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Sample records for hydrocarbons includes impregnating

  1. Mixture including hydrogen and hydrocarbon having pressure-temperature stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wendy L. (Inventor); Mao, Ho-Kwang (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of storing hydrogen that employs a mixture of hydrogen and a hydrocarbon that can both be used as fuel. In one embodiment, the method involves maintaining a mixture including hydrogen and a hydrocarbon in the solid state at ambient pressure and a temperature in excess of about 10 K.

  2. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias

    1995-01-01

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon.

  3. Methods of using structures including catalytic materials disposed within porous zeolite materials to synthesize hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Harry W.; Petkovic, Lucia M.; Ginosar, Daniel M.

    2011-02-01

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  4. Systems including catalysts in porous zeolite materials within a reactor for use in synthesizing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolllins, Harry W [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID; Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-24

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  5. Evaporation of hydrocarbon compounds, including gasoline and diesel fuel, on heated metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardad, D.; Ladommatos, N. [Brunel Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Uxbridge (United Kingdom)

    1999-11-01

    An investigation was carried out on the evaporation of various hydrocarbon liquids on heated surfaces. Single and multicomponent hydrocarbon compounds were used, including hexane, heptane, octane, a hexane-octane mixture, gasoline and diesel fuel. The heated surface included aluminium, mild steel, cast iron and copper. Tests were also carried out with different surface textures and surface coatings. The motivation for this work was a desire to improve understanding of the evaporation processes taking place in the inlet port and, to a lesser extent, within the combustion chamber of internal combustion engines. The hydrocarbon compounds were released on the heated surfaces as individual small droplets, and the subsequent evaporation was recorded using a CCD (charge coupled device) camera. These observations were then used to ascertain the effects of material, surface temperature, surface textures, surface coating and liquid composition on the heat flux and other aspects of droplet behaviour. (Author)

  6. Bioinformatic Approaches Including Predictive Metagenomic Profiling Reveal Characteristics of Bacterial Response to Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contamination in Diverse Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arghya; Chettri, Bobby; Langpoklakpam, James S; Basak, Pijush; Prasad, Aravind; Mukherjee, Ashis K; Bhattacharyya, Maitree; Singh, Arvind K; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti

    2017-04-24

    Microbial remediation of oil polluted habitats remains one of the foremost methods for restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated environments. The development of effective bioremediation strategies however, require an extensive understanding of the resident microbiome of these habitats. Recent developments such as high-throughput sequencing has greatly facilitated the advancement of microbial ecological studies in oil polluted habitats. However, effective interpretation of biological characteristics from these large datasets remain a considerable challenge. In this study, we have implemented recently developed bioinformatic tools for analyzing 65 16S rRNA datasets from 12 diverse hydrocarbon polluted habitats to decipher metagenomic characteristics of the resident bacterial communities. Using metagenomes predicted from 16S rRNA gene sequences through PICRUSt, we have comprehensively described phylogenetic and functional compositions of these habitats and additionally inferred a multitude of metagenomic features including 255 taxa and 414 functional modules which can be used as biomarkers for effective distinction between the 12 oil polluted sites. Additionally, we show that significantly over-represented taxa often contribute to either or both, hydrocarbon degradation and additional important functions. Our findings reveal significant differences between hydrocarbon contaminated sites and establishes the importance of endemic factors in addition to petroleum hydrocarbons as driving factors for sculpting hydrocarbon contaminated bacteriomes.

  7. Migration of mineral hydrocarbons into foods. 4. Waxed paper for packaging dry goods including bread, confectionery and for domestic use including microwave cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, L; Nichol, J; Gilbert, J

    1994-01-01

    Retail samples of dry goods (bread, biscuits and breakfast cereals) packaged in waxed paper were examined for the presence of mineral hydrocarbon wax. Bread loaves contained up to 50 mg/kg of the wax (associated with the outer surfaces) and crackers up to 185 mg/kg. Mineral oil was found in bread samples, at up to 550 mg/kg and was dispersed throughout indicating its use in food processing machinery as the likely source. Retail confectionery products wrapped in waxed paper (containing 12-44% w/w) gave rise to levels of 12-1300 mg/kg mineral hydrocarbon in the individually wrapped sweets. Migration into boiled sweets was lowest at 10-130 mg/kg, whilst soft chews and toffee products contained 110-1300 mg/kg. The distribution of wax hydrocarbons (principally n-alkanes) in the confectionery coincided exactly with that for the paper wrapping, with a range of C23 to C33 (95% material) centred around C26. This indicated that the transfer to the food occurred largely by adhesion rather than by diffusion since the latter would be expected to favour preferential migration of the low molecular weight components. In simulated home-use experiments with waxed bags sold in the United States for domestic use, migration into sandwiches and cake amounted to 40 mg/kg (1% transfer of wax). Use of these waxed bags in the microwave oven (as recommended) gave rise to contamination of foods from 210 to 1650 mg/kg (up to 60% transfer of wax).

  8. Impregnation of leather during "freeze-drying"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storch, Mikkel; Vestergaard Poulsen Sommer, Dorte; Hovmand, Ida

    2016-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a recognized method for the preservation of waterlogged objects. Naturally, freeze-drying has also been used for waterlogged archaeological leather often after treatment with Na2.EDTA and impregnation with PEG; but the treated leather sometimes suffers from “excessive drying......” becoming too stiff and brittle. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a conventional freeze-drying method against an alternative freeze-drying method that preserves the natural moisture content of the leather. Both new and archaeological waterlogged leather were included in the study...... suggest that the process which takes place within the leather during the freeze-drying in not actual freeze-drying, but rather a sophisticated way of distributing the impregnating agent. The pure ice phase freezes out, but the impregnating agent remains liquid as the temperature does not become low enough...

  9. Flexible Phenolic Impregnated Felt Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this program Fiber Materials, Inc. (FMI) will develop innovative yet practical methods for preparing Phenolic Impregnated Felt (PIF) materials for thermal...

  10. Potential for aging female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) by gas chromatographic analysis of cuticular hydrocarbons, including a field evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desena, M L; Clark, J M; Edman, J D; Symington, S B; Scott, T W; Clark, G G; Peters, T M

    1999-11-01

    Gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection was used to measure the time-associated, quantitative changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of female Aedes aegypti (L.). Cohorts of unstressed Ae. aegypti, Rockefeller strain, were reared and held at 3 constant temperatures (24, 28, and 30 degrees C). Five females from each cohort were taken at 33 degree-day (DD) intervals from 0 to 231 DD (using 17 degrees C as the threshold temperature). Quantitative changes over time of cuticular hydrocarbons associated with gas chromatographic peaks 1 and 5 were identified as having promise for age grading. The relative abundance of peak 1 (pentacosane) decreased linearly from 0 to 132 DD, whereas peak 5 (nonacosane) increased linearly over the same period. Suboptimal larval conditions (crowded and starved), which resulted in physiological stress (decreased size), had negligible effect on the relative abundance of pentacosane and nonacosane. Additionally, the rate of change in the relative abundance of pentacosane and nonacosane were the same for both a recently colonized Chachoengsao (Thailand) strain of Ae. aegypti compared with the long-colonized Rockefeller (Caribbean) strain over a 0-99 DD interval. Two linear regression models, one based on the relative abundance of pentacosane and the other on the logit transformation of these values, were developed for aging female Ae. aegypti. A blind study using laboratory-reared mosquitoes and a mark-release-recapture experiment using field mosquitoes validated these age-grading models and produced promising results for aging females up to 132 DD (19, 12, and 10 calendar days at 24, 28 and 30 degrees C, respectively). Therefore the regression models, based on the relative abundance of these 2 cuticular hydrocarbons, appeared to be a useful approach for age-grading Ae. aegypti up to at least 12 d of age regardless of environmental conditions (temperature and stress) and population history (origin and colonization time).

  11. Electrode Design for Low Temperature Direct-Hydrocarbon Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanglin (Inventor); Zhao, Fei (Inventor); Liu, Qiang (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    In certain embodiments of the present disclosure, a solid oxide fuel cell is described. The solid oxide fuel cell includes a hierarchically porous cathode support having an impregnated cobaltite cathode deposited thereon, an electrolyte, and an anode support. The anode support includes hydrocarbon oxidation catalyst deposited thereon, wherein the cathode support, electrolyte, and anode support are joined together and wherein the solid oxide fuel cell operates a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less.

  12. Impregnation transition in a powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raux, Pascal; Cockenpot, Heloise; Quere, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2011-11-01

    When an initially dry pile of micrometrical grains comes into contact with a liquid, one can observe different behaviors, function of the wetting properties. If the contact angle with the solid is low, the liquid will invade the pile (impregnation), while for higher contact angles, the grains will stay dry. We present an experimental study of this phenomenon: a dry pile of glass beads is deposed on the liquid surface, and we vary the contact angle of the liquid on the grains. We report a critical contact angle below which impregnation always occurs, and develop a model to explain its value. Different parameters modifying this critical contact angle are also investigated. Collaboration with Marco Ramaioli, Nestle Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland.

  13. Electrochemical removal of NOx and hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedberg, Anja Zarah

    on the electrodes during polarisation, probably because of strong adsorption of the hydrocarbon relative to NO. On LSF/CGO electrode the impregnation of ionic conducting material increased the oxidation of NO to NO2 which is an important step before nitrogen formation. The propene inhibited this reaction because....... This could only be done if the electrode was impregnated with BaO. The nitrate formation did not seem to be inhibited by the presence of the hydrocarbon. However, the oxidation of propene was inhibited by the BaO because the active sites for oxidations were partially covered by the BaO nanoparticles...

  14. Replacement of hazardous chromium impregnating agent from silver/copper/chromium-impregnated active carbon using triethylenediamine to remove hydrogen sulfide, trichloromethane, ammonia, and sulfur dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Chun; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2009-03-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is widely used as an effective adsorbent in many applications, including industrial-scale air purification systems and air filter systems in gas masks. In general, ACs without chemical impregnation are good adsorbents of organic vapors but poor adsorbents of low-molecular-weight or polar gases such as chlorine, sulfur dioxide (SO2), formaldehyde, and ammonia (NH3). Impregnated ACs modified with metallic impregnating agents (ASC-carbons; e.g., copper, chromium, and silver) enhance the adsorbing properties of the ACs for simultaneously removing specific poisonous gases, but disposal of the chromium metal salt used to impregnate the ACs has the potential to result in situations that are toxic to both humans and the environment, thereby necessitating the search for replaceable organic impregnating agents that represent a much lower risk. The aim of this study was to assess the gas removal efficiency of an AC in which the organic impregnating agent triethylenediamine (TEDA) largely replaced the metallic impregnating agent chromium. We assessed batch and continuous adsorption capacities in situ for removing simulated hydrogen sulfide (H2S), trichloromethane (CHCl3), NH3, and SO2 gases. Brunauer-Emmet-Teller measurements and scanning electron microscopy analyses identified the removal mechanism by which TEDA-impregnated AS-carbon (dechromium ASC-carbon) adsorbs gases and determined the removal capacity for H2S, CHCl3, NH3, and SO2 to be 311, 258, 272, and 223 mg/g-C, respectively. These results demonstrate that TEDA-impregnated AS-carbon is significantly more efficient than ASC-carbon in adsorbing these four gases. Organic TEDA-impregnating agents have also been proven to be a reliable and environmental friendly agent and therefore a safe replacement of the hazardous chromium found in conventional ASC-carbon used in removing toxic gases from the airstream.

  15. Hydrocarbon pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumonia - hydrocarbon ... Coughing Fever Shortness of breath Smell of a hydrocarbon product on the breath Stupor (decreased level of ... Most children who drink or inhale hydrocarbon products and develop ... hydrocarbons may lead to rapid respiratory failure and death.

  16. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  17. Preparation of sulfurized powdered activated carbon from waste tires using an innovative compositive impregnation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chung-Shin; Lin, Hsun-Yu; Wu, Chun-Hsin; Liu, Ming-Han; Hung, Chung-Hsuang

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an innovative compositive impregnation process for preparing sulfurized powdered activated carbon (PAC) from waste tires. An experimental apparatus, including a pyrolysis and activation system and a sulfur (S) impregnation system, was designed and applied to produce sulfurized PAC with a high specific surface area. Experimental tests involved the pyrolysis, activation, and sulfurization of waste tires. Waste-tire-derived PAC (WPAC) was initially produced in the pyrolysis and activation system. Experimental results indicated that the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of WPAC increased, and the average pore radius of WPAC decreased, as water feed rate and activation time increased. In this study, a conventional direct impregnation process was used to prepare the sulfurized PAC by impregnating WPAC with sodium sulfide (Na2S) solution. Furthermore, an innovative compositive impregnation process was developed and then compared with the conventional direct impregnation process. Experimental results showed that the compositive impregnation process produced the sulfurized WPAC with high BET surface area and a high S content. A maximum BET surface area of 886 m2/g and the S content of 2.61% by mass were obtained at 900 degrees C and at the S feed ratio of 2160 mg Na2S/g C. However, the direct impregnation process led to a BET surface area of sulfurized WPAC that decreased significantly as the S content increased.

  18. Comparison of the solid-phase extraction efficiency of a bounded and an included cyclodextrin-silica microporous composite for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determination in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri-Aucejo, Adela; Amorós, Pedro; Moragues, Alaina; Guillem, Carmen; Belenguer-Sapiña, Carolina

    2016-08-15

    Solid-phase extraction is one of the most important techniques for sample purification and concentration. A wide variety of solid phases have been used for sample preparation over time. In this work, the efficiency of a new kind of solid-phase extraction adsorbent, which is a microporous material made from modified cyclodextrin bounded to a silica network, is evaluated through an analytical method which combines solid-phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples. Several parameters that affected the analytes recovery, such as the amount of solid phase, the nature and volume of the eluent or the sample volume and concentration influence have been evaluated. The experimental results indicate that the material possesses adsorption ability to the tested polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Under the optimum conditions, the quantification limits of the method were in the range of 0.09-2.4μgL(-1) and fine linear correlations between peak height and concentration were found around 1.3-70μgL(-1). The method has good repeatability and reproducibility, with coefficients of variation under 8%. Due to the concentration results, this material may represent an alternative for trace analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water trough solid-phase extraction.

  19. Effect of fluorogesterone acetate impregnated intravaginal sponges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of fluorogesterone acetate impregnated intravaginal sponges 1 on vaginal bacterial flora of ewes. ... The bacterial flora of the vagina of ten ewes was determined at sponge removal and two days later before insertion of ... Article Metrics.

  20. Advanced Examination Techniques Applied to the Assessment of Vacuum Pressure Impregnation (VPI) of ITER Correction Coils

    CERN Document Server

    Sgobba, Stefano; Samain, Valerie; Libeyre, Paul; Cecillon, Alexandre; Dawid, J

    2014-01-01

    The ITER Magnet System includes a set of 18 superconducting correction coils (CC) which are used to compensate the error field modes arising from geometrical deviations caused by manufacturing and assembly tolerances. The turn and ground insulation are electrically insulated with a multi-layer fiberglass polyimide interleaved composite, impregnated with epoxy resin using vacuum pressure impregnation (VPI). Adequate high voltage insulation (5 kV), mechanical strength and rigidity of the winding pack should be achieved after impregnation and curing of the insulation system. VPI is an effective process to avoid defects such dry spots and incomplete wet out. This insulation technology has also been developed since several years for application to large superconducting coils and more recently to ITER CC. It allows the coils to be impregnated without impacting on their functional characteristics. One of the critical challenges associated with the construction of the CC is the qualification of the VPI insulation. Se...

  1. Development of urine standard reference materials for metabolites of organic chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, phenols, parabens, and volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, Michele M.; Benner, Bruce A.; Heckert, N. Alan; Sander, Lane C.; Sharpless, Katherine E.; Vander Pol, Stacy S.; Vasquez, Y.; Villegas, M.; Wise, Stephen A.; Alwis, K. Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Li, Zheng; Silva, Manori J.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Gaudreau, Éric; Patterson, Donald G.; Sjödin, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Two new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), SRM 3672 Organic Contaminants in Smokers’ Urine (Frozen) and SRM 3673 Organic Contaminants in Non-Smokers’ Urine (Frozen), have been developed in support of studies for assessment of human exposure to select organic environmental contaminants. Collaborations among three organizations resulted in certified values for 11 hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and reference values for 11 phthalate metabolites, 8 environmental phenols and parabens, and 24 volatile organic compound (VOC) metabolites. Reference values are also available for creatinine and the free forms of caffeine, theobromine, ibuprofen, nicotine, cotinine, and 3-hydroxycotinine. These are the first urine Certified Reference Materials characterized for metabolites of organic environmental contaminants. Noteworthy, the mass fractions of the environmental organic contaminants in the two SRMs are within the ranges reported in population survey studies such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). These SRMs will be useful as quality control samples for ensuring compatibility of results among population survey studies and will fill a void to assess the accuracy of analytical methods used in studies monitoring human exposure to these organic environmental contaminants. PMID:25651899

  2. Development of urine standard reference materials for metabolites of organic chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, phenols, parabens, and volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, Michele M; Benner, Bruce A; Heckert, N Alan; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Vasquez, Y; Villegas, M; Wise, Stephen A; Alwis, K Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C; Calafat, Antonia M; Li, Zheng; Silva, Manori J; Ye, Xiaoyun; Gaudreau, Éric; Patterson, Donald G; Sjödin, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Two new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), SRM 3672 Organic Contaminants in Smokers' Urine (Frozen) and SRM 3673 Organic Contaminants in Non-Smokers' Urine (Frozen), have been developed in support of studies for assessment of human exposure to select organic environmental contaminants. Collaborations among three organizations resulted in certified values for 11 hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and reference values for 11 phthalate metabolites, 8 environmental phenols and parabens, and 24 volatile organic compound (VOC) metabolites. Reference values are also available for creatinine and the free forms of caffeine, theobromine, ibuprofen, nicotine, cotinine, and 3-hydroxycotinine. These are the first urine Certified Reference Materials characterized for metabolites of organic environmental contaminants. Noteworthy, the mass fractions of the environmental organic contaminants in the two SRMs are within the ranges reported in population survey studies such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). These SRMs will be useful as quality control samples for ensuring compatibility of results among population survey studies and will fill a void to assess the accuracy of analytical methods used in studies monitoring human exposure to these organic environmental contaminants.

  3. The effect of silver impregnation of surgical scrub suits on surface bacterial contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, A I; Halladay, L J; Cripps, P

    2012-06-01

    Silver-impregnated fabrics are widely used for their antibacterial and antifungal effects, including for clinical clothing such as surgical scrub suits (scrubs). This study investigated whether silver impregnation reduces surface bacterial contamination of surgical scrubs during use in a veterinary hospital. Using agar contact plates, abdominal and lumbar areas of silver-impregnated nylon or polyester/cotton scrubs were sampled for surface bacterial contamination before (0 h) and after 4 and 8h of use. The number of bacterial colonies on each contact plate was counted after 24 and 48 h incubation at 37°C. Standard basic descriptive statistics and mixed-effects linear regression were used to investigate the association of possible predictors of the level of bacterial contamination of the scrubs with surface bacterial counts. Silver-impregnated scrubs had significantly lowered bacterial colony counts (BCC) at 0 h compared with polyester/cotton scrubs. However, after 4 and 8h of wear, silver impregnation had no effect on BCC. Scrub tops with higher BCC at 0 h had significantly higher BCC at 4 and 8h, suggesting that contamination present at 0 h persisted during wear. Sampling from the lumbar area was associated with lower BCC at all three time points. Other factors (contamination of the scrub top with a medication/drug, restraint of patients, working in the anaesthesia recovery area) also affected BCC at some time points. Silver impregnation appeared to be ineffective in reducing bacterial contamination of scrubs during use in a veterinary hospital.

  4. Megafauna recovered from a cold hydrocarbon seep in the deep Alaskan Beaufort Sea, including a new species of Axinus (Thracidae: Bivalvia: Mollusca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C. L.; Valentich-Scott, P.; Lorenson, T. D.; Edwards, B. D.

    2011-12-01

    Several specimens of a new species of Axinus and a single well-worn gastropod columella provisionally assigned to the genus Neptunea (Buccinidae: Gastropoda: Mollusca) were recently recovered from at least two cores, the longest of which is 5.72 m long, from a large seafloor mound, informally named the Canning Seafloor Mound (CSM). The CSM is located at 2,530 m water depth on the Alaskan Beaufort Sea slope north of Camden Bay and is a fluid explosion feature containing methane hydrate and methane-saturated sediments overlying a folded and faulted deep basin. Only two modern species of Axinus are currently known. Axinus grandis (Verrill & Smith, 1885) is a northern Atlantic species and the recently described species, A. cascadiensis Oliver and Holmes (2007), is only known from Baby Bare Seamount, Cascadia Basin, northeastern Pacific Ocean. Common fragments, single valves, and a single articulated specimen represent this new Axinus species. These shells were distributed over nearly the entire length of the primary core. All specimens show wear and (or) dissolution. The age of these specimens is unknown and no living representatives were encountered. The genus Axinus has a fossil record back to the early Eocene in England and the Paleocene and Eocene in Egypt. Biogeographically the genus appears to have originated in the Tethys Sea and became established in the Atlantic Ocean during the Eocene, spreading across the Arctic Ocean in the late Tertiary. With the opening of the Bering Strait in the latest Miocene or early Pliocene the genus Axinus migrated southwest into the northeast Pacific. Interestingly, hydrocarbon seep deposits are also present on the adjacent North Slope of Alaska in the Marsh Anticline at Carter Creek, Camden Bay. These rocks, the Nuwok beds, contain abundant Thracidae bivalve of the genus Thracia, but not Axinus, however the rocks also represent cold seep deposits. These rocks have been variously dated from Oligocene to Pliocene and the exact age

  5. Platinum incorporation in the Na Y zeolite through impregnation method, and characterization by XRD, FTIR and nitrogen adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, A.S.; Sousa, B.V.; Andrade, A.C.C.; Rodrigues, M.G.F. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia. Unidade Academica de Engenharia Quimica], e-mail: alfredinad@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: biancaviana_cg@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: meiry@deq.ufcg.edu.br; Rangel, M.C. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Grupo de Estudos em Cinetica e Catalise

    2007-07-01

    Supported metal catalysts are widely used in petroleum refining, chemical and petroleum industries. These catalysts are important in ammonia synthesis, conversion of hydrocarbons with water vapor to synthesis gas, reforming, hydrocracking, ... Platinum has long been used in cracking, hydrogenation and dehydrogenation processes. The aim of this project is the Na Y zeolitic sample preparation through impregnation for incipient humidity, with 0,5% concentration of platinum, aiming its use as a catalyst in the steam reforming reaction. The characterization techniques used were: X Rays Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nitrogen Adsorption (BET Method). From the obtained results through the techniques mentioned previously it is possible to evidence that the platinum impregnation process did not change the Na Y zeolite structure. Through the superficial specific area (BET) it was possible to observe that the platinum impregnation process caused a decrease in the specific area due to the reduction to the accessibility to the micropores of the zeolitic structure. (author)

  6. A preliminary investigation of sorbent-impregnated filters (SIFs) as an alternative to polyurethane foam (PUF) for sampling gas-phase semivolatile organic compounds in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarneau, Elisabeth; Harner, Tom; Shoeib, Mahiba; Kozma, Melissa; Lane, Douglas

    Filters impregnated with XAD-4™ resin were used in a small series of high-volume air samples to compare their collection of gas-phase semivolatile toxic substances (organochlorine pesticides, OCs, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) with that achieved by polyurethane foam (PUF). The advantages of the use of such sorbent-impregnated filters (SIFs) include a reduction in size which leads to numerous benefits. The latter include simplified sample handling, shipping and storage, and the potential for a decrease in solvent requirements for pre-cleaning and extraction. Furthermore, such SIFs could be used to measure combined particle/gas concentrations of target compounds. Gas concentrations derived from the SIFs in a filter-SIF-SIF-PUF configuration agreed well with values derived from the PUF plugs in a comparison filter-PUF configuration. The collection efficiency of a single SIF was ˜80% on average. As such, these SIFs are viewed as a promising alternative to PUF and further, more extensive study of their performance characteristics appears to be warranted.

  7. Consolidation mechanisms and interfacial phenomena in thermoplastic powder impregnated composites

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Thermoplastic powder impregnation of continuous reinforcement filaments is studied in this work, focusing on impregnation mechanisms and interfacial phenomena. Various existing techniques to mingle powdered resins to continuous filaments are reviewed; a powder impregnation line designed at the Laboratoire de Technologie des Composites et Polymères (LTC) is presented. Two important types of powder coated towpregs are addressed: FIT bundles (Fibre...

  8. Porous solid backbone impregnation for electrochemical energy conversion systems

    KAUST Repository

    Boulfrad, Samir

    2013-09-19

    An apparatus and method for impregnating a porous solid backbone. The apparatus may include a platform for holding a porous solid backbone, an ink jet nozzle configured to dispense a liquid solution onto the porous solid backbone, a positioning mechanism configured to position the ink jet nozzle proximate to a plurality of locations of the porous solid backbone, and a control unit configured to control the positioning mechanism to position the ink jet nozzle proximate to the plurality of locations and cause the ink jet nozzle to dispense the liquid solution onto the porous solid backbone.

  9. Dynamics of condensation on lubricant impregnated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sushant; Paxson, Adam; Rykaczewski, Konrad; Beysens, Daniel; Varanasi, Kripa

    2013-03-01

    Replacing the filmwise condensation mode with dropwise condensation promises large improvements in heat transfer that will lead to large cost savings in material, water consumption and decreased size of the systems. In this regards, use of superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated by texturing surfaces with nano/microstructures has been shown to lead decrease in contact line pinning of millimetric drops resulting in fast shedding. However, these useful properties are lost during condensation where droplets that nucleate within texture grow by virtue of condensation to large sized droplets while still adhering to the surface. Recently we have shown that liquid impregnated surfaces can overcome many limitations of conventional superhydrophobic surfaces during condensation. Here we discuss aspects related to condensation on lubricant surfaces, such as behavior of growing droplets. We compare the characteristics of droplets condensing on these surfaces with their behavior on conventional un-impregnated superhydrophobic surfaces and show how use of lubricant impregnated surfaces may lead to large enhancement in heat transfer and energy efficiencies.

  10. Impregnated netting slows infestation by Triatoma infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Michael Z; Quíspe-Machaca, Victor R; Ylla-Velasquez, Jose L; Waller, Lance A; Richards, Jean M; Rath, Bruno; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; del Carpio, Juan G Cornejo; Cordova-Benzaquen, Eleazar; McKenzie, F Ellis; Wirtz, Robert A; Maguire, James H; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn

    2008-10-01

    We used sentinel animal enclosures to measure the rate of infestation by the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, in an urban community of Arequipa, Peru, and to evaluate the effect of deltamethrin-impregnated netting on that rate. Impregnated netting decreased the rate of infestation of sentinel enclosures (rate ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.38; P < 0.001), controlling for the density of surrounding vector populations and the distance of these to the sentinel enclosures. Most migrant insects were early-stage nymphs, which are less likely to carry the parasitic agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi. Spread of the vector in the city therefore likely precedes spread of the parasite. Netting was particularly effective against adult insects and late-stage nymphs; taking into account population structure, netting decreased the reproductive value of migrant populations from 443.6 to 40.5. Impregnated netting can slow the spread of T. infestans and is a potentially valuable tool in the control of Chagas disease.

  11. Synthesis of Amino-Impregnated ZIF-8 for CO2 Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Nur Hafiza binti; Fong Yeong, Yin; Sze Lai, Li

    2017-08-01

    Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) is well known for its high thermal stability, high surface area and remarkable water stability as compared to the other adsorbents. However, ZIF-8 shows relatively low CO2 capture ability. In this work, ZIF-8 is modified with amino-groups via wetness impregnation method and the performance of the resultant adsorbents in CO2 capture is investigated. Two different types of amino-groups including tetraethylenepentamino (TEPA) and pentaethylenehexamino (PEHA) were used. The concentrations of TEPA and PEHA were prepared at 30, 50 and 70 volume% in chloroform solution, respectively, prior to impregnation over ZIF-8. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) results showed that, successful incorporation of amino groups into ZIF-8 was achieved. Meanwhile, based on SEM images, severe agglomeration of particles was observed for 50% and 70% TEPA and PEHA-impregnated ZIF-8. Subsequently, it was found that ZIF-8 impregnated with 30 % TEPA showed the highest CO2 adsorption capacity of 1.9983 mmol g-1 as compared the other adsorbents prepared in this work. This has signified the improvement of CO2 adsorption capacity by using amino-impregnated ZIF-8, which was up to 199.6% compared to the parent ZIF-8. Overall, the adsorbents developed in the present work are potential to be used in the industrial CO2 adsorption processes.

  12. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjani, Sunita J

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants are recalcitrant compounds and are classified as priority pollutants. Cleaning up of these pollutants from environment is a real world problem. Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradation activity. Petroleum hydrocarbons utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in environment. They naturally biodegrade pollutants and thereby remove them from the environment. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants from environment by applying oleophilic microorganisms (individual isolate/consortium of microorganisms) is ecofriendly and economic. Microbial biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants employs the enzyme catalytic activities of microorganisms to enhance the rate of pollutants degradation. This article provides an overview about bioremediation for petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants. It also includes explanation about hydrocarbon metabolism in microorganisms with a special focus on new insights obtained during past couple of years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Studies of properties of rubber wood with impregnation of polymer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rashmi R Devi; T K Maji

    2002-11-01

    Impregnation of rubber wood has been carried out under different conditions by using styrene as grafting monomer and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) as crosslinker. Properties such as dimensional stability, water absorption, hardness, tensile strength, flexural strength, etc of the impregnated wood have been checked and found to be improved by incorporation of GMA as the crosslinker with styrene. The polymer-impregnated wood has also been characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and DSC.

  14. Thermocapillary motion on lubricant-impregnated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelobrk, Nada; Girard, Henri-Louis; Bengaluru Subramanyam, Srinivas; Kwon, Hyuk-Min; Quéré, David; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2016-10-01

    We show that thermocapillary-induced droplet motion is markedly enhanced when using lubricant-impregnated surfaces as compared to solid substrates. These surfaces provide weak pinning, which makes them ideal for droplet transportation and specifically for water transportation. Using a lubricant with viscosity comparable to that of water and temperature gradients as low as 2 K/mm, we observe that drops can propel at 6.5 mm/s, that is, at least 5 times quicker than reported on conventional substrates. Also in contrast with solids, the liquid nature of the different interfaces makes it possible to predict quantitatively the thermocapillary Marangoni force (and velocity) responsible for the propulsion.

  15. Impregnation of thermoplastic resin in jute fiber mat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Impregnation rate of thermoplastic resin (polypropylene) in jute fiber mat and influence of relative factors on impregnation were studied,aiming to develop the continuous melt impregnation technique and to investigate the effect of impregnation rate and temperature on processing conditions and mechanical properties of natural fiber mat-reinforced thermoplastics.Influence of pressure on porosity of fiber mat and effect of melt viscosity on impregnation rate were also investigated.The modified capillary rheometer was used as apparatus and experimental data were analyzed based on the one-dimension Darcy's law.Results showed that at a given pressure,the impregnation rate is inversely proportional to melt viscosity and jute fiber mat has higher porosity than glass fiber mat.The architecture,compressibility,permeability and fiber diameter of jute fiber mat were compared with those of glass fiber mat and their effects on impregnation were discussed further.It could be seen that the average diameter of jute fiber is much bigger;the porosity of jute fiber mat is significantly higher and inner bundle impregnation does not exist in jute fiber mat.Therefore,it is not difficult to understand why the impregnation rate in jute fiber mat is 3.5 times higher and permeability is 14 times greater.Kozeny constants of jute and glass fiber mats calculated based on the capillary model are 2950 and 442,respectively.

  16. Impregnation of preservative and fire retardants into Japanese cedar lumber by passive impregnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Nazrul Islam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper azole type B (CAz-B preservative and polyphosphatic carbamate (PPC fire retardants were impregnated in succession into green (97% MC and kiln-dried (18% MC Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica (L.f. D.Don lumber by the passive impregnation method to prolong the period of lumber use by increasing its resistance to fire and biological degradation. Lumber was dried with a kiln or by air-drying. Total chemical retention, penetration, leaching, decay resistance (JIS K 1571, and fire retardancy (ISO 834-1 standard, 20 minutes tests were performed according to the mentioned standards. Preservative retention was higher in the green lumber (4.97 kg/m3 compared with the kiln-dried (4.88 kg/m3 lumber. However, fire retardant retention was similar for both lumber types (107 and 111 kg/m3. Leaching was higher in kiln-dried lumber (21.8% compared to air-dried lumber (14.4%, although there were no significant differences in the decay resistance test between these two lumber types. The fire performance of both lumber types was similar in the fire resistance test. Therefore, the passive impregnation method can be used effectively for impregnation of both preservatives and fire retardants into wood.

  17. Comparison of the compressive strength of impregnated and nonimpregnated eucalyptus subjected to two different pressures and impregnation times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemir Rodrigues

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The durability of wood is affected by several factors. For this reason, much research has been done on a variety of chemical compounds for impregnating wood, aimed at preserving it while simultaneously improving its properties. Recent studies of the properties of impregnated wood have demonstrated the possibility of substantially improving its mechanical characteristics. Thus, the purpose of this work was to compare the strength to parallel compression of wooden fibers (Eucalyptus grandis, both nonimpregnated and impregnated with a monocomponent resin, from the standpoint of pressure and impregnation time, aiming at its structural utilization. The results demonstrate that the compressive strength of impregnated test specimens is greater than that of nonimpregnated ones, indicating that monocomponent polyurethane resin can be considered suitable for impregnating wood, since it increases the compressive strength of eucalyptus.

  18. Boron impregnation treatment of Eucalyptus grandis wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamodaran, T K; Gnanaharan, R

    2007-08-01

    Eucalyptus grandis is suitable for small timber purposes, but its wood is reported to be non-durable and difficult to treat. Boron compounds being diffusible, and the vacuum-pressure impregnation (VPI) method being more suitable for industrial-scale treatment, the possibility of boron impregnation of partially dry to green timber was investigated using a 6% boric acid equivalent (BAE) solution of boric acid and borax in the ratio 1:1.5 under different treatment schedules. It was found that E. grandis wood, even in green condition, could be pressure treated to desired chemical dry salt retention (DSR) and penetration levels using 6% BAE solution. Up to a thickness of 50mm, in order to achieve a DSR of 5 kg/m(3) boron compounds, the desired DSR level as per the Indian Standard for perishable timbers for indoor use, it was found that neither the moisture content of wood nor the treatment schedule posed any problem as far as the treatability of E. grandis wood was concerned.

  19. Scandia doped tungsten matrix for impregnated cathode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jinshu; WANG Yanchun; LIU Wei; LI Hongyi; ZHOU Meiling

    2008-01-01

    As a matrix for Sc-type impregnated cathode,scandia doped tungsten with a uniform ldistribution of SC2O3 was obtained by powder metallurgy combined with the liquid-solid doping method.The microstructure and composition of the powder and the anti-ion bombardment behavior of scandium in the matrix were studied by means of SEM,EDS,XRD,and in-situ AES methods.Tungsten powder covered with scandium oxide,an ideal scandium oxide-doped tungsten powder for the preparation of Sc-type impregnated cathode,was obtained using the liquid-solid doping method.Compared with the matrix prepared with the mechanically mixed powder of tungsten and scandium oxide,SC2O3-W matrix prepared with this kind of powder had smaller grain size and uniform distribution of scandium.Sc on the surface of Sc2O3 doped tungsten mauix had good high temperature stability and good anti-ion bombardment capability.

  20. Biofuel production from acid-impregnated willow and switchgrass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Maas, R.H.W.; Vrije, de T.; Jong, de E.; Groenestijn, van J.W.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a broader technical and economic feasibility study, we studied production of bioethanol from two types of lignocellulosic biomass by way of concentrated acid impregnation at low temperature. Willow chips and switchgrass were submitted to various impregnation techniques with concentrated s

  1. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    hydrocarbon polluted sediments and water .... ecosystem may result in selective increase or decrease in microbial population (Okpokwasili ... been implicated in degradation of hydrocarbons such as crude oil, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and.

  2. Vacuum impregnation with epoxy of large superconducting magnet structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.A.; Coyle, D.E.; Miller, P.B.; Wenzel, W.F.

    1978-06-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) has been developing a new generation of superconducting magnets which have the helium cooling system as an integral part of the magnet structure. The LBL technique calls for large sections of the magnet structure to be vacuum impregnated with epoxy. The epoxy was chosen for its impregnation properties. Epoxies which have good impregnation characteristics are often subject to cracking when they are cooled to cryogenic temperatures. The cracking of such an epoxy can be controlled by: (1) minimizing the amount of epoxy in the structure; (2) reducing the size of unfilled epoxy spaces; and (3) keeping the epoxy in compression. The technique for using the epoxy is often more important than the formulation of the epoxy. The LBL vacuum impregnation and curing technique is described. Experimental measurements on small samples of coil sections are presented. Practical experience with large vacuum impregnation superconducting coils (up to two meters in dia) is also discussed.

  3. Plasma impregnation of wood with fire retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabeliña, Karel G.; Lumban, Carmencita O.; Ramos, Henry J.

    2012-02-01

    The efficacy of chemical and plasma treatments with phosphate and boric compounds, and nitrogen as flame retardants on wood are compared in this study. The chemical treatment involved the conventional method of spraying the solution over the wood surface at atmospheric condition and chemical vapor deposition in a vacuum chamber. The plasma treatment utilized a dielectric barrier discharge ionizing and decomposing the flame retardants into innocuous simple compounds. Wood samples are immersed in either phosphoric acid, boric acid, hydrogen or nitrogen plasmas or a plasma admixture of two or three compounds at various concentrations and impregnated by the ionized chemical reactants. Chemical changes on the wood samples were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) while the thermal changes through thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Plasma-treated samples exhibit superior thermal stability and fire retardant properties in terms of highest onset temperature, temperature of maximum pyrolysis, highest residual char percentage and comparably low total percentage weight loss.

  4. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  5. Compositions and methods for hydrocarbon functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnoe, Thomas Brent; Fortman, George; Boaz, Nicholas C.; Groves, John T.

    2017-03-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of hydrocarbon functionalization, methods and systems for converting a hydrocarbon into a compound including at least one group ((e.g., hydroxyl group) (e.g., methane to methanol)), functionalized hydrocarbons, and the like.

  6. Drug loading of foldable commercial intraocular lenses using supercritical impregnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouledjouidja, A; Masmoudi, Y; Sergent, M; Trivedi, V; Meniai, A; Badens, E

    2016-03-16

    The drug delivery through intraocular lenses (IOLs) allows the combination of cataract surgery act and postoperative treatment in a single procedure. In order to prepare such systems, "clean" supercritical CO2 processes are studied for loading commercial IOLs with ophthalmic drugs. Ciprofloxacin (CIP, an antibiotic) and dexamethasone 21-phosphate disodium (DXP, an anti-inflammatory drug) were impregnated into foldable IOLs made from poly-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (P-HEMA). A first pre-treatment step was conducted in order to remove absorbed conditioning physiological solution. Supercritical impregnations were then performed by varying the experimental conditions. In order to obtain transparent IOLs and avoid the appearance of undesirable foaming, it was necessary to couple slow pressurization and depressurization phases during supercritical treatments. The impregnation yields were determined through drug release studies. For both drugs, release studies show deep and reproducible impregnation for different diopters. For the system P-HEMA/CIP, a series of impregnations was performed to delimit the experimental range at two pressures (80 and 200 bar) in the presence or absence of ethanol as a co-solvent for two diopters (+5.0 D and +21.0 D). Increase in pressure in the absence of a co-solvent resulted in improved CIP impregnation. The addition of ethanol (5 mol%) produced impregnation yields comparable to those obtained at 200 bar without co-solvent. A response surface methodology based on experimental designs was used to study the influence of operating conditions on impregnation of IOLs (+21.0 D) in the absence of co-solvent. Two input variables with 5 levels each were considered; the pressure (80-200 bar) and the impregnation duration (30-240 min). CIP impregnation yields ranging between 0.92 and 3.83 μg CIP/mg IOL were obtained from these experiments and response surface indicated the pressure as a key factor in the process. The DXP impregnation in P-HEMA was

  7. Tuning functionality of photocatalytic materials: an infrared study on hydrocarbon oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amrollahi Buky, Rezvaneh

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the research described in this thesis was on the engineering and design of effective photocatalysts able to catalyze the oxidative conversion of hydrocarbons. The prepared catalysts were synthesized by using different procedures involving sol gel precursors, and impregnation or photo-de

  8. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Imran, Ali

    2015-11-24

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two modes: in-situ catalytic pyrolysis and post treatment of the pyrolysis vapors. The in-situ catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in an entrained flow reactor system using a premixed feedstock of Na2CO3 and biomass and post treatment of biomass pyrolysis vapor was conducted in a downstream fixed bed reactor of Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3. Results have shown that both Na2CO3 and Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3 can be used for the production of a high quality bio-oil from catalytic pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake. The catalytic bio-oil had very low oxygen content, water content as low as 1wt.%, a neutral pH, and a high calorific value upto 41.8MJ/kg. The bio-oil consisted of high value chemical compounds mainly hydrocarbons and undesired compounds in the bio-oil were either completely removed or considerably reduced. Increasing the triglycerides content (vegetable oil) in the wood enhanced the formation of hydrocarbons in the bio-oil. Post treatment of the pyrolysis vapor over a fixed bed of Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3 produced superior quality bio-oil compared to in-situ catalytic pyrolysis with Na2CO3. This high quality bio-oil may be used as a precursor in a fractionating process for the production of alternative fuels. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Determination of Copper, Total Chromium and Silver in Impregnated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beer Singh

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon samples were impregnated with ammonical solutions of silver salt alone and in combination with Cu and Cr salts. The impregnated samples were characterised for Cu, total Cr and Ag. Copper was extracted as CuCl/sub 2/ using concentrated HCl and Cr with NaOH. Silver was extracted from impregnated carbon using HNO3 and sodium thiosulphate (Na/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 3/-5H/sub 2/0 and ashed impregnated carbons using aqua regia. The extracted metals in their solutions were quantitatively determined by titrimetric method and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results were within acceptable limits of error. Sodium thiosulphate is recommended for extraction of Ag, as it accomplishes complete leaching of Ag faster than the other extracting agents.

  10. A Modeling Approach to Fiber Fracture in Melt Impregnation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Feng; Zhang, Cong; Yu, Yang; Xin, Chunling; Tang, Ke; He, Yadong

    2017-02-01

    The effect of process variables such as roving pulling speed, melt temperature and number of pins on the fiber fracture during the processing of thermoplastic based composites was investigated in this study. The melt impregnation was used in this process of continuous glass fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites. Previous investigators have suggested a variety of models for melt impregnation, while comparatively little effort has been spent on modeling the fiber fracture caused by the viscous resin. Herein, a mathematical model was developed for impregnation process to predict the fiber fracture rate and describe the experimental results with the Weibull intensity distribution function. The optimal parameters of this process were obtained by orthogonal experiment. The results suggest that the fiber fracture is caused by viscous shear stress on fiber bundle in melt impregnation mold when pulling the fiber bundle.

  11. Reducing Sliding Friction with Liquid-Impregnated Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mohammad; Collier, C. Patrick; Boreyko, Jonathan; Nature Inspired Fluids; Interfaces Team; CenterNanophase Materials Sciences Team

    2015-11-01

    Liquid-impregnated surfaces are fabricated by infusing a lubricating liquid into the micro/nano roughness of a textured substrate, such that the surface is slippery for any deposited liquid immiscible with the lubricant. To date, liquid-impregnated surfaces have almost exclusively focused on repelling liquids by minimizing the contact angle hysteresis. Here, we demonstrate that liquid-impregnated surfaces are also capable of reducing sliding friction for solid objects. Ordered arrays of silicon micropillars were infused with lubricating liquids varying in viscosity by two orders of magnitude. Five test surfaces were used: two different micropillared surfaces with and without liquid infusion and a smooth, dry control surface. The static and kinetic coefficients of friction were measured using a polished aluminum cube as the sliding object. Compared to the smooth control surface, the sliding friction was reduced by at least a factor of two on the liquid-impregnated surfaces.

  12. Solvent impregnated resins for the removal of low concentration phenol from water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghoff, B.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Haan, A.B. de

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this investigation is the development of a solvent impregnated resin for phenol removal from dilute aqueous solutions. Using a solvent impregnated resin (SIR) eliminates the problem of emulsification encountered in liquid-liquid extraction. Impregnated MPP particles and impregnated XAD1

  13. HYDROGEN SULFIDE ADSORPTION BY ALKALINE IMPREGNATED COCONUT SHELL ACTIVATED CARBON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUI SUN CHOO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is one type of renewable energy which can be burnt to produce heat and electricity. However, it cannot be burnt directly due to the presence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S which is highly corrosive to gas engine. In this study, coconut shell activated carbon (CSAC was applied as a porous adsorbent for H2S removal. The effect of amount of activated carbon and flow rate of gas stream toward adsorption capacity were investigated. Then, the activated carbons were impregnated by three types of alkaline (NaOH, KOH and K2CO3 with various ratios. The effects of various types of alkaline and their impregnation ratio towards adsorption capacity were analysed. In addition, H2S influent concentration and the reaction temperature on H2S adsorption were also investigated. The result indicated that adsorption capacity increases with the amount of activated carbon and decreases with flow rate of gas stream. Alkaline impregnated activated carbons had better performance than unimpregnated activated carbon. Among all impregnated activated carbons, activated carbon impregnated by K2CO3 with ratio 2.0 gave the highest adsorption capacity. Its adsorption capacity was 25 times higher than unimpregnated activated carbon. The result also indicated that the adsorption capacity of impregnated activated carbon decreased with the increment of H2S influent concentration. Optimum temperature for H2S adsorption was found to be 50˚C. In this study, the adsorption of H2S on K2CO3 impregnated activated carbon was fitted to the Langmuir isotherm. The fresh and spent K2CO3 impregnated activated carbon were characterized to study the adsorption process.

  14. Removal of some organic pollutants in water employing ceramic membranes impregnated with cross-linked silylated dendritic and cyclodextrin polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allabashi, Roza; Arkas, Michael; Hörmann, Gerold; Tsiourvas, Dimitris

    2007-01-01

    Triethoxysilylated derivatives of poly(propylene imine) dendrimer, polyethylene imine and polyglycerol hyperbranched polymers and beta-cyclodextrin have been synthesized and characterized. These compounds impregnated ceramic membranes made from Al(2)O(3), SiC and TiO(2) and subsequently sol-gel reaction led to their polymerization and chemical bond formation with the ceramic substrates. The resulting organic-inorganic filters were tested for the removal of a variety of organic pollutants from water. They were found to remove of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (up to 99%), of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (up to 93%), trihalogen methanes (up to 81%), pesticides (up to 43%) and methyl-tert-butyl ether (up to 46%).

  15. A Model for Tow Impregnation and Consolidation for Partially Impregnated Thermoset Prepregs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Gangloff Jr; Shatil Sinha; Suresh G. Advani

    2011-05-23

    The formation and transport of voids in composite materials remains a key research area in composite manufacturing science. Knowledge of how voids, resin, and fiber reinforcement propagate throughout a composite material continuum from green state to cured state during an automated tape layup process is key to minimizing defects induced by void-initiated stress concentrations under applied loads for a wide variety of composite applications. This paper focuses on modeling resin flow in a deforming fiber tow during an automated process of partially impregnated thermoset prepreg composite material tapes. In this work, a tow unit cell based model has been presented that determines the consolidation and impregnation of a thermoset prepreg tape under an input pressure profile. A parametric study has been performed to characterize the behavior of varying tow speed and compaction forces on the degree of consolidation. Results indicate that increased tow consolidation is achieved with slower tow speeds and higher compaction forces although the relationship is not linear. The overall modeling of this project is motivated to address optimization of the 'green state' composite properties and processing parameters to reduce or eliminate 'cured state' defects, such as porosity and de-lamination. This work is partially funded by the Department of Energy under Award number DE-EE0001367.

  16. Fracture Resistance of Composite Fixed Partial Dentures Reinforced with Pre-impregnated and Non-impregnated Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Mosharraf

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced composite fixed partial dentures (FPDs are affected by fiber impregnation. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the fracture resistance of composite fixed partial dentures reinforced with pre-impregnated and non-impregnated fibers. Materials and methods. Groups (n=5 of three-unit fiber-reinforced composite FPDs (23 mm in length from maxillary second premolar to maxillary second molar were fabricated on two abutments with pontic width of 12 mm. One group was fabricated as the control group with composite (Gradia and the other two groups were fabricated with composite (Gradia reinforced with pre-impregnated fiber (Fibrex ribbon and non-impregnated fiber (Fiber braid, respectively. The specimens were stored in distilled water for one week at 37°C and then tested in a universal testing machine by means of a three-point bending test. Statistical analysis consisted of one-way ANOVA and a post hoc Scheffé’s test for the test groups (α=0.05. Results. Fracture resistance (N differed significantly between the control group and the other two groups (P<0.001, but there were no statistically significant differences between the pre-impregnated and non-impregnated groups (P=0.565. The degree of deflection measured (mm did not differ significantly between the three groups (P=0.397, yet the mean deflection measured in pre-impregnated group was twice as that in the other two groups. Conclusion. Reinforcement of composite with fiber might considerably increase the fracture resistance of FPDs; however, the type of the fiber used resulted in no significant difference in fracture resistance of FPD specimens.

  17. Pyrolysis of phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessire, Brody K; Lahankar, Sridhar A; Minton, Timothy K

    2015-01-28

    Molar yields of the pyrolysis products of thermal protection systems (TPSs) are needed in order to improve high fidelity material response models. The volatile chemical species evolved during the pyrolysis of a TPS composite, phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA), have been probed in situ by mass spectrometry in the temperature range 100 to 935 °C. The relative molar yields of the desorbing species as a function of temperature were derived by fitting the mass spectra, and the observed trends are interpreted in light of the results of earlier mechanistic studies on the pyrolysis of phenolic resins. The temperature-dependent product evolution was consistent with earlier descriptions of three stages of pyrolysis, with each stage corresponding to a temperature range. The two main products observed were H2O and CO, with their maximum yields occurring at ∼350 °C and ∼450 °C, respectively. Other significant products were CH4, CO2, and phenol and its methylated derivatives; these products tended to desorb concurrently with H2O and CO, over the range from about 200 to 600 °C. H2 is presumed to be the main product, especially at the highest pyrolysis temperatures used, but the relative molar yield of H2 was not quantified. The observation of a much higher yield of CO than CH4 suggests the presence of significant hydroxyl group substitution on phenol prior to the synthesis of the phenolic resin used in PICA. The detection of CH4 in combination with the methylated derivatives of phenol suggests that the phenol also has some degree of methyl substitution. The methodology developed is suitable for real-time measurements of PICA pyrolysis and should lend itself well to the validation of nonequilibrium models whose aim is to simulate the response of TPS materials during atmospheric entry of spacecraft.

  18. Active surfaces: Ferrofluid-impregnated surfaces for active manipulation of droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Karim; Mahmoudi, Seyed Reza; Abu-Dheir, Numan; Varanasi, Kripa

    2014-11-01

    Droplet manipulation and mobility on non-wetting surfaces is of practical importance for diverse applications ranging from micro-fluidic devices, anti-icing, dropwise condensation, and biomedical devices. The use of active external fields has been explored via electric, acoustic, and vibrational, yet moving highly conductive and viscous fluids remains a challenge. Magnetic fields have been used for droplet manipulation; however, usually, the fluid is functionalized to be magnetic, and requires enormous fields of superconducting magnets when transitioning to diamagnetic materials such as water. Here we present a class of active surfaces by stably impregnating active fluids such as ferrofluids into a textured surface. Droplets on such ferrofluid-impregnated surfaces have extremely low hysteresis and high mobility such that they can be propelled by applying relatively low magnetic fields. Our surface is able to manipulate a variety of materials including diamagnetic, conductive and highly viscous fluids, and additionally solid particles.

  19. Aqueous reactions of chlorine dioxide with hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rav-Acha, C.; Choshen, E.

    1987-11-01

    In contrast to mechanisms proposed earlier in the literature, according to which chlorine dioxide (ClO/sub 2/) reacts with various hydrocarbons in aqueous media by abstracting allylic or benzylic hydrogens, it is shown that ClO/sub 2/ reacts with olefins through initial electron transfer. Hydrocarbons that can undergo facile oxidation, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and some olefins, react with ClO/sub 2/ quite rapidly, while saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons, some aromatic hydrocarbons, and olefins substituted with electron-withdrawing groups remain unreactive. This was substantiated by comparing the reactivities toward ClO/sub 2/ of a variety of hydrocarbons, including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, saturated and unsaturated acids, PAH, or cyclic and acyclic olefins. The results were supported by a detailed kinetic and product study of the reaction between ClO/sub 2/ and some model compounds.

  20. LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUEL CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compound anode consists of a reforming catalyst bed in direct contact with a palladium-silver fuel cell anode. The objective of this study was to...prove the feasibility of operating a compound anode fuel cell on a liquid hydrocarbon and to define the important parameters that influence cell...performance. Both reformer and fuel cell tests were conducted with various liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Included in this report is a description of the

  1. Alcohol-impregnated wipes as an alternative in hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, A M; Laughon, B E; Gullette, D L; Larson, E L

    1990-04-01

    The antimicrobial effectiveness of four hand-wash products for health care personnel included three liquid soaps that contained 4% chlorhexidine gluconate, 1% triclosan, or no antiseptic ingredient, respectively, and a 30% w/w ethyl alcohol-impregnated hand wipe. These products were evaluated for reduction in bacterial counts on hands after extended use of 15 handwashes per day for 5 consecutive days. The order of greatest to least log reduction among products at the end of the 5-day test period was chlorhexidine gluconate (2.01), triclosan (1.52), alcohol wipe (0.04), and control soap (0.03). Skin condition before and after handwash was assessed for each treatment group. Subjects reported less skin irritation with alcohol wipes than with the two antiseptic products. Repeated washing with alcohol wipes results in reductions in bacterial colony counts comparable with nonmedicated soap, sufficient to prevent transmission of pathogens by the hands in most situations that arise in nonacute health care settings. This evidence, in addition to increased user acceptability reported by the subjects who used alcohol wipes, suggests that alcohol wipes are an acceptable alternative to soap-and-water handwashing in nonacute health care settings.

  2. The hydrocarbon sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandev, P.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrocarbon sphere is understood to be the area in which hydrocarbon compounds are available. It is believed that the lower boundary on the hydrocarbon sphere is most probably located at a depth where the predominant temperatures aid in the destruction of hydrocarbons (300 to 400 degrees centigrade). The upper limit on the hydrocarbon sphere obviously occurs at the earth's surface, where hydrocarbons oxidize to H20 and CO2. Within these ranges, the occurrence of the hydrocarbon sphere may vary from the first few hundred meters to 15 kilometers or more. The hydrocarbon sphere is divided into the external (mantle) sphere in which the primary gas, oil and solid hydrocarbon fields are located, and the internal (metamorphic) sphere containing primarily noncommercial accumulations of hydrocarbon gases and solid carbon containing compounds (anthraxilite, shungite, graphite, etc.) based on the nature and scale of hydrocarbon compound concentrations (natural gas, oil, maltha, asphalt, asphaltite, etc.).

  3. The bactericidal activity of glutaraldehyde-impregnated polyurethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehmi, Sandeep K; Allan, Elaine; MacRobert, Alexander J; Parkin, Ivan

    2016-10-01

    Although glutaraldehyde is known to be bactericidal in solution, its potential use to create novel antibacterial polymers suitable for use in healthcare environments has not been evaluated. Here, novel materials were prepared in which glutaraldehyde was either incorporated into polyurethane using a simple "swell-encapsulation-shrink" method (hereafter referred to as "glutaraldehyde-impregnated polyurethane"), or simply applied to the polymer surface (hereafter referred to as "glutaraldehyde-coated polyurethane"). The antibacterial activity of glutaraldehyde-impregnated and glutaraldehyde-coated polyurethane samples was tested against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Glutaraldehyde-impregnated polyurethane resulted in a 99.9% reduction in the numbers of E. coli within 2 h and a similar reduction of S. aureus within 1 h, whereas only a minimal reduction in bacterial numbers was observed when the biocide was bound to the polymer surface. After 15 days, however, the bactericidal activity of the impregnated material was substantially reduced presumably due to polymerization of glutaraldehyde. Thus, although glutaraldehyde retains antibacterial activity when impregnated into polyurethane, activity is not maintained for extended periods of time. Future work should examine the potential of chemical modification of glutaraldehyde and/or polyurethane to improve the useful lifespan of this novel antibacterial polymer. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Efficacy of a silicone urinary catheter impregnated with chlorhexidine and triclosan against colonization with Proteus mirabilis and other uropathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaonkar, Trupti A; Caraos, Lauserpina; Modak, Shanta

    2007-05-01

    We sought to develop an infection-resistant urinary catheter. We evaluated 3 types of catheters for their efficacy against uropathogens in an in vitro model of the urinary tract. The catheter impregnated with chlorhexidine and triclosan suppressed the growth of uropathogens, including Proteus mirabilis, for 20-30 days or longer.

