration of a groundwater-flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Ward E.; Plummer, L. Niel; McAda, Douglas P.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    The calibration of a groundwater model with the aid of hydrochemical data has demonstrated that low recharge rates in the Middle Rio Grande Basin may be responsible for a groundwater trough in the center of the basin and for a substantial amount of Rio Grande water in the regional flow system. Earlier models of the basin had difficulty reproducing these features without any hydrochemical data to constrain the rates and distribution of recharge. The objective of this study was to use the large quantity of available hydrochemical data to help calibrate the model parameters, including the recharge rates. The model was constructed using the US Geological Survey's software MODFLOW, MODPATH, and UCODE, and calibrated using 14C activities and the positions of certain flow zones defined by the hydrochemical data. Parameter estimation was performed using a combination of nonlinear regression techniques and a manual search for the minimum difference between field and simulated observations. The calibrated recharge values were substantially smaller than those used in previous models. Results from a 30,000-year transient simulation suggest that recharge was at a maximum about 20,000 years ago and at a minimum about 10,000 years ago. Le calibrage d'un modèle hydrogéologique avec l'aide de données hydrochimiques a démontré que la recharge relativement faible dans le Grand Bassin du Middle Rio est vraisemblablement responsable d'une dépression des eaux souterraines dans le centre du bassin et de la présence d'une quantité substantielle d'eau du Rio Grande dans l'aquifère du Groupe de Santa Fe. Les modèles antérieurs avaient des difficultés à reproduire ses conclusions sans l'aide de données hydrochimiques pour contraindre les taux et la distribution de la recharge. L'objectif de cette étude était d'utiliser une grande quantité de données hydrochimiques permettant de calibrer les paramètres du modèle, et notamment les taux de recharge. Le modèle a

  16. Hydrochemical and microbiological quality of groundwater in the Merdja area, Tébessa, North-East of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehdi, Chemseddine; Rouabhia, Abdelkader; Mechai, Abdelbasset; Debabza, Manel; Abla, Khalida; Voudouris, Kostas

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a preliminary assessment of the hydrochemical and microbial groundwater quality of the Merdja plain (Tébessa area). Twenty samples of groundwater collected from Bekkaria (Site 1) to Ain Chabro (Site 2) were assessed for their suitability for human consumption. Groundwater from the aquifer in the Merdja area can be divided into two major groups according to geographical locations and chemical compositions. Water in the center part of the study area is characterized by the dominance of chloride, sulfate, sodium, and potassium; whereas waters in the limestone aquifers in the west are dominated by the same cations but have higher concentrations of bicarbonate. Microbiological parameters were determined in 13 groundwater samples collected from the study area. Total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli, Enterococcus spp., Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus spp., and P. aeruginosa were detected in 96.36, 88.18, 100, 47.5, 97.27, 96.7, and 75 % of the groundwater samples, respectively. The pollution of groundwater comes from a variety of sources, Ouadi El Kebir River, including land application of agricultural chemicals and organic wastes, infiltration of irrigation water, septic tanks, and infiltration of effluent from sewage treatment plants, pits, lagoons, and ponds used for storage.

  17. Hydro-chemical study of the evolution of interstellar pre-biotic molecules during the collapse of molecular clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Majumdar, Liton; Chakrabarti, Sandip K; Chakrabarti, Sonali

    2012-01-01

    One of the stumbling blocks for studying the evolution of interstellar molecules is the lack of adequate knowledge of the rate coefficients of various reactions which take place in the ISM & molecular clouds. In order to obtain accurate final compositions in the ISM, we find out the rate coefficients for the formation of some of the most important interstellar pre-biotic molecules by using quantum chemical theory. We use these rates inside our hydro-chemical model to find out the chemical evolution and the final abundances of the pre-biotic species during the collapsing phase of a proto-star. We find that a significant amount of various pre-biotic molecules could be produced during the collapsing phase of a proto-star. We study extensively the formation of these molecules via successive neutral-neutral(NN) and radical-radical(RR)/radical-molecular(RM) reactions. We present the time evolution of the chemical species with an emphasis on how the production of these molecules varies with the depth of a cloud....

  18. Decadal Variability Shown by the Arctic Ocean Hydrochemical Data and Reproduced by an Ice-Ocean Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Ikeda; R. Colony; H. Yamaguchi; T. Ikeda

    2005-01-01

    The Arctic is experiencing a significant warming trend as well as a decadal oscillation. The atmospheric circulation represented by the Polar Vortex and the sea ice cover show decadal variabilities, while it has been difficult to reveal the decadal oscillation from the ocean interior. The recent distribution of Russian hydrochemical data collected from the Arctic Basin provides useful information on ocean interior variabilities. Silicate is used to provide the most valuable data for showing the boundary between the silicate-rich Pacific Water and the opposite Atlantic Water. Here, it is assumed that the silicate distribution receives minor influence from seasonal biological productivity and Siberian Rivers outflow. It shows a clear maximum around 100m depth in the Canada Basin, along with a vertical gradient below 100 m, which provides information on the vertical motion of the upper boundary of the Atlantic Water at a decadal time scale. The boundary shifts upward (downward), as realized by the silicate reduction (increase) at a fixed depth, responding to a more intense (weaker) Polar Vortex or a positive (negative) phase of the Arctic Oscillation. A coupled ice-ocean model is employed to reconstruct this decadal oscillation.

  19. Runoff separation and eco-hydrological function in the typical landscape zones combining hydrochemical and isotopic tracers:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The study on the coupling relationship and hydrology mechanism between ecosystem and hydrological process in a basin has recently become the international research frontier in hydrology.Runoff separation is still an important subject and possibly cutting edge process in hydrology.This paper summarizes the progress of national and international research,and comments on the advantages and disadvantages of recent,diverse base flow separation methods.This paper also presents research on hydrological process and eco-hydrological function in different landscape zones,combining isotopic technology with hydrochemical methods.Based on the runoff separation of different water bodies,this paper probes into the coupling relationship and hydrology mechanism between ecosystem pattern and eco-hydrological process,and makes analysis on water conservation,regulation and storage mechanism,and eco-hydrological function in different landscape zones.This report also examines future trends in research on hydrological process and eco-hydrological function in mountainous areas.

  20. Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Investigation of Sensitivity of Furnace Operational Conditions to Burner Flow Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Cremer; Dave Wang; Connie Senior; Andrew Chiodo; Steven Hardy; Paul Wolff

    2005-07-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-02NT41580. The goal of this project was to systematically assess the sensitivity of furnace operational conditions to burner air and fuel flows in coal fired utility boilers. The focus of this project was to quantify the potential impacts of ''fine level'' controls rather than that of ''coarse level'' controls (i.e. combustion tuning). Although it is well accepted that combustion tuning will generally improve efficiency and emissions of an ''out of tune'' boiler, it is not as well understood what benefits can be derived through active multiburner measurement and control systems in boiler that has coarse level controls. The approach used here was to utilize existing baseline furnace models that have been constructed using Reaction Engineering International's (REI) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Using CFD analyses provides the ability to carry out a carefully controlled virtual experiment to characterize the sensitivity of NOx emissions, unburned carbon (UBC), furnace exit CO (FECO), furnace exit temperature (FEGT), and waterwall deposition to burner air and fuel flow rates. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program, and instrument and controls experts from EPRI's Instrument and Controls (I&C) Center have been active participants in this project. CFD simulations were completed for five coal fired boilers as planned: (1) 150 MW wall fired, (2) 500 MW opposed wall fired, (3) 600 MW T-Fired, (4) 330 MW cyclone-fired, and (5) 200 MW T-Fired Twin Furnace. In all cases, the unit selections were made in order to represent units that were descriptive of the utility industry as a whole. For each unit, between 25 and 44 furnace simulations were completed in order to evaluate impacts of burner to burner variations in: (1) coal and primary air flow rate, and (2) secondary air flow

  1. Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Air-Conditioning Units with Gas Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2011-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Program (BTP) evaluated a number of control strategies that can be implemented in a controller, to improve the operational efficiency of the packaged air conditioning units. The two primary objectives of this research project are: (1) determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged air conditioning units with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units and (2) estimating what the installed cost of a replacement control with the desired features should be in various regions of the U.S. This document reports results of the study.

  2. Cold basal conditions during surges control flow of fringing Arctic ice caps in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Samuel; Christoffersen, Poul; Todd, Joe; Palmer, Steven

    2017-04-01

    Fringing ice caps separated from larger ice sheets are rarely studied, yet they are an important part of earth's cryosphere, which has become the largest source of global sea-level rise. Understanding marginal ice caps is crucial for being able to predict sea-level change as they are responsible for up to 20% of Greenland's mass loss for 2003-2008. Studies of fringing ice caps can furthermore provide useful insights into processes operating on glaciers that surge. Surging has been the focus of much recent glaciological work, especially with reference to thermal evolution of polythermal glaciers in High Mountain Asia and the High Arctic. This has shown that the classic divide between hydrologically-controlled surges ('hard-bed') in Alaska and thermally-regulated ('soft-bed') surges elsewhere is less stark than previously assumed. Studying marginal ice caps can therefore be valuable in several ways. The largest fringing ice cap in Greenland is Flade Isblink. Previous work has established that this ice cap is showing a range of dynamic behaviour, including subglacial lake drainage and varied patterns of mass-balance change. In particular, a substantial surge, assumed to be caused by a version of the thermally-regulated mechanism, occurred between 1996 and 2000, making the ice cap a useful case study for investigating this process. Here we investigate the surge on Flade Isblink using the open-source, Full-Stokes model Elmer/Ice to invert for basal conditions and englacial temperatures using the adjoint method. We specifically study steady-state conditions representative of the active surge phase in 2000, and the subsequent quiescent phase, using patterns of surface velocity observed in 2000, 2005, 2008 and 2015. Under constant geometry, temperature and geothermal heat, it is shown that surging increases basal freezing rates by over 60% across an area that is twice as large as the area over which the bed freezes in the quiescent phase. The process responsible for this

  3. SECOND-ORDER OPTIMALITY CONDITIONS FOR OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEMS GOVERNED BY 3-DIMENSIONAL NEVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This article is concerned with second-order necessary and sufficient optimality conditions for optimal control problems governed by 3-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The periodic state constraint is considered.

