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Sample records for hydrocarbons provide reliable

  1. Mechanical reliability analysis of tubes intended for hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahal, Mourad; Khelif, Rabia [Badji Mokhtar University, Annaba (Algeria)

    2013-02-15

    Reliability analysis constitutes an essential phase in any study concerning reliability. Many industrialists evaluate and improve the reliability of their products during the development cycle - from design to startup (design, manufacture, and exploitation) - to develop their knowledge on cost/reliability ratio and to control sources of failure. In this study, we obtain results for hardness, tensile, and hydrostatic tests carried out on steel tubes for transporting hydrocarbons followed by statistical analysis. Results obtained allow us to conduct a reliability study based on resistance request. Thus, index of reliability is calculated and the importance of the variables related to the tube is presented. Reliability-based assessment of residual stress effects is applied to underground pipelines under a roadway, with and without active corrosion. Residual stress has been found to greatly increase probability of failure, especially in the early stages of pipe lifetime.

  2. Will British weather provide reliable electricity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswald, James; Raine, Mike; Ashraf-Ball, Hezlin

    2008-01-01

    There has been much academic debate on the ability of wind to provide a reliable electricity supply. The model presented here calculates the hourly power delivery of 25 GW of wind turbines distributed across Britain's grid, and assesses power delivery volatility and the implications for individual generators on the system. Met Office hourly wind speed data are used to determine power output and are calibrated using Ofgem's published wind output records. There are two main results. First, the model suggests that power swings of 70% within 12 h are to be expected in winter, and will require individual generators to go on or off line frequently, thereby reducing the utilisation and reliability of large centralised plants. These reductions will lead to increases in the cost of electricity and reductions in potential carbon savings. Secondly, it is shown that electricity demand in Britain can reach its annual peak with a simultaneous demise of wind power in Britain and neighbouring countries to very low levels. This significantly undermines the case for connecting the UK transmission grid to neighbouring grids. Recommendations are made for improving 'cost of wind' calculations. The authors are grateful for the sponsorship provided by The Renewable Energy Foundation

  3. Reliability analysis of land pipelines for hydrocarbons transportation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon, D.; Cortes, C. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The reliability of a land pipeline operated by PEMEX in Mexico was estimated under a range of failure modes. Reliability and safety were evaluated in terms of the pipeline's internal pressure, bending, fracture toughness and its tension failure mode conditions. Loading conditions were applied individually, while bending and tension loads were applied in a combined fashion. The mechanical properties of the steel were also considered along with the degradation effect of internal corrosion resulting from the type of product being transported. A set of internal pressures and mechanical properties were generated randomly using Monte Carlo simulation. Commercial software was used to obtain the pipeline response under each modeled condition. The response analysis was based on the nonlinear finite element method involving a calculation of maximum stresses and stress concentration factors under conditions of corrosion and no corrosion. The margin between maximum stresses due to internal pressure, tension and bending was evaluated along with the margin between stress concentration factor and fracture initiation toughness. The study showed that internal pressure, stress concentration and tension-bending were the critical failure modes. It was suggested that more research should be conducted to improve the modeling of the deteriorating effects of corrosion and to adjust the probability distribution for fracture toughness and the length/depth defect ratio. The consideration of welding geometries along with features of marine pipelines and pipeline products would help to generalize the study to facilitate the creation of codes for the construction, design, inspection and maintenance of pipelines in Mexico. 7 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  4. Bring Your Own Device - Providing Reliable Model of Data Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stąpór Paweł

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a model of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD as a model network, which provides the user reliable access to network resources. BYOD is a model dynamically developing, which can be applied in many areas. Research network has been launched in order to carry out the test, in which as a service of BYOD model Work Folders service was used. This service allows the user to synchronize files between the device and the server. An access to the network is completed through the wireless communication by the 802.11n standard. Obtained results are shown and analyzed in this article.

  5. Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1927-02-22

    Coal tar, mineral oils, bitumens, coal extraction products, hydrogenation products of coal, oil schists can be atomized and heated with steam to decompose pyrogenetically and form gases rich in olefins which may be heated with or without pressure and with or without catalysts to produce liquid hydrocarbons of low boiling point, some of which may be aromatic. The apparatus should be lined with copper, silica, or ferrosilicon to prevent contact of the bases with iron which causes deposition of soot. Catalysts used may be metal oxides, silica, graphite, active charcoal, mica, pumice, porcelain, barium carbonate, copper, silver, gold, chromium, boron, or their compounds. At temperatures from 300 to 400/sup 0/C, olefins are produced. At higher temperatures, naphthenes and benzene hydrocarbons are produced.

  6. PROVIDING RELIABILITY OF HUMAN RESOURCES IN PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna MAZUR

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available People are the most valuable asset of an organization and the results of a company mostly depends on them. The human factor can also be a weak link in the company and cause of the high risk for many of the processes. Reliability of the human factor in the process of the manufacturing process will depend on many factors. The authors include aspects of human error, safety culture, knowledge, communication skills, teamwork and leadership role in the developed model of reliability of human resources in the management of the production process. Based on the case study and the results of research and observation of the author present risk areas defined in a specific manufacturing process and the results of evaluation of the reliability of human resources in the process.

  7. Nonspecialist Raters Can Provide Reliable Assessments of Procedural Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Oria; Dagnæs, Julia; Bube, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    was significant (p Pearson's correlation of 0.77 for the nonspecialists and 0.75 for the specialists. The test-retest reliability showed the biggest difference between the 2 groups, 0.59 and 0.38 for the nonspecialist raters and the specialist raters, respectively (p ... was chosen as it is a simple procedural skill that is crucial to master in a resident urology program. RESULTS: The internal consistency of assessments was high, Cronbach's α = 0.93 and 0.95 for nonspecialist and specialist raters, respectively (p correlations). The interrater reliability...

  8. Do Cuticular Hydrocarbons Provide Sufficient Information for Optimal Sex Allocation in the Ant Formica exsecta?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; Vitikainen, Emma; D'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    Split sex ratio theory predicts that when kin structure varies among colonies of social insects, in order to maximize the inclusive fitness, colonies with relatively high sister-sister relatedness should specialize in producing reproductive females, whereas in those with relatively low sister......-sister relatedness workers should bias their sex ratio towards males. However, in order to achieve this, workers need to be able to reliably assess the type of colony in which they live. The information on colony kin structure may be encoded in cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), assuming that genetic variability....... However, within-colony relatedness remains the key determinant of colony sex ratios. Based on our results, CHC variability cannot serve as accurate information on within-colony relatedness, kin structure, or full-sib affiliation, nor do workers seem to use colony CHC variability as a proxy for sex...

  9. Modeling Parameters of Reliability of Technological Processes of Hydrocarbon Pipeline Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalay Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of methods of system analysis and parametric reliability theory, the mathematical modeling of processes of oil and gas equipment operation in reliability monitoring was conducted according to dispatching data. To check the quality of empiric distribution coordination , an algorithm and mathematical methods of analysis are worked out in the on-line mode in a changing operating conditions. An analysis of physical cause-and-effect relations mechanism between the key factors and changing parameters of technical systems of oil and gas facilities is made, the basic types of technical distribution parameters are defined. Evaluation of the adequacy the analyzed parameters of the type of distribution is provided by using a criterion A.Kolmogorov, as the most universal, accurate and adequate to verify the distribution of continuous processes of complex multiple-technical systems. Methods of calculation are provided for supervising by independent bodies for risk assessment and safety facilities.

  10. Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Condon, David; Revelle, William

    2017-01-01

    Separating the signal in a test from the irrelevant noise is a challenge for all measurement. Low test reliability limits test validity, attenuates important relationships, and can lead to regression artifacts. Multiple approaches to the assessment and improvement of reliability are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of several different approaches to reliability are considered. Practical advice on how to assess reliability using open source software is provided.

  11. Community Structure in Methanogenic Enrichments Provides Insight into Syntrophic Interactions in Hydrocarbon-Impacted Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fowler, Jane; Toth, Courtney R. A.; Gieg, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    , but such information has important implications for bioremediation and microbial enhanced energy recovery technologies. Many factors such as changing environmental conditions or substrate variations can influence the composition and biodegradation capabilities of syntrophic microbial communities in hydrocarbon......The methanogenic biodegradation of crude oil involves the conversion of hydrocarbons to methanogenic substrates by syntrophic bacteria and subsequent methane production by methanogens. Assessing the metabolic roles played by various microbial species in syntrophic communities remains a challenge......-impacted environments. In this study, a methanogenic crude oil-degrading enrichment culture was successively transferred onto the single long chain fatty acids palmitate or stearate followed by their parent alkanes, hexadecane or octadecane, respectively, in order to assess the impact of different substrates...

  12. A Framework to Improve Communication and Reliability Between Cloud Consumer and Provider in the Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Sridhar

    2014-01-01

    Cloud services consumers demand reliable methods for choosing appropriate cloud service provider for their requirements. Number of cloud consumer is increasing day by day and so cloud providers, hence requirement for a common platform for interacting between cloud provider and cloud consumer is also on the raise. This paper introduces Cloud Providers Market Platform Dashboard. This will act as not only just cloud provider discoverability but also provide timely report to consumer on cloud ser...

  13. Expert system for the reliability assessment of hydro-carbon transporting pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukacs, J.; Nagy, G.; Toeroek, I. [Department of Mechanical Technology, University of Miskolc, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary)

    1998-12-31

    Safety operation, condition monitoring, periodical inspection and rehabilitation of high-pressure hydro-carbon transporting pipelines are a complex problem. To answer arising questions is inconceivable without technical-critical evaluation of defects - originated during manufacturing or operation - can be found on the pipeline. This evaluation must be in line with requirements of our age, i.e. it has to assert such concept of which basis is not the `possible worst` but the `just happening wrong`. Solving these problems without application of computer resources is inconceivable in our time. The final purpose of the solution is the expert system and among the components of the expert system primarily the development of the knowledge base is needed. The paper demonstrates a possible structure of the knowledge base, furthermore its fundamental elements and their contents (defect types, evaluation possibilities of defects, categorisation of pipelines) and summaries the prospective advantages of its application. (orig.) 27 refs.

  14. Standardized Patients Provide a Reliable Assessment of Athletic Training Students' Clinical Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Kirk J.; Jarriel, Amanda J.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Providing students reliable objective feedback regarding their clinical performance is of great value for ongoing clinical skill assessment. Since a standardized patient (SP) is trained to consistently portray the case, students can be assessed and receive immediate feedback within the same clinical encounter; however, no research, to our…

  15. Inter-Rater Reliability of Provider Interpretations of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Food and Symptom Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Jasmine; Chung, Chia-Fang; Xu, Kaiyuan; Dong, Yi; Schenk, Jeanette M; Cain, Kevin; Munson, Sean; Heitkemper, Margaret M

    2017-11-04

    There are currently no standardized methods for identifying trigger food(s) from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) food and symptom journals. The primary aim of this study was to assess the inter-rater reliability of providers' interpretations of IBS journals. A second aim was to describe whether these interpretations varied for each patient. Eight providers reviewed 17 IBS journals and rated how likely key food groups (fermentable oligo-di-monosaccharides and polyols, high-calorie, gluten, caffeine, high-fiber) were to trigger IBS symptoms for each patient. Agreement of trigger food ratings was calculated using Krippendorff's α-reliability estimate. Providers were also asked to write down recommendations they would give to each patient. Estimates of agreement of trigger food likelihood ratings were poor (average α = 0.07). Most providers gave similar trigger food likelihood ratings for over half the food groups. Four providers gave the exact same written recommendation(s) (range 3-7) to over half the patients. Inter-rater reliability of provider interpretations of IBS food and symptom journals was poor. Providers favored certain trigger food likelihood ratings and written recommendations. This supports the need for a more standardized method for interpreting these journals and/or more rigorous techniques to accurately identify personalized IBS food triggers.

  16. Inter-Rater Reliability of Provider Interpretations of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Food and Symptom Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Zia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available There are currently no standardized methods for identifying trigger food(s from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS food and symptom journals. The primary aim of this study was to assess the inter-rater reliability of providers’ interpretations of IBS journals. A second aim was to describe whether these interpretations varied for each patient. Eight providers reviewed 17 IBS journals and rated how likely key food groups (fermentable oligo-di-monosaccharides and polyols, high-calorie, gluten, caffeine, high-fiber were to trigger IBS symptoms for each patient. Agreement of trigger food ratings was calculated using Krippendorff’s α-reliability estimate. Providers were also asked to write down recommendations they would give to each patient. Estimates of agreement of trigger food likelihood ratings were poor (average α = 0.07. Most providers gave similar trigger food likelihood ratings for over half the food groups. Four providers gave the exact same written recommendation(s (range 3–7 to over half the patients. Inter-rater reliability of provider interpretations of IBS food and symptom journals was poor. Providers favored certain trigger food likelihood ratings and written recommendations. This supports the need for a more standardized method for interpreting these journals and/or more rigorous techniques to accurately identify personalized IBS food triggers.

  17. Interrater reliability of Violence Risk Appraisal Guide scores provided in Canadian criminal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, John F; Penson, Brittany N; Ruchensky, Jared R; Cox, Jennifer; Smith, Shannon Toney

    2016-12-01

    Published research suggests that most violence risk assessment tools have relatively high levels of interrater reliability, but recent evidence of inconsistent scores among forensic examiners in adversarial settings raises concerns about the "field reliability" of such measures. This study specifically examined the reliability of Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG) scores in Canadian criminal cases identified in the legal database, LexisNexis. Over 250 reported cases were located that made mention of the VRAG, with 42 of these cases containing 2 or more scores that could be submitted to interrater reliability analyses. Overall, scores were skewed toward higher risk categories. The intraclass correlation (ICCA1) was .66, with pairs of forensic examiners placing defendants into the same VRAG risk "bin" in 68% of the cases. For categorical risk statements (i.e., low, moderate, high), examiners provided converging assessment results in most instances (86%). In terms of potential predictors of rater disagreement, there was no evidence for adversarial allegiance in our sample. Rater disagreement in the scoring of 1 VRAG item (Psychopathy Checklist-Revised; Hare, 2003), however, strongly predicted rater disagreement in the scoring of the VRAG (r = .58). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Providing reliable energy in a time of constraints : a North American concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, T.; Turk, E.

    2008-04-01

    The reliability of the North American electricity grid was discussed. Government initiatives designed to control carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other emissions in some regions of Canada may lead to electricity supply constraints in other regions. A lack of investment in transmission infrastructure has resulted in constraints within the North American transmission grid, and the growth of smaller projects is now raising concerns about transmission capacity. Labour supply shortages in the electricity industry are also creating concerns about the long-term security of the electricity market. Measures to address constraints must be considered in the current context of the North American electricity system. The extensive transmission interconnects and integration between the United States and Canada will provide a framework for greater trade and market opportunities between the 2 countries. Coordinated actions and increased integration will enable Canada and the United States to increase the reliability of electricity supply. However, both countries must work cooperatively to increase generation supply using both mature and emerging technologies. The cross-border transmission grid must be enhanced by increasing transmission capacity as well as by implementing new reliability rules, building new infrastructure, and ensuring infrastructure protection. Barriers to cross-border electricity trade must be identified and avoided. Demand-side and energy efficiency measures must also be implemented. It was concluded that both countries must focus on developing strategies for addressing the environmental concerns related to electricity production. 6 figs

  19. Reliability constrained decision model for energy service provider incorporating demand response programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahboubi-Moghaddam, Esmaeil; Nayeripour, Majid; Aghaei, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The operation of Energy Service Providers (ESPs) in electricity markets is modeled. • Demand response as the cost-effective solution is used for energy service provider. • The market price uncertainty is modeled using the robust optimization technique. • The reliability of the distribution network is embedded into the framework. • The simulation results demonstrate the benefits of robust framework for ESPs. - Abstract: Demand response (DR) programs are becoming a critical concept for the efficiency of current electric power industries. Therefore, its various capabilities and barriers have to be investigated. In this paper, an effective decision model is presented for the strategic behavior of energy service providers (ESPs) to demonstrate how to participate in the day-ahead electricity market and how to allocate demand in the smart distribution network. Since market price affects DR and vice versa, a new two-step sequential framework is proposed, in which unit commitment problem (UC) is solved to forecast the expected locational marginal prices (LMPs), and successively DR program is applied to optimize the total cost of providing energy for the distribution network customers. This total cost includes the cost of purchased power from the market and distributed generation (DG) units, incentive cost paid to the customers, and compensation cost of power interruptions. To obtain compensation cost, the reliability evaluation of the distribution network is embedded into the framework using some innovative constraints. Furthermore, to consider the unexpected behaviors of the other market participants, the LMP prices are modeled as the uncertainty parameters using the robust optimization technique, which is more practical compared to the conventional stochastic approach. The simulation results demonstrate the significant benefits of the presented framework for the strategic performance of ESPs.

  20. Supersonic shear imaging provides a reliable measurement of resting muscle shear elastic modulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacourpaille, Lilian; Hug, François; Bouillard, Killian; Nordez, Antoine; Hogrel, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of shear elastic modulus measurements performed using supersonic shear imaging (SSI) in nine resting muscles (i.e. gastrocnemius medialis, tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, brachioradialis, adductor pollicis obliquus and abductor digiti minimi) of different architectures and typologies. Thirty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to the intra-session reliability (n = 20), inter-day reliability (n = 21) and the inter-observer reliability (n = 16) experiments. Muscle shear elastic modulus ranged from 2.99 (gastrocnemius medialis) to 4.50 kPa (adductor digiti minimi and tibialis anterior). On the whole, very good reliability was observed, with a coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 4.6% to 8%, except for the inter-operator reliability of adductor pollicis obliquus (CV = 11.5%). The intraclass correlation coefficients were good (0.871 ± 0.045 for the intra-session reliability, 0.815 ± 0.065 for the inter-day reliability and 0.709 ± 0.141 for the inter-observer reliability). Both the reliability and the ease of use of SSI make it a potentially interesting technique that would be of benefit to fundamental, applied and clinical research projects that need an accurate assessment of muscle mechanical properties. (note)

  1. A stochastic simulation model for reliable PV system sizing providing for solar radiation fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplani, E.; Kaplanis, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Solar radiation data for European cities follow the Extreme Value or Weibull distribution. ► Simulation model for the sizing of SAPV systems based on energy balance and stochastic analysis. ► Simulation of PV Generator-Loads-Battery Storage System performance for all months. ► Minimum peak power and battery capacity required for reliable SAPV sizing for various European cities. ► Peak power and battery capacity reduced by more than 30% for operation 95% success rate. -- Abstract: The large fluctuations observed in the daily solar radiation profiles affect highly the reliability of the PV system sizing. Increasing the reliability of the PV system requires higher installed peak power (P m ) and larger battery storage capacity (C L ). This leads to increased costs, and makes PV technology less competitive. This research paper presents a new stochastic simulation model for stand-alone PV systems, developed to determine the minimum installed P m and C L for the PV system to be energy independent. The stochastic simulation model developed, makes use of knowledge acquired from an in-depth statistical analysis of the solar radiation data for the site, and simulates the energy delivered, the excess energy burnt, the load profiles and the state of charge of the battery system for the month the sizing is applied, and the PV system performance for the entire year. The simulation model provides the user with values for the autonomy factor d, simulating PV performance in order to determine the minimum P m and C L depending on the requirements of the application, i.e. operation with critical or non-critical loads. The model makes use of NASA’s Surface meteorology and Solar Energy database for the years 1990–2004 for various cities in Europe with a different climate. The results obtained with this new methodology indicate a substantial reduction in installed peak power and battery capacity, both for critical and non-critical operation, when compared to

  2. An FEC Adaptive Multicast MAC Protocol for Providing Reliability in WLANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basalamah, Anas; Sato, Takuro

    For wireless multicast applications like multimedia conferencing, voice over IP and video/audio streaming, a reliable transmission of packets within short delivery delay is needed. Moreover, reliability is crucial to the performance of error intolerant applications like file transfer, distributed computing, chat and whiteboard sharing. Forward Error Correction (FEC) is frequently used in wireless multicast to enhance Packet Error Rate (PER) performance, but cannot assure full reliability unless coupled with Automatic Repeat Request forming what is knows as Hybrid-ARQ. While reliable FEC can be deployed at different levels of the protocol stack, it cannot be deployed on the MAC layer of the unreliable IEEE802.11 WLAN due to its inability to exchange ACKs with multiple recipients. In this paper, we propose a Multicast MAC protocol that enhances WLAN reliability by using Adaptive FEC and study it's performance through mathematical analysis and simulation. Our results show that our protocol can deliver high reliability and throughput performance.

  3. Prevention of Biofouling in Hydrocarbons by Antimicrobial Vessel and Pipeline Coating for Cost Savings and an Increase in Safety and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Lackner

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are prone to bacterial and fungal contamination. Bacteria and fungi live and proliferate in water droplets within the fuels and on surfaces surrounding them. This can cause corrosion in oil exploration and production, clogging of fuel lines in aviation and higher emissions in diesel combustion engines to state few examples. State-of-the-art is the addition of biocides to fuels, which is associated with several disadvantages like costs and environmental burden. A novel technology to prevent biofouling in hydrocarbons is presented here. By applying an anti-microbial coating to the surfaces of hydrocarbon processing units, pipelines, and fuel containers, microbial growth can effectively be reduced. The coating can be a paint or varnish, for instance, epoxy resin as already used in aircraft fuel tanks to today. It contains transition metal oxides, thus an acidic surface is produced. This acidic surface was shown to eliminate up to 109 colony forming units per milliliter (CFU.ml-1 of bacteria of the species of agrobacterium tumefaciens and others in diesel, kerosene, and biodiesel, where other anti-microbial coatings based on silver did not perform. The technology has the potential to bring huge cost savings to the oil and gas industry, alongside an increase in safety and equipment reliability.

  4. Markerless motion capture can provide reliable 3D gait kinematics in the sagittal and frontal plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandau, Martin; Koblauch, Henrik; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating 3D joint rotations in the lower extremities accurately and reliably remains unresolved in markerless motion capture, despite extensive studies in the past decades. The main problems have been ascribed to the limited accuracy of the 3D reconstructions. Accordingly, the purpose of the pr......Estimating 3D joint rotations in the lower extremities accurately and reliably remains unresolved in markerless motion capture, despite extensive studies in the past decades. The main problems have been ascribed to the limited accuracy of the 3D reconstructions. Accordingly, the purpose...... subjects in whom hip, knee and ankle joint were analysed. Flexion/extension angles as well as hip abduction/adduction closely resembled those obtained from the marker based system. However, the internal/external rotations, knee abduction/adduction and ankle inversion/eversion were less reliable....

  5. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min

    2017-01-01

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured

  6. How many neurologists/epileptologists are needed to provide reliable descriptions of seizure types?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ast, J. F.; Talmon, J. L.; Renier, W. O.; Hasman, A.

    2003-01-01

    We are developing seizure descriptions as a basis for decision support. Based on an existing dataset we used the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula to estimate how many neurologist/epileptologists are needed to obtain reliable seizure descriptions (rho = 0.9). By extending the number of participants to

  7. Providing reliable equipment to IAEA through a low risk transition plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, L.; Weinstock, E.V.; Karlin, E.W.

    1988-01-01

    The development and production of safeguards equipment is a complex process containing many potential pitfalls between the conceptual design and its implementation in the field. The conditions for equipment use are especially demanding. At the same time, the consequences of failure may be serious. Repeated failure may result in the loss of credibility of safeguards. Expensive back up measures such as re-verification of inventories may be required. Inspectors may come to distrust the equipment. Finally, the expense of maintaining the equipment may be excessive. It is therefore essential that the process for bringing equipment for the conceptual stage to actual routine use minimizes the risk of producing equipment that is unsuitable for the job. Fortunately, approaches for accomplishing this have already been developed in both the industrial and commercial sectors. One such approach, the Low Risk Transition Plan (LRTP) is described to show it can be applied to the production of reliable safeguards equipment

  8. Sex-specific genotype-by-environment interactions for cuticular hydrocarbon expression in decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus: implications for the evolution of signal reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weddle, C B; Mitchell, C; Bay, S K; Sakaluk, S K; Hunt, J

    2012-10-01

    Phenotypic traits that convey information about individual identity or quality are important in animal social interactions, and the degree to which such traits are influenced by environmental variation can have profound effects on the reliability of these cues. Using inbred genetic lines of the decorated cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus, we manipulated diet quality to test how the cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles of males and females respond across two different nutritional rearing environments. There were significant differences between lines in the CHC profiles of females, but the effect of diet was not quite statistically significant. There was no significant genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI), suggesting that environmental effects on phenotypic variation in female CHCs are independent of genotype. There was, however, a significant effect of GEI for males, with changes in both signal quantity and content, suggesting that environmental effects on phenotypic expression of male CHCs are dependent on genotype. The differential response of male and female CHC expression to variation in the nutritional environment suggests that these chemical cues may be under sex-specific selection for signal reliability. Female CHCs show the characteristics of reliable cues of identity: high genetic variability, low condition dependence and a high degree of genetic determination. This supports earlier work showing that female CHCs are used in self-recognition to identify previous mates and facilitate polyandry. In contrast, male CHCs show the characteristics of reliable cues of quality: condition dependence and a relatively higher degree of environmental determination. This suggests that male CHCs are likely to function as cues of underlying quality during mate choice and/or male dominance interactions. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. THE SIMULATION DIAGNOSTIC METHODS AND REGENERATION WAYS OF REINFORCED - CONCRETE CONSTRUCTIONS OF BRIDGES IN PROVIDING THEIR OPERATING RELIABILITY AND LONGEVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Savchinskiy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of analysis of existing diagnostic methods and regeneration ways of reinforced-concrete constructions of bridges the recommendations on introduction of new modern technologies of renewal of reinforced-concrete constructions of bridges in providing their operating reliability and longevity are offered.

  10. THE SIMULATION DIAGNOSTIC METHODS AND REGENERATION WAYS OF REINFORCED - CONCRETE CONSTRUCTIONS OF BRIDGES IN PROVIDING THEIR OPERATING RELIABILITY AND LONGEVITY

    OpenAIRE

    B. V. Savchinskiy

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of analysis of existing diagnostic methods and regeneration ways of reinforced-concrete constructions of bridges the recommendations on introduction of new modern technologies of renewal of reinforced-concrete constructions of bridges in providing their operating reliability and longevity are offered.

  11. Why We Need Reliable, Valid, and Appropriate Learning Disability Assessments: The Perspective of a Postsecondary Disability Service Provider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolforth, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses issues regarding the validity and reliability of psychoeducational assessments provided to Disability Services Offices at Canadian Universities. Several vignettes illustrate some current issues and the potential consequences when university students are given less than thorough disability evaluations and ascribed diagnoses.…

  12. Implementation of new technology is a reliable method of extracting reserves remaining in hydro-carbon deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. А. Молчанов

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The prospects for further increase in oil production determined the introduction of new advanced technologies at all stages of the geological exploration process, drilling of wells, extraction and processing of hydrocarbons. On exploited deposits located at the late and final stages of development, in areas with developed infrastructure, the task of increasing oil recovery is particularly relevant. The increase in the total oil extraction in the fields by only a few percent allows us to obtain additionally millions of tons of oil and gas condensate. The oil reservoir is a multifactorial dynamic dissipative system and possesses all the properties of nonlinear self-organizing systems. To order the physicochemical processes in the formation in the parametric resonance mode, it is sufficient to periodically apply pressure to the formation by wide-band pulses from an independent nonlinear source. Such an independent well source is a plasma-pulse generator with an energy of about one kilojoule and a frequency spectrum from a few hertz to several kilohertz with a period of elastic vibrations 1-2 times per minute. The authors of the proposed technology suggest using an underwater electric explosion of conductors, in which the process of formation of a conducting channel is a successive chain of phase transformations of a metal under the influence of a pulsed current and then a breakdown of the hydromedia along the products of the explosion. A typical process of initiating a discharge is the breakdown of the interelectrode gap in a liquid under the influence of an electrical voltage that appears on the electrodes when a charged capacitor is connected to them through a conductor initiating an explosion. The application of the plasma-pulse effect equipment on the productive reservoir ensures an increase of oil and gas production rate and injectivity of injection wells by a factor of 2-6 and an improvement in the oil-water ratio of the produced fluid.

  13. System Statement of Tasks of Calculating and Providing the Reliability of Heating Cogeneration Plants in Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryuk, V. V.; Tsapkova, A. B.; Larin, E. A.; Livshiz, M. Y.; Sheludko, L. P.

    2018-01-01

    A set of mathematical models for calculating the reliability indexes of structurally complex multifunctional combined installations in heat and power supply systems was developed. Reliability of energy supply is considered as required condition for the creation and operation of heat and power supply systems. The optimal value of the power supply system coefficient F is based on an economic assessment of the consumers’ loss caused by the under-supply of electric power and additional system expences for the creation and operation of an emergency capacity reserve. Rationing of RI of the industrial heat supply is based on the use of concept of technological margin of safety of technological processes. The definition of rationed RI values of heat supply of communal consumers is based on the air temperature level iside the heated premises. The complex allows solving a number of practical tasks for providing reliability of heat supply for consumers. A probabilistic model is developed for calculating the reliability indexes of combined multipurpose heat and power plants in heat-and-power supply systems. The complex of models and calculation programs can be used to solve a wide range of specific tasks of optimization of schemes and parameters of combined heat and power plants and systems, as well as determining the efficiency of various redundance methods to ensure specified reliability of power supply.

  14. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  15. DJFS: Providing Highly Reliable and High‐Performance File System with Small‐Sized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghoon Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available File systems and applications try to implement their own update protocols to guarantee data consistency, which is one of the most crucial aspects of computing systems. However, we found that the storage devices are substantially under‐utilized when preserving data consistency because they generate massive storage write traffic with many disk cache flush operations and force‐unit‐access (FUA commands. In this paper, we present DJFS (Delta‐Journaling File System that provides both a high level of performance and data consistency for different applications. We made three technical contributions to achieve our goal. First, to remove all storage accesses with disk cache flush operations and FUA commands, DJFS uses small‐sized NVRAM for a file system journal. Second, to reduce the access latency and space requirements of NVRAM, DJFS attempts to journal compress the differences in the modified blocks. Finally, to relieve explicit checkpointing overhead, DJFS aggressively reflects the checkpoint transactions to file system area in the unit of the specified region. Our evaluation on TPC‐C SQLite benchmark shows that, using our novel optimization schemes, DJFS outperforms Ext4 by up to 64.2 times with only 128 MB of NVRAM.

  16. reliability reliability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Corresponding author, Tel: +234-703. RELIABILITY .... V , , given by the code of practice. However, checks must .... an optimization procedure over the failure domain F corresponding .... of Concrete Members based on Utility Theory,. Technical ...

  17. Aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roder, M.

    1985-01-01

    Papers dealing with radiolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons of different composition (from benzene to terphenyls and hydrocarbons with condensed rings) as well as their mixtures (with alkanes, alkenes, other aromatic hydrocarbons) are reviewed. High radiation stability of aromatic hydrocarbons in condensed phases associated with peculiarities of molecular structure of compounds is underlined. Mechanisms of radiolytic processes, vaues of product yields are considered

  18. Providing all global energy with wind, water, and solar power, Part II: Reliability, system and transmission costs, and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delucchi, Mark A.; Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2011-01-01

    This is Part II of two papers evaluating the feasibility of providing all energy for all purposes (electric power, transportation, and heating/cooling), everywhere in the world, from wind, water, and the sun (WWS). In Part I, we described the prominent renewable energy plans that have been proposed and discussed the characteristics of WWS energy systems, the global demand for and availability of WWS energy, quantities and areas required for WWS infrastructure, and supplies of critical materials. Here, we discuss methods of addressing the variability of WWS energy to ensure that power supply reliably matches demand (including interconnecting geographically dispersed resources, using hydroelectricity, using demand-response management, storing electric power on site, over-sizing peak generation capacity and producing hydrogen with the excess, storing electric power in vehicle batteries, and forecasting weather to project energy supplies), the economics of WWS generation and transmission, the economics of WWS use in transportation, and policy measures needed to enhance the viability of a WWS system. We find that the cost of energy in a 100% WWS will be similar to the cost today. We conclude that barriers to a 100% conversion to WWS power worldwide are primarily social and political, not technological or even economic. - Research highlights: → We evaluate the feasibility of global energy supply from wind, water, and solar energy. → WWS energy can be supplied reliably and economically to all energy-use sectors. → The social cost of WWS energy generally is less than the cost of fossil-fuel energy. → Barriers to 100% WWS power worldwide are socio-political, not techno-economic.

  19. Providing Reliability Services through Demand Response: A Prelimnary Evaluation of the Demand Response Capabilities of Alcoa Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Kueck, John D [ORNL; Todd, Duane [Alcoa; Caulfield, Michael [Alcoa; Helms, Brian [Alcoa

    2009-02-01

    Demand response is the largest underutilized reliability resource in North America. Historic demand response programs have focused on reducing overall electricity consumption (increasing efficiency) and shaving peaks but have not typically been used for immediate reliability response. Many of these programs have been successful but demand response remains a limited resource. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) report, 'Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering' (FERC 2006) found that only five percent of customers are on some form of demand response program. Collectively they represent an estimated 37,000 MW of response potential. These programs reduce overall energy consumption, lower green house gas emissions by allowing fossil fuel generators to operate at increased efficiency and reduce stress on the power system during periods of peak loading. As the country continues to restructure energy markets with sophisticated marginal cost models that attempt to minimize total energy costs, the ability of demand response to create meaningful shifts in the supply and demand equations is critical to creating a sustainable and balanced economic response to energy issues. Restructured energy market prices are set by the cost of the next incremental unit of energy, so that as additional generation is brought into the market, the cost for the entire market increases. The benefit of demand response is that it reduces overall demand and shifts the entire market to a lower pricing level. This can be very effective in mitigating price volatility or scarcity pricing as the power system responds to changing demand schedules, loss of large generators, or loss of transmission. As a global producer of alumina, primary aluminum, and fabricated aluminum products, Alcoa Inc., has the capability to provide demand response services through its manufacturing facilities and uniquely through its aluminum smelting facilities. For a typical aluminum smelter

  20. Fundamental spectroscopic studies of carbenes and hydrocarbon radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottlieb, C.A.; Thaddeus, P. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Highly reactive carbenes and carbon-chain radicals are studied at millimeter wavelengths by observing their rotational spectra. The purpose is to provide definitive spectroscopic identification, accurate spectroscopic constants in the lowest vibrational states, and reliable structures of the key intermediates in reactions leading to aromatic hydrocarbons and soot particles in combustion.

  1. Assessment of leg muscles mechanical capacities: Which jump, loading, and variable type provide the most reliable outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Feriche, Belén; Pérez-Castilla, Alejandro; Padial, Paulino; Jaric, Slobodan

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to explore the strength of the force-velocity (F-V) relationship of lower limb muscles and the reliability of its parameters (maximum force [F 0 ], slope [a], maximum velocity [V 0 ], and maximum power [P 0 ]). Twenty-three men were tested in two different jump types (squat and countermovement jump: SJ and CMJ), performed under two different loading conditions (free weight and Smith machine: Free and Smith) with 0, 17, 30, 45, 60, and 75 kg loads. The maximum and averaged values of F and V were obtained for the F-V relationship modelling. All F-V relationships were strong and linear independently whether observed from the averaged across the participants (r ≥ 0.98) or individual data (r = 0.94-0.98), while their parameters were generally highly reliable (F 0 [CV: 4.85%, ICC: 0.87], V 0 [CV: 6.10%, ICC: 0.82], a [CV: 10.5%, ICC: 0.81], and P 0 [CV: 3.5%, ICC: 0.93]). Both the strength of the F-V relationships and the reliability of their parameters were significantly higher for (1) the CMJ over the SJ, (2) the Free over the Smith loading type, and (3) the maximum over the averaged F and V variables. In conclusion, although the F-V relationships obtained from all the jumps tested were linear and generally highly reliable, the less appropriate choice for testing the F-V relationship could be through the averaged F and V data obtained from the SJ performed either in a Free weight or in a Smith machine. Insubstantial differences exist among the other combinations tested.

  2. Petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.; Teal, J.M.; Parker, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine samples are presented. Types of hydrocarbons present and their origins are discussed. Principles and methods of analysis are outlined. Infrared spectrometry, uv spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and carbon 14 measurements are described

  3. Recommendations for Assessment of the Reliability, Sensitivity, and Validity of Data Provided by Wearable Sensors Designed for Monitoring Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düking, Peter; Fuss, Franz Konstantin; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Sperlich, Billy

    2018-04-30

    Although it is becoming increasingly popular to monitor parameters related to training, recovery, and health with wearable sensor technology (wearables), scientific evaluation of the reliability, sensitivity, and validity of such data is limited and, where available, has involved a wide variety of approaches. To improve the trustworthiness of data collected by wearables and facilitate comparisons, we have outlined recommendations for standardized evaluation. We discuss the wearable devices themselves, as well as experimental and statistical considerations. Adherence to these recommendations should be beneficial not only for the individual, but also for regulatory organizations and insurance companies. ©Peter Düking, Franz Konstantin Fuss, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Billy Sperlich. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 30.04.2018.

  4. The Healthcare Improvement Scotland evidence note rapid review process: providing timely, reliable evidence to inform imperative decisions on healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Heather M; Calvert, Julie; Macpherson, Karen J; Thompson, Lorna

    2016-06-01

    Rapid review has become widely adopted by health technology assessment agencies in response to demand for evidence-based information to support imperative decisions. Concern about the credibility of rapid reviews and the reliability of their findings has prompted a call for wider publication of their methods. In publishing this overview of the accredited rapid review process developed by Healthcare Improvement Scotland, we aim to raise awareness of our methods and advance the discourse on best practice. Healthcare Improvement Scotland produces rapid reviews called evidence notes using a process that has achieved external accreditation through the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Key components include a structured approach to topic selection, initial scoping, considered stakeholder involvement, streamlined systematic review, internal quality assurance, external peer review and updating. The process was introduced in 2010 and continues to be refined over time in response to user feedback and operational experience. Decision-makers value the responsiveness of the process and perceive it as being a credible source of unbiased evidence-based information supporting advice for NHSScotland. Many agencies undertaking rapid reviews are striving to balance efficiency with methodological rigour. We agree that there is a need for methodological guidance and that it should be informed by better understanding of current approaches and the consequences of different approaches to streamlining systematic review methods. Greater transparency in the reporting of rapid review methods is essential to enable that to happen.

  5. Herbarium records are reliable sources of phenological change driven by climate and provide novel insights into species' phenological cueing mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Charles C; Willis, Charles G; Connolly, Bryan; Kelly, Courtland; Ellison, Aaron M

    2015-10-01

    Climate change has resulted in major changes in the phenology of some species but not others. Long-term field observational records provide the best assessment of these changes, but geographic and taxonomic biases limit their utility. Plant specimens in herbaria have been hypothesized to provide a wealth of additional data for studying phenological responses to climatic change. However, no study to our knowledge has comprehensively addressed whether herbarium data are accurate measures of phenological response and thus applicable to addressing such questions. We compared flowering phenology determined from field observations (years 1852-1858, 1875, 1878-1908, 2003-2006, 2011-2013) and herbarium records (1852-2013) of 20 species from New England, United States. Earliest flowering date estimated from herbarium records faithfully reflected field observations of first flowering date and substantially increased the sampling range across climatic conditions. Additionally, although most species demonstrated a response to interannual temperature variation, long-term temporal changes in phenological response were not detectable. Our findings support the use of herbarium records for understanding plant phenological responses to changes in temperature, and also importantly establish a new use of herbarium collections: inferring primary phenological cueing mechanisms of individual species (e.g., temperature, winter chilling, photoperiod). These latter data are lacking from most investigations of phenological change, but are vital for understanding differential responses of individual species to ongoing climate change. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  6. Protein Based Molecular Markers Provide Reliable Means to Understand Prokaryotic Phylogeny and Support Darwinian Mode of Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav eBhandari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The analyses of genome sequences have led to the proposal that lateral gene transfers (LGTs among prokaryotes are so widespread that they disguise the interrelationships among these organisms. This has led to questioning whether the Darwinian model of evolution is applicable to the prokaryotic organisms. In this review, we discuss the usefulness of taxon-specific molecular markers such as conserved signature indels (CSIs and conserved signature proteins (CSPs for understanding the evolutionary relationships among prokaryotes and to assess the influence of LGTs on prokaryotic evolution. The analyses of genomic sequences have identified large numbers of CSIs and CSPs that are unique properties of different groups of prokaryotes ranging from phylum to genus levels. The species distribution patterns of these molecular signatures strongly support a tree-like vertical inheritance of the genes containing these molecular signatures that is consistent with phylogenetic trees. Recent detailed studies in this regard on Thermotogae and Archaea, which are reviewed here, have identified large numbers of CSIs and CSPs that are specific for the species from these two taxa and a number of their major clades. The genetic changes responsible for these CSIs (and CSPs initially likely occurred in the common ancestors of these taxa and then vertically transferred to various descendants. Although some CSIs and CSPs in unrelated groups of prokaryotes were identified, their small numbers and random occurrence has no apparent influence on the consistent tree-like branching pattern emerging from other markers. These results provide evidence that although LGT is an important evolutionary force, it does not mask the tree-like branching pattern of prokaryotes or understanding of their evolutionary relationships. The identified CSIs and CSPs also provide novel and highly specific means for identification of different groups of microbes and for taxonomical and biochemical

  7. Protein based molecular markers provide reliable means to understand prokaryotic phylogeny and support Darwinian mode of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Vaibhav; Naushad, Hafiz S; Gupta, Radhey S

    2012-01-01

    The analyses of genome sequences have led to the proposal that lateral gene transfers (LGTs) among prokaryotes are so widespread that they disguise the interrelationships among these organisms. This has led to questioning of whether the Darwinian model of evolution is applicable to prokaryotic organisms. In this review, we discuss the usefulness of taxon-specific molecular markers such as conserved signature indels (CSIs) and conserved signature proteins (CSPs) for understanding the evolutionary relationships among prokaryotes and to assess the influence of LGTs on prokaryotic evolution. The analyses of genomic sequences have identified large numbers of CSIs and CSPs that are unique properties of different groups of prokaryotes ranging from phylum to genus levels. The species distribution patterns of these molecular signatures strongly support a tree-like vertical inheritance of the genes containing these molecular signatures that is consistent with phylogenetic trees. Recent detailed studies in this regard on the Thermotogae and Archaea, which are reviewed here, have identified large numbers of CSIs and CSPs that are specific for the species from these two taxa and a number of their major clades. The genetic changes responsible for these CSIs (and CSPs) initially likely occurred in the common ancestors of these taxa and then vertically transferred to various descendants. Although some CSIs and CSPs in unrelated groups of prokaryotes were identified, their small numbers and random occurrence has no apparent influence on the consistent tree-like branching pattern emerging from other markers. These results provide evidence that although LGT is an important evolutionary force, it does not mask the tree-like branching pattern of prokaryotes or understanding of their evolutionary relationships. The identified CSIs and CSPs also provide novel and highly specific means for identification of different groups of microbes and for taxonomical and biochemical studies.

  8. Intraclass reliability for assessing how well Taiwan constrained hospital-provided medical services using statistical process control chart techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Tsair-Wei; Chou, Ming-Ting; Wang, Wen-Chung; Tsai, Li-Shu; Lin, Weir-Sen

    2012-05-15

    Few studies discuss the indicators used to assess the effect on cost containment in healthcare across hospitals in a single-payer national healthcare system with constrained medical resources. We present the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) to assess how well Taiwan constrained hospital-provided medical services in such a system. A custom Excel-VBA routine to record the distances of standard deviations (SDs) from the central line (the mean over the previous 12 months) of a control chart was used to construct and scale annual medical expenditures sequentially from 2000 to 2009 for 421 hospitals in Taiwan to generate the ICC. The ICC was then used to evaluate Taiwan's year-based convergent power to remain unchanged in hospital-provided constrained medical services. A bubble chart of SDs for a specific month was generated to present the effects of using control charts in a national healthcare system. ICCs were generated for Taiwan's year-based convergent power to constrain its medical services from 2000 to 2009. All hospital groups showed a gradually well-controlled supply of services that decreased from 0.772 to 0.415. The bubble chart identified outlier hospitals that required investigation of possible excessive reimbursements in a specific time period. We recommend using the ICC to annually assess a nation's year-based convergent power to constrain medical services across hospitals. Using sequential control charts to regularly monitor hospital reimbursements is required to achieve financial control in a single-payer nationwide healthcare system.