  5. Effects of Nanosilver-Impregnation and Heat Treatment on Coating Pulloff Adhesion Strength on Solid Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Taghiyari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of impregnation with a silver nano-suspension, as well as of heat-treatment, on pull-off adhesion strengths of the coating system on three commercial solid wood species were studied. The wood species included beech, poplar, and fi r. The size range of silver nanoparticles was 30 – 80 nm. The specimens were coated with an un-pigmented sealer and a clear fi nish on the basis of an organic solvent. The results showed that the highest and the lowest pull-off strengths were found in beech specimens heat-treated at 145 °C (5.7 MPa and in nanosilver-impregnated poplar specimens heat-treated at 185 °C (2.5 MPa, respectively. Impregnation with nanosilver decreased pull-off strength in the case of all species as a result of formation of micro checks in the cell walls caused by the impregnation under high pressure in vessel. Heat-treatment at the temperature lower than 145 °C increased pull-off strength as to the irreversible hydrogen bonding in the course of water movements within the pore system of the cell walls, resulting in extra bonds among cell wall components and higher mechanical properties. However, heat treatment at the temperature higher than 185 °C significantly decreased the strength as the degradation of hemicellulose and cell wall wood components caused signifi cant decrease in mechanical strength and cell wall thinning. High thermal conductivity coefficient of silver intensified the impact of heat-treatment by rapid absorption of heat on the surface of the specimens.

  6. Efficacy of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kristi R; Kapatkin, Amy R; Zwingenberger, Allison L; Christe, Kari L

    2012-08-01

    Here we describe the successful surgical implementation of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with marked osteomyelitis. The macaque presented to the veterinary clinic with grossly contaminated bite wounds in the left ankle secondary to conspecific trauma. Radiographic findings were highly suggestive of osteomyelitis. Additional differential diagnoses included bony infarct, fracture, and cellulitis. In light of the location of the lesion and extensive tissue trauma, the animal had a poor prognosis. Systemic, broad-spectrum antibiotics were instituted. After 2 wk of care, lesions did not respond to empirical therapies. On consultation, a veterinary orthopedic surgeon at another facility recommended placement of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads at the sites of osteomyelitis. The animal underwent minor surgery in which beads were introduced into the wound. The monkey had a positive response to therapy. The animal regained full function and was returned to outdoor social housing. Veterinarians are encouraged to consider using antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads when treating osteomyelitis in other nonhuman primates and in other traditional laboratory animal species.

  7. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y. Alice; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture through a polymeric membrane. The membrane which is utilized to effect the separation comprises a polymer which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds and which has been modified by being subjected to the action of a sulfonating agent. Sulfonating agents which may be employed will include fuming sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfur trioxide, etc., the surface or bulk modified polymer will contain a degree of sulfonation ranging from about 15 to about 50%. The separation process is effected at temperatures ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psig.

  8. Starch-modified magnetite nanoparticles for impregnation into cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soshnikova, Yulia M., E-mail: yuliasoshnikova@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute on Laser and Information Technologies (Russian Federation); Roman, Svetlana G.; Chebotareva, Natalia A. [A.N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry (Russian Federation); Baum, Olga I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute on Laser and Information Technologies (Russian Federation); Obrezkova, Mariya V. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry (Russian Federation); Gillis, Richard B.; Harding, Stephen E. [University of Nottingham, National Centre for Macromolecular Hydrodynamics (United Kingdom); Sobol, Emil N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute on Laser and Information Technologies (Russian Federation); Lunin, Valeriy V. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    The paper presents preparation and characterization of starch-modified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous dispersion after impregnation into healthy and damaged types of cartilage. We show that starch-modified dispersion has a narrower size distribution than a non‐stabilized one. The average hydrodynamic radius of magnetite NPs in a dispersion used for impregnation into cartilage is (48 ± 1) nm with the width of the distribution from 5 to 200 nm. We investigate stability of aqueous magnetite NPs dispersions during storage and with increase in temperature (up to 70 °C). We find that polydisperse magnetite NPs can penetrate into cartilage and the size and concentration of impregnated particles depend on the organization of the tissue structure. The results confirm the possibility of application of magnetite NPs in diagnostics and laser treatment of degenerative cartilage deceases.

  9. Nitric acid vapor removal by activated, impregnated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, G.O.

    1996-12-31

    Laboratory and industrial workers can be exposed to vapors of nitric acid, especially in accidents, such as spills. Nitric acid can also be a product of incineration for energy production or waste (e.g., CW agent) disposal. Activated carbons containing impregnants for enhancing vapor and gas removal have been tested for effectiveness in removing vapors of nitric acid from air. The nitric acid vapor was generated from concentrated acid solutions and detected by trapping in a water bubbler for pH measurements. Both low and moderate relative humidity conditions were used. All carbons were effective at vapor contact times representative of air-purifying respirator use. One surprising observation was the desorption of low levels of ammonia from impregnated carbons. This was apparently due to residual ammonia from the impregnation processes.

  10. Fog-harvesting potential of lubricant-impregnated electrospun nanomats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalia, Boor Singh; Anand, Sushant; Varanasi, Kripa K; Hashaikeh, Raed

    2013-10-22

    Hydrophobic PVDF-HFP nanowebs were fabricated by a facile electrospinning method and proposed for harvesting fog from the atmosphere. A strong adhesive force between the surface and a water droplet has been observed, which resists the water being shed from the surface. The water droplets on the inhomogeneous nanomats showed high contact angle hysteresis. The impregnation of nanomats with lubricants (total quartz oil and Krytox 1506) decreased the contact angle hysteresis and hence improved the roll off of water droplets on the nanomat surface. It was found that water droplets of 5 μL size (diameter = 2.1 mm) and larger roll down on an oil-impregnated surface, held vertically, compared to 38 μL (diameter = 4.2 mm) on a plain nanoweb. The contact angle hysteresis decreased from ~95 to ~23° with the Krytox 1506 impregnation.

  11. Starch-modified magnetite nanoparticles for impregnation into cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soshnikova, Yulia M.; Roman, Svetlana G.; Chebotareva, Natalia A.; Baum, Olga I.; Obrezkova, Mariya V.; Gillis, Richard B.; Harding, Stephen E.; Sobol, Emil N.; Lunin, Valeriy V.

    2013-11-01

    The paper presents preparation and characterization of starch-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous dispersion after impregnation into healthy and damaged types of cartilage. We show that starch-modified dispersion has a narrower size distribution than a non-stabilized one. The average hydrodynamic radius of magnetite NPs in a dispersion used for impregnation into cartilage is (48 ± 1) nm with the width of the distribution from 5 to 200 nm. We investigate stability of aqueous magnetite NPs dispersions during storage and with increase in temperature (up to 70 °C). We find that polydisperse magnetite NPs can penetrate into cartilage and the size and concentration of impregnated particles depend on the organization of the tissue structure. The results confirm the possibility of application of magnetite NPs in diagnostics and laser treatment of degenerative cartilage deceases.

  12. Epoxy resin developments for large superconducting magnets impregnation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, J. M.; Gallet, B.; Kircher, F.; Lottin, J. C.

    The future detectors ATLAS and CMS of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will use two huge superconducting magnets. Both are now under design, and their electrical insulation could be realized using epoxy resin and a wet impregnation technique. Because of their large dimensions, and the indirect cooling of the superconductor, the strengths of the resin and of the resin/conductor interface are of major importance. A new generation of epoxy resins for vacuum/pressure impregnation methods has been tested, and compared with some classical and well-known epoxy resins used in impregnation techniques. In order to understand the mechanical behaviour at 4 K, the complete evolution from liquid state to low temperature service condition is considered. The paper will present some results on the mechanical properties, the density and the chemical shrinkage occurring during the polymerization and the thermal contraction between room temperature and 4 K for these different types of epoxy resins.

  13. Supercritical CO2 impregnation of polyethylene components for medical purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamse Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Modem hip and knee endoprosthesis are produced in titanium and to reduce the friction at the contact area polymer parts, mainly ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE, are installed. The polyethylene is impregnated with a-tocopherol (vitamin E before processing for remarkable decrease of oxidative degradation. Cross linked UHMW-PE offers much higher stability, but a-tocopherol cannot be added before processing, because a-tocopherol hinders the cross linking process accompanied by a heavy degradation of the vitamin. The impregnation of UHMW-PE with a-tocopherol has to be performed after the cross linking process and an accurate concentration has to be achieved over the cross section of the whole material. In the first tests UHMW-PE-cubes were stored in pure a-tocopherol under inert atmosphere at temperatures from 100 to 150 °C resulting in a high mass fraction of a-tocopherol in the edge zones and no constant concentration over the cross section. For better distribution and for regulating the mass fraction of a-tocopherol in the cross linked UHMW-PE material supercritical CO2 impregnation tests were investigated. Again UHMW-PE-cubes were impregnated in an autoclave with a-tocopherol dissolved in supercritical CO2 at different pressures and temperatures with variable impregnation times and vitamin E concentrations. Based on the excellent results of supercritical CO2 impregnation standard hip and knee cups were stabilized nearly homogeneously with varying mass fraction of a-tocopherol.

  14. Raman characteristics of hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Nai; TIAN ZuoJi; LENG YingYing; WANG HuiTong; SONG FuQing; MENG JianHua

    2007-01-01

    The Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon standard samples show that: (1) the Raman spectrogram of normal paraffin has very strong peaks of methyl and methylene (from 2700 cm-1 to 2970 cm-1); (2)branch methyl has the particular peak of 748 cm-1±; (3) six cyclic has the particular peak of 804 cm-1±; (4)phenyl has two particular peaks of 988 cm-1± and 3058 cm-1± and the 988 cm-1± peak is stronger than the 3058 cm-1± peak; and (5) hexene has three alkenyl spectrum peaks of 1294 cm-1±, 1635 cm-1± and 2996 cm-1±, with the 1635 cm-1± peak being the strongest, showing that the number of carbon in hydrocarbon does not affect its Raman spectrogram, and the hydrocarbon molecular structure and base groups affect its Raman spectrogram, the same hydrocarbons (such as normal paraffin) have the same Raman spectrogram; the types (such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8) and the content of hydrocarbon in oil inclusions are not estimated by their characteristic Raman peaks. According to the Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon compositions, the Raman spectrogram of hydrocarbon inclusion can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon Raman spectrogram, fluoresce Raman spectrogram, saturated hydrocarbon bitumen Raman spectrogram, bitumen Raman spectrogram, and ethane Raman spectrogram.And according to the characteristics of Raman spectrogram, hydrocarbon inclusions can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon inclusion, less saturated hydrocarbon (oil or gas) inclusion,saturated hydrocarbon bitumen inclusion, bitumen inclusion, and methane water inclusion.

  15. Raman characteristics of hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon standard samples show that: (1) the Raman spectrogram of normal paraffin has very strong peaks of methyl and methylene (from 2700 cm-1 to 2970 cm-1); (2) branch methyl has the particular peak of 748 cm-1±; (3) six cyclic has the particular peak of 804 cm-1±; (4) phenyl has two particular peaks of 988 cm-1± and 3058 cm-1± and the 988 cm-1± peak is stronger than the 3058 cm-1± peak; and (5) hexene has three alkenyl spectrum peaks of 1294 cm-1±, 1635 cm-1± and 2996 cm-1±, with the 1635 cm-1± peak being the strongest, showing that the number of carbon in hy-drocarbon does not affect its Raman spectrogram, and the hydrocarbon molecular structure and base groups affect its Raman spectrogram, the same hydrocarbons (such as normal paraffin) have the same Raman spectrogram; the types (such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8) and the content of hydrocarbon in oil inclu-sions are not estimated by their characteristic Raman peaks. According to the Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon compositions, the Raman spectrogram of hydrocarbon inclusion can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon Raman spectrogram, fluoresce Raman spectrogram, saturated hydro-carbon bitumen Raman spectrogram, bitumen Raman spectrogram, and ethane Raman spectrogram. And according to the characteristics of Raman spectrogram, hydrocarbon inclusions can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon inclusion, less saturated hydrocarbon (oil or gas) inclusion, saturated hydrocarbon bitumen inclusion, bitumen inclusion, and methane water inclusion.

  16. Optimal regime of jet fuel water impregnation by ultrasonic dispersion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Г. Бережний

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed is the efficiency of existing method and devices of jet fuel water impregnation, their advantages and disadvantages. Proposed is a principal scheme of installation and optimal regime of jet fuel water impregnation by ultrasonic dispersion method

  17. Phosphine sampling and analysis using silver nitrate impregnated filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demange, M; Elcabache, J M; Grzebyk, M; Peltier, A; Proust, N; Thénot, D; Ducom, P; Fritsch, J

    2000-10-01

    In the field of industrial hygiene, besides the necessity of monitoring phosphine with direct reading apparatus to prevent accidents, there is a need for a method of sampling and analysing phosphine to control workers' exposure. The use of filters impregnated with silver nitrate to collect arsine, phosphine and stibine in workplace air has been described in the literature. Having previously chosen this type of filter to collect arsine, we studied its characteristics for phosphine capture. A filter impregnated with sodium carbonate was used both as a prefilter to collect the particles and to trap arsenic trioxide. After dissolving the silver compounds in nitric acid, ICP emission spectrometry was used to carry out the analysis. This article describes the comparative sampling we performed in a microelectronic laboratory and in a fumigation chamber (130 samples) to determine the concentration of AgNO3 impregnation solution to be used, the detection limit of the method and the retention capacity of the impregnated filters. Interference with other gases reacting with silver nitrate was studied and the storage time for sampled filters and analysis solutions was checked. The detection limit of the adopted method is better than 1 microg per filter, and the retention capacity exceeds 300 microg per filter. The problem of how to sample phosphine when H2S, NH3, or HCl is present has been solved, but the problem of sampling phosphine in atmospheres where acetylene evolves remains. Sampled filters and filter solutions are stable for more than three months at ambient temperature.

  18. Improved method facilitates debulking and curing of phenolic impregnated asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, P.

    1966-01-01

    Workpieces covered with phenolic impregnated asbestos tape and then wrapped with a specified thickness of nylon yarn under pressure, are debulked and cured in a standard oven. This method of debulking and curing is used in the fabrication of ablative chambers for the Gemini and Apollo attitude control engines.

  19. Leaching of Silver from Silver-Impregnated Food Storage Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, James F.; Niece, Brian K.

    2011-01-01

    The use of silver in commercial products has proliferated in recent years owing to its antibacterial properties. Food containers impregnated with micro-sized silver promise long food life, but there is some concern because silver can leach out of the plastic and into the stored food. This laboratory experiment gives students the opportunity to…

  20. Impregnation of LSM Based Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Jonathan; Søgaard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Composites cathodes consisting of strontium doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) and yttria stabilized zirconia have been impregnated with the nitrates corresponding to the nominal compositions: La0.75Sr0.25Mn1.05O3 +/-delta (LSM25), Ce0.8Sm0.2O2 (SDC) and a combination of both (dual). The latter perf...

  1. The training in epoxy-impregnated superconducting coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, H.; Bobrov, E.S.; Iwasa, Y.; Takaghi, T.; Tsukamoto, O.

    1985-03-01

    The authors have investigated the training of epoxy-impregnated superconducting coils. It has been observed that the boundary conditions at the coil ends have a crucial effect on shear-stress-induced epoxy cracks in the winding and consequently on the coil training. The results were quantified using acoustic emission data.

  2. Textile impregnation with thermoplastic resin - models and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loendersloot, R.; Grouve, W.J.B.; Lamers, E.A.D.; Wijskamp, S.; Kelly, P.A.; Bickerton, S.; Lescher, P.; Govignon, Q.

    2012-01-01

    One of the key issues of the development of cost-effective thermoplastic composites for the aerospace industry is the process quality control. A complete, void free impregnation of the textile reinforcement by the thermoplastic resin is an important measure of the quality of composites. The introduc

  3. Effects of Polymer Impregnation on Properties of Bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchart PREECHATIWONG

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is targeted to investigate the effects of polymer impregnation on the properties of bamboo. Polymer impregnation can improve adhesion of flattened bamboo and also improve the resistance of polymer-impregnated bamboo to fungi. During the flattening bamboo process, linseed oil was used as a processing aid. Two different kinds of solvents, methanol and ethanol, were used to extract linseed oil. Weights of samples before and after extraction were compared. Ethanol is a better solvent than methanol to extract linseed oil since weight loss is higher. The flattened bamboo samples were adhered together by phenol-formaldehyde (PF adhesive or polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI adhesive. The adhesion test was performed in shear mode. Sample extracted with ethanol and adhered by MDI gave a maximum shear stress of 5.84 MPa while samples extracted with methanol and adhered by PF gave only 2.45 MPa. A higher percentage of wood failure was observed in samples with higher adhesion strength. In durability to fungi, a polymer-wood composite was made by impregnation of methyl methacrylate in the wood under vacuum. The composite showed better resistance to fungi, especially, in nodes. Nodes have a lower densities and less effective packing of fibers than internodes. Therefore monomers can diffuse into node and then polymerize. More polymer loading gives better durability to fungi.

  4. Optimal formulations of some asphalt concrete roadway protective impregnation compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia A. Ubas’kina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current paper describes optimization of the formulations of asphalt concrete roadway protective impregnation compositions based on BND 60/90 bitumen modified with petroleum resin. Physicochemical, technological and operating parameters of the prepared samples of the compositions are investigated.

  5. Adsorption of Toluene and Paraxylene from Aqueous Solution Using Pure and Iron Oxide Impregnated Carbon Nanotubes: Kinetics and Isotherms Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Aamir; Ihsanullah; Al-Baghli, Nadhir A. H.

    2017-01-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and iron oxide impregnated carbon nanotubes (CNTs-iron oxide) were investigated for the adsorption of hazardous toluene and paraxylene (p-xylene) from aqueous solution. Pure CNTs were impregnated with iron oxides nanoparticles using wet impregnation technique. Various characterization techniques including thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, elemental dispersion spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption analysis were used to study the thermal degradation, surface morphology, purity, and surface area of the materials. Batch adsorption experiments show that iron oxide impregnated CNTs have higher degree of removal of p-xylene (i.e., 90%) compared with toluene (i.e., 70%), for soaking time 2 h, with pollutant initial concentration 100 ppm, at pH 6 and shaking speed of 200 rpm at 25°C. Pseudo-second-order model provides better fitting for the toluene and p-xylene adsorption. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models demonstrate good fitting for the adsorption data of toluene and p-xylene. PMID:28386208

  6. Modification of oil palm wood using acetylation and impregnation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subagiyo, Lambang; Rosamah, Enih; Hesim

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is chemical modification by process of acetylation and impregnation of oil palm wood to improve the dimensional stability. Acetylation process aimed at substituting the hydroxyl groups in a timber with an acetyl group. By increasing the acetyl groups in wood is expected to reduce the ability of wood to absorb water vapor which lead to the dimensions of the wood becomes more stable. Studies conducted on oil palm wood (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) by acetylation and impregnation method. The results showed that acetylated and impregnated wood oil palm (E. guineensis Jacq) were changed in their physical properties. Impregnation with coal ashfly provide the greatest response to changes in weight (in wet conditions) and after conditioning (dry) with the average percentage of weight gain of 198.16% and 66.41% respectively. Changes in volume indicates an increase of volume in the wet condition (imbibition) with the coal ashfly treatment gave highest value of 23.04 %, whereas after conditioning (dry) the highest value obtained in the treatment of gum rosin:ethanol with a volume increase of 13:44%. The highest changes of the density with the coal ashfly impregnation in wet condition (imbibition) in value of 142.32% and after conditioning (dry) of 57.87%. The result of reduction in water absorption (RWA) test showed that in the palm oil wood samples most stable by using of gum rosin : ethanol of 0.97%, whereas the increase in oil palm wood dimensional stability (ASE) is the best of 59.42% after acetylation with Acetic Anhydride: Xylene.

  7. Raman study of the formation of beta silicomolybdic acid supported on silica, prepared by impregnation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuc, Nguyen Huu Huy; Ohkita, Hironobu; Mizushima, Takanori; Kakuta, Noriyoshi

    2012-12-01

    Beta silicomolibdic acid/silica (β-SMA, a metastable form of silicomolybdic acid - H4SiMo12O40) forms by the impregnation of fumed silica into molybdenum solution obtained by hydrolyzation of MoO2Cl2. β-SMA/silica is found to be stable up to 300 °C after calcination for 1 h due to the existence of an interlayer MoO3 between silica surface and β-SMA. Structures of molybdenum species in the preparation process (including precursor solution) were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and XRD.

  8. Impact of impregnation pressure on desulfurization performance of Zn-based sorbents supported on semi-coke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianrong Zheng; Weiren Bao; Qingmai Jin; Ruiyuan He; Liping Chang; Kechang Xie

    2012-01-01

    High-pressure impregnation,a new preparation method for sorbents to remove H2S from hot coal gas,is introduced in this paper.Semi-coke (SC) and ZnO is selected as the support and active component of sorbent,respectively.The sorbent preparation process includes high-pressure impregnation,filtration,ovendry and calcination.The aim of this research is to primarily study the effects of the impregnation pressure on physical properties and desulfurization ability of the sorbent.The desulfurization experiment was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at 500 ℃ and a simulated coal gas used in this work was composed of CO (33 vol%),H2 (39 vol%),H2S (300 ppm in volume),and N2 (balance).Experimental results show that the pore structure of the SC support can be improved effectively and ZnO active component can be uniformly dispersed on the support,with the small particle size of 10-500 nm.Sorbents prepared using high-pressure impregnation have better desulfurization capacity and their active components have higher utilization rate.P20-ZnSC sorbent,obtained by high-pressure impregnation at 20 atm,has the best desulfurization ability with a sulfur capacity of 7.54 g S/100g sorbent and a breakthrough time of 44 h.Its desulfurization precision and efficiency of removing H2S from the middle temperature gases can reach < 1 ppm and >99.7%,respectively,before sorbent breakthrough.

  9. Enhancing the adsorption of vapor-phase mercury chloride with an innovative composite sulfur-impregnated activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ie, Iau-Ren; Chen, Wei-Chin; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Hung, Chung-Hsuang; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Tsai, Hsieh-Hung; Jen, Yi-Shiu

    2012-05-30

    Mercury chloride (HgCl(2)) is the major mercury derivate emitted from municipal solid waste incinerators, which has high risk to the environment and human health. This study investigated the adsorption of vapor-phase HgCl(2) with an innovative composite sulfurized activated carbon (AC), which was derived from the pyrolysis, activation, and sulfurization of waste tires. The composite sulfur-impregnation process impregnated activated carbon with aqueous-phase sodium sulfide (Na(2)S) and followed with vapor-phase elemental sulfur (S(0)). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was applied to investigate the adsorptive capacity of vapor-phase HgCl(2) using the composite sulfurized AC. The operating parameters included the types of composite sulfurized AC, the adsorption temperature, and the influent HgCl(2) concentration. Experimental results indicated that the sulfur-impregnation process could increase the sulfur content of the sulfurized AC, but decreased its specific surface area. This study further revealed that the composite sulfurized AC impregnated with aqueous-phase Na(2)S and followed with vapor-phase S(0) (Na(2)S+S(0) AC) had much higher saturated adsorptive capacity of HgCl(2) than AC impregnated in the reverse sequence (S(0)+Na(2)S AC). A maximum saturated adsorptive capacity of HgCl(2) up to 5236 μg-HgCl(2)/g-C was observed for the composite Na(2)S+S(0) AC, which was approximately 2.00 and 3.17 times higher than those for the single Na(2)S and S(0) ACs, respectively.

  10. Research on the melt impregnation of continuous carbon fiber reinforced nylon 66 composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, M. Y.; Li, C. X.; Xue, P.; Chen, K.; Chen, T. H.

    2016-07-01

    Impregnation mold of continuous carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites was designed and built in the article. Based on the theory of fluid mechanics and Darcy's law, a model of the melt impregnation was also established. The influences of fiber bundle width and impregnation pins’ diameter on the impregnation degree were studied by numerical simulation. Continuous carbon fiber reinforced nylon 66 composites were prepared. The effects of coated angle and impregnation mold temperature on the mechanical properties of the composites were also described.The agreement between the experimental data and prediction by the model was found to be satisfactory.

  11. Barium depletion study on impregnated cathodes and lifetime prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roquais, J.M.; Poret, F.; Doze, R. le; Ricaud, J.L.; Monterrin, A.; Steinbrunn, A

    2003-06-15

    In the thermionic cathodes used in cathode ray-tubes (CRTs), barium is the key element for the electronic emission. In the case of the dispenser cathodes made of a porous tungsten pellet impregnated with Ba, Ca aluminates, the evaporation of Ba determines the cathode lifetime with respect to emission performance in the CRT. The Ba evaporation results in progressive depletion of the impregnating material inside the pellet. In the present work, the Ba depletion with time has been extensively characterized over a large range of cathode temperature. Calculations using the depletion data allowed modeling of the depletion as a function of key parameters. The link between measured depletion and emission in tubes has been established, from which an end-of-life criterion was deduced. Taking modeling into account, predicting accelerated life-tests were performed using high-density maximum emission current (MIK)

  12. Effectiveness of Commercially-Available Antibiotic-Impregnated Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    were tested for tuberculosis, brucellosis and Q fever, and were healthy prior to the study. Study design. The goats were randomised into four...impregnated implants in the prevention of bone infection. We used a model of contaminated fracture in goats to evaluate four treatment groups: no...for the care and use of laboratory animals. Twenty-nine castrated male Spanish goats with a mean weight of 48.1 kg ( SD 0.68) were used. All

  13. Kinetic simulating experiment on the secondary hydrocarbon generation of kerogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of generation have been obtained for different hydrocarbon classes, including methane, C2-C5 gas hydrocarbons, C6-C13 light hydrocarbons and C13+ heavy hydrocarbons, and vitrinite reflectance (Ro) by the kinetic simulating experiment of kerogen cracking. Then, combined with the detailed geology of Sichuan Basin, the effective gas-generating intensity of the Lower Cambrian source rock is approximately estimated by applying these parameters.

  14. Cyanate Ester and Phthalonitrile Impregnated Carbon Ablative TPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghozian, Tane; Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Gasch, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic resin has extensive heritage as a TPS (Thermal Protection Systems) material, however, alternative resin systems such as Cyanate Ester and Phthalonitrile may offer improved performance compared to state-of-the-art phenolic resin. These alternative resin systems may have higher char yield, higher char strength, lower thermal conductivity and improved mechanical properties. In current work at NASA Ames alternative resin systems were uniformly infused into fibrous substrates and preliminary properties characterized. The density of the cyanate ester infused in fibrous substrate ranged from 0.25-0.3 grams per cubic centimeter compared to PICA (Phenolic resin impregnated carbon ablative) having a density of approximately 0.25 grams per cubic centimeter. The density of Phthalonitrile varies from 0.22-0.25 grams per cubic centimeter. Initial formulations of these new resin systems were recently tested at the LARC HyMETs (Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System) facility to evaluate their performance and data such as back face temperature, char yield, and recession are compared to PICA. Cyanate Ester and Phthalonitrile impregnated carbon ablative samples showed comparable performance to phenolic resin impregnated carbon ablative samples.

  15. Mercury adsorption properties of sulfur-impregnated adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, N.-C.; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Chen, S.; Chang, R.

    2002-01-01

    Carbonaceous and noncarbonaceous adsorbents were impregnated with elemental sulfur to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of the adsorbents and their equilibrium mercury adsorption capacities. Simulated coal combustion flue gas conditions were used to determine the equilibrium adsorption capacities for Hg0 and HgCl2 gases to better understand how to remove mercury from gas streams generated by coal-fired utility power plants. Sulfur was deposited onto the adsorbents by monolayer surface deposition or volume pore filling. Sulfur impregnation increased the total sulfur content and decreased the total and micropore surface areas and pore volumes for all of the adsorbents tested. Adsorbents with sufficient amounts of active adsorption sites and sufficient microporous structure had mercury adsorption capacities up to 4,509 ??g Hg/g adsorbent. Elemental sulfur, organic sulfur, and sulfate were formed on the adsorbents during sulfur impregnation. Correlations were established with R2>0.92 between the equilibrium Hg0/HgCl2 adsorption capacities and the mass concentrations of elemental and organic sulfur. This result indicates that elemental and organic sulfur are important active adsorption sites for Hg0 and HgCl2.

  16. Unanticipated Effects of Epoxy Impregnating Transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SANCHEZ,ROBERT O.; ARCHER,WENDEL E.

    2000-08-23

    Many Sandia components for military applications are designed for a 20-year life. In order to determine if magnetic components meet that requirement, the parts are subjected to selected destructive tests. This paper reviews the re-design of a power transformer and the tests required to prove-in the re-design. The re-design included replacing the Epon 828/Mica/methylenedianiline (curing agent Z) epoxy encapsulant with a recent Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) developed epoxy encapsulant. The new encapsulant reduces the Environmental Safety and Health (ES and H) hazards. Life testing of this re-designed transformer generated failures; an open secondary winding. An experimental program to determine the cause of the broken wires and an improved design to eliminate the problem was executed. This design weakness was corrected by reverting to the hazardous epoxy system.

  17. A Comprehensive Review of Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation by Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Firouz; Lockington, Robin; Mallavarapu, Megharaj; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-06-01

    Hydrocarbons are relatively recalcitrant compounds and are classified as high-priority pollutants. However, these compounds are slowly degraded by a large variety of microorganisms. Bacteria are able to degrade aliphatic saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons via both aerobic and anaerobic pathways. Branched hydrocarbons and cyclic hydrocarbons are also degraded by bacteria. The aerobic bacteria use different types of oxygenases, including monooxygenase, cytochrome-dependent oxygenase and dioxygenase, to insert one or two atoms of oxygen into their targets. Anaerobic bacteria, on the other hand, employ a variety of simple organic and inorganic molecules, including sulphate, nitrate, carbonate and metals, for hydrocarbon oxidation.

  18. Versatility of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Wang, Weihua; Zhang, Weiwen; Chen, Lei; Lu, Xuefeng

    2017-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms using solar energy, H2O, and CO2 as the primary inputs. Compared to plants and eukaryotic microalgae, cyanobacteria are easier to be genetically engineered and possess higher growth rate. Extensive genomic information and well-established genetic platform make cyanobacteria good candidates to build efficient biosynthetic pathways for biofuels and chemicals by genetic engineering. Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Structural diversity of the hydrocarbon family is enabled by variation in chain length, degree of saturation, and rearrangements of the carbon skeleton. The diversified hydrocarbons can be used as valuable chemicals in the field of food, fuels, pharmaceuticals, nutrition, and cosmetics. Hydrocarbon biosynthesis is ubiquitous in bacteria, yeasts, fungi, plants, and insects. A wide variety of pathways for the hydrocarbon biosynthesis have been identified in recent years. Cyanobacteria may be superior chassis for hydrocabon production in a photosynthetic manner. A diversity of hydrocarbons including ethylene, alkanes, alkenes, and terpenes can be produced by cyanobacteria. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology strategies can be employed to improve hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria. This review mainly summarizes versatility and perspectives of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

  19. Infrared Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Bakes, E. L. O.

    2000-01-01

    We have computed the synthetic infrared spectra of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons containing up to 54 carbon atoms. The species studied include ovalene, circumcoronene, dicoronylene, and hexabenzocoronene. We report spectra for anions, neutrals, cations, and multiply charged cations.

  20. Metal-organic frameworks impregnated with magnesium-decorated fullerenes for methane and hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Aaron W; Nairn, Kate M; Hill, James M; Hill, Anita J; Hill, Matthew R

    2009-08-05

    A new concept is described for methane and hydrogen storage materials involving the incorporation of magnesium-decorated fullerenes within metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The system is modeled using a novel approach underpinned by surface potential energies developed from Lennard-Jones parameters. Impregnation of MOF pores with magnesium-decorated Mg(10)C(60) fullerenes, denoted as Mg-C(60)@MOF, places exposed metal sites with high heats of gas adsorption into intimate contact with large surface area MOF structures. Perhaps surprisingly, given the void space occupied by C(60), this impregnation delivers remarkable gas uptake, according to our modeling, which predicts exceptional performance for the Mg-C(60)@MOF family of materials. These predictions include a volumetric methane uptake of 265 v/v, the highest reported value for any material, which significantly exceeds the U.S. Department of Energy target of 180 v/v. We also predict a very high hydrogen adsorption enthalpy of 11 kJ mol(-1) with relatively little decrease as a function of H(2) filling. This value is close to the calculated optimum value of 15.1 kJ mol(-1) and is achieved concurrently with saturation hydrogen uptake in large amounts at pressures under 10 atm.

  1. Development of Antibiotics Impregnated Nanosized Silver Phosphate-Doped Hydroxyapatite Bone Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waraporn Suvannapruk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanosized Ag3PO4 loaded hydroxyapatite which was prepared by a novel low temperature phosphorization of 3D printed calcium sulfate dihydrate at the nominal silver concentration of 0.001 M and 0.005 M was impregnated by two antibiotics including gentamicin and vancomycin. Phase composition, microstructure, antibiotics loading, silver content, antimicrobial performance, and cytotoxic potential of the prepared samples were characterized. It was found that the fabricated sample consisted of hydroxyapatite as a main phase and spherical-shaped silver phosphate nanoparticles distributing within the cluster of hydroxyapatite crystals. Antibacterial activity of the samples against two bacterial strains (gram negative P. aeruginosa and gram positive S. aureus was carried out. It was found that the combination of antibiotics and nanosized Ag3PO4 in hydroxyapatite could enhance the antibacterial performance of the samples by increasing the duration in which the materials exhibited antibacterial property and the size of the inhibition zone depending on the type of antibiotics and bacterial strains compared to those contained antibiotics or nanosilver phosphate alone. Cytotoxic potential against osteoblasts of antibiotics impregnated nanosilver phosphate hydroxyapatite was found to depend on the combination of antibiotics content, type of antibiotics, and nanosilver phosphate content.

  2. In Vitro Investigation of a Terbinafine Impregnated Subcutaneous Implant for Veterinary Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A terbinafine impregnated subcutaneous implant was evaluated to determine if drug was released into isotonic saline over the course of 6 months at two different temperatures, 37°C and 4°C. These temperatures were chosen to simulate the nonhibernating (37°C and hibernating body (4°C temperatures of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus. Insectivorous bats of North America, including little brown bats, have been devastated by white nose syndrome, a fungal infection caused by Geomyces destructans. No treatments exist for bats infected with G. destructans. Implants were placed into isotonic saline; samples were collected once per week and analyzed with HPLC to determine terbinafine concentrations. The mean amount of terbinafine released weekly across the 28 weeks was approximately 1.7 μg at 4°C and 4.3 μg at 37°C. Although significant differences in the amount released did occur at some time points, these differences were not consistently greater or less at either of the temperatures. This study showed that terbinafine was released from an impregnated implant over the course of 6 months at concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 0.06 μg/mL depending on temperature, which may be appropriate for little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus infected with Geomyces destructans, the etiologic agent of white nose syndrome.

  3. Effect of autohydrolysis on the wettability, absorbility and further alkali impregnation of poplar wood chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ningpan; Liu, Wei; Hou, Qingxi; Wang, Peiyun; Yao, Zhirong

    2016-09-01

    Autohydrolysis with different severity factors was performed on poplar wood chips prior to pulping, and the wettability, absorbility and the following impregnation of NaOH solution for the poplar wood chips were then investigated. The results showed that after autohydrolysis pretreatment the porosity, shrinkage and fiber saturation point (FSP) of the poplar wood chips were increased, while the surface contact angle decreased as the severity factor was increased. The autohydrolyzed chips absorbed more NaOH in impregnation that resulted in a low NaOH concentration in the bulk impregnation liquor (i.e., the impregnation liquor outside wood chips), while the concentration in the entrapped liquor (i.e., the impregnation liquor inside wood chips) was increased. Autohydrolysis substantially improved the effectiveness of alkali impregnation.

  4. Ionic-liquid-impregnated resin for the microwave-assisted solid-liquid extraction of triazine herbicides in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Yu, Cui; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming

    2015-09-01

    Microwave-assisted ionic-liquid-impregnated resin solid-liquid extraction was developed for the extraction of triazine herbicides, including cyanazine, metribuzin, desmetryn, secbumeton, terbumeton, terbuthylazine, dimethametryn, and dipropetryn in honey samples. The ionic-liquid-impregnated resin was prepared by immobilizing 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate in the microspores of resin. The resin was used as the extraction adsorbent. The extraction and enrichment of analytes were performed in a single step. The extraction time can be shortened greatly with the help of microwave. The effects of experimental parameters including type of resin, type of ionic liquid, mass ratio of resin to ionic liquid, extraction time, amount of the impregnated resin, extraction temperature, salt concentration, and desorption conditions on the extraction efficiency, were investigated. A Box-Behnken design was applied to the selection of the experimental parameters. The recoveries were in the range of 80.1 to 103.4% and the relative standard deviations were lower than 6.8%. The present method was applied to the analysis of honey samples.

  5. Improvement of termite resistance, dimensional stability and mechanical properties of pine wood by paraffin impregnation

    OpenAIRE

    Esteves,Bruno; Nunes, Lina; Domingos, Idalina; Pereira, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Paraffin has been used as surface protection of wood throughout the ages but its use for impregnation to improve wood resistance to biodegradation is recent. This study determined the main improvements on wood properties with paraffin impregnation. Healthy Pinus pinaster Ait. wood was impregnated with paraffin at different levels using a hot–cold process. Weight gain, equilibrium moisture content and dimensional stability (ASE) at 35 and 65 % relative humidity, termite durability against Reti...

  6. Fire Resistance of Wood Impregnated with Soluble Alkaline Silicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Giudice

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the fire performance of wood panels (Araucaria angustifolia impregnated with soluble alkaline silicates. Commercial silicates based on sodium and potassium with 2.5/1.0 and 3.0/1.0 silica/alkali molar ratios were selected; solutions and glasses were previously characterized. Experimental panels were tested in a limiting oxygen chamber and in a two-foot tunnel. Results displayed a high fire-retardant efficiency using some soluble silicates.

  7. Differences and commonalities impregnation of dry and wet sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maujuda МUZAFFAROVA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to research new methods of physic-chemical methods of preventing deflation to protect railways and highways from such phenomena as exogenous sand drifts. In particular, first studied the possibility of using binders in sand wet state. Results can significantly extend the scope of the method, and identified with particular impregnation maintaining stability requirements protective cover reduces both the concentration previously recommended binders, and their costs, thereby securing implementation in practice of shifting sands resource-saving technology.

  8. Pressure Venting Tests of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosser, Max L.; Knutson, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    A series of tests was devised to investigate the pressure venting behavior of one of the candidate ablators for the Orion capsule heat shield. Three different specimens of phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA) were instrumented with internal pressure taps and subjected to rapid pressure changes from near vacuum to one atmosphere and simulated Orion ascent pressure histories. The specimens vented rapidly to ambient pressure and sustained no detectable damage during testing. Peak pressure differences through the thickness of a 3-inch-thick specimen were less than 1 psi during a simulated ascent pressure history.

  9. Investigation of Phenol Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using Copper-Impregnated Pumice

    OpenAIRE

    A.R. Rahmani; Gh. Asgari; F. Barjasteh Asgari; E. Hedayati Kamran; F. Alijani

    2011-01-01

    Introduction & Objectives: Recently, treatment of industrial wastewaters has attracted much attention of many governments and also environmental experts. Basically, these wastewaters are polluted due to the different contaminants such as dyes, halogenated hydrocarbons, phenolic compounds etc. Among these pollutants, phenols are widely used in petroleum, petrochemical, coal production and pharmaceutical industries. There are several methods for removing phenol from water including adsorption, ...

  10. Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) Gap Filler for Heat Shield Assemblies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this program, Fiber Materials, Inc. (FMI) will develop practical methods for preparing Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) materials for joining...

  11. Antibacterial Acivity of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles Impregnated With Antimicrobial Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Savi, Geovana Dagostim; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina – UFSC; Trombin, Ana Cláudia; Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense – UNESC; Generoso, Jaqueline da Silva; Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense – UNESC; Barichello, Tatiana; Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense – UNESC; Possato, Jonathann Correa; Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense – UNESC; Ronconi, João Vitor Vieira; Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense – UNESC; Paula, Marcos Marques da Silva; Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense – UNESC

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The bactericidal activity of Ag-NPs and Au-NPs impregnated with ceftriaxone, rifampicin and vancomycin is evalauted. Results: Ag-NPs impregnated with rifampicin, vancomycin and ceftriaxone showed a respective inhibition zone of 15.0 mm, 11.3 mm and 26.0 mm to E.coli. Whereas Au-NPs impregnated with rifampicin and vancomycin showed a non inhibition zone, ceftriaxone showed a zone of 27.0 mm. When Ag-NPs were impregnated with rifampicin, vancomycin and ceftriaxone, they showed a z...

  12. Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) Gap Filler for Heat Shield Assemblies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this program Fiber Materials, Inc. (FMIREG) will develop practical methods for preparing Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) materials for joining...

  13. Insecticide-impregnated bed nets for malaria control: varying experiences from Ecuador, Colombia, and Peru concerning acceptability and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, A; Mancheno, M; Alarcon, J; Pesse, K

    1995-10-01

    Between 1991 and 1994, an intervention program with permethrin- and lambdacyhalothrin-impregnated bed nets was carried out over a period of nine months in each of five endemic, malarious areas of Ecuador, Peru, and Colombia. This program was evaluated through household surveys, blood sampling, in-depth longitudinal studies, and entomologic analysis. Eighty-four communities (including approximately 35,000 individuals) were paired according to malaria incidence, size, and coverage with bed nets and then randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. The results showed that peoples' acceptance of the measure was related to their perception of an immediate protective effect against insects. The effectiveness of the bed nets, measured as a reduction of malaria incidence in intervention communities as against control communities, showed large variations between and within the study areas. The protective efficacy varied between 0% and 70% when looking only at the postintervention differences between intervention and control groups. The average protection was 40.8% when considering a four-month incidence of clinical malaria attacks and 28.3% when considering a two-week malaria incidence. Important factors for the success of the bed net program were insect susceptibility to pyrethroids, high coverage with impregnated bed nets, high malaria incidence, good community participation, high mosquito densities when people go to bed, and a high proportion of Plasmodium falciparum. In one area, where DDT spraying in the control communities was executed, the effectiveness of bed net impregnation was slightly better than that of spraying.

  14. Evaluation of efficacy of impregnated curtains in experimental hen houses as a phlebotomine control tool in northeast Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteca Acosta, M; Santini, M S; Pérez, A A; Salomón, O D

    2017-01-20

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of insecticide-impregnated curtains against the entry of phlebotomine (Diptera: Psychodidae) flies into experimental slatted hen houses in an area endemic for American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). Three treatments in experimental dwellings containing three chickens each were applied using, respectively, an impregnated curtain (IC), a non-impregnated curtain (NIC) and no curtain (NC). A control site without chickens (WC) was included. The study used permethrin at 0.05 g/m(2) . During each month for 1 year, each experimental hen house randomly received all treatments. Phlebotomine sandflies were captured using REDILA BL traps placed inside the hen house. Significant differences in abundances of phlebotomine flies/trap/night were observed between treatments (χ(2)  = 17853.58, d.f. = 3, P house in the IC condition than in the hen house in the NC condition (P house type in northeast Argentina.

  15. TiO2-Impregnated Porous Silica Tube and Its Application for Compact Air- and Water-Purification Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Ochiai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple, convenient, reusable, and inexpensive air- and water-purification unit including a one-end sealed porous amorphous-silica (a-silica tube coated with TiO2 photocatalyst layers has been developed. The porous a-silica layers were formed through outside vapor deposition (OVD. TiO2 photocatalyst layers were formed through impregnation and calcination onto a-silica layers. The resulting porous TiO2-impregnated a-silica tubes were evaluated for air-purification capacity using an acetaldehyde gas decomposition test. The tube (8.5 mm e.d. × 150 mm demonstrated a 93% removal rate for high concentrations (ca. 300 ppm of acetaldehyde gas at a single-pass condition with a 250 mL/min flow rate under UV irradiation. The tube also demonstrated a water purification capacity at a rate 2.0 times higher than a-silica tube without TiO2 impregnation. Therefore, the tubes have a great potential for developing compact and in-line VOC removal and water-purification units.

  16. Oxygenated Derivatives of Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the book entitled “Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry and Chemical Ecology”, this chapter presents a comprehensive review of the occurrence, structure and function of oxygenated derivatives of hydrocarbons. The book chapter focuses on the occurrence, structural identification and functi...

  17. Hydrocarbon Spectral Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 115 Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 91 hydrocarbon molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  18. Zinc impregnated cellulose nanocomposites: Synthesis, characterization and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Attarad; Ambreen, Sidra; Maqbool, Qaisar; Naz, Sania; Shams, Muhammad Fahad; Ahmad, Madiha; Phull, Abdul Rehman; Zia, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    Nanocomposite materials have broad applicability due to synergistic effect of combined components. In present investigation, cellulose isolated from citrus peel waste is used as a supporting material; impregnation of zinc oxide nanoparticles via co-precipitation method. The characterization of nano composite is carried out through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) resulting less than 10 μm cellulose fiber and approx. 50 nm ZnO NPs. Zinc oxide impregnated cellulose (ZnO-Cel) exhibited significant bacterial devastation property when compared to ZnO NPs or Cellulose via disc diffusion and colony forming unit methods. In addition, the ZnO-Cel exhibited significant total antioxidant, and minor DPPH free radical scavenging and total reducing power activities. The nano composite also showed time dependent increase in photocatalytic by effectively degrading methylene blue dye up to 69.5% under sunlight irradiation within 90 min. The results suggest effective utilization of cellulose obtained from citrus waste and synthesis of pharmacologically important nano-composites that can be exploited in wound dressing; defence against microbial attack and healing due to antioxidative property, furthermore can also be used for waste water treatment.

  19. Antibacterial Carbon Nanotubes by Impregnation with Copper Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palza, Humberto; Saldias, Natalia; Arriagada, Paulo; Palma, Patricia; Sanchez, Jorge

    2017-08-01

    The addition of metal-based nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes (CNT) is a relevant method producing multifunctional materials. In this context, CNT were dispersed in an ethanol/water solution containing copper acetate for their impregnation with different copper nanostructures by either a non-thermal or a thermal post-synthesis treatment. Our simple method is based on pure CNT in an air atmosphere without any other reagents. Particles without thermal treatment were present as a well-dispersed layered copper hydroxide acetate nanostructures on CNT, as confirmed by scanning and transmission (TEM) electron microscopies, and showing a characteristic x-ray diffraction peak at 6.6°. On the other hand, by thermal post-synthesis treatment at 300°C, these layered nanostructures became Cu2O nanoparticles of around 20 nm supported on CNT, as confirmed by TEM images and x-ray diffraction peaks. These copper nanostructures present on the CNT surface rendered antibacterial behavior to the resulting hybrid materials against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. These findings present for the first time a simple method for producing antibacterial CNT by direct impregnation of copper nanostructures.

  20. Volatilisation of aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, B.; Christensen, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    The non-steady-state fluxes of aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in the laboratory from the surface of soils contaminated with coal tar Four soil samples from a former gasworks site were used for the experiments. The fluxes were quantified for 11 selected compounds, 4 mono- and 7 polycyclic...... aromatic hydrocarbons, for a period of up to 8 or 16 days. The concentrations of the selected compounds in the soils were between 0.2 and 3,100 mu g/g. The study included the experimental determination of the distribution coefficient of the aromatic hydrocarbons between the sorbed phase and the water under...... saturated conditions. The determined distribution coefficients showed that the aromatic hydrocarbons were more strongly sorbed to the total organic carbon including the coal tar pitch - by a factor of 8 to 25 - than expected for natural organic matter. The fluxes were also estimated using an analytical...

  1. Plant hydrocarbon recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzadzic, P.M.; Price, M.C.; Shih, C.J.; Weil, T.A.

    1982-01-26

    A process for production and recovery of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing whole plants in a form suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon energy sources which process comprises: (A) pulverizing by grinding or chopping hydrocarbon-containing whole plants selected from the group consisting of euphorbiaceae, apocynaceae, asclepiadaceae, compositae, cactaceae and pinaceae families to a suitable particle size, (B) drying and preheating said particles in a reducing atmosphere under positive pressure (C) passing said particles through a thermal conversion zone containing a reducing atmosphere and with a residence time of 1 second to about 30 minutes at a temperature within the range of from about 200* C. To about 1000* C., (D) separately recovering the condensable vapors as liquids and the noncondensable gases in a condition suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon fuels.

  2. Unit costs for house spraying and bednet impregnation with residual insecticides in Colombia: a management tool for the control of vector-borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, A; Ayala, C; Medina Lara, A

    2002-06-01

    A study of unit costs and cost components of two malaria-control strategies (house spraying and bednet impregnation with residual insecticides) was undertaken in 11 malaria-endemic states (departamentos) of Colombia, using data provided by control staff on self-administered questionnaires. The accuracy of the data was verified by personal visits, telephone conversations and complementary information from 10 other states. Allthe financial-cost components of the malaria-control operations carried out in the previous 6 months and the results of the control operations themselves (including the numbers of houses sprayed and numbers of bednets impregnated/day) were recorded. The information was stratified according to whether the target communities were 'near' or 'far away' from an operational base, the far-away communities being those that needed overnight stays by the control staff. The main variables analysed were unit costs/house treated, and annual cost/person protected. The results show that house spraying was generally more expensive for the health services than bednet impregnation. This is particularly the case in 'nearby' communities, where most of those at-risk live. In such communities, spraying one house was 7.2 times more expensive than impregnating one bednet. Even if only those sleeping under an impregnated net were assumed to be protected, the unit costs/person protected in a 'nearby' community were twice as high for house spraying than for bednet impregnation. In 'nearby' communities, where technicians could return to the operational base each evening, insecticides made up 80% of the total spraying costs and 42% of the costs of bednet impregnation. In 'far-away' communities, however, salaries and 'per diems' were the most important cost components, representing, respectively, 23% and 22% of the costs of spraying, and 34% plus 27% of the costs of impregnation. Insecticide wastage and non-use of discounts on insecticide prices (available through the

  3. Production of hydrocarbons by Aspergillus carbonarius ITEM 5010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Malavika; Sørensen, Annette; Ahamed, Aftab; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2015-04-01

    The filamentous fungus, Asperigillus carbonarius, is able to produce a series of hydrocarbons in liquid culture using lignocellulosic biomasses, such as corn stover and switch grass as carbon source. The hydrocarbons produced by the fungus show similarity to jet fuel composition and might have industrial application. The production of hydrocarbons was found to be dependent on type of media used. Therefore, ten different carbon sources (oat meal, wheat bran, glucose, carboxymethyl cellulose, avicel, xylan, corn stover, switch grass, pretreated corn stover, and pretreated switch grass) were tested to identify the maximum number and quantity of hydrocarbons produced. Several hydrocarbons were produced include undecane, dodecane, tetradecane, hexadecane 2,4-dimethylhexane, 4-methylheptane, 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl benzene, o-xylene. Oatmeal was found to be the carbon source resulting in the largest amounts of hydrocarbon products. The production of fungal hydrocarbons, especially from lignocellulosic biomasses, holds a great potential for future biofuel production whenever our knowledge on regulators and pathways increases.

  4. Characterization of impregnated GDC nano structures and their functionality in LSM based cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemensø, Trine; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2012-01-01

    Porous composite cathodes of LSM–YSZ (lanthanum strontium manganite and yttria stabilized zirconia) were impregnated with GDC (gadolinia doped ceria) nano particles. The impregnation process was varied using none or different surfactants (Triton X-45, Triton X-100, P123), and the quantity of impr...

  5. The sampling of hydrogen sulfide in air with impregnated filter paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huygen, C.

    1964-01-01

    A method is proposed for the quantitative collection of hydrogen sulfide in air on impregnated filter paper. An aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide, potassium zincate and glycerol is used as impregnating fluid. The stability of the collected sulfide and the efficiency of collection at different

  6. The edible cocktail: the effect of sugar and alcohol impregnation on the crunchiness of fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholten Elke

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vacuum impregnation is seen as a valuable technique for flavor pairing in the catering industry. One of the applications of this technique is the creation of edible cocktails by impregnating fruits with liquors, leading to an interplay of different flavors. However, the effect of the impregnation of sugar and alcohol into the fruit will affect the texture of the fruit and therefore its crunchiness. Thus, the positive effect of flavor pairing might be inhibited by a negative effect in texture changes. Results This investigation focused on the change in crunchiness as a result of the impregnation of different sugar and alcohol containing solutions. When hypotonic solutions were used, the impregnation resulted in the rupture of the cells, thereby leading to a decrease in crunchiness. When hypertonic solutions were used, the cells shrunk, which also resulted in a decrease in crunchiness. Isotonic solutions resulted in crunchiness comparable to its fresh version. When alcohol was used, the crunchiness decreased at all concentrations investigated. Conclusions Crunchiness of fruit can only be maintained when impregnated with isotonic sugar solutions. When the sugar or alcohol content deviates from that in the fruit, impregnation of these liquids will lead to a decrease in crunchiness. This has consequences for the creation of edible cocktails: for an optimal crunchiness, the sugar content of the impregnation liquid has to be equal to the sugar content of the fruit or vegetable.

  7. Apple snack enriched with L-arginine using vacuum impregnation/ohmic heating technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jorge; Echeverria, Julian; Silva, Andrea; Escudero, Andrea; Petzold, Guillermo; Mella, Karla; Escudero, Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Modern life has created a high demand for functional food, and in this context, emerging technologies such as vacuum impregnation and ohmic heating have been applied to generate functional foods. The aim of this research was to enrich the content of the semi-essential amino acid L-arginine in apple cubes using vacuum impregnation, conventional heating, and ohmic heating. Additionally, combined vacuum impregnation/conventional heating and vacuum impregnation/ohmic heating treatments were evaluated. The above treatments were applied at 30, 40 and 50  ℃ and combined with air-drying at 40 ℃ in order to obtain an apple snack rich in L-arginine. Both the impregnation kinetics of L-arginine and sample color were evaluated. The impregnated samples created using vacuum impregnation/ohmic heating at 50 ℃ presented a high content of L-arginine, an effect attributed primarily to electropermeabilization. Overall, vacuum impregnation/ohmic heating treatment at 50 ℃, followed by drying at 40 ℃, was the best process for obtaining an apple snack rich in L-arginine.

  8. Removal of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide by carbons impregnated with triethylenediamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Chun; Chang, Tsu-Hua; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2007-12-01

    Activated carbon (AC) adsorption has long been considered to be a readily available technology for providing protection against exposure to acutely toxic gases. However, ACs without chemical impregnation have proven to be much less efficient than impregnated ACs in terms of gas removal. The impregnated ACs in current use are usually modified with metalloid impregnation agents (ASC-carbons; copper, chromium, or silver) to simultaneously enhance the chemical and physical properties of the ACs in removing specific poisonous gases. These metalloid agents, however, can cause acute poisoning to both humans and the environment, thereby necessitating the search for organic impregnation agents that present a much lower risk. The aim of the study reported here was to assess AC or ASC-carbon impregnated with triethylenediamine (TEDA) in terms of its adsorption capability for simulated hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) gases. The investigation was undergone in a properly designed laboratory-scale and industrial fume hood evaluation. Using the system reported here, we obtained a significant adsorption: the removal capability for H2S and SO2 was 375 and 229 mg/g-C, respectively. BET measurements, element analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry identified the removal mechanism for TEDA-impregnated AC to be both chemical and physical adsorption. Chemical adsorption and oxidation were the primary means by which TEDA-impregnated ASC-carbons removed the simulated gases.

  9. Impregnation of mesoporous silica for catalyst preparation studied with differential scanning calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggenhuisen, T.M.; van Steenbergen, M.J.; Talsma, H.; de Jongh, P.E.; de Jong, K.P.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous impregnation of mesoporous silica as a first step in catalyst preparation was studied to investigate the distribution of the metal-precursor solution over the support. The degree of pore-filling after impregnation was determined using the freezing point depression of confined liquids. A sepa

  10. Kl-impregnated Oyster Shells as a Solid Catalyst for Soybean Oil Transesterificaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research on inexpensive and green catalysts is needed for economical production of biodiesel. The goal of the research was to test KI-impregnated oyster shell as a solid catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil. Specific objectives were to characterize KI-impregnated oyster shell, determine t...

  11. The sampling of sulfur dioxide in air with impregnated filter paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huygen, C.

    1963-01-01

    A method is suggested for the sampling of sulfur dioxide in air with impregnated filter paper instead of bubblers. The best aqueous impregnating solution contained potassium hydroxide with glycerol or triethanolamine. The possibilities and limitations of the method are discussed. High collection eff

  12. Impregnation of a glass fibre roving with a polypropylene melt in a pin assisted process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaymans, R.J.; Wevers, E.

