WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrocarbon-like oa hoa

  1. Organic Aerosol Composition and Sources in Pasadena, California during the 2010 CalNex Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic aerosols (OA) in Pasadena are characterized using multiple measurements from the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) campaign. Five OA components are identified using positive matrix factorization including hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) ...

  2. 78 FR 51208 - Request for Nominations for the Na Hoa Pili O Kaloko-Honokohau Advisory Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... National Park Service Request for Nominations for the Na Hoa Pili O Kaloko-Honokohau Advisory Commission AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Request for Nominations for the Na Hoa Pili O... Interior, proposes to appoint new members to the Na Hoa Pili O Kaloko-Honokohau (The Friends of...

  3. 76 FR 64103 - Request for Nominations for the Na Hoa Pili O Kaloko-Honokohau Advisory Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... National Park Service Request for Nominations for the Na Hoa Pili O Kaloko-Honokohau Advisory Commission AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of request for nominations for the Na Hoa Pili O... Interior, proposes to appoint new members to the Na Hoa Pili O Kaloko-Honokohau (The Friends of...

  4. Generating Bijections between HOAS and the Natural Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Boyland, John Tang

    2010-01-01

    A provably correct bijection between higher-order abstract syntax (HOAS) and the natural numbers enables one to define a "not equals" relationship between terms and also to have an adequate encoding of sets of terms, and maps from one term family to another. Sets and maps are useful in many situations and are preferably provided in a library of some sort. I have released a map and set library for use with Twelf which can be used with any type for which a bijection to the natural numbers exists. Since creating such bijections is tedious and error-prone, I have created a "bijection generator" that generates such bijections automatically together with proofs of correctness, all in the context of Twelf.

  5. Sarcophaga (Hoa)flexuosa Ho (Diptera: Sarcophagidae): association of sexes using morphological and molecular approaches, and a redefinition of Hoa Rohdendorf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Ming; Pape, Thomas; Gu, Cai-Wei; Wu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Sarcophaga flexuosa Ho, 1934 is the type species of the currently monotypic genus-group taxon Hoa Rohdendorf, 1937, which here is considered a subgenus of Sarcophaga Meigen, 1826. Using DNA sequences of mitochondrial genes (cytochrome oxidase I and cytochrome b), we positively identify, for the first time, the female of S. (H.)flexuosa. The female is described, the male is redescribed, and both sexes are illustrated using a combination of line drawings, photographs and scanning electron microscopy images. It is argued from the morphology of the male terminalia that Sarcophagaflexuosa is the sister taxon of Sarcophaga basiseta Baranov, 1931, and the subgenus Hoa is redefined to include both of these species.

  6. Impact of Homeowner Association (HOA) landscaping guidelines on residential water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Elizabeth A.; Rode, Sandra; Li, Xiaoxiao; Tellman, Elizabeth M.; Turner, B. L., II

    2016-05-01

    The association between increasing water intensive land-cover, such as the use of turf grass and trees, and increasing water use is a growing concern for water-stressed arid cities. Appropriate regulatory measures addressing residential landscaping, such as those applied by Homeowner Associations (HOAs), may serve to reduce municipal water use, joining other water-use reducing measures under consideration by arid cities. This research assesses quantitatively the role that Covenants, Conditions, and Restrictions (CCRs) applied to landscaping by HOAs play on water consumption. Statistical comparisons and models of n=1973 parcels in Goodyear, Arizona, USA, reveal that: HOA yards have less vegetation cover and those households use less peak-season water (July) than those households in non-HOA neighborhoods. This hold true even though the HOA CCRs regulate only the minimum required front-yard vegetation and most residents maintain more than the minimum vegetation level. Furthermore, front-yard landscaping tends to be mimicked in the backyard such that total yard landscaping tracks best with total household water use. Results of the study suggest that HOA landscaping regulations have the potential to reduce peak-season water use by up to 24% if CCRs were to set maximum vegetation regulations rather than minimum and if compliance were enforced. Lowering residential water consumption in this way potentially involves tradeoffs with the cooling effects of vegetation and its consequences on the urban heat island effect, on energy use, and on home values.

  7. hoa Near Miss: Serendipity? Or Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusdell, F.; Orr, T. R.; Lee, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    The "June 27th" flow, named for the date on which it started, threatened communities on the lower East Rift Zone (ERZ) of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaii, for several months during 2014-2015. The flow encroached on Pāhoa, threatening to cross the main street and sever Highway 130, which serves the rural communities on Kīlauea's south and east flanks. The rate of flow advance was influenced greatly by magma supply from the summit. Increases in ERZ discharge, presaged by inflationary summit tilt, resulted in flow advance of up to several hundred meters per day. When summit tilt switched to deflation, discharge waned and the flow slowed and often stalled, repeatedly stopping short of destroying critical infrastructure. When activity resumed, it typically did so as many small breakouts as far as a few km behind the flow front, which then had to resurface previously covered ground to extend the overall length of the flow. At the same time, lava near the flow front had a very spiny texture and was noticeably less fluid than lava closer to the vent, leading to speculation that physiochemical changes along the flow were limiting its length. In December 2014, we collected a suite of lava samples along the flow from near Pu`u `Ō`ō to its distal end (3 km to 18 km) to better understand the physiochemical changes along its length. The magma flux on that day was calculated at 90,000- 100,000 m3/day (~1 m3/s). Preliminary analyses of the samples reveal a down-flow decrease in lava vesicularity and temperature and a corresponding increase in density and microcrystallinity. We propose that the lava flow could only attain a length of ~21 km because of the changes in its apparent viscosity, for the calculated magma flux. The flows could not overcome the increasing downstream yield strength, and breakouts from the flow margins farther upslope were easier to achieve than forcing the front forward. These upslope breakouts were themselves limited in length by the same factors.

  8. Douglas OA-4A Dolphin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1938-01-01

    Douglas OA-4A Dolphin: This twin-engine Douglas OA-4A Dolphin was unusual in comparison with other OA-4s in that it employed a nose wheel instead of a tail wheel during its NACA testing at Langley. Here is is seen in the NACA hangar in September 1938.

  9. Hair-inspired crystal growth of HOA in cavities of cellulose matrix via hydrophobic-hydrophilic interface interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meng; Kwok, Ryan T K; Wang, Zhenggang; Duan, Bo; Tang, Ben Zhong; Zhang, Lina

    2014-06-25

    As one of the most ordinary phenomena in nature, numerous pores on animal skins induce the growth of abundant hairs. In this study, cavities of a cellulose matrix were used as hard templates to lead the hair-inspired crystal growth of 12-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid (HOA) through hydrophobic-hydrophilic interface interaction, and short hair-like HOA crystals with a smooth surface were formed on cellulose films. In our findings, by using solvent evaporation induced crystallization, hydrophobic HOA grew along the hydrophilic cellulose pore wall to form regular vertical worm-like and pillar-like crystals with an average diameter of about 200 nm, depending on the experimental conditions and HOA concentration. The formation mechanism of the short hair-like HOA crystals as well as the structure and properties of the cellulose/HOA submicrometer composite films were studied. The pores of the cellulose matrix supplied not only cavities for the HOA crystals fixation but also hydrophilic shells to favor the vertical growth of the relatively hydrophobic HOA crystals. The cellulose/HOA submicrometer composite films exhibited high hydrophobicity, as a result of the formation of the solid/air composite surface. Furthermore, 4-(1,2,2-triphenylethenyl) benzoic acid, an aggregation-induced emission luminogen, was used to aggregate on the cellulose surface with HOA to emit and monitor the HOA crystal growth, showing bifunctional photoluminscence and self-cleaning properties. This work opens up a novel one-step pathway to design bio-inspired submicrometer materials by utilizing natural products, showing potential applications in self-cleaning optical devices.

  10. Simulation and optimisation modelling approach for operation of the Hoa Binh Reservoir, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Long le; Madsen, Henrik; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Hoa Binh, the largest reservoir in Vietnam, plays an important role in flood control for the Red River delta and hydropower generation. Due to its multi-purpose character, conflicts and disputes in operating the reservoir have been ongoing since its construction, particularly in the flood season......, the hydro-meteorological conditions, and the time of the year. A heuristic global optimisation tool, the shuffled complex evolution (SCE) algorithm, is adopted for optimising the reservoir operation. The optimisation puts focus on the trade-off between flood control and hydropower generation for the Hoa....... This paper proposes to optimise the control strategies for the Hoa Binh reservoir operation by applying a combination of simulation and optimisation models. The control strategies are set up in the MIKE 11 simulation model to guide the releases of the reservoir system according to the current storage level...

  11. 77 FR 66864 - Notice of November 15, 2012, Meeting for Na Hoa Pili O Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of November 15, 2012, Meeting for Na Hoa Pili O Kaloko- Honokohau National.... SUMMARY: This notice sets forth the date of the November 15, 2012, meeting of the Na Hoa Pili O...

  12. Industrial application of HOA -03 type additive for producing more propylene%HOA-03增产丙烯助剂的工业应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王巍慈

    2007-01-01

    在中国石油抚顺石化分公司120万t/a催化裂化装置中,以直馏蜡油、常压渣油和焦化蜡油为原料,采用LBO-16降烯烃催化剂,在加入HOA-03增产丙烯助剂后,可以提高丙烯收率.工业试验表明,当HOA-03增产丙烯助剂加入量占系统藏量5%时,与未添加者相比,前者液态烃中丙烯平均质量分数由39.3%升至44.5%,丙烯平均收率由4.55%升至5.83%;HOA-03增产丙烯助剂对主催化剂及产物性质无不良影响.

  13. Public health assessment of dioxin-contaminated fish at former US airbase, Bien Hoa, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, James T; Boivin, Thomas G; Pohl, Hana R; Sinks, Thomas H

    2015-01-01

    Ponds at the former US airbase at Ben Hoa, Vietnam are contaminated with Agent Orange. The ponds had been used for aquaculture, and in all likelihood, fish from those ponds have been sold to the public. We assessed human exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) in fish samples from the ponds. For on-base tilapia, muscle concentrations 2,3,7,8-TCDD ranged from 1.4 to 32.7 pg/g. Fat concentrations ranged from 73.3 to 3990 pg/g. Estimated human exposure doses exceed international guidelines and exceed 2,3,7,8-TCDD's lowest adverse effect levels. The Bien Hoa fishponds are a completed human pathway for TCDD exposure.

  14. Potential flood hazard assessment by integration of ALOS PALSAR and ASTER GDEM: a case study for the Hoa Chau commune, Hoa Vang district, in central Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Do Thi Viet; Nagasawa, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    The potential flood hazard was assessed for the Hoa Chau commune in central Vietnam in order to identify the high flood hazard zones for the decision makers who will execute future rural planning. A new approach for deriving the potential flood hazard based on integration of inundation and flow direction maps is described. Areas inundated in the historical flood event of 2007 were extracted from Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) phased array L-band synthetic aperture data radar (PALSAR) images, while flow direction characteristics were derived from the ASTER GDEM to extract the depressed surfaces. Past flood experience and the flow direction were then integrated to analyze and rank the potential flood hazard zones. The land use/cover map extracted from LANDSAT TM and flood depth point records from field surveys were utilized to check the possibility of susceptible inundated areas, extracting data from ALOS PALSAR and ranking the potential flood hazard. The estimation of potential flood hazard areas revealed that 17.43% and 17.36% of Hoa Chau had high and medium potential flood hazards, respectively. The flow direction and ALOS PALSAR data were effectively integrated for determining the potential flood hazard when hydrological and meteorological data were inadequate and remote sensing images taken during flood times were not available or were insufficient.

  15. 浅谈医院现代管理“利器”——HOA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈腾云

    2012-01-01

    文章通过医院通过一种新型的办公系统——HOA,使得医院现代管理中各类信息在HOA平台进行快速有效的传递,提高办公效率,降低了医疗成本,并有效防范医疗纠纷,促进医患和谐.现就我院使用HOA平台的经验,对其在医院现代管理中所发挥的主要作用进行简要探讨.

  16. Probing magnetostructural correlations in multiferroic HoA l3(BO3) 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Yu, T.; Chen, Z.; Nelson, C. S.; Bezmaternykh, L. N.; Abeykoon, A. M. M.; Tyson, T. A.

    2015-09-01

    The system HoA l3(BO3) 4 has recently been found to exhibit a large magnetoelectric effect. To understand the mechanism, macroscopic and atomic level properties of HoA l3(BO3) 4 were explored by temperature and magnetic field dependent heat capacity measurements, pressure and temperature dependent x-ray diffraction measurements, as well as temperature and magnetic field dependent x-ray absorption fine structure measurements. The experimental work was complemented by density functional theory calculations. An anomalous change in the structure is found in the temperature range where large magnetoelectric effects occur. No significant structural change or distortion of the Ho O6 polyhedra is seen to occur with magnetic field. However, the magnetic field dependent structural measurements reveal enhanced correlation between neighboring Ho O6 polyhedra. This observed response is seen to saturate near 3 T. A qualitative atomic level description of the mechanism behind the large electric polarization induced by magnetic fields in the general class of RA l3(BO3) 4 systems (R = rare earth) is developed.

  17. Food as a source of dioxin exposure in the residents of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, Arnold; Quynh, Hoang Trong; Pavuk, Marian; Päpke, Olaf; Malisch, Rainer; Constable, John D

    2003-08-01

    Recently, elevated dioxin levels, over 5 parts per trillion (ppt) 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), from Agent Orange was reported in 95% of 43 selected residents of Bien Hoa City, a city in southern Vietnam near a former air base used for Agent Orange-spraying missions. Agent Orange herbicide, contaminated with TCDD, was sprayed in Vietnam between 1962 and 1971 primarily for use as a defoliant. Typical blood TCCD levels are 2 ppt in Vietnamese, but levels are as high as 413 ppt in Bien Hoa City. Elevated TCDD was found in children born many years after Agent Orange spraying ended and in immigrants from non-Agent Orange-sprayed parts of Vietnam, which documented new exposures. Extremely elevated soil TCDD samples, over 1 million ppt, and elevated TCDD in sediment were found in some nearby areas such as Bien Hung Lake. The primary route of intake of almost all dioxins in humans is food. However, in our prior studies in Bien Hoa, food was unavailable for dioxin analysis so the route of intake was not confirmed. In the 1970s, while Agent Orange was still being sprayed, elevated human milk TCDD levels as high as 1850 were detected in milk from Vietnamese people living in Agent Orange-sprayed areas where consumption of fish was high. Furthermore, also in the 1970s, elevated TCDD levels (up to 810 ppt) were found in fish and shrimp from the same area as the milk donors. In the 1980s, we found elevated TCDD and also other organohalogen levels in human tissue, pork, fish, a turtle, and a snake in Southern Vietnam. For these reasons, we recently collected food from Bien Hoa and analyzed it for dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites, and other organochlorines. We found marked elevation of TCDD, the dioxin characteristic of Agent Orange, in some of the food products, including ducks with 276 ppt and 331 ppt wet weight, chickens from 0.031-15 ppt wet weight, fish from 0.063-65 ppt wet weight, and a toad with 56 ppt wet weight. Usual TCDD

  18. 77 FR 77091 - Notice of February 22; May 17; August 23; and November 8, 2013, Meetings for Na Hoa Pili O Kaloko...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of February 22; May 17; August 23; and November 8, 2013, Meetings for Na Hoa...; August 23; and November 8, 2013, meetings of the Na Hoa Pili O Kaloko- Honokohau National Historical...

  19. Infant growth disparity in the Khanh Hoa province in Vietnam: a follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaktskjold Arild

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveys in Vietnam have indicated that wasting and stunting have been prevalent among children, but the country is undergoing rapid socio-economic changes and little has been known about the relative situation in the different areas of the country. In 2006, the WHO introduced new growth standards applicable to all infant and child populations, which facilitates for improved assessments of the prevalence of growth impairment, independent of time, place and ethnicity. The aim of our study was to assess the growth of singleton infants delivered at term in three main birth clinics in the Khanh Hoa province in Vietnam by using the new WHO standards as reference, and the association between growth and some maternal, birth and health factors. Methods A cohort of 237 singleton infants born in the period May-July 2005 in three main delivery clinics in the Khanh Hoa province were observed prospectively. Their anthropometrical measures a year later were compared to the WHO sex-specific growth standards for weight-for-age, length-for-age, weight-for-length, and BMI-for-age. These measures were analysed as dependent outcomes using multiple linear regression models including the following independent factors: urban vs. rural birth, 1-minute Apgar score, weight and length at birth, duration of lactation, ever had diarrhoea, dengue fever, pneumonia or dysentery, and maternal age, height, gestational duration and parity. Results Compared to the standard distributions, 79% were below the median for weight-for-length; 18.0% were within the 5th percentile for length-for-age, 9.6% for weight-for-age, 20.3% for weight-for-length, and 19.8% for BMI. A lower length- and weight-for-age were statistically associated with being born rurally. Conclusions In this delivery-clinic based sample of children in the Khanh Hoa province in Vietnam, the proportions within the WHO-standard 5th percentiles for length-for-age, weight-for-length and BMI in late

  20. Green OA Self-Archiving Needs a Lobbying Organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Harnad, Stevan

    2007-01-01

    Some university libraries and administrations think OA is all about journal affordability, digital preservation, digital curation (IRs) and interoperability (OAI). Some OA publishers think OA is all about conversion to Gold OA and the funding of Gold OA fees (CERN, etc.). Some copyright reformers think OA is all about reforming copyright law. And some traditional publishers lobby against Green OA mandates (and sometimes also against Gold OA) as a threat to their industry. There exists no reco...

  1. A new Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Khanh Hoa Province, southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nicole; Phung, Trung My; Le, Minh Duc; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Ziegler, Thomas

    2014-04-07

    We describe a new species of the genus Cyrtodactylus from southern Vietnam, based on morphological and molecular datasets. Cyrtodactylus cucdongensis sp. nov. is described on the basis of seven specimens collected from Cuc Dong Cape, Khanh Hoa Province. The new species can be distinguished from the remaining bent-toed geckos by a combination of the following characters: maximum SVL 65.9 mm; 16-19 dorsal tubercle rows; 41-44 ventral scales at midbody; 5 or 6 precloacal pores in males, 4-6 pitted precloacal scales in females; no femoral pores; 6-13 enlarged precloacal scales; 5-9 enlarged femoral scales; no transversally enlarged subcaudals; dorsal pattern consisting of irregular dark bands. This is the 33rd species of Cyrtodactylus known from Vietnam.

  2. Two new species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the karst forest of Hoa Binh Province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong Quang; Le, Minh Duc; Pham, Anh Van; Ngo, Hai Ngoc; Hoang, Chung Van; Ziegler, Thomas

    2015-07-13

    We describe two new species of the genus Cyrtodactylus on the basis of a new reptile collection from the limestone karst forest of Hoa Binh Province, northwestern Vietnam. Cyrtodactylus otai sp. nov. from Hang Kia-Pa Co Nature Reserve and Cyrtodactylus bobrovi sp. nov. from Ngoc Son-Ngo Luong Nature Reserve can be distinguished from each other and from their congeners by their genetic distinction and morphological differences in number of precloacal pores, femoral scales, ventral scales, lamellae, subcaudals and dorsal tubercle arrangement, as well as in size and color pattern. In phylogenetic analyses, both new species are nested in a clade containing taxa from northwestern and northcentral Vietnam and northern Laos, i.e., C. bichnganae and C. cf. martini from northwestern Vietnam, C. puhuensis from northcentral Vietnam, and C. spelaeus, C. vilaphongi, and C. wayakonei from northern Laos.

  3. Environmental Health Risk Assessment of Dioxin Exposure through Foods in a Dioxin Hot Spot—Bien Hoa City, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thi Tuyet-Hanh; Le Vu-Anh; Nguyen Ngoc-Bich; Thomas Tenkate

    2010-01-01

    This study used the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework to assess the human health risk of dioxin exposure through foods for local residents in two wards of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam. These wards are known hot-spots for dioxin and a range of stakeholders from central government to local levels were involved in this process. Publications on dioxin characteristics and toxicity were reviewed and dioxin concentrations in local soil, mud, foods, milk and blood samples were used ...

  4. Impact of the Hoa Binh dam (Vietnam) on water and sediment budgets in the Red River basin and delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, V. D.; Ouillon, S.; Thanh, T. D.; Chu, L. V.

    2014-10-01

    The Hoa Binh dam (HBD), located on a tributary of the Red River in Vietnam, has a capacity of 9.45 × 109 m3 and was commissioned in December 1988. Although it is important for flood prevention, electricity production and irrigation in northern Vietnam, the Hoa Binh dam has also highly influenced the suspended sediment distribution in the lower Red River basin, in the delta and in the coastal zone. Its impact was analysed from a 50-year data set of water discharge and suspended sediment concentration (1960-2010), and the distribution of water and sediment across the nine mouths of the delta was simulated using the MIKE11 numerical model before and after the dam settlement. Although water discharge at the delta inlet decreased by only 9%, the yearly suspended sediment flux dropped, on average, by 61% at Son Tay near Hanoi (from 119 to 46 × 106 t yr-1). Along the coast, reduced sedimentation rates are coincident with the lower sediment delivery observed since the impoundment of the Hoa Binh dam. Water regulation has led to decreased water discharge in the wet season (-14% in the Red River at Son Tay) and increased water discharge in the dry season (+12% at the same station). The ratios of water and suspended sediment flows, as compared to the total flows in the nine mouths, increased in the northern and southern estuaries and decreased in the central, main Ba Lat mouth. The increasing volume of dredged sediments in the Haiphong harbour is evidence of the silting up of the northern estuary of Cam-Bach Dang. The effect of tidal pumping on enhanced flow occurring in the dry season and resulting from changed water regulation is discussed as a possible cause of the enhanced siltation of the estuary after Hoa Binh dam impoundment.

  5. Predictors for dioxin accumulation in residents living in Da Nang and Bien Hoa, Vietnam, many years after Agent Orange use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Diem T; Nguyen, Hang M; Boivin, Thomas G; Zajacova, Anna; Huzurbazar, Snehalata V; Bergman, Harold L

    2015-01-01

    Agent Orange (AO) was the main defoliant used by the US in Vietnam from 1961 to 1971; AO was contaminated with dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, or TCDD). Three major dioxin “hot spots” remain from previous AO storage and use at former US bases at Bien Hoa, Da Nang, and Phu Cat, posing potential health risks for Vietnamese living on or near these hot spots. We evaluated potential risk factors contributing to serum TCDD levels in Vietnamese residents at and near contaminated sites in Da Nang and Bien Hoa, Vietnam. We used multiple linear regression to analyze possible associations of blood dioxin concentrations with demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle, and dietary risk factors for residents living on or near these hot spots. For the Da Nang study, fish farming on the site, living on property flooded from monsoon rains, and age were among the factors showing significant positive associations with serum TCDD concentrations. For the Bien Hoa study, fish farmers working at this site and their immediate family members had significantly higher serum TCDD concentrations. Our results suggest that water-related activities, especially fish-farming, at the hot spots increased the risk of exposure to dioxin.

  6. Strengthening emergency obstetric care in Thanh Hoa and Quang Tri provinces in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otchere, S A; Binh, H T

    2007-11-01

    Save the Children/USA and the Ministry of Health of Vietnam undertook a project between 2001 and 2004 to improve the availability of, access to, quality and utilization of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services at district and provincial hospitals in two provinces in Vietnam. The project improved the functional capacity of 3 provincial and 1 district hospitals providing comprehensive EmOC services, and upgraded 1 district hospital providing basic EmOC into a comprehensive EmOC facility through training, infrastructure and quality improvement. Data presented in this paper focus on only the 2 district hospitals even though the UN process indicators showed increases in utilization of EmOC in all 5 hospitals. In the case of Hai Lang, the proportion of births increased from 13% at baseline to 31% at the end of 2004, and met need increased significantly from 16% to 87% largely due to increased capacity of the hospital and staff. Met need in Hoang Hoa hospital more than doubled (17% at baseline versus 54% in 2004) and the proportion of births increased slightly from 19% in 2001 to 22% in 2004. Case fatality rates for the two hospitals remarkably remained at zero. Lessons from this project have been incorporated into national policy and guidelines. Improvements in the capacity of existing health facilities to treat complications in pregnancy and childbirth can be realized in a relatively short period of time and is an essential element in reducing maternal mortality.

  7. Evaluation of three adolescent sexual health programs in ha noi and khanh hoa province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Van; Nguyen, Hoang; Tho, Le Huu; Minh, Truong Tan; Lerdboon, Porntip; Riel, Rosemary; Green, Mackenzie S; Kaljee, Linda M

    2012-01-01

    With an increase in sexual activity among young adults in Vietnam and associated risks, there is a need for evidence-based sexual health interventions. This evaluation of three sexual health programs based on the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) was conducted in 12 communes in Ha Noi, Nha Trang City, and Ninh Hoa District. Inclusion criteria included unmarried youth 15-20 years residing in selected communes. Communes were randomly allocated to an intervention, and participants were randomly selected within each commune. The intervention programs included Vietnamese Focus on Kids (VFOK), the gender-based program Exploring the World of Adolescents (EWA), and EWA plus parental and health provider education (EWA+). Programs were delivered over a ten-week period in the communities by locally trained facilitators. The gender-based EWA program with parental involvement (EWA+) compared to VFOK showed significantly greater increase in knowledge. EWA+ in comparison to VFOK also showed significant decrease at immediate postintervention for intention to have sex. Sustained changes are observed in all three interventions for self-efficacy condom use, self-efficacy abstinence, response efficacy for condoms, extrinsic rewards, and perceived vulnerability for HIV. These findings suggest that theory-based community programs contribute to sustained changes in knowledge and attitudes regarding sexual risk among Vietnamese adolescents.

  8. Vertical distribution of dioxins in soil of Bien Hoa airbase, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyen, Dang Thuong; Igarashi, Toshifumi; Shiraiwa, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Bien Hoa airbase is a known dioxin-contaminated hotspot in Vietnam. The contamination occurred during the Vietnam War at the site where dioxins were transported, stored, sprayed, and spilled in the area. Dioxins, which are cancer inducing substances, may transfer from the soil to food crops and finally to human beings living around the area. Many surveys of dioxins in soil, water, organisms, and human have been carried out in this study area since 2002. In this paper vertical distribution of dioxins in undisturbed soil cores were examined. Twelve soil samples from three drilled cores were collected to analyze dioxin levels according to the standard Japanese analytical method. The results showed that the toxicity equivalency quantity (TEQ) in one soil sample at a depth of 2.6 m reached 3,300 pg-TEQ/g-dw. High TEQs were also observed in the clay layer. This anomaly of dioxin concentrations could be attributed to the affinity of dioxins for the clay layer. The isomer patterns in the soils were different from those in the soil of Hokkaido in that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was the most dominant in the soil sample. This indicates that the dioxins originate from a defoliant Agent Orange disposed at the site after the Vietnam War.

  9. Evaluation of Three Adolescent Sexual Health Programs in Ha Noi and Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Pham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With an increase in sexual activity among young adults in Vietnam and associated risks, there is a need for evidence-based sexual health interventions. This evaluation of three sexual health programs based on the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT was conducted in 12 communes in Ha Noi, Nha Trang City, and Ninh Hoa District. Inclusion criteria included unmarried youth 15–20 years residing in selected communes. Communes were randomly allocated to an intervention, and participants were randomly selected within each commune. The intervention programs included Vietnamese Focus on Kids (VFOK, the gender-based program Exploring the World of Adolescents (EWA, and EWA plus parental and health provider education (EWA+. Programs were delivered over a ten-week period in the communities by locally trained facilitators. The gender-based EWA program with parental involvement (EWA+ compared to VFOK showed significantly greater increase in knowledge. EWA+ in comparison to VFOK also showed significant decrease at immediate postintervention for intention to have sex. Sustained changes are observed in all three interventions for self-efficacy condom use, self-efficacy abstinence, response efficacy for condoms, extrinsic rewards, and perceived vulnerability for HIV. These findings suggest that theory-based community programs contribute to sustained changes in knowledge and attitudes regarding sexual risk among Vietnamese adolescents.

  10. Impact of the Hoa Binh Dam (Vietnam on water and sediment budgets in the Red River basin and delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Vu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hoa Binh Dam, located on a tributary of the Red River in Vietnam, has a capacity of 9.45 × 109 m3 and was commissioned in December 1988. Although being important for flood prevention, electricity production, and irrigation in northern Vietnam, the Hoa Binh Dam has also highly influenced the suspended sediment distribution in the lower Red River basin, in the delta and in the coastal zone. Its impact was analysed from 50 yr dataset of water discharge and suspended sediment concentration (1960–2010 and the distribution of water and sediment across the nine mouths of the delta was calculated using the MIKE 11 numerical model before and after the dam settlement. Although water discharge at the delta inlet decreased by only 8.8%, the yearly suspended sediment flux dropped, on average from 119 to 43 × 106 t yr−1 at Son Tay near Hanoi, and from 85 to 35 × 106 t yr−1 in the river mouths. Water regulation has led to decreased water discharge in the wet season and increased water discharge in the dry season. Suspended sediment discharge proportionally increased in northern and southern estuaries and decreased through the main and central Ba Lat mouth. Tidal pumping, which causes a net sediment flux from the coast to the estuary at low discharge, is high in the northern delta, as a consequence of the high tidal range (up to 4.5 m in spring tide; diurnal tide. The shifts in the dynamic and characteristics of the turbidity maximum zone in the Cam-Bach Dang estuary are probably the cause of the enhanced sediment deposition in the Haiphong harbor. Along the coast, the reduced sedimentation rates are coincident with the lower sediment delivery that has been observed since the impoundment of the Hoa Binh Dam.

  11. 周围型肺癌脑转移伴HOA 1例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙道进

    2011-01-01

    1.介绍肥大性骨关节病的背景知识,提出文献很少提到我们应该怎样重视HOA,以及意义何在.2.患者男,62岁."双下肢肿伴膝关节痛3月余"被临床诊断为周围性肺癌脑转移伴HOA.行化放疗治疗,杵状指存在,膝关节疼痛消失,压痛(-),双踝区肥大性表现未好转.对于中老年人患有双下肢肿大或肥大,压无凹陷性,相关检查无果的情况下建议查胸CT以排除肺癌可能,即使无肺部体征,以免延误患者病情,要向患者说明检查的必要性.

  12. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adults in Khanh Hoa, Viet Nam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huy Van Tran; M.T. Truong; Thach Nguyen

    2004-01-01

    Background The metabolic syndrome (MS) is characterized by a specific clustering of risk factors, including dyslipidemia, central adiposity, systemic hypertension, insulin resistance, and dysglycemia. It is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Accurate data on prevalence and characteristics of MS will facilitate the development of preventive strategies for CVD. Objective To estimate accurately the prevalence of MS among Vietnamese adults with the usual criteria or with the criteria modified for Asian populations. Design and methods We studied a representative, cross-sectional, population-based sample of 856 subjects (mean age 52.82 ± 16.36) classified in three age groups from 15-34 years, 35-54 years and > 54 years of age, living in Khanh Hoa Province, Viet Nam. MS was diagnosed according to the criteria defined by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expect Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel Ⅲ) (NCEP-ATP Ⅲ) and by the modified criteria for some Asian populations in which the waist circumference (WC) is considered abnormal if it is > 90 cm for males and > 80 cm for females.Results Using the NCEP-ATP Ⅲ criteria, the prevalence of MS in the studied population was 10.0% (CI 95 %:8.1-12.3). It was 2.4 % in the 15-34 age group (men 4.5% and women 1.2%),5.2% (men 6.3%,women 4.5% ) in 35-54 age group and 15.8% (men 9.7%, women 21.7%) in over 54 age group, respectively. And it was more common in women than in men (11.7% vs 8.0%, P <0.001). Using 2001 population census data of the whole province over 15 years (695 218 habitants) we estimated that about 35 193 people suffered from the MS.The WC was the least common feature of MS (2.1% for men and in 6.1% for women).Overall,45.2 % of the studied population had one feature of MS, 23.1% had two features, 8.2% had three features, 1.6% had four

  13. Hybrid OA – a way to go?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nol (Arnold Verhagen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available After publication of the report of the ‘Finch’ committee, publishers suddenly seem to recognize the potential of open access (OA as a viable business model for scholarly publishing and wish to promote ‘hybrid OA’ as a means to get from A to B. This article explores the potentially disruptive financial effects of hybrid OA, especially for research-intensive universities. Starting from the assumption that OA will lead to higher costs of dissemination for higher education (HE anyway, the author indicates two possible ways to get round the financials cliffs between toll access and open access. In both cases, it is necessary to construct a financial communication channel between costs of subscriptions and costs of article processing charges (APCs on the level of the individual university and/or the consortium.

  14. HOA-03丙烯助剂在催化裂化装置的应用%Application of the HOA-03 Propylene Accessory Ingredient in Catalytic Cracking Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高飞; 王强; 潘若非; 张杨; 李晓光; 沈健

    2007-01-01

    丙烯是重要的有机化工原料之一,可以生产多种高附加值的产品,而且市场对丙烯的需求也逐年增长.利用现有的FCC装置,采用HOA-03丙烯助剂,在保证装置总液收、各产品质量指标、催化剂流化性能和操作平稳性等操作参数基本不变的情况下,多产丙烯,提高炼化企业的经济效益.

  15. Hybrid OA: a way to go?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, N.

    2013-01-01

    After publication of the report of the ‘Finch’ committee, publishers suddenly seem to recognize the potential of open access (OA) as a viable business model for scholarly publishing and wish to promote ‘hybrid OA’ as a means to get from A to B. This article explores the potentially disruptive

  16. Transport and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Thuong, Nguyen; Hung, Nguyen Xuan; Mo, Nguyen Thi; Thang, Nguyen Manh; Huy, Pham Quang; Van Binh, Hoang; Nam, Vu Duc; Van Thuy, Nguyen; Son, Le Ke; Minh, Nguyen Hung

    2015-10-01

    The Bien Hoa airbase (south of Vietnam) is known as one of the Agent Orange hotspots which have been seriously contaminated by Agent Orange/dioxin during the Vietnam War. Hundreds of samples including soil, sediment and fish were collected at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot for assessment of the environmental contamination caused by dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The toxicity equivalency quotient (TEQ) concentration of PCDD/Fs in soil and sediment varied from 7.6 to 962,000 and 17 to 4860 pg/g dry wt, respectively, implying very high contamination of PCDD/Fs in several areas. PCDD/F levels in fish ranged between 1.8 and 288 pg/g TEQ wet wt and was generally higher than advisory guidelines for food consumption. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (2,3,7,8-TCDD) contributed 66-99 % of TEQ for most of the samples, suggesting 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) from Agent Orange as the major source of the contamination. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs was observed in soil column with high TEQ levels above 1000 pg/g dry wt (Vietnamese limit for necessary remediation activities- TCVN 8183:2009 (2009)) even at a depth of 1.8 m. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs has probably mainly taken place during the "Ranch Hand" defoliant spray activities due to the leaks and spills of phenoxy herbicides and solvents. The congener patterns suggest that transports of PCDD/Fs by weathering processes have led to their redistribution in the low-land areas. Also, an estimate for the total volume of contaminated soil requiring remediation to meet Vietnamese regulatory limits is provided.

  17. O(a) improved lattice QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Rainer

    1997-01-01

    We review the O(a) improvement of lattice QCD with special emphasis on the motivation for performing the improvement programme non-perturbatively and the general concepts of on-shell improvement. The present status of the calculations of various improvement coefficients (perturbative and non-perturbative) is reviewed, as well as the computation of the isospin current normalization constants $Z_A$ and $Z_V$. We comment on recent results for hadronic observables obtained in the improved theory.

  18. Environmental Health Risk Assessment of Dioxin Exposure through Foods in a Dioxin Hot Spot—Bien Hoa City, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Vu-Anh, Le; Ngoc-Bich, Nguyen; Tenkate, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This study used the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework to assess the human health risk of dioxin exposure through foods for local residents in two wards of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam. These wards are known hot-spots for dioxin and a range of stakeholders from central government to local levels were involved in this process. Publications on dioxin characteristics and toxicity were reviewed and dioxin concentrations in local soil, mud, foods, milk and blood samples were used as data for this risk assessment. A food frequency survey of 400 randomly selected households in these wards was conducted to provide data for exposure assessment. Results showed that local residents who had consumed locally cultivated foods, especially fresh water fish and bottom-feeding fish, free-ranging chicken, duck, and beef were at a very high risk, with their daily dioxin intake far exceeding the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO. Based on the results of this assessment, a multifaceted risk management program was developed and has been recognized as the first public health program ever to have been implemented in Vietnam to reduce the risks of dioxin exposure at dioxin hot-spots. PMID:20623031

  19. Household opportunity costs of protecting and developing forest lands in Son La and Hoa Binh Provinces, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Ngoc Lan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam has pilot-tested a payment for forest environmental services (PFES program in an effort to restore and protect forest areas, some of which have been severely degraded by the excessive cutting of trees by small-scale farmers planting annual crops on steep, sloping lands. The pilot program implemented in southern Vietnam seems to be successful, yet the program in northern Vietnam has not produced the desired rates of planting and maintaining forest areas. The reasons for these mixed results include differences in socio-economic characteristics and also the production and marketing opportunities available to rural households in the project areas. To gain insight regarding program participation, we examine the household-level opportunity costs of planting and ­maintaining small plots of forest trees in northern Vietnam. We find that small-scale farmers in Hoa Binh Province, with limited financial resources, prefer the annual revenue stream provided by crops such as maize and cassava, rather than waiting for 7 years to obtain revenue from a forest planting. Farmers in Son La Province, with limited access to markets, prefer annual crops because they are not able to sell bamboo shoots and other forest products harvested from their small plots. In both provinces, the payments offered for planting and maintaining forest trees are smaller than the opportunity costs of planting and harvesting annual crops. Thus, most households likely would choose not to participate in the PFES program, at current payment rates, if given the opportunity to decline.

  20. Environmental health risk assessment of dioxin exposure through foods in a dioxin hot spot-Bien Hoa City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Vu-Anh, Le; Ngoc-Bich, Nguyen; Tenkate, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    This study used the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework to assess the human health risk of dioxin exposure through foods for local residents in two wards of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam. These wards are known hot-spots for dioxin and a range of stakeholders from central government to local levels were involved in this process. Publications on dioxin characteristics and toxicity were reviewed and dioxin concentrations in local soil, mud, foods, milk and blood samples were used as data for this risk assessment. A food frequency survey of 400 randomly selected households in these wards was conducted to provide data for exposure assessment. Results showed that local residents who had consumed locally cultivated foods, especially fresh water fish and bottom-feeding fish, free-ranging chicken, duck, and beef were at a very high risk, with their daily dioxin intake far exceeding the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO. Based on the results of this assessment, a multifaceted risk management program was developed and has been recognized as the first public health program ever to have been implemented in Vietnam to reduce the risks of dioxin exposure at dioxin hot-spots.

  1. Environmental Health Risk Assessment of Dioxin Exposure through Foods in a Dioxin Hot Spot—Bien Hoa City, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thi Tuyet-Hanh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study used the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework to assess the human health risk of dioxin exposure through foods for local residents in two wards of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam. These wards are known hot-spots for dioxin and a range of stakeholders from central government to local levels were involved in this process. Publications on dioxin characteristics and toxicity were reviewed and dioxin concentrations in local soil, mud, foods, milk and blood samples were used as data for this risk assessment. A food frequency survey of 400 randomly selected households in these wards was conducted to provide data for exposure assessment. Results showed that local residents who had consumed locally cultivated foods, especially fresh water fish and bottom-feeding fish, free-ranging chicken, duck, and beef were at a very high risk, with their daily dioxin intake far exceeding the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO. Based on the results of this assessment, a multifaceted risk management program was developed and has been recognized as the first public health program ever to have been implemented in Vietnam to reduce the risks of dioxin exposure at dioxin hot-spots.

  2. Screening of inorganic and organic contaminants in floodwater in paddy fields of Hue and Thanh Hoa in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh Thu, Ha; Marcussen, Helle; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2017-01-01

    was investigated in Thanh Hoa and Hue. Water samples were taken at 16 locations in canals, paddy fields and rivers before and during the flood. In total, 940 organic micro-pollutants in the water samples were determined simultaneously by GC-MS method with automatic identification and quantification system (AIQS......In the rainy season, rice growing areas in Vietnam often become flooded by up to 1.5 m water. The floodwater brings contaminants from cultivated areas, farms and villages to the rice fields resulting in widespread contamination. In 2012 and 2013, the inorganic and organic contaminants in floodwater......), while ICP-MS was used for determination of ten trace elements in the samples. The concentrations of 277 organic micro-pollutants and ten elements (As, Cu, Cd, Cr, Co, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn, Al) ranged from 0.01 to 7.6 μg L−1 and 0.1 to 3170 μg L−1, respectively, in the floodwater. Contaminants originated from...

  3. Correlation analysis between forest carbon stock and spectral vegetation indices in Xuan Lien Nature Reserve, Thanh Hoa, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung Nguyen, The; Kappas, Martin

    2017-04-01

    In the last several years, the interest in forest biomass and carbon stock estimation has increased due to its importance for forest management, modelling carbon cycle, and other ecosystem services. However, no estimates of biomass and carbon stocks of deferent forest cover types exist throughout in the Xuan Lien Nature Reserve, Thanh Hoa, Viet Nam. This study investigates the relationship between above ground carbon stock and different vegetation indices and to identify the most likely vegetation index that best correlate with forest carbon stock. The terrestrial inventory data come from 380 sample plots that were randomly sampled. Individual tree parameters such as DBH and tree height were collected to calculate the above ground volume, biomass and carbon for different forest types. The SPOT6 2013 satellite data was used in the study to obtain five vegetation indices NDVI, RDVI, MSR, RVI, and EVI. The relationships between the forest carbon stock and vegetation indices were investigated using a multiple linear regression analysis. R-square, RMSE values and cross-validation were used to measure the strength and validate the performance of the models. The methodology presented here demonstrates the possibility of estimating forest volume, biomass and carbon stock. It can also be further improved by addressing more spectral bands data and/or elevation.

  4. Isolation and characteristics of protocatechuic acid from Paenibacillus elgii HOA73 against Botrytis cinerea on strawberry fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Xuan Hoa; Naing, Kyaw Wai; Lee, Young Seong; Moon, Jae Hak; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Kil Yong

    2015-05-01

    This study was undertaken to describe purification, identification, and characteristics of protocatechuic acid (PCA) isolated for the first time from Paenibacillus elgii HOA73 against Botrytis cinerea (the cause of gray mold disease on strawberry fruit). PCA was purified by different chromatographic techniques and identified as PCA (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) by nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. PCA displayed potent antifungal activity against B. cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani. However, the antifungal activities were not sufficient to inhibit mycelial growth of Phytophthora capsici and Fusarium oxysporum. The minimum inhibitory concentration of PCA to inhibit any visible mycelial growth of both B. cinerea and R. solani was 64 µg ml(-1) . Most B. cinerea conidia displayed altered shape and absence of germination, or were degraded after treatment with 50 and 100 µg ml(-1) PCA, respectively. Moreover, gray mold formation on strawberry fruit was almost or completely inhibited by these PCA concentrations 7 days following infection with B. cinerea conidia, respectively. PCA may be a promising alternative to chemical fungicides as a potential biofungicide to prevent growth of B. cinerea in strawberry fruit disease management.

  5. High latrine coverage is not reducing the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Hoa Binh province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Aya; Jouquet, Pascal; Do, Trung Dung; Dang, Thi Cam Thach; Tran, Cong Dai; Orange, Didier; Montresor, Antonio

    2009-03-01

    A baseline epidemiological survey for parasite infections was conducted between December 2007 and January 2008 in 155 villagers in a rural commune in Hoa Binh province, Vietnam. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm infection was 13.5%, 45.2% and 58.1%, respectively. At least one of the parasites was detected in 72.3% of the samples. We found no association between infection with A. lumbricoides or T. trichiura and engagement in agriculture, while hookworm infection was more prevalent in populations having frequent contact with soil. Agricultural use of human faeces was not correlated with any of the infections. We suggest that the consumption of vegetables that are commonly fertilized with human faeces in the community has led to the high infection rates with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura, rather than the manipulation of faeces in farming activity. This also explains the high infection prevalence, despite high latrine coverage (98.1%) in the study population. The presence of latrines alone is not sufficient to reduce the prevalence of helminthiasis in a rural agricultural community if fresh faeces are used as fertilizer.

  6. Hoa Phat钢新建第2条达涅利棒材生产线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    经越南Hoa Phat钢公司与达涅利摩根沙玛通力合作和密切配合,第一套30万t棒线材轧机于2002年中期顺利建成投产。几年后,作为友好合作关系的继续和发展,达涅利于2007年9月又得到第二套棒材轧机订单。新建18机架棒材轧机全部由SHS元牌坊机架组成,每年将生产φ10-55mm螺纹钢35万t,最大小时生产能力将达到60t。双线切分轧制技术将用于生产小规格螺纹钢;QTB工艺将用于生产最大直径为40mm、经过在线水淬火和自回火的螺纹钢棒材。达涅利自动化公司将提供电气设备、基础自动化和过程控制系统。新建设备计划在2009年第3季度试车投产。

  7. Airflow Simulations around OA Intake Louver with Electronic Velocity Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Hwataik

    2011-01-01

    It is important to control outdoor airflow rates into HVAC systems in terms of energy conservation and healthy indoor environment. Technologies are being developed to measure outdoor air (OA) flow rates through OA intake louvers on a real time basis. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the airflow characteristics through an OA intake louver numerically in order to provide suggestions for sensor installations. Airflow patterns are simulated with and without electronic air velocity sens...

  8. Aerosol Composition in the Los Angeles Basin Studied by High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, P. L.; Ortega, A. M.; Cubison, M.; Hu, W.; Toohey, D. W.; Flynn, J. H.; Grossberg, N.; Lefer, B. L.; Alvarez, S. L.; Rappenglueck, B.; Allan, J. D.; Taylor, J.; Holloway, J. S.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; De Gouw, J. A.; Massoli, P.; Zhang, X.; Weber, R.; Zhao, Y.; Cliff, S. S.; Wexler, A. S.; Isaacman, G. A.; Worton, D. R.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Goldstein, A. H.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols impact climate and health, but their sources and composition are poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and complementary instrumentation were deployed during the 2010 CalNex campaign to characterize aerosol composition in the Los Angeles (LA) area. Total mass concentrations as well as the species concentrations measured by the AMS compare well with most other instruments. Nitrate dominates in the mornings, but its concentration is reduced in the afternoon when organic aerosols (OA) increase and dominate. The diurnal variations in concentrations are strongly influenced by emission transport from the source-rich western basin. The average OA to enhanced CO ratio increases with photochemical age from 25 to 80 μg m-3 ppm-1, which indicates significant secondary OA (SOA) production and that a large majority of OA is secondary in aged air. The ratio values are similar to those from Mexico City as well as New England and the Mid-Atlantic States. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) is used to assess the concentrations of different OA components. The major OA classes are oxygenated OA (OOA, a surrogate for total SOA), and hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, a surrogate for primary combustion OA). Several subclasses of OA are identified as well including diesel-influenced HOA (DI-HOA) and non-diesel HOA. DI-HOA exhibits low concentrations on Sundays consistent with the well-known weekday/weekend effect in LA. PMF analysis finds that OOA is 67% of the total OA concentration. A strong correlation between OOA and Ox (O3 + NO2) concentrations is observed with a slope of 0.15 that suggests the production of fresh SOA in Pasadena. Plotting the OA elemental ratios in a Van Krevelen diagram (H:C vs. O:C) yields a slope of -0.6, which is less steep than that observed in Riverside during the SOAR-2005 campaign. The difference in slopes may be attributed to the highly oxidized HOA present in Pasadena that is

  9. L-DOPA is an endogenous ligand for OA1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M Lopez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Albinism is a genetic defect characterized by a loss of pigmentation. The neurosensory retina, which is not pigmented, exhibits pathologic changes secondary to the loss of pigmentation in the retina pigment epithelium (RPE. How the loss of pigmentation in the RPE causes developmental defects in the adjacent neurosensory retina has not been determined, but offers a unique opportunity to investigate the interactions between these two important tissues. One of the genes that causes albinism encodes for an orphan GPCR (OA1 expressed only in pigmented cells, including the RPE. We investigated the function and signaling of OA1 in RPE and transfected cell lines. Our results indicate that OA1 is a selective L-DOPA receptor, with no measurable second messenger activity from two closely related compounds, tyrosine and dopamine. Radiolabeled ligand binding confirmed that OA1 exhibited a single, saturable binding site for L-DOPA. Dopamine competed with L-DOPA for the single OA1 binding site, suggesting it could function as an OA1 antagonist. OA1 response to L-DOPA was defined by several common measures of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR activation, including influx of intracellular calcium and recruitment of beta-arrestin. Further, inhibition of tyrosinase, the enzyme that makes L-DOPA, resulted in decreased PEDF secretion by RPE. Further, stimulation of OA1 in RPE with L-DOPA resulted in increased PEDF secretion. Taken together, our results illustrate an autocrine loop between OA1 and tyrosinase linked through L-DOPA, and this loop includes the secretion of at least one very potent retinal neurotrophic factor. OA1 is a selective L-DOPA receptor whose downstream effects govern spatial patterning of the developing retina. Our results suggest that the retinal consequences of albinism caused by changes in melanin synthetic machinery may be treated by L-DOPA supplementation.

  10. New biogeographical and morphological information on Physaloptera ngoci Le-Van-Hoa, 1961 (Nematoda: Physalopteridae) in South-east Asian rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veciana, Marina; Chaisiri, Kittiponk; Morand, Serge; Miquel, Jordi; Ribas, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    During a study of the helminth fauna of 1,643 rodents trapped along the Mekong River (Thailand, Lao People's Democratic Republic and Cambodia) in 2008-2011, the spirurid nematode Physaloptera ngoci Le-Van-Hoa, 1961 was recovered with an overall prevalence of 2.8%. Based on the original description, it was identified in nine of 23 different Murinae host species and is here reported for the first time from these three countries. A scanning electron microscopy study provides additional morphological data.

  11. 业主委员会制度绩效影响因素分析%Analysis on the Factors Influencing the Performance of HOAs System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷岁江; 孙荣

    2012-01-01

    Homeowners self - govern and organize the reason for the different governing performances of homeowners committee is an important research topic. The explosive research of this topic applies to enter multivari- ate and regression model to analyze the investigation data. It turns out that the six independent variables can explain 78.30% variation amount of the dependent variables. "The scale of community" is weakly and negatively related with the performance of HOAs system. This is to say, the larger the community scale is, the lower the performance of HOAs system will be. But this impact is not that obvious. The general social capital can not well explain the variable amount of the performance of HOAs system. "Special social capital" affects the performance of HOAs system most, and the contribution coefficient is 0. 678.%业主自主治理组织——业主委员会(HOAs)治理绩效出现差异的原因是一个重要的研究问题。对此采用强迫进入多元回归模型对同一地方的调查数据进行分析。结果发现:6个自变量共可以解释因变量78.30%的变异量;“小区规模”与业主委员会制度绩效成弱负相关关系,即小区规模越大,业主委员会制度绩效则越低,这种影响并不明显;一般社会资本对业主委员会制度绩效变异量的解释并不明显;“特殊社会资本”对业主委员会制度绩效的影响最大,其贡献系数0.678。

  12. Mitochondrial localization of the OAS1 p46 isoform associated with a common single nucleotide polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Karina Hansen; Pahus, Jytte; Hansen, Mariann Fagernæs

    2014-01-01

    vacuoles/lysosomes. By using recombinantly expressed OAS1 mutant proteins, we found that the OAS1 SNP rs1131454 (former rs3741981) did not affect the enzymatic OAS1 activity. Conclusions: The SNP rs10774671 determines differential expression of the OAS1 isoforms. In Daudi and HT1080 cells the p46 isoform...

  13. Does loading influence the severity of cartilage degeneration in the canine groove-model of OA?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, P.; Intema, F.; El, B. van; Groot, J. de; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Lafeber, F.; Mastbergen, S.

    2009-01-01

    Many animal models are used to study osteoarthritis (OA). In these models the role of joint loading in the development of OA is not fully understood. We studied the effect of loading on the development of OA in the canine Groove-model. In ten female beagle dogs OA was induced in one knee according t

  14. Who support open access publishing? Gender, discipline, seniority and other factors associated with academics' OA practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yimei

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a survey study of UK academics and their publishing behaviour. The aim of this study is to investigate academics' attitudes towards and practice of open access (OA) publishing. The results are based on a survey study of academics at 12 Russell Group universities, and reflect responses from over 1800 researchers. This study found that whilst most academics support the principle of making knowledge freely available to everyone, the use of OA publishing among UK academics was still limited despite relevant established OA policies. The results suggest that there were differences in the extent of OA practice between different universities, academic disciplines, age and seniorities. Academics' use in OA publishing was also related to their awareness of OA policy and OA repositories, their attitudes towards the importance of OA publishing and their belief in OA citation advantage. The implications of these findings are relevant to the development of strategies for the implementation of OA policies.

  15. Organic aerosol source apportionment by offline-AMS over a full year in Marseille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzetti, Carlo; El Haddad, Imad; Salameh, Dalia; Daellenbach, Kaspar Rudolf; Fermo, Paola; Gonzalez, Raquel; Cruz Minguillón, María; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Poulain, Laurent; Elser, Miriam; Müller, Emanuel; Gates Slowik, Jay; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; Baltensperger, Urs; Marchand, Nicolas; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the seasonal trends of OA sources affecting the air quality of Marseille (France), which is the largest harbor of the Mediterranean Sea. This was achieved by measurements of nebulized filter extracts using an aerosol mass spectrometer (offline-AMS). In total 216 PM2. 5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter hydrocarbons (PAHs), lignin and cellulose pyrolysis products, and nitrocatechols. The application of positive matrix factorization (PMF) to the water-soluble AMS spectra enabled the extraction of five factors, related to hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), cooking OA (COA), biomass burning OA (BBOA), oxygenated OA (OOA), and an industry-related OA (INDOA). Seasonal trends and relative contributions of OA sources were compared with the source apportionment of OA spectra collected from the AMS field deployment at the same station but in different years and for shorter monitoring periods (February 2011 and July 2008). Online- and offline-AMS source apportionment revealed comparable seasonal contribution of the different OA sources. Results revealed that BBOA was the dominant source during winter, representing on average 48 % of the OA, while during summer the main OA component was OOA (63 % of OA mass on average). HOA related to traffic emissions contributed on a yearly average 17 % to the OA mass, while COA was a minor source contributing 4 %. The contribution of INDOA was enhanced during winter (17 % during winter and 11 % during summer), consistent with an increased contribution from light alkanes, light PAHs (fluoranthene, pyrene, phenanthrene), and selenium, which is commonly considered as a unique coal combustion and coke production marker. Online- and offline-AMS source apportionments revealed evolving levoglucosan : BBOA ratios, which were higher during late autumn and March. A similar seasonality was observed in the ratios of cellulose combustion markers to lignin combustion markers, highlighting the contribution from cellulose

  16. Heavy metals in the farming environment and in some selected aquaculture species in the Van Phong Bay and Nha Trang Bay of the Khanh Hoa Province in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghia, Ngo Dang; Lunestad, Bjørn Tore; Trung, Trang Si; Son, Nguyen Thanh; Maage, Amund

    2009-01-01

    Aquaculture is currently one of the most rapidly growing production sectors in Vietnam. This publication describes the concentrations of heavy metals in the farming environment and some aquaculture species in the Khanh Hoa Province in Vietnam. The concentration of total As in the sediments ranged from 0.07 to 0.64 mg/kg, whereas the concentration of Hg varied from <0.0005 to 0.56 mg/kg. The corresponding concentration span for Cd and Pb, were 0.001-0.069 and 0.016-0.078 mg/kg, respectively. The concentrations of As in the aquaculture organisms spanned from 0.14 to 1.03 mg/kg. For Hg the concentrations varied from 0.1 to 0.45 mg/kg, for Cd from 0.02 to 0.10 mg/kg and for Pb from 0.07 to 0.37 mg/kg.

  17. When and How to Worry about OA: Greenland Shrimp Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Ravn-Jonsen, Lars

    We use a bio-economic model of the Greenland shrimp fishery to study potential ocean acidification (OA) impacts in arctic resources. Predicted changes in pH in Baffin Bay describe an anticipated though uncertain drop. Efforts to understand changes in shrimp quantity/ quality from OA reflect...... significant uncertainty and ambiguity about direction and magnitude. Estimates on change in growth parameters show a small, statistically insignificant drop that creates expectation of only limited direct biological shifts in the bio-economic model. Indirect changes to shrimp populations in Baffin Bay from...... climate change are anticipated due to expected declines in primary production that then result in equivalent reductions in secondary production, but the range could be positive or negative. Thus, the scientific findings on the OA impacts for shrimp are sufficiently ambiguous that our results find...

  18. OAS1 polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to West Nile encephalitis in horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J Rios

    Full Text Available West Nile virus, first identified within the United States in 1999, has since spread across the continental states and infected birds, humans and domestic animals, resulting in numerous deaths. Previous studies in mice identified the Oas1b gene, a member of the OAS/RNASEL innate immune system, as a determining factor for resistance to West Nile virus (WNV infection. A recent case-control association study described mutations of human OAS1 associated with clinical susceptibility to WNV infection. Similar studies in horses, a particularly susceptible species, have been lacking, in part, because of the difficulty in collecting populations sufficiently homogenous in their infection and disease states. The equine OAS gene cluster most closely resembles the human cluster, with single copies of OAS1, OAS3 and OAS2 in the same orientation. With naturally occurring susceptible and resistant sub-populations to lethal West Nile encephalitis, we undertook a case-control association study to investigate whether, similar to humans (OAS1 and mice (Oas1b, equine OAS1 plays a role in resistance to severe WNV infection. We identified naturally occurring single nucleotide mutations in equine (Equus caballus OAS1 and RNASEL genes and, using Fisher's Exact test, we provide evidence that mutations in equine OAS1 contribute to host susceptibility. Virtually all of the associated OAS1 polymorphisms were located within the interferon-inducible promoter, suggesting that differences in OAS1 gene expression may determine the host's ability to resist clinical manifestations associated with WNV infection.

  19. Sources and atmospheric processing of organic aerosol in the Mediterranean: insights from aerosol mass spectrometer factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hildebrandt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particles were measured in the late winter (25 February–26 March 2009 at a remote coastal site on the island of Crete, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment-2009. A quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS was employed to quantify the size-resolved chemical composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol, and a thermodenuder was used to analyze the organic aerosol (OA volatility. Complementary measurements included particle size distributions from a scanning mobility particle sizer, inorganic and organic particle composition from filter analysis, air ion concentrations, O3, NOx and NOy concentrations, and meteorological measurements. Factor analysis was performed on the OA mass spectra, and the variability in OA composition could best be explained with three OA components. The oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA was similar in composition and volatility to the summertime OA previously measured at this site and may represent an effective endpoint in particle-phase oxidation of organics. The two other OA components, one associated with amines (Amine-OA and the other probably associated with the burning of olive branches (OB-OA, had very low volatility but were less oxygenated. Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA was not detected. The absence of OB-OA and Amine-OA in the summer data may be due to lower emissions and/or photochemical conversion of these components to OOA.

  20. Sources and atmospheric processing of organic aerosol in the Mediterranean: insights from aerosol mass spectrometer factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hildebrandt

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particles were measured in the winter at a remote coastal site on the island of Crete, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment-2009. A Quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS was employed to quantify the size-resolved chemical composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol, and a thermodenuder was used to analyze the organic aerosol (OA volatility. Complementary measurements included particle size distributions from a scanning mobility particle sizer, inorganic and organic particle composition from filter analysis, concentrations of O3, NOx and NOy, and meteorological measurements. Factor analysis was performed on the OA mass spectra, and the variability in OA composition could best be explained with three OA components. The oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA was similar in composition and volatility to the summertime OA previously measured at this site and appears to represent an effective endpoint in particle-phase oxidation of organics. The two other OA components, one associated with amines (Amine-OA and the other probably associated with the burning of olive branches (OB-OA, had lower volatility but were less oxygenated. Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA was not detected. The absence of OB-OA and Amine-OA in the summer data may be due to lower emissions and/or photochemical conversion of these components to OOA.

  1. Analysis of the Cooperative OA System Design%协同 OA 系统设计简析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟令中; 廉家奇

    2015-01-01

    为了应对业务的快速变化,同时面对如组织创新、制度落实、组织文化、业务能力、员工技能、组织沟通及信息管理等内部管理问题,内蒙古广播电视网络集团公司建立了一套高度融合与协同化的敏捷信息化系统———协同OA,以有效解决所面临的问题。介绍协同OA系统的体系架构、设计理念与技术特点、关键特性,以及协同OA的信息协同、流程协同、人员协同、业务协同,并对协同OA中的协同管理进行简析。%In order to deal with the rapidly changing , but also must face such as organization innovation , imple-mentation of the system , organizational culture , business ability , employee skills , organizational communication and information management internal management problems .Therefore , Inner Mongolia Radio and TV Network Corporation established a high degree of integration and coordination of agile information system , collaborative OA, in order to effectively solve the problems it faces .In this paper , we first introduce the coordination of OA system architecture and design concept and technical characteristics , detailing the cooperative OA system of key characteristics , and then introduce the collaborative OA information collaboration , workflow collaboration , col-laborative personnel , and business collaboration , and a brief analysis of the collaborative management of OA .

  2. 41 CFR 102-85.25 - What is the basic principle governing OAs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the basic principle governing OAs? 102-85.25 Section 102-85.25 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... governing OAs? The basic principle governing OAs is to adopt the private sector practice of capturing in a...

  3. Recommendations for standardization and phenotype definitions in genetic studies of osteoarthritis: The TREAT-OA consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Kerkhof (Hanneke); I. Meulenbelt (Ingrid); T. Akune (Toru); N.K. Arden (Nigel); A. Aromaa (Arpo); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); C. Cooper (Charles); J. Dai; M. Doherty (Michael); S. Doherty (Sally); D. Felson; A. Gonzalez (Antonio); A. Gordon; A. Harilainen (Arsi); D.J. Hart; V.B. Hauksson (Valdimar); M. Heliovaara (Markku); A. Hofman (Albert); S. Ikegawa; T. Ingvarsson (Torvaldur); Q. Jiang; H. Jonsson; I. Jonsdottir (Ingileif); H. Kawaguchi; M. Kloppenburg (Margreet); U.M. Kujala (Urho); N.E. Lane; P. Leino-Arjas (Päivi I.); L.S. Lohmander (Stefan); F.P. Luyten (Frank); K.N. Malizos (Konstantinos); M. Nakajima; M.C. Nevitt (Michael); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); D. Shi; E. Slagboom (Eline); T.D. Spector (Timothy); K. Stefansson (Kari); A. Sudo (Akihiro); A. Tamm; A.E. Tamm (Aile); A. Tsezou (Aspasia); A. Uchida; A.G. Uitterlinden (André); J.M. Wilkinson (Mark); N. Yoshimura; A.M. Valdes (Ana Maria); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); A.J. Carr (Andrew Jonathan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To address the need for standardization of osteoarthritis (OA) phenotypes by examining the effect of heterogeneity among symptomatic (SOA) and radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA) phenotypes. Methods: Descriptions of OA phenotypes of the 28 studies involved in the TREAT-OA consor

  4. Baseline Vitamin D Status is Predictive of Longitudinal Change in Tibial BMD in Knee Osteoarthritis (OA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    With its lack of effective treatment and high prevalence, the public health impact of OA is substantial. Peri-articular bone in OA can be evaluated with the medial:lateral tibial BMD ratio (M:L BMD) obtained from dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Higher M:L BMD is associated with medial OA features...

  5. The 2014-2015 Pāhoa lava flow crisis at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i: Disaster avoided and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael; Orr, Tim; Kauahikaua, James P.; Brantley, Steven R.; Babb, Janet; Patrick, Matthew R.; Neal, Christina; Anderson, Kyle R.; Antolik, Loren; Burgess, Matthew K.; Elias, Tamar; Fuke, Steven; Fukunaga, Pauline; Johanson, Ingrid; Kagimoto, Marian; Kamibayashi, Kevan P.; Lee, Lopaka; Miklius, Asta; Million, William; Moniz, Cyril J.; Okubo, Paul G.; Sutton, Andrew; Takahashi, T. Jane; Thelen, Weston A.; Tollett, Willam; Trusdell, Frank A.

    2016-01-01

    Lava flow crises are nothing new on the Island of Hawai‘i, where their destructive force has been demonstrated repeatedly over the past several hundred years. The 2014–2015 Pāhoa lava flow crisis, however, was unique in terms of its societal impact and volcanological characteristics. Despite low effusion rates, a long-lived lava flow whose extent reached 20 km (the longest at Kīlauea Volcano in the past several hundred years) was poised for months to impact thousands of people, although direct impacts were ultimately minor (thus far). Careful observation of the flow reaffirmed and expanded knowledge of the processes associated with pāhoehoe emplacement, including the direct correlation between summit pressurization and flow advance, the influence of existing geologic structures on flow pathways, and the possible relationship between effusion rate and flow length. Communicating uncertainty associated with lava flow hazards was a challenge throughout the crisis, but online distribution of information and direct contact with residents proved to be effective strategies for keeping the public informed and educated about flow progress and how lava flows work (including forecasting limitations). Volcanological and sociological lessons will be important for inevitable future lava flow crises in Hawai‘i and, potentially, elsewhere in the world.

  6. O(a^2) cutoff effects in Wilson fermion simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Frezzotti, R

    2007-01-01

    We show that the size of the O(a^2) flavour violating cutoff artifacts that have been found to affect the value of the neutral pion mass in simulations with maximally twisted Wilson fermions is controlled by a continuum QCD quantity that is fairly large and is determined by the dynamical mechanism of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. One can argue that the neutral pion mass is the only physical quantity blurred by such cutoff effects. O(a^2) corrections of this kind are also present in standard Wilson fermion simulations, but they can either affect the determination of the pion mass or be shifted from the latter to other observables, depending on the way the critical mass is evaluated.

  7. On O(a^2) effects in gradient flow observables

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    In lattice gauge theories, the gradient flow has been used extensively both, for scale setting and for defining finite volume renormalization schemes for the gauge coupling. Unfortunately, rather large cutoff effects have been observed in some cases. We here investigate these effects to leading order in perturbation theory, considering various definitions of the lattice observable, the lattice flow equation and the Yang Mills lattice action. These considerations suggest an improved set- up for which we perform a scaling test in the pure SU(3) gauge theory, demonstrating strongly reduced cutoff effects. We then attempt to obtain a more complete understanding of the structure of O(a^2) effects by applying Symanzik's effective theory approach to the 4+1 dimensional local field theory with flow time as the fifth dimension. From these considerations we are led to a fully O(a^2) improved set-up the study of which is left to future work.

  8. Airflow Simulations around OA Intake Louver with Electronic Velocity Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hwataik; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2009-04-01

    It is important to control outdoor airflow rates into HVAC systems in terms of energy conservation and healthy indoor environment. Technologies are being developed to measure outdoor air (OA) flow rates through OA intake louvers on a real time basis. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the airflow characteristics through an OA intake louver numerically in order to provide suggestions for sensor installations. Airflow patterns are simulated with and without electronic air velocity sensors within cylindrical probes installed between louver blades or at the downstream face of the louver. Numerical results show quite good agreements with experimental data, and provide insights regarding measurement system design. The simulations indicate that velocity profiles are more spatially uniform at the louver outlet relative to between louver blades, that pressure drops imposed by the sensor bars are smaller with sensor bars at the louver outlet, and that placement of the sensor bars between louver blades substantially increases air velocities inside the louver. These findings suggest there is an advantage to placing the sensor bars at the louver outlet face.

  9. 有限状态机原理在 OA 系统中的运用%Finite State Machine Principle Application in OA System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵英

    2012-01-01

      The article researchs workflow design ideas and methods of OA system, and expounds finite state machine principle. The paper describes state machine workflow model's design and implementation in OA system, which base on holiday examination and approval process of OA system. The workflow characteristics and finite state machine modeling method and realization strategies in OA system are the main contents.%  研究办公自动化系统(OA)中工作流的设计思路和方法。阐述有限状态机的基本原理,以一个 OA 系统中的假期审批流程为例,来描述 OA 系统中状态机工作流模型的设计和实现。主要研究了 OA 系统中工作流的特点、有限状态机建模方法和实现策略。

  10. Parent-youth communication and concordance between parents and adolescents on reported engagement in social relationships and sexually intimate behaviors in Hanoi and Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaljee, Linda M; Green, Mackenzie; Lerdboon, Porntip; Riel, Rosemary; Pham, Van; Tho, Le Huu; Ha, Nguyen T; Minh, Truong Tan; Li, Xiaoming; Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-03-01

    Parent-child communication is associated with positive outcomes for youths' engagement in sexual behaviors. Limited data are available regarding parent-child communication in transitional countries. We present data from Vietnamese parent-youth dyads on parent reproductive health (RH) knowledge, comfort of communication, frequency of talk, and discordancy between youths' reported and parents' perceptions for engagement in relationships and sexually intimate behaviors. The cohort included 185 randomly selected parent-youth dyads in four communes in Hanoi and Khanh Hoa Province. Descriptive and comparative analysis included chi-squared tests, independent samples t-tests, and ANOVA. Linear regression analysis was used to assess relationships between parental knowledge, level of comfort, frequency of talk, and discordancy. Seventy-six percent of parents and 44% of youth were female. The mean age of youth was 17.2 years. The mean score for parental "RH knowledge" was 24.74 (SD, 3.84; range, 15-34). Lower parental RH knowledge was positively associated with lower levels of education (F = 2.983; df, 184; p = .014). Data indicate a linear model in which knowledge is related to "comfort" (β = .17; p = .048), and "comfort" to frequency of "talk" (β = .6; p communication about RH. There is a need for more data to assess the effect of these communication patterns on youths' engagement in sexual behaviors and for development of family-centered interventions to increase parental knowledge and skills for positive communication. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Seasonal characterization of submicron aerosol chemical composition and organic aerosol sources in the southeastern United States: Atlanta, Georgia,and Look Rock, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Sri; Baumann, Karsten; Edgerton, Eric S.; Bairai, Solomon T.; Mueller, Stephen; Shaw, Stephanie L.; Knipping, Eladio M.; Gold, Avram; Surratt, Jason D.

    2016-04-01

    A year-long near-real-time characterization of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) was conducted at an urban (Atlanta, Georgia, in 2012) and rural (Look Rock, Tennessee, in 2013) site in the southeastern US using the Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) collocated with established air-monitoring network measurements. Seasonal variations in organic aerosol (OA) and inorganic aerosol species are attributed to meteorological conditions as well as anthropogenic and biogenic emissions in this region. The highest concentrations of NR-PM1 were observed during winter and fall seasons at the urban site and during spring and summer at the rural site. Across all seasons and at both sites, NR-PM1 was composed largely of OA (up to 76 %) and sulfate (up to 31 %). Six distinct OA sources were resolved by positive matrix factorization applied to the ACSM organic mass spectral data collected from the two sites over the 1 year of near-continuous measurements at each site: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), biomass burning OA (BBOA), semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA), low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA), isoprene-derived epoxydiols (IEPOX) OA (IEPOX-OA) and 91Fac (a factor dominated by a distinct ion at m/z 91 fragment ion previously observed in biogenic influenced areas). LV-OOA was observed throughout the year at both sites and contributed up to 66 % of total OA mass. HOA was observed during the entire year only at the urban site (on average 21 % of OA mass). BBOA (15-33 % of OA mass) was observed during winter and fall, likely dominated by local residential wood burning emission. Although SV-OOA contributes quite significantly ( ˜ 27 %), it was observed only at the urban site during colder seasons. IEPOX-OA was a major component (27-41 %) of OA at both sites, particularly in spring and summer. An ion fragment at m/z 75 is well correlated with the m/z 82 ion associated with the aerosol mass spectrum of IEPOX-derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The

  12. Some new results in O(a) improved lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Luscher, Martin; Sommer, Rainer; Weisz, Peter; Wittig, Hartmut; Wolff, Ulli

    1996-01-01

    It is shown how on-shell O(a) improvement can be implemented non-perturbatively in lattice QCD with Wilson quarks. Improvement conditions are obtained by requiring the PCAC relation to hold exactly in certain matrix elements. These are derived from the QCD Schrödinger functional which enables us to simulate directly at vanishing quark masses. In the quenched approximation and for bare couplings in the range $0\\leq g_0\\leq 1$, we determine the improved action, the improved axial current, the additive renormalization of the quark mass and the isospin current normalization constants Z_A and Z_V.