  9. Thiamine primed defense provides reliable alternative to systemic fungicide carbendazim against sheath blight disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahuguna, Rajeev Nayan; Joshi, Rohit; Shukla, Alok; Pandey, Mayank; Kumar, J

    2012-08-01

    A novel pathogen defense strategy by thiamine priming was evaluated for its efficacy against sheath blight pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani AG-1A, of rice and compared with that of systemic fungicide, carbendazim (BCM). Seeds of semidwarf, high yielding, basmati rice variety Vasumati were treated with thiamine (50 mM) and BCM (4 mM). The pot cultured plants were challenge inoculated with R. solani after 40 days of sowing and effect of thiamine and BCM on rice growth and yield traits was examined. Higher hydrogen peroxide content, total phenolics accumulation, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity under thiamine treatment displayed elevated level of systemic resistance, which was further augmented under challenging pathogen infection. High transcript level of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) validated mode of thiamine primed defense. Though minimum disease severity was observed under BCM treatment, thiamine produced comparable results, with 18.12 per cent lower efficacy. Along with fortifying defense components and minor influence on photosynthetic pigments and nitrate reductase (NR) activity, thiamine treatment significantly reduced pathogen-induced loss in photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll fluorescence, NR activity and NR transcript level. Physiological traits affected under pathogen infection were found signatory for characterizing plant's response under disease and were detectable at early stage of infection. These findings provide a novel paradigm for developing alternative, environmentally safe strategies to control plant diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the Apollo program ended, the development of launch propulsion systems in the US has fallen drastically, with only two new booster engine developments, the SSME and the RS-68, occurring in the past few decades.1 In recent years, however, there has been an increased interest in pursuing more effective launch propulsion technologies in the U.S., exemplified by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist s inclusion of Launch Propulsion Systems as the first technological area in the Space Technology Roadmaps2. One area of particular interest to both government agencies and commercial entities has been the development of hydrocarbon engines; NASA and the Air Force Research Lab3 have expressed interest in the use of hydrocarbon fuels for their respective SLS Booster and Reusable Booster System concepts, and two major commercially-developed launch vehicles SpaceX s Falcon 9 and Orbital Sciences Antares feature engines that use RP-1 kerosene fuel. Compared to engines powered by liquid hydrogen, hydrocarbon-fueled engines have a greater propellant density (usually resulting in a lighter overall engine), produce greater propulsive force, possess easier fuel handling and loading, and for reusable vehicle concepts can provide a shorter turnaround time between launches. These benefits suggest that a hydrocarbon-fueled launch vehicle would allow for a cheap and frequent means of access to space.1 However, the time and money required for the development of a new engine still presents a major challenge. Long and costly design, development, testing and evaluation (DDT&E) programs underscore the importance of identifying critical technologies and prioritizing investment efforts. Trade studies must be performed on engine concepts examining the affordability, operability, and reliability of each concept, and quantifying the impacts of proposed technologies. These studies can be performed through use of the Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method. The Technology Impact

  11. Digital photography provides a fast, reliable, and noninvasive method to estimate anthocyanin pigment concentration in reproductive and vegetative plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle, José C; Gallardo-López, Antonio; Buide, Mª Luisa; Whittall, Justen B; Narbona, Eduardo

    2018-03-01

    Anthocyanin pigments have become a model trait for evolutionary ecology as they often provide adaptive benefits for plants. Anthocyanins have been traditionally quantified biochemically or more recently using spectral reflectance. However, both methods require destructive sampling and can be labor intensive and challenging with small samples. Recent advances in digital photography and image processing make it the method of choice for measuring color in the wild. Here, we use digital images as a quick, noninvasive method to estimate relative anthocyanin concentrations in species exhibiting color variation. Using a consumer-level digital camera and a free image processing toolbox, we extracted RGB values from digital images to generate color indices. We tested petals, stems, pedicels, and calyces of six species, which contain different types of anthocyanin pigments and exhibit different pigmentation patterns. Color indices were assessed by their correlation to biochemically determined anthocyanin concentrations. For comparison, we also calculated color indices from spectral reflectance and tested the correlation with anthocyanin concentration. Indices perform differently depending on the nature of the color variation. For both digital images and spectral reflectance, the most accurate estimates of anthocyanin concentration emerge from anthocyanin content-chroma ratio, anthocyanin content-chroma basic, and strength of green indices. Color indices derived from both digital images and spectral reflectance strongly correlate with biochemically determined anthocyanin concentration; however, the estimates from digital images performed better than spectral reflectance in terms of r 2 and normalized root-mean-square error. This was particularly noticeable in a species with striped petals, but in the case of striped calyces, both methods showed a comparable relationship with anthocyanin concentration. Using digital images brings new opportunities to accurately quantify the

  12. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demoulins, H D; Garner, F H

    1923-02-07

    Hydrocarbon distillates, including natural gases and vapors produced by cracking hydrocarbon oils, are desulfurized etc. by treating the vapor with an aqueous alkaline solution of an oxidizing agent. The hydrocarbons may be previously purified by sulfuric acid. In examples aqueous solutions of sodium or calcium hydrochlorite containing 1.5 to 5.0 grams per liter of available chlorine and sufficient alkali to give an excess of 0.1 percent in the spent reagent are preheated to the temperature of the vapor, and either sprayed or atomized into the vapors near the outlet of the dephlegmator or fractionating tower, or passed in countercurrent to the vapors through one or a series of scrubbers.

  13. Purifying hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstan, A E

    1918-06-03

    Ligroin, kerosene, and other distillates from petroleum and shale oil, are purified by treatment with a solution of a hypochlorite containing an excess of alkali. The hydrocarbon may be poured into brine, the mixture stirred, and an electric current passed through. Heat may be applied.

  14. A case study review of technical and technology issues for transition of a utility load management program to provide system reliability resources in restructured electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.H.

    2001-07-15

    Utility load management programs--including direct load control and interruptible load programs--were employed by utilities in the past as system reliability resources. With electricity industry restructuring, the context for these programs has changed; the market that was once controlled by vertically integrated utilities has become competitive, raising the question: can existing load management programs be modified so that they can effectively participate in competitive energy markets? In the short run, modified and/or improved operation of load management programs may be the most effective form of demand-side response available to the electricity system today. However, in light of recent technological advances in metering, communication, and load control, utility load management programs must be carefully reviewed in order to determine appropriate investments to support this transition. This report investigates the feasibility of and options for modifying an existing utility load management system so that it might provide reliability services (i.e. ancillary services) in the competitive markets that have resulted from electricity industry restructuring. The report is a case study of Southern California Edison's (SCE) load management programs. SCE was chosen because it operates one of the largest load management programs in the country and it operates them within a competitive wholesale electricity market. The report describes a wide range of existing and soon-to-be-available communication, control, and metering technologies that could be used to facilitate the evolution of SCE's load management programs and systems to provision of reliability services. The fundamental finding of this report is that, with modifications, SCE's load management infrastructure could be transitioned to provide critical ancillary services in competitive electricity markets, employing currently or soon-to-be available load control technologies.

  15. Can simple mobile phone applications provide reliable counts of respiratory rates in sick infants and children? An initial evaluation of three new applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, James; Gerdtz, Marie; Nicholson, Pat; Crellin, Dianne; Browning, Laura; Simpson, Julie; Bell, Lauren; Santamaria, Nick

    2015-05-01

    applications found. This study provides evidence that applications running on simple phones can be used to count respiratory rates in children. The Once-per-Breath methods are the most reliable, outperforming the 60-second count. For children with raised respiratory rates the 20-breath version of the Once-per-Breath method is faster, so it is a more suitable option where health workers are under time pressure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

    1988-09-13

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 5 figs.

  17. The role of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) in providing standards to support reliability technology for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    ASTM is an international society for managing the development of standards on characteristics and performance of materials, products, systems and services and the promotion of related knowledge. This paper provides on overview of ASTM, emphasizing its contribution to nuclear systems reliability. In so doing, the author, from his perspective as chairman of ASTM committee E 10 on ''Nuclear Applications and the Measurement of Radiation Effects and the Committee on Standards'', illustrates ASTM contributions to the understanding and control of radiation embrittlement of light-water reactor pressure vessels. Four major related taks are summarized and pertinent standards identified. These include: (1) surveillance practice (5 standards), (2) neutron dosimetry (8 standards), (3) specification for steels for nuclear service (7 standards) and (4) basic guidelines for thermal annealing to correct radiation embrittlement (1 standard). This illustration, a specific accomplishment using ASTM standards, is cited within the context of the broader nuclear-related activities of ASTM. (author)

  18. Cracking hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forwood, G F; Lane, M; Taplay, J G

    1921-10-07

    In cracking and hydrogenating hydrocarbon oils by passing their vapors together with steam over heated carbon derived from shale, wood, peat or other vegetable or animal matter, the gases from the condenser are freed from sulfuretted hydrogen, and preferably also from carbon dioxide, and passed together with oil vapors and steam through the retort. Carbon dioxide may be removed by passage through slaked lime, and sulfuretted hydrogen by means of hydrated oxide of iron. Vapors from high-boiling oils and those from low-boiling oils are passed alternately through the retort, so that carbon deposited from the high-boiling oils is used up during treatment of low-boiling oils.

  19. Distilling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataafsche, N V; de Brey, J H.C.

    1918-10-30

    Hydrocarbons containing a very volatile constituent and less volatile constituents, such as casing-head gases, still gases from the distillation of crude petroleum and bituminous shale are separated into their constituents by rectification under pressure; a pressure of 20 atmospheres and limiting temperatures of 150/sup 0/C and 40/sup 0/C are mentioned as suitable. The mixture may be subjected to a preliminary treatment consisting in heating to a temperature below the maximum rectification temperature at a pressure greater than that proposed to be used in the rectification.

  20. Performance of a Throttle Cycle Refrigerator with Nitrogen-Hydrocarbon and Argon-Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatarathnam, G.; Senthil Kumar, P.; Srinivasa Murthy, S.

    2004-06-01

    Throttle cycle refrigerators are a class of vapor compression refrigerators that can provide refrigeration at cryogenic temperatures and operate with refrigerant mixtures. The performance of our prototype refrigerators with nitrogen-hydrocarbon, nitrogen-hydrocarbon-helium and argon-hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures is presented in this paper.

  1. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  2. Hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerche, I. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    This special issue of the journal examines various aspects of the on-going search for hydrocarbons, ranging from frontier basins where little data are available, to more mature areas where considerable data are available. The incentives underlying the search for oil are roughly: the social, economic and industrial needs of a nation; the incentive of a corporation to be profitable; and the personal incentives of individuals in the oil industry and governments, which range from financial wealth to power and which are as diverse as the individuals who are involved. From a geopolitical perspective, the needs, requirements, goals, strategies, and philosophies of nations, and groups of nations, also impact on the oil exploration game. Strategies that have been employed have ranged from boycott to austerity and rationing, to physical intervention, to global ''flooding'' with oil by over-production. (author)

  3. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausz, J

    1924-07-16

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, shale oils, lignite or coal tar oils are purified by distilling them and collecting the distillate in fractions within narrow limits so that all the impurities are contained in one or more of the narrow fractions. In distilling ligroin obtained by destructive distillation of brown coal, it is found that the coloring and resin-forming constituents are contained in the fractions distilling over at 62 to 86/sup 0/C and 108/sup 0/C. The ligroin is purified, therefore, by distillating in an apparatus provided with an efficient dephlegmotor and removing these two fractions. The distillation may be carried out wholly or in part under reduced pressure, and fractions separated under ordinary pressure may be subsequently distilled under reduced pressure. The hydrocarbons may be first separated into fractions over wider limits and the separate fractions be subjected to a further fractional distillation.

  4. Reliability engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chi Woo; Kim, Sun Jin; Lee, Seung Woo; Jeong, Sang Yeong

    1993-08-01

    This book start what is reliability? such as origin of reliability problems, definition of reliability and reliability and use of reliability. It also deals with probability and calculation of reliability, reliability function and failure rate, probability distribution of reliability, assumption of MTBF, process of probability distribution, down time, maintainability and availability, break down maintenance and preventive maintenance design of reliability, design of reliability for prediction and statistics, reliability test, reliability data and design and management of reliability.

  5. Natural hydrocarbon seeps observation with underwater gliders and UV fluorescence sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochet, V.

    2016-02-01

    Hydrocarbons may leak to the near-surface from subsurface accumulations, from mature source rock, or by buoyancy along major cross-strata routes. The presence of migrating near-surface hydrocarbons can provide strong evidence for the presence of a working petroleum system, as well as valuable information on source, maturity, and migration pathways. Detection and characterization of hydrocarbons in the water column may then help to de-risk hydrocarbon plays at a very preliminary stage of an exploration program. In order to detect hydrocarbons in the water column, an underwater glider survey was conducted in an offshore frontier area. Driven by buoyancy variation, underwater gliders enable collecting data autonomously along the water column for weeks to months. Underwater gliders are regularly piloted from shore by satellite telemetry and do not require a surface supervising vessel resulting in substantial operational costs savings. The data compiled, over 700m depth of the water column, included temperature, salinity, pressure, dissolved oxygen and hydrocarbon components (phenanthrene and naphthalene) measured by "MINIFLUO" sensors to particularly target representative crude oil compounds Two gliders were deployed at sea, one from coast in shallow water and the other one offshore on the survey area. Both accurately squared the survey area following pre-defined lines and cross lines. Data files were transmitted by satellite telemetry in near real time during the performance of the mission for real time observations and appropriate re-positioning of the gliders. Using rechargeable underwater gliders increased reliability reducing the risk of leakage and associated logistics during operation at sea. Despite strong evidences of seabed seepages such as pockmarks, faults, etc, over the area of interest, no hydrocarbon indices were detected in the water column, which was confirmed later by seabed sample analysis. The use of glider platforms for hydrocarbon detection has

  6. Predicting hydrocarbon release from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppendieck, D.; Loehr, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The remediation of hazardous chemicals from soils can be a lengthy and costly process. As a result, recent regulatory initiatives have focused on risk-based corrective action (RBCA) approaches. Such approaches attempt to identify the amount of chemical that can be left at a site with contaminated soil and still be protective of human health and the environment. For hydrocarbons in soils to pose risk to human heath and the environment, the hydrocarbons must be released from the soil and accessible to microorganisms, earthworms, or other higher level organisms. The sorption of hydrocarbons to soil can reduce the availability of the hydrocarbon to receptors. Typically in soils and sediments, there is an initial fast release of a hydrocarbon from the soil to the aqueous phase followed by a slower release of the remaining hydrocarbon to the aqueous phase. The rate and extent of slow release can influence aqueous hydrocarbon concentrations and the fate and transport of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. Once the fast fraction of the chemical has been removed from the soil, the remaining fraction of a chemical may desorb at a rate that natural mechanisms can attenuate the released hydrocarbon. Hence, active remediation may be needed only until the fast fraction has been removed. However, the fast fraction is a soil and chemical specific parameter. This presentation will present a tier I type protocol that has been developed to quickly estimate the fraction of hydrocarbons that are readily released from the soil matrix to the aqueous phase. Previous research in our laboratory and elsewhere has used long-term desorption (four months) studies to determine the readily released fraction. This research shows that a single short-term (less than two weeks) batch extraction procedure provides a good estimate of the fast released fraction derived from long-term experiments. This procedure can be used as a tool to rapidly evaluate the release and bioavailability of

  7. Energy supplies in the Federal Republic of Germany. The reliability of supplies and strategies to provide for it. Die Energieversorgung der Bundesrepublik. Sicherungsbedarf und Sicherungsstrategien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthies, K

    1985-06-01

    The IEA crisis management has so far not been required to demonstrate its full capacity and power. In spite of a number of crises in the Middle East oil has always been sufficiently available in the Western world. Even with the Gulf at war there have been abundant oil supplies and once again slackening petroleum prices on the world market for several years. This very situation did not fail to affect the different opinions on the reliability of supplies. While the Western German petroleum industry is being suffocated by accumulating idle refinery stocks and therefore protests against excessive provision making with the help of restrictive policies, the mining industry still meets with political support for a policy of stockpiling for the sake of reliable energy supplies. In view of the inflationary use of the reliability and safety concepts in political discussion the publication abstracted is trying to throw light on the meaning per se, the development of the supply situation in the Federal Republic of Germany since 1973 and on the applicability and costs of possible precautionary strategies taking effect in the case of suspended energy imports.

  8. Recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1931-06-11

    A process for recovering valuable liquid hydrocarbons from coking coal, mineral coal, or oil shale through treatment with hydrogen under pressure at elevated temperature is described. Catalysts and grinding oil may be used in the process if necessary. The process provides for deashing the coal prior to hydrogenation and for preventing the coking and swelling of the deashed material. During the treatment with hydrogen, the coal is either mixed with coal low in bituminous material, such as lean coal or active coal, as a diluent or the bituminous constituents which cause the coking and swelling are removed by extraction with solvents. (BLM)

  9. Converting high boiling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrisse, H; DuFour, L

    1929-02-12

    A process is given for converting high boiling hydrocarbons into low boiling hydrocarbons, characterized in that the high boiling hydrocarbons are heated to 200 to 500/sup 0/C in the presence of ferrous chloride and of such gases as hydrogen, water gas, and the like gases under a pressure of from 5 to 40 kilograms per square centimeter. The desulfurization of the hydrocarbons occurs simultaneously.

  10. Hydrocarbons cocktails of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This publication of the Areva Group, a world nuclear industry leader, provides information on the energy in many domains. This issue deals with the CO 2 pollution exchange, the carbon sinks to compensate the CO 2 , the green coal as an innovative solution, an outsize dam in China, the solar energy progresses in France and the french medicine academy in favor of Nuclear. A special chapter is devoted to the hydrocarbons of the future, artificial chemical combination created from constituents of hydrocarbons and derived from various sources. (A.L.B.)

  11. Fiber optic distributed chemical sensor for the real time detection of hydrocarbon fuel leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Edgar; Kempen, C.; Esterkin, Yan; Sun, Sunjian

    2015-09-01

    With the increase worldwide demand for hydrocarbon fuels and the vast development of new fuel production and delivery infrastructure installations around the world, there is a growing need for reliable hydrocarbon fuel leak detection technologies to provide safety and reduce environmental risks. Hydrocarbon leaks (gas or liquid) pose an extreme danger and need to be detected very quickly to avoid potential disasters. Gas leaks have the greatest potential for causing damage due to the explosion risk from the dispersion of gas clouds. This paper describes progress towards the development of a fast response, high sensitivity, distributed fiber optic fuel leak detection (HySense™) system based on the use of an optical fiber that uses a hydrocarbon sensitive fluorescent coating to detect the presence of fuel leaks present in close proximity along the length of the sensor fiber. The HySense™ system operates in two modes, leak detection and leak localization, and will trigger an alarm within seconds of exposure contact. The fast and accurate response of the sensor provides reliable fluid leak detection for pipelines, storage tanks, airports, pumps, and valves to detect and minimize any potential catastrophic damage.

  12. Reliability Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yong

    1992-07-01

    This book is about reliability engineering, which describes definition and importance of reliability, development of reliability engineering, failure rate and failure probability density function about types of it, CFR and index distribution, IFR and normal distribution and Weibull distribution, maintainability and movability, reliability test and reliability assumption in index distribution type, normal distribution type and Weibull distribution type, reliability sampling test, reliability of system, design of reliability and functionality failure analysis by FTA.

  13. Hydrocarbons: source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imarisio, G.; Frias, M.; Bemtgen, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are at present the single most important source of energy, since they are the most versatile and widely used. It is expected that their importance will extend well into the next century and therefore it is essential to provide for all those improvements which will extend their availability and usefulness. The sub-programme ''Optimization of the production and utilization of hydrocarbons'' (within the Non-Nuclear Energy R and D Programme of the European Communities) is pursuing a number of R and D topics aimed at the above-mentioned results. It is implemented by means of shared-cost R and D contracts. At this first Seminar held in Lyon (France) from 21-23 September, 1988, all contractors of the sub-programme presented the state of progress of their R and D projects. These proceedings comprise all the papers presented at the Seminar. The section on oilfield exploration includes a report of work on the interpretation of nuclear logs by means of mathematical models. (author)

  14. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    isolated fungi could be useful in the bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites. Keywords: ... Technologies such as mechanical force, burying, evaporation, dispersant application, and ..... The effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a.

  15. Hydrocarbons and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows the influence of hydrocarbons vapors, emitted by transports or by volatile solvents using, on air pollution. Hydrocarbons are the principal precursors of photochemical pollution. After a brief introduction on atmospheric chemistry and photochemical reactions, the author describes the french prevention program against hydrocarbons emissions. In the last chapter, informations on international or european community programs for photochemical pollution study are given. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  16. Production of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T; Day, R E

    1920-04-27

    A process is disclosed of converting hydro-carbon oils having high boiling points to hydro-carbon oils having low boiling points, which process comprises adding the oil to be treated to a mass of hydro-carbon oil bearing shale, passing the shale with the oil through a conveyor retort and subjecting the material while in the retort to a heat treatment involving a temperature of at least 500/sup 0/F.

  17. The Accelerator Reliability Forum

    CERN Document Server

    Lüdeke, Andreas; Giachino, R

    2014-01-01

    A high reliability is a very important goal for most particle accelerators. The biennial Accelerator Reliability Workshop covers topics related to the design and operation of particle accelerators with a high reliability. In order to optimize the over-all reliability of an accelerator one needs to gather information on the reliability of many different subsystems. While a biennial workshop can serve as a platform for the exchange of such information, the authors aimed to provide a further channel to allow for a more timely communication: the Particle Accelerator Reliability Forum [1]. This contribution will describe the forum and advertise it’s usage in the community.

  18. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunshan [State College, PA; Ma, Xiaoliang [State College, PA; Sprague, Michael J [Calgary, CA; Subramani, Velu [State College, PA

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  19. Suncor maintenance and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, S. [Suncor Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Fleet maintenance and reliability at Suncor Energy was discussed in this presentation, with reference to Suncor Energy's primary and support equipment fleets. This paper also discussed Suncor Energy's maintenance and reliability standard involving people, processes and technology. An organizational maturity chart that graphed organizational learning against organizational performance was illustrated. The presentation also reviewed the maintenance and reliability framework; maintenance reliability model; the process overview of the maintenance and reliability standard; a process flow chart of maintenance strategies and programs; and an asset reliability improvement process flow chart. An example of an improvement initiative was included, with reference to a shovel reliability review; a dipper trip reliability investigation; bucket related failures by type and frequency; root cause analysis of the reliability process; and additional actions taken. Last, the presentation provided a graph of the results of the improvement initiative and presented the key lessons learned. tabs., figs.

  20. Methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C [Idaho Falls, ID; Nelson, Lee O [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-02-24

    A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

  1. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    isolation tubes with crude oil. Three isolates tested showed positive hydrophobicity of cell walls as judged by the Microbial Adhesion to Hydrocarbons (MATH) assay. Addition of Bombay High crude oil to nutrient broth slightly enhanced growth of the protists...

  2. Purifying hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostin, H

    1938-08-11

    A process is described for continuously purifying hydrocarbon oils consisting in conducting the vapors of the same at a temperature of 300 to 400/sup 0/C over the oelitic ore minette together with reducing gases in presence of steam the proportion of the reducing gases and steam being such that the sulfur of the hydrocarbons escapes from the reaction chamber in the form of sulfuretted hydrogen without permanent sulfide of iron being formed.

  3. Process for refining hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risenfeld, E H

    1924-11-26

    A process is disclosed for the refining of hydrocarbons or other mixtures through treatment in vapor form with metal catalysts, characterized by such metals being used as catalysts, which are obtained by reduction of the oxide of minerals containing the iron group, and by the vapors of the hydrocarbons, in the presence of the water vapor, being led over these catalysts at temperatures from 200 to 300/sup 0/C.

  4. Power electronics reliability analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

    2009-12-01

    This report provides the DOE and industry with a general process for analyzing power electronics reliability. The analysis can help with understanding the main causes of failures, downtime, and cost and how to reduce them. One approach is to collect field maintenance data and use it directly to calculate reliability metrics related to each cause. Another approach is to model the functional structure of the equipment using a fault tree to derive system reliability from component reliability. Analysis of a fictitious device demonstrates the latter process. Optimization can use the resulting baseline model to decide how to improve reliability and/or lower costs. It is recommended that both electric utilities and equipment manufacturers make provisions to collect and share data in order to lay the groundwork for improving reliability into the future. Reliability analysis helps guide reliability improvements in hardware and software technology including condition monitoring and prognostics and health management.

  5. Development of a new method for hydrogen isotope analysis of trace hydrocarbons in natural gas samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibin Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A new method had been developed for the analysis of hydrogen isotopic composition of trace hydrocarbons in natural gas samples by using solid phase microextraction (SPME combined with gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS. In this study, the SPME technique had been initially introduced to achieve the enrichment of trace content of hydrocarbons with low abundance and coupled to GC/IRMS for hydrogen isotopic analysis. The main parameters, including the equilibration time, extraction temperature, and the fiber type, were systematically optimized. The results not only demonstrated that high extraction yield was true but also shows that the hydrogen isotopic fractionation was not observed during the extraction process, when the SPME device fitted with polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene/carbon molecular sieve (PDMS/DVB/CAR fiber. The applications of SPME-GC/IRMS method were evaluated by using natural gas samples collected from different sedimentary basins; the standard deviation (SD was better than 4‰ for reproducible measurements; and also, the hydrogen isotope values from C1 to C9 can be obtained with satisfying repeatability. The SPME-GC/IRMS method fitted with PDMS/DVB/CAR fiber is well suited for the preconcentration of trace hydrocarbons, and provides a reliable hydrogen isotopic analysis for trace hydrocarbons in natural gas samples.

  6. Electrostatically atomised hydrocarbon sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, A.J.; Shrimpton, J.S.; Watkins, A.P.; Balachandran, W.; Hu, D. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Thermofluids Division, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-07-01

    A burner using an electrostatic method to produce and control a fuel spray is investigated for non-burning sprays. The burner has a charge injection nozzle and the liquid flow rate and charge injection rate are varied using hydrocarbon liquids of differing viscosities, surface tensions and electrical conductivities (kerosene, white spirit and diesel oil). Droplet size distributions are measured and it is shown how the dropsize, spray pattern, breakup mechanism and breakup length depend on the above variables, and in particular on the specific charge achieved in the spray. The data are valuable for validating two computer models under development. One predicts the electric field and flow field inside the nozzle as a function of emitter potential, geometry and flow rate. The other predicts the effect of charge on spray dispersion, with a view to optimizing spray combustion. It is shown that electrostatic disruptive forces can be used to atomize oils at flow rates commensurate with practical combustion systems and that the charge injection technique is particularly suitable for highly resistive liquids. Possible limitations requiring further research include the need to control the wide spray angle, which may provide fuel-air mixtures too lean near the nozzle, and the need to design for maximum charge injection rate, which is thought to be limited by corona breakdown in the gas near the nozzle orifice. 30 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Application of a continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Karray, Fatma; Mhiri, Najla; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2011-01-01

    A continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) was used to optimize feasible and reliable bioprocess system in order to treat hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewaters. A successful bioremediation was developed by an efficient acclimatized microbial consortium. After an experimental period of 225 days, the process was shown to be highly efficient in decontaminating the wastewater. The performance of the bioaugmented reactor was demonstrated by the reduction of COD rates up to 95%. The residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) decreased from 320 mg TPH l -1 to 8 mg TPH l -1 . Analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified 26 hydrocarbons. The use of the mixed cultures demonstrated high degradation performance for hydrocarbons range n-alkanes (C10-C35). Six microbial isolates from the CSTR were characterized and species identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that 5 strains were closely related to Aeromonas punctata (Aeromonas caviae), Bacillus cereus, Ochrobactrum intermedium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Rhodococcus sp. The 6th isolate was affiliated to genera Achromobacter. Besides, the treated wastewater could be considered as non toxic according to the phytotoxicity test since the germination index of Lepidium sativum ranged between 57 and 95%. The treatment provided satisfactory results and presents a feasible technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater from petrochemical industries and petroleum refineries.

  8. Application of a continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Karray, Fatma; Mhiri, Najla; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2011-05-15

    A continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) was used to optimize feasible and reliable bioprocess system in order to treat hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewaters. A successful bioremediation was developed by an efficient acclimatized microbial consortium. After an experimental period of 225 days, the process was shown to be highly efficient in decontaminating the wastewater. The performance of the bioaugmented reactor was demonstrated by the reduction of COD rates up to 95%. The residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) decreased from 320 mg TPH l(-1) to 8 mg TPH l(-1). Analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified 26 hydrocarbons. The use of the mixed cultures demonstrated high degradation performance for hydrocarbons range n-alkanes (C10-C35). Six microbial isolates from the CSTR were characterized and species identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that 5 strains were closely related to Aeromonas punctata (Aeromonas caviae), Bacillus cereus, Ochrobactrum intermedium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Rhodococcus sp. The 6th isolate was affiliated to genera Achromobacter. Besides, the treated wastewater could be considered as non toxic according to the phytotoxicity test since the germination index of Lepidium sativum ranged between 57 and 95%. The treatment provided satisfactory results and presents a feasible technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater from petrochemical industries and petroleum refineries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of a continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Karray, Fatma; Mhiri, Najla; Aloui, Fathi [Laboratoire des Bioprocedes Environnementaux, Pole d' Excellence Regional AUF-LBPE, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, Universite de Sfax, BP 1117, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Sayadi, Sami, E-mail: sami.sayadi@cbs.rnrt.tn [Laboratoire des Bioprocedes Environnementaux, Pole d' Excellence Regional AUF-LBPE, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, Universite de Sfax, BP 1117, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2011-05-15

    A continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) was used to optimize feasible and reliable bioprocess system in order to treat hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewaters. A successful bioremediation was developed by an efficient acclimatized microbial consortium. After an experimental period of 225 days, the process was shown to be highly efficient in decontaminating the wastewater. The performance of the bioaugmented reactor was demonstrated by the reduction of COD rates up to 95%. The residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) decreased from 320 mg TPH l{sup -1} to 8 mg TPH l{sup -1}. Analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified 26 hydrocarbons. The use of the mixed cultures demonstrated high degradation performance for hydrocarbons range n-alkanes (C10-C35). Six microbial isolates from the CSTR were characterized and species identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that 5 strains were closely related to Aeromonas punctata (Aeromonas caviae), Bacillus cereus, Ochrobactrum intermedium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Rhodococcus sp. The 6th isolate was affiliated to genera Achromobacter. Besides, the treated wastewater could be considered as non toxic according to the phytotoxicity test since the germination index of Lepidium sativum ranged between 57 and 95%. The treatment provided satisfactory results and presents a feasible technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater from petrochemical industries and petroleum refineries.

  10. Software reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bendell, A

    1986-01-01

    Software Reliability reviews some fundamental issues of software reliability as well as the techniques, models, and metrics used to predict the reliability of software. Topics covered include fault avoidance, fault removal, and fault tolerance, along with statistical methods for the objective assessment of predictive accuracy. Development cost models and life-cycle cost models are also discussed. This book is divided into eight sections and begins with a chapter on adaptive modeling used to predict software reliability, followed by a discussion on failure rate in software reliability growth mo

  11. Methods for reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons using electrical discharge

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Methods for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons are provided. The methods can include forming a bubble containing the gaseous hydrocarbon in a liquid. The bubble can be generated to pass in a gap between a pair of electrodes, whereby an electrical discharge is generated in the bubble at the gap between the electrodes. The electrodes can be a metal or metal alloy with a high melting point so they can sustain high voltages of up to about 200 kilovolts. The gaseous hydrocarbon can be combined with an additive gas such as molecular oxygen or carbon dioxide. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce mixtures containing one or more of H2, CO, H2O, CO2, and a lower hydrocarbon such as ethane or ethylene. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce low amounts of CO2 and H2O, e.g. about 15 mol-% or less.

  12. Methods for reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons using electrical discharge

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min; Zhang, Xuming

    2017-01-01

    Methods for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons are provided. The methods can include forming a bubble containing the gaseous hydrocarbon in a liquid. The bubble can be generated to pass in a gap between a pair of electrodes, whereby an electrical discharge is generated in the bubble at the gap between the electrodes. The electrodes can be a metal or metal alloy with a high melting point so they can sustain high voltages of up to about 200 kilovolts. The gaseous hydrocarbon can be combined with an additive gas such as molecular oxygen or carbon dioxide. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce mixtures containing one or more of H2, CO, H2O, CO2, and a lower hydrocarbon such as ethane or ethylene. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce low amounts of CO2 and H2O, e.g. about 15 mol-% or less.

  13. Circuit design for reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yu; Wirth, Gilson

    2015-01-01

    This book presents physical understanding, modeling and simulation, on-chip characterization, layout solutions, and design techniques that are effective to enhance the reliability of various circuit units.  The authors provide readers with techniques for state of the art and future technologies, ranging from technology modeling, fault detection and analysis, circuit hardening, and reliability management. Provides comprehensive review on various reliability mechanisms at sub-45nm nodes; Describes practical modeling and characterization techniques for reliability; Includes thorough presentation of robust design techniques for major VLSI design units; Promotes physical understanding with first-principle simulations.

  14. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Concepts and techniques of human reliability have been developed and are used mostly in probabilistic risk assessment. For this, the major application of human reliability assessment has been to identify the human errors which have a significant effect on the overall safety of the system and to quantify the probability of their occurrence. Some of the major issues within human reliability studies are reviewed and it is shown how these are applied to the assessment of human failures in systems. This is done under the following headings; models of human performance used in human reliability assessment, the nature of human error, classification of errors in man-machine systems, practical aspects, human reliability modelling in complex situations, quantification and examination of human reliability, judgement based approaches, holistic techniques and decision analytic approaches. (UK)

  15. Reliability Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kurt Erling

    1986-01-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety...... and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic...... approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very...

  16. Task 8: Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Our studies focus on the stratigraphy of Late Devonian to early Pennsylvanian rocks at the NTS, because these are the best potential hydrocarbon source rocks in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. In the last year, our stratigraphic studies have broadened to include the regional context for both the Chainman and the Eleana formations. New age data based on biostratigraphy constrain the age ranges of both Chainman and Eleana; accurate and reliable ages are essential for regional correlation and for regional paleogeographic reconstructions. Source rock analyses throughout the Chainman establish whether these rocks contained adequate organic material to generate hydrocarbons. Maturation analyses of samples from the Chainman determine whether the temperature history has been suitable for the generation of liquid hydrocarbons. Structural studies are aimed at defining the deformation histories and present position of the different packages of Devonian - Pennsylvanian rocks. This report summarizes new results of our structural, stratigraphic and hydrocarbon source rock potential studies at the Nevada Test Site and vicinity. Stratigraphy is considered first, with the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation discussed separately. New biostratigraphic results are included in this section. New results from our structural studies are summarized next, followed by source rock and maturation analyses of the Chainman Shale. Directions for future work are included where appropriate

  17. Process for desulfurizing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-04-12

    A process is described for the desulfurization of a mixture of hydrocarbons, and in particular hydrocarbons containing less than 7 atoms of carbon and sulfur compounds of the type of sulfur carbonyl, characterized by the fact that the mixture, preferably in the liquid phase, is brought in contact with a solution of caustic alkali, essentially anhydrous or preferably with a solution of alkali hydroxide in an organic hydroxy nonacid solvent, for example, an alcohol, or with an alkaline alcoholate, under conditions suitable to the formation of hydrogen sulfide which produces a hydrocarbon mixture free from sulfur compounds of the sulfur carbonyl type but containing hydrogen sulfide, and that it is treated, following mixing, having beem submitted to the first treatment, by means of aqueous alkaline hydroxide to eliminate the hydrogen sulfide.

  18. Halogenated hydrocarbons - an environmental problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeler, H F; Thofern, E

    1984-01-01

    The paper provides a survey of the incidence of highly volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in ground, surface and drinking water as well as in the snows of Western Germany. Almost the entire production of chlorinated solvents is released into the environment. The absorption media are mostly soil, water and atmosphere. Whereas in the atmosphere elimination reactions take place, solvents that have passed the soil get into the ground water owing to their persistence and can cause considerable pollutions of drinking water. Moreover haloforms may occur in drinking water, which are produced during chlorine disinfection of pre-treated water.

  19. Recovery of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1941-02-10

    A process is disclosed for recovery of hydrocarbon oils, especially lubricating oils or diesel oils, through pressure hydrogenation of distillation, extraction of hydrogenation products from coal or coaly materials or from oils such as mineral oils or tars in liquid phase by use in a reaction vessel of fixed-bed catalysts, characterized in that as starting material is employed material which has been freed of asphaltic and resinous material by hydrogenation refining, vacuum-steam distillation, treatment with hydrogen-rich hydrocarbons (hydroforming), or sulfuric acid.

  20. Human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, E.M.; Fragola, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a treatment of human reliability analysis incorporating an introduction to probabilistic risk assessment for nuclear power generating stations. They treat the subject according to the framework established for general systems theory. Draws upon reliability analysis, psychology, human factors engineering, and statistics, integrating elements of these fields within a systems framework. Provides a history of human reliability analysis, and includes examples of the application of the systems approach

  1. Hydrocarbon footprints as a record of bumblebee flower visitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witjes, Sebastian; Eltz, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Bumblebees leave traces of cuticular hydrocarbons on flowers they visit, with the amount deposited being positively related to the number of visits. We asked whether such footprint hydrocarbons are retained on flowers for sufficiently long periods of time so as to reflect bee visitation in pollination studies. In laboratory experiments, flower corollae (Primula veris, Digitalis grandiflora) visited by Bombus terrestris workers retained bee-derived nonacosenes (C(29)H(58)) in near-unchanged quantities for 24 hours, both at 15 and 25 degrees C. Additionally, synthetic (Z)-9-tricosene applied to flower corollae of the deadnettle Lamium maculatum was retained for 48 hours in an unchanged quantity. In a field survey, the amount of footprint alkenes on flowers of comfrey (Symphytum officinale) plants was positively correlated with the number of bumblebee visits that those plants had received during the day. Together, these data suggest that flowers retain a long-term quantitative record of bumblebee visitation. The analysis of petal extracts by gas chromatography could provide a cheap and reliable way of quantifying bumblebee visits in landscape scale studies of pollination.

  2. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  3. MICROORGANISMS’ SURFACE ACTIVE SUBSTANCES ROLE IN HYDROCARBONS BIODEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оlga Vasylchenko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  Existing data and publications regarding oil, hydrocarbon biodegradation, metabolism, and bioremediation were analyzed. Search of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria which are producers of biosurfactants was provided, types of microbial surfactants and their physiological role were analyzed and ordered. The study of factors affecting the surface active properties of producers’ cultures was done.

  4. Development of a multistrain bacterial bioreporter platform for the monitoring of hydrocarbon contaminants in marine environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tecon, R.; Beggah, S.; Czechowska, K.; Sentchilo, V.; Chronopoulou, P.M.; McGenity, T.J.; van der Meer, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are common contaminants in marine and freshwater aquatic habitats, often occurring as a result of oil spillage. Rapid and reliable on-site tools for measuring the bioavailable hydrocarbon fractions, i.e., those that are most likely to cause toxic effects or are available for

  5. A confiabilidade da informação fornecida pelo indivíduo a respeito de seu posicionamento habitual de língua The reliability of the information provided by the individuals about their habitual tongue position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fernanda Rodrigues Cardoso

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a confiabilidade da informação fornecida por adultos e crianças a respeito do posicionamento habitual de língua. MÉTODOS: foram investigadas 30 crianças e 30 adultos em dois momentos, com diferença mínima de sete e máxima de vinte e um dias. Inicialmente foi realizada a observação do posicionamento habitual de língua. Em seguida, o participante foi questionado a respeito de seu posicionamento habitual. Após a resposta, a língua foi estimulada com uma espátula de madeira, a fim de aumentar a percepção. Posteriormente, questionou-se, novamente, o indivíduo. Em seguida, orientou-se o participante a observar onde sua língua permanece habitualmente na cavidade oral, até o segundo momento da avaliação. Nesta oportunidade, o participante foi questionado a respeito de seu posicionamento habitual de língua. Os dados foram analisados por meio da estatística Kappa. RESULTADOS: não foi possível visualizar o posicionamento habitual de língua em 100% da amostra. Quanto à confiabilidade geral das respostas verificou-se classificação entre discreta e regular. As crianças apresentaram respostas pouco consistentes e bastante diversificadas, já em relação aos adultos, parte apresentou respostas corretas logo no primeiro questionamento e parte somente apresentou respostas confiáveis após estimulação de percepção intra-oral. CONCLUSÕES: a confiabilidade da informação fornecida pelos indivíduos da amostra a respeito de seu posicionamento habitual de língua varia entre discreta e regular, sendo, portanto, baixa, tanto em crianças quanto em adultos. Uma possível estratégia a ser utilizada na prática clínica fonoaudiológica é questionar o paciente quanto ao seu posicionamento lingual após determinado período de observação.PURPOSE: to check the reliability of the information provided by adults and children about the habitual tongue position. METHODS: we investigated 30 children and 30 adults in

  6. Catalyst for hydrocarbon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhaut, P.; Miquel, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given for a catalyst and process for hydrocarbon conversions, e.g., reforming. The catalyst contains an alumina carrier, platinum, iridium, at least one metal selected from uranium, vanadium, and gallium, and optionally halogen in the form of metal halide of one of the aforesaid components. (U.S.)

  7. Improving machinery reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Heinz P

    1998-01-01

    This totally revised, updated and expanded edition provides proven techniques and procedures that extend machinery life, reduce maintenance costs, and achieve optimum machinery reliability. This essential text clearly describes the reliability improvement and failure avoidance steps practiced by best-of-class process plants in the U.S. and Europe.

  8. Reliability Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Lazzaroni, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    This book gives a practical guide for designers and users in Information and Communication Technology context. In particular, in the first Section, the definition of the fundamental terms according to the international standards are given. Then, some theoretical concepts and reliability models are presented in Chapters 2 and 3: the aim is to evaluate performance for components and systems and reliability growth. Chapter 4, by introducing the laboratory tests, puts in evidence the reliability concept from the experimental point of view. In ICT context, the failure rate for a given system can be

  9. Reliability training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Dillard, Richard B.; Wong, Kam L.; Barber, Frank J.; Barina, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is failure physics, the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low cost reliable products. A review of reliability for the years 1940 to 2000 is given. Next, a review of mathematics is given as well as a description of what elements contribute to product failures. Basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures are elucidated.

  10. Reliability of electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, Jose L.

    2001-01-01

    Reliability techniques have been developed subsequently as a need of the diverse engineering disciplines, nevertheless they are not few those that think they have been work a lot on reliability before the same word was used in the current context. Military, space and nuclear industries were the first ones that have been involved in this topic, however not only in these environments it is that it has been carried out this small great revolution in benefit of the increase of the reliability figures of the products of those industries, but rather it has extended to the whole industry. The fact of the massive production, characteristic of the current industries, drove four decades ago, to the fall of the reliability of its products, on one hand, because the massively itself and, for other, to the recently discovered and even not stabilized industrial techniques. Industry should be changed according to those two new requirements, creating products of medium complexity and assuring an enough reliability appropriated to production costs and controls. Reliability began to be integral part of the manufactured product. Facing this philosophy, the book describes reliability techniques applied to electronics systems and provides a coherent and rigorous framework for these diverse activities providing a unifying scientific basis for the entire subject. It consists of eight chapters plus a lot of statistical tables and an extensive annotated bibliography. Chapters embrace the following topics: 1- Introduction to Reliability; 2- Basic Mathematical Concepts; 3- Catastrophic Failure Models; 4-Parametric Failure Models; 5- Systems Reliability; 6- Reliability in Design and Project; 7- Reliability Tests; 8- Software Reliability. This book is in Spanish language and has a potentially diverse audience as a text book from academic to industrial courses. (author)

  11. Condensation Mechanism of Hydrocarbon Field Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalin, Oleg; Vafina, Nailya

    2017-08-31

    Petroleum geology explains how hydrocarbon fluids are generated, but there is a lack of understanding regarding how oil is expelled from source rocks and migrates to a reservoir. To clarify the process, the multi-layer Urengoy field in Western Siberia was investigated. Based on this example, we have identified an alternative mechanism of hydrocarbon field formation, in which oil and gas accumulations result from the phase separation of an upward hydrocarbon flow. There is evidence that the flow is generated by the gases released by secondary kerogen destruction. This study demonstrates that oil components are carried by the gas flow and that when the flow reaches a low-pressure zone, it condenses into a liquid with real oil properties. The transportation of oil components in the gas flow provides a natural explanation for the unresolved issues of petroleum geology concerning the migration process. The condensation mechanism can be considered as the main process of oil field formation.