    1998-01-01

    The impregnation of a glass fibre bundle with a polypropylene (PP) melt is studied with a pin assisted process. A fibre is pulled over a pin, which is positioned in a chamber filled with a melt. The melt is at atmospheric pressure. The impregnation rate is studied as a function of size of the pin,

  13. 21 CFR 529.1003 - Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge... § 529.1003 Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge. (a) Specifications. Each vaginal sponge... ewes during their normal breeding season. (2) Limitations. Using applicator provided, insert...

  14. Lubricant-impregnated surfaces for drag reduction in viscous laminar flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Brian; Khalil, Karim; Varanasi, Kripa; MIT Team

    2013-11-01

    For the first time, we explore the potential of lubricant impregnated surfaces (LIS) in reducing drag. LIS, inspired by the surface of the Nepenthes pitcher plant, have been introduced as a novel way of functionalizing a surface. LIS are characterized by extremely low contact angle hysteresis and have been show to effectively repel various liquids including water, oils, ketchup and blood. Motivated by the slippery nature of such surfaces, we explore the potential of LIS to reduce drag in internal flows. We observe a reduction in drag for LIS surfaces in a viscous laminar drag flow and model the impact of relevant system parameters (lubricant viscosity, working fluid viscosity, solid fraction, depth of texture, etc.).

  15. Selective transformation of syngas into light hydrocarbons in the presence of a composite [Molybdenum/ZnO + Mordenite] catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrault, J.; Avila, Y. (Ecole Superieure d' Ingenieurs, 86 - Poitiers (France))

    1994-01-06

    A catalyst obtained from the impregnation of a molybdenum salt on a zinc oxide used as support is rather selective in the syngas transformation into light alcohols (specially methanol). Moreover a composite catalyst formulated from the above molybdenum system and a dealuminated mordenite can be used for the one step selective conversion of syngas into light hydrocarbons (C[sub 2] - C[sub 4] [approx] 65%) where ethane and ethylene are the major compounds (40-45%). (authors).

  16. Investigation of Performance Envelope for Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Parul; Prabhu, Dinesh; Milos, Frank S.; Stackpoole, Mairead

    2016-01-01

    The present work provides the results of a short exploratory study on the performance of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator, or PICA, at high heat flux and pressure in an arcjet facility at NASA Ames Research Center. The primary objective of the study was to explore the thermal response of PICA at cold-wall heat fluxes well in excess of 1500 W/cm (exp 2). Based on the results of a series of flow simulations, multiple PICA samples were tested at an estimated cold wall heat flux and stagnation pressure of 1800 W/cm (exp 2) and 130 kPa, respectively. All samples survived the test, and no failure was observed either during or after the exposure. The results indicate that PICA has a potential to perform well at environments with significantly higher heat flux and pressure than it has currently been flown.

  17. Development of metal oxide impregnated stilbite thick film ethanol sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahabole, M. P., E-mail: kashinath.bogle@gmail.com; Lakhane, M. A.; Choudhari, A. L.; Khairnar, R. S. [School of Physical Sciences, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded - 431606 (India)

    2016-05-06

    This paper presents the study of the sensing efficiency of Titanium oxide/ Stilbite and Copper oxide /Stilbite composites towards detection of hazardous pollutants like ethanol. Stilbite based composites are prepared by physically mixing zeolite with metal oxides namely TiO{sub 2} and CuO with weight ratios of 25:75, 50:50 and 75:25. The resulting sensor materials are characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy techniques. Composite sensors are fabricated in the form of thick film by using screen printing technique. The effect of metal oxide concentration on various ethanol sensing parameters such as operating temperature, maximum uptake capacity and response/recovery time are investigated. The results indicate that metal oxide impregnated stilbite composites have great potential as low temperature ethanol sensor.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF Pd IMPREGNATION INTO Al-MCM-41 ON THE CHARACTERS AND ACTIVITY FOR BIOGASOLINE PRODUCTION BY CATALYTIC HYDROCRACKING OF FAMEs FROM NYAMPLUNG SEED OIL (Calophyllum Inophyllum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendro Juwono

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogasoline have been synthesized through catalytic hydrocracking reaction against FAMEs compounds (fatty acid methyl esters obtained from the transesterification of Nyamplung seed oil. The performance of Al-MCM-41 and Pd/Al-MCM-41 as the catalytic hydrocracking was compared. In this research, the influence of Pd impregnation into Al-MCM-41 catalyst on the characters and catalytic activity has been evaluated. The characters determined were crystallinity by using X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD, Si/Al ratio by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP, the acidity by pyridine adsorption, the surface area and pore volume by surface area analyzer and the morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Catalytic activity was examined for hydrocracking of free fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs produced from the transesterification of Nyamplung seed oil, by Hydrogen flowing. The research result showed that impregnation of Pd into Al-MCM-41 has been successfully carried out, which did not destroy the structural morphology of the catalyst. It was also discovered that the Pd impregnation could increase Si/Al ratio and the acidity but it leads to decrease in the catalyst surface area and the volume. Furthermore, Pd impregnated Al-MCM-41 showed superior activity compared to Al-MCM-41 for FAMEs hydrocracking. The superiority was indicated by higher effectiveness and yields selectiveness, that were 100% hydrocarbon composed of C9-C18 that was dominated by C12 emerging the gasoline fraction, compared of that by the results used Al-MCM-41 catalyst that were 97% hydrocarbon consisted of C8-C20 with equal abundance.

  19. STUDY ADSORPTION DESORPTION OF MANGANESE(II USING IMPREGNATED CHITIN-CELLULOSE AS ADSORBENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldes Lesbani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract- Study adsorption desorption of manganese(II using impregnated chitin-cellulose as adsorbent has been carried out. Chitin was extracted from snail shell and cellulose isolated from rice straw. Chitin and cellulose were impregnated using thiourea as impregnant agent. Characterization of chitin and cellulose was performed using FTIR spectroscopy, determination of water content, and ash content, while impregnated chitin-cellulose was characterized using FTIR spectrophotometer and X-Ray diffractometer. The adsorption of Mn(II on impregnated chitin-cellulose was studied through determination of adsorption time and the influence of Mn(II concentration, while desorption was carried out sequentially using various reagents. The results shown that chitin and cellulose from extraction processes are has similar FTIR spectrum compared to chitin and cellulose standard. The FTIR spectrum of impregnated chitin-cellulose shows both vibration of chitin and cellulose appeared and indicated successfully impregnate. These results were also equal to XRD pattern analysis. The water and ash contents of chitin are 0.038% and 0.043 while for cellulose are 0.184% and 0.165%, respectively. The adsorption of Mn(II on chitin and cellulose are quite similar kinetically, while adsorption of Mn(II on impregnated chitin-cellulose is higher at the same time with chitin and cellulose. In the low concentration of Mn(II, adsorption phenomena are similar on chitin, cellulose, and impregnated chitin-cellulose. Desorption process of Mn(II on the adsorbents shows sodium etilenediamine tetra acetate able to desorp Mn(II up to 68% higher than other reagents. Keywords: Manganese(II, Chitin, Cellulose, Impregnated Chitin-Cellulose

  20. Biodegradation and bioremediation of hydrocarbons in extreme environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margesin, R; Schinner, F

    2001-09-01

    Many hydrocarbon-contaminated environments are characterized by low or elevated temperatures, acidic or alkaline pH, high salt concentrations, or high pressure, Hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms, adapted to grow and thrive in these environments, play an important role in the biological treatment of polluted extreme habitats. The biodegradation (transformation or mineralization) of a wide range of hydrocarbons, including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated and nitrated compounds, has been shown to occur in various extreme habitats. The biodegradation of many components of petroleum hydrocarbons has been reported in a variety of terrestrial and marine cold ecosystems. Cold-adapted hydrocarbon degraders are also useful for wastewater treatment. The use of thermophiles for biodegradation of hydrocarbons with low water solubility is of interest, as solubility and thus bioavailability, are enhanced at elevated temperatures. Thermophiles, predominantly bacilli, possess a substantial potential for the degradation of environmental pollutants, including all major classes. Indigenous thermophilic hydrocarbon degraders are of special significance for the bioremediation of oil-polluted desert soil. Some studies have investigated composting as a bioremediation process. Hydrocarbon biodegradation in the presence of high salt concentrations is of interest for the bioremediation of oil-polluted salt marshes and industrial wastewaters, contaminated with aromatic hydrocarbons or with chlorinated hydrocarbons. Our knowledge of the biodegradation potential of acidophilic, alkaliphilic, or barophilic microorganisms is limited.

  1. Biodegradation and bioremediation of hydrocarbons in extreme environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margesin, R.; Schinner, F. [Innsbruck Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie

    2001-07-01

    Many hydrocarbon-contaminated environments are characterized by low or elevated temperatures, acidic or alkaline pH, high salt concentrations, or high pressure. Hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms, adapted to grow and thrive in these environments, play an important role in the biological treatment of polluted extreme habitats. The biodegradation (transformation or mineralization) of a wide range of hydrocarbons, including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated and nitrated compounds, has been shown to occur in various extreme habitats. The biodegradation of many components of petroleum hydrocarbons has been reported in a variety of terrestrial and marine cold ecosystems. Cold-adapted hydrocarbon degraders are also useful for wastewater treatment. The use of thermophiles for biodegradation of hydrocarbons with low water solubility is of interest, as solubility and thus bioavailability, are enhanced at elevated temperatures. Thermophiles, predominantly bacilli, possess a substantial potential for the degradation of environmental pollutants, including all major classes. Indigenous thermophilic hydrocarbon degraders are of special significance for the bioremediation of oil-polluted desert soil. Some studies have investigated composting as a bioremediation process. Hydrocarbon biodegradation in the presence of high salt concentrations is of interest for the bioremediation of oil-polluted salt marshes and industrial wastewaters, contaminated with aromatic hydrocarbons or with chlorinated hydrocarbons. Our knowledge of the biodegradation potential of acidophilic, alkaliphilic, or barophilic microorganisms is limited. (orig.)

  2. Antiseptic impregnated endotracheal tubes for the prevention of bacterial colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Fowler, V; Gaonkar, T; Wyer, P C; Modak, S

    2004-06-01

    The effect of endotracheal tubes (ETTs) impregnated with chlorhexidine (CHX) and silver carbonate (antiseptic ETTs) against Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Enterobacter aerogenes [organisms associated with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)], was evaluated in a laboratory airway model. Antiseptic ETTs and control ETTs (unimpregnated) were inserted in culture tubes half-filled with agar media (airway model) previously contaminated at the surface with 10(8) cfu/mL of the selected test organism. After five days of incubation, bacterial colony counts on all ETT segments were determined. Swabs of proximal and distal ends of the agar tract in antiseptic and control models were subcultured. The initial and residual CHX levels, (five days post-implantation in the model) were determined. Cultures of antiseptic ETTs revealed colonization by the tested pathogens ranging from 1-100 cfu/tube, compared with approximately 10(6) cfu/tube for the control ETTs (P < 0.001). Subcultures from proximal and distal ends of the agar tract showed minimal or no growth in the antiseptic ETTs compared with the control ETTs (P < 0.001). The amount of CHX retained in the antiseptic ETTs after five days of implantation was an average of 45% of the initial level. Antiseptic ETTs prevented bacterial colonization in the airway model and also retained significant amounts of the antiseptic. These results indicate that the effectiveness of antiseptic-impregnated ETTs in preventing the growth of bacterial pathogens associated with VAP may vary with different organisms.

  3. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    Although thraustochytrid protists are known to be of widespread occurrence in the sea, their hydrocarbon-degrading abilities have never been investigated. We isolated thraustochytrids from coastal waters and sediments of Goa coast by enriching MPN...

  4. Resin screening for the removal of pyridine-derivatives from waste-water by solvent impregnated resin technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, J.; Schuur, B.; Haan, de A.B.

    2013-01-01

    The selective removal of pyridine derivatives by solvent impregnated resins has been studied. A solvent impregnated resin consists of a macro-porous particle that is impregnated with a solvent. This technology allows the use liquid–liquid extraction in fixed-bed operation, and prevents problems like

  5. Evaluation of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in pure mineral hydrocarbon-based cosmetics and cosmetic raw materials using 1H NMR spectroscopy [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    OpenAIRE

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W.; Gerd Mildau; Anke Krause; Gerhard Marx; Walch, Stephan G.; Andrea Hartwig; Thomas Kuballa

    2017-01-01

    Mineral hydrocarbons consist of two fractions, mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH). MOAH is a potential public health hazard because it may include carcinogenic polycyclic compounds. In the present study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was introduced, in the context of official controls, to measure MOSH and MOAH in raw materials or pure mineral hydrocarbon final products (cosmetics and medicinal products). Quantitative ...

  6. Evaluation of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in pure mineral hydrocarbon-based cosmetics and cosmetic raw materials using 1H NMR spectroscopy [version 2; referees: 3 approved

    OpenAIRE

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W.; Gerd Mildau; Anke Rullmann; Gerhard Marx; Walch, Stephan G.; Andrea Hartwig; Thomas Kuballa

    2017-01-01

    Mineral hydrocarbons consist of two fractions, mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH). MOAH is a potential public health hazard because it may include carcinogenic polycyclic compounds. In the present study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was introduced, in the context of official controls, to measure MOSH and MOAH in raw materials or pure mineral hydrocarbon final products (cosmetics and medicinal products). Quantitative ...

  7. Contribution of cyanobacterial alkane production to the ocean hydrocarbon cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea-Smith, David J; Biller, Steven J; Davey, Matthew P; Cotton, Charles A R; Perez Sepulveda, Blanca M; Turchyn, Alexandra V; Scanlan, David J; Smith, Alison G; Chisholm, Sallie W; Howe, Christopher J

    2015-11-03

    Hydrocarbons are ubiquitous in the ocean, where alkanes such as pentadecane and heptadecane can be found even in waters minimally polluted with crude oil. Populations of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, which are responsible for the turnover of these compounds, are also found throughout marine systems, including in unpolluted waters. These observations suggest the existence of an unknown and widespread source of hydrocarbons in the oceans. Here, we report that strains of the two most abundant marine cyanobacteria, Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, produce and accumulate hydrocarbons, predominantly C15 and C17 alkanes, between 0.022 and 0.368% of dry cell weight. Based on global population sizes and turnover rates, we estimate that these species have the capacity to produce 2-540 pg alkanes per mL per day, which translates into a global ocean yield of ∼ 308-771 million tons of hydrocarbons annually. We also demonstrate that both obligate and facultative marine hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria can consume cyanobacterial alkanes, which likely prevents these hydrocarbons from accumulating in the environment. Our findings implicate cyanobacteria and hydrocarbon degraders as key players in a notable internal hydrocarbon cycle within the upper ocean, where alkanes are continually produced and subsequently consumed within days. Furthermore we show that cyanobacterial alkane production is likely sufficient to sustain populations of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, whose abundances can rapidly expand upon localized release of crude oil from natural seepage and human activities.

  8. Does a kaolin-impregnated hemostatic dressing reduce intraoperative blood loss and blood transfusions in pediatric spinal deformity surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Emily M; Nandyala, Sreeharsha V; Schwend, Richard M

    2014-09-01

    Retrospective case-control study. To evaluate the hemostatic benefits of using a kaolin-impregnated dressing during pediatric spinal deformity correction surgery. Minimizing blood loss and transfusions are clear benefits for patient safety. A technique common in both severe trauma and combat medicine that has not been reported in the spine literature is wound packing with a kaolin-impregnated hemostatic dressing. Estimated blood loss and transfusion amounts were analyzed in a total of 117 retrospectively identified cases. The control group included 65 patients (46 females, 19 males, 12.7±4.5 yr, 10.2±4.8 levels fused) who received standard operative care with gauze packing between June 2007 and March 2010. The treatment group included 52 patients (33 females, 19 males, 13.9±3.2 yr, 10.4±4.3 levels fused) who underwent intraoperative packing with QuikClot Trauma Pads (QCTP, Z-Medica Corporation) for all surgical procedures from July 2010 to August 2011. No other major changes in the use of antifibrinolytics or perioperative, surgical, or anesthesia technique were noted. Statistical differences were analyzed using analysis of covariance in R with P value of less than 0.05. The statistical model included sex, age, weight, scoliosis type, the number of vertebral levels fused, and surgery duration as covariates. The treatment group had 40% less intraoperative estimated blood loss than the control group (974 mL vs. 1620 mL) (Pkaolin-impregnated intraoperative trauma pad seems to be an effective and inexpensive method to reduce intraoperative blood loss and transfusion volume in pediatric spinal deformity surgery. 3.

  9. Experience Using Kaolin-Impregnated Sponge to Minimize Perioperative Bleeding in Norwood Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkawa, Takeshi; Holloway, Jessica; Tang, Xinyu; Gossett, Jeffrey M; Imamura, Michiaki

    2017-07-01

    A kaolin-impregnated hemostatic sponge (QuikClot) is reported to reduce intraoperative blood loss in trauma and noncardiac surgery. The purpose of this study was to assess if this sponge was effective for hemostasis during Norwood operation. We conducted a retrospective review of patients undergoing Norwood operation in infancy between 2011 and 2016 at our institution. Of 31 identified Norwood operations, a kaolin-impregnated sponge was used intraoperatively in 15 (48%) patients. The preoperative profiles and cardiopulmonary bypass status were similar between the operations with or without kaolin-impregnated sponge. The comparison on each operative outcome between operations with or without kaolin-impregnated sponge showed that the intraoperative platelets, cryoprecipitate, and factor VII dosage were significantly less in the operations with kaolin-impregnated sponge (55 mL, 10 mL, 0 µg/kg vs 72 mL, 15 mL, 45 µg/kg; P = .03, .021, .019), as well as the incidence of perioperative bleeding complications (second cardiopulmonary bypass for hemostasis or postoperative mediastinal exploration, 0% vs 31%, P = .043). A logistic regression model showed that the nonuse of kaolin-impregnated sponge and longer aortic cross clamp time were associated with perioperative bleeding complication in univariable model ( P = .02 and .005). Use of kaolin-impregnated hemostatic sponge was associated with reduced blood product use and perioperative bleeding complications in Norwood operation at a single institution.

  10. Preparation of iron-impregnated granular activated carbon for arsenic removal from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qigang; Lin, Wei; Ying, Wei-chi

    2010-12-15

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) was impregnated with iron through a new multi-step procedure using ferrous chloride as the precursor for removing arsenic from drinking water. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis demonstrated that the impregnated iron was distributed evenly on the internal surface of the GAC. Impregnated iron formed nano-size particles, and existed in both crystalline (akaganeite) and amorphous iron forms. Iron-impregnated GACs (Fe-GACs) were treated with sodium hydroxide to stabilize iron in GAC and impregnated iron was found very stable at the common pH range in water treatments. Synthetic arsenate-contaminated drinking water was used in isotherm tests to evaluate arsenic adsorption capacities and iron use efficiencies of Fe-GACs with iron contents ranging from 1.64% to 12.13% (by weight). Nonlinear regression was used to obtain unbiased estimates of Langmuir model parameters. The arsenic adsorption capacity of Fe-GAC increased significantly with impregnated iron up to 4.22% and then decreased with more impregnated iron. Fe-GACs synthesized in this study exhibited higher affinity for arsenate as compared with references in literature and shows great potential for real implementations.

  11. The Insulation Properties of Oil-Impregnated Insulation Paper Reinforced with Nano-TiO2

    OpenAIRE

    Ruijin Liao; Cheng Lv; Lijun Yang; Yiyi Zhang; Weiqiang Wu; Chao Tang

    2013-01-01

    Oil-impregnated insulation paper has been widely used in transformers because of its low cost and desirable physical and electrical properties. However, research to improve the insulation properties of oil-impregnated insulation paper is rarely found. In this paper, nano-TiO2 was used to stick to the surface of cellulose which was used to make insulation paper. After oil-impregnated insulation paper reinforced by nano-TiO2 was prepared, the tensile strength, breakdown strength, and dielectric...

  12. Methods for reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons using electrical discharge

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Methods for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons are provided. The methods can include forming a bubble containing the gaseous hydrocarbon in a liquid. The bubble can be generated to pass in a gap between a pair of electrodes, whereby an electrical discharge is generated in the bubble at the gap between the electrodes. The electrodes can be a metal or metal alloy with a high melting point so they can sustain high voltages of up to about 200 kilovolts. The gaseous hydrocarbon can be combined with an additive gas such as molecular oxygen or carbon dioxide. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce mixtures containing one or more of H2, CO, H2O, CO2, and a lower hydrocarbon such as ethane or ethylene. The reformation of the gaseous hydrocarbon can produce low amounts of CO2 and H2O, e.g. about 15 mol-% or less.

  13. Novel Photocatalytic Reactor Development for Removal of Hydrocarbons from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Adams

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons contamination of the marine environment generated by the offshore oil and gas industry is generated from a number of sources including oil contaminated drill cuttings and produced waters. The removal of hydrocarbons from both these sources is one of the most significant challenges facing this sector as it moves towards zero emissions. The application of a number of techniques which have been used to successfully destroy hydrocarbons in produced water and waste water effluents has previously been reported. This paper reports the application of semiconductor photocatalysis as a final polishing step for the removal of hydrocarbons from two waste effluent sources. Two reactor concepts were considered: a simple flat plate immobilised film unit, and a new rotating drum photocatalytic reactor. Both units proved to be effective in removing residual hydrocarbons from the effluent with the drum reactor reducing the hydrocarbon content by 90% under 10 minutes.

  14. Methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C.; Nelson, Lee O.; Detering, Brent A.

    2009-02-24

    A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

  15. Dry dilute acid pretreatment by co-currently feeding of corn stover feedstock and dilute acid solution without impregnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanqing; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2014-04-01

    Impregnation of lignocellulose materials with dilute acid solution is a routine operation in conventional dilute acid pretreatment. The dry dilute acid pretreatment (DDAP) at high solids content up to 70% is naturally considered to require longer impregnation time. In this study, a co-currently feeding operation of corn stover and dilute sulfuric acid solution without any impregnation was tested for DDAP. The DDAP pretreated corn stover without impregnation is found to be essentially no difference in pretreatment efficiency compared to those with impregnation in the helically agitated reactor. The yield from cellulose to ethanol in SSF again shows no obvious difference between the DDAP pretreated corn stover with and without impregnation. This study suggests that impregnation in DDAP was not necessary under the helical agitation mixing. The results provided a useful way of cost reduction and process simplification in pretreatment.

  16. Occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in wood dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, C K; Schuepfer, P; Boiteux, P, E-mail: chuynh@hospvd.c [Institute for Work and Health, rue du Bugnon 21, CH-1005 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-02-01

    Sino-nasal cancer (SNC) represents approximately 3% of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology (ORL) cancers. Adenocarcinoma SNC is an acknowledged occupational disease affecting certain specialized workers such as joiners and cabinetmakers. The high proportion of woodworkers contracting a SNC, subjected to an estimated risk 50 to 100 times higher than that affecting the general population, has suggested various study paths to possible causes such as tannin in hardwood, formaldehyde in plywood and benzo(a)pyrene produced by wood when overheated by cutting tools. It is acknowledged that tannin does not cause cancer to workers exposed to tea dust. Apart from being an irritant, formaldehyde is also classified as carcinogenic. The path involving carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted by overheated wood is attractive. In this study, we measured the particle size and PAHs content in dust emitted by the processing of wood in an experimental chamber, and in field situation. Quantification of 16 PAHs is carried out by capillary GC-ion trap Mass Spectrometric analysis (GC-MS). The materials tested are rough fir tree, oak, impregnated polyurethane (PU) oak. The wood dust contains carcinogenic PAHs at the level of mug.g{sup -1} or ppm. During sanding operations, the PU varnish-impregnated wood produces 100 times more PAHs in dust than the unfinished wood.

  17. Usefulness of palladium impregnated magnetite nanoparticles for polyphenol determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Navajas, Juan; Aguilar-Caballos, María Paz; Gómez-Hens, Agustina

    2016-07-01

    Palladium impregnated magnetite nanoparticles (Pd-Fe3O4NPs) have been synthesized and used as reusable catalyst for the fluorometric determination of polyphenols in wines. The method is based on the decrease of the indocyanine green fluorescence, which is ascribed to its oxidation by dissolved oxygen in the presence of the nanoparticles, and the inhibition of the fluorescence decrease by polyphenols, which is proportional to the polyphenol concentration. The dynamic range of the calibration graph is 0.1-10.0µM gallic acid, which was chosen as model analyte, and the detection limit is 0.02µM. Precision data, expressed as relative standard deviation, ranged between 3.3% and 5.4%. The method was applied to the analysis of several wine samples, obtaining recovery values in the range of 79.7-102.0%. The results obtained were compared with those obtained using the Folin-Ciocalteu and laccase methods, finding that Pd-Fe3O4NPs provide a better selectivity than the first method and show a catalytic behavior similar to that of laccase.

  18. Enhanced condensation on lubricant-impregnated nanotextured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sushant; Paxson, Adam T; Dhiman, Rajeev; Smith, J David; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2012-11-27

    Nanotextured superhydrophobic surfaces have received significant attention due to their ability to easily shed liquid drops. However, water droplets have been shown to condense within the textures of superhydrophobic surfaces, impale the vapor pockets, and strongly pin to the surface. This results in poor droplet mobility and degrades condensation performance. In this paper, we show that pinning of condensate droplets can be drastically reduced by designing a hierarchical micro-nanoscale texture on a surface and impregnating it with an appropriate lubricant. The choice of lubricant must take into account the surface energies of all phases present. A lubricant will cloak the condensate and inhibit growth if the spreading coefficient is positive. If the lubricant does not fully wet the solid, we show how condensate-solid pinning can be reduced by proper implementation of nanotexture. On such a surface, condensate droplets as small as 100 μm become highly mobile and move continuously at speeds that are several orders of magnitude higher than those on identically textured superhydrophobic surfaces. This remarkable mobility produces a continuous sweeping effect that clears the surface for fresh nucleation and results in enhanced condensation.

  19. Influence of both the composition of impregnation solution and impregnation method on copper(II, chromium(VI and silver(I deposition on activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Slavica

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of a solution for impregnating activated carbon (AC for use in a gas filter was investigated. The solution components were tetraaminocop-per(II complex, chromium(VI, silver(l and carbonate ions. Two methods of impregnation were investigated: ion adsorption from aqueous solution in excess and the incipient wetness method. Copper, chromium and silver con-tents on AC Were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The largest copper contents (4.38 and 5.00 % (w/w for two AC samples were achieved at: c([Cu(NH34]2+ = 1.0 mol/L; M(Cu i M(Cr = 3.75: 1; M(Cu i M(Ag = 62: 1 and M(Cu: M(CO3 = 2: 1, using two fold impregnation by the incipient wetness method with 2.4 mL of solution per 3 g AC. The contents of chromium and silver on the same AC samples Were 1.06 and 0.0098 % for the first and 1.14 and 0.009 % for the second AC. A larger Cr content (1.57 % was achieved from an impregnation solution in excess (c([Cu(NH34]2+ = 1.25 mol/L; M(Cu i M(Cr = 3: 1; without Ag. The largest Ag content (0.17 % was obtained using two fold impregnation by the incipient wetness method (c([Cu(NH34]2+ = 0.8 mol/L; M(Cu: M(Cr = 3.75: 1<; M(Cu i M(Ag ( 80: 1 and M(Cu i M(CO3 = 1 i 1.32. Larger metal contents were obtained using two fold impregnation by the incipient wetness method. Further work is needed on the determination of the influence of carbonate ions both on the solution stability and metal deposition on AC.

  20. Droplet condensation and growth on nanotextured surfaces impregnated with an immiscible liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sushant; Paxson, Adam; Smith, Jonathan; Dhiman, Rajeev; Varanasi, Kripa

    2012-02-01

    For effective dropwise condensation, a surface that sheds droplets easily is desirable due to the enhancement in accompanying heat transfer. Incorporating nano-textures on the surface can enhance the droplet shedding or spreading. We demonstrate that droplet shedding can be further influenced by impregnating the nano-textured surface with a liquid which is immiscible with respect to the droplet. In this study, the dynamics of dropwise condensation on such immiscible liquid impregnated nano-textured surfaces have been investigated in pure quiescent water vapor conditions. Condensation experiments were conducted using an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope by controlling the chamber water vapor pressure and substrate temperature. We show preferential sites for condensation and different modes under which droplets grow, depending upon the surface chemistry, surface texture, and the impregnating liquid properties. Concurrently, we show an evolution of apparent contact angles during the condensation process on the impregnated surfaces.

  1. Characterization and catalytic properties of mesoporous CuO/SBA-16 prepared by different impregnation methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    CuO/SBA-16 catalysts were prepared by two different routes - the conventional impregnation method and the modified impregnation method with pH adjustment.These catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS),N2 physisorption and hydrogen temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR) measurements which reveal that the cubic cagelike (Im3m) pore structure of the parent SBA-16 molecule sieves was well maintained throughout the synthesis.After introduction of Cu,a different CuO dispersion exists on these catalysts.The CuO/SBA-16 prepared by modified impregnation method has a single highly dispersed CuO which is considered as a highly efficient species for hydroxylation of phenol with H2O2.CuO/SBA-16 prepared by the conventional impregnation method shows the presence of bulk CuO species which is undesirable for this reaction.

  2. Conventional wet impregnation versus microwave-assisted synthesis of SnO2/CNT composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motshekga, S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes decorated with SnO2 nanoparticles were prepared by conventional and microwave-assisted wet impregnation. The composites were thoroughly characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, BET-surface area measurement, Scanning...

  3. Impacts of impregnation with boric acid and borax on the red colour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... Depending on wood material types, the red colour tone value was highest in Oriental beech, ... Impregnation of wood materials with chemicals before ..... Infrared studies of wood weathering. Appl. Spectroscopy, 45: 641-647.

  4. Strength and durability of concrete modified by sulfur-based impregnating compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MASSALIMOV Ismail Alexandrovich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine how sulfur-containing compound impregnation influences on concrete compressive strength and the impact resistance of concrete tiles. The results of these studies indicate that impregnation of vibropressed concrete paving tiles and concrete samples of dif-ferent strength classes with aqueous solutions based on calcium polysulfide leads to a significant increase of compressive strength and impact resistance. These data show that the strength of the products can be controlled by varying duration and frequency of the impregnation and by using pre-vacuum method. Impregnation with a solution of calcium polysulfide density of 1,23 g/cm³ can be recommended to increase strength of concrete products that are exposed to intense hydration and mechanical stress.

  5. Oxidative dehydration of glycerol to acrylic acid over vanadium-impregnated zeolite beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana, Carolina F.M.; Guerra, Antonio C.O.; Turci, Cassia C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Ferreira, Glaucio B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Mota, Claudio J.A., E-mail: cmota@iq.ufrj.br [INCT Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    The oxidative dehydration of glycerol to acrylic acid was studied over vanadium-impregnated zeolite Beta. Catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation of ammonium metavanadate over ammonium-exchanged zeolite Beta, followed by air calcination at 823 K. Impregnation reduced the specific surface area, but did not significantly affected the acidity (Bronsted and Lewis) of the zeolites. The catalytic evaluation was carried out in a fixed bed flow reactor using air as the carrier and injecting glycerol by means of a syringe pump. Acrolein was the main product, with acetaldehyde and hydroxy-acetone (acetol) being also formed. Acrylic acid was formed with approximately 25% selectivity at 548 K over the impregnated zeolites. The result can be explained by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) measurements, which indicated a good dispersion of the vanadium inside the pores. (author)

  6. Effects of impregnated metal ions on air/CO2-gasification of woody biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Scott; Li, Hanning; Xu, Chunbao Charles

    2010-12-01

    Several impregnated metal ions (Fe (III), Co (II), Ni (II), and Ru (IV)) and a raw iron ore (natural limonite) were examined as catalysts for gasification of pine sawdust in air/CO(2) at 700 and 800 degrees C. The yields of char and tar both increased with increasing CO(2) content in the feed gas. All the impregnated metal ions, in particular Ni (II), Co (II) and Ru (IV), were very effective for promoting biomass gasification in CO(2), leading to greatly reduced yields of tar and char accompanied by significantly enhanced formation of CO and H(2). At 800 degrees C, the impregnation of Fe (III), Ni (II), Co (II) or Ru (IV) led to almost complete conversion of the solid biomass into gas/liquid products, producing an extremely low char yield (tar yield reduced from 32.1 wt.% without catalyst to 19-27 wt.% with the impregnated metal ions.

  7. A Mathematical Model of Repeated Impregnation of Porous Bodies with Solutions of Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Glebov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes basic methods of impregnating porous bodies with solutions of polymers and their use to manufacture prepregs. It also describes the existing methods of manufacturing multilayer prepregs to produce aerospace coating of the spacecraft "Soyuz". It is shown that these prepregs have to meet high requirements for the content of the polymer, as compared with other composite materials, about 35 - 40% of the mass. Methods used for their manufacturing are long-term and non-controllable. The assumption is made that using the vacuum impregnation technology of a woven material will allow to accelerate the manufacturing process of these prepregs and improve their quality.In reviewing the technical literature have been found works on modeling the processes of impregnation, but they are aimed only at studying the speed of the woven material impregnation by various fluids and determining the time of impregnation. There were no models found to define prepreg parameters during the process of multiple impregnations. The aim of this work is to develop the simple mathematical model, which enables us to predict the polymer content of volatile products in the prepreg after each cycle of multiple impregnation of woven material with a solution of the polymer.To consider the vacuum impregnation method are used the prepregs based on silica and silica-nylon stitch-bonding fabric and bakelite varnish LBS-4 containing 50 - 60% of phenol resin and the solvent with minor impurities of pure phenol and water, as an example. To describe the process of vacuum impregnation of the porous work-piece is developed a mathematical description of the process of filling the porous space of the material with a varnish. It is assumed that the varnish components fill the porous space of the material in the same proportion as they are contained in the varnish.It is shown that a single impregnation cannot ensure the content of phenol resin in the prepreg over 32%, which does

  8. Quantitative Hydrocarbon Surface Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Vonnie M.

    2000-01-01

    The elimination of ozone depleting substances, such as carbon tetrachloride, has resulted in the use of new analytical techniques for cleanliness verification and contamination sampling. The last remaining application at Rocketdyne which required a replacement technique was the quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons by infrared spectrometry. This application, which previously utilized carbon tetrachloride, was successfully modified using the SOC-400, a compact portable FTIR manufactured by Surface Optics Corporation. This instrument can quantitatively measure and identify hydrocarbons from solvent flush of hardware as well as directly analyze the surface of metallic components without the use of ozone depleting chemicals. Several sampling accessories are utilized to perform analysis for various applications.

  9. Miscellaneous hydrocarbon solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat; DeWitt, Christopher

    2004-08-01

    The solvents discussed in this article are common solvents not categorized as halogenated, aromatic, or botanical. The solvents discussed are categorized into two groups: hydrocarbon mixtures and single agents. The hydrocarbon mixtures discussed are Stoddard solvent, naphtha, and kerosene. The remaining solvents described are n-hexane, methyl n-butyl ketone, dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and butyl mercaptans. Effects common to this group of agents and their unique effects are characterized. Treatment of exposures and toxic effects of these solvents is described, and physiochemical properties and occupational exposure levels are listed.

  10. Promotion Effect of Lantanum ions on Co/SiO2 Catalysts Prepared via Solvated Metal Atom Impregnation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴世华; 张守民; 黄维平; 李保庆; 石娟

    2004-01-01

    In order to assess the promotional effects of La3+ on CO hydrogenation of Co/SiO2 catalyst, solvated metal atom impregnation (SMAI) method was used to prepare unpromoted 10% (mass fraction) Co/SiO2 and a series of La3+-promoted 10% (mass fraction) Co/SiO2 catalyst with different La/Co atomic ratios (0.1, 0.3, 0.5). X-ray diffraction (XRD), and CO chemisorption measurements show that the cobalt particle size decreases as the La/Co ratios increase. X-ray photoelectron spectrescopy indicates that cobalt is in zero-valent state for all the samples. Catalytic test shows that the catalytic activity of La3+-promoted Co/SiO2 in CO hydrogenation is higher than that of unpromoted Co/SiO2, and enhances with the La/Co ratios increase. La3+ promotion also causes the enhanced selectivity of Co/SiO2 catalyst for higher hydrocarbon products.

  11. Micromorphological Aspects of Forensic Geopedology II: Ultramicroscopic vs Microscopic Characterization of Phosphatic Impregnations on Soil Particles in Experimental Burials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ern, S. I. E.; Trombino, L.; Cattaneo, C.

    2012-04-01

    Grows up the importance of the role played by soil scientists in the modern forensic sciences, in particular when buried human remains strongly decomposed or skeletonized are found in different environment situations. Among the different techniques normally used in geopedology, it is usefull to apply in such forensic cases, soil micromorphology (including optical microscopy and ultramicroscopy) that has been underused up today, for various kind of reasons. An interdisciplinary Italian-team, formed by earth scientists and legal medicine, is working on several sets of experimental burial of pigs and piglets in different soil types and for different times of burial, in order to get new evidences on environmental behaviour related to the burial, focalising on geopedological and micropedological aspects. The present work is focused on: - ultramicroscopic (SEM-EDS) characterization of the phosphatic impregnation (by body fluids) on soils sampled under the dead bodies of five couples of pigs, buried respectively for one month, six month, one year, two years and two years and half in two different areas; - microscopic (petrographic microscope) and ultramicroscopic (SEM-EDS) cross characterization of the phosphatic impregnation (by body fluids) on soils sampled under the dead bodies of several piglets, buried for twenty months. The first results show trends of persistency of such phosphatic features, mainly related to the grain size of the impregnated soil particles and weather conditions (or seasons) of exhumation, while apparently time since burial is only marginally effective for the investigated burial period. Further experiments are in progress in order to clarify the pathways of phosphorus precipitation and leaching for longer times of burial and different seasons of exhumation, both from the microscopic and the pedological/chemical point of view.

  12. Efficient removal of cesium from low-level radioactive liquid waste using natural and impregnated zeolite minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borai, E.H., E-mail: emadborai@yahoo.com [Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo 13759 (Egypt); Harjula, R.; Malinen, Leena; Paajanen, Airi [Chemistry Department, Laboratory of Radiochemistry, Helsinki University (Finland)

    2009-12-15

    The objective of the proposed work was focused to provide promising solid-phase materials that combine relatively inexpensive and high removal capacity of some radionuclides from low-level radioactive liquid waste (LLRLW). Four various zeolite minerals including natural clinoptilolite (NaNCl), natural chabazite (NaNCh), natural mordenite (NaNM) and synthetic mordenite (NaSM) were investigated. The effective key parameters on the sorption behavior of cesium (Cs-134) were investigated using batch equilibrium technique with respect to the waste solution pH, contacting time, potassium ion concentration, waste solution volume/sorbent weight ratio and Cs ion concentration. The obtained results revealed that natural chabazite (NaNCh) has the higher distribution coefficients and capacity towards Cs ion rather than the other investigated zeolite materials. Furthermore, novel impregnated zeolite material (ISM) was prepared by loading Calix [4] arene bis(-2,3 naphtho-crown-6) onto synthetic mordenite to combine the high removal uptake of the mordenite with the high selectivity of Calix [4] arene towards Cs radionuclide. Comparing the obtained results for both NaSM and the impregnated synthetic mordenite (ISM-25), it could be observed that the impregnation process leads to high improvement in the distribution coefficients of Cs{sup +} ion (from 0.52 to 27.63 L/g). The final objective in all cases was aimed at determining feasible and economically reliable solution to the management of LLRLW specifically for the problems related to the low decontamination factor and the effective recovery of monovalent cesium ion.

  13. Efficient removal of cesium from low-level radioactive liquid waste using natural and impregnated zeolite minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borai, E H; Harjula, R; Malinen, Leena; Paajanen, Airi

    2009-12-15

    The objective of the proposed work was focused to provide promising solid-phase materials that combine relatively inexpensive and high removal capacity of some radionuclides from low-level radioactive liquid waste (LLRLW). Four various zeolite minerals including natural clinoptilolite (NaNCl), natural chabazite (NaNCh), natural mordenite (NaNM) and synthetic mordenite (NaSM) were investigated. The effective key parameters on the sorption behavior of cesium (Cs-134) were investigated using batch equilibrium technique with respect to the waste solution pH, contacting time, potassium ion concentration, waste solution volume/sorbent weight ratio and Cs ion concentration. The obtained results revealed that natural chabazite (NaNCh) has the higher distribution coefficients and capacity towards Cs ion rather than the other investigated zeolite materials. Furthermore, novel impregnated zeolite material (ISM) was prepared by loading Calix [4] arene bis(-2,3 naphtho-crown-6) onto synthetic mordenite to combine the high removal uptake of the mordenite with the high selectivity of Calix [4] arene towards Cs radionuclide. Comparing the obtained results for both NaSM and the impregnated synthetic mordenite (ISM-25), it could be observed that the impregnation process leads to high improvement in the distribution coefficients of Cs+ ion (from 0.52 to 27.63 L/g). The final objective in all cases was aimed at determining feasible and economically reliable solution to the management of LLRLW specifically for the problems related to the low decontamination factor and the effective recovery of monovalent cesium ion.

  14. Ketoprofen-eluting biodegradable ureteral stents by CO2 impregnation: In vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Alexandre A; Oliveira, Carlos; Reis, Rui L; Lima, Estevão; Duarte, Ana Rita C

    2015-11-30

    Ureteral stents are indispensable tools in urologic practice. The main complications associated with ureteral stents are dislocation, infection, pain and encrustation. Biodegradable ureteral stents are one of the most attractive designs with the potential to eliminate several complications associated with the stenting procedure. In this work we hypothesize the impregnation of ketoprofen, by CO2-impregnation in a patented biodegradable ureteral stent previously developed in our group. The biodegradable ureteral stents with each formulation: alginate-based, gellan gum-based were impregnated with ketoprofen and the impregnation conditions tested were 100 bar, 2 h and three different temperatures (35 °C, 40 °C and 50 °C). The impregnation was confirmed by FTIR and DSC demonstrated the amorphization of the drug upon impregnation. The in vitro elution profile in artificial urine solution (AUS) during degradation of a biodegradable ureteral stent loaded with ketoprofen was evaluated. According to the kinetics results these systems have shown to be very promising for the release ketoprofen in the first 72 h, which is the necessary time for anti-inflammatory delivery after the surgical procedure. The in vitro release studied revealed an influence of the temperature on the impregnation yield, with a higher impregnation yield at 40 °C. Higher yields were also obtained for gellan gum-based stents. The non-cytotoxicity characteristic of the developed ketoprofen-eluting biodegradable ureteral stents was evaluated in L929 cell line by MTS assay which demonstrated the feasibility of this product as a medical device.

  15. Strength and durability of concrete modified by sulfur-based impregnating compounds

    OpenAIRE

    MASSALIMOV Ismail Alexandrovich; YANAKHMETOV Marat Rafisovich; CHUYKIN Alexander Eugenyevich

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research was to determine how sulfur-containing compound impregnation influences on concrete compressive strength and the impact resistance of concrete tiles. The results of these studies indicate that impregnation of vibropressed concrete paving tiles and concrete samples of dif-ferent strength classes with aqueous solutions based on calcium polysulfide leads to a significant increase of compressive strength and impact resistance. These data show that the strength of the pr...

  16. Impregnated Metal-Organic Frameworks for the Removal of Toxic Industrial Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Isotherm Log Plot All samples exhibit Type I isotherms initially; however, there is hysteresis present in most of the isotherms at higher relative...nitrogen adsorbed in the micropore region (less than 20 A or 2 nm) or the mesopore region (20-500 A or 2-50 nm). Only for pores greater than 50 nm does...TEDA-impregnated sample has a wide range of micropores, mesopores and macropores, likely because the TEDA impregnation did not collapse the structure

  17. Hydrocarbon geochemistry of the Puget Sound region. II. Sedimentary diterpenoid, steroid and triterpenoid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrick, R.C.; Hedges, J.I.

    1981-03-01

    Cyclic components of the aliphatic hydrocarbon mixtures extracted from Puget Sound sediment cores include a suite of C/sub 19/ and C/sub 20/ diterpenoid hydrocarbons of which fichtelite, sandaracopimaradiene, and isopimaradiene have been identified. Although apparently also derived from vascular plants, these diterpenoid hydrocarbons have relative abundances distinctly different from the co-existing plant wax n-alkane suite. Five C/sub 27/, C/sub 28/ and C/sub 29/ diasteranes and four C/sub 29/, C/sub 30/ and C/sub 31/ 17..cap alpha..(H), 21..beta..(H) hopanes occur in relatively constant proportion as components of a highly weathered fossil hydrocarbon assemblage. These chromatographically resolved cycloalkanes, along with the strongly covarying unresolved complex mixture, have been introduced to Puget Sound sediments from adjacent urban centres at increasing levels over the last 100 yr in the absence of any major oil spill. Naturally-occurring triterpenoid hydrocarbons, including hop-22(29)-ene (diploptene), are also present. A new group of C/sub 30/ polyenes has been detected which contains compounds apparently structurally related to a co-existing bicyclic C/sub 25/ diene and to C/sub 20/ and C/sub 25/ acyclic multibranched hydrocarbons described in a previous paper (Barrick et al., 1980).

  18. Hydrocarbon geochemistry of the Puget Sound region - II. Sedimentary diterpenoid, steroid and triterpenoid hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, Robert C.; Hedges, John I.

    1981-03-01

    Cyclic components of the 'aliphatic' hydrocarbon mixtures extracted from Puget Sound sediment cores include a suite of C 19 and C 20 diterpenoid hydrocarbons of which fichtelite. sandaracopimaradiene, and isopimaradiene have been identified. Although apparently also derived from vascular plants, these diterpenoid hydrocarbons have relative abundances distinctly different from the co-existing plant wax n-alkane suite. Five C 27, C 28 and C 29 diasteranes and four C 29, C 30 and C 31 17α(H), 21β(H) hopanes occur in relatively constant proportion as components of a highly weathered fossil hydrocarbon assemblage. These chromatographically resolved cycloalkanes. along with the strongly covarying unresolved complex mixture, have been introduced to Puget Sound sediments from adjacent urban centres at increasing levels over the last 100 yr in the absence of any major oil spill. Naturally-occurring triterpenoid hydrocarbons, including hop-22(29)-ene (diploptene), are also present. A new group of C 30 polyenes has been detected which contains compounds apparently structurally related to a co-existing bicyclic C 25 diene and to C 20 and C 25 acyclic multibranched hydrocarbons described in a previous paper ( BARRICK et al., 1980).

  19. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons: catabolic genes, microbial communities, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Sebastián; Méndez, Valentina; Aguila, Patricia; Seeger, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Bioremediation is an environmental sustainable and cost-effective technology for the cleanup of hydrocarbon-polluted soils and coasts. In spite of that longer times are usually required compared with physicochemical strategies, complete degradation of the pollutant can be achieved, and no further confinement of polluted matrix is needed. Microbial aerobic degradation is achieved by the incorporation of molecular oxygen into the inert hydrocarbon molecule and funneling intermediates into central catabolic pathways. Several families of alkane monooxygenases and ring hydroxylating dioxygenases are distributed mainly among Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Fungi strains. Catabolic routes, regulatory networks, and tolerance/resistance mechanisms have been characterized in model hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria to understand and optimize their metabolic capabilities, providing the basis to enhance microbial fitness in order to improve hydrocarbon removal. However, microbial communities taken as a whole play a key role in hydrocarbon pollution events. Microbial community dynamics during biodegradation is crucial for understanding how they respond and adapt to pollution and remediation. Several strategies have been applied worldwide for the recovery of sites contaminated with persistent organic pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum derivatives. Common strategies include controlling environmental variables (e.g., oxygen availability, hydrocarbon solubility, nutrient balance) and managing hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms, in order to overcome the rate-limiting factors that slow down hydrocarbon biodegradation.

  20. Catalysts for converting syngas into liquid hydrocarbons and methods thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Yan, Qiangu; Batchelor, William

    2016-03-15

    The presently-disclosed subject matter includes methods for producing liquid hydrocarbons from syngas. In some embodiments the syngas is obtained from biomass and/or comprises a relatively high amount of nitrogen and/or carbon dioxide. In some embodiments the present methods can convert syngas into liquid hydrocarbons through a one-stage process. Also provided are catalysts for producing liquid hydrocarbons from syngas, wherein the catalysts include a base material, a transition metal, and a promoter. In some embodiments the base material includes a zeolite-iron material or a cobalt-molybdenum carbide material. In still further embodiments the promoter can include an alkali metal.

  1. Effects of impregnation methods and drying conditions on quinoline hydrodenitrogenation over Ni-W based catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Fang; Qiu, Zegang; Zhao, Liangfu; Xiang, Hongwei [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Guo, Shaoqing [Taiyuan University of Science and Technology (China)

    2014-04-15

    The effects of impregnation methods (co-impregnation and sequential impregnation) and drying conditions (air and vacuum) on the structure and catalytic behavior of MCM-41 supported Ni-W catalysts were investigated. The catalysts were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), diffuse reflectance UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy (DRS), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and pyridine adsorbed infrared spectroscopy (Py-IR) techniques. They were tested for hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) of quinoline at temperatures of 300-400 deg C. The HDN results showed that the catalysts prepared by co-impregnation were more active than the catalysts prepared by sequential impregnation and the catalysts prepared by drying under vacuum were more active than the catalysts dried in air. Characterization revealed that the co-impregnation method and drying under vacuum promoted the dispersion of W, the formation of the active phases, and the formation of acidic sites on the catalysts. (author)

  2. The Insulation Properties of Oil-Impregnated Insulation Paper Reinforced with Nano-TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijin Liao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil-impregnated insulation paper has been widely used in transformers because of its low cost and desirable physical and electrical properties. However, research to improve the insulation properties of oil-impregnated insulation paper is rarely found. In this paper, nano-TiO2 was used to stick to the surface of cellulose which was used to make insulation paper. After oil-impregnated insulation paper reinforced by nano-TiO2 was prepared, the tensile strength, breakdown strength, and dielectric properties of the oil-impregnated insulation paper were investigated to determine whether the modified paper had a better insulation performance. The results show that there were no major changes in tensile strength, and the value of the breakdown strength was greatly improved from 51.13 kV/mm to 61.78 kV/mm. Also, the values of the relative dielectric constant, the dielectric loss, and conductivity declined. The discussion reveals that nano-TiO2 plays a major role in the phenomenon. Because of the existence of nano-TiO2, the contact interface of cellulose and oil was changed, and a large number of shallow traps were produced. These shallow traps changed the insulation properties of oil-impregnated insulation paper. The results show that the proposed solution offers a new method to improve the properties of oil-impregnated insulation paper.

  3. Thermal and mechanical properties of advanced impregnation materials for HTS cables and coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrets, N.; Otten, S.; Weiss, K.-P.; Kario, A.; Goldacker, W.

    2015-12-01

    In the growing field of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) applications, finding an appropriate impregnation material for cables and coils remains a challenging task. In HTS cables and coils, tapes have to be able to withstand mechanical loads during operation. Impregnation is playing a role as mechanical stabilization. However, material properties usually change significantly when going to low temperatures which can decrease performance of superconducting devices. For example, a large mismatch in thermal expansion between a conductor and impregnation material at low temperatures can lead to delamination and to degradation of the critical current. Impregnation materials can insulate tapes thermally which can lead to damage of the superconducting device in case of quench. Thus, thermal conductivity is an important property which is responsible for the temperature distribution in a superconducting cable or in a coil. Due to Lorentz forces acting on structural materials in a superconducting device, the mechanical properties of these materials should be investigated at operating temperatures of this device. Therefore, it is important to identify an advanced impregnation material meeting all specific requirements. In this paper, thermal and mechanical properties of impregnation material candidates with added fillers are presented in a temperature range from 300 K to 4 K.

  4. Effect of Impregnation Sequence on Propane Dehydrogenation Performance of PtSnNa/ZSM-5 Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hui; Zhou Yuming; Zhang Yiwei; Sheng Xiaoli; Zhang Zewu; Zhou Shijiang

    2013-01-01

    The effects of the sequence for impregnation of metal precursors on the performance of PtSnNa/ZSM-5 catalyst for propane dehydrogenation to propene were studied in this paper. Some methods such as XRD, TPDA,BET, H2-TPR, XPS, ICP, TEM and hydrogen chemisorption were used to characterize the catalysts. The structure of ZSM-5 zeolite was not destroyed by the introduction of metal components. Meanwhile the different impregnation sequence of metal precursors could affect the behavior of Sn4+ species entering the ZSM-5 channel, and the interaction between platinum and tin species, as well as the degree for reduction of Pt and Sn components. As a result, the prepared catalysts exhibited different reac-tion activity and selectivity. Compared with the co-impregnation treated catalyst, the catalysts prepared by the sequential impregnation method showed better catalytic activity in propane dehydrogenation, especially the one prepared through im-pregnation with tin precursor at ifrst. Finally, a model for the effect of impregnation sequence on the distribution of Pt and Sn species in PtSnNa/ZSM-5 catalyst was proposed.

  5. Effect of Soil Contact on the Modulus of Elasticity of Beeswax-Impregnated Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Németh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to use beeswax impregnation as a wood preservative method and to evaluate its suitability to protect wood species with low resistance to decay. Poplar (Populus × euramericana cv. Pannonia and beech (Fagus sylvatica samples were impregnated with beeswax and exposed to soil contact for 18 months. Impregnated samples were separated into three groups, on the basis of their degrees of pore saturation (DPS. With progressing decay, the load-bearing capacity and modulus of elasticity (MOE of the woods decreased. After one month of soil contact, there was a marked decrease in MOE, which is explained by the increase in the moisture content of the wood. After 18 months, control samples were completely decayed. Nevertheless, impregnated samples showed less decay and a noticeable remaining load-bearing capacity. Impregnation efficiency had a pronounced effect on decay resistance. In both investigated species, samples with higher DPS resulted in less of a decrease in MOE than in samples with lower DPS. Although beeswax is a bio-based material, it showed noticeable decay resistance effects against soft rot. Scanning electron microscopy investigations showed that the impregnation has a barrier effect, mostly in the longitudinal direction, against the spread of the fungi.

  6. Preparation of functionalized and metal-impregnated activated carbon by a single-step activation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastgheib, Seyed A.; Ren, Jianli; Rostam-Abadi, Massoud; Chang, Ramsay

    2014-01-01

    A rapid method to prepare functionalized and metal-impregnated activated carbon from coal is described in this paper. A mixture of ferric chloride and a sub-bituminous coal was used to demonstrate simultaneous coal activation, chlorine functionalization, and iron/iron oxides impregnation in the resulting porous carbon products. The FeCl3 concentration in the mixture, the method to prepare the FeCl3-coal mixture (solid mixing or liquid impregnation), and activation atmosphere and temperature impacted the surface area and porosity development, Cl functionalization, and iron species impregnation and dispersion in the carbon products. Samples activated in nitrogen or a simulated flue gas at 600 or 1000 °C for 1-2 min had surface areas up to ∼800 m2/g, bulk iron contents up to 18 wt%, and surface chlorine contents up to 27 wt%. Potential catalytic and adsorption application of the carbon materials was explored in catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of phenol and adsorption of ionic mercury from aqueous solutions. Results indicated that impregnated activated carbons outperformed their non-impregnated counterparts in both the CWAO and adsorption tests.

  7. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  8. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Holly; Milanovich, Fred P.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.; Miller, Fred S.

    1987-01-01

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons.

  9. Preliminary Geospatial Analysis of Arctic Ocean Hydrocarbon Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Sullivan, E. C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bradley, Donald J.

    2008-10-01

    Ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean is predicted to become thinner and to cover less area with time. The combination of more ice-free waters for exploration and navigation, along with increasing demand for hydrocarbons and improvements in technologies for the discovery and exploitation of new hydrocarbon resources have focused attention on the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Basin and its margins. The purpose of this document is to 1) summarize results of a review of published hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic, including both conventional oil and gas and methane hydrates and 2) develop a set of digital maps of the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Ocean. These maps can be combined with predictions of ice-free areas to enable estimates of the likely regions and sequence of hydrocarbon production development in the Arctic. In this report, conventional oil and gas resources are explicitly linked with potential gas hydrate resources. This has not been attempted previously and is particularly powerful as the likelihood of gas production from marine gas hydrates increases. Available or planned infrastructure, such as pipelines, combined with the geospatial distribution of hydrocarbons is a very strong determinant of the temporal-spatial development of Arctic hydrocarbon resources. Significant unknowns decrease the certainty of predictions for development of hydrocarbon resources. These include: 1) Areas in the Russian Arctic that are poorly mapped, 2) Disputed ownership: primarily the Lomonosov Ridge, 3) Lack of detailed information on gas hydrate distribution, and 4) Technical risk associated with the ability to extract methane gas from gas hydrates. Logistics may control areas of exploration more than hydrocarbon potential. Accessibility, established ownership, and leasing of exploration blocks may trump quality of source rock, reservoir, and size of target. With this in mind, the main areas that are likely to be explored first are the Bering Strait and Chukchi

  10. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the upgrading of biomass derived synthesis gas (‘syngas’) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and risk adverse conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas to hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  11. Mantle hydrocarbons: abiotic or biotic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisaki, R; Mimura, K

    1994-06-01

    Analyses of 227 rocks from fifty localities throughout the world showed that mantle derived rocks such as tectonized peridotites in ophiolite sequences (tectonites) arid peridotite xenoliths in alkali basalts contain heavier hydrocarbons (n-alkanes), whereas igneous rocks produced by magmas such as gabbro arid granite lack them. The occurrence of hydrocarbons indicates that they were not derived either from laboratory contamination or from held contamination; these compounds found in the mantle-derived rocks are called here "mantle hydrocarbons." The existence of hydrocarbons correlates with petrogenesis. For example, peridotite cumulates produced by magmatic differentiation lack hydrocarbons whereas peridotite xenoliths derived from the mantle contain them. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric records of the mantle hydrocarbons resemble those of aliphatics in meteorites and in petroleum. Features of the hydrocarbons are that (a) the mantle hydrocarbons reside mainly along grain boundaries and in fluid inclusions of minerals; (b) heavier isoprenoids such as pristane and phytane are present; and (c) delta 13C of the mantle hydrocarbons is uniform (about -27%). Possible origins for the mantle hydrocarbons are as follows. (1) They were in organically synthesized by Fischer-Tropsch type reaction in the mantle. (2) They were delivered by meteorites and comets to the early Earth. (3) They were recycled by subduction. The mantle hydrocarbons in the cases of (1) and (2) are abiogenic and those in (3) are mainly biogenic. It appears that hydrocarbons may survive high pressures and temperatures in the mantle, but they are decomposed into lighter hydrocarbon gases such as CH4 at lower pressures when magmas intrude into the crust; consequently, peridotite cumulates do not contain heavier hydrocarbons but possess hydrocarbon gases up to C4H10.