  13. Chemically-resolved aerosol volatility measurements from two megacity field studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Huffman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The volatilities of different chemical species in ambient aerosols are important but remain poorly characterized. The coupling of a recently developed rapid temperature-stepping thermodenuder (TD, operated in the range 54–230°C with a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS during field studies in two polluted megacities has enabled the first direct characterization of chemically-resolved urban particle volatility. Measurements in Riverside, CA and Mexico City are generally consistent and show ambient nitrate as having the highest volatility of any AMS standard aerosol species while sulfate showed the lowest volatility. Total organic aerosol (OA showed volatility intermediate between nitrate and sulfate, with an evaporation rate of 0.6%·K−1 near ambient temperature, although OA dominates the residual species at the highest temperatures. Different types of OA were characterized with marker ions, diurnal cycles, and positive matrix factorization (PMF and show significant differences in volatility. Reduced hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, a surrogate for primary OA, POA, oxygenated OA (OOA, a surrogate for secondary OA, SOA, and biomass-burning OA (BBOA separated with PMF were all determined to be semi-volatile. The most aged OOA-1 and its dominant ion, CO2+, consistently exhibited the lowest volatility, with HOA, BBOA, and associated ions for each among the highest. The similar or higher volatility of HOA/POA compared to OOA/SOA contradicts the current representations of OA volatility in most atmospheric models and has important implications for aerosol growth and lifetime. A new technique using the AMS background signal was demonstrated to quantify the fraction of species up to four orders-of-magnitude less volatile than those detectable in the MS mode, which for OA represent ~5% of the non-refractory (NR OA signal. Our results strongly imply that all OA types should be considered

  14. Chemical composition, sources and secondary processes of aerosols in Baoji city of northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. C.; Huang, R.-J.; Ni, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Wang, Q. Y.; Li, G. H.; Tie, X. X.; Shen, Z. X.; Huang, Y.; Liu, S. X.; Dong, W. M.; Xue, P.; Fröhlich, R.; Canonaco, F.; Elser, M.; Daellenbach, K. R.; Bozzetti, C.; El Haddad, I.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Worsnop, D. R.; Cao, J. J.

    2017-06-01

    Particulate air pollution is a severe environmental problem in China, affecting visibility, air quality, climate and human health. However, previous studies focus mainly on large cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. In this study, an Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor was deployed in Baoji, a middle size inland city in northwest China from 26 February to 27 March 2014. The non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) was dominated by organics (55%), followed by sulfate (16%), nitrate (15%), ammonium (11%) and chloride (3%). A source apportionment of the organic aerosol (OA) was performed with the Sofi (Source Finder) interface of ME-2 (Multilinear Engine), and six main sources/factors were identified and classified as hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), cooking OA (COA), biomass burning OA (BBOA), coal combustion OA (CCOA), less oxidized oxygenated OA (LO-OOA) and more oxidized oxygenated OA (MO-OOA), which contributed 20%, 14%, 13%, 9%, 23% and 21% of total OA, respectively. The contribution of secondary components shows increasing trends from clean days to polluted days, indicating the importance of secondary aerosol formation processes in driving particulate air pollution. The formation of LO-OOA and MO-OOA is mainly driven by photochemical reactions, but significantly influenced by aqueous-phase chemistry during periods of low atmospheric oxidative capacity.

  15. Analysis of higher-order aberrations (HOAs) and related factors after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) surgery%SMILE术后全眼高阶像差变化及相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁刚; 查旭; 张丰菊

    2015-01-01

    目的 通过观察飞秒激光小切口基质透镜取出术(SMILE)治疗近视及近视散光眼术后全眼高阶像差的改变,探讨SMILE术后全眼高阶像差的变化特点及其相关因素.方法 回顾性研究.选择行SMILE手术治疗近视及近视散光患者共81例(162眼),随访时间3个月.术中眼球定位采用术前kappa角结合术中注视水印居中中心定位法.术前、术后3个月采用WASCA波前像差分析仪测量6 mm瞳孔直径下术眼的总高阶像差(HOA)及各单项HOA,同时采用Oculyzer眼前节分析系统测量kappa角及角膜Q值.手术前后数据比较应用配对t检验,运用Spearman秩相关分析法和Pearson相关分析总HOA及各项HOA的变化与术前等效球镜度(SE)、散光度及轴向、kappa角等参数的相关性.结果 手术前后总HOA(t=-12.24,P<0.01)、球差(C40)(t=16.60,P<0.01)、水平彗差(C31)(t=-11.06,P<0.01)、垂直彗差(C3-1)(t=-3.14,P<0.01)、垂直三叶草(C3-3)(t=-6.30,P<0.01)、四阶水平散光(C42)(t=5.84,P<0.01)的均方根(RMS)值差异均有统计学意义.手术前后Q值分别为-0.24±0.13和0.69±0.52,差异有统计学意义(t=-22.55,P<0.01).术后3个月总HOA与SE相关(r=-0.23,P<0.01),△总HOA主要与△C40、△C31相关(r=-0.40、0.26,P<0.01),与术前Q值、Kappa角、散光度均无相关性;术后C40、△C40与术前SE相关(r=0.35、0.29,P<0.01);C31与术前散光度和Q值相关(r=-0.24、-0.22,P<0.05),△C31与术前散光度相关(r=-0.29,P<0.01);术后C3-1和△C3-1与术前的SE、Q值、Kappa角、散光度均不相关.结论 近视及近视散光眼SMILE手术后总HOA增加,主要与术前SE有关,与散光度无关;手术前后C40变化量与术前SE有关,C31增加量与术前散光度有关.%Objective To investigate the changes in higher-order aberrations (HOAs) after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) surgery for myopia and myopic astigmatism, and to evaluate the association between the postoperative

  16. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1CLMA-2F2OA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1CLMA-2F2OA 1CLM 2F2O A A LTEEQIAEFKEAFALFDKDGDGTITTKELGTVMRSLGQN...PTEAELQDMINEVDADGNGTIDFPEFLSLMARKMKEQDSEEELIEAFKVFDRDGNGLISAAELRHVMTNLGEKLTDDEVDEMIREADIDGDGHINYEEFVRMMVS---... 1CLM A 1CLMA VMTNLGE

  17. Submicron aerosol source apportionment of wintertime pollution in Paris, France by Double Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF2 using Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM and multi-wavelength Aethalometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-E. Petit

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Online non-refractory submicron Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS measurements in urban areas have successfully allowed the apportionment of specific sources and/or physical and chemical properties of the organic fraction. However, in order to be fully representative of PM pollution, a comprehensive source apportionment analysis is needed by taking into account all major components of submicron aerosols, creating strengthened bonds between the organic components and pollution sources. We present here a novel two-step methodology to perform such an analysis, by taking advantage of high time resolution of monitoring instruments: the Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM and the multi-wavelength absorption measurements (Aethalometer AE31 in Paris, France. As a first step, organic aerosols (OA were deconvoluted to hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, Biomass Burning OA (BBOA and Oxygenated OA (OOA with Positive Matrix Factorization, and black carbon was deconvolved into its wood burning and fossil fuel combustion fractions. A second PMF analysis was then carried out with organic factors, BC fractions and inorganic species (nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, chloride, leading to a~four-factor solution allowing real-time characterization of the major sources of PM1. Outputs of this PMF2 include two dominant combustion sources (wood burning and traffic as well as semi-volatile and low-volatile secondary aerosols. While HOA is found to be emitted by both wood burning and traffic, the latter sources occurred to significantly contribute also to OOA.

  18. Light hadron spectroscopy with O(a) improved dynamical fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Allton, C R; Bowler, K C; Foster, M; Garden, J; Irving, A C; Kenway, R D; Michael, C; Peisa, J; Pickles, S M; Sexton, J C; Sroczynski, Z; Talevi, M; Wittig, H

    1999-01-01

    We present the first results for the static quark potential and the light hadron spectrum using dynamical fermions at $\\beta=5.2$ using an O(a) improved Wilson fermion action together with the standard Wilson plaquette action for the gauge part. Sea quark masses were chosen such that the pseudoscalar-vector mass ratio, m_PS/m_V$, varies from 0.86 to 0.67. Finite-size effects are studied by using three different volumes, 8^3\\cdot 24, 12^3\\cdot 24 and 16^3\\cdot 24. Comparing our results to previous ones obtained using the quenched approximation, we find evidence for sea quark effects in quantities like the static quark potential and the vector-pseudoscalar hyperfine splitting.

  19. 满意度测评系统在HOA中的快速构建及应用%The Quick Construction and Application of Satisfaction Evaluation System in HOA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜; 王爱东; 周杰红

    2014-01-01

    主要阐述垂杨柳医院HOA系统所配套的快速开发平台,以及利用该平台快速构建满意度测评系统的背景、系统的需求、系统的快速构建以及在医院应用的效果。HOA配套平台中强大的快速构建工具为实现该项紧急任务提供了有力的支持。%This paper mainly discusses about the supporting rapid development platform of HOA system in Chuiyangliu Hospital, the background of rapidly building the satisfaction evaluation system with the platform, the demands of the system, the fast building of the system and the effect of application in our hospital. The powerful quick building tool in the supporting platform of HOA provides the strong support for realizing the urgent task.

  20. Reproducibility of the Optical Biometer OA-1000 (Tomey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Christiane Goebels

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The OA-1000 (Tomey, Japan is a new optical biometer, which measures axial length (AL, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and central corneal thickness (CT utilizing optical interference technology. The aim of this study was to prove the reproducibility which is considered fundamental for other clinical investigations. Methods. 55 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. For each measurement of AL, ACD, and CT the biometer is grabbing a sequence of 10 shots and mean value (mean and standard deviation (SD are displayed. Five consecutive measurements were performed and average and standard deviation were assessed. Cronbach’s α was derived as a quality measure for reproducibility. Results. For AL measurement Cronbach’s α was 1.000, for CT 0.999, and for ACD 0.979, respectively. Mean value for AL was 23.36±1.03 mm, for ACD it was 3.60±0.687 mm, and for CT it was 552.08±29.70 μm, respectively. Standard deviation for AL was 0.013±0.022 mm, for ACD 0.09±0.11 mm, and for CT 2.18±1.75 μm. One correlation was found between mean values for AL and ACD (R = 0.388, P = 0.005; no other correlations were found between mean values or values of standard deviation of AL, ACD, or CT. Conclusion. The OA-1000 shows an excellent reproducibility for measurement of AL, ACD, and CT and can be used in clinical practice.

  1. Open Access needs terminology to distinguish between Gold OA funding models

    OpenAIRE

    Eve, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Shedding further light on the wider open access debate, Martin Eve calls for a more precise terminology for the variety of Gold OA business models that currently exist to help correct the false assumption in many academics’ minds that Gold OA necessarily requires an Article Processing Charge (APC).

  2. Osteoarthritis, a degenerative disease of the articular joints : towards the implementation of functional genomics in OA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos, Yolande Francisca Maria

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is an age related disorder of the joints characterized by pain, crepitus, and stiffness resulting in decreased mobility. Pathophysiology consists of cartilage degeneration and bone remodeling, however, knowledge of OA etiology is still limited. Due to the growing population of el

  3. 15 CFR 742.17 - Exports of firearms to OAS member countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... countries. 742.17 Section 742.17 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign... Munitions (OAS Model Regulations) which were developed to assist OAS member countries to implement the Inter... Number (ECCN) on the Commerce Control List (CCL). If “FC Column 1” of the Commerce Country...

  4. Ontogeny of rat chondrocyte proliferation: studies in embryo, adult and osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madaí A GóMEZ-CAMARILLO; Juan B.KOURI

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the ontogeny of chondrocyte cell division using embryo, adult and osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage. We searched for mitosis phases and performed a comparative evaluation of mitotic index, basic fibroblast growth factor b (FGFb), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) receptors, cyclin dependent kinase (CDK1)and Cyclin-B expression in fetal, neonate, 3, 5, 8 weeks old rats and experimental OA. Our results showed that mitosis phases were observed in all normal cartilage studied, although, we found a decrease in mitotic index in relation to tissue development. No mitosis was detected in OA cartilage. We also found a statistical significant reduction in cell number in OA cartilage, compared with the normal tissue. Furthermore, FGFb and TGF-β1 receptors diminished in relation to tissue development, and were very scarce in experimental OA. Western blot assays showed CDK-1 expression in all cases, including human-OA cartilage. Similar results were observed for Cyclin-B, except for 8 weeks, when it was not expressed. Our results suggest that cell division seems to be scarce, if not absent within the OA cartilage studied.Nevertheless, the existence of factors essential for cell division leaves open the question concerning chondrocyte proliferation in OA cartilage, which is likely to be present in the early stages of the disease.

  5. Does Loading Influence the Severity of Cartilage Degeneration in the Canine Groove-Model of OA?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Petra; Intema, Femke; van El, Benno; DeGroot, Jeroen; Bijlsma, J. W. J.; Lafeber, Floris; Mastbergen, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Many animal models are used to study osteoarthritis (OA). In these models the role of joint loading in the development of CA is not fully understood. We studied the effect of loading on the development of CIA in the canine Groove-model. In ten female beagle dogs OA was induced in one knee according

  6. Source apportionment of submicron organic aerosol collected from Atlanta, Georgia, during 2014-2015 using the aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavaraha, Weruka; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Budisulistiorini, Sri Hapsari; Croteau, Philip L.; Baumann, Karsten; Canonaco, Francesco; Prevot, Andre S. H.; Edgerton, Eric S.; Zhang, Zhenfa; Jayne, John T.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Gold, Avram; Shaw, Stephanie L.; Surratt, Jason D.

    2017-10-01

    The Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) was redeployed at the Jefferson Street (JST) site in downtown Atlanta, Georgia (GA) for 1 year (March 20, 2014-February 08, 2015) to chemically characterize non-refractory submicron particulate matter (NR-PM1) in near real-time and to assess whether organic aerosol (OA) types and amounts change from year-to-year. Submicron organic aerosol (OA) mass spectra were analyzed by season using multilinear engine (ME-2) to apportion OA subtypes to potential sources and chemical processes. A suite of real-time collocated measurements from the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) network was compared with ME-2 factor solutions to aid in the interpretation of OA subtypes during each season. OA tracers measured from high-volume filter samples using gas chromatography interfaced with electron ionization-mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) also aided in identifying OA sources. The initial application of ME-2 to the yearlong ACSM dataset revealed that OA source apportionment by season was required to better resolve sporadic OA types. Spring and fall OA mass spectral datasets were separated into finer periods to capture potential OA sources resulting from non-homogeneous emissions during transitioning periods. NR-PM1 was highest in summer (16.7 ± 8.4 μg m-3) and lowest in winter (8.0 ± 5.7 μg m-3), consistent with prior studies. OA dominated NR-PM1 mass (56-74% on average) in all seasons. Hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) from primary emissions was observed in all seasons, averaging 5-22% of total OA mass. Strong correlations of HOA with carbon monoxide (CO) (R = 0.71-0.88) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) (R = 0.55-0.79) indicated that vehicular traffic was the likely source. Biomass burning OA (BBOA) was observed in all seasons, with lower contributions (2%) in summer and higher in colder seasons (averaging 8-20% of total OA mass). BBOA correlated strongly with levoglucosan (R = 0.78-0.95) during colder seasons

  7. Mice Deficient in Oocyte-Specific Oligoadenylate Synthetase-Like Protein OAS1D Display Reduced Fertility†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Ma, Lang; Stein, Paula; Pangas, Stephanie A.; Burns, Kathleen H.; Bai, Yuchen; Schultz, Richard M.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2005-01-01

    The double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-induced interferon response is a defense mechanism against viral infection. Upon interferon activation by dsRNA, 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1A) is induced; it binds dsRNA and converts ATP into 2′,5′-linked oligomers of adenosine (called 2-5A), which activate RNase L that in turn degrades viral and cellular RNAs. In a screen to identify oocyte-specific genes, we identified a novel murine cDNA encoding an ovary-specific 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase-like protein, OAS1D, which displays 59% identity with OAS1A. OAS1D is predominantly cytoplasmic and is exclusively expressed in growing oocytes and early embryos. Like OAS1A, OAS1D binds the dsRNA mimetic poly(I-C), but unlike OAS1A, it lacks 2′-5′ adenosine linking activity. OAS1D interacts with OAS1A and inhibits the enzymatic activity of OAS1A. Mutant mice lacking OAS1D (Oas1d−/−) display reduced fertility due to defects in ovarian follicle development, decreased efficiency of ovulation, and eggs that are fertilized arrest at the one-cell stage. These effects are exacerbated after activation of the interferon/OAS1A/RNase L pathway by poly(I-C). We propose that OAS1D suppresses the interferon/OAS/RNase L-mediated cellular destruction by interacting with OAS1A during oogenesis and early embryonic development. PMID:15899864

  8. Intra-articular analgesia and steroid reduce pain sensitivity in knee OA patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tanja Schjødt; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Ellegaard, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the effects of intra-articular therapy on pain sensitivity in the knee and surrounding tissues in knee OA patients. Methods. Twenty-five knee OA patients with symptomatic knee OA were included in this interventional cohort study. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were recorded...... before, immediately after, and two weeks after ultrasound guided intra-articular injection of lidocaine combined with glucocorticosteroid. Computer-controlled and manual pressure algometers were used to assess PPT on the knee, vastus lateralis, tibialis anterior, and the extensor carpi radialis longus...... muscles (control site). Results. Significantly increased PPTs were found following intra-articular injection, at both the knee (P 

  9. SoFi, an Igor based interface for the efficient use of the generalized multilinear engine (ME-2 for source apportionment: application to aerosol mass spectrometer data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Canonaco

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Source apportionment using the bilinear model through the multilinear engine (ME-2 was successfully applied to non-refractory organic aerosol (OA mass spectra collected during winter 2011 and 2012 in Zurich, Switzerland using the aerosol chemical speciation monitor ACSM. Five factors were identified: low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA, semivolatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA, hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, cooking OA (COA and biomass burning OA (BBOA. A graphical user interface SoFi (Source Finder was developed at PSI in order to facilitate the testing of different rotational techniques available within the ME-2 engine by providing a priori factor profiles for some or all of the expected factors. ME-2 was used to test the positive matrix factorization (PMF model, the fully constrained chemical mass balance (CMB model, and partially constrained models utilizing a values and pulling equations. Within the set of model solutions determined to be environmentally reasonable, BBOA and SV-OOA factor mass spectra and time series showed the greatest variability. This variability represents uncertainty in the model solution and indicates that analysis of model rotations provides a useful approach for assessing the uncertainty of bilinear source apportionment models.

  10. OA Experimental Results - Species response experiments on the effects of ocean acidification, climate change, and deoxygenation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NWFSC Ocean Acidification (OA) team will conduct a series of species-exposure experiments in the acidification research facility on N. Pacific species of...

  11. Ranked Conservation Opportunity Areas for Region 7 (ECO_RES.RANKED_OAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The RANKED_OAS are all the Conservation Opportunity Areas identified by MoRAP that have subsequently been ranked by patch size, landform representation, and the...

  12. Multiple irradiation sensing of the optical effective attenuation coefficient for spectral correction in handheld OA imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gerrit Held

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spectral optoacoustic (OA imaging enables spatially-resolved measurement of blood oxygenation levels, based on the distinct optical absorption spectra of oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood. Wavelength-dependent optical attenuation in the bulk tissue, however, distorts the acquired OA spectrum and thus makes quantitative oxygenation measurements challenging. We demonstrate a correction for this spectral distortion without requiring a priori knowledge of the tissue optical properties, using the concept of multiple irradiation sensing: recording the OA signal amplitude of an absorbing structure (e.g. blood vessel, which serves as an intrinsic fluence detector, as function of irradiation position. This permits the reconstruction of the bulk effective optical attenuation coefficient μeff,λ. If performed at various irradiation wavelengths, a correction for the wavelength-dependent fluence attenuation is achieved, revealing accurate spectral information on the absorbing structures. Phantom studies were performed to show the potential of this technique for handheld clinical combined OA and ultrasound imaging.

  13. CAISI Operational Assessment (OA) data collection results. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-31

    One of the lessons learned from Operation Desert Shield/Storm was the inability of deployed Combat Service Support (CSS) computers to exchange data effectively in a battlefield environment. The work-around solution to this previously identified problem has been to physically carry floppy disks between computers. A General Officer Steering Committee, directed by the Vice Chief of Staff of the Army, determined that immediate corrective action was necessary to ensure viability of the CSS Battlefield Mission Area. The study recommended that a three-phased system development plan address short-, mid- and long-term CSS automation communication interface requirements. In response to this study, Program Executive Office (PEO) Standard Army Management Information System (STAMIS) authorized the development of the CSS Automated Information System Interface (CAISI). Phase I (Near-Term) equipped the {open_quotes}first to fight{close_quotes} Contingency Corps units. Phase II (Mid-Term) is being fielded to the remainder of Force Package One units in the active force. Phase III (Long-Term) will equip the remaining units. CAISI is now in the early stages of Phase II fielding. Prior to full Phase II fielding, CAISI must be approved for production by a Milestone III decision authority. Part of the data that will be used in the Milestone III decision is a demonstration of the CAISI`s operational suitability, as assessed by the US Army Operational Test and Evaluation Command (OPTEC). This assessment will be performed through an Operational Assessment (OA) using data provided from previous technical testing, such as the CAISI Customer User Test (CUT), and a field training exercise conducted by units of the XVIII Airborne Corps. The field training exercise data collection took place during two events.

  14. A candidate gene for X-linked Ocular Albinism (OA1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassi, M.T.; Schiaffino, V.; Rugarli, E. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Ocular Albinism of the Nettleship-Fall type 1 (OA1) is the most common form of ocular albinism. It is transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait with affected males showing severe reduction of visual acuity, nystagmus, strabismus, photophobia. Ophthalmologic examination reveals foveal hypoplasia, hypopigmentation of the retina and iris translucency. Microscopic examination of melanocytes suggests that the underlying defect in OA1 is an abnormality in melanosome formation. Recently we assembled a 350 kb cosmid contig spanning the entire critical region on Xp22.3, which measures approximately 110 kb. A minimum set of cosmids was used to identify transcribed sequences using both cDNA selection and exon amplification. Two putative exons recovered by exon amplification strategy were found to be highly conserved throughout evolution and, therefore, they were used as probes for the screening of fetal and adult retina cDNA libraries. This led to the isolation of clones spanning a full-length cDNA which measures 7.6 kb. Sequence analysis revealed that the predicted protein product shows homology with syntrophines and a Xenopus laevis apical protein. The gene covers approximately 170 kb of DNA and spans the entire critical region for OA1, being deleted in two patients with contiguous gene deletion including OA1 and in one patient with isolated OA1. Therefore, this new gene represents a very strong candidate for involvement in OA1 (an alternative, but unlikely possibility to be considered is that the true OA1 gene lies within an intron of the former). Northern analysis revealed very high level of expression in retina and melanoma. Unlike most Xp22.3 genes, this gene is conserved in the mouse. We are currently performing SSCP analysis and direct sequencing of exons on DNAs from approximately 60 unrelated patients with OA1 for mutation detection.

  15. Drug utilization in patients with OA: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nicholas; Sanchez-Riera, Lidia; Morros, Rosa; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Javaid, M Kassim; Cooper, Cyrus; Arden, Nigel K; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Patients with OA use different drugs in their search for relief. We aimed to study the prevalence of use and combinations of different medications for OA in a population-based cohort of OA patients in Catalonia, Spain, while characterizing users of each of the drugs available, with a particular focus on cardiovascular risk factors. Data were obtained from the Sistema d'Informació per al Desenvolupament de l'Investigació en Atenció Primària (SIDIAP) database, which includes electronic medical records and pharmacy invoice data for >5 million people from Catalonia. Study participants were those with a clinical diagnosis of OA in 2006-10. Drugs studied included oral and topical NSAIDs, analgesics (paracetamol, metamizole), opioids (tramadol, fentanyl), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors and symptomatic slow-acting drugs in OA. Drug utilization was described using medication possession ratios (MPRs), equivalent to the proportion of days covered with the drug of interest. The annual incidence of new users in the first year after OA diagnosis from 2006 to 2010 was estimated for all studied drugs among newly diagnosed OA patients using Poisson regression. We identified 238 536 study participants. The most common regimen of treatment consisted of at least three drugs (53.9% of patients). The drugs most frequently used regularly (MPR ≥50%) were chondroitin (21.2%), glucosamine (15.8%) and oral NSAIDs (14.4%). The incidence of the use of opioids, COX-2 inhibitors and chondroitin increased over the 5 year period, whereas all others decreased. Drug combinations are common in the treatment of OA patients, who are thus exposed to potential drug interactions, with unknown impacts on their health. The increasing use of opioids and COX-2 inhibitors is noteworthy because of the potential impact on safety and costs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  16. Organic aerosol source apportionment by offline-AMS over a full year in Marseille

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bozzetti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the seasonal trends of OA sources affecting the air quality of Marseille (France, which is the largest harbor of the Mediterranean Sea. This was achieved by measurements of nebulized filter extracts using an aerosol mass spectrometer (offline-AMS. In total 216 PM2. 5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter  <  2.5 µm filter samples were collected over 1 year from August 2011 to July 2012. These filters were used to create 54 composite samples which were analyzed by offline-AMS. The same samples were also analyzed for major water-soluble ions, metals, elemental and organic carbon (EC ∕ OC, and organic markers, including n-alkanes, hopanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, lignin and cellulose pyrolysis products, and nitrocatechols. The application of positive matrix factorization (PMF to the water-soluble AMS spectra enabled the extraction of five factors, related to hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, cooking OA (COA, biomass burning OA (BBOA, oxygenated OA (OOA, and an industry-related OA (INDOA. Seasonal trends and relative contributions of OA sources were compared with the source apportionment of OA spectra collected from the AMS field deployment at the same station but in different years and for shorter monitoring periods (February 2011 and July 2008. Online- and offline-AMS source apportionment revealed comparable seasonal contribution of the different OA sources. Results revealed that BBOA was the dominant source during winter, representing on average 48 % of the OA, while during summer the main OA component was OOA (63 % of OA mass on average. HOA related to traffic emissions contributed on a yearly average 17 % to the OA mass, while COA was a minor source contributing 4 %. The contribution of INDOA was enhanced during winter (17 % during winter and 11 % during summer, consistent with an increased contribution from light alkanes, light PAHs (fluoranthene, pyrene, phenanthrene, and

  17. Organic aerosol source apportionment in London 2013 with ME-2: exploring the solution space with annual and seasonal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Villegas, Ernesto; Green, David C.; Priestman, Max; Canonaco, Francesco; Coe, Hugh; Prévôt, André S. H.; Allan, James D.

    2016-12-01

    The multilinear engine (ME-2) factorization tool is being widely used following the recent development of the Source Finder (SoFi) interface at the Paul Scherrer Institute. However, the success of this tool, when using the a value approach, largely depends on the inputs (i.e. target profiles) applied as well as the experience of the user. A strategy to explore the solution space is proposed, in which the solution that best describes the organic aerosol (OA) sources is determined according to the systematic application of predefined statistical tests. This includes trilinear regression, which proves to be a useful tool for comparing different ME-2 solutions. Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) measurements were carried out at the urban background site of North Kensington, London from March to December 2013, where for the first time the behaviour of OA sources and their possible environmental implications were studied using an ACSM. Five OA sources were identified: biomass burning OA (BBOA), hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), cooking OA (COA), semivolatile oxygenated OA (SVOOA) and low-volatility oxygenated OA (LVOOA). ME-2 analysis of the seasonal data sets (spring, summer and autumn) showed a higher variability in the OA sources that was not detected in the combined March-December data set; this variability was explored with the triangle plots f44 : f43 f44 : f60, in which a high variation of SVOOA relative to LVOOA was observed in the f44 : f43 analysis. Hence, it was possible to conclude that, when performing source apportionment to long-term measurements, important information may be lost and this analysis should be done to short periods of time, such as seasonally. Further analysis on the atmospheric implications of these OA sources was carried out, identifying evidence of the possible contribution of heavy-duty diesel vehicles to air pollution during weekdays compared to those fuelled by petrol.

  18. Eight previously unidentified mutations found in the OA1 ocular albinism gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dufier Jean-Louis

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ocular albinism type 1 (OA1 is an X-linked ocular disorder characterized by a severe reduction in visual acuity, nystagmus, hypopigmentation of the retinal pigmented epithelium, foveal hypoplasia, macromelanosomes in pigmented skin and eye cells, and misrouting of the optical tracts. This disease is primarily caused by mutations in the OA1 gene. Methods The ophthalmologic phenotype of the patients and their family members was characterized. We screened for mutations in the OA1 gene by direct sequencing of the nine PCR-amplified exons, and for genomic deletions by PCR-amplification of large DNA fragments. Results We sequenced the nine exons of the OA1 gene in 72 individuals and found ten different mutations in seven unrelated families and three sporadic cases. The ten mutations include an amino acid substitution and a premature stop codon previously reported by our team, and eight previously unidentified mutations: three amino acid substitutions, a duplication, a deletion, an insertion and two splice-site mutations. The use of a novel Taq polymerase enabled us to amplify large genomic fragments covering the OA1 gene. and to detect very likely six distinct large deletions. Furthermore, we were able to confirm that there was no deletion in twenty one patients where no mutation had been found. Conclusion The identified mutations affect highly conserved amino acids, cause frameshifts or alternative splicing, thus affecting folding of the OA1 G protein coupled receptor, interactions of OA1 with its G protein and/or binding with its ligand.

  19. "Let's talk about OA pain": a qualitative analysis of the perceptions of people suffering from OA. Towards the development of a specific pain OA-Related questionnaire, the Osteoarthritis Symptom Inventory Scale (OASIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cedraschi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pain is the primary outcome measurement in osteoarthritis, and its assessment is mostly based on its intensity. The management of this difficult chronic condition could be improved by using pain descriptors to improve analyses of painful sensations. This should help to define subgroups of patients based on pain phenotype, for more adapted treatment. This study draws upon patients' descriptions of their pain, to identify and understand their perception of osteoarthritis pain and to categorize pain dimensions. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted with representative types of patients suffering from osteoarthritis. Two focus groups were conducted with a sample of 14 participants, with either recent or chronic OA, at one or multiple sites. Focus groups were semi-structured and used open-ended questions addressing personal experiences to explore the experiences of patients with OA pain and the meanings they attributed to these pains. RESULTS: TWO MAIN POINTS EMERGED FROM CONTENT ANALYSES: -A major difficulty in getting patients to describe their osteoarthritis pain: perception that nobody wants to hear about it; necessity to preserve one's self and social image; notion of self-imposed stoicism; and perception of osteoarthritis as a complex, changing, illogical disease associated with aging. -Osteoarthritis pains were numerous and differed in intensity, duration, depth, type of occurrence, impact and rhythm, but also in painful sensations and associated symptoms. Based on analyses of the verbatim interviews, seven dimensions of OA pain emerged: pain sensory description, OA-related symptoms, pain variability profile, pain-triggering factors, pain and physical activity, mood and image, general physical symptoms. SUMMARY: In osteoarthritis, pain analysis should not be restricted to intensity. Our qualitative study identified pain descriptors and defined seven dimensions of osteoarthritis pain. Based on these dimensions, we aim to

  20. Functional evolution of the OAS1 viral sensor: Insights from old world primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Ian; Boissinot, Stéphane

    2016-10-01

    Infections with viral pathogens impose considerable selective pressure on host defensive genes. Those genes at the forefront, responsible for identifying and binding exogenous molecular viral components, will carry the hallmarks of this struggle. Oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) enzymes play a major role in the innate defense against a large number of viruses by acting as sensors of viral infections. Following their up-regulation by the interferon pathway, OASs bind viral dsRNA and then signal ribonuclease L (RNase L) to degrade RNA, shutting down viral and host protein synthesis. We have investigated the evolution of OAS1 in twenty-two Old World monkey species. We identified a total of 35 codons with the earmarks of positive selection and we performed a comprehensive analysis of their functional significance using in silico modeling of the OAS1 protein. Subdividing OAS1 into functional domains revealed intense purifying selection in the active domain but significant positive directional selection in the RNA-binding domain (RBD), the region where OAS1 binds viral dsRNA. The modeling analysis revealed a concentration of rapidly evolving residues in one region of the RBD suggestive of the sub-functionalization of different regions of the RBD. This analysis also identified several positively selected residues circumscribing the entry to the active site suggesting adaptive evasion of viral antagonism and/or selection for production of oligoadenylate of different length.

  1. Oleanolic acid (OA) as an antileishmanial agent: Biological evaluation and in silico mechanistic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Tahira Souza; Gattass, Cerli Rocha; Soares, Deivid Costa; Cunha, Micael Rodrigues; Ferreira, Christian; Tavares, Maurício Temotheo; Saraiva, Elvira; Parise-Filho, Roberto; Braden, Hannah; Delorenzi, Jan Carlo

    2016-06-01

    Although a worldwide health problem, leishmaniasis is considered a highly neglected disease, lacking efficient and low toxic treatment. The efforts for new drug development are based on alternatives such as new uses for well-known drugs, in silico and synthetic studies and naturally derived compounds. Oleanolic acid (OA) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid widely distributed throughout the Plantae kingdom that displays several pharmacological activities. OA showed potent leishmancidal effects in different Leishmania species, both against promastigotes (IC(50 L. braziliensis) 30.47 ± 6.35 μM; IC(50 L. amazonensis) 40.46 ± 14.21 μM; IC(50 L. infantum) 65.93 ± 15.12 μM) and amastigotes (IC(50 L. braziliensis) 68.75 ± 16.55 μM; IC(50 L. amazonensis) 38.45 ± 12.05 μM; IC(50 L. infantum) 64.08 ± 23.52 μM), with low cytotoxicity against mouse peritoneal macrophages (CC(50) 235.80 ± 36.95 μM). Moreover, in silico studies performed to evaluate OA molecular properties and to elucidate the possible mechanism of action over the Leishmania enzyme sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) suggested that OA interacts efficiently with CYP51 and could inhibit the ergosterol synthesis pathway. Collectively, these data indicate that OA is a good candidate as leading compound for the development of a new leishmaniasis treatment.

  2. Real time measurements of submicrometer aerosols in Seoul, Korea: Sources, characteristics, and processing of organic aerosols during winter time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Zhang, Q.

    2016-12-01

    Highly time-resolved chemical characterization of non-refractory submicrometer particulate matter (NR-PM1) was conducted in Seoul, the capital of Korea, using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). The measurements were performed during winter when persistent air quality problems associated with elevated PM concentrations were observed. The average NR-PM1 concentration was 27.5 µg m-3 and the average mass was dominated by organics (44%), followed by nitrate (24%) and sulfate (10%). Five distinct sources of organic aerosol (OA) were identified from positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the AMS data: vehicle emissions represented by a hydrocarbon-like OA factor (HOA), cooking represented by a cooking OA factor (COA), wood combustion represented by a biomass burning OA factor (BBOA), and secondary aerosol formation in the atmosphere that is represented by a semi-volatile oxygenated OA factor (SVOOA) and a low volatile oxygenated OA factor (LVOOA). These factors, on average, contributed 16, 20, 23, 15 and 26% to the total OA mass, respectively, with primary organic aerosol (POA = HOA + COA + BBOA) accounting for 59% of the OA mass. On average, both primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation are important factors affecting air quality in Seoul during winter, contributing approximately equal. However, differences in the fraction of PM source and properties were observed between high and low loading PM period. For example, during stagnant period with low wind speed (WS) (0.99 ± 0.7 m/s) and high RH (71%), high PM loadings (43.6 ± 12.4 µg m-3) with enhanced fractions of nitrate (27%) and SVOOA (8%) were observed, indicating a strong influence from locally generated secondary aerosol. On the other hand, when low PM loadings (12.6 ± 7.1 µg m-3), which were commonly associated with high WS (1.8 ± 1.1 m/s) and low RH (50 %), were observed, the fraction of regional sources, such as sulfate (12%) and LVOOA (21

  3. The Brazilian challenge: how to manage asymmetrical regional relations beyond the OAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sotero

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Viewed by the Lula administration as a relic of the Cold War, the OAS was mostly viewed as an observation post. Diplomats were instructed to maintain a defensive stance and to prevent actions perceived as contrary to Brazilian interests. Indifference turned to ill-disguised anger, however, in the first months of the Dilma Rousseff administration, after the Inter-American Human Rights Commission (IHRC issued an injunction instructing Brazil to cease construction of the controversial Belo Monte Hydroelectric Power Plant. Brazil’s reaction included the recalling of its ambassador from the OAS, withdrawing Brazil’s candidate for the IHRC and suspending its annual contribution to the OAS. This has compounded the OAS’s existential problems by making the organisation’s financial position even more precarious. If it goes unresolved, however, the clash could complicate Brazil’s strategy to assert its regional and global leadership as a champion of human rights and multilateralism.

  4. OAS1: a multiple sclerosis susceptibility gene that influences disease severity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 1 interferons upregulate oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1). A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 7 of OAS1 results in differential RNAseL enzyme activity, the A allele coding for a truncated form with low activity and the G conferring high activity. We hypothesized that OAS1 genotypes would influence both susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS) and disease activity with the AA genotype being overrepresented and the GG genotype underrepresented in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) with increased disease activity. METHODS: We examined OAS1 genotype distribution in 401 patients with MS, 394 healthy controls, and 178 patients with RRMS receiving interferon-beta (IFNbeta) assessed as 1) having no or minimal disease activity on IFNbeta, 2) having disease activity despite IFNbeta, and 3) 65 patients with RRMS with highly active disease. RESULTS: The OAS1 genotype distribution differed between patients with MS and controls (p = 0.000003), with lower frequency of GG homozygotes in patients with MS (6%) compared with controls (17%). In relation to disease severity, 34 (32%) patients with no or minimal disease activity on IFNbeta had the AA and 8 (8%) the GG genotype; of patients with disease activity despite IFNbeta, 27 (51%) were AA, while only 1 (2%) was GG (p = 0.03). Median time to first relapse on IFNbeta was 24 months in patients with RRMS with AA genotype and 33 months with AG or GG genotype (p = 0.04). The GG genotype was absent in 65 patients with highly active RRMS (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: A functional OAS1 SNP, AA genotype, confers susceptibility to MS and the GG genotype may protect against increased disease activity.

  5. Oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1 expression in human breast and prostate cancer cases, and its regulation by sex steroid hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Jorge Maia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1 is an interferon-induced protein characterised by its capacity to catalyse the synthesis of 2ʹ-5ʹ-linked oligomers of adenosine from adenosine triphosphate (2-5A. The 2-5A binds to a latent Ribonuclease L (RNase L, which subsequently dimerises into its active form and may play an important role in the control of cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Previously, our research group identified OAS1 as a differentially-expressed gene in breast and prostate cancer cell lines when compared to normal cells. This study evaluates: i the expression of OAS1 in human breast and prostate cancer specimens; and ii the effect of sex steroid hormones in regulating the expression of OAS1 in breast (MCF-7 and prostate (LNCaP cancer cell lines. The obtained results showed that OAS1 expression was down-regulated in human infiltrative ductal carcinoma of breast, adenocarcinoma of prostate, and benign prostate hyperplasia, both at mRNA and protein level. In addition, OAS1 expression was negatively correlated with the progression of breast and prostate cancer. With regards to the regulation of OAS1 gene, it was demonstrated that 17β-estradiol (E2 down-regulates OAS1 gene in MCF-7 cell lines, an effect that seems to be dependent on the activation of oestrogen receptor (ER. On the other hand, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT treatment showed no effect on the expression of OAS1 in LNCaP cell lines. The lower levels of OAS1 in breast and prostate cancer cases indicated that the OAS1/RNaseL apoptotic pathway may be compromised in breast and prostate tumours. Moreover, the present findings suggested that this effect may be enhanced by oestrogen in ER-positive breast cancers.

  6. Sub-Antarctic marine aerosol: significant contributions from biogenic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schmale

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic influences on the composition and characteristics of aerosol were investigated on Bird Island (54°00' S, 38°03' W in the South Atlantic during November and December 2010. This remote marine environment is characterised by large seabird and seal colonies. The chemical composition of the submicron particles, measured by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, was 21% non-sea salt sulfate 2% nitrate, 7% ammonium, 22% organics and 47% sea salt including sea salt sulfate. A new method to isolate the sea salt signature from the high-resolution AMS data was applied. Generally, the aerosol was found to be less acidic than in other marine environments due to the high availability of ammonia, from local fauna emissions. By positive matrix factorisation five different organic aerosol (OA profiles could be isolated: an amino acids/amine factor (AA-OA, 18% of OA mass, a methanesulfonic acid OA factor (MSA-OA, 25%, a marine oxygenated OA factor (M-OOA, 40%, a sea salt OA fraction (SS-OA, 7% and locally produced hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, 9%. The AA-OA was dominant during the first two weeks of November and found to be related with the hatching of penguins in a nearby colony. This factor, rich in nitrogen (C : N ratio = 0.13, has implications for the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen in the area as particulate matter is often transported over longer distances than gaseous N-rich compounds. The MSA-OA was mainly transported from more southerly latitudes where phytoplankton bloomed. The bloom was identified as one of three sources for particulate sulfate on Bird Island, next to sea salt sulfate and sulfate transported from South America. M-OOA was the dominant organic factor and found to be similar to marine OA observed at Mace Head, Ireland. An additional OA factor highly correlated with sea salt aerosol was identified (SS-OA. However, based on the available data the type of mixture, internal or external, could not be determined. Potassium was not

  7. Sub-Antarctic marine aerosol: dominant contributions from biogenic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schmale

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic influences on the composition and characteristics of aerosol were investigated on Bird Island (54°00' S, 38°03' W in the South Atlantic during November and December 2010. This remote marine environment is characterised by large seabird and seal colonies. The chemical composition of the submicron particles, measured by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, was 21% non-sea-salt sulfate, 2% nitrate, 8% ammonium, 22% organics and 47% sea salt including sea salt sulfate. A new method to isolate the sea spray signature from the high-resolution AMS data was applied. Generally, the aerosol was found to be less acidic than in other marine environments due to the high availability of ammonia, from local fauna emissions. By positive matrix factorisation five different organic aerosol (OA profiles could be isolated: an amino acid/amine factor (AA-OA, 18% of OA mass, a methanesulfonic acid OA factor (MSA-OA, 25%, a marine oxygenated OA factor (M-OOA, 41%, a sea spray OA fraction (SS-OA, 7% and locally produced hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, 9%. The AA-OA was dominant during the first two weeks of November and found to be related with the hatching of penguins in a nearby colony. This factor, rich in nitrogen (N : C ratio = 0.13, has implications for the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen in the area as particulate matter is often transported over longer distances than gaseous N-rich compounds. The MSA-OA was mainly transported from more southerly latitudes where phytoplankton bloomed. The bloom was identified as one of three sources for particulate sulfate on Bird Island, next to sea salt sulfate and sulfate transported from South America. M-OOA was the dominant organic factor and found to be similar to marine OA observed at Mace Head, Ireland. An additional OA factor highly correlated with sea spray aerosol was identified (SS-OA. However, based on the available data the type of mixture, internal or external, could not be determined. Potassium was not

  8. Positive association between increased popliteal artery vessel wall thickness and generalized osteoarthritis: is OA also part of the metabolic syndrome?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornaat, Peter R.; Sharma, Ruby; Geest, Rob J. van der; Lamb, Hildo J.; Bloem, Johan L.; Watt, Iain [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Kloppenburg, Margreet [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Rheumatology, Leiden (Netherlands); Hellio le Graverand, Marie-Pierre [Pfizer Global Research and Development, New London, CT (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine if a positive association exists between arterial vessel wall thickness and generalized osteoarthritis (OA). Our hypothesis is that generalized OA is another facet of the metabolic syndrome. The medical ethical review board of our institution approved the study. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient prior to the study. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the knee were obtained in 42 patients who had been diagnosed with generalized OA at multiple joint sites. Another 27 MR images of the knee were obtained from a matched normal (non-OA) reference population. Vessel wall thickness of the popliteal artery was quantitatively measured by dedicated software. Linear regression models were used to investigate the association between vessel wall thickness and generalized OA. Adjustments were made for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Confidence intervals (CI) were computed at the 95% level and a significance level of {alpha} = 0.05 was used. Patients in the generalized OA population had a significant higher average vessel wall thickness than persons from the normal reference population (p {<=} {alpha}), even when correction was made for sex, age, and BMI. The average vessel wall thickness of the popliteal artery was 1.09 mm in patients with generalized OA, and 0.96 mm in the matched normal reference population. The association found between increased popliteal artery vessel wall thickness and generalized osteoarthritis suggests that generalized OA might be another facet of the metabolic syndrome. (orig.)

  9. 41 CFR 102-85.205 - What happens if a customer agency continues occupancy after the expiration of an OA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... assignments. However, provisions are necessary to cover the GSA and customer relationship if an OA expires... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if a customer agency continues occupancy after the expiration of an OA? 102-85.205 Section 102-85.205...

  10. A constitutively active Gαi3 protein corrects the abnormal retinal pigment epithelium phenotype of Oa1-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Young

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Ocular Albinism type 1 (OA1 is a disease caused by mutations in the OA1 gene and characterized by the presence of macromelanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE as well as abnormal crossing of the optic axons at the optic chiasm. We showed in our previous studies in mice that Oa1 activates specifically Gαi3 in its signaling pathway and thus, hypothesized that a constitutively active Gαi3 in the RPE of Oa1-/- mice might keep on the Oa1 signaling cascade and prevent the formation of macromelanosomes. To test this hypothesis, we have generated transgenic mice that carry the constitutively active Gαi3 (Q204L protein in the RPE of Oa1-/- mice and are now reporting the effects that the transgene produced on the Oa1-/- RPE phenotype. METHODS: Transgenic mice carrying RPE-specific expression of the constitutively active Gαi3 (Q204L were generated by injecting fertilized eggs of Oa1-/- females with a lentivirus containing the Gαi3 (Q204L cDNA. PCR, Southern blots, Western blots and confocal microscopy were used to confirm the presence of the transgene in the RPE of positive transgenic mice. Morphometrical analyses were performed using electron microscopy to compare the size and number of melanosomes per RPE area in putative Oa1-/-, Gαi3 (Q204L transgenic mice with those of wild-type NCrl and Oa1-/- mice. RESULTS: We found a correlation between the presence of the constitutively active Gαi3 (Q204L transgene and the rescue of the normal phenotype of RPE melanosomes in Oa1-/-, Gαi3 (Q204L mice. These mice have higher density of melanosomes per RPE area and a larger number of small melanosomes than Oa1-/- mice, and their RPE phenotype is similar to that of wild-type mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that a constitutively active Gαi3 protein can by-pass the lack of Oa1 protein in Oa1-/- mice and consequently rescue the RPE melanosomal phenotype.

  11. Characterization of the sources and processes of organic and inorganic aerosols in New York City with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-L. Sun

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Submicron aerosol particles (PM1 were measured in-situ using a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS during the summer 2009 Field Intensive Study at Queens College in New York City. Organic aerosol (OA and sulfate are the two dominant species, accounting for 54% and 24%, respectively, of total PM1 mass on average. The average mass size distribution of OA presents a small mode peaking at ~150 nm (Dva in addition to an accumulation mode (~550 nm that is internally mixed with sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium. The diurnal cycles of sulfate and OA both show pronounced peaks between 01:00–02:00 p.m. EST due to photochemical production. The average (±1σ oxygen-to-carbon (O/C, hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C, and nitrogen-to-carbon (N/C ratios of OA in NYC are 0.36 (±0.09, 1.49 (±0.08, and 0.012(±0.005, respectively, corresponding to an average organic mass-to-carbon (OM/OC ratio of 1.62(±0.11. Positive matrix factorization (PMF of the high resolution mass spectra identified five OA components: a hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, two types of oxygenated OA (OOA including a low-volatility OOA (LV-OOA and a semi-volatile OOA (SV-OOA, a cooking-emission related OA (COA, and a unique nitrogen-enriched OA (NOA. HOA appears to represent primary OA (POA from urban traffic emissions. It comprises primarily of reduced species (H/C=1.83; O/C=0.06 and shows a mass spectral pattern very similar to those of POA from fossil fuel combustion, and correlates tightly with traffic emission tracers including elemental carbon and NOx. LV-OOA, which is highly oxidized (O/C=0.63 and correlates well with sulfate, appears to be representative for regional, aged secondary OA (SOA. SV-OOA, which is less oxidized (O/C=0.38 and correlates well with non-refractory chloride, likely represents less photo-chemically aged, semi-volatile SOA. COA shows a similar spectral pattern to the reference spectra of POA from

  12. Wintertime organic and inorganic aerosols in Lanzhou, China: sources, processes, and comparison with the results during summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianzhong; Shi, Jinsen; Zhang, Qi; Ge, Xinlei; Canonaco, Francesco; Prévôt, André S. H.; Vonwiller, Matthias; Szidat, Sönke; Ge, Jinming; Ma, Jianmin; An, Yanqing; Kang, Shichang; Qin, Dahe

    2016-12-01

    during winter. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) with the multi-linear engine (ME-2) solver identified six OA sources, i.e., a hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), a biomass burning OA (BBOA), a cooking-emitted OA (COA), a coal combustion OA (CCOA), and two oxygenated OA (OOA) factors. One of the OOAs was less oxidized (LO-OOA), and the other one more oxidized (MO-OOA). LO-OOA was the most abundant OA component (22.3 % of OA mass), followed by CCOA (22.0 %), COA (20.2 %), MO-OOA (14.9 %), BBOA (10.8 %), and HOA (9.8 %). The mass fraction of primary OA ( = HOA + BBOA + COA + CCOA) increased during high PM pollution periods, indicating that local primary emissions were a main reason for the formation of air pollution events in Lanzhou during winter. Radiocarbon (14C) measurement was conducted on four PM2.5 filter samples from this study, which allowed for a quantitative source apportionment of organic carbon (OC). The non-fossil sources on average accounted for 55 ± 3 % of OC, which could be mainly from biomass burning and cooking activities, suggesting the importance of non-fossil sources for the PM pollution in Lanzhou. Together with the PMF results, we also found that a large fraction (66 ± 10 %) of the secondary OC was from non-fossil OC.

  13. The chirally rotated Schr\\"odinger functional with Wilson fermions and automatic O(a) improvement

    CERN Document Server

    Sint, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    A modified version of the Schr\\"odinger functional (SF) with Wilson fermions is proposed, which is related to the standard SF by a non-singlet chiral field rotation. Besides offering the possibility of some interesting universality checks, the main advantage of the new set-up consists in its compatibility with the mechanism of automatic O(a) improvement. In the free theory, the implementation of chirally rotated SF boundary conditions is obtained using an orbifold construction. The lattice symmetries imply a list of counterterms, which then determine how the basic fermionic two-point functions are renormalised and O(a) improved. As in the standard SF, a logarithmically divergent boundary counterterm leads to a multiplicative renormalisation of the quark boundary fields. In addition, a finite dimension-3 boundary counterterm must be tuned in order to maintain the chirally rotated boundary condtions in the interacting theory. Once this is achieved, automatic O(a) improvement works up to boundary O(a) effects. F...

  14. Urinary pentosidine does not predict cartilage loss among subjects with symptomatic knee OA : the BOKS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunter, D.J.; LaValley, M.; Li, J.; Zhang, Y.; Bauer, D.; Nevitt, M.; Guermazi, A.; Groot, J. de; Sakkee, N.; Gale, D.; Felson, D.T.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Age-related changes in articular cartilage are likely to play a role in the etiology of osteoarthritis (OA). One of the major changes in the extracellular matrix of cartilage is the age-related accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Pentosidine, an AGE crosslink, is one o

  15. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1G9OA-2VPHB [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1G9OA-2VPHB 1G9O 2VPH A B RMLPRLCCLEKGPNGYGFHLHGEKGKL-GQYIRLVEPGS...LN CA 361 TYR CA 377 ILE CA 380 ARG CA 263 2VPH B 2VPHB GYDQK...line>GLY CA 300 2VPH B 2VPHB PADLCVPRLNEG

  16. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1I5OA-3GD5C [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1I5OA-3GD5C 1I5O 3GD5 A C ANPLYQKHIISINDLSRDDLNLVLATAAKLKANPQPELL...KHKVIASCFFEASTRTRLSFETSMHRLGASVVGFSDSANTSLGKKGETLADTISVISTYVDAIVMAHPQEGAARLATEFSGNVPVLNAGDGSNQHPTQTLLDLFTIQETQGRLDNLHVAMVGD...YAHYAG-IPVINALT-DHEHPCQVVADLLTIRENFGRLAGLKLAYVGDG--NNVAHSLLLGCAKVG-MSIAVATPEGFTPDPAVSARASEIAGRTGAEVQILRDPFEA...ine> ALA CA 282 TRP CA 350 3GD5 C 3GD5C ARASEIAGRTGAEV

  17. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1I5OA-3GD5E [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1I5OA-3GD5E 1I5O 3GD5 A E ANPLYQKHIISINDLSRDDLNLVLATAAKLKANPQPELL...KHKVIASCFFEASTRTRLSFETSMHRLGASVVGFSDSANTSLGKKGETLADTISVISTYVDAIVMAHPQEGAARLATEFSGNVPVLNAGDGSNQHPTQTLLDLFTIQETQGRLDNLHVAMVGD...YAHYAG-IPVINALT-DHEHPCQVVADLLTIRENFGRLAGLKLAYVGDG--NNVAHSLLLGCAKVG-MSIAVATPEGFTPDPAVSARASEIAGRTGAEVQILRDPFEA.../line> ALA CA 282 TRP CA 350 3GD5... E 3GD5E ARASEIAGRTGA

  18. 41 CFR 102-85.20 - What does an Occupancy Agreement (OA) do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... defines GSA's relationship with each customer agency and: (a) Establishes specific financial terms... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does an Occupancy Agreement (OA) do? 102-85.20 Section 102-85.20 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  19. 41 CFR 102-85.140 - How are changes in Rent reflected in OAs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR... specified in OAs will serve as notice to agencies of future Rent changes for budgeting purposes. For a discussion of budgeting for Rent, see § 102-85.160. (b) Changes to Rent other than those identified in...

  20. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1B9OA-1IOTA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1B9OA-1IOTA 1B9O 1IOT A A KQFTKCELSQLLKDI--DGYGGIALPELICTMFHTSGYD...dbChain>A 1IOTA ALKRHGLDNYRG 5.116000175476074 15.197999954223633 tion> 0.9950000047683716 -0.796999990940094 tion> 2.0168049335479736 4.099109172821045 1IOT A 1IOTA <

  1. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1B7OA-2G4NF [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1B7OA-2G4NF 1B7O 2G4N A F KVFERCELARTLKRLGMDGYRGISLANWMCLAKWESQYN... HHHH - GGGG -- EVID>EVID> 0 2G4N F 2G4NF IVQNN...on> 0.7017530202865601 1.3242100477218628 EVID> 1 2G4N F 2G4NF <

  2. Prevalence of knee pain and knee OA in southern Sweden and the proportion that seeks medical care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Gerhardsson de Verdier, Maria; Engström, Gunnar;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of frequent knee pain in radiographic, symptomatic and clinically defined knee OA in middle-aged and elderly patients and the proportion that seeks medical care. METHODS: In 2007 a random sample of 10 000 56- to 84-year-old residents...... of Malmö, Sweden, were questioned about knee pain. We classified subjects reporting knee pain with a duration of at least 4 weeks as having frequent knee pain. A random sample of 1300 individuals with frequent knee pain and 650 without were invited for assessment by the ACR clinical knee OA criteria...... and for bilateral weight-bearing knee radiography. We considered a Kellgren-Lawrence grade ≥2 as radiographic knee OA and that in combination with frequent knee pain as symptomatic knee OA. By linkage with the Skåne Healthcare Register, we determined the proportion of subjects that had consulted for knee OA or pain...

  3. Chemical characterization of springtime submicrometer aerosol in Po Valley, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saarikoski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry of submicron particles was investigated at San Pietro Capofiume (SPC measurement station in the Po Valley, Italy, in spring 2008. The measurements were performed by using both off-line and on-line instruments. Organic carbon (OC and elemental carbon, organic acids and biomass burning tracers were measured off-line by using a 24-h PM1 filter sampling. More detailed particle chemistry was achieved by using an Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS and analyzing the data by positive matrix factorization (PMF. Oxalic acid had the highest concentrations of organic acids (campaign-average 97.4 ng m−3 followed by methane sulfonic, formic, malonic, and malic acids. Samples were also analyzed for glyoxylic, succinic, azelaic and maleic acids. In total, the nine acids composed 1.9 and 3.8% of OC and water-soluble OC, respectively (average, in terms of carbon atoms. Levoglucosan concentration varied from 17.7 to 495 ng m−3 with the concentration decreasing in the course of the campaign most likely due to the reduced use of domestic heating with wood. Six factors were found for organic aerosol (OA at SPC by PMF: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, biomass burning OA (BBOA, nitrogen-containing OA (N-OA and three different oxygenated OAs (OOA-a, OOA-b and OOA-c. Most of the OA mass was composed of OOA-a, HOA and OOA-c (26, 24 and 22%, respectively followed by OOA-b (13%, BBOA (8% and N-OA (7%. As expected, OOAs were the most oxygenated factors with organic matter:organic carbon (OM:OC ratios ranging from 1.9 to 2.2. The diurnal variability of the aerosol chemical composition was greatly affected by the boundary layer meteorology. Specifically, the effect of the nocturnal layer break-up in morning hours was most evident for nitrate and N-OA indicating that these compounds originated mainly from the local sources in the Po Valley. For sulfate and OOA-a the concentration did not

  4. Chemical characterization of springtime submicrometer aerosol in Po Valley, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saarikoski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry of submicron particles was investigated at San Pietro Capofiume (SPC measurement station in the Po Valley, Italy, in spring 2008. The measurements were performed by using both off-line and on-line instruments. Organic carbon (OC and elemental carbon, organic acids and biomass burning tracers were measured off-line by using a 24-h PM1 filter sampling. More detailed particle chemistry was achieved by using a Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS and analyzing the data by positive matrix factorization (PMF. Oxalic acid had the highest concentrations of organic acids (campaign-average 97.4 ng m−3 followed by methane sulfonic, formic, malonic, and malic acids. Samples were also analyzed for glyoxylic, succinic, azelaic and maleic acids. In total, the nine acids composed 1.9 and 3.8% of OC and water-soluble OC, respectively (average, in terms of carbon atoms. Levoglucosan concentration varied from 17.7 to 495 ng m−3 with the concentration decreasing in the course of the campaign most likely due to the reduced use of domestic heating with wood. Six factors were found for organic aerosol (OA at SPC by PMF: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, biomass burning OA (BBOA, nitrogen-containing OA (N-OA and three different oxygenated OAs (OOA-a, OOA-b and OOA-c. Most of the OA mass was composed of OOA-a, HOA and OOA-c (26, 24 and 22%, respectively followed by OOA-b (13%, BBOA (8% and N-OA (7%. As expected, OOAs were the most oxygenated factors with organic matter:organic carbon (OM : OC ratios ranging from 1.9 to 2.2. The diurnal variability of the aerosol chemical composition was greatly affected by the boundary layer meteorology. Specifically, the effect of the nocturnal layer break-up in morning hours was most evident for nitrate and N-OA indicating that these compounds originated mainly from the local sources in the Po Valley. For sulfate and OOA-a the concentration did not

  5. Aged organic aerosol in the Eastern Mediterranean: the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment – 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hildebrandt

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aged organic aerosol (OA was measured at a remote coastal site on the island of Crete, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment-2008 (FAME-2008, which was part of the EUCAARI intensive campaign of May 2008. The site at Finokalia is influenced by air masses from different source regions, including long-range transport of pollution from continental Europe. A quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS was employed to measure the size-resolved chemical composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1, and to estimate the extent of oxidation of the organic aerosol. Factor analysis was used to gain insights into the processes and sources affecting the OA composition. The particles were internally mixed and liquid. The largest fraction of the dry NR-PM1 sampled was ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate, followed by organics and a small amount of nitrate. The variability in OA composition could be explained with two factors of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA with differing extents of oxidation but similar volatility. Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA was not detected. There was no statistically significant diurnal variation in the bulk composition of NR-PM1 such as total sulfate or total organic aerosol concentrations. However, the OA composition exhibited statistically significant diurnal variation with more oxidized OA in the afternoon. The organic aerosol was highly oxidized, regardless of the source region. Total OA concentrations also varied little with source region, suggesting that local sources had only a small effect on OA concentrations measured at Finokalia. The aerosol was transported for about one day before arriving at the site, corresponding to an OH exposure of approximately 4×1011 molecules cm−3 s. The constant extent of oxidation suggests that atmospheric aging results in a highly oxidized OA at these OH exposures, regardless of the aerosol source.

  6. Aged organic aerosol in the Eastern Mediterranean: the Finokalia aerosol measurement experiment-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hildebrandt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aged organic aerosol (OA was measured at a remote coastal site on the island of Crete, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment-2008 (FAME-2008, which was part of the EUCAARI intensive campaign of May 2008. The site at Finokalia is influenced by air masses from different source regions, including long-range transport of pollution from continental Europe. A quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS was employed to measure the size-resolved chemical composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1, and to estimate the extent of oxidation of the organic aerosol. Factor analysis was used to gain insights into the processes and sources affecting the OA composition. The particles were internally mixed and liquid. The largest fraction of the dry NR-PM1 sampled was ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate, followed by organics and a small amount of nitrate. The variability in OA composition could be explained with two factors of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA with differing extents of oxidation but similar volatility. Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA was not detected. There was no statistically significant diurnal variation in the bulk composition of NR-PM1 such as total sulfate or total organic aerosol concentrations. However, the OA composition exhibited statistically significant diurnal variation with more oxidized OA in the afternoon. The organic aerosol was highly oxidized, regardless of the source region. Total OA concentrations also varied little with time of day, suggesting that local sources had only a small effect on OA concentrations measured at Finokalia. The aerosol was transported for about one day before arriving at the site, corresponding to an OH exposure of approximately 4×1011 molecules cm−3 s. The constant extent of oxidation suggests that atmospheric aging results in a highly oxidized OA at these OH exposures, regardless of the aerosol source.

  7. Factor analysis of combined organic and inorganic aerosol mass spectra from high resolution aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Sun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The high resolution mass spectra of organic and inorganic aerosols from aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS measurements were first combined into positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis to investigate the sources and evolution processes of atmospheric aerosols. The new approach is able to study the mixing of organic aerosols (OA and inorganic species, the acidity of OA factors, and the fragment ion patterns related to photochemical processing. In this study, PMF analysis of the unified AMS spectral matrices resolved 8 factors for the submicron aerosols measured at Queens College in New York City in summer 2009. The hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA and cooking OA (COA contain very minor inorganic species, indicating the different sources and mixing characteristics between primary OA and secondary species. The two factors that are primarily ammonium sulfate (SO4-OA and ammonium nitrate (NO3-OA, respectively, are overall neutralized, of which the OA in SO4-OA shows the highest oxidation state (O/C = 0.69 among OA factors. The semi-volatile oxygenated OA comprises two components, i.e., a less oxidized (LO-OOA and a more oxidized (MO-OOA. The MO-OOA represents a local photochemical product with the diurnal profile exhibiting a pronounced noon peak, consistent with those of formaldehyde (HCHO and Ox (= O3+NO2. The much higher NO+/NO2+ fragment ion ratio in MO-OOA than that from ammonium nitrate alone provides evidence for the formation of organic nitrates. The amine-related nitrogen-enriched OA (NOA contains ~25% of acidic inorganic salts, elucidating the formation of secondary OA from amines in acidic environments. The size distributions derived from 3-dimensional size-resolved mass spectra show distinct diurnal evolving behaviors for different OA factors, but overall a progressing evolution from smaller to larger particle mode as a function of oxidation states

  8. Source characterization of ambient fine aerosol in Singapore during a haze episode in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Sri; Riva, Matthieu; Williams, Michael; Miyakawa, Takuma; Komazaki, Yuichi; Chen, Jing; Surratt, Jason; Kuwata, Mikinori

    2017-04-01

    Recurring transboundary haze from Indonesia peatland fires in the previous decades has significantly elevated particulate matter (PM) concentration in Southeast Asia, particularly during the 2015 El Niño event. Previous studies have investigated chemical composition of particles emitted during haze episodes; however, they were limited to time-integrated samples and the number of identified compounds. Low time-resolution measurement results in co-variance of PM sources; therefore, higher time-resolution measurement is important in PM source apportionment. Between October 10-31, 2015, Aerodyne Time-of-Flight Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ToF-ACSM) was deployed for real-time chemical characterization of ambient submicron PM (NR-PM1) in Singapore. Simultaneously, PM2.5 filter samples were collected for molecular-level organic aerosol (OA) constituents, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble OC (WSOC) analyses. OA constituents were quantified by gas chromatography interfaced to electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography interfaced to electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer operated in the negative ion mode (UPLC/(-)ESI-HR-Q-TOFMS). OA and SO42- are dominant components of the haze particles, accounting for ˜77% and ˜12% of the total NR-PM1 mass, respectively. OC/EC ratio of 4.8 might indicate formation of secondary OA (SOA) and aerosols from biomass burning, including those from peat burning. OA fraction from ToF-ACSM measurements was analyzed for source apportionment using a bilinear model through multi-linear engine algorithm (ME-2) in graphical user interface SoFi (Source Finder). Five OA factors were identified: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), biomass burning OA (BBOA), peat burning OA (PBOA), low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA), and semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA). The HOA factor shows a distinct diurnal profile peaking in the morning and

  9. GPNMB/OA protein increases the invasiveness of human metastatic prostate cancer cell lines DU145 and PC3 through MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorentini, Chiara; Bodei, Serena; Bedussi, Francesca; Fragni, Martina; Bonini, Sara Anna [Section of Pharmacology, Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, V.le Europa 11, 25124 Brescia (Italy); Simeone, Claudio; Zani, Danilo [Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Radiology and Public Health, University of Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili 1, 25124 Brescia (Italy); Berruti, Alfredo [Medical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Radiology, and Public Health, University of Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili 1, 25124 Brescia (Italy); Missale, Cristina; Memo, Maurizio; Spano, PierFranco [Section of Pharmacology, Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, V.le Europa 11, 25124 Brescia (Italy); Sigala, Sandra, E-mail: sigala@med.unibs.it [Section of Pharmacology, Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, V.le Europa 11, 25124 Brescia (Italy)

    2014-04-15

    Non-metastatic glycoprotein melanoma protein B (GPNMB), also known as osteoactivin (OA) is expressed in a wide array of tumors and represents an emerging target for drug development. In this study, we investigated the role of GPNMB/OA in the progression of human metastatic DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cells. GPNMB/OA contribution in PCa malignant phenotype has been analyzed by small interfering RNA-induced GPNMB/OA silencing. We found that following GPNMB/OA silencing the migration capability of both DU145 and PC3 cells, evaluated by using in vitro invasivity assay, as well as the metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity were equally strongly inhibited. By contrast knocking down GPNMB/OA weakly attenuated cell proliferation rate of DU145, an effect that paralleled with an increase number of apoptotic cells. However, PC3 cell growth seems to be not affected by GPNMB/OA. Together, these data reveal that GPNMB/OA acts as a critical molecular mediator promoting the acquisition of the more aggressive, pro-metastatic phenotype distinctive of human DU145 and PC3 cell lines. - Highlights: • GPNMB/OA expression correlates with DU145 and PC3 cells malignant phenotype. • GPNMB/OA silencing affects the migration capability of both DU145 and PC3 cells. • GPNMB/OA increases invasiveness by up-regulating MMPs activity. • GPNMB/OA promotes DU145 and PC3 cells progression into a more aggressive phenotype.

  10. Drugs and Polymers for Delivery Systems in OA Joints: Clinical Needs and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Janssen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a big burden of disease worldwide and one of the most common causes of disability in the adult population. Currently applied therapies consist of physical therapy, oral medication, intra-articular injections, and surgical interventions, with the main goal being to reduce pain and improve function and quality of life. Intra-articular (IA administration of drugs has potential benefits in OA treatment because it minimizes systemic bioavailability and side effects associated with oral administration of drugs without compromising the therapeutic effect in the joint. However, IA drug residence time is short and there is a clinical need for a vehicle that is able to provide a sustained release long enough for IA therapy to fulfill its promise. This review summarizes the use of different polymeric systems and the incorporated drugs for IA drug delivery in the osteoarthritic joint with a primary focus on clinical needs and opportunities.

  11. de la comuna de Ñuñoa 2001 a 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aguirre N.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo busca establecer un análisis descriptivo de la evolución urbana de la comuna de Ñuñoa, entre los años 2001 y mediados del 2006, basándose en los permisos de edificación respectivos. Se realiza un análisis estadístico de los proyectos, segmentándolos por zona y calles. Se discute, a modo de comentario, como la evolución de dicha comuna ha ido transformando el perfil de Ñuñoa, en cuanto al tema de vida de barrio, y como la ciudadanía ha tomado cartas en el asunto.

  12. Feasibility of neuromuscular training in patients with severe hip or knee OA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ageberg, Eva; Link, Anne; Roos, Ewa M

    2010-01-01

    with knee injuries, to older patients with severe hip or knee OA. We hypothesized that the training program was feasible, determined as: 1) at most acceptable self-reported pain following training; 2) decreased or unchanged pain during the training period; 3) few joint specific adverse events related...... to training, and 4) achieved progression of training level during the training period. METHODS: Seventy-six patients, between 60 and 77 years, with severe hip (n = 38, 55% women) or knee OA (n = 38, 61% women) underwent an individualized, goal-based neuromuscular training program (NEMEX-TJR) in groups...... for a median of 11 weeks (quartiles 7 to 15) prior to total joint replacement (TJR). Pain was self-reported immediately after each training session on a 0 to 10 cm, no pain to pain as bad as it could be, scale, where 0-2 indicates safe, > 2 to 5 acceptable and > 5 high risk pain. Joint specific adverse events...

  13. Construction of low-cost, Mod-OA wood composite wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Two sixty-foot, low-cost, wood composite blades for service on 200 kW Mod-OA wind turbines were constructed. The blades were constructed of epoxy resin-bonded Douglas fir veneers for the leading edge sections, and paper honeycombcored, birch plywood faced panels for the afterbody sections. The blades were joined to the wind turbine hub by epoxy resin-bonded steel load take-off studs embedded into the root end of the blades. The blades were installed on the 200 kW Mod-OA wind turbine facility at Kahuku, Hawaii, The blades completed nearly 8,000 hours of operation over an 18 month period at an average power of 150 kW prior to replacement with another set of wood composite blades. The blades were replaced because of a corrosion failure of the steel shank on one stud. Inspections showed that the wood composite structure remained in excellent condition.