  12. Reliability calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1986-03-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very complex systems. In order to increase the applicability of the programs variance reduction techniques can be applied to speed up the calculation process. Variance reduction techniques have been studied and procedures for implementation of importance sampling are suggested. (author)

  13. In-situ hydrocarbon delineation using laser-induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taer, A.D.; Hastings, R.W.; Brown, A.Y.; Frend, R.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of hydrocarbons in soils was conducted at an active Shell Oil Company petroleum products terminal, located in Carson, California. An investigation approach involving Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) and Cone Penetrometer Testing (CPT) technologies was implemented to provide real-time, in-situ characterization of site stratigraphy, hydrocarbon distribution and importantly, hydrocarbon product differentiation. The area of investigation is located along a property boundary, where a plume of separate phase hydrocarbons has been actively recovered for several years. CPT/LIF technology was selected for the investigation since previous delineation efforts using hydrocarbon fingerprinting methods proved inconclusive. Additionally, the CPT/LIF technology had the potential to provide a cost effective solution to accomplish project objectives. Based on the information obtained during this investigation, it was determined that the plume of separate phase hydrocarbons along the northern property boundary is from a source distinctly different than any identified hydrocarbons known to be from on-site sources. In addition, the plume was determined to not be connected with any other known on-site hydrocarbon plumes. The results of this CPT/LIF investigation were consistent with the known hydrogeologic conditions. This evaluation determined that CPT/LIF technology was very effective in addressing project objectives and resulted in a significant cost savings

  14. Systems reliability/structural reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The question of reliability technology using quantified techniques is considered for systems and structures. Systems reliability analysis has progressed to a viable and proven methodology whereas this has yet to be fully achieved for large scale structures. Structural loading variants over the half-time of the plant are considered to be more difficult to analyse than for systems, even though a relatively crude model may be a necessary starting point. Various reliability characteristics and environmental conditions are considered which enter this problem. The rare event situation is briefly mentioned together with aspects of proof testing and normal and upset loading conditions. (orig.)

  15. Distilling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C

    1917-11-23

    In the fractional or destructive distillation of hydrocarbon oils or other liquids, the pressure in the still is raised and lowered alternately. The still is closed to raise the pressure, and is opened to lower the pressure rapidly solely by expansion of the vapors. The operation is effected without intermittent cooling, except such as may occur during the lowering of the pressure. In distilling hydrocarbon oil, pressure steam is blown into the oil until the pressure reaches 5 lb/in./sup 2/. The vapor outlet is then opened until the pressure falls to 2 lb/in./sup 2/, whereupon the vapor outlet is closed and steam is again admitted. The operation is continued until the steam, which is of 20 lb pressure, no longer effects distillation; after this stage, superheated steam is used.

  16. Nuclear explosives and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, P

    1971-10-01

    A nuclear explosive 12 in. in diam and producing very little tritium is feasible in France. Such a device would be well adapted for contained nuclear explosions set off for the purpose of hydrocarbon storage or stimulation. The different aspects of setting off the explosive are reviewed. In the particular case of gas storage in a nuclear cavity in granite, it is demonstrated that the dose of irradiation received is extremely small. (18 refs.)

  17. Treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-02-22

    A process is described for refining a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons containing harmful substances, this process permitting the operation, which consists in treating the liquid mixture at a temperature higher than 200/sup 0/C with a solid catalyst of phosphoric acid, consisting of phosphoric acid deposited on a solid support of the type of metallurgical coke, for a time sufficient to convert the harmful components to inoffensive substances.

  18. Biogeochemistry of Halogenated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, P.; Gruden, C.; McCormick, M. L.

    2003-12-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbons originate from both natural and industrial sources. Whereas direct anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere and biosphere are often easy to assess, particularly when they are tied to major industrial activities, the attribution of emissions to other human activities (e.g., biomass burning), diffuse sources (e.g., atmospheric discharge, run off), and natural production (e.g., soils, fungi, algae, microorganisms) are difficult to quantify. The widespread occurrence of both alkyl and aryl halides in groundwater, surface water, soils, and various trophic food chains, even those not affected by known point sources, suggests a substantial biogeochemical cycling of these compounds (Wania and Mackay, 1996; Adriaens et al., 1999; Gruden et al., 2003). The transport and reactive fate mechanisms controlling their reactivity are compounded by the differences in sources of alkyl-, aryl-, and complex organic halides, and the largely unknown impact of biogenic processes, such as enzymatically mediated halogenation of organic matter, fungal production of halogenated hydrocarbons, and microbial or abiotic transformation reactions (e.g., Asplund and Grimvall, 1991; Gribble, 1996; Watling and Harper, 1998; Oberg, 2002). The largest source may be the natural halogenation processes in the terrestrial environment, as the quantities detected often exceed the amount that can be explained by human activities in the surrounding areas ( Oberg, 1998). Since biogeochemical processes result in the distribution of a wide range of halogenated hydrocarbon profiles, altered chemical structures, and isomer distributions in natural systems, source apportionment (or environmental forensics) can often only be resolved using multivariate statistical methods (e.g., Goovaerts, 1998; Barabas et al., 2003; Murphy and Morrison, 2002).This chapter will describe the widespread occurrence of halogenated hydrocarbons, interpret their distribution and biogeochemical cycling in light of

  19. Cracking hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigle, A A.F.M.

    1922-12-20

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, peat, shale, or lignite oils, heavy tars, resin oils, naphthalene oils, etc., are vaporized by being fed from a tank through a preheater to the lower part of a vertical annular retort heated by a flame projected down the central cavity from a burner. The oil vapors rise through annular passages formed by disks, on which are placed chips of copper, iron, aluminum, etc., to act as catalysts.

  20. High boiling point hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1929-04-29

    A process is given for the production of hydrocarbons of high boiling point, such as lubricating oils, from bituminous substances, such as varieties of coal, shale, or other solid distillable carbonaceous materials. The process consists of treating the initial materials with organic solvents and then subjecting the products extracted from the initial materials, preferably directly, to a reducing treatment in respect to temperature, pressure, and time. The reduction treatment is performed by means of hydrogen under pressure.

  1. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  2. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubb, H.

    1992-01-01

    This book resulted from the activity of Task Force 4.2 - 'Human Reliability'. This group was established on February 27th, 1986, at the plenary meeting of the Technical Reliability Committee of VDI, within the framework of the joint committee of VDI on industrial systems technology - GIS. It is composed of representatives of industry, representatives of research institutes, of technical control boards and universities, whose job it is to study how man fits into the technical side of the world of work and to optimize this interaction. In a total of 17 sessions, information from the part of ergonomy dealing with human reliability in using technical systems at work was exchanged, and different methods for its evaluation were examined and analyzed. The outcome of this work was systematized and compiled in this book. (orig.) [de

  3. Microelectronics Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-17

    inverters  connected in a chain. ................................................. 5  Figure 3  Typical graph showing frequency versus square root of...developing an experimental  reliability estimating methodology that could both illuminate the  lifetime  reliability of advanced devices,  circuits and...or  FIT of the device. In other words an accurate estimate of the device  lifetime  was found and thus the  reliability  that  can  be  conveniently

  4. A pathway to eliminate the gas flow dependency of a hydrocarbon sensor for automotive exhaust applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Hagen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gas sensors will play an essential role in future combustion-based mobility to effectively reduce emissions and monitor the exhausts reliably. In particular, an application in automotive exhausts is challenging due to the high gas temperatures that come along with highly dynamic flow rates. Recently, a thermoelectric hydrocarbon sensor was developed by using materials which are well known in the exhausts and therefore provide the required stability. As a sensing mechanism, the temperature difference that is generated between a catalytically activated area during the exothermic oxidation of said hydrocarbons and an inert area of the sensor is measured by a special screen-printed thermopile structure. As a matter of principle, this thermovoltage significantly depends on the mass flow rate of the exhausts under certain conditions. The present contribution helps to understand this cross effect and proposes a possible setup for its avoidance. By installing the sensor in the correct position of a bypass solution, the gas flow around the sensor is almost free of turbulence. Now, the signal depends only on the hydrocarbon concentration and not on the gas flow. Such a setup may open up new possibilities of applying novel sensors in automotive exhausts for on-board-measurement (OBM purposes.

  5. The reformation of liquid hydrocarbons in an aqueous discharge reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuming; Cha, Min

    2015-01-01

    deposition. These findings offer a new approach to the reforming processes of liquid hydrocarbons and provide a novel concept for the design of a practical and compact plasma reformer. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  6. Measuring Trace Hydrocarbons in Silanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    Technique rapid and uses standard analytical equipment. Silane gas containing traces of hydrocarbons injected into carrier gas of moist nitrogen having about 0.2 percent water vapor. Carrier, water and silane pass through short column packed with powdered sodium hydroxide which combines moisture and silane to form nonvolatile sodium silicate. Carrier gas free of silane but containing nonreactive hydrocarbons, pass to silica-gel column where chromatographic separation takes place. Hydrocarbons measured by FID.

  7. Reliability in automotive ethernet networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Fabio L.; Campelo, Divanilson R.; Yan, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular.......This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular....

  8. Noble gas and hydrocarbon tracers in multiphase unconventional hydrocarbon systems: Toward integrated advanced reservoir simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, T.; Moortgat, J.; Poreda, R. J.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Whyte, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although hydrocarbon production from unconventional energy resources has increased dramatically in the last decade, total unconventional oil and gas recovery from black shales is still less than 25% and 9% of the totals in place, respectively. Further, the majority of increased hydrocarbon production results from increasing the lengths of laterals, the number of hydraulic fracturing stages, and the volume of consumptive water usage. These strategies all reduce the economic efficiency of hydrocarbon extraction. The poor recovery statistics result from an insufficient understanding of some of the key physical processes in complex, organic-rich, low porosity formations (e.g., phase behavior, fluid-rock interactions, and flow mechanisms at nano-scale confinement and the role of natural fractures and faults as conduits for flow). Noble gases and other hydrocarbon tracers are capably of recording subsurface fluid-rock interactions on a variety of geological scales (micro-, meso-, to macro-scale) and provide analogs for the movement of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. As such geochemical data enrich the input for the numerical modeling of multi-phase (e.g., oil, gas, and brine) fluid flow in highly heterogeneous, low permeability formations Herein we will present a combination of noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe abundances and isotope ratios) and molecular and isotopic hydrocarbon data from a geographically and geologically diverse set of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in North America. Specifically, we will include data from the Marcellus, Utica, Barnett, Eagle Ford, formations and the Illinois basin. Our presentation will include geochemical and geological interpretation and our perspective on the first steps toward building an advanced reservoir simulator for tracer transport in multicomponent multiphase compositional flow (presented separately, in Moortgat et al., 2015).

  9. Fractional separation of hydrocarbon vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-07-10

    A process is described for converting higher boiling hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocarbons by subjecting them at elevated temperatures to a conversion operation, then separating the higher and lower boiling fractions. The separation takes place while the reaction products are maintained in the vapor phase by contact with a mass of solid porous material which has little or no catalytic activity but does have a preferential absorption property for higher boiling hydrocarbons so that the lower boiling part of the reaction products pass through the separation zone while the heavier hydrocarbons are retained. The separation is accomplished without substantial loss of heat of these reaction products.

  10. RTE - 2013 Reliability Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    RTE publishes a yearly reliability report based on a standard model to facilitate comparisons and highlight long-term trends. The 2013 report is not only stating the facts of the Significant System Events (ESS), but it moreover underlines the main elements dealing with the reliability of the electrical power system. It highlights the various elements which contribute to present and future reliability and provides an overview of the interaction between the various stakeholders of the Electrical Power System on the scale of the European Interconnected Network. (author)

  11. Process for preparing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauch, C; Anther, E; Pier, M

    1926-04-07

    A process is described for the conversion of coal of all kinds, wood, oil, shale, as well as other carbonaceous materials into liquid hydrocarbons in two steps, characterized by treatment of the coal and so forth with a stream of hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperatures and raised pressures and producing a tarry product which, after separation of the ashlike residue, is converted by a further treatment, in the presence of catalysts, with hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases at raised temperature and pressure, largely into low-boiling products.

  12. Hydrogen production from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docekal, J

    1986-01-01

    Hydrogen is an important feed stock for chemical and petroleum industries, in addition to being considered as the energy carrier of the future. At the present time the feed stock hydrogen is mainly manufactured from hydrocarbons using steam reforming. In steam reforming two processes are employed, the conventional process and PSA (pressure swing adsorption) process. These two processes are described and compared. The results show that the total costs and the maintenance costs are lower for the PSA process, the capital outlay is lower for the conventional process, and the operating costs are similar for the two processes.

  13. Reliability data book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bento, J.P.; Boerje, S.; Ericsson, G.; Hasler, A.; Lyden, C.O.; Wallin, L.; Poern, K.; Aakerlund, O.

    1985-01-01

    The main objective for the report is to improve failure data for reliability calculations as parts of safety analyses for Swedish nuclear power plants. The work is based primarily on evaluations of failure reports as well as information provided by the operation and maintenance staff of each plant. In the report are presented charts of reliability data for: pumps, valves, control rods/rod drives, electrical components, and instruments. (L.E.)

  14. Redefining reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulson, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    Want to buy some reliability? The question would have been unthinkable in some markets served by the natural gas business even a few years ago, but in the new gas marketplace, industrial, commercial and even some residential customers have the opportunity to choose from among an array of options about the kind of natural gas service they need--and are willing to pay for. The complexities of this brave new world of restructuring and competition have sent the industry scrambling to find ways to educate and inform its customers about the increased responsibility they will have in determining the level of gas reliability they choose. This article discusses the new options and the new responsibilities of customers, the needed for continuous education, and MidAmerican Energy Company's experiment in direct marketing of natural gas

  15. AD1995: NW Europe's hydrocarbon industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glennie, K.; Hurst, A.

    1996-01-01

    This volume concerns itself with wide-ranging aspects of the upstream hydro-carbon industry over the whole of NW Europe. As such, the book contrasts with many thematic volumes by presenting a broad range of topics side-by-side. One section of the book looks back at the history of geological exploration and production, and provides an overview of hydrocarbon exploration across NW Europe. Another section covers the state of the art in hydrocarbon exploration and production. This includes an update on computer-based basin modelling overpressure systems, innovations in reservoir engineering and reserve estimation, 3D seismic and the geochemical aspects of secondary migration. The final section of the book takes a look into the future. This covers the remaining hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea, managing risk in oil field development, oil field economics, and pollution and the environment. It is the editors' hope that several key areas of NW Europe's upstream oil industry have been usefully summarized in the volume. (Author)

  16. Source identification of hydrocarbons following environmental releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholz, D.A. [ALS Environmental, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Methods of identifying the sources of hydrocarbon contaminations were discussed in this PowerPoint presentation. Laboratories analyze for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) by obtaining chromatograms of observed products. However, many petroleum products provide similar chromatograms. Several independent lines of evidence are needed for the purposes of accurate determination in legal applications. A case study of a lube oil plant spill was used to demonstrate the inconclusiveness of chromatograms and the need to determine petroleum biomarkers. Terpane, sterane, triaromatic sterane, isoprenoid, and alkylcyclohexane analyses were conducted to differentiate between the hydrocarbon samples. The analysis methods are being used with various soil, water, and crab species samples from the BP oil spill. Oil found at the different sites must be directly related to the spill. However, there are 3858 oil and gas platforms currently operating in the Gulf of Mexico. Ratios of biomarkers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are being developed to generate weight of evidence. A critical difference analysis was also presented. tabs., figs.

  17. Site characterization and petroleum hydrocarbon plume mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, K. [Harding Lawson Associates, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a case study of site characterization and hydrocarbon contamination plume mapping/delineation in a gas processing plant in southern Mexico. The paper describes innovative and cost-effective use of passive (non-intrusive) and active (intrusive) techniques, including the use of compound-specific analytical methods for site characterization. The techniques used, on a demonstrative basis, include geophysical, geochemical, and borehole drilling. Geochemical techniques used to delineate the horizontal extent of hydrocarbon contamination at the site include soil gas surveys. The borehole drilling technique used to assess the vertical extent of contamination and confirm geophysical and geochemical data combines conventional hollow-stem auguring with direct push-probe using Geoprobe. Compound-specific analytical methods, such as hydrocarbon fingerprinting and a modified method for gasoline range organics, demonstrate the inherent merit and need for such analyses to properly characterize a site, while revealing the limitations of noncompound-specific total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. The results indicate that the techniques used in tandem can properly delineate the nature and extent of contamination at a site; often supplement or complement data, while reducing the risk of errors and omissions during the assessment phase; and provide data constructively to focus site-specific remediation efforts. 7 figs.

  18. Evaluation of environmental samples containing heavy hydrocarbon components in environmental forensic investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raia, J.C.; Blakley, C.R.; Fuex, A.N.; Villalanti, D.C.; Fahrenthold, P.D. [Triton Anal Corp, Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-03-01

    This article presents a procedure to evaluate and characterize environmental samples containing mixtures of hydrocarbons over a wide boiling range of materials that include fuels and other products used in commerce. The range of the method extends to the higher boiling and heavier molecular weight hydrocarbon products in the range of motor oil, bunker fuel, and heavier residue materials. The procedure uses the analytical laboratory technique of high-temperature simulated distillation along with mathematical regression of the analytical data to estimate the relative contribution of individual products in mixtures of hydrocarbons present in environmental samples. An analytical technique to determine hydrocarbon-type distributions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with nitric oxide ionization spectrometry evaluation is also presented. This type of analysis allows complex hydrocarbon mixtures to be classified by their chemical composition, or types of hydrocarbons that include paraffins, cycloparaffins, monoaromatics, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Characteristic hydrocarbon patterns for example, in the relative distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are valuable for determining the potential origin of materials present in environmental samples. These methods provide quantitative data for hydrocarbon components in mixtures as a function of boiling range and 'hydrocarbon fingerprints' of the types of materials present. This information is valuable in assessing environmental impacts of hydrocarbons at contaminated sites and establishing the liabilities and cost allocations for responsible parties.

  19. Determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodge, Jr, J P

    1963-01-01

    At the present time, the method of choice for the determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons appears to be the following, (a) extraction of the benzene-soluble fraction from the gross collected particulate matter, (b) one pass through a chromatographic column of partially deactivated alumina, (c) spectral examination of the fractions and (d) the application of appropriate chemical tests as indicated by the previous step. Using this method, the presence of pyrene, fluoranthene, one of the benzofluorenes, chrysens, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, anthanthrene, and coronene was demonstrated in the air of numerous American cities, and benzo(a)pyrene was measured at some 130 sites. Invaluable as such accurate determinations may be for research purposes, they are still too costly and time-consuming for routine survey purposes. While studies on the subject are by no means complete, they indicate the validity of piperonal chloride test as a general index of polycyclic hydrocarbons. This procedure is described in this paper. 7 references.

  20. Steam hydrocarbon cracking and reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many industrial chemical processes are taught as distinct contrasting reactions when in fact the unifying comparisons are greater than the contrasts. We examine steam hydrocarbon reforming and steam hydrocarbon cracking as an example of two processes that operate under different chemical reactivity

  1. Saturated versus unsaturated hydrocarbon interactions with carbon nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivasigamani eUmadevi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of various acyclic and cyclic hydrocarbons in both saturated and unsaturated forms with the carbon nanostructures (CNSs have been explored by using density functional theory (DFT calculations. Model systems representing armchair and zigzag carbon nanotubes (CNTs and graphene have been considered to investigate the effect of chirality and curvature of the CNSs towards these interactions. Results of this study reveal contrasting binding nature of the acyclic and cyclic hydrocarbons towards CNSs. While the saturated molecules show stronger binding affinity in acyclic hydrocarbons; the unsaturated molecules exhibit higher binding affinity in cyclic hydrocarbons. In addition, acyclic hydrocarbons exhibit stronger binding affinity towards the CNSs when compared to their corresponding cyclic counterparts. The computed results excellently corroborate the experimental observations. The interaction of hydrocarbons with graphene is more favourable when compared with CNTs. Bader’s theory of atoms in molecules has been invoked to characterize the noncovalent interactions of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Our results are expected to provide useful insights towards the development of rational strategies for designing complexes with desired noncovalent interaction involving CNSs.

  2. The rating reliability calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon David J

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program.

  3. Canada's hydrocarbon processing evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.; Horton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The development of petroleum refining, petrochemicals and natural gas industries in Canada are discussed together with future issues and prospects. Figures give data on (a) refined products trade 1998; (b) refining capacity; (c) product demand 1980-1999; (d) refinery crude runs and capacity; (e) refining and marketing, historical returns 1993-1999; (f) processing power index for Canada and USA; (g) ethylene capacity; (eye) Montreal petrochemical capacities; (j) Sarnia petrochemical capacities in 2000; (k) Alberta petrochemicals capacities 2001; (l) ethylene net equivalent trade; (m) ethylene costs 1999 for W. Canada and other countries. It was concluded that the hydrocarbon processing business continues to expand in Canada and natural gas processing is likely to increase. Petrochemicals may expand in W. Canada, possibly using feed stock from the Far North. Offshore developments may stimulate new processing on the E. Coast

  4. Hydrogenating gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolardot, P L.F.

    1930-08-06

    Gaseous hydrocarbons obtained by the destructive distillation of carbonaceous materials are simultaneously desulfurized and hydrogenated by passing them at 350 to 500/sup 0/C, mixed with carbon monoxide and water vapor over lime mixed with metallic oxides present in sufficient amount to absorb the carbon dioxide as it is formed. Oxides of iron, copper, silver, cobalt, and metals of the rare earths may be used and are mixed with the lime to form a filling material of small pieces filling the reaction vessel which may have walls metallized with copper and zinc dust. The products are condensed and fixed with absorbents, e.g. oils, activated carbon, silica gels. The metallic masses may be regenerated by a hot air stream and by heating in inert gases.

  5. Treating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R; MacIvor, W

    1869-09-01

    The treatment of hydrocarbon oils, such as coal or shale oils, paraffin oils, and petroleum, either in the crude or more or less refined state has the object of reducing the specific gravity and otherwise improving the qualities of such oils. The oil to be treated is put into any ordinary still and distilled. The vapor escaping during the distillation is passed through one or more heating vessels or chambers and exposed to the heat necessary to produce the change. The heating vessels or chambers may be made of metal, clay, or any other material adapted to endure heat, and they may be made of any desired form, or they may be constituted of a coil of metal pipes or a series of tubes such as are used for heating air for blast furnaces.

  6. Electronics reliability calculation and design

    CERN Document Server

    Dummer, Geoffrey W A; Hiller, N

    1966-01-01

    Electronics Reliability-Calculation and Design provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of reliability. The increasing complexity of electronic equipment has made problems in designing and manufacturing a reliable product more and more difficult. Specific techniques have been developed that enable designers to integrate reliability into their products, and reliability has become a science in its own right. The book begins with a discussion of basic mathematical and statistical concepts, including arithmetic mean, frequency distribution, median and mode, scatter or dispersion of mea

  7. High Pressure Preignition Chemistry of Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cernansky, N.P

    1998-01-01

    .... The research program entailed mechanistic studies examining the oxidation chemistry of single-component hydrocarbons and ignition studies examining the overall ignition of pure single component fuels and fuel blends...

  8. An Introduction To Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyoung Su

    1993-08-01

    This book introduces reliability with definition of reliability, requirement of reliability, system of life cycle and reliability, reliability and failure rate such as summary, reliability characteristic, chance failure, failure rate which changes over time, failure mode, replacement, reliability in engineering design, reliability test over assumption of failure rate, and drawing of reliability data, prediction of system reliability, conservation of system, failure such as summary and failure relay and analysis of system safety.

  9. Analysis of monoterpene hydrocarbons in rural atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdren, M.W.; Westberg, H.H.; Zimmerman, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis of monoterpenes from a rural forested site in the northwestern United States is described. Use of a glass capillary column provided excellent resolution of the hydrocarbons. Increased sensitivity and specificity of the mass spectrometer detector over the flame ionization detector were demonstrated for trace (parts per trillion) atmospheric hydrocarbons. As little as 10 ppt of compound was detectable in 100-cc air samples. Two analytical methods (cryogenic and solid adsorbent--Tenax-GC) were used in the collection of ambient air. Analytical results from the two techniques compared very well. Rural concentrations of the monoterpenes varied considerably depending upon location within the forest canopy. The concentration of individual species never exceeded 1 ppb of compound during a 10-month sampling period. The monoterpene total for all samples fell in the range of 0.5- to 16-ppb compound for C 10 terpene

  10. Method and apparatus for preventing agglomeration within fluid hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodbridge, D.D.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for treating a fluid hydrocarbon fuel for retarding the agglomeration between particles thereof and for retarding the growth of bacteria and fungi therein. The process includes that steps of transporting a plurality of unit volumes of said fluid hydrocarbon fuel through an irradiating location and irradiating each unit of the plurality of unit volumes at the irradiating location with either neutron or gamma radiation. An apparatus for treating the fluid hydrocarbon fuels with the nuclear radiation also is provided. The apparatus includes a generally conical central irradiating cavity which is surrounded by a spiral outer irradiating cavity. The fluid hydrocarbon fuel is transported through the cavities while being irradiated by the nuclear radiation

  11. Treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environment through bioremediation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kriti; Chandra, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    Bioremediation play key role in the treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated environment. Exposure of petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment occurs either due to human activities or accidentally and cause environmental pollution. Petroleum hydrocarbon cause many toxic compounds which are potent immunotoxicants and carcinogenic to human being. Remedial methods for the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment include various physiochemical and biological methods. Due to the negative consequences caused by the physiochemical methods, the bioremediation technology is widely adapted and considered as one of the best technology for the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment. Bioremediation utilizes the natural ability of microorganism to degrade the hazardous compound into simpler and non hazardous form. This paper provides a review on the role of bioremediation in the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment, discuss various hazardous effects of petroleum hydrocarbon, various factors influencing biodegradation, role of various enzymes in biodegradation and genetic engineering in bioremediation.

  12. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  13. Process for treating hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-09-15

    A process is described for treating simultaneously bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils for the production of low-boiling hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, characterized by the fact that it consists of heating a current of charge constituted by a mixture of the bituminous substances and hydrocarbon oils, to a high temperature, passing the heated current into a zone of extended reaction where the vapors are separated from the liquid or solid residue to favor transformation of the liquid hydrocarbons and volatilization of the bituminous substances, owing to the utilization of a heating agent carried to a high temperature being brought in contact with the heated charge in order to communicate its heat to the charge, while this later presents itself as relatively fine pellet or in the condition of distinct particles, particularly separated from one another.

  14. Hydrocarbon removal with constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Eke, Paul Emeka

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands have long played a significant role as natural purification systems, and have been effectively used to treat domestic, agricultural and industrial wastewater. However, very little is known about the biochemical processes involved, and the use of constructed treatment wetlands in the removal of petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons from produced and/or processed water. Wastewaters from the oil industry contain aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and x...

  15. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  16. Catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vail' eva, N A; Buyanov, R A

    1979-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of petroleum fractions (undecane) was performed with the object of clarifying such questions as the mechanism of action of the catalyst, the concepts of activity and selectivity of the catalyst, the role of transport processes, the temperature ranges and limitations of the catalytic process, the effect of the catalyst on secondary processes, and others. Catalysts such as quartz, MgO, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, were used. Analysis of the experimental findings and the fact that the distribution of products is independent of the nature of the surface, demonstrate that the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons in the presence of catalysts is based on the heterogeneous-homogeneous radical-chain mechanism of action, and that the role of the catalysts reduces to increasing the concentration of free radicals. The concept of selectivity cannot be applied to catalysts here, since they do not affect the mechanism of the unfolding of the process of pyrolysis and their role consists solely in initiating the process. In catalytic pyrolysis the concepts of kinetic and diffusive domains of unfolding of the catalytic reaction do not apply, and only the outer surface of the catalyst is engaged, whereas the inner surface merely promotes deletorious secondary processes reducing the selectivity of the process and the activity of the catalyst. 6 references, 2 figures.

  17. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  18. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the open-quotes Eleana Formationclose quotes are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock

  19. Polycyclic hydrocarbons - occurrence and determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drzewicz, P.

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a special group of atmospheric contaminants included in the persistent toxic substances (PTS) and also in the volatile organic compounds (VOC) groups. PAHs are present in the atmosphere and their origin can be due to anthropogenic activities. The main source of emission of PAH is the combustion of fossil fuels. Their specific characteristics, high volatility, mutagenic and carcinogenic power, easily transportable for long distances with the wind, make them important contaminants despite of the fact that they are present at very low concentrations. The report provides a review of main analytical methods applied in the determination of PAH in air. Special attention was devoted to heterocyclic PAH which contain one or more heteroatom (sulphur, oxygen, nitrogen) in the multiple-fused ring. The presence of heterocyclic PAH requires very complex, laborious and long lasting sample separation methods before analysis. In some cases, application of different temperature programs in gas chromatography allows to determine PAH and heterocyclic PAH in gaseous samples without sample pretreatment. Gas chromatography methods for the determination of PAH and heterocyclic PAH in the gas from combustion of light heating oil has been optimized. (author) [pl

  20. Proposed reliability cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1973-01-01

    The research investigations which were involved in the study include: cost analysis/allocation, reliability and product assurance, forecasting methodology, systems analysis, and model-building. This is a classic example of an interdisciplinary problem, since the model-building requirements include the need for understanding and communication between technical disciplines on one hand, and the financial/accounting skill categories on the other. The systems approach is utilized within this context to establish a clearer and more objective relationship between reliability assurance and the subcategories (or subelements) that provide, or reenforce, the reliability assurance for a system. Subcategories are further subdivided as illustrated by a tree diagram. The reliability assurance elements can be seen to be potential alternative strategies, or approaches, depending on the specific goals/objectives of the trade studies. The scope was limited to the establishment of a proposed reliability cost-model format. The model format/approach is dependent upon the use of a series of subsystem-oriented CER's and sometimes possible CTR's, in devising a suitable cost-effective policy.

  1. Solo Mycoremediation Impacted by Waste Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Santos Freire

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil and its derivatives are the principal means of energy generation for vehicles that transport raw materials and goods produced in developed and developing regions accentuating the risk of accidents by spills in stockpiling, transport, use or discarding. The contamination by total hydrocarbons suggests the elevated propension to mutations and to the formation of carcinogenic tumors, as a consequence of the exposure to human contamination by these products. This work had as aims: a To investigate, in a laboratorial scale, the degrading capacity of autochthonous microbiota in the presence of differing concentrations of hydrocarbons (0%, 2,5%, 5% e 7,5%; b To isolate fungi tolerant to the contaminant; c To quantify and analyze the biodegradation capacity of soil through the microbial biomass and metabolic quotient; and d To set, in laboratory, ideal conditions of biodegradation of the xenobiotic compound. Some parameters of microbial activity have been evaluated, such as: biological (Carbon of microbial biomass, CO2 , qCO2 emission, and fungi growth, chemical (pH, electrical conductivity –EC –, analysis of fertility and total hydrocarbons and physical (physical composition of the soil for analysis and comparisons. The obtained results suggest that the adding of 5% of waste oil in the ground provided ideal condition for the biodegradation of he   contaminant in the environment. From the evaluated parameters, the emission of CO2 and microbial C were considered more indicative of changes in soil microbial activity subject to the addition of hydrocarbons, confirming the possibility of microremediation use.

  2. Phenotypic Plasticity of Cuticular Hydrocarbon Profiles in Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Tobias; Hilker, Monika; Geiselhardt, Sven

    2018-03-01

    The insect integument is covered by cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) which provide protection against environmental stresses, but are also used for communication. Here we review current knowledge on environmental and insect-internal factors which shape phenotypic plasticity of solitary living insects, especially herbivorous ones. We address the dynamics of changes which may occur within minutes, but may also last weeks, depending on the species and conditions. Two different modes of changes are suggested, i.e. stepwise and gradual. A switch between two distinct environments (e.g. host plant switch by phytophagous insects) results in stepwise formation of two distinct adaptive phenotypes, while a gradual environmental change (e.g. temperature gradients) induces a gradual change of numerous adaptive CHC phenotypes. We further discuss the ecological and evolutionary consequences of phenotypic plasticity of insect CHC profiles by addressing the question at which conditions is CHC phenotypic plasticity beneficial. The high plasticity of CHC profiles might be a trade-off for insects using CHCs for communication. We discuss how insects cope with the challenge to produce and "understand" a highly plastic, environmentally dependent CHC pattern that conveys reliable and comprehensible information. Finally, we outline how phenotypic plasticity of CHC profiles may promote speciation in insects that rely on CHCs for mate recognition.

  3. Rationalization and Prediction of the Equivalent Alkane Carbon Number (EACN) of Polar Hydrocarbon Oils with COSMO-RS σ-Moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowicz, Thomas; Benazzouz, Adrien; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique; Aubry, Jean-Marie

    2015-10-20

    The equivalent alkane carbon numbers (EACNs) of 20 polar hydrocarbon oils are determined by the fishtail method. These values supplemented by 43 already reported EACNs of other hydrocarbons are rationalized by using the COSMO-RS σ-moments as descriptors for a QSPR analysis. A reliable model, with only two meaningful physicochemical parameters, namely the surface area (M0(X)) and the overall polarity (M2(X)) of the oil X, is able to predict the EACN values of a large variety of oils including (cyclo)alkanes, (cyclo)alkenes, terpenes, aromatics, alkynes, and chloroalkanes and to rationalize structural effects on EACNs. Furthermore, the dependence of the EACN of homologous oils on the chain length provides some molecular insight into how the different oils penetrate into the interfacial film of surfactants.

  4. Frontiers of reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Asit P; Basu, Sujit K

    1998-01-01

    This volume presents recent results in reliability theory by leading experts in the world. It will prove valuable for researchers, and users of reliability theory. It consists of refereed invited papers on a broad spectrum of topics in reliability. The subjects covered include Bayesian reliability, Bayesian reliability modeling, confounding in a series system, DF tests, Edgeworth approximation to reliability, estimation under random censoring, fault tree reduction for reliability, inference about changes in hazard rates, information theory and reliability, mixture experiment, mixture of Weibul

  5. Syntrophic biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieg, Lisa M; Fowler, S Jane; Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic environments are crucial to global carbon cycling wherein the microbial metabolism of organic matter occurs under a variety of redox conditions. In many anaerobic ecosystems, syntrophy plays a key role wherein microbial species must cooperate, essentially as a single catalytic unit, to metabolize substrates in a mutually beneficial manner. Hydrocarbon-contaminated environments such as groundwater aquifers are typically anaerobic, and often methanogenic. Syntrophic processes are needed to biodegrade hydrocarbons to methane, and recent studies suggest that syntrophic hydrocarbon metabolism can also occur in the presence of electron acceptors. The elucidation of key features of syntrophic processes in defined co-cultures has benefited greatly from advances in 'omics' based tools. Such tools, along with approaches like stable isotope probing, are now being used to monitor carbon flow within an increasing number of hydrocarbon-degrading consortia to pinpoint the key microbial players involved in the degradative pathways. The metagenomic sequencing of hydrocarbon-utilizing consortia should help to further identify key syntrophic features and define microbial interactions in these complex communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  7. Production of light hydrocarbons, etc. [from heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-10-07

    A process is given for the production of light hydrocarbons of the gasoline type and, if desired, of the middle-oil type, from liquid or fusible heavy or medium heavy hydrocarbon materials. The process comprises subjecting the said initial materials in the first stage to catalytic hydrofining, separating the lower boiling constituents and the hydrogenating gas from the resulting products and then subjecting the higher boiling constituents in a second stage to a splitting destructive hydrogenation and then recycling substantially the entire reaction mixture obtained in the second stage to the frst stage.

  8. Field reliability of electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elm, T.

    1984-02-01

    This report investigates, through several examples from the field, the reliability of electronic units in a broader sense. That is, it treats not just random parts failure, but also inadequate reliability design and (externally and internally) induced failures. The report is not meant to be merely an indication of the state of the art for the reliability prediction methods we know, but also as a contribution to the investigation of man-machine interplay in the operation and repair of electronic equipment. The report firmly links electronics reliability to safety and risk analyses approaches with a broader, system oriented view of reliability prediction and with postfailure stress analysis. It is intended to reveal, in a qualitative manner, the existence of symptom and cause patterns. It provides a background for further investigations to identify the detailed mechanisms of the faults and the remedical actions and precautions for achieving cost effective reliability. (author)

  9. Systems and methods for optically measuring properties of hydrocarbon fuel gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler-Golden, Steven; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Bien, Fritz; Gersh, Michael E.; Goldstein, Neil

    1998-10-13

    A system and method for optical interrogation and measurement of a hydrocarbon fuel gas includes a light source generating light at near-visible wavelengths. A cell containing the gas is optically coupled to the light source which is in turn partially transmitted by the sample. A spectrometer disperses the transmitted light and captures an image thereof. The image is captured by a low-cost silicon-based two-dimensional CCD array. The captured spectral image is processed by electronics for determining energy or BTU content and composition of the gas. The innovative optical approach provides a relatively inexpensive, durable, maintenance-free sensor and method which is reliable in the field and relatively simple to calibrate. In view of the above, accurate monitoring is possible at a plurality of locations along the distribution chain leading to more efficient distribution.

  10. Production of hydrocarbons, especially ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-01-17

    The invention has for its object a process for the production of gaseous nonsaturated hydrocarbons, particularly ethylene and aromatic hydrocarbons, by starting with hydrocarbon oils entirely of paraffinic nature or their fractions, which consists in putting the separated products in contact with solid inert material especially with porous nonmetallic inert material or of heavy metals or their alloys, maybe in a finely divided state or in the form, of pieces or chips, at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C, or better between 600 and 700/sup 0/C at a velocity per hour of 0.6 to 3.0, and preferably 0.75 to 1.5 parts per volume of products per each part of space volume of catalyst.

  11. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang,; Dali, [Los Alamos, NM; Devlin, David [Santa Fe, NM; Barbero, Robert S [Santa Cruz, NM; Carrera, Martin E [Naperville, IL; Colling, Craig W [Warrenville, IL

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  12. Production of hydrocarbons of value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-06-16

    A process is described for the production of hydrocarbons of great value by treating with heat and pressure carbonaceous materials such as coals, tars, mineral oils, and products of distillation and transformation of these materials, also for the refining with heat and pressure of mixed liquid hydrocarbons by means of hydrogen gas, preferably in the presence of catalysts, consisting in using as the hydrogenating gas that obtained by gasification of combustible solids after partial or complete cleaning at atmospheric or elevated pressures, by means of solid adsorbents, chemical agents or catalysts, or mixtures of these agents, the hydrocarbons being characterized by strong unsaturation, and the presence of oxygen, sulfur compounds, and oxides of nitrogen.

  13. Process of distilling heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1929-12-03

    This invention has for its object the distillation of heavy liquid hydrocarbons for the purpose of obtaining lighter hydrocarbons stable and immediately salable for fuels in combustion motors. The process is distinguished by the fact that the heavy hydrocarbon is distilled by means of heating to a temperature in keeping with the nature of the material to be treated up to 350/sup 0/C under pressure or without pressure the distillation being carried out on catalysts containing successively nickel, copper, and iron (3 parts of nickel, 1 part of copper, and 1 part of iron), the vapors produced by this distillation being exposed in turn to the action of catalysts of the same nature and in the same proportion.

  14. Hydrocarbon Seeps Formations: a Study Using 3-D Seismic Attributes in Combination with Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Pineda, O. G.; MacDonald, I. R.; Shedd, W.

    2011-12-01

    Analyzing the magnitude of oil discharges from natural hydrocarbon seeps is important in improving our understanding of carbon contribution as oil migrates from deeper sediments to the water column, and then eventually to the atmosphere. Liquid hydrocarbon seepage in the deep water of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is associated with deep cutting faults, associated with vertical salt movement, that provide conduits for the upward migration of oil and gas. Seeps transform surface geology and generate prominent geophysical targets that can be identified on 3-D seismic data as seafloor amplitude anomalies maps that correlate with the underlying deep fault systems. Using 3D seismic data, detailed mapping of the northern GOM has identified more than 21,000 geophysical anomalies across the basin. In addition to seismic data, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images have proven to be a reliable tool for localizing natural seepage of oil. We used a Texture Classifier Neural Network Algorithm (TCNNA) to process more than 1200 SAR images collected over the GOM. We quantified more than 900 individual seep formations distributed along the continental shelf and in deep water. Comparison of the geophysical anomalies with the SAR oil slick targets shows good general agreement between the distributions of the two indicators. However, there are far fewer active oil slicks than geophysical anomalies, most of which are probably associated with gas seepage. By examining several sites where the location of active venting can be determined by submersibles observations, we found that the active oily vents are often spatially offset from the most intense geophysical targets (i.e. GC600, GC767, GC204, etc). In addition to the displacement of the oil by deep sea currents, we propose that during the 100K years of activity, the location of the vents on the seafloor probably migrate as carbonate cementation reduces the permeability of the upper sediment. Many of the geophysical targets may represent

  15. Reconstructing the pollinator community and predicting seed set from hydrocarbon footprints on flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witjes, Sebastian; Witsch, Kristian; Eltz, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    The measurement of insect visits to flowers is essential in basic and applied pollination ecology studies but often fraught with difficulty. Floral visitation is highly variable, and observational studies are limited in scope due to the considerable time necessary to acquire reliable data. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the analysis of hydrocarbon residues (footprints) deposited by insects during flower visits would allow reconstruction of the visitor community and prediction of seed set for large numbers of plants. In 3 consecutive years, we recorded bumblebee visitation to wild plants of comfrey, Symphytum officinale, and later used gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to quantify bumblebee-derived unsaturated hydrocarbons (UHCs) extracted from flowers. We found that the UHCs washed from corollas were most similar to the tarsal UHC profile of the most abundant bumblebee species, Bombus pascuorum, in all 3 years. The species composition of the bumblebee communities estimated from UHCs on flowers were also similar to those actually observed. There was a significant positive correlation between the observed number of visits by each of three bumblebee species (contributing 3-68% of flower visits) and the estimated number of visits based on UHC profiles. Furthermore, significant correlations were obtained separately for workers and drones of two of the study species. Seed set of comfrey plants was positively correlated to overall bumblebee visitation and the total amount of UHCs on flowers, suggesting the potential for pollen limitation. We suggest that quantifying cumulative footprint hydrocarbons provides a novel way to assess floral visitation by insects and can be used to predict seed set in pollen-limited plants.

  16. Preparing valuable hydrocarbons by hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1930-08-22

    A process is described for the preparation of valuable hydrocarbons by treatment of carbonaceous materials, like coal, tars, minerals oils, and their distillation and conversion products, and for refining of liquid hydrocarbon mixture obtained at raised temperature and under pressure, preferably in the presence of catalysts, by the use of hydrogen-containing gases, purified and obtained by distilling solid combustibles, characterized by the purification of the hydrogen-containing gases being accomplished for the purpose of practically complete removal of the oxygen by heating at ordinary or higher pressure in the presence of a catalyst containing silver and oxides of metals of group VI of the periodic system.

  17. Purifying and regenerating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-19

    Hydrocarbons are freed from sulfur-containing compounds, colloidal asphaltic bodies and unstable unsaturated substances by treatment with a small amount of dilute sulfuric acid and a salt of a trivalent cation, such as ferric chloride or sulfate. Hydrocarbons specified are petroleum, crude benzol, low temperature tars, shale oil or vapor-phase cracked spirit. Motor spirit or lubricating oil distillates are refined and finally distilled. The acid reagent may be regenerated by filtering through sand or asbestos. Used lubricating oils may be treated similarly and after removal of refining agent, the oil is heated with an adsorbent and decolorizing material and then filtered.

  18. Chronic toxicity of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to algae and crustaceans using passive dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragin, Gail E; Parkerton, Thomas F; Redman, Aaron D; Letinksi, Daniel J; Butler, Josh D; Paumen, Miriam Leon; Sutherland, Cary A; Knarr, Tricia M; Comber, Mike; den Haan, Klaas

    2016-12-01

    Because of the large number of possible aromatic hydrocarbon structures, predictive toxicity models are needed to support substance hazard and risk assessments. Calibration and evaluation of such models requires toxicity data with well-defined exposures. The present study has applied a passive dosing method to generate reliable chronic effects data for 8 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia. The observed toxicity of these substances on algal growth rate and neonate production were then compared with available literature toxicity data for these species, as well as target lipid model and chemical activity-based model predictions. The use of passive dosing provided well-controlled exposures that yielded more consistent data sets than attained by past literature studies. Results from the present study, which were designed to exclude the complicating influence of ultraviolet light, were found to be well described by both target lipid model and chemical activity effect models. The present study also found that the lack of chronic effects for high molecular weight PAHs was consistent with the limited chemical activity that could be achieved for these compounds in the aqueous test media. Findings from this analysis highlight that variability in past literature toxicity data for PAHs may be complicated by both poorly controlled exposures and photochemical processes that can modulate both exposure and toxicity. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2948-2957. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  19. Method for upgrading diene-containing hydrocarbon mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwell, L.E. Jr.; Holcomb, D.E.