  12. Bacterial sources for phenylalkane hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, L.; Winans, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Langworthy, T. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in geochemical samples has been the source of much controversy. Although an anthropogenic input from detergent sources always appears likely, the distribution of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in some cases far exceeding that attributed to detergent input has led to a reappraisal of this view. Indeed, recent work involving analysis of the lipid hydrocarbon extracts from extant Thermoplasma bacteria has revealed the presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons. The presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in sedimentary organic matter may therefore represent potential biological markers for thermophilic bacteria.

  13. Testing of machine wound second generation HTS tape Vacuum Pressure Impregnated coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaffield, D.; Lewis, C.; Eugene, J.; Ingles, M.; Peach, D.

    2014-05-01

    Delamination of second generation (2G) High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) tapes has previously been reported when using resin based insulation systems for wound coils. One proposed root cause is the differential thermal contraction between the coil former and the resin encapsulated coil turns resulting in the tape c-axis tensile stress being exceeded. Importantly, delamination results in unacceptable degradation of the superconductor critical current level. To mitigate the delamination risk and prove winding, jointing and Vacuum Pressure Impregnation (VPI) processes in the production of coils for superconducting rotating machines at GE Power Conversion two scaled trial coils have been wound and extensively tested. The coils are wound from 12mm wide 2G HTS tape supplied by AMSC onto stainless steel 'racetrack' coil formers. The coils are wound in two layers which include both in-line and layer-layer joints subject to in-process test. The resin insulation system chosen is VPI and oven cured. Tests included; insulation resistance, repeat quench and recovery of the superconductor, heat runs and measurement of n-value, before and after multiple thermal cycling between ambient and 35 Kelvin. No degradation of coil performance is evidenced.

  14. Antibacterial property of Ag nanoparticle-impregnated N-doped titania films under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ming-Show; Chen, Chun-Wei; Hsieh, Chia-Chun; Hung, Shih-Che; Sun, Der-Shan; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2015-07-01

    Photocatalysts produce free radicals upon receiving light energy; thus, they possess antibacterial properties. Silver (Ag) is an antibacterial material that disrupts bacterial physiology. Our previous study reported that the high antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles on the surfaces of visible light-responsive nitrogen-doped TiO2 photocatalysts [TiO2(N)] could be further enhanced by visible light illumination. However, the major limitation of this Ag-TiO2 composite material is its durability; the antibacterial property decreased markedly after repeated use. To overcome this limitation, we developed TiO2(N)/Ag/TiO2(N) sandwich films in which the silver is embedded between two TiO2(N) layers. Various characteristics, including silver and nitrogen amounts, were examined in the composite materials. Various analyses, including electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum and methylene blue degradation rate analyses, were performed. The antibacterial properties of the composite materials were investigated. Here we revealed that the antibacterial durability of these thin films is substantially improved in both the dark and visible light, by which bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii, could be efficiently eliminated. This study demonstrated a feasible approach to improve the visible-light responsiveness and durability of antibacterial materials that contain silver nanoparticles impregnated in TiO2(N) films.

  15. Bio-absorbable antibiotic impregnated beads for the treatment of prosthetic vascular graft infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Elizabeth A; Avgerinos, Efthymios D; Baril, Donald T; Makaroun, Michel S; Chaer, Rabih A

    2016-12-01

    There is limited investigation into the use of bio-absorbable antibiotic beads for the treatment of prosthetic vascular graft infections. Our goal was to investigate the rates of infection eradication, graft preservation, and limb salvage in patients who are not candidates for graft explant or extensive reconstruction. A retrospective review of patients implanted with antibiotic impregnated bio-absorbable calcium sulfate beads at a major university center was conducted. Six patients with prosthetic graft infections were treated with bio-absorbable antibiotics beads from 2012-2014. Grafts included an aortobifemoral, an aorto-hepatic/superior mesenteric artery, and four extra-anatomic bypasses. Pathogens included Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Half of the patients underwent graft explant with reconstruction and half debridement of the original graft, all with antibiotic bead placement around the graft. Mean follow-up was 7.3 ± 8.3 months; all patients had infection resolution, healed wounds, and 100% graft patency, limb salvage, and survival. This report details the successful use of bio-absorbable antibiotic beads for the treatment prosthetic vascular graft infections in patients at high risk for graft explant or major vascular reconstruction. At early follow-up, we demonstrate successful infection suppression, graft preservation, and limb salvage with the use of these beads in a subset of vascular patients. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Superconductivity in aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubozono, Yoshihiro, E-mail: kubozono@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, ACT-C, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan); Goto, Hidenori; Jabuchi, Taihei [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Yokoya, Takayoshi [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kambe, Takashi [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakai, Yusuke; Izumi, Masanari; Zheng, Lu; Hamao, Shino; Nguyen, Huyen L.T. [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakata, Masafumi; Kagayama, Tomoko; Shimizu, Katsuya [Center of Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Aromatic superconductor is one of core research subjects in superconductivity. Superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons. Some serious problems to be solved exist for future advancement of the research. This article shows the present status of aromatic superconductors. - Abstract: ‘Aromatic hydrocarbon’ implies an organic molecule that satisfies the (4n + 2) π-electron rule and consists of benzene rings. Doping solid aromatic hydrocarbons with metals provides the superconductivity. The first discovery of such superconductivity was made for K-doped picene (K{sub x}picene, five benzene rings). Its superconducting transition temperatures (T{sub c}’s) were 7 and 18 K. Recently, we found a new superconducting K{sub x}picene phase with a T{sub c} as high as 14 K, so we now know that K{sub x}picene possesses multiple superconducting phases. Besides K{sub x}picene, we discovered new superconductors such as Rb{sub x}picene and Ca{sub x}picene. A most serious problem is that the shielding fraction is ⩽15% for K{sub x}picene and Rb{sub x}picene, and it is often ∼1% for other superconductors. Such low shielding fractions have made it difficult to determine the crystal structures of superconducting phases. Nevertheless, many research groups have expended a great deal of effort to make high quality hydrocarbon superconductors in the five years since the discovery of hydrocarbon superconductivity. At the present stage, superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons (picene, phenanthrene and dibenzopentacene), but the shielding fraction remains stubbornly low. The highest priority research area is to prepare aromatic superconductors with a high superconducting volume-fraction. Despite these difficulties, aromatic superconductivity is still a core research target and presents interesting and potentially breakthrough challenges, such as the positive pressure dependence of T{sub c} that is clearly

  17. CO2 adsorption properties of char produced from brown coal impregnated with alcohol amine solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Paweł; Zarębska, Katarzyna; Czuma, Natalia

    2016-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction is critical to mitigating climate change. Power plants for heating and industry are significant sources of CO2 emissions. There is a need for identifying and developing new, efficient methods to reduce CO2 emissions. One of the methods used is flue gas purification by CO2 capture through adsorption. This study aimed to develop CO2 adsorbent out of modified brown coal impregnated with solutions of first-, second-, and third-order amines. Low-temperature nitrogen adsorption isotherms and CO2 isotherms were measured for the prepared samples. The results of experiments unexpectedly revealed that CO2 sorption capacity decreased after impregnation. Due to lack of strait trends in CO2 sorption capacity decrease, the results were closely analyzed to find the reason for the inconsistencies. It was revealed that different amines represent different affinities for CO2 and that the size and structure of impregnating factor has influence on the CO2 sorption capacity of impregnated material. The character of a support was also noticeable as well for impregnation results as for the affinity to CO2. The influence of amine concentration used was investigated along with the comparison on how the theoretical percentage of the impregnation on the support influenced the results. The reaction mechanism of tertiary amine was taken into consideration in connection to no presence of water vapor during the experiments. Key findings were described in the work and provide a strong basis for further studies on CO2 adsorption on amine-impregnated support.

  18. Removal of hazardous anions from aqueous solutions by La(III)- and Y(III)-impregnated alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasay, Syed Abdul; Tokunaga, Shuzo [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, Ibaraka (Japan); Park, S.W. [Keimyung Univ., Daegu City (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    New adsorbents, La(III)- and Y(III)-impregnated alumina, were prepared for the removal of hazardous anions from aqueous solutions. A commercially available alumina was impregnated with La(III) or Y(III) ions by the adsorption process. The change in the surface charge due to the impregnation was measured by acid/base titration. The adsorption rate and the capacity of the alumina for La(III) and Y(III) ions were determined. The adsorption characteristics of the La(III)- and Y(III)-impregnated alumina and the original alumina for fluoride, phosphate, arsenate and selenite ions were analyzed under various conditions. The pH effect, dose effect, and kinetics were studied. The removal selectivity by the impregnated alumina was in the order fluoride > phosphate > arsenate > selenite. The impregnated alumina has been successfully applied for the removal of hazardous anions from synthetic and high-tech industrial wastewaters.

  19. Site characterization and petroleum hydrocarbon plume mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, K. [Harding Lawson Associates, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a case study of site characterization and hydrocarbon contamination plume mapping/delineation in a gas processing plant in southern Mexico. The paper describes innovative and cost-effective use of passive (non-intrusive) and active (intrusive) techniques, including the use of compound-specific analytical methods for site characterization. The techniques used, on a demonstrative basis, include geophysical, geochemical, and borehole drilling. Geochemical techniques used to delineate the horizontal extent of hydrocarbon contamination at the site include soil gas surveys. The borehole drilling technique used to assess the vertical extent of contamination and confirm geophysical and geochemical data combines conventional hollow-stem auguring with direct push-probe using Geoprobe. Compound-specific analytical methods, such as hydrocarbon fingerprinting and a modified method for gasoline range organics, demonstrate the inherent merit and need for such analyses to properly characterize a site, while revealing the limitations of noncompound-specific total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. The results indicate that the techniques used in tandem can properly delineate the nature and extent of contamination at a site; often supplement or complement data, while reducing the risk of errors and omissions during the assessment phase; and provide data constructively to focus site-specific remediation efforts. 7 figs.

  20. Task 8: Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Our studies focus on the stratigraphy of Late Devonian to early Pennsylvanian rocks at the NTS, because these are the best potential hydrocarbon source rocks in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. In the last year, our stratigraphic studies have broadened to include the regional context for both the Chainman and the Eleana formations. New age data based on biostratigraphy constrain the age ranges of both Chainman and Eleana; accurate and reliable ages are essential for regional correlation and for regional paleogeographic reconstructions. Source rock analyses throughout the Chainman establish whether these rocks contained adequate organic material to generate hydrocarbons. Maturation analyses of samples from the Chainman determine whether the temperature history has been suitable for the generation of liquid hydrocarbons. Structural studies are aimed at defining the deformation histories and present position of the different packages of Devonian - Pennsylvanian rocks. This report summarizes new results of our structural, stratigraphic and hydrocarbon source rock potential studies at the Nevada Test Site and vicinity. Stratigraphy is considered first, with the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation discussed separately. New biostratigraphic results are included in this section. New results from our structural studies are summarized next, followed by source rock and maturation analyses of the Chainman Shale. Directions for future work are included where appropriate.

  1. Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David Scott

    2009-07-21

    Method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include providing heat to a first section of the formation with one or more first heaters in the first section. First hydrocarbons may be heated in the first section such that at least some of the first hydrocarbons are mobilized. At least some of the mobilized first hydrocarbons may be produced through a production well located in a second section of the formation. The second section may be located substantially adjacent to the first section. A portion of the second section may be provided some heat from the mobilized first hydrocarbons, but is not conductively heated by heat from the first heaters. Heat may be provided to the second section with one or more second heaters in the second section to further heat the second section.

  2. Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Fowler, Thomas David; Karanikas, John Michael

    2009-12-29

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one injection well is located in a first portion of the formation. The injection well provides steam from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility to the first portion of the formation. At least one production well is located in the first portion of the formation. The production well in the first portion produces first hydrocarbons. At least one electrical heater is located in a second portion of the formation. At least one of the electrical heaters is powered by electricity from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one production well is located in the second portion of the formation. The production well in the second portion produces second hydrocarbons. The steam and electricity cogeneration facility uses the first hydrocarbons and/or the second hydrocarbons to generate electricity.

  3. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  4. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  5. Physicochemical properties of vanadium impregnated Al-PILCs: Effect of vanadium source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balci, Suna, E-mail: sunabalci@gazi.edu.tr; Tecimer, Aylin

    2015-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Vanadium was incorporated into Al-PILC using NaVO{sub 3} or VOSO{sub 4}·3H{sub 2}O precursors by wet impregnation, washing after wet impregnation and impregnation from solution methods. • The layered structure of the supports was retained after the vanadium incorporation. • Incorporation took place both by settling and ion exchange mechanism with the treatment VOSO{sub 4}·3H{sub 2}O precursor while settling was dominant in the use of NaVO{sub 3} precursor. • Treatment with VOSO{sub 4}·3H{sub 2}O which was acidic in solution resulted in more structural deformation. • V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and VO{sub 2} were found as the major oxide forms on the impregnated samples. Loading of vanadyl sulfate hydrate (VOSO{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O) resulted in higher V/Si ratio. Most of the vanadium was bonded in +5 oxide form. • Changes in the FTIR signals after vanadium incorporation caused by Brønsted and Lewis sites, silanol, water and vanadium vibrations were occured. • Dehydroxylation of the structure took place around 300 °C. Samples obtained by impregnation and washing after wet impregnation methods resulted in similar mass losses and the wet impregnated sample showed the highest mass loss among the impregnated samples. - Summary: Clay from the Middle Anatolian previously pillared by Al{sub 13}-Keggin ions and then calcined at 300 °C (Al-PILC) was impregnated with aqueous solutions of vanadium precursors by impregnation from solution (I), wet impregnation (WI) and washing after wet impregnation (WWI) methods. The crystal and textural properties were evaluated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), nitrogen sorption and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Vanadium incorporation into the Al-PILC resulted decreases in the basal spacing from 1.75 nm to 1.35 nm with the preserved typical layered structure. The use of sodium metavanadate (NaVO{sub 3}) as the source and the impregnation from solution as the incorporation method

  6. Noble gas and hydrocarbon tracers in multiphase unconventional hydrocarbon systems: Toward integrated advanced reservoir simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, T.; Moortgat, J.; Poreda, R. J.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Whyte, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although hydrocarbon production from unconventional energy resources has increased dramatically in the last decade, total unconventional oil and gas recovery from black shales is still less than 25% and 9% of the totals in place, respectively. Further, the majority of increased hydrocarbon production results from increasing the lengths of laterals, the number of hydraulic fracturing stages, and the volume of consumptive water usage. These strategies all reduce the economic efficiency of hydrocarbon extraction. The poor recovery statistics result from an insufficient understanding of some of the key physical processes in complex, organic-rich, low porosity formations (e.g., phase behavior, fluid-rock interactions, and flow mechanisms at nano-scale confinement and the role of natural fractures and faults as conduits for flow). Noble gases and other hydrocarbon tracers are capably of recording subsurface fluid-rock interactions on a variety of geological scales (micro-, meso-, to macro-scale) and provide analogs for the movement of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. As such geochemical data enrich the input for the numerical modeling of multi-phase (e.g., oil, gas, and brine) fluid flow in highly heterogeneous, low permeability formations Herein we will present a combination of noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe abundances and isotope ratios) and molecular and isotopic hydrocarbon data from a geographically and geologically diverse set of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in North America. Specifically, we will include data from the Marcellus, Utica, Barnett, Eagle Ford, formations and the Illinois basin. Our presentation will include geochemical and geological interpretation and our perspective on the first steps toward building an advanced reservoir simulator for tracer transport in multicomponent multiphase compositional flow (presented separately, in Moortgat et al., 2015).

  7. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF HYDROCARBON RADICALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent M. Ervin, Principal Investigator

    2004-08-17

    Gas phase negative ion chemistry methods are employed to determine enthalpies of formation of hydrocarbon radicals that are important in combustion processes and to investigate the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions. Using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry, we measure collisional threshold energies of endoergic proton transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions of hydrocarbon molecules with negative reagent ions. The measured reaction threshold energies for proton transfer yield the relative gas phase acidities. In an alternative methodology, competitive collision-induced dissociation of proton-bound ion-molecule complexes provides accurate gas phase acidities relative to a reference acid. Combined with the electron affinity of the R {center_dot} radical, the gas phase acidity yields the RH bond dissociation energy of the corresponding neutral molecule, or equivalently the enthalpy of formation of the R{center_dot} organic radical, using equation: D(R-H) = {Delta}{sub acid}H(RH) + EA(R) - IE(H). The threshold energy for hydrogen abstraction from a hydrocarbon molecule yields its hydrogen atom affinity relative to the reagent anion, providing the RH bond dissociation energy directly. Electronic structure calculations are used to evaluate the possibility of potential energy barriers or dynamical constrictions along the reaction path, and as input for RRKM and phase space theory calculations. In newer experiments, we have measured the product velocity distributions to obtain additional information on the energetics and dynamics of the reactions.

  8. Mechanical properties of CFF/MC/SF composite prepared using vacuum infusion impregnation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lixin; Jiang, Aixiong; Yang, Zhiwei; Guan, Houbing; Jia, Hong; Min, Mengyu

    Carbon fiber felt (CFF)/microfine cement (MC)/silica fume (SF) composite was fabricated by using vacuum infusion impregnation method to infiltrate mechanically stirred mixing slurry of MC, SF, and water into CFF. MC, SF, and water were mixed, with a water-cement ratio of 0.5, SF was used to in place of MC in percentages of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35%. Drainage method was used to determine the density of CFF/MC/SF composite. The bending strength and compressive strength of CFF/MC/SF composite were characterized by universal testing machine. The microstructure of the fracture surface of CFF/MC/SF composite was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Toughening mechanism of CFF/MC/SF composite was also analyzed. The results show that the density and mechanical strength of CFF/MC/SF composites first increases and then decreases as SF content increases. Crack propagation process includes several toughening and reinforcing mechanisms, such as, fiber/matrix debonding, fiber bridging, fiber friction, crack deflection, and fiber pull-out. At 20% SF content, the compactness and mechanical strength of the CFF/MC/SF composite are optimum, with density, flexural strength, and compressive strength at 1.53 g/cm3, 51.08 MPa, and 53.56 MPa, respectively.

  9. Relationship between petroleum hydrocarbon and plankton in a mesocosm experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A mesocosm experiment was carried out from May 26 to June 1, 1998 at the location of bon to the ecosystem, furthermore, to estimate the environmental capacity. In the experiment, it is found that the petroleum hydrocarbon can, in some degree, enhance the growth of diatom, but inhibit the growth of dinoflagellate. In general, the petroleum hydrocarbon can inhibit the growth of both phytoplankton and zooplankton, and can also inhibit the growth of total plankton (including phytoplankton and zooplankton) as well. A kinetic model was presented to estimate the uptake/release rate constants of petroleum hydrocarbon by plankton, and thereafter, the uptake and release rate constants ( k1, k2),bioconcentration factor (BCF) as well as the petroleum hydrocarbon influenced uptake and release rate constants of nutrients by phytoplankton (kup, krel) were obtained. The results imply that the bioconcentration of petroleum hydrocarbon by plankton is fairly large and petroleum hydrocarbon caused no significant influence on the uptake of N- NO3, but significant influence on that of P- PO4. In addition,the application of kinetic model for the bioconcentration of volatile organic toxic compound by organism suggests that the uptake of petroleum hydrocarbon by plankton was an important process for the environmental capacity of petroleum hydrocarbon.

  10. Incorporation of Hyperbranched Supramolecules into Nafion Ionic Domains via Impregnation and In-Situ Photopolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiruto Kudo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nafion membranes were impregnated with photocurable supramolecules, viz., hyperbranched polyester having pendant functional carboxylic acid groups (HBPEAc-COOH by swelling in methanol and subsequently photocured in-situ after drying. Structure-property relationships of the HBPEAc-COOH impregnated Nafion membranes were analyzed on the basis of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. FTIR and SSNMR investigations revealed that about 7 wt % of HBPEAc-COOH was actually incorporated into the ionic domains of Nafion. The FTIR study suggests possible complexation via inter-species hydrogen bonding between the carboxylic groups of HBPEAc-COOH and the sulfonate groups of Nafion. The α-relaxation peak corresponding to the glass transition temperature of the ionic domains of the neat Nafion-acid form was found to increase from ~100 to ~130 °C upon impregnation with enhanced modulus afforded by the cured polyester network within the ionic domains. The AC impedance fuel cell measurement of the impregnated membrane exhibited an increasing trend of proton conductivity with increasing temperature, which eventually surpassed that of neat Nafion above 100 °C. Of particular importance is that the present paper is the first to successfully incorporate polymer molecules/networks into the Nafion ionic domains by means of impregnation with hyperbranched supramolecules followed by in-situ photopolymerization.

  11. Fractionation of oil palm frond hemicelluloses by water or alkaline impregnation and steam explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiha-Hanim, Saleh; Mohd Noor, Mohd Azemi; Rosma, Ahmad

    2015-01-22

    Steam explosion of oil palm frond has been carried out under different temperatures between 180 and 210°C for 4 min (severity of 2.96-3.84) after impregnation of the frond chips with water or KOH solution. The effects of impregnation and steam explosion conditions of oil palm fronds on the water soluble fraction and insoluble fraction were investigated. The maximum yield of hemicelluloses in water soluble fractions recovered was 23.49% and 25.33% for water and KOH impregnation, treated with steam explosion at temperature of 210°C (severity of 3.84) with a fractionation efficiency of 77.30% and 83.32%, respectively. Under this condition, the water insoluble fractions contained celluloses at 60.83% and 64.80% for water and KOH impregnation, respectively. The steam explosion temperature of 210°C for 4 min (logR(o) 3.84) was found to be the best condition in the extraction of hemicelluloses from OPF for both types of impregnation.

  12. Efficacy of Dietary Urea-Impregnated Zeolite in Improving Rumen Fermentation Characteristics of Local Lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kardaya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A research on dietary inclusion of urea-impregnated zeolite as slow-release urea (SRU agent had been conducted to reveal its effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics in local lambs. The research used 24 heads of 7-8 mo old of local male lambs with (20.12±2.1 kg BW designed upon a randomized block design. Treatments consisted of diets contained no urea, urea, zeolite, and urea-impregnated zeolite. The collected data was analyzed with UNIANOVA and Duncan’s multiple-range test. Results indicated that feeding no urea, zeolite, or urea-impregnated zeolite ration produced lower ruminal ammonia nitrogen than feeding urea ration (P<0.05. Feeding zeolite ration produced lower ruminal pH than feeding urea ration (P<0.05. Despite total VFAs were similar across the treatments, feeding urea-impregnated zeolite ration produced lower ruminal acetate, acetate to propionate ratio, or methane production than feeding urea ration (P<0.05. Feeding urea ration produced the lowest molar proportion of branch-chained VFAs (P<0.05. Feeding urea ration produced higher plasma urea concentration than feeding no urea ration (2.75 mM vs. 2.16 mM; P<0.05. In conclusion, zeolite or urea-impregnated zeolite as slow-release ammonia or SRU agent was potential in decreasing ruminal ammonia, pH, acetate to propionate ratio, methane, and maintaining low plasma urea within its physiological range.

  13. Elemental mercury adsorption on sulfur-impregnated porous carbon - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K Suresh Kumar; Shoaibi, Ahmed Al; Srinivasakannan, C

    2014-01-01

    The presence of elemental mercury in wellhead natural gas is an important industrial problem, since even low levels of mercury can damage cryogenic aluminium heat exchangers and other plant equipment. Mercury present in the natural gas stream will also dramatically shorten the useful life of precious metal catalysts. The present work reviews the overall process of elemental mercury removal in practice using non-regenerative adsorbents (e.g. sulfur-impregnated porous carbon), addressing the various influencing parameters such as the method of sulfur impregnation, the impregnation temperature, the sulfur to carbon ratio, the impregnation time, the impact of flue gas constituents, the effect of processing temperature, and the nature of any carbon-containing functional groups present. The distribution of elemental sulfur is found to be the key to developing an effective adsorbent, rather than quantity of sulfur impregnated. Modifying or developing an adsorbent for elemental mercury removal from natural gas needs a detail physical and chemical characteristics assessment of the adsorbent.

  14. Effect of Impregnated Inorganic Nanoparticles on the Properties of the Kenaf Bast Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiwen Liang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the properties of the chemically retted kenaf bast fiber impregnated with the inorganic nanoparticles. High quality kenaf bast fibers were obtained from a chemical retting process. An in situ inorganic nanoparticle impregnation (INI process was used to introduce the CaCO3 nanoparticles into the retted kenaf bast fibers. It was found that some of the lignin-based components in the retted fibers were further removed during the INI treatment. From the characterization results, the inorganic nanoparticles CaCO3, with different shapes and sizes, appeared at the surface of the impregnated fiber after treatment. Heterogeneous CaCO3 nanoparticle distribution was observed on the INI treated fibers. The CaCO3 contents were different at different locations along the impregnated fiber. The presence of CaCO3 inorganic nanoparticles at the fiber surface increased the root mean square (RMS surface roughness by 5.8% and decreased the hydrophilic nature of the retted fibers, evidenced by a 59.4% decrease in adhesion force between the fiber and hydrophilic AFM tip. In addition, the impregnation of CaCO3 dramatically increased the Young’s modulus of the fiber by 344%.

  15. Volatile hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates: Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates are among the most commonly occurring and widely distributed contaminants in the environment. This chapter presents a summary of the sources, transport, fate, and remediation of volatile fuel hydrocarbons and fuel additives in the environment. Much research has focused on the transport and transformation processes of petroleum hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes and methyl tert‐butyl ether, in groundwater following release from underground storage tanks. Natural attenuation from biodegradation limits the movement of these contaminants and has received considerable attention as an environmental restoration option. This chapter summarizes approaches to environmental restoration, including those that rely on natural attenuation, and also engineered or enhanced remediation. Researchers are increasingly combining several microbial and molecular-based methods to give a complete picture of biodegradation potential and occurrence at contaminated field sites. New insights into the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons and fuel additives have been gained by recent advances in analytical tools and approaches, including stable isotope fractionation, analysis of metabolic intermediates, and direct microbial evidence. However, development of long-term detailed monitoring programs is required to further develop conceptual models of natural attenuation and increase our understanding of the behavior of contaminant mixtures in the subsurface.

  16. BIOREMEDIATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS: A FLEXIBLE VARIABLE SPEED TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons has evolved into a number of different processes. These processes include in-situ aquifer bioremediation, bioventing, biosparging, passive bioremediation with oxygen release compounds, and intrinsic bioremediation. Although often viewe...

  17. Microbiological aspects of the removal of chlorinated hydrocarbons from air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfing, Jan; Wijngaard, Arjan J. van den; Janssen, Dick B.

    1993-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons are widely used synthetic chemicals that are frequently present in industrial emissions. Bacterial degradation has been demonstrated for several components of this class of compounds. Structural features that affect the degradability include the number of chlorine atoms and

  18. Microbiological aspects of the removal of chlorinated hydrocarbons from air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfing, Jan; Wijngaard, Arjan J. van den; Janssen, Dick B.

    1993-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons are widely used synthetic chemicals that are frequently present in industrial emissions. Bacterial degradation has been demonstrated for several components of this class of compounds. Structural features that affect the degradability include the number of chlorine atoms and

  19. A Comparison of Antibacterial Efficacy of 0.5% Sodium Fluoride Impregnated Miswak and Plain Miswak Sticks on Streprococcus mutans - A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Krishna, Madhusudan; Raina, Sakshi; Jaiswal, Ashish; Selvan, Arul; Patil, Chaitra; Kalgotra, Sneh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Miswak (Salvadora persica) is a tooth cleaning stick made from the Salvodora Persica tree. It serves as a natural dentifrice with anti-bacterial, anti-plaque and anti-fungal properties. Fluoride, impregnated in chewing sticks will bestow comparable safety against dental caries as the fluoride containing dentifrice. Aim The aim of the present study was to assess and compare the anti-bacterial effect of 0.5% sodium fluoride impregnated miswak and plain miswak sticks on Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods A randomized controlled concurrent parallel triple blind clinical trial was conducted for a period of 8 days. The trial included 30 subjects aged 20–23 years, who were randomly allocated in 1:1 ratio to Group A [0.5% Sodium Fluoride (NaF) impregnated Miswak sticks) and Group B (Plain Miswak sticks) respectively. The participants were instructed to chew miswak sticks for 6 minutes in the morning before breakfast. Unstimulated saliva was collected at baseline and after chewing miswak sticks to estimate S. mutans count using Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar. Data was statistically analyzed using paired and unpaired t-test. Results A statistically significant reduction in S. mutans Colony Forming Units (CFU) count in saliva was observed after using fluoridated miswak sticks compared to the baseline count (p=0.001). There was no significant difference in anti-bacterial effect of fluoridated miswak sticks and plain miswak sticks on S. mutans count (p=0.58). Conclusion The efficacy of miswak impregnated with 0.5% NaF and plain miskaw sticks in reducing S. mutans counts in saliva is analogous.

  20. Study on pyrolysis characteristics of lignocellulosic biomass impregnated with ammonia source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Zhu, Changpeng; Zhang, Liqiang; Zhu, Xifeng

    2016-06-01

    The current study presents the pyrolysis characteristics of rice husk impregnated with different kinds of ammonia source (ammonium acetate, urea, ammonium sulfate and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate) in a fixed bed reactor. The introduction of ammonia source in pyrolysis process achieved the conversation from carbonyl compounds to nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds. The liquid product of urea-impregnated biomass has higher content of nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds (8.35%) and phenols (30.4%). For ammonium sulfate and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate-impregnated biomass, the quantity of compounds in liquid products reduces remarkably, and the gas products are rich in CO and H2. All the solid products of pyrolysis have great potential application in biochar-based fertilizer and activated carbon for their high N content.

  1. Adsorption of indoor toxic gas by ionic liquid impregnated activated carbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Noraisyah Azeezah Abdul; Leveque, Jean Marc; Mutalib, Mohamed Ibrahim Abdul; Ghani, Noraini Abdul; Thangarajoo, Nanthinie; Mazlan, Faizureen Afzal; Farooq, Amjad; Irfan, Naseem; Duclaux, Laurent; Reinert, Laurence; Ondarts, Michel

    2016-11-01

    Butylpyridinium thiocyanate [BuPyr]SCN ionic liquid was synthesized by metathesis and characterized. NMR spectrum has shown the [BuPyr] cation while FTIR has shown the SCN anion peak which confirms the structure of the synthesized ionic liquid. The ionic liquid was impregnated on activated carbon in order to enhance performance of sulfur dioxide adsorption compared to the non-impregnated raw activated carbon. Two types of activated carbons were used; activated carbon cylindrical granules and cloth. Different percentages of ionic liquid loading (1%, 10% and 20%) were applied. The capacity of the adsorbent for treatment of 10 ppm and 50 ppm SO2 was determined by breakthrough curve analysis whereby optimum breakthrough time was obtained. [BuPyr]SCN impregnated on activated carbon cloth have shown higher adsorption performance.

  2. Polymer-filled microcontainers for oral delivery loaded using supercritical impregnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marizza, Paolo; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Müllertz, Anette

    2014-01-01

    In the last years a large variety of drug delivery systems have been developed to improve bioavailability of therapeutics in oral administration. An increasing interest has arisen in reservoir-based microdevices designed for active ingredients like water insoluble compounds and fragile biomolecules...... procedures. This work proposes an effective loading technique for a poorly soluble model drug in microcontainers, by combining inkjet printing and supercritical fluid impregnation. Well defined quantities of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) solutions are dispensed into microcontainers by inkjet printing...... with a quasi-no-waste performance. Then ketoprofen is impregnated in the polymer matrix by using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) as loading medium. The amount of polymer is controlled by the volume and the number of droplets of dispensed polymer and drug loading is tuned by varying the impregnation...

  3. Dielectric microwave absorbing material processed by impregnation of carbon fiber fabric with polyaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza de Castro Folgueras

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available It is a known fact that the adequate combination of components and experimental conditions may produce materials with specific requirements. This study presents the effect of carbon fiber fabric impregnation with polyaniline conducting polymer aiming at the radar absorbing material processing. The experiments consider the sample preparation with one and two impregnations. The prepared samples were evaluated by reflectivity measurements, in the frequency range of 8-12 GHz and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The correlation of the results shows that the quantity of impregnated material influences the performance of the processed microwave absorber. This study shows that the proposed experimental route provides flexible absorbers with absorption values of the incident radiation close to 87%.

  4. Controllable Impregnation Via Inkjet Printing for the Fabrication of Solid Oxide Cell Air Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Da'as, E. H.

    2013-10-07

    The impregnation method has been considered as one of the most successful techniques for the fabrication of highly efficient electrodes for solid oxide fuel and electrolysis cells (SOCs) at the lab scale. However, because the impregnation is usually performed manually, its irreproducibility remains a major problem that can be solved by using controllable techniques, such as inkjet printing. In this paper, lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM)/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) air electrodes were prepared by infiltrating YSZ porous bodies with LSM precursor solution using inkjet printing, followed by annealing at 800°C for 2 hours. XRD analysis confirmed the formation of the LSM phase, which was in the form of nanoparticles with size in the 50-70 nm range on the YSZ walls, as revealed by FEG-SEM observations. The effect of printing parameters on the distribution of the impregnated phase was investigated and discussed.

  5. A Hybrid Heating Method for the HT-7U Coils during Vacuum-Pressure Impregnation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The HT-7U superconducting tokamak is a full-superconducting magnetically confined fusion device, The toroidal magnet system of HT-7U is a very important part of the device.In VPI (Vacuum-Pressure Impregnation) process the magnet coils must be heated and degassed before impregnating and must be heated to the gel temperature and then the curing temperature,and keep the two kinds of temperatures for a long period of time after impregnating. Thus the heating method of VPI is critical. In this paper, a hybrid method of combining the internal and external heating for the coils is analyzed, especially the possibility of the internal heating method is proved.

  6. Thick-target PIXE analysis of chromium, copper and arsenic impregnated lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, K.-E.; Harju, L.; Lill, J.-O.; Rajander, J.; Lindroos, A.; Heselius, S.-J.

    1999-04-01

    Chromium, copper and arsenic (CCA) have for decades been used for wood preservation. Of these elements especially arsenic is very toxic. As CCA impregnated wood is still today used for many construction purposes, a monitoring of these metal ions is of great environmental importance. Thick-target PIXE is a powerful method for the determination of trace metals in wood. The TTPIXE method enabled study of variations of the elemental concentrations in lumber treated with CCA impregnation solution. Distribution patterns were obtained for both naturally occurring elements and elements introduced in the treatment process. During the impregnation process a desorption of e.g. alkali metal ions takes place from the wood. The sensitivity of the method is improved by dry ashing of the samples prior to PIXE analysis. The TTPIXE method was calibrated and validated using international certified reference materials (CRM) based on wood material.

  7. Method of manufacturing of details from composite materials impregnation solution binding

    OpenAIRE

    Краля, В.О.; Джоган, О.М.; Костенко, О.П.

    2009-01-01

     Among a good deal of ways of part manufacturing from composite materials using of infusion methods of impregnation of a fiber reinforcement on/into the mold very increasing now. For eliminating this gap and piling up a knowledge about peculiarities of a process of infusion impregnation under vacuum bag and part manufacturing with infusion ways a method of part making of impregnation by solution of licensed resin on the mold under a vacuum bag is offered.  Предложен метод изготовления дета...

  8. Photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine dye using TiO2 impregnated activated carbon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Subramani; K Byrappa; S Ananda; K M Lokanatha Rai; C Ranganathaiah; M Yoshimura

    2007-02-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine dye was studied using hydrothermally prepared TiO2 impregnated activated carbon (TiO2 : AC). A comparison between the degradation of the indigo carmine dye using commercial TiO2 and TiO2 : AC revealed the efficiency of the title compound. The degradation reaction was optimized with respect to the dye concentration and catalyst amount. The reduction in the chemical oxygen demand (COD) revealed the mineralization of dye along with colour removal. The active compound like TiO2 was impregnated onto the activated carbon surface under mild hydrothermal conditions (< 250°C, P ∼ 40 bars). The impregnated activated carbon samples were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  9. Pt nanoparticles on titania nanotubes prepared by vapor-phase impregnation-decomposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Encarnacion Gomez, C. [National Polytechnic Institute, Dept. of Metallurgical Eng., Mexico 07300 DF, AP 75-874 (Mexico); Vargas Garcia, J.R., E-mail: rvargasga@ipn.m [National Polytechnic Institute, Dept. of Metallurgical Eng., Mexico 07300 DF, AP 75-874 (Mexico); Toledo Antonio, J.A.; Cortes Jacome, M.A.; Angeles Chavez, C. [Petroleum Mexican Institute, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, Mexico 07730 DF (Mexico)

    2010-04-16

    Platinum (Pt) nanoparticles were prepared on titania nanotubes (TNTs) by vapor-phase impregnation-decomposition method using platinum acetylacetonate as precursor. TNTs and Pt precursor were mixed in 3:1 weight ratio before vapor-phase impregnation. The mixed powders were heated at 453 K for 10 min to evaporate the precursor in a horizontal tube quartz reactor at a total pressure of 66.6 kPa. Then, the impregnated TNTs were moved to a higher temperature zone (673 K) inside the tube reactor to achieve the precursor decomposition. HAADF-STEM observations, AAS and XPS results revealed that this method allows the formation of uniformly distributed Pt nanoparticles on the surface of TNTs with a narrow distribution of particle size (2.1 nm mean size). Pt nanoparticles remain mainly as Pt{sup 0} oxidation state with a Pt{sup 0}/Pt{sup 2+} atomic ratio of 3.9.

  10. Elution of platinum from carboplatin-impregnated calcium sulfate hemihydrate beads in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulipan, Rachel J; Phillips, Heidi; Garrett, Laura D; Dirikolu, Levent; Mitchell, Mark A

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize the elution of platinum from carboplatin-impregnated calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) beads in vitro. SAMPLE 60 carboplatin-impregnated CSH beads and 9 CSH beads without added carboplatin (controls). PROCEDURES Carboplatin-impregnated CSH beads (each containing 4.6 mg of carboplatin [2.4 mg of platinum]) were placed into separate 10-mL plastic tubes containing 5 mL of PBSS in groups of 1, 3, 6, or 10; 3 control beads were placed into a single tube of PBSS at the same volume. Experiments were conducted in triplicate at 37°C and a pH of 7.4 with constant agitation. Eluent samples were collected at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 72 hours. Samples were analyzed for platinum content by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. RESULTS The mean concentration of platinum released per carboplatin-impregnated bead over 72 hours was 445.3 mg/L. Cumulative concentrations of platinum eluted increased as the number of beads per tube increased. There was a significant difference in platinum concentrations over time, with values increasing over the first 12 hours and then declining for all tubes. There was also a significant difference in percentage of total incorporated platinum released into tubes with different numbers of beads: the percentage of eluted platinum was higher in tubes containing 1 or 3 beads than in those containing 6 or 10 beads. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Carboplatin-impregnated CSH beads eluted platinum over 72 hours. Further studies are needed to determine whether implantation of carboplatin-impregnated CSH beads results in detectable levels of platinum systemically and whether the platinum concentrations eluted locally are toxic to tumor cells.

  11. Moving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Mudunuri, Ramesh Raju; Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael; Jaiswal, Namit; Mo, Weijian

    2010-05-18

    A method for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. The method includes heating a first portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the first portion. The heat is controlled to increase a fluid injectivity of the first portion. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid is injected and/or created in the first portion to cause at least some hydrocarbons to move from a second portion of the hydrocarbon layer to a third portion of the hydrocarbon layer. The second portion is between the first portion and the third portion. The first, second, and third portions are horizontally displaced from each other. The third portion is heated from one or more heaters located in the third portion. Hydrocarbons are produced from the third portion of the formation. The hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons from the second portion of the formation.

  12. A novel ultrasonication method in the preparation of zirconium impregnated cellulose for effective fluoride adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barathi, M; Kumar, A Santhana Krishna; Rajesh, N

    2014-05-01

    In the present work, we propose for the first time a novel ultrasound assisted methodology involving the impregnation of zirconium in a cellulose matrix. Fluoride from aqueous solution interacts with the cellulose hydroxyl groups and the cationic zirconium hydroxide. Ultrasonication ensures a green and quick alternative to the conventional time intensive method of preparation. The effectiveness of this process was confirmed by comprehensive characterization of zirconium impregnated cellulose (ZrIC) adsorbent using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The study of various adsorption isotherm models, kinetics and thermodynamics of the interaction validated the method.

  13. An in vitro study of the antiviral properties of an alginate impression material impregnated with disinfectant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, R; Tobias, R S; Ayliffe, G A; Browne, R M

    1989-06-01

    The antiviral properties of a new alginate impression material impregnated with a disinfectant (didecyldimethyl ammonium chloride) were evaluated in vitro against herpes simplex virus type I and poliovirus type I. The material was exposed to the virus suspension for periods of up to 60 min. The impregnated alginate material showed no clinically acceptable effect against either virus, although log reductions of 1.0 and 1.7 plaque-forming units of herpes virus were obtained after exposure to the material containing the disinfectant for 5 and 60 min, respectively.

  14. Photoluminescent properties of di(8-hydroxyquinolato) zinc impregnated in nanoporous glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dayuan Xiong(熊大元); Yuyan Liu(刘煜炎); Suihua Yuan(袁绥华)

    2004-01-01

    Photoluminescent properties of a metal-organic complex, di(8-hydroxyquinolato) zinc, impregnated in nanoporous glass were investigated. In comparison with those in the normal organic fluorescent material,the emission band of the impregnated organic phosphor became wider. Blueshift (14 nm) was observed due to π* → n emission transition. The excitation band of the embedded organic phosphor had a larger blueshift and was divided into several sub-bands. The intensity in the short wavelength end of the embedded organic fluorescent material became much stronger.

  15. Influence of impregnation by inorganic substances on the yield of pyrolysis products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevkoplyas, V.N.; Saranchuk, V.I. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Donetsk (Ukraine). Inst. Fiziko-Organicheskoj Khimii i Uglekhimii

    1998-09-01

    In papers was shown that fossil coals impregnation by aqueous solution of inorganic substances with a subsequent pyrolysis leads to the rise of the rate and depth of its organic mass destruction into liquid and gaseous products. This is, apperently, conditioned by changes in coals structure already on the stage of treatment. But, there are few papers that study an activating effect of inorganic reactants upon natural coals structure and their behaviour at pyrolysis. One of the methods which allows to judge structural transformation in coals at their impregnation by inorganic substances is an X-ray analysis. (orig.)

  16. Efficacy of Dietary Urea-Impregnated Zeolite in Improving Rumen Fermentation Characteristics of Local Lamb

    OpenAIRE

    D. Kardaya; D. Sudrajat; E. Dihansih

    2012-01-01

    A research on dietary inclusion of urea-impregnated zeolite as slow-release urea (SRU) agent had been conducted to reveal its effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics in local lambs. The research used 24 heads of 7-8 mo old of local male lambs with (20.12±2.1 kg BW) designed upon a randomized block design. Treatments consisted of diets contained no urea, urea, zeolite, and urea-impregnated zeolite. The collected data was analyzed with UNIANOVA and Duncan’s multiple-range test. Results i...

  17. Surface Reflection Coefficient of Impregnated RAM Honeycomb with Incident Normally Plan Wave to the Side Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhengping; LUO Qing

    2004-01-01

    The impregnated radar absorbing material(RAM) honeycomb is often used to fabricate parts of the warplane for reducing radar cross section.The incidentwave vector may be divided into two components:one perpendicular to its hole and the other to its side wall.Until now,there has not been a program to calculate the input impedance or its equivalent electromagnetic parameters for the later case.In this paper,an approach for analyzing the reflection characteristics of the impregnated honeycomb when its side wall faces the incident plane wave is proposed.Experiments prove it an effective,accurate and fast solution to this subject.

  18. Electrochemical in-situ impregnation of wood using a copper nail as source for copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Block, Thomas; Nymark, Morten

    2011-01-01

    A new method for copper impregnation of wood in structures was suggested and tested in laboratory scale with specimen of new pine sapwood. A copper nail and a steel screw were placed in the wood, and an electric direct current field was applied, so the copper nail was anode and the screw...... was cathode. At the anode, copper ions were generated. The copper ions were transported into the wood by electromigration (movement of ions in an applied electric field) towards the cathode, and a volume between the two electrodes was thereby impregnated. Copper also moved to a lesser degree in the opposite...

  19. Characterization of impregnated GDC nano structures and their functionality in LSM based cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemensø, Trine; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2012-01-01

    Porous composite cathodes of LSM–YSZ (lanthanum strontium manganite and yttria stabilized zirconia) were impregnated with GDC (gadolinia doped ceria) nano particles. The impregnation process was varied using none or different surfactants (Triton X-45, Triton X-100, P123), and the quantity...... on the LSM phase and the LSM grain boundaries. The observations suggest that the improved performance associated with GDC nano particles is related to the particles placed near the TPB (triple phase boundary) zone. The GDC extends the TPB by creating an ionic conducting network on top of the LSM particles...

  20. Synthesis of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite platelets by vacuum impregnation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthina, Venkata; Agrios, Alexander G.

    2016-11-01

    In perovskite solar cells and optoelectronics, perovskite film morphology controls the performance of the device. Various methods have been developed to control the morphology and coverage of the perovskite films. In this article platelet type perovskite morphlogy was synthesized using low temperature vacuum impregnation of the perovskite solution CH3NH3PbI3 resulting in complete coverage on TiO2 film. Vacuum impregnation synthesis of perovskites has the advantage of low cost and low temperature which faciliates application in flexible electronics and solar cells.

  1. A Binder Viscosity Effect on the Wet-Wounded Composite Porosity in the Impregnating Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Komkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to define experimentally an impregnation rate of VM-1 glass fibers and CBM aramid bundles with the epoxy binder EDB-10 using wet method of winding. During the impregnation process of the fibrous fillers by the liquid binder, air is displaced from the interfiber space of fiber and bundle. With the composite product winding a fiber impregnation process is short. That is why gas inclusions or pores are formed in the polymer-fiber compositeThe impregnation rate or porosity of wound material will depend directly on the binder viscosity. To reduce an epoxy binder viscosity temporarily is possible by two ways. The first is to heat a liquid epoxy composition EDB-10 to the maximum possible temperature during the winding process of the product. The second method is to dilute the binder by a solvent, such as acetone or alcohol. However, the solvent reduces its strength.The paper presents experimental data to show the volumetric content of pores in the wound composite affected only by the viscosity of the epoxy binder. Heating a binder allowed us to regulate a changing conditional viscosity of the binder in the impregnating bath for the normal conditions of impregnation. Other impacts on the impregnation and filament-winding processes, such as filler kinks, squeeze, vacuuming binder, highly tensioned winding, and others were not used.Experimentally obtained dependences of the porosity value of wound composite on the conditional viscosity of binder are nonlinear and can be used to design heaters for impregnating devices of winders. The research technique and results can be used in development of technological processes to manufacture composite structures by winding from the other reinforcing fibrous fillers and thermo-active binders.The results show that the volumetric content of pores can significantly vary within 8 - 14 % of material volume. Therefore, to reduce the number of pores in the wound composite to 1-2 %, auxiliary

  2. Energy additivity in branched and cyclic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, H.; Bader, R.F.W. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Cortes-Guzman, F. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, (Mexico). Dept. de Fisicoquimica

    2009-11-15

    This paper reported on a study of the energetic relationships between hydrocarbon molecules and the heats of formation. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) was used to investigate the degree to which branched hydrocarbons obey a group additivity scheme for energy and populations. The QTAIM defined the properties of the chemical groups. The experimental and theoretical transferability of the methyl and methylene groups of the linear hydrocarbons was also explored. The calculations were performed using a large basis set at the restricted Hartree-Fock and MP2(full) levels of theory. The study also investigated the deviations from additivity, noted for small ring hydrocarbons leading to the definition of strain energy. The QTAIM energies recovered the experimental values. The paper included details regarding the delocalization of the electron density over the surface of the cyclopropane ring, responsible for its homoaromatic properties. The calculations presented in this study satisfied the virial theorem for the atomic definition of energy. The paper discussed the problems associated with the use of the density functional theory (DFT) resulting from its failure to satisfy the virial theorem. 44 refs., 9 tabs., 2 figs.

  3. Behavioral toxicology, risk assessment, and chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelista de Duffard, A.M.; Duffard, R. [Laboratorio de Toxicologia Experimental, Santa Fe (Argentina)

    1996-04-01

    Behavioral end points are being used with greater frequency in neurotoxicology to detect and characterize the adverse effects of chemicals on the nervous system. Behavioral measures are particularly important for neurotoxicity risk assessment since many known neurotoxicants do not result in neuropathology. The chlorinated hydrocarbon class consists of a wide variety of chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, clioquinol, trichloroethylene, hexachlorophene, organochlorine insecticides (DDT, dicofol, chlordecone, dieldrin, and lindane), and phenoxyherbicides. Each of these chemicals has effects on motor, sensory, or cognitive function that are detectable using functional measures such as behavior. Furthermore, there is evidence that if exposure occurs during critical periods of development, many of the chlorinated hydrocarbons are developmental neurotoxicants. Developmental neurotoxicity is frequently expressed as alterations in motor function or cognitive abilities or charges in the ontogeny of sensorimotor reflexes. Neurotoxicity risk assessment should include assessments of the full range of possible neurotoxicological effects, including both structural and functional indicators of neurotoxicity. 121 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

    1992-05-16

    Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

  5. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

    1992-05-16

    Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

  6. Effect of impregnation phases on the performance of Ni-based anodes for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhangbo; Ding, Dong; Liu, Beibei; Guo, Weiwei; Wang, Wendong; Xia, Changrong

    2011-10-01

    Impregnated nanoparticles are very effective in improving the electrochemical performance of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes possibly due to the extension of reaction sites and/or the enhancement of catalytic activity. In this work, samaria-doped ceria (SDC), pure ceria, samaria, and alumina oxides impregnated Ni-based anodes are fabricated to compare the site extending and the catalytic effects. Except for alumina, the impregnation of the other three nano-sized oxides could substantially enhance the performance of the anodes for the hydrogen oxidation reactions. Moreover, single cells with CeO2 and Sm2O3 impregnated anodes could exhibit as great performance as those with SDC impregnated anodes. When the impregnation loading reached the optimal value, 1.7 mmol cm-3, these cells exhibit very high performance, with peak power densities around 750 mW cm-2. The high performance of CeO2 and Sm2O3 impregnated anodes demonstrates that the improved performance are mainly attributed to the significantly improved electrochemical activities of the anodes, but not to the extension of triple-phase-boundary, and wet impregnation is indeed an alternative and effective technique to introduce these nano-sized catalytic active oxides into the anode configuration of SOFCs to enhance cell performance, stability and reliability.

  7. Hydrocarbon conversion catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoek, A.; Huizinga, T.; Maxwell, I.E.

    1989-08-15

    This patent describes a process for hydrocracking hydrocarbon oils into products of lower average molecular weight and lower average boiling point. It comprises contacting a hydrocarbon oil at a temperature between 250{sup 0}C and 500{sup 0}C and a pressure up to 300 bar in the presence of hydrogen with a catalyst consisting essentially of a Y zeolite modified to have a unit cell size below 24.35A, a water absorption capacity (at 25{sup 0}C and a rho/rho/sub o/ value of 0.2) of at least 8% by weight of the zeolite and a pore volume of at least 0.25 ml/g wherein between 10% and 60% of the total pore volume is made up of pores having a diameter of at least 8 nm; an alumina binder and at least one hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of a Group VI metal, a Group VIII metal and mixtures thereof.

  8. Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 4 NIST Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures (PC database for purchase)   Interactive computer program for predicting thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids and fluid mixtures containing up to 20 components. The components are selected from a database of 196 components, mostly hydrocarbons.

  9. Hydrocarbon Receptor Pathway in Dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbeek, F.G. van; Spee, B.; Penning, L.C.; Kummeling, A.; Gils, I.H.M.; Grinwis, G.C.M.; Leenen, D. van; Holstege, F.C.P.; Vos-Loohuis, M.; Rothuizen, J.; Leegwater, P.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates biological responses to toxic chemicals. An unexpected role for AHR in vascularization was suggested when mice lacking AHR displayed impaired closure of the ductus venosus after birth, as did knockout mice for aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein

  10. Hydrocarbon Receptor Pathway in Dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbeek, F.G. van; Spee, B.; Penning, L.C.; Kummeling, A.; Gils, I.H.M.; Grinwis, G.C.M.; Leenen, D. van; Holstege, F.C.P.; Vos-Loohuis, M.; Rothuizen, J.; Leegwater, P.A.J.

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates biological responses to toxic chemicals. An unexpected role for AHR in vascularization was suggested when mice lacking AHR displayed impaired closure of the ductus venosus after birth, as did knockout mice for aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting

  11. An in vitro Method for Predicting Inhalation Toxicity of Impregnation Spray Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørli, Jorid B.; Hansen, Jitka S.; Nørgaard, Asger Wisti

    2015-01-01

    Impregnation spray products are used for making surfaces water and dirt repellent. The products are composed of one or more active film-forming components dissolved or suspended in an appropriate solvent mixture. Exposure to impregnation spray products may cause respiratory distress and new cases...... of the inhalation toxicity of impregnation spray products and thus may reduce the need for animal testing....... of this study was to evaluate whether disruption of the pulmonary surfactant film can be used as a predictor of the toxic effects in vivo. Nine impregnation products with various chemical compositions were selected for testing and the main constituents of each product, e.g., solvents, co-solvents and film...... and in vivo. The true positive rate of the in vitro method was 100%, i.e. the test could correctly identify all products with toxic effects in vivo, the true negative rate was 40%. Investigation of inhibition of the pulmonary surfactant system, e.g. by capillary surfactometry, was found useful for evaluation...

  12. Testing fungus impregnated cloths for the control of adult Aedes aegypti under natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Adriano R; Carolino, Aline T; Silva, Carlos P; Pereira, César R; Samuels, Richard I

    2013-09-08

    Entomopathogenic fungi could be useful tools for reducing populations of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti. Here the efficiency of fungus (Metarhizium anisopliae) impregnated cloths (with and without imidacloprid [IMI]) was evaluated against adult A. aegypti in simulated human dwellings. Behaviour of mosquitoes in the presence of black cloths was also investigated. When mosquitoes were released into the test rooms, the lowest survival rates (38%) were seen when five black cloths impregnated with conidia of ESALQ 818 + 10 ppm IMI were fixed under tables and chairs. This result was significantly lower than the survival rate recorded when cloths were impregnated with ESALQ 818 alone (44%) or ESALQ 818 + 0.1 ppm IMI (43%). Blood fed A. aegypti had lower landing frequencies on black cloths than sucrose fed insects during the first 24 h following feeding, which may have been due to reduced flight activity. Few mosquitoes (4-5%) were observed to land on the cloths during the hours of darkness. The landing pattern of sucrose-fed mosquitoes on non-treated and fungus-treated cloths was similar. The synergism between M. anisopliae and IMI significantly reduced Aedes survival in simulated field conditions. The use of fungus impregnated cloths is a promising point source application method for the control of adult A. aegypti.