  4. Effectiveness of Telephone-Based Health Coaching for Patients with Chronic Conditions: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwinger, Sarah; Kriston, Levente; Herbarth, Lutz; Siegmund-Schultze, Elisabeth; Bermejo, Isaac; Matschinger, Herbert; Heider, Dirk; König, Hans-Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases, like diabetes mellitus, heart disease and cancer are leading causes of death and disability. These conditions are at least partially preventable or modifiable, e.g. by enhancing patients’ self-management. We aimed to examine the effectiveness of telephone-based health coaching (TBHC) in chronically ill patients. Methods and Findings This prospective, pragmatic randomized controlled trial compares an intervention group (IG) of participants in TBHC to a control group (CG) without TBHC. Endpoints were assessed two years after enrolment. Three different groups of insurees with 1) multiple conditions (chronic campaign), 2) heart failure (heart failure campaign), or 3) chronic mental illness conditions (mental health campaign) were targeted. The telephone coaching included evidence-based information and was based on the concepts of motivational interviewing, shared decision-making, and collaborative goal setting. Patients received an average of 12.9 calls. Primary outcome was time from enrolment until hospital readmission within a two-year follow-up period. Secondary outcomes comprised the probability of hospital readmission, number of daily defined medication doses (DDD), frequency and duration of inability to work, and mortality within two years. All outcomes were collected from routine data provided by the statutory health insurance. As informed consent was obtained after randomization, propensity score matching (PSM) was used to minimize selection bias introduced by decliners. For the analysis of hospital readmission and mortality, we calculated Kaplan-Meier curves and estimated hazard ratios (HR). Probability of hospital readmission and probability of death were analysed by calculating odds ratios (OR). Quantity of health service use and inability to work were analysed by linear random effects regression models. PSM resulted in patient samples of 5,309 (IG: 2,713; CG: 2,596) in the chronic campaign, of 660 (IG: 338; CG: 322) in the

  5. Distributed and boundary optimal control of the Allen-Cahn equation with regular potential and dynamic boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benincasa, T.; Donado Escobar, L. D.; Moroşanu, C.

    2016-08-01

    This paper is concerned with an optimal control problem (P) (both distributed control as well as boundary control) for the nonlinear phase-field (Allen-Cahn) equation, involving a regular potential and dynamic boundary condition. A family of approximate optimal control problems (Pɛ) is introduced and results for the existence of an optimal control for problems (P) and (Pɛ) are proven. Furthermore, the convergence result of the optimal solution of problem (Pɛ) to the optimal solution of problem (P) is proved. Besides the existence of an optimal control in problem (Pɛ), necessary optimality conditions (Pontryagin's principle) as well as a conceptual gradient-type algorithm to approximate the optimal control, were established in the end.

  6. Characterization of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields from Diesel, Gasoline and Hybrid Cars under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronen Hareuveny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes extremely low frequency (ELF magnetic field (MF levels in 10 car models. Extensive measurements were conducted in three diesel, four gasoline, and three hybrid cars, under similar controlled conditions and negligible background fields. Averaged over all four seats under various driving scenarios the fields were lowest in diesel cars (0.02 μT, higher for gasoline (0.04–0.05 μT and highest in hybrids (0.06–0.09 μT, but all were in-line with daily exposures from other sources. Hybrid cars had the highest mean and 95th percentile MF levels, and an especially large percentage of measurements above 0.2 μT. These parameters were also higher for moving conditions compared to standing while idling or revving at 2500 RPM and higher still at 80 km/h compared to 40 km/h. Fields in non-hybrid cars were higher at the front seats, while in hybrid cars they were higher at the back seats, particularly the back right seat where 16%–69% of measurements were greater than 0.2 μT. As our results do not include low frequency fields (below 30 Hz that might be generated by tire rotation, we suggest that net currents flowing through the cars’ metallic chassis may be a possible source of MF. Larger surveys in standardized and well-described settings should be conducted with different types of vehicles and with spectral analysis of fields including lower frequencies due to magnetization of tires.

  7. Characterizing the sorption of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to cotton and polyester fabrics under controlled conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, Amandeep [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military trail, Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Rauert, Cassandra [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Simpson, Myrna J. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military trail, Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Harrad, Stuart [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Diamond, Miriam L., E-mail: miriam.diamond@utoronto.ca [Department of Earth Sciences, 22 Russell Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3B1 (Canada); Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military trail, Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2016-09-01

    Cotton and polyester, physically and chemically different fabrics, were characterized for sorption of gas-phase polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images and BET specific surface area (BET-SSA) analysis showed cotton's high microsurface area; NMR analysis showed richness of hexose- and aromatic-carbon in cotton and polyester, respectively. Cotton and polyester sorbed similar concentrations of gas-phase PBDEs in chamber studies, when normalized to planar surface area. However, polyester concentrations were 20–50 times greater than cotton when normalized to BET-SSA, greater than the 10 times difference in BET-SSA. The difference in sorption between cotton and polyester is hypothesized to be due to ‘dilution’ due to cotton's large BET-SSA and/or greater affinity of PBDEs for aromatic-rich polyester. Similar fabric-air area normalized distribution coefficients (K'{sub D}, 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} m) for cotton and polyester support air-side controlled uptake under non-equilibrium conditions. K'{sub D} values imply that 1 m{sup 2} of cotton or polyester fabrics would sorb gas-phase PBDEs present in 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} m{sup 3} of equivalent air volume at room temperature over one week, assuming similar air flow conditions. Sorption of PBDEs to fabrics has implications for their fate indoors and human exposure. - Highlights: • Sorption of gas-phase PBDEs by cotton and polyester fabrics • Similar sorption to cotton and polyester per unit planar surface area • Greater sorption by polyester/BET-SSA; cotton's dilution or polyester’s affinity • 1 m{sup 2} fabric sorbs PBDEs in 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} m{sup 3} of equivalent air volume • Clothing likely a large indoor sink of PBDEs and influence human exposure.

  8. A functional approach for research on cognitive control: Analysing cognitive control tasks and their effects in terms of operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liefooghe, Baptist; De Houwer, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive control is an important mental ability that is examined using a multitude of cognitive control tasks and effects. The present paper presents the first steps in the elaboration of a functional approach, which aims to uncover the communalities and differences between different cognitive control tasks and their effects. Based on the idea that responses in cognitive control tasks qualify as operant behaviour, we propose to reinterpret cognitive control tasks in terms of operant contingencies and cognitive control effects as instances of moderated stimulus control. We illustrate how our approach can be used to uncover communalities between topographically different cognitive control tasks and can lead to novel questions about the processes underlying cognitive control.

  9. Torrent floodplain mapping and torrent flood control in Serbia in the conditions of economic crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilovic, Z.; Stefanovic, M.

    2009-04-01

    Serbia is a country that is endangered by flooding of the largest European river, the Danube and its largest tributaries, as well as by countless torrents. During the 19th and 20th centuries, an imposing scope of protection structures was constructed. The existence of the protection system created the conviction that flood protection was achieved and that it should only be complemented on a great number of unregulated torrents. Such an opinion and practice are possible only in the countries with powerful economies. However, for almost two decades, Serbia has been going through the conditions of economic crisis. The floods which occurred in Serbia during that period pointed to the problem of maintenance of the existing protection system and to the impossibility of building the new projects. Floodplain mapping, although prescribed by the Law, was postponed because of the high price of the classical geodetic surveying. The postponing of this activity, in the conditions of a stable and good economic situation, was explained by the achieved flood protection on large rivers and by low probability that the system could fail. On the other hand, small torrents were partly regulated in the zones of roads and towns, so in this case also it was thought that the protection was accomplished. It was overlooked that the majority of torrents in Serbia was not regulated by any protection system. Urbanisation was progressing unrestrainedly. The State could not afford the construction of the necessary protection system, so numerous settlements remained at risk, without any protection. Floods did not forgive and forget any mistakes and the awareness of the necessity of collecting the data on floodplains and protection against floods became an indispensable task, but in the conditions of economic crisis, difficult to realise. For this reason, a rational method of floodplain mapping was searched, as well as the method of reducing the damage caused by floods, but not requiring high

  10. Biomass Burning: Energy and Emissions Performance of Traditional and Improved Cookstoves Under Controlled Laboratory Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Pooja

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) from solid biomass fuel burning in traditional cookstoves is a leading problem all the world which is responsible for health and climate related impacts. The immediate solution in order to combat this threat has been introduction of improved cookstoves among rural populations who doesn't have access clean energy. The extent of improvement in new cookstove designs, in terms of higher energy efficiency and lower emissions is in turn dependent on the customary behaviour of the users on field. The field based cookstove testing conducted in various studies show a disagreement between performance measures in the lab and real world conditions. Some of the important variables which reflect the actual user behaviour on field depending on geographical location include fuel characteristics and cooking cycle. In this thesis, the research approach focused on user-centred testing methodology for cookstoves. The variation in cookstove performance in terms of energy and emission parameters was assessed by isolating the impact of individual variables i.e. types of fuel and cooking cycles. The energy parameters which served as indicators of cookstove performance included SEC and power input, and EFs for CO and PM were used as emission parameters. PM emissions were further analysed with the help of physical and chemical characterization studies. The physical characterization focused on size distribution of the particulate using optical and electron microscopy techniques. While chemical characterization was conducted using quantification methods for organic and elemental carbon content of PM using TOR and CBMS techniques. The test variables were identified through field survey and literature review and were replicated under controlled laboratory conditions where emissions were sampled using hood method. The research resulted in six research papers addressing specific hypothesis related the problem identified through literature survey. The results showed that

  11. Evaluation of periodontal condition of menopause women with osteoporosis and osteopenia and comparison with control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorsand A.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Several risk factors directly affect the development of periodontal diseases. Also some systemic diseases act indirectly as predisposing and aggrevating factors. Osteoporosis is one of these factors and one of its main causes is lack of physical activity in postmenopause period. The incidence of osteoporosis is increasing in our country. The goal of this study was to evaluate the periodontal condition of women with osteoporosis and osteopenia referred to bone densitometric division of Loghman hospital in 2003 and compare to control group. Materials and Methods: In this case control study based on BMD (Bone Mineral Density measurement of back and thigh using DEXA method, 60 patients referred to bone densitometric division of Loghman hospital, were randomly selected. Cases were divided into three groups, 20 with osteoporosis, 20 with osteopenia and 20 normal cases. Periodontal indices consisting of plaque index (PI, tooth loss (TL, gingival recession (GR, probing pocket depth (PPD and papilla bleeding index (PBI were evaluated by clinical and radiographic examination. Data were analyzed by Kruskall Wallis and Dunn tests with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: PBI, PI and TL were significantly higher in osteoporotic group than osteopenic and normal group. PPD was not different in the three groups. Due to the low prevalence of recession in our study, this parameter was not included in the statistical analysis. Conclusion: It seems that osteoporosis does not increase the incidence of periodontal diseases because it affects bone quality rather than quantity. In osteoporosis calcium deficiency and increasing age lead to decreased physical activity and ultimately affect the patient's oral hygiene performance. Thus, periodontal manifestations are presented as gingival bleeding and gingivitis.