  14. Aerosol composition, sources and processes during wintertime in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a major environmental concern among all seasons in megacity Beijing, China. Here we present the results from a winter study that was conducted from 21 November 2011 to 20 January 2012 with an Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM and various collocated instruments. The non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1 species vary dramatically with clean periods and pollution episodes alternating frequently. Compared to summer, wintertime submicron aerosols show much enhanced organics and chloride, which on average account for 52% and 5%, respectively of the total NR-PM1 mass. All NR-PM1 species show quite different diurnal behaviors between summer and winter. For example, the wintertime nitrate presents a gradual increase during daytime and correlates well with secondary organic aerosol (OA, indicating a dominant role of photochemical production over gas-particle partitioning. Positive matrix factorization was performed on ACSM OA mass spectra, and identified three primary OA (POA factors, i.e. hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, cooking OA (COA, and coal combustion OA (CCOA, and one secondary factor, i.e. oxygenated OA (OOA. The POA dominates OA during wintertime, contributing 69% with the rest of 31% being SOA. Further, all POA components show pronounced diurnal cycles with the highest concentrations occurring at nighttime. CCOA is the largest primary source during the heating season, on average accounting for 33% of OA and 17% of NR-PM1. CCOA also plays a significant role in chemically-resolved particulate matter (PM pollution as its mass contribution increases linearly as a function of NR-PM1 mass loadings. The SOA however presents a reversed trend, which might indicate the limited SOA formation during high PM pollution episodes in winter. The effects of meteorology on PM pollution and aerosol processing were also explored. In particular, the sulfate mass is largely enhanced

  15. New Strategies in Targeted Interventions for Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis (PT-OA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    PLGA Blend Electrospun Nanofiber Matrices for Wound Healing Applications. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Annual Meeting, 2008. 30...Kumbar SG, Nukavarapu, S.P., James R, Nair LS and Laurencin CT. Nanobased Fiber Matrices for Wound Repair: Optimization for Human Skin Fibroblast ...surgically-induced PT-OA progression in mouse models. 1). Goal 1 - Major activity #1 The role of the EGFR family of growth factor signaling

  16. Acute Cardiotoxicity Evaluation of the Marine Biotoxins OA, DTX-1 and YTX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara F. Ferreiro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Phycotoxins are marine toxins produced by phytoplankton that can get accumulated in filter feeding shellfish. Human intoxication episodes occur due to contaminated seafood consumption. Okadaic acid (OA and dynophysistoxins (DTXs are phycotoxins responsible for a severe gastrointestinal syndrome called diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP. Yessotoxins (YTXs are marine toxins initially included in the DSP class but currently classified as a separated group. Food safety authorities from several countries have regulated the content of DSPs and YTXs in shellfish to protect human health. In mice, OA and YTX have been associated with ultrastructural heart damage in vivo. Therefore, this study explored the potential of OA, DTX-1 and YTX to cause acute heart toxicity. Cardiotoxicity was evaluated in vitro by measuring hERG (human èter-a-go-go gene channel activity and in vivo using electrocardiogram (ECG recordings and cardiac damage biomarkers. The results demonstrated that these toxins do not exert acute effects on hERG channel activity. Additionally, in vivo experiments showed that these compounds do not alter cardiac biomarkers and ECG in rats acutely. Despite the ultrastructural damage to the heart reported for these toxins, no acute alterations of heart function have been detected in vivo, suggesting a functional compensation in the short term.

  17. The hadronic vacuum polarization and automatic O(a) improvement for twisted mass fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Florian; Hotzel, Grit [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Petschlies, Marcus [The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2014-12-15

    The vacuum polarization tensor and the corresponding vacuum polarization function are the basis for calculations of numerous observables in lattice QCD. Examples are the hadronic contributions to lepton anomalous magnetic moments, the running of the electroweak and strong couplings and quark masses. Quantities which are derived from the vacuum polarization tensor often involve a summation of current correlators over all distances in position space leading thus to the appearance of short-distance terms. The mechanism of O(a) improvement in the presence of such short-distance terms is not directly covered by the usual arguments of on-shell improvement of the action and the operators for a given quantity. If such short-distance contributions appear, the property of O(a) improvement needs to be reconsidered. We discuss the effects of these short-distance terms on the vacuum polarization function for twisted mass lattice QCD and find that even in the presence of such terms automatic O(a) improvement is retained if the theory is tuned to maximal twist.

  18. O(a^2) corrections to the fermion propagator and fermion bilinears

    CERN Document Server

    Constantinou, M; Stylianou, F

    2008-01-01

    We present the corrections to the fermion propagator, to second order in the lattice spacing, O(a^2), in 1-loop perturbation theory. The fermions are described by the clover action and for the gluons we use a 3-parameter family of Symanzik improved actions. Our calculation has been carried out in a general covariant gauge. The results are provided as a polynomial of the clover parameter, and are tabulated for 10 popular sets of the Symanzik coefficients (Plaquette, Tree-level Symanzik, Iwasaki, TILW and DBW2 action). We also study the O(a^2) corrections to matrix elements of fermion bilinear operators that have the form $\\bar\\Psi\\Gamma\\Psi$, where $\\Gamma$ denotes all possible distinct products of Dirac matrices. These correction terms are essential ingredients for improving, to O(a^2), the matrix elements of the fermion operators. Our results are applicable also to the case of twisted mass fermions. A longer write-up of this work, including non-perturbative results, is in preparation together with V. Gimenez...

  19. Seasonal characterization of submicron aerosol chemical composition and organic aerosol sources in the southeastern United States: Atlanta, Georgia and Look Rock, Tennessee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Budisulistiorini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A yearlong near-real-time characterization of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1 was conducted at an urban (Atlanta, Georgia and rural (Look Rock, Tennessee site in the southeastern US using the Aerodyne aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM collocated with established air-monitoring network measurements. Seasonal variations in organic aerosol (OA and inorganic aerosol species are attributed to meteorological conditions as well as anthropogenic and biogenic emissions in this region. The highest concentrations of NR-PM1 were observed during winter and fall seasons at the urban site and during spring and summer at the rural site. Across all seasons and at both sites, NR-PM1 was composed largely of OA (50–76 % and inorganic sulfate (12–31 %. Six distinct OA sources were resolved by positive matrix factorization applied to the ACSM organic mass spectral data collected from the two sites over the one year of near-continuous measurements at each site: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, biomass burning OA (BBOA, semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA, low-volatility oxygenated OA (OOA, isoprene-derived epoxydiol (IEPOX OA (IEPOX-OA, and 91Fac OA (a factor dominated by a distinct ion at m/z 91 fragment ion previously observed in biogenic influenced areas. LV-OOA was observed throughout the year at both sites and contributed 30–66 % of total OA mass. HOA was also observed during the entire year only at the urban site (15–24 % of OA mass. BBOA (15–33 % of OA mass was observed during winter and fall, likely dominated by local residential wood burning emission. Although SV-OOA contributes quite significantly (∼ 27 %, it was observed only at the urban site during colder seasons. IEPOX-OA was a major component (27–41 % of OA at both sites, particularly in spring and summer. An ion fragment at m/z 75 is proposed as an additional marker for IEPOX-OA, as it is shown to correlate well with the m/z 82 ion shown to be associated with the aerosol mass

  20. Development of an Autologous Macrophage-based Adoptive Gene Transfer Strategy to Treat Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis (PTOA) and Osteoarithritis (OA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    of the diseases. The proposed study will test two hypotheses: 1) the autologous macrophage-based adoptive gene transfer strategy can effectively...12% of all OA are resulted from an acute trauma to the joint and are referred to as PTOA [1]. It is estimated that the total cost of OA cases is...and medications. Joint replacement surgery may also be required in eroding forms of arthritis . Medications can help reduce inflammation in the joint

  1. Characterization of the equine 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1 and ribonuclease L (RNASEL innate immunity genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zharkikh Andrey A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian OAS/RNASEL pathway plays an important role in antiviral host defense. A premature stop-codon within the murine Oas1b gene results in the increased susceptibility of mice to a number of flaviviruses, including West Nile virus (WNV. Mutations in either the OAS1 or RNASEL genes may also modulate the outcome of WNV-induced disease or other viral infections in horses. Polymorphisms in the human OAS gene cluster have been previously utilized for case-control analysis of virus-induced disease in humans. No polymorphisms have yet been identified in either the equine OAS1 or RNASEL genes for use in similar case-control studies. Results Genomic sequence for equine OAS1 was obtained from a contig assembly generated from a shotgun subclone library of CHORI-241 BAC 100I10. Specific amplification of regions of the OAS1 gene from 13 horses of various breeds identified 33 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP and two microsatellites. RNASEL cDNA sequences were determined for 8 mammals and utilized in a phylogenetic analysis. The chromosomal location of the RNASEL gene was assigned by FISH to ECA5p17-p16 using two selected CHORI-241 BAC clones. The horse genomic RNASEL sequence was assembled. Specific amplification of regions of the RNASEL gene from 13 horses identified 31 SNPs. Conclusion In this report, two dinucleotide microsatellites and 64 single nucleotide polymorphisms within the equine OAS1 and RNASEL genes were identified. These polymorphisms are the first to be reported for these genes and will facilitate future case-control studies of horse susceptibility to infectious diseases.

  2. Measurement of nonvolatile particle number size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkatzelis, G. I.; Papanastasiou, D. K.; Florou, K.; Kaltsonoudis, C.; Louvaris, E.; Pandis, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental methodology was developed to measure the nonvolatile particle number concentration using a thermodenuder (TD). The TD was coupled with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, measuring the chemical composition and mass size distribution of the submicrometer aerosol and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) that provided the number size distribution of the aerosol in the range from 10 to 500 nm. The method was evaluated with a set of smog chamber experiments and achieved almost complete evaporation (> 98 %) of secondary organic as well as freshly nucleated particles, using a TD temperature of 400 °C and a centerline residence time of 15 s. This experimental approach was applied in a winter field campaign in Athens and provided a direct measurement of number concentration and size distribution for particles emitted from major pollution sources. During periods in which the contribution of biomass burning sources was dominant, more than 80 % of particle number concentration remained after passing through the thermodenuder, suggesting that nearly all biomass burning particles had a nonvolatile core. These remaining particles consisted mostly of black carbon (60 % mass contribution) and organic aerosol (OA; 40 %). Organics that had not evaporated through the TD were mostly biomass burning OA (BBOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) as determined from AMS source apportionment analysis. For periods during which traffic contribution was dominant 50-60 % of the particles had a nonvolatile core while the rest evaporated at 400 °C. The remaining particle mass consisted mostly of black carbon with an 80 % contribution, while OA was responsible for another 15-20 %. Organics were mostly hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and OOA. These results suggest that even at 400 °C some fraction of the OA does not evaporate from particles emitted from common combustion processes, such as biomass burning and car engines, indicating that a fraction of this type of OA

  3. Measurement of non-volatile particle number size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkatzelis, G. I.; Papanastasiou, D. K.; Florou, K.; Kaltsonoudis, C.; Louvaris, E.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-06-01

    An experimental methodology was developed to measure the non-volatile particle number concentration using a thermodenuder (TD). The TD was coupled with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, measuring the chemical composition and mass size distribution of the submicrometer aerosol and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) that provided the number size distribution of the aerosol in the range from 10 to 500 nm. The method was evaluated with a set of smog chamber experiments and achieved almost complete evaporation (> 98 %) of secondary organic as well as freshly nucleated particles, using a TD temperature of 400 °C and a centerline residence time of 15 s. This experimental approach was applied in a winter field campaign in Athens and provided a direct measurement of number concentration and size distribution for particles emitted from major pollution sources. During periods in which the contribution of biomass burning sources was dominant, more than 80 % of particle number concentration remained after passing through the thermodenuder, suggesting that nearly all biomass burning particles had a non-volatile core. These remaining particles consisted mostly of black carbon (60 % mass contribution) and organic aerosol, OA (40 %). Organics that had not evaporated through the TD were mostly biomass burning OA (BBOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) as determined from AMS source apportionment analysis. For periods during which traffic contribution was dominant 50-60 % of the particles had a non-volatile core while the rest evaporated at 400 °C. The remaining particle mass consisted mostly of black carbon (BC) with an 80 % contribution, while OA was responsible for another 15-20 %. Organics were mostly hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and OOA. These results suggest that even at 400 °C some fraction of the OA does not evaporate from particles emitted from common combustion processes, such as biomass burning and car engines, indicating that a fraction of this type

  4. Characterization of submicron aerosols at a suburban site in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingqing; Zhao, Jian; Du, Wei; Ana, Godson; Wang, Zhenzhu; Sun, Lu; Wang, Yuying; Zhang, Fang; Li, Zhanqing; Ye, Xingnan; Sun, Yele

    2016-04-01

    We have characterized the chemical composition and sources of submicron aerosol (PM1) at a suburban site in Xinzhou in central China using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor from July 17 to September 5, 2014. The average (±1σ) PM1 concentration was 35.4 (±20.8) μg/m3 for the entire study period, indicating that Xinzhou was less polluted compared to the megacities in the North China Plain (NCP). The PM1 was mainly composed of organic aerosol and sulfate, on average accounting for 33.1% and 32.4%, respectively, followed by nitrate (14.4%) and ammonium (11.8%). Higher sulfate and lower nitrate contributions than those in megacities in the NCP elucidated an important emission source of coal combustion in central China. Three organic aerosol (OA) factors, i.e., hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) and low-volatility OOA (LV-OOA), were identified using positive matrix factorization. Secondary OA (=SV-OOA + LV-OOA) dominated OA, on average accounting for 82%, indicating that OA at the Xinzhou site was overall oxidized. We also observed relatively similar aerosol bulk composition and OA composition at low and high mass loading periods, and also from the different source areas, indicating that aerosol species were homogeneously distributed over a regional scale near the site for most of the time during this study. Slightly higher mass concentrations and sulfate contributions from the southern air masses were likely due to the transport from the polluted cities, such as Taiyuan to the south. In addition, the daily variation of PM1 in Xinzhou resembled that observed in Beijing, indicating that the wide-scale regional haze pollution often influences both the NCP and the central China.

  5. High Anti-Dengue Virus Activity of the OAS Gene Family Is Associated With Increased Severity of Dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Lin, Ren-Jye; Kalayanarooj, Sita Mint; Chuansumrit, Ampaiwan; Casademont, Isabelle; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Yu, Han-Pang; Lert-Itthiporn, Worachart; Chaiyaratana, Wathanee; Tangthawornchaikul, Nattaya; Tangnararatchakit, Kanchana; Vasanawathana, Sirijitt; Chang, Bi-Lan; Suriyaphol, Prapat; Yoksan, Sutee; Malasit, Prida; Despres, Philipe; Paul, Richard; Lin, Yi-Ling; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj

    2015-12-15

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that afflicts millions of individuals worldwide every year. Infection by any of the 4 dengue virus (DENV) serotypes can result in a spectrum of disease severity. We investigated the impact of variants of interferon-regulated innate immunity genes with a potent antiviral effect on the outcome of DENV infection. We compared the effect of OAS gene family variants on 2 DENV serotypes in cell culture. While both OAS1-p42 and p46 showed antiviral activity against DENV-2, only OAS1-p42 presented anti-DENV-1 activity. Conversely, whereas both OAS3_S381 and R381 variants were able to block DENV-1 infection, the anti-DENV-2 activity observed for OAS3_S381 was largely lost for the R381 variant. By means of an allelic association study of a cohort of 740 patients with dengue, we found a protective effect of OAS3_R381 against shock (odds ratio [OR], 0.37; P dengue has long been associated with a cytokine storm of unclear origin. This work identifies an early innate immunity process that could lead to the immune overreaction observed in severe dengue and could be triggered by a specific host genotype-pathogen genotype interaction.

  6. Luminescent properties of Eu(OA)3(TTA)/NBR composites prepared by in-situ reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shui; WEN Shipeng; WU Weidong; LIU Li

    2013-01-01

    Eu(OA)3(TTA) (OA=cis-9-octadecenoic acid,TTA=4,4,4-trifluoro-l-(2-thienyl)-l,3-butanedione) complexes (Eu-complexes) containing the ligand OA with long molecular chains were synthesized.The Eu(OA)3(TTA) complexes and peroxide were added into nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) by mechanical shearing to get the uncured composites.The cured composites were obtained by vulcanizing the uncured composites at high temperature.The in-situ reaction including polymerization and grafting of Eu-complex took place at the curing process,which was verified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations showed the fine dispersion of Eu(OA)3(TTA) complex (Eu-complex) in the cured composites compared with the uncured ones.Fluorescent spectra and Judd-Ofelt parameters analysis revealed that the fluorescent intensity increased approximate linearly with the content of Eucomplex increasing due to the in-situ reaction and long molecular chains of OA.The fluorescent lifetime of composites was longer than that of original Eu-complexes.

  7. Seasonal Variations of High Time-Resolved Chemical Compositions, Sources and Evolution for Atmospheric Submicron Aerosols in the Megacity of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min; Hu, Wei; Hu, Weiwei; Zheng, Jing; Guo, Song; Wu, Yusheng; Lu, Sihua; Zeng, Limin

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to investigate aerosol secondary formation and aging process in the megacity of Beijing. Seasonal intensive campaigns were conducted from March 2012 to March 2013 at an urban site located at the campus of Peking University (116.31° E, 37.99° N). An Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-AMS) and other relevant instrumentations for gaseous and particulate pollutants were deployed. The average submicron aerosol (PM1) mass concentrations were 45.1 ± 45.8, 37.5 ± 31.0, 41.3 ± 42.7 and 81.7 ± 72.4 μg m-3 in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. Organic matter was the most abundant component, accounting for 31%, 33%, 44% and 36% in PM1 correspondingly, followed by sulfate and nitrate. Distinct seasonal and diurnal patterns of the components of PM1 tracking primary sources (e.g., BC and HOA) and secondary formation (e.g., sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, LV-OOA and SV-OOA) were significantly influenced by primary emissions and mesoscale meteorology. Combining positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis with the mass spectrometry of organics measured by AMS, the contributions of primary and secondary sources to submicron organic aerosols (OA) were apportioned. In spring and summer, the primary sources were hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and cooking OA (COA), and the secondary components were low volatility (LV-OOA) and semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA). In winter biomass burning OA (BBOA) was also resolved. In autumn, four factors were resolved, that is, OOA, HOA, COA and BBOA. In general, OOA (sum of LV-OOA and SV-OOA) was important in OA in four seasons, accounting for about 63%, 70%, 47% and 50%, respectively. SV-OOA dominated OA in summer (44%) due to the fresh secondary formation from strong photochemical oxidations; whereas, LV-OOA was dominant in OA in winter (33%), maybe because the transported air masses were more aged in heavily polluted days. The POA (sum of HOA, COA and BBOA) in OA was dominant in

  8. Semi-Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers of Knee Osteoarthritis Progression: Data from the FNIH OA Biomarkers Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jamie E.; Losina, Elena; Nevitt, Michael C.; Roemer, Frank W.; Guermazi, Ali; Lynch, John A.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Kwoh, C. Kent; Kraus, Virginia B.; Hunter, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between changes in semi-quantitative knee MRI biomarkers over 24 months and radiographic and pain progression over 48 months in knees with mild to moderate osteoarthritis. Methods We undertook a nested case-control study as part of the Osteoarthritis Biomarkers Consortium Project. We built multivariable logistic regression models to examine the association between change over 24 months in semi-quantitative MR imaging markers and knee OA radiographic and pain progression. MRIs were read according to the MRI Osteoarthritis Knee Score (MOAKS) scoring system. We focused on changes in cartilage, osteophytes, meniscus, bone marrow lesions, Hoffa-synovitis, and synovitis-effusion. Results The most parsimonious model included changes in cartilage thickness and surface area, synovitis-effusion, Hoffa-synovitis, and meniscal morphology (C-statistic =0.740). Subjects with worsening cartilage thickness in 3+ subregions vs. no worsening had 2.8-fold (95% CI: 1.3 – 5.9) greater odds of being a case while subjects with worsening in cartilage surface area in 3+ subregions vs. no worsening had 2.4-fold (95% CI: 1.3 – 4.4) greater odds of being a case. Having worsening in any region in meniscal morphology was associated with a 2.2-fold (95%CI: 1.3 – 3.8) greater odds of being a case. Worsening synovitis-effusion (OR=2.7) and Hoffa-synovitis (OR=2.0) were also associated with greater odds of being a case. Conclusion Twenty-four-month change in cartilage thickness, cartilage surface area, synovitis-effusion, Hoffa-synovitis, and meniscal morphology were independently associated with OA progression, suggesting that they may serve as efficacy biomarkers in clinical trials of disease modifying interventions for knee OA. PMID:27111771

  9. Evolution of organic aerosol mass spectra upon heating: implications for OA phase and partitioning behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    UC Davis; Cappa, Christopher D.; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2010-10-28

    Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry has been used to measure the evolution of chemical composition for two distinct organic aerosol types as they are passed through a thermodenuder at different temperatures. The two organic aerosol types considered are primary lubricating oil (LO) aerosol and secondary aerosol from the alpha-pinene + O3 reaction (alphaP). The evolution of the VUV mass spectra for the two aerosol types with temperature are observed to differ dramatically. For LO particles, the spectra exhibit distinct changes with temperature in which the lower m/z peaks, corresponding to compounds with higher vapor pressures, disappear more rapidly than the high m/z peaks. In contrast, the alphaP aerosol spectrum is essentially unchanged by temperature even though the particles experience significant mass loss due to evaporation. The variations in the LO spectra are found to be quantitatively in agreement with expectations from absorptive partitioning theory whereas the alphaP spectra suggest that the evaporation of alphaP derived aerosol appears to not be governed by partitioning theory. We postulate that this difference arises from the alphaP particles existing as in a glassy state instead of having the expected liquid-like behavior. To reconcile these observations with decades of aerosol growth measurements, which indicate that OA formation is described by equilibrium partitioning, we present a conceptual model wherein the secondary OA is formed and then rapidly converted from an absorbing form to a non-absorbing form. The results suggest that although OA growth may be describable by equilibrium partitioning theory, the properties of organic aerosol once formed may differ significantly from the properties determined in the equilibrium framework.

  10. Evolution of organic aerosol mass spectra upon heating: implications for OA phase and partitioning behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    UC Davis; Cappa, Christopher D.; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2010-10-28

    Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry has been used to measure the evolution of chemical composition for two distinct organic aerosol types as they are passed through a thermodenuder at different temperatures. The two organic aerosol types considered are primary lubricating oil (LO) aerosol and secondary aerosol from the alpha-pinene + O3 reaction (alphaP). The evolution of the VUV mass spectra for the two aerosol types with temperature are observed to differ dramatically. For LO particles, the spectra exhibit distinct changes with temperature in which the lower m/z peaks, corresponding to compounds with higher vapor pressures, disappear more rapidly than the high m/z peaks. In contrast, the alphaP aerosol spectrum is essentially unchanged by temperature even though the particles experience significant mass loss due to evaporation. The variations in the LO spectra are found to be quantitatively in agreement with expectations from absorptive partitioning theory whereas the alphaP spectra suggest that the evaporation of alphaP derived aerosol appears to not be governed by partitioning theory. We postulate that this difference arises from the alphaP particles existing as in a glassy state instead of having the expected liquid-like behavior. To reconcile these observations with decades of aerosol growth measurements, which indicate that OA formation is described by equilibrium partitioning, we present a conceptual model wherein the secondary OA is formed and then rapidly converted from an absorbing form to a non-absorbing form. The results suggest that although OA growth may be describable by equilibrium partitioning theory, the properties of organic aerosol once formed may differ significantly from the properties determined in the equilibrium framework.

  11. Lattice renormalization of O(a) improved heavy-light operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossier, Benoît

    2007-12-01

    The analytical expressions and the numerical values of the renormalization constants of O(a) improved static-light currents are given at one-loop order of perturbation theory in the framework of heavy quark effective theory: the static quark is described by the HYP action and the light quark is described either with the Clover or the Neuberger action. These factors are relevant to extract from a lattice computation the decay constants fB, fBS and the set of bag parameters Bi associated with B-B¯ mixing phenomenology in the standard model and beyond.

  12. Lattice renormalisation of O(a) improved heavy-light operators

    CERN Document Server

    Blossier, Benoit

    2007-01-01

    Analytical expressions and numerical values of renormalisation constants of ${\\cal O}(a)$ improved heavy-light currents are given at 1-loop order of perturbation theory in the framework of Heavy Quark Effective Theory: the heavy quark is described by the HYP action and the light quark is described either with the Clover or the Neuberger action. These factors are relevant to extract from a lattice computation the decay constants $f_B$, $f_{B_S}$ and the set of bag parameters $B_i$ associated with $B-\\bar{B}$ mixing phenomenology in the Standard Model and beyond.

  13. O(a^2) cutoff effects in lattice Wilson fermion simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, P; Michael, C; Rossi, G C; Urbach, C

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose to interpret the large discretization artifacts affecting the neutral pion mass in maximally twisted lattice QCD simulations as O(a^2) effects whose magnitude is roughly proportional to the modulus square of the (continuum) matrix element of the pseudoscalar density operator between vacuum and one-pion state. The numerical size of this quantity is determined by the dynamical mechanism of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and turns out to be substantially larger than its natural magnitude set by the value of Lambda_QCD.

  14. Automatic O(a) improvement for twisted mass QCD in the presence of spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Sinya; Bär, Oliver

    2006-08-01

    In this paper we present a proof for automatic O(a) improvement in twisted mass lattice QCD at maximal twist, which uses only the symmetries of the leading part in the Symanzik effective action. In the process of the proof we clarify that the twist angle is dynamically determined by vacuum expectation values in the Symanzik theory. For maximal twist according to this definition, we show that scaling violations of all quantities which have nonzero values in the continuum limit are even in a. In addition, using Wilson chiral perturbation theory, we investigate this definition for maximal twist and compare it to other definitions which were already employed in actual simulations.

  15. Histone Modification Is Involved in Okadaic Acid (OA Induced DNA Damage Response and G2-M Transition Arrest in Maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    Full Text Available Histone modifications are involved in regulation of chromatin structure. To investigate the relationship between chromatin modification and cell cycle regulation during plant cell proliferation, Okadaic acid (OA, a specific inhibitor of serine/threonine protein phosphatase, was applied in this study. The results showed that OA caused the cell cycle arrest at preprophase, leading to seedling growth inhibition. Western blotting assay revealed that the spatial distribution of phosphorylation of Ser10 histone H3 tails (H3S10ph signals was altered under OA treatment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS was found to be at higher levels and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay displayed DNA breaks happened at the chromatin after treatment with OA, companied with an increase in the acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 5 (H4K5ac level. From these observations, we speculated that the alteration of the spatial distribution of H3S10ph and the level of H4K5ac was involved in the procedure that OA induced DNA breaks and G2-M arrested by the accumulation of ROS, and that the histone H3S10ph and H4K5ac might facilitate DNA repair by their association with the chromatin decondensation.

  16. Insights on organic aerosol aging and the influence of coal combustion at a regional receptor site of central eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. W. Hu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the aging and processing of organic aerosols (OA, an intensive field campaign (Campaign of Air Pollution at Typical Coastal Areas IN Eastern China, CAPTAIN was conducted March–April at a receptor site (a Changdao island in central eastern China. Multiple fast aerosol and gas measurement instruments were used during the campaign, including a high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS that was applied to measure mass concentrations and non-refractory chemical components of submicron particles (PM1nr. The average mass concentration of PM1(PM1nr+black carbon was 47 ± 36 μg m−3 during the campaign and showed distinct variation, depending on back trajectories and their overlap with source regions. Organic aerosol (OA is the largest component of PM1 (30%, followed by nitrate (28%, sulfate (19%, ammonium (15%, black carbon (6%, and chloride (3%. Four OA components were resolved by positive matrix factorization (PMF of the high-resolution spectra, including low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA, semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA, hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA and a coal combustion OA (CCOA. The mass spectrum of CCOA had high abundance of fragments from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs (m/z 128, 152, 178, etc.. The average atomic ratio of oxygen to carbon in OA (O / C at Changdao was 0.59, which is comparable to other field studies reported at locations downwind of large pollution sources, indicating the oxidized nature of most OA during the campaign. The evolution of OA elemental composition in the van Krevelen diagram (H / C vs. O / C showed a slope of −0.63; however, the OA influenced by coal combustion exhibits a completely different evolution that appears dominated by physical mixing. The aging of organic aerosols vs. photochemical age was investigated. It was shown that OA / ΔCO, as well as LV-OOA / ΔCO and SV-OOA / ΔCO, positively correlated with photochemical age. LV

  17. Melanoregulin, product of the dsu locus, links the BLOC-pathway and OA1 in organelle biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivka A Rachel

    Full Text Available Humans with Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome (HPS or ocular albinism (OA1 display abnormal aspects of organelle biogenesis. The multigenic disorder HPS displays broad defects in biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles including melanosomes, platelet dense granules, and lysosomes. A phenotype of ocular pigmentation in OA1 is a smaller number of macromelanosomes, in contrast to HPS, where in many cases the melanosomes are smaller than normal. In these studies we define the role of the Mreg(dsu gene, which suppresses the coat color dilution of Myo5a, melanophilin, and Rab27a mutant mice in maintaining melanosome size and distribution. We show that the product of the Mreg(dsu locus, melanoregulin (MREG, interacts both with members of the HPS BLOC-2 complex and with Oa1 in regulating melanosome size. Loss of MREG function facilitates increase in the size of micromelanosomes in the choroid of the HPS BLOC-2 mutants ruby, ruby2, and cocoa, while a transgenic mouse overexpressing melanoregulin corrects the size of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE macromelanosomes in Oa1(ko/ko mice. Collectively, these results suggest that MREG levels regulate pigment incorporation into melanosomes. Immunohistochemical analysis localizes melanoregulin not to melanosomes, but to small vesicles in the cytoplasm of the RPE, consistent with a role for this protein in regulating membrane interactions during melanosome biogenesis. These results provide the first link between the BLOC pathway and Oa1 in melanosome biogenesis, thus supporting the hypothesis that intracellular G-protein coupled receptors may be involved in the biogenesis of other organelles. Furthermore these studies provide the foundation for therapeutic approaches to correct the pigment defects in the RPE of HPS and OA1.

  18. Bat Mx1 and Oas1, but not Pkr are highly induced by bat interferon and viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Cowled, Christopher; Wang, Lin-Fa; Baker, Michelle L

    2013-01-01

    Bats harbour many emerging and re-emerging viruses, several of which are highly pathogenic in other mammals but cause no diseases in bats. As the interferon (IFN) response represents a first line of defence against viral infection, the ability of bats to control viral replication may be linked to the activation of the IFN system. The three most studied antiviral IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) in other mammals; Pkr, Mx1 and Oas1 were examined in our model bat species, Pteropus alecto. Our results demonstrate that the three ISGs from P. alecto are highly conserved in their functional domains and promoter elements compared to corresponding genes from other mammals. However, P. alecto Oas1 contains two IFN-stimulated response elements (ISRE) in its promoter region compared with the single ISRE present in human OAS1 which may lead to higher IFN inducibility of the bat gene. Both Oas1 and Mx1 were induced in a highly IFN-dependent manner following stimulation with IFN or synthetic double-strand RNA (dsRNA) whereas Pkr showed evidence of being induced in an IFN-independent manner. Furthermore, bat Oas1 appeared to be the most inducible of the three ISGs following either IFN stimulation or viral infection, providing evidence that Oas1 may play a more important role in antiviral activity in bats compared with Mx1 or Pkr. Our results have important implications for the different roles of ISGs in bats and provide the first step in understanding the role of these molecules in the ability of bats to coexist with viruses.

  19. Characterization of a prawn OA/TA receptor in Xenopus oocytes suggests functional selectivity between octopamine and tyramine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami H Jezzini

    Full Text Available Here we report the characterization of an octopamine/tyramine (OA/TA or TyrR1 receptor (OA/TAMac cloned from the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, an animal used in the study of agonistic social behavior. The invertebrate OA/TA receptors are seven trans-membrane domain G-protein coupled receptors that are related to vertebrate adrenergic receptors. Behavioral studies in arthropods indicate that octopaminergic signaling systems modulate fight or flight behaviors with octopamine and/or tyramine functioning in a similar way to the adrenalins in vertebrate systems. Despite the importance of octopamine signaling in behavioral studies of decapod crustaceans there are no functional data available for any of their octopamine or tyramine receptors. We expressed OA/TAMac in Xenopus oocytes where agonist-evoked trans-membrane currents were used as readouts of receptor activity. The currents were most effectively evoked by tyramine but were also evoked by octopamine and dopamine. They were effectively blocked by yohimbine. The electrophysiological approach we used enabled the continuous observation of complex dynamics over time. Using voltage steps, we were able to simultaneously resolve two types of endogenous currents that are affected over different time scales. At higher concentrations we observe that octopamine and tyramine can produce different and opposing effects on both of these currents, presumably through the activity of the single expressed receptor type. The pharmacological profile and apparent functional-selectivity are consistent with properties first observed in the OA/TA receptor from the insect Drosophila melanogaster. As the first functional data reported for any crustacean OA/TA receptor, these results suggest that functional-selectivity between tyramine and octopamine is a feature of this receptor type that may be conserved among arthropods.

  20. Apis mellifera octopamine receptor 1 (AmOA1) expression in antennal lobe networks of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) and fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinakevitch, Irina T; Smith, Adrian N; Locatelli, Fernando; Huerta, Ramon; Bazhenov, Maxim; Smith, Brian H

    2013-01-01

    Octopamine (OA) underlies reinforcement during appetitive conditioning in the honey bee and fruit fly, acting via different subtypes of receptors. Recently, antibodies raised against a peptide sequence of one honey bee OA receptor, AmOA1, were used to study the distribution of these receptors in the honey bee brain (Sinakevitch et al., 2011). These antibodies also recognize an isoform of the AmOA1 ortholog in the fruit fly (OAMB, mushroom body OA receptor). Here we describe in detail the distribution of AmOA1 receptors in different types of neurons in the honey bee and fruit fly antennal lobes. We integrate this information into a detailed anatomical analysis of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), uni- and multi-glomerular projection neurons (uPNs, and mPNs) and local interneurons (LNs) in glomeruli of the antennal lobe. These neurons were revealed by dye injection into the antennal nerve, antennal lobe, medial and lateral antenno-protocerbral tracts (m-APT and l-APT), and lateral protocerebral lobe (LPL) by use of labeled cell lines in the fruit fly or by staining with anti-GABA. We found that ORN receptor terminals and uPNs largely do not show immunostaining for AmOA1. About seventeen GABAergic mPNs leave the antennal lobe through the ml-APT and branch into the LPL. Many, but not all, mPNs show staining for AmOA1. AmOA1 receptors are also in glomeruli on GABAergic processes associated with LNs. The data suggest that in both species one important action of OA in the antennal lobe involves modulation of different types of inhibitory neurons via AmOA1 receptors. We integrated this new information into a model of circuitry within glomeruli of the antennal lobes of these species.

  1. Quenched QCD with O(a) improvement; 1, the spectrum of light hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, K C; Kenway, R D; Richards, D G; Rowland, P A; Ryan, S M; Simma, H; Michael, C; Shanahan, H P; Wittig, H

    2000-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the masses of pseudoscalar and vector mesons, as well as octet and decuplet baryons computed in O(a) improved quenched lattice QCD. Results have been obtained using the non-perturbative definition of the improvement coefficient c_sw, and also its estimate in tadpole improved perturbation theory. We investigate effects of improvement on the incidence of exceptional configurations, mass splittings and the parameter J. By combining the results obtained using non-perturbative and tadpole improvement in a simultaneous continuum extrapolation we can compare our spectral data to experiment. We confirm earlier findings by the CP-PACS Collaboration that the quenched light hadron spectrum agrees with experiment at the 10% level.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF IN VIVO MECHANICAL MUSCLE FUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH OSTEOARTHRITIS (OA) OF THE HIP; RELIABILITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten; Overgaard, Søren; Aagaard, Per

    2009-01-01

    -joint strength and power a novel setup. MATERIAL AND METHODS Isokinetic contractions for both knee and hip muscles were performed. Reliability for isometric muscle contractions in vivo was recorded and evaluated by use of within subject variability (CVW-S), Spearman correlation and Limits of Agreement (Lo......INTRODUCTION Muscle function in patients with hip OA is not well-studied. We established a new setup of tests in order to monitor patients before and after surgery with total hip arthroplasty (THA). A test-retest protocol was designed to evaluate the reproducibility of single- and multi......A). Both explosive muscle force characteristics (Rate of force development) and maximal isometric force (MVC) were obtained for the affected (aff) and non-affected (n-aff) leg (only data MVC for affected side in this abstract). 20 patients, (age 55.9 ± 4.8; height 174 ± 8; BMI 27.1 ± 4.5) with unilateral...

  3. Global genetic variation at OAS1 provides evidence of archaic admixture in Melanesian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Fernando L; Watkins, Joseph C; Hammer, Michael F

    2012-06-01

    Recent analysis of DNA extracted from two Eurasian forms of archaic human shows that more genetic variants are shared with humans currently living in Eurasia than with anatomically modern humans in sub-Saharan Africa. Although these genome-wide average measures of genetic similarity are consistent with the hypothesis of archaic admixture in Eurasia, analyses of individual loci exhibiting the signal of archaic introgression are needed to test alternative hypotheses and investigate the admixture process. Here, we provide a detailed sequence analysis of the innate immune gene OAS1, a locus with a divergent Melanesian haplotype that is very similar to the Denisova sequence from the Altai region of Siberia. We resequenced a 7-kb region encompassing the OAS1 gene in 88 individuals from six Old World populations (San, Biaka, Mandenka, French Basque, Han Chinese, and Papua New Guineans) and discovered previously unknown and ancient genetic variation. The 5' region of this gene has unusual patterns of diversity, including 1) higher levels of nucleotide diversity in Papuans than in sub-Saharan Africans, 2) very deep ancestry with an estimated time to the most recent common ancestor of >3 myr, and 3) a basal branching pattern with Papuan individuals on either side of the rooted network. A global geographic survey of >1,500 individuals showed that the divergent Papuan haplotype is nearly restricted to populations from eastern Indonesia and Melanesia. Polymorphic sites within this haplotype are shared with the draft Denisova genome over a span of ∼90 kb and are associated with an extended block of linkage disequilibrium, supporting the hypothesis that this haplotype introgressed from an archaic source that likely lived in Eurasia.

  4. Test-retest reliability of maximal leg muscle power and functional performance measures in patients with severe osteoarthritis (OA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Allan; Roos, Ewa M.; Overgaard, Søren

    Abstract : Purpose To evaluate the reliability of single-joint and multi-joint maximal leg muscle power and functional performance measures in patients with severe OA. Background Muscle power, taking both strength and velocity into account, is a more functional measure of lower extremity muscle a...

  5. Well-being among older adults with OA: direct and mediated patterns of control beliefs, optimism and pessimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Aurora M; Cotter, Kelly A

    2013-01-01

    To assess the contribution of important psychological resources (i.e. optimism, pessimism, control beliefs) to the psychological well-being of older adults with Osteoarthritis (OA); to assess the direct and mediated association of these psychosocial resources to outcomes (depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, and self-esteem). These objectives are important because OA is a significant stressor, treatments are limited, and psychological functioning is at risk for those coping with the condition, even compared to other chronic illnesses. A cross-sectional survey of 160 community-dwelling older adults with OA (81% women). Participants were not randomly selected, but nonetheless reflected the demographic makeup of the selection area. Ordinary least squares regression analyses using the PROCESS macro revealed that optimism and pessimism were associated with higher depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem indirectly through constraints beliefs. The analysis of life satisfaction showed that optimism and pessimism were each partially mediated through mastery and constraints beliefs. These results suggest that prior research, which has assessed these psychological resources as having singular relationships to outcomes, may have underestimated the importance of the relationship between these variables. We discuss possible points of intervention for older adults with OA who may experience increasing constraints beliefs over time.

  6. Ocean acidification effects on Caribbean scleractinian coral calcification using a recirculating system: a novel approach to OA research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projected increases in ocean pCO2 levels are likely to affect calcifying organisms more rapidly and to a greater extent than any other marine organisms. The effects of ocean acidification (OA) has been documented in numerous species of corals in both laboratory and field studies....

  7. Postgraduate education to increase adherence to a Dutch physiotherapy practice guideline for hip and knee OA: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, W.F.; Wees, P.J. van der; Verhoef, J.; Jong, Z. de; Bodegom-Vos, L. van; Hilberdink, W.K.H.A.; Fiocco, M.; Vliet Vlieland, T.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of two educational courses aiming to improve adherence to recommendations in a Dutch physiotherapy practice guideline for hip and knee OA. METHODS: Physiotherapists (PTs) from three regions in The Netherlands were invited to participate in a study comparing an

  8. 41 CFR 102-85.70 - Are the standard OA terms appropriate for non-cancelable space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Occupancy Agreement § 102-85.70 Are the standard OA... cancel upon a 4-month (120 day) notice is not available. See § 102-85.35 for the definition of...

  9. Ocean acidification effects on Caribbean scleractinian coral calcification using a recirculating system: a novel approach to OA research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projected increases in ocean pCO2 levels are likely to affect calcifying organisms more rapidly and to a greater extent than any other marine organisms. The effects of ocean acidification (OA) has been documented in numerous species of corals in both laboratory and field studies....

  10. Well-Being among Older Adults with OA: Direct and Mediated Patterns of Control Beliefs, Optimism and Pessimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Aurora M.; Cotter, Kelly A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the contribution of important psychological resources (i.e., optimism, pessimism, control beliefs) to the psychological well-being of older adults with Osteoarthritis (OA); to assess the direct and mediated association of these psychosocial resources to outcomes (depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, and self-esteem). These objectives are important because OA is a significant stressor, treatments are limited, and psychological functioning is at risk for those coping with the condition, even compared to other chronic illnesses. Method A cross-sectional survey of 160 community-dwelling older adults with OA (81% women). Participants were not randomly selected, but nonetheless reflected the demographic makeup of the selection area. Results Ordinary least squares regression analyses using the PROCESS macro (Hayes, 2012) revealed that optimism and pessimism were associated with higher depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem indirectly through constraints beliefs. The analysis of life satisfaction showed that optimism and pessimism were each partially mediated through mastery and constraints beliefs. Discussion These results suggest that prior research, which has assessed these psychological resources as having singular relationships to outcomes, may have underestimated the importance of the relationship between these variables. We discuss possible points of intervention for older adults with OA who may experience increasing constraints beliefs over time. PMID:23418813

  11. The effect of either topical menthol or a placebo on functioning and knee pain among patients with knee OA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, Robert; Brosky, Joseph A; Pieschel, David

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common health problem with symptoms including reduced functioning and joint pain. Protracted pharmacological management of knee OA is associated with side effects including gastrointestinal, renal, and neurological dysfunction. Menthol gels have been used with limited empirical support to relieve pain and improve functioning among individual with OA. The purpose of this study was to compare the ability to complete functional tasks and knee pain while completing functional tasks among patients with knee OA after topical application of either 3.5% menthol gel or an inert placebo gel. Twenty individuals with knee OA volunteered to complete 2 data collection visits 1 week apart. Subjects underwent the same data collection at each visit including the performance of functional tasks and self-reporting knee pain while performing each task. The functional tasks included a 6-Minute Walk (6-MW), the Timed Get Up and Go (TUG), 30-second timed chair stand (TCS), and time to ascend (Up stairs) and descend (Down stairs) a flight of stairs. Subjects reported their knee pain immediately following each functional task using a 100-mm visual analog scale. These assessments of pain and functioning were measured twice at each subject visit: upon arrival at the facility without any intervention and again during the same visit after random application to the OA knee of 5 mL of 3.5% menthol gel or 5 mL of an inert gel. There were no significant between-group differences or time by treatment interaction in performance of any of the functional tasks, or measures of pain, at any of the data collection time points. However, there were significant within-group differences. Scores on the 6-MW, TCS, and Down stairs functional tasks improved significantly following the application of menthol gel. Scores on the Down stairs functional task improved significantly following application of the placebo gel. The menthol intervention resulted in significant reductions in pain

  12. Volatility of organic aerosol and its components in the megacity of Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciga, Andrea; Karnezi, Eleni; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Hildebrandt, Lea; Psichoudaki, Magda; Engelhart, Gabriella J.; Lee, Byong-Hyoek; Crippa, Monica; Prévôt, André S. H.; Baltensperger, Urs; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2016-02-01

    Using a mass transfer model and the volatility basis set, we estimate the volatility distribution for the organic aerosol (OA) components during summer and winter in Paris, France as part of the collaborative project MEGAPOLI. The concentrations of the OA components as a function of temperature were measured combining data from a thermodenuder and an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) with Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis. The hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) had similar volatility distributions for the summer and winter campaigns with half of the material in the saturation concentration bin of 10 µg m-3 and another 35-40 % consisting of low and extremely low volatility organic compounds (LVOCs with effective saturation concentrations C* of 10-3-0.1 µg m-3 and ELVOCs C* less or equal than 10-4 µg m-3, respectively). The winter cooking OA (COA) was more than an order of magnitude less volatile than the summer COA. The low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA) factor detected in the summer had the lowest volatility of all the derived factors and consisted almost exclusively of ELVOCs. The volatility for the semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) was significantly higher than that of the LV-OOA, containing both semi-volatile organic components (SVOCs with C* in the 1-100 µg m-3 range) and LVOCs. The oxygenated OA (OOA) factor in winter consisted of SVOCs (45 %), LVOCs (25 %) and ELVOCs (30 %). The volatility of marine OA (MOA) was higher than that of the other factors containing around 60 % SVOCs. The biomass burning OA (BBOA) factor contained components with a wide range of volatilities with significant contributions from both SVOCs (50 %) and LVOCs (30 %). Finally, combining the bulk average O : C ratios and volatility distributions of the various factors, our results are placed into the two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS) framework. The OA factors cover a broad spectrum of volatilities with no direct link between the average volatility and

  13. Design of OA Journals Knowledge Self-organizing System%OA期刊知识自组织系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛海波

    2015-01-01

    Using the methods and principles of knowledge organization, incorporating OA repository requirements, the self-organizing system for OA journals knowledge is designed. The system has 4 parts such as knowledge organization tools, OA journals resource harves-ting, OA journals knowledge self-organization and OA journals knowledge organization exhibiting. In this mode, with the subject taxono-my to build OA journals knowledge organization system, automatic harvesting OA journals resources through web spider, OA journals dis-cipline indexing and knowledge organization achieved through word processing, feature word selection and feature weighting calculation. Finally, combination of navigation tree and metadata organization is used to exhibit the OA journals.%运用知识组织的方法和原理,结合OA期刊资源库的建设需求,对OA期刊知识自动组织的系统进行设计,该系统分为知识组织工具、OA期刊资源收割、OA期刊知识自组织和OA期刊知识组织展示四部分。在该模式下,用学科分类法作为OA期刊知识组织体系,通过网络蜘蛛实现OA期刊资源的自动收割,通过分词处理、特征词选择和特征词权重计算实现OA期刊学科标引和知识组织,最后用导航目录树与元数据组织相结合的方式来展现OA期刊。

  14. BOREAS TE-1 CH4 Flux Data Over The SSA-OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Darwin; Papagno, Andrea; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-1 team collected various data to characterize the soil-plant systems in the BOREAS SSA. Particular emphasis was placed on nutrient biochemistry, the stores and transfers of organic carbon, and how the characteristics were related to measured methane fluxes. The overall transect in the Prince Albert National Park (Saskatchewan, Canada) included the major plant communities and related soils that occurred in that section of the boreal forest. Soil physical, chemical, and biological measurements along the transect were used to characterize the static environment, which allowed them to be related to methane fluxes. Chamber techniques were used to provide a measure of methane production/uptake. Chamber measurements coupled with flask sampling were used to determine the seasonality of methane fluxes. This particular data set contains methane flux and soil profile methane concentration values from the SSA-OA site. The data were collected from 29-May to 17-Sep-1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  15. Orientatio ad Sidera (OAS): a comprehensive project for cultural astronomy research in ancient Mediterranean cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio; César González-García, A.; Rodríguez-Antón, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    During the last decade (starting in 2005), the OAS Project has been run, with the support of the Spanish research agencies. Within its framework, research on cultural astronomy has been developed for a series of ancient cultures from the Atlantic Islands to the Arabian Peninsula with the Meditterranean Sea as the pricipal axis of the project. A catalogue of studies has been performed in a set of cultures such as the Megalithic Phenomenon, ancient Egypt, Middle East Bronze and Iron Age civilizations and the Roman World, among many others. In this essay a general scope of the project and a series of most interesting outcomes will be presented. The evolutionary ties of the megalithic monuments of the Iberian Peninsula and elsewhere, the pattern of orientation of Egyptian temples and skyscaping practices within the Hittite, Commagenian or Nabataean cultures, among others, will be shown; finishing in a comprehensive, statistical and comparative study of the orientation patterns of thousands of ancient monuments of the Mediterranean region. Finally, a sketch of our most recent, still ongoing, research on the astronomical and non-astronomical practices used in the planning of cities in the Roman World will be a compelling and promising closing remark of our analysis.

  16. A CSCW SYSTEM FOR BUILDING REVIEWING BY INTEGRATING GIS WITH OA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The process of urban building reviewing is a collaborative work by a group of urban planning staffs and land managers who are working with different departments of a or ganization. There are three ingredients for improving the work efficiency, i. e., agile commu nication and interactive mechanisms, good information, effective processing and visualizing tools. In order to build a computer supported collaborative work (CSCW) system in Urban Planning and Land Administration Bureau in Changzhou Municipality, GIS was integrated with office automation (OA). The workflow and organizational structure had been re-engi neered to meet the requirement of application of the new technology. Federated databases were constructed by assembling disparate sources of heterogeneous spatial and attribute data. Easy access to the data by contents was developed for promoting information sharing within the organization. Specific desktop spatial data handling tools were provided for delineating land lots or building layouts on large-scale digital maps. Office automation functions, includ ing applications registering, reasonableness checking, opinions giving and exchanging, were developed and they permit printing and documents filing. The work efficiency in the organi zation has been improved by introducing the computer-based collaborative building reviewing system.

  17. Fabrication of low-cost Mod-OA wood composite wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, R. F.; Gougeon, M.; Thomas, G.; Zuteck, M.

    1983-02-01

    The wood composite blades were fabricated by using epoxy resin-bonded laminates of Douglas fir veneers for the leading edge spar sections and honeycomb-cored birch plywood panels for the blade trailing edge or afterbody sections. The blade was joined to the wind turbine hub assembly by epoxy resin-bonded steel load take-off studs. The wood composite blades were installed in the Mod-OA wind turbine test facility at Kahuku, Hawaii. The wood composite blades have successfully completed high power (average of 150 kW) operations for an eighteen month period (nearly 8,000 hr) before replacement with another set of wood composite blades. The original set of blades was taken out of service because of the failure of the shank on one stud. An inspection of the blades at NASA-Lewis showed that the shank failure was caused by a high stress concentration at a corrosion pit on the shank fillet radius which resulted in fatigue stresses in excess of the endurance limit.

  18. Urban increments of gaseous and aerosol pollutants and their sources using mobile aerosol mass spectrometry measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elser, Miriam; Bozzetti, Carlo; El-Haddad, Imad; Maasikmets, Marek; Teinemaa, Erik; Richter, Rene; Wolf, Robert; Slowik, Jay G.; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2016-06-01

    Air pollution is one of the main environmental concerns in urban areas, where anthropogenic emissions strongly affect air quality. This work presents the first spatially resolved detailed characterization of PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic equivalent diameter daero ≤ 2.5 µm) in two major Estonian cities, Tallinn and Tartu. The measurements were performed in March 2014 using a mobile platform. In both cities, the non-refractory (NR)-PM2.5 was characterized by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) using a recently developed lens which increases the transmission of super-micron particles. Equivalent black carbon (eBC) and several trace gases including carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) were also measured. The chemical composition of PM2.5 was found to be very similar in the two cities. Organic aerosol (OA) constituted the largest fraction, explaining on average about 52 to 60 % of the PM2.5 mass. Four sources of OA were identified using positive matrix factorization (PMF): hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, from traffic emissions), biomass burning OA (BBOA, from biomass combustion), residential influenced OA (RIOA, probably mostly from cooking processes with possible contributions from waste and coal burning), and oxygenated OA (OOA, related to secondary aerosol formation). OOA was the major OA source during nighttime, explaining on average half of the OA mass, while during daytime mobile measurements the OA was affected by point sources and dominated by the primary fraction. A strong increase in the secondary organic and inorganic components was observed during periods with transport of air masses from northern Germany, while the primary local emissions accumulated during periods with temperature inversions. Mobile measurements offered the identification of different source regions within the urban areas and the assessment of the extent to which pollutants concentrations exceeded regional background

  19. The Emergence of Regional Organizations in Latin America and Implications for the Future of the Organization of American States (OAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    Southern Market (MERCOSUR) was created. In 1993, the US, Canada , and Mexico signed the North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ). 106 In 1996, an... Canada are not part of it. The OAS is the oldest regional organization in the world. It represents an ideal organizational system of state alliances...budget for a total nearly US$ 85 million for fiscal year 2011. The three largest contributors (2010) are Canada with US$ 22.3 million, followed by the

  20. Endocine™, N3OA and N3OASq; three mucosal adjuvants that enhance the immune response to nasal influenza vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Falkeborn

    Full Text Available Annual outbreaks of seasonal influenza are controlled or prevented through vaccination in many countries. The seasonal vaccines used are either inactivated, currently administered parenterally, or live-attenuated given intranasally. In this study three mucosal adjuvants were examined for the influence on the humoral (mucosal and systemic and cellular influenza A-specific immune responses induced by a nasally administered vaccine. We investigated in detail how the anionic Endocine™ and the cationic adjuvants N3OA and N3OASq mixed with a split inactivated influenza vaccine induced influenza A-specific immune responses as compared to the vaccine alone after intranasal immunization. The study showed that nasal administration of a split virus vaccine together with Endocine™ or N3OA induced significantly higher humoral and cell-mediated immune responses than the non-adjuvanted vaccine. N3OASq only significantly increased the cell-mediated immune response. Furthermore, nasal administration of the influenza vaccine in combination with any of the adjuvants; Endocine™, N3OA or N3OASq, significantly enhanced the mucosal immunity against influenza HA protein. Thus the addition of these mucosal adjuvants leads to enhanced immunity in the most relevant tissues, the upper respiratory tract and the systemic circulation. Nasal influenza vaccination with an inactivated split vaccine can therefore provide an important mucosal immune response, which is often low or absent after traditional parenteral vaccination.

  1. An O(a) modified lattice set-up of the Schr\\"odinger functional in SU(3) gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Rubio, Paula; Takeda, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    The set-up of the QCD Schr\\"odinger functional (SF) on the lattice with staggered quarks requires an even number of points $L/a$ in the spatial directions, while the Euclidean time extent of the lattice, $T/a$, must be odd. Identifying a unique renormalisation scale, $L=T$, is then only possible up to O($a$) lattice artefacts. In this article we study such lattices in the pure SU(3) gauge theory, where we can also compare to the standard set-up. We consider the SF coupling as obtained from the variation of an SU(3) Abelian and spatially constant background field. The O($a$) lattice artefacts can be cancelled by the existing O($a$) boundary counterterm. However, its coefficient, $\\ct$, differs at the tree-level from its standard value, so that one first needs to re-determine the induced background gauge field. The perturbative one-loop correction to the coupling allows to determine $\\ct$ to one-loop order. A few numerical simulations serve to demonstrate that residual cutoff effects in the step scaling functio...

  2. Overexpression of the transcription factor Sp1 activates the OAS-RNAse L-RIG-I pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéryane Dupuis-Maurin

    Full Text Available Deregulated expression of oncogenes or transcription factors such as specificity protein 1 (Sp1 is observed in many human cancers and plays a role in tumor maintenance. Paradoxically in untransformed cells, Sp1 overexpression induces late apoptosis but the early intrinsic response is poorly characterized. In the present work, we studied increased Sp1 level consequences in untransformed cells and showed that it turns on an early innate immune transcriptome. Sp1 overexpression does not activate known cellular stress pathways such as DNA damage response or endoplasmic reticulum stress, but induces the activation of the OAS-RNase L pathway and the generation of small self-RNAs, leading to the upregulation of genes of the antiviral RIG-I pathway at the transcriptional and translational levels. Finally, Sp1-induced intrinsic innate immune response leads to the production of the chemokine CXCL4 and to the recruitment of inflammatory cells in vitro and in vivo. Altogether our results showed that increased Sp1 level in untransformed cells constitutes a novel danger signal sensed by the OAS-RNase L axis leading to the activation of the RIG-I pathway. These results suggested that the OAS-RNase L-RIG-I pathway may be activated in sterile condition in absence of pathogen.

  3. A novel compact mass detection platform for the open access (OA) environment in drug discovery and early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junling; Ceglia, Scott S; Jones, Michael D; Simeone, Jennifer; Antwerp, John Van; Zhang, Li-Kang; Ross, Charles W; Helmy, Roy

    2016-04-15

    A new 'compact mass detector' co-developed with an instrument manufacturer (Waters Corporation) as an interface for liquid chromatography (LC), specifically Ultra-high performance LC(®) (UPLC(®) or UHPLC) analysis was evaluated as a potential new Open Access (OA) LC-MS platform in the Drug Discovery and Early Development space. This new compact mass detector based platform was envisioned to provide increased reliability and speed while exhibiting significant cost, noise, and footprint reductions. The new detector was evaluated in batch mode (typically 1-3 samples per run) to monitor reactions and check purity, as well as in High Throughput Screening (HTS) mode to run 24, 48, and 96 well plates. The latter workflows focused on screening catalysis conditions, process optimization, and library work. The objective of this investigation was to assess the performance, reliability, and flexibility of the compact mass detector in the OA setting for a variety of applications. The compact mass detector results were compared to those obtained by current OA LC-MS systems, and the capabilities and benefits of the compact mass detector in the open access setting for chemists in the drug discovery and development space are demonstrated.

  4. Characterization of submicron aerosols influenced by biomass burning at a site in the Sichuan Basin, southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Hu, Min; Hu, Wei-Wei; Niu, Hongya; Zheng, Jing; Wu, Yusheng; Chen, Wentai; Chen, Chen; Li, Lingyu; Shao, Min; Xie, Shaodong; Zhang, Yuanhang

    2016-10-01

    Severe air pollution in Asia is often the consequence of a combination of large anthropogenic emissions and adverse synoptic conditions. However, limited studies on aerosols have been conducted under high emission intensity and under unique geographical and meteorological conditions. In this study, an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-AMS) and other state-of-the-art instruments were utilized at a suburban site, Ziyang, in the Sichuan Basin during December 2012 to January 2013. The chemical compositions of atmospheric submicron aerosols (PM1) were determined, the sources of organic aerosols (OA) were apportioned, and the aerosol secondary formation and aging process were explored as well. Due to high humidity and static air, PM1 maintained a relatively stable level during the whole campaign, with the mean concentration of 59.7 ± 24.1 µg m-3. OA was the most abundant component (36 %) in PM1, characterized by a relatively high oxidation state. Positive matrix factorization analysis was applied to the high-resolution organic mass spectral matrix, which deconvolved OA mass spectra into four factors: low-volatility (LV-OOA) and semivolatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA), biomass burning (BBOA) and hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA). OOA (sum of LV-OOA and SV-OOA) dominated OA as high as 71 %. In total, secondary inorganic and organic formation contributed 76 % of PM1. Secondary inorganic species correlated well (Pearson r = 0.415-0.555, p < 0.01) with relative humidity (RH), suggesting the humid air can favor the formation of secondary inorganic aerosols. As the photochemical age of OA increased with higher oxidation state, secondary organic aerosol formation contributed more to OA. The slope of OOA against Ox( = O3+NO2) steepened with the increase of RH, implying that, besides the photochemical transformation, the aqueous-phase oxidation was also an important pathway of the OOA formation. Primary emissions, especially biomass burning, resulted

  5. Burning of olive tree branches: a major organic aerosol source in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kostenidou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol produced during the burning of olive tree branches was characterized with both direct source sampling (using a mobile smog chamber and with ambient measurements during the burning season. The fresh particles were composed of 80% organic matter, 8–10% black carbon (BC, 5% potassium, 3–4% sulfate, 2–3% nitrate and 0.8% chloride. Almost half of the fresh olive tree branches burning organic aerosol (otBB-OA consisted of alkane groups. Their mode diameter was close to 70 nm. The oxygen to carbon (O : C ratio of the fresh otBB-OA was 0.29 ± 0.04. The mass fraction of levoglucosan in PM1 was 0.034–0.043, relatively low in comparison with most fuel types. This may lead to an underestimation of the otBB-OA contribution if levoglucosan is being used as a wood burning tracer. Chemical aging was observed during smog chamber experiments, as f44 and O : C ratio increased, due to reactions with OH radicals and O3. The otBB-OA AMS mass spectrum differs from the other published biomass burning spectra, with a main difference at m/z 60, used as levoglucosan tracer. In addition to particles, volatile organic compounds (VOCs such as methanol, acetonitrile, acrolein, benzene, toluene and xylenes are also emitted. Positive matrix factorization (PMF was applied to the ambient organic aerosol data and 3 factors could be identified: OOA (oxygenated organic aerosol, 55%, HOA (hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol, 11.3% and otBB-OA 33.7%. The fresh chamber otBB-OA AMS spectrum is close to the PMF otBB-OA spectrum and resembles the ambient mass spectrum during olive tree branches burning periods. We estimated an otBB-OA emission factor of 3.5 ± 0.9 g kg−1. Assuming that half of the olive tree branches pruned is burned in Greece, 2300 ± 600 tons of otBB-OA are emitted every year. This activity is one of the most important fine aerosol sources during the winter months in Mediterranean countries.

  6. Burning of olive tree branches: a major organic aerosol source in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kostenidou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol produced during the burning of olive tree branches was characterized with both direct source-sampling (using a mobile smog chamber and with ambient measurements during the burning season. The fresh particles were composed of 80% organic matter, 8–10% black carbon (BC, 5% potassium, 3–4% sulfate, 2–3% nitrate and 0.8% chloride. Almost half of the fresh olive tree branches burning organic aerosol (otBB-OA consisted of alkane groups. Their mode diameter was close to 70 nm. The oxygen to carbon (O:C ratio of the fresh otBB-OA was 0.29 ± 0.04. The mass fraction of levoglucosan in PM1 was 0.034–0.043, relatively low in comparison with most fuel types. This may lead to an underestimation of the otBB-OA contribution if levoglucosan is being used as a wood burning tracer. Chemical aging was observed during smog chamber experiments, as f44 and O:C ratio increased, due to reactions with OH radicals and O3. The otBB-OA AMS mass spectrum differs from the other published biomass burning spectra, with a main difference at m/z 60, used as levoglucosan tracer. In addition to particles, volatile organic compounds (VOCs such as methanol, acetonitrile, acrolein, benzene, toluene and xylenes are also emitted. Positive matrix factorization (PMF was applied to the ambient organic aerosol data and 3 factors could be identified: OOA (oxygenated organic aerosol, 55%, HOA (hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol, 11.3% and otBB-OA 33.7%. The fresh chamber otBB-OA AMS spectrum is close to the PMF otBB-OA spectrum and resembles the ambient mass spectrum during olive tree branches burning periods. We estimated an otBB-OA emission factor of 3.5 ± 0.2 g kg−1. Assuming that half of the olive tree branches pruned is burned in Greece 2280 ± 140 tons of otBB-OA are emitted every year. This activity is one of the most important fine aerosol sources during the winter months in the Mediterranean countries.

  7. A case study of aerosol processing and evolution in summer in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Sun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated an aerosol processing and evolution event from 21–22 July during the summer 2009 Field Intensive Study at Queens College in New York City (NYC. The evolution processes are characterized by three consecutive stages: (1 aerosol wet scavenging, (2 nighttime nitrate formation, and (3 photochemical production and evolution of secondary aerosol species. Our results suggest that wet scavenging of aerosol species tends to be strongly related to their hygroscopicities and also mixing states. The scavenging leads to a significant change in bulk aerosol composition and average carbon oxidation state because of scavenging efficiencies in the following order: sulfate > low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA > semi-volatile OOA (SV-OOA > hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA. The second stage involves a quick formation of nitrate from heterogeneous reactions at nighttime. During the third stage, simultaneous increases of sulfate and SV-OOA were observed shortly after sunrise, indicating secondary aerosol formation. Organic aerosol particles become highly oxidized in ~half day as the result of photochemical processing, consistent with previously reported results from the CO-tracer method (OA/ΔCO. The photochemical reactions appear to progress gradually associated with a transformation of semi-volatile OOA to low-volatility species based on the evolution trends of oxygen-to-carbon (O/C ratio, relationship between f44 (fraction of m/z 44 in OA and f43 (fraction of m/z 43 in OA, and size evolution of OOA and HOA. Aerosols appear to become more internally mixed during the processing. Our results suggest that functionalization by incorporation of both C and O plays a major role in the early period of OA oxidation (O/C <0.5. Our results also show that photochemical production of LV-OOA during this event is approximately a few hours behind of sulfate production, which might explain the sometimes lack of correlations between LV

  8. Exploration on Establishing University Graduation Dissertation OA Warehouse Database%创建大学毕业论文OA仓储库的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郦纯宁

    2012-01-01

    依据OA的特点来44建大学毕业论文OA仓储库。分析了创建大学毕业论文OA仓储库的必要性,阐述构建OA仓储库的途径、意义,以及制定OA仓储库的维护制度,探讨了开放存取对图书馆的影响。%The paper on establishing the graduation dissertation OA storage database of universities by considering the characteristics of open access. The effect of OA on libraries are discussed by analyzing the importance for establishing the graduation dissertation OA storage database, and the approach, the purpose, as well as to establish the maintenance system of OA storage database are set forth.

  9. Hyaluronan (Erectus(R in der Behandlung der Osteoarthritis (OA des Kniegelenks - Ergebnisse einer offenen Anwendungsbeobachtung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeb BF

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ziel der Untersuchung war es, praxisrelevante Daten hinsichtlich der Wirksamkeit, Verträglichkeit und Auswirkung auf die Lebensqualität einer in Österreich neu zugelassenen Hyaluronan-Präparation (Erectus(R; MW 1.100 KD zu erhalten. Patienten und Methodik: Zu diesem Zweck wurden 204 Patienten mit OA des Kniegelenkes, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL I–III (mean 61,1 a [31 a–100 a]; mean BMI 26,9; 57,2% weiblich, 42,8 % männlich von Oktober 2005 bis April 2006 in diese offene multizentrische Anwendungsbeobachtung eingeschlossen. Die Patienten erhielten fünf Injektionen Erectus(Rintraartikulär im Abstand von einer Woche. Primärer Endpunkt war die Verbesserung des Ruheschmerzes zu Visite 5 (Woche 5. Sekundäre Endpunkte waren Verbesserung des Ruheschmerzes bei Visite 6 (Woche 13 sowie des Bewegungsschmerzes, der Beweglichkeit und der Zufriedenheit mit der Lebenssituation. Alle Parameter wurden von den Patienten anhand einer Likert-Skala (0–10 beurteilt. Darüber hinaus erfolgte die Beurteilung von Gesamtwirksamkeit, Verträglichkeit und Gesamtzufriedenheit durch Prüfarzt und PatientIn. Die statistische Auswertung erfolgte mittels T-Test und Chi-Quadrat-Test. Fehlende Werte wurden gemäß LOCF ersetzt. Ergebnisse: Der Ruheschmerz wurde von den Patienten zu Beginn mit im Mittel 4,68 angegeben und verbesserte sich auf 2,04 bei Visite 5 bzw. auf 1,8 bei Visite 6 (p 0,01. Die Verbesserung war bei Patienten mit KL Grad I am stärksten und bei KL III am geringsten ausgeprägt. Die subjektive Beurteilung der Beweglichkeit sowie die Zufriedenheit, mit dem aktuellen Krankheitszustand längerfristig leben zu müssen, verbesserte sich ebenfalls signifikant (p 0,01, wobei dabei interessanterweise die stärksten Veränderungen bei Patienten mit KL III festzustellen waren. Patienten und Behandler beurteilten die globale Wirksamkeit parallel positiv, wie auch die Verträglichkeit. Die Beurteilung der Gesamtzufriedenheit nach einem Schulnotensystem (1–5 ergab

  10. THz-wave generation via stimulated polariton scattering in KTiOAsO4 crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weitao; Cong, Zhenhua; Liu, Zhaojun; Zhang, Xingyu; Qin, Zengguang; Tang, Guanqi; Li, Ning; Zhang, Yuangeng; Lu, Qingming

    2014-07-14

    A terahertz parametric oscillator based on KTiOAsO(4) crystal is demonstrated for the first time. With the near-forward scattering configuration X(ZZ)X + Δφ, the polarizations of the pump, the Stokes and the generated THz waves are parallel to the z-axis of the crystal KTA. When the incident angle θext of the pump wave is changed from 1.875° to 6.500°, the THz wave is intermittently tuned from 3.59 to 3.96 THz, from 4.21 to 4.50 THz, from 4.90 to 5.16 THz, from 5.62 to 5.66 THz and from 5.92 to 6.43 THz. The obtained maximum THz wave energy is 627 nJ at 4.30 THz with a pump energy of 100 mJ. It is believed that the terahertz wave generation is caused by the stimulated scattering of the polaritons associated with the most intensive transverse A(1) mode of 233.8 cm(-1). Four much weaker transverse A(1) modes of 132.9 cm(-1), 156.3 cm(-1),175.1 cm(-1), and 188.4 cm(-1) cause four frequency gaps, from 3.97 THz to 4.20 THz, from 4.51 to 4.89 THz, from 5.17 to 5.61 THz and from 5.67 to 5.91 THz, respectively.

  11. Paper Resources Discovery Method for OA Journal Websites%面向OA期刊站点的论文资源发现方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张付志; 杜宝瑞

    2013-01-01

    开放存取(Open Access,OA)期刊论文属于深层Web资源,传统的搜索引擎无法有效对其进行索引.为此,本文提出一种面向OA期刊站点的论文资源发现方法.首先,通过提取OA期刊站点首页的特征构建C4.5决策树,将OA期刊站点分为卷期目录型和检索接口型;然后,针对两类OA期刊站点分别提出基于锚文本链接分析和基于检索接口的论文资源发现算法.实验结果表明,本文提出的方法能够有效发现OA期刊论文资源,并且具有较高的准确率和查全率.%Open access (OA) journal papers belong to the deep Web resources which can not be effectively indexed by traditional search engines. Aiming at this problem, this paper proposes a paper resources discovery method for OA Journal Websites. We first build C4. 5 decision tree by extracting the feature of the homepage for OA Journal Websites and classify them as two types, i. e. catalog of volumes and issues based OA Journal Websites and search interface based OA Journal Websites. Then, we propose a paper resource discovery algorithm based on anchor text link analysis and a paper resource discovery algorithm based on retrieval interface according to the two types of OA Journal Websites. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively discovery OA journals resources and has a higher accuracy and recall.

  12. Identification of three novel OA1 gene mutations identified in three families misdiagnosed with congenital nystagmus and carrier status determination by real-time quantitative PCR assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamel Christian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background X-linked ocular albinism type 1 (OA1 is caused by mutations in OA1 gene, which encodes a membrane glycoprotein localised to melanosomes. OA1 mainly affects pigment production in the eye, resulting in optic changes associated with albinism including hypopigmentation of the retina, nystagmus, strabismus, foveal hypoplasia, abnormal crossing of the optic fibers and reduced visual acuity. Affected Caucasian males usually appear to have normal skin and hair pigment. Results We identified three previously undescribed mutations consisting of two intragenic deletions (one encompassing exon 6, the other encompassing exons 7–8, and a point mutation (310delG in exon 2. We report the development of a new method for diagnosis of heterozygous deletions in OA1 gene based on measurement of gene copy number using real-time quantitative PCR from genomic DNA. Conclusion The identification of OA1 mutations in families earlier reported as families with hereditary nystagmus indicate that ocular albinism type 1 is probably underdiagnosed. Our method of real-time quantitative PCR of OA1 exons with DMD exon as external standard performed on the LightCycler™ allows quick and accurate carrier-status assessment for at-risk females.