  13. Impregnated membranes for direct methanol fuel cells at high methanol concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, M. Hakan; Schwarz, Alexander; Stamatialis, Dimitrios F.; Wessling, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Sulfonated poly(phthalazinone ether ketone) (SPPEK) impregnated Solupor® microporous film (SPPEK–PE) and pure SPPEK membranes with two different ion-exchange capacities (IECs) were prepared and characterized for use in DMFC applications. Swelling, proton conductivity, diffusion and DMFC experiments

  14. Iron oxide impregnated filter paper (Pi test): a review of its development and methodological research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chardon, W.J.; Menon, R.G.; Chien, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Iron oxide impregnated filter paper (FeO paper) has been used to study the availability of phosphorus (P) to plants and algae, P desorption kinetics and P dynamics in the field. Since its initial development a number of differences in the method of preparation of the paper and its application have

  15. Iodine-impregnated incision drape and bacterial recolonization in simulated total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milandt, Nikolaj; Nymark, Tine; Jørn Kolmos, Hans;

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose - Iodine-impregnated incision drapes (IIIDs) are used to prevent surgical site infection (SSI). However, there is some evidence to suggest a potential increase in SSI risk as a result of IIID use, possibly from promotion of skin recolonization. A greater number of viable...

  16. Iron oxide-impregnated filter paper (Pi test): a review of its application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menon, R.G.; Chien, S.H.P.; Chardon, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    The iron oxide impregnated filter paper test (Pi test) is a recently developed soil test for phosphorus (P) in which the FeO paper acts as an infinite sink for P mobilized in a soil solution. Several papers have been published evaluating the effectiveness of the test for predicting plant

  17. Computational analysis of the interaction between impregnation, forming and curing in pultrusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlone, Pierpaolo; Baran, I.; Akkerman, R.; Palazzo, Gaetano S.

    2015-01-01

    Numerical and analytical models dealing with different physics involved in pultrusion are combined in the optic of an integrated analysis of the process. The impregnation stage is simulated by means of a CFD multiphase model, evaluating the pressure and velocity field in the liquid resin. Composite

  18. Swelling kinetics and impregnation of PLA with thymol under supercritical CO2 conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Stoja L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was aimed to study swelling kinetics of polylactic acid (PLA and its impregnation with thymol in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 medium. The influences of temperature and soaking time on the swelling kinetics and impregnation yield of PLA cylindrical disc and film were investigated. Swelling experiments were performed in a high pressure view cell at 10 MPa and temperatures of 40°C, 60°C and 75°C for 2 to 24 h. On the basis of swelling kinetics, pressure of 10 MPa and temperature of 40°C were chosen for supercritical solvent impregnation (SSI of the PLA samples during 2 to24 h. The highest swelling extent was observed for the PLA monolith after 24 h treatment with pure scCO2 (7.5% and scCO2 with thymol (118.3%. It was shown that sufficiently high amount of thymol can be loaded into both PLA monolith and film using SSI after only 2 h (10.0% and 6.6%, respectively. Monolith and film of PLA impregnated with thymol could be suitable for active food packaging and sterile medical disposables.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A CL-IMPREGNATED ACTIVATED CARBON FOR ENTRAINED-FLOW CAPTURE OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efforts to discern the role of an activated carbon's surface functional groups on the adsorption of elemental mercury [Hg(0)] and mercuric chloride demonstrated that chlorine (Cl) impregnation of a virgin activated carbon using dilute solutions of hydrogen chloride leads to incre...

  20. Iron oxide impregnated filter paper (Pi test): a review of its development and methodological research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chardon, W.J.; Menon, R.G.; Chien, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Iron oxide impregnated filter paper (FeO paper) has been used to study the availability of phosphorus (P) to plants and algae, P desorption kinetics and P dynamics in the field. Since its initial development a number of differences in the method of preparation of the paper and its application have b

  1. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali Imran, A.; Bramer, Eduard A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Brem, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two modes: in-situ catalytic pyrolysis and post

  2. Anti-biofilm and cytotoxicity activity of impregnated dressings with silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velázquez-Velázquez, Jorge Luis [Laboratorio de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, UASLP (Mexico); Santos-Flores, Andrés; Araujo-Meléndez, Javier [Servicio de Epidemiología del Hospital Central “Dr. Ignacio Morones Prieto”, San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Sánchez-Sánchez, Roberto; Velasquillo, Cristina [Laboratorio de Biotecnología, Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación (Mexico); González, Carmen [Laboratorio de Fisiología Celular, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, UASLP (Mexico); Martínez-Castañon, Gabriel [Maestría en Ciencias Odontológicas Facultad de Estomatología, UASLP (Mexico); Martinez-Gutierrez, Fidel, E-mail: fidel@uaslp.mx [Laboratorio de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, UASLP (Mexico)

    2015-04-01

    Infections arising from bacterial adhesion and colonization on chronic wounds are a significant healthcare problem. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) impregnated in dressing have attracted a great deal of attention as a potential solution. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the anti-biofilm activities of AgNPs impregnated in commercial dressings against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, bacteria isolated of chronic wounds from a hospital patient. The antimicrobial activity of AgNPs was tested within biofilms generated under slow fluid shear conditions using a standard bioreactor. A 2-log reduction in the number of colony-forming units of P. aeruginosa was recorded in the reactor on exposure to dressing impregnated with 250 ppm of AgNPs, diameter 9.3 ± 1.1 nm, and also showed compatibility to mammalian cells (human fibroblasts). Our study suggests that the use of dressings with AgNPs may either prevent or reduce microbial growth in the wound environment, and reducing wound bioburden may improve wound-healing outcomes. - Highlights: • Biological activities of silver nanoparticles for wound-healing purposes • Characterization of the silver nanoparticles impregnated in dressings • Reduction in the P. aeruginosa biofilm formation was statistically significant. • Compatibility to human dermal fibroblasts as the main cell type involved in the reparation • AgNPs covering the surfaces would provide great potential for prevention and treatment.

  3. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali Imran, A.; Bramer, E.A.; Seshan, K.; Brem, G.

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two modes: in-situ catalytic pyrolysis and post treatm

  4. Dry Friction and Wear Characteristics of Impregnated Graphite in a Corrosive Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Qian; YUAN Xiaoyang; ZHANG Guoyuan; DONG Guangneng; ZHAO Weigang

    2014-01-01

    Tribological properties of impregnated graphite are greatly influenced by preparation technology and working conditions and it’s highly susceptible to corrosion environmental impacts, but the experimental research about it are few. In this paper, three kinds of impregnated graphite samples are prepared with different degree of graphitization, the tribological properties of these samples in the dry friction environment and in a corrosive environment are analyzed and contrasted. The tribo-test results show that the friction coefficient of samples is reduced and the amount of wear of samples increase when the graphitization degree of samples increases in dry friction condition. While in a corrosive environment (samples are soaked N2O4), the friction coefficient and amount of wear are changed little if the graphitization degree of samples are low. If the degree of graphitization increase, the friction coefficient and amount of wear of samples increase too, the amount of wear is 2 to 3 times as the samples tested in the non-corrosive environment under pv value of 30 MPa•m/s. The impregnated graphite, which friction coefficient is stable and graphitization degree is in mid level, such #2, is more appropriate to have a work in the corrosion conditions. In this paper, preparation and tribological properties especially in corrosive environment of the impregnated graphite is studied, the research conclusion can provide an experimental and theoretical basis for the selection and process improvement of graphite materials, and also provide some important design parameters for contact seal works in a corrosive environment.

  5. Carbon dioxide capture by activated methyl diethanol amine impregnated mesoporous carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhyarini, N.; Krisnandi, Y. K.

    2017-07-01

    Activated Methyl Diethanol Amine (aMDEA) were impregnated onto the surface of the mesoporous carbon to increase carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption capacity. The mesoporous carbon was synthesized through soft template method with phloroglucinol as carbon precursor and triblock copolymer (Pluronic F127) as structure directing agent. These activated MDEA impregnated mesoporous carbon (aMDEA-MC) were characterized using various solid characterization techniques. CO2 adsorption was investigated using autoclaved-reactor in the batch system. The FTIR spectrum of aMDEA-MC had absorption peaks at 3395 cm-1 and 1031 cm-1 which are characteristic for O-H stretch and amine C-N stretch in MDEA. The elemental analyzer showed that nitrogen content on the mesoporous carbon increased after impregnation by 23 wt.%. The BET surface area and total pore volume of mesoporous carbon decreased after impregnation, 43 wt.% and 50 wt.%, respectively. The maximum CO2 adsorption capacity of aMDEA43-MC was 2.63 mmol/g (298 K, 5 psi and pure CO2). This is 64 % and 35 % higher compared to the CO2 adsorption capacity of the starting MC and also commercially available activated carbon with higher surface area. All the results suggest that MDEA-MC is a promising adsorbent for CO2 capture.

  6. ESTIMATION CRITERIA FOR DEGREE OF PAPER-IMPREGNATED INSULATED POWER CABLE AGEING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Bezprozvannych

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Correlation between parameters characterizing mechanical and thermal ageing of paper-impregnated insulation of medium voltage power cables is revealed. On the basis of linear and exponential regression analysis at confidence coefficient of 0.95, critical values of dielectric loss tangent of wrapping and phase insulation corresponding to the cable life termination are found.

  7. Environmental Aspects of Use of Impregnating Compositions for Protection the Asphalt Concrete Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia A. Ubaskina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the effect of climatic factors on the wear of the roadway. Also presents the calculation of emissions of harmful exhaust components in the atmosphere. The application of the impregnating composition to increase the life of maintenance-free operation of the roadway while reducing impact of road construction and materials to the environment.

  8. THEORETICAL STUDY OF CO2:N2 ADSORPTION IN FAUJASITE IMPREGNATED WITH MONOETHANOLAMINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. O. Lima

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMany efforts have been made to develop amine-based solid adsorbents for capture of CO2 by adsorption. Compared with the traditional process of absorption in aqueous solutions of amines, the adsorbents with amine immobilized in solids generally result in processes with lower capital and energy costs. The literature contains some experimental studies of CO2 adsorption in impregnated materials; however, few studies are devoted to the theoretical interpretation of this system in terms of CO2 capture for post-combustion (N2 mixture with a low partial pressure of CO2. Therefore, this study investigates the adsorption of a CO2:N2 mixture on zeolite NaX impregnated with monoethanolamine (MEA, using molecular simulation. A model of NaX impregnated with MEA was proposed and the adsorption of a 15:85 (CO2:N2 mixture was investigated based on the Monte Carlo method. The simulation of the MEA impregnated zeolite at 25 ˚C predicted higher CO2 selectivity and significant improvement in the heat of adsorption. Unfortunately, the adsorption heat improvement did not translate into corresponding increases in the amount of adsorbed CO2. Moreover, MEA concentrations higher than 12 wt% hindered the adsorption of CO2molecules. An explanation for the results in terms of occupied volumes and interaction energies is presented.

  9. Bacterial Adhesion Forces to Ag-Impregnated Contact Lens Cases and Transmission to Contact Lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, Wenwen; Busscher, Henk J.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To measure adhesion forces of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Serratia marcescens to a rigid contact lens (CL), standard polypropylene, and Ag-impregnated lens cases using atomic force microscopy and determine bacterial transmission from lens case to CL. Methods: Adhesion

  10. Effect of two cleaning processes for bone allografts on gentamicin impregnation and in vitro antibiotic release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coraça-Huber, D C; Hausdorfer, J; Fille, M; Steidl, M; Nogler, M

    2013-06-01

    Bone allografts are a useful and sometimes indispensable tool for the surgeon to repair bone defects. Microbial contamination is a major reason for discarding allografts from bone banks. To improve the number of safe allografts, we suggest chemical cleaning of the grafts followed by antibiotic impregnation. Comparison of two chemical cleaning processes for bone allografts aiming for antibiotic impregnation and consequently delivery rates in vitro. Bone chips of 5-10 mm were prepared from human femoral heads. Two cleaning methods (cleaning A and cleaning B) based on solutions containing hydrogen peroxide, paracetic acid, ethanol and biological detergent were carried out and compared. After the cleaning processes, the bone chips were impregnated with gentamicin. Bacillus subtilis bioassay was used to determine the gentamicin release after intervals of 1-7 days. Differences were compared with non-parametric Mann-Whitney U tests. The zones of inhibition obtained from the bone grafts cleaned with both cleaning processes were similar between the groups. The concentration of the released antibiotic was decreasing gradually over time, following a similar pattern for both groups. The cleaning procedure A as well as the cleaning procedure B for bone allografts allowed the impregnation with gentamicin powder in the same concentrations in both groups. The delivery of gentamicin was similar for both groups. Both cleaning procedures were easy to be carried out, making them suitable for routine use at the bone banks.

  11. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THREE POLYSTYRENE IMPREGNATED INDONESIAN WOOD SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurwati Hadjib

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The disadvantage of  fast-growing species is  that they have inferior physical and mechanical properties. Polystyrene impregnation can be applied to improve physical and mechanical properties. Wood samples, which were dried  until 10% moisture content were put into impregnating tank and vacuum pressured  at 20-mm Hg  for  two hours. During  the gradual release of  vacuum, styrene monomers,  vinyl acetate  monomers  and  terburyl-peroxide catalyst was streamed  into  the tank. Afterwards, the pressure inside the tank was allowed to decrease to 500 mm Hg and kept for 60 minutes. Wood samples which had been impregnated were subsequently immersed in water, then wrapped in aluminum foils and put in the oven for 24 hours at 60°C. The samples were then tested for the polymer loading and their physical and mechanical properties. The results showed that the polymer loadings in wood plastics with the species  of origin (i.e. consecutively sengon, pine and rubber wood were 118%, 72% and 44%, respectively. Impregnation with polystyrene  (copolymer of styrene and vinyl acetate monomers could improve the physical and mechanical properties of wood plastics, i.e.  specific gravity, moisture content, water absorption,  shrinkage/ swelling, compression parallelto the wood grain, MOR and MOE. Greater  use of vinyl acetate decreased physical and mechanical properties.

  12. Removal of lanthanum and gadolinium from nitrate medium using Aliquat-336 impregnated onto Amberlite XAD-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sofany, E A

    2008-05-30

    Aliquat-336 in benzene was supported on Amberlite XAD-4 crosslinked polystyrene resin. The use of XAD-4 impregnated with Aliquat-336 resin for removal of lanthanum(III) and gadolinium(III) from nitrate medium was carried out using batch technique. Various parameters affecting the uptake of these metal ions such as contact time, metal ion concentrations, V/m and pH value were separately studied. Effect of temperature on the equilibrium distribution values has been studied to evaluate the changes in standard thermodynamic quantities. A comparison of kinetic models applied to the adsorption rate data was evaluated for Lagergren first order, the pseudo second order and Morris-Weber kinetic models. From the results, both pseudo second order and intraparticle diffusion models were found to best correlate the experimental rate data. The capacity of the impregnated resin for both lanthanum(III) and gadolinium(III) was found to be 4.73 and 4.44 mg/g. From the results, impregnation of Aliquat-336 onto Amberlite XAD-4 provides an efficient impregnated resin for the removal of lanthanum(III) and gadolinium(III) from 0.1M nitrate aqueous solution.

  13. Impregnated membranes for direct methanol fuel cells at high methanol concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, M.H.; Schwarz, Alexander; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Wessling, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Sulfonated poly(phthalazinone ether ketone) (SPPEK) impregnated Solupor® microporous film (SPPEK–PE) and pure SPPEK membranes with two different ion-exchange capacities (IECs) were prepared and characterized for use in DMFC applications. Swelling, proton conductivity, diffusion and DMFC experiments

  14. Hydrocarbon geochemistry of cold seeps in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, T.D.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Hostettler, F.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Orange, D.L.; Martin, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Samples from four geographically and tectonically discrete cold seeps named Clam Flat, Clamfield, Horseshoe Scarp South, and Tubeworm City, within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary were analyzed for their hydrocarbon content. The sediment contains gaseous hydrocarbons and CO2, as well as high molecular weight aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons with various combinations of thermogenic and biogenic contributions from petroleum, marine, and terrigenous sources. Of particular interest is the cold seep site at Clamfield which is characterized by the presence of thermogenic hydrocarbons including oil that can likely be correlated with oil-saturated strata at Majors Creek near Davenport, CA, USA. At Clam Flat, the evidence for thermogenic hydrocarbons is equivocal. At Horseshoe Scarp South and Tubeworm City, hydrocarbon gases, mainly methane, are likely microbial in origin. These varied sources of hydrocarbon gases highlight the diverse chemical systems that appear at cold seep communities. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrocarbon-enhanced particulate filter regeneration via microwave ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Brown, David B.

    2010-02-02

    A regeneration method for a particulate filter includes estimating a quantity of particulate matter trapped within the particulate filter, comparing the quantity of particulate matter to a predetermined quantity, heating at least a portion of the particulate filter to a combustion temperature of the particulate matter, and introducing hydrocarbon fuel to the particulate filter. The hydrocarbon fuel facilitates combustion of the particulate matter to regenerate the particulate filter.

  16. Terpene hydrocarbons in Pimpinella anisum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, G; Reichling, J; Martin, R; Becker, H

    1986-06-20

    The essential oil of anise (fruits and shoots) was investigated focusing on the composition of the hydrocarbon fraction. Several sesquiterpenes were identified by GC-MS and the relative composition of the fractions was established by GC analysis. gamma-Himachalene and the diterpene neophytadiene were isolated by TLC and column chromatography at low temperatures. Their structures were determined by MS and NMR including 1H-1H correlated COSY and NOE experiments.

  17. Gaseous Hydrocarbon Separations Using Functionalized Ionic Liquids

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The functionalization of the side chains on the cation or the anion of an ionic liquid is a common approach to tailor its properties for different processes including the separation of gases. In this paper, we present the current state of the art concerning the usage of ionic liquids for hydrocarbon separations. We also show how the functionalization of ionic liquids or the appropriate anion/cation combinations can contribute to the increase of the performance of the ionic liquids for the sep...

  18. Removal of vapor-phase elemental mercury from stack emissions with sulfur-impregnated activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Gharibi, Hamed; Yunesian, Masud; Rastkari, Noushin

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review of high-quality, relevant original research articles existing in the literature was conducted to comprehensively explore the efficiency of Hg11 capture from stack emissions by sulfur-impregnated vs. virgin ACs. Our systematic overview suggested that significantly higher amounts of Hg0 are absorbed by sulfurimpregnated ACs than by virgin ones ( 1.5-32 times higher, based on the applied operational conditions). The main reason for this is because Hg11 capture by virgin ACs follows a physisorption mechanism, whereas that by sulfur-impregnated ACs occurs from a combination of physisorption of Hg11 on carbon texture and chemical reaction between Hg0 and impregnated sulfur, with subsequent formation of HgS. Temperature increased the Hg0 adsorption capacity of virgin ACs, especially when temperatures exceeded 100 oc. For sulfur-impregnated ACs, increasing the temperature up to I 00 oc increased the Hg0 adsorption capacity by enhancing the chemisorption of Hg0 capture. A further increase in temperature enhanced the efficiency of ACs that were impregnated with Sat higher temperatures (600 °C, for instance). This mainly resulted from production of stronger bonding of sulfur to carbon at higher impregnation temperatures and also from a more even distribution of sulfur in the carbon matrix. The authors of different papers reported different results with respect to whether there is an effect of initial Hg11 concentration on AC adsorption capacity. The authors of two studies could find no such etl'ect. The predominant evidence, however, favors the view that increased Hg0 adsorption capacities exist at higher inlet Hg0 concentrations. Such behavior is attributed to faster kinetics of Hg0 capture and an enhanced higher driving force at higher initial Hg0 inlet concentrations. Results from reviewed studies also indicated that the optimum SIC ratio and sulfur content are 2/1 and I 0-20%, respectively. Surface area has a less significant impact on Hg11

  19. Catalytic ozonation of propanal using wood fly ash and metal oxide nanoparticle impregnated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, James R; Ganagavaram, Rangan; Kolar, Praveen; Teja, Amyn; Xu, Chunbao

    2008-01-15

    Catalytic ozonation of propanal at ambient temperatures (23-25 degrees C) was investigated by varying propanal and ozone concentrations and catalyst type. The catalysts tested included wood fly ash (WFA), magnetically separated ash, synthetic hematite and magnetite, and metal oxide nanoparticle impregnated activated carbon and peanut hull char. A power law model independent of ozone concentration for WFA (r(w), moles g(-1) s(-1)) and magnetite (r(m)) were, respectively, r(w) = k'(w) C(R(0.89)) and r(m) = k'(m)C(R(1.55)), where kw, and k'(m) were 2.36 x 10(-6) g(-1) s(-1) (moles)(-0.11) (m3)(0.89) and 6.5 x 10(-4) g(-1) s(-1) (moles)(-0.55) (m3)(1.55), respectively (5-15 ppmv). Magnetite and hematite present in the WFA were theorized to be the primary active sites, since magnetically separated WFA had a significantly higher reaction rate (approximately 12x, mol m(-2) s(-1)) than that of WFA. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated a qualitative increase in magnetite and hematite in the magnetically separated ash, and synthetic magnetite and hematite had reaction rates >80x and 200x that of WFA or activated carbon (surface area basis). Supercritical deposition of hematite on/in peanut hull char successfully generated a porous, pelleted catalystfrom an agricultural residue capable of oxidizing propanal at rates 12x activated carbon and similar to commercially available catalysts (per mass basis). Water vapor significantly increased the propanal reaction rate when using wood fly ash and activated carbon.

  20. Topic usage of kaolin-impregnated gauze as a hemostatic in tonsillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Delgado, Maria Estela; Kishi-Sutto, Celina Verónica; Albores de la-Riva, Xellic Nallely; Rosales-Cortes, Manuel; Gamboa-Sánchez, Paulino

    2014-12-01

    The main postoperative complications after tonsillectomy are due to bleeding, and effective hemostasis may lead to a reduction of overall postoperative morbidity. This study was undertaken to determine the efficacy and safety of a novel kaolin-based hemostatic dressing in tonsillectomy. A pilot, single-blind, open label study was performed in patients aged 3-20 y with history of chronic or hypertrophic tonsillitis. Cold dissection tonsillectomy (CDT) + ligature was performed by the same surgeon. Hemostasis on each tonsillar fossa was achieved using kaolin-impregnated gauze (KG; study group) or standard surgical cotton gauze (CG; control). Time to complete hemostasis, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, pain score, analgesic use, and return to normal diet and activity were recorded for all children. A total of 230 patients with a mean age of 8.0 y (138 in the study group and 92 in the control group) were included in the study. Both operative time and intraoperative blood loss were significantly reduced in the KG group (P < 0.0001) versus the CG group. At 5 min, 84.8% patients using the KG successfully achieved complete hemostasis versus 34.8% in the CG group where standard gauze controlled bleeding only partially. Results show significantly less pain for the KG group at 6- and 12-h postoperative when compared with the CG group (P < 0.0001). Also, the KG group required less analgesic medications, returned to normal diet and normal activities faster than the CG group (P < 0.01). Preliminary findings show that the KG is effective and safe in managing surgical bleeding after tonsillectomy. In addition to rapid bleeding control, the dressing causes minimal inflammation and pain and allows patients to quickly return to normal activities. This novel dressing is a promising tool for ear, nose and throat surgical hemostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Concept for Hydrogen-Impregnated Nanofiber/Photovoltaic Cargo Stowage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Toups, Larry David; Howard, Robert L.; Poffenberger, Jaso Eric

    2012-01-01

    A stowage system was conceived that consists of collapsible, reconfigurable stowage bags, rigid polyethylene or metal inserts, stainless-steel hooks, flexible photovoltaic materials, and webbing curtains that provide power generation, thermal stabilization, impact resistance, work/sleeping surfaces, and radiation protection to spaceflight hardware and crew members. Providing materials to the Lunar surface is costly from both a mass and a volume standpoint. Most of the materials that will be transferred to other planets or celestial bodies will not be returned to the Earth. In developing a plan to reconfigure pressurized logistics modules, it was determined that there was a requirement to be able to utilize the interior volume of these modules and transform them from Logistics Modules to Storage/Living Quarters. Logistics-to-living must re-utilize stowage bags and the structures that support them to construct living spaces, partitions, furniture, protective shelters from solar particle events, galactic cosmic radiation, and workspaces. In addition to reusing these logistics items for development of the interior living spaces, these items could also be reused outside the habitable volumes to build berms that protect assets from secondary blast ejecta, to define pathways, to stabilize high traffic areas, to protect against dust contamination, to secure assets to mobility elements, to provide thermal protection, and to create other types of protective shelters for surface experiments. Unique features of this innovation include hydrogen-impregnated nano fibers encapsulated in a polyethelyne coating that act as radiation shielding, flexible solar collection cells that can be connected together with cells from other bags via the webbing walls to create a solar array, and the ability to reconfigure each bag to satisfy multiple needs.

  2. Invited article: physical and chemical analyses of impregnated cathodes operated in a plasma environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Anita; Kulleck, James; Hill, Norm; Ohlinger, Wayne

    2008-11-01

    Destructive analyses of impregnated-cathode assemblies from an ion thruster life test were performed to characterize erosion and degradation after 30,472 h of operation. Post-test inspection of each cathode included examination of the emitter (insert), orifice plate, cathode tube, heater, anode assembly, insulator, and propellant isolator. The discharge-cathode assembly experienced significant erosion due to ion sputtering from the discharge plasma. The keeper electrode plate was removed and the heater and orifice plate were heavily eroded at the conclusion of the test. Had the test continued, these processes would likely have led to cathode failure. The discharge cathode insert experienced significant tungsten transport and temperature dependent barium oxide depletion within the matrix. Using barium depletion semiempirical relations developed by Palluel and Shroff, it is estimated that 25,000 h of operation remained in the discharge insert at the conclusion of the test. In contrast, the neutralizer insert exhibited significantly less tungsten transport and barium oxide depletion consistent with its lower current operation. The neutralizer was estimated to have 140,000 h of insert life remaining at the conclusion of the test. Neither insert had evidence of tungstate or oxide layer formation, previously known to have impeded cathode ignition and operation in similar long duration hollow-cathode tests. The neutralizer cathode was in excellent condition at the conclusion of the test with the exception of keeper tube erosion from direct plume-ion impingement, a previously underappreciated life-limiting mechanism. The most critical finding from the test was a power dependent deposition process within the neutralizer-cathode orifice. The process manifested at low-power operation and led to the production of energetic ions in the neutralizer plume, a potential life-limiting process for the neutralizer. Subsequent return of the engine and neutralizer operation to full

  3. Synthesis of light hydrocarbons from CO hydrogenation over Co_xMn_(0.06)/SiO_2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A series of CoxMn0.06/SiO2 catalysts were prepared by an impregnation method for catalytic hydrogenation of CO to Light Hydrocarbons(LHCs).The catalysts were characterized by XRD,SEM,N2 adsorption and NH3-TPD techniques.Catalyst activities were evaluated in a high-pressure micro reactor.The results show that the performance of the catalysts was significantly affected by the amount of Co loaded onto the substrate.The activity of the Co0.10Mn0.06/SiO2 catalyst was stable with time-on-stream.The CO conversion ...

  4. Apparatus and method for rapid separation and detection of hydrocarbon fractions in a fluid stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluder, Charles S.; Storey, John M.; Lewis, Sr., Samuel A.

    2013-01-22

    An apparatus and method for rapid fractionation of hydrocarbon phases in a sample fluid stream are disclosed. Examples of the disclosed apparatus and method include an assembly of elements in fluid communication with one another including one or more valves and at least one sorbent chamber for removing certain classifications of hydrocarbons and detecting the remaining fractions using a detector. The respective ratios of hydrocarbons are determined by comparison with a non separated fluid stream.

  5. Endocrine alterations around the time of abortion in mares impregnated with donkey or horse semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeta, M; Zarco, L

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor and compare the concentrations of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), progesterone and estrone sulphate during normal and failed pregnancies of mares impregnated with donkey or horse semen, relating their individual endocrine profiles to the time of pregnancy loss, and to the histopathologic findings in the aborted fetuses and placenta. Mares (n=54) were used, 32 of them impregnated with donkey semen and 22 impregnated with horse semen. Blood samples were taken twice a week from Day 35 to 120 of pregnancy. Ultrasonographic observations of the fetus were carried out twice a week. The incidence of abortion in mares impregnated with donkey semen (30%) was greater (Phorse semen. From Week 8 to the end of the sampling period, the mean progesterone concentrations of mares with normal mule pregnancies were less (Phorse fetus occurred in mares with lesser progesterone and very low eCG concentrations, and were classified as caused by luteal impairment secondary to eCG deficiency; estrone sulphate concentrations were less than normal or absent before these abortions. Two mares aborted after several weeks of low progesterone concentrations in the presence of eCG concentrations that were normal for mule pregnancies, suggesting primary luteal deficiency. In three mares carrying a mule fetus, the concentrations of progesterone and estrone sulphate decreased abruptly immediately before fetal death, suggesting luteolysis due to active prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2alpha) secretion. It is concluded that the greater incidence of abortion in mares impregnated by donkeys is associated with different kinds of luteal malfunction. Deficiency of eCG may be a primary cause of many of these cases, either by failing to stimulate enough luteal progesterone secretion and/or by failing to protect the corpora lutea (CL) of pregnancy from endogenous PGF2alpha secretion.

  6. Modeling boron separation from water by activated carbon, impregnated and unimpregnated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristic, M.; Grbavcic, Z. [Belgrade Univ., Belgrade (BA). Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy; Marinovic, V. [Belgrade Univ., Belgrade (BA). Ist. of Technical Science of the Serbian Academy of Science and Arts

    2000-10-01

    The sorption of boron from boric acid water solution by impregnated activated carbon has been studied. Barium, calcium, mannitol, tartaric acid and citric acid were used as chemical active materials. All processes were performed in a chromatographic continuous system at 22{sup 0} C. Experimental results show that activated carbon impregnated with mannitol is effective in removing boron from water. The separation of boron from the wastewater from a factory for producing enameled dishes by activated carbon impregnated with mannitol was also performed. Two models have been applied to describe published and new data on boron sorption by impregnated activated carbon. Both of them are based on the analysis of boron concentration response to the step input function. This led to a mathematical model that quite successfully described impregnation effects on adsorption capacities. [Italian] E' stato studiato l'assorbimento del boro, mediante carbone attivo impregnato, da soluzioni acquose di acido borico. Quali materiali chimici attivi sono stati utilizzati: bario, calcio, mannitolo, acido tartarico ed acido citrico. Tutti i processi sono stati condotti in un sistema cromatografico continuo a 22{sup 0}C. I risultati sperimentali mostrano che il carbone attivo impregnato con mannitolo e' efficace nella rimozione del boro dall'acqua. E' anche stata effettuata la separazione del boro da acque di scarico di un'industria per la produzione di piatti smaltati mediante carbone attivo impregnato con mannitolo. Sono stati applicati due modelli per descrivere i risultati, pubblicati e nuovi, dell'assorbimento del boro mediante carbone attivo impregnato. Entrambi sono basati sull'analisi della risposta alla concentrazione di boro successivamente incrementata a stadi. Cio' porta ad un modello matematico che descrive abbastanza soddisfacentemente gli effetti dell'impregnazione sulla capacita' di assorbimento.

  7. Development and testing of a silver chloride-impregnated activated carbon for aqueous removal and sequestration of iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanfil, T; Moro, E C; Serkiz, S M

    2005-11-01

    Silver impregnated activated carbon (SIAC) can effectively remove iodide from water and sequester it in the form of AgI(s)). Given the extremely insoluble nature of AgI(s), the spent SIAC can be safely disposed of in land burial facilities. However, when the molar ratio of silver to iodide is greater than one, which is typical for waters contaminated with iodide, unreacted silver on the SIAC leached into solution with decreasing pH. To minimize silver leaching, a silver chloride impregnated activated carbon (SIAC-Cl) was produced from a SIAC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses confirmed the presence of silver chloride on the SIAC-Cl. Batch isotherm experiments conducted at pH 5, 7 and 8 showed that the iodide uptakes of SIAC-Cl and SIAC were similar and independent of pH. SEM/EDX and XRD analyses after reaction with iodide indicated that chloride was exchanged with iodide to form AgI(s) on the SIAC-Cl. Batch leaching experiments demonstrated that leaching of silver from SIAC-Cl under acidic conditions was significantly lower than from SIAC. The performance of SIAC and SIAC-Cl for practical applications was evaluated by conducting column experiments using a radioactively contaminated groundwater that included 129I. SIAC and SIAC-Cl showed similar degrees of iodide uptake. However, a significant degree of silver leaching, about 50% of the total silver, occurred from the SIAC during the course of the column experiments, whereas silver leaching from SIAC-Cl was remarkably low (only 6% of the total silver). SIAC-Cl appears to be a suitable getter material to remove and sequester iodide from contaminated waste streams.

  8. IMPREGNATION OF 2-MERCAPTOBENZOTHIAZOLE ON DIATOMACEOUS EARTH AND ITS APPLICATION AS MERCURY(II ADSORBEN IN AQUEOUS MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Purwanto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An adsorbent was prepared by impregnating 2-mercaptobenzo-thiazole onto polystirene treated diatomaceous earth support. This adsorbent was then applied to adsorb mercury(II in aqueous medium. The mercury(II adsorption characteristics of the adsorbent was studied by the use of the original diatomaceous earth as reference. Interaction of mercury(II and both of diatomaceous earth as well as MBT-diatomaceous were performed in a aqueous batch system to include the following parameters: (a medium acidity and (b mercury(II adsorption characteristic on MBT-diatomaceous with and without the present of other metal ions. In the present work quantification of mercury(II adsorption was done by determining the mercury concentration left in the solution after adsorption. A cold vapour-generation atomic absorption spectroscopy technic was used in this determination.The experiment results show, that the adsorption affinity of MBT-diatomaceous is higher than the original diatomaceous earth. The total adsorption energy of mercury(II for diatomaceous earth (24.702 kJ/mol and MBT-diatomaceous (46.942 kJ/mol suggest that the interaction is chemisorption. The mercury(II maximum adsorption on diatomaceous earth is obtained at pH 6, while similar adsorption on MBT-diatomaceous practically was not influenced by pH changes. The present of other metals, i.e. Fe(III, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Cd(II and Zn(II in solution does not give any appreciable influence to the adsorption affinity of MBT-diatomaceous to mercury(II; the total sum of the mercury(II adsorbed is constantly high, almost 100 %. Keyword: Impregnation, MBT-diatomaceous, adsorption, mercury(II

  9. Treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environment through bioremediation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kriti; Chandra, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    Bioremediation play key role in the treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated environment. Exposure of petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment occurs either due to human activities or accidentally and cause environmental pollution. Petroleum hydrocarbon cause many toxic compounds which are potent immunotoxicants and carcinogenic to human being. Remedial methods for the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment include various physiochemical and biological methods. Due to the negative consequences caused by the physiochemical methods, the bioremediation technology is widely adapted and considered as one of the best technology for the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment. Bioremediation utilizes the natural ability of microorganism to degrade the hazardous compound into simpler and non hazardous form. This paper provides a review on the role of bioremediation in the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment, discuss various hazardous effects of petroleum hydrocarbon, various factors influencing biodegradation, role of various enzymes in biodegradation and genetic engineering in bioremediation.

  10. Nestmate recognition in social insects and the role of hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; D'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    A unique and critical analysis of the wealth of research conducted on the biology, biochemistry and chemical ecology of the rapidly growing field of insect cuticular hydrocarbons. Authored by leading experts in their respective fields, the twenty chapters show the complexity that has been...... discovered in the nature and role of hydrocarbons in entomology. Covers, in great depth, aspects of chemistry (structures, qualitative and quantitative analysis), biochemistry (biosynthesis, molecular biology, genetics, evolution), physiology, taxonomy, and ecology. Clearly presents to the reader the array...... of data, ideas, insights and historical disagreements that have been accumulated during the past half century. An emphasis is placed on the role of insect hydrocarbons in chemical communication, especially among the social insects. Includes the first review on the chemical synthesis of insect hydrocarbons...

  11. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Esther Sørensen; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U.......S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPAPAH16) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). The chemical fingerprinting strategy proposed in this study included four tiers: (i) qualitative analysis of GC-FID chromatograms, (ii) comparison of the chemical composition of both un-substituted and alkyl-substituted polycyclic....... Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl...

  12. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  13. Adsorption and oxidation of SO₂in a fixed-bed reactor using activated carbon produced from oxytetracycline bacterial residue and impregnated with copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Baohua; Yu, Lei; Song, Hanning; Li, Yaqi; Zhang, Peng; Guo, Bin; Duan, Erhong

    2015-02-01

    The SO₂removal ability (including adsorption and oxidation ability) of activated carbon produced from oxytetracycline bacterial residue and impregnated with copper was investigated. The activated carbon produced from oxytetracycline bacterial residue and modified with copper was characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The effects of the catalysts, SO₂concentration, weight hourly space velocity, and temperature on the SO₂adsorption and oxidation activity were evaluated. Activated carbon produced from oxytetracycline bacterial residue and used as catalyst supports for copper oxide catalysts provided high catalytic activity for the adsorbing and oxidizing of SO₂from flue gases.

  14. Research on cycle life of cadmium nickel battery for spacecraft by electrochemical impregnation method%电化学浸渍法制备空间镉镍电池循环寿命研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    呙成; 乔学荣; 李永利; 邓桂江

    2013-01-01

    镍电极的填充方式主要有化学浸渍、电化学浸渍两种,采用电化学浸渍工艺制成的镍电极具有活性物质利用率高、电极能量保持能力强、电极使用寿命长等优点,而长寿命是航天器用储能电源最重要的一个指标.国内对于电化学浸渍法的研究取得了较大进步,但还鲜有在轨运行的相关报道.对采用电化学浸渍法制备的空间镉镍电池,模拟空间在轨运行的充放电制度,对电池进行长期的循环寿命测试,为电化学浸渍法在空间型号上的应用提供数据支撑.%The filling ways of nickel electrode mainly include chemical impregnation and electrochemical impregnation.The nickel electrode prepared by electrochemical impregnation process has the characteristics of high utilization of active material and electrode energy retention ability,and long service life.Of all these characteristics,long service life is one of the most important indicators of the storage power for space application.The study on electrochemical impregnation method have made great progress in the domestic,but the application in space is seldom reported.The long-term cycle life of cadmium nickel battery for space application prepared by electrochemical impregnation was studied,and in-orbit charging and discharging system was simulated.This provide a powerful data support for the space application.

  15. The effect of silanated and impregnated fiber on the tensile strength of E-glass fiber reinforced composite retainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niswati Fathmah Rosyida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fiber reinforced composite (FRC is can be used in dentistry as an orthodontic retainer. FRC  still has a limitations because of to  a weak bonding between fibers and matrix. Purpose: This research was aimed to evaluate the effect of silane as coupling agent and fiber impregnation on the tensile strength of E-glass FRC. Methods: The samples of this research were classified into two groups each of which consisted of three subgroups, namely the impregnated fiber group (original, 1x addition of silane, 2x addition of silane and the non-impregnated fiber group (original, 1x addition of silane, 2x addition of silane. The tensile strength was measured by a universal testing machine. The averages of the tensile strength in all groups then were compared by using Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney post hoc tests. Results: The averages of the tensile strength (MPa in the impregnated fiber group can be known as follow; original impregnated fiber (26.60±0.51, 1x addition of silane (43.38±4.42, and 2x addition of silane (36.22±7.23. The averages of tensile strength (MPa in the non-impregnated fiber group can also be known as follow; original non-impregnated fiber (29.38±1.08, 1x addition of silane (29.38±1.08, 2x addition of silane (12.48±2.37. Kruskal Wallis test showed that there was a significant difference between the impregnated fiber group and the non-impregnated fiber group (p<0.05. Based on the results of post hoc test, it is also known that the addition of silane in the impregnated fiber group had a significant effect on the increasing of the tensile strength of E-glass FRC (p<0.05, while the addition of silane in the non-impregnated fiber group had a significant effect on the decreasing of the tensile strength of E-glass FRC. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the addition of silane in the non-silanated fiber group can increase the tensile strength of E-glass FRC, but the addition of silane in the silanated fiber group can

  16. Source apportionment of hydrocarbons measured in the Eagle Ford shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, G. S.; Schade, G. W.

    2016-12-01

    The rapid development of unconventional oil and gas in the US has led to hydrocarbon emissions that are yet to be accurately quantified. Emissions from the Eagle Ford Shale in southern Texas, one of the most productive shale plays in the U.S., have received little attention due to a sparse air quality monitoring network, thereby limiting studies of air quality within the region. We use hourly atmospheric hydrocarbon and meteorological data from three locations in the Eagle Ford Shale to assess their sources. Data are available from the Texas commission of environmental quality (TCEQ) air quality monitors in Floresville, a small town southeast of San Antonio and just north of the shale area; and Karnes city, a midsize rural city in the center of the shale. Our own measurements were carried out at a private ranch in rural Dimmit County in southern Texas from April to November of 2015. Air quality monitor data from the TCEQ were selected for the same time period. Non-negative matrix factorization in R (package NMF) was used to determine likely sources and their contributions above background. While the TCEQ monitor data consisted mostly of hydrocarbons, our own data include both CO, CO2, O3, and NOx. We find that rural Dimmit County hydrocarbons are dominated by oil and gas development sources, while central shale hydrocarbons at the TCEQ monitoring sites have a mix of sources including car traffic. However, oil and gas sources also dominate hydrocarbons at Floresville and Karnes City. Toxic benzene is nearly exclusively due to oil and gas development sources, including flaring, which NMF identifies as a major hydrocarbon source in Karnes City. Other major sources include emissions of light weight alkanes (C2-C5) from raw natural gas emissions and a larger set of alkanes (C2-C10) from oil sources, including liquid storage tanks.

  17. Biodegradation testing of hydrophobic chemicals in mixtures at low concentrations – covering the chemical space of petroleum hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi; Hammershøj, Rikke Høst; Mayer, Philipp

    Petroleum products are complex mixtures of varying composition containing thousands of hydrocarbons each with their own physicochemical properties and degradation kinetics. One approach for risk assessment of these products is therefore to group the hydrocarbons by carbon number and chemical class...... i.e. hydrocarbon blocks. However, the biodegradation kinetic data varies in quantity and quality for the different hydrocarbon blocks, hampering the characterization of their fate properties. In this study, biodegradation kinetics of a large number of hydrocarbons aiming to cover the chemical space...... of petroleum hydrocarbons, were therefore determined at ng/L to µg/L concentrations in surface water, seawater and activated sludge filtrate. Two hydrocarbon mixtures were prepared, comprising a total of 53 chemicals including paraffins, naphthenics and aromatic hydrocarbons from C8 to C20. Passive dosing from...

  18. Hydrocarbon Leak Detection Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT is proposing the development of a sensor to detect the presence of hydrocarbons in turbopump Inter-Propellant Seals (IPS). The purpose of the IPS is to prevent...

  19. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  20. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  1. Electrochemical decomposition of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Gerard Anthony

    1993-01-01

    This work involves the characterisation of the electrochemical decomposition of chlorinated hydrocarbons. A variety of methods were employed involving the use of catalytic reagents to enhance the rate at which chlorinated organic compounds are reduced. The first reagent used was oxygen which was electrochemically reduced to superoxide in nonaqueous solvents. Superoxide is a reactive intermediate and decomposes chlorinated hydrocarbons. However it was found that since the rate of reaction betw...

  2. Aliphatic hydrocarbons of the fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Review of studies of aliphatic hydrocarbons which have been recently detected in the spores of phytopathogenic fungi, and are found to be structurally very similar to the alkanes of higher plants. It appears that the hydrocarbon components of the few mycelial and yeast forms reported resemble the distribution found in bacteria. The occurence and distribution of these compounds in the fungi is discussed. Suggested functional roles of fungal spore alkanes are presented.

  3. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  4. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1992-09-30

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the {open_quotes}Eleana Formation{close_quotes} are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock.

  5. Gaseous Hydrocarbon Separations Using Functionalized Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura Leila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The functionalization of the side chains on the cation or the anion of an ionic liquid is a common approach to tailor its properties for different processes including the separation of gases. In this paper, we present the current state of the art concerning the usage of ionic liquids for hydrocarbon separations. We also show how the functionalization of ionic liquids or the appropriate anion/cation combinations can contribute to the increase of the performance of the ionic liquids for the separation of gaseous hydrocarbons – either by improving the capacity of the ionic liquid to absorb a given gas or by increasing the selectivity towards a particular hydrocarbon. Original results concerning the usage of olefin-complexing metal salts of lithium (I, nickel (II and copper (II dissolved in ionic liquids for selectively absorbing light olefins are presented. It is observed that the absorption capacity of an imidazolium-based ionic liquid is doubled by the addition of a copper (II salt. This result is compared with the effect of the functionalization of the ionic liquid and the advantages and difficulties of the two approaches are analyzed.

  6. Thermal Adsorption Processing Of Hydrocarbon Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudad H. Al.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The raw materials of secondary catalytic processes must be pre-refined. Among these refining processes are the deasphalting and demetallization including their thermo adsorption or thermo-contact adsorption variety. In oil processing four main processes of thermo-adsorption refining of hydrocarbon residues are used ART Asphalt Residual Treating - residues deasphaltizing 3D Discriminatory Destructive Distillation developed in the US ACT Adsorption-Contact Treatment and ETCC Express Thermo-Contact Cracking developed in Russia. ART and ACT are processes with absorbers of lift type reactor while 3D and ETCC processes are with an adsorbing reactor having ultra-short contact time of the raw material with the adsorbent. In all these processes refining of hydrocarbon residues is achieved by partial Thermo-destructive transformations of hydrocarbons and hetero-atomic compounds with simultaneous adsorption of the formed on the surface of the adsorbents resins asphaltene and carboids as well as metal- sulphur - and nitro-organic compounds. Demetallized and deasphalted light and heavy gas oils or their mixtures are a quality raw material for secondary deepening refining processes catalytic and hydrogenation cracking etc. since they are characterized by low coking ability and low content of organometallic compounds that lead to irreversible deactivation of the catalysts of these deepening processes.

  7. Thermal-mechanical Properties of Epoxy-impregnated Bi-2212/Ag Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Pei [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wang, Yang [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Godeke, Arno [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ye, Liyang [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Flanagan, Gene [Muons Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Shen, Tengming [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-11-26

    Knowledge of the thermal-mechanical properties of epoxy/superconductor/insulation composite is important for designing, fabricating, and operating epoxy impregnated high field superconducting magnets near their ultimate potentials. We report measurements of the modulus of elasticity, Poisson’s ratio, and the coefficient of thermal contraction of epoxy-impregnated composite made from the state-of-the-art powder-in-tube multifilamentary Ag/Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox round wire at room temperature and cryogenic temperatures. Stress-strain curves of samples made from single-strand and Rutherford cables were tested under both monotonic and cyclic compressive loads, with single strands insulated using a thin TiO2 insulation coating and the Rutherford cable insulated with a braided ceramic sleeve.

  8. Feasibility and Manufacturing Considerations of Hemp Textile Fabric Utilized in Pre-Impregnated Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osusky, Gregory

    This study investigates the fabrication and mechanical properties of semicontinuous, hemp fiber reinforced thermoset composites. This research determines if off-the-shelf refined woven hemp fabric is suitable as composite reinforcement using resin pre-impregnated method. Industrial hemp was chosen for its low cost, low resource input as a crop, supply chain from raw product to refined textile and biodegradability potential. Detail is placed on specimen fabrication considerations. Lab testing of tension and compression is conducted and optimization considerations are examined. The resulting composite is limited in mechanical properties as tested. This research shows it is possible to use woven hemp reinforcement in pre-impregnated processed composites, but optimization in mechanical properties is required to make the process commercially practical outside niche markets.

  9. Capture of carbon dioxide by amine-impregnated as-synthesized MCM-41

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianwen Wei; Lei Liao; Yu Xiao; Pei Zhang; Yao Shi

    2010-01-01

    The novel carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorbents with a high capture efficiency were prepared through impregnating the as-synthesized MCM-41 with three kinds of amines,namely diethylenetdamine (DETA),tdethylenetetramine (TETA) and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP).The resultant samples were characterized by small angle X-ray diffraction and low temperature N2 adsorption.The synthesis way not only saves the energy or extractor to remove the template but also is environmentally friendly due to the absence of the potential pollutants such as toluene.CO2 capture was investigated in a dynamic packed column.The sample impregnated by TETA showed the highest adsorption capacity,approximately 2.22 mmol/g at 60℃ due to its highest amino-groups content among the three amines,The CO2 adsorption behavior was also investigated with the deactivation model,which showed an excellent prediction for the breakthrough curves.

  10. PENGARUH "ICON IMPREGNATED CLOTH" TERHADAP POPULASI AEDES AEGYPTI DI DAERAH PERKOTAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiarti Widiarti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation to study the effect of ICON Impregnated Cloth on Aedes aegypty population in a semi wban area was conducted at Mapagan housing estate, Ungaran subdistrict, Semarang regency. Each house was provided with a cloth made from 65% polyester fibre and 35% combed cotton, 115 x 200 cm  in size. This cloth was impregnated with Icon at a dosage of 0,04 g a,i.lm and installed on the wall of dark, undisturbed area of bedroom, closest to mosquito breeding place. The entomological evaluation of indoor resting mosquitoes showed a significant reduction in the treated area during 2-3 months follow up whereas other parameters showed only a slight reduction, and was not significant compared to the control area.

  11. Performance of waterborne acrylic surface coatings on wood impregnated with Cu-ethanolamine preservatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Humar; M Pavlič; D Žlindra; M Tomažič; M Petrič

    2011-02-01

    Two waterborne acrylic coatings were applied on spruce wood, impregnated with two copperethanolamine containing preservatives (CuE and CuEQ), one of them (CuEQ) containing a boron compound, octanoic acid and a quaternary ammonium compound as additives. Lower contact angles and deeper penetration of both coating types were observed on CuEQ treated, compared to untreated or CuE-treated wood. Improved adhesion of coatings on CuEQ impregnated wood was exhibited as well. In general, characteristics of surface finishes on copper-ethanolamine treated wood were comparable to untreated wood. It was also shown that copper leaching from the preserved wood was significantly reduced by application of the surface finishes.

  12. Reactivity of cellulose reducing end in pyrolysis as studied by methyl glucoside-impregnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Seiji; Kawamoto, Haruo; Saka, Shiro

    2016-02-01

    For better understanding of the roles of cellulose reducing ends during thermal degradation of cellulose and wood, cellulose samples impregnated with methyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (GlcβOMe), a simple non-reducing sugar model, were pyrolyzed under N2 at relatively low temperatures of 200-280 °C. By the impregnation, cellulose was rather stabilized against discoloration and weight-loss through converting the reducing ends into the glycosides with GlcβOMe. Alternatively, polymerization and discoloration of GlcβOMe were accelerated in the presence of cellulose. A mechanism via reducing sugars as reactive intermediates formed through hydrolysis is proposed to explain these phenomena. These information would be useful to understand the interactions between cellulose and hemicellulose in wood cell wall as well as the role of the reducing ends in cellulose thermal degradation.

  13. Drug loading of polymer implants by supercritical CO2 assisted impregnation: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champeau, M; Thomassin, J-M; Tassaing, T; Jérôme, C

    2015-07-10

    Drug loaded implants also called drug-eluting implants have proven their benefits over simple implants. Among the developed manufacturing processes, the supercritical CO2 (scCO2) assisted impregnation has attracted growing attention to load Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients into polymer implants since it enables to recover a final implant free of any solvent residue and to operate under mild temperature which is suitable for processing with thermosensitive drugs. This paper is a review of the state-of-the-art and the application of the scCO2 assisted impregnation process to prepare drug-eluting implants. It introduces the process and presents its advantages for biomedical applications. The influences of the characteristics of the implied binary systems and of the experimental conditions on the drug loading are described. Then, the various current applications of this process for manufacturing drug-eluting implants are reviewed. Finally, the new emerging variations of this process are described.

  14. Capture of carbon dioxide by amine-impregnated as-synthesized MCM-41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jianwen; Liao, Lei; Xiao, Yu; Zhang, Pei; Shi, Yao

    2010-01-01

    The novel carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorbents with a high capture efficiency were prepared through impregnating the as-synthesized MCM-41 with three kinds of amines, namely diethylenetriamine (DETA), triethylenetetramine (TETA) and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP). The resultant samples were characterized by small angle X-ray diffraction and low temperature N2 adsorption. The synthesis way not only saves the energy or extractor to remove the template but also is environmentally friendly due to the absence of the potential pollutants such as toluene. CO2 capture was investigated in a dynamic packed column. The sample impregnated by TETA showed the highest adsorption capacity, approximately 2.22 mmol/g at 60 degrees C due to its highest amino-groups content among the three amines. The CO2 adsorption behavior was also investigated with the deactivation model, which showed an excellent prediction for the breakthrough curves.

  15. Waveguiding, absorption and emission properties of dye-impregnated oxidized porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro-Urrios, D. [Nanoscience Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Trento (Italy); Dpto. de Fisica Basica, University of La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ghulinyan, M.; Riboli, F.; Pavesi, L. [Nanoscience Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Trento (Italy); Capuj, N.E.; Oton, C.J. [Dpto. de Fisica Basica, University of La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Martin, I.R. [Dpto. de Fisica Fund. y Exp. Electr. y Sist., University of La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    The waveguiding, absorption and emission properties of oxidised porous silicon waveguides when impregnated with Nile Blue have been studied. We present m-line measurements before and after the impregnation showing that the effective indices of the modes remain the same. When performing guided luminescence experiments, a structured emission band is measured. Using the refractive index profile extracted from m-line measurements it has been possible to simulate the emission lineshape assuming the observation of an interference pattern formed across the waveguide. We demonstrate that these oscillations appear because in the first hundreds of nanometers the dye concentration is several orders of magnitude higher than in the rest of the sample. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Basic technology for 6Li enrichment using an ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Tsuyoshi; Terai, Takayuki

    2011-10-01

    The tritium needed as a fuel for fusion reactors is produced by the neutron capture reaction of lithium-6 ( 6Li) in tritium breeding materials. However, natural Li contains only about 7.6 at.% 6Li. In this paper, a new lithium isotope separation technique using an ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane is proposed. In order to separate and concentrate lithium isotopes, only lithium ions are able to move through the membrane by electrodialysis between the cathode and the anode in lithium solutions. Preliminary experiments of lithium isotope separation were conducted using this phenomenon. Organic membranes impregnated with TMPA-TFSI and PP13-TFSI as ionic liquids were prepared, and the relationship between the 6Li separation coefficient and the applied electrodialytic conditions was evaluated using them. The results showed that the 6Li isotope separation coefficient in this method (about 1.1-1.4) was larger than that in the mercury amalgam method (about 1.06).

  17. A Thermogravimetric Study of Cotton Fabric Flame-Retardancy by Means of Impregnation with Red Phosphorus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOSTASHARI,S.M.; FAYYAZ,F.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of red phosphorus was found to be effective for flame-retardancy of a pure cotton fabric.The laundered bone-dried weighed samples were impregnated with red phosphorus at suitable concentrations.Vertical flame spread test was accomplished.The optimum add-on value to impart flame-retardancy onto cotton fabric was determined around 3.95 g of red phosphorus per 100 g of fabric.TG/DTG curves of treated samples showed a well-timed weight loss occurred with regard to untreated specimens.This illustrates the sufficiency of impregnation and support its catalytic action on flame-retardancy,which is compliance with data obtained via flammability test.The resuits are in favor of "Chemical Action Theory","Gas Theory" and "Condensed Phase Retardation".

  18. Influence of the aluminium impregnation [ Al(NO33] in the beta zeolite over its acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Sánchez Castellanos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Beta zeolite was impregnated with [ Al(NO33], increasing the aluminium content in increments of 0.05% from 0.00% to 0.25%. A parallel treatment with 0.05% sulphuric acid was also performed; in both cases, methanol was used as solvent (disperse phase. Cation exchange capacity (CEC, ammonia chemisorption, infrared spectroscopy (FIT-IR, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, X-Ray powder diffraction (XRD, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS, titration with sodium hydroxide and nitrogen physisorption at 77K were used to carry out the physical and chemical characterization of the catalysts. Futhermore, the catalysts were employed in the esterification of ethanol with acetic acid, to quantify the effect of aluminium impregnation over the beta zeolite.

  19. National Gas Survey. Synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The supply-Technical Advisory Task Force-Synthesized Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuels considered coal, hydrocarbon liquids, oil shales, tar sands, and bioconvertible materials as potential feedstocks for gaseous fuels. Current status of process technology for each feedstock was reviewed, economic evaluations including sensitivity analysis were made, and constraints for establishment of a synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels industry considered. Process technology is presently available to manufacture gaseous hydrocarbon fuels from each of the feedstocks. In 1975 there were eleven liquid feedstock SNG plants in the United States having a capacity of 1.1 billion SCFD. There can be no contribution of SNG before 1982 from plants using feedstocks other than liquids because there are no plants in operation or under construction as of 1977. Costs for SNG are higher than current regulated prices for U.S. natural gas. Because of large reserves, coal is a prime feedstock candidate although there are major constraints in the area of coal leases, mining and water permits, and others. Commercial technology is available and several new gasification processes are under development. Oil shale is also a feedstock in large supply and commercial process technology is available. There are siting and permit constraints, and water availability may limit the ultimate size of an oil shale processing industry. Under projected conditions, bioconvertible materials are not expected to support the production of large quantities of pipeline quality gas during the next decade. Production of low or medium Btu gas from municipal solid wastes can be expected to be developed in urban areas in conjunction with savings in disposal costs. In the economic evaluations presented, the most significant factor for liquid feedstock plants is the anticipated cost of feedstock and fuel. The economic viability of plants using other feedstocks is primarily dependent upon capital requirements.