  12. Manual control in space research on perceptual-motor functions under zero gravity conditions (L-10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Akira

    1993-01-01

    -orbit experiment will be conducted on the second, fourth, and seventh days. One session of experiment of each of these days is conducted following the L-4 experiment, which uses the same apparatus. The Payload Specialist, aided by a Mission Specialist, will take our apparatus from a rack container, set up the apparatus, attach electrodes for measurements of eye movement and muscle activity, conduct the L-4 Visual Stability Experiment, conduct one session of the manual control experiment, and then dissemble and stow the apparatus. In addition to the flight experiment, pre-flight and post-flight experiments will be conducted. The data of three sessions on orbit will reflect adaption of physiological systems to microgravity. The data of post-flight experiments, on the other hand, will reflect re-adaptation of physiological systems to the gravity condition on the ground. Control data collected with and without psychological tension will be scheduled just prior to and long before launch.

  13. Postural control in response to altered sensory conditions in persons with dysvascular and traumatic transtibial amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakaran, Prasath; Johnson, Gillian M; Sullivan, S John

    2015-02-01

    To compare the postural control of persons with a dysvascular transtibial amputation and traumatic transtibial amputation with able-bodied adults with and without a dysvascular condition in altered sensory testing conditions. Cross-sectional study. University balance clinic. The study participants (N=35) included: participants with a dysvascular transtibial amputation (n=9), participants with a traumatic transtibial amputation (n=9), age-matched able-bodied adults without a dysvascular condition (n=9), and able-bodied adults with a dysvascular condition (n=8). Six Sensory Organization Test (SOT) conditions, which included standing with eyes open (condition 1) and closed (condition 2) on a static force platform with visual surround; standing with eyes open on a static force platform with movable visual surround (condition 3); standing with eyes open (condition 4) and closed (condition 5) on a movable force platform with static visual surround; and standing with eyes open on a movable force platform with movable visual surround (condition 6). Bilateral anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) center of pressure variables, namely root mean square distance (RMSD) and mean velocity (mVel), for each of the 6 SOT conditions. The dysvascular transtibial amputation group demonstrated a higher AP RMSD (P≤.04) on the sound side than did the able-bodied adults without a dysvascular condition and the able-bodied adults with a dysvascular condition in SOT conditions 1 and 2, respectively. Both the dysvascular transtibial amputation group and the traumatic transtibial amputation group demonstrated a higher AP RMSD (P≤.002) than the able-bodied adults without a dysvascular condition in SOT conditions 3 and 4. The dysvascular transtibial amputation group showed higher AP mVel (P≤.002) on the sound side for SOT conditions 2 and 3, whereas both amputation groups showed higher AP mVel for SOT conditions 1 and 4 than the able-bodied adults with and without a dysvascular

  14. Testing fungus impregnated cloths for the control of adult Aedes aegypti under natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Adriano R; Carolino, Aline T; Silva, Carlos P; Pereira, César R; Samuels, Richard I

    2013-09-08

    Entomopathogenic fungi could be useful tools for reducing populations of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti. Here the efficiency of fungus (Metarhizium anisopliae) impregnated cloths (with and without imidacloprid [IMI]) was evaluated against adult A. aegypti in simulated human dwellings. Behaviour of mosquitoes in the presence of black cloths was also investigated. When mosquitoes were released into the test rooms, the lowest survival rates (38%) were seen when five black cloths impregnated with conidia of ESALQ 818 + 10 ppm IMI were fixed under tables and chairs. This result was significantly lower than the survival rate recorded when cloths were impregnated with ESALQ 818 alone (44%) or ESALQ 818 + 0.1 ppm IMI (43%). Blood fed A. aegypti had lower landing frequencies on black cloths than sucrose fed insects during the first 24 h following feeding, which may have been due to reduced flight activity. Few mosquitoes (4-5%) were observed to land on the cloths during the hours of darkness. The landing pattern of sucrose-fed mosquitoes on non-treated and fungus-treated cloths was similar. The synergism between M. anisopliae and IMI significantly reduced Aedes survival in simulated field conditions. The use of fungus impregnated cloths is a promising point source application method for the control of adult A. aegypti.

  15. Autonomous monitoring of control hardware to predict off-normal conditions using NIF automatic alignment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awwal, Abdul A.S., E-mail: awwal1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Wilhelmsen, Karl; Leach, Richard R.; Miller-Kamm, Vicki; Burkhart, Scott; Lowe-Webb, Roger; Cohen, Simon [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An automatic alignment system was developed to process images of the laser beams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System uses processing to adjust a series of control loops until alignment criteria are satisfied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monitored conditions are compared against nominal values with an off-normal alert. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Automated health monitoring system trends off-normals with a large image history. - Abstract: The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a high power laser system capable of supporting high-energy-density experimentation as a user facility for the next 30 years. In order to maximize the facility availability, preventive maintenance enhancements are being introduced into the system. An example of such an enhancement is a camera-based health monitoring system, integrated into the automated alignment system, which provides an opportunity to monitor trends in measurements such as average beam intensity, size of the beam, and pixel saturation. The monitoring system will generate alerts based on observed trends in measurements to allow scheduled pro-active maintenance before routine off-normal detection stops system operations requiring unscheduled intervention.

  16. Improving forecast skill by assimilation of quality-controlled AIRS temperature retrievals under partially cloudy conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, O.; Susskind, J.; Rosenberg, R.; Brin, E.; Liu, E.; Riishojgaard, L. P.; Terry, J.; Jusem, J. C.

    2008-04-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on board the Aqua satellite is now recognized as an important contributor towards the improvement of weather forecasts. At this time only a small fraction of the total data produced by AIRS is being used by operational weather systems. In fact, in addition to effects of thinning and quality control, the only AIRS data assimilated are radiance observations of channels unaffected by clouds. Observations in mid-lower tropospheric sounding AIRS channels are assimilated primarily under completely clear-sky conditions, thus imposing a very severe limitation on the horizontal distribution of the AIRS-derived information. In this work it is shown that the ability to derive accurate temperature profiles from AIRS observations in partially cloud-contaminated areas can be utilized to further improve the impact of AIRS observations in a global model and forecasting system. The analyses produced by assimilating AIRS temperature profiles obtained under partial cloud cover result in a substantially colder representation of the northern hemisphere lower midtroposphere at higher latitudes. This temperature difference has a strong impact, through hydrostatic adjustment, in the midtropospheric geopotential heights, which causes a different representation of the polar vortex especially over northeastern Siberia and Alaska. The AIRS-induced anomaly propagates through the model's dynamics producing improved 5-day forecasts.

  17. Comparing oxalic acid and sucrocide treatments for Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) control under desert conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammataro, D; Finley, J; Underwood, R

    2008-08-01

    The effectiveness of oxalic acid (OA) and Sucrocide (S) (AVA Chemical Ventures, L.L.C., Portsmouth, NH) in reducing populations of the varroa mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) in honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies was measured under the desert conditions of Arizona, USA. OA and S were applied three times 7 d apart. A 3.2% solution of OA was applied in sugar syrup via a large volume syringe, trickling 5 ml per space between frames in the colony. S was applied at a concentration of 0.625% (mixed with water), according to the label directions, using a compressed air Chapin sprayer at 20 psi to apply 59 ml per frame space. Varroa mites, collected on a sticky board before, during, and after the treatments, were counted to assess the effectiveness of the treatments. This study showed that a desert climate zone did not confer any positive or negative results on the acaricidal properties of OA. Even with brood present in colonies, significant varroa mite mortality occurred in the OA colonies. In contrast, we found that Sucrocide was not effective as a mite control technique. Despite its ability to increase mite mortality in the short-term, varroa mite populations measured posttreatment were not affected any more by Sucrocide than by no treatment at all.

  18. Numerical investigation of spontaneous flame propagation under Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagatwala, Ankit; Sankaran, Ramanan; Kokjohn, Sage; Chen, Jacqueline

    2014-11-01

    Results from one and two-dimensional direct numerical simulations under dual-fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) conditions will be presented. These simulations employ an improved model of compression heating through mass source/sink terms developed in a previous work, which incorporates feedback from the flow to follow a predetermined experimental pressure trace. One-dimensional simulations explored the effect of temperature and fuel concentration gradients on the combustion mode. Two-dimensional simulations explored parametric variation in temperature stratification, pressure profiles and n-heptane concentration. Statistics derived from analysis of local diffusion/reaction balances were used to elucidate combustion characteristics for the different cases. Both deflagration and spontaneous ignition modes were observed to co-exist. Higher n-heptane concentration and higher level of thermal stratification resulted in a greater degree of flame propagation, whereas lower n-heptane concentration (higher fraction of iso-octane) and higher pressure resulted in more prevalent autoignition. Starting with a uniform initial temperature and a stratified n-heptane concentration also resulted in a large fraction of combustion occurring through flame propagation.

  19. Improving Preclinic Preparation for Patients with Chronic Conditions in Quito, Ecuador: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rodriguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. As in many settings, patients in community health centers in Ecuador do not complete previsit forms or receive assistance to identify questions and concerns they would like to address in brief clinic visits with physicians. We examined the comparative effectiveness of providing (1 a previsit form to complete; (2 a previsit form along with assistance in completing the form; and (3 usual care. Methods. Parallel, three-arm randomized controlled trial in two health centers serving indigent to low-income communities in Quito, Ecuador, among 199 adult patients who took medications for at least one chronic condition. Outcome measures were self-reported satisfaction with the visit, confidence in asking questions, and extent to which patients’ objectives were met. Results. Patients who received assistance in completing a previsit form were more than twice as likely as participants in usual care to report achieving everything they wanted during their visit (AOR 2.2, P=0.039. There were no differences in any outcomes between the groups who received the previsit form with no assistance and usual care. Conclusions. For high-quality patient-centered primary care, it is important to develop and test innovative and scalable interventions for patients and physicians to make the best use of limited clinic time.

  20. Paternal psychosocial work conditions and mental health outcomes: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hershler Ruth

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of social and family environments in the development of mental health problems among children and youth has been widely investigated. However, the degree to which parental working conditions may impact on developmental psychopathology has not been thoroughly studied. Methods We conducted a case-control study of several mental health outcomes of 19,833 children of sawmill workers and their association with parental work stress, parental socio-demographic characteristics, and paternal mental health. Results Multivariate analysis conducted with four distinct age groups (children, adolescents, young adults, and adults revealed that anxiety based and depressive disorders were associated with paternal work stress in all age groups and that work stress was more strongly associated with alcohol and drug related disorders in adulthood than it was in adolescence and young adulthood. Conclusion This study provides support to the tenet that being exposed to paternal work stress during childhood can have long lasting effects on the mental health of individuals.