  13. A cost-effectiveness analysis of celecoxib compared with diclofenac in the treatment of pain in osteoarthritis (OA) within the Swedish health system using an adaptation of the NICE OA model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, Nicholas; Pennington, Becky; Ekelund, Mats; Akehurst, Ronald

    2014-09-01

    Celecoxib for the treatment of pain resulting from osteoarthritis (OA) was reviewed by the Tandvårds- och läkemedelsförmånsverket-Dental and Pharmaceutical Benefits Board (TLV) in Sweden in late 2010. This study aimed to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of celecoxib plus a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) compared to diclofenac plus a PPI in a Swedish setting. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the UK developed a health economic model as part of their 2008 assessment of treatments for OA. In this analysis, the model was reconstructed and adapted to a Swedish perspective. Drug costs were updated using the TLV database. Adverse event costs were calculated using the regional price list of Southern Sweden and the standard treatment guidelines from the county council of Stockholm. Costs for treating cardiovascular (CV) events were taken from the Swedish DRG codes and the literature. Over a patient's lifetime treatment with celecoxib plus a PPI was associated with a quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gain of 0.006 per patient when compared to diclofenac plus a PPI. There was an increase in discounted costs of 529 kr per patient, which resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 82,313 kr ($12,141). Sensitivity analysis showed that treatment was more cost effective in patients with an increased risk of bleeding or gastrointestinal (GI) complications. The results suggest that celecoxib plus a PPI is a cost effective treatment for OA when compared to diclofenac plus a PPI. Treatment is shown to be more cost effective in Sweden for patients with a high risk of bleeding or GI complications. It was in this population that the TLV gave a positive recommendation. There are known limitations on efficacy in the original NICE model.

  14. Specific interaction of Gαi3 with the Oa1 G-protein coupled receptor controls the size and density of melanosomes in retinal pigment epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Young

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ocular albinism type 1, an X-linked disease characterized by the presence of enlarged melanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE and abnormal crossing of axons at the optic chiasm, is caused by mutations in the OA1 gene. The protein product of this gene is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR localized in RPE melanosomes. The Oa1-/- mouse model of ocular albinism reproduces the human disease. Oa1 has been shown to immunoprecipitate with the Gαi subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins from human skin melanocytes. However, the Gαi subfamily has three highly homologous members, Gαi1, Gαi2 and Gαi3 and it is possible that one or more of them partners with Oa1. We had previously shown by in-vivo studies that Gαi3-/- and Oa1-/- mice have similar RPE phenotype and decussation patterns. In this paper we analyze the specificity of the Oa1-Gαi interaction. METHODOLOGY: By using the genetic mouse models Gαi1-/-, Gαi2-/-, Gαi3-/- and the double knockout Gαi1-/-, Gαi3-/- that lack functional Gαi1, Gαi2, Gαi3, or both Gαi1 and Gαi3 proteins, respectively, we show that Gαi3 is critical for the maintenance of a normal melanosomal phenotype and that its absence is associated with changes in melanosomal size and density. GST-pull-down and immunoprecipitation assays conclusively demonstrate that Gαi3 is the only Gαi that binds to Oa1. Western blots show that Gαi3 expression is barely detectable in the Oa1-/- RPE, strongly supporting a previously unsuspected role for Gαi3 in melanosomal biogenesis. CONCLUSION: Our results identify the Oa1 transducer Gαi3 as the first downstream component in the Oa1 signaling pathway.

  15. 越南和平水电站库区不同农林复合模式的环境效益比较%Environmental benefits evaluation of different agroforestry systems in Hoa Binh Hydropower Station Reservoir Area of Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vu Thi Thuong; Nguyen The Ky; 王来; 张硕新

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, agroforestry farming is a major issue in Vietnamat midland and mountainous region as it has to satisfy the demand of forest production and ecosystem protection. Compared to some other types of forest, agroforest has demonstrated outstanding strength as it provides landowners with early and fast income generation. Therefore, developing agroforest becomes a trend when the research on land use gets much attention. However, environmental efficiency of agroforest is quite varied and closely reliable on the structure of the forest system. Taking into consideration of both environmental condition and the efficiency at the same time is significant not only in evaluating the current situation of the forest but also in improving its structure, thereby reaching environmental goals. Nevertheless, there is a shortage of research on above problem in Hoa Binh hydropower reservoir environment. Due to this restriction many agroforests were in failure to enhance their economic and protective functions and the forest also showed low stability. In order to have a part in solving the aforesaid inadequacies, this paper has been conducted. The environmental protection and soil conservation of vegetation have high requirements in hydropower station reservoir area. Finding a kind of land use pattern that can meet the interests of all parties is particularly important in the context that moving local residents out of the reservoir area is impossible. In the present study, the four main agroforestry system patterns (Acacia mangium-Zea mays;Acacia mangium-Manihot esculenta crantz;Eucalyptus camandulensis-Oryza sativa;Acacia mangium-Manihot esculenta crantz-Zea mays) were employed as the research subjects in two different areas (Thung Nai Commune, Cao Phong District and Vay Nua Commune, Da Bac District) of Hoa Binh hydropower station reservoir area in Vietnam. Multiple structural indicators such as plant species composition, morphemic structures, density and canopy of the plantation

  16. Assessing the factors related with winter haze events in Europe and Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dällenbach, Kaspar Rudolf; El Haddad, Imad; Bozzetti, Carlo; Gates Slowik, Jay; Huang, Ru-Jin; Ho, Kin Fai; Cao, Jun Ji; Krepelova, Adela; Zotter, Peter; Canonaco, Francesco; Zhang, Yanlin; Ciobanu, Viorela Gabriela; Vlachou, Athanasia; Piazzalunga, Andrea; Fermo, Paola; Baltensperger, Urs; Szidat, Sönke; Prévôt, André Stéphane Henry

    2014-05-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) is a large fraction of total particulate matter, either directly emitted into the atmosphere (primary) or formed in air by oxidation processes (secondary) of gas precoursors (Jimenez et al., 2009). The aerosol's climate and health effects are strongly influenced by the chemical composition of OA and hence by the contributing emission sources and formation processes (Cassée et al., 2009). Thus examining sources and their contribution in different regions during severe pollution episodes is important for designing effective mitigation strategies. Such analyses require measurements capable of quantitatively distinguishing OA sources, distributed over a broad spatial scale with sufficient spatial density to capture regional differences. Aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, Aerodyne) measurements of OA and subsequent application of positive matrix factorization (PMF) quantify the contribution of different primaries as biomass burning (BBOA), traffic emissions (hydrocarbon-like OA, HOA), and cooking (COA) and also secondary oxygenated OA separated by their volatility (semi-volatile: SV-OOA and low-volatile: LV-OOA) (e.g. Lanz et al. 2007). However, the systematic deployment on a dense network to determine regional differences is hindered by the instrument cost and intensive maintenance. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a method for the analysis of conventional aerosol filter samples using high-resolution AMS measurements. Such samples are relatively easy and inexpensive to collect and store, and are already routinely collected worldwide. The analysis method consists of water extraction of the particulate material from quartz filters and subsequent atomization of the resulting solutions into the AMS. The recovery of organics is estimated as ~70% and the mass spectra obtained by this methodology are comparable to the corresponding online measurements for different seasons. We present the application of this technique to filter samples

  17. Focal knee lesions in knee pairs of asymptomatic and symptomatic subjects with OA risk factors—Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chundru, Renu, E-mail: renu.chundru@ucsf.edu [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research Group, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 185 Berry Street, Suite 350, San Francisco, CA 94107 (United States); Baum, Thomas, E-mail: thbaum@gmx.de [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research Group, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 185 Berry Street, Suite 350, San Francisco, CA 94107 (United States); Nardo, Lorenzo, E-mail: lorenzo.nardo@ucsf.edu [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research Group, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 185 Berry Street, Suite 350, San Francisco, CA 94107 (United States); Nevitt, Michael C., E-mail: MNevitt@psg.ucsf.edu [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, 185 Berry Street, Suite 5700, San Francisco, CA 94107 (United States); Lynch, John, E-mail: JLynch@psg.ucsf.edu [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, 185 Berry Street, Suite 5700, San Francisco, CA 94107 (United States); McCulloch, Charles E., E-mail: CMcCulloch@epi.ucsf.edu [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, 185 Berry Street, Suite 5700, San Francisco, CA 94107 (United States); Link, Thomas M., E-mail: tmlink@radiology.ucsf.edu [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research Group, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 185 Berry Street, Suite 350, San Francisco, CA 94107 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Objective: To better understand the relationship between knee pain and bilateral knee lesions, we compared focal knee lesions in knee pairs of subjects with no, unilateral, and bilateral knee pain, and risk factors for knee osteoarthritis (OA), but no radiographic knee OA. Materials and methods: We examined both knees of 120 subjects from the Osteoarthritis Initiative database. We randomly selected 60 subjects aged 45–55 years with OA risk factors, no knee pain (WOMAC pain score = 0) and no radiographic OA (KL-score ≤1) in both knees. We also selected two comparison groups with OA risk factors and no radiographic OA in both knees, but with knee pain (WOMAC pain score ≥5): 30 subjects with right only knee pain and 30 subjects with bilateral knee pain. All subjects underwent 3T MRI of both knees and focal knee lesions were assessed. Results: Statistically significant associations between prevalence of focal lesions in the right and left knee with odds ratios up to 13.5 were found in all three subject groups. Focal knee lesions were generally not associated with pain in analyses comparing knee pairs of subjects with unilateral knee pain (p > 0.05). The prevalence and severity of focal knee lesions were not significantly different in knee pairs of subjects with no knee pain and those with bilateral knee pain (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Focal knee lesions in the right and left knee of subjects with OA risk factors were positively associated with each other independent of knee pain status, and were not statistically significant different between knees in subjects with unilateral knee pain.

  18. miRNA-140在骨性关节炎中的研究进展%Research progress of miRNA-140 in Osteoarthritis(OA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵振国

    2012-01-01

    骨性关节炎(OA)是伴随疼痛和关节运动障碍的一种以关节软骨退变和关节周围形成骨质增生为病理特征的慢性进行性骨关节病.临床治疗往往不能令人满意.在 OA 治疗新进展中基因网络得到广泛研究,尤其是 MicroRNA 在OA的发病机制过程中有所表达并具有调控降解和修复等作用.该文通过 miRNA结构功能;miRNA-140在OA的发病中调控机制、作用靶点以及miRNA-140在骨生长板的作用机制结合近几年的国内外研究做一综述.%Osteoarthritis( OA ) is chronic pathological joints disease accompanied by pain and joint dysfunction, which has pathological features of a change of cartilages and hyperplasia around bones. Its clinical treatment tends to be unsatisfactory. Novel targets in OA include genes that are involved in OA pathophysiology,which have been discovered by using gene network, epigenetic and microRNA( miRNA ) approaches. Further insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in OA initiation and progression may lead to the development of new therapies that can control joint destruction and stimulate repair. The present review summarizes the structure and function of miRNA,regulation mechanism and action targets of miRNA in OA and the mechanism of miRNA-140 in bone growth plate.

  19. Diurnal variations of ambient particulate wood burning emissions and their contribution to the concentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Seiffen, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Poulain

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Residential wood burning is becoming an increasingly important cause of air quality problems since it has become a popular source of alternative energy to fossil fuel. In order to characterize the contribution of residential wood burning to local particle pollution, a field campaign was organized at the village of Seiffen (Saxony, Germany. During this campaign, an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS was deployed in parallel to a PM1 high volume filter sampler. The AMS mass spectra were analyzed using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF to obtain detailed information about the organic aerosol (OA. Biomass-burning organic aerosol (BBOA, Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA, and Oxygenated Organic Aerosol (OOA were identified and represented 20%, 17% and 62% of total OA, respectively. Additionally, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH were measured by the AMS with an average concentration of 10 ng m−3 and short term events of extremely high PAH concentration (up to 500 ng m−3 compared to the mean PAH value were observed during the whole measurement period. A comparison with the results from PM1 filter samples showed that the BBOA factor and the AMS PAH are good indicators of the total concentration of the different monosaccharide anhydrides and PAH measured on the filter samples. Based on its low correlation with CO and the low car traffic, the HOA factor was considered to be related to residential heating using liquid fuel. An influence of the time of the week (week vs. weekend on the diurnal profiles of the different OA components was observed. The weekdays were characterized by two maxima; a first one early in the morning and a stronger one in the evening. During the weekend days, the different OA components principally reached only one maximum in the afternoon. Finally, the PAH emitted directly from residential wood combustion was estimated to represent 1.5% of the total mass of the BBOA factor and

  20. Metabonomics research of diabetic nephropathy and type 2 diabetes mellitus based on UPLC-oaTOF-MS system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jie, E-mail: jiezhang@dicp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, 361005 Xiamen (China); Yan Lijuan [XiaMen Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, 361012 Xiamen (China); Chen Wengui [First Hospital of Xiamen, 361003 Xiamen (China); Lin Lin [Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, 361005 Xiamen (China); Song Xiuyu [First Hospital of Xiamen, 361003 Xiamen (China); Yan Xiaomei [Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, 361005 Xiamen (China); Hang Wei, E-mail: weihang@xmu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, 361005 Xiamen (China); Huang Benli [Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, 361005 Xiamen (China)

    2009-09-14

    Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight (oaTOF) mass spectrometry has showed great potential in diabetes research. In this paper, a UPLC-oaTOF-MS system was employed to distinguish the global serum profiles of 8 diabetic nephropathy (DN) patients, 33 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and 25 healthy volunteers, and tried to find potential biomarkers. The UPLC system produced information-rich chromatograms with typical measured peak widths of 4 s, generating peak capacities of 225 in 15 min. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) was used for group differentiation and marker selection. As shown in the scores plot, the distinct clustering between the patients and controls was observed, and DN and T2DM patients were also separated into two individual groups. Several compounds were tentatively identified based on accurate mass, isotopic pattern and MS/MS information. In addition, significant changes in the serum level of leucine, dihydrosphingosine and phytoshpingosine were noted, indicating the perturbations of amino acid metabolism and phospholipid metabolism in diabetic diseases, which having implications in clinical diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Uso de recursos educativos abiertos (REA y objetos de aprendizaje (OA en educación básica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo David GLASSERMAN MORALES

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente documento tiene como objetivo, presentar un estudio sobre la integración de recursos digitales abiertos como herramientas didácticas en el nivel de educación primaria. Los recursos utilizados se ubicaban en tres repositorios y un catálogo indexado de Recursos Educativos Abiertos (REA y Objetos de Aprendizaje (OA supervisados por tres instituciones de educación superior en México. El contexto se desarrolló en tres grupos de una escuela primaria del sector público ubicada en la zona metropolitana de Monterrey, Nuevo León, México. La metodología que se seleccionó fue de corte cualitativo con un enfoque de estudio de casos para describir los fenómenos identificados en torno a la experiencia de uso de los REA y OA y sus implicaciones en el aprendizaje activo. Los resultados dan cuenta que los docentes de la institución están familiarizados con el uso de tecnologías de información y comunicación (TIC pero desconocen la forma de seleccionar recursos con licenciamiento abierto. El uso de los recursos digitales seleccionados les permitió a los docentes integrarlos a su práctica docente como material didáctico para reforzar conocimientos analizados en el currículo.

  2. Perturbative renormalization factors and O(a^2) corrections for lattice 4-fermion operators with improved fermion/gluon actions

    CERN Document Server

    Constantinou, Martha; Frezzotti, Roberto; Lubicz, Vittorio; Panagopoulos, Haralambos; Skouroupathis, Apostolos; Stylianou, Fotos

    2010-01-01

    In this work we calculate the corrections to the amputated Green's functions of 4-fermion operators, in 1-loop Lattice Perturbation theory. One of the novel aspects of our calculations is that they are carried out to O(a^2) (a: lattice spacing). We employ the Wilson/clover action for massless fermions (also applicable for the twisted mass action in the chiral limit) and a family of Symanzik improved actions for gluons. Our calculations have been carried out in a general covariant gauge. Results have been obtained for several popular choices of values for the Symanzik coefficients. While our Green's function calculations regard any pointlike 4-fermion operators which do not mix with lower dimension ones, we pay particular attention to DF=2 operators, both Parity Conserving and Parity Violating (F: flavour). We compute the perturbative renormalization constants for a complete basis of 4-fermion operators and we study their mixing pattern. For some of the actions considered here, even O(a^0) results did not exis...

  3. O(a^2) corrections to 1-loop matrix elements of 4-fermion operators with improved fermion/gluon actions

    CERN Document Server

    Constantinou, Martha; Panagopoulos, Haralambos; Skouroupathis, Apostolos; Stylianou, Fotos

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the corrections to the amputated Green's functions of 4-fermion operators, in 1-loop Lattice Perturbation theory. The novel aspect of our calculations is that they are carried out to second order in the lattice spacing, O(a^2). We employ the Wilson/clover action for massless fermions (also applicable for the twisted mass action in the chiral limit) and the Symanzik improved action for gluons. Our calculations have been carried out in a general covariant gauge. Results have been obtained for several popular choices of values for the Symanzik coefficients (Plaquette, Tree-level Symanzik, Iwasaki, TILW and DBW2 action). We pay particular attention to $\\Delta F=2$ operators, both Parity Conserving and Parity Violating ($F$ stands for flavour: S, C, B). We study the mixing pattern of these operators, to O(a^2), using the appropriate projectors. Our results for the corresponding renormalization matrices are given as a function of a large number of parameters: coupling constant, clover parameter, number...

  4. High mid-term revision rate after treatment of large, full-thickness cartilage lesions and OA in the patellofemoral joint using a large inlay resurfacing prosthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jens Ole

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The HemiCAP-Wave® implant for the patellofemoral resurfacing treatment of large cartilage lesions and osteoarthritis (OA) was introduced in 2009. The outcome of a prospective cohort study of 18 patients with large trochlea lesions or isolated OA treated with the HemiCAP-Wave® implant...... than 4 cm(2). Patients were followed for 2 years with American Knee Society Subjective outcome Scores (AKSS), pain scores and radiographic evaluations and for up to 6 years with complications and reoperations. RESULTS: At the 1- and 2-year follow-up mean AKSS clinical score, the mean AKSS function...... pain but high mid-term revision rate after patellofemoral inlay resurfacing using the HemiCAP-Wave® implant. Patellofemoral resurfacing implantation treatment with a large inlay prosthesis can offer temporary treatment for large isolated patellofemoral cartilage lesions or OA in younger patients...

  5. Rebamipide Attenuates Mandibular Condylar Degeneration in a Murine Model of TMJ-OA by Mediating a Chondroprotective Effect and by Downregulating RANKL-Mediated Osteoclastogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Izawa

    Full Text Available Temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA is characterized by progressive degradation of cartilage and changes in subchondral bone. It is also one of the most serious subgroups of temporomandibular disorders. Rebamipide is a gastroprotective agent that is currently used for the treatment of gastritis and gastric ulcers. It scavenges reactive oxygen radicals and has exhibited anti-inflammatory potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of rebamipide both in vivo and in vitro on the development of cartilage degeneration and osteoclast activity in an experimental murine model of TMJ-OA, and to explore its mode of action. Oral administration of rebamipide (0.6 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg was initiated 24 h after TMJ-OA was induced, and was maintained daily for four weeks. Rebamipide treatment was found to attenuate cartilage degeneration, to reduce the number of apoptotic cells, and to decrease the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in TMJ-OA cartilage in a dose-dependent manner. Rebamipide also suppressed the activation of transcription factors (e.g., NF-κB, NFATc1 and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL to inhibit the differentiation of osteoclastic precursors, and disrupted the formation of actin rings in mature osteoclasts. Together, these results demonstrate the inhibitory effects of rebamipide on cartilage degradation in experimentally induced TMJ-OA. Furthermore, suppression of oxidative damage, restoration of extracellular matrix homeostasis of articular chondrocytes, and reduced subchondral bone loss as a result of blocked osteoclast activation suggest that rebamipide is a potential therapeutic strategy for TMJ-OA.

  6. Rebamipide Attenuates Mandibular Condylar Degeneration in a Murine Model of TMJ-OA by Mediating a Chondroprotective Effect and by Downregulating RANKL-Mediated Osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Takashi; Mori, Hiroki; Shinohara, Tekehiro; Mino-Oka, Akiko; Hutami, Islamy Rahma; Iwasa, Akihiko; Tanaka, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA) is characterized by progressive degradation of cartilage and changes in subchondral bone. It is also one of the most serious subgroups of temporomandibular disorders. Rebamipide is a gastroprotective agent that is currently used for the treatment of gastritis and gastric ulcers. It scavenges reactive oxygen radicals and has exhibited anti-inflammatory potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of rebamipide both in vivo and in vitro on the development of cartilage degeneration and osteoclast activity in an experimental murine model of TMJ-OA, and to explore its mode of action. Oral administration of rebamipide (0.6 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg) was initiated 24 h after TMJ-OA was induced, and was maintained daily for four weeks. Rebamipide treatment was found to attenuate cartilage degeneration, to reduce the number of apoptotic cells, and to decrease the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in TMJ-OA cartilage in a dose-dependent manner. Rebamipide also suppressed the activation of transcription factors (e.g., NF-κB, NFATc1) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) to inhibit the differentiation of osteoclastic precursors, and disrupted the formation of actin rings in mature osteoclasts. Together, these results demonstrate the inhibitory effects of rebamipide on cartilage degradation in experimentally induced TMJ-OA. Furthermore, suppression of oxidative damage, restoration of extracellular matrix homeostasis of articular chondrocytes, and reduced subchondral bone loss as a result of blocked osteoclast activation suggest that rebamipide is a potential therapeutic strategy for TMJ-OA.

  7. Rebamipide Attenuates Mandibular Condylar Degeneration in a Murine Model of TMJ-OA by Mediating a Chondroprotective Effect and by Downregulating RANKL-Mediated Osteoclastogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Takashi; Mori, Hiroki; Shinohara, Tekehiro; Mino-Oka, Akiko; Hutami, Islamy Rahma; Iwasa, Akihiko; Tanaka, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA) is characterized by progressive degradation of cartilage and changes in subchondral bone. It is also one of the most serious subgroups of temporomandibular disorders. Rebamipide is a gastroprotective agent that is currently used for the treatment of gastritis and gastric ulcers. It scavenges reactive oxygen radicals and has exhibited anti-inflammatory potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of rebamipide both in vivo and in vitro on the development of cartilage degeneration and osteoclast activity in an experimental murine model of TMJ-OA, and to explore its mode of action. Oral administration of rebamipide (0.6 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg) was initiated 24 h after TMJ-OA was induced, and was maintained daily for four weeks. Rebamipide treatment was found to attenuate cartilage degeneration, to reduce the number of apoptotic cells, and to decrease the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in TMJ-OA cartilage in a dose-dependent manner. Rebamipide also suppressed the activation of transcription factors (e.g., NF-κB, NFATc1) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) to inhibit the differentiation of osteoclastic precursors, and disrupted the formation of actin rings in mature osteoclasts. Together, these results demonstrate the inhibitory effects of rebamipide on cartilage degradation in experimentally induced TMJ-OA. Furthermore, suppression of oxidative damage, restoration of extracellular matrix homeostasis of articular chondrocytes, and reduced subchondral bone loss as a result of blocked osteoclast activation suggest that rebamipide is a potential therapeutic strategy for TMJ-OA. PMID:27123995

  8. The impact of OA journals on the work of university library%OA期刊对高校图书馆期刊工作的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓芳

    2012-01-01

    论述了OA期刊的涵义,分析了OA期刊对高校图书馆期刊工作的影响,提出了如何充分利用OA期刊资源提升馆藏资源的质量与服务的相关措施。%This paper discusses the definition of OA journal and analyses its impact on university library work.It points out how to make full use of OA journals resources to enhance the quality of library resources and services relevant measures.

  9. Seasonal variations in high time-resolved chemical compositions, sources, and evolution of atmospheric submicron aerosols in the megacity Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Hu, Min; Hu, Wei-Wei; Zheng, Jing; Chen, Chen; Wu, Yusheng; Guo, Song

    2017-08-01

    A severe regional haze problem in the megacity Beijing and surrounding areas, caused by fast formation and growth of fine particles, has attracted much attention in recent years. In order to investigate the secondary formation and aging process of urban aerosols, four intensive campaigns were conducted in four seasons between March 2012 and March 2013 at an urban site in Beijing (116.31° E, 37.99° N). An Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed to measure non-refractory chemical components of submicron particulate matter (NR-PM1). The average mass concentrations of PM1 (NR-PM1+black carbon) were 45.1 ± 45.8, 37.5 ± 31.0, 41.3 ± 42.7, and 81.7 ± 72.4 µg m-3 in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. Organic aerosol (OA) was the most abundant component in PM1, accounting for 31, 33, 44, and 36 % seasonally, and secondary inorganic aerosol (SNA, sum of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium) accounted for 59, 57, 43, and 55 % of PM1 correspondingly. Based on the application of positive matrix factorization (PMF), the sources of OA were obtained, including the primary ones of hydrocarbon-like (HOA), cooking (COA), biomass burning OA (BBOA) and coal combustion OA (CCOA), and secondary component oxygenated OA (OOA). OOA, which can be split into more-oxidized (MO-OOA) and less-oxidized OOA (LO-OOA), accounted for 49, 69, 47, and 50 % in four seasons, respectively. Totally, the fraction of secondary components (OOA+SNA) contributed about 60-80 % to PM1, suggesting that secondary formation played an important role in the PM pollution in Beijing, and primary sources were also non-negligible. The evolution process of OA in different seasons was investigated with multiple metrics and tools. The average carbon oxidation states and other metrics show that the oxidation state of OA was the highest in summer, probably due to both strong photochemical and aqueous-phase oxidations. It was indicated by the good correlations

  10. Chemical composition, sources, and processes of urban aerosols during summertime in northwest China: insights from high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Zhang, Q.; Chen, M.; Ge, X.; Ren, J.; Qin, D.

    2014-12-01

    An Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed along with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP) to measure the temporal variations of the mass loading, chemical composition, and size distribution of submicron particulate matter (PM1) in Lanzhou, northwest China, during 11 July-7 August 2012. The average (PM1 mass concentration including non-refractory (PM1 (NR-(PM1) measured by HR-ToF-AMS and black carbon (BC) measured by MAAP during this study was 24.5 μg m-3 (ranging from 0.86 to 105 μg m-3), with a mean composition consisting of 47% organics, 16% sulfate, 12% BC, 11% ammonium, 10% nitrate, and 4% chloride. Organic aerosol (OA) on average consisted of 70% carbon, 21% oxygen, 8% hydrogen, and 1% nitrogen, with the average oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O / C) of 0.33 and organic mass-to-carbon ratio (OM / OC) of 1.58. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) of the high-resolution organic mass spectra identified four distinct factors which represent, respectively, two primary OA (POA) emission sources (traffic and food cooking) and two secondary OA (SOA) types - a fresher, semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) and a more aged, low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA). Traffic-related hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and BC displayed distinct diurnal patterns, both with peak at ~ 07:00-11:00 (BJT: UTC +8), corresponding to the morning rush hours, while cooking-emission related OA (COA) peaked during three meal periods. The diurnal profiles of sulfate and LV-OOA displayed a broad peak between ~ 07:00 and 15:00, while those of nitrate, ammonium, and SV-OOA showed a narrower peak between ~ 08:00-13:00. The later morning and early afternoon maximum in the diurnal profiles of secondary aerosol species was likely caused by downward mixing of pollutants aloft, which were likely produced in the residual layer decoupled from the boundary layer during nighttime. The mass spectrum of SV-OOA was

  11. Chemical composition, sources, and processes of urban aerosols during summertime in Northwest China: insights from High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Zhang, Q.; Chen, M.; Ge, X.; Ren, J.; Qin, D.

    2014-06-01

    An aerodyne High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed along with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a Multi Angle Absorption Photometers (MAAP) to measure the temporal variations of the mass loading, chemical composition, and size distribution of sub-micrometer particulate matter (PM1) in Lanzhou, northwest China, during 12 July-7 August 2012. The average PM1 mass concentration including non-refractory PM1 (NR-PM1) measured by HR-ToF-AMS and black carbon (BC) measured by MAAP during this study was 24.5 μg m-3 (ranging from 0.86 to 105μg m-3), with a mean composition consisting of 47% organics, 16% sulfate, 12% BC, 11% ammonium, 10% nitrate, and 4% chloride. The organics was consisted of 70% carbon, 21% oxygen, 8% hydrogen, and 1% nitrogen, with the average oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O / C) of 0.33 and organic mass-to-carbon ratio (OM / OC) of 1.58. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) of the high-resolution mass spectra of organic aerosols (OA) identified four distinct factors which represent, respectively, two primary OA (POA) emission sources (traffic and food cooking) and two secondary OA (SOA) types - a fresher, semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) and a more aged, low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA). Traffic-related hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and BC displayed distinct diurnal patterns both with peak at ~07:00-11:00 (BJT: UTC +8) corresponding to the morning rush hours, while cooking OA (COA) peaked during three meal periods. The diurnal profiles of sulfate and LV-OOA displayed a broad peak between ∼07:00-15:00, while those of nitrate, ammonium, and SV-OOA showed a narrower peak at ~08:00-13:00. The later morning and early afternoon peak in the diurnal profiles of secondary aerosol species was likely caused by mixing down of pollutants aloft, which were likely produced in the residual layer decoupled from the boundary layer during night time. The mass spectrum of SV-OOA also showed similarity with that of

  12. Application of (economic) water valuation for devising a multiple uses operational strategy for Hoa Binh Dam. Hoa Binh hydropower dam and command area (Hoa Binh Province).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wageningen International,

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam is located in typical monsoon climate region and therefore river are very abundant water. However, about 2/3 of water resources is originated from neighboring countries. Moreover, uneven spatial distribution and huge seasonal change are additional reasons that make Vietnam ranked low

  13. Application of (economic) water valuation for devising a multiple uses operational strategy for Hoa Binh Dam. Hoa Binh hydropower dam and command area (Hoa Binh Province).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wageningen International,

    2008-01-01

    Vietnam is located in typical monsoon climate region and therefore river are very abundant water. However, about 2/3 of water resources is originated from neighboring countries. Moreover, uneven spatial distribution and huge seasonal change are additional reasons that make Vietnam ranked low compare

  14. Investigation of the sources and processing of organic aerosol over the Central Mexican Plateau from aircraft measurements during MILAGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. DeCarlo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic aerosol (OA represents approximately half of the submicron aerosol in Mexico City and the Central Mexican Plateau. This study uses the high time resolution measurements performed onboard the NCAR/NSF C-130 aircraft during the MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign in March 2006 to investigate the sources and chemical processing of the OA in this region. An examination of the OA/ΔCO ratio evolution as a function of photochemical age shows distinct behavior in the presence or absence of substantial open biomass burning (BB influence, with the latter being consistent with other studies in polluted areas. In addition, we present results from Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis of 12-s High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS OA spectra. Four components were resolved. Three of the components contain substantial organic oxygen and are termed semivolatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA, low-volatility OOA (LV-OOA, and biomass burning OA (BBOA. A reduced "hydrocarbon-like OA" (HOA component is also resolved. LV-OOA is highly oxygenated (atomic O/C~1 and is aged organic aerosol linked to regional airmasses, with likely contributions from pollution, biomass burning, and other sources. SV-OOA is strongly correlated with ammonium nitrate, Ox, and the Mexico City Basin. We interpret SV-OOA as secondary OA which is nearly all (>90% anthropogenic in origin. In the absence of biomass burning it represents the largest fraction of OA over the Mexico City basin, consistent with other studies in this region. BBOA is identified as arising from biomass burning sources due to a strong correlation with HCN, and the elevated contribution of the ion C2H4O2+ (m/z 60, a marker for levoglucosan and other primary BB species. WRF-FLEXPART calculated fire impact factors (FIF show good correlation with BBOA mass concentrations within the basin, but show location offsets in the far field

  15. ALTERACIONES ANÁTOMO-HISTOPATOLÓGICAS TESTICULARES EN ALPACAS (Vicugna pacos) BENEFICIADAS EN NUÑOA, PUNO.

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios S., William; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Chavera C., Alfonso; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Huamán U., Héctor; Laboratorio de Bioquímica, Nutrición y Alimentación Animal, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima. Perú; Huanca L., Wilfredo; Laboratorio de Reproducción Animal,Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2011-01-01

    Se determinó la frecuencia y se caracterizó las alteraciones anátomo-histopatológicas testiculares en alpacas beneficiadas en la zona de Nuñoa, Puno. Se hizo el examen macroscópico de los testículos de 177 alpacas, donde 102 presentaron tamaño y peso disminuido, además de quistes epididimarios uni o bilaterales. Muestras de tejido testicular se fijaron con Solución de Bouin por 28 horas, y se tiñeron con Hematoxilina y Eosina, Ácido Periódico de Schiff y Tricrómico de Masson. Se encontró una ...

  16. Overview of OA Resources in Electronics and Information Fields%电子信息领域OA资源综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱建立; 吴广茂

    2009-01-01

    把OA资源分为了Post-Print、Pre-Print和金色OA、绿色OA,对目前支持论文检索的国内外电子信息领域的OA资源的主办单位、收录论文数、特点进行了比较,并给出了一些站点输入关键词"Filter"查到的论文教.结果表明,在计算机领域,Citeseer最有影响,ScienceDirect的论文整体水平较高,OpenJ-gate收集的OA期刊和论文数更多;国内外中国科技论文在线的更新率较高,Socolar收录的论文数较多,开网则目前集中于电子信息领域.

  17. Sources and atmospheric processing of winter aerosols in Seoul, Korea: insights from real-time measurements using a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwajin; Zhang, Qi; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Kim, Jin Young; Bok Lee, Seung

    2017-02-01

    Highly time-resolved chemical characterization of nonrefractory submicrometer particulate matter (NR-PM1) was conducted in Seoul, the capital and largest metropolis of Korea, using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). The measurements were performed during winter, when elevated particulate matter (PM) pollution events are often observed. This is the first time that detailed real-time aerosol measurement results have been reported from Seoul, Korea, and they reveal valuable insights into the sources and atmospheric processes that contribute to PM pollution in this region. The average concentration of submicron aerosol (PM1 = NR-PM1+ black carbon (BC)) was 27.5 µg m-3, and the total mass was dominated by organics (44 %), followed by nitrate (24 %) and sulfate (10 %). The average atomic ratios of oxygen to carbon (O / C), hydrogen to carbon (H / C), and nitrogen to carbon (N / C) of organic aerosols (OA) were 0.37, 1.79, and 0.018, respectively, which result in an average organic mass-to-carbon (OM / OC) ratio of 1.67. The concentrations (2.6-90.7 µg m-3) and composition of PM1 varied dynamically during the measurement period due to the influences of different meteorological conditions, emission sources, and air mass origins. Five distinct sources of OA were identified via positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the HR-ToF-AMS data: vehicle emissions represented by a hydrocarbon-like OA factor (HOA, O / C = 0.06), cooking activities represented by a cooking OA factor (COA, O / C = 0.14), wood combustion represented by a biomass burning OA factor (BBOA, O / C = 0.34), and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) represented by a semivolatile oxygenated OA factor (SV-OOA, O / C = 0.56) and a low-volatility oxygenated OA factor (LV-OOA, O / C = 0.68). On average, primary OA (POA = HOA + COA + BBOA) accounted for 59 % the OA mass, whereas SV-OOA and LV-OOA contributed 15 and 26 %, respectively. Our results indicate that air

  18. Inducible chondrocyte-specific overexpression of BMP2 in young mice results in severe aggravation of osteophyte formation in experimental OA without altering cartilage damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, E.N.; Vitters, E.L.; Bennink, M.B.; Lent, P.L. van; Caam, A.P. van; Blom, A.B.; Berg, W.B. van den; Loo, F.A.J. van de; Kraan, P.M. van der

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In osteoarthritis (OA) chondrocytes surrounding lesions express elevated bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) levels. To investigate the functional consequence of chondrocyte-specific BMP2 expression, we made a collagen type II dependent, doxycycline (dox)-inducible BMP2 transgenic mouse

  19. Association of SARS susceptibility with single nucleic acid polymorphisms of OAS1 and MxA genes : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Jing; Feng, Dan; de Vlas, Sake J.; Wang, Hongwei; Fontanet, Arnaud; Zhang, Panhe; Plancoulaine, Sabine; Tang, Fang; Zhan, Lin; Yang, Hong; Wang, Tianbao; Richardus, Jan H.; Habbema, J. Dik F.; Cao, Wuchun

    2006-01-01

    Background: Host genetic factors may play a role in susceptibility and resistance to SARS associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection. The study was carried out to investigate the association between the genetic polymorphisms of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1) gene as well as myxovirus resi

  20. The prognostic value of oncogenic antigen 519 (OA-519) expression and proliferative activity detected by antibody MIB-1 in node-negative breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, V; Ladekarl, M; Holm-Nielsen, P

    1995-01-01

    of invasion of skin or deep fascia (= T1N0M0 and T2N0M0). The median follow-up time was 104 months (range 5-143 months). Immunohistochemical analysis of OA-519 expression was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. The proliferative activity was estimated using a Ki-67 equivalent monoclonal...

  1. Investigation of the sources and processing of organic aerosol over the Central Mexican Plateau from aircraft measurements during MILAGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. DeCarlo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic aerosol (OA represents approximately half of the submicron aerosol in Mexico City and the Central Mexican Plateau. This study uses the high time resolution measurements performed onboard the NCAR/NSF C-130 aircraft during the MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign in March 2006 to investigate the sources and chemical processing of the OA in this region. An examination of the OA/ΔCO ratio evolution as a function of photochemical age shows distinct behavior in the presence or absence of substantial open biomass burning (BB influence, with the latter being consistent with other studies in polluted areas. In addition, we present results from Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis of 12-s High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS OA spectra. Four components were resolved. Three of the components contain substantial organic oxygen and are termed semivolatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA, low-volatility OOA (LV-OOA, and biomass burning OA (BBOA. A reduced "hydrocarbon-like OA" (HOA component is also resolved. LV-OOA is highly oxygenated (atomic O/C~1 and is aged organic aerosol linked to regional airmasses, with likely contributions from pollution, biomass burning, and other sources. SV-OOA is strongly correlated with ammonium nitrate, Ox, and the Mexico City Basin. We interpret SV-OOA as secondary OA which is nearly all (>90% anthropogenic in origin. In the absence of biomass burning it represents the largest fraction of OA over the Mexico City basin, consistent with other studies in this region. BBOA is identified as arising from biomass burning sources due to a strong correlation with HCN, and the elevated contribution of the ion C2H4O2+ (m/z 60, a marker for levoglucosan and other primary BB species. WRF-FLEXPART calculated fire impact factors (FIF show good correlation with BBOA mass concentrations within the basin, but show location offsets in the far field

  2. OA cartilage derived chondrocytes encapsulated in poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) for the evaluation of cartilage restoration and apoptosis in an in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, G; Loreto, C; Carnazza, M L; Strehin, I; Elisseeff, J

    2011-10-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by cartilage attrition, subchondral bone remodeling, osteophyte formation and synovial inflammation. Perturbed homeostasis caused by inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and proapoptotic/antiapoptotic dysregulation is known to impair chondrocyte survival in joint microenvironments and contribute to OA pathogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the programmed cell death (apoptosis) of chondral cells are not yet well defined. The present study was conducted to evaluate apoptosis of chondrocytes from knee articular cartilage of patients with OA. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the apoptosis through the expression of caspase-3 in tissue explants, in cells cultured in monolayer, and in cells encapsulated in a hydrogel (PEGDA) scaffold. Chondrocytes were also studied following cell isolation and encapsulation in poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels. Specifically, articular cartilage specimens were assessed by histology (Hematoxlyn and Eosin) and histochemistry (Safranin-O and Alcian Blue). The effector of apoptosis caspase-3 was studied through immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence. DNA strand breaks were evaluated in freshly isolated chondrocytes from human OA cartilage using the TUNEL assay, and changes in nuclear morphology of apoptotic cells were detected by staining with Hoechst 33258. The results showed an increased expression of caspase-3 in tissue explants, in pre-confluent cells and after four passages in culture, and a decreased expression of caspase-3 comparable to control cartilage in cells encapsulated in hydrogels (PEGDA) after 5 weeks in culture. The freshly isolated chondrocytes were TUNEL positive. The chondrocytes after 5 weeks of culture in hydrogels (PEGDA) showed the formation of new hyaline cartilage with increased cell growth, cellular aggregations and extracellular matrix (ECM) production. This is of particular

  3. Association of SARS susceptibility with single nucleic acid polymorphisms of OAS1 and MxA genes: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hong

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host genetic factors may play a role in susceptibility and resistance to SARS associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV infection. The study was carried out to investigate the association between the genetic polymorphisms of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1 gene as well as myxovirus resistance 1 (MxA gene and susceptibility to SARS in Chinese Han population. Methods A hospital-based case-control study was conducted. A collective of 66 SARS cases and 64 close contact uninfected controls were enrolled in this study. End point real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR and PCR-based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP analysis were used to detect the single nucleic polymorphisms (SNPs in OAS1 and MxA genes. Information on other factors associated with SARS infection was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate logistic analyses were conducted. Results One polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR of the OAS1 gene was associated with SARS infection. Compared to AA genotype, AG and GG genotypes were found associated with a protective effect on SARS infection with ORs (95% CI of 0.42 (0.20~0.89 and 0.30 (0.09~0.97, respectively. Also, a GT genotype at position 88 in the MxA gene promoter was associated with increased susceptibility to SARS infection compared to a GG genotype (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.25~7.50. The associations of AG genotype in OAS1 and GT genotype in MxA remained significant in multivariate analyses after adjusting for SARS protective measures (OR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14~0.98 and OR = 3.22, 95% CI: 1.13~9.18, respectively. Conclusion SNPs in the OAS1 3'-UTR and MxA promoter region appear associated with host susceptibility to SARS in Chinese Han population.

  4. Investigating the annual behaviour of submicron secondary inorganic and organic aerosols in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Young

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, the behaviour of non-refractory inorganic and organic submicron particulate through an entire annual cycle is investigated using measurements from an Aerodyne compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (cToF-AMS located at a UK urban background site in North Kensington, London. We show secondary aerosols account for a significant fraction of the submicron aerosol burden and that high concentration events are governed by different factors depending on season. Furthermore, we demonstrate that on an annual basis there is no variability in the extent of secondary organic aerosol (SOA oxidation, as defined by the oxygen content, irrespective of amount. This result is surprising given the changes in precursor emissions and contributions as well as photochemical activity throughout the year; however it may make the characterisation of SOA in urban environments more straightforward than previously supposed. Organic species, nitrate, sulphate, ammonium, and chloride were measured during 2012 with average concentrations (±one standard deviation of 4.32 (±4.42, 2.74 (±5.00, 1.39 (±1.34, 1.30 (±1.52 and 0.15 (±0.24 μg m–3, contributing 43, 28, 14, 13 and 2% to the total submicron mass, respectively. Components of the organic aerosol fraction are determined using positive matrix factorisation (PMF where five factors are identified and attributed as hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, cooking OA (COA, solid fuel OA (SFOA, type 1 oxygenated OA (OOA1, and type 2 oxygenated OA (OOA2. OOA1 and OOA2 represent more and less oxygenated OA with average concentrations of 1.27 (±1.49 and 0.14 (±0.29 μg m–3, respectively, where OOA1 dominates the SOA fraction (90%. Diurnal, monthly, and seasonal trends are observed in all organic and inorganic species, due to meteorological conditions, specific nature of the aerosols, and availability of precursors. Regional and transboundary pollution as well as other individual pollution events influence

  5. Evaluation of the volatility basis-set approach for the simulation of organic aerosol formation in the Mexico City metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Tsimpidi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New primary and secondary organic aerosol modules have been added to PMCAMx, a three dimensional chemical transport model (CTM, for use with the SAPRC99 chemistry mechanism based on recent smog chamber studies. The new modelling framework is based on the volatility basis-set approach: both primary and secondary organic components are assumed to be semivolatile and photochemically reactive and are distributed in logarithmically spaced volatility bins. This new framework with the use of the new volatility basis parameters for low-NOx and high-NOx conditions tends to predict 4–6 times higher anthropogenic SOA concentrations than those predicted with the older generation of models. The resulting PMCAMx-2008 was applied in Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA for approximately a week during April 2003 during a period of very low regional biomass burning impact. The emission inventory, which uses as a starting point the MCMA 2004 official inventory, is modified and the primary organic aerosol (POA emissions are distributed by volatility based on dilution experiments. The predicted organic aerosol (OA concentrations peak in the center of Mexico City, reaching values above 40 μg m−3. The model predictions are compared with the results of the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis of the Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS observations. The model reproduces both Hydrocarbon-like Organic Aerosol (HOA and Oxygenated Organic Aerosol (OOA concentrations and diurnal profiles. The small OA underprediction during the rush-hour periods and overprediction in the afternoon suggest potential improvements to the description of fresh primary organic emissions and the formation of the oxygenated organic aerosols, respectively, although they may also be due to errors in the simulation of dispersion and vertical mixing. However, the AMS OOA data are not specific enough to prove that the model reproduces the organic aerosol

  6. Characterization of high-resolution aerosol mass spectra of primary organic aerosol emissions from Chinese cooking and biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.-Y. He

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS has proved to be a powerful tool to measure submicron particulate composition with high time resolution. Factor analysis of mass spectra (MS collected worldwide by AMS demonstrates that submicron organic aerosol (OA is usually composed of several major components, such as oxygenated (OOA, hydrocarbon-like (HOA, biomass burning (BBOA, and other primary OA. In order to help interpretation of component MS from factor analysis of ambient OA datasets, AMS measurement of different primary sources is required for comparison. Such work, however, has been very scarce in the literature, especially for high resolution MS (HR-MS measurement, which performs improved characterization by separating the ions of different elemental compositions at each m/z in comparison with unit mass resolution MS (UMR-MS measurement. In this study, primary emissions from four types of Chinese cooking (CC and six types of biomass burning (BB were simulated systemically and measured using an Aerodyne High-Resolution Time-of-Flight AMS (HR-ToF-AMS. The MS of the CC emissions show high similarity with m/z 41 and m/z 55 being the highest signals; the MS of the BB emissions also show high similarity with m/z 29 and m/z 43 being the highest signals. The MS difference between the CC and BB emissions is much bigger than that between different CC (or BB types, especially for the HR-MS. The O/C ratio of OA ranges from 0.08 to 0.13 for the CC emissions while from 0.18 to 0.26 for the BB emissions. The ions of m/z 43, m/z 44, m/z 57, and m/z 60, usually used as tracer ions in AMS measurement, were examined for their HR-MS characteristics in the CC and BB emissions. Moreover, the MS of the CC and BB emissions are also used to compare with component MS from factor analysis of ambient OA datasets observed in China, as well as with other AMS measurements of primary sources in the literature. The MS

  7. Characterization of the serine acetyltransferase gene family of Vitis vinifera uncovers differences in regulation of OAS synthesis in woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eTavares

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In higher plants cysteine biosynthesis is catalyzed by O-acetylserine(thiollyase (OASTL and represents the last step of the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. It is mainly regulated by provision of O-acetylserine (OAS, the nitrogen/carbon containing backbone for fixation of reduced sulfur. OAS is synthesized by Serine acetyltransferase (SERAT, which reversibly interacts with OASTL in the cysteine synthase complex (CSC. In this study we identify and characterize the SERAT protein family of the crop plant Vitis vinifera. The identified four members of the VvSERAT gene family are assigned to three distinct groups upon their sequence similarities to Arabidopsis SERATs. Expression of fluorescently labelled VvSERAT proteins uncover that the sub-cellular localization of VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT3;1 is the cytosol and that VvSERAT2;1 and VvSERAT2;2 localize in addition in plastids and mitochondria, respectively. The purified VvSERATs of group 1 and 2 have higher enzymatic activity than VvSERAT3;1, which display a characteristic C-terminal extension also present in AtSERAT3;1. VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT2;2 are evidenced to form the CSC. CSC formation activates VvSERAT2;2, by releasing CSC-associated VvSERAT2;2 from cysteine inhibition. Thus, subcellular distribution of SERAT isoforms and CSC formation in cytosol and mitochondria is conserved between Arabidopsis and grapevine. Surprisingly, VvSERAT2;1 lack the canonical C-terminal tail of plant SERATs, does not form the CSC and is almost insensitive to cysteine inhibition (IC50 = 1.9 mM cysteine. Upon sulfate depletion VvSERAT2;1 is strongly induced at the transcriptional level, while transcription of other VvSERATs is almost unaffected in sulfate deprived grapevine cell suspension cultures. Application of abiotic stresses to soil grown grapevine plants revealed isoform-specific induction of VvSERAT2;1 in leaves upon drought, whereas high light- or temperature- stress hardly trigger VvSERAT2;1 transcription.

  8. Influences of emission sources and meteorology on aerosol chemistry in a polluted urban environment: results from DISCOVER-AQ California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Dominique E.; Kim, Hwajin; Parworth, Caroline; Zhou, Shan; Zhang, Xiaolu; Cappa, Christopher D.; Seco, Roger; Kim, Saewung; Zhang, Qi

    2016-05-01

    The San Joaquin Valley (SJV) in California experiences persistent air-quality problems associated with elevated particulate matter (PM) concentrations due to anthropogenic emissions, topography, and meteorological conditions. Thus it is important to unravel the various sources and processes that affect the physicochemical properties of PM in order to better inform pollution abatement strategies and improve parameterizations in air-quality models. During January and February 2013, a ground supersite was installed at the Fresno-Garland California Air Resources Board (CARB) monitoring station, where comprehensive, real-time measurements of PM and trace gases were performed using instruments including an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and an Ionicon proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) as part of the NASA Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) campaign. The average submicron aerosol (PM1) concentration was 31.0 µg m-3 and the total mass was dominated by organic aerosols (OA, 55 %), followed by ammonium nitrate (35 %). High PM pollution events were commonly associated with elevated OA concentrations, mostly from primary sources. Organic aerosols had average atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O / C), hydrogen-to-carbon (H / C), and nitrogen-to-carbon (N / C) ratios of 0.42, 1.70, and 0.017, respectively. Six distinct sources of organic aerosol were identified from positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the AMS data: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA; 9 % of total OA, O / C = 0.09) associated with local traffic, cooking OA (COA; 18 % of total OA, O / C = 0.19) associated with food cooking activities, two biomass burning OA (BBOA1: 13 % of total OA, O / C = 0.33; BBOA2: 20 % of total OA, O / C = 0.60) most likely associated with residential space heating from wood combustion, and semivolatile oxygenated OA (SV

  9. Real-time optimisation of the Hoa Binh reservoir, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richaud, Bertrand; Madsen, Henrik; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2011-01-01

    -time optimisation. First, the simulation-optimisation framework is applied for optimising reservoir operating rules. Secondly, real-time and forecast information is used for on-line optimisation that focuses on short-term goals, such as flood control or hydropower generation, without compromising the deviation......Multi-purpose reservoirs often have to be managed according to conflicting objectives, which requires efficient tools for trading-off the objectives. This paper proposes a multi-objective simulation-optimisation approach that couples off-line rule curve optimisation with on-line real...... of the forecast is addressed. The results illustrate the importance of a sufficient forecast lead time to start pre-releasing water in flood situations....

  10. Cloning and Analysis of LdOA1 in Lymantria dispar and Its Response to the Stress of Three Kinds of Insecticides%舞毒蛾LdOA1基因克隆分析及对3种杀虫剂胁迫的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹传旺; 孙丽丽; 问荣荣; 豆晓洁; 王志英

    2014-01-01

    The G protein coupled receptors ( GPCRs) ,known as transmembrane receptors,play an important role in drug research and development by activating G protein involved in inside signal transduction pathways. In present study, the full length cDNA of GPCR (namely LdOA1) was isolated from Lymantria dispar transcriptome. The open reading frame ( ORF) of LdOA1 was 453 bp encoding a protein of 150 amino acid residues with the molecular mass of 17. 54 kDa and theoretical pI of 9. 76. Phylogenetic analysis of GPCR proteins showed LdOA1 of L. dispar clustered into a group with Danaus plexippus. We further investigated the expression of LdOA1 in 3rd instar L. dispar larvae under deltamethrin, carbaryl and omethoate stresses using real-time PCR. The results showed that LdOA1 in L. dispar was obviously inhibited by deltamethrin,carbaryl and omethoate.%G蛋白偶联受体( GPCRs)是生物体内重要膜受体,通过激活三聚体 G 蛋白参与各种细胞内信号转导,在药物研发中具有重要的作用。从舞毒蛾无参照全转录本文库中鉴定获得 GPCR 家族中眼白化 I 型全长基因(命名为 LdOA1),该基因全长453 bp,编码150个氨基酸,分子质量为17.54 kDa,理论等电点(pI)为9.76。进化树分析表明 LdOA1蛋白与帝王蝶的亲缘关系较近。实时荧光定量 PCR 分析表明舞毒蛾3龄幼虫在溴氰菊酯、甲萘威和氧化乐果胁迫下 LdOA1的表达均表现为显著抑制。

  11. Characterization of aerosol chemical composition with aerosol mass spectrometry in Central Europe: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lanz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Real-time measurements of non-refractory submicron aerosols (NR-PM1 were conducted within the greater Alpine region (Switzerland, Germany, Austria, France and Liechtenstein during several week-long field campaigns in 2002–2009. This region represents one of the most important economic and recreational spaces in Europe. A large variety of sites was covered including urban backgrounds, motorways, rural, remote, and high-alpine stations, and also mobile on-road measurements were performed. Inorganic and organic aerosol (OA fractions were determined by means of aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS. The data originating from 13 different field campaigns and the combined data have been utilized for providing an improved temporal and spatial data coverage.

    The average mass concentration of NR-PM1 for the different campaigns typically ranged between 10 and 30 μg m−3. Overall, the organic portion was most abundant, ranging from 36% to 81% of NR-PM1. Other main constituents comprised ammonium (5–15%, nitrate (8–36%, sulfate (3–26%, and chloride (0–5%. These latter anions were, on average, fully neutralized by ammonium. As a major result, time of the year (winter vs. summer and location of the site (Alpine valleys vs. Plateau could largely explain the variability in aerosol chemical composition for the different campaigns and were found to be better descriptors for aerosol composition than the type of site (urban, rural etc.. Thus, a reassessment of classifications of measurements sites might be considered in the future, possibly also for other regions of the world.

    The OA data was further analyzed using positive matrix factorization (PMF and the multi-linear engine ME (factor analysis separating the total OA into its underlying components, such as oxygenated (mostly secondary organic aerosol (OOA, hydrocarbon-like and freshly emitted organic aerosol (HOA, as well as OA from biomass

  12. Understanding sources of organic aerosol during CalNex-2010 using the CMAQ-VBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Matthew C.; Baker, Kirk R.; Hayes, Patrick L.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Koo, Bonyoung; Pye, Havala O. T.

    2016-03-01

    estimated to be too low by about 7 × . From source-apportioned model results, we found most of the CMAQ-VBS modeled POA at the Pasadena CalNex site was attributable to meat cooking emissions (48 %, consistent with a substantial fraction of cooking OA in the observations). This is compared to 18 % from gasoline vehicle emissions, 13 % from biomass burning (in the form of residential wood combustion), and 8 % from diesel vehicle emissions. All "other" inventoried emission sources (e.g., industrial, point, and area sources) comprised the final 13 %. The CMAQ-VBS semivolatile POA treatment underpredicted AMS hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) + cooking-influenced OA (CIOA) at Pasadena by a factor of 1.8 compared to a factor of 1.4 overprediction of POA in CMAQ-AE6, but it did capture the AMS diurnal profile of HOA and CIOA well, with the exception of the midday peak. Overall, the CMAQ-VBS with its semivolatile treatment of POA, SOA from intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs), and aging of SOA improves SOA model performance (though SOA formation efficiency is still 1.6-2 × too low). However, continued efforts are needed to better understand assumptions in the parameterization (e.g., SOA aging) and provide additional certainty to how best to apply existing emission inventories in a framework that treats POA as semivolatile, which currently degrades existing model performance at routine monitoring networks. The VBS and other approaches (e.g., AE6) require additional work to appropriately incorporate IVOC emissions and subsequent SOA formation.

  13. Inhibition of T-Type Voltage Sensitive Calcium Channel Reduces Load-Induced OA in Mice and Suppresses the Catabolic Effect of Bone Mechanical Stress on Chondrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma P Srinivasan

    Full Text Available Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC regulate cellular calcium influx, one of the earliest responses to mechanical stimulation in osteoblasts. Here, we postulate that T-type VSCCs play an essential role in bone mechanical response to load and participate in events leading to the pathology of load-induced OA. Repetitive mechanical insult was used to induce OA in Cav3.2 T-VSCC null and wild-type control mouse knees. Osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1 and chondrocytes were treated with a selective T-VSCC inhibitor and subjected to fluid shear stress to determine how blocking of T-VSCCs alters the expression profile of each cell type upon mechanical stimulation. Conditioned-media (CM obtained from static and sheared MC3T3-E1 was used to assess the effect of osteoblast-derived factors on the chondrocyte phenotype. T-VSCC null knees exhibited significantly lower focal articular cartilage damage than age-matched controls. In vitro inhibition of T-VSCC significantly reduced the expression of both early and late mechanoresponsive genes in osteoblasts but had no effect on gene expression in chondrocytes. Furthermore, treatment of chondrocytes with CM obtained from sheared osteoblasts induced expression of markers of hypertrophy in chondrocytes and this was nearly abolished when osteoblasts were pre-treated with the T-VSCC-specific inhibitor. These results indicate that T-VSCC plays a role in signaling events associated with induction of OA and is essential to the release of osteoblast-derived factors that promote an early OA phenotype in chondrocytes. Further, these findings suggest that local inhibition of T-VSCC may serve as a therapy for blocking load-induced bone formation that results in cartilage degeneration.

  14. A hyaluronic acid-salmon calcitonin conjugate for the local treatment of osteoarthritis: chondro-protective effect in a rabbit model of early OA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mero, Anna; Campisi, Monica; Favero, Marta; Barbera, Carlo; Secchieri, Cynthia; Dayer, Jean M; Goldring, Mary B; Goldring, Steven R; Pasut, Gianfranco

    2014-08-10

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by chronic degeneration of joints, involving mainly the articular cartilage and the underlying bone, and severely impairing the quality of life of the patient. Although with limited efficacy, currently available pharmacological treatments for OA aim to control pain and to retard disease progression. Salmon calcitonin (sCT) is a drug which has been shown to have therapeutic effects in experimental arthritis by inhibiting both bone turnover and cartilage degradation and reducing the activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). High molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA) is used as a lubricant in OA therapy, and, interestingly, HA polymers may normalize the levels of MMP-1, -3 and -13. We demonstrated that sCT rapidly clears from the knee joint of rat animal model, after intra-articular (i.a.) administration, and it induces systemic effects. Here, sCT was conjugated to HA (200kDa) with the aim of prolonging the residence time of the polypeptide in the joint space by reducing its clearance. An aldehyde derivative of HA was used for N-terminal site-selective coupling of sCT. The activity of sCT was preserved, both in vitro and in vivo, after its conjugation and the i.a. injection of HA-sCT did not trigger any systemic effects in rats. The efficacy of HA-sCT treatment was tested in a rabbit OA model and clear chondro-protective effect was proven by macro- and microscopic assessments and histological findings. Our results indicate that HAylation of sCT increases the size of the polypeptide in a stable covalent manner and delays its passage into the blood stream. We conclude that HA conjugation prolongs the anti-catabolic effects of sCT in joint tissues, including the synovial membrane and cartilage.

  15. 中国科协科技期刊OA政策状况调研与分析%Investigation and Analysis of OA Policies of CAST Journals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    初景利; 翁彦琴; 林晶晶; 李慧

    2011-01-01

    The investigation into 205 so called OA journals of CAST (China Association of Science and Technology) reflects the changes in perception and practures of CAST journals in open access,as well as some problems associated with OA journals,particularly in funding and charging policy,intellectual property righ policy, and quality control of OA journals,The suggestions made by some journals deserve our deep thought.%文章通过对中国科协205种所谓"开放获取"的期刊所做的专门调查,反映了中国科协"开放获取"期刊近来在开放获取的认识和实践上的可喜变化,也反映了OA期刊的发展还存在着一些问题,特别是资助与收费政策、知识产权政策、开放获取期刊的质量保障等.各期刊关于开放获取的建议,也值得我们深思.

  16. Wintertime aerosol chemistry and haze evolution in an extremely polluted city of the North China Plain: significant contribution from coal and biomass combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyan; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Chunrong; Wang, Litao; Wei, Zhe; Zhou, Shan; Parworth, Caroline; Zheng, Bo; Canonaco, Francesco; Prévôt, André S. H.; Chen, Ping; Zhang, Hongliang; Wallington, Timothy J.; He, Kebin

    2017-04-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) frequently experiences heavy haze pollution, particularly during wintertime. In winter 2015-2016, the NCP region suffered several extremely severe haze episodes with air pollution red alerts issued in many cities. We have investigated the sources and aerosol evolution processes of the severe pollution episodes in Handan, a typical industrialized city in the NCP region, using real-time measurements from an intensive field campaign during the winter of 2015-2016. The average (±1σ) concentration of submicron aerosol (PM1) during 3 December 2015-5 February 2016 was 187.6 (±137.5) µg m-3, with the hourly maximum reaching 700.8 µg m-3. Organic was the most abundant component, on average accounting for 45 % of total PM1 mass, followed by sulfate (15 %), nitrate (14 %), ammonium (12 %), chloride (9 %) and black carbon (BC, 5 %). Positive matrix factorization (PMF) with the multilinear engine (ME-2) algorithm identified four major organic aerosol (OA) sources, including traffic emissions represented by a hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, 7 % of total OA), industrial and residential burning of coal represented by a coal combustion OA (CCOA, 29 % of total OA), open and domestic combustion of wood and crop residuals represented by a biomass burning OA (BBOA, 25 % of total OA), and formation of secondary OA (SOA) in the atmosphere represented by an oxygenated OA (OOA, 39 % of total OA). Emissions of primary OA (POA), which together accounted for 61 % of total OA and 27 % of PM1, are a major cause of air pollution during the winter. Our analysis further uncovered that primary emissions from coal combustion and biomass burning together with secondary formation of sulfate (mainly from SO2 emitted by coal combustion) are important driving factors for haze evolution. However, the bulk composition of PM1 showed comparatively small variations between less polluted periods (daily PM2. 5 ≤ 75 µg m-3) and severely polluted periods (daily PM2. 5 > 75 µg m-3

  17. Wintertime aerosol chemistry and haze evolution in an extremely polluted city of North China Plain: significant contribution from coal and biomass combustions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyan; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Chunrong; Wang, Litao; Wei, Zhe; Zhou, Shan; Parworth, Caroline; Zheng, Bo; Canonaco, Francesco; Prévôt, André; Chen, Ping; Zhang, Hongliang; He, Kebin

    2017-04-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) frequently encountered heavy haze pollution in recent years, particularly during wintertime. In 2015-2016 winter, the NCP region suffered several extremely severe haze episodes with air pollution red alerts issued in many cities. In this work, we investigated the sources and aerosol evolution processes of the severe pollution episodes in Handan, a typical industrialized city in the NCP region, using real-time measurements from an intensive field campaign during the winter of 2015-2016. The average (± 1σ) concentration of submicron aerosol (PM1) during December 3, 2015 - February 5, 2016 was 187.6 (± 137.5) μg m-3, with the hourly maximum reaching 700.8 μg m-3. Organic was the most abundant component, on average accounting for 45% of total PM1 mass, followed by sulfate (15%), nitrate (14%), ammonium (12%), chloride (9%) and BC (5%). Positive matrix factorization (PMF) with multi-linear engine (ME-2) identified four major organic aerosol (OA) sources, including traffic emissions represented by a hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, 7% of total OA), industrial and residential burning of coal represented by a coal combustion OA (CCOA, 29% of total OA), open and domestic combustion of wood and crop residuals represented by a biomass burning OA (BBOA, 25% of total OA), and formation of secondary OA (SOA) in the atmosphere represented by an oxygenated OA (OOA, 39% of total OA). Emissions of primary OA (POA), which together accounted for 61% of total OA and 27% of PM1, are a major cause of air pollution in this region during the winter. Our analysis further uncovered that, primary emissions from coal combustion and biomass burning together with secondary formation of sulfate (mainly from SO2 emitted by coal combustion) are important driving factors for haze evolution. However, the bulk composition of PM1 showed comparatively small variations between less polluted periods (daily PM2.5 ≤ 75 μg m-3) and severely polluted periods (daily PM2.5 > 75

  18. Do metabolic factors add to the effect of overweight on hand osteoarthritis? The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dahaghin; S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); B.W. Koes (Bart); J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); H.A.P. Pols (Huib)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: As hand joints are non-weight bearing, the association between overweight and hand osteoarthritis (HOA) is critical to understanding how overweight may associate with osteoarthritis (OA) apart from axial load. Overweight might be associated with the occurrence of OA through o

  19. Circulating antibodies directed against "polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-like" structures in the sera of cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouns, Olivier; Mangas, Arturo; Coveñas, Rafael; Geffard, Michel

    2009-07-01

    An increase in immunoglobulin (Ig) A isotype directed against benzo(a)pyrene (BP) structure has previously been described in sera of cancer patients. In this study, new polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) conjugates were synthesized in order to more closely mimic the endogenous ligands of the cytosolic aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). PAH [benzo(a)pyrene; 1,2-benzanthracene; dibenz[a,c]anthracene; 7,12-dimethylbenza[a]anthracene; benzo(ghi)perylene] were bound to protein carriers such as bovine serum albumin (BSA) via N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). The levels of circulating antibodies (Abs) directed against PAH-NAC conjugates in the sera of cancer patients were evaluated using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) with these new conjugates. The avidity (IC(50)) and specificity of these circulating Abs were assessed via competition experiments. An increase in Ig directed against these PAH-NAC conjugates was found in the sera of cancer patients, irrespective of the state and stage of the tumors. These Ig were principally of the A isotype. Sera from cancer patients had significantly higher optical density (OD) ranges than the controls, p<0.0001. The ELISA test for breast cancer (n=155) and ovarian cancer (n=62) identified 82% and 92% of positive patients, respectively. The percentage positive in the control group (n=60) was around 5%. Moreover, competition experiments with the different PAH-NAC conjugates and NAC-BSA revealed an estimated avidity of 10(-6)M for the circulating IgA antibodies. The Abs discriminated between the different PAH-NAC conjugates and NAC-BSA. Therefore, these Abs recognize a carcinogenic PAH-NAC structure and not only a BP structure. These markers may be useful in the future for monitoring cancer evolution and recurrence.

  20. Management of osteoarthritis (OA) with the pharma-standard supplement FlexiQule (Boswellia): a 12-week registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcaro, G; Dugall, M; Luzzi, R; Ledda, A; Pellegrini, L; Hu, S; Ippolito, E

    2015-10-22

    This registry study assessed the pharma-standard supplement FlexiQule (Boswellia extract in capsules) in the management of symptoms associated to osteoarthritis (OA) also managed with the 'standard management' (SM) in comparison with a group of patients managed only with SM. The 12- week registry included patients with symptomatic knee arthrosis. They were able to walk on a treadmill for a walking test and to complete the WOMAC questionnaire. 32 patients used the supplement and 34 acted as controls (SM). No safety problems were observed. At 12 weeks, the Karnofsky scale was significantly improved in both groups: the variation was higher (p<0.05) in the supplement group. The WOMAC score was decreased significantly more in the supplement+SM group in comparison with controls considering pain, stiffness and physical functions (p<0.05). For social and emotional functions the decrease in score was also more evident in the supplement group (p<0.05). Both groups improved in pain-free and total walking distance at 12 weeks. Pain-free walking distance (treadmill) was higher (p<0.05) with the supplement (from 93.4;11.6 m to 271.3;19.3 m) than in controls (from 90.5;13.5 m to 158.3;22.3)(p<0.05). The improvement in total walking distance was also higher in the supplement group (p<0.05) (from 164.3;23.2 to 322.3;22.3 m) in comparison with the SM- only group ( from 158.3;18,4 to 240.2;19.3 m). The need for concomitant drugs and medical attention during the registry was reduced more in the supplement group (p<0.05). In conclusion the difference between SM and the Flexiqule+SM was in favor of the management with the supplement for all target measurements. The product is safe and well tolerated.

  1. Understanding sources of organic aerosol during CalNex-2010 using the CMAQ-VBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Woody

    2015-10-01

    efficiency for that model is estimated to be too low by about 7×. For CMAQ-VBS, 90 % of the anthropogenic SOA mass formed was attributed to aged secondary semivolatile vapors (70 % originating from volatile organic compounds (VOCs and 20 % from intermediate volatility compounds (IVOCs. From source-apportioned model results, we found most of the CMAQ-VBS modeled POA at the Pasadena CalNex site was attributable to meat cooking emissions (48 %, and consistent with a substantial fraction of cooking OA in the observations, compared to 18 % from gasoline vehicle emissions, 13 % from biomass burning (in the form of residential wood combustion, and 8 % from diesel vehicle emissions. All "other" inventoried emission sources (e.g. industrial/point sources comprised the final 13 %. The CMAQ-VBS semivolatile POA treatment underpredicted AMS hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA + cooking-influenced OA (CIOA at Pasadena by a factor of 1.8 (1.16 μg m−3 modeled vs. 2.05 μg m−3 observed compared to a factor of 1.4 overprediction of POA in CMAQ-AE6, but did well to capture the AMS diurnal profile of HOA and CIOA, with the exception of the midday peak. We estimated that using the National Emission Inventory (NEI POA emissions without scaling to represent SVOCs underestimates SVOCs by ~1.7×.

  2. Organic and inorganic decomposition products from the thermal desorption of atmospheric particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brent J.; Zhang, Yaping; Zuo, Xiaochen; Martinez, Raul E.; Walker, Michael J.; Kreisberg, Nathan M.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Docherty, Kenneth S.; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2016-04-01

    ) component. TAG signal found in the traditional compound elution time period reveals higher correlations with AMS hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) combined with the fraction of OOA that is less oxygenated. Potential to quantify nitrate and sulfate aerosol mass concentrations using the TAG system is explored through analysis of ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate standards. While chemical standards display a linear response in the TAG system, redesorptions of the CTD cell following ambient sample analysis show some signal carryover on sulfate and organics, and new desorption methods should be developed to improve throughput. Future standards should be composed of complex organic/inorganic mixtures, similar to what is found in the atmosphere, and perhaps will more accurately account for any aerosol mixture effects on compositional quantification.

  3. Sampling strategies and post-processing methods for increasing the time resolution of organic aerosol measurements requiring long sample-collection times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modini, Rob L.; Takahama, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    The composition and properties of atmospheric organic aerosols (OAs) change on timescales of minutes to hours. However, some important OA characterization techniques typically require greater than a few hours of sample-collection time (e.g., Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy). In this study we have performed numerical modeling to investigate and compare sample-collection strategies and post-processing methods for increasing the time resolution of OA measurements requiring long sample-collection times. Specifically, we modeled the measurement of hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) concentrations at a polluted urban site in Mexico City, and investigated how to construct hourly resolved time series from samples collected for 4, 6, and 8 h. We modeled two sampling strategies - sequential and staggered sampling - and a range of post-processing methods including interpolation and deconvolution. The results indicated that relative to the more sophisticated and costly staggered sampling methods, linear interpolation between sequential measurements is a surprisingly effective method for increasing time resolution. Additional error can be added to a time series constructed in this manner if a suboptimal sequential sampling schedule is chosen. Staggering measurements is one way to avoid this effect. There is little to be gained from deconvolving staggered measurements, except at very low values of random measurement error (< 5 %). Assuming 20 % random measurement error, one can expect average recovery errors of 1.33-2.81 µg m-3 when using 4-8 h-long sequential and staggered samples to measure time series of concentration values ranging from 0.13-29.16 µg m-3. For 4 h samples, 19-47 % of this total error can be attributed to the process of increasing time resolution alone, depending on the method used, meaning that measurement precision would only be improved by 0.30-0.75 µg m-3 if samples could be collected over 1 h instead of 4 h. Devising a

  4. OMOTESHO, o.A.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    haggling in open markets. KEYWORDS: ... important source of protein in _ estimated 51.7 grams daily per kaput. Nigeria. lt constitutes close to 70 ... market. Operations perforined by beef retail shops included buying of cattle. Slaughtering and ...