  20. Geophysical monitoring in a hydrocarbon reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Goetz

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of hydrocarbons from reservoirs demands ever-increasing technological effort, and there is need for geophysical monitoring to better understand phenomena occurring within the reservoir. Significant deformation processes happen when man-made stimulation is performed, in combination with effects deriving from the existing natural conditions such as stress regime in situ or pre-existing fracturing. Keeping track of such changes in the reservoir is important, on one hand for improving recovery of hydrocarbons, and on the other hand to assure a safe and proper mode of operation. Monitoring becomes particularly important when hydraulic-fracturing (HF) is used, especially in the form of the much-discussed "fracking". HF is a sophisticated technique that is widely applied in low-porosity geological formations to enhance the production of natural hydrocarbons. In principle, similar HF techniques have been applied in Europe for a long time in conventional reservoirs, and they will probably be intensified in the near future; this suggests an increasing demand in technological development, also for updating and adapting the existing monitoring techniques in applied geophysics. We review currently available geophysical techniques for reservoir monitoring, which appear in the different fields of analysis in reservoirs. First, the properties of the hydrocarbon reservoir are identified; here we consider geophysical monitoring exclusively. The second step is to define the quantities that can be monitored, associated to the properties. We then describe the geophysical monitoring techniques including the oldest ones, namely those in practical usage from 40-50 years ago, and the most recent developments in technology, within distinct groups, according to the application field of analysis in reservoir. This work is performed as part of the FracRisk consortium (www.fracrisk.eu); this project, funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, aims at helping minimize the

  1. Study on the preparation of impregnating pitch from modified coal tar pitch%改质煤沥青制备浸渍剂沥青的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丽娟; 徐妍; 吴红运; 赵雪飞

    2014-01-01

    The purified pitch with low QI was prepared from modified coal tar pitch through solvent hot filtering process, then im-pregnant pitch were obtained by the method of blowing in N2 to remove off light component. The effects of reaction temperature, re-action time and N2 flow rate on the QI content, softening point and coking value of the impregnant pitch were studied. The experi-mental results showed that, when the reaction condition was 250℃for 40 min with N2 flow of 40 L/h, the obtained products showed the softening point of 88 ℃, QI content of <0.5%, TI content of 22.25%, coking value of 55.77%. Compared with raw materials of pitch, the contents of carbonyl, amine compounds and aromatic structure of impregnant pitch decreased and saturated hydrocarbon structures increased by infrared spectrum analysis. Thermo-gravimetric analysis showed that small molecular components of impreg-nant pitch were more than the raw materials of pith. Viscosity measurement revealed that the viscosity-temperature curve was nega-tive exponent relationship between 130~200℃.%以改质煤沥青为原料经溶剂热过滤法制备低QI净化沥青,再将净化沥青通N2脱掉轻组分制备浸渍剂沥青。以QI含量、软化点和结焦值为指标考察了温度、时间、N2流量等因素的影响。结果表明,在250℃,40 min,N2流量为40 L/h条件下,所得浸渍剂沥青的指标参数为软化点88℃左右,QI含量<0.5%,TI含量为22.25%,结焦值为55.77%。红外光谱分析表明,和原料沥青相比,浸渍剂沥青的羰基类和胺类化合物减少,芳烃结构减少,饱和烃类结构增加;热重分析表明,浸渍剂沥青的小分子含量较原料沥青相对较多;黏度的测定表明,在130~200℃黏温曲线呈现负指数关系。

  2. Characterization of the impregnated iron based catalyst for direct coal liquefaction by EXAFS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JianliYang; JishengZhun; 等

    2001-01-01

    Catalyst plays an important role in direct cola liquefaction(DCL)[1],Due to relatively high activity,low cost and environmentally benign for disposal,iron catalysts are regarded as the most attractive catalysts for DCL.To maximize catalytic effect and minimize catalyst usage,ultra-fine size catalysts are preferred.The most effective catalysts are found to be those impregnated onto coal because of their high dispersion on coal surface and intimate contact with coal particles.

  3. Antimicrobial effect of silver-impregnated cellulose: potential for antimicrobial therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ostler Erik; Kwon Soonjo; Kim Juyoung

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Silver has long been known to have antimicrobial activity. To incorporate this property into multiple applications, a silver-impregnated cellulose (SIC) with low cytotoxicity to human cells was developed. SIC differs from other silver treatment methods in that the leaching of silver particles is non-existent and the release of ionic silver is highly controlled. Results Candida albicans, Micrococcus luteu, Pseudomonas putida, and Escherichia coli were used for antimicrobial...

  4. Biomimetic membranes with aqueous nano channels but without proteins: impedance of impregnated cellulose ester filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocherginsky, Nikolai M; Lvovich, Vadim F

    2010-12-01

    Earlier we have shown that many important properties of ionic aqueous channels in biological membranes can be imitated using simple biomimetic membranes. These membranes are composed of mixed cellulose ester-based filters, impregnated with isopropyl myristate or other esters of fatty acids, and can be used for high-throughput drug screening. If the membrane separates two aqueous solutions, combination of relatively hydrophilic polymer support with immobilized carboxylic groups results in the formation of thin aqueous layers covering inner surface of the pores, while the pore volume is filled by lipid-like substances. Because of these aqueous layers biomimetic membranes even without proteins have a cation/anion ion selectivity and specific (per unit of thickness) electrical properties, which are similar to typical properties of biological membranes. Here we describe frequency-dependent impedance of the isopropyl myristate-impregnated biomimetic membranes in the 4-electrode arrangement and present the results as Bode and Nyquist diagrams. When the membranes are placed in deionized water, it is possible to observe three different dispersion processes in the frequency range 0.1 Hz to 30 kHz. Only one dispersion is observed in 5 mM KH(2)PO(4) solution. It is suggested that these three dispersion features are determined by (a) conductivity in aqueous structures/channels, formed near the internal walls of the filter pores at high frequencies, (b) dielectric properties of the whole membrane at medium frequencies, determined by polymer support, aqueous layers and impregnating oil, and, finally, (c) by the processes in hydrated liquid crystal structures formed in pores by impregnating oil in contact with water at low frequencies.

  5. Theoretical impact of insecticide-impregnated school uniforms on dengue incidence in Thai children

    OpenAIRE

    Massad,Eduardo; Amaku,Marcos; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children carry the main burden of morbidity and mortality caused by dengue. Children spend a considerable amount of their day at school; hence strategies that reduce humanmosquito contact to protect against the day-biting habits of Aedes mosquitoes at schools, such as insecticide-impregnated uniforms, could be an effective prevention strategy.Methodology: We used mathematical models to calculate the risk of dengue infection based on force of infection taking into account the estim...

  6. Sulfur-impregnated disordered carbon nanotubes cathode for lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Juchen; Xu, Yunhua; Wang, Chunsheng

    2011-10-12

    The commercialization of lithium-sulfur batteries is hindered by low cycle stability and low efficiency, which are induced by sulfur active material loss and polysulfide shuttle reaction through dissolution into electrolyte. In this study, sulfur-impregnated disordered carbon nanotubes are synthesized as cathode material for the lithium-sulfur battery. The obtained sulfur-carbon tube cathodes demonstrate superior cyclability and Coulombic efficiency. More importantly, the electrochemical characterization indicates a new stabilization mechanism of sulfur in carbon induced by heat treatment.

  7. Impregnation of Natural Rubber into Rubber Wood: A Green Wood Composite

    OpenAIRE

    Wassa Ruayruay; Sureurg Khongtong

    2014-01-01

    A green wood composite material was developed from the two environmentally friendly substrates natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) and rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis). Natural rubber (NR) was introduced into rubber wood by pressurization of NR latex, followed by the removal of the aqueous phase to allow only dry NR to remain inside the wood structure. Scanning electron microscopy images and the weight increase of the dry impregnated samples revealed the retention of dry NR within the rubbe...

  8. The impact resistance of Kevlar woven fabrics impregnated with highly concentrated multiphase suspensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jun; Xiong Dangsheng

    2016-01-01

    The stab and puncture resistance of Kevlar woven fabrics impregnated with different kinds of highly concentrated multiphase suspensions was studied with self-made dual-catheter drop-hammer tester. The results showed that the shear thickening of multiphase particles was possibly based on hydrocluster and particle jamming mechanism; the introduction of alumina silicate fibre can remarkably improve the composite spike resistance, and multiphase particles co-strengthening can provide best protection effect; otherwise, the stab resistance increases weakly.

  9. Model to Study Resin Impregnation Process of Premix Made of Friction Spun Core Yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁辛; 吴学东

    2001-01-01

    A model was deveIoped to investigate impregnation behavior of thermoplastic resin into filament bundle based on Darcy's law. Consolidation processes of unidirectional laminate were performed to evaluate the validity of the model. Friction spun core yarns were used in the experiments with polypropylene fiber sheath and glass filament core. The processing conditions, such as temperature and pressure, and filament parameters were taken into consideration. A good agreement was found between theoretical prediction and experiment data.

  10. Temperature Distribution in Fibre-glass Composite Impregnated with Epoxy-Cyanate ester Blend

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka Brahmbhatt; Moni Banaudha; Subrata Pradhan

    2014-01-01

    Cyanate ester and epoxy blends have been identified as an attractive insulating material for fusion grade magnet winding packs. An insulation system comprising of fibre glass composites and cyanate ester and blend has been analyzed during its vacuum pressure impregnation and curing. The transient one dimensional distribution of temperature and extent of cure has been evaluated both analytically and experimentally in this paper. The one dimensional transient (1-D) heat transfer cha...

  11. Negative plates for dry-charged lead storage batteries. [higher charging capacity when impregnated with tannin solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, V.; Malikova, V.; Weber, H.

    1970-09-15

    Impregnation of negative plates with acid solutions of sulfomethylated tannins was found to improve the charging properties at low temperatures. Methods for synthesizing tannins are described. Charging capacity at 0/sup 0/ was 7.3A. (RWR)

  12. Preparation of gold- and chlorine-impregnated bead-type activated carbon for a mercury sorbent trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Cheol; Lee, Tai Gyu

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to develop a mercury (Hg) adsorption trap, which can be used to measure the concentration of elemental Hg in emissions from a Hg discharge facility, and evaluate its adsorption efficiency. The Hg spiking efficiency was compared by impregnating metallic and halogen materials that have high affinity for Hg into activated carbon (AC) to determine an accurate spiking method for Hg on AC. The Hg spiking efficiency was compared according to the type and content of the impregnated substances. AC impregnated with Cl and Au had a 15-20% higher Hg spiking efficiency compared to virgin AC. For Au impregnation at weight ratios of 0-20 wt% of adsorbent, spiking efficiencies of over 97% were observed under certain conditions. The Hg adsorption properties of the above adsorbent were determined experimentally, and the results were used to test the adsorption performance of Hg adsorption traps.

  13. Bioassay evaluation on the efficacy of α-cypermethrin impregnated into long lasting insecticide treated nets using Anopheles stephensi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vatandoost Hassan; Mamivand Poor Hossein; Shayeghi Mansoreh; Abai Mohamad Reza; Raeisi Ahmad; Nikpoor Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the bioefficacy of α-cypermethrin impregnated into long lasting insecticide treated nets (LLITNs- INTERCEPTOR®) against main malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi). Methods: The effectiveness of bed net impregnated withα-cypermethrin (INTERCEPTOR®) with washing was evaluated. The washing procedure and bioassay tests were carried out according to the WHO-recommended methods. Malaria vector, An. stephensi was exposed to impregnated bed net for three minutes and then mortality measured after 24 h recovery period. Knockdown was also measured according to the logarithmic times. Results:Result of cone bioassay method showed that bioefficacy ofα-cypermethrin decreased from 100%in unwashed to 15%in 20 washes. KT50 was measure as one minute in one wash and increased to 40 min in 20 washes. Discussion: Findings of this study provide guideline for malaria vector control authorities and people using pyrethroid-impregnated bed nets.

  14. Theoretical impact of insecticide-impregnated school uniforms on dengue incidence in Thai children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Massad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children carry the main burden of morbidity and mortality caused by dengue. Children spend a considerable amount of their day at school; hence strategies that reduce human–mosquito contact to protect against the day-biting habits of Aedes mosquitoes at schools, such as insecticide-impregnated uniforms, could be an effective prevention strategy. Methodology: We used mathematical models to calculate the risk of dengue infection based on force of infection taking into account the estimated proportion of mosquito bites that occur in school and the proportion of school time that children wear the impregnated uniforms. Principal findings: The use of insecticide-impregnated uniforms has efficacy varying from around 6% in the most pessimistic estimations, to 55% in the most optimistic scenarios simulated. Conclusions: Reducing contact between mosquito bites and human hosts via insecticide-treated uniforms during school time is theoretically effective in reducing dengue incidence and may be a valuable additional tool for dengue control in school-aged children. The efficacy of this strategy, however, is dependent on the compliance of the target population in terms of proper and consistent wearing of uniforms and, perhaps more importantly, the proportion of bites inflicted by the Aedes population during school time.

  15. Development of silver impregnated alumina for iodine separation from off-gas streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funabashi, Kiyomi; Fukasawa, Tetsuo; Kikuchi, Makoto [Energy Research Laboratory, Hitachi (Japan)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    An inorganic iodine adsorbent, silver impregnated alumina (AgA), has been developed to separate iodine effectively from off-gas streams of nuclear facilities and to decrease the volume of waste (spent adsorbent). Iodine removal efficiency was improved at relatively high humidity by using alumina carrier with two different pore diameters. Waste volume reduction was achieved by impregnating relatively large amounts of silver into the alumina pores. The developed adsorbent was tested first with simulated off-gas streams under various experimental conditions and finally with actual off-gas streams of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant. The decontamination factor (DF) was about 100 with the AgA bed depth of 2cm at 70% relative humidity, which was a DF one order higher than that when AgA with one pore size was used. Iodine adsorption capacity was checked by passing excess iodine into the AgA bed. Values were about 0.12 and 0.35 g-I/cm`-AgA bed for 10 and 24wt% silver impregnated AgA, respectively. The results obtained in this study demonstrated the applicability of the developed AgA to the off-gas treatment system of nuclear facilities.

  16. Development of low-concentration mercury adsorbents from biohydrogen-generation agricultural residues using sulfur impregnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, Hsing-Chengi; Tsai, Cheng-Yen; Kuo, Tien-Ho; Chiang, Cheng-Sheng

    2011-08-01

    Mercury adsorbents were derived from waste biohydrogen-generation barley husk and rice husk via carbonization, steam activation, and sulfur impregnation at 300-650°C. The samples derived from agricultural residues showed a greater Hg(0) adsorption than that of a coal-based activated carbon, confirming the feasibility of resource recovery of these agricultural residuals for low-concentration gaseous Hg adsorption. Sulfur impregnation reduced both the surface area and pore volume of the samples, with lower temperature causing a greater decrease. Elevating the impregnation temperature increased the organic sulfur contents, suggesting that in addition to elemental sulfur, organic sulfur may also act as active sites to improve Hg(0) adsorption. Oxygen and sulfur functional groups accompanying the microporous structures may account for the enhancing Hg(0) adsorption of the raw and sulfur-treated samples, respectively. The pseudo-second-order model can best describe the chemisorption characteristics, implying that Hg(0) adsorption on the samples was in a bimolecular reaction form.

  17. Bacterial flagella as biotemplate for the synthesis of silver nanoparticle impregnated bionanomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinathan, Priya; Ashok, Anuradha M.; Selvakumar, R.

    2013-07-01

    The present study was carried out to synthesize one dimensional silver nanoparticle impregnated flagellar bionanomaterial. Flagella was isolated from Salmonella typhimurium and depolymerised into flagellin monomers. The flagellin monomers were repolymerised again into flagella using suitable technique. The molecular weight of native (NF) and polymerized flagella (PF) was determined using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The NF and PF were used as a template, over which silver nanoparticles were impregnated using in situ chemical reduction process. The synthesized flagellar-silver nanoparticle bionanomaterials were characterized using UV-vis, FT-IR Raman and XRD spectroscopy, and High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The characterization studies confirmed the attachment of silver nanoparticles over flagella and repolymerised flagella. The size of the silver nanoparticles on the flagella and repolymerised flagella varied and was in the range of 3-11 nm. I-V characteristics of the bionanomaterials were analyzed using Kethley meter which indicated the increase of conductivity after impregnation of silver nanoparticles. The results indicated that flagellar-silver nanoparticle bionanomaterials can be used as a potential one dimensional bionanomaterials for various applications.

  18. Impregnated silica nanoparticles for the reactive removal of sulphur mustard from solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Beer; Saxena, Amit; Nigam, Anil Kumar; Ganesan, Kumaran; Pandey, Pratibha

    2009-01-30

    High surface area (887.3m(2)/g) silica nanoparticles were synthesized using aerogel route and thereafter, characterized by N(2)-Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET), SEM and TEM techniques. The data indicated the formation of nanoparticles of silica in the size range of 24-75 nm with mesoporous characteristics. Later, these were impregnated with reactive chemicals such as N-chloro compounds, oxaziridines, polyoxometalates, etc., which have already been proven to be effective against sulphur mustard (HD). Thus, developed novel mesoporous reactive sorbents were tested for their self-decontaminating feature by conducting studies on kinetics of adsorptive removal of HD from solution. Trichloroisocyanuric acid impregnated silica nanoparticles (10%, w/w)-based system was found to be the best with least half-life value (t(1/2)=2.8 min) among prepared systems to remove and detoxify HD into nontoxic degradation products. Hydrolysis, dehydrohalogenation and oxidation reactions were found to be the route of degradation of HD over prepared sorbents. The study also inferred that 10% loading of impregnants over high surface area and low density silica nanoparticles enhances the rate of reaction kinetics and seems to be useful in the field of heterogeneous reaction kinetics.

  19. Pore structure modification of cement concretes by impregnation with sulfur-containing compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANAKHMETOV Marat Rafisovich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors study how the impregnation with sulfur-containing compounds changes the concrete pore structure and how it influences on the water absorption and watertightness. The results of this research indicate that impregnation of cement concrete with water-based solution of polysulphide modifies pore structure of cement concrete in such a way that it decreases total and effective porosity, reduces water absorption and increases watertightness. The proposed impregnation based on mineral helps to protect for a long time the most vulnerable parts of buildings – basements, foundations, as well as places on the facades of buildings exposed to rain, snow and groundwater. Application of the new product in the construction industry can increase the durability of materials, preventing the destruction processes caused by weathering, remove excess moisture in damp basements. The surfaces treated by protective compounds acquire antisoiling properties for a long time, and due to reduced thermal conductivity the cost of heating buildings is decreased. The effectiveness of the actions and the relatively low cost of proposed hydrophobizator makes it possible to spread widely the proposed protection method for building structures.

  20. Preparation and characterization of activated carbons from impregnation pitch by ZnCl 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gañán-Gómez, J.; Macías-García, A.; Díaz-Díez, M. A.; González-García, C.; Sabio-Rey, E.

    2006-06-01

    Using an impregnation pitch from bituminous coal tar (OP) supplied by Industrias Químicas del Nalon Company as raw material, two phases (isotropic and anisotropic) have been obtained. The latter was used as precursor for the preparation of activated carbons. First, a chemical activation process was carried out with ZnCl 2 as activating agent. The process was conducted at different concentrations and temperatures and by means of impregnation with solid zinc chloride. Optimal values were obtained for samples prepared by using a ZnCl 2:pitch ratio equal to 3:1 (sample AZn3). Next, this sample was thermally treated at two different temperatures, i.e., 700 and 800 °C. A lose of specific surface area, microporosity and mesoporosity was observed with respect to sample AZn3, such a lose being more remarkable as temperature increased. Moreover, impregnation of the anisotropic phase of the original pitch with an aqueous solution of ZnCl 2 followed by thermal treatment resulted in a poorly developed surface area and porous texture, probably due to the presence of Zn complexes, which interfere with the activation process.

  1. Steam pretreatment of Saccharum officinarum L. bagasse by adding of impregnating agents for advanced bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verardi, A; Blasi, A; De Bari, I; Calabrò, V

    2016-12-01

    The main byproduct of the sugarcane industry, Saccharum officinarum L. bagasse (sugarcane bagasse, SCB), is widely used as lignocellulose biomass for bio-ethanol (EtOH) production. In this research study, SCB was pretreated by steam explosion (SE) method using two different impregnating agents: sulfur dioxide (SD) and hydrogen peroxide (HP). As matter of fact, the use of impregnating agents improves the performance of SE method, increasing the concentrations of fermentable sugars after enzymatic saccharification, and decreasing the inhibitor compounds produced during the steam pretreatment step. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the use of the two impregnating agents in various SE-conditions in order to optimize pretreatment parameters. For every pretreatment condition, it has been evaluated: concentration of fermentable sugars, glucose and xylose yields, and the effects of the inhibitor compounds on enzymatic hydrolysis step. The obtained results allow to improve the efficiency of the whole process of bio-EtOH synthesis enhancing the amount of fermentable sugars produced and the eco-sustainability of the whole process. Indeed, the optimization of steam pretreatment leads to a reduction of energy requirements and to a lower environmental impact.

  2. Effect of halide impregnation on elemental mercury removal of activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Yoon Ji; Park, Soo Jin [Dept. of Chemistry, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Activated carbons (ACs) were impregnated with potassium halides (KX) to enhance the removal efficiency of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}). In this work, the impregnation effect of potassium bromide (KBr) and potassium iodine (KI) were investigated. The surface properties of KX-ACs were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The pore structures and total pore volumes of the KX-ACs were analyzed using the N{sub 2} /77 K adsorption isotherms. The Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency of KBr-ACs and KI-ACs was studied under simulated flue gas conditions. The effects of KI and KBr loading, adsorption temperature, and flue gas components on Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency were also investigated. The results showed that the Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency of the ACs was significantly enhanced by KI or KBr impregnation, and KI-ACs showed higher Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency than KBr-ACs under the same conditions. An increase in KI or KBr loading and higher adsorption temperatures improved the Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency, indicating that chemisorption occurred due to the reaction between X− and Hg{sup 0}. The lower extent of Hg{sup 0} removal exhibited by the KBr-ACs than by the KI-ACs was due to the difficulty of Br{sub 2} formation on the surfaces.

  3. Novel Aluminum Oxide-Impregnated Carbon Nanotube Membrane for the Removal of Cadmium from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsanullah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An aluminum oxide-impregnated carbon nanotube (CNT-Al2O3 membrane was developed via a novel approach and used in the removal of toxic metal cadmium ions, Cd(II. The membrane did not require any binder to hold the carbon nanotubes (CNTs together. Instead, the Al2O3 particles impregnated on the surface of the CNTs were sintered together during heating at 1400 °C. Impregnated CNTs were characterized using XRD, while the CNT-Al2O3 membrane was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Water flux, contact angle, and porosity measurements were performed on the membrane prior to the Cd(II ion removal experiment, which was conducted in a specially devised continuous filtration system. The results demonstrated the extreme hydrophilic behavior of the developed membrane, which yielded a high water flux through the membrane. The filtration system removed 84% of the Cd(II ions at pH 7 using CNT membrane with 10% Al2O3 loading. A maximum adsorption capacity of 54 mg/g was predicted by the Langmuir isotherm model for the CNT membrane with 10% Al2O3 loading. This high adsorption capacity indicated that adsorption was the main mechanism involved in the removal of Cd(II ions.

  4. Prevalent material parameters governing spalling of a slag-impregnated refractory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blond, E.; Schmitt, N.; Arnould, O.; Hild, F. [LMT-Cachan (ENS de Cachan / CNRS-UMR 8535 / Univ. Paris 6), Cachan (France); Blumenfeld, P. [CRDM / ARCELOR Grande Synthe, Dunkerque (France); Poirier, J. [CRDM / ARCELOR Grande Synthe, Dunkerque (France); CRMHT-CNRS, Orleans (France)

    2004-07-01

    In steel ladle linings, bauxite refractories in contact with iron and steel slag are subjected to complex loadings. To identify the causes of degradation in different reactor linings, a coupling diagram made up of three poles is established: namely, slag impregnation (I), Thermomechanics (TM) and phase transformations (P). The variation of the microstructure and the gradient of the chemical composition resulting from the (I-P) coupling are characterized by microprobe analyses; a natural impregnation tracer is identified. The (I-T) coupling is studied by modeling the refractory lining behavior subjected to a cyclic thermal loading within the framework of the mechanics of porous continua. Parameters governing the location and amplitude of the maximum pore pressure are obtained and their influences are studied. The analysis of the (TM) pole leads to the identification of a thermo-elasto-viscoplastic model for bauxite in various states of slag impregnation. Numerical simulations show that the stress state developed during the heating stages can induce spalling, probably generated by a localized over-pressure of slag. (orig.)

  5. n-Benzoyl-n-phenylhydroxylamine impregnated Amberlite XAD-4 beads for selective removal of thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandramouleeswaran, S.; Ramkumar, Jayshree, E-mail: jrk@barc.gov.in

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • XAD-4 was impregnated with a commonly used gravimetric agent n-benzoyl-n-phenylhydroxylamine. • Sorbent characterized by different techniques to understand the pore filling of XAD-4. • Sorption of Th was fast (30 min) and unaffected by initial solution pH. • Selectivity achieved by tuning the conditions of the mixture solution. - Abstract: n-Benzoyl-n-phenylhydroxylamine impregnated Amberlite XAD-4 beads were used for the removal of Th(IV) from a mixture of ions. The impregnated XAD was characterized using different techniques like weight and colour change, IR spectra, surface area and pore size measurements to confirm the presence of n-BPHA within the macroreticular resin structure. The experimental conditions were optimized to make the separation fast and selective. It was seen that the maximum sorption was achieved in the pH range of 3–7.5 and uptake was nearly complete within half an hour. The results obtained in the present study were subjected to extensive modelling in order to get a complete understanding of the sorption process. It is seen that the maximum uptake was calculated to be 500 mg/g and has very fast kinetics it was seen that the process is chemisorption. It was further deduced from the modelling that the overall sorption process was controlled dominantly by external mass transfer. Considering the simplicity this procedure, the present study has a possible application for the removal of thorium from different mixtures.

  6. Impregnation of glass fibres with polymethylmethacrylate using a powder-coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallittu, Pekka K.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a powder-coating method to impregnate glass fibres with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) for dental purposes. The continuous unidirectional E-glass fibres, the surface of which had been treated with precured silane, were powder-coated with spherical PMMA particles. Before the powder-coated prepregs were used, the incorporated PMMA powder was dissolved with methylmethacrylate monomer. The degree of impregnation of the polymerized composite was determined with a scanning electron microscope. The results revealed that the mean degree of impregnation varied from 0.87 to 0.92, being lower in the heat-cured PMMA group (which simulated fabrication of a new denture), and higher in the autopolymerizing group (which simulated the repair of a fractured denture). The means between the two groups did not, however, differ significantly ( p=0.249). The results suggest that, even though the method has some shortcomings in terms of dental laboratory technology, the powder-coating method can be used to fabricate or repair acrylic resin-based dentures.

  7. Carbon molecular sieves from carbon cloth: Influence of the chemical impregnant on gas separation properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Blanco, G.; Giraldo, L.; Moreno-Piraján, J. C.

    2010-06-01

    Carbon materials with molecular sieve properties (CMS) were prepared by pyrolysis of cotton fabrics by chemical activation procedures. To evaluate the changes in the chemical and textural properties, the impregnants AlCl 3, ZnCl 2 and H 3PO 4 were used at 1123 K. The materials were characterized using adsorption of nitrogen and carbon dioxide, TPD, and immersion calorimetry in C 6H 6. Adsorption kinetics of O 2, N 2, CO 2, CH 4, C 3H 8 and C 3H 6 were measured in all the prepared materials to determine their behaviour as molecular sieves. The results confirm that the chemical used as impregnant has a significant effect on the resulting CMS separation properties. All materials exhibit microporosity and low oxygen surface group contents; however, the sample impregnated with zinc chloride, with an immersion enthalpy value of 66.4 J g -1 in benzene, exhibits the best performance in the separation of CH 4-CO 2 and C 3H 8-C 3H 6 at 273 K.

  8. Characterization of (Th,U)O 2 fuel pellets made by impregnation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutty, T. R. G.; Nair, M. R.; Sengupta, P.; Basak, U.; Kumar, Arun; Kamath, H. S.

    2008-02-01

    Impregnation technique is an attractive alternative for manufacturing highly radiotoxic 233U bearing thoria based mixed oxide fuel pellets, which are remotely treated in hot cell or shielded glove-box facilities. This technique is being investigated to fabricate the fuel for the forthcoming Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR). In the impregnation process, porous ThO 2 pellets are prepared in an unshielded facility which are then impregnated with 1.5 molar uranyl nitrate solution in a shielded facility. The resulting composites are dried and denitrated at 500 °C and then sintered in reducing/oxidizing atmosphere to obtain high density (Th,U)O 2 pellets. In this work, the densification behaviour of ThO 2-2% UO 2 and ThO 2-4% UO 2 pellets was studied in reducing and oxidizing atmospheres using a high temperature dilatometer. Densification was found to be larger in air than in Ar-8% H 2. The characterization of the sintered pellets was made by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The grain structure of ThO 2-2% UO 2 and ThO 2-4% UO 2 pellets was uniform. The EPMA data confirmed that the uranium concentration was slightly higher at the periphery of the pellet than that at the centre.

  9. Bacterial flagella as biotemplate for the synthesis of silver nanoparticle impregnated bionanomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopinathan, Priya [Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Nanotech Research Facility, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore, 641004 (India); Ashok, Anuradha M. [HRTEM facility, Nanotech Research Facility, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore, 641004 (India); Selvakumar, R., E-mail: selvabiotech@gmail.com [Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Nanotech Research Facility, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore, 641004 (India)

    2013-07-01

    The present study was carried out to synthesize one dimensional silver nanoparticle impregnated flagellar bionanomaterial. Flagella was isolated from Salmonella typhimurium and depolymerised into flagellin monomers. The flagellin monomers were repolymerised again into flagella using suitable technique. The molecular weight of native (NF) and polymerized flagella (PF) was determined using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The NF and PF were used as a template, over which silver nanoparticles were impregnated using in situ chemical reduction process. The synthesized flagellar-silver nanoparticle bionanomaterials were characterized using UV–vis, FT-IR Raman and XRD spectroscopy, and High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The characterization studies confirmed the attachment of silver nanoparticles over flagella and repolymerised flagella. The size of the silver nanoparticles on the flagella and repolymerised flagella varied and was in the range of 3–11 nm. I–V characteristics of the bionanomaterials were analyzed using Kethley meter which indicated the increase of conductivity after impregnation of silver nanoparticles. The results indicated that flagellar-silver nanoparticle bionanomaterials can be used as a potential one dimensional bionanomaterials for various applications.

  10. Controlled synthesis of carbon-supported Pt{sub 3}Sn by impregnation-reduction and performance on the electrooxidation of CO and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Rodriguez, S.; Pena, M.A.; Fierro, J.L.G.; Rojas, S. [Grupo Energia y Quimica Sostenibles, Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC, C/Marie Curie 2, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-01

    The paper discusses experimental features relevant to the synthesis of carbon-supported Pt{sub 3}Sn nanosized particles by impregnation-reduction of the salt precursors in carbon. Colloidal techniques are proposed as the most suitable ones for obtaining carbon-supported nanosized Pt{sub 3}Sn particles. In most cases, the electrocatalysts obtained have a wide range of Pt and Sn phases, including bimetallic ones. The synthesis of similar materials by impregnating readily available precursors such as SnCl{sub 2} and H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6} yields Pt-enriched catalyst precursors. In order to obtain electrocatalysts with the desired Pt:Sn = 3 atomic stoichiometry, it is necessary to eliminate chloride ions prior to thermal treatments. Microscopy characterization and thermal stability studies of the fresh and treated bimetallic materials reveal that if such ions are present, Sn is eliminated as volatile SnCl{sub x} species at around 120-130 C. Chloride elimination is achieved by ageing the catalyst precursor in water to ensure the complete hydrolysis of the SnCl{sub 2} precursor. This treatment should be performed once SnCl{sub 2} has been deposited on the carbon to avoid the formation of large Sn-oxide aggregates. A further thermal treatment in hydrogen results in the formation of the desired Pt{sub 3}Sn intermetallic phase. The performance of the Pt{sub 3}Sn/C samples in the CO and ethanol electrooxidation reaction has been studied by means of electrochemical techniques. The electrocatalysts prepared by the impregnation-reduction approach match the performance of the state-of-the-art Pt{sub 3}Sn samples prepared by colloidal techniques. (author)

  11. Prevention of catheter-related Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection by levofloxacin-impregnated catheters in vitro and in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Ping; Liu Wei; Kong Jinliang; Wu Hong; Chen Yiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Background Implanted medical catheter-related infections are increasing,hence a need for developing catheter polymers bonded to antimicrobials.We evaluated preventive effects of levofloxacin-impregnated catheters in catheterrelated Psuedomonas aeruginosa (strain PAO1) infection.Methods Drug release from levofloxacin-impregnated catheters was measured in vitro.Levofloxacin-impregnated catheters and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) catheters were immersed in 5 ml 50% Luria Bertani medium containing 108 CFU/ml Pseudomonas aeruginosa then incubated for 6,12,24 or 48 hours at 37℃ when bacteria adhering to the catheters and bacteria in the growth culture medium were determined.Impregnated and PVC catheters were singly implanted subcutaneously in mice,50 μl (107CFU) of PAO1 was injected into catheters.After the first and fifth days challenge,bacterial counts on implanted catheters and in surrounding tissues were determined microbiologically.Bacterial colonization and biofilm formation on implanted catheters were assessed by scanning electron microscopy.Results Drug release from levofloxacin-impregnated catheters was rapid.Levofloxacin-impregnated catheters had significantly fewer bacteria compared to PVC in vitro.After first and fifth day of challenge,no or significantly fewer bacteria adhered to impregnated catheters or in surrounding tissues compared to PVC.Scanning electron microscopical images after first day displayed from none to significantly fewer bacteria adhering to impregnated implanted catheters,compared to bacteria and microcolonies adhering to PVC catheters.After the fifth day,no bacteria were found on impregnated catheters,compared to clusters surrounding mucus-like substance and coral-shaped biofilms with polymorphonuclear leukocyte on PVC catheters.After the first day of challenge,secretion occurred in all implanted catheters with surrounding tissues mildly hyperaemic and swollen.After the fifth day,minute secretions inside impregnated catheters and no

  12. The spatial distribution of β-carotene impregnated in apple slices determined using image and fractal analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the concentration profiles of β-carotene caused by diffusion through parenchymatic dried apple tissue were characterized by image and fractal analysis. Apple slices were dried by convection, and then impregnated with an aqueous β-carotene solution. Scanning electron microscopy images of dried apple slices were captured and the fractal dimension (FD) values of the textures of the images were obtained (FDSEM). It was observed that the microstructure of the foodstuff being impregnated...

  13. Sulfinylcalix[4]arene-impregnated amberlite XAD-7 resin for the separation of niobium(V) from tantalum(V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumiya, Hiroaki; Yasuno, Shizu; Iki, Nobuhiko; Miyano, Sotaro

    2005-10-07

    Amberlite XAD-7 resin was impregnated with p-tert-butylsulfinylcalix[4]arene. Niobium(V) was collected on the impregnated resin in yields of more than 90% around pH 5.4, whereas tantalum(V) was negligibly collected. The collected niobium(V) was desorbed with 9 M sulfuric acid nearly quantitatively, hence the separation of niobium(V) from tantalum(V) was successfully achieved.

  14. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  15. Method and apparatus for monitoring a hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieg, Steven J; Viola, Michael B; Cheng, Shi-Wai S; Mulawa, Patricia A; Hilden, David L; Sloane, Thompson M; Lee, Jong H

    2014-05-06

    A method for monitoring a hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device of an exhaust aftertreatment system of an internal combustion engine operating lean of stoichiometry includes injecting a reductant into an exhaust gas feedstream upstream of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device at a predetermined mass flowrate of the reductant, and determining a space velocity associated with a predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device. When the space velocity exceeds a predetermined threshold space velocity, a temperature differential across the predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device is determined, and a threshold temperature as a function of the space velocity and the mass flowrate of the reductant is determined. If the temperature differential across the predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device is below the threshold temperature, operation of the engine is controlled to regenerate the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device.

  16. Historical polycyclic aromatic and petrogenic hydrocarbon loading in Northern Central Gulf of Mexico shelf sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overton, E.B.; Ashton, B.M.; Miles, M.S. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Studies

    2005-10-01

    The distribution of selected hydrocarbons within ten dated sediment cores taken from the Mississippi River Bight off coastal Louisiana suggests a chronic contaminant loading from several sources including the river itself, oil and gas exploration in the central Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shelf area, and natural geologic hydrocarbon seeps. Data were grouped as either total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), which were indicative of pyrogenic PAH's; or estimated total hopanes (indicative of petrogenic hydrocarbons). The total PAH concentrations and estimated total hopanes begin increasing above background levels (approximately 200 ng g{sup -1}) after the 1950s. The distribution of these hydrocarbons and hopanes within the dated sediment cores suggests that the Mississippi River is a regional source of pyrogenic PAH's, and that the hopanes are from natural geologic hydrocarbon seeps, oil and gas exploration in the GOM, or both. (author)

  17. Investigation of the metabolic consequences of impregnating spinach leaves with trehalose and applying a pulsed electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymek, Katarzyna; Panarese, Valentina; Herremans, Els; Cantre, Dennis; Schoo, Rick; Toraño, Javier Sastre; Schluepmann, Henriette; Wadso, Lars; Verboven, Pieter; Nicolai, Bart M; Dejmek, Petr; Gómez Galindo, Federico

    2016-12-01

    The impregnation of leafy vegetables with cryoprotectants using a combination of vacuum impregnation (VI) and pulsed electric fields (PEF) has been proposed by our research group as a method of improving their freezing tolerance and consequently their general quality after thawing. In this study, we have investigated the metabolic consequences of the combination of these unit operations on spinach. The vacuum impregnated spinach leaves showed a drastic decrease in the porosity of the extracellular space. However, at maximum weight gain, randomly located air pockets remained, which may account for oxygen-consuming pathways in the cells being active after VI. The metabolic activity of the impregnated leaves showed a drastic increase that was further enhanced by the application of PEF to the impregnated tissue. Impregnating the leaves with trehalose by VI led to a significant accumulation of trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P), however, this was not further enhanced by PEF. It is suggested that the accumulation of T6P in the leaves may increase metabolic activity, and increase tissue resistance to abiotic stress.

  18. Influence of impregnation parameters on the axial Mo/. gamma. -alumina profiles studied using a novel simple technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goula, M.A.; Kordulis, Ch.; Lycourghiotis, A. (Univ. of Patras (Greece))

    1992-02-01

    The effects of pH, temperature, volume, and concentration of the molybdate solutions, as well as the impregnation time, the rate of drying, the modification of {gamma}-alumina with F{sup {minus}}ions, and the nature and concentration of various competitors, have been systematically studied. It was found that decreases in pH as well as increases in the concentration of the molybdate solutions, of the impregnation temperature, and of the rate of drying cause a progressive transformation of the Mo profile from uniform to eggshell type. Doping of {gamma}-alumina with F{sup {minus}} ions and the use of NH{sub 4}F, H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, and citric acid as competitors transformed the Mo profiles from eggshell to uniform. The change in volume of the impregnating solution had no effect on the Mo profiles. The effect of the impregnation time was found to be complicated. Increases in the impregnation time, until a critical value sufficient for the complete imbibition of the extrudates, allow for the transfer of great amounts of molybdate to the interior of the extrudates, leading to more uniform profiles. Further increases in the impregnation time caused a considerable increase in the sharpness of the Mo profile. Most of the above observations were explained on the basis of derived equations, adopting a very simple macrodistribution model. Finally, it was demonstrated that small chromatographic columns filled with powder supports may be used to study active ion profiles on catalytic supports.

  19. Adsorption Cooling System Using Metal-Impregnated Zeolite-4A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsuk Trisupakitti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption cooling systems have been developed to replace vapor compression due to their benefits of being environmentally friendly and energy saving. We prepared zeolite-4A and experimental cooling performance test of zeolite-water adsorption system. The adsorption cooling test-rig includes adsorber, evaporator, and condenser which perform in vacuum atmosphere. The maximum and minimum water adsorption capacity of different zeolites and COP were used to assess the performance of the adsorption cooling system. We found that loading zeolite-4A with higher levels of silver and copper increased COP. The Cu6%/zeolite-4A had the highest COP at 0.56 while COP of zeolite-4A alone was 0.38. Calculating the acceleration rate of zeolite-4A when adding 6% of copper would accelerate the COP at 46%.

  20. Fe-Impregnated Mineral Colloids for Peroxide Activation: Effects of Mineral Substrate and Fe Precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Machala, Libor; Yan, Weile

    2016-02-02

    Heterogeneous iron species at the mineral/water interface are important catalysts for the generation of reactive oxygen species at circumneutral pH. One significant pathway leading to the formation of such species arises from deposition of dissolved iron onto mineral colloids due to changes in redox conditions. This study investigates the catalytic properties of Fe impregnated on silica, alumina, and titania nanoparticles (as prototypical mineral colloids). Fe impregnation was carried out by immersing the mineral nanoparticles in dilute Fe(II) or Fe(III) solutions at pH 6 and 3, respectively, in an aerobic environment. The uptake of iron per unit surface area follows the order of nTiO2 > nAl2O3 > nSiO2 for both types of Fe precursors. Impregnation of mineral particles in Fe(II) solutions results in predominantly Fe(III) species due to efficient surface-mediated oxidation. The catalytic activity of the impregnated solids to produce hydroxyl radical (·OH) from H2O2 decomposition was evaluated using benzoic acid as a probe compound under dark conditions. Invariably, the rates of benzoic acid oxidation with different Fe-laden particles increase with the surface density of Fe until a critical density above which the catalytic activity approaches a plateau, suggesting active Fe species are formed predominantly at low surface loadings. The critical surface density of Fe varies with the mineral substrate as well as the aqueous Fe precursor. Fe impregnated on TiO2 exhibits markedly higher activity than its Al2O3 and SiO2 counterparts. The speciation of interfacial Fe is analyzed with diffuse reflectance UV-vis analysis and interpretation of the data in the context of benzoic oxidation rates suggests that the surface activity of the solids for ·OH generation correlates strongly with the isolated (i.e., mononuclear) Fe species. Therefore, iron dispersed on mineral colloids is a significant form of reactive iron surfaces in the aquatic environment.

  1. Inkjet Impregnation for Tailoring Air Electrode Microstructure to Improve Solid Oxide Cells Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Da’as, Eman H.

    2015-09-30

    The urge to lower the operating temperature of solid oxide cells (SOCs) to the intermediate ranges between 500-700°C motivated the research into impregnation processes, which offer highly efficient SOC air electrodes at low operating temperatures. Lack of controllability and reproducibility of this technique in the conventional way is still considered as an inadequacy for industrialization since it is performed manually. Therefore, inkjet-printing technology was proposed as an adequate approach to perform scalable and controllable impregnation for SOC air electrodes, which in turn leads to low operating temperatures. Composite LSM-ionic conductive air electrodes of weight ratio 1:2 were fabricated by inkjet impregnation of lanthanum strontium manganite (La0.8Sr0.2MnO3) precursor nitrates onto a porous ionic conductive backbone structure. First, porous yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) substrates prepared by tape casting were used to study the influence of the printing parameters on the lateral dispersion and penetration of LSM ink inside the pores. XRD analysis confirmed the formation of LSM phase after calcination at 800°C for 2 h, while SEM revealed the formation of LSM nanostructures. It has been found by optical microscope observations that the spacing between the drops and the substrate temperature have a significant role in controlling the printing process. Next, the optimized printing parameters were applied in the inkjet impregnation of the LSM ink into porous YSZ electrodes that were spin coated on both sides of dense YSZ layers. LSM-YSZ composite air electrodes achieved an area specific resistance (ASR) of around 0.29 Ω.cm2 at 700°C. The performance of LSM-YSZ composite electrodes was influenced by the microstructure and the thickness, and by the electrode/electrolyte interface characteristics. As a result, the enhancement in LSM-YSZ composite electrode performance was observed due to the better percolation in LSM, YSZ and oxygen diffusion. Finally

  2. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Esther S; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K; Christensen, Jan H

    2015-03-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPAPAH16) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). The chemical fingerprinting strategy proposed in this study included four tiers: (i) qualitative analysis of GC-FID chromatograms, (ii) comparison of the chemical composition of both un-substituted and alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), (iii) diagnostic ratios of selected PACs, and (iv) multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized PAC concentrations. The assessment criteria included quantitative analysis of 19 PACs and C1-C4 alkyl-substituted homologues of naphthalene, fluorene, dibenzothiophene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and chrysene; and 13 oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (O-PACs). The chemical composition of un-substituted and alkyl-substituted PACs and visual interpretation of GC-FID chromatograms were in combination successful in differentiating pyrogenic and petrogenic hydrocarbon sources and in assessing weathering trends of hydrocarbon contamination in the soils. Multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized concentrations could as a stand-alone tool distinguish between hydrocarbon sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic origin, differentiate within petrogenic sources, and detect weathering trends. Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl-substituted PACs are dominant in petrogenic sources, the evaluation of the total load of PACs based on EPAPAH16 was not representative. Likewise, the O-PACs are not

  3. Geophysical Signitures From Hydrocarbon Contaminated Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M.; Jardani, A.

    2015-12-01

    The task of delineating the contamination plumes as well as studying their impact on the soil and groundwater biogeochemical properties is needed to support the remediation efforts and plans. Geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), induced polarization (IP), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and self-potential (SP) have been previously used to characterize contaminant plumes and investigate their impact on soil and groundwater properties (Atekwana et al., 2002, 2004; Benson et al., 1997; Campbell et al., 1996; Cassidy et al., 2001; Revil et al., 2003; Werkema et al., 2000). Our objective was to: estimate the hydrocarbon contamination extent in a contaminated site in northern France, and to adverse the effects of the oil spill on the groundwater properties. We aim to find a good combination of non-intrusive and low cost methods which we can use to follow the bio-remediation process, which is planned to proceed next year. We used four geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography, IP, GPR, and SP. The geophysical data was compared to geochemical ones obtained from 30 boreholes installed in the site during the geophysical surveys. Our results have shown: low electrical resistivity values; high chargeability values; negative SP anomalies; and attenuated GPR reflections coincident with groundwater contamination. Laboratory and field geochemical measurements have demonstrated increased groundwater electrical conductivity and increased microbial activity associated with hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater. Our study results support the conductive model suggested by studies such as Sauck (2000) and Atekwana et al., (2004), who suggest that biological alterations of hydrocarbon contamination can substantially modify the chemical and physical properties of the subsurface, producing a dramatic shift in the geo-electrical signature from resistive to conductive. The next stage of the research will include time lapse borehole

  4. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang; Dali; Devlin, David; Barbero, Robert S.; Carrera, Martin E.; Colling, Craig W.

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  5. Hydrocarbon oxidation catalyzed by vanadium polyoxometalate supported on mesoporous MCM-41 under ultrasonic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangestaninejad, Shahram; Mirkhani, Valiollah; Moghadam, Majid; Mohammadpoor-Baltork, Iraj; Shams, Esmaeil; Salavati, Hossein

    2008-04-01

    Vanadium polyoxometalate (PVMo) supported on mesoporous MCM-41, MCM-41-NH(2), as efficient and heterogeneous catalysts, with large surface area, for hydrocarbon oxidation with hydrogen peroxide is reported. Oxidation of the alkenes and alkanes gave product selectivities, which are similar to those observed for corresponding homogeneous catalyst. PVMo-MCM was prepared by introduction of PVMo into the mesoporous molecule sieves of MCM-41 by impregnation and adsorption techniques. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis and cyclic voltametry (CV). Ultrasonic irradiation has a particular effect on MCM-41 structural uniformity and reduced the reaction times and improved the product yields. In addition, the solid catalysts could be recovered and reused several times without loss of its activity.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in fine particulate matter emitted from burning kerosene, liquid petroleum gas, and wood fuels in household cookstoves

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes all data in figures in the manuscript and supporting information for the publication entitled "Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon...

  7. Systems and processes for conversion of ethylene feedstocks to hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, Michael A.; Hallen, Richard T.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Cooper, Alan R.; Frye, John G.; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan Kallupalayam

    2017-05-30

    Systems, processes, and catalysts are disclosed for obtaining fuel and fuel blends containing selected ratios of open-chain and closed-chain fuel-range hydrocarbons suitable for production of alternate fuels including gasolines, jet fuels, and diesel fuels. Fuel-range hydrocarbons may be derived from ethylene-containing feedstocks and ethanol-containing feedstocks.

  8. Progress of Silane Impregnating Surface Treatment Technology of Concrete Structure%混凝土结构表面硅烷浸渍处理技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李化建; 易忠来; 谢永江

    2012-01-01

    The silane impregnating surface treatment technology of concrete structure has been incorporated into the standard and is widely used in the concrete structures in severely corrosive environment represented by marine environment. The history evolution and classification of silane impregnating surface treatment technology are introduced and the action mechanism of silane impregnating technology is discussed. The technical requirements of silane hydrophobic impregant used for surface treatment at home and abroad are summarized. Technical requirements of the silane impregnating surface treatment technology has been put forward based on fundamental function, considering environmental function and assistant function. The effects of silane impregnating surface treatment technology on concrete performance including water absorption, chloride ion permeation, frost resistant, wear-resistant and acid rain resistant are described. The existing problems and fitting environment of the silane impregnating surface treatment technology of concrete structure are also put forward.%混凝土结构硅烷浸渍表面处理技术已经被纳入规范,并广泛应用于以海洋环境为代表的严重腐蚀环境下的混凝土结构.介绍了硅烷浸渍表面处理技术的历史沿革以及硅烷的分类,探讨了硅烷浸渍技术的作用机理,总结了国内外硅烷浸渍处理用硅烷材料的技术要求,从基本功能、基于作用环境功能以及辅助功能3方面提出了硅烷浸渍处理的技术要求,阐述了硅烷浸溃处理技术对混凝土吸水性能、抗氯离子渗透性能、抗冻性能、抗磨性能与抗酸雨性能的影响,提出了混凝土结构表面硅烷浸渍处理技术存在的问题,指出了硅烷浸渍处理技术适用的作用环境.

  9. High Pressure Preignition Chemistry of Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    and hydrocarbon blends in our various combustion systems, with emphasis on the effects of elevated pressure using our pressurized flow reactor ( PFR ...facility. Detailed experimental data were generated from the PFR for use in associated kinetic modeling work. We continued to develop and extend both

  10. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  11. Arsenic cycling in hydrocarbon plumes: secondary effects of natural attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Schreiber, Madeline E.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Ziegler, Brady A.

    2016-01-01

    Monitored natural attenuation is widely applied as a remediation strategy at hydrocarbon spill sites. Natural attenuation relies on biodegradation of hydrocarbons coupled with reduction of electron acceptors, including solid phase ferric iron (Fe(III)). Because arsenic (As) adsorbs to Fe-hydroxides, a potential secondary effect of natural attenuation of hydrocarbons coupled with Fe(III) reduction is a release of naturally occurring As to groundwater. At a crude-oil-contaminated aquifer near Bemidji, Minnesota, anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons coupled to Fe(III) reduction has been well documented. We collected groundwater samples at the site annually from 2009 to 2013 to examine if As is released to groundwater and, if so, to document relationships between As and Fe inside and outside of the dissolved hydrocarbon plume. Arsenic concentrations in groundwater in the plume reached 230 µg/L, whereas groundwater outside the plume contained less than 5 µg/L As. Combined with previous data from the Bemidji site, our results suggest that (1) naturally occurring As is associated with Fe-hydroxides present in the glacially derived aquifer sediments; (2) introduction of hydrocarbons results in reduction of Fe-hydroxides, releasing As and Fe to groundwater; (3) at the leading edge of the plume, As and Fe are removed from groundwater and retained on sediments; and (4) downgradient from the plume, patterns of As and Fe in groundwater are similar to background. We develop a conceptual model of secondary As release due to natural attenuation of hydrocarbons that can be applied to other sites where an influx of biodegradable organic carbon promotes Fe(III) reduction.

  12. Comparative analysis of metagenomes from three methanogenic hydrocarbon-degrading enrichment cultures with 41 environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Boonfei; Jane Fowler, S; Laban, Nidal Abu; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph W; Foght, Julia; Gieg, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Methanogenic hydrocarbon metabolism is a key process in subsurface oil reservoirs and hydrocarbon-contaminated environments and thus warrants greater understanding to improve current technologies for fossil fuel extraction and bioremediation. In this study, three hydrocarbon-degrading methanogenic cultures established from two geographically distinct environments and incubated with different hydrocarbon substrates (added as single hydrocarbons or as mixtures) were subjected to metagenomic and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to test whether these differences affect the genetic potential and composition of the communities. Enrichment of different putative hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in each culture appeared to be substrate dependent, though all cultures contained both acetate- and H2-utilizing methanogens. Despite differing hydrocarbon substrates and inoculum sources, all three cultures harbored genes for hydrocarbon activation by fumarate addition (bssA, assA, nmsA) and carboxylation (abcA, ancA), along with those for associated downstream pathways (bbs, bcr, bam), though the cultures incubated with hydrocarbon mixtures contained a broader diversity of fumarate addition genes. A comparative metagenomic analysis of the three cultures showed that they were functionally redundant despite their enrichment backgrounds, sharing multiple features associated with syntrophic hydrocarbon conversion to methane. In addition, a comparative analysis of the culture metagenomes with those of 41 environmental samples (containing varying proportions of methanogens) showed that the three cultures were functionally most similar to each other but distinct from other environments, including hydrocarbon-impacted environments (for example, oil sands tailings ponds and oil-affected marine sediments). This study provides a basis for understanding key functions and environmental selection in methanogenic hydrocarbon-associated communities. PMID:25734684

  13. Comparative analysis of metagenomes from three methanogenic hydrocarbon-degrading enrichment cultures with 41 environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Boonfei; Fowler, S Jane; Abu Laban, Nidal; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph W; Foght, Julia; Gieg, Lisa M

    2015-09-01

    Methanogenic hydrocarbon metabolism is a key process in subsurface oil reservoirs and hydrocarbon-contaminated environments and thus warrants greater understanding to improve current technologies for fossil fuel extraction and bioremediation. In this study, three hydrocarbon-degrading methanogenic cultures established from two geographically distinct environments and incubated with different hydrocarbon substrates (added as single hydrocarbons or as mixtures) were subjected to metagenomic and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to test whether these differences affect the genetic potential and composition of the communities. Enrichment of different putative hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in each culture appeared to be substrate dependent, though all cultures contained both acetate- and H2-utilizing methanogens. Despite differing hydrocarbon substrates and inoculum sources, all three cultures harbored genes for hydrocarbon activation by fumarate addition (bssA, assA, nmsA) and carboxylation (abcA, ancA), along with those for associated downstream pathways (bbs, bcr, bam), though the cultures incubated with hydrocarbon mixtures contained a broader diversity of fumarate addition genes. A comparative metagenomic analysis of the three cultures showed that they were functionally redundant despite their enrichment backgrounds, sharing multiple features associated with syntrophic hydrocarbon conversion to methane. In addition, a comparative analysis of the culture metagenomes with those of 41 environmental samples (containing varying proportions of methanogens) showed that the three cultures were functionally most similar to each other but distinct from other environments, including hydrocarbon-impacted environments (for example, oil sands tailings ponds and oil-affected marine sediments). This study provides a basis for understanding key functions and environmental selection in methanogenic hydrocarbon-associated communities.

  14. A field trial evaluation of the prophylactic efficacy of amitraz-impregnated collars against canine babesiosis (Babesia canis rossi in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. Last

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available South African canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis rossi is a common clinical disease in dogs in South Africa and remains a significant cause of domestic dog mortality. To determine whether tick-repellent, 9% amitraz-impregnated tick collars (Preventic-Virbac could prevent tick-borne exposure to B. canis rossi, 50 dogs were assigned to two groups. Group 1 (20 dogs, polymerase chain reaction (PCR- and reverse line blot (RLB-negative for B. canis rossi, were fitted with amitraz collars and blood samples collected monthly , over a 6-month period, and analysed for B. canis rossi. Group 2 (30 dogs included 5 dogs selected on a month-by-month basis from a population of dogs from the same geographical area as the group 1 dogs, but with no history of previous tick control, which were blood-sampled together with the treatment group and analysed for B. canis rossi by PCR and RLB, to serve as the control group. Eight of the 30 control dogs (26.6 % were PCR / RLB positive for B. canis rossi, indicating high pathogen exposure during the trial period. All twenty of the treatment group dogs remained negative for B. canis rossi throughout the 6 months of the trial. These results suggest that the use of amitraz-impregnated collars had a significant effect on reducing infection with B. canis rossi.