  1. Improving Forecast Skill by Assimilation of Quality-controlled AIRS Temperature Retrievals under Partially Cloudy Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, O.; Susskind, J.; Rosenberg, R.; Brin, E.; Riishojgaard, L.; Liu, E.; Terry, J.; Jusem, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on board the Aqua satellite has been long recognized as an important contributor towards the improvement of weather forecasts. At this time only a small fraction of the total data produced by AIRS is being used by operational weather systems. In fact, in addition to effects of thinning and quality control, the only AIRS data assimilated are radiance observations of channels unaffected by clouds. Observations in mid-lower tropospheric sounding AIRS channels are assimilated primarily under completely clear-sky conditions, thus imposing a very severe limitation on the horizontal distribution of the AIRS-derived information. In this work it is shown that the ability to derive accurate temperature profiles from AIRS observations in partially cloud-contaminated areas can be utilized to further improve the impact of AIRS observations in a global model and forecasting system. The analyses produced by assimilating AIRS temperature profiles obtained under partial cloud cover result in a substantially colder representation of the northern hemisphere lower midtroposphere at higher latitudes. This temperature difference has a strong impact, through hydrostatic adjustment, in the midtropospheric geopotential heights, which causes a different representation of the polar vortex especially over northeastern Siberia and Alaska. The AIRS-induced anomaly propagates through the model's dynamics producing improved 5-day forecasts.

  2. Release of DNA oligonucleotides and their conjugates from controlled-pore glass under thermolytic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajkowski, Andrzej; Cieślak, Jacek; Norris, Scott; Freedberg, Darón I; Kauffman, Jon S; Duff, Robert J; Beaucage, Serge L

    2008-12-01

    The sequential functionalization of long-chain alkylamine controlled-pore glass (CPG) with a 3-hydroxypropyl-(2-cyanoethyl)thiophosphoryl linker and a dinucleoside phosphorotetrazolide leads to a uniquely engineered support for solid-phase synthesis. Unlike conventional succinylated-CPG supports, this support is designed to allow oligonucleotide deprotection and elimination of deprotection side-products to proceed without release of the oligonucleotide. When needed, the DNA oligonucleotide can be thermolytically released in 2 hr under essentially neutral conditions. The modified CPG support has been successfully employed in the synthesis of both native and fully phosphorothioated DNA 20-mers. On the basis of reversed-phase HPLC and electrophoretic analyses, the purity of the released oligonucleotides is comparable to that of identical oligonucleotides synthesized from succinylated-CPG supports, in terms of both shorter-than-full-length oligonucleotide contaminants and overall yields. The detailed preparation of DNA oligonucleotides conjugated with exemplary reporter or functional groups, either at the 3'-terminus or at both 3'- and 5'-termini, is also described.

  3. Control of Xiphinema index populations by fallow plants under greenhouse and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villate, Laure; Morin, Elisa; Demangeat, Gérard; Van Helden, Maarten; Esmenjaud, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    The dagger nematode Xiphinema index has a high economic impact in vineyards by direct pathogenicity and above all by transmitting the Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV). Agrochemicals have been largely employed to restrict the spread of GFLV by reducing X. index populations but are now banned. As an alternative to nematicides, the use of fallow plants between two successive vine crops was assessed. We selected plant species adapted to vineyard soils and exhibiting negative impact on nematodes and we evaluated their antagonistic effect on X. index in greenhouse using artificially infested soil, and in naturally infested vineyard conditions. The screening was conducted with plants belonging to the families Asteraceae (sunflower, marigold, zinnia, and nyjer), Poaceae (sorghum and rye), Fabaceae (white lupin, white melilot, hairy vetch, and alfalfa), Brassicaceae (rapeseed and camelina), and Boraginaceae (phacelia). In the greenhouse controlled assay, white lupin, nyjer, and marigold significantly reduced X. index populations compared with that of bare soil. The vineyard assay, designed to take into account the aggregative pattern of X. index distribution, revealed that marigold and hairy vetch are good candidates as cover crops to reduce X. index populations in vineyard. Moreover, this original experimental design could be applied to manage other soilborne pathogens.

  4. Aerodynamic forces acting on a passive flow control equipped airfoil in turbulent inflow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampers, Gerrit; Peinke, Joachim; Hölling, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Wind turbines work within turbulent atmospheric flows, with their well known challenging features of intermittent two point statistics. These intermittent statistics have a big impact on wind turbines, concerning fluctuating mechanical loads. Flow control is a promising approach for the reduction of these fluctuations. In this project, an airfoil profile is equipped with mechanically coupled flexible leading and trailing edge flaps, enabling to passively adapt its camber. We expose the profile to different reproducible turbulent inflow conditions, generated with an active grid in a wind tunnel and study the profile's ability to alleviate lift fluctuations. The first experiment is concerned with repeated mexican hat shaped inflow gusts. The corresponding lift reactions of the profile show, that the adaptive camber mechanism is able to alleviate lift fluctuations caused by the inflow gust. In the second experiment, we use different grid excitations to vary the flatness of the inflow angle increments and study the influence of the statistics at different angles of attack. We propose a stochastic Langevin approach to decompose the lift dynamics into a deterministic response and a stochastic part, allowing for a quantitative analysis of the response dynamics. Funded by the German Research Foundation, Ref. No. PE 478/15-1.

  5. Reproductive development of Krapfia weberbaueri(Ranunculaceae under controlled conditions of light and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Roca

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Krapfia weberbaueriStandl. & J. F. Macbr. is an endemic species from Peru, categorized as vulnerable, and distributed in the departments of Ancash, Huanuco, Junin and San Martin. This work reports the reproductive development of the species under controlled conditions of light and temperature (12 hours light/12 hours darkness, 12 °C during light hrs and 8 °C during dark hrs. Entire plants at reproductive stage were collected at Cordillera Blanca (Ancash, where it is found forming patches, at an elevation of 4200 to 4800 m. The species has large and showy flowers, which from anthesis to the onset of senescence remain responsive, however at a greater extent in the mature flower, stage at which the dehiscence of stamens and release of pollen grains reaches 100%. This period lasts a total of 13 days. Nectar production begins when the flower matures and continues until the total senescence of petals. The viability of the pollen grains varied from 78 to 97% and success in achene production was 38-62%. It may be noted that pollination is favored by the final position of anthers over the stigmas, nectar production, moderate presence and movement of mites and aphids, and the pendulous position of the flower.

  6. Fluid-loss control for high-permeability rocks in hydraulic fracturing under realistic shear conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarrete, R.C.; Mitchell, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    A study is presented on the effectiveness of different combinations of fluid and fluid-loss additives to control fluid loss in high-permeability formations under high shear rates. The impact on matrix damage and proppant-pack damage is also studied. Borate-crosslinked guars, hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) and a surfactant water-base gravel packing fluid were investigated. The fluid-loss additive considered was silica flour. All fluid-loss tests were run in dynamic fluid-loss cells. To properly test high-permeability cores, new long core dynamic fluid-loss cells were used. The matrix damage caused by the invasion of the fluid was determined using pressure taps along the core. Conductivity tests were also run to determine the damage to the proppant pack. Results show that the effectiveness of particulate fluid-loss additives under dynamic conditions is strongly dependent on the initial leakoff rate, which depends on the pressure gradient across the core, permeability of the core and viscosity of the invading fluid. The use of silica flour helps matrix flowback, and it has a minimal effect on proppant-pack conductivity in clean fluids (e.g., surfactant water-base gravel packing fluid). With the exception of the borate-crosslinked guar with no fluid-loss additive, the variety of fluids used in these tests (with and without silica flour) have a negligible effect on postproduction.

  7. Role of the Ventral Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Mediating Behavioral Control-Induced Reduction of Later Conditioned Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratta, Michael V.; Lucero, Thomas R.; Amat, Jose; Watkins, Linda R.; Maier, Steven F.

    2008-01-01

    A prior experience of behavioral control over a stressor interferes with subsequent Pavlovian fear conditioning, and this effect is dependent on the activation of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFCv) at the time of the initial experience with control. It is unknown whether mPFCv activity is necessary during fear learning and/or testing for…

  8. Co-ordinated Control Strategy for Hybrid Wind Farms with PMSG and FSIG under Unbalanced Grid Voltage Condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Xin; Yao, Jun; Chen, Zhiqian

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates a control strategy for a wind farm with the direct-driven permanent-magnet synchronous generators (PMSG)-based wind turbines and the fixed speed induction generators (FSIG)-based wind turbines under unbalanced grid voltage condition. By controlling the PMSG-based wind farm...... of the negative-sequence current provided by the PMSG-based wind farm under different average active power output and different VUF conditions is deduced, and the impacts of its phase angle on the VUF mitigation control effect are further studied. The improved control strategy of injecting negative......-sequence current from the PMSG-based wind farm by the modified negative-sequence voltage and current double closed-loop control system is then developed. Finally, the correctness of theoretical analysis and the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy are validated by the experimental results....

  9. Adaptive Contingency Control: Wind Turbine Operation Integrated with Blade Condition Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We report here on first steps towards integrating systems health monitoring with adaptive contingency controls. In the scenario considered, the adaptive controller...

  10. Field investigation of preferential fissure flow paths with hydrochemical analysis of small-scale sprinkling experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzeminska, D.M.; Bogaard, T.A.; Debieche, T.-H.; Cervi, F.; Marc, V.; Malet, J.-P.

    2014-01-01

    The unsaturated zone largely controls groundwater recharge by buffering precipitation while at the same time providing preferential flow paths for infiltration. The importance of preferential flow on landslide hydrology is recognised in the literature; however, its monitoring and quantification

  11. 78 FR 63848 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Sidestick Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...-wire elevators, ailerons and rudder, controlled by the pilot or copilot sidestick. The Model EMB-550 airplane will use passive sidestick controllers for pitch and roll control instead of a conventional... following novel or unusual design features: The Model EMB-550 airplane has a sidestick controller for pitch...