    1984-05-22

    There is disclosed a method for upgrading of hydrocarbon mixtures, so as to reduce their content of gum precursors such as diolefins and pseudo-diolefins, and provide a resulting product mixture suitable for mild hydrogenation, for use as a motor fuel or as a feed stock to an extraction unit. The process comprises obtaining a hydrocarbon mixture containing about 60-90 wt. % of aromatic components, about 3-40 wt. % of dienes and pseudodienes, and monoolefins, and up to about 6 wt. % of relatively unreactive organic compounds, reacting this mixture with elemental sulfur in the approximate weight ratio of about 5-95 wt. % of the hydrocarbon mixture with about 95-5 wt. % of elemental sulfur, the reaction being carried out at a temperature in the range of 100/sup 0/-150/sup 0/ C. for about 10 minutes to 24 hours with good mixing, removing the unreacted materials by distillation and separating a sulfur-hydrocarbon reaction product to provide the upgraded hydrocarbon mixture.

  20. System Reliability Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Tae Jin

    2005-02-01

    This book tells of reliability engineering, which includes quality and reliability, reliability data, importance of reliability engineering, reliability and measure, the poisson process like goodness of fit test and the poisson arrival model, reliability estimation like exponential distribution, reliability of systems, availability, preventive maintenance such as replacement policies, minimal repair policy, shock models, spares, group maintenance and periodic inspection, analysis of common cause failure, and analysis model of repair effect.

  1. BIOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-HYDROCARBON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    under field conditions in the bioremediation of a petroleum- hydrocarbon polluted ... an accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a polluted agricultural soil ..... 12) Jackson, M.L. Soil chemical analysis. ... biological assay. 3 rd.

  2. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  3. Airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons trigger human skin cells aging through aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yuan; Li, Qiang; Du, Hong-Yang; Wang, Qiao-Wei; Huang, Ye; Liu, Wei

    2017-07-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) which adsorbed on the surface of ambient air particulate matters (PM), are the major toxic compound to cause cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, even cancer. However, its detrimental effects on human skin cell remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that SRM1649b, a reference urban dust material of PAH, triggers human skin cells aging through cell cycle arrest, cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Principally, SRM1649b facilitated Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) translocated into nucleus, subsequently activated ERK/MAPK signaling pathway, and upregulated aging-related genes expression. Most important, we found that AhR antagonist efficiently revert the aging of skin cells. Thus our novel findings firstly revealed the mechanism of skin aging under PAH contamination and provided potential strategy for clinical application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This document provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system. In addition to regulating the construction and operation of Canada's 45,000 km of pipeline that cross international and provincial borders, Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. The ability of pipelines to delivery this energy is critical to the country's economic prosperity. The pipeline system includes large-diameter, cross-country, high-pressure natural gas pipelines, low-pressure crude oil and oil products pipelines and small-diameter pipelines. In order to assess the hydrocarbon transportation system, staff at the NEB collected data from pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources. The Board also held discussions with members of the investment community regarding capital markets and emerging issues. The assessment focused largely on evaluating whether Canadians benefit from an efficient energy infrastructure and markets. The safety and environmental integrity of the pipeline system was also evaluated. The current adequacy of pipeline capacity was assessed based on price differentials compared with firm service tolls for major transportation paths; capacity utilization on pipelines; and, the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. The NEB concluded that the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system is working effectively, with an adequate capacity in place on existing natural gas pipelines, but with a tight capacity on oil pipelines. It was noted that shippers continue to indicate that they are reasonably satisfied with the services provided by pipeline companies and that the NEB-regulated pipeline companies are financially stable. 14 refs, 11 tabs., 28 figs., 4 appendices

  5. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  6. Hydrocarbon potential of Ordovician and Silurian rocks. Siljan Region (Sweden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, U. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Lehnert, O. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany); Meinhold, G. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Hydrocarbon exploration in the vicinity of Europe's largest impact structure (Siljan, Central Sweden) focused for years on abiogenic concepts and largely neglected state of the art knowledge on hydrocarbon generation via thermal decomposition of organic matter. In our study we use sedimentary rocks obtained from three drill sites (Mora001, Stumsnaes 1 and Solberga 1) within the ring structure around the central uplift to investigate the hydrocarbon potential of Ordovician and Silurian strata of the region and also for comparison with the shale oil and gas potential of age equivalent rocks of the Baltic Sea. Elemental analyses provided information on concentrations of carbonate and organic carbon, total sulfur as well as on the composition of major and minor elements of the sediments. The data has been used to evaluate the depositional environment and possible diagenetic alterations of the organic matter. RockEval pyrolysis and solvent hydrocarbon extraction gave insight into the hydrocarbon generation potential and the type and thermal maturity of the sediments. From the geochemistry data of the studied wells it is obvious that changes of depositional environments (lacustrine - marine) have occurred during Ordovician and Silurian times. Although, the quality of the organic matter has been influenced in marine and brackish environments through sulfate reduction, we observe for a number of marine and lacustrine sediments a good to excellent preservation of the biological precursors which qualify the sediments as hydrocarbon source rocks (Type II kerogens). Lacustrine source rocks show a higher remaining hydrocarbon potential (up to {proportional_to}550 mg HC per g C{sub org}) than those of marine or brackish environments. Our investigations indicate that the thermal maturity of organic matter of the drill sites has reached the initial stage of oil generation. However, at Mora001 some of the sediments were stained with oil indicating that hydrocarbons have

  7. Enhancement of in situ Remediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmroth, M.

    2006-07-01

    . However, the toxicity of aged hydrocarbon contaminated soil to Vibrio fischeri (a luminescent bacterium) and Enchytraeus albidus (enchytraeid) was low, and thus these toxicity indicators do not reliably reflect the progress of remediation of this aged hydrocarbon contaminated soil. All studied hydrocarbon contaminated soils contained metabolically active bacteria capable of degrading hydrocarbons. Both phytoremediation and modified Fenton's oxidation enhanced removal of hydrocarbons. However, the performance of these in situ remediation processes was case-dependent, the removal of aged hydrocarbon contaminants being more difficult than that of fresh hydrocarbon contaminants. Therefore, phytoremediation can be recommended to remove fresh diesel fuel contamination, but the removal of aged hydrocarbons requires other treatment methods, especially if remediation has to be achieved fast.

  8. Waste package reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Sastre, C.

    1983-01-01

    Proof of future performance of a complex system such as a high-level nuclear waste package over a period of hundreds to thousands of years cannot be had in the ordinary sense of the word. The general method of probabilistic reliability analysis could provide an acceptable framework to identify, organize, and convey the information necessary to satisfy the criterion of reasonable assurance of waste package performance according to the regulatory requirements set forth in 10 CFR 60. General principles which may be used to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative reliability of a waste package design are indicated and illustrated with a sample calculation of a repository concept in basalt. 8 references, 1 table

  9. Reliability and construction control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif S. AbdelSalam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the most reliable and efficient combination of design and construction methods required for vibro piles. For a wide range of static and dynamic formulas, the reliability-based resistance factors were calculated using EGYPT database, which houses load test results for 318 piles. The analysis was extended to introduce a construction control factor that determines the variation between the pile nominal capacities calculated using static versus dynamic formulae. From the major outcomes, the lowest coefficient of variation is associated with Davisson’s criterion, and the resistance factors calculated for the AASHTO method are relatively high compared with other methods. Additionally, the CPT-Nottingham and Schmertmann method provided the most economic design. Recommendations related to a pile construction control factor were also presented, and it was found that utilizing the factor can significantly reduce variations between calculated and actual capacities.

  10. Bioremediation in soil contaminated with hydrocarbons in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Trujillo Toro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes bioremediation processes of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in Colombia as a sustainable alternative to the deterioration of environmental quality by hydrocarbon spillage. According to national and international environmental law, all waste contaminated with hydrocarbons is considered dangerous waste, and therefore it cannot be released in the ground, water or be incinerated. Such legislation has motivated companies around the world to implement treatment processes for contaminated soils. Within Colombia, oil companies have been implementing the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in order to manage the waste coming from activities of oil drilling, refinement, transport and distribution.These practices must be considered viable for their ease of implementation, their low overhead costs, and for the benefits they provide towards environmental quality. Among the positive impacts that these practices have generated, it may consider the following: a solution for the problem of hydrocarbon contaminated soils, alternatives for the ultimate disposal of said waste without affecting ground, water or air resources, the low cost of the operation, and the technical experience of sustainable development which can continue to be implemented in companies dealing with dangerous waste.

  11. Simulation of enhanced in-situ biorestoration of petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borden, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a general mathematical model being developed to aid in the design and analysis of projects for the enhanced aerobic bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated aquifers. Development of the enhanced biotransformation model is proceeding in three steps: development of an abiotic hydrocarbon dissolution model; coupling the dissolution model with existing equations for simulating aerobic biodegradation; and comparison with laboratory data. The model assumes that the residual hydrocarbon is distributed between two fractions, a fast fraction in equilibrium with the aqueous phase and a slow fraction in which mass transfer is limited. Overall, the model provides an excellent fit to the experimental data and requires a minimum of input parameters

  12. Root Exudation: The Ecological Driver of Hydrocarbon Rhizoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Rohrbacher

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoremediation is a bioremediation technique whereby microbial degradation of organic contaminants occurs in the rhizosphere. It is considered to be an effective and affordable “green technology” for remediating soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. Root exudation of a wide variety of compounds (organic, amino and fatty acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, nucleotides, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides and proteins provide better nutrient uptake for the rhizosphere microbiome. It is thought to be one of the predominant drivers of microbial communities in the rhizosphere and is therefore a potential key factor behind enhanced hydrocarbon biodegradation. Many of the genes responsible for bacterial adaptation in contaminated soil and the plant rhizosphere are carried by conjugative plasmids and transferred among bacteria. Because root exudates can stimulate gene transfer, conjugation in the rhizosphere is higher than in bulk soil. A better understanding of these phenomena could thus inform the development of techniques to manipulate the rhizosphere microbiome in ways that improve hydrocarbon bioremediation.

  13. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review.

  14. Process for separating liquid hydrocarbons from waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, F J

    1948-03-08

    A process is described for the separation of liquid hydrocarbons from waxes comprising adding to a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons and waxes a sufficient quantity of an organo-silicon compound to cause the separation of the hydrocarbon and wax. The organo-silicon compounds are selected from the class of organic silicanes and their hydrolysis products and polymers. The silicanes have the formula R/sub y/SiX/sub z/, in which R is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon radical, X is a halogen or another hydrocarbon radical or an -OR group, y has a value 1, 2, or 3 and z has a value 1, 2, or 3.

  15. AMSAA Reliability Growth Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Broemm, William

    2000-01-01

    ... has developed reliability growth methodology for all phases of the process, from planning to tracking to projection. The report presents this methodology and associated reliability growth concepts.

  16. Hydrocarbon saturation determination using acoustic velocities obtained through casing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Daniel

    2010-03-09

    Compressional and shear velocities of earth formations are measured through casing. The determined compressional and shear velocities are used in a two component mixing model to provides improved quantitative values for the solid, the dry frame, and the pore compressibility. These are used in determination of hydrocarbon saturation.

  17. Tolerance of Antarctic soil fungi to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Bridge, Paul; Clark, Melody S. [British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of hydrocarbons and fuel oil on Antarctic filamentous fungi in the terrestrial Antarctic environment. Growth of fungi and bacteria from soils around Rothera Research Station (Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula) was assessed in the presence of ten separate aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons [marine gas oil (MGO), dodecane, hexadecane, benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, toluene, phenol, biphenyl, naphthalene and m- and p-xylenes with ethylbenzene]. Aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited soil microbial growth more than aliphatic hydrocarbons. Soil microorganisms from a moss patch, where little previous impact or hydrocarbon contamination had occurred, were less tolerant of hydrocarbons than those from high impact sites. Fungal growth rates of Mollisia sp., Penicillium commune, Mortierella sp., Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma sp. and Phoma herbarum were assessed in the presence of hydrocarbons. Generally, aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited or stopped hyphal extension, though growth rates increased with some aliphatic hydrocarbons. Hyphal dry weight measurements suggested that Mortierella sp. may be able to use dodecane as sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading Antarctic fungi may have use in future hydrocarbon spill bioremediation. (author)

  18. Hydrocarbon solvent exposure data: compilation and analysis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, D J; Armstrong, T W; Barone, N J; Suder, J A; Evans, M J

    2000-01-01

    An occupational exposure database for hydrocarbon solvent end-use applications was constructed from the published literature. The database provides exposure assessment information for such purposes as regulatory risk assessments, support of industry product stewardship initiatives, and identification of applications in which limited exposure data are available. It is quantitative, documented, and based on credible data. Approximately 350 articles containing quantitative hydrocarbon solvent exposure data were identified using a search of computer databases of published literature. Many articles did not report sufficient details of the exposure data for inclusion in the database (e.g., full-shift exposure or task-based exposure data). Others were excluded because only limited summary statistics were provided, which precluded statistical analysis of the data (e.g., arithmetic mean concentration presented, but no sample number). Following evaluation, 16,880 hydrocarbon solvent exposure measurements from 99 articles were entered into a database for analysis. Methods used to identify and evaluate published solvent exposure data are described along with more detailed analysis of worker exposure to hydrocarbon solvents in three major end-use applications: painting and coating, printing, and adhesives. Solvent exposures were evaluated against current ACGIH threshold limit values (TLVs) and trends were identified. Limited quantitative data are available prior to 1970. In general, reported hydrocarbon solvent exposures decreased fourfold from 1960 to 1998, were below the TLVs applicable to specific hydrocarbon solvents at the time, and on average have been below 40% of the TLV since 1980. The database already has proved valuable; however, the utility of published exposure data could be further improved if authors consistently reported essential data elements and supporting information.

  19. A method of estimating the knock rating of hydrocarbon fuel blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Newell D

    1943-01-01

    The usefulness of the knock ratings of pure hydrocarbon compounds would be increased if some reliable method of calculating the knock ratings of fuel blends was known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of developing a method of predicting the knock ratings of fuel blends.

  20. A reliability simulation language for reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deans, N.D.; Miller, A.J.; Mann, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The results of work being undertaken to develop a Reliability Description Language (RDL) which will enable reliability analysts to describe complex reliability problems in a simple, clear and unambiguous way are described. Component and system features can be stated in a formal manner and subsequently used, along with control statements to form a structured program. The program can be compiled and executed on a general-purpose computer or special-purpose simulator. (DG)

  1. The value of reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Karlström, Anders

    2010-01-01

    We derive the value of reliability in the scheduling of an activity of random duration, such as travel under congested conditions. Using a simple formulation of scheduling utility, we show that the maximal expected utility is linear in the mean and standard deviation of trip duration, regardless...... of the form of the standardised distribution of trip durations. This insight provides a unification of the scheduling model and models that include the standard deviation of trip duration directly as an argument in the cost or utility function. The results generalise approximately to the case where the mean...

  2. Microbial production of gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hideo

    1987-10-20

    Microbial production of ethylene, isobutane and a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture was described. Microbial ethylene production was studied with Penicillium digitatum IFO 9372 and a novel pathway of the ethylene biosynthesis through alpha-ketoglutarate was proposed. Rhodotorula minuta IFO 1102 was selected for the microbial production of isobutane and the interesting actions of L-leucine and L-phenylalanine for the isobutane production were found. It was finally presented about the microbial production of a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture with Rhizopus japonicus IFO 4758 was described. A gas mixture was produced through a chemical reaction of SH compounds and some cellular component such as squalene under aerobic conditions. (4 figs, 7 tabs, 41 refs)

  3. Scottish hydrocarbons: Borders and bounty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    1999-01-01

    On 6 May, the people of Scotland will vote for the country's first parliament in almost three centuries. One issue is expected to arouse particularly strong views: the question of North Sea oil and gas, and who benefits from its production and taxation. Most of these hydrocarbons lie in the northern half of the British Isles, but drawing boundaries to settle contentious issues such as oil and gas fields is not an easy task. And, if boundaries were to be drawn, then a scarcely less contentious subject arises: just how much cash might an independent Scotland expect to receive? Reading between the lines it's clear that in hard cash terms, were Scotland to be independent whilst still retaining the vast bulk of North Sea oilfields, depressed prices would ensure that hydrocarbon tax revenues would be unlikely to constitute a particularly impressive addition to the Scottish Treasury. (UK)

  4. Laboratory Studies of Hydrocarbon Oxidation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, J. J.; Tyndall, G. S.; Wallington, T. J.; Burkholder, J. B.; Bertman, S. B.; Chen, W.

    2001-12-01

    The oxidation of hydrocarbon species (alkanes, alkenes, halogenated species, and oxygenates of both natural and anthropogenic origin) in the troposphere leads to the generation of numerous potentially harmful secondary pollutants, such as ozone, organic nitrates and acids, and aerosols. These oxidations proceed via the formation of alkoxy radicals, whose complex chemistry controls the ultimate product distributions obtained. Studies of hydrocarbon oxidation mechanisms are ongoing at NCAR and Ford, using environmental chamber / FTIR absorption systems. The focus of these studies is often on the product distributions obtained at low temperature; these studies not only provide data of direct relevance to the free/upper troposphere, but also allow for a more fundamental understanding of the alkoxy radical chemistry (eg., from the determination of the Arrhenius parameters for unimolecular processes, and the quantification of the extent of the involvement of chemical activation in the alkoxy radical chemistry). In this paper, data will be presented on some or all of the following topics: kinetics/mechanisms for the reactions of OH with the unsaturated species MPAN, acrolein, and crotonaldehyde; the mechanism for the oxidation of ethyl chloride and ethyl bromide; and the mechanism for the reaction of OH with acetone and acetaldehyde at low temperature. The relevance of the data to various aspects of tropospheric chemistry will be discussed.

  5. Investigating hydrocarbon contamination using ground penetrating radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roest, P.B. van der; Brasser, D.J.S.; Wagebaert, A.P.J.; Stam, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    The increasing costs of remediating contaminated sites has stimulated research for cost reducing techniques in soil investigation and clean-up techniques. Under the traditional approach soil borings and groundwater wells are used to investigate contaminated soil. These are useful tools to determine the amount and characteristics of the contamination, but they are inefficient and costly in providing information on the location and extent of contamination as they only give information on one point. This often leads to uncertainty in estimating clean-up costs or, even worse, to unsuccessful clean-ups. MAP Environmental Research has developed a technology using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) in combination with in-house developed software to locate and define the extent of hydrocarbon contamination. With this technology, the quality of site investigation is increased while costs are reduced. Since 1994 MAP has been improving its technology and has applied it to over 100 projects, which all have been checked afterwards by conventional drilling. This paper gives some general characteristics of the method and presents a case study. The emphasis of this paper lies on the practical application of GPR to hydrocarbon contamination detection

  6. Treatment of hydrocarbon oil vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamplough, F

    1923-03-01

    An apparatus for treating hydrocarbon vapors for the purpose of preventing dehydrogenation is disclosed which comprises in combination a cooling tower having a vapor inlet at the bottom and a vapor outlet at the top, means to direct the entering vapors laterally in a plurality of jets against an interior side wall or walls of the tower and means to constrain the condensate to gravitate down the tower in the interior wall or walls against which the encountering vapor is forced to impinge.

  7. Towards Reliable Integrated Services for Dependable Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Ravn, Anders Peter; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    Reliability issues for various technical systems are discussed and focus is directed towards distributed systems, where communication facilities are vital to maintain system functionality. Reliability in communication subsystems is considered as a resource to be shared among a number of logical c...... applications residing on alternative routes. Details are provided for the operation of RRRSVP based on reliability slack calculus. Conclusions summarize the considerations and give directions for future research....... connections and a reliability management framework is suggested. We suggest a network layer level reliability management protocol RRSVP (Reliability Resource Reservation Protocol) as a counterpart of the RSVP for bandwidth and time resource management. Active and passive standby redundancy by background...

  8. Towards Reliable Integrated Services for Dependable Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Ravn, Anders Peter; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2003-01-01

    Reliability issues for various technical systems are discussed and focus is directed towards distributed systems, where communication facilities are vital to maintain system functionality. Reliability in communication subsystems is considered as a resource to be shared among a number of logical c...... applications residing on alternative routes. Details are provided for the operation of RRRSVP based on reliability slack calculus. Conclusions summarize the considerations and give directions for future research....... connections and a reliability management framework is suggested. We suggest a network layer level reliability management protocol RRSVP (Reliability Resource Reservation Protocol) as a counterpart of the RSVP for bandwidth and time resource management. Active and passive standby redundancy by background...

  9. Advanced Hydrocarbon Fuel Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, S. Don; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    As a part of a high energy density materials (HEDM) development, the hot fire tests for Quadricyclane, 1,7 Octadiyne, AFRL-1, Biclopropylidene, and CINCH (Dimethyl amino ethyl azide) have been conducted at NASA/MSFC. The first 4 materials for this task are provided from Air Force Research Laboratory at Edward Air Force Base and US Army provided CINCH. The performance of these fuels is compared with RP-1. The preliminary results of these tests are presented. The preliminary results of Quadricyclane tests indicate that the specific impulse and c-star efficiency for quadricyclane at the mixture ratio 1.94 are approximately 5 sec and 105 ft/sec better than the RP-1 at mixture ratio 1.9. The 1,7 Octadiyne test indicate that the specific impulse and c-star efficiency at the mixture ratio 2.1 are approximately -1 sec and 89 ft/sec differ than the RP-1 at mixture ratio 2.04. The Quadricyclane soot buildup at the combustor is a little more than RP-1, but detail study of soot formation is not considered at this time. There was no visual soot buildup for the 1,7 Octadiyne and AFRL-1.

  10. Heavy Lift Launch Capability with a New Hydrocarbon Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Holt, James B.; Philips, Alan D.; Garcia, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center was tasked to define the thrust requirement of a new liquid oxygen rich staged combustion cycle hydrocarbon engine that could be utilized in a launch vehicle to meet NASA s future heavy lift needs. Launch vehicle concepts were sized using this engine for different heavy lift payload classes. Engine out capabilities for one of the heavy lift configurations were also analyzed for increased reliability that may be desired for high value payloads or crewed missions. The applicability for this engine in vehicle concepts to meet military and commercial class payloads comparable to current ELV capability was also evaluated.

  11. Source rock hydrocarbons. Present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vially, R.; Maisonnier, G.; Rouaud, T.

    2013-01-01

    This report first presents the characteristics of conventional oil and gas system, and the classification of liquid and gaseous non conventional hydrocarbons, with the peculiar case of coal-bed methane. The authors then describe how source rock hydrocarbons are produced: production of shale oils and gases (horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, exploitation) and of coal-bed methane and coal mine methane. In the next part, they address and discuss the environmental impact of source rock hydrocarbon production: installation footprint, water resource management, drilling fluids, fracturing fluids composition, toxicity and recycling, air pollution, induced seismicity, pollutions from other exploitation and production activities. They propose an overview of the exploitation and production of source rock gas, coal-bed gas and other non conventional gases in the world. They describe the current development and discuss their economic impacts: world oil context and trends in the USA, in Canada and other countries, impacts on the North American market, on the world oil industry, on refining industries, on the world oil balance. They analyse the economic impacts of non conventional gases: development potential, stakes for the world gas trade, consequence for gas prices, development opportunities for oil companies and for the transport sector, impact on CO 2 emissions, macro-economic impact in the case of the USA

  12. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, J E

    1923-03-19

    In distilling mineral oils such as petroleum, shale oil, distillates and topped or residual oils, particularly to obtain lubricating oils, the distillation is carried out under reduced pressures below an absolute pressure of 25 mm. of mercury and preferably below about 5 mm. of mercury, and the distillate is collected in fractions determined by the physical characteristics, such as viscosity, flash point, fire point, etc. Superheated steam may be passed through the liquid during distillation. A horizontal cylindrical still provided with cross braces and peripheral ribs interrupted at the base is connected through a condensing coil immersed in a steam chest and a baffled chamber with distillate receiver and is evacuated by a pump. Steam from a boiler and superheater is injected into the still through a perforated pipe. Steam and light oil vapors passing from the chamber are condensed in a coil.

  13. Mineral oil and synthetic hydrocarbons in cosmetic lip products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, M; Stebler, T; Grob, K

    2016-04-01

    Lipsticks and lip care products may contain saturated hydrocarbons which either stem from mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) or are synthetic, that is polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons (POSH). Some of these hydrocarbons are strongly accumulated and form granulomas in human tissues, which prompted Cosmetics Europe (former Colipa) to issue a recommendation for their use in lip care and oral products. From 2012 to 2014, MOSH+POSH were determined in 175 cosmetic lip products taken from the Swiss market in order to estimate their contribution to human exposure. Mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons and POSH were extracted and analysed by GC with FID. Areas were integrated as a total as well as by mass ranges with cuts at n-C25 and n-C34 to characterize the molecular mass distribution. About 68% of the products contained at least 5% MOSH+POSH (total concentration). For regular users, these products would be major contributors to their MOSH+POSH exposure. About 31% of the products contained more than 32% MOSH+POSH. Their regular usage would amount in an estimated MOSH+POSH exposure exceeding the highest estimated dietary exposure. The majority of the products contained hydrocarbons with a molecular mass range which was not in line with the recommendations of Cosmetics Europe. Taking into account that material applied to the lips largely ends up being ingested, MOSH and POSH levels should be reduced in the majority of cosmetic lip products. As the extensive evaluation of the data available on MOSH (EFSA J., 10, 2012, 2704) did not enable the specification of limits considered as safe, the present level of dietary exposure and its evaluation as 'of potential concern' provide the relevant bench mark, which means that lip products should contain clearly less than 5% MOSH+POSH. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. Remediation of hydrocarbons in crude oil-contaminated soils using Fenton's reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojinnaka, Chukwunonye; Osuji, Leo; Achugasim, Ozioma

    2012-11-01

    Sandy soil samples spiked with Bonny light crude oil were subsequently treated with Fenton's reagent at acidic, neutral, and basic pH ranges. Oil extracts from these samples including an untreated one were analyzed 1 week later with a gas chromatograph to provide evidence of hydrocarbon depletion by the oxidant. The reduction of three broad hydrocarbon groups-total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH); benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) were investigated at various pHs. Hydrocarbon removal was efficient, with treatment at the acidic pH giving the highest removal of about 96% for PAH, 99% for BTEX, and some TPH components experiencing complete disappearance. The four-ringed PAHs were depleted more than their three-ringed counterparts at the studied pH ranges.

  15. Evaluation of synthetic hydrocarbons for mark-recapture studies on the red milkweed beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzel, Matthew D; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2002-05-01

    This study evaluates the potential for using blends of synthetic hydrocarbons in mark-recapture studies of insects. To test the durability of hydrocarbons, we applied a blend of five straight-chain hydrocarbons (C24, C21, C26. C28, C30) to detached elytra of the red milkweed beetle, Tetraopes tetrophthalmus (Forster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), mounted the elytra on pins, and placed them in an exposed location outdoors. The amount of hydrocarbons on the elytra did not change over time, even after two months of exposure to sun and rain. Synthetic hydrocarbons applied to the elytra of living beetles did not significantly influence their longevity or mating success in a laboratory study. and the amounts of hydrocarbons did not change with age. The invariability of hydrocarbon ratios over time suggests that blends could provide a nearly infinite variety of ratios to mark individual insects uniquely and indelibly with a hydrocarbon "fingerprint." This technique offers a convenient, safe, and durable means of individually marking insects and may find application in field studies of larger bodied insects that are long-lived and sedentary.

  16. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  17. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  18. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  19. 78 FR 38851 - Electric Reliability Organization Proposal To Retire Requirements in Reliability Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... either: Provide little protection for Bulk-Power System reliability or are redundant with other aspects... for retirement either: (1) Provide little protection for Bulk-Power System reliability or (2) are... to assure reliability of the Bulk-Power System and should be withdrawn. We have identified 41...

  20. Reliability data banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, A.G.; Bendell, A.

    1991-01-01

    Following an introductory chapter on Reliability, what is it, why it is needed, how it is achieved and measured, the principles of reliability data bases and analysis methodologies are the subject of the next two chapters. Achievements due to the development of data banks are mentioned for different industries in the next chapter, FACTS, a comprehensive information system for industrial safety and reliability data collection in process plants are covered next. CREDO, the Central Reliability Data Organization is described in the next chapter and is indexed separately, as is the chapter on DANTE, the fabrication reliability Data analysis system. Reliability data banks at Electricite de France and IAEA's experience in compiling a generic component reliability data base are also separately indexed. The European reliability data system, ERDS, and the development of a large data bank come next. The last three chapters look at 'Reliability data banks, - friend foe or a waste of time'? and future developments. (UK)

  1. Subsurface Transport of Hydrocarbon Fuel Additives and a Dense Chlorinated Solvent

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guven, O

    1996-01-01

    This report provides a description of the work done at Auburn University for the research project 'Subsurface Transport of Hydrocarbon Fuel additives and a Chlorinated Solvent', supported by Armstrong...

  2. Reliability analysis in intelligent machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcinroy, John E.; Saridis, George N.

    1990-01-01

    Given an explicit task to be executed, an intelligent machine must be able to find the probability of success, or reliability, of alternative control and sensing strategies. By using concepts for information theory and reliability theory, new techniques for finding the reliability corresponding to alternative subsets of control and sensing strategies are proposed such that a desired set of specifications can be satisfied. The analysis is straightforward, provided that a set of Gaussian random state variables is available. An example problem illustrates the technique, and general reliability results are presented for visual servoing with a computed torque-control algorithm. Moreover, the example illustrates the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence at the execution level of an intelligent machine.

  3. Product reliability and thin-film photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Ryan; Feist, Rebekah; Yeung, Simon; Hus, Mike; Bernius, Mark; Langlois, Marc; Bury, Scott; Granata, Jennifer; Quintana, Michael; Carlson, Carl; Sarakakis, Georgios; Ogden, Douglas; Mettas, Adamantios

    2009-08-01

    Despite significant growth in photovoltaics (PV) over the last few years, only approximately 1.07 billion kWhr of electricity is estimated to have been generated from PV in the US during 2008, or 0.27% of total electrical generation. PV market penetration is set for a paradigm shift, as fluctuating hydrocarbon prices and an acknowledgement of the environmental impacts associated with their use, combined with breakthrough new PV technologies, such as thin-film and BIPV, are driving the cost of energy generated with PV to parity or cost advantage versus more traditional forms of energy generation. In addition to reaching cost parity with grid supplied power, a key to the long-term success of PV as a viable energy alternative is the reliability of systems in the field. New technologies may or may not have the same failure modes as previous technologies. Reliability testing and product lifetime issues continue to be one of the key bottlenecks in the rapid commercialization of PV technologies today. In this paper, we highlight the critical need for moving away from relying on traditional qualification and safety tests as a measure of reliability and focus instead on designing for reliability and its integration into the product development process. A drive towards quantitative predictive accelerated testing is emphasized and an industrial collaboration model addressing reliability challenges is proposed.

  4. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio; Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi

    2003-01-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  5. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Allied Health Sciences; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Establishment

    2003-06-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  6. Hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria in marine hydrocarbon seep sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Kleindienst, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are key players in our biosphere because of their ability to degrade various organic compounds including a wide range of hydrocarbons. At marine hydrocarbon seeps, more than 90% of sulfate reduction (SR) is potentially coupled to non-methane hydrocarbon oxidation. Several hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were enriched or isolated from marine sediments. However, in situ active SRB remained largely unknown. In the present thesis, the global distribution and a...

  7. Hydrocarbon control strategies for gasoline marketing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, R.L.; Sakaida, R.R.; Yamada, M.M.

    1978-05-01

    This informational document provides basic and current descriptions of gasoline marketing operations and methods that are available to control hydrocarbon emissions from these operations. The three types of facilities that are described are terminals, bulk plants, and service stations. Operational and business trends are also discussed. The potential emissions from typical facilities, including transport trucks, are given. The operations which lead to emissions from these facilities include (1) gasoline storage, (2) gasoline loading at terminals and bulk plants, (3) gasoline delivery to bulk plants and service stations, and (4) the refueling of vehicles at service stations. Available and possible methods for controlling emissions are described with their estimated control efficiencies and costs. This report also includes a bibliography of references cited in the text, and supplementary sources of information.

  8. Bioavailability enhanced rhizosphere remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchenko, A.; Vorobyov, A.; Zharikov, G.; Ermolenko, Z.; Dyadishchev, N.; Borovick, R.; Sokolov, M.; Ortega-Calvo, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Aliphatic, aromatic and polycyclic aromatic oil hydrocarbons are structurally complicated man-caused pollutants that are constantly brought into biosphere. Oil production in Russia, so as all over the world, is connected with pollution of biotopes, ecosystems and agro-landscapes. Presently large funds are allocated either for oil leak prevention or for discharged oil gathering. At the same time, in spite of large necessity in technologies for efficient reconstruction of soil bio-productivity, reliable regional systems of their remediation in situ have not been developed yet. One such method is rhizosphere remediation, a biotechnology, based on the functioning of plant-microbial complexes. Little is known about bioavailability in phyto-remediation systems. Specific bioavailability-promoting mechanisms, operating in soil with hydrocarbon-degrading populations, may be responsible for increased rates of pollutant transformation (increased bacterial adherence to the pollutants, production of bio-surfactants by bacteria or by plants, possible role of chemotaxis). In the course of work collection of 42 chemo-tactically active bio-surfactant producing strain-degraders of petroleum hydrocarbons including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was created. Two representative strains were selected for detailed chemotaxis studies with PAHs (naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene), bacterial lipopolysaccharide and root exudates from seven different plants. These strains are produce the bio-surfactants (rhamno-lipid). The chemotactic response was quantified with a capillary and densitometric chemotaxis assay. Surface tension of cultural liquid was measured after cultivation of strains in the presence of hexadecane or phenanthrene with the use of a ring tensiometer. Before measuring of surface tension microbial cells were collected from liquid culture by centrifugation. Total petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil were analyzed by infra-red spectroscopy method. PAHs

  9. Bioavailability enhanced rhizosphere remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchenko, A.; Vorobyov, A.; Zharikov, G.; Ermolenko, Z.; Dyadishchev, N.; Borovick, R.; Sokolov, M. [Research Centre for Toxicology and Hygienic Regulation of Biopreparations, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Ortega-Calvo, J.J. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, Sevilla (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    Aliphatic, aromatic and polycyclic aromatic oil hydrocarbons are structurally complicated man-caused pollutants that are constantly brought into biosphere. Oil production in Russia, so as all over the world, is connected with pollution of biotopes, ecosystems and agro-landscapes. Presently large funds are allocated either for oil leak prevention or for discharged oil gathering. At the same time, in spite of large necessity in technologies for efficient reconstruction of soil bio-productivity, reliable regional systems of their remediation in situ have not been developed yet. One such method is rhizosphere remediation, a biotechnology, based on the functioning of plant-microbial complexes. Little is known about bioavailability in phyto-remediation systems. Specific bioavailability-promoting mechanisms, operating in soil with hydrocarbon-degrading populations, may be responsible for increased rates of pollutant transformation (increased bacterial adherence to the pollutants, production of bio-surfactants by bacteria or by plants, possible role of chemotaxis). In the course of work collection of 42 chemo-tactically active bio-surfactant producing strain-degraders of petroleum hydrocarbons including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was created. Two representative strains were selected for detailed chemotaxis studies with PAHs (naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene), bacterial lipopolysaccharide and root exudates from seven different plants. These strains are produce the bio-surfactants (rhamno-lipid). The chemotactic response was quantified with a capillary and densitometric chemotaxis assay. Surface tension of cultural liquid was measured after cultivation of strains in the presence of hexadecane or phenanthrene with the use of a ring tensiometer. Before measuring of surface tension microbial cells were collected from liquid culture by centrifugation. Total petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil were analyzed by infra-red spectroscopy method. PAHs

  10. Catalytic treatment of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-02-23

    A process is described for increasing the octane number of a hydrocarbon oil. The substance is subjected under pressure to a temperature between 800 and 1100/sup 0/C. Catalysts include metal compounds of Groups IV, V, Vi, or VIII (Group VI is perferred). Experiments are performed under a hydrogen atmosphere. Reaction time, temperature, pressure, and partial pressure of the hydrogen are adjusted so that there will be no net hydrogen consumption. The reaction gases (including the products) are recycled in whole or in part to supply the hydrogen gas required.

  11. Catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1940-09-12

    A process is described for the vapor phase catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially in the gas oil range. The reaction takes place in the presence of a solid catalyst between 700 to 900/sup 0/F under pressure between atmospheric and 400 psi. A gas containing between 20 and 90 mol % of free hydrogen is used. The reaction is allowed to proceed until consumption of the free begins. The reaction is discontinued at that point and the catalyst is regenerated for further use.

  12. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  13. Reliability of software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopetz, H.

    1980-01-01

    Common factors and differences in the reliability of hardware and software; reliability increase by means of methods of software redundancy. Maintenance of software for long term operating behavior. (HP) [de

  14. The reformation of liquid hydrocarbons in an aqueous discharge reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuming

    2015-04-21

    We present an aqueous discharge reactor for the reformation of liquid hydrocarbons. To increase a dielectric constant of a liquid medium, we added distilled water to iso-octane and n-dodecane. As expected, we found decreased discharge onset voltage and increased discharge power with increased water content. Results using optical emission spectroscopy identified OH radicals and O atoms as the predominant oxidative reactive species with the addition of water. Enriched CH radicals were also visualized, evidencing the existence of cascade carbon-carbon cleavage and dehydrogenation processes in the aqueous discharge. The gaseous product consisted primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The composition of the product was readily adjustable by varying the volume of water added, which demonstrated a significant difference in composition with respect to the tested liquid hydrocarbon. In this study, we found no presence of CO2 emissions or the contamination of the reactor by solid carbon deposition. These findings offer a new approach to the reforming processes of liquid hydrocarbons and provide a novel concept for the design of a practical and compact plasma reformer. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  15. Do sealless pumps belong in hydrocarbon processing services?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Shawn L. [Sundyne Corporation, Arvada, CO (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Sealless pump technology seems unimaginable in the hot, dirty and high-pressure world of hydrocarbon processing. Furthermore the high flow rates typical of the industry seem incompatible with sealless pumps. Seals and their environmental controls used in conventional technologies are not immune from these factors making sealless worth another look. In October 2000 the Sealless Centrifugal Pump Specification API 685 was published. This specification lends sealless pumps credibility and emphasizes the proper application of the technology. In many process units seal leaks can be extremely dangerous and costly. The heavy hydrocarbons can auto-ignite and light hydrocarbons will tend to find a source of ignition. The ever-increasing requirements for clean fuels are driving many of the current refinery upgrades. Best Also available control technology requirements and additional focus on Environmental Health and Safety increase the attractiveness of sealless technology to mitigate the hazards associated with seal leaks. Sealless has a place in hydrocarbon processing to eliminate seals, provide mechanical simplification, and ensure personnel/environmental protection. The proper application involves evaluating canned motor/magnetic drive technology, API 685 Guidelines, and vapor pressure versus pump circuit pressure analysis. There are four (4) specific processes where sealless pumps should be targeted: Alkylation, Sulfur Recovery/Hydrotreating, Naphtha Reforming Production, and Neutralization. (author)

  16. The reformation of liquid hydrocarbons in an aqueous discharge reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xuming; Cha, Min Suk

    2015-01-01

    We present an aqueous discharge reactor for the reformation of liquid hydrocarbons. To increase a dielectric constant of a liquid medium, we added distilled water to iso-octane and n-dodecane. As expected, we found decreased discharge onset voltage and increased discharge power with increased water content. Results using optical emission spectroscopy identified OH radicals and O atoms as the predominant oxidative reactive species with the addition of water. Enriched CH radicals were also visualized, evidencing the existence of cascade carbon–carbon cleavage and dehydrogenation processes in the aqueous discharge. The gaseous product consisted primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The composition of the product was readily adjustable by varying the volume of water added, which demonstrated a significant difference in composition with respect to the tested liquid hydrocarbon. In this study, we found no presence of CO 2 emissions or the contamination of the reactor by solid carbon deposition. These findings offer a new approach to the reforming processes of liquid hydrocarbons and provide a novel concept for the design of a practical and compact plasma reformer. (paper)

  17. Positron induced scattering cross sections for hydrocarbons relevant to plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suvam; Antony, Bobby

    2018-05-01

    This article explores positron scattering cross sections by simple hydrocarbons such as ethane, ethene, ethyne, propane, and propyne. Chemical erosion processes occurring on the surface due to plasma-wall interactions are an abundant source of hydrocarbon molecules which contaminate the hydrogenic plasma. These hydrocarbons play an important role in the edge plasma region of Tokamak and ITER. In addition to this, they are also one of the major components in the planetary atmospheres and astrophysical mediums. The present work focuses on calculation of different positron impact interactions with simple hydrocarbons in terms of the total cross section (Qtot), elastic cross section (Qel), direct ionization cross section (Qion), positronium formation cross section (Qps), and total ionization cross section (Qtion). Knowing that the positron-plasma study is one of the trending fields, the calculated data have diverse plasma and astrophysical modeling applications. A comprehensive study of Qtot has been provided where the inelastic cross sections have been reported for the first time. Comparisons are made with those available from the literature, and a good agreement is obtained with the measurements.

  18. Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons with Curved Surfaces: Buckyballs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sygula, Andrzej [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The discovery of a new allotropic form of elemental carbon – the fullerenes – and subsequently other novel forms of elemental carbon with pyramidalized surfaces, most notably single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, introduced a novel structural motif to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with nonplanar surfaces. Our research program supported by BES DOE grant DE-FG02-04ER15514 has dealt with the synthesis, structural studies, and chemistry of the novel curved-surface PAHs with carbon frameworks structurally related to fullerenes. They are referred to as “buckybowls”. We prepared several new buckybowls and, even more importantly, developed the efficient, gram-scale synthetic methodologies for the preparation of small buckybowls, most notably corannulene (C20H10) and its derivatives. In addition, the employment of the corannulene-based synthons previously developed in our laboratory led to a number of highly nonplanar molecular architectures with two or more corannulene subunits with a potential for the applications as novel materials in separation sciences, nanoelectronics, photovoltaics and catalysis. In collaboration with Professor Angelici (Iowa State) we prepared and characterized several transition metal complexes of corannulene, providing the first structural characterization of η6 metal complexes of buckybowls by a single crystal X-ray diffraction. In addition to the definitive structural characterization of the complexes we demonstrated that the (η6-C6Me6)Ru2+ unit in some relatively stable complexes activate the corannulene ligand to react with proper nucleophiles suggesting that such complexex may be used in catalysis. (Section C). We have explored the efficiency of the dispersion-based interactions of curved-surface conjugated carbon networks by high-level computational models. We showed that the curvature of such networks does not reduce the van der Waals attractions as compared to the planar systems of similar size. We than

  19. Reliable Design Versus Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation focuses on reliability and trust for the users portion of the FPGA design flow. It is assumed that the manufacturer prior to hand-off to the user tests FPGA internal components. The objective is to present the challenges of creating reliable and trusted designs. The following will be addressed: What makes a design vulnerable to functional flaws (reliability) or attackers (trust)? What are the challenges for verifying a reliable design versus a trusted design?

  20. Pocket Handbook on Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    exponencial distributions Weibull distribution, -xtimating reliability, confidence intervals, relia- bility growth, 0. P- curves, Bayesian analysis. 20 A S...introduction for those not familiar with reliability and a good refresher for those who are currently working in the area. LEWIS NERI, CHIEF...includes one or both of the following objectives: a) prediction of the current system reliability, b) projection on the system reliability for someI future

  1. Insights into hydrocarbon formation by nitrogenase cofactor homologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi Chung; Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W

    2015-04-14

    The L-cluster is an all-iron homolog of nitrogenase cofactors. Driven by europium(II) diethylenetriaminepentaacetate [Eu(II)-DTPA], the isolated L-cluster is capable of ATP-independent reduction of CO and CN(-) to C1 to C4 and C1 to C6 hydrocarbons, respectively. Compared to its cofactor homologs, the L-cluster generates considerably more CH4 from the reduction of CO and CN(-), which could be explained by the presence of a "free" Fe atom that is "unmasked" by homocitrate as an additional site for methanation. Moreover, the elevated CH4 formation is accompanied by a decrease in the amount of longer hydrocarbons and/or the lengths of the hydrocarbon products, illustrating a competition between CH4 formation/release and C-C coupling/chain extension. These observations suggest the possibility of designing simpler synthetic clusters for hydrocarbon formation while establishing the L-cluster as a platform for mechanistic investigations of CO and CN(-) reduction without complications originating from the heterometal and homocitrate components. Nitrogenase is a metalloenzyme that is highly complex in structure and uniquely versatile in function. It catalyzes two reactions that parallel two important industrial processes: the reduction of nitrogen to ammonia, which parallels the Haber-Bosch process in ammonia production, and the reduction of carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons, which parallels the Fischer-Tropsch process in fuel production. Thus, the significance of nitrogenase can be appreciated from the perspective of the useful products it generates: (i) ammonia, the "fixed" nitrogen that is essential for the existence of the entire human population; and (ii) hydrocarbons, the "recycled" carbon fuel that could be used to directly address the worldwide energy shortage. This article provides initial insights into the catalytic characteristics of various nitrogenase cofactors in hydrocarbon formation. The reported assay system provides a useful tool for mechanistic

  2. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated......, and as an example the reliability profile and a sensitivity analyses for a corroded reinforced concrete bridge is shown....