  15. Method of treating emissions of a hybrid vehicle with a hydrocarbon absorber and a catalyst bypass system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Bryan Nathaniel; Gonze, Eugene V; Santoso, Halim G; Spohn, Brian L

    2014-01-14

    A method of treating emissions from an internal combustion engine of a hybrid vehicle includes directing a flow of air created by the internal combustion engine when the internal combustion engine is spinning but not being fueled through a hydrocarbon absorber to collect hydrocarbons within the flow of air. When the hydrocarbon absorber is full and unable to collect additional hydrocarbons, the flow of air is directed through an electrically heated catalyst to treat the flow of air and remove the hydrocarbons. When the hydrocarbon absorber is not full and able to collect additional hydrocarbons, the flow of air is directed through a bypass path that bypasses the electrically heated catalyst to conserve the thermal energy stored within the electrically heated catalyst.

  16. 33 CFR 157.166 - Hydrocarbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon emissions. 157.166... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.166 Hydrocarbon emissions. If the... ballasted in that port the hydrocarbon vapors in each tank are contained by a means under § 157.132....

  17. Materials characterization of impregnated W and W–Ir cathodes after oxygen poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polk, James E., E-mail: james.e.polk@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Capece, Angela M. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-05-30

    Highlights: • Impregnated W and W–Ir cathodes were operated with 100 ppm of oxygen in Xe gas. • High concentrations of oxygen accelerated the formation of tungstate layers. • The W–Ir emitter exhibited less erosion and redeposition at the upstream end. • Tungsten was preferentially transported in the insert plasma of the W–Ir cathode. - Abstract: Electric thrusters use hollow cathodes as the electron source for generating the plasma discharge and for beam neutralization. These cathodes contain porous tungsten emitters impregnated with BaO material to achieve a lower surface work function and are operated with xenon propellant. Oxygen contaminants in the xenon plasma can poison the emitter surface, resulting in a higher work function and increased operating temperature. This could lead directly to cathode failure by preventing discharge ignition or could accelerate evaporation of the BaO material. Exposures over hundreds of hours to very high levels of oxygen can result in increased temperatures, oxidation of the tungsten substrate, and the formation of surface layers of barium tungstates. In this work, we present results of a cathode test in which impregnated tungsten and tungsten–iridium emitters were operated with 100 ppm of oxygen in the xenon plasma for several hundred hours. The chemical and morphological changes were studied using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and laser profilometry. The results provide strong evidence that high concentrations of oxygen accelerate the formation of tungstate layers in both types of emitters, a phenomenon not inherent to normal cathode operation. Deposits of pure tungsten were observed on the W–Ir emitter, indicating that tungsten is preferentially removed from the surface and transported in the insert plasma. A W–Ir cathode surface will therefore evolve to a pure W composition, eliminating the work function benefit of W–Ir. However, the W–Ir emitter exhibited less erosion

  18. Comparison of the Acidity of Heteropolyacids Encapsulated in or Impregnated on SBA-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Teresa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Heteropolyacids (HPA immobilized onto SBA-15 silica were prepared by two different ways using either impregnation or encapsulation methodologies. Two Keggin-type HPA, H3PW12O40 and H4SiW12O40 were considered in this study. The resulting hybrid materials were fully characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, XRD, FT-IR, Raman, diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopies and 31P MAS NMR. All characterization methods showed that at room temperature the catalysts contained well-dispersed and intact Keggin units throughout the solid. The catalytic activity of these solids was investigated in the isomerization of n-hexane. The impregnated and encapsulated phosphotungstic catalysts performed similarly in catalysis showing that the amount of active sites was nearly the same in both catalysts. On the contrary, the tungstosilicic encapsulated material was completely inactive while its impregnated counterpart was even more active than the phosphotungstic derived catalysts. The acidity of the solids was measured by various methods: microcalorimetry of ammonia adsorption, ammonia desorption followed by Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD and DRIFT/GC-MS and pyridine adsorption followed by infrared spectroscopy. Only pyridine adsorption and ammonia desorption followed by DRIFT/GC-MS agreed with the catalytic data. Ammonia adsorption followed by microcalorimetry was not able to differentiate between the four catalysts while the TPD experiments led to unreliable results, as not only the evolved ammonia but also other molecules such as water were taken into account in the measurements. The behavior difference between the encapsulated silico- and phosphotungstic acids was explained by a more pronounced encapsulation in the case of silicon.

  19. High-performance anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell with impregnated electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinkin, D. A.; Bogdanovich, N. M.; Beresnev, S. M.; Zhuravlev, V. D.

    2015-08-01

    The 61%NiO + 39%Zr0.84Y0.16O1.92 (NiO-YSZ) and 56%NiO + 44%Zr0.83Sc0.16Ce0.01O1.92 (NiO-CeSSZ) composite powders have been prepared using two-steps and one-step combustion synthesis, respectively. The Ni-YSZ anode substrate with a low level of electrical resistance (less than 1 mOhm cm) and porosity of about 53% in the reduced state was fabricated. The functional layer of the anode with the high level of electrochemical activity was made of NiO-CeSSZ. The single anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell with the bi-layer Ni-cermet anode, Zr0.84Sc0.16O1.92 film electrolyte and the Pt + 3% Zr0.84Y0.16O1.92 cathode was fabricated. The power density and the U-I curves of the fuel cell at initial state and after impregnation of the cathode and anode by praseodymium and cerium oxides, respectively, have been measured at different temperatures. The maximum of power density of the initial fuel cell was 0.35 W cm-2 at conditions of wet hydrogen (air) supply to the anode (cathode) at 900 °C. After the electrodes were impregnated, the value of power density increased by seven times and was approximately 2.4 W cm-2 at 0.6 V. It was suggested that after the electrodes impregnation the polarization resistance of the fuel cell was determined by the gas diffusion in the supported anode.

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of Cr(VI) extraction using TOPO impregnated membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen, Prashant; Loh, Kai-Chee, E-mail: chelohkc@nus.edu.sg

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Cr(VI) extraction by extractant impregnated membranes (EIM) was investigated. • EIM exhibited high extraction efficiency, mass transfer rate and stability. • Mass transfer mechanism was proposed based on kinetics and equilibrium data. • Uptake of Cr(VI) by EIMs was endothermic and spontaneous. • Cr(VI) extraction by EIMs was dominated by physical interactions. - Abstract: Solid/liquid extraction of Cr(VI) was accomplished using trioctylphosphine oxide impregnated polypropylene hollow fiber membranes. Extraction of 100–500 mg/L Cr(VI) by the extractant impregnated membranes (EIM) was characterized by high uptake rate and capacity, and equilibrium was attained within 45 min of contact. Extraction equilibrium was pH-dependent (at an optimal pH 2), whereas stripping using 0.2 M sodium hydroxide yielded the highest recovery of 98% within 60 min. The distribution coefficient was independent of initial Cr(VI) concentration, and the linear distribution equilibrium isotherm could be modeled using Freundlich isotherm. The mass transfer kinetics of Cr(VI) was examined using pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models and a mass transfer mechanism was deduced. The distribution coefficient increased with temperature, which indicated endothermic nature of the reaction. Enthalpy and entropy change during Cr(VI) extraction were positive and varied in the range of 37–49 kJ/mol and 114–155 J/mol, respectively. The free energy change was negative, confirming the feasibility and spontaneity of the mass transfer process. Results obtained suggest that EIMs are efficient and sustainable for extraction of Cr(VI) from wastewater.

  1. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  2. Fire-safe hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodor, G.E.; Weatherford, W.D. Jr.; Wright, B.R.

    1979-11-06

    A stabilized, fire-safe, aqueous hydrocarbon fuel emulsion prepared by mixing: a diesel fuel; an emulsifier (consisting of oleyl diethanolamide, diethanolamine, and diethanolamine soap of oleic acid) which has been treated with about 0 to 7 1/2 of oleic acid. A modified version of this fuel also contains 0 to 0.5% of an antimisting agent, and water.

  3. Hydrophobic encapsulation of hydrocarbon gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontiev, Alexander V; Saleh, Anas W; Rudkevich, Dmitry M

    2007-04-26

    [reaction: see text] Encapsulation data for hydrophobic hydrocarbon gases within a water-soluble hemicarcerand in aqueous solution are reported. It is concluded that hydrophobic interactions serve as the primary driving force for the encapsulation, which can be used for the design of gas-separating polymers with intrinsic inner cavities.

  4. Kinetic roughening and pinning of coupled precursor and impregnation fronts in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balankin, Alexander S. [Grupo ' Mecanica Fractal' , Instituto Politecnico Nacional, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico) and Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: abalankin@ipn.mx; Garcia Paredes, Rafael [Grupo ' Mecanica Fractal' , Instituto Politecnico Nacional, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Marquez Gonsalez, Jesus [Universidad de Baja California, Mexicali (Mexico); Susarrey Huerta, Orlando [Grupo ' Mecanica Fractal' , Instituto Politecnico Nacional, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Morales Matamoros, Daniel [Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Castrejon Vacio, Fernando [Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-05-22

    In the paper wetting experiments at low evaporation rate, after a short Washburn regime the film flow of filtered water overtakes the main impregnation front. Accordingly, we study the kinetic roughening dynamics and pinning of two strongly coupled fronts moving in different papers. We find that the kinetic roughening dynamics of precursor and main fronts belongs to different universality classes, nevertheless, at the final stage the distance between the fronts decrease until both fronts are pinned in the same configuration z{sub P}(x,y), the scaling properties of which are determined by the long-range correlations in the pore network.

  5. Development of a New Environment-conscious Transformer Impregnated with Palm Fatty Acid Ester (PFAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikosaka, Tomoyuki; Yamazaki, Akina; Hatta, Yasunori; Koide, Hidenobu; Kanoh, Takaaki; Suzuki, Takashi; Yamada, Junichi; Uemura, Shingo

    We have developed a new environment-conscious transformer impregnated with vegetable based insulating oil which called PFAE (Palm Fatty Acid Ester). PFAE has 0.6 times less viscosity and 1.3 times higher dielectric constant compared to mineral oil. This means that a PFAE immersed transformer has better cooling efficiency and better insulating performance in paper-and-oil composite insulation systems, resulting in size reduction in comparison to conventional mineral oil immersed transformers. In this paper, insulating performance of lead to plane electrode models, cooling performance of a PFAE immersed transformer, and the result of analytical study of dissolved gas for abnormal diagnosis are described.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF CALCIUM ENRICHED OSMO-DEHYDRATED APPLE SLICES BY IMPREGNATION AT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop calcium enriched osmo-dehydrated apple slices by impregnation at atmospheric pressure. Osmotic dehydration (OD) was carried out using 50°Bx sucrose solutions with 4% and 8% calcium lactate (CL) at atmospheric pressure for 16 hours followed ...

  7. Permanent antibiotic impregnated intramedullary nail in diabetic limb salvage: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason B. Woods

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Managing complications after attempted hind foot and ankle arthrodesis with intramedullary nail fixation is a challenge. This situation becomes more problematic in the patient with diabetes mellitus and multiple comorbidities. Infection and subsequent osteomyelitis can be a devastating, limb threatening complication associated with these procedures. The surgeon must manage both the infectious process and the skeletal instability concurrently. This article provides a literature review and detailed management strategies for a modified technique of employing antibiotic impregnated polymethylmethacrylate-coated intramedullary nailing.

  8. An X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Study of Activated Carbons Impregnated with Some Organocopper Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    organocuivre ont dte imprdgn~s & la surface du charbon activd, et la composition de la surface du charbon imprdgn6 a dt examinee par spectroscopie...F/Cu et du C/Cu a pu fitre calcule. Ii a dtd trouvd que trois de ces * complexes dtaient soit instables ou ddcomposds & la surface du charbon . Cette...surface composition analysis, there was actually a higher concentration of Cu(I) than Cu(II), the original impregnant. It has been mentioned in an

  9. Elaboration of nickel-impregnated over hexagonal mesoporous materials and their catalytic application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laribi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hexagonal mesoporous silicas with different nickel contents have been synthesized and characterized by several techniques such as N2 physical adsorption, elemental analysis, XRD, TEM and temperature programmed reduction (TPR. In fact, the nickel-impregnated over hexagonal mesoporous silicas showed both high activity and high selectivity for Friedel–Crafts alkylations of benzene with benzyl chloride. The kinetics of the reaction over these catalysts have been investigated and the reaction has been extended to other substrates like toluene, p-xylene, anisole, naphthalene and methylnaphthalene.

  10. Effect of vacuum impregnation temperature on the mechanical properties and osmotic dehydration parameters of apples

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina Silva Paes; Gustavo Beulke Stringari; João Borges Laurindo

    2008-01-01

    The effect of sucrose solution temperature on the mechanical properties, water loss (WL), solids gain (SG) and weight reduction (WR) of apples (Fuji var.) treated by vacuum impregnation was studied. Temperatures were varied from 10 to 50 ºC, using a sucrose solution of 50 ºBrix. The mechanical properties were studied throughout a stress relaxation test. The results showed that the SG varied between 10.57 and 14.29 % and the WL varied between 10.55 and 14.48 %. The treated fruit soluble solids...

  11. A new resin system for the impregnation and bonding of large magnet coils

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, D

    1998-01-01

    ATLAS is an instrument which forms part of the Large Hadron Collider, a high energy physics experiment which is under construction at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland. The properties of the candidate resin systems developed for the impregnation of the Atlas End Cap Toroid magnets are presented. The resin systems contain a blend of two resins; a low viscosity Bisphenol F resin, with a long chain aliphatic epoxide resin. An aromatic amine curing agent was used. It was found that increased additions of the long chain aliphatic epoxide resin resulted in longer useable life, lower glass transition temperature, lower modulus, higher toughness and higher bond strength at 4 K. (4 refs).

  12. Progress in the development of gas-impregnated lapped plastic film insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, E B; McNerney, A J; Muller, A C; Rigby, S J

    1977-01-01

    A flexible superconducting power transmission cable is under development. The electrical insulation consists of lapped polymeric film tapes impregnated with supercritical helium. Ways of satisfying the many constraints on the material were described. Although the cable is intended for low-temperature operation good electrical and mechanical characteristics are needed at room-temperature. Results are given for both small-sample tests and a model cable fabricated commercially. The results are compared with those obtained by other workers and the design of the next test cable is given.

  13. Cluster Classification of Partial Discharges in Oil-impregnated Paper Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURESH, S. D. R.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of multiple partial discharge (PD sources in high voltage equipment has been a challenging task until now. The work reported here, aims to recognize multiple PD sources in oil-impregnated paper using Cluster Analysis (CA and Fuzzy Logic (FL. The typical sources of PD in transformer are identified and the corresponding single source PD defect laboratory models are fabricated. From the measured PD signals, the necessary statistical parameters are extracted by applying CA for classification. A Fuzzy based algorithm has been developed to recognize single source PDs. The developed algorithm has also been applied to recognize multiple PD sources.

  14. A case study of the intrinsic bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, G.W.; Raterman, K.T.; Fisher, J.B.; Corgan, J.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    Condensate liquids have been found to contaminate soil and groundwater at two gas production sites in the Denver Basin operated by Amoco Production Co. These sites have been closely monitored since July 1993 to determine whether intrinsic aerobic or anaerobic bioremediation of hydrocarbons occurs at a sufficient rate and to an adequate endpoint to support a no-intervention decision. Groundwater monitoring and analysis of soil cores suggest that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at these sites by multiple pathways including aerobic oxidation, Fe{sup 3+} reduction, and sulfate reduction. In laboratory experiments the addition of gas condensate hydrocarbons to saturated soil from the gas production site stimulated sulfate reduction under anaerobic and oxygen-limiting conditions, and nitrate and Fe{sup 3+} reduction under oxygen-limiting conditions, compared to biotic controls that lacked hydrocarbon and sterile controls. The sulfate reduction corresponded to a reduction in the amount of toluene relative to other hydrocarbons. These results confirmed that subsurface soils at the gas production site have the potential for intrinsic bioremediation of hydrocarbons.

  15. Effects of sulfur impregnation temperature on the properties and mercury adsorption capacities of activated carbon fibers (ACFs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, H.-C.; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Chen, S.; Chang, R.

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the role of sulfur functional groups and micropore surface area of carbon-based adsorbents on the adsorption of Hg0 from simulated coal combustion flue gases. In this study, raw activated carbon fibers that are microporous (ACF-20) were impregnated with elemental sulfur between 250 and 650 ??C. The resulting samples were saturated with respect to sulfur content. Total sulfur content of the sulfur impregnated ACF samples decreased with increasing impregnation temperatures from 250 and 500 ??C and then remained constant to 650 ??C. Results from sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (S-XANES) spectroscopy showed that sulfur impregnated on the ACF samples was in both elemental and organic forms. As sulfur impregnation temperature increased, however, the relative amounts of elemental sulfur decreased with a concomitant increase in the amount of organic sulfur. Thermal analyses and mass spectrometry revealed that sulfur functional groups formed at higher impregnation temperatures were more thermally stable. In general, sulfur impregnation decreased surface area and increased equilibrium Hg0 adsorption capacity when compared to the raw ACF sample. The ACF sample treated with sulfur at 400 ??C had a surface area of only 94 m2/g compared to the raw ACF sample's surface area of 1971 m2/g, but at least 86% of this sample's surface area existed as micropores and it had the largest equilibrium Hg0adsorption capacities (2211-11343 ??g/g). Such a result indicates that 400 ??C is potentially an optimal sulfur impregnation temperature for this ACF. Sulfur impregnated on the ACF that was treated at 400 ??C was in both elemental and organic forms. Thermal analyses and CS2extraction tests suggested that elemental sulfur was the main form of sulfur affecting the Hg0 adsorption capacity. These findings indicate that both the presence of elemental sulfur on the adsorbent and a microporous structure are important properties for

  16. Effects of sulfur impregnation temperature on the properties and mercury adsorption capacities of activated carbon fibers (ACFs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, H C; Rood, M J; Rostam-Abadi, M; Chen, S; Chang, R

    2001-07-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the role of sulfur functional groups and micropore surface area of carbon-based adsorbents on the adsorption of Hg0 from simulated coal combustion flue gases. In this study, raw activated carbon fibers that are microporous (ACF-20) were impregnated with elemental sulfur between 250 and 650 degrees C. The resulting samples were saturated with respect to sulfur content. Total sulfur content of the sulfur impregnated ACF samples decreased with increasing impregnation temperatures from 250 and 500 degrees C and then remained constant to 650 degrees C. Results from sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (S-XANES) spectroscopy showed that sulfur impregnated on the ACF samples was in both elemental and organic forms. As sulfur impregnation temperature increased, however, the relative amounts of elemental sulfur decreased with a concomitant increase in the amount of organic sulfur. Thermal analyses and mass spectrometry revealed that sulfur functional groups formed at higher impregnation temperatures were more thermally stable. In general, sulfur impregnation decreased surface area and increased equilibrium Hg0 adsorption capacity when compared to the raw ACF sample. The ACF sample treated with sulfur at 400 degrees C had a surface area of only 94 m2/g compared to the raw ACF sample's surface area of 1971 m2/g, but at least 86% of this sample's surface area existed as micropores and it had the largest equilibrium Hg0 adsorption capacities (2211-11,343 micrograms/g). Such a result indicates that 400 degrees C is potentially an optimal sulfur impregnation temperature for this ACF. Sulfur impregnated on the ACF that was treated at 400 degrees C was in both elemental and organic forms. Thermal analyses and CS2 extraction tests suggested that elemental sulfur was the main form of sulfur affecting the Hg0 adsorption capacity. These findings indicate that both the presence of elemental sulfur on the adsorbent and a

  17. The efficacy of collars impregnated with flumethrin and propoxur against experimental infestations of adult Rhipicephalus sanguineus on dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Fourie

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of 2 sets of collars (Kiltix(R Collar, Bayer AG, containing different plasticisers and impregnated with the acaricides flumethrin (2.25 % and propoxur (10 %, was compared against adult Rhipicephalus sanguineus on experimentally infested, kennelled dogs. Thirty individually penned dogs were infested with 25 male and 25 female, unfed R. sanguineus. On the following day they were allocated to 3 groups of 10 dogs each on the magnitude of their tick burdens. Two days after infestation, medicated collars containing 1 of the plasticisers were fitted to 10 of the dogs and similar collars containing the other plasticiser were fitted to 10 others. The remaining 10 dogs were the untreated controls. Seven and 28 days after having fitted the collars, all dogs were re-infested with 50 unfed adult ticks of both sexes, and again at approximately 28-day intervals up to the 5th month, and then at approximately 14-day intervals during the 6th month. Efficacy was determined by comparing the mean number of live, attached ticks on the untreated control group with those on the collared dogs 2 days after each re-infestation. Immediate efficacy of the collars (Day +2 was > 95 %, and residual efficacy was > 98% up to and including Day +114, and > 93 % up to Day +170 on both groups of collared dogs. The mean tick counts on the 2 groups of collared dogs did not differ significantly (P < 0.0001 for any of the assessment days.

  18. Adsorption and photodegradation of methylene blue by iron oxide impregnated on granular activated carbons in an oxalate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadirova, Zukhra C., E-mail: zuhra_kadirova@yahoo.com [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Mirzo Ulugbek Str. 77a, Tashkent 100170 (Uzbekistan); Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Katsumata, Ken-ichi [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Isobe, Toshihiro [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Matsushita, Nobuhiro [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Nakajima, Akira [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Okada, Kiyoshi [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    The photocatalytic adsorbents BAU-OA, BAU-CL and BAU-HA with varying iron oxide content (9–10 mass%) were prepared by heat treatment at 250 °C from commercial activated carbon (BAU) impregnated with iron oxalate, chloride, tris-benzohydroxamate, respectively. The XRD patterns showed amorphous structure in the BAU-CL sample (S{sub BET} 50 m{sup 2}/g) and low crystallinity (as FeOOH and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases) in the BAU-HA and BAU-OA samples (S{sub BET} 4 and 111 m{sup 2}/g, respectively). The methylene blue adsorption capacities was decreased in order of BAU-OA < BAU-CL < BAU-HA sample and the adsorption followed Langmuir model. The apparent MB photodegradation rate constant (k{sub app}) was increased in same order BAU-HA < BAU-CL < BAU-OA under the standard experimental conditions (initial MB concentrations 0.015–0.025 mM; sample content – 10 mg/l; initial oxalic acid concentration – 0.43 mM; pH 3–4; UV illumination). The process included high efficiency combination of adsorption, heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis under UV and solar lights illumination without addition of hydrogen peroxide. The detoxification of water sample containing organic dyes was confirmed after combined sorption-photocatalytic treatment.

  19. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration using hydrocarbon adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-02-01

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material selectively heats exhaust passing through the upstream end to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A hydrocarbon adsorbent coating applied to the PF releases hydrocarbons into the exhaust to increase a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

  20. Experimental glomerulonephritis induced by hydrocarbon exposure: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravnskov Uffe

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much epidemiological evidence suggests that hydrocarbon exposure may induce glomerulonephritis and worsen its course in many patients. The mechanisms are unknown, however, no specific microscopic pattern has been identified, and it has also been argued that hydrocarbon exposure causes tubular damage mainly. Studying experimental animals may best answer these questions, and as no systematic review of glomerulonephritis produced experimentally by hydrocarbon exposure has been performed previously, I found it relevant to search for and analyse such studies. Methods Animal experiments having mimicked human glomerulonephritis by hydrocarbon exposure were sought on Medline and Toxnet Results Twenty-six experiments using thirteen different hydrocarbons were identified. Several human subtypes were observed including IgA nephritis, mesangial, proliferative and extracapillary glomerulonephritis, focal and focal-segmental sclerosis, minimal change nephropathy, anti-GBM and anti-TBM nephritis, and glomerulonephritis associated with peiarteritis nodosa. Glomerular proteinuria was seen in 10/12 experiments that included urine analyses, and renal failure in 5/8 experiments that included measurements of glomerular function. All experiments resulted in various degrees of tubular damage as well. In most studies, where the animals were examined at different times during or after the exposure, the renal microscopic and functional changes were seen immediately, whereas deposits of complement and immunoglobulins appeared late in the course, if at all. Conclusion These experiments are in accord with epidemiological evidence that hydrocarbon exposure may cause glomerulonephritis and worsen renal function. Probable mechanisms include an induction of autologous antibodies and a disturbance of normal immunological functions. Also, tubular damage may increase postglomerular resistance, resulting in a glomerular deposition of macromolecules. In most

  1. [Influence on Strychni Semen's Analgesic Effect and Toxicity of Milk-Impregnated- Processing-Technology of Traditional Uighur Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tursun, D; Shi, Yu-zhu; Yang, Qiao-li; Liu, Yan; Xue, Wen-cai; Abas, A; Yang, Wei-jun

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effects of different processing methods on analgesic effect and toxicity of Strychni Semen, and to provide the scientific basis of milk-impregnated-processing-technology of traditional Uighur medicine for toxic medicines. Three different methods, frying with sand of traditional Chinese medicine (1), cooled milk-impregnated-processing-technology of traditional Uighur medicine (2), and heated milk-impregnated-processing-technology of traditional Uighur medicine (3) were used to process raw Strychni Semen and the processed products were compared with those in the raw drug (4). Karber method was used to caculate the LD50. The LD50 of (4), (1), (2) and (3)were 273.0, 289.3, 289.3 and 339.2 mg/kg,successively. Low dose group of heated milk-impregnated-processing-technology, low and high dose groups of cooled milk-impregnated-processing-technology had significant inhibition on the acetic acid-induced writhing reaction in mice (P technology's pharmacological mechanism on efficacy enhancing and toxicity reducing of Strychni Semen.

  2. Recommended Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium Data. Hydrocarbons with Seawater Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góral, Marian; Gierycz, Paweł; Oracz, Paweł; Shaw, David G.

    2011-12-01

    The solubilities of C5-C26 hydrocarbons in seawater, reviewed previously, were re-evaluated using a predictive model based on the Sechenov equation. It was found that, within the scope of investigated data, the Sechenov constant is proportional to a hydrocarbon-specific parameter representing the size of the cavity in water needed to accommodate the dissolved molecule of the hydrocarbon. The proportionality coefficient has one value for n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, and alkylbenzenes, whereas for higher aromatics (including those with fused rings), a second value of the coefficient is indicated. The proposed model provides a framework for comparison of the data for various systems and helps in the recognition of systematic error. Evaluation of experimental solubility data and analysis of error propagation is given.

  3. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc.. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

  4. Combustion process for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials from liquid hydrocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Michael D.; Alford, J. Michael; Nabity, James; Hitch, Bradley D.

    2007-01-02

    The present invention provides a combustion apparatus for the production of carbon nanomaterials including fullerenes and fullerenic soot. Most generally the combustion apparatus comprises one or more inlets for introducing an oxygen-containing gas and a hydrocarbon fuel gas in the combustion system such that a flame can be established from the mixed gases, a droplet delivery apparatus for introducing droplets of a liquid hydrocarbon feedstock into the flame, and a collector apparatus for collecting condensable products containing carbon nanomaterials that are generated in the combustion system. The combustion system optionally has a reaction zone downstream of the flame. If this reaction zone is present the hydrocarbon feedstock can be introduced into the flame, the reaction zone or both.

  5. Aliphatics hydrocarbon content in surface sediment from Jakarta Bay, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAzis, M.; Asia, L.; Piram, A.; Doumenq, P.; Syakti, A. D.

    2016-02-01

    Sedimentary aliphatic hydrocarbons content have been studied quantitatively and qualitatively using GC/MS method in eight coastal stations located in the Jakarta Bay, North of Jakarta, Indonesia. The total concentrations n-alkanes have ranged from 480 μg.kg-1to 1,935 μg.kg-1sediment dry weight. Several ratios (e.g. CPI24-32, NAR, TAR, Pr/Phy, n-C17/Pr, n- C18/Phyt,n-C29/n-C17, Ʃn-alkanes/n-C16LMW/HMW, Paq and TMD) were used to evaluate the possible sources of terrestrial-marine inputs of these hydrocarbons in the sediments. The various origins of aliphatic hydrocarbons were generally biogenic, including both terrigenous and marine, with an anthropogenic pyrolytic contribution (petrogenic and biogenic combustion). Two stations (G,H) were thehighest concentration and had potential risk to environment

  6. Enhancement of seismic monitoring in hydrocarbon reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Götz

    2017-04-01

    Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) is widely considered as one of the most significant enablers of the successful exploitation of hydrocarbons in North America. Massive usage of HF is currently adopted to increase the permeability in shale and tight-sand deep reservoirs, despite the economical downturn. The exploitation success is less due to the subsurface geology, but in technology that improves exploration, production, and decision-making. This includes monitoring of the reservoir, which is vital. Indeed, the general mindset in the industry is to keep enhancing seismic monitoring. It allows understanding and tracking processes in hydrocarbon reservoirs, which serves two purposes, a) to optimize recovery, and b) to help minimize environmental impact. This raises the question of how monitoring, and especially seismic techniques could be more efficient. There is a pressing demand from seismic service industry to evolve quickly and to meet the oil-gas industry's changing needs. Nonetheless, the innovative monitoring techniques, to achieve the purpose, must enhance the characterization or the visualization of a superior-quality images of the reservoir. We discuss recent applications of seismic monitoring in hydrocarbon reservoirs, detailing potential enhancement and eventual limitations. The aim is to test the validity of these seismic monitoring techniques, qualitatively discuss their potential application to energy fields that are not only limited to HF. Outcomes from our investigation may benefit operators and regulators in case of future massive HF applications in Europe, as well. This work is part of the FracRisk consortium (www.fracrisk.eu), funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, whose aims is to help minimize the environmental footprint of the shale-gas exploration and exploitation.

  7. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review.

  8. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  9. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Luiz Fernando; Peixoto, Raquel Silva

    2012-01-01

    Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review. PMID:24031900

  10. Backscattered electron image of osmium-impregnated/macerated tissues as a novel technique for identifying the cis-face of the Golgi apparatus by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, D; Bochimoto, H; Watanabe, T; Ushiki, T

    2016-07-01

    The osmium maceration method with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) enabled to demonstrate directly the three-dimensional (3D) structure of membranous cell organelles. However, the polarity of the Golgi apparatus (that is, the cis-trans axis) can hardly be determined by SEM alone, because there is no appropriate immunocytochemical method for specific labelling of its cis- or trans-faces. In the present study, we used the osmium impregnation method, which forms deposits of reduced osmium exclusively in the cis-Golgi elements, for preparation of specimens for SEM. The newly developed procedure combining osmium impregnation with subsequent osmium maceration specifically visualised the cis-elements of the Golgi apparatus, with osmium deposits that were clearly detected by backscattered electron-mode SEM. Prolonged osmication by osmium impregnation (2% OsO4 solution at 40°C for 40 h) and osmium maceration (0.1% OsO4 solution at 20°C for 24 h) did not significantly impair the 3D ultrastructure of the membranous cell organelles, including the Golgi apparatus. This novel preparation method enabled us to determine the polarity of the Golgi apparatus with enough information about the surrounding 3D ultrastructure by SEM, and will contribute to our understanding of the global organisation of the entire Golgi apparatus in various differentiated cells.

  11. Adsorption of gaseous iodine-131 at high temperatures by silver impregnated alumina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程庆辉; 李泽军; 褚泰伟

    2015-01-01

    To prevent radioactive iodides from releasing into the environment in an accident of a nuclear power plant, silver-impregnated alumina (Ag/Al2O3) was fabricated, and its performance of radioactive iodine adsorption from high-temperature gas was tested. The silver loadings on alumina were obtained by ICP-OES and the texture properties of Ag/Al2O3 were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption. The Ag/Al2O3 was of reduced specific surface (107.2 m2/g at 650◦C). Crystalline phases of Ag/Al2O3 were confirmed through XRD characterization. After calcination at 650◦C for 2 h, the crystalline phase of Ag/Al2O3 changed. The 131I-removal efficiency of Ag/Al2O3 was tested at 100, 250, 350, 450 and 650◦C, with good decontamination factor values for the radioactive iodine. Silver-impregnated alumina can be applied as adsorbents to remove radioactive iodine at high temperatures in nuclear accident.

  12. Investigation of the processes of impregnation and drying of granular silica gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, A. V.; Zhilin, A. A.; Korobeinikov, Yu. G.

    2011-09-01

    The process of capillary impregnation and drying of silica gel grains in the acousto-convective drier of the ITPM of the Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences has been investigated experimentally. Two methods for humidifying a material with developed surface and internal structures have been considered. A comparison of these methods has been made and the influence of the impregnation rate on the geometry of silica gel grains has been analyzed. Silica gel grains were dried by three methods: microwave, convective, and acousto-convective. The dependence of the drying rate and the quality of the dried material on the chosen drying method has been shown. To describe the moisture extraction, we propose a mathematical model based on a two-dimensional diffusion equation written in the cylindrical system of coordinates. The moisture distribution in cylindrical samples consisting of silica gel grains has been obtained numerically for various values of the initial moisture content with the use of certain diffusion coefficients and the dependence of the moisture transfer coefficient on the frequency of acousto-convective action.

  13. Production of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil using impregnated diatomite as heterogeneous catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edward Modiba; Christopher Enweremadu; Hilary Rutto

    2015-01-01

    In this study, biodiesel was produced from waste vegetable oil using a heterogeneous base catalyst synthesized by impregnating potassium hydroxide (KOH) onto diatomite. Response surface methodology based on a central composite design was used to optimize four transesterification variables:temperature (30–120 °C), reaction time (2–6 h), methanol to oil mass ratio (10%–50%) and catalyst to oil mass ratio (2.1%–7.9%). A quadratic poly-nomial equation was obtained to correlate biodiesel yield to the transesterification variables. The diatomite–KOH catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS). A maximum biodiesel yield of 90%(by mass) was obtained. The reaction conditions were as follows:methanol to oil mass ratio 30%, catalyst to oil mass ratio 5%, reaction time 4 h, and reaction temperature 75 °C. The XRD, FTIR and SEM (EDS) results confirm that the addition of KOH modifies the structure of diatomite. During impregnation and calcination of the diatomite catalyst the K2O phase forms in the diatomite structural matrix and the active basicity of this compound facilitates the transesterification process. It is possible to recycle the diatomite–KOH catalyst up to three times. The crucial biodiesel properties from waste vegetable oil are within the American Stan-dard Test Method specifications.

  14. Impregnation of mortars with monomers and their radiolytic polymerization. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadalla, A.M.; El-Derini, M.E.

    1984-10-01

    Mortars were cured for a sufficient period to give sufficient strength and were then dried to remove the free water without dehydrating the compounds formed. Dried specimens were evacuated and impregnated with a mixture of styrene and acrylonitrile monomers which gives high mechanical properties after polymerization. Positive pressure was then applied, and polymerization was done radiolytically. The effect of degree and period of evacuation, the positive pressure and the irradiation dose on monomer loading, tensile and compressive strength were studied, and the optimum operating conditions were established. The achieved strength was correlated with the fraction of open pores impregnated. The composites investigated have the same volume fraction of mortar, and the polymer is added at the expense of the open porosity causing nearly an exponential increase in strength. Only 80% of the open pores were filled with polymers due to the difference in density between the polymer and the monomer, loss of monomer, and the presence of entrapped gas consisting of residual air and residual water vapor and monomer vapor, as well as due to the inability to fill all the micropores with monomer. A compressive strengh four times that of plain mortar and a tensile strength eight times that of plain mortar were achieved. 18 references, 12 figures.

  15. Silver impregnated carbon for adsorption and desorption of elemental mercury vapors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Despina Karatza; Marina Prisciandaro; Amedeo Lancia; Dino Musmarra

    2011-01-01

    The Hg0 vapor adsorption experimental results on a novel sorbent obtained by impregnating a commercially available activated carbon (Darco G60 from BDH) with silver nitrate were reported.The study was performed by using a fundamental approach,in an apparatus at laboratory scale in which a synthetic flue gas,formed by Hg0 vapors in a nitrogen gas stream,at a given temperature and mercury concentration,was flowed through a fixed bed of adsorbent material.Breakthrough curves and adsorption isotherms were obtained for bed temperatures of 90,120 and 150°C and for Hg0 concentrations in the gas varying in the range of 0.8-5.0 mg/m3.The experimental gas-solid equilibrium data were used to evaluate the Langmuir parameters and the heat of adsorption.The experimental results showed that silver impregnated carbon was very effective to capture elemental mercury and the amount of mercury adsorbed by the carbon decreased as the bed temperature increased.In addition,to evaluate the possibility of adsorbent recovery,desorption was also studied.Desorption runs showed that both the adsorbing material and the mercury could be easily recovered,since at the end of desorption the residue on solid was almost negligible.The material balance on mercury and the constitutive equations of the adsorption phenomenon were integrated,leading to the evaluation of only one kinetic parameter which fits well both the experimentally determined breakthrough and desorption curves.

  16. Silver impregnated carbon for adsorption and desorption of elemental mercury vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatza, Despina; Prisciandaro, Marina; Lancia, Amedeo; Musmarra, Dino

    2011-01-01

    The Hg(0) vapor adsorption experimental results on a novel sorbent obtained by impregnating a commercially available activated carbon (Darco G60 from BDH) with silver nitrate were reported. The study was performed by using a fundamental approach, in an apparatus at laboratory scale in which a synthetic flue gas, formed by Hg(0) vapors in a nitrogen gas stream, at a given temperature and mercury concentration, was flowed through a fixed bed of adsorbent material. Breakthrough curves and adsorption isotherms were obtained for bed temperatures of 90, 120 and 150 degrees C and for Hg(0) concentrations in the gas varying in the range of 0.8-5.0 mg/m3. The experimental gas-solid equilibrium data were used to evaluate the Langmuir parameters and the heat of adsorption. The experimental results showed that silver impregnated carbon was very effective to capture elemental mercury and the amount of mercury adsorbed by the carbon decreased as the bed temperature increased. In addition, to evaluate the possibility of adsorbent recovery, desorption was also studied. Desorption runs showed that both the adsorbing material and the mercury could be easily recovered, since at the end of desorption the residue on solid was almost negligible. The material balance on mercury and the constitutive equations of the adsorption phenomenon were integrated, leading to the evaluation of only one kinetic parameter which fits well both the experimentally determined breakthrough and desorption curves.

  17. Highly fluorescent peptide nanoribbon impregnated with Sn-porphyrin as a potent DNA sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parayil, Sreenivasan Koliyat; Lee, Jooran; Yoon, Minjoong

    2013-05-01

    Highly fluorescent and thermo-stable peptide nanoribbons (PNRs) were fabricated by solvothermal self-assembly of a single peptide (D,D-diphenyl alanine peptides) with Sn-porphyrin (trans-dihydroxo[5,10,15,20-tetrakis(p-tolyl)porphyrinato] Sn(IV) (SnTTP(OH)2)). The structural characterization of the as-prepared nanoribbons was performed by transmitting electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, indicating that the lipophilic Sn-porphyrins are impregnated into the porous surface formed in the process of nanoribbon formation through intermolecular hydrogen bonding of the peptide main chains. Consequently the Sn-porphyrin-impregnated peptide nanoribbons (Sn-porphyrin-PNRs) exhibited typical UV-visible absorption spectrum of the monomer porphyrin with a red shifted Q-band, and their fluorescence quantum yield was observed to be enhanced compared to that of free Sn-porphyrin. Interestingly the fluorescence intensity and lifetimes of Sn-porphyrin-PNRs were selectively affected upon interaction with nucleotide base sequences of DNA while those of free Sn-porphyrins were not affected by binding with any of the DNA studied, indicating that DNA-induced changes in the fluorescence properties of Sn-porphyrin-PNRs are due to interaction between DNA and the PNR scaffold. These results imply that Sn-porphyrin-PNR will be useful as a potent fluorescent protein analogue and as a biocompatible DNA sensor.

  18. Effective slip for flow through a channel bounded by lubricant-impregnated grooved surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Ng, Chiu-On

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to investigate effective slip arising from pressure-driven flow through a slit channel bounded by lubricant-impregnated grooved surfaces. The problem for flow over longitudinal grooves is solved analytically using the methods of domain decomposition and eigenfunction expansion, while that for flow over transverse grooves is solved numerically using the front tracking method. It is found that the effective slip length and the lubricant flow rate can depend strongly on the geometry of the microstructure, the direction of flow, and the lubricant viscosity. In particular, the effective slip can be effectively enhanced by increasing the thickness of a lubricating film atop the ribs. Under the same conditions, a flow that is parallel to the lubricant-impregnated grooves will have a larger effective slip, but also a larger lubricant flow rate, when compared with the case of flow normal to the grooves. It is also shown that, in the case of transverse grooves, because of the downward displacement of the interface between the working/lubricating fluids, the effective slip length and lubricant flow rate may vary non-monotonically with the groove depth.

  19. N-benzoyl-n-phenylhydroxylamine impregnated Amberlite XAD-4 beads for selective removal of thorium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouleeswaran, S; Ramkumar, Jayshree

    2014-09-15

    n-Benzoyl-n-phenylhydroxylamine impregnated Amberlite XAD-4 beads were used for the removal of Th(IV) from a mixture of ions. The impregnated XAD was characterized using different techniques like weight and colour change, IR spectra, surface area and pore size measurements to confirm the presence of n-BPHA within the macroreticular resin structure. The experimental conditions were optimized to make the separation fast and selective. It was seen that the maximum sorption was achieved in the pH range of 3-7.5 and uptake was nearly complete within half an hour. The results obtained in the present study were subjected to extensive modelling in order to get a complete understanding of the sorption process. It is seen that the maximum uptake was calculated to be 500 mg/g and has very fast kinetics it was seen that the process is chemisorption. It was further deduced from the modelling that the overall sorption process was controlled dominantly by external mass transfer. Considering the simplicity this procedure, the present study has a possible application for the removal of thorium from different mixtures.

  20. Analysis and measurement of thermal conductivity of polypropylene laminated paper impregnated with subcooled liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, Mitsuho; Fuchino, Shuichiro

    2014-09-01

    We measured the thermal conductivity of polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP) impregnated with subcooled liquid nitrogen. PPLP is widely used for the electrical insulation of high-Tc superconducting (HTS) power transmission cables. Although the thermal conductivity of PPLP is an important factor in the design of HTS cables, there has been very limited work on its measurement in subcooled liquid nitrogen. We prepared PPLP samples and symmetrically stacked them on both sides of a heater. The stacked samples were immersed in liquid nitrogen in an open cryostat. A cryocooler mounted on the cryostat was used to maintain the subcooled temperature of the liquid nitrogen. The thermal conductivity of the stacked PPLPs was measured by the steady state method at a bath temperature of 65-75 K and was found to be 0.23-0.26 W/m K, which is about five times that measured in a vacuum as presented in available literature. We also discuss possible mechanisms for boosting the thermal conductivity of PPLP by liquid nitrogen impregnation.

  1. Enhancement of CO2 sorption uptake on hydrotalcite by impregnation with K2CO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Moo; Min, Yoon Jae; Lee, Ki Bong; Jeon, Sang Goo; Na, Jeong Geol; Ryu, Ho Jung

    2010-12-21

    The awareness of symptoms of global warming and its seriousness urges the development of technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is a representative greenhouse gas, and numerous methods to capture and storage CO(2) have been considered. Recently, the technology to remove high-temperature CO(2) by sorption has received lots of attention. In this study, hydrotalcite, which has been known to have CO(2) sorption capability at high temperature, was impregnated with K(2)CO(3) to enhance CO(2) sorption uptake, and the mechanism of CO(2) sorption enhancement on K(2)CO(3)-promoted hydrotalcite was investigated. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to measure equilibrium CO(2) sorption uptake and to estimate CO(2) sorption kinetics. The analyses based on N(2) gas physisorption, X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, Raman spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were carried out to elucidate the characteristics of sorbents and the mechanism of enhanced CO(2) sorption. The equilibrium CO(2) sorption uptake on hydrotalcite could be increased up to 10 times by impregnation with K(2)CO(3), and there was an optimal amount of K(2)CO(3) for a maximum equilibrium CO(2) sorption uptake. In the K(2)CO(3)-promoted hydrotalcite, K(2)CO(3) was incorporated without changing the structure of hydrotalcite and it was thermally stabilized, resulting in the enhanced equilibrium CO(2) sorption uptake and fast CO(2) sorption kinetics.

  2. Removal of arsenic from toxic ash after combustion of impregnated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottosen, L. M.; Pedersen, A. J.; Kristensen, I. V.; Ribeiro, A. B.

    2003-05-01

    ln the next ten years the amounts of waste wood impregnated with Cu, Cr and As (CCA) is expected to increase dramatically. Mixed with municipal solid waste for incineration the wood constitutes a problem because As emission is not hindered through common flue gas treatment. Furthermore the ashes will contain higher concentrations of Cu, Cr and As. In different countries initiatives has been taken or are implemented to sort the impregnated wood from other waste and handle the wood separately. This handling can involve combustion in special plants. This paper deals with electrodialytic treatment of ash from combustion of CCA treated wood. The total concentrations in the ash were very high: 69gCu/kg, 62gCr/kg and 35gAs/kg. A SEM/EDX analysis showed that Cr was mainly build into the matrix structure of the ash. Cu, too, but some Cu was also precipitated on the surface of the particles. As, on the other hand, was only found associated with Ca and thus probably in a soluble form. As is the main problem of the ash due to the high toxicity and mobility and thus the treatment aims at removing this element. It was shown that during 5 days of electrodialytic treatment 92% As could be removed.

  3. Basic technology for {sup 6}Li enrichment using an ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: hoshino.tsuyoshi@jaea.go.jp [Blanket Irradiation and Analysis Group, Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashi Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Terai, Takayuki [The Institute of Engineering Innovation and Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    The tritium needed as a fuel for fusion reactors is produced by the neutron capture reaction of lithium-6 ({sup 6}Li) in tritium breeding materials. However, natural Li contains only about 7.6 at.% {sup 6}Li. In this paper, a new lithium isotope separation technique using an ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane is proposed. In order to separate and concentrate lithium isotopes, only lithium ions are able to move through the membrane by electrodialysis between the cathode and the anode in lithium solutions. Preliminary experiments of lithium isotope separation were conducted using this phenomenon. Organic membranes impregnated with TMPA-TFSI and PP13-TFSI as ionic liquids were prepared, and the relationship between the {sup 6}Li separation coefficient and the applied electrodialytic conditions was evaluated using them. The results showed that the {sup 6}Li isotope separation coefficient in this method (about 1.1-1.4) was larger than that in the mercury amalgam method (about 1.06).

  4. Photocatalytic Degradation of Congored on Silica Supported Ag Impregnated TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiripuranthagan, Sivakumar; Raj, Danny; Kannan, Kathiravan

    2015-06-01

    Advanced oxidation process using nano sized silver impregnated titania-silica composite catalysts for the degradation of carcinogenic dye has been investigated. x% Silver/y% Titania/Silica. (x = 1%, 4%, 7% and 10%; and y = 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%), composite photocatalysts were synthesized by a three step process and characterized by using various physicochemical analytical techniques and evaluated for their photocatalytic activities towards decolourization/degradation of Congo red. The photodecolourisation and the photodegradation were monitored by using UV-Visible spectrophotometer and Total Organic Carbon analyzer respectively. The effects of various operating variables such as percentage loading of titania and silver on the decolourization/degradation of Congo red dye were studied, optimized and compared. Impregnation of silver increased the photocatalytic activity. 1% Silver/Titania/Silica composite catalyst showed better photocatalytic activity than titania-silica composite catalysts. However further increase of silver to 4%, 7% and 10% did not show any significant improvement in photocatalytic activity. Among the catalysts synthesized 1% silver/25% titania/silica composite catalyst was found to show the best decolourization and degradation of Congo red.

  5. Theoretical simulation of CO2 capture in organic cage impregnated with polyoxometalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jingyuan; Li, Wenliang; Zhang, Jingping

    2017-04-05

    To explore the adsorption and separation properties of CO2 in a novel material consisting of a series of polyoxometalates (POMs) impregnated within supramolecular porous catenane (shorted as SPC), grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations and ab initio calculations were used. GCMC simulations showed this impregnation can enhance CO2 /CH4 (or CO2 /N2 ) selectivity almost 30 times compared to the bare SPC due to the strong interaction of CO2 with the nPOMs@SPC structures. And, the loading of CO2 inhibits the adsorption of CH4 (or N2 ) as CO2 occupying the preferred adsorption sites. Furthermore, the effect of number, mass, and volume of POMs inserted in SPC on CO2 /CH4 (or CO2 /N2 ) selectivity over large pressure range was investigated in detail. Additionally, the accurate ab initio calculations further confirmed our GCMC simulations. As a result, the proposed nPOMs@SPC structures are promising candidates for CO2 /N2 and CO2 /CH4 separations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Temperature Distribution in Fibre-glass Composite Impregnated with Epoxy-Cyanate ester Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Brahmbhatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanate ester and epoxy blends have been identified as an attractive insulating material for fusion grade magnet winding packs. An insulation system comprising of fibre glass composites and cyanate ester and blend has been analyzed during its vacuum pressure impregnation and curing. The transient one dimensional distribution of temperature and extent of cure has been evaluated both analytically and experimentally in this paper. The one dimensional transient (1-D heat transfer characteristics evaluation has been carried out on 60:40 (epoxy : cyanate which has been optimally prescribed blend for fusion grade winding process. The analytical formulation solves the heat transfer differential equations incorporating internal heat generation resulting from the exothermic chemical reaction in both chemical and diffusional kinetic regimes. In support to the analytical formulation, carefully designed experiments have been carried out on such samples. On comparing the results obtained from analytical formulism and those measured during experiments have been found to be matching well. These results have the potential to design the vacuum pressure impregnation of large size fusion relevant winding packs.

  7. Mechanical properties of composites made of hybrid fabric impregnated with silica nanoparticles and epoxy resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordani, N.; Alizadeh, M.; Lohrasby, F.; Khajavi, R.; Baharvandi, H. R.; Rezanejad, M.; Ahmadzadeh, M.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the mechanical properties of composites will be examined which were made from Kenaf and hybrid fabric with a simple structure that was coated with epoxy resin and nano silica particles. This fabric cotton has a different situation in terms of yarn score and the type of fiber that is used in textiles. Nano silica particles of 200 nm, polyethylene glycol with 200 molecular weights and ethanol with mechanical weight molecular with ratio of 6:1 will be mixed. Suspension of 60% was chosen according to the silica particles. The D6264 standard test for concentrated force was carried out through the cone edge to determine the strength of each of the samples. Increasing of resistance against penetration in the Kenaf samples from the raw until impregnated with the shear thickening fluid is less than the hybrid samples. Slippage of the fibers with the change of round edge indenter to cone edge indenter has changed. Penetration by cone edge to the cloth is done with lower force and it shows the effect of slippage of fibers on the resistance of the penetration. Samples impregnated with the shear thickening fluid in comparison with epoxy resin have lower resistance. Slippage of natural fibers in comparison with synthetic fibers is lower and on the other hand the average of friction between fibers in the natural fibers is more than synthetic fibers.

  8. Effect of metal impregnation in the field cool magnetization of bulk superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kita, M. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, ISTEC, 1-10-13 Shinonome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)]. E-mail: kita@istec.or.jp; Nariki, S. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, ISTEC, 1-10-13 Shinonome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan); Sakai, N. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, ISTEC, 1-10-13 Shinonome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan); Hirabayashi, I. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, ISTEC, 1-10-13 Shinonome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)

    2006-10-01

    Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors have significant potential for various applications due to the high critical current density and the highly trapped magnetic fields. Recently we have developed a large sized bulk superconductor using Gd210, which is discovered in the microgravity experiment. We investigated the mechanical properties and the cryostability of the Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductor to determine how to improve toughness and heat conduction of the large sized bulk superconductor. We introduced a stainless ring around the circumference of the bulk to increase the fracture strength of the bulk. Also, we introduced Al wires inserted in the hole along the c-axis of the bulk, and then the sample was subjected to the impregnation by using Bi-Sn-Cd alloy. We measured the trapped magnetic fields and the repulsive forces of the samples. The trapped magnetic field distributions were 1.13-1.36 T. The repulsive forces at 1 mm gap between the sample bulk and the permanent magnet with the surface magnetic induction of 0.37 T were about 70 N at 77 K. We have also measured the temperature dependence of the trapped magnetic field, and confirmed the effect of metal impregnation.

  9. Primer containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate kills bacteria impregnated in human dentin blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D; Lin, Nancy J; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Zhou, Xue-Dong; Xu, Hockin HK

    2016-01-01

    Antibacterial dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) was recently synthesized. The objectives of this study were to: (1) investigate antibacterial activity of DMADDM-containing primer on Streptococcus mutans impregnated into dentin blocks for the first time, and (2) compare the antibacterial efficacy of DMADDM with a previous quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM). Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) bonding agent was used. DMADDM and QADM were mixed into SBMP primer. Six primers were tested: SBMP control primer P, P+2.5% DMADDM, P+5% DMADDM, P+7.5% DMADDM, P+10% DMADDM, and P+10% QADM. S. mutans were impregnated into human dentin blocks, and each primer was applied to dentin to test its ability to kill bacteria in dentinal tubules. Bacteria in dentin were collected via a sonication method, and the colony-forming units (CFU) and inhibition zones were measured. The bacterial inhibition zone of P+10% DMADDM was 10 times that of control primer (P0.1). In conclusion, antibacterial DMADDM-containing primer was validated to kill bacteria inside dentin blocks, possessing a much stronger antibacterial potency than the previous QADM. DMADDM-containing bonding agent was effective in eradicating bacteria in dentin, and its efficacy was directly proportional to DMADDM mass fraction. Therefore, DMADDM may be promising for use in bonding agents as well as in other restorative and preventive materials to inhibit bacteria. PMID:27811846

  10. Sulphur-impregnated flow cathode to enable high-energy-density lithium flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongning; Zou, Qingli; Liang, Zhuojian; Liu, Hao; Li, Quan; Lu, Yi-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Redox flow batteries are promising technologies for large-scale electricity storage, but have been suffering from low energy density and low volumetric capacity. Here we report a flow cathode that exploits highly concentrated sulphur-impregnated carbon composite, to achieve a catholyte volumetric capacity 294 Ah l-1 with long cycle life (>100 cycles), high columbic efficiency (>90%, 100 cycles) and high energy efficiency (>80%, 100 cycles). The demonstrated catholyte volumetric capacity is five times higher than the all-vanadium flow batteries (60 Ah l-1) and 3-6 times higher than the demonstrated lithium-polysulphide approaches (50-117 Ah l-1). Pseudo-in situ impedance and microscopy characterizations reveal superior electrochemical and morphological reversibility of the sulphur redox reactions. Our approach of exploiting sulphur-impregnated carbon composite in the flow cathode creates effective interfaces between the insulating sulphur and conductive carbon-percolating network and offers a promising direction to develop high-energy-density flow batteries.

  11. Adsorptive desulphurization study of liquid fuels using Tin (Sn) impregnated activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Sikandar; Ahmad, Imtiaz; Ahmad, Waqas

    2016-03-05

    Keeping in view the growing concern regarding desulphurization of petroleum products, the present study was under taken to investigate the efficiency of tin impregnated activated charcoal (Sn-AC) as a potential adsorbent for the desulphurization of model and real commercial straight run kerosene and diesel oil samples. The adsorbent Sn-AC was prepared by wet impregnation process in the laboratory and characterized by SEM, EDX and surface area analysis. Initial experiments were carried out using model oil, which was prepared by dissolving dibenzothiophene (DBT) in cyclohexane, the optimum conditions for desulfurization were found to be, 60°C temperature, 1h contact time and adsorbent dosage of 0.8g, under which about 99.4% of DBT removal was attained. Under optimized conditions the desulfurization of real oil i.e., kerosene and diesel oil was also investigated. Kinetic studies revealed that DBT adsorption followed pseudo second order kinetics and the data best fits in the Langmuir adsorption isotherm as compared to Freundlich adsorption isotherm model. The adsorbent could be easily regenerated simply by washing with toluene for a multiple cycles and reused without losing its efficiency.