  5. Normalisation method can affect gluteus medius electromyography results during weight bearing exercises in people with hip osteoarthritis (OA): a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Helen P; Huang, Xiaoli; Cummiskey, Andrew; Meldrum, Dara; Malone, Ailish

    2015-02-01

    Surface electromyography (sEMG) is used to assess muscle activation during therapeutic exercise, but data are significantly affected by inter-individual variability and requires normalisation of the sEMG signal to enable comparison between individuals. The purpose of this study was to compare two normalisation methods, a maximal method (maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC)) and non-maximal peak dynamic method (PDM), on gluteus medius (GMed) activation using sEMG during three weight-bearing exercises in people with hip osteoarthritis (OA) and healthy controls. Thirteen people with hip OA and 20 controls performed three exercises (Squat, Step-Up, Step-Down). Average root-mean squared EMG amplitude based on MVIC and PDM normalisation was compared between groups for both involved and uninvolved hips using Mann-Whitney tests. Using MVIC normalisation, significantly higher normalised GMed EMG amplitudes were found in the OA group during all Step-up and down exercises on the involved side (p=0.02-0.001) and most of the Step exercises on the uninvolved side (p=0.03-0.04), but not the Squat (p>0.05), compared to controls. Using PDM normalisation, significant between-group differences occurred only for Ascending Squat (p=0.03) on the involved side. MVIC normalisation demonstrated higher inter-trial relative reliability (ICCs=0.78-0.99) than PDM (ICCs=0.37-0.84), but poorer absolute reliability using Standard Error of Measurement. Normalisation method can significantly affect interpretation of EMG amplitudes. Although MVIC-normalised amplitudes were more sensitive to differences between groups, there was greater variability using this method, which raises concerns regarding validity. Interpretation of EMG data is strongly influenced by the normalisation method used, and this should be considered when applying EMG results to clinical populations.

  6. Feasibility randomised controlled trial of Recovery-focused Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Older Adults with bipolar disorder (RfCBT-OA): study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Elizabeth; Lobban, Fiona; Sutton, Chris; Depp, Colin; Johnson, Sheri; Laidlaw, Ken; Jones, Steven H

    2016-03-03

    Bipolar disorder is a severe and chronic mental health problem that persists into older adulthood. The number of people living with this condition is set to rise as the UK experiences a rapid ageing of its population. To date, there has been very little research or service development with respect to psychological therapies for this group of people. A parallel two-arm randomised controlled trial comparing a 14-session, 6-month Recovery-focused Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Older Adults with bipolar disorder (RfCBT-OA) plus treatment as usual (TAU) versus TAU alone. Participants will be recruited in the North-West of England via primary and secondary mental health services and through self-referral. The primary objective of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of RfCBT-OA; therefore, a formal power calculation is not appropriate. It has been estimated that randomising 25 participants per group will be sufficient to be able to reliably determine the primary feasibility outcomes (eg, recruitment and retention rates), in line with recommendations for sample sizes for feasibility/pilot trials. Participants in both arms will complete assessments at baseline and then every 3 months, over the 12-month follow-up period. We will gain an estimate of the likely effect size of RfCBT-OA on a range of clinical outcomes and estimate parameters needed to determine the appropriate sample size for a definitive, larger trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of RfCBT-OA. Data analysis is discussed further in the Analysis section in the main paper. This protocol was approved by the UK National Health Service (NHS) Ethics Committee process (REC ref: 15/NW/0330). The findings of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conference presentations and local, participating NHS trusts. ISRCTN13875321; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  7. Modelling winter organic aerosol at the European scale with CAMx: evaluation and source apportionment with a VBS parameterization based on novel wood burning smog chamber experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ciarelli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated a modified VBS (volatility basis set scheme to treat biomass-burning-like organic aerosol (BBOA implemented in CAMx (Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions. The updated scheme was parameterized with novel wood combustion smog chamber experiments using a hybrid VBS framework which accounts for a mixture of wood burning organic aerosol precursors and their further functionalization and fragmentation in the atmosphere. The new scheme was evaluated for one of the winter EMEP intensive campaigns (February–March 2009 against aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS measurements performed at 11 sites in Europe. We found a considerable improvement for the modelled organic aerosol (OA mass compared to our previous model application with the mean fractional bias (MFB reduced from −61 to −29 %. We performed model-based source apportionment studies and compared results against positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis performed on OA AMS data. Both model and observations suggest that OA was mainly of secondary origin at almost all sites. Modelled secondary organic aerosol (SOA contributions to total OA varied from 32 to 88 % (with an average contribution of 62 % and absolute concentrations were generally under-predicted. Modelled primary hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA and primary biomass-burning-like aerosol (BBPOA fractions contributed to a lesser extent (HOA from 3 to 30 %, and BBPOA from 1 to 39 % with average contributions of 13 and 25 %, respectively. Modelled BBPOA fractions were found to represent 12 to 64 % of the total residential-heating-related OA, with increasing contributions at stations located in the northern part of the domain. Source apportionment studies were performed to assess the contribution of residential and non-residential combustion precursors to the total SOA. Non-residential combustion and road transportation sector contributed about 30–40 % to SOA formation (with increasing

  8. UP3005, a Botanical Composition Containing Two Standardized Extracts of Uncaria gambir and Morus alba, Improves Pain Sensitivity and Cartilage Degradations in Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Rat OA Disease Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Yimam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a multifactorial disease primarily noted by cartilage degradation in association with inflammation that causes significant morbidity, joint pain, stiffness, and limited mobility. Present-day management of OA is inadequate due to the lack of principal therapies proven to be effective in hindering disease progression where symptomatic therapy focused approach masks the actual etiology leading to irreversible damage. Here, we describe the effect of UP3005, a composition containing a proprietary blend of two standardized extracts from the leaf of Uncaria gambir and the root bark of Morus alba, in maintaining joint structural integrity and alleviating OA associated symptoms in monosodium-iodoacetate- (MIA- induced rat OA disease model. Pain sensitivity, micro-CT, histopathology, and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs level analysis were conducted. Diclofenac at 10 mg/kg was used as a reference compound. UP3005 resulted in almost a complete inhibition in proteoglycans degradation, reductions of 16.6% (week 4, 40.5% (week 5, and 22.0% (week 6 in pain sensitivity, statistically significant improvements in articular cartilage matrix integrity, minimal visual subchondral bone damage, and statistically significant increase in bone mineral density when compared to the vehicle control with MIA. Therefore, UP3005 could potentially be considered as an alternative therapy from natural sources for the treatment of OA and/or its associated symptoms.

  9. 电力企业OA邮箱自动审计系统%OA Mail Automatic Aauditing System in Electric Power Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄初指; 陈斌; 李铭剑

    2014-01-01

    随着企业办公电子化的深入,现代oa邮箱系统已经成为必不可少的工具。在电力企业oa邮箱具有实名制和高活动率等区别于互联网邮箱的特性,因此受到企业内部员工的广泛接受和使用,其要求的安全性及所涉及的法律责任也随之凸显。因此设计一套科学合理的审计系统为邮箱提供安全保障和为各种法律规章制度提供依据是迫切需要的。%Along with the enterprise electronic ofifce in-depth, modern OA e-mail system has become an essential tool. Characteristics in the electric power enterprise OA mailbox has a real name system and high activity rate from the Internet mail, so by the internal staff is widely accepted and used, its security requirements and related legal liability will be highlighted. Therefore, to provide security and provide for a variety of legal rules and regulations basis is urgently needed for the mailbox to design a set of scientiifc and reasonable audit system.

  10. Expression of IFN-Inducible Genes with Antiviral Function OAS1 and MX1 in Health and under Conditions of Recurrent Herpes Simplex Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaulov, A V; Shulzhenko, A E; Karsonova, A V

    2017-07-01

    We studied the expression of IFN-inducible genes OAS1 and Mx1 in lysates of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients suffering from recurrent Herpes simplex infections in comparison with healthy people. To induce the expression of the studied genes, blood mononuclears were incubated with recombinant IFN-α2b in concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 U/ml for 3 h and then the content of the studied transcripts was evaluated. Relative expression of OAS1 and Mx1 in patients with recurrent forms of Herpes simplex both during the acute stage and clinical remission did not differ significantly from that in healthy people after stimulation with IFN-α2b in a concentration of 1 U/ml and in higher concentrations (10 and 100 U/ml). It was concluded that intracellular signal transduction in IFN-α-activated cells in vitro was not disturbed in patients with recurrent forms of Herpes simplex infection. Thus, the reported phenomenon of IFN-signalling distortion by Herpes simplex virus proteins observed in experiments on model cell lines infected with Herpes simplex virus was not confirmed in our experiments on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with Herpes simplex infection.

  11. FwWebViewPlus: integration of web technologies into WinCC OA based Human-Machine Interfaces at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golonka, Piotr; Fabian, Wojciech; Gonzalez-Berges, Manuel; Jasiun, Piotr; Varela-Rodriguez, Fernando

    2014-06-01

    The rapid growth in popularity of web applications gives rise to a plethora of reusable graphical components, such as Google Chart Tools and JQuery Sparklines, implemented in JavaScript and run inside a web browser. In the paper we describe the tool that allows for seamless integration of web-based widgets into WinCC Open Architecture, the SCADA system used commonly at CERN to build complex Human-Machine Interfaces. Reuse of widely available widget libraries and pushing the development efforts to a higher abstraction layer based on a scripting language allow for significant reduction in maintenance of the code in multi-platform environments compared to those currently used in C++ visualization plugins. Adequately designed interfaces allow for rapid integration of new web widgets into WinCC OA. At the same time, the mechanisms familiar to HMI developers are preserved, making the use of new widgets "native". Perspectives for further integration between the realms of WinCC OA and Web development are also discussed.

  12. 电子签章系统在医院办公OA中的应用%Electronic seal system in the hospital office OA the application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾燕梅; 邢瀚文; 袁磊

    2014-01-01

    This article from the hospital ofifce OA demand for electronic signature starting, through a detailed description of the mechanism of electronic signature, authentication mechanism and the function of the system, introduces the application of electronic signature in the hospital office in oa. electronic signature to achieve a paperless office, a social environment conducive to the protection of natural resources, reduce waste; improve the hospital work efifciency, provides a necessary means and security services to the hospital information.%本文从医院办公oa对电子签章的需求出发,通过对电子签章机制、验证机制和系统功能的详细描述,介绍了电子签章在医院办公oa中的应用。电子签章实现了无纸化办公,有利于社会环境保护,减少了对自然资源的浪费;提高了医院办公工作效率,为医院信息化提供了必备手段和安全服务。

  13. Atmospheric aerosol compositions and sources at two national background sites in northern and southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiao; He, Ling-Yan; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Cao, Li-Ming; Gong, Zhao-Heng; Wang, Chuan; Zhuang, Xin; Hu, Min

    2016-08-01

    Although China's severe air pollution has become a focus in the field of atmospheric chemistry and the mechanisms of urban air pollution there have been researched extensively, few field sampling campaigns have been conducted at remote background sites in China, where air pollution characteristics on a larger scale are highlighted. In this study, an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), together with an Aethalometer, was deployed at two of China's national background sites in northern (Lake Hongze site; 33.23° N, 118.33° E; altitude 21 m) and southern (Mount Wuzhi site; 18.84° N, 109.49° E; altitude 958 m) China in the spring seasons in 2011 and 2015, respectively, in order to characterize submicron aerosol composition and sources. The campaign-average PM1 concentration was 36.8 ± 19.8 µg m-3 at the northern China background (NCB) site, which was far higher than that at the southern China background (SCB) site (10.9 ± 7.8 µg m-3). Organic aerosol (OA) (27.2 %), nitrate (26.7 %), and sulfate (22.0 %) contributed the most to the PM1 mass at NCB, while OA (43.5 %) and sulfate (30.5 %) were the most abundant components of the PM1 mass at SCB, where nitrate only constituted a small fraction (4.7 %) and might have contained a significant amount of organic nitrates (5-11 %). The aerosol size distributions and organic aerosol elemental compositions all indicated very aged aerosol particles at both sites. The OA at SCB was more oxidized with a higher average oxygen to carbon (O / C) ratio (0.98) than that at NCB (0.67). Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis was used to classify OA into three components, including a hydrocarbon-like component (HOA, attributed to fossil fuel combustion) and two oxygenated components (OOA1 and OOA2, attributed to secondary organic aerosols from different source areas) at NCB. PMF analysis at SCB identified a semi-volatile oxygenated component (SV-OOA) and a low-volatility oxygenated

  14. 可重复利用NaOA/Na3PO4黏弹性胶束压裂液微观结构与流变特性研究%Research on microstructure and rheological properties of recyclable NaOA/Na3PO4 viscoelastic micelle fracturing lfuid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾雪凡; 徐敬芳; 李楷; 刘会强; 燕永利

    2014-01-01

    The electrolyte Na3PO4 solution is used to induce anionic surfactant NaOA to form wormlike micelle system. By using freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy (FF-TEM) technology and rheology method, the research about Na3PO4 which induces NaOA to form micelle system under different mass fractions, was conducted on the functions like microstructure, rheological proper-ties, gel breaking behavior and recycling. By measuring and analysis of physical quantities about dynamic modulus, shear viscosity, compound viscosity, etc. of the system, it was found that this micelle system shows wormlike net structure and good viscoelastic per-formance in a broad frequency. Using gel breakers, the gel breaking behavior of the system was studied, and combined with the test on rheological properties, it is proved that this micelle system is good for repeated use. Through comparison with the now maturely used hydroxypropyl guanidine gum (HPG) fracturing lfuid and microcosmic FF-TEM of its breaking lfuid, it shows that the NaOA/Na3PO4 viscoelastic micelle system has clear net structure and can achieve the breaking effectiveness equal to HPG after breaking by strong oxidant under moderate conditions. The above results show that the NaOA/Na3PO4 viscoelastic micelle system can be used as recyclable clean fracturing lfuid system and has a broad application prospect.%采用电解质Na3PO4溶液诱导阴离子表面活性剂油酸钠(NaOA)形成蠕虫状胶束体系。利用冷冻断裂蚀刻透射电子显微镜技术(FF-TEM)和流变学方法,研究了Na3PO4在不同质量分数条件下诱导NaOA形成胶束体系的微观结构、流变特性、破胶行为以及重复利用等性能。通过对体系动态模量、剪切黏度、复合黏度等物理量的测量分析,发现该胶束体系在较宽的频率范围内呈现蠕虫状网状结构和优良的黏弹性能。通过内相破胶剂研究了该体系的破胶行为,并结合流变特性测试,证实了该

  15. Regulaciones públicas y explotación de renta de suelo: el boom inmobiliario de Ñuñoa, Santiago, 2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto López-Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación presenta un análisis de la renovación urbana del área de Irarrázaval poniente, comuna de Ñuñoa, Santiago, que durante la década pasada experimentó una intensificación de producción privada residencial en altura orientada a segmentos medio-altos. Los resultados muestran el activo rol que juegan, a nivel local, las regulaciones estatales neoliberales en Chile para fijar el más intenso uso del suelo a explotarse exclusivamente por empresas inmobiliarias. Se muestra además el diferencial creciente de rentas de suelo capturadas entre empresas y residentes propietarios tradicionales, lo que implica gentrificación para un segmento minoritario de éstos.

  16. 智能办公综合服务平台的部署%Deployment of intelligent integrated OA service platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文举; 袁正义

    2014-01-01

    办公自动化(Office Automation,简称OA)是将现代化办公和计算机网络功能结合起来的一种新型的办公方式。方便员工的通讯与交流,无纸化办公更环保,节约办公费用,同时提高了办公效率、规范了办公行为。%Office automation(Office Automation,referred to as OA)is a new office mode by combining the modern office and computer network. Making Communication and exchange easier for workers,paperless office is more environmental,saving the cost of office,at the same time,improving office efficiency,standardizing the office behavior.

  17. Design and implement on OA system for hospital personalized demands%面向医院个性化需求的OA系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克潮

    2016-01-01

    传统OA系统虽然具有信息发布、公文转发等通用办公所需的功能,但不能满足不同行业个性化的需求。为适应医院信息化建设的发展,根据某三甲医院个性化需求的业务流程,在传统OA系统的基础上,设计和实现了电子病历解锁申请、临时用药采购申请、临时抗菌药物采购申请模块。这进一步实现了医院内部行政办公无纸化,减少医务人员往返各科室时间,为全面提高该医院信息化水平奠定坚实的基础。%Although traditional OA system has the function of information release, document forwarding, and so on. However, it can’t meet personalized demands of different industries. In order to adapt to development of hospital information construction, according to business process of one A-level tertiary hospital personalized demands, the application of electronic medical records unlocking, temporary drug purchase and temporary antimicrobial drug purchase were designed and implemented base on traditional OA system. That make hospital internal administrative office more paperless, reduce time of medical staff from each department, lay a solid foundation for the comprehensive improvement of the level of information in hospital.

  18. Hyaline cartilage calcification of the first metatarsophalangeal joint is associated with osteoarthritis but independent of age and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Jan; Hawellek, Thelonius; Hischke, Sandra; Bertrand, Jessica; Krause, Matthias; Püschel, Klaus; Rüther, Wolfgang; Niemeier, Andreas

    2016-11-15

    Hyaline cartilage calcification (CC) is associated with osteoarthritis (OA) in hip and knee joints. The first metatarsophalangeal joint (1(st)MTPJ) is frequently affected by OA, but it is unclear if CC occurs in the 1(st)MTPJ. The aim of the present study was to analyze the prevalence of CC of the 1(st)MTPJ in the general population by high-resolution digital contact radiography (DCR) and to determine its association with histological OA severity, age and body mass index (BMI). 168 metatarsal heads of 84 donors (n = 47 male, n = 37 female; mean age 62.73 years, SD ±18.8, range 20-93) were analyzed by DCR for the presence of CC. Histological OA grade (hOA) by OARSI was analyzed in the central load-bearing zone of the first metatarsal head (1(st) MH). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was performed to analyze the interrelationship between CC, hOA, age and BMI. The prevalence of CC of 1(st)MH was 48.8 % (41/84) (95 %-CI [37.7 %, 60.0 %]), independent of the affected side (p = 0.42), gender (p = 0.41) and BMI (p = 0.51). The mean amount of CC of one MH correlated significantly with that of the contralateral side (rs = 0.4, 95 %-CI [0.26, 0.52], p cartilage area) of the MH correlated significantly with the severity of hOA (rs = 0.51, 95 %-CI [0.32, 0.65], p < 0.001). SEM revealed significant associations between CC and hOA (r = 0.74, p < 0.001) and between hOA and age (β = 0.62, p = 0.001), but not between CC and age (p = 0.15). There was no significant influence of BMI on either CC (p = 0.37) or hOA (p = 0.16). The observation that CC of the 1(st)MH is significantly associated with the severity of OA but independent of age and BMI, suggests an intimate relationship between CC and the pathogenesis of OA, the exact nature of which will have to be explored by future studies.

  19. Texture analysis of cartilage T2 maps: individuals with risk factors for OA have higher and more heterogeneous knee cartilage MR T2 compared to normal controls--data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Gabby B; Baum, Thomas; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Nardo, Lorenzo; Virayavanich, Warapat; Alizai, Hamza; Lynch, John A; McCulloch, Charles E; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M

    2011-01-01

    The goals of this study were (i) to compare the prevalence of focal knee abnormalities, the mean cartilage T2 relaxation time, and the spatial distribution of cartilage magnetic resonance (MR) T2 relaxation times between subjects with and without risk factors for Osteoarthritis (OA), (ii) to determine the relationship between MR cartilage T2 parameters, age and cartilage morphology as determined with whole-organ magnetic resonance imaging scores (WORMS) and (iii) to assess the reproducibility of WORMS scoring and T2 relaxation time measurements including the mean and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) texture parameters. Subjects with risk factors for OA (n = 92) and healthy controls (n = 53) were randomly selected from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) incidence and control cohorts, respectively. The specific inclusion criteria for this study were (1) age range 45-55 years, (2) body mass index (BMI) of 19-27 kg/m2, (3) Western Ontario and McMaster University (WOMAC) pain score of zero and (4) Kellgren Lawrence (KL) score of zero at baseline. 3.0 Tesla MR images of the right knee were analyzed using morphological gradings of cartilage, bone marrow and menisci (WORMS) as well as compartment specific cartilage T2 mean and heterogeneity. Regression models adjusted for age, gender, and BMI were used to determine the difference in cartilage parameters between groups. While there was no significant difference in the prevalence of knee abnormalities (cartilage lesions, bone marrow lesions, meniscus lesions) between controls and subjects at risk for OA, T2 parameters (mean T2, GLCM contrast, and GLCM variance) were significantly elevated in those at risk for OA. Additionally, a positive significant association between cartilage WORMS score and cartilage T2 parameters was evident. Overall, this study demonstrated that subjects at risk for OA have both higher and more heterogeneous cartilage T2 values than controls, and that T2 parameters are associated with

  20. Analysis and Suggestions on the Applications & Existed Problems of OA Office System in the Government Agencies%OA办公系统在政府机关的应用及存在问题的分析和建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈晓

    2015-01-01

    In order to research the application of OA office system for the government agencies efficiency, the author in this article basic structure principle of OA system software, OA office system module function and practical application of OA office system are introduced and summarized. Through the practice, in order to make the system detail design more concise and convenient operation, reasonable, the author in the process of application in OA office system existed prob-lems to put forward several improvement suggestions. Implementation of office automation is not only technical innovation, more importantly, but also the management style and institutional change is proposed and the work is to improve the gov-ernment efficiency, finally realizes"the paperless office.%为了探讨OA办公系统在政府机关的应用实效,笔者在本文中对OA系统软件基本结构原理、OA办公系统模块的功能、OA办公系统的实际应用进行了介绍和总结。通过工作实践,为了使该系统操作细节设计的更简洁、方便、合理,笔者对OA办公系统在应用过程中存在的问题提出了几点改进建议。实现办公自动化不但是技术上的创新,更重要的是管理方式和制度上的变革、是提高政府机关工作效率,最终实现“无纸”化办公。

  1. 口蹄疫病毒株OA/58 3C蛋白酶的结构模拟和功能分析%Modeling and Analysis of 3C Protease Structure and Function from A Foot-and-month Disease Virus Strain OA/58

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建华; 丛国正; 高闪电; 常惠芸

    2007-01-01

    以口蹄疫病毒株OA/58 RNA为模板,反转录并扩增目的cDNA,然后与pGEM-T Easy载体连接并转化JM109菌株,提取的重组质粒用凝胶电泳、PCR和EcoRⅠ酶切法鉴定.该毒株与Poliovirus,Hepatitis A virus 和 Human rhinovirus 89毒株 3C 序列对比分析发现核苷酸序列一致性分别为38.8%,37.1%和36.5%,氨基酸序列一致性分别为23.7%,19.2%和17.6% .通过Swiss-pdbViewer软件模拟出FMDV OA/58 3C蛋白酶的3D结构和表面模型.并鉴定出此毒株3C蛋白酶的活性中心为Cys31-His46-Asp84.

  2. Organic aerosol components observed in Northern Hemispheric datasets from Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Ng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we compile and present results from the factor analysis of 43 Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS datasets (27 of the datasets are reanalyzed in this work. The components from all sites, when taken together, provide a holistic overview of Northern Hemisphere organic aerosol (OA and its evolution in the atmosphere. At most sites, the OA can be separated into oxygenated OA (OOA, hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, and sometimes other components such as biomass burning OA (BBOA. We focus on the OOA components in this work. In many analyses, the OOA can be further deconvolved into low-volatility OOA (LV-OOA and semi-volatile OOA (SV-OOA. Differences in the mass spectra of these components are characterized in terms of the two main ions m/z 44 (CO2+ and m/z 43 (mostly C2H3O+, which are used to develop a new mass spectral diagnostic for following the aging of OA components in the atmosphere. The LV-OOA component spectra have higher f44 (ratio of m/z 44 to total signal in the component mass spectrum and lower f43 (ratio of m/z 43 to total signal in the component mass spectrum than SV-OOA. A wide range of f44 and O:C ratios are observed for both LV-OOA (0.17±0.04, 0.73±0.14 and SV-OOA (0.07±0.04, 0.35±0.14 components, reflecting the fact that there is a continuum of OOA properties in ambient aerosol. The OOA components (OOA, LV-OOA, and SV-OOA from all sites cluster within a well-defined triangular region in the f44 vs. f43 space, which can be used as a standardized means for comparing and characterizing any OOA components (laboratory or ambient observed with the AMS. Examination of the OOA components in this triangular space indicates that OOA component spectra become increasingly similar to each other and to fulvic acid and HULIS sample spectra as f44 (a

  3. Characterization of submicron particles influenced by mixed biogenic and anthropogenic emissions using high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry: results from CARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Setyan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS was deployed during the Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES that took place in northern California in June 2010. We present results obtained at Cool (denoted as the T1 site of the project in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, where intense biogenic emissions are periodically mixed with urban outflow transported by daytime southwesterly winds from the Sacramento metropolitan area. During this study, the average mass loading of submicrometer particles (PM1 was 3.0 μg m−3, dominated by organics (80% and sulfate (9.9%. The organic aerosol (OA had a nominal formula of C1H1.38N0.004OM0.44, thus an average organic mass-to-carbon (OM/OC ratio of 1.70. Two distinct oxygenated OA factors were identified via Positive matrix factorization (PMF of the high-resolution mass spectra of organics. The more oxidized MO-OOA (O/C = 0.54 was interpreted as a surrogate for secondary OA (SOA influenced by biogenic emissions whereas the less oxidized LO-OOA (O/C = 0.42 was found to represent SOA formed in photochemically processed urban emissions. LO-OOA correlated strongly with ozone and MO-OOA correlated well with two 1st generation isoprene oxidation products (methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone, indicating that both SOAs were relatively fresh. A hydrocarbon like OA (HOA factor was also identified, representing primary emissions mainly due to local traffic. On average, SOA (= MO-OOA + LO-OOA accounted for 91% of the total OA mass and 72% of the PM1 mass observed at Cool. Twenty three periods of urban plumes from T0 (Sacramento to T1 (Cool were identified using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem. The average PM1 mass loading was considerably higher in urban plumes than in air masses dominated by biogenic SOA. The change in OA

  4. Olive Tree Branches Burning: A major pollution source in the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostenidou, Evangelia; Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Tsiflikiotou, Maria; Louvaris, Evangelos; Russell, Lynn; Pandis, Spyros

    2013-04-01

    ambient organic data 3 factors could be identified: OOA (oxygenated organic aerosol), HOA (hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol) and otBB-OA. The chamber organic AMS spectrum resembles the ambient mass spectrum during olive tree branches burning events. We estimated an otBB-OA emission factor of 3.45±0.2 g kg-1. Assuming that half of the olive trees branches are burned 2,300 tons of otBB-OA are emitted in Greece each winter. This is one of the most important fine aerosol emission sources during the winter months in the Mediterranean countries in which this activity is prevalent.

  5. 信息推送在移动OA中的研究与应用%Research and Application of Information Push in Mobile OA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈盼盼; 陈莉萍

    2014-01-01

    Mobile Office Automatic(OA) is a combination of commnication industry and IT industry, both of which are in a fast evolution. With the communication industry, it support the scale of user and convenient of communication. With IT industry, it support the maturity of software and plenty of business content. It has became a new model after the Paperless Office and Internet Office. Mobile Office is also called 3A Office, which means anytime, anywhere and anything. In order to make the emplyees be able to receive and handle information in real-time through mobile devices, this paper made a re-search and comparison of several message push solutions, proposed a solution of message push based on XMPP protocol of Android Platform. This paper also made a research and discuss on the deployment of Mobile OA in enterprises.%移动办公是当今高速发展的通信与 IT 业交融的产物,它将通信业在沟通上的便捷、在用户上的规模,与 IT业在软件应用上的成熟、在业务内容上的丰富完美结合到了一起,使之成为了继电脑无纸化办公、互联网办公之后的新的办公模式。“移动办公”也可成为“3A 办公”,即办公人员可在任何时间(Anytime),任何地点(Anywhere)处理与业务相关的任何事情(Anything)。为了使企业员工能随时随地在移动终端能够及时查看企业业务更新信息,实现便捷高效的移动办公,本文通过研究和对比了几种主流的信息推送技术的解决方案,提出一种 Android 平台上基于 XMPP 协议的信息推送方案,应用到企事业单位移动办公软件中,并针对其实现方式展开了讨论与研究。

  6. Measurement of OCS, CO2, CO and H2O aboard NASA's WB-57 High Altitude Platform Using Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leen, J. B.; Owano, T. G.; Du, X.; Gardner, A.; Gupta, M.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is the most abundant sulfur gas in the atmosphere and has been implicated in controlling the sulfur budget and aerosol loading of the stratosphere. In the troposphere, OCS is irreversibly consumed during photosynthesis and may serve as a tracer for gross primary production (GPP). Its primary sources are ocean outgassing, industrial processes, and biomass burning. Its primary sinks are vegetation and soils. Despite the importance of OCS in atmospheric processes, the OCS atmospheric budget is poorly determined and has high uncertainty. OCS is typically monitored using either canisters analyzed by gas chromatography or integrated atmospheric column measurements. Improved in-situ terrestrial flux and airborne measurements are required to constrain the OCS budget and further elucidate its role in stratospheric aerosol formation and as a tracer for biogenic volatile organics and photosynthesis. Los Gatos Research has developed a flight capable mid-infrared Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) analyzer to simultaneously quantify OCS, CO2, CO, and H2O in ambient air at up to 2 Hz. The prototype was tested on diluted, certified samples and found to be precise (OCS, CO2, CO, and H2O to better than ±4 ppt, ±0.2 ppm, ±0.31 ppb, and ±3.7 ppm respectively, 1s in 1 sec) and linear (R2 > 0.9997 for all gases) over a wide dynamic range (OCS, CO2, CO, and H2O ranging from 0.2 - 70 ppb, 500 - 3000 ppm, 150 - 480 ppb, and 7000 - 21000 ppm respectively). Cross-interference measurements showed no appreciable change in measured OCS concentration with variations in CO2 (500 - 3500 ppm) or CO. We report on high altitude measurements made aboard NASA's WB-57 research aircraft. Two research flights were conducted from Houston, TX. The concentration of OCS, CO2, CO, and H2O were continuously recorded from sea level to approximately 60,000 feet. The concentration of OCS was observed to increase with altitude through the troposphere due to the

  7. 一种新型可光降解的PVC-OA-TiO_2纳米复合膜%A Novel Photodegradable Polyvinyl Chloride-Oxalic Acid-TiO_2 Nanocomposite Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    法文君; 龚楚清; 杨昌军; 彭天右; 昝菱

    2009-01-01

    A novel kind of photodegradable polyvinyl chloride-oxalic acid-TiO_2(PVC-OA-TiO_2) nano-composite film was prepared by blending the nano-TiO_2 particles into the commercial PVC.Oxalic acid,as a good election donor,can suppress the recombination of electrons and holes on the TiO_2 surface,so it enhances the photocatalytic efficiency of nano-TiO_2.The weight loss of PVC-OA-TiO_2 composite film reached 55% after 310 h UV-light irradiation,which was twice of PVC-TiO_2 film or 3.5 times of pure PVC film.The results indicate that PVC-OA-TiO_2 composite film has better photocatalytic degradation efficiency than PVC-TiO_2 composite film and pure PVC film.%采用包埋技术制备了一种新型可光降解的聚氯乙烯-草酸-TiO_2(PVC-OA-TiO_2)纳米复合膜,并研究了紫外光照射条件下该复合膜的光催化降解情况.结果表明,该纳米复合膜的光催化降解是一个氧化断链过程,经紫外光照射310 h后失重率达到55%,是PVC-TiO_2复合膜的2倍,是纯PVC膜的3.5倍,说明草酸的掺杂可以促进PVC-OA-TiO_2复合膜更快地被光降解.草酸作为一个良好的电子给体,能不可逆地与TiO_2表面产生的空穴或表面羟基反应,抑制电子和空穴的复合,从而显著提高PVC-OA-TiO_2的光催化降解速率.

  8. Application of the OA system based on Struts + Spring + Hibernate%Struts+Spring+Hibernate在OA系统开发中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢凯霞; 程耕国

    2011-01-01

    介绍了Struts,Hibernate和Spring三个开源框架及它们对MVC设计模式的实现,通过分析各个开源架构关键技术的基本特征,阐述了如何更好地将三者整合起来构建一个结构清晰、低藕合度、易于扩展的J2EE分层架构.最后给出了该架构在OA系统开发中的应用实例,在实践中体现出MVC设计模式与Struts+ Spring+ Hibernate架构的高效和结构清晰的优点,同时也为开发管理信息系统提供了理论指导.%This paper introduces the Struts,Hibermate and Spring,three open sources of MVC framework and their realization of design patterns. By analyzing the basic characteristics of key technologies of the various open-source framework, it expounds how to integrate the three structures to construct a clear, low degree of lotus, easy to expand J2EE layered structure. Finally it gives application examples of the structure in OA system development. In practice the advantages of efficiency and clarity in MVC design patterns and Struts + Spring + Hibernate architecture are realized. And also for the development of management information system it provides theoretical guidance.

  9. 医院OA系统平台建设的问题和方案%Discussion on Hospital OA System Platform Construction Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石磊

    2014-01-01

    Hospital of ice automation systems for hospitals built up an administrative of ice based, research management, teaching management, patient relationship management, continuing education management, nursing management, integrated business core, eventual y becoming set with other hospital information systems become integrated business management platform. OA system for hospital management to provide a great help, but also to the hospital information platform put forward higher requirements.%医院自动化办公系统为医院构建起一个以行政办公为基础,以科研管理、教学管理、医患关系管理、继续教育管理、护理管理等综合业务为核心,最终成为与医院其他信息系统集成为的综合业务管理平台。 OA系统给医院的管理提供了极大的帮助,但是也给医院信息平台提出来更高的要求。

  10. Theoretical investigations on the defect structures and spin Hamiltonian parameters for various orthorhombic Rh2+ centres in KTiOPO4 and KTiOAsO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chang-Chun; Wu, Shao-Yi; Zhang, Li-Juan; Li, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Zhi-Hong

    2015-12-01

    The defect structures and spin Hamiltonian parameters (SHPs) for three Rh2+ centres (denoted C1 in KTiOAsO4 and C2 and C3 in KTiOPO4) are theoretically investigated by utilising the perturbation formulae for a 4d7 ion under orthorhombically (D2h) elongated octahedra. The defect structures are characterized by the axial elongation ratios of 4.91%, 4.93% and 4.90% along the Z axis and the planar bond length variation ratios of 0.05%, 0.01% and 0.04% for centres C1, C2 and C3, respectively, owing to the Jahn-Teller effect. The nearly identical moderate axial elongation ratios and the slightly different tiny planar bond length variation ratios may suitably account for the comparable moderate axial g anisotropies ∆g (≈0.6087, 0.6124 and 0.6067) and the slightly dissimilar tiny perpendicular g anisotropies δg (≈0.0649, 0.0097 and 0.0509) of the three centres, respectively. All centres demonstrate similar strong crystal-field interactions and moderate covalence arising from the comparable short impurity-ligand distances.

  11. Chemical composition, sources, and processes of urban aerosols during summertime in Northwest China: insights from High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An aerodyne High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS was deployed along with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS and a Multi Angle Absorption Photometers (MAAP to measure the temporal variations of the mass loading, chemical composition, and size distribution of sub-micrometer particulate matter (PM1 in Lanzhou, northwest China, during 12 July–7 August 2012. The average PM1 mass concentration including non-refractory PM1 (NR-PM1 measured by HR-ToF-AMS and black carbon (BC measured by MAAP during this study was 24.5 μg m−3 (ranging from 0.86 to 105μg m−3, with a mean composition consisting of 47% organics, 16% sulfate, 12% BC, 11% ammonium, 10% nitrate, and 4% chloride. The organics was consisted of 70% carbon, 21% oxygen, 8% hydrogen, and 1% nitrogen, with the average oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O / C of 0.33 and organic mass-to-carbon ratio (OM / OC of 1.58. Positive matrix factorization (PMF of the high-resolution mass spectra of organic aerosols (OA identified four distinct factors which represent, respectively, two primary OA (POA emission sources (traffic and food cooking and two secondary OA (SOA types – a fresher, semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA and a more aged, low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA. Traffic-related hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA and BC displayed distinct diurnal patterns both with peak at ~07:00–11:00 (BJT: UTC +8 corresponding to the morning rush hours, while cooking OA (COA peaked during three meal periods. The diurnal profiles of sulfate and LV-OOA displayed a broad peak between ∼07:00–15:00, while those of nitrate, ammonium, and SV-OOA showed a narrower peak at ~08:00–13:00. The later morning and early afternoon peak in the diurnal profiles of secondary aerosol species was likely caused by mixing down of pollutants aloft, which were likely produced in the residual layer decoupled from the boundary layer during night time. The mass spectrum of SV-OOA also showed similarity

  12. Integration Process Combined Records and Archives: the Bottleneck of Government OA%文档一体化流程:政府办公自动化的瓶颈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵屹; 陈晓晖

    2011-01-01

    The document process has been the prime problem and the bottleneck in the document management of OA systems. Specifically speaking, current problems existed in the document process are dispersive function, relatively closed situation and respective management. And also because the OA systems based on the process neglects the long-term preservation requirement for the archives management, the electronic documents preserved in these OA systems can't act as evidence. In order to solve the problem, we must design a national official document process to implement the whole-process management combined records and archives, unify the management system of records and archives and update the development model of OA.%当前政府办公自动化系统的公文管理功能普遍存在问题,其中的瓶颈亦即最根本性的问题是公文流程问题。当前政府公文流程存在功能分散、相对封闭、文档分治等主要问题。基于这种流程开发的办公自动化系统忽略了档案管理中对于电子公文长期保存的需求,所保存下来的电子公文将来无法作为档案发挥应有的凭证作用。要解决这个问题,必须研究并设计国家层面的电子公文流程,实现文档一体化的全程管理,统一文档管理体制,更新办公自动化系统开发模式。

  13. Generation of congenic mouse strains by introducing the virus-resistant genes, Mx1 and Oas1b, of feral mouse-derived inbred strain MSM/Ms into the common strain C57BL/6J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritoh, Kanako; Yamauchi, Hideto; Asano, Atsushi; Yoshii, Kentaro; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Takashima, Ikuo; Isoda, Norikazu; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Nobuya; Agui, Takashi

    2009-08-01

    Mx1 (Myxovirus resistance protein) and Oaslb (Oligoadenylate synthetase-1), induced by type 1 interferon (IFN), play a role in early antiviral innate immunity by inhibiting the replication of viruses. In mice, Mx1 and Oas1b confer resistance to the infection of orthomyxoviruses including influenza viruses and flaviviruses including West Nile viruses, respectively. Laboratory mice have been used to study the mechanisms of the pathogenesis of these virus infections; however, it is possible that they are not a suitable model system to study these viruses, since most of the inbred laboratory mouse strains lack both genes. It has been reported that feral mouse-derived inbred strains show resistance to the infection of these viruses due to the presence of intact both genes. In this study, we generated congenic strains in which the Mx or Oas locus of the MSM/Ms (MSM) mouce was introduced to the most widely used mouse strain, C57BL/6J (B6). B6.MSM-Mx mice showed resistance to the infection of influenza virus but not of West Nile virus. On the other hand, B6.MSM-Oas mice showed resistance to the infection of West Nile virus but not of influenza virus. Our results indicate that Mx1 and Oaslb show highly antiviral specificity in mice possessing the same genetic background. Therefore, these congenic mice are useful for not only infection study but also investigation of host defense mechanism to these viruses.

  14. OAS/PKR Pathways and α/β TCR+ T Cells are Required for Ad: IFN-γ Inhibition of HSV-1 in Cornea1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Bobbie Ann; Halford, William P.; Williams, Bryan R. G.; Carr, Daniel J. J.

    2007-01-01

    An adenoviral vector containing the muIFN-γ transgene (Ad:IFN-γ) was evaluated for its capacity to inhibit HSV-1. To measure effectiveness, viral titers were analyzed in cornea and trigeminal ganglia (TG) during acute ocular HSV-1 infection. Ad: IFN-γ potently suppressed HSV-1 replication in a dose-dependent fashion, requiring IFN-γ R. Moreover, Ad:IFN-γ was effective when delivered -72 and -24 h prior to infection as well as 24 h post infection. Associated with anti-viral opposition, TG from Ad: IFN-γ transduced mice harbored fewer T cells. Also related to T cell involvement, Ad:IFN-γ was effective but attenuated in TG from α/β TCR deficient mice. In corneas, α/β TCR+ T cells were obligatory for protection against viral multiplication. Type I IFN involvement amid anti-viral efficacy of Ad: IFN-γ was further investigated because type I and II IFN pathways have synergistic anti-HSV-1 activity. Ad:IFN-γ inhibited viral reproduction in corneas and TG from IFN-α/β R deficient (CD118 −/−) mice, although viral titers were 2–3 fold higher in cornea and TG, compared to wild type. The absence of IFN-stimulated anti-viral proteins, 2’-5’ oligoadenylate synthetase/RNase L and ds RNA dependent protein kinase R, completely eliminated the anti-viral effectiveness of Ad:IFN-γ. Collectively, the results demonstrate: (1) nonexistence of type I IFN R does not abolish defense of Ad:IFN-γ against HSV-1; (2) anti-viral pathways, OAS/RNase L and PKR are mandatory; and (3) α/β TCR+ T cells are compulsory for Ad: IFN-γ effectiveness against HSV-1 in cornea but not in TG. PMID:17404299

  15. The Construction of OA Platform with Integration of Multi-national OA Journals Resources and Its DRM Function——Based on International Cooperation on the Next Generation of NSTL%多国OA期刊资源整合平台的构建及其权益管理功能的引入——基于下一代NSTL体系的国际合作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖; 梁冰; 乔晓东

    2011-01-01

    开放获取和权益保护是目前数字环境下信息资源传播的两大重要课题.作为下一代科技文献资源的传播体系,需要在同时实现面向资源消费者的开放获取功能以及资源创作者所有权益保护的功能方面,进行系统的升级设计,从而实现文献资源流通领域的平衡发展.这也是下一代NSTL面临的挑战性课题之一.该研究在2011年NSTL建设项目的支持下,以下一代NSTL系统为基础,设计可以整合多国期刊OA资源的服务平台,并引入了DRM的功能.通过与多国OA资源提供机构及权益保护相关机构进行国际合作,在OA资源整合服务及知识产权保护方面,进行了多方面的探索与实施.文章首先介绍下一代NSTL中OA平台的整体架构;其次,重点介绍平台的多国OA期刊的XML元数据交换与更新功能;再次,介绍资源的权益信息获取服务;最后,给出结论和未来的实施规划.%Open Access and Digital Rights Management (hereinafter referred to as OA and DRM, respectively) are two key issues of information resource dissemination under digital environment. As a next generation of science and technology information resource dissemination system, it should be carefully designed for the purpose of achieving balanced development of such information resource dissemination while simultaneously implement its two functions, which arc resource consumers-oriented OA and resource owners -oriented DRM. This is also one of the challenging subjects that should be resolved by next generation of National Science and Technology Digital Library (hereinafter referred to as NSTU.On the basis of next generation system of NSTL and with fund support of Construction Project of NSTL, This study designs a service platform that enables to integrate multi-national OA journals resources, and introduces its DRM Function. Through conducting international cooperation with multi-national providers of OA resources and institutes related

  16. Evaluation of OAS Education Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Howard B.; And Others

    An in-depth evaluation of four Organization of American States educational journals is presented. The journals, published for distribution among Latin American countries, were "Tecnologia Educativa", "Curriculum", "Educacion de Adultors", and "La Educacion". Assessment was made of the journals' mandates, implementation procedures, and managerial…

  17. Evaluation of OAS Education Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Howard B.; And Others

    An in-depth evaluation of four Organization of American States educational journals is presented. The journals, published for distribution among Latin American countries, were "Tecnologia Educativa", "Curriculum", "Educacion de Adultors", and "La Educacion". Assessment was made of the journals' mandates, implementation procedures, and managerial…

  18. ISO9000质量管理体系办公系统的设计与实现%Design and implement of OA system for quality management system based on ISO9000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光庭; 陆倜

    2001-01-01

    Aiming at the new characters of 2000 version for ISO9000 to realize the OA system of the quality management system, an integrative designing resolution is put forward: using Domino to deal with documents; making use of ERP system to deal with datum process, providing the Notes client or Web client uniform interface of OA for users to deal with documents and datum through combination of the Domino/Notes with ERP system. The resolution improves the efficiency of OA system,strengthen the ISO 9000 management of the enterprise, and provides technical assurance for the realization of customer-centered management principle.%针对ISO9000标准族2000版的新特点,为了实现质量管理体系的办公系统,提出一种集成化的设计方案:使用Domino实现文档处理;使用ERP系统实现数据处理;通过Domino/Notes与ERP系统的连接,为用户提供Notes客户端或Web客户端的统一的质量管理办公界面,处理文档和数据。方案的使用,提高了办公效率,加强了企业ISO9000的管理水平,为实现以顾客为中心的管理原则提供了技术保证。

  19. Estimación y modelización de arrastres de orgánico en acuoso (O/A en pruebas de laboratorio de planta de extracción por solventes (SX de cobre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benavente, O.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The losses of organic through entrainment (O/A, in the solvent extraction process, implies economic waste; for such reason we became interested in estimating the effect with three different oximes under different operational conditions, in addition, to model them in terms of physico-chemical variables, so that these losses can be predicted. The tests are made in Anetich reactor in aqueous continuity using Orfom SX 12 diluent, with the following concentrations of extracting agent 10 %, 15 % and 20 %. For the preparation of the measures model a factorial design is applied 2k to the tests. The results indicate that ketoxime displays a minor entrainment of O/A in average 40 % and 20 % less in comparison with aldoxime and the mixture respectively. The model is given by the equation: Entrainment of O/A=C - B * Temperature - E * pH + F * Agitation; where C, B, E and F are specific constants of each reagent.Las pérdidas de orgánico a través de los arrastres (O/A en la extracción por solventes implica una merma económica; por tal razón surge el interés de estimar el efecto que tienen tres oximas diferentes bajo distintas condiciones operacionales, además, modelizarlas en función de variables físico-químicas, de manera que se puedan predecir estas pérdidas. Las pruebas se realizan en un reactor Anetich en continuidad acuosa usando diluyente Orfom SX 12, con concentraciones de extractante de 10 %, 15 % y 20 %. Para la confección del modelo de medias se aplica un diseño factorial 2k a las pruebas. Los resultados indican que la cetoxima presenta en promedio un 40 % y 20 % menos arrastre que la aldoxima y la mezcla respectivamente. Además el modelo está dado por la ecuación Arrastre O/A = C - B * Temperatura - E * pH + F * Agitación; donde C, B, E y F son constantes específicas de cada reactivo.

  20. Design and Implementation of OA System Based on ASP.NET MVC and Multi-Tier Architecture%基于ASP.NET MVC的多层架构的OA系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何银川; 朱胜利

    2013-01-01

      简要介绍组件的相互关系,介绍OA系统的框架,分析一个典型的小模块详细设计与开发,以点带面,详细地说明多层架构的ASP.NET MVC的各层是如何设计与实现的。 OA系统的整体风格和规范是和这个小模块一致的,从而使它具有清晰的程序结构、容于扩展和易于维护等。%Briefly introduces the relationship between ASP.NET MVC components. Introduces OA system framework, focuses on the design and development of one of the more typical small module, which is to detail how to design and realize multi-layers of ASP.NET MVC framework.OA sys-tem's overall style and specifications are consistent with this small module, thereby giving it a clear program structure, easy extension and maintenance.

  1. Security Design and Application of PKI Technology in E-government System in OA%PKI技术在电子政务OA系统中的安全设计与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡艳

    2015-01-01

    结合PKI技术的数字证书和数据加密技术上的优势,将其应用在电子政务OA系统的安全设计中,针对政务办公中的身份验证和敏感信息传递与处理设计并实现了一套基于PKI技术的电子政务OA系统安全方案,确立了合理的身份验证和数据加密体系,从而保障电子政务系统运行的高效性与安全性.%Combined with the PKI digital certificate technology and data encryption technology,its application in the safety design of OA system in e-government,government ofifce for identity veriifcation and the sensitive information transmission and processing to design and implement a scheme based on the e-government system security OA PKI technology,establishes the reasonable authentication and the data encryption system,so as to guarantee the efifciency and security of the e-government system.

  2. Studying organic aerosols during bonfire night in Manchester: ME-2 source apportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Villegas, Ernesto; Allan, James

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in short-term events that negatively affect air quality (Zhao et al. 2014) such as bonfires and fireworks. In general, during these episodes, high particulate matter concentrations drop within 24 hrs; however, it is the fine fraction that dominates the emissions, known to have a potentially negative impact on air quality, thus the impact of bonfires/fireworks on air quality must be considered. Aerosols and gases were measured using a variety of instruments at The University of Manchester, sampling atmospheric emissions on Bonfire night, 5 November, one week before and one week later, in 2013 and 2014. The Multilinear Engine (ME-2) factorization tool was used through the recently developed source finder interface (SoFi, Canonaco et al. 2013) to identify sources of organic aerosols (OA) sampled with an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). ME-2 identified five sources: solid fuel OA (SFOA), hydrocarbon like OA (HOA), cooking OA (COA), semi-volatile (SVOOA) and low volatility (LVOOA) during both years. In 2014, air pollutant concentrations were particularly high, with the highest SFOA concentrations being 20 μgm-3 at 20:30 hrs. when fireworks from different parks in Manchester were launched. Black carbon (BC) concentrations started increasing before the fireworks, around 18:00 hrs; these concentrations are representative of bonfire emissions. However, traffic emissions may be contributing to BC here; further work will be done to differentiate traffic emissions from solid fuel emissions. By analysing daily aerosol concentrations according to DEFRA's Daily Air Quality Index, it is possible to observe that in 2014, PM2.5 concentrations were considered to be high (65 μgm-3) while in 2013, PM2.5 concentrations were considered low (12 μgm-3); in the case of BBOA, concentrations ranged from 2.9 μgm-3 in 2014 to 0.65 μgm-3 in 2013. The discrepancy between these studies is mainly a result of different meteorological

  3. Enhancing non-refractory aerosol apportionment from an urban industrial site through receptor modelling of complete high time-resolution aerosol mass spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. McGuire

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Receptor modelling was performed on quadrupole unit mass resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS sub-micron particulate matter (PM chemical speciation measurements from Windsor, Ontario, an industrial city situated across the Detroit River from Detroit, Michigan. Aerosol and trace gas measurements were collected on board Environment Canada's CRUISER mobile laboratory. Positive matrix factorization (PMF was performed on the AMS full particle-phase mass spectrum (PMFFull MS encompassing both organic and inorganic components. This approach was compared to the more common method of analysing only the organic mass spectra (PMFOrg MS. PMF of the full mass spectrum revealed that variability in the non-refractory sub-micron aerosol concentration and composition was best explained by six factors: an amine-containing factor (Amine; an ammonium sulphate and oxygenated organic aerosol containing factor (Sulphate-OA; an ammonium nitrate and oxygenated organic aerosol containing factor (Nitrate-OA; an ammonium chloride containing factor (Chloride; a hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA factor; and a moderately oxygenated organic aerosol factor (OOA. PMF of the organic mass spectrum revealed three factors of similar composition to some of those revealed through PMFFull MS: Amine, HOA and OOA. Including both the inorganic and organic mass proved to be a beneficial approach to analysing the unit mass resolution AMS data for several reasons. First, it provided a method for potentially calculating more accurate sub-micron PM mass concentrations, particularly when unusual factors are present, in this case, an Amine factor. As this method does not rely on a priori knowledge of chemical species, it circumvents the need for any adjustments to the traditional AMS species fragmentation patterns to account for atypical species, and can thus lead to more complete factor profiles. It is expected that this method would be even more useful for HR-ToF-AMS data, due to

  4. Submicron aerosol analysis and organic source apportionment in an urban atmosphere in Pearl River Delta of China using high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Yan; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Xue, Lian; Hu, Min; Lin, Yun; Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Renyi; Zhang, Yuan-Hang

    2011-06-01

    The Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in South China is one of the most economically developed regions in China while also noted for its severe air pollution, especially in the urban environments. In order to understand in depth the aerosol chemistry and the emission sources in PRD, an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed at an urban site in the Hong Kong-Shenzhen metropolitan area between 25 October and 2 December 2009. Ten minute-resolved measurement data were analyzed, and an average mass concentration of 44.5 ± 34.0 μg m-3 was calculated for the entire campaign. On average, organic matter was the most abundant PM1 component accounting for 39.7% of the total mass, followed by sulfate (24.5%), black carbon (measured by aethalometer, 14.0%), ammonium (10.2%), nitrate (10.0%), and chloride (1.6%). Moreover, organic matter comprised an increasing fraction of the PM1 loading as the PM1 loading increased, denoting its key role in particulate pollution in this region. Calculations of organic elemental composition based on the high-resolution organic mass spectra obtained indicated that C, H, O, and N on average contributed 33.8%, 55.1%, 10.2%, and 0.9%, respectively, to the total atomic numbers of organic aerosol (OA), which corresponded to an OM/OC ratio (the ratio of organic matter mass/organic carbon mass) of 1.57 ± 0.08. Positive matrix factorization analysis was then conducted on the high-resolution organic mass spectral data set. Four OA components were identified, including a hydrocarbon-like (HOA), a biomass burning (BBOA), and two oxygenated (LV-OOA and SV-OOA) components, which on average accounted for 29.5%, 24.1%, 18.8%, and 27.6%, respectively, of the total organic mass. The HOA was found to have contributions from both fossil fuel combustion and cooking emissions, while the BBOA was well correlated with acetonitrile, a known biomass burning marker. The LV-OOA and SV-OOA corresponded to more aged and

  5. Cheсklist of gastropod molluscs in mangroves of Khanh Hoa province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvonareva, Sofya; Kantor, Yuri

    2016-09-12

    Gastropod molluscs are one of the most important components of mangrove ecosystem. Mangroves in Central Vietnam have a rather limited distribution due to peculiarities of the coastline morphology and presently their fauna remains understudied. Extensive surveys were conducted in both natural vegetation and artificial mangrove plantations in several localities in Nha Trang Bay from 2005 to 2015. In total 65 species of gastropod molluscs were found alive, 17 of which can be considered as predominantly mangrove-associated. An illustrated guide is provided, with short synonymies and data on ecology and distribution. The recorded molluscan diversity is compared with published data on mangrove gastropods in different regions of the Indo-Pacific. Total species number and the proportion of mangrove-associated species are similar to studied faunas in Hong Kong, Malaysia and Thailand, but the diversity is much lower than that of the mangal fauna of the Philippines.

  6. Analyzing Drought Adaptation Practices of Sugarcane Growers in Thanh Cong, Thach Thanh District, Thanh Hoa, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen, GTH.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded in a package of climate change adaptation, researchers and farmers tested the melon hybrid variety, Kim Hoang Hau (KHH, for yield and disease resistance during the spring-summer season from March to June 2015 in Giao Thuy district, Nam Dinh province. The results were analysed and subsequently discussed with local farmers in focused groups. Analysis showed that the KHH was suitable to local soil conditions. The farmers preferred this new variety over the local melon, because not only did KHH give higher yield and pest resistance, it also showed less vulnerability to climatic stressors. Farmers decided to grow KHH based on the prevailing good market price at that time. However, farmers only shifted away from the old melon when they could anticipate the possibility of selling the new product. Those who did not continue with the KHH had difficulty in actively accessing the market for this new product. This study suggests that the market information does not solely drive the process of the adaptation itself, but it also provides relevant stimuli to farmers enabling them to successfully shift to new crop varieties. This study also implies that such process-based understanding is crucial in formulating strategies that increase the farmer's capacity to adapt to climate change.

  7. Alcohol Use and HIV Risk Behaviors among Rural Adolescents in Khanh Hoa Province Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaljee, L. M.; Genberg, B. L.; Minh, T. T.; Tho, L. H.; Thoa, L. T. K.; Stanton, B.

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that youth are consuming more alcohol and at younger ages than in the past. Data also indicate that alcohol consumption is associated with participation in other risk behaviors including aggression and sexual behaviors. As part of a randomized control effectiveness trial for an HIV prevention program, 480 Vietnamese youth (15-20…

  8. The United States History = Lich Su Hoa Ky. [34 Self-Learning Packets for Vietnamese Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhi, Do Dien; And Others

    Designed primarily for Indochinese students in grades 9-12, 34 United States history self-learning packets are presented in eight sections. The publication could be used by mainstream teachers who have a number of limited English proficient (LEP) Vietnamese students in their classes or by parents to tutor their children. The packets were adapted…

  9. 基于Liferay门户与Lotus Domino OA单点登录系统的实现%Implementation of Single Sign-On system Based on Liferay Portal and Lotus Domino OA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭成宝

    2014-01-01

    Achieving the SSO(Single Sign-On) between Liferay Portal and Lotus Domino OA, with the advantages of Liferay platform and Domino platform, then we can have better collaboration. Liferay Portal is the effective platform that is running for ofifce automation. This paper introduces the implementation of SSO and the key technologies were discussed.%本文介绍了Liferay门户与lotus Domino OA服务器的单点登录的实现,系统介绍Liferay门户应用优势和Lotus Domino平台在企业协作方面的优势,描述了单点登录认证方式的实现原理,并对其关键技术进行了讨论。

  10. How to Develop the OA Journals Mode and the Subject-Librarian System in Universities%OA期刊模式与大学学科馆员制度对接整合和创新发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩奋发

    2012-01-01

    “学术期刊危机”引发OA期刊模式应运而生且蓬勃发展,这种开放存取模式的兴起也是现代学术信息共享的自由理念和出版机常】的必然产物,客观要求大学高端信息处理者学科馆员与之有效对接整合和创新发展,以创新工作模式适应互联网时代,实现低成本高质量个性化分类差别文献服务,变被动上门借阅为主动送智到人,开拓学科馆员有效利用OA期刊模式为学术研究和知识创新服务的新范式。%"Academic journal crisis" trigger OA journals model comes into being and vigorous development, this kind of open access mode is the rise of modern academic freedom of information sharing ideas and the inevitable result of publishing mechanism, the objective requirement of high-level information processing of subject librarians and the effective integration and innovation development docking, innovation work mode to adapt to the Intemet age, to implement low cost high quality personalized classification differenoe literature services, and become the passive to active send wisdom door lending to people, open up the subject librarian effective use of OA journals mode for the academic research and knowledge innovation services by the new paradigm.

  11. Desarrollo de un marco de análisis para la selección de metodologías de diseño de objetos de aprendizaje (OA basado en criterios de calidad para contextos educativos específicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maldonado Mahauad, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta tesis está vinculada con las Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicación (TIC, y la Educación. Dentro de las mismas, el diseño y creación de materiales educativos digitales a través del paradigma de Objetos de Aprendizaje (OA sigue siendo un reto a nivel superior, tanto para los educadores como para los equipos de producción de estos materiales educativos, puesto que su creación implica una lógica de diseño que excede lo netamente tecnológico. A lo anterior se suma, la falta de una definición práctica y consensuada sobre lo que es un OA, lo que ha originado una serie de propuestas y metodologías para el diseño y creación de OA desde distintas perspectivas tanto tecnológicas como educativas. Entonces, surgen algunas preguntas motivadoras que se plantean en el marco de esta tesis y son las siguientes: ¿Cuál es la relación que existe entre tecnología y educación en el paradigma de OA? ¿Qué tipos de propuestas y metodologías se han utilizado hasta la fecha para llevar a la práctica el diseño y creación de OA? ¿Es posible conocer cuál es la orientación (ya sea tecnológica o educativa de una propuesta o metodología sin abordar su implementación? ¿Cómo puede un docente seleccionar una metodología que sea adecuada para el diseño y creación de OA para un contexto determinado? ¿Es posible desarrollar un marco de análisis que permita recomendar metodologías para diseñar OA para un contexto específico?

  12. Effect of end-stage hip, knee, and ankle osteoarthritis on walking mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Daniel; Vap, Alexander; Queen, Robin M

    2015-09-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the presence of isolated ankle (A-OA; N=30), knee (K-OA; N=20), or hip (H-OA; N=30) osteoarthritis (OA) compared to asymptomatic controls (N=15) would lead to mechanical changes in the affected joint but also in all other lower limb joints and gait overall. Stride length, stance and swing times, as well as joint angles and moments at the hip, knee, and ankle were derived from 3-D kinematic and kinetic data collected from seven self-selected speed walking trial. Values were compared across groups using a 1×4 ANCOVA, covarying for walking speed. With walking speed controlled, the results indicated a reduction in hip and knee extension and ankle plantar flexion in accordance with the joint affected. In addition, OA in one joint had strong effects on other joints. In both H-OA and K-OA groups the hip never passed into extension, and A-OA subjects significantly changed hip kinematics to compensate for lack of plantar flexion. Finally, OA in any joint led to lower peak vertical forces as well as extension and plantar flexion moments compared to controls. The presence of end-stage OA at various lower extremity joints results in compensatory gait mechanics that cause movement alterations throughout the lower extremity. This work reinforces our understanding of the complex interaction of joints of the lower limb and the importance of focusing on the mechanics of the entire lower limb when considering gait disability and potential interventions in patients with isolated OA.

  13. Water and organic nitrate detection in an AMS. Laboratory characterization and application to ambient measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensah, Amewu A.

    2011-08-12

    Atmospheric aerosols were studied by three different means. Laboratory experiments determined the relative ionization efficiency of water (RIE{sub H2O}) in an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (AMS), simulation chamber experiments gave insight to the reaction products of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) oxidation products, and the findings were applied to two field campaign measurements at Cabauw, NL, in May 2008 and February 2009. Knowing the liquid water content of aerosol particles is vital for the assessment of their climate forcing potential. A value of 2 for RIE{sub H2O} was determined by studying oxalate salts with different amounts of crystal water. BVOCs contribute much more to the global budget of VOCs than anthropogenic ones but oxidation products in terms of secondary organic aerosol often correlate to anthropogenic tracers such as NO{sub x} from fossil fuel burning. In atmospheric simulation chamber experiments, organic nitrates from BVOC-NO{sub 3} oxidation showed higher vapor pressures than pure organic compounds produced in the same reactions. Organic nitrates comprised up to approx. 41 % of the particulate phase. A specific fragmentation ratio of nitrate (NO{sub 2}{sup +}/NO{sup +}) of 0.1 was found by high resolution AMS analysis differing strongly from the value of 0.4 known for the most abundant ambient NO{sub 3} specie (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}). Ambient average particulate mass loadings were 9.72 {mu}g/m{sup 3} dominated by organics (40 %) in 2008 and 5.62 {mu}g/m{sup 3} dominated by nitrate (42 %) in 2009. Data comparison to collocated instruments showed good agreement. Positive Matrix Factorization analysis of the particulate organic fraction distinguished semi and low volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) as well as hydrocarbon like organic aerosol (HOA) in both campaigns. An additional highly oxygenated OA with a mass spectrum very similar to fulvic acid was found in 2008. The average contribution of organic nitrate to the

  14. A new method for continuous measurements of oceanic and atmospheric N2O, CO and CO2: performance of off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS coupled to non-dispersive infrared detection (NDIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Arévalo-Martínez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A new system for continuous, highly-resolved oceanic and atmospheric measurements of N2O, CO and CO2 is described. The system is based upon off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS and a non-dispersive infrared analyzer (NDIR both coupled to a Weiss-type equilibrator. Performance of the combined setup was evaluated by testing its precision, accuracy, long-term stability, linearity and response time. Furthermore, the setup was tested during two oceanographic campaigns in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean in order to explore its potential for autonomous deployment onboard voluntary observing ships (VOS. Improved equilibrator response times for N2O (2.5 min and CO (45 min were achieved in comparison to response times from similar chamber designs used by previous studies. High stability of the OA-ICOS analyzer was demonstrated by low optimal integration times of 2 and 4 min for N2O and CO respectively, as well as detection limits of −1/2. Results from a direct comparison of the method presented here and well-established discrete methods for oceanic N2O and CO2 measurements showed very good consistency. The favorable agreement between underway atmospheric N2O, CO and CO2 measurements and monthly means at Ascension Island (7.96° S 14.4° W further suggests a reliable operation of the underway setup in the field. The potential of the system as an improved platform for measurements of trace gases was explored by using continuous N2O and CO2 data to characterize the development of the seasonal equatorial upwelling in the Atlantic Ocean during two R/V Maria S. Merian cruises. A similar record of high-resolution CO measurements was simultaneously obtained offering for the first time the possibility of a comprehensive view on the distribution and emissions of these climate relevant gases on the area. The relatively simple underway N2O/CO/CO2 setup is suitable for long-term deployment on board of research and commercial vessels although

  15. Complete Measurement of Stable Isotopes in N2O (δ15N, δ15Nα, δ15Nβ, δ18O, δ17O) Using Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leen, J. B.; Gupta, M.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrate contamination in water is a worldwide environmental problem and source apportionment is critical to managing nitrate pollution. Fractionation caused by physical, chemical and biological processes alters the isotope ratios of nitrates (15N/14N, 18O/16O and 17O/16O) and biochemical nitrification and denitrification impart different intramolecular site preference (15N14NO vs. 14N15NO). Additionally, atmospheric nitrate is anomalously enriched in 17O compared to other nitrate sources. The anomaly (Δ17O) is conserved during fractionation processes, providing a tracer of atmospheric nitrate. All of these effects can be used to apportion nitrate in soil. Current technology for measuring nitrate isotopes is complicated and costly - it involves conversion of nitrate to nitrous oxide (N2O), purification, preconcentration and measurement by isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). Site specific measurements require a custom IRMS. There is a pressing need to make this measurement simpler and more accessible. Los Gatos Research has developed a next generation mid-infrared Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) analyzer to quantify all stable isotope ratios of N2O (δ15N, δ15Nα, δ15Nβ, δ18O, δ17O). We present the latest performance data demonstrating the precision and accuracy of the OA-ICOS based measurement. At an N2O concentration of 322 ppb, the analyzer quantifies [N2O], δ15N, δ15Na, δ15Nb, and δ18O with a precision of ±0.05 ppb, ±0.4 ‰, ±0.45 ‰, and ±0.6 ‰, and ±0.8 ‰ respectively (1σ, 100s; 1σ, 1000s for δ18O). Measurements of gas standards demonstrate accuracy better than ±1 ‰ for isotope ratios over a wide dynamic range (200 - 100,000 ppb). The measurement of δ17O requires a higher concentration (1 - 50 ppm), easily obtainable through conversion of nitrates in water. For 10 ppm of N2O, the instrument achieves a δ17O precision of ±0.05 ‰ (1σ, 1000s). This performance is sufficient to quantify atmospheric

  16. Theoretical investigations on the defect structures and spin Hamiltonian parameters for various orthorhombic Rh{sup 2+} centres in KTiOPO{sub 4} and KTiOAsO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Chang-Chun, E-mail: ccding626@163.com; Wu, Shao-Yi, E-mail: wushaoyi@uestc.edu.cn; Zhang, Li-Juan; Li, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Zhi-Hong

    2015-12-15

    The defect structures and spin Hamiltonian parameters (SHPs) for three Rh{sup 2+} centres (denoted C{sub 1} in KTiOAsO{sub 4} and C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} in KTiOPO{sub 4}) are theoretically investigated by utilising the perturbation formulae for a 4d{sup 7} ion under orthorhombically (D{sub 2h}) elongated octahedra. The defect structures are characterized by the axial elongation ratios of 4.91%, 4.93% and 4.90% along the Z axis and the planar bond length variation ratios of 0.05%, 0.01% and 0.04% for centres C{sub 1}, C{sub 2} and C{sub 3}, respectively, owing to the Jahn–Teller effect. The nearly identical moderate axial elongation ratios and the slightly different tiny planar bond length variation ratios may suitably account for the comparable moderate axial g anisotropies ∆g (≈0.6087, 0.6124 and 0.6067) and the slightly dissimilar tiny perpendicular g anisotropies δg (≈0.0649, 0.0097 and 0.0509) of the three centres, respectively. All centres demonstrate similar strong crystal-field interactions and moderate covalence arising from the comparable short impurity-ligand distances.

  17. Desenvolvimento e avaliação da estabilidade física de loções O/A contendo filtros solares Development and evaluation of physical stability from O/ W lotions containing sunscreens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greice Stefani Borghetti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram desenvolver e avaliar a estabilidade física de loções do tipo O/A contendo 6% (p/p do filtro solar octilmetoxicinamato (OMC ou metilbenzilidenocânfora (MBC. As formulações foram armazenadas em temperatura ambiente durante seis meses e durante este período foram avaliadas com relação às suas características macroscópicas, viscosidade, comportamento reológico, índice de óleo, espalhabilidade e Fator de Proteção Solar (FPS. Os resultados demonstram que as formulações foram estáveis por seis meses. Os valores de FPS foram significativamente (P The objectives of this study were to develop and to evaluate the physical stability of O/W lotions containing 6% (w/w of the sunscreen octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC or methyl benzylidene camphor (MBC. The formulations were stored at room temperature, for six months and during this period its macroscopic characteristics, viscosity and rheological behavior, oil indexes, spreading properties and Sun Protection Factor (SPF were evaluated. The results demonstrate that both formulations were stable for six months. The SPF values were significantly (P < 0.05 higher for MBC formulation. On the other hand, the OMC formulation presented significantly (P < 0.05 higher spreading and lower viscosity values during the storage period.

  18. X-ray investigation of lateral hetero-structures of inversion domains in LiNbO{sub 3}, KTiOPO{sub 4} and KTiOAsO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyford, Thomas S. [Panalytical Research, The Sussex Innovation Centre, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9SB (United Kingdom); Collins, Stephen P., E-mail: steve.collins@diamond.ac.uk [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Diamond House, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Fewster, Paul F. [Panalytical Research, The Sussex Innovation Centre, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9SB (United Kingdom); Thomas, Pamela A. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Panalytical Research, The Sussex Innovation Centre, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9SB (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    Periodically-poled ferroelectric crystals are studied by observing their superlattice (grating) diffraction profiles with high-resolution X-ray diffraction. In order to successfully model the data, the effects of strain, and sample and beam coherence, must be taken into account. In this paper periodically domain-inverted (PDI) ferroelectric crystals are studied using high-resolution X-ray diffraction. Rocking curves and reciprocal-space maps of the principal symmetric Bragg reflections in LiNbO{sub 3} (LN) (Λ = 5 µm), KTiOPO{sub 4} (KTP) (Λ = 9 µm) and KTiOAsO{sub 4} (KTA) (Λ = 39 µm) are presented. For all the samples strong satellite reflections were observed as a consequence of the PDI structure. Analysis of the satellites showed that they were caused by a combination of coherent and incoherent scattering between the adjacent domains. Whilst the satellites contained phase information regarding the structure of the domain wall, this information could not be rigorously extracted without a priori knowledge of the twinning mechanism. Analysis of the profiles reveals strain distributions of Δd/d = 1.6 × 10{sup −4} and 2.0 × 10{sup −4} perpendicular to domain walls in KTP and LN samples, respectively, and lateral correlation lengths of 63 µm (KTP), 194 µm (KTA) and 10 µm (LN). The decay of crystal truncation rods in LN and KTP was found to support the occurrence of surface corrugations.