  3. Reliability in engineering '87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuma, M.

    1987-01-01

    The participants heard 51 papers dealing with the reliability of engineering products. Two of the papers were incorporated in INIS, namely ''Reliability comparison of two designs of low pressure regeneration of the 1000 MW unit at the Temelin nuclear power plant'' and ''Use of probability analysis of reliability in designing nuclear power facilities.''(J.B.)

  4. Decontamination of hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes the method of treating hydrocarbon contaminated soil. It comprises forming the soil into a flowing particulate stream, forming an aqueous liquid mixture of water and treating substance that reacts with hydrocarbon to form CO 2 and water, dispersing the liquid mixture into the particulate soil stream to wet the particulate, allowing the substance to react with the wetted soil particulate to thereby form CO 2 and water, thereby the resultant soil is beneficially treated, the stream being freely projected to dwell at a level and then fall, and the dispersing includes spraying the liquid mixture into the projected stream at the dwell, the substance consisting of natural bacteria, and at a concentration level in the mixture of between 100 to 3,000 PPM of bacteria to water, the soil forming step including impacting the soil to reduce it to particles less than about 1 inches in cross dimension, and including forming the wetting particulate into a first layer on a surface to allow the substance to react

  5. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade Watkins, J.

    1970-01-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  6. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade Watkins, J [Petroleum Research, Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  7. Unsaturated medium hydrocarbons pollution evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Luise, G.

    1991-01-01

    When the so called porous unsaturated medium, that's the vertical subsoil section between both the ground and water-table level, is interested by a hydrocarbons spill, the problem to evaluate the pollution becomes difficult: considering, essentially, the natural coexistence in it of two fluids, air and water, and the interactions between them. This paper reports that the problems tend to increase when a third fluid, the pollutant, immiscible with water, is introduced into the medium: a three-phases flow, which presents several analogies with the flow conditions present in an oil-reservoir, will be established. In such a situation, it would be very useful to handle the matter by the commonly used parameters in the oil reservoirs studies such as: residual saturation, relative permeability, phases mobility, to derive a first semiquantitative estimation of the pollution. The subsoil pollution form hydrocarbons agents is one of the worldwide more diffused causes of contamination: such events are generally referable to two main effects: accidental (oil pipeline breakdowns, e.g.), and continuous (underground tanks breaks, industrial plants leakages, e.g.)

  8. Production of hydrogen from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmueller, R

    1984-03-01

    Hydrocarbons are the preferred starting materials for the industrial production of hydrogen. Most hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of light hydrocarbons. Partial oxidation of heavy oil and residue is used for the production of H/sub 2/ and synthesis gas in large plants. In both cases gas purification was improved. Hydrogen-rich gases like coke oven gas, refinery-offgas, and offgases from the chemical and petrochemical industry have high potential for becoming a major source of hydrogen. Processes for recovering H/sub 2/ (and by-products) are condensation and rectification at low temperatures and, most attractive and versatile for the production of very pure H/sub 2/, adsorption (PSA). The environmental impact of H/sub 2/ production lies mainly in the emission of CO/sub 2/ and heat. Other forms of pollution can be considerably reduced by conventional methods. The economy of H/sub 2/ production depends essentially on price and availability of the raw materials.

  9. The electrostatic atomization of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, A J

    1984-06-01

    Exploitation of the unique and potentially beneficial characteristics of electrostatic atomization in combustion systems has foundered upon the inability of two element, diode devices to operate at flow rates that are larger than a fraction of a millilitre per second. This restriction has been attributed to the high innate electrical resistivity of hydrocarbon fuels. A discussion of proposed electrostatic fuel atomizers and their limitations is presented from the vantage of a recently developed theory of electrostatic spraying. Comparison of theory and experiment reveals the existence of a 'constant of spraying' and the presence of an operational regime in which low charge density droplet development is possible. Operation with hydrocarbons in this regime occurs when the mean droplet size is greater than or equal to 10 ..mu..m and fluid viscosity is below about 250 cp. The resulting spray has a mean droplet size that is functionally dependent only upon the free charge density level of the fluid. Consequently there is no theoretical impediment to the attainment of high flow rate electrostatic atomization with fluids of arbitrary conductivity. Implementation is achieved by a general class of electrostatic spray devices which employ direct charge injection. The Spray Triode, a submerged field-emission electron gun, represents a particularly simple member of this new class of atomizer. Among the Spray Triode operational characteristics to be discussed is insensitivity to spray fluid properties and flow rate.

  10. Toward Singlet-Triplet Bistable Nonalternant Kekulé Hydrocarbons: Azulene-to-Naphthalene Rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Soumyajit; Wu, Jishan

    2015-12-04

    Recent developments of open-shell singlet diradicaloids motivated the search for stable singlet-triplet bistable nonalternant polycyclic hydrocarbons. During the synthesis of this type of molecule, such as the dibenzo-cyclohepta[def]fluorene 3, an unexpected azulene-to-naphthalene rearrangement was observed at room temperature, which resulted in new nonalternant hydrocarbons 8a/8b with a closed-shell singlet ground state. These studies provided insight into the unique chemistry of azulene and challenges for the synthesis of singlet-triplet bistable polycyclic hydrocarbons.

  11. Reliable computer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, L L; Pinkert, J R

    1993-11-01

    In this article, we looked at some decisions that apply to the design of reliable computer systems. We began with a discussion of several terms such as testability, then described some systems that call for highly reliable hardware and software. The article concluded with a discussion of methods that can be used to achieve higher reliability in computer systems. Reliability and fault tolerance in computers probably will continue to grow in importance. As more and more systems are computerized, people will want assurances about the reliability of these systems, and their ability to work properly even when sub-systems fail.

  12. Human factor reliability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoblochova, L.

    2017-01-01

    The human factor's reliability program was at Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE) nuclear power plants. introduced as one of the components Initiatives of Excellent Performance in 2011. The initiative's goal was to increase the reliability of both people and facilities, in response to 3 major areas of improvement - Need for improvement of the results, Troubleshooting support, Supporting the achievement of the company's goals. The human agent's reliability program is in practice included: - Tools to prevent human error; - Managerial observation and coaching; - Human factor analysis; -Quick information about the event with a human agent; -Human reliability timeline and performance indicators; - Basic, periodic and extraordinary training in human factor reliability(authors)

  13. Primary biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.H.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Paumen, M.L.; Parkerton, T.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes primary biodegradation experiments performed to determine the persistence of higher molecular weight petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater. Results from the biodegradation experiments show that the majority of tested petroleum hydrocarbons have half-lives in seawater less than 60 days.

  14. Mechanistic model for microbial growth on hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallee, F M; Blanch, H W

    1977-12-01

    Based on available information describing the transport and consumption of insoluble alkanes, a mechanistic model is proposed for microbial growth on hydrocarbons. The model describes the atypical growth kinetics observed, and has implications in the design of large scale equipment for single cell protein (SCP) manufacture from hydrocarbons. The model presents a framework for comparison of the previously published experimental kinetic data.

  15. Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in Thermally Degraded Low Density Polyethylene Films. ... There were alkanes, alkenes, halogenated alkanes, and very few aromatics in the liquid product and, the hydrocarbons were observed to range between C10 - C27. The FTIR and GC-MS results show the ...

  16. Molecular characterization of autochthonous hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Materials and Methods ... culturable hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (HUB) were enumerated by vapour phase ... hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial isolates by boiling method according to ... obtained in this investigation are consistent with past field studies (Kostka et ... Microbial and other related changes in a Niger sediment.

  17. Versatility of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Wang, Weihua; Zhang, Weiwen; Chen, Lei; Lu, Xuefeng

    2017-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms using solar energy, H 2 O, and CO 2 as the primary inputs. Compared to plants and eukaryotic microalgae, cyanobacteria are easier to be genetically engineered and possess higher growth rate. Extensive genomic information and well-established genetic platform make cyanobacteria good candidates to build efficient biosynthetic pathways for biofuels and chemicals by genetic engineering. Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Structural diversity of the hydrocarbon family is enabled by variation in chain length, degree of saturation, and rearrangements of the carbon skeleton. The diversified hydrocarbons can be used as valuable chemicals in the field of food, fuels, pharmaceuticals, nutrition, and cosmetics. Hydrocarbon biosynthesis is ubiquitous in bacteria, yeasts, fungi, plants, and insects. A wide variety of pathways for the hydrocarbon biosynthesis have been identified in recent years. Cyanobacteria may be superior chassis for hydrocabon production in a photosynthetic manner. A diversity of hydrocarbons including ethylene, alkanes, alkenes, and terpenes can be produced by cyanobacteria. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology strategies can be employed to improve hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria. This review mainly summarizes versatility and perspectives of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

  18. 33 CFR 157.166 - Hydrocarbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon emissions. 157.166 Section 157.166 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.166 Hydrocarbon emissions. If the...

  19. Hydrocarbon formation mechanism during uranium monocarbide hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolaev, M.I.; Tishchenko, G.V.

    1979-01-01

    The hydrolysis of uranium monocarbide in oxidative media and in the presence of excessive hydrogen in statu nascendi has been investigated. It was found that oxydants promote the formation of elementary carbon, while in the presence of hydrogen the yield of light C-C hydrocarbons increases. EPR data confirm the radical mechanism of hydrocarbons formation during the decomposition of uranium monocarbide

  20. George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry George Olah received the 1994 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry" and his 'role in the chemistry of hydrocarbons. In particular, he developed superacids

  1. Developing Reliable Life Support for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    A human mission to Mars will require highly reliable life support systems. Mars life support systems may recycle water and oxygen using systems similar to those on the International Space Station (ISS). However, achieving sufficient reliability is less difficult for ISS than it will be for Mars. If an ISS system has a serious failure, it is possible to provide spare parts, or directly supply water or oxygen, or if necessary bring the crew back to Earth. Life support for Mars must be designed, tested, and improved as needed to achieve high demonstrated reliability. A quantitative reliability goal should be established and used to guide development t. The designers should select reliable components and minimize interface and integration problems. In theory a system can achieve the component-limited reliability, but testing often reveal unexpected failures due to design mistakes or flawed components. Testing should extend long enough to detect any unexpected failure modes and to verify the expected reliability. Iterated redesign and retest may be required to achieve the reliability goal. If the reliability is less than required, it may be improved by providing spare components or redundant systems. The number of spares required to achieve a given reliability goal depends on the component failure rate. If the failure rate is under estimated, the number of spares will be insufficient and the system may fail. If the design is likely to have undiscovered design or component problems, it is advisable to use dissimilar redundancy, even though this multiplies the design and development cost. In the ideal case, a human tended closed system operational test should be conducted to gain confidence in operations, maintenance, and repair. The difficulty in achieving high reliability in unproven complex systems may require the use of simpler, more mature, intrinsically higher reliability systems. The limitations of budget, schedule, and technology may suggest accepting lower and

  2. A New Global Open Source Marine Hydrocarbon Emission Site Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyia, E., Jr.; Wood, W. T.; Barnard, A.; Dada, T.; Qazzaz, M.; Lee, T. R.; Herrera, E.; Sager, W.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrocarbon emission sites (e.g. seeps) discharge large volumes of fluids and gases into the oceans that are not only important for biogeochemical budgets, but also support abundant chemosynthetic communities. Documenting the locations of modern emissions is a first step towards understanding and monitoring how they affect the global state of the seafloor and oceans. Currently, no global open source (i.e. non-proprietry) detailed maps of emissions sites are available. As a solution, we have created a database that is housed within an Excel spreadsheet and use the latest versions of Earthpoint and Google Earth for position coordinate conversions and data mapping, respectively. To date, approximately 1,000 data points have been collected from referenceable sources across the globe, and we are continualy expanding the dataset. Due to the variety of spatial extents encountered, to identify each site we used two different methods: 1) point (x, y, z) locations for individual sites and; 2) delineation of areas where sites are clustered. Certain well-known areas, such as the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea, have a greater abundance of information; whereas significantly less information is available in other regions due to the absence of emission sites, lack of data, or because the existing data is proprietary. Although the geographical extent of the data is currently restricted to regions where the most data is publicly available, as the database matures, we expect to have more complete coverage of the world's oceans. This database is an information resource that consolidates and organizes the existing literature on hydrocarbons released into the marine environment, thereby providing a comprehensive reference for future work. We expect that the availability of seafloor hydrocarbon emission maps will benefit scientific understanding of hydrocarbon rich areas as well as potentially aiding hydrocarbon exploration and environmental impact assessements.

  3. Distribution of some hydrocarbons in ambient air near Delft and the influence on the formation of secondary air pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.; Guicherit, R.; Hoogeveen, A.

    1977-01-01

    The relative concentrations of hydrocarbons in the atmosphere may provide information concerning their origin. It appears that the hydrocarbon composition measured in Delft (The Netherlands) is entirely different for northern and southern wind directions. This points to different sources. The most

  4. Teaming up to improve reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, E.A.; Ayres, D.J.; Lear, R.C. van

    1989-01-01

    Responding to increasingly stringent regulatory requirements, Babcock and Wilcox has teamed up with three specialist companies to provide services for nuclear utilities aiming to improve the performance of their valves and actuators. The services, which are outlined here, include inspection, repair, overhaul and valve and actuator reliability programmes. (author)

  5. The microbial nitrogen cycling potential in marine sediments is impacted by polyaromatic hydrocarbon pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Scott

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During petroleum hydrocarbon exposure the composition and functional dynamics of marine microbial communities are altered, favoring bacteria that can utilize this rich carbon source. Initial exposure of high levels of hydrocarbons in aerobic surface sediments can enrich growth of heterotrophic microorganisms having hydrocarbon degradation capacity. As a result, there can be a localized reduction in oxygen potential, if the sediments are aerobic, within the surface layer of marine sediments resulting in anaerobic zones. We hypothesized that increasing exposure to elevated hydrocarbon concentrations would positively correlate with an increase in denitrification processes and the net accumulation of dinitrogen. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the relative abundance of genes associated with nitrogen metabolism and nitrogen cycling identified in 6 metagenomes from sediments contaminated by polyaromatic hydrocarbons from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and 3 metagenomes from sediments associated with natural oil seeps in the Santa Barbara Channel. An additional 8 metagenomes from uncontaminated sediments from the Gulf of Mexico were analyzed for comparison. We predicted relative changes in metabolite turnover as a function of the differential microbial gene abundances, which showed predicted accumulation of metabolites associated with denitrification processes, including anammox, in the contaminated samples compared to uncontaminated sediments, with the magnitude of this change being positively correlated to the hydrocarbon concentration and exposure duration. These data highlight the potential impact of hydrocarbon inputs on N cycling processes in marine sediments and provide information relevant for system scale models of nitrogen metabolism in affected ecosystems.

  6. Diatom, cyanobacterial and microbial mats as indicators of hydrocarbon contaminated Arctic streams and waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziervogel, H.; Selann, J.; Adeney, B. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Nelson, J.A. [J.B. Services, Sarnia, ON (Canada); Murdock, E. [Nunavut Power, Iqaluit (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    An environmental assessment conducted at Repulse Bay, Nunavut in the summer of 2001 revealed a recent diesel spill flowing from the groundwater into a creek. The spill had not been reported. When Arctic surface waters mix with hydrocarbon impacted groundwater and sediments, distinctive mats of diatom, cyanobacteria and other bacteria are formed. These mats have the potential for phytoremediation of hydrocarbons. This paper explained the apparent dominance of mats in contaminated Arctic waters and why they promote biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater are generally anaerobic. The higher dissolved carbon dioxide in polluted soils and groundwater can benefit photosynthetic cyanobacteria and diatom found in oligotrophic, lower alkalinity Arctic waters. The anaerobic and aerobic bacteria can potentially take advantage of the hydrogen substrate and the nitrogen fixing abilities of the cyanobacteria. Zooplankton predators may be killed off by the toxicity of the polluted groundwater. The paper provides examples where a microbial mat reduced the sulfate content of a hydrocarbon-impacted Arctic stream by 100 ppm, and where a pond covered in a benthic microbial mat showed no evidence of hydrocarbons in the water overlying sediments contaminated with hydrocarbons at concentrations measured at 30,000 ppm. 19 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  7. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon and Metal Concentrations in Imported Canned Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Embbey K Ossai; Chukwujindu Maxwell Iwegbue; Elizabeth E. Ajogungbe; Godswill O Tesi

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations and profile of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) and metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Fe and Mn) were determined in selected brands of canned maize in the Nigeria market with a view to providing information on the hazards associated with the consumption of these products. The measurement of the concentrations of PAHs was carried out by using a gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) after extraction by ultra-sonication with acetone/dichloromethane and cl...

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particulates emitted by motorcycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Chau Thuy; Kameda, Takayuki; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2013-01-01

    We determined eleven PAHs and four NPAHs in particulates and regulated pollutants (CO, CO 2 , HC, NO x , PM) exhausted from motorcycles to figure out the characteristics of motorcycle exhausts. Fluoranthene and pyrene accounted for more than 50% of the total detected PAHs. Among four detected NPAHs, 6-nitrochrysene and 7-nitrobenz[a]anthracene were the predominant NPAHs and were highly correlated relationship with their parent PAHs (R = 0.93 and 0.97, respectively). The PM and HC emissions tended to be close to the PAH emissions. NO x and NPAHs were negatively correlated. Despite their small engine size, motorcycles emitted much more PM and PAHs, showed stronger PAH-related carcinogenicity and indirect-acting mutagenicity, but weaker NPAH-related direct-acting mutagenic potency than automobiles. This is the first study to analyze both PAHs and NPAHs emitted by motorcycles, which could provide useful information to design the emission regulations and standards for motorcycles such as PM. -- Highlights: ► We characterized PAHs and NPAHs distribution in motorcycle exhausts. ► NPAHs concentrations were about three orders of magnitude lower than those of PAHs. ► We found larger amounts of PM and PAHs in exhaust of motorcycles than of automobiles. ► Motorcycles showed stronger PAH-related toxicity than automobiles. ► Motorcycles showed weaker NPAH-related direct-acting mutagenicity than automobiles. -- Control polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in particulates emitted by motorcycles due to their toxic potency

  9. Photodynamic activity of polycyclic hydrocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, S S

    1963-01-01

    Exposure of Paramecium caudatum to suspensions of 3,4-benzopyrene, followed by long wave ultraviolet irradiation, results in cell death at times related, inter alia, to carcinogen concentration. Prior to death, the cells exhibit progressive immobilization and blebbing. This photodynamic response is a sensitized photo-oxidation, as it is oxygen-dependent and inhibited by anti-oxidants, such as butylated hydroxy anisole and ..cap alpha..-tocopherol. Protection is also afforded by other agents, including Tweens, tryptophan and certain fractions of plasma proteins. No evidence was found for the involvement of peroxides or sulfhydryl groups. The correlations between photodynamic toxicity and carcinogenicity in a large series of polycyclic hydrocarbons is under investigation. Assays of air extracts for photodynamic toxicity are in progress. Significant toxicity has been found in oxygenated besides aromatic fractions.

  10. Microsomal aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase comparison of the direct, indirect and radiometric assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denison, M.S.; Murray, M.; Wilkinson, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    The direct fluorometric assay of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxlyase has been compared to the more commonly used indirect fluorometric and radiometric assays. Although rat hepatic microsomal activities measured by the direct assay were consistently higher than those obtained by the other assays, the relative changes in activity following enzyme induction and/or inhibition were similar. The direct assay provides an accurate and rapid measure of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity and avoids several problems inherent in the indirect and radiometric assays. 2 tables

  11. Reliability in the design phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siahpush, A.S.; Hills, S.W.; Pham, H.; Majumdar, D.

    1991-12-01

    A study was performed to determine the common methods and tools that are available to calculated or predict a system's reliability. A literature review and software survey are included. The desired product of this developmental work is a tool for the system designer to use in the early design phase so that the final design will achieve the desired system reliability without lengthy testing and rework. Three computer programs were written which provide the first attempt at fulfilling this need. The programs are described and a case study is presented for each one. This is a continuing effort which will be furthered in FY-1992. 10 refs

  12. FRELIB, Failure Reliability Index Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, D.B.; Oestergaard, C.

    1984-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: Calculation of the reliability index given the failure boundary. A linearization point (design point) is found on the failure boundary for a stationary reliability index (min) and a stationary failure probability density function along the failure boundary, provided that the basic variables are normally distributed. 2 - Method of solution: Iteration along the failure boundary which must be specified - together with its partial derivatives with respect to the basic variables - by the user in a subroutine FSUR. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: No distribution information included (first-order-second-moment-method). 20 basic variables (could be extended)

  13. Analytical Modeling Tool for Design of Hydrocarbon Sensitive Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Al Handawi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pipelines are the main transportation means for oil and gas products across large distances. Due to the severe conditions they operate in, they are regularly inspected using conventional Pipeline Inspection Gages (PIGs for corrosion damage. The motivation for researching a real-time distributed monitoring solution arose to mitigate costs and provide a proactive indication of potential failures. Fiber optic sensors with polymer claddings provide a means of detecting contact with hydrocarbons. By coating the fibers with a layer of metal similar in composition to that of the parent pipeline, corrosion of this coating may be detected when the polymer cladding underneath is exposed to the surrounding hydrocarbons contained within the pipeline. A Refractive Index (RI change occurs in the polymer cladding causing a loss in intensity of a traveling light pulse due to a reduction in the fiber’s modal capacity. Intensity losses may be detected using Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR while pinpointing the spatial location of the contact via time delay calculations of the back-scattered pulses. This work presents a theoretical model for the above sensing solution to provide a design tool for the fiber optic cable in the context of hydrocarbon sensing following corrosion of an external metal coating. Results are verified against the experimental data published in the literature.

  14. Analytical Modeling Tool for Design of Hydrocarbon Sensitive Optical Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Handawi, Khalil; Vahdati, Nader; Shiryayev, Oleg; Lawand, Lydia

    2017-09-28

    Pipelines are the main transportation means for oil and gas products across large distances. Due to the severe conditions they operate in, they are regularly inspected using conventional Pipeline Inspection Gages (PIGs) for corrosion damage. The motivation for researching a real-time distributed monitoring solution arose to mitigate costs and provide a proactive indication of potential failures. Fiber optic sensors with polymer claddings provide a means of detecting contact with hydrocarbons. By coating the fibers with a layer of metal similar in composition to that of the parent pipeline, corrosion of this coating may be detected when the polymer cladding underneath is exposed to the surrounding hydrocarbons contained within the pipeline. A Refractive Index (RI) change occurs in the polymer cladding causing a loss in intensity of a traveling light pulse due to a reduction in the fiber's modal capacity. Intensity losses may be detected using Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR) while pinpointing the spatial location of the contact via time delay calculations of the back-scattered pulses. This work presents a theoretical model for the above sensing solution to provide a design tool for the fiber optic cable in the context of hydrocarbon sensing following corrosion of an external metal coating. Results are verified against the experimental data published in the literature.

  15. Reliability and safety engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Ajit Kumar; Karanki, Durga Rao

    2016-01-01

    Reliability and safety are core issues that must be addressed throughout the life cycle of engineering systems. Reliability and Safety Engineering presents an overview of the basic concepts, together with simple and practical illustrations. The authors present reliability terminology in various engineering fields, viz.,electronics engineering, software engineering, mechanical engineering, structural engineering and power systems engineering. The book describes the latest applications in the area of probabilistic safety assessment, such as technical specification optimization, risk monitoring and risk informed in-service inspection. Reliability and safety studies must, inevitably, deal with uncertainty, so the book includes uncertainty propagation methods: Monte Carlo simulation, fuzzy arithmetic, Dempster-Shafer theory and probability bounds. Reliability and Safety Engineering also highlights advances in system reliability and safety assessment including dynamic system modeling and uncertainty management. Cas...

  16. Distribution of hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials in Alaskan continental shelf areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roubal, G.; Atlas, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing microogranisms were enumerated from Alaskan continental shelf areas by using plate counts and a new most-probable-number procedure based on mineralization of 14 C-labeled hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon utilizers were ubiquitously distributed, with no significant overall concentration differences between sampling regions or between surface water and sediment samples. There were, however, significant seasonal differences in numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers. Distribution of hydrocarbon utilizers within Cook Inlet was positively correlated with occurrence of hydrocarbons in the environment. Hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials were measured by using 14 C-radiolabeled hydrocarbon-spiked crude oil. There was no significant correlation between numbers of hydrocarbon utilizers and hydrocarbon biodegradation potentials. The biodegradation potentials showed large seasonal variations in the Beaufort Sea, probably due to seasonal depletion of available nutrients. Non-nutrient-limited biodegradation potentials followed the order hexadecane > naphthalene >> pristane > benzanthracene. In Cook Inlet, biodegradation potentials for hexadecane and naphthalene were dependent on availability of inorganic nutrients. Biodegradation potentials for pristane and benzanthracene were restricted, probably by resistance to attack by available enzymes in the indigenous population

  17. Reliable computation from contextual correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestereich, André L.; Galvão, Ernesto F.

    2017-12-01

    An operational approach to the study of computation based on correlations considers black boxes with one-bit inputs and outputs, controlled by a limited classical computer capable only of performing sums modulo-two. In this setting, it was shown that noncontextual correlations do not provide any extra computational power, while contextual correlations were found to be necessary for the deterministic evaluation of nonlinear Boolean functions. Here we investigate the requirements for reliable computation in this setting; that is, the evaluation of any Boolean function with success probability bounded away from 1 /2 . We show that bipartite CHSH quantum correlations suffice for reliable computation. We also prove that an arbitrarily small violation of a multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger noncontextuality inequality also suffices for reliable computation.

  18. Magnetic graphene oxide as adsorbent for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linli; Xu, Hui

    2014-09-01

    Detection of monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons metabolites in urine is an advisable and valid method to assess human environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this work, novel Fe3O4/graphene oxide composites were prepared and their application in the magnetic solid-phase extraction of monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine was investigated by coupling with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. In the hybrid material, superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles provide fast separation to simplify the analytical process and graphene oxide provides a large functional surface for the adsorption. The prepared magnetic nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The experimental conditions were optimized systematically. Under the optimal conditions, the recoveries of these compounds were in the range of 98.3-125.2%, the relative standard deviations ranged between 6.8 and 15.5%, and the limits of detection were in the range of 0.01-0.15 ng/mL. The simple, quick, and affordable method was successfully used in the analysis of human urinary monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in two different cities. The results indicated that the monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons level in human urine can provide useful information for environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Hydrocarbon pollution from marinas in estuarine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudrias, Evangelos A.; Smith, Craig L.

    1986-03-01

    A measure of the impact of marinas on three Eastern Virginia estuarine creeks was obtained by a study of hydrocarbons in their sediments. Two of the creeks support considerable marine activity, including pleasure boat marinas, boat repair facilities, and commercial fishing operations. The third creek, which served as a control, is seldom used by boats, and is surrounded by marsh and woodland. Sediments from the creeks with marinas contained significantly higher levels of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons than did the control. Differences in the concentrations of certain oil-pollution indicators, such as the 17α,21β-hopane homologs and phytane, and low molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons, are indicative of light petroleum fractions. Most of the aromatic hydrocarbons from all creeks, however, appear to have a pyrogenic origin. Although hydrocarbons from three probable origins (petroleum, pyrogenesis, and recent biosynthesis) were detected in all locations, the petroleum-derived and pyrogenic hydrocarbons were of only minor importance relative to the biogenic hydrocarbons in the control creek.

  20. Operational safety reliability research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.E.; Boccio, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Operating reactor events such as the TMI accident and the Salem automatic-trip failures raised the concern that during a plant's operating lifetime the reliability of systems could degrade from the design level that was considered in the licensing process. To address this concern, NRC is sponsoring the Operational Safety Reliability Research project. The objectives of this project are to identify the essential tasks of a reliability program and to evaluate the effectiveness and attributes of such a reliability program applicable to maintaining an acceptable level of safety during the operating lifetime at the plant

  1. Power Industry Reliability Coordination in Asia in a Market Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Hammons, Thomas J.; Voropai, Nikolai I.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the problems of power supply reliability in a market environment. The specific features of economic interrelations between the power supply organization and consumers in terms of reliability assurance are examined and the principles of providing power supply reliability are formulated. The economic mechanisms of coordinating the interests of power supply organization and consumers to provide power supply reliability are discussed. Reliability of restructuring China's powe...

  2. 78 FR 69018 - Improving the Resiliency of Mobile Wireless Communications Networks; Reliability and Continuity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... consumers value overall network reliability and quality in selecting mobile wireless service providers, they...-125] Improving the Resiliency of Mobile Wireless Communications Networks; Reliability and Continuity... (Reliability NOI) in 2011 to ``initiate a comprehensive examination of issues regarding the reliability...

  3. Reliability assurance for regulation of advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullwood, R.; Lofaro, R.; Samanta, P.

    1991-01-01

    The advanced nuclear power plants must achieve higher levels of safety than the first generation of plants. Showing that this is indeed true provides new challenges to reliability and risk assessment methods in the analysis of the designs employing passive and semi-passive protection. Reliability assurance of the advanced reactor systems is important for determining the safety of the design and for determining the plant operability. Safety is the primary concern, but operability is considered indicative of good and safe operation. This paper discusses several concerns for reliability assurance of the advanced design encompassing reliability determination, level of detail required in advanced reactor submittals, data for reliability assurance, systems interactions and common cause effects, passive component reliability, PRA-based configuration control system, and inspection, training, maintenance and test requirements. Suggested approaches are provided for addressing each of these topics

  4. Reliability assurance for regulation of advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullwood, R.; Lofaro, R.; Samanta, P.

    1992-01-01

    The advanced nuclear power plants must achieve higher levels of safety than the first generation of plants. Showing that this is indeed true provides new challenges to reliability and risk assessment methods in the analysis of the designs employing passive and semi-passive protection. Reliability assurance of the advanced reactor systems is important for determining the safety of the design and for determining the plant operability. Safety is the primary concern, but operability is considered indicative of good and safe operation. this paper discusses several concerns for reliability assurance of the advanced design encompassing reliability determination, level of detail required in advanced reactor submittals, data for reliability assurance, systems interactions and common cause effects, passive component reliability, PRA-based configuration control system, and inspection, training, maintenance and test requirements. Suggested approaches are provided for addressing each of these topics

  5. Test Reliability at the Individual Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yueqin; Nesselroade, John R.; Erbacher, Monica K.; Boker, Steven M.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Keel, Pamela K.; Neale, Michael C.; Sisk, Cheryl L.; Klump, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Reliability has a long history as one of the key psychometric properties of a test. However, a given test might not measure people equally reliably. Test scores from some individuals may have considerably greater error than others. This study proposed two approaches using intraindividual variation to estimate test reliability for each person. A simulation study suggested that the parallel tests approach and the structural equation modeling approach recovered the simulated reliability coefficients. Then in an empirical study, where forty-five females were measured daily on the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) for 45 consecutive days, separate estimates of reliability were generated for each person. Results showed that reliability estimates of the PANAS varied substantially from person to person. The methods provided in this article apply to tests measuring changeable attributes and require repeated measures across time on each individual. This article also provides a set of parallel forms of PANAS. PMID:28936107

  6. Novel approach for evaluation of service reliability for electricity customers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG; John; N

    2009-01-01

    Understanding reliability value for electricity customer is important to market-based reliability management. This paper proposes a novel approach to evaluate the reliability for electricity customers by using indifference curve between economic compensation for power interruption and service reliability of electricity. Indifference curve is formed by calculating different planning schemes of network expansion for different reliability requirements of customers, which reveals the information about economic values for different reliability levels for electricity customers, so that the reliability based on market supply demand mechanism can be established and economic signals can be provided for reliability management and enhancement.

  7. Safety barriers on oil and gas platforms. Means to prevent hydrocarbon releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklet, Snorre

    2005-12-15

    The main objective of the PhD project has been to develop concepts and methods that can be used to define, illustrate, analyse, and improve safety barriers in the operational phase of offshore oil and gas production platforms. The main contributions of this thesis are; Clarification of the term safety barrier with respect to definitions, classification, and relevant attributes for analysis of barrier performance Development and discussion of a representative set of hydrocarbon release scenarios Development and testing of a new method, BORA-Release, for qualitative and quantitative risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases Safety barriers are defined as physical and/or non-physical means planned to prevent, control, or mitigate undesired events or accidents. The means may range from a single technical unit or human actions, to a complex socio-technical system. It is useful to distinguish between barrier functions and barrier systems. Barrier functions describe the purpose of safety barriers or what the safety barriers shall do in order to prevent, control, or mitigate undesired events or accidents. Barrier systems describe how a barrier function is realized or executed. If the barrier system is functioning, the barrier function is performed. If a barrier function is performed successfully, it should have a direct and significant effect on the occurrence and/or consequences of an undesired event or accident. It is recommended to address the following attributes to characterize the performance of safety barriers; a) functionality/effectiveness, b) reliability/ availability, c) response time, d) robustness, and e) triggering event or condition. For some types of barriers, not all the attributes are relevant or necessary in order to describe the barrier performance. The presented hydrocarbon release scenarios include initiating events, barrier functions introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and barrier systems realizing the barrier functions. Both technical and human

  8. Detection of irradiated meats by hydrocarbon method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Michiko; Miyakawa, Hiroyuki; Fujinuma, Kenji; Ozawa, Hideki

    2005-01-01

    Meats, for example, lamb, razorback, wild duck and turkey were irradiated by gamma ray, and the amounts of hydrocarbons formed from fatty acids were measured. Since C 20:0 was found from wild duck and turkey. C 1-18:1 was recommended for internal standard. Good correlation was found between the amount of hydrocarbons and the doses of gamma irradiation. This study shows that such hydrocarbons induced after radiation procedure as C 1,7-16:2 , C 8-17:1 , C 1-14:1 , and C 15:0 may make it possible to detect irradiated lamb, razorback, wild duck and turkey. (author)

  9. Process for recovery of liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, J.F.; Cockshott, J.E.

    1978-04-11

    Methane is recovered as a gas for discharge to a pipeline from a gas stream containing methane and heavier hydrocarbons, principally ethane and propane. Separation is accomplished by condensing the heavier hydrocarbons and distilling the methane therefrom. A liquid product (LPG) comprising the heavier hydrocarbons is subsequently recovered and transferred to storage. Prior to being discharged to a pipeline, the recovered methane gas is compressed and in undergoing compression the gas is heated. The heat content of the gas is employed to reboil the refrigerant in an absorption refrigeration unit. The refrigeration unit is used to cool the LPG prior to its storage.

  10. Method of recovering hydrocarbons from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D.K.; Slusser, M.S.

    1970-11-24

    A method is described for recovering hydrocarbons from an oil-shale formation by in situ retorting. A well penetrating the formation is heated and gas is injected until a pressure buildup within the well is reached, due to a decrease in the conductivity of naturally occurring fissures within the formation. The well is then vented, in order to produce spalling of the walls. This results in the formation of an enlarged cavity containing rubberized oil shale. A hot gas then is passed through the rubberized oil shale in order to retort hydrocarbons and these hydrocarbons are recovered from the well. (11 claims)

  11. The offshore hydrocarbon releases (HCR) database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, R.A.P.

    1995-01-01

    Following Cullen Recommendation 39 which states that: ''The regulatory body should be responsible for maintaining a database with regard to hydrocarbon leaks, spills, and ignitions in the Industry and for the benefit of Industry'', HSE Offshore Safety Division (HSE-OSD) has now been operating the Hydrocarbon Releases (HCR) Database for approximately 3 years. This paper deals with the reporting of Offshore Hydrocarbon Releases, the setting up of the HCR Database, the collection of associated equipment population data, and the main features and benefits of the database, including discussion on the latest output information. (author)

  12. Waste Plastic Converting into Hydrocarbon Fuel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad; Molla, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    The increased demand and high prices for energy sources are driving efforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuels. Although much of this work has focused on biomass, there are strong benefits to deriving fuels from waste plastic material. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has invented a simple and economically viable process to decompose the hydrocarbon polymers of waste plastic into the shorter chain hydrocarbon of liquid fuel (patent pending). The method and principle of the production / process will be discussed. Initial tests with several widely used polymers indicate a high potential for commercialization.

  13. Conversion of hydrocarbon oils into motor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-11-09

    The abstract describes a process for producing lower boiling hydrocarbon motor fuels with a starting material of wide boiling range composed primarily of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially above the boiling range of the desired product. Separate catalytic and pyrolytic conversion zones are simultaneously maintained in an interdependent relationship. Higher boiling constituents are separated from residual constituents by fractionation while desirable reaction conditions are maintained. All or at least a portion of the products from the catalytic and pyrolytic conversion zones are blended to yield the desired lower boiling hydrocarbons or motor fuels.

  14. Endocrine, Physiological and Histopathological Responses of Fish and their Larvae to Stress with Emphasis on Exposure to Crude Oil and Various Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. A. AL-Kindi

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Various endocrine and physiological responses of fish exposed to forceful physical and chemical stimuli are reviewed with emphasis on the effects of crude oils and their hydrocarbon constituents. The chemistry and toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons are examined and methods for experimental exposure of fish to crude oil and petroleum hydrocarbons are considered. A variety of blood-borne parameters recognized as reliable tools in determining the relative severity of stress in fish are reviewed. The effects of stress and petroleum hydrocarbons on endocrine responses including changes in plasma catecholamines, corticosteroids, and thyroid hormones are reviewed. The physiological responses: changes in plasma glucose, osmotic and ionic regulation, blood oxygen, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration are explored, and histopathological effects of crude oil on fish are reviewed. Recent studies of the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on fish larvae are considered and the increased sensitivity of the early life stages of fish are highlighted.

  15. Absorbent agents for clean-up of liquid hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldmann, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for absorbing liquid hydrocarbon from a liquid hydrocarbon-contaminated substrate comprising applying to said contaminated substrate an effective amount of a chemical absorbent composition of formula: A m B n C p wherein A m is an acid leached bentonite in a form of hydrous silicate of alumina modified by a hydrophobic alkyl (C 12 -C 24 ) amine which has been double protonized by an aliphatic acid with C 1 -C 18 carbon atoms in which m = 0 to 100% by weight of the composition; B n is a modified aminoplast resin comprised of cyanoguanidine-melamine-urea-formaldehyde in a foam form in which n is 0 to 100% by weight; and C p is a siliceous support-modified hydrophobic material in which p is 0 to 100% by weight; provided that at least one of m and n is a positive numerical value

  16. Modeling of air toxics from hydrocarbon pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, K.A.; Aydil, M.L.; Barone, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    While there is guidance for estimating the radiation hazards of fires (ARCHIE), there is little guidance on modeling the dispersion of hazardous materials from fires. The objective of this paper is to provide a review of the methodology used for modeling the impacts of liquid hydrocarbon pool fires. The required input variables for modeling of hydrocarbon pool fires include emission strength, emission duration, and dispersion characteristics. Methods for predicting the products of combustion including the use of literature values, test data, and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations are discussed. The use of energy balances coupled to radiative heat transfer calculations are presented as a method for determining flame temperature. Fire modeling literature is reviewed in order to determine other source release variables such as mass burn rate and duration and flame geometry

  17. Hydrocarbon delineation in Muskeg : distinguishing biogenic from petrogenic sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, C. [UMA Engineering Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The quantification of biogenic versus petrogenic hydrocarbons from an emulsion pipeline in a Muskeg setting in northeastern British Columbia was examined. This presentation provided an introduction and discussion of the challenges in Muskeg environments. It introduced the objectives of the study and the analytical approach. Some supporting literature involving studies on the distribution and origin of hydrocarbons in estuary sediments was also cited. Box plots of the physical and chemical characteristics of soil and chromatograms of gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were presented. Last, the approach to establish a true biogenic source and the recommended analytical program and corrections for biogenic input were discussed. The definition of contaminated peat was introduced. tabs., figs.

  18. Critical point measurement of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, Eugene D.; Popov, Alexander P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Critical properties of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured. • These hydrocarbons decompose at near-critical temperatures. • Pulse-heating method with short residence times was used. - Abstract: The critical temperatures and the critical pressures of five polycyclic aromatic compounds, namely, acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene, phenanthrene, and pyrene have been measured. All the compounds studied decompose at near-critical temperatures. A pulse-heating technique applicable to measuring the critical properties of thermally unstable compounds has been used. The times from the beginning of a heating pulse to the moment of reaching the critical temperature were from (0.06 to 0.85) ms. The short residence times provide little degradation of the substances in the course of the experiments. The experimental critical parameters of the polycyclic aromatic compounds have been compared with those estimated by five predictive methods. The acentric factors of polycyclic aromatic compounds studied have been calculated

  19. The applicability of radiotracers for the investigation of the distillation of hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graczyk, J.; Iller, E.

    1976-01-01

    The use of radioactive tracers provide valuable methods for the investigation of distillation processes and have been applied to determine the characteristics of material streams, the dynamics of flowing phases and the composition in various parts of the distillation equipment. A method is proposed for testing individual radiotracers emplozemployed for the investigation of the distillation of hydrocarbons. The method consists in laboratory-scale distillation of a tracer together with a multicomponent hydrocarbon mixture, namely a gasoline fraction. The purification efficiency, distillation characteristics, and effective radiochemical purity of several tracers (reactor activated bromobenzene and synthesized C 3 H 7 82 Br, C 4 H 9 82 Br, C 5 H 11 82 Br) have been investigated. The distillation characteristics of bromohydrocarbons labelled with 82 Br and selected hydrocarbons tagged with 14 C (benzene and cumene) have been compared. The radiotracers investigated were employed for the determination of the hydrodynamic parameters of hydrocarbon distillation in laboratory packed columns and a commercial distillation tower. (author)

  20. Total petroleum hydrocarbons in edible marine biota from Northern Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozar, Seyedeh Laili Mohebbi; Pauzi, Mohamad Zakaria; Salarpouri, Ali; Daghooghi, Behnam; Salimizadeh, Maryam

    2015-04-01

    To provide a baseline information for consumer's health, distribution of total petroleum hydrocarbons in 18 edible marine biota species from northern Persian Gulf was evaluated. The samples were purchased from fish market of Hormozgan Province, South of Iran. Marine biota samples included different species with various feeding habits and were analyzed based on ultraviolet florescence spectroscopy. Petroleum hydrocarbons showed narrow variation, ranging from 0.67 to 3.36 μg/g dry weight. The maximum value was observed in silver pomfret. Anchovy and silver pomfret with the highest content of petroleum hydrocarbons were known as good indicator for oil pollution in the studied area. From public health point of view, the detected concentrations for total petroleum hydrocarbons were lower than hazardous guidelines. The results were recorded as background data and information in the studied area; the continuous monitoring of pollutants is recommended, according to the rapid extension of industrial and oily activities in Hormozgan Province.

  1. 18 CFR 39.3 - Electric Reliability Organization certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... operators of the Bulk-Power System, and other interested parties for improvement of the Electric Reliability... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric Reliability..., Reliability Standards that provide for an adequate level of reliability of the Bulk-Power System, and (2) Has...

  2. Reliability Considerations for the Operation of Large Accelerator User Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Willeke, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    The lecture provides an overview of considerations relevant for achieving highly reliable operation of accelerator based user facilities. The article starts with an overview of statistical reliability formalism which is followed by high reliability design considerations with examples. The article closes with operational aspects of high reliability such as preventive maintenance and spares inventory.

  3. Hawaii Electric System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, Verne William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers’ views of reliability “worth” and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers’ views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  4. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

    2012-09-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  5. LED system reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, W.D. van; Yuan, C.A.; Koh, S.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents our effort to predict the system reliability of Solid State Lighting (SSL) applications. A SSL system is composed of a LED engine with micro-electronic driver(s) that supplies power to the optic design. Knowledge of system level reliability is not only a challenging scientific

  6. Integrated system reliability analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gintautas, Tomas; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Specific targets: 1) The report shall describe the state of the art of reliability and risk-based assessment of wind turbine components. 2) Development of methodology for reliability and risk-based assessment of the wind turbine at system level. 3) Describe quantitative and qualitative measures...

  7. Reliability of neural encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Preben; Beierholm, Ulrik; Nielsen, Carsten Dahl

    2002-01-01

    The reliability with which a neuron is able to create the same firing pattern when presented with the same stimulus is of critical importance to the understanding of neuronal information processing. We show that reliability is closely related to the process of phaselocking. Experimental results f...