  12. Hydrophysical and hydrochemical features of Lake Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan) as revealed by field survey of June, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavialov, Peter; Makkaveev, Petr; Rimskiy-Korsakov, Nikolay; Alymkulov, Salmor; Izhitskiy, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Lake Issyk-Kul is a major (volume 1700 km3, depth 668 m) terminal lake in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia. The lake has a longstanding history of research and recently attracted international attention, in particular, as a potentially promising site for scientific drilling and reconstructing paleo-climate variability (e.g., Oberhansli and Molnar, 2012). However, the in situ hydrophysical and hydrochemical data collected from Issyk-Kul are still limited, and those available are somewhat outdated, given that the most recent field campaign reported in the literature dates back to about 15 years ago. A new field survey was conducted in June, 2015. The measurements included CTD profiling and water sampling at 19 stations in all parts of the lake, as well as continuous measurements by a pump-through system and an ultraviolet lidar along the ship's track. The water samples were analyzed for a variety of hydrochemical indicators, including nutrients, dissolved oxygen and methane. In addition, velocity meters were deployed at 3 mooring stations to investigate the synoptic variability of currents. The nitrates, nitrites, phosphorus and silica exhibited elevated surface concentrations in the central part of the lake, which is likely to be associated with the upwelling induced by the basin-wide cyclonic circulation gyre evident from the current measurements. At the same time, the coastal waters were characterized by very low content of nutrients, except the southeastern part of the lake exposed to significant continental discharges from the Tyup and the Dzhergalan rivers. In the areas of continental water influence, concentration of dissolved silica attained minimum values in the surface and intermediate layers. On the other hand, silica concentrations grew steadily from the depth of about 100 m down to the bottom. In general, concentrations of principal biogenic elements in the euphotic layer were relatively low - albeit not low enough to be a limiting factor for phytoplankton life

  13. State estimation for autopilot control of small unmanned aerial vehicles in windy conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorman, David Paul

    The use of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) both in the military and civil realms is growing. This is largely due to the proliferation of inexpensive sensors and the increase in capability of small computers that has stemmed from the personal electronic device market. Methods for performing accurate state estimation for large scale aircraft have been well known and understood for decades, which usually involve a complex array of expensive high accuracy sensors. Performing accurate state estimation for small unmanned aircraft is a newer area of study and often involves adapting known state estimation methods to small UAVs. State estimation for small UAVs can be more difficult than state estimation for larger UAVs due to small UAVs employing limited sensor suites due to cost, and the fact that small UAVs are more susceptible to wind than large aircraft. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the ability of existing methods of state estimation for small UAVs to accurately capture the states of the aircraft that are necessary for autopilot control of the aircraft in a Dryden wind field. The research begins by showing which aircraft states are necessary for autopilot control in Dryden wind. Then two state estimation methods that employ only accelerometer, gyro, and GPS measurements are introduced. The first method uses assumptions on aircraft motion to directly solve for attitude information and smooth GPS data, while the second method integrates sensor data to propagate estimates between GPS measurements and then corrects those estimates with GPS information. The performance of both methods is analyzed with and without Dryden wind, in straight and level flight, in a coordinated turn, and in a wings level ascent. It is shown that in zero wind, the first method produces significant steady state attitude errors in both a coordinated turn and in a wings level ascent. In Dryden wind, it produces large noise on the estimates for its attitude states, and has a non

  14. Incorporating benthic community changes into hydrochemical-based projections of coral reef calcium carbonate production under ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Emily C.; Hamylton, Sarah M.; Phinn, Stuart R.

    2016-06-01

    The existence of coral reefs is dependent on the production and maintenance of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) framework that is produced through calcification. The net production of CaCO3 will likely decline in the future, from both declining net calcification rates (decreasing calcification and increasing dissolution) and shifts in benthic community composition from calcifying organisms to non-calcifying organisms. Here, we present a framework for hydrochemical studies that allows both declining net calcification rates and changes in benthic community composition to be incorporated into projections of coral reef CaCO3 production. The framework involves upscaling net calcification rates for each benthic community type using mapped proportional cover of the benthic communities. This upscaling process was applied to the reef flats at One Tree and Lady Elliot reefs (Great Barrier Reef) and Shiraho Reef (Okinawa), and compared to existing data. Future CaCO3 budgets were projected for Lady Elliot Reef, predicting a decline of 53 % from the present value by end-century (800 ppm CO2) without any changes to benthic community composition. A further 5.7 % decline in net CaCO3 production is expected for each 10 % decline in calcifier cover, and net dissolution is predicted by end-century if calcifier cover drops below 18 % of the present extent. These results show the combined negative effect of both declining net calcification rates and changing benthic community composition on reefs and the importance of considering both processes for determining future reef CaCO3 production.

  15. Assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes using hydrochemical studies in Malwa region, southwestern part of Punjab, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Tajinder; Bhardwaj, Renu; Arora, Saroj

    2016-10-01

    Deterioration of groundwater quality due to anthropogenic activities is increasing at an alarming rate in most parts of the Punjab, but limited work has been carried out on groundwater quality and monitoring. This paper highlights the groundwater quality and compares its suitability for drinking and irrigation purpose in Malwa region, a southwestern part of Punjab. The Malwa region makes up the most cultivated area of Punjab with high consumption of pesticides and fertilizers. Twenty-four water samples representing groundwater sources were collected and analyzed for almost all major cations, anions and other physicochemical parameters. Analytical results of physicochemical analysis showed majority of the samples above the permissible limits of the Indian standards. The groundwater of the study area was very hard and the relative abundance of major cations and anions was Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ and HCO3 - > SO4 2- > Cl-. Fluoride content was higher than permissible limit in 75 % of the samples. The mean concentration of arsenic in groundwater was 9.37 and 11.01µg/L during summer and winter season, respectively. The parameters like sodium adsorption ratio and sodium percentage (Na%) revealed good quality of groundwater for irrigation purposes, whereas magnesium ratio and corrosivity ratio values showed that water is not suitable for agriculture and domestic use. The dominant hydrochemical facies of groundwater was Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-SO4-Cl. Chloro alkaline indices 1 and 2 indicated that reverse ion exchange is dominant in the region. The samples fall in rock dominance and evaporation dominance fields as indicated by Gibbs diagram. The saturation index shows that all the water samples were supersaturated with respect to carbonate minerals. This work thus concludes that groundwater in the study area is chemically unsuitable for domestic and agricultural uses. It is recommended to carry out a continuous water quality monitoring program and development of effective

  16. Four end-members mixing model of river runoff with using hydrochemical tracers in the task of hydrograph separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubareva, Tatiana; Gartsman, Boris; Solopov, Nikolay

    2017-04-01

    Four component (end-members) geochemical mixing model was adapted to evaluate a water sources of small rivers. The mixing model is a system of mass balance equations for water and tracers. This adaptation includes the search of analytical solution of model equations, the application of end-member mixing analysis using Principal Component Analysis, and the visualization of a mixing diagram in U-space. Modeling procedures were realized in the special original computer program Tetra_Editor. As potential water sources were taking account overland flow (direct flow to the river), soil waters from different horizons and parts of river watershed, and ground water forming the baseflow. The Principal Component Analysis allows selecting three first principal components which are orthogonal projections of all potential tracers. These three projections are considered as three complex tracers. Four end-members were identified by analysis of mixing diagram in U-space. This variant of model was tested on two small river catchments in Sihkote-Alin Mountains in Primorye, Russian Far East on original data of hydrochemical and hydrological measurements for river water and water of potential water sources for some years 2013 and 2014. The result of analysis and calculations showed that four end-members contribute the river runoff in these years; there are surface flow, two end-members of hillslope flow presented by samples of soil waters and the base flow. Results of a mixing model validation with four end-members and its verification are showed a high quality of the modeling.

  17. Arduino-based control system for measuring ammonia in air using conditionally-deployed diffusive samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, J. M.; Williams, C.; Shonkwiler, K. B.

    2012-12-01

    Arduino microcontrollers, wireless modules, and other low-cost hardware were used to develop a new type of air sampler for monitoring ammonia at strong areal sources like dairies, cattle feedlots, and waste treatment facilities. Ammonia was sampled at multiple locations on the periphery of an operation using Radiello diffusive passive samplers (Cod. RAD168- and RAD1201-Sigma-Aldrich). However, the samplers were not continuously exposed to the air. Instead, each sampling station included two diffusive samplers housed in specialized tubes that sealed the cartridges from the atmosphere. If a user-defined set of wind and weather conditions were met, the Radiellos were deployed into the air using a micro linear actuator. Each station was solar-powered and controlled by Arduinos that were linked to a central weather station using Xbee wireless modules (Digi International Inc.). The Arduinos also measured the total time of exposure using hall-effect sensors to verify the position of the cartridge (i.e., deployed or retracted). The decision to expose or retract the samplers was made every five minutes based on wind direction, wind speed, and time of day. Typically, the diffusive samplers were replaced with fresh cartridges every two weeks and the used samplers were analyzed in the laboratory using ion chromatography. Initial studies were conducted at a commercial dairy in northern Colorado. Ammonia emissions along the Front Range of Colorado can be transported into the mountains where atmospheric deposition of nitrogen can impact alpine ecosystems. Therefore, low-cost air quality monitoring equipment is needed that can be widely deployed in the region. Initial work at the dairy showed that ammonia concentrations ranged between 600 to 1200 ppb during the summer; the highest concentrations were downwind of a large anaerobic lagoon. Time-averaged ammonia concentrations were also used to approximate emissions using inverse dispersion models. This methodology provides a

  18. Painful conditioning stimuli of the craniofacial region evokes diffuse noxious inhibitory controls in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kelun; Svensson, Peter; Sessle, Barry J; Cairns, Brian E; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    To compare the modulatory effects of tonic mechanical or thermal craniofacial painful conditioning stimuli on pain sensitivity in craniofacial and spinal test sites in healthy men and women. Mechanical and cold headbands were developed and tested on 12 healthy men and 12 age-matched women (mean +/- SEM: 27 +/- 1.5 years). The pressure applied by the mechanical headband around the skull above the eyebrows could be adjusted over time via feedback from a 0 to 10 electronic visual analog scale (VAS) to maintain the pain intensity at a given level for 10 minutes (3 to 7 on VAS). The cold headband consisted of a series of plastic bags filled with antifreeze water having a temperature of approx 3 degrees C. During the 10 minutes of application, the subjects were asked to rate the pain intensity on a 10-cm VAS. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were recorded over the right and left masseter muscles (MAR, MAL), right splenius muscle (neck), right elbow (elbow), and right middle finger (finger) by a pressure algometer (1-cm2 area probe). The PPTs at each of the five sites were determined at baseline and during the mechanical or cold-induced pain. The two sessions with mechanical or cold headbands were performed at an interval of 30 minutes. Women had significantly lower absolute PPT values than men at most test sites (Unpaired t-test: P cold headband caused pain in both men (4.0 +/- 0.4 cm) and women (4.5 +/- 0.4 cm) (P = .285). During the cold-induced pain, a significant PPT elevation was found at all test sites in men (P .446). This study has documented that mechanical and thermal painful tonic stimuli applied to the craniofacial region can evoke diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC)-like effects in the craniofacial region as well as spinally innervated areas, but without sex differences.