  19. 基于OA系统的ACTIVEX控件型单点登录系统的研究与应用%Research on ACTIVEX Controls Type Single Sing-on System Based on OA System and the Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王传合

    2011-01-01

    With the extensive application of information technology, business processes during the user may need to access multiple business systems. Aiming at various drawbacks of decentralized certification for the application system within the current campus network, the article proposed design scheme of single sign-on system based on OA system by using activex controls, and on the basis of the single sign-on principle, single sign-on system was implemented used activex controls authentication mechanism to achieve "single sign-on, multipoint roaming".%随着信息技术的广泛应用,用户在进行业务处理时可能需要同时访问多个业务系统.针对目前校园网内部各应用系统分散式认证的种种弊端,该文章利用activex控件设计出提出一个基于办公OA系统的单点登录系统设计方案,在单点登录原理的基础上,利用activex控件认证机制来实现单点登录系统,实现“一点登录、多点漫游”.

  20. 髋臼转位截骨(TAO)治疗DDH继发早期OA%Treatment of Developmental Dysplastic Hip with Early Stage of Osteoarthrosis by Transpositional Acetabulum Osteotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朝晖; 马渡正明; 李子荣

    2004-01-01

    目的介绍一种治疗髋臼发育不良并早期骨性关节炎的髋臼转位截骨术并评价其结果.方法 43 例髋关节发育不良(DDH)并发骨关节病(OA),全部病人实施了髋臼转位截骨术.结果术后平均12个月(10~17个月)随访,术后Harris评分93分(85~100分),平均增加25分,两者比较有显著性差异;术后CE角20°~28°,平均24°,两者比较有显著性差异;术后髋臼指数37°~48°,平均45°,两者比较有显著性差异;术后AHI 81 %(75 %~98 %),两者比较有显著性差异.结论髋臼转位截骨术是治疗髋关节发育不良(Ⅰ型)并发骨关节病(Ⅰ期)有效的方法.

  1. The Research about OA System of Administrative Institution Based on J2EE and Workflow Techniques%基于J2EE架构及工作流技术的行政事业单位OA系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昕晟

    2013-01-01

    This thesis previews the situation about the application of the OA in the organization of the out of schools ed-ucational organization. And analyze the run model, the organize structure, the workflow and the communications between the department against the YCPWH. Emphasize analyzed the OA system and the workflow engine structure. On the basis of the application of design pattern and workflow techniques, this thesis builds up a generic design framework based on J2EE platform and puts forward a new method about programming an OA system under multi-tier distributed environ-ment. After studying and analyzing several advanced workflow prototypes an OA system on J2EE and workflow tech-niques is designed and implemented in it.%文章以武汉市青少年宫为例,针对其管理模式、组织结构、业务流程、部门间通信流程进行了分析,重点分析了青少年宫OA系统架构。在运用设计模式以及工作流技术的基础上,基于J2EE技术提出在多层分布式环境下编制OA系统的新思路。在对目前较常见的几个工作流原型系统进行了对比、分析之后,设计了一个基于J2EE及工作流技术的办公自动化系统模型。

  2. Functional MRI demonstrates pain perception in hand osteoarthritis has features of central pain processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofat, Nidhi; Smee, Cori; Hermansson, Monika; Howard, Matthew; Baker, Emma H; Howe, Franklyn A; Barrick, Thomas R

    2013-11-01

    Hand osteoarthritis (HOA) is typified by pain and reduced function. We hypothesised that people with HOA have enhanced sensitivity and activation of peripheral nociceptors in the hand, thereby potentiating chronic pain. In our study we aimed to assess if central sensitisation mediates pain perception in osteoarthritis of the hand. Participants with proximal and distal interphalangeal joint (PIP/DIP) HOA and non-OA controls were recruited. Clinical pain scores using the visual analogue scale (VAS) were recorded before and after performing a painful hand task. Central pain processing was evaluated with functional brain neuroimaging (fMRI) using a finger flexion-extension (FFE) task performed over 3 minutes. Data was analysed with FMRIB software (www.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/fsl). Group mean activation of functional MRI signal between hand osteoarthritis and control non-arthritic participants was compared. Our group of hand OA participants reported high pain levels compared with non-arthritic controls as demonstrated by the mean VAS in hand OA participants of 59.31± 8.19 mm compared to 4.00 ± 1.89 mm in controls (p central sensitisation. People with hand osteoarthritis demonstrated features of central sensitisation that was evident after a finger flexion-extension task using functional MRI. Functional MRI is a useful biomarker in detecting pain in hand osteoarthritis and could be used in future hand osteoarthritis pain studies to evaluate pain modulation strategies.

  3. Externally predictive single-descriptor based QSPRs for physico-chemical properties of polychlorinated-naphthalenes: Exploring relationships of log S{sub W}, log K{sub OA}, and log K{sub OW} with electron-correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chayawan; Vikas, E-mail: qlabspu@pu.ac.in

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Aqueous solubility and partition coefficient are modelled using single-parameter. • Electron-correlation observed as a vital predictorof physico-chemical properties. • For octanol-air partition coefficient, energy and polarizability yield best models. • Dipole-moment is found to be worst single-descriptor for the properties analysed. - Abstract: Quantitative structure–property relationships (QSPRs), based only on a single-parameter, are proposed for the prediction of physico-chemical properties, namely, aqueous solubility (log S{sub W}), octanol–water partition coefficient (log K{sub OW}) and octanol–air partition coefficient (log K{sub OA}) of polychloronaphthalenes (PCNs) including all the 75 chloronaphthalene congeners. The QSPR models are developed using molecular descriptors computed through quantum mechanical methods including ab-initio as well as advanced semi-empirical methods. The predictivity of the developed models is tested through state-of-the-art external validation procedures employing an external prediction set of compounds. To analyse the role of instantaneous interactions between electrons (the electron-correlation), the models are also compared with those developed using only the electron-correlation contribution of the quantum chemical descriptor. The electron-correlation contribution towards the chemical hardness and the LUMO energy are observed to be the best predictors for octanol–water partition coefficient, whereas for the octanol–air partition coefficient, the total electronic energy and electron-correlation energy are found to be reliable descriptors, in fact, even better than the polarisability. For aqueous solubility of PCNs, the absolute electronegativity is observed to be the best predictor. This work suggests that the electron-correlation contribution of a quantum-chemical descriptor can be used as a reliable indicator for physico-chemical properties, particularly the partition coefficients.

  4. Hospital OA System Construction and Application Based on ASP.NET Platform Structure%基于ASP.NET平台构架医院OA系统的建设与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘惠文; 王明月; 张强; 王宏志

    2011-01-01

    目的:实现全院办公自动化,无纸化,信息化,提高全院职能科室、临床科室工作效率,节省财力,物力.方法:采用B/S结构,根据医院的实际需求采用微软ASP.NET2.0技术;数据库采用SQL SERVER 2005.结果:提高工作效率,规范办公制度,降低办公成本,方便领导决策.结论:利用OA系统,加快医院信息化建设与发展的步伐,提高医院管理者的信息管理与决策能力.%Objective: to realize the office automation, paperless trading, and informationization in hospital; to enhance the work efficiency of function department and clinical department, and to save and reduce the financial as well as material resources. Methods: to apply ASP.NET 2.0 technology of Microsoft by using of B/S structure according to the practical requirement of hospital; to make use of SQL SERVER 2005 database. Result: it improves the work efficiency,standardizes the office system, reduces the office cost, and provides convenience to leaders to make decision.Conclusion: By means of OA system, it accelerates the construction and development of hospital information, and improves the informationization management and decision-making capability of hospital managers.

  5. 基于ASP.NET平台构架的医院OA系统建设与应用%The Construction and Application of Hospital OA System Based on ASP.NET Platform Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘惠文; 王明月; 张强; 王宏志

    2011-01-01

    目的:实现全院办公自动化、无纸化、信息化,提高全院职能科室、临床科室工作效率,节省降低财力,物力.方法:根据医院的实际需求采用微软最新的ASP.NET2.0技术;数据库采用SQL SERVER 2005数据库.结果:提高工作效率,规范办公制度,降低办公成本,方便领导决策.结论:利用OA系统,加快医院信息化建设与发展的步伐,提高医院管理者的信息管理与决策能力.%Objective: to realize the office automation, paperless trading, and information in hospital; to obviously enhance the work efficiency of function department and clinical department, and to save and reduce the financial as well as material resources. Methods: to apply the newest ASP.NET 2.0 technology of Microsoft according to the practical requirement of hospital; to make use of SQL SERVER 2005 database. Result: it improves the work efficiency,standardizes the office system, reduces the office cost, and provides convenience to leaders to make decision.Conclusion: By means of OA system, it accelerates the construction and development of hospital information, and improves the information management and decision-making capability of hospital managers.

  6. 高校OA系统中电子文件归档问题分析和建议%Analysis and Suggestion of Electronic Document Filing in OA System of Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冬梅

    2014-01-01

    With the popularization and development of OA system in the office management in colleges and universities, more and more documents are established and circulated in electronic form. As an important part of the whole document management, how to take effective measures and methods to solve the problems of archive management have become new challenges of the current management mode innovation and document manage-ment information. This paper analyzes and discusses the significance and current situation of electronic documents archive, and puts forward some constructive countermeasures and suggestions to further promote the filing man-agement of electronic documents in colleges and universities smoothly.%随着OA系统在高校办公管理工作中的不断普及和发展,越来越多的文件以电子化的形式建立制成和传阅办理,而归档管理作为公文全程管理中的重要环节,如何采取有效的措施和办法解决其中面临的问题已成为当前管理方式创新和公文管理信息化的新挑战。本文对高校OA系统中电子文件归档的意义和现状进行分析探讨,并为进一步促进高校电子文件归档管理工作顺利开展提出了一些建设性的对策和建议。

  7. Quantification of black carbon mixing state from traffic: implications for aerosol optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Megan D.; Healy, Robert M.; Riemer, Nicole; West, Matthew; Wang, Jon M.; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Wenger, John C.; Evans, Greg J.; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Lee, Alex K. Y.

    2016-04-01

    The climatic impacts of black carbon (BC) aerosol, an important absorber of solar radiation in the atmosphere, remain poorly constrained and are intimately related to its particle-scale physical and chemical properties. Using particle-resolved modelling informed by quantitative measurements from a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer, we confirm that the mixing state (the distribution of co-emitted aerosol amongst fresh BC-containing particles) at the time of emission significantly affects BC-aerosol optical properties even after a day of atmospheric processing. Both single particle and ensemble aerosol mass spectrometry observations indicate that BC near the point of emission co-exists with hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) in two distinct particle types: HOA-rich and BC-rich particles. The average mass fraction of black carbon in HOA-rich and BC-rich particle classes was < 0.1 and 0.8, respectively. Notably, approximately 90 % of BC mass resides in BC-rich particles. This new measurement capability provides quantitative insight into the physical and chemical nature of BC-containing particles and is used to drive a particle-resolved aerosol box model. Significant differences in calculated single scattering albedo (an increase of 0.1) arise from accurate treatment of initial particle mixing state as compared to the assumption of uniform aerosol composition at the point of BC injection into the atmosphere.

  8. OAS and the Use of Military Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    Panama was surrendered by a new treaty in 1936 . Although the Latin American nations welcomed these actions, their opposition to intervention was...Aires in 1936 when the United States adhered without reservation to the Additional Protocol to Non-intervention: 12pan American Union, Treaties...Alvaro Arias For the Government of Costa Rica Major Policarpo Paz Garcia For the Government of Honduras Col. Julio Gutierre Ribera For the

  9. Computational evaluation oa a neutron field facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Jose Julio de O.; Pazianotto, Mauricio T., E-mail: jjfilos@hotmail.com, E-mail: mpazianotto@gmail.com [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Federico, Claudio A.; Passaro, Angelo, E-mail: claudiofederico@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: angelo@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the results of a study based on computer simulation for a realistic 3D model of Ionizing Radiation Laboratory of the Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv) using the MCNP5 (Monte Carlo N-Particle) code, in order to guide the installing a neutron generator, produced by reaction {sup 3}H(d,n){sup 4}He. The equipment produces neutrons with energy of 14.1 MeV and 2 x 10{sup 8} n/s production rate in 4 πgeometry, which can also be used for neutron dosimetry studies. This work evaluated the spectra and neutron fluence provided on previously selected positions inside the facility, chosen due to the interest to evaluate the assessment of ambient dose equivalent so that they can be made the necessary adjustments to the installation to be consistent with the guidelines of radiation protection and radiation safety, determined by the standards of National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). (author)

  10. oa_plantind_04mar04

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), designate critical habitat pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), for 99 of the...

  11. O.A. LASODE', ILA. AJIMOTOKAN'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    parabolic trough solar'water heater for water'heating was executed. ... rural areas and commercial fuels such as kerosene oil, liquefied petroleum gas. ' (LPG) .... to heat 0.5 kg of water from room temperature to 100°C in 10 minutes is 315W.

  12. Bitterness in Almonds1[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Olsen, Carl Erik; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2008-01-01

    Bitterness in almond (Prunus dulcis) is determined by the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. The ability to synthesize and degrade prunasin and amygdalin in the almond kernel was studied throughout the growth season using four different genotypes for bitterness. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed a specific developmentally dependent accumulation of prunasin in the tegument of the bitter genotype. The prunasin level decreased concomitant with the initiation of amygdalin accumulation in the cotyledons of the bitter genotype. By administration of radiolabeled phenylalanine, the tegument was identified as a specific site of synthesis of prunasin in all four genotypes. A major difference between sweet and bitter genotypes was observed upon staining of thin sections of teguments and cotyledons for β-glucosidase activity using Fast Blue BB salt. In the sweet genotype, the inner epidermis in the tegument facing the nucellus was rich in cytoplasmic and vacuolar localized β-glucosidase activity, whereas in the bitter cultivar, the β-glucosidase activity in this cell layer was low. These combined data show that in the bitter genotype, prunasin synthesized in the tegument is transported into the cotyledon via the transfer cells and converted into amygdalin in the developing almond seed, whereas in the sweet genotype, amygdalin formation is prevented because the prunasin is degraded upon passage of the β-glucosidase-rich cell layer in the inner epidermis of the tegument. The prunasin turnover may offer a buffer supply of ammonia, aspartic acid, and asparagine enabling the plants to balance the supply of nitrogen to the developing cotyledons. PMID:18192442

  13. Design and Implementation of School OA System Based on J2EE Institute North College of Beijing University of Chemical Technology%基于JBPM的高校办公自动化系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段雪丽; 妊妤; 曹静

    2012-01-01

    According to the needs of digital campus development,by the analysis of the open-source workflow system JBPM,an office system based on J2EE is developed.A system requirements analysis is derived on survey of business processes,to propose overall design plan based on workflow office systems,the system framework and related concepts are introduced,workflow model is established by graphical components,to link up access control with office personnel by the definition of a variety of roles and a variety of roles.Finally this article introduces this workflow design and implementation based on document-process.The system which has already implemented and run on-line in this university,can meet the basic requirement of school office automation.During running in several months,evidence has been accumulated that the implementation and delivery of OA has improved the efficiency of school office work.%根据数字化校园发展的需要,通过对开源工作流系统JBPM进行分析,开发了一套基于J2EE的办公系统。通过对业务流程的调查得出系统需求分析,提出基于工作流办公系统的总体设计方案,在此基础上介绍了系统框架及相关的概念,利用图形化组件建立流程模型,并通过对各种角色的定义以及对各种角色权限的定义,把权限控制与办公人员联系起来。本文最后以公文流转为例,介绍了该工作流程的设计实现。该系统基本适应了我校网络办公的初步需要,目前已经实现并在校内使用,实践证明可以提高学校办公工作效率。

  14. 移动代理服务器及其在移动OA系统中的应用研究%Research on Mobile Proxy Server and Its Application in mobile OA System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奥翔; 李小雷

    2011-01-01

    随着国民经济的不断发展,很多行业如政府,企业等都对提高管理效率、降低成本的信息化解决方案表现出了强烈需求,企业信息化市场具有很大的发展空间。根据"计世资讯"移动信息化数据显示:2007年中国移动信息化市场销售额达到147亿,比2006年增长了31.3%。增长的动力来自于移动政务、移动商务和移动生活应用等方面的高速发展。本文研究国内外行业移动信息化系统解决方案的特点,结合目前行业客户系统的局限性,根据中国移动行业信息化系统解决方案MAS的规范,提出了一套基于业务支撑系统可管理的与网络资源优化整合的设计模式,并解决了包括具体移动OA应用在内的相关技术问题。%With the continuous development of the national economy,many industries such as government,business and so on to improve management efficiency,reduce costs of information technology solutions show a strong demand for enterprise information technology market has great room for development.According to CCW Research shows mobile information:2007 China Mobile informatization market sales reached 147 million,compared with an increase of 31.3% in 2006.Growth driven by mobile government,mobile commerce and mobile applications,rapid development of life.This paper studies mobile information systems solutions to the characteristics of the system combined with the current limitations of industrial customers,According to Chinese mobile industry's standard system solutions proposed MAS-based package business support system administration and network resources can be optimized integrated design pattern,and OA for mobile applications,including specific technical issues related,including the realization of.The specific work as follows:

  15. Desenvolvimento e estudos de estabilidade preliminares de emulsões O/A contendo Cetoconazol 2,0% = Development and Preliminary Stability Evaluations of O/W emulsion containing Ketoconazole 2.0%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Catalá Casteli

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver emulsões O/A contendo Cetoconazol 2,0% e avaliar sua estabilidade preliminar por meio da análise de suas características físicoquímicas, tais como homogeneidade, formação de agregados, floculação, cremeação ecoalescência. As emulsões foram formuladas utilizando diferentes bases autoemulsionantes, compostas por álcool cetoestearílico, álcool etoxilado, álcool graxos superiores, ácido esteárico, lanolina e outros. As emulsões foram submetidas aos testes de centrifugação,estresse térmico e ciclo gela-degela, e suas características organolépticas e físico-químicas foram avaliadas no início e no final de cada ensaio. Todas as amostras mantiveram sua homogeneidade após o teste de centrifugação, mas somente os sistemas preparados comceras autoemulsionáveis constituídas por álcool graxos superiores (Polawax NF® e Copolímero de Amônio Acriloil dimetiltaurato VP, Trilauril 4 fosfato, Sesquisosterato de metil glicose, Óleo de flores de verão e Tetradibutil pentaeritritil hidroxihidrocinamato deGlicerina (Hostacerin NCB® mantiveram sua estabilidade após testes de estresse térmico e ciclo gela-degela.The objective of this work was the development of O/W emulsions containing Ketoconazole 2.0% and to evaluate their preliminary stability by analyzing physical-chemical characteristics such as homogeneity, aggregation formation, flocculation, creaming and coalescence. The emulsions were formulated using different self-emulsifying bases, composed of cetearyl alcohol, ethoxylalcohol, higher fatty alcohol, stearic acid, lanolin and others. The O/W emulsions were evaluated by centrifugation test, thermal stress test, and freezing/defrosting cycles, and its organoleptic and physical-chemistry characteristics were analyzed before and after eachassay. All samples maintained their homogeneity after the centrifugation test, but only the systems prepared with self emulsifying composed of

  16. Terminal area energy management regime investigations utilizing an 0.030-scale model (47-0) of the space shuttle vehicle orbiter configuration 140A/B/C/R in the Ames Research Center 11 x 11 foot transonic wind tunnel (OA148), volume 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    Data obtained in wind tunnel test OA148 are presented. The objectives of the test series were to: (1) obtain pressure distributions, forces and moments over the vehicle 5 orbiter in the thermal area energy management (TAEM) and approach phases of flight; (2) obtain elevon and rudder hinge moments in the TAEM and approach phases of flight; (3) obtain body flap and elevon loads for verification of loads balancing with integrated pressure distributions; and (4) obtain pressure distributions near the short OMS pods in the high subsonic, transonic and low supersonic Mach number regimes.

  17. Knowledge and provision practices regarding medical abortion among public providers in Hanoi, Khanh Hoa, and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Thoai D; Free, Caroline; Le, Hoan T; Edwards, Phil; Pham, Kiet H T; Nguyen, Yen B T; Nguyen, Thang H

    2014-03-01

    To assess public service providers' knowledge of medical abortion (MA) and practices, and perspectives on expanding the use of MA to primary and secondary health facilities in Vietnam. A cross-sectional study was conducted via an interviewer-administered questionnaire among abortion providers (n=905) from public health facilities between August 2011 and January 2012. Overall, 31.1% of providers performed both surgical and medical abortions; 68.9% offered only surgical abortion. Providers were knowledgeable about the regimen/dosage of mifepristone plus misoprostol regimen; however, knowledge scores were low for gestational age limits for MA, adverse effects of the combined drug regimen, and safety and effectiveness of MA compared with surgical abortion. Knowledge scores were significantly lower among providers in rural areas than among those in urban settings. A large proportion of providers (82.9%) thought that MA should be expanded to primary and secondary health facilities. Perceived barriers to MA expansion included lack of knowledge and training, qualified staff, adequate drug supplies, equipment, or facilities, guidelines and protocols on MA, and patient awareness. Provision of MA in Vietnam was found to be disproportionate to surgical abortion provision and to vary by region. Knowledge of MA was moderate, but poorer among providers in rural settings. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. All rights reserved.

  18. Vai Tro Cua Phu Huynh Viet Nam Tai Hoc Duong Hoa Ky. The Role of Vietnamese Parents in American Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy, Vuong G.

    This document, written in Vietnamese and containing a bilingual (English/Vietnamese) forward, examines the differences between the American and Vietnamese educational systems with respect to basic educational philosophy, content, learning style and organization. Also discussed are specific learning problems which affect the education of Vietnamese…

  19. Vai Tro Cua Phu Huynh Viet Nam Tai Hoc Duong Hoa Ky. The Role of Vietnamese Parents in American Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy, Vuong G.

    This document, written in Vietnamese and containing a bilingual (English/Vietnamese) forward, examines the differences between the American and Vietnamese educational systems with respect to basic educational philosophy, content, learning style and organization. Also discussed are specific learning problems which affect the education of Vietnamese…

  20. Sach Huong Dan Nguoiti Nan O Hoa Ky (Your New Life in the United States). [Vietnamese Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Language and Orientation Resource Center.

    An illustrated guide to aspects of life in the United States is presented in Vietnamese for recent Vietnamese arrivals. The guidelines address such topics as resettlement agencies, community relations and national customs, the U.S. government, local and long distance transport, mail and telephone communication systems, employment practices, the…

  1. Optical and crystal-chemical changes in aquamarines and yellow beryls from Thanh Hoa province, Vietnam induced by heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridrichová, Jana; Bačík, Peter; Rusinová, Petra; Antal, Peter; Škoda, Radek; Bizovská, Valéria; Miglierini, Marcel

    2015-04-01

    Optical and crystal-chemical changes in two beryl varieties after the heat treatment were determined using a wide spectrum of analytical methods. Studied aquamarines are generally more enriched in Fe (up to 0.25 apfu) and alkali (up to 0.08 apfu) than yellow beryls (up to 0.07 apfu Fe, up to 0.04 apfu alkali). The determined c/ a ratio of 0.997-0.998 classified all our studied beryls as "normal" beryls. While no crystal structure changes were observed in samples heated to 700 °C, those heated to 900 and 1,100 °C exhibited cracks and fissures. Reduced Fe occurred in samples heated between 300 and 700 °C, and subsequent oxidation from 900 to 1,100 °C induced changes in their colour and clarity. The Fe-bearing beryl colour is controlled by the position of the absorption edge and the presence of a broad band attributed to Fe2+ in the NIR region. Blue colour results from the absorption edge located deeper in the UV region and the presence of broad band in the NIR region. Shift of absorption edge to the visible region at the presence of the broad band gives a yellow colour. Although our studied beryls are enriched in H2O I molecule due to their low alkali content, the H2O II molecule is also present. The following two dehydration processes were observed: (1) release of one double-coordinating H2O II molecule at 300-500 °C and (2) total dehydration at 900-1,100 °C. The observed cracks and fissures likely resulted from channel water release in large beryl crystals.

  2. 威灵仙注射液关节腔离子导入对骨关节炎软骨和滑膜组织形态以及软骨MMP-1的影响%Effects of clematis chinensis injection on OA cartilage and synovial membrane tissue morphology and MMP-1 cell with articular cavity iontophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙必强; 张鸣; 李美珍; 李果丽

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究威灵仙注射液关节腔离子导入对OA的软骨和滑膜组织形态和软骨MMP-1细胞凋亡的影响。方法:新西兰兔40只,除保留10只作为正常组外,余均采用木瓜蛋白酶关节腔注射复制OA模型。造模4周后,根据模型动物关节肿胀度随机分为模型组、Wlx组、Qand组。实验结束时,取模型动物关节软骨和滑膜进行病理形态学检查,同时观察软骨细胞凋亡情况。结果:威灵仙关节腔离子导入能明显降低模型动物关节软骨和滑膜的病理总积分,同时亦能明显降低软骨 MMP-1细胞的阳性表达率。结论:威灵仙关节腔离子导入可能具有抑制骨关节炎的软骨退行性改变的作用,能够延缓OA的炎症进程。%Objective:To study effects of Clematis chinensis injection on OA cartilage and synovial membrane tissue morphology and apoptosis of MMP-1 cell with articular cavity iontophoresis. Methods:40 New Zealand rabbits, except 10 rabbits as normal group, the others were used to replicate OA model by papain intra-articular injection. After 4 weeks modeling, according to the degree of joint swelling, model animals were randomly divided into model group, Wlx group, Qand group. At the end of the experiment, examinated pathological total points of articular cartilage and synovium membrane, the cartilage cell apoptosis was observed. Results:Clematis articular iontophoresis can significantly reduce articular cartilage and synovial pathological score of model animals, but also can significantly reduce the positive expression rate of MMP-1 cell of cartilage. Conclusion: Clematis articular iontophoresis may inhibit osteoarthritis cartilage degeneration, can slow down the inflammatory process of OA.

  3. Daily variation of organic aerosol concentration and composition in Seoul, Korea during KORUS pre-campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, H. J.; Lee, J.; Choi, A. Y.; Park, S. M.; Park, J. S.; Song, I. H.; Hong, Y. D.

    2015-12-01

    Daily variation of Organic Aerosol (OA) as well as organic tracer compounds have been observed in aerosol samples collected during KORUS-AQ (Korea-US Air Quality Study) pre-campaign (From May 18 to June 12) in Seoul, Korea. NR-PM1 bounded OA was measured by HR-TOF-AMS (Aerodyne) and the temporal variation, composition of OA by family group characterization, and oxidation state of OA was studied. And to distinguish the source characteristics (such as HOA, COA, NOA, SV-OOA, LV-OOA, etc…) of the organic, AMS-PMF model will be used.For the observation of organic tracer compounds, solvent extractable fractions were analyzed by GC-MS. More than 80 organic compounds were detected in the aerosol samples and grouped by source characterized classes, including vehicular emission tracers, biomass burning tracers, coal emission tracers, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers. The main objective of this study is evaluation of the validity of OA fractionation based on the AMS measurement. So, we will compare daily variation of OA composition measured by AMS with daily variation of organic tracer compounds. Further, we will specify source characteristics estimated using AMS-PMF model by comparing the results of source apportionment of OA using PMF of organic tracer compounds.

  4. The changes of cardiopulmonary function and the correlation with the ratios of regulatory T cells in OA rats%骨关节炎大鼠心、肺功能变化与CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ Treg的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程园园; 刘健; 冯云霞; 刘磊; 万磊

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To observe the changes of cardiopulmonary function and expression of CD4 + CD25+ Foxp3+ Treg in Os-teoarthritis ( OA) rats, thus to explore the role that CD4+ CD25 + Foxp3 + Treg played in decline of cardiopulmonary of OA rats. Methods: 20 rats were randomly divided into 2 groups; normal group( NC) and model group( NC) , 10 in each group. Rats in MC group were induced to OA model by injecting papain and L-cystine into right knee joint. Cartilage lesions were scored by the modified Mankin Scale; cardiac function was detected by ultrasonography; pulmonary function was detected by spirometry; interleukin (IL) -17 ,4 were evaluated by ELJSA; the ratios of CD4+ CD25 + Foxp3 + Treg in peripheral blood were measured by Flow cytometry. Results: Compared to NC group, Mankin scores in MC group were significantly increased; part of parameters of cardiopulmonary function were obviously changed, and accounts for 60% and 20% of the selected indexes respectively; expression of IL-17 was significantly ascend, expression of IL-4 and CD4 + CD25+ Foxp3 + Treg were significantly descend ( P < 0. 01 or P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion: While articular cartilage lesions occurred in OA rats, cardiopulmonary function and the expression of peripheral CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3+ Treg were also declined, and significantly correlated with Mankin scores, expression of IL-17,IL-4, suggesting that immune imbalance and aggravated inflammatory due to attenuated regulatory effect of regulatory T cells (Treg) , result in joint, cardiac and pulmonary injury, finally causing cardiopulmonary function declined.%目的:通过观察骨关节炎(Osteoarthritis,OA)大鼠、心肺功能的变化,及其与外周血CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg表达量变化,探讨骨关节炎中心、肺功能的异常与CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg的关系.方法:20只大鼠随机分为正常对照组(NC)和模型对照组(MC),每组各10只.MC组大鼠采用关节腔注射木瓜蛋白酶(Papain)和L-半胱氨酸(L-cystine)方法制成骨关节炎

  5. The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO: chemical and physical analysis of the Western Los Angeles Basin aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Hersey

    2011-02-01

    appearance of a distinct fine mode dominated by organics. Particulate NH4NO3 and (NH42SO4 appear to be NH3-limited in regimes I and II, but a significant excess of particulate NH4+ in the hot, dry regime III suggests less marine SO42− and the presence of organic amines.

    Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis of C-ToF-AMS data resolved three factors, corresponding to a hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, semivolatile OOA (SV-OOA, and low-volatility OOA (LV-OOA. HOA appears to be a periodic plume source, while SV-OOA exhibits a strong diurnal pattern correlating with ozone. Peaks in SV-OOA concentration correspond to peaks in DMA number concentration and the appearance of a fine organic mode. LV-OOA appears to be an aged accumulation mode constituent that may be associated with aqueous-phase processing, correlating strongly with sulfate and representing the dominant background organic component.

    Filter analysis revealed a complex mixture of species during periods dominated by SV-OOA and LV-OOA, with LV-OOA periods characterized by shorter-chain dicarboxylic acids (higher O:C ratio, as well as appreciable amounts of nitrate- and sulfate-substituted organics. Phthalic acid was ubiquitous in filter samples, suggesting that PAH photochemistry may be an important SOA pathway in Los Angeles.

    Water uptake characteristics indicate that hygroscopicity is largely controlled by organic mass fraction (OMF. The hygroscopicity parameter κ averaged 0.31 ± 0.08, approaching 0.5 at low OMF and 0.1 at high OMF, with increasing OMF suppressing hygroscopic growth and increasing critical dry diameter for CCN activation (Dd.

    Finally, PACO will provide context for results forthcoming from the CalNex field campaign, which involved ground sampling in Pasadena during the spring and summer of 2010.

  6. The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO): chemical and physical analysis of the Western Los Angeles basin aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, S. P.; Craven, J. S.; Schilling, K. A.; Metcalf, A. R.; Sorooshian, A.; Chan, M. N.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2011-08-01

    mode aerosol, while afternoon SOA production coincides with the appearance of a distinct fine mode dominated by organics. Particulate NH4NO3 and (NH4)2SO4 appear to be NH3-limited in regimes I and II, but a significant excess of particulate NH4+ in the hot, dry regime III suggests less SO42- and the presence of either organic amines or NH4+-associated organic acids. C-ToF-AMS data were analyzed by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), which resolved three factors, corresponding to a hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), semivolatile OOA (SV-OOA), and low-volatility OOA (LV-OOA). HOA appears to be a periodic plume source, while SV-OOA exhibits a strong diurnal pattern correlating with ozone. Peaks in SV-OOA concentration correspond to peaks in DMA number concentration and the appearance of a fine organic mode. LV-OOA appears to be an aged accumulation mode constituent that may be associated with aqueous-phase processing, correlating strongly with sulfate and representing the dominant background organic component. Periods characterized by high SV-OOA and LV-OOA were analyzed by filter analysis, revealing a complex mixture of species during periods dominated by SV-OOA and LV-OOA, with LV-OOA periods characterized by shorter-chain dicarboxylic acids (higher O:C ratio), as well as appreciable amounts of nitrate- and sulfate-substituted organics. Phthalic acid was ubiquitous in filter samples, suggesting that PAH photochemistry may be an important SOA pathway in Los Angeles. Aerosol composition was related to water uptake characteristics, and it is concluded that hygroscopicity is largely controlled by organic mass fraction (OMF). The hygroscopicity parameter κ averaged 0.31 ± 0.08, approaching 0.5 at low OMF and 0.1 at high OMF, with increasing OMF suppressing hygroscopic growth and increasing critical dry diameter for CCN activation (Dd). An experiment-averaged κorg of 0.14 was calculated, indicating that the highly-oxidized organic fraction of aerosol in Los Angeles is appreciably

  7. The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO: chemical and physical analysis of the Western Los Angeles basin aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Hersey

    2011-08-01

    in accumulation mode aerosol, while afternoon SOA production coincides with the appearance of a distinct fine mode dominated by organics. Particulate NH4NO3 and (NH42SO4 appear to be NH3-limited in regimes I and II, but a significant excess of particulate NH4+ in the hot, dry regime III suggests less SO42− and the presence of either organic amines or NH4+-associated organic acids. C-ToF-AMS data were analyzed by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF, which resolved three factors, corresponding to a hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, semivolatile OOA (SV-OOA, and low-volatility OOA (LV-OOA. HOA appears to be a periodic plume source, while SV-OOA exhibits a strong diurnal pattern correlating with ozone. Peaks in SV-OOA concentration correspond to peaks in DMA number concentration and the appearance of a fine organic mode. LV-OOA appears to be an aged accumulation mode constituent that may be associated with aqueous-phase processing, correlating strongly with sulfate and representing the dominant background organic component. Periods characterized by high SV-OOA and LV-OOA were analyzed by filter analysis, revealing a complex mixture of species during periods dominated by SV-OOA and LV-OOA, with LV-OOA periods characterized by shorter-chain dicarboxylic acids (higher O:C ratio, as well as appreciable amounts of nitrate- and sulfate-substituted organics. Phthalic acid was ubiquitous in filter samples, suggesting that PAH photochemistry may be an important SOA pathway in Los Angeles. Aerosol composition was related to water uptake characteristics, and it is concluded that hygroscopicity is largely controlled by organic mass fraction (OMF. The hygroscopicity parameter κ averaged 0.31 ± 0.08, approaching 0.5 at low OMF and 0.1 at high OMF, with increasing OMF suppressing hygroscopic growth and increasing critical dry diameter for CCN activation

  8. Chemically-resolved aerosol eddy covariance flux measurements in urban Mexico City during MILAGRO 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalakeviciute, R.; Alexander, M. L.; Allwine, E.; Jimenez, J. L.; Jobson, B. T.; Molina, L. T.; Nemitz, E.; Pressley, S. N.; VanReken, T. M.; Ulbrich, I. M.; Velasco, E.; Lamb, B. K.

    2012-08-01

    As part of the MILAGRO 2006 field campaign, the exchange of atmospheric aerosols with the urban landscape was measured from a tall tower erected in a heavily populated neighborhood of Mexico City. Urban submicron aerosol fluxes were measured using an eddy covariance method with a quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer during a two week period in March, 2006. Nitrate and ammonium aerosol concentrations were elevated at this location near the city center compared to measurements at other urban sites. Significant downward fluxes of nitrate aerosol, averaging -0.2 μg m-2 s-1, were measured during daytime. The urban surface was not a significant source of sulfate aerosols. The measurements also showed that primary organic aerosol fluxes, approximated by hydrocarbon-like organic aerosols (HOA), displayed diurnal patterns similar to CO2 fluxes and anthropogenic urban activities. Overall, 47% of submicron organic aerosol emissions were HOA, 35% were oxygenated (OOA) and 18% were associated with biomass burning (BBOA). Organic aerosol fluxes were bi-directional, but on average HOA fluxes were 0.1 μg m-2 s-1, OOA fluxes were -0.03 μg m-2 s-1, and BBOA fluxes were -0.03 μg m-2 s-1. After accounting for size differences (PM1 vs PM2.5) and using an estimate of the black carbon component, comparison of the flux measurements with the 2006 gridded emissions inventory of Mexico City, showed that the daily-averaged total PM emission rates were essentially identical for the emission inventory and the flux measurements. However, the emission inventory included dust and metal particulate contributions, which were not included in the flux measurements. As a result, it appears that the inventory underestimates overall PM emissions for this location.

  9. Impaction 0f Hemorrheology and Intraosseous Hypertension of the Rabbits with Knee OA Treated with Gutong Herb Paste%骨痛膏局部外敷对膝关节炎家兔的骨内压及血液流变学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾俊华; 张方建; 白书臣; 李浩; 戴燚

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察中药制荆骨痛膏局部外敷对膝关节炎家兔的骨内压及血液流变学的影响及作用,为中药临床治疗骨性关节炎(OA)提供实验依据.方法:日本大耳白兔,32只,体重2~2.5kg左右,随机分为正常组、造模组、骨痛膏组(用药组)、天和骨通膏组(对照组).每组8只,除正常组外,均在无菌条件下,行右侧股静脉结扎,建立免骨性关节炎模型.正常组与造模组不予处理.8周后,骨痛膏组用骨痛膏行右膝关节外敷,3天1次,共3周.天和骨通膏组用天和骨通膏行右膝关节外敷,3天1次.共3周.后用BL-410生物机能系统测量兔双膝关节骨内压,然后取骨髓血测量血液流变学,骨内压测量结果采用配对资料均数的t检验进行分析,骨髓血血液流变学检测结果采用q检验进行分析.结果:造模组兔右膝关节发生了类似于临床早期OA的病理改变:骨内压较正常组明显升高(P0.05),而对照组的骨内压和血液流变学等各项指标与正常组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:骨痛膏外敷能有效降低膝关节家免骨内高压,明显改善骨髓血血液流变学状态,并可使其恢复至正常水平,从而起到延缓关节软骨的退变,有利于软骨修复的作用.%Objective:To observe the impaction of hemorrheology and intraosseous hypertension of the rabbits with knee OA treated with Gutong Herb Paste, provide experimental bases for the clinical application of Gutong Herb Paste.Methods:Japanese big-eared rabbits which were from 2 kg to 2.5 kg,were randomly divided into 4 groups:the normal group, the model group, the Gutong Herb Paste group (abbreviated give drug group the following),and the Tianhegutong Herb Paste group (abbreviated contrast group the following),8 rabbits each group.The models of knee OA were made by ligating the right femoral vein of rabbits,except all the rabbits in the normal group, under the condition of sterility.All the rabbits in the Gutong Herb

  10. Evaluation of chemical transport model predictions of primary organic aerosol for air masses classified by particle component-based factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Stroud

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Observations from the 2007 Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study (BAQS-Met 2007 in Southern Ontario, Canada, were used to evaluate predictions of primary organic aerosol (POA and two other carbonaceous species, black carbon (BC and carbon monoxide (CO, made for this summertime period by Environment Canada's AURAMS regional chemical transport model. Particle component-based factor analysis was applied to aerosol mass spectrometer measurements made at one urban site (Windsor, ON and two rural sites (Harrow and Bear Creek, ON to derive hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA factors. A novel diagnostic model evaluation was performed by investigating model POA bias as a function of HOA mass concentration and indicator ratios (e.g. BC/HOA. Eight case studies were selected based on factor analysis and back trajectories to help classify model bias for certain POA source types. By considering model POA bias in relation to co-located BC and CO biases, a plausible story is developed that explains the model biases for all three species.

    At the rural sites, daytime mean PM1 POA mass concentrations were under-predicted compared to observed HOA concentrations. POA under-predictions were accentuated when the transport arriving at the rural sites was from the Detroit/Windsor urban complex and for short-term periods of biomass burning influence. Interestingly, the daytime CO concentrations were only slightly under-predicted at both rural sites, whereas CO was over-predicted at the urban Windsor site with a normalized mean bias of 134%, while good agreement was observed at Windsor for the comparison of daytime PM1 POA and HOA mean values, 1.1 μg m−3 and 1.2 μg m−3, respectively. Biases in model POA predictions also trended from positive to negative with increasing HOA values. Periods of POA over-prediction were most evident at the urban site on calm nights due to an overly-stable model surface layer

  11. Biologically Closed Electrical Circuits in Venus Flytrap[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G.; Carrell, Holly; Markin, Vladislav S.

    2009-01-01

    The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula Ellis) is a marvel of plant electrical, mechanical, and biochemical engineering. The rapid closure of the Venus flytrap upper leaf in about 0.1 s is one of the fastest movements in the plant kingdom. We found earlier that the electrical stimulus between a midrib and a lobe closes the Venus flytrap upper leaf without mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs. The Venus flytrap can accumulate small subthreshold charges and, when the threshold value is reached, the trap closes. Here, we investigated the electrical properties of the upper leaf of the Venus flytrap and proposed the equivalent electrical circuit in agreement with the experimental data. PMID:19211696

  12. Nucleon form factors and O(a) Improvement

    CERN Document Server

    Capitani, S; Horsley, R; Klaus, B; Oelrich, H; Perlt, H; Petters, D; Pleiter, D; Rakow, P E L; Schierholz, G; Schiller, A; Stephenson, P W

    1999-01-01

    Nucleon form factors have been extensively studied both experimentally and theoretically for many years. We report here on new results of a high statistics quenched lattice QCD calculation of vector and axial-vector nucleon form factors at low momentum transfer within the Symanzik improvement programme. The simulations are performed at three kappa and three beta values allowing first an extrapolation to the chiral limit and then an extrapolation in the lattice spacing to the continuum limit. The computations are all fully non-perturbative. A comparison with experimental results is made.

  13. CAEBAT OAS/VIBE Production Release v1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allu, Srikanth [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Billings, Jay Jay [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Elwasif, Wael R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kalnaus, Sergiy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kumar, Abhishek [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pannala, Sreekanth [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Simunovic, Srdjan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-02

    The objective of the project is to develop a mathematical and computational infrastructure, and modeling framework that will enable seamless multi-scale and multi-physics simulations of battery performance and safety. The modeling framework will transfer the information between models in a physically consistent and mathematically rigorous fashion for both spatial and temporal variations. The end result will be a verified, computationally scalable, portable, and flexible (extensible and easily-modified) framework that can integrate models from the other CAEBAT tasks and industrial partners. The framework will be used to validate models and modeling approaches against experiments and to support rapid prototyping of advanced battery concepts. Fig. 2 shows different parts of CAEBAT VIBE simulation environment that work together to provide user with flexibility in the problem setup, solution formulation and simulation launch. Each of the parts is discussed in subsequent sections with corresponding examples.

  14. 56 *Akinjare, OA, Oluwunmi, AO and Iroham, OC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2011-12-25

    Dec 25, 2011 ... The study encouraged the use of buried armour cables instead of overhead power-lines ... Department of Estate Management, School of Environmental. Sciences, College .... were disserted as many suffered settlement under.

  15. The future of OA in high-energy physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN 's SCOAP3 project has posted a summary of Rolf-Dieter Heuer's talk, Innovation in Scholarly Communication: Vision and Projects from High Energy Physics , at the Academic Publishing in Europe 2008 conference (Berlin, January 21-23, 2008). Heuer is the Research director of DESY and Director-General Elect of CERN .

  16. Functional Characterization of a Eukaryotic Melibiose Transporter1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingner, Ulrike; Münch, Steffen; Sode, Björn; Deising, Holger B.; Sauer, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    Pathogenic fungi drastically affect plant health and cause significant losses in crop yield and quality. In spite of their impact, little is known about the carbon sources used by these fungi in planta and about the fungal transporters importing sugars from the plant-fungus interface. Here, we report on the identification and characterization of MELIBIOSE TRANSPORTER1 (MBT1) from the hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum graminicola (teleomorph Glomerella graminicola), the causal agent of leaf anthracnose and stalk rot disease in maize (Zea mays). Functional characterization of the MBT1 protein in baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) expressing the MBT1 cDNA revealed that α-d-galactopyranosyl compounds such as melibiose, galactinol, and raffinose are substrates of MBT1, with melibiose most likely being the preferred substrate. α-d-Glucopyranosyl disaccharides like trehalose, isomaltose, or maltose are also accepted by MBT1, although with lower affinities. The MBT1 gene shows low and comparable expression levels in axenically grown C. graminicola and upon infection of maize leaves both during the initial biotrophic development of the fungus and during the subsequent necrotrophic phase. Despite these low levels of MBT1 expression, the MBT1 protein allows efficient growth of C. graminicola on melibiose as sole carbon source in axenic cultures. Although Δmbt1 mutants are unable to grow on melibiose, they do not show virulence defects on maize. PMID:21593216

  17. Ontogeny of the Maize Shoot Apical Meristem[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, Elizabeth M.; Li, Jie; Du, Chuanlong; Ponnala, Lalit; Janick-Buckner, Diane; Yu, Jianming; Muehlbauer, Gary J.; Schnable, Patrick S.; Timmermans, Marja C.P.; Sun, Qi; Nettleton, Dan; Scanlon, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The maize (Zea mays) shoot apical meristem (SAM) arises early in embryogenesis and functions during stem cell maintenance and organogenesis to generate all the aboveground organs of the plant. Despite its integral role in maize shoot development, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of SAM initiation. Laser microdissection of apical domains from developing maize embryos and seedlings was combined with RNA sequencing for transcriptomic analyses of SAM ontogeny. Molecular markers of key events during maize embryogenesis are described, and comprehensive transcriptional data from six stages in maize shoot development are generated. Transcriptomic profiling before and after SAM initiation indicates that organogenesis precedes stem cell maintenance in maize; analyses of the first three lateral organs elaborated from maize embryos provides insight into their homology and to the identity of the single maize cotyledon. Compared with the newly initiated SAM, the mature SAM is enriched for transcripts that function in transcriptional regulation, hormonal signaling, and transport. Comparisons of shoot meristems initiating juvenile leaves, adult leaves, and husk leaves illustrate differences in phase-specific (juvenile versus adult) and meristem-specific (SAM versus lateral meristem) transcript accumulation during maize shoot development. This study provides insight into the molecular genetics of SAM initiation and function in maize. PMID:22911570

  18. Engineered Joint Lubrication for OA Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    were covalently or non-covalently bound to surfaces through a hetero- bifunctional poly( ethylene glycol) (PEG) chain. The HABpep– polymer system non...researchers have suggested potential biological functions of HA in the joint in ex vivo models, such as protecting chondrocytes from oxidative stress, reducing...CreativePEGworks) with HABpep–polymer (10mgml−1) under sterile conditions penetrating the joint capsule and bursa. After injection, rats were imaged and kept under

  19. EPL converts to hybrid OA, joins SCOAP3

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    EPL and Open Access Articles , Europhysics Letters , January 2008. A "Publishers' Note" from the six-person EPL Management Committee. Excerpt: In May 2007 the EPLA [Europhysics Letters Association] Board of Directors welcomed the CERN initiative for the creation of a Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics (SCOAP3) and agreed to enter into negotiations to enable high energy physics papers to be published in EPL with selective open access.

  20. Optical properties of a tropical estuary during wet and dry conditions in the Nha Phu estuary, Khanh Hoa Province, south-east Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, Lars Chresten; Hai, Doan Nhu; Lam, Nguyen Ngoc

    2010-01-01

    There has been a strong research focus on optical properties in temperate estuaries but very much less in tropical estuaries. These properties comprise light and beam attenuation dominated by suspended particulate matter, Chl a, and CDOM. Spatially and temporally distributed data on optical prope...... estuaries, was the episodic character with days of strong rainfall followed by longer periods of dry weather. All sampling, both wet and dry, was carried out in the dry season which implies a less definitive perception of wet and dry seasons....

  1. Living With an American Family: A Guide for Vietnamese Youth. (Song Trong Mot Gia Dinh Hoa Ky: Cam nang cho thieu nien Viet Nam.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Dale; And Others

    This booklet was written for Vietnamese adolescents who are living with American families. The booklet describes, in both Vietnamese and English, the structure and mores of American family and social life. Concerns common to teenagers are also discussed. Among the topics addressed are: school; typical weekdays and weekends; forms of address;…

  2. Han Hoan Chao Ban Den Hoa Ky. Sach Chi Dan Danh Cho Nguoi Ti Nan. (Welcome to the United States. A Guidebook for Refugees).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Refugee Service Center.

    This guidebook provides Vietnamese-speaking refugees being resettled in the United States with general information about what they will encounter and the services they can receive in their first months in the country. The book is distributed to overseas processing agencies, refugees overseas who have been approved for U.S. admission, and service…

  3. Tai Lieu Huong Dan Ve Van De Dinh Cu Tai Hoa Ky (Resettlement Guide: Vietnamese. A Guide for Refugees Resettling in the United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC.

    This resettlement guide, entirely in Vietnamese, describes the initial stage of resettlement and the processes that refugees undergo as new arrivals. The information is intended to prepare refugees for the first few weeks in an American community and to explain fundamental aspects of American life. An initial chapter outlines issues in pre-arrival…

  4. Desenvolvimento e estudos de estabilidade preliminares de emulsões O/A contendo Cetoconazol 2,0% - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v30i2.812 Development and Preliminary Stability Evaluations of O/W emulsion containing Ketoconazole 2.0% - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v30i2.812

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Augusto Leite de Campos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver emulsões O/A contendo Cetoconazol 2,0% e avaliar sua estabilidade preliminar por meio da análise de suas características físico-químicas, tais como homogeneidade, formação de agregados, floculação, cremeação e coalescência. As emulsões foram formuladas utilizando diferentes bases autoemulsionantes, compostas por álcool cetoestearílico, álcool etoxilado, álcool graxos superiores, ácido esteárico, lanolina e outros. As emulsões foram submetidas aos testes de centrifugação, estresse térmico e ciclo gela-degela, e suas características organolépticas e físico-químicas foram avaliadas no início e no final de cada ensaio. Todas as amostras mantiveram sua homogeneidade após o teste de centrifugação, mas somente os sistemas preparados com ceras autoemulsionáveis constituídas por álcool graxos superiores (Polawax NF® e Copolímero de Amônio Acriloil dimetiltaurato VP, Trilauril 4 fosfato, Sesquisosterato de metil glicose, Óleo de flores de verão e Tetradibutil pentaeritritil hidroxihidrocinamato de Glicerina (Hostacerin NCB® ; mantiveram sua estabilidade após testes de estresse térmico e ciclo gela-degelaThe objective of this work was the development of O/W emulsions containing Ketoconazole 2.0% and to evaluate their preliminary stability by analyzing physical-chemical characteristics such as homogeneity, aggregation formation, flocculation, creaming and coalescence. The emulsions were formulated using different self-emulsifying bases, composed of cetearyl alcohol, ethoxyl alcohol, higher fatty alcohol, stearic acid, lanolin and others. The O/W emulsions were evaluated by centrifugation test, thermal stress test, and freezing/defrosting cycles, and its organoleptic and physical-chemistry characteristics were analyzed before and after each assay. All samples maintained their homogeneity after the centrifugation test, but only the systems prepared with self emulsifying

  5. Influence of the formulation type (o/w, w/o/w emulsions and ointment on the topical delivery of paromomycin Influência da forma farmacêutica (emulsão múltipla A/O/A, emulsão O/A e pomada sobre a permeação e retenção cutânea da paromomicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Fernandes de Oliveira Gomes

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Ointments containing paromomycin (PA have been used for topical treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Although influence of the vehicle on skin permeation is crucial for optimization of formulations containing PA, this aspect has not been investigated experimentally. In this study, we have evaluated the influence of the formulation type [oil-in-water (o/w, water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w emulsions and ointment] on in vitro release and skin permeation of PA and experiments were carried out on cellulose acetate membrane and skin biopsies from hairless mice, respectively. PA release from o/w emulsion (51.7% ± 0.9 of dose applied was faster than that observed for w/o/w emulsion (3.0% ± 0.5. PA absorption from o/w emulsion (87.1% ± 3.9 through stripped skin was 5 to 6 times higher than that observed for w/o/w multiple emulsion (14.7% ± 0.5 and ointment (16.6% ± 0.1. PA permeation through intact (normal skin was negligible for all tested formulations. Skin uptake from o/w emulsion (0.9% ± 0.1 was greater than that observed for w/o/w multiple emulsion (0.3% ± 0.1 and ointment (0.1% ± 0.1. These results suggest that a hydrophilic vehicle (o/w emulsion could be an interesting alternative to improve topical delivery of PA.Pomadas contendo paromomicina (PA são utilizadas no tratamento tópico da leishmaniose cutânea. Embora a influência do veículo seja crucial para otimização de formulações contendo PA, este aspecto não tem sido investigado experimentalmente. Neste estudo, nós avaliamos a influência do tipo de formulação [emulsões óleo-em-água (o/a, múltipla água-em-óleo-em-água (a/o/a e pomadas] sobre a liberação e permeação cutânea in vitro da PA e os experimentos foram conduzidos sobre membranas de acetato de celulose e biópsias de pele de camundongos glabros, respectivamente. A liberação de PA a partir da emulsão o/a (51,7% da dose aplicada foi mais rápida do que aquela observada a partir da emulsão múltipla a

  6. Quantitative estimates of the volatility of ambient organic aerosol

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    C. D. Cappa

    2010-01-01

    results also show that the amount of semivolatile gas-phase organics in equilibrium with the OA could range from ~20% to 400% of the OA mass, with smaller values generally corresponding to the higher ΔHvap assumptions. The volatility of various OA components determined from factor analysis of AMS spectra has also been assessed. In general, it is found that the fraction of non-volatile material follows the pattern: biomass burning OA < hydrocarbon-like OA < semivolatile oxygenated OA < low-volatility oxygenated OA. Correspondingly, the sensitivity to dilution and the estimated amount of semivolatile gas-phase material for the OA factors follows the reverse order. Primary OA has a substantial semivolatile fraction, in agreement with previous results, while the non-volatile fraction appears to be dominated by oxygenated OA produced by atmospheric aging. The overall OA volatility is thus controlled by the relative contribution of each aerosol type to the total OA burden. Finally, the model/measurement comparison appears to require OA having an evaporation coefficient (γe substantially greater than 10−2; at this point it is not possible to place firmer constraints on γe based on the observations.

  7. Highly time-resolved chemical characterization of atmospheric submicron particles during 2008 Beijing Olympic Games using an Aerodyne High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

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    X.-F. Huang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As part of Campaigns of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Region-2008 (CAREBeijing-2008, an Aerodyne High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS was deployed in urban Beijing to characterize submicron aerosol particles during the time of 2008 Beijing Olympic Games and Paralympic Games (24 July to 20 September 2008. The campaign mean PM1 mass concentration was 63.1 ± 39.8 μg m−3; the mean composition consisted of organics (37.9%, sulfate (26.7%, ammonium (15.9%, nitrate (15.8%, black carbon (3.1%, and chloride (0.87%. The average size distributions of the species (except BC were all dominated by an accumulation mode peaking at about 600 nm in vacuum aerodynamic diameter, and organics was characterized by an additional smaller mode extending below 100 nm. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis of the high resolution organic mass spectral dataset differentiated the organic aerosol into four components, i.e., hydrocarbon-like (HOA, cooking-related (COA, and two oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA-1 and OOA-2, which on average accounted for 18.1, 24.4, 33.7 and 23.7% of the total organic mass, respectively. The HOA was identified to be closely associated with primary combustion sources, while the COA mass spectrum and diurnal pattern showed similar characteristics to that measured for cooking emissions. The OOA components correspond to aged secondary organic aerosol. Although the two OOA components have similar elemental (O/C, H/C compositions, they display differences in mass spectra and time series which appear to correlate with the different source regions sampled during the campaign. Back trajectory clustering analysis indicated that the southerly air flows were associated with the highest PM1 pollution during the campaign. Aerosol particles in southern airmasses were especially rich in inorganic and oxidized organic species. Aerosol particles in northern airmasses

  8. Highly time-resolved chemical characterization of atmospheric submicron particles during 2008 Beijing Olympic Games using an Aerodyne High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-F. Huang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of Campaigns of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Region–2008 (CAREBeijing-2008, an Aerodyne High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS was deployed in urban Beijing to characterize submicron aerosol particles during the time of 2008 Beijing Olympic Games and Paralytic Games (24 July to 20 September 2008. The campaign mean PM1 mass concentration was 63.1±39.8 μg m−3; the mean composition consisted of organics (37.9%, sulfate (26.7%, ammonium (15.9%, nitrate (15.8%, black carbon (3.1%, and chloride (0.87%. The average size distributions of the species (except BC were all dominated by an accumulation mode peaking at about 600 nm in vacuum aerodynamic diameter, and organics was characterized by an additional smaller mode extending below 100 nm. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis of the high resolution organic mass spectral dataset differentiated the organic aerosol into four components, i.e., hydrocarbon-like (HOA, cooking-related (COA, and two oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA-1 and OOA-2, which on average accounted for 18.1, 24.4, 33.7 and 23.7% of the total organic mass, respectively. The HOA was identified to be closely associated with primary combustion sources, while the COA mass spectrum showed high similarity to that measured from cooking aerosol emissions. The OOA components correspond to aged secondary organic aerosol. Although the two OOA components have similar elemental (O/C, H/C compositions, they display differences in mass spectra and time series which appear to correlate with the different source regions sampled during the campaign. Back trajectory clustering analysis indicated that the southerly air flows were associated with the highest PM1 pollution during the campaign. This result is similar to observations made in the summer of 2006, although the average PM1 concentration level for the southerly air flows is 31% lower than

  9. Direct measurements of near-highway emissions in a high diesel environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, H. L.; Hellebust, S.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Ravier, S.; Polo, L.; Jacob, V.; Buisson, C.; Charron, A.; André, M.; Pasquier, A.; Besombes, J. L.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; Wortham, H.; Marchand, N.

    2014-10-01

    Diesel-powered passenger cars currently outnumber gasoline-powered cars in many countries, particularly in Europe. In France, diesel cars represented 61% of Light Duty Vehicles in 2011 and this percentage is still increasing (French Environment and Energy Management Agency, ADEME). As part of the September~2011 joint PM-DRIVE (Particulate Matter- DiRect and Indirect on-road Vehicular Emissions) and MOCOPO (Measuring and mOdeling traffic COngestion and POllution) field campaign, the concentration and high-resolution chemical composition of aerosols and volatile organic carbon (VOC) species were measured adjacent to a major urban highway south of Grenoble, France. Alongside these atmospheric measurements, detailed traffic data were collected from nearby traffic cameras and loop detectors, which allowed the identification of vehicle type and characteristics, traffic concentration, and traffic speed to be quantified and compared to measured aerosol and VOCs. Six aerosol age and source profiles were resolved using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model on real-time high-resolution aerosol mass spectra. These six aerosol source/age categories included a hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) commonly associated with primary vehicular emissions, a nitrogen containing aerosol (NOA) with a diurnal pattern similar to that of HOA, oxidized organic aerosol (OOA), and biomass burning aerosol (BBOA). While quantitatively separating the influence of diesel vs. gasoline proved impossible, a low HOA : black carbon ratio, similar to that measured in other high-diesel environments, and high levels of NOx, also indicative of diesel emissions, were observed. A comparison between these high-diesel environment measurements and measurements taken in low-diesel (North American) environments was examined and the potential feedback between vehicular emissions and SOA formation was probed. Although the measurement site was located next to a large source of primary emissions, which are

  10. Direct measurements of near-highway emissions in a high diesel environment

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    H. L. DeWitt

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Diesel-powered passenger cars currently outnumber gasoline-powered cars in many countries, particularly in Europe. In France, diesel cars represented 61% of Light Duty Vehicles in 2011 and this percentage is still increasing (French Environment and Energy Management Agency, ADEME. As part of the September~2011 joint PM-DRIVE (Particulate Matter- DiRect and Indirect on-road Vehicular Emissions and MOCOPO (Measuring and mOdeling traffic COngestion and POllution field campaign, the concentration and high-resolution chemical composition of aerosols and volatile organic carbon (VOC species were measured adjacent to a major urban highway south of Grenoble, France. Alongside these atmospheric measurements, detailed traffic data were collected from nearby traffic cameras and loop detectors, which allowed the identification of vehicle type and characteristics, traffic concentration, and traffic speed to be quantified and compared to measured aerosol and VOCs. Six aerosol age and source profiles were resolved using the positive matrix factorization (PMF model on real-time high-resolution aerosol mass spectra. These six aerosol source/age categories included a hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA commonly associated with primary vehicular emissions, a nitrogen containing aerosol (NOA with a diurnal pattern similar to that of HOA, oxidized organic aerosol (OOA, and biomass burning aerosol (BBOA. While quantitatively separating the influence of diesel vs. gasoline proved impossible, a low HOA : black carbon ratio, similar to that measured in other high-diesel environments, and high levels of NOx, also indicative of diesel emissions, were observed. A comparison between these high-diesel environment measurements and measurements taken in low-diesel (North American environments was examined and the potential feedback between vehicular emissions and SOA formation was probed. Although the measurement site was located next to a large source of primary emissions

  11. Black carbon aerosol mixing state, organic aerosols and aerosol optical properties over the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeeking, G. R.; Morgan, W. T.; Flynn, M.; Highwood, E. J.; Turnbull, K.; Haywood, J.; Coe, H.

    2011-05-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb sunlight thereby leading to a positive radiative forcing and a warming of climate and can also impact human health through their impact on the respiratory system. The state of mixing of BC with other aerosol species, particularly the degree of internal/external mixing, has been highlighted as a major uncertainty in assessing its radiative forcing and hence its climate impact, but few in situ observations of mixing state exist. We present airborne single particle soot photometer (SP2) measurements of refractory BC (rBC) mass concentrations and mixing state coupled with aerosol composition and optical properties measured in urban plumes and regional pollution over the UK. All data were obtained using instrumentation flown on the UK's BAe-146-301 large Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA) operated by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM). We measured sub-micron aerosol composition using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and used positive matrix factorization to separate hydrocarbon-like (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA). We found a higher number fraction of thickly coated rBC particles in air masses with large OOA relative to HOA, higher ozone-to-nitrogen oxides (NOx) ratios and large concentrations of total sub-micron aerosol mass relative to rBC mass concentrations. The more ozone- and OOA-rich air masses were associated with transport from continental Europe, while plumes from UK cities had higher HOA and NOx and fewer thickly coated rBC particles. We did not observe any significant change in the rBC mass absorption efficiency calculated from rBC mass and light absorption coefficients measured by a particle soot absorption photometer despite observing significant changes in aerosol composition and rBC mixing state. The contributions of light scattering and absorption to total extinction (quantified by the single scattering albedo; SSA) did change for different air masses, with lower SSA observed in

  12. Black carbon aerosol mixing state, organic aerosols and aerosol optical properties over the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeeking, G. R.; Morgan, W. T.; Flynn, M.; Highwood, E. J.; Turnbull, K.; Haywood, J.; Coe, H.

    2011-09-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb sunlight thereby leading to a positive radiative forcing and a warming of climate and can also impact human health through their impact on the respiratory system. The state of mixing of BC with other aerosol species, particularly the degree of internal/external mixing, has been highlighted as a major uncertainty in assessing its radiative forcing and hence its climate impact, but few in situ observations of mixing state exist. We present airborne single particle soot photometer (SP2) measurements of refractory BC (rBC) mass concentrations and mixing state coupled with aerosol composition and optical properties measured in urban plumes and regional pollution over the United Kingdom. All data were obtained using instrumentation flown on the UK's BAe-146-301 large Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA) operated by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM). We measured sub-micron aerosol composition using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and used positive matrix factorization to separate hydrocarbon-like (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA). We found a higher number fraction of thickly coated rBC particles in air masses with large OOA relative to HOA, higher ozone-to-nitrogen oxides (NOx) ratios and large concentrations of total sub-micron aerosol mass relative to rBC mass concentrations. The more ozone- and OOA-rich air masses were associated with transport from continental Europe, while plumes from UK cities had higher HOA and NOx and fewer thickly coated rBC particles. We did not observe any significant change in the rBC mass absorption efficiency calculated from rBC mass and light absorption coefficients measured by a particle soot absorption photometer despite observing significant changes in aerosol composition and rBC mixing state. The contributions of light scattering and absorption to total extinction (quantified by the single scattering albedo; SSA) did change for different air masses, with lower SSA

  13. Black carbon aerosol mixing state, organic aerosols and aerosol optical properties over the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. McMeeking

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC aerosols absorb sunlight thereby leading to a positive radiative forcing and a warming of climate and can also impact human health through their impact on the respiratory system. The state of mixing of BC with other aerosol species, particularly the degree of internal/external mixing, has been highlighted as a major uncertainty in assessing its radiative forcing and hence its climate impact, but few in situ observations of mixing state exist. We present airborne single particle soot photometer (SP2 measurements of refractory BC (rBC mass concentrations and mixing state coupled with aerosol composition and optical properties measured in urban plumes and regional pollution over the United Kingdom. All data were obtained using instrumentation flown on the UK's BAe-146-301 large Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA operated by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM. We measured sub-micron aerosol composition using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS and used positive matrix factorization to separate hydrocarbon-like (HOA and oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA. We found a higher number fraction of thickly coated rBC particles in air masses with large OOA relative to HOA, higher ozone-to-nitrogen oxides (NOx ratios and large concentrations of total sub-micron aerosol mass relative to rBC mass concentrations. The more ozone- and OOA-rich air masses were associated with transport from continental Europe, while plumes from UK cities had higher HOA and NOx and fewer thickly coated rBC particles. We did not observe any significant change in the rBC mass absorption efficiency calculated from rBC mass and light absorption coefficients measured by a particle soot absorption photometer despite observing significant changes in aerosol composition and rBC mixing state. The contributions of light scattering and absorption to total extinction (quantified by the single scattering albedo; SSA did change for

  14. Chemically-resolved aerosol eddy covariance flux measurements in urban Mexico City during MILAGRO 2006

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    R. Zalakeviciute

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of the MILAGRO 2006 field campaign, the exchange of atmospheric aerosols with the urban landscape was measured from a tall tower erected in a heavily populated neighborhood of Mexico City. Urban submicron aerosol fluxes were measured using an eddy covariance method with a quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer during a two week period in March, 2006. Nitrate and ammonium aerosol concentrations were elevated at this location near the city center compared to measurements at other urban sites. Significant downward fluxes of nitrate aerosol, averaging −0.2 μg m−2 s−1, were measured during daytime. The urban surface was not a significant source of sulfate aerosols. The measurements also showed that primary organic aerosol fluxes, approximated by hydrocarbon-like organic aerosols (HOA, displayed diurnal patterns similar to CO2 fluxes and anthropogenic urban activities. Overall, 47% of submicron organic aerosol emissions were HOA, 35% were oxygenated (OOA and 18% were associated with biomass burning (BBOA. Organic aerosol fluxes were bi-directional, but on average HOA fluxes were 0.1 μg m−2 s−1, OOA fluxes were −0.03 μg m−2 s−1, and BBOA fluxes were −0.03 μg m−2 s−1. After accounting for size differences (PM1 vs PM2.5 and using an estimate of the black carbon component, comparison of the flux measurements with the 2006 gridded emissions inventory of Mexico City, showed that the daily-averaged total PM emission rates were essentially identical for the emission inventory and the flux measurements. However, the emission inventory included dust and metal particulate contributions, which were not included in the flux measurements. As a result, it appears that the inventory underestimates overall PM emissions for this location.

  15. Receptor modeling of near-roadway aerosol mass spectrometer data in Las Vegas, Nevada, with EPA PMF

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    S. G. Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient non-refractory PM1 aerosol particles were measured with an Aerodyne High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-AMS at an elementary school 18 m from the US 95 freeway soundwall in Las Vegas, Nevada, during January 2008. Additional collocated continuous measurements of black carbon (BC, carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen oxides (NOx, and meteorological data were collected. The US~Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA positive matrix factorization (PMF data analysis tool was used to apportion organic matter (OM as measured by HR-AMS, and rotational tools in EPA PMF were used to better characterize the solution space and pull resolved factors toward known source profiles. Three- to six-factor solutions were resolved. The four-factor solution was the most interpretable, with the typical AMS PMF factors of hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA, low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA, biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA, and semi-volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA. When the measurement site was downwind of the freeway, HOA composed about half the OM, with SV-OOA and LV-OOA accounting for the rest. Attempts to pull the PMF factor profiles toward source profiles were successful but did not qualitatively change the results, indicating that these factors are very stable. Oblique edges were present in G-space plots, suggesting that the obtained rotation may not be the most plausible one. Since solutions found by pulling the profiles or using Fpeak retained these oblique edges, there appears to be little rotational freedom in the base solution. On average, HOA made up 26% of the OM, while LV-OOA was highest in the afternoon and accounted for 26% of the OM. BBOA occurred in the evening hours, was predominantly from the residential area to the north, and on average constituted 12% of the OM; SV-OOA accounted for the remaining third of the OM. Use of the pulling techniques

  16. Receptor modeling of near-roadway aerosol mass spectrometer data in Las Vegas, Nevada, with EPA PMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Brown

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ambient non-refractory PM1 aerosol particles were measured with an Aerodyne High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-AMS at an elementary school 20 m from the US 95 freeway in Las Vegas, Nevada, during January 2008. Additional collocated continuous measurements of black carbon (BC, carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen oxides (NOx, and meteorological data were collected. The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA positive matrix factorization (PMF data analysis tool was used to apportion organic matter (OM as measured by HR-AMS, and rotational tools in EPA PMF were used to better characterize the solution space and pull resolved factors toward known source profiles. Three- to six-factor solutions were resolved. The four-factor solution was the most interpretable, with the typical AMS PMF factors of hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA, low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA, biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA, and semi-volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA. When the measurement site was downwind of the freeway, HOA composed about half the OM, with SV-OOA and LV-OOA accounting for the rest. Attempts to pull the PMF factor profiles toward source profiles were successful but did not qualitatively change the results, indicating that these factors are very stable. Oblique edges were present in G-space plots, suggesting that the obtained rotation may not be the most plausible one. Since solutions found by pulling the profiles or using Fpeak retained these oblique edges, there appears to be little rotational freedom in the base solution. On average, HOA made up 26 % of the OM, and it made up nearly half of the OM when the monitoring site was downwind of US 95 during morning rush hour. LV-OOA was highest in the afternoon and accounted for 26 % of the OM. BBOA occurred in the evening hours, was predominantly from the residential area to the north, and on average constituted 12

  17. 西安大气细颗粒(P M1)化学组成及其对能见度的影响%Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Fine Particle (PM1)and Its Effect on Visibility in Xi’an

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浥尘; 曹军骥; 张宁宁; 肖舜; 王启元; 陈阳

    2014-01-01

    organic is about 58% of PM1 ,other components (including SO2-4 ,NO-3 ,NH+4 and Cl-)is about 42%;higher relative humidity increases the mass fraction of primary component,and rainfall significantly improves the wet deposition of primary component;hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA ) and oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA)are resolved from organics by the means of PMF;mass concentration of OOA is about 54% of organics,and that of HOA is about 46%;HOA volatilizes and translates to OOA after a photochemical reaction in the afternoon;nitrate contributes most to light scattering coefficient.

  18. Evaluation of chemical transport model predictions of primary organic aerosol for air masses classified by particle-component-based factor analysis

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    C. A. Stroud

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Observations from the 2007 Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study (BAQS-Met 2007 in southern Ontario (ON, Canada, were used to evaluate Environment Canada's regional chemical transport model predictions of primary organic aerosol (POA. Environment Canada's operational numerical weather prediction model and the 2006 Canadian and 2005 US national emissions inventories were used as input to the chemical transport model (named AURAMS. Particle-component-based factor analysis was applied to aerosol mass spectrometer measurements made at one urban site (Windsor, ON and two rural sites (Harrow and Bear Creek, ON to derive hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA factors. Co-located carbon monoxide (CO, PM2.5 black carbon (BC, and PM1 SO4 measurements were also used for evaluation and interpretation, permitting a detailed diagnostic model evaluation.