  8. Design reliability engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Hunt, R.N.M.

    1989-01-01

    Improved design techniques are needed to achieve high reliability at minimum cost. This is especially true of space systems where lifetimes of many years without maintenance are needed and severe mass limitations exist. Reliability must be designed into these systems from the start. Techniques are now being explored to structure a formal design process that will be more complete and less expensive. The intent is to integrate the best features of design, reliability analysis, and expert systems to design highly reliable systems to meet stressing needs. Taken into account are the large uncertainties that exist in materials, design models, and fabrication techniques. Expert systems are a convenient method to integrate into the design process a complete definition of all elements that should be considered and an opportunity to integrate the design process with reliability, safety, test engineering, maintenance and operator training. 1 fig

  9. Bayesian methods in reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, P.; Badoux, R.

    1991-11-01

    The present proceedings from a course on Bayesian methods in reliability encompasses Bayesian statistical methods and their computational implementation, models for analyzing censored data from nonrepairable systems, the traits of repairable systems and growth models, the use of expert judgment, and a review of the problem of forecasting software reliability. Specific issues addressed include the use of Bayesian methods to estimate the leak rate of a gas pipeline, approximate analyses under great prior uncertainty, reliability estimation techniques, and a nonhomogeneous Poisson process. Also addressed are the calibration sets and seed variables of expert judgment systems for risk assessment, experimental illustrations of the use of expert judgment for reliability testing, and analyses of the predictive quality of software-reliability growth models such as the Weibull order statistics.

  10. Radiolysis of hydrocarbons in liquid phase (Modern state of problem)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraeva, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    Problems of ionizing radiation effect on hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon systems in a liquid phase are considered. Modern representations on the mechanism of hydrocarbon radiolysis are presented. Electron moderation and ion-electron pair formation, behaviour of charged particles, excited states, radical formation and their reactions are discussed. Behaviour of certain hydrocarbon classes: alkanes, cyclic hydrocarbons, olefines, aromatic hydrocarbons as well as different hydrocarbon mixtures is considered in detail. Radiation-chemical changes in organic coolants and ways of increasing radiation resistance are considered. Polyphenyl compounds are noted to be most perspective here

  11. Method for the conversion of hydrocarbon charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittam, T V

    1976-11-11

    The basis of the invention is the application of defined zeolites as catalysts to hydrocarbon conversion processes such as reformation, isomerization, dehydrocyclization, and cracking. By charging the zeolite carrier masses with 0.001 to 5% metal of the 8th group of the periodic system, preferably noble metals, a wide region of applications for the catalysts is achieved. A method for the isomerization of an alkyl benzene (or mixture of alkyl benzenes) in the liquid or gas phase under suitable temperature, pressure and flow-rate conditions, as well as in the presence of a cyclic hydrocarbon, is described as preferential model form of the invention; furthermore, a method for the reformation of a hydrocarbon fraction boiling in the gasoline or benzene boiling region and a method for the hydrocracking of hydrocarbon charge (e.g. naphtha, kerosine, gas oils) are given. Types of performance of the methods are explained using various examples.

  12. Using microorganisms to aid in hydrocarbon degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, W.; Zamora, J.

    1993-01-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are threatening the potable water supply and the aquatic ecosystem. Given the right microbial inhabitant(s), a large portion of these aliphatic hydrocarbons could be biodegraded before reaching the water supply. The authors' purpose is to isolate possible oil-degrading organisms. Soil samples were taken from hydrocarbon-laden soils at petroleum terminals, a petroleum refinery waste-treatment facility, a sewage-treatment plant grease collector, a site of previous bioremediation, and various other places. Some isolates known to be good degraders were obtained from culture collection services. These samples were plated on a 10w-30 multigrade motor oil solid medium to screen for aliphatic hydrocarbon degraders. The degrading organisms were isolated, identified, and tested (CO 2 evolution, BOD, and COD) to determine the most efficient degrader(s). Thirty-seven organisms were tested, and the most efficient degraders were Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter agglomerans

  13. Volatilisation of aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, B.; Christensen, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    The non-steady-state fluxes of aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in the laboratory from the surface of soils contaminated with coal tar Four soil samples from a former gasworks site were used for the experiments. The fluxes were quantified for 11 selected compounds, 4 mono- and 7 polycyclic...... aromatic hydrocarbons, for a period of up to 8 or 16 days. The concentrations of the selected compounds in the soils were between 0.2 and 3,100 mu g/g. The study included the experimental determination of the distribution coefficient of the aromatic hydrocarbons between the sorbed phase and the water under...... saturated conditions. The determined distribution coefficients showed that the aromatic hydrocarbons were more strongly sorbed to the total organic carbon including the coal tar pitch - by a factor of 8 to 25 - than expected for natural organic matter. The fluxes were also estimated using an analytical...

  14. Recovering low-boiling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1934-10-03

    A process is described for the recovery of low-boiling hydrocarbons of the nature of benzine through treatment of liquid carbonaceous materials with hydrogen under pressure at raised temperature, suitably in the presence of catalysts. Middle oils (practically saturated with hydrogen) or higher boiling oils at a temperature above 500/sup 0/ (with or without the addition of hydrogen) containing cyclic hydrocarbons not saturated with hydrogen are changed into low boiling hydrocarbons of the nature of benzine. The cracking takes place under strongly hydrogenating conditions (with the use of a strongly active hydrogenating catalyst or high pressure) at temperatures below 500/sup 0/. If necessary, the constituents boiling below 200/sup 0/ can be reconverted into cyclic hydrocarbons partially saturated with hydrogen. (BLM)

  15. Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-11-02

    Nov 2, 2006 ... Several water bodies in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria where extensive crude oil ..... hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish from the Red Sea Coast of Yemem. ... smoked meat products and smoke flavouring food additives. J.

  16. Population dynamics and distribution of hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus species was found to be present in all the soil samples analysed ... The presence of these organisms in soils contaminated with spent and unspent lubricating oil ... hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria, bioremediation, enrichment medium,

  17. Collision data involving hydro-carbon molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, H.; Itikawa, Y.; Nishimura, H.; Tanaka, H.; Nakamura, Y.

    1990-07-01

    Hydro-carbon molecules are abundantly produced when graphites are used as internal wall materials of hydrogen plasmas and strongly influence properties of low temperature plasmas near the edges as well as those of high temperature plasmas at the center. In this report, following simple description of the production mechanisms of hydro-carbon molecules under the interactions between graphite and hydrogen plasma, the present status of collision data for hydro-carbon molecules by electron impact is discussed and the relevant data are summarized in a series of figures and tables. It should also be noted that, in addition to fusion plasmas, these hydrocarbon data compiled here are quite useful in other applications such as plasma chemistry and material processing. (author)

  18. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2018-04-10

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  19. Formation of hydrocarbons by bacteria and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornabene, T.G.

    1980-12-01

    A literature review has been performed summarizing studies on hydrocarbon synthesis by microorganisms. Certain algal and bacterial species produce hydrocarbons in large quantities, 70 to 80% of dry cell mass, when in a controlled environment. The nutritional requirements of these organisms are simple: CO/sub 2/ and mineral salts. The studies were initiated to determine whether or not microorganisms played a role in petroleum formation. 90 references. (DMC)

  20. Nitrocarburizing in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammonia-propene-hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  1. Nitrocarburising in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammoniapropene- hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  2. The future of oil and hydrocarbon man

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Colin

    1999-01-01

    Man appeared on the planet about four million years ago, and by 1850 numbered about one billion Ten came Hydrocarbon man. World population has since increased six-fold. After the oil price shocks of the 1970s, people asked "when will production peak?". It is not easy to answer this question because of the very poor database. Reserves and the many different hydrocarbon categories are poorly defined, reporting practices are ambiguous, revisions are not backdated...

  3. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alochols to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2017-01-03

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  4. On the reliability of spacecraft swarms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, S.; Gill, E.K.A.; Verhoeven, C.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Satellite swarms, consisting of a large number of identical, miniaturized and simple satellites, are claimed to provide an implementation for specific space missions which require high reliability. However, a consistent model of how reliability and availability on mission level is linked to cost-

  5. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  6. PROTONATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS REVISITED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2011-01-01

    We reconsider the contribution that singly protonated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; HPAH + s) might make to the Class A component of the 6.2 μm interstellar emission feature in light of the recent experimental measurements of protonated naphthalene and coronene. Our calculations on the small HPAH + s have a band near 6.2 μm, as found in experiment. While the larger HPAH + s still have emission near 6.2 μm, the much larger intensity of the band near 6.3 μm overwhelms the weaker band at 6.2 μm, so that the 6.2 μm band is barely visible. Since the large PAHs are more representative of those in the interstellar medium, our work suggests that large HPAH + s cannot be major contributors to the observed emission at 6.2 μm (i.e., Class A species). Saturating large PAH cations with hydrogen atoms retains the 6.2 μm Class A band position, but the rest of the spectrum is inconsistent with observed spectra.

  7. Dewaxing hydrocarbon oils. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-06-23

    In dewaxing hydrocarbon oils such as residium stocks, overhead distillates and crude petroleum or shale oils, by admixing with a liquefied normally gaseous solvent, such as liquefied propane, and cooling to crystallize the wax, the rate of crystallization diminishes rapidly when a certain temperature in an example about 20/sup 0/F is reached. The diminution is prevented during further cooling by removing solvent by evaporation at such a rate that the proporation of solvent in the oil solvent component is maintained at about that existing at the temperature at which the alteration in the rate of crystallization takes place. The evaporation is effected by adjusting the pressure on the mixture, preferably in stages. Solvents for coloring matters and asphaltic compounds, such as carbon disulfide sulfur dioxide, methyl chloride or butyl alcohol may be added to the mixture before crystallization. Chilled solvent may be added to the chilled mixture before separation of the wax in a centrifuge, in order to increase the difference in specific gravity between the wax and the oil-solvent component.

  8. Reliability and Availability of Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A holistic approach to service reliability and availability of cloud computing Reliability and Availability of Cloud Computing provides IS/IT system and solution architects, developers, and engineers with the knowledge needed to assess the impact of virtualization and cloud computing on service reliability and availability. It reveals how to select the most appropriate design for reliability diligence to assure that user expectations are met. Organized in three parts (basics, risk analysis, and recommendations), this resource is accessible to readers of diverse backgrounds and experience le

  9. Reliability of large and complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kolowrocki, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Reliability of Large and Complex Systems, previously titled Reliability of Large Systems, is an innovative guide to the current state and reliability of large and complex systems. In addition to revised and updated content on the complexity and safety of large and complex mechanisms, this new edition looks at the reliability of nanosystems, a key research topic in nanotechnology science. The author discusses the importance of safety investigation of critical infrastructures that have aged or have been exposed to varying operational conditions. This reference provides an asympt

  10. EAMJ Provider April 10.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-04-04

    Apr 4, 2010 ... from 14 to 30 days in studies done in Europe and. North America ... to confirmatory laboratory diagnostic test was 56.2 days (n=83, range 1 to 985 days, standard .... (9,10). In a population based study in German, Volker ... risk factors for provider delays (9). ... mammographic reliability for cancer diagnosis at.

  11. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, L. G.; Greer, C W.

    1999-01-01

    Bioremediation of contaminated Arctic sites has been proposed as the logistically and economically most favorable solution despite the known technical difficulties. The difficulties involve the inhibition of pollutants removal by biodegradation below freezing temperatures and the relative slowness of the process to remove enough hydrocarbon pollutants during the above-freezing summer months. Despite these formidable drawbacks, biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants is possible even in below-zero temperatures, especially if indigenous psychrophilic and psychrotropic micro-organism are used. This paper reports results of a study involving several hydrocarbon-degrading psychrotropic bacteria and suggests bioaugmentation with specific cold-adapted organisms and/or biostimulation with commercial fertilizers for enhancing degradation of specific contaminants in soils from northern Canada. An evaluation of the biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in the high Arctic suggested that the contaminated soils contained sufficient numbers of cold-adapted hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and that the addition of fertilizer was sufficient to enhance the level of hydrocarbon degradation at low ambient summer temperatures. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  12. Design for Reliability of Power Electronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    Advances in power electronics enable efficient and flexible processing of electric power in the application of renewable energy sources, electric vehicles, adjustable-speed drives, etc. More and more efforts are devoted to better power electronic systems in terms of reliability to ensure high......). A collection of methodologies based on Physics-of-Failure (PoF) approach and mission profile analysis are presented in this paper to perform reliability-oriented design of power electronic systems. The corresponding design procedures and reliability prediction models are provided. Further on, a case study...... on a 2.3 MW wind power converter is discussed with emphasis on the reliability critical components IGBTs. Different aspects of improving the reliability of the power converter are mapped. Finally, the challenges and opportunities to achieve more reliable power electronic systems are addressed....

  13. Solid State Lighting Reliability Components to Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, XJ

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Lighting Reliability: Components to Systems begins with an explanation of the major benefits of solid state lighting (SSL) when compared to conventional lighting systems including but not limited to long useful lifetimes of 50,000 (or more) hours and high efficacy. When designing effective devices that take advantage of SSL capabilities the reliability of internal components (optics, drive electronics, controls, thermal design) take on critical importance. As such a detailed discussion of reliability from performance at the device level to sub components is included as well as the integrated systems of SSL modules, lamps and luminaires including various failure modes, reliability testing and reliability performance. This book also: Covers the essential reliability theories and practices for current and future development of Solid State Lighting components and systems Provides a systematic overview for not only the state-of-the-art, but also future roadmap and perspectives of Solid State Lighting r...

  14. Validation of Land Cover Products Using Reliability Evaluation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhong Shi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Validation of land cover products is a fundamental task prior to data applications. Current validation schemes and methods are, however, suited only for assessing classification accuracy and disregard the reliability of land cover products. The reliability evaluation of land cover products should be undertaken to provide reliable land cover information. In addition, the lack of high-quality reference data often constrains validation and affects the reliability results of land cover products. This study proposes a validation schema to evaluate the reliability of land cover products, including two methods, namely, result reliability evaluation and process reliability evaluation. Result reliability evaluation computes the reliability of land cover products using seven reliability indicators. Process reliability evaluation analyzes the reliability propagation in the data production process to obtain the reliability of land cover products. Fuzzy fault tree analysis is introduced and improved in the reliability analysis of a data production process. Research results show that the proposed reliability evaluation scheme is reasonable and can be applied to validate land cover products. Through the analysis of the seven indicators of result reliability evaluation, more information on land cover can be obtained for strategic decision-making and planning, compared with traditional accuracy assessment methods. Process reliability evaluation without the need for reference data can facilitate the validation and reflect the change trends of reliabilities to some extent.

  15. Reliability of construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, H.

    1976-01-01

    One can also speak of reliability with respect to materials. While for reliability of components the MTBF (mean time between failures) is regarded as the main criterium, this is replaced with regard to materials by possible failure mechanisms like physical/chemical reaction mechanisms, disturbances of physical or chemical equilibrium, or other interactions or changes of system. The main tasks of the reliability analysis of materials therefore is the prediction of the various failure reasons, the identification of interactions, and the development of nondestructive testing methods. (RW) [de

  16. Structural Reliability Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Madsen, H. O.

    The structural reliability methods quantitatively treat the uncertainty of predicting the behaviour and properties of a structure given the uncertain properties of its geometry, materials, and the actions it is supposed to withstand. This book addresses the probabilistic methods for evaluation...... of structural reliability, including the theoretical basis for these methods. Partial safety factor codes under current practice are briefly introduced and discussed. A probabilistic code format for obtaining a formal reliability evaluation system that catches the most essential features of the nature...... of the uncertainties and their interplay is the developed, step-by-step. The concepts presented are illustrated by numerous examples throughout the text....

  17. Reliability and mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Maurice

    1997-01-01

    A lot of results in mechanical design are obtained from a modelisation of physical reality and from a numerical solution which would lead to the evaluation of needs and resources. The goal of the reliability analysis is to evaluate the confidence which it is possible to grant to the chosen design through the calculation of a probability of failure linked to the retained scenario. Two types of analysis are proposed: the sensitivity analysis and the reliability analysis. Approximate methods are applicable to problems related to reliability, availability, maintainability and safety (RAMS)

  18. New method dynamically models hydrocarbon fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, M.G.; Weissbrod, J.M.; Sheth, B.V. [Kesler Engineering, East Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A new method for calculating distillation column dynamics can be used to model time-dependent effects of independent disturbances for a range of hydrocarbon fractionation. It can model crude atmospheric and vacuum columns, with relatively few equilibrium stages and a large number of components, to C{sub 3} splitters, with few components and up to 300 equilibrium stages. Simulation results are useful for operations analysis, process-control applications and closed-loop control in petroleum, petrochemical and gas processing plants. The method is based on an implicit approach, where the time-dependent variations of inventory, temperatures, liquid and vapor flows and compositions are superimposed at each time step on the steady-state solution. Newton-Raphson (N-R) techniques are then used to simultaneously solve the resulting finite-difference equations of material, equilibrium and enthalpy balances that characterize distillation dynamics. The important innovation is component-aggregation and tray-aggregation to contract the equations without compromising accuracy. This contraction increases the N-R calculations` stability. It also significantly increases calculational speed, which is particularly important in dynamic simulations. This method provides a sound basis for closed-loop, supervisory control of distillation--directly or via multivariable controllers--based on a rigorous, phenomenological column model.

  19. Photoacoustic spectroscopic studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Zahid H.; Kumar, Pardeep; Garg, R. K.

    1999-02-01

    Because of their involvement in environmental pollutants, in carcinogenic activity, plastics, pharmaceuticals, synthesis of some laser dyes and presence in interstellar space etc., Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are important. As their structure and properties can be varied systematically, they form a beautiful class of molecules for experimental and quantum chemical investigations. These molecules are being studied for last several years by using conventional spectroscopy. In recent years, Photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy has emerged as a new non-destructive technique with unique capability and sensitivity. The PA effect is the process of generation of acoustic waves in a sample resulting from the absorption of photons. This technique not only reveals non- radiative transitions but also provides information about forbidden singlet-triplet transitions which are not observed normally by the conventional spectroscopy. The present paper deals with the spectroscopic studies of some PAH molecules by PA spectroscopy in the region 250 - 400 nm. The CNDO/S-CI method is used to calculate the electronic transitions with the optimized geometries. A good agreement is found between the experimental and calculated results.

  20. Hydrocarbon biodegradation in intertidal wetland sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGenity, Terry J

    2014-06-01

    Intertidal wetlands, primarily salt marsh, mangrove and mudflats, which provide many essential ecosystem services, are under threat on numerous fronts; a situation that is made worse by crude-oil pollution. Microbes are the main vehicle for remediation of such sediments, and new discoveries, such as novel biodegradation pathways, means of accessing oil, multi-species interactions, and community-level responses to oil addition, are helping us to understand, predict and monitor the fate of oil. Despite this, there are many challenges, not least because of the heterogeneity of these ecosystems and the complexity of crude oil. For example, there is growing awareness about the toxicity of the oxygenated products that result from crude-oil weathering, which are difficult to degrade. This review highlights how developments in areas as diverse as systems biology, microbiology, ecology, biogeochemistry and analytical chemistry are enhancing our understanding of hydrocarbon biodegradation and thus bioremediation of oil-polluted intertidal wetlands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. MODELING GALACTIC EXTINCTION WITH DUST AND 'REAL' POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulas, Giacomo; Casu, Silvia; Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare; Zonca, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the remarkable apparent variety of galactic extinction curves by modeling extinction profiles with core-mantle grains and a collection of single polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Our aim is to translate a synthetic description of dust into physically well-grounded building blocks through the analysis of a statistically relevant sample of different extinction curves. All different flavors of observed extinction curves, ranging from the average galactic extinction curve to virtually 'bumpless' profiles, can be described by the present model. We prove that a mixture of a relatively small number (54 species in 4 charge states each) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can reproduce the features of the extinction curve in the ultraviolet, dismissing an old objection to the contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the interstellar extinction curve. Despite the large number of free parameters (at most the 54 × 4 column densities of each species in each ionization state included in the molecular ensemble plus the 9 parameters defining the physical properties of classical particles), we can strongly constrain some physically relevant properties such as the total number of C atoms in all species and the mean charge of the mixture. Such properties are found to be largely independent of the adopted dust model whose variation provides effects that are orthogonal to those brought about by the molecular component. Finally, the fitting procedure, together with some physical sense, suggests (but does not require) the presence of an additional component of chemically different very small carbonaceous grains.

  2. PREBIOTIC HYDROCARBON SYNTHESIS IN IMPACTING REDUCED ASTROPHYSICAL ICY MIXTURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koziol, Lucas; Goldman, Nir

    2015-01-01

    We present results of prebiotic organic synthesis in shock-compressed reducing mixtures of simple ices from quantum molecular dynamics simulations extended to close to chemical equilibrium timescales. Given the relative abundance of carbon in reduced forms in astrophysical ices as well as the tendency of these mixtures to form complex hydrocarbons under the presence of external stimuli, it is possible that cometary impacts on a planetary surface could have yielded a larger array of prebiotic organic compounds than previously investigated. We find that the high pressures and temperatures due to shock compression yield a large assortment of carbon- and nitrogen-bonded extended structures that are highly reactive with short molecular lifetimes. Expansion and cooling causes these materials to break apart and form a wide variety of stable, potentially life-building compounds, including long-chain linear and branched hydrocarbons, large heterocyclic compounds, and a variety of different amines and exotic amino acids. Our results help provide a bottom-up understanding of hydrocarbon impact synthesis on the early Earth and its role in producing life-building molecules from simple starting materials

  3. Hydrocarbon analysis using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

    KAUST Repository

    Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K.; Li, Anyin; Soparawalla, Santosh; Roqan, Iman S.; Cooks, Robert Graham

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of the various petroleum constituents (hydronaphthalenes, thiophenes, alkyl substituted benzenes, pyridines, fluorenes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) was achieved under ambient conditions without sample preparation by desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI). Conditions were chosen for the DAPCI experiments to control whether ionization was by proton or electron transfer. The protonated molecule [M+H]+ and the hydride abstracted [MH]+ form were observed when using an inert gas, typically nitrogen, to direct a lightly ionized plasma generated by corona discharge onto the sample surface in air. The abundant water cluster ions generated in this experiment react with condensed-phase functionalized hydrocarbon model compounds and their mixtures at or near the sample surface. On the other hand, when naphthalene was doped into the DAPCI gas stream, its radical cation served as a charge exchange reagent, yielding molecular radical cations (M+) of the hydrocarbons. This mode of sample ionization provided mass spectra with better signal/noise ratios and without unwanted side-products. It also extended the applicability of DAPCI to petroleum constituents which could not be analyzed through proton transfer (e.g., higher molecular PAHs such as chrysene). The thermochemistry governing the individual ionization processes is discussed and a desorption/ionization mechanism is inferred. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  4. PREBIOTIC HYDROCARBON SYNTHESIS IN IMPACTING REDUCED ASTROPHYSICAL ICY MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koziol, Lucas; Goldman, Nir, E-mail: lucas.koziol@exxonmobil.com, E-mail: ngoldman@llnl.gov [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2015-04-20

    We present results of prebiotic organic synthesis in shock-compressed reducing mixtures of simple ices from quantum molecular dynamics simulations extended to close to chemical equilibrium timescales. Given the relative abundance of carbon in reduced forms in astrophysical ices as well as the tendency of these mixtures to form complex hydrocarbons under the presence of external stimuli, it is possible that cometary impacts on a planetary surface could have yielded a larger array of prebiotic organic compounds than previously investigated. We find that the high pressures and temperatures due to shock compression yield a large assortment of carbon- and nitrogen-bonded extended structures that are highly reactive with short molecular lifetimes. Expansion and cooling causes these materials to break apart and form a wide variety of stable, potentially life-building compounds, including long-chain linear and branched hydrocarbons, large heterocyclic compounds, and a variety of different amines and exotic amino acids. Our results help provide a bottom-up understanding of hydrocarbon impact synthesis on the early Earth and its role in producing life-building molecules from simple starting materials.

  5. Hydrocarbon analysis using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

    KAUST Repository

    Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark

    2013-07-01

    Characterization of the various petroleum constituents (hydronaphthalenes, thiophenes, alkyl substituted benzenes, pyridines, fluorenes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) was achieved under ambient conditions without sample preparation by desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI). Conditions were chosen for the DAPCI experiments to control whether ionization was by proton or electron transfer. The protonated molecule [M+H]+ and the hydride abstracted [MH]+ form were observed when using an inert gas, typically nitrogen, to direct a lightly ionized plasma generated by corona discharge onto the sample surface in air. The abundant water cluster ions generated in this experiment react with condensed-phase functionalized hydrocarbon model compounds and their mixtures at or near the sample surface. On the other hand, when naphthalene was doped into the DAPCI gas stream, its radical cation served as a charge exchange reagent, yielding molecular radical cations (M+) of the hydrocarbons. This mode of sample ionization provided mass spectra with better signal/noise ratios and without unwanted side-products. It also extended the applicability of DAPCI to petroleum constituents which could not be analyzed through proton transfer (e.g., higher molecular PAHs such as chrysene). The thermochemistry governing the individual ionization processes is discussed and a desorption/ionization mechanism is inferred. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Deep-water northern Gulf of Mexico hydrocarbon plays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.H.; Cooke, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    The geologic setting in the deep-water (depths greater than 1,500 feet) Gulf of Mexico is very favorable for the existence of large, commercial hydrocarbon accumulations. These areas have active salt tectonics that create abundant traps, underlying mature Mesozoic source rocks that can be observed expelling oil and gas to the ocean surface, and good quality reservoirs provided by turbidite sand deposits. Despite the limited amount of drilling in the deep-water Gulf of Mexico, 11 deep-water accumulations have been discovered which, when developed, will rank in the top 100 largest fields in the Gulf of Mexico. Proved field discoveries (those with announced development plans) have added over 1 billion barrels of oil equivalent to Gulf of Mexico reserves, and unproved field discoveries may add to additional billion barrels of oil equivalent. The Minerals Management Service, United States Department of the Interior, has completed a gulf-wide review of over 1,086 oil and gas fields and placed every pay sand in each field into a hydrocarbon play (plays are defined by chronostratigraphy, lithostratigraph, structure, and production). Seven productive hydrocarbon plays were identified in the deep-water northern Gulf of Mexico. Regional maps illustrate the productive limits of each play. In addition, field data, dry holes, and wells with sub-economic pay were added to define the facies and structural limits for each play. Areas for exploration potential are identified for each hydrocarbon play. A type field for each play is chosen to demonstrate the play's characteristics

  7. Improvements in the biotreatment of soil contaminated by heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquin, J. [Sanexen Environmental Services Inc., Varennes, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation discussed improvements in the biotreatment of soil contaminated by heavy hydrocarbons. The presentation provided information on the background for the investigation such as: difficulty for biotreatment in soil to deal with heavy weathered hydrocarbons and fine grained soils; the involvement of the Montreal Centre of Excellence for Brownfield Remediation (MCEBR) to develop state of the art environmental solutions; and, the selection of Sanexen as the organization with the best price and best performance warranty to perform the required decontamination. The objectives of the study were to improve the performance of biotreatment of soil contaminated with heavy petroleum hydrocarbons; reduce soil biotreatment costs by 30 per cent; improve knowledge and understanding for this type of treatment; and, better identify constraints and optimal strategies in view of these constraints. Specific objectives that were discussed included: improving the microbial flora, attaining a favorable soil temperature at a low cost, identifying the best amendments for bulking of soil, increasing bio-availability of the contaminants, and identifying optimal mechanical handling of the soil. The presentation discussed soils treated; research and development carried out; standard method of biotreatment; alternative methods tested; initial investigation by the MCEBR; pilot test carried out by Sanexen; and, results of the pilot test. As part of the research program with MCEBR, soils that received different amendments were tested at the Biotechnology Research Institute (BRI) of the National Research Council for their ability to degrade added hexadecane and naphthalene. Soil at various stages of the treatment was also sampled and tested by the (BRI). It was concluded that the biotreatment of heavy hydrocarbons in fine grained soils is feasible and that the techniques used reduced biotreatment costs by approximately 25 per cent.

  8. Nuclear plant reliability data system. 1979 annual reports of cumulative system and component reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The primary purposes of the information in these reports are the following: to provide operating statistics of safety-related systems within a unit which may be used to compare and evaluate reliability performance and to provide failure mode and failure rate statistics on components which may be used in failure mode effects analysis, fault hazard analysis, probabilistic reliability analysis, and so forth

  9. Approach to reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.; Bourne, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Experience has shown that reliability assessments can play an important role in the early design and subsequent operation of technological systems where reliability is at a premium. The approaches to and techniques for such assessments, which have been outlined in the paper, have been successfully applied in variety of applications ranging from individual equipments to large and complex systems. The general approach involves the logical and systematic establishment of the purpose, performance requirements and reliability criteria of systems. This is followed by an appraisal of likely system achievment based on the understanding of different types of variational behavior. A fundamental reliability model emerges from the correlation between the appropriate Q and H functions for performance requirement and achievement. This model may cover the complete spectrum of performance behavior in all the system dimensions

  10. Reliability in individual monitoring service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mod Ali, N

    2011-03-01

    As a laboratory certified to ISO 9001:2008 and accredited to ISO/IEC 17025, the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL)-Nuclear Malaysia has incorporated an overall comprehensive system for technical and quality management in promoting a reliable individual monitoring service (IMS). Faster identification and resolution of issues regarding dosemeter preparation and issuing of reports, personnel enhancement, improved customer satisfaction and overall efficiency of laboratory activities are all results of the implementation of an effective quality system. Review of these measures and responses to observed trends provide continuous improvement of the system. By having these mechanisms, reliability of the IMS can be assured in the promotion of safe behaviour at all levels of the workforce utilising ionising radiation facilities. Upgradation of in the reporting program through a web-based e-SSDL marks a major improvement in Nuclear Malaysia's IMS reliability on the whole. The system is a vital step in providing a user friendly and effective occupational exposure evaluation program in the country. It provides a higher level of confidence in the results generated for occupational dose monitoring of the IMS, thus, enhances the status of the radiation protection framework of the country.

  11. Factors affecting the distribution of hydrocarbon contaminants and hydrogeochemical parameters in a shallow sand aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Yong; Cheon, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Kang-Kun; Lee, Seok-Young; Lee, Min-Hyo

    2001-07-01

    The distributions of hydrocarbon contaminants and hydrogeochemical parameters were investigated in a shallow sand aquifer highly contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons leaked from solvent storage tanks. For these purposes, a variety of field investigations and studies were performed, which included installation of over 100 groundwater monitoring wells and piezometers at various depths, soil logging and analyses during well and piezometer installation, chemical analysis of groundwater, pump tests, and slug tests. Continuous water level monitoring at three selected wells using automatic data-logger and manual measuring at other wells were also conducted. Based on analyses of the various investigations and tests, a number of factors were identified to explain the distribution of the hydrocarbon contaminants and hydrogeochemical parameters. These factors include indigenous biodegradation, hydrostratigraphy, preliminary pump-and-treat remedy, recharge by rainfall, and subsequent water level fluctuation. The permeable sandy layer, in which the mean water table elevation is maintained, provided a dominant pathway for contaminant transport. The preliminary pump-and-treat action accelerated the movement of the hydrocarbon contaminants and affected the redox evolution pattern. Seasonal recharge by rain, together with indigenous biodegradation, played an important role in the natural attenuation of the petroleum hydrocarbons via mixing/dilution and biodegradation. The water level fluctuations redistributed the hydrocarbon contaminants by partitioning them into the soil and groundwater. The identified factors are not independent but closely inter-correlated.

  12. Total organic carbon, an important tool in an holistic approach to hydrocarbon source fingerprinting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, P.D.; Burns, W.A.; Page, D.S.; Bence, A.E.; Mankiewicz, P.J.; Brown, J.S.; Douglas, G.S. [Battelle Member Inst., Waltham, MA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The identification and allocation of multiple hydrocarbon sources in marine sediments is best achieved using an holistic approach. Total organic carbon (TOC) is one important tool that can constrain the contributions of specific sources and rule out incorrect source allocations in cases where inputs are dominated by fossil organic carbon. In a study of the benthic sediments from Prince William Sound (PWS) and the Gulf of Alaska (GOA), we find excellent agreement between measured TOC and TOC calculated from hydrocarbon fingerprint matches of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and chemical biomarkers. Confirmation by two such independent source indicators (TOC and fingerprint matches) provides evidence that source allocations determined by the fingerprint matches are robust and that the major TOC sources have been correctly identified. Fingerprint matches quantify the hydrocarbon contributions of various sources to the benthic sediments and the degree of hydrocarbon winnowing by waves and currents. TOC contents are then calculated using source allocation results from fingerprint matches and the TOCs of contributing sources. Comparisons of the actual sediment TOC values and those calculated from source allocation support our earlier published findings that the natural petrogenic hydrocarbon background in sediments in this area comes from eroding Tertiary shales and associated oil seeps along the northern GOA coast and exclude thermally mature area coals from being important contributors to the PWS background due to their high TOC content.

  13. Reliable design of electronic equipment an engineering guide

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Dhanasekharan

    2014-01-01

    This book explains reliability techniques with examples from electronics design for the benefit of engineers. It presents the application of de-rating, FMEA, overstress analyses and reliability improvement tests for designing reliable electronic equipment. Adequate information is provided for designing computerized reliability database system to support the application of the techniques by designers. Pedantic terms and the associated mathematics of reliability engineering discipline are excluded for the benefit of comprehensiveness and practical applications. This book offers excellent support

  14. Guarantee of reliability of devices complexes for plastic tube welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskresenskij, L.A.; Zajtsev, A.I.; Nelyubov, V.I.; Fedorov, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Results of calculations and experimental studies on providing reliability of complex for plastic tube welding are presented. Choice of reliability indeces and standards is based. Reliability levels of components are determined. The most waded details are calculated. It is shown that they meet the reqrurements of strength and reliability. Service life tests supported the correct choice of springs. Recommendations on elevating reliability are given. Directions of further developments are shown. 8 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  15. Generating project value through design for reliability: on the development and implementation of a potential value framework

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, K. B. W.

    2007-01-01

    The current trend to economically exploit deepwater hydrocarbon reserves is to reduce the capital expenditure; accomplished by deploying subsea equipment. The financial benefit afforded is offset by the risk of high operational costs associated with failure. Recognition of the life cycle cost implications of subsea reliability have led to the development of the reliability strategy. This strategy adopts a risk based approach to design for reliability where only analyses (and th...

  16. Structural systems reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangopol, D.

    1975-01-01

    For an exact evaluation of the reliability of a structure it appears necessary to determine the distribution densities of the loads and resistances and to calculate the correlation coefficients between loads and between resistances. These statistical characteristics can be obtained only on the basis of a long activity period. In case that such studies are missing the statistical properties formulated here give upper and lower bounds of the reliability. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Reliability and maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Several communications in this conference are concerned with nuclear plant reliability and maintainability; their titles are: maintenance optimization of stand-by Diesels of 900 MW nuclear power plants; CLAIRE: an event-based simulation tool for software testing; reliability as one important issue within the periodic safety review of nuclear power plants; design of nuclear building ventilation by the means of functional analysis; operation characteristic analysis for a power industry plant park, as a function of influence parameters

  18. Multidisciplinary System Reliability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Han, Song; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a new methodology for estimating the reliability of engineering systems that encompass multiple disciplines. The methodology is formulated in the context of the NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis code, developed under the leadership of NASA Glenn Research Center. The NESSUS code has been successfully applied to the reliability estimation of a variety of structural engineering systems. This study examines whether the features of NESSUS could be used to investigate the reliability of systems in other disciplines such as heat transfer, fluid mechanics, electrical circuits etc., without considerable programming effort specific to each discipline. In this study, the mechanical equivalence between system behavior models in different disciplines are investigated to achieve this objective. A new methodology is presented for the analysis of heat transfer, fluid flow, and electrical circuit problems using the structural analysis routines within NESSUS, by utilizing the equivalence between the computational quantities in different disciplines. This technique is integrated with the fast probability integration and system reliability techniques within the NESSUS code, to successfully compute the system reliability of multidisciplinary systems. Traditional as well as progressive failure analysis methods for system reliability estimation are demonstrated, through a numerical example of a heat exchanger system involving failure modes in structural, heat transfer and fluid flow disciplines.

  19. Analysis and Application of Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae Seong; Park, Dong Ho; Kim, Jae Ju

    1999-05-01

    This book tells of analysis and application of reliability, which includes definition, importance and historical background of reliability, function of reliability and failure rate, life distribution and assumption of reliability, reliability of unrepaired system, reliability of repairable system, sampling test of reliability, failure analysis like failure analysis by FEMA and FTA, and cases, accelerated life testing such as basic conception, acceleration and acceleration factor, and analysis of accelerated life testing data, maintenance policy about alternation and inspection.

  20. Development of compressor equipment for technologies of hydrocarbons extraction using nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kirik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the results of research and development work aimed at the development and implementation of technologies compressor using nitrogen to extract hydrocarbons. Nitrogen as the most affordable gas, is used as a neutral environment while performing a variety of works: gas injection into wells to stabilize the reservoir pressure in the development of oil and gas fields, gas condensate production, as well as the performance of repair work and testing of pipelines. A significant role is played by the use of nitrogen for extinguishing fires in coal mines. The implementation of these technologies requires the design and development of domestic production of the compressor equipment. The article gives some examples of developments of compressor stations based on screw and piston compressors, which meet modern requirements of efficiency, reliability, ergonomics and ecology, equipped with systems of control and regulation on the basis of controllers. The description and characteristics of the compressor equipment, and some results of the implementation compressors and technologies using nitrogen as a neutral environment.

  1. Retrospective benzene and total hydrocarbon exposure assessment for a petroleum marketing and distribution worker epidemiology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T W; Pearlman, E D; Schnatter, A R; Bowes, S M; Murray, N; Nicolich, M J

    1996-04-01

    A quantitative exposure-estimating algorithm for benzene and total hydrocarbons was developed for a case control study of petroleum marketing and distribution workers. The algorithm used a multiplicative model to adjust recently measured quantitative exposure data to past scenarios for which representative exposure measurement data did not exist. This was accomplished through the development of exposure modifiers to account for differences in the workplace, the materials handled, the environmental conditions, and the tasks performed. Values for exposure modifiers were obtained empirically and through physical/chemical relationships. Dates for changes that altered exposure potential were obtained from archive records, retired employee interviews, and from current operations personnel. Exposure modifiers were used multiplicatively, adjusting available measured data to represent the relevant exposure scenario and time period. Changes in exposure modifiers translated to step changes in exposure estimates. Though limited by availability of data, a validation exercise suggested that the algorithm provided accurate exposure estimates for benzene (compared with measured data in industrial hygiene survey reports); the estimates generally differed by an average of less than 20% from the measured values. This approach is proposed to quantify exposures retrospectively where there are sufficient data to develop reliable current era estimates and where a historical accounting of key exposure modifiers can be developed, but where there are insufficient historic exposure measurements to directly assess historic exposures.

  2. High-resolution gas chromatographic analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.; Gonzalez, D.

    1988-01-01

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column in two different polar stationary phases OV-1 and SE-54. The limitation and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 20 refs

  3. Guidelines for Constructing Natural Gas and Liquid Hydrocarbon Pipelines Through Areas Prone to Landslide and Subsidence Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    These guidelines provide recommendations for the assessment of new and existing natural gas and liquid hydrocarbon pipelines subjected to potential ground displacements resulting from landslides and subsidence. The process of defining landslide and s...

  4. Comparative Genomics of the Ubiquitous, Hydrocarbon-degrading Genus Marinobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, E.; Webb, E.; Edwards, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    using fimbriae and pili. Formation of biofilm with biosurfactant characteristics has been observed in Marinobacter cultures and environmental strains in relation to hydrocarbon degradation. Genomic potential exists for the synthesis of biofilm-related carbon and energy storage compounds, e.g. alginate and isoprenoid wax esters, and quorum sensing encoded by the regulatory luxR gene and N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone (AHL) signals. Halotolerance is predicted to be achieved through biosynthesis and/or import of compatible solutes, including glycine betaine, choline, ectoine, sucrose, periplasmic glucans as well as membrane channel activity regulating intracellular sodium, potassium and chloride concentration balance. Gene abundances concur with those observed in sequenced halophilic Halomonas genomes. Defense mechanisms are plentiful and include arsenate, organic solvent, copper, and mercuric resistance, compounds, which frequently occur in oil refinery wastewater. The Marinobacter genomes reflect dynamic environments and diverse interactions with viruses and other bacteria with similar metabolic strategies, as reflected by the large number of integrases and transposases. This study has provided comprehensive genomic insights into the metabolic versatility and predicted environmental impact potential of one of the most ubiquitous bacterial genera.

  5. Petroleum hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Hong Kong marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, G.J.; Richardson, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A total of 20 surficial sediment samples, obtained from Hong Kong coastal waters, were analysed for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and a suite of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results indicate that Hong Kong coastal sediments are often seriously polluted with petroleum related hydrocarbons. This is especially so in heavily urbanised or industrialized localities, such as Kowloon Bay (Victoria Harbour), Tsing Yi North and Tolo Harbour. Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants in marine sediments are believed to be mainly derived from the transportation of oil, shipping activities, spillages, and industrial, stormwater and waste wastewater discharge. The ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to n-alkanes, carbon preference index (CPI), and n-C 16 values indicate that the main contribution to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination is via oil and its products. Pollutant sources appear to be stable and continuing when compared with previous data. (author)

  6. The bacterial community structure of hydrocarbon-polluted marine environments as the basis for the definition of an ecological index of hydrocarbon exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada, Mariana; Marcos, Magalí S; Commendatore, Marta G; Gil, Mónica N; Dionisi, Hebe M

    2014-09-17

    The aim of this study was to design a molecular biological tool, using information provided by amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, that could be suitable for environmental assessment and bioremediation in marine ecosystems. We selected 63 bacterial genera that were previously linked to hydrocarbon biodegradation, representing a minimum sample of the bacterial guild associated with this process. We defined an ecological indicator (ecological index of hydrocarbon exposure, EIHE) using the relative abundance values of these genera obtained by pyrotag analysis. This index reflects the proportion of the bacterial community that is potentially capable of biodegrading hydrocarbons. When the bacterial community structures of intertidal sediments from two sites with different pollution histories were analyzed, 16 of the selected genera (25%) were significantly overrepresented with respect to the pristine site, in at least one of the samples from the polluted site. Although the relative abundances of individual genera associated with hydrocarbon biodegradation were generally low in samples from the polluted site, EIHE values were 4 times higher than those in the pristine sample, with at least 5% of the bacterial community in the sediments being represented by the selected genera. EIHE values were also calculated in other oil-exposed marine sediments as well as in seawater using public datasets from experimental systems and field studies. In all cases, the EIHE was significantly higher in oiled than in unpolluted samples, suggesting that this tool could be used as an estimator of the hydrocarbon-degrading potential of microbial communities.

  7. Telecommunications system reliability engineering theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Ayers, Mark L

    2012-01-01

    "Increasing system complexity require new, more sophisticated tools for system modeling and metric calculation. Bringing the field up to date, this book provides telecommunications engineers with practical tools for analyzing, calculating, and reporting availability, reliability, and maintainability metrics. It gives the background in system reliability theory and covers in-depth applications in fiber optic networks, microwave networks, satellite networks, power systems, and facilities management. Computer programming tools for simulating the approaches presented, using the Matlab software suite, are also provided"

  8. Downhole fluid injection systems, CO2 sequestration methods, and hydrocarbon material recovery methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2015-07-28

    Downhole fluid injection systems are provided that can include a first well extending into a geological formation, and a fluid injector assembly located within the well. The fluid injector assembly can be configured to inject a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion into the surrounding geological formation. CO2 sequestration methods are provided that can include exposing a geological formation to a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to sequester at least a portion of the CO2 from the emulsion within the formation. Hydrocarbon material recovery methods are provided that can include exposing a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to a geological formation having the hydrocarbon material therein. The methods can include recovering at least a portion of the hydrocarbon material from the formation.

  9. Flow injection gas chromatography with sulfur chemiluminescence detection for the analysis of total sulfur in complex hydrocarbon matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yujuan; Hawryluk, Myron; Gras, Ronda; Shearer, Randall; Luong, Jim

    2018-01-01

    A fast and reliable analytical technique for the determination of total sulfur levels in complex hydrocarbon matrices is introduced. The method employed flow injection technique using a gas chromatograph as a sample introduction device and a gas phase dual-plasma sulfur chemiluminescence detector for sulfur quantification. Using the technique described, total sulfur measurement in challenging hydrocarbon matrices can be achieved in less than 10 s with sample-to-sample time ideal for fast analysis or trace sulfur analysis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Operator reliability assessment system (OPERAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.; Spurgin, A.J.; Martin, T.; Welsch, J.; Hallam, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    OPERAS is a personal-computer (PC) based software to collect and process simulator data on control-room operators responses during requalification training scenarios. The data collection scheme is based upon approach developed earlier during the EPRI Operator Reliability Experiments project. The software allows automated data collection from simulator, thus minimizing simulator staff time and resources to collect, maintain and process data which can be useful in monitoring, assessing and enhancing the progress of crew reliability and effectiveness. The system is designed to provide the data and output information in the form of user-friendly charts, tables and figures for use by plant staff. OPERAS prototype software has been implemented at the Diablo Canyon (PWR) and Millstone (BWR) plants and is currently being used to collect operator response data. Data collected from similator include plant-state variables such as reactor pressure and temperature, malfunction, times at which annunciators are activated, operator actions and observations of crew behavior by training staff. The data and systematic analytical results provided by the OPERAS system can contribute to increase objectivity by the utility probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) and training staff in monitoring and assessing reliability of their crews

  11. Assessment of physical server reliability in multi cloud computing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani, B. J. D.; Rao, Kolasani Ramchand H.