  19. {sup 15}N uptake from manure and fertilizer sources by three consecutive crops under controlled conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiroga Garza, Hector Mario, E-mail: quiroga.mario@inifap.gob.m [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agricolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP), Coahuila (Mexico); Delgado, Jorge A.; Wong, Jose Antonio Cueto, E-mail: jorge.delgado@ars.usda.go, E-mail: cueto.jose@inifap.gob.m [United States Dept. of Agriculture (USDA), Fort Collins, CO (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Soil Plant Nutrient Research Unit; Lindemann, William C., E-mail: wlindema@nmsu.ed [New Mexico State University (NMST), Las Cruces, NM (United States). Dept. Agronomy and Horticulture

    2009-09-15

    There are several regions of the world where soil N analysis and/or N budgets are not used to determine how much N to apply, resulting in higher than needed N inputs, especially when manure is used. One such region is the North Central 'La Comarca Lagunera', one of the most important dairy production areas of Mexico. We conducted a unique controlled greenhouse study using {sup 15}N fertilizer and {sup 15}N isotopic-labeled manure that was labeled under local conditions to monitor N cycling and recovery under higher N inputs. The manure-N treatment was applied only once and was incorporated in the soil before planting the first forage crop at an equivalent rate of 30, 60 and 120 Mg ha{sup -1} dry manure. The {sup 15}N treatments were equivalent to 120 and 240 kg ha{sup -1} (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}-N for each crop. The total N fertilizer for each N fertilized treatment were 360, and 720 kg ha{sup -1} N. We found very low N recoveries: about 9 % from the manure N inputs, lower than the 22 to 25 % from the fertilizer N inputs. The manure N recovered below ground in soil and roots ranged from 82 to 88 %. The low recoveries of N by the aboveground and low soil inorganic nitrate (NO{sup 3}-N) and ammonium (NH{sub 4}-N) content after the third harvested suggested that most of the {sup 15}N recovered below ground was in the soil organic form. The losses from manure N inputs ranged from 3 to 11 %, lower than the 34 to 39 % lost from fertilizer N sources. Our study shows that excessive applications of manure or fertilizer N that are traditionally used in this region will not increase the rate of N uptake by aboveground compartment but will increase the potential for N losses to the environment. (author)

  20. Seawater intrusion mapping using electrical resistivity tomography and hydrochemical data. An application in the coastal area of eastern Thermaikos Gulf, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakis, N., E-mail: kazanera@yahoo.com [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Geology, Lab. of Engineering Geology & Hydrogeology, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Pavlou, A. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Geology, Lab. of Engineering Geology & Hydrogeology, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Vargemezis, G. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Geology, Lab. of Applied Geophysics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Voudouris, K.S.; Soulios, G. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Geology, Lab. of Engineering Geology & Hydrogeology, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Pliakas, F. [Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Civil Engineering, Xanthi 67100 (Greece); Tsokas, G. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Geology, Lab. of Applied Geophysics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent and geometrical characteristics of seawater intrusion in the coastal aquifer of the eastern Thermaikos Gulf, Greece. Hydrochemical data and geoelectrical measurements were combined and supplemented to determine the hydrochemical regime of the study site in regard to seawater phenomena. Chemical analysis of groundwater was performed in 126 boreholes and fifteen electrical resistivity tomographies (ERT) were measured, whereas in two sites the ERT measurements were repeated following the wet season. The Cl{sup −} concentrations recorded reached 2240 mg/L indicating seawater intrusion which was also verified by ionic ratios. The ionic ratios were overlapped and a seawater intrusion map (SWIM) was produced. A significant part of the coastal aquifer (up to 150 km{sup 2}) is influenced by seawater intrusion. The areas with the most intensive salinization are located between Nea Kallikratia–Epanomi and Aggelochori–Peraia. According to the ERTs, in the influenced areas the salinization of the aquifer exceeds 1 km toward the mainland and its depth reaches 200 m. In the area surrounding Thessaloniki airport, the ERTs revealed salinization of the upper aquifer to depths of up to 40 m, whereas the lower aquifer is uninfluenced. This abnormal distribution of seawater intrusion demonstrates the value of geoelectrical methods in the study of seawater intrusion especially in areas with limited available hydrochemical data. - Highlights: • ERTs determined the geometrical characteristics of the saline aquifer. • An abnormal distribution of seawater intrusion was recorded. • Four ionic ratios overlapped and a seawater intrusion map was produced. • Cl{sup −} concentrations increased significantly from 2005 to 2010 by up to 1800 mg/L.

  1. The bifunctional aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase controls ethanol and acetate production in Entamoeba histolytica under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Erika; Encalada, Rusely; Olivos-García, Alfonso; Néquiz, Mario; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Saavedra, Emma

    2013-01-16

    By applying metabolic control analysis and inhibitor titration we determined the degree of control (flux control coefficient) of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) and bifunctional aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHE) over the fluxes of fermentative glycolysis of Entamoeba histolytica subjected to aerobic conditions. The flux-control coefficients towards ethanol and acetate formation determined for PFOR titrated with diphenyleneiodonium were 0.07 and 0.09, whereas for ADHE titrated with disulfiram were 0.33 and -0.19, respectively. ADHE inhibition induced significant accumulation of glycolytic intermediates and lower ATP content. These results indicate that ADHE exerts significant flux-control on the carbon end-product formation of amoebas subjected to aerobic conditions. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Control of variable speed pitch-regulated wind turbines in strong wind conditions using a combined feedforward and feedback technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increasing penetration of wind energy into power systems, it becomes critical to reduce the impact of wind energy on the stability and reliability of the overall power system. In precedent works, Shen and his co-workers developed a re-designed operation schema to run wind turbines...... in strong wind conditions based on optimization method and standard PI feedback control, which can prevent the typical shutdowns of wind turbines when reaching the cut-out wind speed. In this paper, a new control strategy combing the standard PI feedback control with feedforward controls using...... the optimization results is investigated for the operation of variable-speed pitch-regulated wind turbines in strong wind conditions. It is shown that the developed control strategy is capable of smoothening the power output of wind turbine and avoiding its sudden showdown at high wind speeds without worsening...

  3. Study Regarding Hydrochemical Classification of the main Lakes from Fizes Watershed (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania MIHAIESCU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Regarding to the importance of the ponds is noted an increasing interest in Europe, and also an increase of theawareness on the ponds contribution to biodiversity and proper functioning of the watersheds. Although significantprogress was made in establishing generic methodologies of analysis in the purpose of implementing water directive,small water bodies, as lakes and ponds are still insufficient represented. The study area, Fizes watershed, is located inTransylvania Plain, in the northern part of Romania. A distinct characteristic of this watershed is the presence of lakeunits (natural and artificial. Natural lakes and ponds are a polarizing element, which provides identity for the landscapein Fizes watershed, concentrates the majority of settlements in their close vicinity and also represent a support ofeconomical activities development, from agriculture to tourism.The objective of the present work is to discuss the major ion chemistry of the main lakes from Fizes watershed.Chemical classification also throws light on the concentration of various predominant cations, anions and theirinterrelationships. Water lake samples were collected from 11 sampling points covering the area during the years 2007and 2008 and were analyzed for physical-chemical characters. The system of lake units present distinctive physicalchemicalcharacteristics, influenced by local natural conditions, main factors being climate, morphometriccharacteristics of lakes, vegetation by shadowing, factors which together with biological conditions and anthropicinfluences shape the quality conditions of the lake waters. Climatic, hydrological and substrate conditions are reflectedin the resulting water quality. The lakes located in the upper part of the watershed can be included in the bicarbonateclass, while lakes located in the lower part are closer to sulphate waters.

  4. An Optimal Integrated Control Scheme for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator-Based Wind Turbines under Asymmetrical Grid Fault Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increasing penetration level of wind energy into power systems has brought new issues and challenges. One of the main concerns is the issue of dynamic response capability during outer disturbance conditions, especially the fault-tolerance capability during asymmetrical faults. In order to improve the fault-tolerance and dynamic response capability under asymmetrical grid fault conditions, an optimal integrated control scheme for the grid-side voltage-source converter (VSC of direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG-based wind turbine systems is proposed in this paper. The optimal control strategy includes a main controller and an additional controller. In the main controller, a double-loop controller based on differential flatness-based theory is designed for grid-side VSC. Two parts are involved in the design process of the flatness-based controller: the reference trajectories generation of flatness output and the implementation of the controller. In the additional control aspect, an auxiliary second harmonic compensation control loop based on an improved calculation method for grid-side instantaneous transmission power is designed by the quasi proportional resonant (Quasi-PR control principle, which is able to simultaneously restrain the second harmonic components in active power and reactive power injected into the grid without the respective calculation for current control references. Moreover, to reduce the DC-link overvoltage during grid faults, the mathematical model of DC-link voltage is analyzed and a feedforward modified control factor is added to the traditional DC voltage control loop in grid-side VSC. The effectiveness of the optimal control scheme is verified in PSCAD/EMTDC simulation software.

  5. Controller integrated condition monitoring systems (CMS) for wind energy converters in on- and offshore environment; Steuerungsintegrierte Condition Monitoring Systeme (CMS) fuer Windenergieanlagen im On- und Offshoreumfeld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoering, Bernd [8.2 Monitoring GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Twelve years of application experience with vibration-based Condition Monitoring System (CMS) on wind energy show success. However, CMS is not considered a core competence. Currently the market of CMS suppliers is radically changing. In future, operators with different CMS in use or wind turbine manufacturers, who use different control systems with integrated CMS, can serve their different CMS hardware with a uniform software. The software was specially designed for the Chinese market and is already in operation in the on- and offshore environment. (orig.)

  6. Coordinated control of a DFIG-based wind-power generation system with SGSC under distorted grid voltage conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Jun; Li, Qing; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    currents injected to the grid. Furthermore, the respective PI-R controller in the positive synchronous reference frame for the SGSC voltage control and PGSC current control have been developed to achieve precise and rapid regulation of the corresponding components. Finally, the proposed coordinated control......This paper presents a coordinated control method for a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind-power generation system with a series grid-side converter (SGSC) under distorted grid voltage conditions. The detailed mathematical models of the DFIG system with SGSC are developed...... in the multiple synchronous rotating reference frames. In order to counteract the adverse effects of the voltage harmonics upon the DFIG, the SGSC generates series compensation control voltages to keep the stator voltage sinusoidal and symmetrical, which allows the use of the conventional vector control strategy...