    At the urban site, good agreement was observed for the comparison of daytime campaign PM1 POA and HOA mean values: 1.1 μg m−3 vs. 1.2 μg m−3, respectively. However, a POA overprediction was evident on calm nights due to an overly-stable model surface layer. Biases in model POA predictions trended from positive to negative with increasing HOA values. This trend has several possible explanations, including (1 underweighting of urban locations in particulate matter (PM spatial surrogate fields, (2 overly-coarse model grid spacing for resolving urban-scale sources, and (3 lack of a model particle POA evaporation process during dilution of vehicular POA tail-pipe emissions to urban scales. Furthermore, a trend in POA bias was observed at the urban site as a function of the BC/HOA ratio, suggesting a possible association of POA underprediction for diesel combustion sources. For several time periods, POA overprediction was also observed for sulphate-rich plumes, suggesting that our model POA fractions for the PM2.5 chemical

  19. Higher order aberrations of the eye: Part one

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    Marsha Oberholzer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is the first in a series of two articles that provide a comprehensive literature review of higher order aberrations (HOAs of the eye. The present article mainly explains the general principles of such HOAs as well as HOAs of importance, and the measuring apparatus used to measure HOAs of the eye. The second article in the series discusses factors contributing to variable results in measurements of HOAs of the eye.Keywords: Higher order aberrations; wavefront aberrations; aberrometer

  20. Modeling SOA formation from the oxidation of intermediate volatility n-alkanes

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    J. Lee-Taylor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical mechanism leading to SOA formation and ageing is expected to be a multigenerational process, i.e. a successive formation of organic compounds with higher oxidation degree and lower vapor pressure. This process is here investigated with the explicit oxidation model GECKO-A (Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere. Gas phase oxidation schemes are generated for the C8–C24 series of n-alkanes. Simulations are conducted to explore the time evolution of organic compounds and the behavior of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation for various preexisting organic aerosol concentration (COA. As expected, simulation results show that (i SOA yield increases with the carbon chain length of the parent hydrocarbon, (ii SOA yield decreases with decreasing COA, (iii SOA production rates increase with increasing COA and (iv the number of oxidation steps (i.e. generations needed to describe SOA formation and evolution grows when COA decreases. The simulated oxidative trajectories are examined in a two dimensional space defined by the mean carbon oxidation state and the volatility. Most SOA contributors are not oxidized enough to be categorized as highly oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA but reduced enough to be categorized as hydrocarbon like organic aerosols (HOA, suggesting that OOA may underestimate SOA. Results show that the model is unable to produce highly oxygenated aerosols (OOA with large yields. The limitations of the model are discussed.

  1. Modeling SOA formation from the oxidation of intermediate volatility n-alkanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lee-Taylor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemical mechanism leading to SOA formation and ageing is expected to be a multigenerational process, i.e. a successive formation of organic compounds with higher oxidation degree and lower vapor pressure. This process is here investigated with the explicit oxidation model GECKO-A (Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere. Gas phase oxidation schemes are generated for the C8–C24 series of n-alkanes. Simulations are conducted to explore the time evolution of organic compounds and the behavior of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation for various preexisting organic aerosol concentration (COA. As expected, simulation results show that (i SOA yield increases with the carbon chain length of the parent hydrocarbon, (ii SOA yield decreases with decreasing COA, (iii SOA production rates increase with increasing COA and (iv the number of oxidation steps (i.e. generations needed to describe SOA formation and evolution grows when COA decreases. The simulated oxidative trajectories are examined in a two dimensional space defined by the mean carbon oxidation state and the volatility. Most SOA contributors are not oxidized enough to be categorized as highly oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA but reduced enough to be categorized as hydrocarbon like organic aerosols (HOA, suggesting that OOA may underestimate SOA. Results show that the model is unable to produce highly oxygenated aerosols (OOA with large yields. The limitations of the model are discussed.

  2. Lipidomic evidence that lowering the typical dietary palmitate to oleate ratio in humans decreases the leukocyte production of proinflammatory cytokines and muscle expression of redox-sensitive genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kien, C Lawrence; Bunn, Janice Y; Fukagawa, Naomi K; Anathy, Vikas; Matthews, Dwight E; Crain, Karen I; Ebenstein, David B; Tarleton, Emily K; Pratley, Richard E; Poynter, Matthew E

    2015-12-01

    We recently reported that lowering the high, habitual palmitic acid (PA) intake in ovulating women improved insulin sensitivity and both inflammatory and oxidative stress. In vitro studies indicate that PA can activate both cell membrane toll-like receptor-4 and the intracellular nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptor protein (NLRP3). To gain further insight into the relevance to human metabolic disease of dietary PA, we studied healthy, lean and obese adults enrolled in a randomized, crossover trial comparing 3-week, high-PA (HPA) and low-PA/high-oleic-acid (HOA) diets. After each diet, both hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivities were measured, and we assessed cytokine concentrations in plasma and in supernatants derived from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as well as proinflammatory gene expression in skeletal muscle. Insulin sensitivity was unaffected by diet. Plasma concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α was higher during the HPA diet. Lowering the habitually high PA intake by feeding the HOA diet resulted in lower secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α by PBMCs, as well as lower relative mRNA expression of cJun and NLRP3 in muscle. Principal components analysis of 156 total variables coupled to analysis of covariance indicated that the mechanistic pathway for the differential dietary effects on PBMCs involved changes in the PA/OA ratio of tissue lipids. Our results indicate that lowering the dietary and tissue lipid PA/OA ratio resulted in lower leukocyte production of proinflammatory cytokines and muscle expression of redox-sensitive genes, but the relevance to diabetes risk is uncertain.

  3. The Metod of Integration Between OA and ERP Based on Workflow%基于工作流的OA-ERP集成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭应中; 宛延闿; 韩伟

    2003-01-01

    作者根据对各种集成方法的分析,提出基于工作流实现系统集成的新方法:在工作流系统的管理下,用户通过远程登录工具和模拟键盘录入,实现OA平台和ERP平台之间的简单切换.本文介绍了实现该方法的必要工作:确定集成的功能范围、对工作流系统进行改造或重构、在工作流系统中对两个系统的组织模型进行统一.

  4. Formation of Oxidized Organic Aerosol (OOA) through Fog Processing in the Po Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardoni, S.; Paglione, M.; Rinaldi, M.; Giulianelli, L.; Massoli, P.; Hillamo, R. E.; Carbone, S.; Lanconelli, C.; Laaksonen, A. J.; Russell, L. M.; Poluzzi, V.; Fuzzi, S.; Facchini, C.

    2014-12-01

    Aqueous phase chemistry might be responsible for the formation of a significant fraction of the organic aerosol (OA) observed in the atmosphere, and could explain some of the discrepancies between OA concentration and properties predicted by models and observed in the environment. Aerosol - fog interaction and its effect on submicron aerosol properties were investigated in the Po Valley (northern Italy) during fall 2011, in the framework of the Supersite project (ARPA Emilia Romagna). Composition and physical properties of submicron aerosol were measured online by a High Resolution- Time of Flight - Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS), a Soot Photometer - Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS), and a Tandem Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (TDMPS). Organic functional group analysis was performed off-line by Hydrogen - Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (H-NMR) spectrometry and by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. Aerosol absorption, scattering, and total extinction were measured simultaneously with a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP), a Nephelometer, and a Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift Spectrometer particle extinction monitor (CAPS PMex), respectively. Water-soluble organic carbon in fog-water was characterized off-line by HR-TOF-AMS. Fourteen distinct fog events were observed. Fog dissipation left behind an aerosol enriched in particles larger than 400 nm, typical of fog and cloud processing, and dominated by secondary species, including ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and oxidized OA (OOA). Source apportionment of OA allowed us to identify OOA as the difference between total OA and primary OA (hydrocarbon like OA and biomass burning OA). The formation of OOA through fog processing is proved by the correlation of OOA concentration with hydroxyl methyl sulfonate signal and by the similarity of OOA spectra with organic mass spectra obtained by re-aerosolization of fog water samples. The oxygen to carbon ratio and the hydrogen to carbon ratio of

  5. Young Adults in America. A Booklet for [Vietnamese] Refugees in Their Late Teens = Doi Song Thanh Thieu Nien O Hoa Ky. Tap Huong Dan Thanh Thieu Nien Viet-Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Language and Orientation Resource Center.

    Young persons in their late teens have problems and concerns that are different from those of persons who are younger or older. This booklet recognizes this fact and discusses some aspects of American life that might be of particular interest to young people of Vietnamese origin. It gives information that will be helpful in making knowledgeable…

  6. Orientation to Employment in the U.S. for Refugees--Vietnamese = Cong an viec lam o Hoa Ky: Tap Huong Dan danh cho Nguoi Ti Nan moi toi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Language and Orientation Resource Center.

    One of a series of refugee orientation materials, this guide to employment is intended to assist Vietnamese refugees in their understanding of the employment situation in the United States and to give them necessary information for obtaining work. The text is in Vietnamese followed by an English-language version, which is not an exact translation…

  7. English-Vietnamese Scientific Terminology for High School and Junior College Students. Book 4: Chemistry = Danh Tu Khoa Hoc Anh-Viet Danh Cho Hoc Sinh Trung Hoc Va Sinh Vien Nam Thu Nhat Dai Hoc. Quyen 4: Hoa Hoc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanh-Van, Tran Thi

    Vietnamese students now enrolled in American high schools incur an extremely special need in English. After being taught subject matter disciplines in Vietnamese for many years, and while English is still a foreign language for them, these students are bound to go through two linguistic processes. First, while reading or sitting through lectures…

  8. The relationship between osteoarthritis of the hands, bone mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abir Naguib

    2011-08-09

    Aug 9, 2011 ... b Department of Clinical Pathology, Alexandria University, Egypt ... HOA were recruited along with 10 age-matched post-menopausal women with no signs of HOA ... and activities of daily living causing disability and lifestyle.

  9. Hypertrophe pulmonale Osteoarthropathie (Pierre-Marie-Bamberger-Syndrom) Fallbericht

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Die Ätiologie der hypertrophen pulmonalen Osteoarthropathie (HOA) ist nicht bekannt. Die hypertrophen Veränderungen an den Knochen, Gelenken und Nägeln postulieren einen gemeinsamen pathophysiologischen Mechanismus der HOA. HOA ist üblicherweise assoziiert mit bösartigen Lungenerkrankungen wie dem nichtkleinzelligen Lungenkarzinom. Die Diagnose der hypertrophen pulmonalen Osteoarthropathie ist einfach zu stellen, soweit das Vollbild der HOA ausgeprägt ist. Wir berichten von einem Fall mit ei...

  10. Characterizing the impact of urban emissions on regional aerosol particles; airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Freney

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The MEGAPOLI experiment took place in July 2009. The aim of this campaign was to study the aging and reactions of aerosol and gas-phase emissions in the city of Paris. Three ground-based measurement sites and several mobile platforms including instrument equipped vehicles and the ATR-42 aircraft were involved. We present here the variations in particle- and gas-phase species over the city of Paris using a combination of high-time resolution measurements aboard the ATR-42 aircraft. Particle chemical composition was measured using a compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS giving detailed information of the non-refractory submicron aerosol species. The mass concentration of BC, measured by a particle absorption soot photometer (PSAP, was used as a marker to identify the urban pollution plume boundaries. Aerosol mass concentrations and composition were affected by air-mass history, with air masses that spent longest time over land having highest fractions of organic aerosol and higher total mass concentrations. The Paris plume is mainly composed of organic aerosol (OA, black carbon and nitrate aerosol, as well as high concentrations of anthropogenic gas-phase species such as toluene, benzene, and NOx. Using BC and CO as tracers for air-mass dilution, we observe the ratio of ΔOA / ΔBC and ΔOA / ΔCO increase with increasing photochemical age (−log(NOx / NOy. Plotting the equivalent ratios for the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF resolved species (LV-OOA, SV-OOA, and HOA illustrate that the increase in OA is a result of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. Within Paris the changes in the ΔOA / ΔCO are similar to those observed during other studies in Mexico city, Mexico and in New England, USA. Using the measured VOCs species together with recent organic aerosol formation yields we predicted ~ 50% of the measured organics. These airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment show that urban emissions contribute to the

  11. Experimental tests of the effects of OA on early life history of marine fishes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data characterize treatments and outcomes in laboratory-based ocean acidification experiments conducted that the NOAA NEFSC Howard Laboratory. Experiments vary...

  12. Kinetics and Mechanism of Dionaea muscipula Trap Closing1[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G.; Adesina, Tejumade; Markin, Vladislav S.; Jovanov, Emil

    2008-01-01

    The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) possesses an active trapping mechanism to capture insects with one of the most rapid movements in the plant kingdom, as described by Darwin. This article presents a detailed experimental investigation of trap closure by mechanical and electrical stimuli and the mechanism of this process. Trap closure consists of three distinctive phases: a silent phase with no observable movement; an accelerated movement of the lobes; and the relaxation of the lobes in their closed state, resulting in a new equilibrium. Uncouplers and blockers of membrane channels were used to investigate the mechanisms of different phases of closing. Uncouplers increased trap closure delay and significantly decreased the speed of trap closure. Ion channel blockers and aquaporin inhibitors increased time of closing. Transmission of a single electrical charge between a lobe and the midrib causes closure of the trap and induces an electrical signal propagating between both lobes and midrib. The Venus flytrap can accumulate small subthreshold charges, and when the threshold value is reached, the trap closes. Repeated application of smaller charges demonstrates the summation of stimuli. The cumulative character of electrical stimuli points to the existence of electrical memory in the Venus flytrap. The observed fast movement can be explained by the hydroelastic curvature model without invoking buckling instability. The new hydroelastic curvature mechanism provides an accurate description of the authors' experimental data. PMID:18065564

  13. OA53 "dementia friendly pharmacies" a community based health promotion project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimerl, Katharina; Plunger, Petra; Tatzer, Verena; Reitinger, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Inspired by the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, which is a major point of reference also for the "Compassionate Communities", we would like to propose that communities consolidate various settings like schools, workplaces, and health care organisations like community pharmacies, all of which might be included in a compassionate communities approach. We aim at enabling community pharmacies to offer informal consulting and support for people with dementia and their informal caregivers. Furthermore we want to support pharmacies to reach out in the community through various activities. By this means the project seeks to contribute to de-stigmatising dementia. The project is based on the approach "Participatory Health Research" (Hockley, Froggatt, Heimerl 2013; Wright et al . 2010). The core elements of the approach are participation, action and reflection. Approximately 40 staff (almost exclusively women) in 18 community pharmacies actively participates in the project, i.e. needs assessment, interactive workshops, practice projects and evaluation. People with dementia and their informal care givers are included in the needs assessment and in different steps of the programme. Community pharmacy staff raised several issues, closely related to communication, counselling and providing advice in a community pharmacy setting: They believe further development of professional practice to be important, since dementia care will become a more prominent issue for the community pharmacy. Moreover, a high frequency of contact with people living with dementia and their caregivers was reported by the majority of staff. Professional competencies related to dementia care are a key issue, and community pharmacy personnel viewed their practice with a critical eye: Communicating with disoriented persons poses some challenges, as does communicating with caregivers. In the still ongoing project the raised issues are being dealt with in practice projects that are performed by the pharmacies with the support of the project staff. Several projects reach out to the community through self-help groups, cinema performances, public presentations and discussions. Informal care givers have engaged in direct contact with the included pharmacies and become part of selected practice projects. People with dementia have been included in the needs assessment and the design of the project logo. © 2015, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Can multivariate models based on MOAKS predict OA knee pain? Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Gómez, Carlos D.; Zanella-Calzada, Laura A.; Galván-Tejada, Jorge I.; Galván-Tejada, Carlos E.; Celaya-Padilla, José M.

    2017-03-01

    Osteoarthritis is the most common rheumatic disease in the world. Knee pain is the most disabling symptom in the disease, the prediction of pain is one of the targets in preventive medicine, this can be applied to new therapies or treatments. Using the magnetic resonance imaging and the grading scales, a multivariate model based on genetic algorithms is presented. Using a predictive model can be useful to associate minor structure changes in the joint with the future knee pain. Results suggest that multivariate models can be predictive with future knee chronic pain. All models; T0, T1 and T2, were statistically significant, all p values were 0.60.

  15. Green Light Induces Shade Avoidance Symptoms1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Maruhnich, Stefanie A.; Folta, Kevin M.

    2011-01-01

    Light quality and quantity affect plant adaptation to changing light conditions. Certain wavelengths in the visible and near-visible spectrum are known to have discrete effects on plant growth and development, and the effects of red, far-red, blue, and ultraviolet light have been well described. In this report, an effect of green light on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) rosette architecture is demonstrated using a narrow-bandwidth light-emitting diode-based lighting system. When green light was added to a background of constant red and blue light, plants exhibited elongation of petioles and upward leaf reorientation, symptoms consistent with those observed in a shaded light environment. The same green light-induced phenotypes were also observed in phytochrome (phy) and cryptochrome (cry) mutant backgrounds. To explore the molecular mechanism underlying the green light-induced response, the accumulation of shade-induced transcripts was measured in response to enriched green light environments. Transcripts that have been demonstrated to increase in abundance under far-red-induced shade avoidance conditions either decrease or exhibit no change when green light is added. However, normal far-red light-associated transcript accumulation patterns are observed in cryptochrome mutants grown with supplemental green light, indicating that the green-absorbing form of cryptochrome is the photoreceptor active in limiting the green light induction of shade-associated transcripts. These results indicate that shade symptoms can be induced by the addition of green light and that cryptochrome receptors and an unknown light sensor participate in acclimation to the enriched green environment. PMID:21852417

  16. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1B9OA-1IP2A [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available equence>LLKDI--DGYGG >HHGGG-- GGGucture> A 1IP2A TLKRLGMDGYRG ture...tryIDChain> IVEND--ESTEY >EE -- EEEE...Y >EEEE EEEE> ATOM 343 CA THR A ...>HHHH GGG> ATOM 88 CA THR A 11 11.801 27.800 25.023 1.00 2.78

  17. Vascular Occlusions in Grapevines with Pierce’s Disease Make Disease Symptom Development Worse1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Sun, Yuliang; Walker, M. Andrew; Labavitch, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Vascular occlusions are common structural modifications made by many plant species in response to pathogen infection. However, the functional role(s) of occlusions in host plant disease resistance/susceptibility remains controversial. This study focuses on vascular occlusions that form in stem secondary xylem of grapevines (Vitis vinifera) infected with Pierce’s disease (PD) and the impact of occlusions on the hosts’ water transport and the systemic spread of the causal bacterium Xylella fastidiosa in infected vines. Tyloses are the predominant type of occlusion that forms in grapevine genotypes with differing PD resistances. Tyloses form throughout PD-susceptible grapevines with over 60% of the vessels in transverse sections of all examined internodes becoming fully blocked. By contrast, tylose development was mainly limited to a few internodes close to the point of inoculation in PD-resistant grapevines, impacting only 20% or less of the vessels. The extensive vessel blockage in PD-susceptible grapevines was correlated to a greater than 90% decrease in stem hydraulic conductivity, compared with an approximately 30% reduction in the stems of PD-resistant vines. Despite the systemic spread of X. fastidiosa in PD-susceptible grapevines, the pathogen colonized only 15% or less of the vessels in any internode and occurred in relatively small numbers, amounts much too small to directly block the vessels. Therefore, we concluded that the extensive formation of vascular occlusions in PD-susceptible grapevines does not prevent the pathogen’s systemic spread in them, but may significantly suppress the vines’ water conduction, contributing to PD symptom development and the vines’ eventual death. PMID:23292789

  18. The RootChip: An Integrated Microfluidic Chip for Plant Science[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Guido; Guo, Woei-Jiun; Ehrhardt, David W.; Frommer, Wolf B.; Sit, Rene V.; Quake, Stephen R.; Meier, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Studying development and physiology of growing roots is challenging due to limitations regarding cellular and subcellular analysis under controlled environmental conditions. We describe a microfluidic chip platform, called RootChip, that integrates live-cell imaging of growth and metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana roots with rapid modulation of environmental conditions. The RootChip has separate chambers for individual regulation of the microenvironment of multiple roots from multiple seedlings in parallel. We demonstrate the utility of The RootChip by monitoring time-resolved growth and cytosolic sugar levels at subcellular resolution in plants by a genetically encoded fluorescence sensor for glucose and galactose. The RootChip can be modified for use with roots from other plant species by adapting the chamber geometry and facilitates the systematic analysis of root growth and metabolism from multiple seedlings, paving the way for large-scale phenotyping of root metabolism and signaling. PMID:22186371

  19. The Gatsby Plant Science Summer School: Inspiring the Next Generation of Plant Science Researchers[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesley, Aurora; Jopson, Juliet; Knight, Celia

    2012-01-01

    We provide evidence from a 5-year study to show that a single concerted effort at the start of undergraduate study can have a clear and lasting effect on the attitudes of students toward plant science. Attendance at a week-long residential plant science summer school in the first year of an undergraduate degree resulted in many students changing courses to include more plant science and increased numbers of graduates selecting plant-based PhDs. The evidence shows that the Gatsby Plant Science Summer School has increased the pool of high-quality plant science related PhD applicants in the UK and has had a positive impact on students’ career aspirations. The results are discussed within the context of enhancing the pipeline of future plant scientists and reversing the decline of this vulnerable and strategically important subject relevant to addressing food security and other major global challenges. We have shown that a single well-designed and timely intervention can influence future student behavior and as such offers a framework of potential use to other vulnerable disciplines. PMID:22534129

  20. OA01.23. Impact of climate change on medicinal plants - A review

    OpenAIRE

    B S Harish; Dandin, S.B.; K. Umesha; Sasanur, Anand; ,

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Medicinal plants are highly valuable to human livelihood and the medicinal plant wealth of India is well recognised. Studies on possible effects of climate change on medicinal plants are particularly significant due to their value within traditional systems of medicine and as economically useful plants. There is evidence that climate change is causing noticeable effects on life cycles and distribution of the plant species. However, the effect of climate change on secondary metabolite...

  1. Towards the N_f=2 deconfinement transition temperature with O(a) improved Wilson fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Bastian B; Wittig, Hartmut; Zeidlewicz, Lars

    2010-01-01

    A lot of effort in lattice simulations over the last years has been devoted to studies of the QCD deconfinement transition. Most state-of-the-art simulations use rooted staggered fermions, while Wilson fermions are affected by large systematic uncertainties, such as coarse lattices or heavy sea quarks. Here we report on an ongoing study of the transition, using two degenerate flavours of nonperturbatively $\\Ord(a)$ improved Wilson fermions. We start with $N_{t}=12$ and 16 lattices and pion masses of 600 to 450 MeV, aiming at chiral and continuum limits with light quarks.

  2. Comparative Cross-Species Alternative Splicing in Plants1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ner-Gaon, Hadas; Leviatan, Noam; Rubin, Eitan; Fluhr, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) can add significantly to genome complexity. Plants are thought to exhibit less AS than animals. An algorithm, based on expressed sequence tag (EST) pairs gapped alignment, was developed that takes advantage of the relatively small intron and exon size in plants and directly compares pairs of ESTs to search for AS. EST pairs gapped alignment was first evaluated in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), rice (Oryza sativa), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) for which annotated genome sequence is available and was shown to accurately predict splicing events. The method was then applied to 11 plant species that include 17 cultivars for which enough ESTs are available. The results show a large, 3.7-fold difference in AS rates between plant species with Arabidopsis and rice in the lower range and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) in the upper range. Hence, compared to higher animals, plants show a much greater degree of variety in their AS rates and in some plant species the rates of animal and plant AS are comparable although the distribution of AS types may differ. In eudicots but not monocots, a correlation between genome size and AS rates was detected, implying that in eudicots the mechanisms that lead to larger genomes are a driving force for the evolution of AS. PMID:17496110

  3. Safety Design of Mobile OA System%移动OA系统的安全设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军; 欧书琴

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly researches the application system security problem in the mobile platform, designs one kind of secu-rity construction to solve its problems which login and data security transmission. In the mobile termination, using a kind of secu-rity client software to establish SSL VPN channel, realizes the data security transmission, and comes for each mobile termination provide only numeral certificate to the user to carry on the authentication, guarantees the authorized users login system normally.%该文主要是研究移动平台上应用系统的安全问题,设计一种安全架构来解决其访问和数据安全传输等问题。在移动终端上,利用某种安全客户端软件建立一条SSL VPN通道,实现数据安全传输,并为每一个移动终端发放唯一的数字证书来对用户进行认证,确保授权用户正常的访问系统。

  4. Regulatory Impact of RNA Secondary Structure across the Arabidopsis Transcriptome[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Zheng, Qi; Vandivier, Lee E.; Willmann, Matthew R.; Chen, Ying; Gregory, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    The secondary structure of an RNA molecule plays an integral role in its maturation, regulation, and function. However, the global influence of this feature on plant gene expression is still largely unclear. Here, we use a high-throughput, sequencing-based, structure-mapping approach in conjunction with transcriptome-wide sequencing of rRNA-depleted (RNA sequencing), small RNA, and ribosome-bound RNA populations to investigate the impact of RNA secondary structure on gene expression regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana. From this analysis, we find that highly unpaired and paired RNAs are strongly correlated with euchromatic and heterochromatic epigenetic histone modifications, respectively, providing evidence that secondary structure is necessary for these RNA-mediated posttranscriptional regulatory pathways. Additionally, we uncover key structural patterns across protein-coding transcripts that indicate RNA folding demarcates regions of protein translation and likely affects microRNA-mediated regulation of mRNAs in this model plant. We further reveal that RNA folding is significantly anticorrelated with overall transcript abundance, which is often due to the increased propensity of highly structured mRNAs to be degraded and/or processed into small RNAs. Finally, we find that secondary structure affects mRNA translation, suggesting that this feature regulates plant gene expression at multiple levels. These findings provide a global assessment of RNA folding and its significant regulatory effects in a plant transcriptome. PMID:23150631

  5. A Conserved Carboxylesterase Is a SUPPRESSOR OF AVRBST-ELICITED RESISTANCE in Arabidopsis[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnac, Sébastien; Wilson, Ariane; Nuwer, Jamie; Kirik, Angela; Baranage, Gayathri; Mudgett, Mary Beth

    2007-01-01

    AvrBsT is a type III effector from Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria that is translocated into plant cells during infection. AvrBsT is predicted to encode a Cys protease that targets intracellular host proteins. To dissect AvrBsT function and recognition in Arabidopsis thaliana, 71 ecotypes were screened to identify lines that elicit an AvrBsT-dependent hypersensitive response (HR) after Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris (Xcc) infection. The HR was observed only in the Pi-0 ecotype infected with Xcc strain 8004 expressing AvrBsT. To create a robust pathosystem to study AvrBsT immunity in Arabidopsis, the foliar pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) strain DC3000 was engineered to translocate AvrBsT into Arabidopsis by the Pseudomonas type III secretion (T3S) system. Pi-0 leaves infected with Pst DC3000 expressing a Pst T3S signal fused to AvrBsT-HA (AvrBsTHYB-HA) elicited HR and limited pathogen growth, confirming that the HR leads to defense. Resistance in Pi-0 is caused by a recessive mutation predicted to inactivate a carboxylesterase known to hydrolyze lysophospholipids and acylated proteins in eukaryotes. Transgenic Pi-0 plants expressing the wild-type Columbia allele are susceptible to Pst DC3000 AvrBsTHYB-HA infection. Furthermore, wild-type recombinant protein cleaves synthetic p-nitrophenyl ester substrates in vitro. These data indicate that the carboxylesterase inhibits AvrBsT-triggered phenotypes in Arabidopsis. Here, we present the cloning and characterization of the SUPPRESSOR OF AVRBST-ELICITED RESISTANCE1. PMID:17293566

  6. The Role of Specific Tomato Volatiles in Tomato-Whitefly Interaction1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleeker, Petra M.; Diergaarde, Paul J.; Ament, Kai; Guerra, José; Weidner, Monique; Schütz, Stefan; de Both, Michiel T.J.; Haring, Michel A.; Schuurink, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (whitefly) infestations and the subsequent transfer of viruses are the cause of severe losses in crop production and horticultural practice. To improve biological control of B. tabaci, we investigated repellent properties of plant-produced semiochemicals. The mix of headspace volatiles, collected from naturally repellent wild tomato accessions, influenced B. tabaci initial choice behavior, indicating a role for plant semiochemicals in locating host plants. A collection of wild tomato accessions and introgression lines (Solanum pennellii LA716 × Solanum lycopersicum ‘Moneyberg’) were extensively screened for attractiveness to B. tabaci, and their headspace profiles were determined by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Correlation analysis revealed that several terpenoids were putatively involved in tomato-whitefly interactions. Several of these candidate compounds conferred repellence to otherwise attractive tomato plants when applied to the plant's branches on paper cards. The sesquiterpenes zingiberene and curcumene and the monoterpenes p-cymene, α-terpinene, and α-phellandrene had the strongest effects in free-choice bioassays. These terpenes also elicited a response of receptors on the insect's antennae as determined by electroantennography. Conversely, the monoterpene β-myrcene showed no activity in both assays. B. tabaci apparently uses, besides visual cues, specific plant volatile cues for the initial selection of a host. Altering whitefly choice behavior by manipulation of the terpenoid composition of the host headspace may therefore be feasible. PMID:19692533

  7. Application of the Gini Correlation Coefficient to Infer Regulatory Relationships in Transcriptome Analysis[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chuang; Wang, Xiangfeng

    2012-01-01

    One of the computational challenges in plant systems biology is to accurately infer transcriptional regulation relationships based on correlation analyses of gene expression patterns. Despite several correlation methods that are applied in biology to analyze microarray data, concerns regarding the compatibility of these methods with the gene expression data profiled by high-throughput RNA transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology have been raised. These concerns are mainly due to the fact that the distribution of read counts in RNA-Seq experiments is different from that of fluorescence intensities in microarray experiments. Therefore, a comprehensive evaluation of the existing correlation methods and, if necessary, introduction of novel methods into biology is appropriate. In this study, we compared four existing correlation methods used in microarray analysis and one novel method called the Gini correlation coefficient on previously published microarray-based and sequencing-based gene expression data in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and maize (Zea mays). The comparisons were performed on more than 11,000 regulatory relationships in Arabidopsis, including 8,929 pairs of transcription factors and target genes. Our analyses pinpointed the strengths and weaknesses of each method and indicated that the Gini correlation can compensate for the shortcomings of the Pearson correlation, the Spearman correlation, the Kendall correlation, and the Tukey’s biweight correlation. The Gini correlation method, with the other four evaluated methods in this study, was implemented as an R package named rsgcc that can be utilized as an alternative option for biologists to perform clustering analyses of gene expression patterns or transcriptional network analyses. PMID:22797655

  8. NWFSC OA facility water chemistry - Ocean acidification species exposure experimental facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We have developed a unique facility for conducting high-quality experiments on marine organisms in seawater with controlled carbon chemistry conditions. The...

  9. OA LC SLM with high-net optical efficiency for holographic correction of distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenberg, Vladimir A.; Beresnev, Leonid A.; Chaika, Aleksander N.; Feoktistov, Nikolai A.; Gruneisen, Mark T.; Isaev, Mikhail V.; Konshina, Elena A.; Onokhov, Arkady P.

    2000-11-01

    The reflective type optically addressed spatial light modulators (OASLMs) with an amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a- C:H) light-blocking layer (LBL) sandwiched between an intrinsic hydrogenated silicon carbide (a-Si:C:H) photoconductor and broad-band and narrow-band dielectric mirrors have been developed. FLC was used as a light modulating medium. The DHF effect in an FLC with tilt angle (Theta) equals 39 degrees and SS (Clark-Lagerwall) effect with angle 22,5 degree(s) were employed. The study showed that a flexible design of the OASLMs are possible. As a result of optimal design of the reflective type OASLMs with the dielectric mirrors of two types, the following performance characteristics have been obtained. Diffraction efficiency (DE) was about 30%, net diffraction efficiency (NE) was about 20% (spatial frequency equal 30 lp/mm and frame refreshment rate equal 200 Hz). This net diffraction efficiency practically does not depend on the direction of the reading- out light polarization for the OASLMs operating on the DHF mode.

  10. OA01.48. Prativish chincha ras in the management of Dhatura poising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Babita

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Dhatura is an important deliriant poison grouped under sthavara upavisha and phalavisha. It affects the Central Nervous system. Dhatura is important ingredient of large number of medicinal formulations. In the Ayurvedic text,, Basavarajeeyam, Chincha Rasa (Tamarind) has been described to be possessing antidote action to counter toxicity of Dhatura. This study attempts to establish the activity and mechanism of action of chincha rasa against toxic effects of Dhatura by means of chemical analysis. Method: 1) Collection of drugs, 2) Authentication of three drugs in Govt. authorised institute, 3) i) Preparation of Chincha rasa (According to charaka), ii) Preparation of Chincha pakwa phal (According to Sharangdhar), 4) Physical and Chemical study of Dhatur seed, i) Preparation of Dhatur Churna (According to Sharangdhar) and Analytical Study of three drugs, 5) Methods of determination of an antidote. Result: Laboratory experiments were carried out to obtain values of specific parameters for Dhatur seeds, chincha patra ras (tamarind leafe juice) and chincha pakwa phal (ripe tamarind fruit). Conclusion: On the basis of observations and results found in chemical study and reported literature, the study came with the following conclusions. 1) The chincha patra rasa and Chincha pakwa phal rasa both contain Hordenine which has the antibacterial activity and stimulates the central nervous system providing relief from unquenchable thirst, muttering and delirium (indistinct and inaudible words unsteady gait) 2) Because of tannins, Chinchapatra ras and Chincha pakwaphal ras have astringent property, which counteract the toxic symptoms of Dhatur like dermatitis, rash and exfoliation of the skin. 3) Because of glycosides and tannins, chincha patra rasa and chincha pakwaphal have diuretic property which counteract the toxic symptoms of dhatura like urinary retention and inability to pass urine. 4) The tartaric acid present in chincha patra ras and chincha pakwaphal ras causes gastric irritation and thus induces vomiting. 5) Chincha patra ras and Chincha pakwa phal ras have flavonoids (Vit. P. and Citrin) which strengthens the blood vessels and lowers blood pressure and works as anti-inflammatoryagent. 6) The Chincha patra ras and Chincha pakwa phal ras have vit. ‘C’ which lead the blood circulation towards the heart which prevent the cardiac arrest produced in the Dhatura poisoning. 7) Chincha patra ras aqueous extract 1% and 10% has the pH of 5.91 and 5.45 and the pH of chincha pakwa phal ras aqueous extract of 1% and 10% has pH of 4.72 and 4.50. Both are acidic but the pH of Dhatura in aqueous extract of 1% is 8.19 and 8.00. Therefore, they neurtralize each other and reduce the toxic effect of dhatura. Similarly, the action of chincha rasa can be explained through the concepts of Ayurveda.

  11. OA01.48. Prativish chincha ras in the management of Dhatura poising

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Dhatura is an important deliriant poison grouped under sthavara upavisha and phalavisha. It affects the Central Nervous system. Dhatura is important ingredient of large number of medicinal formulations. In the Ayurvedic text,, Basavarajeeyam, Chincha Rasa (Tamarind) has been described to be possessing antidote action to counter toxicity of Dhatura. This study attempts to establish the activity and mechanism of action of chincha rasa against toxic effects of Dhatura by means of chemic...

  12. Identification and Characterization of Lineage-Specific Genes within the Poaceae1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew A.; Zhu, Wei; Jiang, Ning; Lin, Haining; Ouyang, Shu; Childs, Kevin L.; Haas, Brian J.; Hamilton, John P.; Buell, C. Robin

    2007-01-01

    Using the rice (Oryza sativa) sp. japonica genome annotation, along with genomic sequence and clustered transcript assemblies from 184 species in the plant kingdom, we have identified a set of 861 rice genes that are evolutionarily conserved among six diverse species within the Poaceae yet lack significant sequence similarity with plant species outside the Poaceae. This set of evolutionarily conserved and lineage-specific rice genes is termed conserved Poaceae-specific genes (CPSGs) to reflect the presence of significant sequence similarity across three separate Poaceae subfamilies. The vast majority of rice CPSGs (86.6%) encode proteins with no putative function or functionally characterized protein domain. For the remaining CPSGs, 8.8% encode an F-box domain-containing protein and 4.5% encode a protein with a putative function. On average, the CPSGs have fewer exons, shorter total gene length, and elevated GC content when compared with genes annotated as either transposable elements (TEs) or those genes having significant sequence similarity in a species outside the Poaceae. Multiple sequence alignments of the CPSGs with sequences from other Poaceae species show conservation across a putative domain, a novel domain, or the entire coding length of the protein. At the genome level, syntenic alignments between sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and 103 of the 861 rice CPSGs (12.0%) could be made, demonstrating an additional level of conservation for this set of genes within the Poaceae. The extensive sequence similarity in evolutionarily distinct species within the Poaceae family and an additional screen for TE-related structural characteristics and sequence discounts these CPSGs as being misannotated TEs. Collectively, these data confirm that we have identified a specific set of genes that are highly conserved within, as well as specific to, the Poaceae. PMID:17951464

  13. Establishing a consortium for Open Access (OA) publishing in particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dallman, David Peter; Vigen, Jens; Voss, Rüdiger; Yeomans, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    A meeting has been called at CERN on November 3rd 2006 to work towards establishing a consortium of major particle physics funding agencies, aimed at guiding a transition of the current subscription model for journals to a more stable, more competitive and more affordable future for the dissemination of quality-assured scientific information adapted to the era of electronic publishing. The meeting will gather representatives of major European particle physics agencies and library consortia. In order to be successful it is vital that the stakeholders, representing as they do the funding bodies and academia, see themselves responsible for the financing and organization of the dissemination of scientific information and its quality assurance. In particular the transition to a wider availability of research results cannot afford to be held back due to a lack of concerted effort among the agencies financing the research.

  14. OA03.12. Herbal socks an effective medication against plantar hyperkeratosis

    OpenAIRE

    Geethadevi, C; Rajendran, R.; Radhai, R; ,

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Plantar hyperkeratosis commonly called cracked heel is a common condition among adults. Causes for plantar hyperkeratosis are many and include genetic defects reflected in skin structure, allergic dermatoses, and paraneoplastic syndromes seen with particular forms of internal malignancy. Treatment for this condition could be possibly done using traditional herbs. The current study throws light on the cure of plantar hyperkeratosis using socks worn daily. Method: Solanum xanthocarpum ...

  15. Live Cell Imaging Reveals Structural Associations between the Actin and Microtubule Cytoskeleton in Arabidopsis [W] [OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampathkumar, Arun; Lindeboom, Jelmer J.; Debolt, Seth; Gutierrez, Ryan; Ehrhardt, David W.; Ketelaar, Tijs; Persson, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the actin and microtubule (MT) cytoskeletal networks are dynamic structures that organize intracellular processes and facilitate their rapid reorganization. In plant cells, actin filaments (AFs) and MTs are essential for cell growth and morphogenesis. However, dynamic interactions between these two essential components in live cells have not been explored. Here, we use spinning-disc confocal microscopy to dissect interaction and cooperation between cortical AFs and MTs in Arabidopsis thaliana, utilizing fluorescent reporter constructs for both components. Quantitative analyses revealed altered AF dynamics associated with the positions and orientations of cortical MTs. Reorganization and reassembly of the AF array was dependent on the MTs following drug-induced depolymerization, whereby short AFs initially appeared colocalized with MTs, and displayed motility along MTs. We also observed that light-induced reorganization of MTs occurred in concert with changes in AF behavior. Our results indicate dynamic interaction between the cortical actin and MT cytoskeletons in interphase plant cells. PMID:21693695

  16. OA02.04. Wound healing property of Kanchanara [Bauhinia variegata Linn] - An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Shilpa; Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Wound a clinical entity, is commonly seen as a result of various etiological factors like trauma etc. Kanchanara a plant origin drug. Many of the Nighantu's have mentioned vrana shodhana and vrana ropana properties of Kanchanara. Hence present study of evaluating wound healing property of Kanchanara bark in the form of churna and ointment [sikta taila base] preparations has been taken up. Method: Albino rats were the experimental model. 36 albino rats were selected and divided into 6 groups of 6 rats each. 3 groups were used for excision wound model and remaining 3 groups were used for incision wound model, one group being served as the control and remaining two group for the trial drug. Churna and ointment were used for both excision and incision groups. Albino rats were wounded under aseptic conditions using wound techniques suggested by Marton and Malone [1972] and also by hunts model[1969]. In case of excision wound area of wound was measured once in 4 days by using graph sheet. In case of incision wound tensile strength was found out by using tensinometer on 10th post wounding day. Result: The statistical values of both groups were compared with control group and it showed that: 1. Kanchanara ointment promoted epithelization, wound contraction and period of epithelization was reduced in case of excision wound. 2. In incision wound also Kanchanara ointment helps in increasing collagenation and tensile strength. Both ointment and churna group are highly significant when compared with control group. On comparison of ointment group with churna group it statistically showed insignificance. No untoward side effects were noticed during the trial and the wound, healed with minimal scar. Conclusion: Kanchanara ointment and its churna is an effective, safe and well tolerated therapy in the treatment of both excision and incision wound.

  17. Major Proteome Variations Associated with Cherry Tomato Pericarp Development and Ripening[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurobert, Mireille; Mihr, Christina; Bertin, Nadia; Pawlowski, Tomasz; Negroni, Luc; Sommerer, Nicolas; Causse, Mathilde

    2007-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a model plant for studying fleshy fruit development. Several genetic and molecular approaches have been developed to increase our knowledge about the physiological basis of fruit growth, but very few data are yet available at the proteomic level. The main stages of fruit development were first determined through the dynamics of fruit diameter and pericarp cell number. Then, total proteins were extracted from pericarp tissue at six relevant developmental stages and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein patterns were markedly different between stages. Proteins showing major variations were monitored. We identified 90 of 1,791 well-resolved spots either by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight peptide mass fingerprinting or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry sequencing and expressed sequence tag database searching. Clustered correlation analysis results pointed out groups of proteins with similar expression profiles during fruit development. In young fruit, spots linked to amino acid metabolism or protein synthesis were mainly expressed during the cell division stage and down-regulated later. Some spots linked to cell division processes could be identified. During the cell expansion phase, spots linked to photosynthesis and proteins linked to cell wall formation transiently increased. In contrast, the major part of the spots related to C compounds and carbohydrate metabolism or oxidative processes were up-regulated during fruit development, showing an increase in spot intensity during development and maximal abundance in mature fruit. This was also the case for spots linked to stress responses and fruit senescence. We discuss protein variations, taking into account their potential role during fruit growth and comparing our results with already known variations at mRNA and metabolite-profiling levels. PMID:17208958

  18. Strategies for Competition Beyond Open Architecture (OA): Acquisition at the Edge of Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-08

    coupling between population density ( market size) and the evolution of an emergent trait such as competition. We propose the use of the Component... market size) and the evolution of an emergent trait such as competition. We propose the use of the Component Competition Readiness Level (CCRL...UAS Control Segment (UCS) Architecture, The Open Group Future Airborne Capability Environment (FACE™), OMS, and Acoustic Rapid Commercial-off-the

  19. Conditional Involvement of CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 in the Degradation of Phytochrome A1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrieux, Dimitry; Trevisan, Martine; Fankhauser, Christian

    2013-01-01

    All higher plants possess multiple phytochrome photoreceptors, with phytochrome A (phyA) being light labile and other members of the family being relatively light stable (phyB–phyE in Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana]). phyA also differs from other members of the family because it enables plants to deetiolate in far-red light-rich environments typical of dense vegetational cover. Later in development, phyA counteracts the shade avoidance syndrome. Light-induced degradation of phyA favors the establishment of a robust shade avoidance syndrome and was proposed to be important for phyA-mediated deetiolation in far-red light. phyA is ubiquitylated and targeted for proteasome-mediated degradation in response to light. Cullin1 and the ubiquitin E3 ligase CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1) have been implicated in this process. Here, we systematically analyze the requirement of cullins in this process and show that only CULLIN1 plays an important role in light-induced phyA degradation. In addition, the role of COP1 in this process is conditional and depends on the presence of metabolizable sugar in the growth medium. COP1 acts with SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME A (SPA) proteins. Unexpectedly, the light-induced decline of phyA levels is reduced in spa mutants irrespective of the growth medium, suggesting a COP1-independent role for SPA proteins. PMID:23391578

  20. Multiple Roles of Soluble Sugars in the Establishment of Gunnera-Nostoc Endosymbiosis1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamar, Hima J.; Breathwaite, Erick K.; Prasse, Christine E.; Fraley, Elizabeth R.; Secor, Craig R.; Chibane, Fairouz L.; Elhai, Jeff; Chiu, Wan-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Gunnera plants have the unique ability to form endosymbioses with N2-fixing cyanobacteria, primarily Nostoc. Cyanobacteria enter Gunnera through transiently active mucilage-secreting glands on stems. We took advantage of the nitrogen (N)-limitation-induced gland development in Gunnera manicata to identify factors that may enable plant tissue to attract and maintain cyanobacteria colonies. Cortical cells in stems of N-stressed Gunnera plants were found to accumulate a copious amount of starch, while starch in the neighboring mature glands was nearly undetectable. Instead, mature glands accumulated millimolar concentrations of glucose (Glc) and fructose (Fru). Successful colonization by Nostoc drastically reduced sugar accumulation in the surrounding tissue. Consistent with the abundance of Glc and Fru in the gland prior to Nostoc colonization, genes encoding key enzymes for sucrose and starch hydrolysis (e.g. cell wall invertase, α-amylase, and starch phosphorylase) were expressed at higher levels in stem segments with glands than those without. In contrast, soluble sugars were barely detectable in mucilage freshly secreted from glands. Different sugars affected Nostoc’s ability to differentiate motile hormogonia in a manner consistent with their locations. Galactose and arabinose, the predominant constituents of polysaccharides in the mucilage, had little or no inhibitory effect on hormogonia differentiation. On the other hand, soluble sugars that accumulated in gland tissue, namely sucrose, Glc, and Fru, inhibited hormogonia differentiation and enhanced vegetative growth. Results from this study suggest that, in an N-limited environment, mature Gunnera stem glands may employ different soluble sugars to attract Nostoc and, once the cyanobacteria are internalized, to maintain them in the N2-fixing vegetative state. PMID:20833727

  1. This paper describes Open Access (OA). It discusses two main forms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    access publishing such as open access archives and open access journals. It ... online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly ... maintained by universities and research institutions for works contributed by their .... access resources, which are arguably at greater risk, needs urgent attention, and.

  2. Interference Cancellation and FEC in S/CDMA Networks with PIN+OA Receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anand Srivastava

    2003-01-01

    For reducing the effects of optical multiple access interference (OMAI) and receiver noise in code-division multiple access (OCDMA) networks with STM-1 input, use of parallel cancellation and forward error correcting (FEC)codes greatly improves the performance of the receiver..

  3. Interference Cancellation and FEC in S/CDMA Networks with PIN+OA Receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anand; Srivastava

    2003-01-01

    For reducing the effects of optical multiple access interference (OMAI) and receiver noise in code-division multiple access (OCDMA) networks with STM-1 input, use of parallel cancellation and forward error correcting (FEC) codes greatly improves the performance of the receiver..

  4. Environmental Compliance Research for ONR 312OA At-Sea Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Experiments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...effort is to facilitate ONR 321 Ocean Acoustics Program at-sea experiments through the preparation of scientifically rigorous environmental compliance...develop mitigation measures. WORK COMPLETED For each experiment, the zones of influence for potential acoustic impacts on various marine species

  5. Model-OA wind turbine generator - Failure modes and effects analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William E.; Lali, Vincent R.

    1990-01-01

    The results failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) conducted for wind-turbine generators are presented. The FMEA was performed for the functional modes of each system, subsystem, or component. The single-point failures were eliminated for most of the systems. The blade system was the only exception. The qualitative probability of a blade separating was estimated at level D-remote. Many changes were made to the hardware as a result of this analysis. The most significant change was the addition of the safety system. Operational experience and need to improve machine availability have resulted in subsequent changes to the various systems, which are also reflected in this FMEA.

  6. The expulsion of Jesuits from Nueva Granada in 185Oas key for understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José David Cortés Guerrero

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the confrontation between the liberal ideology of the mid nineteenth century and the conservative positions of the time as a result of the expulsion of the Society of Jesus from the Nueva Granada. The expulsion of the Jesuits encapsulates several key aspects of liberal ideology: the need to break with the colonial past; progress and civilization as attainable objectives; education as a neutral in terms of religious instruction; and the separation of the Catholic Church from the State as an important factor for reaching modernization and modernity. With the expulsion of the Jesuits one can also see the aligning of the nascent political parties, some defended the expulsión, others opposed it vehemently.

  7. Purdue Ionomics Information Management System. An Integrated Functional Genomics Platform1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Ivan; Ouzzani, Mourad; Orcun, Seza; Kennedy, Brad; Jandhyala, Shrinivas S.; Salt, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The advent of high-throughput phenotyping technologies has created a deluge of information that is difficult to deal with without the appropriate data management tools. These data management tools should integrate defined workflow controls for genomic-scale data acquisition and validation, data storage and retrieval, and data analysis, indexed around the genomic information of the organism of interest. To maximize the impact of these large datasets, it is critical that they are rapidly disseminated to the broader research community, allowing open access for data mining and discovery. We describe here a system that incorporates such functionalities developed around the Purdue University high-throughput ionomics phenotyping platform. The Purdue Ionomics Information Management System (PiiMS) provides integrated workflow control, data storage, and analysis to facilitate high-throughput data acquisition, along with integrated tools for data search, retrieval, and visualization for hypothesis development. PiiMS is deployed as a World Wide Web-enabled system, allowing for integration of distributed workflow processes and open access to raw data for analysis by numerous laboratories. PiiMS currently contains data on shoot concentrations of P, Ca, K, Mg, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Co, Ni, B, Se, Mo, Na, As, and Cd in over 60,000 shoot tissue samples of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), including ethyl methanesulfonate, fast-neutron and defined T-DNA mutants, and natural accession and populations of recombinant inbred lines from over 800 separate experiments, representing over 1,000,000 fully quantitative elemental concentrations. PiiMS is accessible at www.purdue.edu/dp/ionomics. PMID:17189337

  8. Gravity-Induced Modifications to Development in Hypocotyls of Arabidopsis Tubulin Mutants1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shouhei; Kumasaki, Saori; Soga, Kouichi; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Hashimoto, Takashi; Hoson, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the roles of cortical microtubules in gravity-induced modifications to the development of stem organs by analyzing morphology and orientation of cortical microtubule arrays in hypocotyls of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) tubulin mutants, tua3(D205N), tua4(S178Δ), and tua6(A281T), cultivated under 1g and hypergravity (300g) conditions. Hypocotyls of tubulin mutants were shorter and thicker than the wild type even at 1g, and hypergravity further suppressed elongation and stimulated expansion. The degree of such changes was clearly smaller in tubulin mutants, in particular in tua6. Hypocotyls of tubulin mutants also showed either left-handed or right-handed helical growth at 1g, and the degree of twisting phenotype was intensified under hypergravity conditions, especially in tua6. Hypergravity induced reorientation of cortical microtubules from transverse to longitudinal directions in epidermal cells of wild-type hypocotyls. In tubulin mutants, especially in tua6, the percentage of cells with longitudinal microtubules was high even at 1g, and it was further increased by hypergravity. The twisting phenotype was most obvious at cells 10 to 12 from the top, where reorientation of cortical microtubules from transverse to longitudinal directions occurred. Moreover, the left-handed helical growth mutants (tua3 and tua4) had right-handed microtubule arrays, whereas the right-handed mutant (tua6) had left-handed arrays. There was a close correlation between the alignment angle of epidermal cell files and the alignment of cortical microtubules. Gadolinium ions, blockers of mechanosensitive ion channels (mechanoreceptors), suppressed the twisting phenotype in tubulin mutants under both 1g and 300g conditions. Microtubule arrays in tubulin mutants were oriented more transversely by gadolinium treatment, irrespective of gravity conditions. These results support the hypothesis that cortical microtubules play an essential role in maintenance of normal growth phenotype against the gravitational force, and suggest that mechanoreceptors are involved in modifications to morphology and orientation of microtubule arrays by 1g gravity and hypergravity in tubulin mutants. PMID:20018592

  9. AKANNI, K.A., ADEOKUN, O.A. and JD. AKINTOLA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria agricultural commodity trade between 1990 and 1998. High value of ... in the level of investment and in the state of technical knowledge in the country. This .... were allowed to market their produce wherever they chose. That is, the.

  10. Cloning and expression of SLC1OA4,a putative organic anion transport protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick L Splinter; Konstantinos N Lazaridis; Paul A Dawson; Nicholas F LaRusso

    2006-01-01

    AIM:To determine if novel bile acid transporters may be expressed in human tissues.METHODS:SLC10A1 (NTCP) was used as a probe to search the NCBI database for homology to previously uncharacterized ESTs. The homology search identified an EST (termed SLC10A4) that shares sequence identity with SLC10A1 and SLC10A2 (ASBT). We performed Northern blot analysis and RT-PCR to determine the tissue distribution of SLC10A4. SLC10A4 was cloned in frame with an epitope tag and overexpressed in CHO cells to determine cellular localization and functional analysis of bile acid uptake.RESULTS:Northern analysis revealed that SLC 10A4 mRNA is ubiquitously expressed fn human tissues with the highest levels of mRNA expression in brain,placenta, and liver. In SLC10A4-transfected CHO cells,immunoblotting analysis and immunofluorescence staining demonstrated a 49-kDa protein that is expressed at the plasma membrane and intracellular compartments.Functional analysis of SLC10A4 showed no significant taurocholate uptake in the presence of sodium when compared to untransfected CHO cells.CONCLUSION:To date, we have shown that this protein has no capacity to transport taurocholate relative to SLC1041; however, given its ubiquitous tissue distribution, it may play a more active role in transporting other endogenous organic anions.

  11. Patterns of Alcohol Use among Adolescents and Associations with Emotional and Behavioral Problems. OAS Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, Janet C.

    Findings from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) show a substantial decrease in alcohol use by youth during the past decade. Yet despite these trends, an estimated 1 in 5 teenagers were current alcohol drinkers and 1 in 13 were binge alcohol drinkers. This report provides data showing the relationship between emotional state,…

  12. De natuur en de honingbij (interview met o.a. T. Blacquière)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, K.; Blacquiere, T.

    2009-01-01

    Op het hoogtepunt van de bijenhouderij (in 1850) telde Nederland waarschijnlijk wel 200.000 volken. Nu zijn er nog 40.000 over. Met de wilde bij is het sinds de intensivering van de landbouw snel bergafwaarts gegaan. De nekslag kwam waarschijnlijk met de komst van de varroamijt, een parasiet uit Azi

  13. Sporisorium reilianum Infection Changes Inflorescence and Branching Architectures of Maize1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareeb, Hassan; Becker, Annette; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Schirawski, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Sporisorium reilianum is a biotrophic maize (Zea mays) pathogen of increasing economic importance. Symptoms become obvious at flowering time, when the fungus causes spore formation and phyllody in the inflorescences. To understand how S. reilianum changes the inflorescence and floral developmental program of its host plant, we investigated the induced morphological and transcriptional alterations. S. reilianum infection promoted the outgrowth of subapical ears, suggesting that fungal presence suppressed apical dominance. Female inflorescences showed two distinct morphologies, here termed “leafy ear” and “eary ear.” In leafy ears, all floral organs were replaced by vegetative organs. In eary ears, modified carpels enclosed a new female inflorescence harboring additional female inflorescences at every spikelet position. Similar changes in meristem fate and organ identity were observed in the tassel of infected plants, which formed male inflorescences at spikelet positions. Thus, S. reilianum triggered a loss of organ and meristem identity and a loss of meristem determinacy in male and female inflorescences and flowers. Microarray analysis showed that these developmental changes were accompanied by transcriptional regulation of genes proposed to regulate floral organ and meristem identity as well as meristem determinacy in maize. S. reilianum colonization also led to a 30% increase in the total auxin content of the inflorescence as well as a dramatic accumulation of reactive oxygen species. We propose a model describing the architectural changes of infected inflorescence as a consequence of transcriptional, hormonal, and redox modulation, which will be the basis for further molecular investigation of the underlying mechanism of S. reilianum-induced alteration of floral development. PMID:21653782

  14. Jekyll Encodes a Novel Protein Involved in the Sexual Reproduction of Barley[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchuk, Volodymyr; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Radchuk, Ruslana; Steinbiss, Hans-Henning; Rolletschek, Hardy; Broeders, Sylvia; Wobus, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    Cereal seed development depends on the intimate interaction of filial and maternal tissues, ensuring nourishment of the new generation. The gene jekyll, which was identified in barley (Hordeum vulgare), is preferentially expressed in the nurse tissues. JEKYLL shares partial similarity with the scorpion Cn4 toxin and is toxic when ectopically expressed in Escherichia coli and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). In barley, jekyll is upregulated in cells destined for autolysis. The gene generates a gradient of expression in the nucellar projection, which mediates the maternal–filial interaction during seed filling. Downregulation of jekyll by the RNA interference technique in barley decelerates autolysis and cell differentiation within the nurse tissues. Flower development and seed filling are thereby extended, and the nucellar projection no longer functions as the main transport route for assimilates. A slowing down in the proliferation of endosperm nuclei and a severely impaired ability to accumulate starch in the endosperm leads to the formation of irregular and small-sized seeds at maturity. Overall, JEKYLL plays a decisive role in the differentiation of the nucellar projection and drives the programmed cell death necessary for its proper function. We further suggest that cell autolysis during the differentiation of the nucellar projection allows the optimal provision of basic nutrients for biosynthesis in endosperm and embryo. PMID:16766690

  15. Toluca nog steeds resistent tegen phytophthora (interview met o.a. Geert Kessel)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engwerda, J.; Kessel, G.J.T.

    2009-01-01

    Het biologische aardappelras Toluca is nog steeds volledig resistent tegen phytophthora. Dat in een laboratorium drie isolaten van phytophthora de resistentie hebben omzeild, is een theoretisch gegeven, vindt commercieel directeur Jan van Hoogen van Agrico. Toluca is gekweekt door Agrico en in 2007

  16. Voedsel en stroom oogsten (interview met o.a. Jan Snel)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, van G.; Snel, J.F.H.

    2008-01-01

    Planten elektriciteit laten produceren zonder dat je ze hoeft te oogsten. Wageningse milieutechnologen en plantenwetenschappers hebben aangetoond dat het kan. Een polletje liesgras gekoppeld aan een microbiële brandstofcel kan al een molentje laten draaien. Genoeg om bij de onderzoekers een lichte v

  17. The Origin and Composition of Cucurbit “Phloem” Exudate1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cankui; Yu, Xiyan; Ayre, Brian G.; Turgeon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Cucurbits exude profusely when stems or petioles are cut. We conducted studies on pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) to determine the origin and composition of the exudate. Morphometric analysis indicated that the exudate is too voluminous to derive exclusively from the phloem. Cold, which inhibits phloem transport, did not interfere with exudation. However, ice water applied to the roots, which reduces root pressure, rapidly diminished exudation rate. Sap was seen by microscopic examination to flow primarily from the fascicular phloem in cucumber, and several other cucurbit species, but primarily from the extrafascicular phloem in pumpkin. Following exposure of leaves to 14CO2, radiolabeled stachyose and other sugars were detected in the exudate in proportions expected of authentic phloem sap. Most of this radiolabel was released during the first 20 s. Sugars in exudate were dilute. The sugar composition of exudate from extrafascicular phloem near the edge of the stem differed from that of other sources in that it was high in hexose and low in stachyose. We conclude that sap is released from cucurbit phloem upon wounding but contributes negligibly to total exudate volume. The sap is diluted by water from cut cells, the apoplast, and the xylem. Small amounts of dilute, mobile sap from sieve elements can be obtained, although there is evidence that it is contaminated by the contents of other cell types. The function of P-proteins may be to prevent water loss from the xylem as well as nutrient loss from the phloem. PMID:22331409

  18. Arabidopsis Nitrate Transporter NRT1.9 Is Important in Phloem Nitrate Transport[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Yun; Tsay, Yi-Fang

    2011-01-01

    This study of the Arabidopsis thaliana nitrate transporter NRT1.9 reveals an important function for a NRT1 family member in phloem nitrate transport. Functional analysis in Xenopus laevis oocytes showed that NRT1.9 is a low-affinity nitrate transporter. Green fluorescent protein and β-glucuronidase reporter analyses indicated that NRT1.9 is a plasma membrane transporter expressed in the companion cells of root phloem. In nrt1.9 mutants, nitrate content in root phloem exudates was decreased, and downward nitrate transport was reduced, suggesting that NRT1.9 may facilitate loading of nitrate into the root phloem and enhance downward nitrate transport in roots. Under high nitrate conditions, the nrt1.9 mutant showed enhanced root-to-shoot nitrate transport and plant growth. We conclude that phloem nitrate transport is facilitated by expression of NRT1.9 in root companion cells. In addition, enhanced root-to-shoot xylem transport of nitrate in nrt1.9 mutants points to a negative correlation between xylem and phloem nitrate transport. PMID:21571952

  19. Integración de herramientas para la administración de OA

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    El principal objetivo de este proyecto es realizar investigación y desarrollo de Tecnología Informática aplicada en Educación, poniendo especial énfasis en la Educación basada en WEB, y particularmente, en la gestión y reusabilidad de contenidos para carreras de informática. Esto propicia un marco de colaboración para el desarrollo de las actividades académicas, mediante el diseño y desarrollo de objetos y unidades de aprendizaje, que serán almacenadas en un repositorio construido con la fina...

  20. Illinois Energy Conservation Plan: documentation of DOE-U535-O-A calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-06

    This report presents data compiled on the estimated energy conservation achieved by programs included in the Illinois Energy Conservation Plan. Summaries are given for the following areas: thermal and lighting standards; state and local procurement standards; carpooling, vanpooling, and public transit; right turn on red; energy data information system; Homeowner's Extension Program; agricultural resource applications; Farm Energy Conservation Program; Commercial Industrial Program; Public Utilities Program; School Energy Management Program; energy management assistance to local government; Administration of State Plan; energy conservation information; energy management for state buildings; solar energy; waste to energy and resource recovery; intergovernmental coordination; community technology assistance.

  1. Sulfite Reductase Protects Plants against Sulfite Toxicity1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmolinsky, Dmitry; Brychkova, Galina; Fluhr, Robert; Sagi, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    Plant sulfite reductase (SiR; Enzyme Commission 1.8.7.1) catalyzes the reduction of sulfite to sulfide in the reductive sulfate assimilation pathway. Comparison of SiR expression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ‘Rheinlands Ruhm’) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants revealed that SiR is expressed in a different tissue-dependent manner that likely reflects dissimilarity in sulfur metabolism between the plant species. Using Arabidopsis and tomato SiR mutants with modified SiR expression, we show here that resistance to ectopically applied sulfur dioxide/sulfite is a function of SiR expression levels and that plants with reduced SiR expression exhibit higher sensitivity than the wild type, as manifested in pronounced leaf necrosis and chlorophyll bleaching. The sulfite-sensitive mutants accumulate applied sulfite and show a decline in glutathione levels. In contrast, mutants that overexpress SiR are more tolerant to sulfite toxicity, exhibiting little or no damage. Resistance to high sulfite application is manifested by fast sulfite disappearance and an increase in glutathione levels. The notion that SiR plays a role in the protection of plants against sulfite is supported by the rapid up-regulation of SiR transcript and activity within 30 min of sulfite injection into Arabidopsis and tomato leaves. Peroxisomal sulfite oxidase transcripts and activity levels are likewise promoted by sulfite application as compared with water injection controls. These results indicate that, in addition to participating in the sulfate assimilation reductive pathway, SiR also plays a role in protecting leaves against the toxicity of sulfite accumulation. PMID:23221833

  2. Functional Redundancy and Divergence within the Arabidopsis RETICULATA-RELATED Gene Family1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Esteve-Bruna, David; González-Bayón, Rebeca; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Caldana, Camila; Hannah, Matthew A.; Willmitzer, Lothar; Ponce, María Rosa; Micol, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    A number of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants exhibit leaf reticulation, having green veins that stand out against paler interveinal tissues, fewer cells in the interveinal mesophyll, and normal perivascular bundle sheath cells. Here, to examine the basis of leaf reticulation, we analyzed the Arabidopsis RETICULATA-RELATED (RER) gene family, several members of which cause leaf reticulation when mutated. Although transcripts of RE, RER1, and RER3 were mainly detected in the bundle sheath cells of expanded leaves, functional RER3:GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN was visualized in the chloroplast membranes of all photosynthetic cells. Leaf reticulation in the re and rer3 loss-of-function mutants occurred, along with accumulation of reactive oxygen species, in a photoperiod-dependent manner. A comparison of re and rer3 leaf messenger RNA expression profiles showed more than 200 genes were similarly misexpressed in both mutants. In addition, metabolic profiles of mature leaves revealed that several biosynthetic pathways downstream of pyruvate are altered in re and rer3. Double mutant analysis showed that only re rer1 and rer5 rer6 exhibited synergistic phenotypes, indicating functional redundancy. The redundancy between RE and its closest paralog, RER1, was confirmed by overexpressing RER1 in re mutants, which partially suppressed leaf reticulation. Our results show that RER family members can be divided into four functional modules with divergent functions. Moreover, these results provide insights into the origin of the reticulated phenotype, suggesting that the RER proteins functionally interconnect photoperiodic growth, amino acid homeostasis, and reactive oxygen species metabolism during Arabidopsis leaf growth. PMID:23596191

  3. Iron Is Involved in the Maintenance of Circadian Period Length in Arabidopsis12[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Yi; Wang, Ying; Shin, Lung-Jiun; Wu, Jing-Fen; Shanmugam, Varanavasiappan; Tsednee, Munkhtsetseg; Lo, Jing-Chi; Chen, Chyi-Chuann; Wu, Shu-Hsing; Yeh, Kuo-Chen

    2013-01-01

    The homeostasis of iron (Fe) in plants is strictly regulated to maintain an optimal level for plant growth and development but not cause oxidative stress. About 30% of arable land is considered Fe deficient because of calcareous soil that renders Fe unavailable to plants. Under Fe-deficient conditions, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) shows retarded growth, disordered chloroplast development, and delayed flowering time. In this study, we explored the possible connection between Fe availability and the circadian clock in growth and development. Circadian period length in Arabidopsis was longer under Fe-deficient conditions, but the lengthened period was not regulated by the canonical Fe-deficiency signaling pathway involving nitric oxide. However, plants with impaired chloroplast function showed long circadian periods. Fe deficiency and impaired chloroplast function combined did not show additive effects on the circadian period, which suggests that plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signaling is involved in the lengthening of circadian period under Fe deficiency. Expression pattern analyses of the central oscillator genes in mutants defective in CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1/LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL or GIGANTEA demonstrated their requirement for Fe deficiency-induced long circadian period. In conclusion, Fe is involved in maintaining the period length of circadian rhythm, possibly by acting on specific central oscillators through a retrograde signaling pathway. PMID:23307650

  4. Two Direct Targets of Cytokinin Signaling Regulate Symbiotic Nodulation in Medicago truncatula[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Federico; Brault-Hernandez, Marianne; Laffont, Carole; Huault, Emeline; Brault, Mathias; Plet, Julie; Moison, Michael; Blanchet, Sandrine; Ichanté, Jean Laurent; Chabaud, Mireille; Carrere, Sébastien; Crespi, Martin; Chan, Raquel L.; Frugier, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Cytokinin regulates many aspects of plant development, and in legume crops, this phytohormone is necessary and sufficient for symbiotic nodule organogenesis, allowing them to fix atmospheric nitrogen. To identify direct links between cytokinins and nodule organogenesis, we determined a consensus sequence bound in vitro by a transcription factor (TF) acting in cytokinin signaling, the nodule-enhanced Medicago truncatula Mt RR1 response regulator (RR). Among genes rapidly regulated by cytokinins and containing this so-called RR binding site (RRBS) in their promoters, we found the nodulation-related Type-A RR Mt RR4 and the Nodulation Signaling Pathway 2 (NSP2) TF. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that RRBS cis-elements in the RR4 and NSP2 promoters are essential for expression during nodule development and for cytokinin induction. Furthermore, a microRNA targeting NSP2 (miR171 h) is also rapidly induced by cytokinins and then shows an expression pattern anticorrelated with NSP2. Other primary targets regulated by cytokinins depending on the Cytokinin Response1 (CRE1) receptor were a cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX1) and a basic Helix-Loop-Helix TF (bHLH476). RNA interference constructs as well as insertion of a Tnt1 retrotransposon in the bHLH gene led to reduced nodulation. Hence, we identified two TFs, NSP2 and bHLH476, as direct cytokinin targets acting at the convergence of phytohormonal and symbiotic cues. PMID:23023168

  5. CLE Peptides Control Medicago truncatula Nodulation Locally and Systemically1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortier, Virginie; Den Herder, Griet; Whitford, Ryan; Van de Velde, Willem; Rombauts, Stephane; D'haeseleer, Katrien; Holsters, Marcelle; Goormachtig, Sofie

    2010-01-01

    The CLAVATA3/embryo-surrounding region (CLE) peptides control the fine balance between proliferation and differentiation in plant development. We studied the role of CLE peptides during indeterminate nodule development and identified 25 MtCLE peptide genes in the Medicago truncatula genome, of which two genes, MtCLE12 and MtCLE13, had nodulation-related expression patterns that were linked to proliferation and differentiation. MtCLE13 expression was up-regulated early in nodule development. A high-to-low expression gradient radiated from the inner toward the outer cortical cell layers in a region defining the incipient nodule. At later stages, MtCLE12 and MtCLE13 were expressed in differentiating nodules and in the apical part of mature, elongated nodules. Functional analysis revealed a putative role for MtCLE12 and MtCLE13 in autoregulation of nodulation, a mechanism that controls the number of nodules and involves systemic signals mediated by a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase, SUNN, which is active in the shoot. When MtCLE12 and MtCLE13 were ectopically expressed in transgenic roots, nodulation was abolished at the level of the nodulation factor signal transduction, and this inhibition involved long-distance signaling. In addition, composite plants with roots ectopically expressing MtCLE12 or MtCLE13 had elongated petioles. This systemic effect was not observed in transgenic roots ectopically expressing MtCLE12 and MtCLE13 in a sunn-1 mutant background, although nodulation was still strongly reduced. These results suggest multiple roles for CLE signaling in nodulation. PMID:20348212

  6. Systemic Regulation of Soybean Nodulation by Acidic Growth Conditions1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meng-Han; Gresshoff, Peter M.; Ferguson, Brett J.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms inhibiting legume nodulation by low soil pH, although highly prevalent and economically significant, are poorly understood. We addressed this in soybean (Glycine max) using a combination of physiological and genetic approaches. Split-root and grafting studies using an autoregulation-of-nodulation-deficient mutant line, altered in the autoregulation-of-nodulation receptor kinase GmNARK, determined that a systemic, shoot-controlled, and GmNARK-dependent mechanism was critical for facilitating the inhibitory effect. Acid inhibition was independent of aluminum ion concentration and occurred early in nodule development, between 12 and 96 h post inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Biological effects were confirmed by measuring transcript numbers of known early nodulation genes. Transcripts decreased on both sides of split-root systems, where only one side was subjected to low-pH conditions. Our findings enhance the present understanding of the innate mechanisms regulating legume nodulation control under acidic conditions, which could benefit future attempts in agriculture to improve nodule development and biological nitrogen fixation in acid-stressed soils. PMID:23054568

  7. Authors and Open Access: Effective Ways to Achieve OA in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alma Swan

    2005-01-01

    Although there are effective methods available to authors for providing open access to their work, more than half are still not doing so and provision in China is poorer than in many other countries. There are a number of issues and concerns that dissuade authors from making their work open access: some are still unaware of the concept and of the increased visibility and impact that open access brings; many are unfamiliar with open access journals and how they work; many are uninformed about self-archiving and for some of those who are aware of the possibility of providing open access by this means, concerns about copyright and technical issues remain.Yet all these worries can be addressed with simple facts that reassure and encourage authors to adopt open access to benefit themselves,their research and their teaching. There is also a wealth of resources now available to authors that provide information and advice on open access and its effects. As institutions and research funders, both with a strong interest in maximising the visibility and impact of research they support, begin to develop formal policies on open access, models for its provision are emerging. The optimal model is a frills' variant) or by service providers who add functionality or selectivity to provide users with value-enhanced products.