    2018-04-01

    Business organizations nowadays functioning with more than one cloud provider. By spreading cloud deployment across multiple service providers, it creates space for competitive prices that minimize the burden on enterprises spending budget. To assess the software reliability of multi cloud application layered software reliability assessment paradigm is considered with three levels of abstractions application layer, virtualization layer, and server layer. The reliability of each layer is assessed separately and is combined to get the reliability of multi-cloud computing application. In this paper, we focused on how to assess the reliability of server layer with required algorithms and explore the steps in the assessment of server reliability.

  12. Climate change opportunities in the hydrocarbon sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amey, A.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation described some of the innovative policy, market and technology approaches that are needed to move to a carbon constrained future. The world's primary power consumption is currently 12 trillion watts. Most of the energy (85 per cent) comes from fossil fuels. Climate Change Central (C3) was incorporated as a not-for-profit company in 2000. It includes representatives from major industry sectors, environmental associations, and all levels of government. C3 provides leadership in encouraging action on climate change and developing climate change partnerships and alliances. It also provides strategic intelligence in identifying climate change priorities and appropriate policy frameworks. It helps increase public awareness of the issue. While C3 is focused on reducing greenhouse gases (GHG), it stands neutral in the Kyoto Protocol debate and is working to define emission reduction priorities in partnership with all stakeholders. Priorities include energy efficiency/conservation; emission off-sets development; adaptation; technology and market innovation; and, socio-economic implications. The difficulty in reducing GHGs stems from the fact that carbon emissions, energy use, and economic growth are directly related. In a buoyant, hydrocarbon-based economy, economic growth has meant an increase in energy production, energy use and increased carbon emissions, even while emission intensity decreases significantly. The United States contributes 23 per cent of the world's total carbon emissions, of which 90 per cent comes from energy production and consumption. Many states have implemented policies to control carbon emissions. A range of policy approaches are also underway in Canada to set GHG emission targets, to support the development of GHG off-set and trading systems, and to promote renewable energy source development. Efforts are also underway to develop clean coal or zero emission coal technology, to promote distributed power generation, biofuels, and

  13. Worldwide overview of hydrocarbons and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnac, Alain de; Perves, Jean-Pierre

    2013-12-01

    This publication presents and comments data regarding the share of hydrocarbons in the world energy consumption, hydrocarbon trade flows, the new situation created by the emergence of shale hydrocarbons and the consequences for the world economy, and possible risks. The authors first comment the evolution of energy consumption and outline that the objectives of CO 2 and greenhouse gas emission will not be reached (these emissions increased in 2012 and in 2013). They indicate the emission situation in the USA and Japan, and notice that the objectives defined by the IEA are quite different from those defined by the EU. They analyse the evolutions by distinguishing different periods: 2005-2008 as a reference period, 2008-2012 as a period of change, and the current period as a period of flow inversion. Then, the authors propose two different scenarios of evolution of economic and energy policies. The evolution of hydrocarbon demand is commented, and the levels of reserves (oil, conventional gas, coal, nuclear fuels) are discussed. The market evolution is also discussed, not only from an economic point of view, but also in relationship with geopolitics. The authors notably outline that the energy price is different from one country to the other, discuss the issue of hydrocarbon refining, the role of CO 2 tax

  14. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowell, M.J.; Ashworth, J.; Qureshi, A.A.

    1992-12-01

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments was reviewed via a literature survey and discussions with workers in relevant disciplines. The impacts of hydrocarbons on soil are discussed along with a range of methods available to assist in their decomposition by soil microorganisms. The range of petroleum-based materials considered includes conventional and synthetic crude oils, refined oils, sludges, asphalts and bitumens, drilling mud residues, creosote tars, and some pesticides. The degradability of hydrocarbons largely depends upon their aqueous solubility and their adsorption on soil surfaces and, therefore, is related to their molecular structures. The ease of decomposition decreases with increasing complexity of structure, in the order aliphatics > aromatics > heterocyclics and asphaltenes (most recalcitrant). Most soils contain an adequate population of microorganisms and hence bioaugmentation may only be needed in special circumstances. Decomposition is fastest in soils where the hydrocarbon loading rate, aeration, nutrition, moisture, and pH are all optimized. At spill sites there is little control over the application rate, although containment measures can assist in either limiting contamination or distributing it more evenly. The enhancement of bioremediation is discussed in light of all these factors. Other techniques such as enhanced aeration, hydrocarbon decomposition by anaerobic processes, surfactants, and burning are also discussed. 211 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

  15. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowell, M J; Ashworth, J; Qureshi, A A

    1992-12-01

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments was reviewed via a literature survey and discussions with workers in relevant disciplines. The impacts of hydrocarbons on soil are discussed along with a range of methods available to assist in their decomposition by soil microorganisms. The range of petroleum-based materials considered includes conventional and synthetic crude oils, refined oils, sludges, asphalts and bitumens, drilling mud residues, creosote tars, and some pesticides. The degradability of hydrocarbons largely depends upon their aqueous solubility and their adsorption on soil surfaces and, therefore, is related to their molecular structures. The ease of decomposition decreases with increasing complexity of structure, in the order aliphatics > aromatics > heterocyclics and asphaltenes (most recalcitrant). Most soils contain an adequate population of microorganisms and hence bioaugmentation may only be needed in special circumstances. Decomposition is fastest in soils where the hydrocarbon loading rate, aeration, nutrition, moisture, and pH are all optimized. At spill sites there is little control over the application rate, although containment measures can assist in either limiting contamination or distributing it more evenly. The enhancement of bioremediation is discussed in light of all these factors. Other techniques such as enhanced aeration, hydrocarbon decomposition by anaerobic processes, surfactants, and burning are also discussed. 211 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. Emissions of hydrocarbons from combustion of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Mona; Persson, Eva Marie.

    1991-10-01

    Evaluations and measurements of emissions of hydrocarbons from power plants with a capacity exceeding 1 MW using biofuels (wood fuels and peat) have been studied in order to identify and quantify the emissions of incompletely combusted hydrocarbons. The influence of the type of fuel and the combustion technology applied were also studied, using literature references. The report summarizes monitoring results from a number of plants using biofuels. The reported emissions from the different plants can not be compared as they are relatively few and the test results have been obtained under various conditions using different methods of testing and analysis. The methods used are often poorly documented in the studied reports. Few investigations of emissions of hydrocarbons from plants in the range of 1 to 10 MW have been carried out. The plant and the technology used are important factors determining the amount and type of emissions of hydrocarbons. Larger temporary emissions can occur during start up, operational disturbances or when using fuel of inhomogeneous quality. In order to minimize the emissions the combustion process must be efficiently controlled, and a fuel of a hohogeneous quality must be used. The report also summarizes sampling and analysis methods used for monitoring emissions of hydrocarbons. (29 refs., 17 figs.)

  17. Measure of Truck Delay and Reliability at the Corridor Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Freight transportation provides a significant contribution to our nations economy. A reliable and accessible freight network enables business in the Twin Cities to be more competitive in the Upper Midwest region. Accurate and reliable freight data...

  18. Reliability-based assessment of polyethylene pipe creep lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelif, Rabia; Chateauneuf, Alaa; Chaoui, Kamel

    2007-01-01

    Lifetime management of underground pipelines is mandatory for safe hydrocarbon transmission and distribution systems. The use of high-density polyethylene tubes subjected to internal pressure, external loading and environmental variations requires a reliability study in order to define the service limits and the optimal operating conditions. In service, the time-dependent phenomena, especially creep, take place during the pipe lifetime, leading to significant strength reduction. In this work, the reliability-based assessment of pipe lifetime models is carried out, in order to propose a probabilistic methodology for lifetime model selection and to determine the pipe safety levels as well as the most important parameters for pipeline reliability. This study is enhanced by parametric analysis on pipe configuration, gas pressure and operating temperature

  19. Reliability-based assessment of polyethylene pipe creep lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khelif, Rabia [LaMI-UBP and IFMA, Campus de Clermont-Fd, Les Cezeaux, BP 265, 63175 Aubiere Cedex (France); LR3MI, Departement de Genie Mecanique, Universite Badji Mokhtar, BP 12, Annaba 23000 (Algeria)], E-mail: rabia.khelif@ifma.fr; Chateauneuf, Alaa [LGC-University Blaise Pascal, Campus des Cezeaux, BP 206, 63174 Aubiere Cedex (France)], E-mail: alaa.chateauneuf@polytech.univ-bpclermont.fr; Chaoui, Kamel [LR3MI, Departement de Genie Mecanique, Universite Badji Mokhtar, BP 12, Annaba 23000 (Algeria)], E-mail: chaoui@univ-annaba.org

    2007-12-15

    Lifetime management of underground pipelines is mandatory for safe hydrocarbon transmission and distribution systems. The use of high-density polyethylene tubes subjected to internal pressure, external loading and environmental variations requires a reliability study in order to define the service limits and the optimal operating conditions. In service, the time-dependent phenomena, especially creep, take place during the pipe lifetime, leading to significant strength reduction. In this work, the reliability-based assessment of pipe lifetime models is carried out, in order to propose a probabilistic methodology for lifetime model selection and to determine the pipe safety levels as well as the most important parameters for pipeline reliability. This study is enhanced by parametric analysis on pipe configuration, gas pressure and operating temperature.

  20. Safety and reliability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, R.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear power plants and, in particular, reactor pressure boundary components have unique reliability requirements, in that usually no significant redundancy is possible, and a single failure can give rise to possible widespread core damage and fission product release. Reliability may be required for availability or safety reasons, but in the case of the pressure boundary and certain other systems safety may dominate. Possible Safety and Reliability (S and R) criteria are proposed which would produce acceptable reactor design. Without some S and R requirement the designer has no way of knowing how far he must go in analysing his system or component, or whether his proposed solution is likely to gain acceptance. The paper shows how reliability targets for given components and systems can be individually considered against the derived S and R criteria at the design and construction stage. Since in the case of nuclear pressure boundary components there is often very little direct experience on which to base reliability studies, relevant non-nuclear experience is examined. (author)

  1. Reliability technology and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrick, B.J.; Kaplan, S.

    1976-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the history and status of nuclear reliability and the evolution of this subject from art towards science. It shows that that probability theory is the appropriate and essential mathematical language of this subject. The authors emphasize that it is more useful to view probability not as a $prime$frequency$prime$, i.e., not as the result of a statistical experiment, but rather as a measure of state of confidence or a state of knowledge. They also show that the probabilistic, quantitative approach has a considerable history of application in the electric power industry in the area of power system planning. Finally, the authors show that the decision theory notion of utility provides a point of view from which risks, benefits, safety, and reliability can be viewed in a unified way thus facilitating understanding, comparison, and communication. 29 refs

  2. Towards minimizing measurement uncertainty in total petroleum hydrocarbon determination by GC-FID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, E.

    2009-07-01

    Despite tightened environmental legislation, spillages of petroleum products remain a serious problem worldwide. The environmental impacts of these spillages are always severe and reliable methods for the identification and quantitative determination of petroleum hydrocarbons in environmental samples are therefore needed. Great improvements in the definition and analysis of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were finally introduced by international organizations for standardization in 2004. This brought some coherence to the determination and, nowadays, most laboratories seem to employ ISO/DIS 16703:2004, ISO 9377-2:2000 and CEN prEN 14039:2004:E draft international standards for analysing TPH in soil. The implementation of these methods, however, usually fails because the reliability of petroleum hydrocarbon determination has proved to be poor.This thesis describes the assessment of measurement uncertainty for TPH determination in soil. Chemometric methods were used to both estimate the main uncertainty sources and identify the most significant factors affecting these uncertainty sources. The method used for the determinations was based on gas chromatography utilizing flame ionization detection (GC-FID).Chemometric methodology applied in estimating measurement uncertainty for TPH determination showed that the measurement uncertainty is in actual fact dominated by the analytical uncertainty. Within the specific concentration range studied, the analytical uncertainty accounted for as much as 68-80% of the measurement uncertainty. The robustness of the analytical method used for petroleum hydrocarbon determination was then studied in more detail. A two-level Plackett-Burman design and a D-optimal design were utilized to assess the main analytical uncertainty sources of the sample treatment and GC determination procedures. It was also found that the matrix-induced systematic error may also significantly reduce the reliability of petroleum hydrocarbon determination

  3. Impact Of Landfill Closure Designs On Long-Term Natural Attenuation Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    petroleum hydrocarbons and VC) and to stimulate the precipitation of arsenic (Turpie et al., 2000). Such an engineered remedy provides for continued...precipitation of arsenic . This treatment system provides many advantages over remedial measures currently proposed for this and other similar sites with...1999a. Summary of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum. Phytoremediation Action Team Alternative Cover Assessment Program (ACAP

  4. Solution mining and heating by oxidation for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Stegemeier, George Leo

    2009-06-23

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation. A second fluid is produced from the portion. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. A controlled amount of oxidant is provided to the portion of the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  5. Application of solid phase micro extraction (SPME) in profiling hydrocarbons in oil spill cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuraidah Abdullah Munir; Norashikin Saim; Nurul Huda Mamat Ghani

    2008-01-01

    In environmental forensic, it is extremely important to have a fast and reliable method in identifying sources of spilled oil and petroleum products. In this study, solid phase micro extraction (SPME) method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for the analysis of hydrocarbons in diesel and petroleum contaminated soil samples. Optimization of SPME parameters such as extraction time, extraction temperature and desorption time, was performed using 100-μm poly dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber. These parameters were studied at three levels by means of a central composite experimental design and the optimum experimental conditions were determined using response surface method. The developed SPME method was applied to determine the profiles of hydrocarbons in several oil contaminated soil sample. The SPME method was also used to study the effects of weathering on the profiles of hydrocarbons in unleaded gasoline, diesel and kerosene contaminated soil samples. After several days, significant losses of the lighter hydrocarbons were observed compared to the heavier ones. From these data, SPME method can be used to differentiate possible candidate sources in oil spill cases. (author)

  6. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

  7. Issues in cognitive reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.D.; Hitchler, M.J.; Rumancik, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines some problems in current methods to assess reactor operator reliability at cognitive tasks and discusses new approaches to solve these problems. The two types of human failures are errors in the execution of an intention and errors in the formation/selection of an intention. Topics considered include the types of description, error correction, cognitive performance and response time, the speed-accuracy tradeoff function, function based task analysis, and cognitive task analysis. One problem of human reliability analysis (HRA) techniques in general is the question of what are the units of behavior whose reliability are to be determined. A second problem for HRA is that people often detect and correct their errors. The use of function based analysis, which maps the problem space for plant control, is recommended

  8. EVALUATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS ELUTION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on oil removal from soil by means of water elution with a help of shaking out the contaminants from the soil. The tests were performed on simulated soil samples contaminated with a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study consisted in recording the time influence and the number of elution cycles to remove contaminants from the soil. The samples were then subject to the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene. Due to adding various concentrations of petroleum into particular soil samples and applying different shaking times, it was possible to find out the impact of petroleum content and sample shaking duration on the course and possibility of petroleum substances removal by means of elution process.

  9. Direct electroreduction of CO2 into hydrocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winea, Gauthier; Ledoux, Marc-Jacques; Pham-Huu, Cuong; Gangeri, Miriam; Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    A lot of methods exist to directly reduce carbon dioxide into hydrocarbons: the photoelectrochemical process is certainly the most interesting, essentially due to the similarities with photosynthesis. As the human activities produce a great quantity of CO 2 , this one can then be considered as an infinite source of carbon. The products of this reaction are identical to those obtained during a Fischer-Tropsch reaction, that is to say hydrocarbons, alcohols and carboxylic acids. These works deal with the electrochemical reduction of CO 2 in standard conditions of temperature and pressure. The photochemical part has been replaced by a current generator as electrons source and a KHCO 3 aqueous solution as protons source. The first catalytic results clearly show that it is possible to reduce CO 2 into light hydrocarbons, typically from C1 to C9. (O.M.)

  10. Microbial hydrocarbon degradation - bioremediation of oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlas, R M [Louisville Univ., KY (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1991-01-01

    Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of oil-polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradative activities. Bioremediation of petroleum pollutants overcomes the factors limiting rates of microbial hydrocarbon biodegradation. Often this involves using the enzymatic capabilities of the indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations and modifying environmental factors, particularly concentrations of molecular oxygen, fixed forms of nitrogen and phosphate to achieve enhanced rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation. Biodegradation of oily sludges and bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites has been achieved by oxygen addition-e.g. by tilling soils in landfarming and by adding hydrogen peroxide or pumping oxygen into oiled aquifers along with addition of nitrogen- and phosphorous-containing fertilizers. The success of seeding oil spills with microbial preparations is ambiguous. Successful bioremediation of a major marine oil spill has been achieved based upon addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers. (author).

  11. Reliability issues in PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Ricky K.; Chan, Kelby K.; Stewart, Brent K.; Weinberg, Wolfram S.

    1991-07-01

    Reliability is an increasing concern when moving PACS from the experimental laboratory to the clinical environment. Any system downtime may seriously affect patient care. The authors report on the several classes of errors encountered during the pre-clinical release of the PACS during the past several months and present the solutions implemented to handle them. The reliability issues discussed include: (1) environmental precautions, (2) database backups, (3) monitor routines of critical resources and processes, (4) hardware redundancy (networks, archives), and (5) development of a PACS quality control program.

  12. Reliability Parts Derating Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    226-30, October 1974. 66 I, 26. "Reliability of GAAS Injection Lasers", De Loach , B. C., Jr., 1973 IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser Engineering and...Vol. R-23, No. 4, 226-30, October 1974. 28. "Reliability of GAAS Injection Lasers", De Loach , B. C., Jr., 1973 IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser...opnatien ot 󈨊 deg C, mounted on a 4-inach square 0.250~ inch thick al~loy alum~nusi panel.. This mounting technique should be L~ ken into cunoidur~tiou

  13. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  14. Development of a highly reliable CRT processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Tomoya; Saiki, Akira; Hirai, Kenji; Jota, Masayoshi; Fujii, Mikiya

    1996-01-01

    Although CRT processors have been employed by the main control board to reduce the operator's workload during monitoring, the control systems are still operated by hardware switches. For further advancement, direct controller operation through a display device is expected. A CRT processor providing direct controller operation must be as reliable as the hardware switches are. The authors are developing a new type of highly reliable CRT processor that enables direct controller operations. In this paper, we discuss the design principles behind a highly reliable CRT processor. The principles are defined by studies of software reliability and of the functional reliability of the monitoring and operation systems. The functional configuration of an advanced CRT processor is also addressed. (author)

  15. Introduction to quality and reliability engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Renyan

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in quality and reliability engineering from a product life cycle standpoint. Topics in reliability include reliability models, life data analysis and modeling, design for reliability and accelerated life testing, while topics in quality include design for quality, acceptance sampling and supplier selection, statistical process control, production tests such as screening and burn-in, warranty and maintenance. The book provides comprehensive insights into two closely related subjects, and includes a wealth of examples and problems to enhance reader comprehension and link theory and practice. All numerical examples can be easily solved using Microsoft Excel. The book is intended for senior undergraduate and post-graduate students in related engineering and management programs such as mechanical engineering, manufacturing engineering, industrial engineering and engineering management programs, as well as for researchers and engineers in the quality and reliability fields. D...

  16. Reliability of power system with open access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehsani, A.; Ranjbar, A. M.; Fotuhi Firuzabad, M.; Ehsani, M.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, in many countries, electric utility industry is undergoing considerable changes in regard to its structure and regulation. It can be clearly seen that the thrust towards privatization and deregulation or re regulation of the electric utility industry will introduce numerous reliability problems that will require new criteria and analytical tools that recognize the residual uncertainties in the new environment. In this paper, different risks and uncertainties in competitive electricity markets are briefly introduced; the approach of customers, operators, planners, generation bodies and network providers to the reliability of deregulated system is studied; the impact of dispersed generation on system reliability is evaluated; and finally, the reliability cost/reliability worth issues in the new competitive environment are considered

  17. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, E. V.; Gan, S.; Ng, H. K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction. PMID:20396670

  18. Conversion of hydrocarbons and alcohols for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joensen, Finn; Rostrup-Nielsen, Jens R.

    The growing demand for clean and efficient energy systems is the driving force in the development of fuel processing technology for providing hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gaseous fuels for power generation in fuel cells. Successful development of low cost, efficient fuel processing systems will be critical to the commercialisation of this technology. This article reviews various reforming technologies available for the generation of such fuels from hydrocarbons and alcohols. It also briefly addresses the issue of carbon monoxide clean-up and the question of selecting the appropriate fuel(s) for small/medium scale fuel processors for stationary and automotive applications.

  19. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Lau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction.

  20. Hydrocarbon Plume Dynamics in the Worldś Most Spectacular Hydrocarbon Seeps, Santa Barbara Channel, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, S.; Reed, J.; Clark, J.; Valentine, D.

    2006-12-01

    Large quantities of natural gas are emitted from the seafloor into the coastal ocean near Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara Channel (SBC), California. Methane, ethane, and propane were quantified in the surface water at 79 stations in a 270 km2 area in order to map the surficial hydrocarbon plume and to quantify air-sea exchange of these gases. A time series was initiated for 14 stations to identify the variability of the mapped plume, and biologically-mediated oxidation rates of methane were measured to quantify the loss of methane in surface water. The hydrocarbon plume was found to comprise ~70 km2 and extended beyond study area. The plume width narrowed from 3 km near the source to 0.7 km further from the source, and then expanded to 6.7 km at the edge of the study area. This pattern matches the cyclonic gyre which is the normal current flow in this part of the Santa Barbara Channel - pushing water to the shore near the seep field and then broadening the plume while the water turns offshore further from the source. Concentrations of gaseous hydrocarbons decrease as the plume migrates. Time series sampling shows similar plume width and hydrocarbon concentrations when normal current conditions prevail. In contrast, smaller plume width and low hydrocarbon concentrations were observed when an additional anticyclonic eddy reversed the normal current flow, and a much broader plume with higher hydrocarbon concentrations was observed during a time of diminished speed within the current gyre. These results demonstrate that surface currents control hydrocarbon plume dynamics in the SBC, though hydrocarbon flux to the atmosphere is likely less dependent on currents. Estimates of air- sea hydrocarbon flux and biological oxidation rates will also be presented.

  1. Electrochemical removal of NOx and hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedberg, Anja Zarah

    on the electrodes during polarisation, probably because of strong adsorption of the hydrocarbon relative to NO. On LSF/CGO electrode the impregnation of ionic conducting material increased the oxidation of NO to NO2 which is an important step before nitrogen formation. The propene inhibited this reaction because....... This could only be done if the electrode was impregnated with BaO. The nitrate formation did not seem to be inhibited by the presence of the hydrocarbon. However, the oxidation of propene was inhibited by the BaO because the active sites for oxidations were partially covered by the BaO nanoparticles...

  2. Mathematics of Periodic Tables for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Jerry Ray

    2007-01-01

    The upper and lower bounds for invariants of polyhex systems based on the Harary and Harborth inequalities are studied. It is shown that these invariants are uniquely correlated by the Periodic Table for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons. A modified periodic table for total resonant sextet (TRS) benzenoids based on the invariants of Ds and r(empty) is presented; Ds is the number of disconnections among the empty rings for fused TRS benzenoid hydrocarbons. This work represents a contribution toward deciphering the topological information content of benzenoid formulas.

  3. Plasma-catalytic reforming of liquid hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedybaliuk, O.A.; Chernyak, V.Ya; Kolgan, V.V.; Iukhymenko, V.V.; Solomenko, O.V.; Fedirchyk, I.I.; Martysh, E.V.; Demchina, V.P.; Klochok, N.V.; Dragnev, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    The series of experiments studying the plasma-catalytic reforming of liquid hydrocarbons was carried out. The dynamic plasma-liquid system based on a low-power rotating gliding arc with solid electrodes was used for the investigation of liquid hydrocarbons reforming process. Conversion was done via partial oxidation. A part of oxidant flow was activated by the discharge. Synthesis-gas composition was analysed by means of mass-spectrometry and gas-chromatography. A standard boiler, which operates on natural gas and LPG, was used for the burning of synthesis-gas

  4. Motor fuels by hydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-05-07

    A process is disclosed for the production of knock-stable low-boiling motor fuels by conversion of liquid hydrocarbons which are vaporizable under the reaction conditions, which comprises passing the initial material at a temperature above 380/sup 0/C in a true vapor phase under pressure of more than 40 atmospheres together with hydrogen and gaseous hydrocarbons containing more than 1 carbon atom in the molecule in an amount by volume larger than that of the hydrogen over catalysts stable to poisoning stationarily confined in the reaction vessel.

  5. MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTIC RATIOS TO ASSESS THE APPORTIONMENT OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS CONTAMINANTION IN MARINE SEDIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Dhamar Syakti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As maritime fulcrum nation, in Indonesia, marine environmental analytical chemistry field is still under developed. So that why, this review paper aims to provide basic understanding of the use some molecular diagnostic indices using n-alkanes indexes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs diagnostic ratios to estimate the source of apportionment of the hydrocarbons contamination and origin. The n-alkane chromatograms were then used to characterize the predominance of petrogenic or biogenic either terrestrial or aquatic. Furthermore, characterization allowed to discriminate riverine versus marine input. The occurrence of a broad unresolved complex mixture can be an evidence of biodegraded petroleum residues. For aromatic compounds, the prevalence of petrogenic, pyrolitic, and combustion-derived can be easily plotted by using isomers ratio calculation. This paper thus provides useful information on the hydrocarbon contamination origin, especially in marine sediments. Further researches should be undertaken in order to validate the use of molecular diagnostic ratio with isotopic approach.

  6. Columbus safety and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, F.; Wessels, H.

    1988-10-01

    Analyses carried out to ensure Columbus reliability, availability, and maintainability, and operational and design safety are summarized. Failure modes/effects/criticality is the main qualitative tool used. The main aspects studied are fault tolerance, hazard consequence control, risk minimization, human error effects, restorability, and safe-life design.

  7. Reliability versus reproducibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenheiser, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    Defect detection and reproducibility of results are two separate but closely related subjects. It is axiomatic that a defect must be detected from examination to examination or reproducibility of results is very poor. On the other hand, a defect can be detected on each of subsequent examinations for higher reliability and still have poor reproducibility of results

  8. Power transformer reliability modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.

    2010-01-01

    Problem description Electrical power grids serve to transport and distribute electrical power with high reliability and availability at acceptable costs and risks. These grids play a crucial though preferably invisible role in supplying sufficient power in a convenient form. Today’s society has

  9. Designing reliability into accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, A.

    1992-08-01

    For the next generation of high performance, high average luminosity colliders, the ''factories,'' reliability engineering must be introduced right at the inception of the project and maintained as a central theme throughout the project. There are several aspects which will be addressed separately: Concept; design; motivation; management techniques; and fault diagnosis

  10. Proof tests on reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Yoshitsugu

    1983-01-01

    In order to obtain public understanding on nuclear power plants, tests should be carried out to prove the reliability and safety of present LWR plants. For example, the aseismicity of nuclear power plants must be verified by using a large scale earthquake simulator. Reliability test began in fiscal 1975, and the proof tests on steam generators and on PWR support and flexure pins against stress corrosion cracking have already been completed, and the results have been internationally highly appreciated. The capacity factor of the nuclear power plant operation in Japan rose to 80% in the summer of 1983, and considering the period of regular inspection, it means the operation of almost full capacity. Japanese LWR technology has now risen to the top place in the world after having overcome the defects. The significance of the reliability test is to secure the functioning till the age limit is reached, to confirm the correct forecast of deteriorating process, to confirm the effectiveness of the remedy to defects and to confirm the accuracy of predicting the behavior of facilities. The reliability of nuclear valves, fuel assemblies, the heat affected zones in welding, reactor cooling pumps and electric instruments has been tested or is being tested. (Kako, I.)

  11. Reliability and code level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasperski, M.; Geurts, C.P.W.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the work of the IAWE Working Group WBG - Reliability and Code Level, one of the International Codification Working Groups set up at ICWE10 in Copenhagen. The following topics are covered: sources of uncertainties in the design wind load, appropriate design target values for the

  12. Reliability of Plastic Slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1989-01-01

    In the paper it is shown how upper and lower bounds for the reliability of plastic slabs can be determined. For the fundamental case it is shown that optimal bounds of a deterministic and a stochastic analysis are obtained on the basis of the same failure mechanisms and the same stress fields....

  13. Reliability based structural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    According to ISO 2394, structures shall be designed, constructed and maintained in such a way that they are suited for their use during the design working life in an economic way. To fulfil this requirement one needs insight into the risk and reliability under expected and non-expected actions. A

  14. Travel time reliability modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This report includes three papers as follows: : 1. Guo F., Rakha H., and Park S. (2010), "A Multi-state Travel Time Reliability Model," : Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, n 2188, : pp. 46-54. : 2. Park S.,...

  15. Reliability and Model Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Leanne M.; Edwards, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the distinction between the reliability of test scores and the fit of psychometric measurement models, reminding readers why it is important to consider both when evaluating whether test scores are valid for a proposed interpretation and/or use. It is often the case that an investigator judges both the…

  16. Parametric Mass Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) systems are designed based upon having redundant systems with replaceable orbital replacement units (ORUs). These ORUs are designed to be swapped out fairly quickly, but some are very large, and some are made up of many components. When an ORU fails, it is replaced on orbit with a spare; the failed unit is sometimes returned to Earth to be serviced and re-launched. Such a system is not feasible for a 500+ day long-duration mission beyond low Earth orbit. The components that make up these ORUs have mixed reliabilities. Components that make up the most mass-such as computer housings, pump casings, and the silicon board of PCBs-typically are the most reliable. Meanwhile components that tend to fail the earliest-such as seals or gaskets-typically have a small mass. To better understand the problem, my project is to create a parametric model that relates both the mass of ORUs to reliability, as well as the mass of ORU subcomponents to reliability.

  17. Dynamics of hydrocarbon vents: Focus on primary porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, C.; Shedd, W.; Abichou, T.; Pineda-Garcia, O.; Silva, M.; MacDonald, I. R.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the dynamics of hydrocarbon release by monitoring activity of a single vent at a 1215m deep site in the Gulf of Mexico (GC600). An autonomous camera, deployed by the submersible ALVIN, was programmed to capture a close-up image every 4 seconds for approximately 3.5 hours. The images provided the ability to study the gas hydrate outcrop site (that measured 5.2x16.3cm3) in an undisturbed state. The outcrop included an array of 38 tube-like vents through which dark brown oil bubbles are released at a rate ranging from 8 bubbles per minute to 0 bubbles per minute. The average release of bubbles from all the separate vents was 59.5 bubbles per minute, equating the total volume released to 106.38cm per minute. The rate of bubble release decreased toward the end of the observation interval, which coincided approximately with the tidal minimum. Ice worms (Hesiocaeca methanicola, Desbruyères & Toulmond, 1998) were abundant at the vent site. The image sequence showed the ice-worms actively moving in and out of burrows in the mound. It has been speculated that Hesiocaeca methanicola contribute to gas hydrate decomposition by creating burrows and depressions in the gas hydrate matrix (Fisher et al, 2000). Ice worm burrows could generate pathways for the passage of oil and gas through the gas hydrate mound. Gas hydrates commonly occur along active and/or passive continental margins (Kennicutt et al, 1988a). The release of oil and gas at this particular hydrocarbon seep site is along a passive continental margin, and controlled primarily by active salt tectonics as opposed to the movement of continental tectonic plates (Salvador, 1987). We propose a descriptive model governing the release of gas and oil from deep sub-bottom reservoirs at depths of 3000-5000m (MacDonald, 1998), through consolidated and unconsolidated sediments, and finally through gas hydrate deposits at the sea floor. The oil and gas escape from the source rock and/or reservoir through

  18. Contribution to high voltage matrix switches reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lausenaz, Yvan

    2000-01-01

    Nowadays, power electronic equipment requirements are important, concerning performances, quality and reliability. On the other hand, costs have to be reduced in order to satisfy the market rules. To provide cheap, reliability and performances, many standard components with mass production are developed. But the construction of specific products must be considered following these two different points: in one band you can produce specific components, with delay, over-cost problems and eventuality quality and reliability problems, in the other and you can use standard components in a adapted topologies. The CEA of Pierrelatte has adopted this last technique of power electronic conception for the development of these high voltage pulsed power converters. The technique consists in using standard components and to associate them in series and in parallel. The matrix constitutes high voltage macro-switch where electrical parameters are distributed between the synchronized components. This study deals with the reliability of these structures. It brings up the high reliability aspect of MOSFETs matrix associations. Thanks to several homemade test facilities, we obtained lots of data concerning the components we use. The understanding of defects propagation mechanisms in matrix structures has allowed us to put forwards the necessity of robust drive system, adapted clamping voltage protection, and careful geometrical construction. All these reliability considerations in matrix associations have notably allowed the construction of a new matrix structure regrouping all solutions insuring reliability. Reliable and robust, this product has already reaches the industrial stage. (author) [fr

  19. Culture-dependent characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EARNEST

    Hydrocarbons interact with the environment and micro- organisms determining the .... it is pertinent to study the community dynamics of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria ... Chikere CB (2013). Application of molecular microbiology techniques in.

  20. Response of microalgae from mud-flats to petroleum hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... hydrocarbons in the presence of nitrogenous fertilizer ... the hydrocarbon, there was delayed nutrient uptake. ... waters, but the use of inorganic of organic nitrogen in ... ment, fish kills as oxygen is depleted, offensive odour.

  1. Reliability Approach of a Compressor System using Reliability Block ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... This paper presents a reliability analysis of such a system using reliability ... Keywords-compressor system, reliability, reliability block diagram, RBD .... the same structure has been kept with the three subsystems: air flow, oil flow and .... and Safety in Engineering Design", Springer, 2009. [3] P. O'Connor ...

  2. Analysis of ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) systems with pure hydrocarbons and mixtures of hydrocarbon and retardant for engine waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jian; Gu, Chun-wei

    2015-01-01

    The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has been demonstrated to be a promising technology for the recovery of engine waste heat. Systems with hydrocarbons as the working fluids exhibit good thermal performance. However, the flammability of hydrocarbons limits their practical applications because of safety concerns. This paper examines the potential of using mixtures of a hydrocarbon and a retardant in an ORC system for engine waste heat recovery. Refrigerants R141b and R11 are selected as the retardants and blended with the hydrocarbons to form zeotropic mixtures. The flammability is suppressed, and in addition, zeotropic mixtures provide better temperature matches with the heat source and sink, which reduces the exergy loss within the heat exchange processes, thereby increasing the cycle efficiency. Energetic and exergetic analysis of ORC systems with pure hydrocarbons and with mixtures of a hydrocarbon and a retardant are conducted and compared. The net power output and the second law efficiency are chosen as the evaluation criteria to select the suitable working fluid compositions and to define the optimal set of thermodynamic parameters. The simulation results reveal that the ORC system with cyclohexane/R141b (0.5/0.5) is optimal for this engine waste heat recovery case, thereby increasing the net power output of the system by 13.3% compared to pure cyclohexane. - Highlights: • ORC with zeotropic mixtures for engine waste heat recovery is discussed. • Energetic and exergetic analysis of ORC system are conducted. • Optimal mixture working fluid composition is identified. • Greater utilization of jacket water and lower irreversible loss are important.

  3. Hydrocarbon characterization experiments in fully turbulent fires : results and data analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2011-03-01

    As the capabilities of numerical simulations increase, decision makers are increasingly relying upon simulations rather than experiments to assess risks across a wide variety of accident scenarios including fires. There are still, however, many aspects of fires that are either not well understood or are difficult to treat from first principles due to the computational expense. For a simulation to be truly predictive and to provide decision makers with information which can be reliably used for risk assessment the remaining physical processes must be studied and suitable models developed for the effects of the physics. The model for the fuel evaporation rate in a liquid fuel pool fire is significant because in well-ventilated fires the evaporation rate largely controls the total heat release rate from the fire. This report describes a set of fuel regression rates experiments to provide data for the development and validation of models. The experiments were performed with fires in the fully turbulent scale range (> 1 m diameter) and with a number of hydrocarbon fuels ranging from lightly sooting to heavily sooting. The importance of spectral absorption in the liquid fuels and the vapor dome above the pool was investigated and the total heat flux to the pool surface was measured. The importance of convection within the liquid fuel was assessed by restricting large scale liquid motion in some tests. These data sets provide a sound, experimentally proven basis for assessing how much of the liquid fuel needs to be modeled to enable a predictive simulation of a fuel fire given the couplings between evaporation of fuel from the pool and the heat release from the fire which drives the evaporation.

  4. Probabilistic risk assessment course documentation. Volume 3. System reliability and analysis techniques, Session A - reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofgren, E.V.

    1985-08-01

    This course in System Reliability and Analysis Techniques focuses on the quantitative estimation of reliability at the systems level. Various methods are reviewed, but the structure provided by the fault tree method is used as the basis for system reliability estimates. The principles of fault tree analysis are briefly reviewed. Contributors to system unreliability and unavailability are reviewed, models are given for quantitative evaluation, and the requirements for both generic and plant-specific data are discussed. Also covered are issues of quantifying component faults that relate to the systems context in which the components are embedded. All reliability terms are carefully defined. 44 figs., 22 tabs

  5. Cuticular Hydrocarbons of Tribolium confusum Larvae Mediate Trail Following and Host Recognition in the Ectoparasitoid Holepyris sylvanidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenau, Benjamin; Hilker, Monika

    2017-09-01

    Parasitic wasps which attack insects infesting processed stored food need to locate their hosts hidden inside these products. Their host search is well-known to be guided by host kairomones, perceived via olfaction or contact. Among contact kairomones, host cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) may provide reliable information for a parasitoid. However, the chemistry of CHC profiles of hosts living in processed stored food products is largely unknown. Here we showed that the ectoparasitoid Holepyris sylvanidis uses CHCs of its host Tribolium confusum, a worldwide stored product pest, as kairomones for host location and recognition at short range. Chemical analysis of T. confusum larval extracts by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry revealed a rich blend of long-chain (C25-C30) hydrocarbons, including n-alkanes, mono-, and dimethylalkanes. We further studied whether host larvae leave sufficient CHCs on a substrate where they walk along, thus allowing parasitoids to perceive a CHC trail and follow it to their host larvae. We detected 18 CHCs on a substrate that had been exposed to host larvae. These compounds were also found in crude extracts of host larvae and made up about a fifth of the CHC amount extracted. Behavioral assays showed that trails of host CHCs were followed by the parasitoids and reduced their searching time until successful host recognition. Host CHC trails deposited on different substrates were persistent for about a day. Hence, the parasitoid H. sylvanidis exploits CHCs of T. confusum larvae for host finding by following host CHC trails and for host recognition by direct contact with host larvae.

  6. Influence of soil and hydrocarbon properties on the solvent extraction of high-concentration weathered petroleum from contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Hong; Hua, Zhengtao; Li, Xingang; Li, Hong; Wu, Guozhong

    2014-05-01

    Petroleum ether was used to extract petroleum hydrocarbons from soils collected from six oil fields with different history of exploratory and contamination. It was capable of fast removing 76-94 % of the total petroleum hydrocarbons including 25 alkanes (C11-C35) and 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soils at room temperature. The partial least squares analysis indicated that the solvent extraction efficiencies were positively correlated with soil organic matter, cation exchange capacity, moisture, pH, and sand content of soils, while negative effects were observed in the properties reflecting the molecular size (e.g., molecular weight and number of carbon atoms) and hydrophobicity (e.g., water solubility, octanol-water partition coefficient, soil organic carbon partition coefficient) of hydrocarbons. The high concentration of weathered crude oil at the order of 10(5) mg kg(-1) in this study was demonstrated adverse for solvent extraction by providing an obvious nonaqueous phase liquid phase for hydrocarbon sinking and increasing the sequestration of soluble hydrocarbons in the insoluble oil fractions during weathering. A full picture of the mass distribution and transport mechanism of petroleum contaminants in soils will ultimately require a variety of studies to gain insights into the dynamic interactions between environmental indicator hydrocarbons and their host oil matrix.

  7. Reliability in the utility computing era: Towards reliable Fog computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Burtschy, Bernard; Albeanu, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers current paradigms in computing and outlines the most important aspects concerning their reliability. The Fog computing paradigm as a non-trivial extension of the Cloud is considered and the reliability of the networks of smart devices are discussed. Combining the reliability...... requirements of grid and cloud paradigms with the reliability requirements of networks of sensor and actuators it follows that designing a reliable Fog computing platform is feasible....

  8. Improved reliability of power modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Liserre, Marco; Dupont, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Power electronic systems play an increasingly important role in providing high-efficiency power conversion for adjustable-speed drives, power-quality correction, renewable-energy systems, energy-storage systems, and electric vehicles. However, they are often presented with demanding operating...... environments that challenge the reliability aspects of power electronic techniques. For example, increasingly thermally stressful environments are seen in applications such as electric vehicles, where ambient temperatures under the hood exceed 150 °C, while some wind turbine applications can place large...

  9. Velocity Dependence of Friction of Confined Hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the f......We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence...... of the frictional shear stress for both cases. In our simulations, the polymer films are very thin (∼3 nm), and the solid walls are connected to a thermostat at a short distance from the polymer slab. Under these circumstances we find that frictional heating effects are not important, and the effective temperature...... in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all...

  10. Taxation on mining and hydrocarbon investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz De La Vega Rengifo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article comments the most important aspects of the tax treatment applicable to investments of mining and oil and gas industry. The document highlights the relevant tax topics of the general tax legislation(Income Tax Law and the special legislation of both industries (General Mining Law and Hydrocarbons Organic Law.

  11. Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons in the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Topgi, R.S.; Noronha, R.J.; Fondekar, S.P.

    Mean dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons, measured using UV-spectrophotometry, at 0 and 10m were 51 plus or minus 1 and 55 plus or minus 1.2 mu g/litre respectively; range of variation being between 28 and 83 mu g/litre. Very little difference...

  12. Hydrocarbons in Argentina: networks, territories, integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizo, S.C.

    2003-12-01

    Argentinean hydrocarbons networks have lived a huge reorganizing the structure, after the State reform in the 90's. Activities deregulation and the privatization of YPF and Gas del Estado forced the sector re-concentration, since then dominated by foreign companies, leaded by Repsol YPF. The hydrocarbons federalization contributed to the weakening and un-capitalization loss of wealth of the State. These changes resulted in an increase of the hydrocarbons production allowing to achieve the self-supply. Nevertheless, the expansion of internal networks has not been large enough to ensure the coverage of new requirements. Besides, several infrastructures have been built up to join external markets. National networks are connected to those of near neighboring countries. This integration is an opportunity for the 'South Cone' countries to enhance their potentials. In the country, hydrocarbons territories undergo the reorganizing the structure effects (unemployment, loss of territorial identity, etc). With many difficulties and very different possibilities, those territories, like Comodoro Rivadavia, Ensenada et and Bahia Blanca, look for their re-invention. (author)

  13. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Botella-Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  14. Wireless sensing on surface hydrocarbon production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, D; McStay, D; Mulholland, J; Costello, L

    2009-01-01

    The use of wireless sensor networks for monitoring and optimising the performance of surface hydrocarbon production systems is reported. Wireless sensor networks are shown to be able to produce comprehensively instrumented XTs and other equipment that generate the data required by Intelligent Oilfield systems. The information produced by such systems information can be used for real-time operational control, production optimization and troubleshooting.

  15. Identifying specific interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulas, Giacomo; Malloci, Giuliano; Porceddu, Ignazio

    2005-01-01

    Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been thought to be ubiquitous for more than twenty years, yet no single species in this class has been identified in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) to date. The unprecedented sensitivity and resolution of present Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and forthcoming Herschel observations in the far infrared spectral range will offer a unique way out of this embarrassing impasse

  16. Palynofacies characterization for hydrocarbon source rock ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    source rock potential of the Subathu Formation in the area. Petroleum geologists are well aware of the fact that the dispersed organic matter derived either from marine or non-marine sediments on reach- ing its maturation level over extended period of time contributes as source material for the produc- tion of hydrocarbons.

  17. Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (cPAHs) and Heavy Metal in Crude Oil from Gokana Area, Rivers State, Nigeria. ... Considerable caution should be applied in exploration, exposure and distribution of the crude oil through protected and well maintained pipelines to avoid the possible ...

  18. Earthworm-assisted bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameh

    The use of earthworms (Eudrilus eugenia) for vermi-assisted bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated mechanic workshop soils ... not always result in complete neutrali- zation of pollutants (Yerushalmi et al., 2003). ..... Screening of biofouling activity in marine bacterial isolate from ship hull. Int. J. Environ. Sci.