  7. AUTOMATED SYSTEM OF OPERATIONAL CONTROL HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING OF BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRENKO A. O.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. Health and human performance largely determined by the conditions of climate and air quality in residential, administrative and residential and public buildings. At that, in turn, is influenced by the external environment and the climate, and the geometric dimensions of the room, and thermal performance building envelopes, and the location of the premises (Orientation, and many other factors. The result is the formation of complex systems, which control decision-making in conditions of multifactor [1]. In hygienic purposes it is necessary to strive to create the best indoor microclimate conditions, regardless of changes in the factors that affect the climate in residential, administrative and residential and public buildings. Develop systems to ensure the necessary microclimate parameters – it is a complex and important task, which will depend entirely comfortable and cozy environment for the person. The problem of the present time, there is a steady increase in the energy consumption of these systems, due to the rise in price of non-renewable energy sources, and our job is, to simulate the work of software systems necessary microclimate for the changes in the factors that affect it and to minimize the use of non-renewable energy sources. Analysis of recent research and publications. Domestic and foreign hygienists [2, 3, 4] to establish a connection between the climate in the room and in the workplace and the state of human health. Formation of the indoor climate of residential, administrative and residential and public buildings is influenced by many factors that have already noted earlier [5, 6]. Study of the processes of influence of various factors on human health is of great complexity. If we consider each process separately, and in this case they are not currently amenable to theoretical description clearer. To simulate the effect of these factors studies were conducted, which showed that, with sufficient

  8. Evaluation of Freeze Tolerance in Lancelot Plantain (Plantago lanceolata L. Ecotypes under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Janalizadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Lancelot Plantain (Ribwort, narrow-leaf or English plantain is a deep-rooted, short-lived perennial herb from Plantaginaceae family which has been used for various medicinal purposes for centuries, especially in Europe and only more recently has been proposed as a forage plant. The leaf of plantain is highly palatable for grazing animals, providing mineral-rich forage. Recently two productive upright cultivars of plantain have been bred and introduced, Grasslands Lancelot and the more erect winter active Ceres Tonic. Plantain grows moderately in winter but its main growth periods beings in spring and autumn with opportunistic summer growth. Although it reveals suitable winter survival in natural conditions, but there is not a lot of information about cold tolerance of this plant. So it is important to recognize the freeze tolerance of narrow leaf plantain for successful planting and utilization in cold regions such as Mashhad in Khorasan Razavi Province (Northeast of Iran. Determining LT50 point or critical temperature for survival of plant is the most reliable and simple method for evaluating cold tolerance of plants. Another reliable method for freeze tolerance of plants is estimation of temperature at which 50 % of dry matter reduces (RDMT50. This experiment was carried out to evaluate freeze tolerance of five ecotypes of Lancelot plantain according to the LT50su and RDMT50 indices. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate freeze tolerance of Lancelot plantain, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was carried out under controlled conditions at college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Five ecotypes of Lancelot plantain (Bojnourd, Kalat, Mashhad, Ghayen and Birjand after three months growth and hardening in natural environment were transferred to a Thermo gradient freezer on January 20th, 2012 and exposed to eight freezing temperatures (Zero, -3, -6, -9, -12, -15, -18

  9. 76 FR 14795 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System Mode...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ...; Electronic Flight Control System Mode Annunciation. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or...). Novel or Unusual Design Features The GVI will have a fly-by-wire electronic flight control system. This...

  10. 75 FR 77569 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Electronic Flight Control System Mode...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ...; Electronic Flight Control System Mode Annunciation AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... design features include an electronic flight control system. The applicable airworthiness regulations do... system. This system provides an electronic interface between the pilot's flight controls and ] the flight...

  11. 78 FR 67077 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 Series Airplane; Side Stick Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... controllers for pitch and roll control instead of conventional wheels and columns. The applicable... (or signing the comment for an association, business, labor union, etc.). DOT's complete Privacy Act... predecessors the A320, A330, A340 and A380, will use side stick controllers for pitch and roll...

  12. Neural Operant Conditioning as a Core Mechanism of Brain-Machine Interface Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Sakurai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of changing the neuronal activity of the brain to acquire rewards in a broad sense is essential for utilizing brain-machine interfaces (BMIs, which is essentially operant conditioning of neuronal activity. Currently, this is also known as neural biofeedback, and it is often referred to as neurofeedback when human brain activity is targeted. In this review, we first illustrate biofeedback and operant conditioning, which are methodological background elements in neural operant conditioning. Then, we introduce research models of neural operant conditioning in animal experiments and demonstrate that it is possible to change the firing frequency and synchronous firing of local neuronal populations in a short time period. We also debate the possibility of the application of neural operant conditioning and its contribution to BMIs.

  13. Integral Plus Resonant Sliding Mode Direct Power Control for VSC-HVDC Systems under Unbalanced Grid Voltage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weipeng Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An integral plus resonant sliding mode direct power control (IRSMC DPC strategy for voltage source converter high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC systems under unbalanced grid voltage conditions is proposed in this paper. Through detailed instantaneous power flow analysis, a generalized power compensation method, by which the ratio between the amplitude of active and reactive power ripples can be controlled continuously, is obtained. This enables the system to provide flexible power control, so that the desired performance of the system on both the ac and dc sides can be attained under different operating conditions. When the grid voltage is unbalanced, one or both of the active and reactive power terms contain ripples, oscillating at twice the grid frequency, to obtain non-distorted ac current. A power controller consisting of the proportional, integral and resonant control laws is designed using the sliding mode control approach, to achieve accurate power control objective. Simulation studies on a two-terminal VSC-HVDC system using MATLAB/SIMULINK (R2013b, Mathworks, Natick, MA, USA are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the IRSMC DPC strategy. The results show that this strategy ensures satisfactory performance of the system over a wide range of operating conditions.

  14. A DDC-based capacity controller of a direct expansion (DX) air conditioning (A/C) unit for simultaneous indoor air temperature and humidity control - Pt. 1: Control algorithms and preliminary controllability tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zheng [Institute of Air Conditioning, China Academy of Building Research, Beijing 100013 (China); Deng, Shiming [Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2007-01-15

    For residential buildings located in the subtropics, direct expansion (DX) air conditioning (A/C) units are commonly used. Most DX A/C units are currently equipped with single-speed compressors and supply fans, relying on on-off cycling compressors as a low-cost approach to maintain only indoor air dry-bulb temperature, resulting in either space overcooling or an uncontrolled equilibrium indoor relative humidity (RH) level. With the rapid development of A/C industry, the use of variable-speed compressor and supply fan has become more and more prevalent and practical. This paper, the first part of a two-part series, reports on the development of a novel direct digital control (DDC)-based capacity controller for a DX A/C unit having variable-speed compressor and supply fan to simultaneously control indoor air temperature and RH in a conditioned space served by the DX A/C unit. The controller is the first of its kind as a composite parameter, sensible heat ratio (SHR), is used as a controlled parameter. The core element of the capacity controller, a numerical calculation algorithm (NCA) is firstly presented. This is followed by reporting the results of preliminary controllability tests of the DDC-based capacity controller, which suggested that the controller developed could achieve a reasonable control accuracy, but with room for improvement with respect to control sensitivity. Part II of the two-part series reports on the further development of the controller to improve its control sensitivity, and the results of associated controllability tests. (author)

  15. An isotope hydrochemical approach to understand fluoride release into groundwaters of the Datong Basin, Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chunli; Wang, Yanxin; Xie, Xianjun; Zhu, Yapeng

    2015-04-01

    The hydrogeochemical and isotopic investigations of high fluoride (up to 8.26 mg L(-1)) groundwater in the Datong Basin, Northern China were carried out in order to evaluate the geochemical controls on fluoride enrichment. The groundwater fluoride concentration tends to increase along with the regional groundwater flow path away from the basin margins, towards the central parts of the basin. Groundwater with high F concentrations has a distinctive major ion chemistry, being generally HCO3(-)-rich, Na-rich, Ca-poor, and having weak alkaline pH values (7.2 to 8.2) and Na-HCO3 waters. These data indicate that variations in the groundwater major ion chemistry and possibly pH, which are controlled by water-rock interaction processes in the aquifer, are important in mobilizing F. Positive correlations between fluoride with lithogenic sodium (LNa) and HCO3(-) in groundwater show that the high fluoride content and alkaline sodic characteristics of groundwater result from dissolution of fluorine-bearing minerals. The occurrence and behavior of fluorine in groundwater are mainly controlled by fluorite precipitation as a function of Ca(2+) concentration. A positive correlation between fluoride and δ(18)O, low F(-)/Cl(-) ratios, and the low tritium level in the fluoride-rich groundwater indicate the effects of long-term water-rock interactions and intensive evapotranspiration.

  16. Fecundity, survival, and growth of the seahorse Hippocampus ingens (Pisces: Syngnathidae under semi-controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A Ortega-Salas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudiamos la fecundidad, supervivencia, y crecimiento del caballito de mar, Hippocampus ingens en condiciones semi-controladas. Tres machos reproductores silvestres de 14.8, 24.5 y 32.0 g produjeron 1 598, 1 703 y 1 658 jóvenes. La densidad utilizada fue de 12 jóvenes por acuario de 60 l. Se agruparon en 1, 12 y 20 días de nacidos por acuario. La supervivencia fue de 78.5, 38.1 y 41.0 % en 35 días. Se les alimentó con una mezcla de rotíferos B. plicatilis y nauplios de Artemia para después transferirlos a estanques de 100 000 l a una densidad de 50/1 000 l, donde se les alimentó con Artemia adulta durante 60 días más. Crecieron de un promedio de 0.7, 1.5, y 2.7 a 4.5, 5.4 6.7 cm, respectivamente, en 95 días. La temperatura del agua marina utilizada varió de 17 a 23 ºC.We studied fecundity, survival, and growth of the seahorse Hippocampus ingens under semi-controlled conditions. Three wild brood stock mature males of 14.8, 24.5, and 32.0 g released 1 598, 1 703, and 1 658 juveniles. Juvenile stocking densities of 12 were settled in 60-l aquariums in groups of 1, 12, and 20 days old organisms. The rate of survival was 21.5, 61.9, and 59.0 %, respectively, in 35 days. Juveniles were fed a mix diet of rotifers B. plicatilis and Artemia nauplii, then they were transferred to a cement tank of 100 000 l at a density of 50/1 000 l and fed with live adult Artemia for 60 days more. They grew from an average of 0.7, 1.5, and 2.7 to 4.5, 5.4, and 6.7 cm, respectively, in 95 days. The seawater temperature varied from 17 to 23 ºC. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1099-1102. Epub 2006 Dec. 15.

  17. Network Condition Based Adaptive Control and its Application to Power Balancing in Electrical Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Findrik, Mislav; Sloth, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    of the power balancing effort. Such control strategies require communication networks for exchange of control loop information. In this work, we show how a congested communication network can have a dramatic impact on the control performance of such a power balancing controller. To alleviate potential......To maintain a reliable and stable power grid there must be balance between consumption and production. To achieve power balance in a system with high penetration of distributed renewable resources and flexible assets, these individual system can be coordinated through a control unit to become part...... stability issues and increase control performance, an adaptive control design is proposed together with a communication network state estimation algorithm. Extensive simulation studies on a realistic model of a low voltage residential grid, using network traces obtained from a real powerline network, show...