  8. VirtualPlant: A Software Platform to Support Systems Biology Research1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katari, Manpreet S.; Nowicki, Steve D.; Aceituno, Felipe F.; Nero, Damion; Kelfer, Jonathan; Thompson, Lee Parnell; Cabello, Juan M.; Davidson, Rebecca S.; Goldberg, Arthur P.; Shasha, Dennis E.; Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A.

    2010-01-01

    Data generation is no longer the limiting factor in advancing biological research. In addition, data integration, analysis, and interpretation have become key bottlenecks and challenges that biologists conducting genomic research face daily. To enable biologists to derive testable hypotheses from the increasing amount of genomic data, we have developed the VirtualPlant software platform. VirtualPlant enables scientists to visualize, integrate, and analyze genomic data from a systems biology perspective. VirtualPlant integrates genome-wide data concerning the known and predicted relationships among genes, proteins, and molecules, as well as genome-scale experimental measurements. VirtualPlant also provides visualization techniques that render multivariate information in visual formats that facilitate the extraction of biological concepts. Importantly, VirtualPlant helps biologists who are not trained in computer science to mine lists of genes, microarray experiments, and gene networks to address questions in plant biology, such as: What are the molecular mechanisms by which internal or external perturbations affect processes controlling growth and development? We illustrate the use of VirtualPlant with three case studies, ranging from querying a gene of interest to the identification of gene networks and regulatory hubs that control seed development. Whereas the VirtualPlant software was developed to mine Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genomic data, its data structures, algorithms, and visualization tools are designed in a species-independent way. VirtualPlant is freely available at www.virtualplant.org. PMID:20007449

  9. How a Plant Lectin Recognizes High Mannose Oligosaccharides1[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Pino, Abel; Buts, Lieven; Wyns, Lode; Imberty, Anne; Loris, Remy

    2007-01-01

    The crystal structure of Pterocarpus angolensis seed lectin is presented in complex with a series of high mannose (Man) oligosaccharides ranging from Man-5 to Man-9. Despite that several of the nine Man residues of Man-9 have the potential to bind in the monosaccharide-binding site, all oligomannoses are bound in the same unique way, employing the tetrasaccharide sequence Manα(1–2)Manα(1–6)[Manα(1–3)]Manα(1–. Isothermal titration calorimetry titration experiments using Man-5, Man-9, and the Man-9-containing glycoprotein soybean (Glycine max) agglutinin as ligands confirm the monovalence of Man-9 and show a 4-times higher affinity for Man-9 when it is presented to P. angolensis seed lectin in a glycoprotein context. PMID:17556509

  10. Actin in Mung Bean Mitochondria and Implications for Its Function[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yih-Shan; Cheng, Ning; Hsiao, Lin-June; Annamalai, Arunachalam; Jauh, Guang-Yuh; Wen, Tuan-Nan; Dai, Hwa; Chiang, Kwen-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Here, a large fraction of plant mitochondrial actin was found to be resistant to protease and high-salt treatments, suggesting it was protected by mitochondrial membranes. A portion of this actin became sensitive to protease or high-salt treatment after removal of the mitochondrial outer membrane, indicating that some actin is located inside the mitochondrial outer membrane. The import of an actin–green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein into the mitochondria in a transgenic plant, actin:GFP, was visualized in living cells and demonstrated by flow cytometry and immunoblot analyses. Polymerized actin was found in mitochondria of actin:GFP plants and in mung bean (Vigna radiata). Notably, actin associated with mitochondria purified from early-developing cotyledons during seed germination was sensitive to high-salt and protease treatments. With cotyledon ageing, mitochondrial actin became more resistant to both treatments. The progressive import of actin into cotyledon mitochondria appeared to occur in concert with the conversion of quiescent mitochondria into active forms during seed germination. The binding of actin to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was demonstrated by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Porin and ADP/ATP carrier proteins were also found in mtDNA-protein complexes. Treatment with an actin depolymerization reagent reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential and triggered the release of cytochrome C. The potential function of mitochondrial actin and a possible actin import pathway are discussed. PMID:21984697

  11. The personal receiving document management and the realization of email function in OAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biqing; Li, Zhao

    2017-05-01

    This software is an independent software system, suitable for small and medium enterprises, contains personal office, scientific research project management and system management functions, independently run in relevant environment, and to solve practical needs. This software is an independent software system, using the current popular B/S (browser/server) structure and ASP.NET technology development, using the Windows 7 operating system, Microsoft SQL Server2005 Visual2008 and database as a development platform, suitable for small and medium enterprises, contains personal office, scientific research project management and system management functions, independently run in relevant environment, and to solve practical needs.

  12. Gene Discovery of Modular Diterpene Metabolism in Nonmodel Systems1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbe, Philipp; Hamberger, Björn; Yuen, Macaire M.S.; Chiang, Angela; Sandhu, Harpreet K.; Madilao, Lina L.; Nguyen, Anh; Hamberger, Britta; Bach, Søren Spanner; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Plants produce over 10,000 different diterpenes of specialized (secondary) metabolism, and fewer diterpenes of general (primary) metabolism. Specialized diterpenes may have functions in ecological interactions of plants with other organisms and also benefit humanity as pharmaceuticals, fragrances, resins, and other industrial bioproducts. Examples of high-value diterpenes are taxol and forskolin pharmaceuticals or ambroxide fragrances. Yields and purity of diterpenes obtained from natural sources or by chemical synthesis are often insufficient for large-volume or high-end applications. Improvement of agricultural or biotechnological diterpene production requires knowledge of biosynthetic genes and enzymes. However, specialized diterpene pathways are extremely diverse across the plant kingdom, and most specialized diterpenes are taxonomically restricted to a few plant species, genera, or families. Consequently, there is no single reference system to guide gene discovery and rapid annotation of specialized diterpene pathways. Functional diversification of genes and plasticity of enzyme functions of these pathways further complicate correct annotation. To address this challenge, we used a set of 10 different plant species to develop a general strategy for diterpene gene discovery in nonmodel systems. The approach combines metabolite-guided transcriptome resources, custom diterpene synthase (diTPS) and cytochrome P450 reference gene databases, phylogenies, and, as shown for select diTPSs, single and coupled enzyme assays using microbial and plant expression systems. In the 10 species, we identified 46 new diTPS candidates and over 400 putatively terpenoid-related P450s in a resource of nearly 1 million predicted transcripts of diterpene-accumulating tissues. Phylogenetic patterns of lineage-specific blooms of genes guided functional characterization. PMID:23613273

  13. The Classical Arabinogalactan Protein AGP18 Mediates Megaspore Selection in Arabidopsis[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demesa-Arévalo, Edgar; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Female gametogenesis in most flowering plants depends on the predetermined selection of a single meiotically derived cell, as the three other megaspores die without further division or differentiation. Although in Arabidopsis thaliana the formation of the functional megaspore (FM) is crucial for the establishment of the gametophytic generation, the mechanisms that determine the specification and fate of haploid cells remain unknown. Here, we show that the classical arabinogalactan protein 18 (AGP18) exerts an active regulation over the selection and survival of megaspores in Arabidopsis. During meiosis, AGP18 is expressed in integumentary cells located in the abaxial region of the ovule. Overexpression of AGP18 results in the abnormal maintenance of surviving megaspores that can acquire a FM identity but is not sufficient to induce FM differentiation before meiosis, indicating that AGP18 positively promotes the selection of viable megaspores. We also show that all four meiotically derived cells in the ovule of Arabidopsis are competent to differentiate into a gametic precursor and that the function of AGP18 is important for their selection and viability. Our results suggest an evolutionary role for arabinogalactan proteins in the acquisition of monospory and the developmental plasticity that is intrinsic to sexual reproduction in flowering plants. PMID:23572547

  14. Pathomechanics of Post-Traumatic OA Development in the Military Following Articular Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    smoothed to remove imaging artifacts and to prepare the data for use in a surface classification algorithm. An automated classifier then identifies...University Health Methodist Hospital , Indianapolis, Indiana, USA; 2The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA; 3UCSF/SFGH, Ortho Trauma Institute, San

  15. OA34 Forum on end of life: working to influence policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Catherine; Murphy, Sarah; Clarke, Patricia Rickard

    2015-04-01

    The Forum on End of Life in Ireland was launched in 2009 and has conducted a year-long public consultation about end of life issues. A National Council was set up to carry out the work of the Forum. Think Ahead is a public awareness initiative of the Forum on End of Life in Ireland which guides people in recording important information in the event that they are unable to speak for themselves, due to serious illness, emergency or death. The Forum has advocated for legislation of advance health care directives and has worked to raise awareness among members of the public in relation to their rights. Currently in Ireland while common law recognises people's right to express preferences and make directives, there has been no legislative framework for this, despite European and international law regarding personal autonomy and the right to self-determination. Organised briefings and information seminars for public representatives Organised public meetings and national conferences which deal with the importance of advance healthcare directives Spoke of the importance of advance healthcare directives and advance care planning as part of the Oireachtas (Irish Parliament) Health Committee hearings on end of life Called for wider national end of life strategy to take a comprehensive approach to end of life issues, including health, legal, administrative, financial and social. Advance healthcare directives are provided for in the Assisted Decision Making (Capacity) Bill 2013. The aforementioned Bill has yet to be enacted and there remains work to be done in developing policy in this area. © 2015, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. The Relationship between Auxin Transport and Maize Branching1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallavotti, Andrea; Yang, Yan; Schmidt, Robert J.; Jackson, David

    2008-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays) plants make different types of vegetative or reproductive branches during development. Branches develop from axillary meristems produced on the flanks of the vegetative or inflorescence shoot apical meristem. Among these branches are the spikelets, short grass-specific structures, produced by determinate axillary spikelet-pair and spikelet meristems. We investigated the mechanism of branching in maize by making transgenic plants expressing a native expressed endogenous auxin efflux transporter (ZmPIN1a) fused to yellow fluorescent protein and a synthetic auxin-responsive promoter (DR5rev) driving red fluorescent protein. By imaging these plants, we found that all maize branching events during vegetative and reproductive development appear to be regulated by the creation of auxin response maxima through the activity of polar auxin transporters. We also found that the auxin transporter ZmPIN1a is functional, as it can rescue the polar auxin transport defects of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) pin1-3 mutant. Based on this and on the groundbreaking analysis in Arabidopsis and other species, we conclude that branching mechanisms are conserved and can, in addition, explain the formation of axillary meristems (spikelet-pair and spikelet meristems) that are unique to grasses. We also found that BARREN STALK1 is required for the creation of auxin response maxima at the flanks of the inflorescence meristem, suggesting a role in the initiation of polar auxin transport for axillary meristem formation. Based on our results, we propose a general model for branching during maize inflorescence development. PMID:18550681

  17. Prunasin Hydrolases during Fruit Development in Sweet and Bitter Almonds1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch, Jonas; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde by the action of the β-glucosidase prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitirile lyase or be glucosylated to form amygdalin. The tissue and cellular localization of PHs was determined during fruit development in two sweet and two bitter almond cultivars using a specific antibody toward PHs. Confocal studies on sections of tegument, nucellus, endosperm, and embryo showed that the localization of the PH proteins is dependent on the stage of fruit development, shifting between apoplast and symplast in opposite patterns in sweet and bitter cultivars. Two different PH genes, Ph691 and Ph692, have been identified in a sweet and a bitter almond cultivar. Both cDNAs are 86% identical on the nucleotide level, and their encoded proteins are 79% identical to each other. In addition, Ph691 and Ph692 display 92% and 86% nucleotide identity to Ph1 from black cherry (Prunus serotina). Both proteins were predicted to contain an amino-terminal signal peptide, with the size of 26 amino acid residues for PH691 and 22 residues for PH692. The PH activity and the localization of the respective proteins in vivo differ between cultivars. This implies that there might be different concentrations of prunasin available in the seed for amygdalin synthesis and that these differences may determine whether the mature almond develops into bitter or sweet. PMID:22353576

  18. Highly time-resolved chemical characterization of atmospheric fine particles during 2010 Shanghai World Expo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-F. Huang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shanghai, with a population of over 20 million, is the largest mega-city in China. Rapidly increasing industrial and metropolitan emissions have deteriorated its air quality in the past decades, with fine particle pollution as one of the major issues. However, systematic characterization of atmospheric fine particles with advanced measurement techniques has been very scarce in Shanghai. During 2010 Shanghai World Expo, we deployed a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS and a single particle soot photometer (SP2 in urban Shanghai between 15 May and 10 June 2010 to measure fine particles with a high time resolution. The 4-min resolution PM1 mass concentration ranged from 5.5 to 155 μg m−3, with an average of 29.2 μg m−3. On average, sulfate and organic matter (OM were the most abundant PM1 components, accounting for 33.3 and 28.7% of the total mass, respectively, while the fraction of nitrate showed an increasing trend with the increasing PM1 loading, indicating the photochemical nature of high fine particle pollution in Shanghai. Taking advantage of HR-ToF-AMS and SP2, OM was found to have an average OM/OC ratio (organic matter mass/organic carbon mass of 1.55 and black carbon (BC had an average number fraction of internally mixed BC of 41.2%. Positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis on the high resolution organic mass spectral dataset identified a hydrocarbon-like (HOA, a semi-volatile oxygenated (SV-OOA, and a low-volatility oxygenated (LV-OOA organic aerosol component, which on average accounted for 24.0, 46.8, and 29.2% of the total organic mass, respectively. The diurnal patterns of them with interesting time delay possibly implied a photochemical oxidizing process from HOA (and/or its concurrently emitted gaseous organic pollutants to SV-OOA to LV-OOA. Back trajectory analysis indicated that the northwesterly continental air mass represented the

  19. Characterization of aerosol composition, concentrations, and sources at Baengnyeong Island, Korea using an aerosol mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taehyoung; Choi, Jinsoo; Lee, Gangwoong; Ahn, Junyoung; Park, Jin Soo; Atwood, Samuel A.; Schurman, Misha; Choi, Yongjoo; Chung, Yoomi; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    2015-11-01

    To improve understanding of the sources and chemical properties of particulate pollutants on the western side of the Korean Peninsula, an Aerodyne High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) measured non-refractory fine (PM1) particles from May to November, 2011 at Baengnyeong Island, South Korea. Organic matter and sulfate were generally the most abundant species and exhibited maximum concentrations of 36 μg/m3 and 39 μg/m3, respectively. Nitrate concentrations peaked at 32 μg/m3 but were typically much lower than sulfate and organic matter concentrations. May, September, October, and November featured the highest monthly average concentrations, with lower concentrations typically observed from June through August. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis and individual case studies revealed that transport from eastern China, an area with high SO2 emissions, was associated with high particulate sulfate concentrations at the measurement site. Observed sulfate aerosol sometimes was fully neutralized by ammonium but often was acidic; the average ammonium to sulfate molar ratio was 1.49. Measured species size distributions revealed a range of sulfate particle size distributions with modes between 100 and 600 nm. Organic aerosol source regions were widespread, including contributions from eastern China and South Korea. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis indicated three "factors," or types of organic aerosol, comprising one primary, hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and two oxidized organic aerosol (OOA) components, including a more oxidized (MO-OOA) and a less oxidized (LO-OOA) oxidized organic aerosol. On average, HOA and OOA contributed 21% and 79% of the organic mass (OM), respectively, with the MO-OOA fraction nearly three times as abundant as the LO-OOA fraction. Biomass burning contributions to observed OM were low during the late spring/early summer agricultural burning season in eastern China, since

  20. Physical and chemical characterization of urban winter-time aerosols by mobile measurements in Helsinki, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjola, Liisa; Niemi, Jarkko V.; Saarikoski, Sanna; Aurela, Minna; Enroth, Joonas; Carbone, Samara; Saarnio, Karri; Kuuluvainen, Heino; Kousa, Anu; Rönkkö, Topi; Hillamo, Risto

    2017-06-01

    A two-week measurement campaign by a mobile laboratory van was performed in urban environments in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland, in winter 2012, to obtain a comprehensive view on aerosol properties and sources. The abundances and physico-chemical properties of particles varied strongly in time and space, depending on the main sources of aerosols. Four major types of winter aerosol were recognized: 1) clean background aerosol with low particle number (Ntot) and lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentrations due to marine air flows from the Atlantic Ocean; 2) long-range transported (LRT) pollution aerosol due to air flows from eastern Europe where the particles were characterized by the high contribution of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) and inorganic species, particularly sulphate, but low BC contribution, and their size distribution possessed an additional accumulation mode; 3) fresh smoke plumes from residential wood combustion in suburban small houses, these particles were characterized by high biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) and black carbon (BC) concentrations; and 4) fresh emissions from traffic while driving on busy streets in the city centre and on the highways during morning rush hours. This aerosol was characterized by high concentration of Ntot, LDSA, small particles in the nucleation mode, as well as high hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and BC concentrations. In general, secondary components (OOA, NO3, NH4, and SO4) dominated the PM1 chemical composition during the LRT episode accounting for 70-80% of the PM1 mass, whereas fresh primary emissions (BC, HOA and BBOA) dominated the local traffic and wood burning emissions. The major individual particle types observed with electron microscopy analysis (TEM/EDX) were mainly related to residential wood combustion (K/S/C-rich, soot, other C-rich particles), traffic (soot, Si/Al-rich, Fe-rich), heavy fuel oil combustion in heat plants or ships (S with V-Ni-Fe), LRT pollutants (S

  1. Spatial variation of chemical composition and sources of submicron aerosol in Zurich: factor analysis of mobile aerosol mass spectrometer data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mohr

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile measurements of PM1 (PM with an aerodynamic diameter D<1 μm chemical composition using a quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer and a multi-angle absorption photometer were performed using the PSI mobile laboratory during winter 2007/2008 and December 2008 in the metropolitan area of Zurich, Switzerland. Positive matrix factorization (PMF applied to the organic fraction of PM1 yielded 3 factors: Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA related to traffic emissions; organic aerosol from wood burning for domestic heating purposes (WBOA; and oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA, assigned to secondary organic aerosol formed by oxidation of volatile precursors. The spatial variation of the chemical composition of PM1 shows a uniform distribution throughout the city: for primary emissions, road traffic is important along major roads (varying between 7 and 14% of PM1 for different sites within the city, but overall, domestic wood burning is more important for the organic aerosol concentrations in Zurich during winter time (varying between 8–15% of PM1 for different sites within the city. OOA makes up the largest fraction of organic aerosol (44% on average. A new method, based on simultaneous on-road mobile and stationary background measurements and using the ratio of on-road sulfate to stationary sulfate to correct for small-scale dynamic effects, allows for the separation of PM1 emitted or produced locally and the PM1 from the regional background. It could be shown that especially during thermal inversions over the Swiss plateau, regional background concentrations contribute substantially to particulate number concentrations (60% on average as well as to the concentrations of PM1 components (on average 60% for black carbon and HOA, over 97% for WBOA and OOA, and more than 94% for the measured inorganic components in downtown Zurich. The results emphasize, on

  2. Highly time-resolved chemical characterization of atmospheric fine particles during 2010 Shanghai World Expo

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    X.-F. Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Shanghai, with a population of over 20 million, is the largest mega-city in China. Rapidly increasing industrial and metropolitan emissions have deteriorated its air quality in the past decades, with fine particle pollution as one of the major issues. However, systematic characterization of atmospheric fine particles with advanced measurement techniques has been very scarce in Shanghai. During 2010 Shanghai World Expo, we deployed a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS and a single particle soot photometer (SP2 in urban Shanghai between 15 May and 10 June 2010 to measure fine particles with a high time resolution. The 4-min resolution PM1 mass concentration ranged from 5.5 to 155 μg m−3, with an average of 29.2 μg m−3. On average, sulfate and organic matter (OM were the most abundant PM1 components, accounting for 33.3 and 28.7% of the total mass, respectively, while the fraction of nitrate showed an increasing trend with the increasing PM1 loading, indicating the photochemical nature of high fine particle pollution in Shanghai. Taking advantage of HR-ToF-AMS and SP2, OM was found to have an average OM/OC ratio (organic matter mass/organic carbon mass of 1.55 and black carbon (BC had an average number fraction of internally mixed BC of 41.2%. Positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis on the high resolution organic mass spectral dataset identified a hydrocarbon-like (HOA, a semi-volatile oxygenated (SV-OOA, and a low-volatility oxygenated (LV-OOA organic aerosol component, which on average accounted for 24.0, 46.8, and 29.2% of the total organic mass, respectively. The diurnal patterns of them with interesting time delay possibly implied a photochemical oxidizing process from HOA (and/or its concurrently emitted gaseous organic pollutants to SV-OOA to LV-OOA. Back trajectory analysis indicated that the northwesterly continental air mass represented the

  3. ACTRIS ACSM intercomparison – Part 2: Intercomparison of ME-2 organic source apportionment results from 15 individual, co-located aerosol mass spectrometers

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    R. Fröhlich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemically resolved atmospheric aerosol data sets from the largest intercomparison of the Aerodyne aerosol chemical speciation monitors (ACSM performed to date were collected at the French atmospheric supersite SIRTA. In total 13 quadrupole ACSMs (Q-ACSM from the European ACTRIS ACSM network, one time-of-flight ACSM (ToF-ACSM, and one high-resolution ToF aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS were operated in parallel for about three weeks in November and December 2013. Part 1 of this study reports on the accuracy and precision of the instruments for all the measured species. In this work we report on the intercomparison of organic components and the results from factor analysis source apportionment by positive matrix factorisation (PMF utilising the multilinear engine 2 (ME-2. Except for the organic contribution of m/z 44 to the total organics (f44, which varied by factors between 0.6 and 1.3 compared to the mean, the peaks in the organic mass spectra were similar among instruments. The m/z 44 differences in the spectra resulted in a variable f44 in the source profiles extracted by ME-2, but had only a minor influence on the extracted mass contributions of the sources. The presented source apportionment yielded four factors for all 15 instruments: hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA, cooking-related organic aerosol (COA, biomass burning-related organic aerosol (BBOA and secondary oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA. Individual application and optimisation of the ME-2 boundary conditions (profile constraints are discussed together with the investigation of the influence of alternative anchors (reference profiles. A comparison of the ME-2 source apportionment output of all 15 instruments resulted in relative SD from the mean between 13.7 and 22.7% of the source's average mass contribution depending on the factors (HOA: 14.3 ± 2.2%, COA: 15.0 ± 3.4%, OOA: 41.5 ± 5.7%, BBOA: 29.3 ± 5.0%. Factors which tend to be subject to minor factor mixing (in this

  4. Genome-wide association and functional studies identify a role for IGFBP3 in hip osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.S. Evans (Daniel); F. Cailotto (Frederic); N. Parimi (Neeta); A.M. Valdes (Ana Maria); M.C. Castaño Betancourt (Martha); Y. Liu (Youfang); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); M. Bidlingmaier (Martin); R.S. Vasan (Ramachandran Srini); A. Teumer (Alexander); G.J. Tranah (Gregory); M.C. Nevitt (Michael); S. Cummings; E.S. Orwoll (Eric); E. Barrett-Connor (Elizabeth); J.B. Renner (Jordan); J.M. Jordan (Joanne); M. Doherty (Michael); S. Doherty (Sally); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); T.D. Spector (Timothy); R.J. Lories (Rik); N.E. Lane

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjectives To identify genetic associations with hip osteoarthritis (HOA), we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of HOA. Methods The GWAS meta-analysis included approximately 2.5 million imputed HapMap single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). HOA cases and

  5. Comparison of higher order aberrations after wavefront-guided LASIK and PRK: One year follow-up results

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    Seyed Hamid Reza Jahadi Hosseini

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: For the 6mm pupil size, the total HOA increased following both personalized PRK and LASIK with no significant difference between the two groups. Change of the total HOA RMS was influenced by the preoperative values. The known influencing factors could predict nearly 50% of the changes in total HOA.

  6. Higher order antibunching and subpossonian photon statistics in five wave mixing process

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Amit

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility of observing higher order antibunching (HOA) and higher order subpossonian photon statistics (HOSPS) in five wave mixing and third harmonic generation process. It had been shown that both processes satisfy the criteria of HOA and HOSPS. Further, some observations on the nature of interaction which produces HOA and HOSPS are reported.

  7. Potential contribution of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility primary organic compounds to secondary organic aerosol in the Mexico City region

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    A. Hodzic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that observed local and regional levels of secondary organic aerosols (SOA in polluted areas cannot be explained by the oxidation and partitioning of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC precursors, at least using current mechanisms and parameterizations. In this study, the 3-D regional air quality model CHIMERE is applied to quantify the contribution to SOA formation of recently identified semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic vapors (S/IVOC in and around Mexico City for the MILAGRO field experiment during March 2006. The model has been updated to include explicitly the volatility distribution of primary organic aerosols (POA, their gas-particle partitioning and the gas-phase oxidation of the vapors. Two recently proposed parameterizations, those of Robinson et al. (2007 ("ROB" and Grieshop et al. (2009 ("GRI" are compared and evaluated against surface and aircraft measurements. The 3-D model results are assessed by comparing with the concentrations of OA components from Positive Matrix Factorization of Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS data, and for the first time also with oxygen-to-carbon ratios derived from high-resolution AMS measurements.

    The results show a substantial enhancement in predicted SOA concentrations (3–6 times with respect to the previously published base case without S/IVOCs (Hodzic et al., 2009, both within and downwind of the city leading to much reduced discrepancies with the total OA measurements. The predicted anthropogenic POA levels are found to agree within 20% with the observed HOA concentrations for both the ROB and GRI simulations, consistent with the interpretation of the emissions inventory by previous studies. The impact of biomass burning POA within the city is underestimated in comparison to the AMS BBOA, presumably due to insufficient nighttime smoldering emissions. Model improvements in OA predictions are associated with the better-captured SOA magnitude and diurnal

  8. Modeling regional secondary organic aerosol using the Master Chemical Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingyi; Cleveland, Meredith; Ziemba, Luke D.; Griffin, Robert J.; Barsanti, Kelley C.; Pankow, James F.; Ying, Qi

    2015-02-01

    A modified near-explicit Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM, version 3.2) with 5727 species and 16,930 reactions and an equilibrium partitioning module was incorporated into the Community Air Quality Model (CMAQ) to predict the regional concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the eastern United States (US). In addition to the semi-volatile SOA from equilibrium partitioning, reactive surface uptake processes were used to simulate SOA formation due to isoprene epoxydiol, glyoxal and methylglyoxal. The CMAQ-MCM-SOA model was applied to simulate SOA formation during a two-week episode from August 28 to September 7, 2006. The southeastern US has the highest SOA, with a maximum episode-averaged concentration of ∼12 μg m-3. Primary organic aerosol (POA) and SOA concentrations predicted by CMAQ-MCM-SOA agree well with AMS-derived hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) urban concentrations at the Moody Tower at the University of Houston. Predicted molecular properties of SOA (O/C, H/C, N/C and OM/OC ratios) at the site are similar to those reported in other urban areas, and O/C values agree with measured O/C at the same site. Isoprene epoxydiol is predicted to be the largest contributor to total SOA concentration in the southeast US, followed by methylglyoxal and glyoxal. The semi-volatile SOA components are dominated by products from β-caryophyllene oxidation, but the major species and their concentrations are sensitive to errors in saturation vapor pressure estimation. A uniform decrease of saturation vapor pressure by a factor of 100 for all condensable compounds can lead to a 150% increase in total SOA. A sensitivity simulation with UNIFAC-calculated activity coefficients (ignoring phase separation and water molecule partitioning into the organic phase) led to a 10% change in the predicted semi-volatile SOA concentrations.

  9. Aerosol Simulation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MCMA2003 using CMAQ/Models3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, N.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; de Foy, B.; Molina, L.

    2007-12-01

    CMAQ/Models3 has been employed to simulate the aerosol distribution and variation during the period from 13 to 16 April 2003 over the Mexico City Metropolitan Area as part of MCMA-2003 campaign. The meteorological fields are simulated using MM5, with three one-way nested grids with horizontal resolutions of 36, 12 and 3 km and 23 sigma levels in the vertical. MM5 3DVAR system has also been incorporated into the meteorological simulations. Chemical initial and boundary conditions are interpolated from the MOZART output. The SAPRC emission inventory is developed based on the official emission inventory for MCMA in 2004. The simulated mass concentrations of different aerosol compositions, such as elemental carbon (EC), primary organic aerosol (POA), secondary organic aerosol (SOA), nitrate, ammonium, and sulfate have been compared to the measurements taken at the National Center for Environmental Research and Training (Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental, CENICA) super-site. Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) are used as observations of POA and SOA, respectively in this study. The preliminary model results show that the temporal evolutions of EC and POA are reasonable compared with measurements. The peak time of EC and POA are basically reproduced, thus validating the emission inventory and its processing through CMAQ/Models3. But the magnitude of EC and POA are underestimated over the entire episode. The modeled nitrate and ammonium concentrations are overestimated on most of the days. There is 1-2 hour difference between the simulated peak time of nitrate and ammonium aerosols compared to observations at CENICA. The simulated mass concentrations of SOA and sulfate are significantly underestimated. The reasons of the discrepancy between simulations and measurements are due to the uncertainties existing in the emission inventory, meteorological fields, and as well as aerosol formation mechanism in the case

  10. Source apportionment of size and time resolved trace elements and organic aerosols from an urban courtyard site in Switzerland

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    A. Richard

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Time and size resolved data of trace elements were obtained from measurements with a rotating drum impactor (RDI and subsequent X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Trace elements can act as indicators for the identification of sources of particulate matter <10 μm (PM10 in ambient air. Receptor modeling was performed with positive matrix factorization (PMF for trace element data from an urban background site in Zürich, Switzerland. Eight different sources were identified for the three examined size ranges (PM1−0.1, PM2.5−1 and PM10−2.5: secondary sulfate, wood combustion, fire works, road traffic, mineral dust, de-icing salt, industrial and local anthropogenic activities. The major component was secondary sulfate for the smallest size range; the road traffic factor was found in all three size ranges. This trace element analysis is complemented with data from an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, assessing the PM1 fraction of organic aerosols. A separate PMF analysis revealed three factors related to three of the sources found with the RDI: oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA, related to inorganic secondary sulfate, hydrocarbon like organic aerosol (HOA, related to road traffic and biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA, explaining 60%, 22% and 17% of total measured organics, respectively. Since different compounds are used for the source classification, a higher percentage of the ambient PM10 mass concentration can be apportioned to sources by the combination of both methods.

  11. Source apportionment of size and time resolved trace elements and organic aerosols from an urban courtyard site in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Richard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Time and size resolved data of trace elements were obtained from measurements with a rotating drum impactor (RDI and subsequent X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Trace elements can act as indicators for the identification of sources of particulate matter <10 μm (PM10 in ambient air. Receptor modeling was performed with positive matrix factorization (PMF for trace element data from an urban background site in Zürich, Switzerland. Eight different sources were identified for the three examined size ranges (PM1−0.1, PM2.5−1 and PM10−2.5: secondary sulfate, wood combustion, fire works, road traffic, mineral dust, de-icing salt, industrial and local anthropogenic activities. The major component was secondary sulfate for the smallest size range; the road traffic factor was found in all three size ranges. This trace element analysis is complemented with data from an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, assessing the PM1 fraction of organic aerosols. A separate PMF analysis revealed three factors related to three of the sources found with the RDI: oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA, related to inorganic secondary sulfate, hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA, related to road traffic and biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA, explaining 60 %, 22 % and 17 % of total measured organics, respectively. Since different compounds are used for the source classification, a higher percentage of the ambient PM10 mass concentration can be apportioned to sources by the combination of both methods.

  12. Emission and chemistry of organic carbon in the gas and aerosol phase at a sub-urban site near Mexico City in March 2006 during the MILAGRO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. de Gouw

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs and carbonaceous aerosol were measured at a sub-urban site near Mexico City in March of 2006 during the MILAGRO study (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Objectives. Diurnal variations of hydrocarbons, elemental carbon (EC and hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA were dominated by a high peak in the early morning when local emissions accumulated in a shallow boundary layer, and a minimum in the afternoon when the emissions were diluted in a significantly expanded boundary layer and, in case of the reactive gases, removed by OH. In comparison, diurnal variations of species with secondary sources such as the aldehydes, ketones, oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC stayed relatively high in the afternoon indicating strong photochemical formation. Emission ratios of many hydrocarbon species relative to CO were higher in Mexico City than in the US, but we found similar emission ratios for most oxygenated VOCs and organic aerosol. Secondary formation of acetone may be more efficient in Mexico City than in the US, due to higher emissions of alkane precursors from the use of liquefied petroleum gas. Secondary formation of organic aerosol was similar between Mexico City and the US. Combining the data for all measured gas and aerosol species, we describe the budget of total observed organic carbon (TOOC, and find that the enhancement ratio of TOOC relative to CO is conserved between the early morning and mid afternoon despite large compositional changes. Finally, the influence of biomass burning is investigated using the measurements of acetonitrile, which was found to correlate with levoglucosan in the particle phase. Diurnal variations of acetonitrile indicate a contribution from local burning sources. Scatter plots of acetonitrile versus CO suggest that the contribution of biomass burning to the enhancement of most gas and aerosol species was not dominant and perhaps not

  13. Emission and Chemistry of Organic Carbon in the Gas and Aerosol Phase at a Sub-Urban Site Near Mexico City in March 2006 During the MILAGRO Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Gouw, Joost A.; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; Warneke, Carsten; Kuster, W. C.; Alexander, M. L.; Baker, Angela K.; Beyersdorf, Andreas J.; Blake, D. R.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Celada, A. T.; Huey, L. G.; Junkermann, W.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Salcido, A.; Sjostedt, S. J.; Sullivan, Amy; Tanner, David J.; Vargas-Ortiz, Leroy; Weber, R. J.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2009-05-28

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonaceous aerosol were measured at a sub-urban site near Mexico City in March of 2006 during the MILAGRO study (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Objectives). Diurnal variations of hydrocarbons, elemental carbon (EC) and hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) were dominated by a high peak in the early morning when local emissions accumulated in a shallow boundary layer, and a minimum in the afternoon when the emissions were diluted in a significantly expanded boundary layer and, in case of the reactive gases, removed by OH. In comparison, diurnal variations of species with secondary sources such as the aldehydes, ketones, oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) stayed relatively high in the afternoon indicating strong photochemical formation. Emission ratios of many hydrocarbon species relative to CO were higher in Mexico City than in the U.S., but we found similar emission ratios for most oxygenated VOCs and organic aerosol. Secondary formation of acetone may be more efficient in Mexico City than in the U.S., due to higher emissions of alkane precursors from the use of liquefied petroleum gas. Secondary formation of organic aerosol was similar between Mexico City and the U.S. Combining the data for all measured gas and aerosol species, we describe the budget of total observed organic carbon (TOOC), and find that the enhancement ratio of TOOC relative to CO is conserved between the early morning and mid afternoon despite large compositional changes. Finally, the influence of biomass burning is investigated using the measurements of acetonitrile, which was found to correlate with levoglucosan in the particle phase. Diurnal variations of acetonitrile indicate a contribution from local burning sources. Scatter plots of acetonitrile versus CO suggest that the contribution of biomass burning to the enhancement of most gas and aerosol species was not dominant and perhaps not dissimilar

  14. Submicron particle mass concentrations and sources in the Amazonian wet season (AMAZE-08)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Q.; Farmer, D. K.; Rizzo, L. V.; Pauliqueivis, T.; Kuwata, Mikinori; Karl, Thomas G.; Guenther, Alex B.; Allan, James D.; Coe, H.; Andreae, M. O.; Poeschl, U.; Jiminez, J. L.; Artaxo, Paulo; Martin, Scot T.

    2015-01-01

    Real-time mass spectra of non-refractory component of submicron aerosol particles were recorded in a tropical rainforest in the central Amazon basin during the wet season of 2008, as a part of the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08). Organic components accounted on average for more than 80% of the non-refractory submicron particle mass concentrations during the period of measurements. Ammonium was present in sufficient quantities to halfway neutralize sulfate. In this acidic, isoprene-dominated, low-NOx environment the high-resolution mass spectra as well as mass closures with ion chromatography measurements did not provide evidence for significant contributions of organosulfate species, at least at concentrations above uncertainty levels. Positive-matrix factorization of the time series of particle mass spectra identified four statistical factors to account for the variance of the signal intensities of the organic constituents: a factor HOA having a hydrocarbon-like signature and identified as regional emissions of primary organic material, a factor OOA-1 associated with fresh production of secondary organic material by a mechanism of BVOC oxidation followed by gas-to-particle conversion, a factor OOA-2 consistent with reactive uptake of isoprene oxidation products, especially epoxydiols by acidic particles, and a factor OOA-3 associated with long range transport and atmospheric aging. The OOA-1, -2, and -3 factors had progressively more oxidized signatures. Diameter-resolved mass spectral markers also suggested enhanced reactive uptake of isoprene oxidation products to the accumulation mode for the OOA-2 factor, and such size partitioning can be indicative of in-cloud process. The campaign-average factor loadings were in a ratio of 1.1:1.0 for the OOA-1 compared to the OOA-2 pathway, suggesting the comparable importance of gas-phase compared to particle-phase (including cloud waters) production pathways of secondary organic material during

  15. Characterization of urban aerosol in Cork City (Ireland using aerosol mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dall'Osto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ambient wintertime background urban aerosol in Cork City, Ireland, was characterized using aerosol mass spectrometry. During the three-week measurement study in 2009, 93% of the 1 200 000 single particles characterized by an Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TSI ATOFMS were classified into five organic-rich particle types, internally-mixed to different proportions with Elemental Carbon (EC, sulphate and nitrate while the remaining 7% was predominantly inorganic in nature. Non-refractory PM1 aerosol was also characterized using a High Resolution Time-Of-Flight Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS and was also found to comprise organic matter as the most abundant species (62%, followed by nitrate (15%, sulphate (9% and ammonium (9%, and then chloride (5%.

    Positive matrix factorization (PMF was applied to the HR-ToF-AMS organic matrix and a five-factor solution was found to describe the variance in the data well. Specifically, "Hydrocarbon-like" Organic Aerosol (HOA comprised 19% of the mass, "Oxygenated low volatility" Organic Aerosols (LV-OOA comprised 19%, "Biomass wood Burning" Organic Aerosol (BBOA comprised 23%, non-wood solid-fuel combustion "Peat and Coal" Organic Aerosol (PCOA comprised 21%, and finally, a species type characterized by primary m/z peaks at 41 and 55, similar to previously-reported "Cooking" Organic Aerosol (COA but possessing different diurnal variations to what would be expected for cooking activities, contributed 18%. Despite wood, cool and peat being minor fuel types used for domestic space heating in urban areas, their relatively low combustion efficiencies result in a significant contribution to PM1 aerosol mass (44% and 28% of the total organic aerosols mass and non refractory PM1, respectively.

  16. Characterization of urban aerosol in Cork city (Ireland using aerosol mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dall'Osto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ambient wintertime background urban aerosol in Cork city, Ireland, was characterized using aerosol mass spectrometry. During the three-week measurement study in 2009, 93% of the ca. 1 350 000 single particles characterized by an Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TSI ATOFMS were classified into five organic-rich particle types, internally mixed to different proportions with elemental carbon (EC, sulphate and nitrate, while the remaining 7% was predominantly inorganic in nature. Non-refractory PM1 aerosol was characterized using a High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS and was also found to comprise organic aerosol as the most abundant species (62%, followed by nitrate (15%, sulphate (9% and ammonium (9%, and chloride (5%. Positive matrix factorization (PMF was applied to the HR-ToF-AMS organic matrix, and a five-factor solution was found to describe the variance in the data well. Specifically, "hydrocarbon-like" organic aerosol (HOA comprised 20% of the mass, "low-volatility" oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA comprised 18%, "biomass burning" organic aerosol (BBOA comprised 23%, non-wood solid-fuel combustion "peat and coal" organic aerosol (PCOA comprised 21%, and finally a species type characterized by primary extit{m/z}~peaks at 41 and 55, similar to previously reported "cooking" organic aerosol (COA, but possessing different diurnal variations to what would be expected for cooking activities, contributed 18%. Correlations between the different particle types obtained by the two aerosol mass spectrometers are also discussed. Despite wood, coal and peat being minor fuel types used for domestic space heating in urban areas, their relatively low combustion efficiencies result in a significant contribution to PM1 aerosol mass (44% and 28% of the total organic aerosol mass and non-refractory total PM1, respectively.

  17. Formation of secondary organic aerosols from gas-phase emissions of heated cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tengyu; Li, Zijun; Chan, ManNin; Chan, Chak K.

    2017-06-01

    Cooking emissions can potentially contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) but remain poorly understood. In this study, formation of SOA from gas-phase emissions of five heated vegetable oils (i.e., corn, canola, sunflower, peanut and olive oils) was investigated in a potential aerosol mass (PAM) chamber. Experiments were conducted at 19-20 °C and 65-70 % relative humidity (RH). The characterization instruments included a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS). The efficiency of SOA production, in ascending order, was peanut oil, olive oil, canola oil, corn oil and sunflower oil. The major SOA precursors from heated cooking oils were related to the content of monounsaturated fat and omega-6 fatty acids in cooking oils. The average production rate of SOA, after aging at an OH exposure of 1. 7 × 1011 molecules cm-3 s, was 1. 35 ± 0. 30 µg min-1, 3 orders of magnitude lower compared with emission rates of fine particulate matter (PM2. 5) from heated cooking oils in previous studies. The mass spectra of cooking SOA highly resemble field-derived COA (cooking-related organic aerosol) in ambient air, with R2 ranging from 0.74 to 0.88. The average carbon oxidation state (OSc) of SOA was -1.51 to -0.81, falling in the range between ambient hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and semi-volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SV-OOA), indicating that SOA in these experiments was lightly oxidized.

  18. Emission and chemistry of organic carbon in the gas and aerosol phase at a sub-urban site near Mexico City in March 2006 during the MILAGRO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. de Gouw

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs and carbonaceous aerosol were measured at a sub-urban site near Mexico City in March of 2006 during the MILAGRO study (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Objectives. Diurnal variations of hydrocarbons, elemental carbon (EC and hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA were dominated by a high peak in the early morning when local emissions accumulated in a shallow boundary layer, and a minimum in the afternoon when the emissions were diluted in a significantly expanded boundary layer and, in case of the reactive gases, removed by OH. In comparison, diurnal variations of species with secondary sources such as the aldehydes, ketones, oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC stayed relatively high in the afternoon indicating strong photochemical formation. Emission ratios of many hydrocarbon species relative to CO were higher in Mexico City than in the U.S., but we found similar emission ratios for most oxygenated VOCs and organic aerosol. Secondary formation of acetone may be more efficient in Mexico City than in the U.S., due to higher emissions of alkane precursors from the use of liquefied petroleum gas. Secondary formation of organic aerosol was similar between Mexico City and the U.S. Combining the data for all measured gas and aerosol species, we describe the budget of total observed organic carbon (TOOC, and find that the enhancement ratio of TOOC relative to CO is conserved between the early morning and mid afternoon despite large compositional changes. Finally, the influence of biomass burning is investigated using the measurements of acetonitrile, which was found to correlate with levoglucosan in the particle phase. Diurnal variations of acetonitrile indicate a contribution from local burning sources. Scatter plots of acetonitrile versus CO suggest that the contribution of biomass burning to the enhancement of most gas and aerosol species was not dominant and perhaps

  19. Three-dimensional factorization of size-resolved organic aerosol mass spectra from Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Ulbrich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A size-resolved submicron organic aerosol composition dataset from a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS collected in Mexico City during the MILAGRO campaign in March 2006 is analyzed using 3-dimensional (3-D factorization models. A method for estimating the precision of the size-resolved composition data for use with the factorization models is presented here for the first time. Two 3-D models are applied to the dataset. One model is a 3-vector decomposition (PARAFAC model, which assumes that each chemical component has a constant size distribution over all time steps. The second model is a vector-matrix decomposition (Tucker 1 model that allows a chemical component to have a size distribution that varies in time. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an application of 3-D factorization models to data from fast aerosol instrumentation, and the first application of this vector-matrix model to any ambient aerosol dataset. A larger number of degrees of freedom in the vector-matrix model enable fitting real variations in factor size distributions, but also make the model susceptible to fitting noise in the dataset, giving some unphysical results. For this dataset and model, more physically meaningful results were obtained by partially constraining the factor mass spectra using a priori information and a new regularization method. We find four factors with each model: hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA, biomass-burning organic aerosol (BBOA, oxidized organic aerosol (OOA, and a locally occurring organic aerosol (LOA. These four factors have previously been reported from 2-dimensional factor analysis of the high-resolution mass spectral dataset from this study. The size distributions of these four factors are consistent with previous reports for these particle types. Both 3-D models produce useful results, but the vector-matrix model captures real variability in the size distributions that cannot be captured by the

  20. Three-dimensional factorization of size-resolved organic aerosol mass spectra from Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Ulbrich

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A size-resolved submicron organic aerosol composition dataset from a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS collected in Mexico City during the MILAGRO campaign in March 2006 is analyzed using 3-dimensional (3-D factorization models. A method for estimating the precision of the size-resolved composition data for use with the factorization models is presented here for the first time. Two 3-D models are applied to the dataset. One model is a 3-vector decomposition (PARAFAC model, which assumes that each chemical component has a constant size distribution over all time steps. The second model is a vector-matrix decomposition (Tucker 1 model that allows a chemical component to have a size distribution that varies in time. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an application of 3-D factorization models to data from fast aerosol instrumentation; it is also the first application of this vector-matrix model to any ambient aerosol dataset. A larger number of degrees of freedom in the vector-matrix model enable fitting real variations in factor size distributions, but also make the model susceptible to fitting noise in the dataset, giving some unphysical results. For this dataset and model, more physical results were obtained by partially constraining the factor mass spectra using a priori information and a new regularization method. We find four factors with each model: hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA, biomass-burning organic aerosol (BBOA, oxidized organic aerosol (OOA, and a locally occurring organic aerosol (LOA. These four factors have previously been reported from 2-dimensional factor analysis of the high-resolution mass spectral dataset from this study. The size distributions of these four factors are consistent with previous reports for these particle types. Both 3-D models produce useful results, but the vector-matrix model captures real variability in the size distributions that cannot be captured by the 3

  1. The 2005 Study of Organic Aerosols at Riverside (SOAR-1: instrumental intercomparisons and fine particle composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Docherty

    2011-12-01

    rush hour and maximum of 0.42 during the afternoon. O/C is broadly anti-correlated with H/C, while N/C and S/C (excluding organonitrate (ON and organosulfate (OS functionalities are far lower than O/C at about 0.015 and ~0.001, respectively. When ON and OS estimates are included O/C, N/C, and S/C increase by factors of 1.21, 2, and 30, respectively, while H/C changes are insignificant. The increase in these ratios implies that ON accounts for ~1/2 of the organic nitrogen while OS dominate organic sulfur at this location. Accounting for the estimated ON and OS also improves the agreement between anions and cations measured by HR-AMS by ~8%, while amines have only a very small impact (1% on this balance. Finally, a number of primary and secondary OA components were resolved by PMF. Among these a hydrocarbon-like OA and two minor, local OA components, one of which was associated with amines, were attributed to primary emissions and contributed a minor fraction (~20% of OA mass. The remaining OA mass was attributed to a number of secondary oxidized OA (OOA components including the previously-identified low-volatility and semi-volatile OOA components. In addition, we also report for the first time the presence of two additional OOA components.

  2. Effect of higher-order aberrations and intraocular scatter on contrast sensitivity measured with a single instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junlei; Xiao, Fei; Zhao, Haoxin; Dai, Yun; Zhang, Yudong

    2017-01-01

    Higher-order aberrations (HOAs) and intraocular scatter lead to the degradation of image quality on the retina, and consequently deteriorate subjective visual performance. In this article, we modified an adaptive optics double-pass system to combine objective and subjective visual testing capabilities. Employing the modified DP system, we investigated the effects of HOAs and intraocular scatter on contrast sensitivity. Contrast sensitivity measurements were performed with HOAs either retained or corrected by adaptive optics, and with scatter either remaining at the natural eye-induced level or further enhanced by a set of three different scatter filters. Contrast sensitivity was found to be worse when HOAs were uncorrected or scatter increased. Quantitative analysis indicated that the joint effect of HOAs and scatter on contrast sensitivity was not a simple summation of each contributing factor, suggesting a potential compensatory mechanism between HOAs and intraocular scatter on contrast sensitivity. PMID:28736660

  3. Increased internal higher-order aberrations as a useful parameter for indication of vitrectomy in three asteroid hyalosis cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Sho; Kojima, Takashi; Kaga, Tatsushi; Ichikawa, Kazuo

    2015-12-23

    We report three asteroid hyalosis cases in which internal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) were improved concomitant with improved visual symptoms after vitrectomy. Cases 1 and 2 reported severe floaters and glare disability, although their visual acuities were fairly good. Case 3 showed poor visual acuity since this patient also suffered from mild macular degeneration. For these three asteroid hyalosis cases, we were unsure if treatment with vitrectomy could improve visual symptoms. Therefore, we measured internal HOAs with an aberrometer, and found that the internal HOA values in these cases were high. We suspected that internal high HOAs values were associated with visual disturbance, and performed vitrectomy. After the vitrectomy, the internal HOA values in these three asteroid hyalosis cases markedly decreased, and visual symptoms improved. These observations suggested that measurement of internal HOAs may be useful to determine the indication for vitrectomy. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. Which optical processes are suitable to make probabilistic single photon sources for quantum cryptography?

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Amit

    2009-01-01

    Single photon sources to be used in quantum cryptography must show higher order antibunching (HOA). HOA is reported by us in several many wave mixing processes. In the present work we have investigated the possibility of observing HOA in multiwave mixing processes in general. The generalized Hamiltonian is solved for several particular cases in Heisenberg picture and possibility of observing HOA is investigated with the help of criterion of Pathak and Garcia. Several particular cases of the generalized Hamiltonian are solved with the help of short time approximation technique and HOA is reported for pump modes of different multiwave mixing processes. It is also found that HOA can not be observed for the signal and stokes modes in of the cases studied here.

  5. Interrelationship between temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (OA) and cervical spine pain: Effects of intra-articular injection with hyaluronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarda-Nardini, Luca; Cadorin, Cristina; Frizziero, Antonio; Masiero, Stefano; Manfredini, Daniele

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate cervical spine pain and function after five sessions of viscosupplementation with hyaluronic acid (HA) in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis. Forty-nine patients, (79% females, aged between 43-81 years), affected by TMJ osteoarthritis and concurrent cervical spine pain and limited function were recruited. All patients underwent a cycle of five weekly arthrocenteses and viscosupplementation with 1 ml of medium molecular weight HA according to the single-needle arthrocentesis technique. Outcome variables were TMJ pain (VAS), cervical active ranges of motion, cervical disability (NPDS), and presence of painful palpation sites. Assessments were carried out at baseline and at one, three and six months after the end of treatment protocol. A significant reduction over time was shown both in TMJ pain levels and in NPDS values with respect to baseline (p < 0.001). Most parameters of active cervical range of motion showed an improvement with time. Benefits remained stable throughout six months after the viscosupplementation protocol. A protocol of TMJ intra articular arthrocentesis and viscosupplementation improved cervical function and reduced disability in patients with concurrent cervical spine pain. These findings add to the complex amount of literature on the relationship between temporomandibular disorders and cervical spine disorders.

  6. Systems and Trans-System Level Analysis Identifies Conserved Iron Deficiency Responses in the Plant Lineage[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzica, Eugen I.; Casero, David; Yamasaki, Hiroaki; Hsieh, Scott I.; Adler, Lital N.; Karpowicz, Steven J.; Blaby-Haas, Crysten E.; Clarke, Steven G.; Loo, Joseph A.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S.

    2012-01-01

    We surveyed the iron nutrition-responsive transcriptome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using RNA-Seq methodology. Presumed primary targets were identified in comparisons between visually asymptomatic iron-deficient versus iron-replete cells. This includes the known components of high-affinity iron uptake as well as candidates for distributive iron transport in C. reinhardtii. Comparison of growth-inhibited iron-limited versus iron-replete cells revealed changes in the expression of genes in chloroplastic oxidative stress response pathways, among hundreds of other genes. The output from the transcriptome was validated at multiple levels: by quantitative RT-PCR for assessing the data analysis pipeline, by quantitative proteomics for assessing the impact of changes in RNA abundance on the proteome, and by cross-species comparison for identifying conserved or universal response pathways. In addition, we assessed the functional importance of three target genes, VITAMIN C 2 (VTC2), MONODEHYDROASCORBATE REDUCTASE 1 (MDAR1), and CONSERVED IN THE GREEN LINEAGE AND DIATOMS 27 (CGLD27), by biochemistry or reverse genetics. VTC2 and MDAR1, which are key enzymes in de novo ascorbate synthesis and ascorbate recycling, respectively, are likely responsible for the 10-fold increase in ascorbate content of iron-limited cells. CGLD27/At5g67370 is a highly conserved, presumed chloroplast-localized pioneer protein and is important for growth of Arabidopsis thaliana in low iron. PMID:23043051

  7. Systems Biology Approach in Chlamydomonas Reveals Connections between Copper Nutrition and Multiple Metabolic Steps[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castruita, Madeli; Casero, David; Karpowicz, Steven J.; Kropat, Janette; Vieler, Astrid; Hsieh, Scott I.; Yan, Weihong; Cokus, Shawn; Loo, Joseph A.; Benning, Christoph; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we query the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii copper regulon at a whole-genome level. Our RNA-Seq data simulation and analysis pipeline validated a 2-fold cutoff and 10 RPKM (reads per kilobase of mappable length per million mapped reads) (~1 mRNA per cell) to reveal 63 CRR1 targets plus another 86 copper-responsive genes. Proteomic and immunoblot analyses captured 25% of the corresponding proteins, whose abundance was also dependent on copper nutrition, validating transcriptional regulation as a major control mechanism for copper signaling in Chlamydomonas. The impact of copper deficiency on the expression of several O2-dependent enzymes included steps in lipid modification pathways. Quantitative lipid profiles indicated increased polyunsaturation of fatty acids on thylakoid membrane digalactosyldiglycerides, indicating a global impact of copper deficiency on the photosynthetic apparatus. Discovery of a putative plastid copper chaperone and a membrane protease in the thylakoid suggest a mechanism for blocking copper utilization in the chloroplast. We also found an example of copper sparing in the N assimilation pathway: the replacement of copper amine oxidase by a flavin-dependent backup enzyme. Forty percent of the targets are previously uncharacterized proteins, indicating considerable potential for new discovery in the biology of copper. PMID:21498682

  8. Involvement of a Broccoli COQ5 Methyltransferase in the Production of Volatile Selenium Compounds[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Yuan, Youxi; Yang, Yong; Rutzke, Michael; Thannhauser, Theodore W.; Kochian, Leon V.; Li, Li

    2009-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for animals and humans but becomes toxic at high dosage. Biologically based Se volatilization, which converts Se into volatile compounds, provides an important means for cleanup of Se-polluted environments. To identify novel genes whose products are involved in Se volatilization from plants, a broccoli (Brassica oleracea var italica) cDNA encoding COQ5 methyltransferase (BoCOQ5-2) in the ubiquinone biosynthetic pathway was isolated. Its function was authenticated by complementing a yeast coq5 mutant and by detecting increased cellular ubiquinone levels in the BoCOQ5-2-transformed bacteria. BoCOQ5-2 was found to promote Se volatilization in both bacteria and transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants. Bacteria expressing BoCOQ5-2 produced an over 160-fold increase in volatile Se compounds when they were exposed to selenate. Consequently, the BoCOQ5-2-transformed bacteria had dramatically enhanced tolerance to selenate and a reduced level of Se accumulation. Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing BoCOQ5-2 volatilized three times more Se than the vector-only control plants when treated with selenite and exhibited an increased tolerance to Se. In addition, the BoCOQ5-2 transgenic plants suppressed the generation of reactive oxygen species induced by selenite. BoCOQ5-2 represents, to our knowledge, the first plant enzyme that is not known to be directly involved in sulfur/Se metabolism yet was found to mediate Se volatilization. This discovery opens up new prospects regarding our understanding of the complete metabolism of Se and may lead to ways to modify Se-accumulator plants with increased efficiency for phytoremediation of Se-contaminated environments. PMID:19656903

  9. OA 2014-5 Dataset - Limited Entry and Open Access cost earnings survey collecting 2014-15 data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project collects economic data from vessel owners participating in the West Coast limited entry fixed gear and open access groundfish, salmon, crab, and shrimp...

  10. Atlantic Ocean Acidification Test-Bed -- OA Time-Series, Cheeca Rocks, Florida Reef Tract FY2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AOAT project is engaged in monitoring/modeling efforts designed to: a) establish methodologies for monitoring, assessing, and modeling the impacts of Ocean...

  11. Xylella fastidiosa Infection and Ethylene Exposure Result in Xylem and Water Movement Disruption in Grapevine Shoots1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Donoso, Alonso G.; Greve, L. Carl; Walton, Jeffrey H.; Shackel, Ken A.; Labavitch, John M.

    2007-01-01

    It is conventionally thought that multiplication of the xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) within xylem vessels is the sole factor responsible for the blockage of water movement in grapevines (Vitis vinifera) affected by Pierce's disease. However, results from our studies have provided substantial support for the idea that vessel obstructions, and likely other aspects of the Pierce's disease syndrome, result from the grapevine's active responses to the presence of Xf, rather than to the direct action of the bacterium. The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to observe the distribution of water within the xylem has allowed us to follow nondestructively the development of vascular system obstructions subsequent to inoculation of grapevines with Xf. Because we have hypothesized a role for ethylene produced in vines following infection, the impact of vine ethylene exposure on obstruction development was also followed using MRI. In both infected and ethylene-exposed plants, MRI shows that an important proportion of the xylem vessels become progressively air embolized after the treatments. The loss of xylem water-transporting function, assessed by MRI, has been also correlated with a decrease in stem-specific hydraulic conductivity (KS) and the presence of tyloses in the lumens of obstructed water conduits. We have observed that the ethylene production of leaves from infected grapevines is greater than that from healthy vines and, therefore, propose that ethylene may be involved in a series of cellular events that coordinates the vine's response to the pathogen. PMID:17189331

  12. Ethylene and Not Embolism Is Required for Wound-Induced Tylose Development in Stems of Grapevines1[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Rost, Thomas L.; Reid, Michael S.; Matthews, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    The pruning of actively growing grapevines (Vitis vinifera) resulted in xylem vessel embolisms and a stimulation of tylose formation in the vessels below the pruning wound. Pruning was also followed by a 10-fold increase in the concentration of ethylene at the cut surface. When the pruning cut was made under water and maintained in water, embolisms were prevented, but there was no reduction in the formation of tyloses or the accumulation of ethylene. Treatment of the stems with inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis (aminoethoxyvinylglycine) and/or action (silver thiosulfate) delayed and greatly reduced the formation of tyloses in xylem tissue and the size and number of those that formed in individual vessels. Our data are consistent with the hypotheses that wound ethylene production is the cause of tylose formation and that embolisms in vessels are not directly required for wound-induced tylosis in pruned grapevines. The possible role of ethylene in the formation of tyloses in response to other stresses and during development, maturation, and senescence is discussed. PMID:17921344

  13. Development of an Autologous Macrophage-based Adoptive Gene Transfer Strategy to Treat Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis (PTOA) and Osteoarithritis (OA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    efficacy of M2 macrophage-based cell therapy for PTOA, it is necessary to have a valid animal model of PTOA for testing. Accordingly, the first task for...presence of antibiotics . Several individual colonies were randomly picked up and expanded in a LB medium at the presence of antibiotics . DNA was purified...prevention and treatment of PTOA. The outcome of the proposed adoptive approach requires substantial work to confirm by increasing number of animals

  14. Reading the Second Code: Mapping Epigenomes to Understand Plant Growth, Development, and Adaptation to the Environment[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We have entered a new era in agricultural and biomedical science made possible by remarkable advances in DNA sequencing technologies. The complete sequence of an individual’s set of chromosomes (collectively, its genome) provides a primary genetic code for what makes that individual unique, just as the contents of every personal computer reflect the unique attributes of its owner. But a second code, composed of “epigenetic” layers of information, affects the accessibility of the stored information and the execution of specific tasks. Nature’s second code is enigmatic and must be deciphered if we are to fully understand and optimize the genetic potential of crop plants. The goal of the Epigenomics of Plants International Consortium is to crack this second code, and ultimately master its control, to help catalyze a new green revolution. PMID:22751210

  15. Plant Science and Human Nutrition: Challenges in Assessing Health-Promoting Properties of Phytochemicals[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traka, Maria H.; Mithen, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    The rise in noncommunicable chronic diseases associated with changing diet and lifestyles throughout the world is a major challenge for society. It is possible that certain dietary components within plants have roles both in reducing the incidence and progression of these diseases. We critically review the types of evidence used to support the health promoting activities of certain phytochemicals and plant-based foods and summarize the major contributions but also the limitations of epidemiological and observational studies and research with the use of cell and animal models. We stress the need for human intervention studies to provide high-quality evidence for health benefits of dietary components derived from plants. PMID:21803940

  16. Comparative Analysis of Benzoxazinoid Biosynthesis in Monocots and Dicots: Independent Recruitment of Stabilization and Activation Functions[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Regina; Rattei, Thomas; Haslbeck, Martin; Schwab, Wilfried; Gierl, Alfons; Frey, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Benzoxazinoids represent preformed protective and allelophatic compounds that are found in a multitude of species of the family Poaceae (Gramineae) and occur sporadically in single species of phylogenetically unrelated dicots. Stabilization by glucosylation and activation by hydrolysis is essential for the function of these plant defense compounds. We isolated and functionally characterized from the dicot larkspur (Consolida orientalis) the benzoxazinoid-specific UDP-glucosyltransferase and β-glucosidase that catalyze the enzymatic functions required to avoid autotoxicity and allow activation upon challenge by herbivore and pathogen attack. A phylogenetic comparison of these enzymes with their counterparts in the grasses indicates convergent evolution by repeated recruitment from homologous but not orthologous genes. The data reveal a great evolutionary flexibility in recruitment of these essential functions of secondary plant metabolism. PMID:22415274

  17. HORMONOMETER: A Tool for Discerning Transcript Signatures of Hormone Action in the Arabidopsis Transcriptome1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodarsky, Dina; Leviatan, Noam; Otcheretianski, Andrei; Fluhr, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Plant hormones regulate growth and responses to environmental change. Hormone action ultimately modifies cellular physiological processes and gene activity. To facilitate transcriptome evaluation of novel mutants and environmental responses, there is a need to rapidly assess the possible contribution of hormone action to changes in the levels of gene transcripts. We developed a vector-based algorithm that rapidly compares lists of transcripts yielding correlation values. The application as described here, called HORMONOMETER, was used to analyze hormone-related activity in a transcriptome of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The veracity of the resultant analysis was established by comparison with cognate and noncognate hormone transcriptomes as well as with mutants and selected plant-environment interactions. The HORMONOMETER accurately predicted correlations between hormone action and biosynthetic mutants for which transcriptome data are available. A high degree of correlation was detected between many hormones, particularly at early time points of hormone action. Unforeseen complexity was detected in the analysis of mutants and in plant-herbivore interactions. The HORMONOMETER provides a diagnostic tool for evaluating the physiological state of being of the plant from the point of view of transcripts regulated by hormones and yields biological insight into the multiple response components that enable plant adaptation to the environment. A Web-based interface has been developed to facilitate external interfacing with this platform. PMID:19535475

  18. Organelles Contribute Differentially to Reactive Oxygen Species-Related Events during Extended Darkness1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenwasser, Shilo; Rot, Ilona; Sollner, Evelyn; Meyer, Andreas J.; Smith, Yoav; Leviatan, Noam; Fluhr, Robert; Friedman, Haya

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves by extended darkness generates a genetically activated senescence program that culminates in cell death. The transcriptome of leaves subjected to extended darkness was found to contain a variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-specific signatures. The levels of transcripts constituting the transcriptome footprints of chloroplasts and cytoplasm ROS stresses decreased in leaves, as early as the second day of darkness. In contrast, an increase was detected in transcripts associated with mitochondrial and peroxisomal ROS stresses. The sequential changes in the redox state of the organelles during darkness were examined by redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein probes (roGFP) that were targeted to specific organelles. In plastids, roGFP showed a decreased level of oxidation as early as the first day of darkness, followed by a gradual increase to starting levels. However, in mitochondria, the level of oxidation of roGFP rapidly increased as early as the first day of darkness, followed by an increase in the peroxisomal level of oxidation of roGFP on the second day. No changes in the probe oxidation were observed in the cytoplasm until the third day. The increase in mitochondrial roGFP degree of oxidation was abolished by sucrose treatment, implying that oxidation is caused by energy deprivation. The dynamic redox state visualized by roGFP probes and the analysis of microarray results are consistent with a scenario in which ROS stresses emanating from the mitochondria and peroxisomes occur early during darkness at a presymptomatic stage and jointly contribute to the senescence program. PMID:21372201

  19. Synthesis of Hydroxylated Sterols in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants Alters Growth and Steroid Metabolism1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beste, Lisa; Nahar, Nurun; Dalman, Kerstin; Fujioka, Shozo; Jonsson, Lisbeth; Dutta, Paresh C.; Sitbon, Folke

    2011-01-01

    To explore mechanisms in plant sterol homeostasis, we have here increased the turnover of sterols in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants by overexpressing four mouse cDNA encoding cholesterol hydroxylases (CHs), hydroxylating cholesterol at the C-7, C-24, C-25, or C-27 positions. Compared to the wild type, the four types of Arabidopsis transformant showed varying degrees of phenotypic alteration, the strongest one being in CH25 lines, which were dark-green dwarfs resembling brassinosteroid-related mutants. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of extracts from wild-type Arabidopsis plants revealed trace levels of α and β forms of 7-hydroxycholesterol, 7-hydroxycampesterol, and 7-hydroxysitosterol. The expected hydroxycholesterol metabolites in CH7-, CH24-, and CH25 transformants were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Additional hydroxysterol forms were also observed, particularly in CH25 plants. In CH24 and CH25 lines, but not in CH7 ones, the presence of hydroxysterols was correlated with a considerable alteration of the sterol profile and an increased sterol methyltransferase activity in microsomes. Moreover, CH25 lines contained clearly reduced levels of brassinosteroids, and displayed an enhanced drought tolerance. Equivalent transformations of potato plants with the CH25 construct increased hydroxysterol levels, but without the concomitant alteration of growth and sterol profiles observed in Arabidopsis. The results suggest that an increased hydroxylation of cholesterol and/or other sterols in Arabidopsis triggers compensatory processes, acting to maintain sterols at adequate levels. PMID:21746809

  20. HIGS: Host-Induced Gene Silencing in the Obligate Biotrophic Fungal Pathogen Blumeria graminis[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowara, Daniela; Gay, Alexandra; Lacomme, Christophe; Shaw, Jane; Ridout, Christopher; Douchkov, Dimitar; Hensel, Götz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Schweizer, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Powdery mildew fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens that only grow on living hosts and cause damage in thousands of plant species. Despite their agronomical importance, little direct functional evidence for genes of pathogenicity and virulence is currently available because mutagenesis and transformation protocols are lacking. Here, we show that the accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) of double-stranded or antisense RNA targeting fungal transcripts affects the development of the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis. Proof of concept for host-induced gene silencing was obtained by silencing the effector gene Avra10, which resulted in reduced fungal development in the absence, but not in the presence, of the matching resistance gene Mla10. The fungus could be rescued from the silencing of Avra10 by the transient expression of a synthetic gene that was resistant to RNA interference (RNAi) due to silent point mutations. The results suggest traffic of RNA molecules from host plants into B. graminis and may lead to an RNAi-based crop protection strategy against fungal pathogens. PMID:20884801

  1. UV-Induced DNA Damage Promotes Resistance to the Biotrophic Pathogen Hyaloperonospora parasitica in Arabidopsis1[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Bernard A.; Dando, Paige K.; Grice, Desma M.; Mohr, Peter G.; Schenk, Peer M.; Cahill, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Plant innate immunity to pathogenic microorganisms is activated in response to recognition of extracellular or intracellular pathogen molecules by transmembrane receptors or resistance proteins, respectively. The defense signaling pathways share components with those involved in plant responses to UV radiation, which can induce expression of plant genes important for pathogen resistance. Such intriguing links suggest that UV treatment might activate resistance to pathogens in normally susceptible host plants. Here, we demonstrate that pre-inoculative UV (254 nm) irradiation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) susceptible to infection by the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora parasitica, the causative agent of downy mildew, induces dose- and time-dependent resistance to the pathogen detectable up to 7 d after UV exposure. Limiting repair of UV photoproducts by postirradiation incubation in the dark, or mutational inactivation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase, (6-4) photoproduct photolyase, or nucleotide excision repair increased the magnitude of UV-induced pathogen resistance. In the absence of treatment with 254-nm UV, plant nucleotide excision repair mutants also defective for cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer or (6-4) photoproduct photolyase displayed resistance to H. parasitica, partially attributable to short wavelength UV-B (280–320 nm) radiation emitted by incubator lights. These results indicate UV irradiation can initiate the development of resistance to H. parasitica in plants normally susceptible to the pathogen and point to a key role for UV-induced DNA damage. They also suggest UV treatment can circumvent the requirement for recognition of H. parasitica molecules by Arabidopsis proteins to activate an immune response. PMID:18667719

  2. Retrotransposons Control Fruit-Specific, Cold-Dependent Accumulation of Anthocyanins in Blood Oranges[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butelli, Eugenio; Licciardello, Concetta; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Jianjun; Mackay, Steve; Bailey, Paul; Reforgiato-Recupero, Giuseppe; Martin, Cathie

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, Sicilian blood oranges (Citrus sinensis) have been associated with cardiovascular health, and consumption has been shown to prevent obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet. Despite increasing consumer interest in these health-promoting attributes, production of blood oranges remains unreliable due largely to a dependency on cold for full color formation. We show that Sicilian blood orange arose by insertion of a Copia-like retrotransposon adjacent to a gene encoding Ruby, a MYB transcriptional activator of anthocyanin production. The retrotransposon controls Ruby expression, and cold dependency reflects the induction of the retroelement by stress. A blood orange of Chinese origin results from an independent insertion of a similar retrotransposon, and color formation in its fruit is also cold dependent. Our results suggest that transposition and recombination of retroelements are likely important sources of variation in Citrus. PMID:22427337

  3. Studies of a Biochemical Factory: Tomato Trichome Deep Expressed Sequence Tag Sequencing and Proteomics1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilmiller, Anthony L.; Miner, Dennis P.; Larson, Matthew; McDowell, Eric; Gang, David R.; Wilkerson, Curtis; Last, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Shotgun proteomics analysis allows hundreds of proteins to be identified and quantified from a single sample at relatively low cost. Extensive DNA sequence information is a prerequisite for shotgun proteomics, and it is ideal to have sequence for the organism being studied rather than from related species or accessions. While this requirement has limited the set of organisms that are candidates for this approach, next generation sequencing technologi