  19. Petroleum-hydrocarbons biodegradation by Pseudomonas strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The capability of these isolates to degrade petroleum was performed by measuring the optical density, colony forming unit counts (CFU/ml) and concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Degradation of Isomerate by these isolates was analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (FID). Results ...

  20. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Levels in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations were measured by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID) in two fish species, Sardinella maderensis (Flat sardinella) and Galeoides decadactylus (Lesser African threadfin or Shine-nose or Common threadfin) from Ghanaian coastal waters and ...

  1. Bioremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the effect of lead and chromium on the rate of bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated clay soil. Naphthalene was used as a target PAH. The soil was sterilized by heating at 120oC for one hour. 100g of the soil was contaminated with lead, chromium, nickel and mercury ...

  2. The presence of hydrocarbons in southeast Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanken, Niels Martin; Hansen, Malene Dolberg; Kresten Nielsen, Jesper

    Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses and amph......Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses......, indicating that Alum Shale was the most important source rock. Petrographic investigations combined with stable isotope analyses (d13C and d18O) of the cement containing pyrobitumen indicate two phases of hydrocarbon migration. The first phase probably took place in Upper Silurian to Lower Devonian time......, when the Alum Shale entered the oil window. These hydrocarbons are mostly found as pyrobitumen in primary voids and calcite cemented veins in Cambro-Silurian sedimentary deposits. The second phase is probably of Late Carboniferous/Permian age and was due to the increased heat flow during the formation...

  3. Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air samples in Irbid, north Jordan. A Al-Gawadreh Sat, M.B. Gasim, A.R. Hassan, A Azid. Abstract. Air samples were collected at an urban site and a rural (BERQESH) site during February (2017) until March (2017) to determine concentrations of polycyclic ...

  4. Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... collected from the most polluted part of Bangsai river at Saver industrial zone was analyzed for the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, anthracene, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  5. The role of hydrocarbons in energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    This publication presents some reflections and statements as well as data regarding the role of hydrocarbons in energy production and consumption, in order to better highlight the role hydrocarbons may have in energy transition. It outlines the still very important share of oil in primary and final energy, and more particularly in transports, and that, despite the development of other energies, an energy transition is always very slow. It discusses the perspectives for hydrocarbon reserves and production of oil and natural gas. It outlines that oil remains the most important energy for mobility, the benefits of conventional fuels, and that distribution infrastructures must be preserved and developed. It discusses the evolution of the economic situation of the refining activity (more particularly its margin). It outlines the high contribution of oil industry to economic activity and employment in France, discusses the French energy taxing policy and environmental taxing policy, discusses the issue of security of energy supply (with its different components: exploration-production, refining, logistics and depots, distribution and station network). It discusses the possible role shale hydrocarbons may have in the future. For each issue, the position and opinion of the UFIP (the French Union of oil industries) is stated. The second part of the document proposes a Power Point presentation with several figures and data on these issues

  6. Mathematical modelling on transport of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A brief theory has been included on the composition and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons following an onshore oil spill in order to demonstrate the level of complexity associated with the LNAPL dissolution mass transfer even in a classical porous medium. However, such studies in saturated fractured rocks are highly ...

  7. Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with sodium periodate. 431. Table 1. Competitive oxygenation of tetralin and cyclooctene with sodium periodate catalyzed by different manga- .... Teacher Education University. My grateful thanks also extend to Dr D Mohajer for his useful sugges- tions. References. 1.

  8. Process of converting phenols into hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seelig, S

    1929-02-02

    A process is disclosed for the conversion of phenols into hydrocarbons, characterized by preheating a mixture of phenols and hydrogen or hydrogen-producing gases to approximately the reaction temperature under pressure, heating by passage percussion-like through a bath of metal to the reaction temperature, and rapidly cooling.

  9. Producing light hydrocarbons by destructive hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fohlen, J H

    1928-06-20

    A method of obtaining light hydrocarbons from fuels and natural or industrial carbonaceous materials by cracking under pressure from 5 to 200 atmospheres and within a temperature range of 200 to 1,000/sup 0/C, the cracking operation being assisted by the presence of catalysts such as metallic halides, simultaneously, with hydrogenation by means of nascent hydrogen in the reaction chamber.

  10. Occurrence and growth potentials of hydrocarbon degrading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The surface of leaf samples from ten tropical plants, Anthocleista, Sarcophrynium, Canna, Colocassia, Musa, Cola, Citrus, Mangifera, Terminalia and Annona were cultured for the estimation of total heterotrophic and hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria. The total heterotrophic bacteria ranged from 0.75 x 107 to 0.98 x 107 ...

  11. Organic amendment optimization for treatment of hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar cane cachasse was tested as an organic soil amendment at 0, 2, 4 and 9% (dry weight), for the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil (with an average initial concentration of 14,356 mg/Kg), which had been pre-treated by the incorporation of 4% (dry weight) calcium hydroxide according to the ...

  12. Process of converting heavy hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, F C

    1921-05-27

    A modification is described of the process of the principal Patent 373,060 for splitting and converting heavy hydrocarbons into low-boiling lighter products or into cylinder oil, characterized in that, in place of petroleum, brown-coal oil, shale oil, or the like is distilled in the presence of hydrosilicate as a catalyzer or is heated with refluxing.

  13. Antioxidant Functions of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR is a transcription factor belonging to the basic helix-loop-helix/PER-ARNT-SIM family. It is activated by a variety of ligands, such as environmental contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or dioxins, but also by naturally occurring compounds and endogenous ligands. Binding of the ligand leads to dimerization of the AhR with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT and transcriptional activation of several xenobiotic phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes. It is generally accepted that the toxic responses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, and structurally related compounds are mediated by activation of the AhR. A multitude of studies indicate that the AhR operates beyond xenobiotic metabolism and exerts pleiotropic functions. Increasing evidence points to a protective role of the AhR against carcinogenesis and oxidative stress. Herein, I will highlight data demonstrating a causal role of the AhR in the antioxidant response and present novel findings on potential AhR-mediated antioxidative mechanisms.

  14. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria isolation and surfactant influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrocarbons are substantially insoluble in water, often remaining partitioned in the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL). However, there had been little or no attempts to advance the bioavailability of hydrocarbons through the use of surfactants. This study was conducted based on the need to isolate hydrocarbon degrading ...

  15. Polycyclic’ Aromatic Hydrocarbon Induced Intracellular Signaling and Lymphocyte Apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Alexander M.

    The aryl hydrocarbon (dioxin) receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor possessing high affinity to potent environmental pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and related halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g. dioxins). Numerous research attribute toxicity of these compounds to the receptor...

  16. 27 CFR 21.125 - Rubber hydrocarbon solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. 21.125 Section 21.125 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....125 Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. (a) Rubber hydrocarbon solvent is a petroleum derivative. (b...

  17. RTE - Reliability report 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-06-01

    Every year, RTE produces a reliability report for the past year. This document lays out the main factors that affected the electrical power system's operational reliability in 2016 and the initiatives currently under way intended to ensure its reliability in the future. Within a context of the energy transition, changes to the European interconnected network mean that RTE has to adapt on an on-going basis. These changes include the increase in the share of renewables injecting an intermittent power supply into networks, resulting in a need for flexibility, and a diversification in the numbers of stakeholders operating in the energy sector and changes in the ways in which they behave. These changes are dramatically changing the structure of the power system of tomorrow and the way in which it will operate - particularly the way in which voltage and frequency are controlled, as well as the distribution of flows, the power system's stability, the level of reserves needed to ensure supply-demand balance, network studies, assets' operating and control rules, the tools used and the expertise of operators. The results obtained in 2016 are evidence of a globally satisfactory level of reliability for RTE's operations in somewhat demanding circumstances: more complex supply-demand balance management, cross-border schedules at interconnections indicating operation that is closer to its limits and - most noteworthy - having to manage a cold spell just as several nuclear power plants had been shut down. In a drive to keep pace with the changes expected to occur in these circumstances, RTE implemented numerous initiatives to ensure high levels of reliability: - maintaining investment levels of euro 1.5 billion per year; - increasing cross-zonal capacity at borders with our neighbouring countries, thus bolstering the security of our electricity supply; - implementing new mechanisms (demand response, capacity mechanism, interruptibility, etc.); - involvement in tests or projects

  18. Sediment-associated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal British Columbia, Canada: Concentrations, composition, and associated risks to protected sea otters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Kate A.; Yunker, Mark B.; Dangerfield, Neil; Ross, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    Sediment-associated hydrocarbons can pose a risk to wildlife that rely on benthic marine food webs. We measured hydrocarbons in sediments from the habitat of protected sea otters in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Alkane concentrations were dominated by higher odd-chain n-alkanes at all sites, indicating terrestrial plant inputs. While remote sites were dominated by petrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), small harbour sites within sea otter habitat and sites from an urban reference area reflected weathered petroleum and biomass and fossil fuel combustion. The partitioning of hydrocarbons between sediments and adjacent food webs provides an important exposure route for sea otters, as they consume ∼25% of their body weight per day in benthic invertebrates. Thus, exceedences of PAH sediment quality guidelines designed to protect aquatic biota at 20% of the sites in sea otter habitat suggest that sea otters are vulnerable to hydrocarbon contamination even in the absence of catastrophic oil spills. - Highlights: → Sediment hydrocarbon signatures differed between remote and impacted coastal sites. → A natural background comprised terrestrial plant alkanes and petrogenic PAHs. → Impacted sites reflected a history of petrogenic and pyrogenic hydrocarbon inputs. → Hydrocarbons at some sites exceeded guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. → Protected sea otters may thus be at risk as they rely primarily on benthic prey. - Anthropogenically-derived hydrocarbons in coastal sediments in British Columbia may pose a risk to protected sea otters.

  19. Problems Caused by Microbes and Treatment Strategies Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation and Biocorrosion: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suflita, Joseph M.; Duncan, Kathleen E.

    The anaerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons is important for the intrinsic remediation of spilt fuels (Gieg and Suflita, 2005), for the conversion of hydrocarbons to clean burning natural gas (Gieg et al., 2008; Jones et al., 2008) and for the fundamental cycling of carbon on the planet (Caldwell et al., 2008). However, the same process has also been implicated in a host of difficult problems including reservoir souring (Jack and Westlake, 1995), oil viscosity alteration (Head et al., 2003), compromised equipment performance and microbiologically influenced corrosion (Duncan et al., 2009). Herein, we will focus on the role of anaerobic microbial communities in catalysing biocorrosion activities in oilfield facilities. Biocorrosion is a costly problem that remains relatively poorly understood. Understanding of the underlying mechanisms requires reliable information on the carbon and energy sources supporting biofilm microorganisms capable of catalysing such activities.

  20. Reliability engineering for nuclear and other high technology systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakner, A.A.; Anderson, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    This book is written for the reliability instructor, program manager, system engineer, design engineer, reliability engineer, nuclear regulator, probability risk assessment (PRA) analyst, general manager and others who are involved in system hardware acquisition, design and operation and are concerned with plant safety and operational cost-effectiveness. It provides criteria, guidelines and comprehensive engineering data affecting reliability; it covers the key aspects of system reliability as it relates to conceptual planning, cost tradeoff decisions, specification, contractor selection, design, test and plant acceptance and operation. It treats reliability as an integrated methodology, explicitly describing life cycle management techniques as well as the basic elements of a total hardware development program, including: reliability parameters and design improvement attributes, reliability testing, reliability engineering and control. It describes how these elements can be defined during procurement, and implemented during design and development to yield reliable equipment. (author)

  1. Reliability of IP Tunnels in Military Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pólkowski Marcin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The military networks, contrary to commercial ones, require standards which provide the highest level of security and reliability. The process to assuring redundancy of the main connections through applying various protocols and transmission media causes problem with time needed to re-establish virtual tunnels between different locations in case of damaged link. This article compares reliability of different IP (Internet Protocol tunnels, which were implemented on military network devices.

  2. Offshore hydrocarbon releases statistics, 1996. For the period 1.10.92 to 31.3.96 inclusive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    Data on offshore hydrocarbon release incidents, which occurred between 1 October 1992 and 31 March 1996 and which were voluntarily reported to the United Kingdom Health and Safety Executive are included in this report. It aims to provide data from the Hydrocarbon Releases Database for the offshore industry to use in its Offshore Safety Cases, and especially in cases where quantified risk assessment (QRA) is involved. (UK)

  3. Russia and China hydrocarbon relations. A building block toward international hydrocarbon regulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, Catherine; Abbas, Mehdi; Rossiaud, Sylvain

    2015-12-01

    This article is a first step of a research agenda on international hydrocarbon regulations. With regards to both: i) the new wealth and power equilibrium in the international political economy and ii) the new political economy of carbon that is emerging from The Paris agreement on Climate changes, this research agenda aims at analysing the changing national structures of governance and the ways these changes lead to international, bilateral, pluri-lateral or multilateral hydrocarbon regulation

  4. Reliable pipeline repair system for very large pipe size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charalambides, John N.; Sousa, Alexandre Barreto de [Oceaneering International, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The oil and gas industry worldwide has been mainly depending on the long-term reliability of rigid pipelines to ensure the transportation of hydrocarbons, crude oil, gas, fuel, etc. Many other methods are also utilized onshore and offshore (e.g. flexible lines, FPSO's, etc.), but when it comes to the underwater transportation of very high volumes of oil and gas, the industry commonly uses large size rigid pipelines (i.e. steel pipes). Oil and gas operators learned to depend on the long-lasting integrity of these very large pipelines and many times they forget or disregard that even steel pipelines degrade over time and more often that that, they are also susceptible to various forms of damage (minor or major, environmental or external, etc.). Over the recent years the industry had recognized the need of implementing an 'emergency repair plan' to account for such unforeseen events and the oil and gas operators have become 'smarter' by being 'pro-active' in order to ensure 'flow assurance'. When we consider very large diameter steel pipelines such as 42' and 48' nominal pipe size (NPS), the industry worldwide does not provide 'ready-made', 'off-the-shelf' repair hardware that can be easily shipped to the offshore location and effect a major repair within acceptable time frames and avoid substantial profit losses due to 'down-time' in production. The typical time required to establish a solid repair system for large pipe diameters could be as long as six or more months (depending on the availability of raw materials). This paper will present in detail the Emergency Pipeline Repair Systems (EPRS) that Oceaneering successfully designed, manufactured, tested and provided to two major oil and gas operators, located in two different continents (Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. and Arabian Gulf, U.A.E.), for two different very large pipe sizes (42'' and 48'' Nominal Pipe Sizes

  5. Accelerator reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, L; Duru, Ph; Koch, J M; Revol, J L; Van Vaerenbergh, P; Volpe, A M; Clugnet, K; Dely, A; Goodhew, D

    2002-07-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop.

  6. Human Reliability Program Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landers, John; Rogers, Erin; Gerke, Gretchen

    2014-05-18

    A Human Reliability Program (HRP) is designed to protect national security as well as worker and public safety by continuously evaluating the reliability of those who have access to sensitive materials, facilities, and programs. Some elements of a site HRP include systematic (1) supervisory reviews, (2) medical and psychological assessments, (3) management evaluations, (4) personnel security reviews, and (4) training of HRP staff and critical positions. Over the years of implementing an HRP, the Department of Energy (DOE) has faced various challenges and overcome obstacles. During this 4-day activity, participants will examine programs that mitigate threats to nuclear security and the insider threat to include HRP, Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Enhancement, and Employee Assistance Programs. The focus will be to develop an understanding of the need for a systematic HRP and to discuss challenges and best practices associated with mitigating the insider threat.

  7. Scyllac equipment reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutscher, W.D.; Johnson, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    Most of the failures in Scyllac can be related to crowbar trigger cable faults. A new cable has been designed, procured, and is currently undergoing evaluation. When the new cable has been proven, it will be worked into the system as quickly as possible without causing too much additional down time. The cable-tip problem may not be easy or even desirable to solve. A tightly fastened permanent connection that maximizes contact area would be more reliable than the plug-in type of connection in use now, but it would make system changes and repairs much more difficult. The balance of the failures have such a low occurrence rate that they do not cause much down time and no major effort is underway to eliminate them. Even though Scyllac was built as an experimental system and has many thousands of components, its reliability is very good. Because of this the experiment has been able to progress at a reasonable pace

  8. Improving Power Converter Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; de Vega, Angel Ruiz; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    of a high-power IGBT module during converter operation, which may play a vital role in improving the reliability of the power converters. The measured voltage is used to estimate the module average junction temperature of the high and low-voltage side of a half-bridge IGBT separately in every fundamental......The real-time junction temperature monitoring of a high-power insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) module is important to increase the overall reliability of power converters for industrial applications. This article proposes a new method to measure the on-state collector?emitter voltage...... is measured in a wind power converter at a low fundamental frequency. To illustrate more, the test method as well as the performance of the measurement circuit are also presented. This measurement is also useful to indicate failure mechanisms such as bond wire lift-off and solder layer degradation...

  9. Accelerator reliability workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, L.; Duru, Ph.; Koch, J.M.; Revol, J.L.; Van Vaerenbergh, P.; Volpe, A.M.; Clugnet, K.; Dely, A.; Goodhew, D.

    2002-01-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop

  10. Safety and reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report contains the papers delivered at the course on safety and reliability assessment held at the CSIR Conference Centre, Scientia, Pretoria. The following topics were discussed: safety standards; licensing; biological effects of radiation; what is a PWR; safety principles in the design of a nuclear reactor; radio-release analysis; quality assurance; the staffing, organisation and training for a nuclear power plant project; event trees, fault trees and probability; Automatic Protective Systems; sources of failure-rate data; interpretation of failure data; synthesis and reliability; quantification of human error in man-machine systems; dispersion of noxious substances through the atmosphere; criticality aspects of enrichment and recovery plants; and risk and hazard analysis. Extensive examples are given as well as case studies

  11. Scaled CMOS Technology Reliability Users Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The desire to assess the reliability of emerging scaled microelectronics technologies through faster reliability trials and more accurate acceleration models is the precursor for further research and experimentation in this relevant field. The effect of semiconductor scaling on microelectronics product reliability is an important aspect to the high reliability application user. From the perspective of a customer or user, who in many cases must deal with very limited, if any, manufacturer's reliability data to assess the product for a highly-reliable application, product-level testing is critical in the characterization and reliability assessment of advanced nanometer semiconductor scaling effects on microelectronics reliability. A methodology on how to accomplish this and techniques for deriving the expected product-level reliability on commercial memory products are provided.Competing mechanism theory and the multiple failure mechanism model are applied to the experimental results of scaled SDRAM products. Accelerated stress testing at multiple conditions is applied at the product level of several scaled memory products to assess the performance degradation and product reliability. Acceleration models are derived for each case. For several scaled SDRAM products, retention time degradation is studied and two distinct soft error populations are observed with each technology generation: early breakdown, characterized by randomly distributed weak bits with Weibull slope (beta)=1, and a main population breakdown with an increasing failure rate. Retention time soft error rates are calculated and a multiple failure mechanism acceleration model with parameters is derived for each technology. Defect densities are calculated and reflect a decreasing trend in the percentage of random defective bits for each successive product generation. A normalized soft error failure rate of the memory data retention time in FIT/Gb and FIT/cm2 for several scaled SDRAM generations is

  12. Mission Reliability Estimation for Repairable Robot Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Dolan, John; Stancliff, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    A mission reliability estimation method has been designed to translate mission requirements into choices of robot modules in order to configure a multi-robot team to have high reliability at minimal cost. In order to build cost-effective robot teams for long-term missions, one must be able to compare alternative design paradigms in a principled way by comparing the reliability of different robot models and robot team configurations. Core modules have been created including: a probabilistic module with reliability-cost characteristics, a method for combining the characteristics of multiple modules to determine an overall reliability-cost characteristic, and a method for the generation of legitimate module combinations based on mission specifications and the selection of the best of the resulting combinations from a cost-reliability standpoint. The developed methodology can be used to predict the probability of a mission being completed, given information about the components used to build the robots, as well as information about the mission tasks. In the research for this innovation, sample robot missions were examined and compared to the performance of robot teams with different numbers of robots and different numbers of spare components. Data that a mission designer would need was factored in, such as whether it would be better to have a spare robot versus an equivalent number of spare parts, or if mission cost can be reduced while maintaining reliability using spares. This analytical model was applied to an example robot mission, examining the cost-reliability tradeoffs among different team configurations. Particularly scrutinized were teams using either redundancy (spare robots) or repairability (spare components). Using conservative estimates of the cost-reliability relationship, results show that it is possible to significantly reduce the cost of a robotic mission by using cheaper, lower-reliability components and providing spares. This suggests that the

  13. Analysis of hydrocarbons generated in coalbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butala, Steven John M.

    This dissertation describes kinetic calculations using literature data to predict formation rates and product yields of oil and gas at typical low-temperature conditions in coalbeds. These data indicate that gas formation rates from hydrocarbon thermolysis are too low to have generated commercial quantities of natural gas, assuming bulk first-order kinetics. Acid-mineral-catalyzed cracking, transition-metal-catalyzed hydrogenolysis of liquid hydrocarbons, and catalyzed CO2 hydrogenation form gas at high rates. The gaseous product compositions for these reactions are nearly the same as those for typical natural coalbed gases, while those from thermal and catalytic cracking are more representative of atypical coalbed gases. Three Argonne Premium Coals (Upper-Freeport, Pittsburgh #8 and Lewiston-Stockton) were extracted with benzene in both Soxhlet and elevated pressure extraction (EPE) systems. The extracts were compared on the basis of dry mass yield and hydrocarbon profiles obtained by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The dry mass yields for the Upper-Freeport coal gave consistent results by both methods, while the yields from the Pittsburgh #8 and Lewiston-Stockton coals were greater by the EPE method. EPE required ˜90 vol. % less solvent compared to Soxhlet extraction. Single-ion-chromatograms of the Soxhlet extracts all exhibited bimodal distributions, while those of the EPE extracts did not. Hydrocarbons analyzed from Greater Green River Basin samples indicate that the natural oils in the basin originated from the coal seams. Analysis of artificially produced oil indicates that hydrous pyrolysis mimics generation of C15+ n-alkanes, but significant variations were found in the branched alkane, low-molecular-weight n-alkanes, and high-molecular-weight aromatic hydrocarbon distributions.

  14. 75 FR 14386 - Interpretation of Transmission Planning Reliability Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ...] Interpretation of Transmission Planning Reliability Standard March 18, 2010. AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory... transmission planning Reliability Standard TPL-002-0 provides that planning authorities and transmission... Reliability Standard TPL-002-0. In this order, the Commission proposes to reject NERC's proposed...

  15. Reliability of Circumplex Axes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha Strack

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA procedure for computing the reliability of circumplex axes. The tau-equivalent CFA variance decomposition model estimates five variance components: general factor, axes, scale-specificity, block-specificity, and item-specificity. Only the axes variance component is used for reliability estimation. We apply the model to six circumplex types and 13 instruments assessing interpersonal and motivational constructs—Interpersonal Adjective List (IAL, Interpersonal Adjective Scales (revised; IAS-R, Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP, Impact Messages Inventory (IMI, Circumplex Scales of Interpersonal Values (CSIV, Support Action Scale Circumplex (SAS-C, Interaction Problems With Animals (IPI-A, Team Role Circle (TRC, Competing Values Leadership Instrument (CV-LI, Love Styles, Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI, Customer Orientation Circle (COC, and System for Multi-Level Observation of Groups (behavioral adjectives; SYMLOG—in 17 German-speaking samples (29 subsamples, grouped by self-report, other report, and metaperception assessments. The general factor accounted for a proportion ranging from 1% to 48% of the item variance, the axes component for 2% to 30%; and scale specificity for 1% to 28%, respectively. Reliability estimates varied considerably from .13 to .92. An application of the Nunnally and Bernstein formula proposed by Markey, Markey, and Tinsley overestimated axes reliabilities in cases of large-scale specificities but otherwise works effectively. Contemporary circumplex evaluations such as Tracey’s RANDALL are sensitive to the ratio of the axes and scale-specificity components. In contrast, the proposed model isolates both components.

  16. The cost of reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this article the restructuring process under way in the US power industry is being revisited from the point of view of transmission system provision and reliability was rolled into the average cost of electricity to all, it is not so obvious how is this cost managed in the new industry. A new MIT approach to transmission pricing is here suggested as a possible solution [it

  17. Software reliability studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppa, Mary Ann; Wilson, Larry W.

    1994-01-01

    There are many software reliability models which try to predict future performance of software based on data generated by the debugging process. Our research has shown that by improving the quality of the data one can greatly improve the predictions. We are working on methodologies which control some of the randomness inherent in the standard data generation processes in order to improve the accuracy of predictions. Our contribution is twofold in that we describe an experimental methodology using a data structure called the debugging graph and apply this methodology to assess the robustness of existing models. The debugging graph is used to analyze the effects of various fault recovery orders on the predictive accuracy of several well-known software reliability algorithms. We found that, along a particular debugging path in the graph, the predictive performance of different models can vary greatly. Similarly, just because a model 'fits' a given path's data well does not guarantee that the model would perform well on a different path. Further we observed bug interactions and noted their potential effects on the predictive process. We saw that not only do different faults fail at different rates, but that those rates can be affected by the particular debugging stage at which the rates are evaluated. Based on our experiment, we conjecture that the accuracy of a reliability prediction is affected by the fault recovery order as well as by fault interaction.

  18. Economic analysis of hydrocarbon exploration by simulation with geological uncertainties (exploratory wells)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chungcharoen, E.

    1997-01-01

    A model was developed to help determine the future development of hydrocarbon reserves. The uncertainties of geological parameters were incorporated into the model in an effort to provide an assessment of the distribution of total hydrocarbon discoveries that are expected to be recovered as a result of exploration activity. The economic parameters were also incorporated into the model in an effort to determine the economic worth of multiple-wells exploration activity. The first part of this study included the geological parameters in the initial field size distribution and the number of fields distribution. Dry hole data was also considered to reflect the exploration risk. The distribution of total hydrocarbon discoveries for a selected number of exploratory wells was determined. The second part of the study included the economic parameters such as the price of oil and gas and the cost of exploration, development and production. The distribution of the number of discoveries and the distribution of total hydrocarbon discoveries was compared to produce a probability distribution of the net present value of a proposed exploration program. The offshore Nova Scotia Shelf basin was chosen for testing the methodology. Several scenarios involving changes in economic parameters were shown. This methodology could help in determining future development programs for hydrocarbon reserves. The methodology can also help governments in policy making decisions regarding taxes and royalty regimes for exploration programs

  19. New Insight into the Kinetics of Deep Liquid Hydrocarbon Cracking and Its Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhi Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The deep marine natural gas accumulations in China are mainly derived from the cracking of liquid hydrocarbons with different occurrence states. Besides accumulated oil in reservoir, the dispersed liquid hydrocarbon in and outside source also is important source for cracking gas generation or relayed gas generation in deep formations. In this study, nonisothermal gold tube pyrolysis and numerical calculations as well as geochemical analysis were conducted to ascertain the expulsion efficiency of source rocks and the kinetics for oil cracking. By determination of light liquid hydrocarbons and numerical calculations, it is concluded that the residual bitumen or hydrocarbons within source rocks can occupy about 50 wt.% of total oil generated at oil generation peak. This implies that considerable amounts of natural gas can be derived from residual hydrocarbon cracking and contribute significantly to the accumulation of shale gas. Based on pyrolysis experiments and kinetic calculations, we established a model for the cracking of oil and its different components. In addition, a quantitative gas generation model was also established to address the contribution of the cracking of residual oil and expulsed oil for natural gas accumulations in deep formations. These models may provide us with guidance for gas resource evaluation and future gas exploration in deep formations.

  20. Hydrocarbon degradation potential in reference soils and soils contaminated with jet fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.F.; Hoeppel, R.

    1991-01-01

    Petroleum degradation in surface and subsurface soils is affected by such factors as moisture content, pH, soil type, soil organics, temperature, and oxygen concentrations. In this paper, the authors determine the degradation rates of 14 C-labeled hydrocarbons added to soils collected from a contaminated surface site, contaminated subsurface sites, and a clean reference site. The radiolabeled hydrocarbons used include benzene, toluene, naphthalene, 1-methynaphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene, anthracene, chrysene, and hexadecane. Microbial degradation rates were based on determination of mineralization rates (production of 14 CO 2 ) of hydrocarbons that were added to soil samples. Since water was added and oxygen was not limiting, the hydrocarbon rates determined are likely to be higher than those occurring in situ. Using radiolabeled hydrocarbons, information can be provided on differences in the degradation rates of various petroleum compounds in different types of soils at a site, on possible production of petroleum metabolites in the soil, and on the importance of anaerobic petroleum degradation and the effects of nutrient, water, and surfactant addition on biodegradation rates

  1. Characterization of Bacterial Hydrocarbon Degradation Potential in the Red Sea Through Metagenomic and Cultivation Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Bianchi, Patrick

    2018-02-01

    Prokaryotes are the main actors in biogeochemical cycles that are fundamental in global nutrient cycling. The characterization of microbial communities and isolates can enhance the comprehension of such cycles. Potentially novel biochemical processes can be discovered in particular environments with unique characteristics. The Red Sea can be considered as a unique natural laboratory due to its peculiar hydrology and physical features including temperature, salinity and water circulation. Moreover the Red Sea is subjected to hydrocarbon pollution by both anthropogenic and natural sources that select hydrocarbon degrading prokaryotes. Due to its unique features the Red Sea has the potential to host uncharacterized novel microorganisms with hydrocarbondegrading pathways. The focus of this thesis is on the characterization at the metagenomic level of the water column of the Red Sea and on the isolation and characterization of novel hydrocarbon-degrading species and genomes adapted to the unique environmental characteristics of the basin. The presence of metabolic genes responsible of both linear and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation has been evaluated from a metagenomic survey and a meta-analysis of already available datasets. In parallel, water column-based microcosms have been established with crude oil as the sole carbon source, with aim to isolate potential novel bacterial species and provide new genome-based insights on the hydrocarbon degradation potential available in the Red Sea.

  2. Investment in new product reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, D.N.P.; Rausand, M.; Virtanen, S.

    2009-01-01

    Product reliability is of great importance to both manufacturers and customers. Building reliability into a new product is costly, but the consequences of inadequate product reliability can be costlier. This implies that manufacturers need to decide on the optimal investment in new product reliability by achieving a suitable trade-off between the two costs. This paper develops a framework and proposes an approach to help manufacturers decide on the investment in new product reliability.

  3. Halogen-Mediated Conversion of Hydrocarbons to Commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ronghe; Amrute, Amol P; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2017-03-08

    Halogen chemistry plays a central role in the industrial manufacture of various important chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and polymers. It involves the reaction of halogens or halides with hydrocarbons, leading to intermediate compounds which are readily converted to valuable commodities. These transformations, predominantly mediated by heterogeneous catalysts, have long been successfully applied in the production of polymers. Recent discoveries of abundant conventional and unconventional natural gas reserves have revitalized strong interest in these processes as the most cost-effective gas-to-liquid technologies. This review provides an in-depth analysis of the fundamental understanding and applied relevance of halogen chemistry in polymer industries (polyvinyl chloride, polyurethanes, and polycarbonates) and in the activation of light hydrocarbons. The reactions of particular interest include halogenation and oxyhalogenation of alkanes and alkenes, dehydrogenation of alkanes, conversion of alkyl halides, and oxidation of hydrogen halides, with emphasis on the catalyst, reactor, and process design. Perspectives on the challenges and directions for future development in this exciting field are provided.

  4. Significance of Microbiology in Porous Hydrocarbon Related Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Augsburger, Nicolas

    2017-07-01

    This thesis explores bio-mediated processes in geotechnical and petroleum engineering. Worldwide energy consumption is rapidly increasing as the world population and per-capita consumption rises. The US Energy Information Agency (EIA) predicts that hydrocarbons will remain the primary energy source to satisfy the surging energy demands in the near future. The three topics described in detail in this document aim to link microbiology with geotechnical engineering and the petroleum industry. Microorganisms have the potential to exploit residual hydrocarbons in depleted reservoirs in a technique known as microbial enhanced oil recovery, MEOR. The potential of biosurfactants was analyzed in detail with a literature review. Biosurfactant production is the most accepted MEOR technique, and has been successfully implemented in over 700 field cases. Temperature is the main limiting factor for these techniques. The dissolution of carbonates by microorganisms was investigated experimentally. We designed a simple, economical, and robust procedure to monitor diffusion through porous media. This technique determined the diffusion coefficient of H+ in 1.5% agar, 1.122 x 10-5 cm2 sec-1, by using bromothymol blue as a pH indicator and image processing. This robust technique allows for manipulation of the composition of the agar to identify the effect of specific compounds on diffusion. The Red Sea consists of multiple seeps; the nearby sediments are telltales of deeper hydrocarbon systems. Microbial communities associated with the sediments function as in-situ sensors that provide information about the presence of carbon sources, metabolites, and the remediation potential. Sediments seeps in the Red Sea revealed different levels of bioactivity. The more active seeps, from the southern site in the Red Sea, indicated larger pore sizes, higher levels of carbon, and bioactivity with both bacteria and archaeal species present.

  5. Fractal nature of hydrocarbon deposits. 2. Spatial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, C.C.; Schutter, T.A; Herring, P.R.; Thomas, W.J.; Scholz, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are unevenly distributed within reservoirs and are found in patches whose size distribution is a fractal over a wide range of scales. The spatial distribution of the patches is also fractal and this can be used to constrain the design of drilling strategies also defined by a fractal dimension. Fractal distributions are scale independent and are characterized by a power-law scaling exponent termed the fractal dimension. The authors have performed fractal analyses on the spatial distribution of producing and showing wells combined and of dry wells in 1,600-mi 2 portions of the Denver and Powder River basins that were nearly completely drilled on quarter-mile square-grid spacings. They have limited their analyses to wells drilled to single stratigraphic intervals so that the map pattern revealed by drilling is representative of the spatial patchiness of hydrocarbons at depth. The fractal dimensions for the spatial patchiness of hydrocarbons in the two basins are 1.5 and 1.4, respectively. The fractal dimension for the pattern of all wells drilled is 1.8 for both basins, which suggests a drilling strategy with a fractal dimension significantly higher than the dimensions 1.5 and 1.4 sufficient to efficiently and economically explore these reservoirs. In fact, the fractal analysis reveals that the drilling strategy used in these basins approaches a fractal dimension of 2.0, which is equivalent to random drilling with no geologic input. Knowledge of the fractal dimension of a reservoir prior to drilling would provide a basis for selecting and a criterion for halting a drilling strategy for exploration whose fractal dimension closely matches that of the spatial fractal dimension of the reservoir, such a strategy should prove more efficient and economical than current practice

  6. Nanoscale intimacy in bifunctional catalysts for selective conversion of hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecevic, Jovana; Vanbutsele, Gina; de Jong, Krijn P.; Martens, Johan A.

    2015-12-01

    The ability to control nanoscale features precisely is increasingly being exploited to develop and improve monofunctional catalysts. Striking effects might also be expected in the case of bifunctional catalysts, which are important in the hydrocracking of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon sources to provide high-quality diesel fuel. Such bifunctional hydrocracking catalysts contain metal sites and acid sites, and for more than 50 years the so-called intimacy criterion has dictated the maximum distance between the two types of site, beyond which catalytic activity decreases. A lack of synthesis and material-characterization methods with nanometre precision has long prevented in-depth exploration of the intimacy criterion, which has often been interpreted simply as ‘the closer the better’ for positioning metal and acid sites. Here we show for a bifunctional catalyst—comprising an intimate mixture of zeolite Y and alumina binder, and with platinum metal controllably deposited on either the zeolite or the binder—that closest proximity between metal and zeolite acid sites can be detrimental. Specifically, the selectivity when cracking large hydrocarbon feedstock molecules for high-quality diesel production is optimized with the catalyst that contains platinum on the binder, that is, with a nanoscale rather than closest intimacy of the metal and acid sites. Thus, cracking of the large and complex hydrocarbon molecules that are typically derived from alternative sources, such as gas-to-liquid technology, vegetable oil or algal oil, should benefit especially from bifunctional catalysts that avoid locating platinum on the zeolite (the traditionally assumed optimal location). More generally, we anticipate that the ability demonstrated here to spatially organize different active sites at the nanoscale will benefit the further development and optimization of the emerging generation of multifunctional catalysts.

  7. Guidelines for Reporting Reliability and Agreement Studies (GRRAS) were proposed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kottner, Jan; Audigé, Laurent; Brorson, Stig

    2011-01-01

    Results of reliability and agreement studies are intended to provide information about the amount of error inherent in any diagnosis, score, or measurement. The level of reliability and agreement among users of scales, instruments, or classifications is widely unknown. Therefore, there is a need ......, standards, or guidelines for reporting reliability and agreement in the health care and medical field are lacking. The objective was to develop guidelines for reporting reliability and agreement studies....

  8. A Reliability-Oriented Design Method for Power Electronic Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    Reliability is a crucial performance indicator of power electronic systems in terms of availability, mission accomplishment and life cycle cost. A paradigm shift in the research on reliability of power electronics is going on from simple handbook based calculations (e.g. models in MIL-HDBK-217F h...... and reliability prediction models are provided. A case study on a 2.3 MW wind power converter is discussed with emphasis on the reliability critical component IGBT modules....

  9. Review of Heterogeneous Catalysts for Catalytically Upgrading Vegetable Oils into Hydrocarbon Biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhui Zhao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To address the issues of greenhouse gas emissions associated with fossil fuels, vegetable oilseeds, especially non-food oilseeds, are used as an alternative fuel resource. Vegetable oil derived from these oilseeds can be upgraded into hydrocarbon biofuel. Catalytic cracking and hydroprocessing are two of the most promising pathways for converting vegetable oil to hydrocarbon biofuel. Heterogeneous catalysts play a critical role in those processes. The present review summarizes current progresses and remaining challenges of vegetable oil upgrading to biofuel. The catalyst properties, applications, deactivation, and regeneration are reviewed. A comparison of catalysts used in vegetable oil and bio-oil upgrading is also carried out. Some suggestions for heterogeneous catalysts applied in vegetable oil upgrading to improve the yield and quality of hydrocarbon biofuel are provided for further research in the future.

  10. Characterization of Bacterial Hydrocarbon Degradation Potential in the Red Sea Through Metagenomic and Cultivation Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Bianchi, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on the characterization at the metagenomic level of the water column of the Red Sea and on the isolation and characterization of novel hydrocarbon-degrading species and genomes adapted to the unique environmental characteristics of the basin. The presence of metabolic genes responsible of both linear and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation has been evaluated from a metagenomic survey and a meta-analysis of already available datasets. In parallel, water column-based microcosms have been established with crude oil as the sole carbon source, with aim to isolate potential novel bacterial species and provide new genome-based insights on the hydrocarbon degradation potential available in the Red Sea.

  11. A suggestion to assess spilled hydrocarbons as a greenhouse gas source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAlexander, Benjamin L., E-mail: bmcalexander@trihydro.com

    2014-11-15

    Petroleum-contaminated site management typically counts destruction of hydrocarbons by either natural or engineered processes as a beneficial component of remediation. While such oxidation of spilled hydrocarbons is often necessary for achieving risk reduction for nearby human and ecological receptors, site assessments tend to neglect that this also means that the pollutants are converted to greenhouse gases and emitted to the atmosphere. This article presents a suggestion that the current and long term greenhouse gas emissions from spilled hydrocarbons be incorporated to petroleum site assessments. This would provide a more complete picture of pollutant effects that could then be incorporated to remedial objectives. At some sites, this additional information may affect remedy selection. Possible examples include a shift in emphasis to remedial technologies that reduce pollutant greenhouse gas effects (e.g., by conversion of methane to carbon dioxide in the subsurface), and a more holistic context for considering remedial technologies with low emission footprints.

  12. Validity and Reliability in Social Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author aims to provide novice researchers with an understanding of the general problem of validity in social science research and to acquaint them with approaches to developing strong support for the validity of their research. She provides insight into these two important concepts, namely (1) validity; and (2) reliability, and…

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Advenella kashmirensis Strain W13003, a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Decai; Zhou, Lisha; Wu, Liang; An, Wei; Zhao, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Advenella kashmirensis strain W13003 is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacterium isolated from PAH-contaminated marine sediments. Here, we report the 4.8-Mb draft genome sequence of this strain, which will provide insights into the diversity of A. kashmirensis and the mechanism of PAH degradation in the marine environment. PMID:24482505

  14. The effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the chemistry of photodissociation regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakes, ELO; Tielens, AGGM

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of including polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the abundance of neutral atoms and molecules for two typical photodissociation regions (PDRs): a high-density case (the Orion complex) and a low-density case. PAHs provide a large surface area for chemistry

  15. Sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Nadine V; Cailleaud, Kevin; Bassères, Anne; Liess, Matthias; Beketov, Mikhail A

    2017-11-01

    Hydrocarbons have an utmost economical importance but may also cause substantial ecological impacts due to accidents or inadequate transportation and use. Currently, freshwater biomonitoring methods lack an indicator that can unequivocally reflect the impacts caused by hydrocarbons while being independent from effects of other stressors. The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitivity ranking for freshwater invertebrates towards hydrocarbon contaminants, which can be used in hydrocarbon-specific bioindicators. We employed the Relative Sensitivity method and developed the sensitivity ranking S hydrocarbons based on literature ecotoxicological data supplemented with rapid and mesocosm test results. A first validation of the sensitivity ranking based on an earlier field study has been conducted and revealed the S hydrocarbons ranking to be promising for application in sensitivity based indicators. Thus, the first results indicate that the ranking can serve as the core component of future hydrocarbon-specific and sensitivity trait based bioindicators.

  16. Hydrocarbon-degradation by Isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline, S. Y. Ting

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the potential of isolate Pseudomonas lundensis UTAR FPE2 as a hydrocarbon degrader was established. Their biodegradation activity was first detected with the formation of clearing zones on Bushnell-Hass agar plates, with the largest diameter observed on plates supplemented with paraffin, followed by mineral oil and petrol. Utilization of hydrocarbon sources were again detected in broth cultures supplemented with similar hydrocarbon substrates, where the mean viable cell count recovered from hydrocarbon-supplemented broth cultures were higher than the initial inoculum except for napthalene. In both tests, the isolate showed higher degradability towards aliphatic hydrocarbon sources, and the least activity towards the aromatic hydrocarbon naphthalene. The isolate P. lundensis UTAR FPE2 (8 log10 cfu/mL also degraded crude diesel sample, with 69% degradation during the first three days. To conclude, this study suggests the potential use of this isolate for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environments.

  17. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-03-08

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  18. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-09-06

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  19. A method of refining aromatic hydrocarbons from coal chemical production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zieborak, K.; Koprowski, A.; Ratajczak, W.

    1979-10-01

    A method is disclosed for refining aromatic hydrocarbons of coal chemical production by contact of liquid aromatic hydrocarbons and their mixtures with a strongly acid macroporous sulfocationite in the H-form at atmospheric pressure and high temperature. The method is distinguished in that the aromatic hydrocarbons and their mixtures, from which alkali compounds have already been removed, are supplied for refinement with the sulfocationite with simultaneous addition of olefin derivatives of aromatic hydrocarbons, followed by separation of pure hydrocarbons by rectification. Styrene or alpha-methylstyrene is used as the olefin derivatives of the aromatic hydrocarbons. The method is performed in several stages with addition of olefin derivatives of aromatic hydrocarbons at each stage.

  20. High Temperature Chemistry of Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Lawrence T. [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States). Merkert Chemistry Center, Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-05-15

    The primary goal of this research was to uncover the principal reaction channels available to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at high temperatures in the gas phase and to establish the factors that determine which channels will be followed in varying circumstances. New structure-property relationships for PAHs were also studied. The efficient production of clean energy from fossil fuels will remain a major component of the DOE mission until alternative sources of energy eventually displace coal and petroleum. Hydrocarbons constitute the most basic class of compounds in all of organic chemistry, and as the dominant species in fossil fuels, they figure prominently into the programs of the DOE. Much is already known about the normal chemistry of hydrocarbons under ambient conditions, but far less is known about their intrinsic chemistry at temperatures close to those reached during combustion. An understanding of the fundamental molecular transformations, rearrangements, and interconversions of PAHs at high temperatures in the gas phase, as revealed by careful studies on small, well-designed, molecular systems, provides insights into the underlying chemistry of many important processes that are more complex, such as the generation of energy by the combustion of fossil fuels, the uncatalyzed gasification and liquefaction of coal, the production of fullerenes in fuel-rich flames, and the formation of soot and carcinogenic pollutants in smoke (e.g., benzo[a]pyrene). The rational control of any of these processes, whether it be the optimization of a desirable process or the minimization of an undesirable one, requires a clear knowledge of the basic chemistry that governs the fate of the species involved. Advances in chemistry at the most fundamental level come about primarily from the discovery of new reactions and from new insights into how reactions occur. Harnessing that knowledge is the key to new technologies. The recent commercialization of a combustion