  12. Sediment biogeochemistry and microbial activity at natural hydrocarbon seeps and at sites impacted by anthropogenic hydrocarbon discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joye, S. B.; Sibert, R.; Battles, J.; Fields, L.; Kleindienst, S.; Crespo-Medina, M.; Hunter, K.; Meile, C. D.; Montoya, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Natural hydrocarbon seeps occur along the seafloor where geologic faults facilitate transfer of deeply sourced fluids enriched in gas, oil, and dissolved organic matter through shallow sediments and into the water column. At natural seeps, microbial populations specialize in hydrocarbon degradation and rates of microbial activity, including sulfate reduction and anaerobic oxidation of methane, can be extremely high. As a result, the biogeochemical signature of sediments near areas of active natural seepage is distinct: high concentrations of metabolic end products, such as dissolved inorganic carbon and hydrogen sulfide, abound, and often, high dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations result in the precipitation of authigenic carbonate minerals. We examined microbial processes and biogeochemical signatures at two natural seeps, Green Canyon 600 and Mississippi Canyon 118. Higher and more frequent seepage loci at the Green Canyon 600 site led to more widespread hotspots of elevated microbial activity and distinct geochemistry. However, rates of microbial activity were comparable at the two sites in areas of active hydrocarbon seepage. The microbial communities at the two sites were surprisingly different. The second group of sites was impacted by anthropogenic hydrocarbon discharges instead of natural seepage. One site, Oceanus 26, lies near the Deepwater Horizon/Macondo wellhead and was impacted by weathered oil sedimentation during the Macondo discharge. The second set of impacted sites, noted as Taylor Energy, lie near a sunken platform and compromised riser, which have together resulted in persistent hydrocarbon discharge to the adjacent oceanic system for more than 6 years. Rates of microbial activity in the upper sediments at Oceanus 26 were depressed relative to activity in the deeper layers, suggesting inhibition by the presence of weathered oil or an microbial community unable to weather the carbon available in the layer. At the Taylor energy site

  13. Evaluation of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in pure mineral hydrocarbon-based cosmetics and cosmetic raw materials using 1H NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W.; Mildau, Gerd; Rullmann, Anke; Marx, Gerhard; Walch, Stephan G.; Hartwig, Andrea; Kuballa, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Mineral hydrocarbons consist of two fractions, mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH). MOAH is a potential public health hazard because it may include carcinogenic polycyclic compounds. In the present study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was introduced, in the context of official controls, to measure MOSH and MOAH in raw materials or pure mineral hydrocarbon final products (cosmetics and medicinal products). Quantitative determination (qNMR) has been established using the ERETIC methodology (electronic reference to access in vivo concentrations) based on the PULCON principle (pulse length based concentration determination). Various mineral hydrocarbons (e.g., white oils, paraffins or petroleum jelly) were dissolved in deuterated chloroform. The ERETIC factor was established using a quantification reference sample containing ethylbenzene and tetrachloronitrobenzene. The following spectral regions were integrated: MOSH δ 3.0 – 0.2 ppm and MOAH δ 9.2 - 6.5, excluding solvent signals. Validation showed a sufficient precision of the method with a coefficient of variation cosmetic products. For mineral hydrocarbon raw materials or pure mineral hydrocarbon-based cosmetic products, NMR delivers higher specificity without any sample preparation besides dilution. Our sample survey shows that previous methods may have overestimated the MOAH amount in mineral oil products and opens new paths to characterize this fraction. Therefore, the developed method can be applied for routine monitoring of consumer products aiming to minimize public health risks. PMID:28721203

  14. Evaluation of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in pure mineral hydrocarbon-based cosmetics and cosmetic raw materials using (1)H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Mildau, Gerd; Rullmann, Anke; Marx, Gerhard; Walch, Stephan G; Hartwig, Andrea; Kuballa, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Mineral hydrocarbons consist of two fractions, mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH). MOAH is a potential public health hazard because it may include carcinogenic polycyclic compounds. In the present study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was introduced, in the context of official controls, to measure MOSH and MOAH in raw materials or pure mineral hydrocarbon final products (cosmetics and medicinal products). Quantitative determination (qNMR) has been established using the ERETIC methodology (electronic reference to access in vivo concentrations) based on the PULCON principle (pulse length based concentration determination). Various mineral hydrocarbons (e.g., white oils, paraffins or petroleum jelly) were dissolved in deuterated chloroform. The ERETIC factor was established using a quantification reference sample containing ethylbenzene and tetrachloronitrobenzene. The following spectral regions were integrated: MOSH δ 3.0 - 0.2 ppm and MOAH δ 9.2 - 6.5, excluding solvent signals. Validation showed a sufficient precision of the method with a coefficient of variation cosmetic products. For mineral hydrocarbon raw materials or pure mineral hydrocarbon-based cosmetic products, NMR delivers higher specificity without any sample preparation besides dilution. Our sample survey shows that previous methods may have overestimated the MOAH amount in mineral oil products and opens new paths to characterize this fraction. Therefore, the developed method can be applied for routine monitoring of consumer products aiming to minimize public health risks.

  15. Applicability of Vacuum Impregnation to Modify Physico-Chemical, Sensory and Nutritive Characteristics of Plant Origin Products—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Radziejewska-Kubzdela

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum impregnation is a non-destructive method of introducing a solution with a specific composition to the porous matrices of fruit and vegetables. Mass transfer in this process is a result of mechanically induced differences in pressure. Vacuum impregnation makes it possible to fill large volumes of intercellular spaces in tissues of fruit and vegetables, thus modifying physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of products. This method may be used, e.g., to reduce pH and water activity of the product, change its thermal properties, improve texture, color, taste and aroma. Additionally, bioactive compounds may be introduced together with impregnating solutions, thus improving health-promoting properties of the product or facilitating production of functional food.

  16. Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Aramid Fabrics Impregnated with Carbon Nanotube/Poly (Vinyl Butyral/Ethanol Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Obradović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study six samples of polyurethane/p-aramid multiaxial fabric forms (Colon fabrics were coated with 10 wt.% poly (vinyl butyral (PVB/ethanol solution with the addition of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT. The solution was impregnated on both sides of each of the fabrics. All composite samples consisted of four layers of the impregnated fabrics. The MWCNT/PVB content was 0, 0.1 and 1 wt.%. The three samples of the fabrics with different MWCNT/PVB content were coated with γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (AMEO silane/ethanol solution due to the surface modification. The mechanical properties of the prepared composite samples were studied by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. The 60% increase in storage modulus was achieved by addition of MWCNT and impregnation of aramid fabrics with AMEO silane. The pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT were introduced in order to enhance additionally the mechanical properties of the materials for ballistic protection.

  17. Effects of acid impregnated steam explosion process on xylose recovery and enzymatic conversion of cellulose in corncob.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaoguang; Cheng, Gang; Zhang, Hongjia; Li, Menghua; Wang, Shizeng; Yuan, Qipeng

    2014-12-19

    Corncob residue is a cellulose-rich byproduct obtained from industrial xylose production via dilute acid hydrolysis processes. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in acid hydrolysis residue of corncob (AHRC) is often less efficient without further pretreatment. In this work, the process characteristics of acid impregnated steam explosion were studied in conjunction with a dilute acid process, and their effects on physiochemical changes and enzymatic saccharification of corncob residue were compared. With the acid impregnated steam explosion process, both higher xylose recovery and higher cellulose conversion were obtained. The maximum conversion of cellulose in acid impregnated steam explosion residue of corncob (ASERC) reached 85.3%, which was 1.6 times higher than that of AHRC. Biomass compositional analysis showed similar cellulose and lignin content in ASERC and AHRC. XRD analysis demonstrated comparable crystallinity of ASERC and AHRC. The improved enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency was attributed to higher porosity in ASERC, measured by mercury porosimetry.

  18. Applicability of Vacuum Impregnation to Modify Physico-Chemical, Sensory and Nutritive Characteristics of Plant Origin Products—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziejewska-Kubzdela, Elżbieta; Biegańska-Marecik, Róża; Kidoń, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Vacuum impregnation is a non-destructive method of introducing a solution with a specific composition to the porous matrices of fruit and vegetables. Mass transfer in this process is a result of mechanically induced differences in pressure. Vacuum impregnation makes it possible to fill large volumes of intercellular spaces in tissues of fruit and vegetables, thus modifying physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of products. This method may be used, e.g., to reduce pH and water activity of the product, change its thermal properties, improve texture, color, taste and aroma. Additionally, bioactive compounds may be introduced together with impregnating solutions, thus improving health-promoting properties of the product or facilitating production of functional food. PMID:25244012

  19. Nanostructured CuCo2O4 cathode for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells via an impregnation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Lin; Wang, Pengxiang; Zhang, Qi; Fan, Lishuang; Zhang, Naiqing; Sun, Kening

    2017-03-01

    Spinel structure CuCo2O4 nanoparticles are coated onto porous 10mol% scandia stabilized zirconia (SSZ) framework via a solution impregnation process. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and current-voltage performance measurements have been used to characterize impregnated CuCo2O4 cathodes. The CuCo2O4 nano-particles are uniformly distributed on the surface of the porous SSZ backbones, thus increasing the length of the triple phase boundaries (TPBs). As expected, the polarization resistance of impregnated nanostructured CuCo2O4 is as low as 0.087 Ωcm2 in air at 800 °C, and delivers a high peak power density of 1136 mW cm-2.

  20. Synthesis H-Zeolite catalyst by impregnation KI/KIO3 and performance test catalyst for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayat, W.; Rizky Wicaksono, Adit; Hakim Firdaus, Lukman; Okvitarini, Ndaru

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this research is to produce H-catalyst catalyst that was impregnated with KI/KIO3. The catalyst was analyzed about surface area, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and performance test of catalyst for biodiesel production. An H-Zeolite catalyst was synthesized from natural zeolite with chemical treatment processing, impregnation KI/KIO3 and physical treatment. The results shows that the surface area of the catalyst by 27.236 m2/g at a concentration of 5% KI. XRD analysis shows peak 2-θ at 23.627o indicating that KI was impregnated on H-zeolite catalyst. The catalyst was tested in production of biodiesel using palm oil with conventional methods for 3 hour at temperature of 70-80 oC. The result for conversion Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) reached maximum value on 87.91% under production process using catalyst 5% KIO3-H zeolite.

  1. Efficiency of fungus-impregnated black cloths combined with imidacloprid for the control of adult Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, A R; Carolino, A T; Silva, C P; Samuels, R I

    2013-08-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for use in integrated vector management. However, efficient delivery systems for these fungi need to be investigated. It is known that adult mosquitoes are attracted to dark surfaces, and therefore, black cotton cloths impregnated with Metarhizium anisopliae alone or in combination with the insecticide imidacloprid (IMI) were tested under laboratory conditions. Black cloths impregnated with fungus were also tested in large-cage trials under natural extradomicile conditions. Blood-fed Rockefeller and wild-type strain Aedes aegypti had higher levels of survival when compared with sucrose-fed counterparts following exposure to fungus-impregnated cloths. However, when blood-fed A. aegypti were exposed to a combination of M. anisopliae + IMI, the survival rates were statistically equal to those of sucrose-fed females. Large-cage trials showed significant decreases in A. aegypti survival following a minimum 12 h exposure of the mosquitoes to fungus-impregnated cloths. Increased exposure times results in further reductions in survival. The synergism between M. anisopliae and IMI resulted in reduced survival rates independent of feeding regime under laboratory conditions. Fungus-impregnated cloths tested under simulated field conditions, considered to be unfavourable for fungal infection, resulted in significant reductions in adult A. aegypti survival. We are currently testing the combined use of fungi and insecticides against blood-fed insects under simulated field conditions. The use of fungus-impregnated cotton cloths is a promising point source application method for the control of adult Aedes aegypti, and this strategy could be incorporated into an integrated vector management programme aiming to reduce the incidence of dengue fever. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Source identification of hydrocarbons following spill events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholz, D.A. [ALS Centre of Excellence (Canada)], email: eib.birkholz@alsglobal.com

    2011-07-01

    This study deals with revealing the sources of hydrocarbon contamination as a part of the forensic effort in reclamation and remediation. The goal is to show the importance of such information for assessing oil contamination levels and cleanup costs. This study deals with three particular cases where hydrocarbon levels were exceeded in soil samples. As part of the investigation process, a report on the source, age, and nature of the contamination was generated. The chemical investigation consisted of many steps, including mixing and equilibrating the samples with other chemicals, and scanning for oil biomarkers. After the analysis was finished, it was concluded that the fuels in the soil samples were from 14.7 to 15.6 years old, with a 2 year margin of error; however, a different methodology yielded a higher range, 20 to 24 years. Regarding the type of fuel, due to traces of alkylated benzenes and sesquiterpanes that were found, it was believed that the source of the oil was western Canada.

  3. Recent developments in hydrocarbon separator interface imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjertaker, Bjorn T.; Johansen, Geir A.; Jackson, Peter

    2001-02-01

    Level monitoring instrumentation is an essential part of hydrocarbon processing facilities, and has together with separator technology been widely addressed over the last decade. Key issues are production capacity, product enhancement and well-flow control. The reliability and accuracy of the level instrumentation, and its ability to monitor the thickness of the foam and the oil-water emulsion, are particularly important when considering the level instrumentation as the main sensing element in the automatic control of the separation vessel. Lately industry focus has been placed on optimal automatic control to improve the quality of the production output, and to minimize the use of expensive and environmentally undesirable separation enhancing chemicals. Recent developments in hydrocarbon production includes subsea separation stations, where the constraints placed on the reliability and accuracy of the level instrumentation are especially severe. This paper discuss the most common existing level monitoring technologies, and present some recent level monitoring developments for three-phase separators. In order to clarify the issue of cross sectional metering the notion tomometry is introduced in this paper. Tomometry denotes multipoint cross sectional metering aiming to acquire cross sectional information on the distribution of the substances in the process vessel for control purposes, not mainly to create a cross sectional reconstructed image of the process in question.

  4. Microbial production of gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hideo

    1987-10-20

    Microbial production of ethylene, isobutane and a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture was described. Microbial ethylene production was studied with Penicillium digitatum IFO 9372 and a novel pathway of the ethylene biosynthesis through alpha-ketoglutarate was proposed. Rhodotorula minuta IFO 1102 was selected for the microbial production of isobutane and the interesting actions of L-leucine and L-phenylalanine for the isobutane production were found. It was finally presented about the microbial production of a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture with Rhizopus japonicus IFO 4758 was described. A gas mixture was produced through a chemical reaction of SH compounds and some cellular component such as squalene under aerobic conditions. (4 figs, 7 tabs, 41 refs)

  5. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the Apollo program ended, the development of launch propulsion systems in the US has fallen drastically, with only two new booster engine developments, the SSME and the RS-68, occurring in the past few decades.1 In recent years, however, there has been an increased interest in pursuing more effective launch propulsion technologies in the U.S., exemplified by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist s inclusion of Launch Propulsion Systems as the first technological area in the Space Technology Roadmaps2. One area of particular interest to both government agencies and commercial entities has been the development of hydrocarbon engines; NASA and the Air Force Research Lab3 have expressed interest in the use of hydrocarbon fuels for their respective SLS Booster and Reusable Booster System concepts, and two major commercially-developed launch vehicles SpaceX s Falcon 9 and Orbital Sciences Antares feature engines that use RP-1 kerosene fuel. Compared to engines powered by liquid hydrogen, hydrocarbon-fueled engines have a greater propellant density (usually resulting in a lighter overall engine), produce greater propulsive force, possess easier fuel handling and loading, and for reusable vehicle concepts can provide a shorter turnaround time between launches. These benefits suggest that a hydrocarbon-fueled launch vehicle would allow for a cheap and frequent means of access to space.1 However, the time and money required for the development of a new engine still presents a major challenge. Long and costly design, development, testing and evaluation (DDT&E) programs underscore the importance of identifying critical technologies and prioritizing investment efforts. Trade studies must be performed on engine concepts examining the affordability, operability, and reliability of each concept, and quantifying the impacts of proposed technologies. These studies can be performed through use of the Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method. The Technology Impact

  6. System and process for upgrading hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Smith, Joseph D.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2015-08-25

    In one embodiment, a system for upgrading a hydrocarbon material may include a black wax upgrade subsystem and a molten salt gasification (MSG) subsystem. The black wax upgrade subsystem and the MSG subsystem may be located within a common pressure boundary, such as within a pressure vessel. Gaseous materials produced by the MSG subsystem may be used in the process carried out within the black wax upgrade subsystem. For example, hydrogen may pass through a gaseous transfer interface to interact with black wax feed material to hydrogenate such material during a cracking process. In one embodiment, the gaseous transfer interface may include one or more openings in a tube or conduit which is carrying the black wax material. A pressure differential may control the flow of hydrogen within the tube or conduit. Related methods are also disclosed.

  7. Effect of PMMA impregnation on the fluorescence quantum yield of sol-gel glasses doped with quinine sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses-Nava, M. A.; Barbosa-García, O.; Díaz-Torres, L. A.; Chávez-Cerda, S.; Torres-Cisneros, M.; King, T. A.

    2001-08-01

    The fluorescence quantum yield of quinine sulfate in sol-gel and PMMA impregnated glasses is measured. The observed quantum yield improvement in the sol-gel matrix, compared to ethanol, is interpreted as a reduction of non-radiative relaxation channels by isolation of the molecules by the cage of the glass. PMMA impregnated sol-gel glasses show an extra improvement of the fluorescence yield, which is interpreted as a reduction of the free space and the rigid fixation of the molecules to the matrix.

  8. APPLICATION OF IMPREGNATED ALMOND SHELL ACTIVATED CARBON BY ZINC AND ZINC SULFATE FOR NITRATE REMOVAL FROM WATER

    OpenAIRE

    A. Rezaee, H. Godini, S. Dehestani, A. Khavanin

    2008-01-01

    In this study impregnated almond shell activated carbon by Zn° and ZnSO4 were used as adsorbent with a particle size of 10-20 mesh. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of impregnated activated carbon in nitrate removal. The modified activated carbon had 1mm effective size, with a uniformity coefficient of 1.18. Potassium nitrate solution was used in batch adsorption experiments for nitrate removal from water. The effects of nitrate concentration, activated carbon dosag...

  9. Time sequenced heating of multiple layers in a hydrocarbon containing formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Bernard; Hale, Arthur Herman; Miller, David Scott; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2009-12-22

    A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation may include providing heat to a first hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a first heater located in an opening in the formation. The opening and the first heater may have a horizontal or inclined portion located in the first hydrocarbon layer and at least one connecting portion extending between the horizontal or inclined portion and the surface. Isolation material is placed in the opening such that the isolation material partially isolates the layer in which the horizontal or inclined portion of the first heater is located. An additional horizontal or inclined opening portion that extends from at least one of the connecting portions of the opening is formed in a second hydrocarbon layer. A second heater to provide heat the second hydrocarbon formation is placed in the additional substantially horizontal opening portion.

  10. Remediation of hydrocarbons in crude oil-contaminated soils using Fenton's reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojinnaka, Chukwunonye; Osuji, Leo; Achugasim, Ozioma

    2012-11-01

    Sandy soil samples spiked with Bonny light crude oil were subsequently treated with Fenton's reagent at acidic, neutral, and basic pH ranges. Oil extracts from these samples including an untreated one were analyzed 1 week later with a gas chromatograph to provide evidence of hydrocarbon depletion by the oxidant. The reduction of three broad hydrocarbon groups-total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH); benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) were investigated at various pHs. Hydrocarbon removal was efficient, with treatment at the acidic pH giving the highest removal of about 96% for PAH, 99% for BTEX, and some TPH components experiencing complete disappearance. The four-ringed PAHs were depleted more than their three-ringed counterparts at the studied pH ranges.

  11. A Review on the Genetics of Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Firouz; Lockington, Robin; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Because of the high diversity of hydrocarbons, degradation of each class of these compounds is activated by a specific enzyme. However, most of other downstream enzymes necessary for complete degradation of hydrocarbons maybe common between different hydrocarbons. The genes encoding proteins for degradation of hydrocarbons, including the proteins required for the uptake of these molecules, the specific enzyme used for the initial activation of the molecules and other necessary degrading enzymes are usually arranged as an operon. Although the corresponding genes in many phylogenetic groups of microbial species show different levels of diversity in terms of the gene sequence, the organisation of the genes in the genome or on plasmids and the activation mode (inductive or constitutive), some organisms show identical hydrocarbon-degrading genes, probably as a result of horizontal gene transfer between microorganisms.

  12. Performance comparison of autothermal reforming for liquid hydrocarbons, gasoline and diesel for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Inyong; Bae, Joongmyeon; Bae, Gyujong

    This paper discusses the reforming of liquid hydrocarbons to produce hydrogen for fuel cell applications, focusing on gasoline and diesel due to their high hydrogen density and well-established infrastructures. Gasoline and diesel are composed of numerous hydrocarbon species including paraffins, olefins, cycloparaffins, and aromatics. We have investigated the reforming characteristics of several representative liquid hydrocarbons. In the case of paraffin reforming, H 2 yield and reforming efficiency were close to thermodynamic equilibrium status (TES), although heavier hydrocarbons required slightly higher temperatures than lighter hydrocarbons. However, the conversion efficiency was much lower for aromatics than paraffins with similar carbon number. We have also investigated the reforming performance of simulated commercial diesel and gasoline using simple synthetic diesel and gasoline compositions. Reforming performances of our formulations were in good agreement with those of commercial fuels. In addition, the reforming of gas to liquid (GTL) resulted in high H 2 yield and reforming efficiency showing promise for possible fuel cell applications.

  13. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunshan [State College, PA; Ma, Xiaoliang [State College, PA; Sprague, Michael J [Calgary, CA; Subramani, Velu [State College, PA

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  14. Hydrocarbon prospectivity in Western Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maravelis, Angelos; Makrodimitras, George; Zelilidis, Avraam [Patras Univ. (Greece). Lab. of Sedimentology

    2012-06-15

    The geology of Western Greece is dominated by the most external zones of the Hellenide fold-and-thrust belt, namely the Pre-Apulian (or Paxoi) and Ionian zones. With Western Greece and Albania having undergone, in broad terms, similar geological histories, also the hydrocarbon potentials of both areas may be compared. Likewise, the hydrocarbon potential of Italy's Apulian Platform, adjoining in the westerly offshore, may serve as an analogue. Three basin types within Western Greece that deserve hydrocarbon exploration have been examined and are grouped, correlated to major tectonic features, namely foreland (Ionian thrusts' foreland basin), piggy-back (Ionian thrusts' back-arc basin) and strike-slip basins. Additionally, strike-slip basins are further subdivided into the basin north of the Borsh-Khardhiqit strike-slip fault and the Preveza basin, north of Cephalonia transfer fault. Their filling histories suggest the occurrence of Mesozoic carbonate plays and Oligocene/Miocene sandstone plays both for oil and gas.

  15. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  16. Determination of the hydrocarbon-degrading metabolic capabilities of tropical bacterial isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez-Rocha, F.J.; Olmos-Soto, J. [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, San Diego, CA (United States). Departamento de Biotecnologia Marina; Rosano-Hernandez, M.A.; Muriel-Garcia, M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, CD Carmen Camp (Mexico). Zona Marina/Tecnologia Ambiental

    2005-01-01

    Of more than 20 bacteria isolated from a tropical soil using minimal medium supplemented with hydrocarbons, 11 grew well on diesel as sole carbon source, and another 11 grew in the presence of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Ten isolates were identified phenotypically as Pseudomonas sp. and eight as Bacillus sp. Gene sequences representing the catabolic genes (alkM, todM, ndoM, and xylM) and 16S rRNA gene sequences characteristic for Pseudomona and Bacillus were amplified by PCR, using DNA recovered from the supernatant of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil suspensions. Based on their rapid growth characteristics in the presence of hydrocarbons and the formation of PCR products for the catabolic genes alkM and ndoM six isolates were selected for biodegradation assays. After 30 days a mixed culture of two isolates achieved close to 70% hydrocarbon removal and apparent mineralization of 16% of the hydrocarbons present in the soil. Biodegradation rates varied from 275 to 387 mg hydrocarbon kg{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Several bacterial isolates obtained in this study have catabolic capabilities for the biodegradation of alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons including PAHs. (author)

  17. Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Mo, Weijian; Muylle, Michel Serge Marie; Mandema, Remco Hugo; Nair, Vijay

    2009-09-01

    A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation.

  18. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  19. Copper-impregnated Al-Ce-pillared clay for selective catalytic reduction of NO by C{sub 3}H{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Qichun; Hao, Jiming; Li, Junhua [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ma, Zifeng [Department of Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Lin, Weiming [Department of Chemical Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510405 (China)

    2007-08-30

    The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by hydrocarbon is an efficient way to remove NO emission from lean-burn gasoline and diesel exhaust. In this paper, a thermally and hydrothermally stable Al-Ce-pillared clay (Al-Ce-PILC) was synthesized and then modified by SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, whose surface area and average pore diameter calcined at 773 K were 161 m{sup 2}/g and 12.15 nm, respectively. Copper-impregnated Al-Ce-pillared clay catalyst (Cu/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/Al-Ce-PILC) was applied for the SCR of NO by C{sub 3}H{sub 6} in the presence of oxygen. The catalyst 2 wt% Cu/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/Al-Ce-PILC showed good performance over a broad range of temperature, its maximum conversion of NO was 56% at 623 K and remained as high as 22% at 973 K. Furthermore, the presence of 10% water slightly decreased its activity, and this effect was reversible following the removal of water from the feed. Py-IR results showed SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} modification greatly enhanced the number and strength of Broensted acidity on the surface of Cu/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/Al-Ce-PILC, which played a vital role in the improvement of NO conversion. TPR and XPS results indicated that both Cu{sup +} and isolated Cu{sup 2+} species existed on the optimal catalyst, mainly Cu{sup +}, as Cu content increased to 5 wt%, another species CuO aggregates which facilitated the combustion of C{sub 3}H{sub 6} were formed. (author)

  20. Cavitation as a Precursor to Breakdown of Mass-Impregnated HVDC Cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evenset, Gunnar

    1999-09-01

    Thermal cycling has proven to be a critical test for mass-impregnated HVDC cables. The dielectric strength of the insulation is significantly reduced during the first part of the cooling. This decrease of the dielectric strength limits the development of mass-impregnated cables for higher operating voltages and higher power transfer capacities. The decrease of the dielectric strength during cooling has been assumed to be caused by formation of cavities in the mass because the thermal contraction of the mass is larger than that of the paper. Cavities have previously been observed in thermally cycled cables, but their actual formation and growth have not been studied. The fact that breakdown usually occurs a few hours into the cooling period indicates that the dynamics of the growth is important. This work studies the dynamic phenomena occurring in mass-impregnated cables during thermal cycling. In experiments on a system of mass and insulating paper, cavities were observed near the paper surface, probably caused by heterogeneous nucleation. Knowing the tensile stress at cavity formation is important because it controls the size of the cavities and the distance between independently formed cavities in a cable insulation. A test cell was designed to investigate cavitation in models of lapped insulation. The formation, growth and collapse of the cavities could be visually observed while the insulation was electrically stressed and partial discharges were measured. The first cavity generally formed in one of the butt gaps and grew both along the butt gap and into the mass layers between the papers towards adjacent butt gaps. When the cavity between the papers grew into an adjacent butt gap, the gas/vapour filled channel connecting the butt gaps was closed. In this way, one cavity grew into several butt gaps. The extent of cavities between the papers was observed to depend on the interfacial pressure. Considerable less tension is required to suck the menisci of a cavity

  1. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? Survey Item Bank Search for: Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Links updated, April 2017 En ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  2. Destruction of Toluene by the Combination of High Frequency Discharge Electrodeless Lamp and Manganese Oxide-Impregnated Granular Activated Carbon Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The destruction of low concentration of toluene (0–30 ppm has been studied under the UV/photogenerated O3/MnO2-impregnated granular activated carbon (MnO2-impregnated GAC process by the combination of self-made high frequency discharge electrodeless lamp (HFDEL with MnO2-impregnated GAC catalyst. Experimental results showed that the initial toluene concentration can strongly affect the concentration of photogenerated O3 from HFDEL and the efficiency and mass rate of destruction of toluene via HFDEL/MnO2-impregnated GAC system. Active oxygen and hydroxyl radicals generated from HFDEL/MnO2-impregnated GAC system played a key role in the decomposition of toluene process and the intermediates formed by photolysis are more prone to be mineralized by the subsequent MnO2-impregnated GAC catalyst compared to the original toluene, resulting in synergistic mineralization of toluene by HFDEL/MnO2-impregnated GAC system. The role of MnO2-impregnated GAC catalyst is not only to eliminate the residual O3 completely but also to enhance the decomposition and mineralization of toluene.

  3. Chemical Kinetics of Hydrocarbon Ignition in Practical Combustion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, C.K.

    2000-07-07

    Chemical kinetic factors of hydrocarbon oxidation are examined in a variety of ignition problems. Ignition is related to the presence of a dominant chain branching reaction mechanism that can drive a chemical system to completion in a very short period of time. Ignition in laboratory environments is studied for problems including shock tubes and rapid compression machines. Modeling of the laboratory systems are used to develop kinetic models that can be used to analyze ignition in practical systems. Two major chain branching regimes are identified, one consisting of high temperature ignition with a chain branching reaction mechanism based on the reaction between atomic hydrogen with molecular oxygen, and the second based on an intermediate temperature thermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Kinetic models are then used to describe ignition in practical combustion environments, including detonations and pulse combustors for high temperature ignition, and engine knock and diesel ignition for intermediate temperature ignition. The final example of ignition in a practical environment is homogeneous charge, compression ignition (HCCI) which is shown to be a problem dominated by the kinetics intermediate temperature hydrocarbon ignition. Model results show why high hydrocarbon and CO emissions are inevitable in HCCI combustion. The conclusion of this study is that the kinetics of hydrocarbon ignition are actually quite simple, since only one or two elementary reactions are dominant. However, there are many combustion factors that can influence these two major reactions, and these are the features that vary from one practical system to another.

  4. Enhancement of in situ Remediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmroth, M.

    2006-07-01

    Approximately 750 000 sites of contaminated land exist across Europe. The harmful chemicals found in Finnish soils include heavy metals, oil products, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorophenols, and pesticides. Petroleum and petroleum products enter soil from ruptured oil pipelines, land disposal of refinery products, leaking storage tanks and through accidents. PAH contamination is caused by the spills of coal tar and creosote from coal gasification and wood treatment sites in addition to oil spills. Cleanup of soil by bioremediation is cheaper than by chemical and physical processes. However, the cleaning capacity of natural attenuation and in situ bioremediation is limited. The purpose of this thesis was to find feasible options to enhance in situ remediation of hydrocarbon contaminants. The aims were to increase the bioavailability of the contaminants and microbial activity at the subsurface in order to achieve higher contaminant removal efficiency than by intrinsic biodegradation alone. Enhancement of microbial activity and decrease of soil toxicity during remediation were estimated by using several biological assays. The performance of these assays was compared in order to find suitable indicators to follow the progress of remediation. Phytoremediation and chemical oxidation are promising in situ techniques to increase the degradation of hydrocarbons in soil. Phytoremediation is plant-enhanced decontamination of soil and water. Degradation of hydrocarbons is enhanced in the root zone by increased microbial activity and through the detoxifying enzymes of plants themselves. Chemical oxidation of contaminants by Fenton's reaction can produce degradation products which are more biodegradable than the parent compounds. Fenton's reaction and its modifications apply solutions of hydrogen peroxide and iron for the oxidation of organic chemicals. The cost of oxidation can be reduced by aiming at partial instead of full

  5. Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites: a review of investigation and remediation regulations and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epelbaum, Michel; Claudio, Jair R. [Bureau Veritas do Brasil Sociedade Classificadora e Certificadora Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    This paper discusses alternatives on remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites which include groundwater remediation techniques and soil remediation techniques. Finally, the work points out some trends of sites remediation in Brazil and abroad. 6 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  6. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  7. Characteristics of post-impregnated SBA-15 with 12- Tungstophosphoric acid and its correlation with catalytic activity in selective esterification of glycerol to monolaurate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoo, P. Y.; Abdullah, A. Z.

    2016-06-01

    Selective esterification of glycerol and lauric acid to monolaurin was conducted using 12-tungstophosphoric acid (HPW) incorporated SBA-15 as catalyst. They were synthesized with HPW loadings of 10-40 wt. % via post impregnation and characterized in terms of surficial and structural characteristic, acidity and morphology. Relatively high lauric acid conversion (up to 95%) and monolaurin yield (53%) were observed while the activity was successfully correlated to the material behaviours, i.e. highly acidic active acid sites within highly uniformed mesopores. The effects of different reaction parameters including reactant ratio (1:1-5:1), catalyst loading (1-5 wt. %) and length of fatty acid were also elucidated. Reduced fatty acid conversion was observed when longer fatty acids were used, thus further strengthen the idea of size selectivity effect provided by the synthesized catalysts.

  8. Preparation of iron oxide-impregnated spherical granular activated carbon-carbon composite and its photocatalytic removal of methylene blue in the presence of oxalic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadirova, Zukhra C; Hojamberdiev, Mirabbos; Katsumata, Ken-Ichi; Isobe, Toshihiro; Matsushita, Nobuhiro; Nakajima, Akira; Sharipov, Khasan; Okada, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The spherical granular activated carbon-carbon composites (GAC-Fe) with different iron oxide contents (Fe mass% = 0.6-10) were prepared by a pore volume impregnation method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and N2-adsorption results confirm the presence of amorphous iron oxide, pyrolytic carbon, and graphitized globular carbon nanoparticles covered with amorphous carbon in the CAG-Fe. The rate of photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution under UV light in the presence of oxalic acid correlates with porosity of the prepared materials. The total MB removal includes the combination of adsorption and photodegradation without the addition of H2O2. The results of total organic carbon (TOC) analysis reveal that the decolorization of MB in aqueous solution containing oxalic acid corresponds to the decomposition of organic compounds to CO2 and H2O.

  9. Effects of impregnation sequence on the microstructure and performances of Cu-Co based catalysts for the synthesis of higher alcohols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siyu Deng; Wei Chu; Huiyuan Xu; Limin Shi; Lihong Huang

    2008-01-01

    Silica-supported CuCo catalysts were prepared by impregnation method with different impregnation sequence for higher alcohols synthesis. These catalysts were characterized by H2-TPR, XRD, N2 adsorption, XPS techniques and CO selective hydrogenation reaction measurement. The effects of impregnation sequence on the structure and performance of cata-lysts were investigated, and there were important influences on the selectivity to higher alcohols. There was a strong synergistic effect between copper and cobalt for the co-impregnated sample. The CuCo/SiO2 catalyst prepared by co-impregnation showed a better yield of total alcohols, and a higher selectivity to total alcohols which reached 51.5%.

  10. Correlation between hydrocarbon distribution and water-hydrocarbon ratio in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofeng Zhou; Qingling Chen; Yuewu Tao; Huixin Weng

    2011-01-01

    In order to shorten the evaluation cycle of cobalt catalyst before the optimized catalyst is fixed on,a mathematical method is proposed to calculate weight percentage of C5+ hydrocarbons.Based on the carbide polymerization mechanism and the main hydrocarbons being linear alkanes and α-olefins,the correlation between hydrocarbon distribution and the molecular mass ratio of water to hydrocarbons is discussed.The result shows the ratio was within the range of 1.125-1.286 and the lower the ratio,the more gaseous hydrocarbons were obtained.Moreover,a linear equation between the weight percentage of C5+ hydrocarbons and the weight ratio of C5+ hydrocarbons to the total water is established.These results are validated by corresponding experiments.The weight percentage of C5+ hydrocarbons could be immediately calculated by this linear equation without detailed gas chromatography (GC) analysis of them.

  11. HYDROCARBON AND SULFUR SENSORS FOR SOFC SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Azad; Chris Holt; Todd Lesousky; Scott Swartz

    2003-11-01

    The following report summarizes work conducted during the Phase I program Hydrocarbon and Sulfur Sensors for SOFC Systems under contract No. DE-FC26-02NT41576. For the SOFC application, sensors are required to monitor hydrocarbons and sulfur in order to increase the operation life of SOFC components. This report discusses the development of two such sensors, one based on thick film approach for sulfur monitoring and the second galvanic based for hydrocarbon monitoring.

  12. Nonmethane hydrocarbon and oxy hydrocarbon measurements during the 2002 New England Air Quality Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldan, Paul D.; Kuster, William C.; Williams, Eric; Murphy, Paul C.; Fehsenfeld, Fred C.; Meagher, James

    2004-11-01

    Nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and oxy hydrocarbons (oxy HCs) were measured aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration research vessel Ronald H. Brown during the New England Air Quality Study from 13 July to 10 August 2002 by an online dual gas chromatographic instrument with two separate analytical columns equipped, respectively, with flame ionization and mass spectrometer detectors. Measurements, taken each half hour, included C2 to C10 alkanes, C2 to C5 alkenes, alcohols and ketones, C6 to C9 aromatics, and biogenic volatile compounds including six monoterpenes, isoprene and its immediate oxidation products methacrolein and methylvinylketone. All compounds have been categorized by their contribution to the OH loss rate calculated for 298K and 1 atm. Large temporal variability was observed for all compounds. Airflow from the Providence, Rhode Island/Boston, Massachusetts, urban corridor northeast to the New Hampshire coast was usually heavily laden with NMHCs and oxy HCs of anthropogenic origin. Comparison of specific compound ratios with automotive tunnel studies suggested that these were predominantly mobile source emissions. When such flow occurred during daylight hours, these urban plumes were accompanied by increases in ozone in the 80 to 120 ppbv range. About equally as often, much less chemically mature NMHC plumes were encountered near the New Hampshire coast. Ozone was titrated out of these latter plumes, and the unusually high mixing ratios of C4 and C5 alkenes suggested that their source was partly gasoline vapor release rather than mobile source emissions. In the New England coastal region explored, in spite of the large anthropogenic NMHC input during periods of offshore flow, OH loss with hydrocarbons was frequently dominated by compounds of biogenic origin. During periods of cleaner marine air inflow the OH loss rate was dominated by reaction with methane and with oxy HCs, predominantly acetone, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde.

  13. Comparison among Different pH Values of Rhodamine B Solution Impregnated into Mesoporous Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jorge

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied the behavior of different pH values of Rhodamine B solution impregnated into pores of mesoporous silica, through structural characterization techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy and porosity measurements, and spectroscopic characterization techniques, such as infrared and luminescence spectroscopy; in order to applications in luminescence. Because, Rhodamine B is an interesting xanthene dye whose optical properties depend of many factors, dye concentration and pH values. MSU-4 type mesoporous silica has been synthesized with Tween 60 surfactant as directing-structure agent and tetraethyl orthosilicate (Si(OEt4, TEOS as silica source. The mesoporous structures doped with dyes are promissory materials for several applications, for example, optical sensors and biomarkers.

  14. Nanostructured Wood Hybrids for Fire-Retardancy Prepared by Clay Impregnation into the Cell Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiliang; Medina, Lilian; Li, Yuanyuan; Carosio, Federico; Hajian, Alireza; Berglund, Lars A

    2017-09-14

    Eco-friendly materials need "green" fire-retardancy treatments, which offer opportunity for new wood nanotechnologies. Balsa wood (Ochroma pyramidale) was delignified to form a hierarchically structured and nanoporous scaffold mainly composed of cellulose nanofibrils. This nanocellulosic wood scaffold was impregnated with colloidal montmorillonite clay to form a nanostructured wood hybrid with high flame-retardancy. The nanoporous scaffold was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and gas adsorption. Flame-retardancy was evaluated by cone calorimetry, whereas thermal and thermo-oxidative stabilities were assessed by thermogravimetry. The location of well-distributed clay nanoplatelets inside the cell walls was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. This unique nanostructure dramatically increased the thermal stability because of thermal insulation, oxygen depletion, and catalytic charring effects. A coherent organic/inorganic charred residue was formed during combustion, leading to a strongly reduced heat release rate peak and reduced smoke generation.

  15. The effects of aging on the dynamic adsorption of hazardous organic vapors on impregnated activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitay-Rosen, Tal; Leibman, Amir; Nir, Ido; Zaltsman, Amalia; Kaplan, Doron

    2015-01-01

    The effects of an eight-year natural aging of ASC impregnated activated carbon on the adsorption capacity and breakthrough times of model organic vapors and of the nerve agent sarin were investigated. Aging delayed methanol breakthrough from dry air on pre-dried carbon, but shortened the breakthrough time of both methanol and hexane under relative humidity (RH) of 30-85% on pre-humidified carbon. Aging also shortened the breakthrough time of the less volatile model compound 2-methoxyethanol, especially under RH of 60-85%. Aging significantly reduced the protection capacity against sarin at RH of 85%. The effects of aging on physisorption are attributed to enhanced hydrogen-bonding capability and strength of the interaction between water and adsorption sites on the carbon surface.

  16. Ecosystem protection by effluent bioremediation: silver nanoparticles impregnation in a textile fabrics process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Nelson, E-mail: duran@iqm.unicamp.br; Marcato, Priscyla D. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Biological Chemistry Laboratory, Instituto de Quimica (Brazil); Alves, Oswaldo L. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Solid State Chemistry Laboratory, Instituto de Quimica (Brazil); Silva, Joao P. S. Da; Souza, Gabriel I. H. De [Universidade de Mogi das Cruzes, Biological Chemistry and Biotechnology Laboratory, Environmental Sciences Center (Brazil); Rodrigues, Flavio A. [Universidade de Mogi das Cruzes, Material Chemistry Laboratory, Biochemical Research Center (Brazil); Esposito, Elisa [Universidade de Mogi das Cruzes, Biological Chemistry and Biotechnology Laboratory, Environmental Sciences Center (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    This work studied a bioremediation process of silver nanoparticles with the bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum. These nanoparticles were obtained from several washes of cotton fabrics impregnated with silver nanoparticles produced by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. The optimized growth of C. violaceum for silver nanoparticles bioremediation was obtained. The effluents of wash process of the cotton fabric were efficiently treated with C. violaceum. This treatment was based on biosorption which was very efficient for the elimination of silver nanoparticles remaining in the wash water. The bacteria after biosorption were morphologically transformed, but the normal morphology after a new culture was completely restored. The process also allowed the recovery of silver material that was leached into the effluent for a reutilization avoiding any effect to the eco-environment.

  17. Three-dimensional printing of continuous-fiber composites by in-nozzle impregnation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Ueda, Masahito; Namiki, Masaki; Jeong, Tae-Kun; Asahara, Hirosuke; Horiguchi, Keisuke; Nakamura, Taishi; Todoroki, Akira; Hirano, Yoshiyasu

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a method for the three-dimensional (3D) printing of continuous fiber-reinforced thermoplastics based on fused-deposition modeling. The technique enables direct 3D fabrication without the use of molds and may become the standard next-generation composite fabrication methodology. A thermoplastic filament and continuous fibers were separately supplied to the 3D printer and the fibers were impregnated with the filament within the heated nozzle of the printer immediately before printing. Polylactic acid was used as the matrix while carbon fibers, or twisted yarns of natural jute fibers, were used as the reinforcements. The thermoplastics reinforced with unidirectional jute fibers were examples of plant-sourced composites; those reinforced with unidirectional carbon fiber showed mechanical properties superior to those of both the jute-reinforced and unreinforced thermoplastics. Continuous fiber reinforcement improved the tensile strength of the printed composites relative to the values shown by conventional 3D-printed polymer-based composites.

  18. Extraction of liquid products from Novomoskovsk deposit (Donbass basin) impregnated coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shendrik, T.G.; Sinomova, V.V.; Saranchuk, V.I.; Yulin, M.K.; Zimina, E.S. (Institut Fiziko-Organicheskoi Khimii i Uglekhimii AN UkSSR (USSR))

    1989-07-01

    Studies possibility of hydrogenating Lower Carboniferous period coal from the Novomoskovsk deposit (Dnepropetrovsk region) containing large amounts of alkali metals. Petrographic composition of coal is as follows: vitrinite 46-53%; inertinite 15-20%, lipinite 20-22%; mixtinite 6-10%. It also contains quartz, pyrite, semihydrates, halite, glauberite, as well as calcite, marcasite, jarosite and hexahydrates. Describes tests carried out in 0.5 l autoclaves at 425 C using petroleum fraction with b.p. over 280 C as paste-former with ferromolybdenum catalyst. Tests were made on natural and washed coal. Results obtained indicate that preliminary leaching of coal reduces valuable fraction by the factor 1.5-2.5. Proves experimentally that mineralized coal can be used in hydrogenation processes employing IGI (Inst. Min. Fuels) method. Establishes mathematical correlation between hydrogenation coefficients and mineral fraction properties. Shows changes in paramagnetic characteristics of impregnated coal during catalytic destructive hydrogenation. 11 refs.

  19. Catalytic activity of phosphoric acid impregnated as a thin layer on quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obraztosv, P.A. (Inst. Chem. Phys. Acad. Sci., USSR); Vinnik, M.I.; Batalin, O.E.

    1978-05-01

    The catalytic activity of phosphoric acid impregnated as a thin layer on quartz was studied in tert.-butanol dehydration at 100/sup 0/C by a pulse chromatographic method, and it was shown that the activity of the catalyst was due only to the free H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/, and that the observed gradual deactivation of the catalyst was caused by loss of the acid due to its interaction with quartz, with the formation of an SiO/sub 2/-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ complex. Catalyst samples thermally pretreated for 5-7 hr at 330/sup 0/C conserved high activity for over 205 hr, and contained only ortho- but no meta- or pyrophosphoric acid.

  20. Crystal deposition patterns from evaporating sessile drops on superhydrophobic and liquid impregnated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Samantha; Dash, Susmita; Varanasi, Kripa; Varanasi Group Team

    2016-11-01

    Accelerated corrosion and scale buildup near oceans is partially due to deposition of salty sea mist onto ships, cars, and building structures. Many corrosion preventative measures are expensive, time intensive, and/or have negative impacts on the environment. One solution is the use of specific surfaces that are engineered for scale resistance. In this work, we show that we can delay crystallization and reduce scale adhesion on specifically engineered liquid impregnated surfaces (LIS). The low contact angle hysteresis of the LIS results in a sliding contact line of the saline droplet during evaporation, and the elevated energy barrier of the smooth liquid interface delays crystallization. Experiments conducted on surfaces with different wettability also demonstrate the corresponding influence in controlling salt crystal polymorphism.

  1. Removal of Hg (II and Mn (II from aqueous solution using nanoporous carbon impregnated with surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Anbia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous carbons were impregnated with the anionic and cationic surfactants to increase adsorbing capacity for heavy metal ions. Prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to study the effect of various parameters like contact time, pH, metal ion concentration and agitation speed. The mercury removal by cationic surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB, anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS modified mesoporous carbon and unmodified mesoporous carbon were found to be 94%, 81.6% and 54.5%, respectively while the manganese removal for these adsorbents were found to be 82.2%, 70.5% and 56.8%, respectively. The sorption data were fit better with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm than Freundlich isotherm.

  2. Development and Characterization of Novel Polyurethane Films Impregnated with Tolfenamic Acid for Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Istanbullu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the preparation of polyurethane (PU films impregnated with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, tolfenamic acid (TA. Solvent evaporation technique has been employed for the preparation of TA-PU films in two different ratios of 1 : 2 and 1 : 5 in Tetrahydrofuran (THF or THF-ethanol mixtures. The prepared films were characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, and release studies. The results indicate transformation of crystalline TA to its amorphous form. The degree of crystallinity changes both by increasing the polymer concentration and solvent used for the film preparations. The release profiles of TA were also found to be affected, showing a decrease from approximately 50% to 25% from 1 : 2 to 1 : 5 ratios, respectively.

  3. Improved Accuracy and Safety of Intracorporeal Transpedicular Bone Grafting - using Contrast Impregnated Bone: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CK Chiu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A method of transpedicular bone grafting using contrast impregnated bone to improve the visualization of bone graft on the image intensifier is reported. A - 36-year old man who had sustained traumatic burst fracture of T12 vertebra, with Load-Sharing Classification (LSC score of 8, was treated with posterior short segment fusion from T11 to L1 with transpedicular bone graft of T12 vertebra. We were able to correct the kyphotic end plate angle (EPA from 19º to 1.4º. Anterior bone graft augmentation was achieved with contrast enhaced transpedicular bone grafts. At six months follow up, CT scan showed good bony integration of the anterior column with EPA of 4.5º and two years later, radiographs showed EPA of 7.6 º.

  4. Three-dimensional printing of continuous-fiber composites by in-nozzle impregnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Ueda, Masahito; Namiki, Masaki; Jeong, Tae-Kun; Asahara, Hirosuke; Horiguchi, Keisuke; Nakamura, Taishi; Todoroki, Akira; Hirano, Yoshiyasu

    2016-03-11

    We have developed a method for the three-dimensional (3D) printing of continuous fiber-reinforced thermoplastics based on fused-deposition modeling. The technique enables direct 3D fabrication without the use of molds and may become the standard next-generation composite fabrication methodology. A thermoplastic filament and continuous fibers were separately supplied to the 3D printer and the fibers were impregnated with the filament within the heated nozzle of the printer immediately before printing. Polylactic acid was used as the matrix while carbon fibers, or twisted yarns of natural jute fibers, were used as the reinforcements. The thermoplastics reinforced with unidirectional jute fibers were examples of plant-sourced composites; those reinforced with unidirectional carbon fiber showed mechanical properties superior to those of both the jute-reinforced and unreinforced thermoplastics. Continuous fiber reinforcement improved the tensile strength of the printed composites relative to the values shown by conventional 3D-printed polymer-based composites.

  5. Adsorption behavior of Am with gamma irradiated Thiacalix[4]arene impregnated silica adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Takahiro [Institute of Research and Innovation (IRI), 1201 Takada, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0861 (Japan)]. E-mail: tkikuchi@iri.or.jp; Suzuki, Kazunori [Institute of Research and Innovation (IRI), 1201 Takada, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0861 (Japan)

    2006-02-09

    Thiacalix[4]arene impregnated silica adsorbent which is called CAPS-SO{sub 2}-adsorbent in this paper shows the excellent separative performance of trivalent actinoids, such as Am from the high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLLW) in weak-acid solution. The chemical stability of the adsorbent was investigated under strong irradiation conditions. The amount of dissolved CAPS-SO{sub 2} was only 1% by gamma-ray irradiation at a total dose of 1 MGy. The value of distribution coefficient of Am (Kd{sub Am}) at pH 4 by the adsorbent was constant even the high irradiation dose. Moreover, the separation factor of Am to lanthanoids is kept a high value. It was also found that the value of Kd{sub Am} by the irradiated CAPS-SO{sub 2}-adsorbent increases at pH 2.

  6. Standard test method for abrasiveness of ink-impregnated fabric printer ribbons and other web materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the abrasiveness of ink-impregnated fabric printer ribbons and other web materials by means of a sliding wear test. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  7. Ecosystem protection by effluent bioremediation: silver nanoparticles impregnation in a textile fabrics process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Nelson; Marcato, Priscyla D.; Alves, Oswaldo L.; Da Silva, João P. S.; De Souza, Gabriel I. H.; Rodrigues, Flávio A.; Esposito, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    This work studied a bioremediation process of silver nanoparticles with the bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum. These nanoparticles were obtained from several washes of cotton fabrics impregnated with silver nanoparticles produced by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. The optimized growth of C. violaceum for silver nanoparticles bioremediation was obtained. The effluents of wash process of the cotton fabric were efficiently treated with C. violaceum. This treatment was based on biosorption which was very efficient for the elimination of silver nanoparticles remaining in the wash water. The bacteria after biosorption were morphologically transformed, but the normal morphology after a new culture was completely restored. The process also allowed the recovery of silver material that was leached into the effluent for a reutilization avoiding any effect to the eco-environment.

  8. Preparation, Characterization and Luminescent Properties of MCM-41 Type Materials Impregnated with Rare Earth Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Hybrid materials incorporating Eu-(TTA)3.2H2O(hereafter designated as Eu-TTA, with TTA:thenoyltrifluoroacetone)in unmodified or modified MCM-41 by 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES)were prepared by impregnation method.The obtained materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction(XRD),IR and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and luminescence spectra.All the hybrid samples exhibited the characteristic emission bands of Eu3+ under UV light excitation at room temperature, and the excitation spectra showed significant blue-shifts compared to the pure rare-earth complex. Although the red emission intensity in the modified hybrid was almost the half of the red emission intensity in the pure Eu-TTA complex at room temperature,the hybrid showed a much higher thermal stability due to the shielding character of the MCM-41host.

  9. Production of activated carbons from pyrolysis of waste tires impregnated with potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, H; Lin, Y C; Hsu, L Y

    2000-11-01

    Activated carbons were produced from waste tires using a chemical activation method. The carbon production process consisted of potassium hydroxide (KOH) impregnation followed by pyrolysis in N2 at 600-900 degrees C for 0-2 hr. The activation method can produce carbons with a surface area (SA) and total pore volume as high as 470 m2/g and 0.57 cm3/g, respectively. The influence of different parameters during chemical activation, such as pyrolysis temperature, holding time, and KOH/tire ratio, on the carbon yield and the surface characteristics was explored, and the optimum preparation conditions were recommended. The pore volume of the resulting carbons generally increases with the extent of carbon gasified by KOH and its derivatives, whereas the SA increases with degree of gasification to reach a maximum value, and then decreases upon further gasification.

  10. Development and Characterization of Novel Polyurethane Films Impregnated with Tolfenamic Acid for Therapeutic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheraz, Muhammad Ali; Rehman, Ihtesham ur

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the preparation of polyurethane (PU) films impregnated with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, tolfenamic acid (TA). Solvent evaporation technique has been employed for the preparation of TA-PU films in two different ratios of 1 : 2 and 1 : 5 in Tetrahydrofuran (THF) or THF-ethanol mixtures. The prepared films were characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and release studies. The results indicate transformation of crystalline TA to its amorphous form. The degree of crystallinity changes both by increasing the polymer concentration and solvent used for the film preparations. The release profiles of TA were also found to be affected, showing a decrease from approximately 50% to 25% from 1 : 2 to 1 : 5 ratios, respectively. PMID:24073394

  11. PROPERTIES OF POLYMER SUPPORTED Ni-Cu BIMETALLIC CATALYSTS PREPARED BY SOLVATED METAL ATOM IMPREGNATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shihua; ZHU Changying; HUANG Wenqiang

    1996-01-01

    D-72 resin supported nickel-copper catalysts prepared by solvated metal atom impregnation (SMAI) were studied by magnetic measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Ni particles on the catalysts are very highly dispersed and display superparamagnetic behaviour. Ni-Cu alloy clusters were found to be formed. The surface compositions are different from the bulk concentrations. In contrast with the surface enrichment in copper generally observed on conventional Ni-Cu catalysts, the surfaces of these catalysts are enriched in nickel. The nickel is in both zero and valent states, while copper is mainly in metallic state. Catalytic data show that the formation of Ni-Cu alloy clusters has a profound effect on the catalytic activities of the catalysts in the hydrogenation of furfural. The activity of the Ni:Cu ratio of one bimetallic catalysts is much higher than that of the Ni or Cu monometallic catalyst.

  12. Simple fabrication of Ag nanoparticle-impregnated electrospun nanofibres as SERS substrates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Altangerel Amarjargal; Leonard D Tijing; Cheol Sang Kim

    2015-02-01

    A facile method for the fabrication of electrospun polyurethane (PU) nanofibres impregnated with Ag nanoparticles (NPs) as an efficient and free-standing surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates is reported here. Electrospinning was used to produce polymeric nanofibrous matrix, while a liquid polyol(ethylene glycol) solvent under low temperature was used not only to reduce Ag+ to Ag0, but also was employed as the in situ growth medium for well-dispersed Ag NPs on the surface of fibre nets. Large enhancement in Raman signals of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid analytes could be realized in the present Ag/PU nanofibres due to the presence of SERS ‘hotspots’ by means of appropriate interparticle gap.

  13. Full scale amendment of a contaminated wood impregnation site with iron water treatment residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sanne Skov; Kjeldsen, Peter; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    the design of delivery and mixing strategy for soil stabilization at field scale and present a cost-effective method of soil mixing by common contractor machinery. Soil contaminated by As, Cr, and Cu at an abandoned wood impregnation site was amended with 0.22% (dw) Fe-WTR. To evaluate the full scale...... amendment a 100 m2 test site and a control site (without amendment) were monitored for 14 months. Also soil analysis of Fe to evaluate the degree of soil and Fe-WTR mixing was done. Stabilization with Fe-WTR had a significant effect on leachable contaminants, reducing pore water As by 93%, Cu by 91% and Cr...

  14. 40 CFR 90.316 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 90... Equipment Provisions § 90.316 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the FID and HFID hydrocarbon... thereafter, adjust the FID and HFID hydrocarbon analyzer for optimum hydrocarbon response as specified...

  15. 40 CFR 86.121-90 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 86... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.121-90 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. The hydrocarbon... FID and HFID hydrocarbon analyzers shall be adjusted for optimum hydrocarbon response....

  16. 40 CFR 91.316 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 91....316 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the FID and HFID hydrocarbon analyzer as described... thereafter, adjust the FID and HFID hydrocarbon analyzer for optimum hydrocarbon response as specified...

  17. 40 CFR 89.319 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 89... Equipment Provisions § 89.319 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (a) The FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall... and at least annually thereafter, adjust the FID hydrocarbon analyzer for optimum hydrocarbon...

  18. Influence of vacuum impregnation and pulsed electric field on the freezing temperature and ice propagation rates of spinach leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efforts are currently directed towards improving the quality of sensitive tissues of fruits and vegetables after freezing and thawing. One of the methods under investigation is the combination of vacuum impregnation (VI) with cryoprotectants and pulsed electric field (PEF) applied to the plant tiss...

  19. Drug-polymer filled micro-containers for oral delivery loaded using supercritical CO2 aided-impregnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marizza, Paolo; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Rades, T.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present an effective loading technique of micro-containers for oral drug delivery of a poorly water soluble drug in a solid dispersion with polymer. By combining inkjet printing and supercritical CO2 impregnation we load ketoprofen in a solid dispersion with poly...

  20. Application of encapsulated lightweight aggregate impregnated with sodium monofluorophosphate as a self-healing agent in blast furnace slag mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sisomphon, K.; Copuroglu, O.; Fraaij, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the potential of using expanded clay lightweight aggregate impregnated with sodium monofluorophosphate (Na2FPO3) solution which is eventually encapsulated by a cement paste layer to produce a self-healing system in blast furnace slag cement mortars. It was found that the technique