  18. Bidirectional control of a one-dimensional robotic actuator by operant conditioning of a single unit in rat motor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Jean eArduin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of efficient neuroprosthetic devices has become a major challenge for the long-term goal of restoring autonomy to motor-impaired patients. One approach for brain control of actuators consists in decoding the activity pattern obtained by simultaneously recording large neuronal ensembles in order to predict in real-time the subject’s intention, and move the prosthesis accordingly. An alternative way is to assign the output of one or a few neurons by operant conditioning to control the prosthesis with rules defined by the experimenter, and rely on the functional adaptation of these neurons during learning to reach the desired behavioral outcome. Here, several motor cortex neurons were recorded simultaneously in head-fixed awake rats and were conditioned, one at a time, to modulate their firing rate up and down in order to control the speed and direction of a one-dimensional actuator carrying a water bottle. The goal was to maintain the bottle in front of the rat’s mouth, allowing it to drink. After learning, all conditioned neurons modulated their firing rate, effectively controlling the bottle position so that the drinking time was increased relative to chance. The mean firing rate averaged over all bottle trajectories depended non-linearly on position, so that the mouth position operated as an attractor. Some modifications of mean firing rate were observed in the surrounding neurons, but to a lesser extent. Notably, the conditioned neuron reacted faster and led to a better control than surrounding neurons, as calculated by using the activity of those neurons to generate simulated bottle trajectories. Our study demonstrates the feasibility, even in the rodent, of using a motor cortex neuron to control a prosthesis in real-time bidirectionally. The learning process includes modifications of the activity of neighboring cortical neurons, while the conditioned neuron selectively leads the activity patterns associated with the prosthesis

  19. Semantic classical conditioning and brain-computer interface (BCI control: Encoding of affirmative and negative thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin A. Ruf

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate conditioned electroencephalographic (EEG responses to factually correct and incorrect statements in order to enable binary communication by means of a brain-computer interface (BCI. In two experiments with healthy participants true and false statements (serving as conditioned stimuli, CSs were paired with two different tones which served as unconditioned stimuli (USs. The features of the USs were varied and tested for their effectiveness to elicit differentiable conditioned reactions (CRs. After acquisition of the CRs, these CRs to true and false statements were classified offline using a radial basis function kernel support vector machine. A mean single-trial classification accuracy of 50.5% was achieved for differentiating conditioned yes versus no thinking and mean accuracies of 65.4% for classification of yes and 68.8% for no thinking (both relative to baseline were found using the best US. Analysis of the area under the curve of the conditioned EEG responses revealed significant differences between conditioned yes and no answers. Even though improvements are necessary, these first results indicate that the semantic conditioning paradigm could be a useful basis for further research regarding BCI communication in patients with complete locked-in syndrome (CLIS.

  20. Semantic Classical Conditioning and Brain-Computer Interface Control: Encoding of Affirmative and Negative Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Carolin A.; De Massari, Daniele; Furdea, Adrian; Matuz, Tamara; Fioravanti, Chiara; van der Heiden, Linda; Halder, Sebastian; Birbaumer, Niels

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate conditioned electroencephalography (EEG) responses to factually correct and incorrect statements in order to enable binary communication by means of a brain-computer interface (BCI). In two experiments with healthy participants true and false statements (serving as conditioned stimuli, CSs) were paired with two different tones which served as unconditioned stimuli (USs). The features of the USs were varied and tested for their effectiveness to elicit differentiable conditioned reactions (CRs). After acquisition of the CRs, these CRs to true and false statements were classified offline using a radial basis function kernel support vector machine. A mean single-trial classification accuracy of 50.5% was achieved for differentiating conditioned “yes” versus “no” thinking and mean accuracies of 65.4% for classification of “yes” and 68.8% for “no” thinking (both relative to baseline) were found using the best US. Analysis of the area under the curve of the conditioned EEG responses revealed significant differences between conditioned “yes” and “no” answers. Even though improvements are necessary, these first results indicate that the semantic conditioning paradigm could be a useful basis for further research regarding BCI communication in patients in the complete locked-in state. PMID:23471568

  1. [Testing of the effect of classic conditioning stimuli in human experiment by means of the transfer of control paradigm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, J

    1999-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioning in animals is often evaluated by means of transfer of control experiments. With human subjects, however, only very few studies have been conducted and the outcomes were often not in accordance with theoretical explanations based on studies with animals. A theoretical framework is presented that tries to integrate the results of the human conditioning paradigm and the animal conditioning paradigm as well, with reference to the well-known Yerkes-Dodson law. The experimental study with human subjects (N = 24) confirmed the predictions out of this framework, when a procedure similar to animal research is applied.

  2. Decay control of "Femminello Santa Teresa" lemon fruits by prestorage high temperature conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    D'Aquino, Salvatore; Piga, Antonio; Agabbio, Mario Carlo Salvatore; Molinu, Maria Giovanna

    1998-01-01

    Marketing quality and juice chemical parameters of late harvested "Femminello Santa Teresa" lemon fruits (Citrus limon Burm), wrapped with a 15 mm heat shrinkable film or left unwrapped, and then either conditioned at 36°C for 72 hours in a 85-90%, relative humidity (RH) atmosphere or not conditioned, were determined over 3 months storage at 6°C and 95% RH or after 1 week at 20°C and 75% RH following each month of storage. Conditioning significantly reduced the incidence of decay caused by...

  3. Control strategies study of a complete solar assisted air conditioning system in an office building using TRNSYS

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Sébastien; Andre, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    It is now clearly assumed that solar assisted air conditioning is able to minimize environmental impact and CO2 production of buildings operation. How to reach highest energy savings is still a work in progress. In former literature, equipment control has been point out as a critical feature of energy consumption. Control becomes more and more important as system is complex. The complete simulation environment was developed in previous work, it includes the absorption chiller ...

  4. Informed Conditioning on Clinical Covariates Increases Power in Case-Control Association Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zaitlen, Noah; Lindstroem, Sara; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Cornelis, Marilyn; Genovese, Giulio; Pollack, Samuela; Barton, Anne; Bickeboeller, Heike; Donald W. Bowden; Eyre, Steve; Barry I Freedman; Friedman, David J.; Field, John K.; Groop, Leif; Haugen, Aage

    2012-01-01

    Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI), smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low-BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high-BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals...

  5. Balanced Current Control Strategy for Current Source Rectifier Stage of Indirect Matrix Converter under Unbalanced Grid Voltage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeongsu Bak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a balanced current control strategy for the current source rectifier (CSR stage of an indirect matrix converter (IMC under unbalanced grid voltage conditions. If the three-phase grid connected to the voltage source inverter (VSI of the IMC has unbalanced voltage conditions, it affects the currents of the CSR stage and VSI stage, and the currents are distorted. Above all, the distorted currents of the CSR stage cause instability in the overall system, which can affect the life span of the system. Therefore, in this paper, a control strategy for balanced currents in the CSR stage is proposed. To achieve balanced currents in the CSR stage, the VSI stage should receive DC power without ripple components from the CSR stage. This is implemented by controlling the currents in the VSI stage. Therefore, the proposed control strategy decouples the positive and negative phase-sequence components existing in the unbalanced voltages and currents of the VSI stage. Using the proposed control strategy under unbalanced grid voltage conditions, the stability and life span of the overall system can be improved. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is verified by simulation and experimental results.

  6. Coordinated Control of a DFIG-Based Wind-Power Generation System with SGSC under Distorted Grid Voltage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aolin Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a coordinated control method for a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG-based wind-power generation system with a series grid-side converter (SGSC under distorted grid voltage conditions. The detailed mathematical models of the DFIG system with SGSC are developed in the multiple synchronous rotating reference frames. In order to counteract the adverse effects of the voltage harmonics upon the DFIG, the SGSC generates series compensation control voltages to keep the stator voltage sinusoidal and symmetrical, which allows the use of the conventional vector control strategy for the rotor-side converter (RSC, regardless of grid voltage harmonics. Meanwhile, two control targets for the parallel grid-side converter (PGSC are identified, including eliminating the oscillations in total active and reactive power entering the grid or suppressing the fifth- and seventh-order harmonic currents injected to the grid. Furthermore, the respective PI-R controller in the positive synchronous reference frame for the SGSC voltage control and PGSC current control have been developed to achieve precise and rapid regulation of the corresponding components. Finally, the proposed coordinated control strategy has been fully validated by the simulation results of a 2 MW DFIG-based wind turbine with SGSC under distorted grid voltage conditions.

  7. Comparison of the behavior of epiphytic fitness mutants of pseudomonas syringae under controlled and field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, G.A.; Lindow, S.E. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States))

    1994-10-01

    The epiphytic fitness of four Tn5 of Pseudomonas syringae that exhibited reduced epiphytic fitness in the laboratory was evaluated under field conditions. The mutants differed more from the parental strain under field conditions than under laboratory conditions, in their survival immediately following inoculation onto bean leaves and in the size of the epiphytic populations that they established at near-wild type rates, while the others exhibited reduced survival only in the warmest, driest conditions tested and grew epiphytically at reduced rates or, in the case of one mutant, not at all. The presence of the parental strain, B728a, did not influence the survival or growth of three of the mutants under field conditions; however, one mutant, an auxotroph, established larger populations in the presence of B728a than in its absence, possibly because of cross-feeding by By28a in planta. Experiments with B728a demonstrated that established epiphytic populations survived exposure of leaves to dry conditions better than newly inoculated cells did and that epiphytic survival was not dependent on the cell density in the inoculum. Three of the mutants behaved similarly to two nonpathogenic strains of P. syringae, suggesting that the mutants may be altered in traits that are missing or poorly expressed in naturally occurring nonpathogenic epiphytes. 58 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ling Teng

    Full Text Available Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99; controls (76.53±7.47; t1,59 = -3.28, p<0.001]. The results of mixed-model ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between the group and sensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, p<0.001]. Further analysis indicated that AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory

  9. [Hydrochemical characteristics and evolution of runoff at Qiyi glacier, Qilian Mts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Bo; Li, Quan-Lian; Song, Gao-Ju; He, Jian-Qiao; Jiang, Xi

    2008-03-01

    Glacier ice, supraglacier stream water, ice-marginal stream water, proglacier stream water samples were collected at Qiyi glacier located in central part of Qilian Mountain 2006-06 - 2006-07. Major ions concentration, pH and EC were analyzed. The results indicate that pH varies from 8.05 to 8.79, and EC 32.4 - 134.4 microS cm(-1). The order of major ions concentration in differed water is: supraglacier stream water SO4(2-) > Cl(-) > NO3(-), Ca(2+) > Mg(2+) > Na(+) > K(+) mainly comes from carbonate weathering,and some is from sulfate dissolution. Concentrations of Mg(2+) and K(+) increase quicker than Na(+) and Ca(2+) in proglacier stream and ice-margin stream that is inverse to their abundance in crust. The spatial characteristic of ions concentration is controlled by the process of water-rock and temporal change is hydrological factors.

  10. Decoupled Double Synchronous Reference Frame Current Controller for Unbalanced Grid Voltage Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reyes, M.; Rodriguez, Pedro; Vazquez, S.;

    2012-01-01

    -sequence current components is becoming necessary for achieving new capabilities like the reactive power injection during a grid fau